WorldWideScience

Sample records for braces

  1. Ingrown toenails (unguis incarnatus): Nail braces/bracing treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chiriac, Anca; Solovan, Caius; Brzezinski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Nail bracing is a safe, simple, and inexpensive treatment option that avoids surgery, requires no anesthetic, requires no recovery period, allows wearing the existing shoes, offers immediate relief from pain, and allows the practice of daily activities. Braces can be used for prolonged periods of times. If recurrence occurs, reapplication of bracing is usually required.

  2. ORTHOPEDIC LEG BRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, William Neil (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Knee braces generally have been rigid in both the knee bending direction and in the knee straightening direction unless a manually operated release is incorporated in them to allow the knee to bend. Desirably a braced knee joint should effectively duplicate the compound, complex, actions of a normal knee. The key to knee braces is the knee joint housing. The housing herein carries a number of cam action pawls. with teeth adapted to engage the internal teeth of a ratchet ring mounted in the housing. Cam action return springs and the shape of the cam action pawl teeth allow rotation of the ratchet ring in a leg straightening direction while still supporting a load. The leg can then be extended during walking while at the same time being prevented by the cam action pawls from buckling in the knee bending direction.

  3. Knee Bracing: What Works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and flexibility are important for holding down knee pain and injuries. You should work out an exercise plan with your doctor to ... afp/20000115/411.html) Braces and Splints for Musculoskeletal Conditions by JR Gravlee, M.D., and DJ Van Durme, M.D. (American Family Physician February 01, 2007, ... Created: 09/00

  4. Buckling restrained braces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan ÖZÇELİK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Buckling restrained braces (BRBs have high energy dissipation capacity and equal tension and compression axial load capacity. Therefore, the application of BRBs has gained popularity in seismic regions. The first studies on BRBs started in Japan in 1970 and since then more studies have been undertaken in other earthquake prone countries. Although the BRBs perform well in component and subassembly tests, they do not perform as well in frame tests because of the interaction between beam-column-gusset plate and BRB. In this study, the component and subassembly test of the BRBs and then BRB frame tests available in the literature are summarized.

  5. Selectively Lockable Knee Brace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Shadoan, Michael D. (Inventor); Forbes, John C. (Inventor); Baker, Kevin J. (Inventor); Rice, Darron C. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A knee brace for aiding in rehabilitation of damaged leg muscles includes upper and lower housings normally pivotable one relative to the other about the knee joint axis of a patient. The upper housing is attachable to the thigh of the patient above the knee joint while the lower housing is secured to a stirrup which extends downwardly along the patient's leg and is attached to the patient's shoe. An actuation rod is carried within the lower housing and is coupled to a cable. The upper and lower housings carry cooperative clutch/brake elements which normally are disengaged to permit relative movement between the upper and lower housings. When the cable is extended the clutch/brake elements engage and lock the housings together. A heel strike mechanism fastened to the stirrup and the heel of the shoe is connected to the cable to selectively extend the cable and lock the brace in substantially any position when the patient places weight on the heel.

  6. Bracing Zonohedra With Special Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Gyula

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of simpler preliminary design gives useful input for more complicated three-dimensional building frame structure. A zonohedron, as a preliminary structure of design, is a convex polyhedron for which each face possesses central symmetry. We considered zonohedron as a special framework with the special assumption that the polygonal faces can be deformed in such a way that faces remain planar and centrally symmetric, moreover the length of all edges remains unchanged. Introducing some diagonal braces we got a new mechanism. This paper deals with the flexibility of this kind of mechanisms, and investigates the rigidity of the braced framework. The flexibility of the framework can be characterized by some vectors, which represent equivalence classes of the edges. A necessary and sufficient condition for the rigidity of the braced rhombic face zonohedra is posed. A real mechanical construction, based on two simple elements, provides a CAD prototype of these new mechanisms.

  7. Electronic monitoring of orthopedic brace compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Tariq; Sample, Whitney; Yorgova, Petya; Neiss, Geraldine; Rogers, Kenneth; Shah, Suken; Gabos, Peter; Kritzer, Dan; Bowen, J. Richard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Brace compliance measurement in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) has been the subject of a few recent studies. Various sensors have been developed to measure compliance. We have developed a temperature-based data logger—the Cricket—specifically for scoliosis braces, with associated custom software, that is embedded directly in the brace. The purpose of this study was to analyze patterns of brace wear and patient compliance among children with AIS using the Cricket. Methods Fifty-...

  8. Brace technology thematic series: the progressive action short brace (PASB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulisa Angelo G

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Progressive Action Short Brace (PASB is a custom-made thoraco-lumbar-sacral orthosis (TLSO, devised in 1976 by Dr. Lorenzo Aulisa (Institute of Orthopedics at the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy. The PASB was designed to overcome the limits imposed by the trunk anatomy. Indeed, the particular geometry of the brace is able to generate internal forces that modify the elastic reaction of the spine. The PASB is indicated for the conservative treatment of lumbar and thoraco-lumbar scoliosis. The aim of this article is to explain the biomechanic principles of the PASB and the rationale underlying its design. Recently published studies reporting the results of PASB-based treatment of adolescent scoliotic patients are also discussed. Description and principles On the coronal plane, the upper margin of the PASB, at the side of the curve concavity, prevents the homolateral bending of the scoliotic curve. The opposite upper margin ends just beneath the apical vertebra. The principle underlying such configuration is that the deflection of the inferior tract of a curved elastic structure, fixed at the bottom end, causes straightening of its upper tract. Therefore, whenever the patient bends towards the convexity of the scoliotic curve, the spine is deflected. On the sagittal plane, the inferior margins of the PASB reach the pelvitrochanteric region, in order to stabilize the brace on the pelvis. The transverse section of the brace above the pelvic grip consists of asymmetrical ellipses. This allows the spine to rotate towards the concave side only, leading to the continuous generation of derotating moments. On the sagittal plane, the brace is contoured so as to reduce the lumbar lordosis. The PASB, by allowing only those movements counteracting the progression of the curve, is able to produce corrective forces that are not dissipated. Therefore, the brace is based on the principle that a constrained spine dynamics

  9. Bracing micro/macro manipulators control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, J.Y. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Book, W.J. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Mechanical Engineering

    1994-05-01

    This paper proposes a bracing strategy for micro/macro manipulators. The bracing micro/macro manipulator can provide advantages in accurate positioning, large work-space, and contact-task capability however, in exchange for improvement in performance one must accept the complex control problem along wit the complex dynamics. This research develops a control scheme for a bracing manipulator which makes multiple contacts with the environment. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed ideas for real world applications.

  10. Automatic locking knee brace joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    This invention is an apparatus for controlling the pivotal movement of a knee brace comprising a tang-and-clevis joint that has been uniquely modified. Both the tang and the clevis have a set of teeth that, when engaged, can lock the tang and the clevis together. In addition, the tang is biased away from the clevis. Consequently, when there is no axial force (i.e., body weight) on the tang, the tang is free to pivot within the clevis. However, when an axial force is exerted on the tang, the tang is pushed into the clevis, both sets of teeth engage, and the tang and the clevis lock together.

  11. Knee Braces to Prevent Injuries in Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Five physicians discuss the use of knee braces to prevent injuries in football players. Questions are raised regarding the strength and design of the braces, whether they prestress the knee in some cases, and whether they actually reduce injuries. More clinical and biomechanical research is called for. (MT)

  12. Streamlined braces for CAGR fuel clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current design of braces which support the fuel pins in the CAGR fuel clusters account for about 17% of the fuel stringer pressure drop. This paper describes the development of a streamlined brace design which saves 10% of the stringer pressure drop. The streamlined braces will be used in all CAGR fuel in the near future and are expected to give a financial benefit in the region of Pound0.5 M to Pound2.5 M per year for each CAGR power station. (author)

  13. Knee Brace Would Lock And Unlock Automatically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Neill; Forbes, John; Shadoan, Mike; Baker, Kevin

    1995-01-01

    Proposed knee brace designed to aid rehabilitation of person who suffered some muscle damage in leg. Not limited to locking in straight-leg position and, instead, locks at any bend angle. Does not prevent knee from bearing weight. Instead, knee brace allows knee to bear weight and locks only when foot and lower leg bear weight. Thus, brace prevents flexion that wearer desired to prevent but could not prevent because of weakened muscles. Knee bends freely to exercise knee-related muscles. Knee brace strapped at upper end to leg above knee, and anchored at lower end by stirrup under foot. Joint mechanism (identical mechanisms used in left and right assemblies) allows knee joint to flex freely except when weight applied to heel.

  14. Novel Bracing Type Against Seismic Loading: KX Type

    OpenAIRE

    Kutuk, M.; Gov, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a new bracing system is proposed which is named as KX type. Element removal method is used to obtain this new bracing. KX type optimized bracing is compared with V, and K type bracings under seismic loading. Maximum deformation value is used as performance indicator to compare effectiveness of V, K, and proposed KX type bracings to resist seismic loads. The proposed KX type bracing, yielded 99.72%, 93% and 88% reduced deformation with respect to unbraced, K type, and V type bra...

  15. Effectiveness of taping and bracing in balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkoukis, Vassilis; Sykaras, Evaggelos; Costa, Frosoula; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2002-04-01

    Taping and bracing are thought to be effective methods in restricting the ankle's joint motion and assisting prevention of injuries. Research evidence suggests that taping and bracing enhance both the mechanical support and the proprioception of the ankle. However, there is little research concerning the influence of taping and bracing on sport performance. Research has mainly examined tasks with demands on the frontal plane. Therefore, the present study examined the effect of taping and bracing on the performance of a task with demands on the frontal plane. A sample of 30 physical education students (Mage=21.9 yr.) performed a balance task requiring estimation of balance and both right and left deviations. The subjects performed the balance task on four different conditions, with tape, with Swede-O (a lace-up, boot style stabilizer), with Aircast (an inflatable cast), and without any stabilizer. There were no significant differences among the conditions. These findings indicate that taping and bracing do not have negative effects on balance in the frontal plane. This study created concerns regarding the appropriate stabilizer for different tasks, bilateral coordination after the application of a stabilizer, and the influence of psychological factors on prevention of injury. PMID:12027354

  16. Shape- and size-controlled synthesis of uniform anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocuboids enclosed by active {l_brace}100{r_brace} and {l_brace}001{r_brace} facets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiaowei; Jin, Wenzui; Cai, Jinguang; Ye, Jianfeng; Li, Zhenhu; Ma, Yurong; Xie, Jinglin; Qi, Limin [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species, College of Chemistry, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-09-23

    Uniform anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocuboids enclosed by active {l_brace}100{r_brace} and {l_brace}001{r_brace} facets over a wide size range (60-830 nm in length) with controllable aspect ratios were solvothermally synthesized through hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) using acetic acid (HAc) as the solvent and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF{sub 4}]) as the capping agent. The size and aspect ratio of the anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocuboids can be readily adjusted by changing the composition parameters including the contents of [bmim][BF{sub 4}], water, and HAc in the quaternary solution system. It was revealed that [bmim][BF{sub 4}] played an important role in stabilizing both the {l_brace}100{r_brace} and {l_brace}001{r_brace} facets of the anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocuboids. On the one hand, [bmim][BF{sub 4}] acted as a fluoride source to release F{sup -} ions for stabilizing the {l_brace}001{r_brace} facets; on the other hand, the [bmim]{sup +} ions acted as effective capping ions to preferentially stabilize the {l_brace}100{r_brace} facets. The obtained near-monodisperse anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocuboids exhibited an interesting self-assembly behavior during deposition. These single-crystalline anatase nanocuboids showed extremely high crystalline phase stability, retaining the pure phase of anatase as well as the morphology even after being calcined at 900 C. Moreover, the anatase nanocuboids exhibited considerably enhanced photocatalytic activity owing the wholly exposed active {l_brace}100{r_brace} and {l_brace}001{r_brace} facets. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. 49 CFR 195.208 - Welding of supports and braces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding of supports and braces. 195.208 Section 195.208 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.208 Welding of supports and braces. Supports or braces...

  18. Application of FEM Analysis to Braced Excavation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mingfei; Atsushi Nakamura; CAI Fei; Keizo Ugai

    2008-01-01

    It is becoming possible to do detailed numerical analyses for the various mechanical behavior of braced excavation by researching and developing the numerical analysis technique such as the finite ele-ment method (FEM).However,the mechanical behavior of braced excavation has not been clanfied fully both in theory and in expedence.Therefore,improving the prediction accuracy during the prior design is very important for making the observational method of braced excavation more effective.In this paper,FEM analyses were performed for a model of braced excavation by using Geotechnical Finite Element Elasto-plastic Analysis Software,GeoFEAS (2D).As the constitutive law of ground,MC-DP model, and Dun-can-Chang model were applied.The results were compared and discussed with that of a site measurement,and the effects of the constitutive law of ground on the analyzed result were verified.For the difference be-tween the results,the reason was investigated by the analyses adjusting the elastic modulus of ground,and the appropriate application of the constitutive law was researched.

  19. Cu-capped surface alloys of Pt/Cu left brace 100 right brace

    CERN Document Server

    Alshamaileh, E; Wander, A

    2003-01-01

    The room-temperature deposition of 0.5 monolayer (ML) Pt on Cu left brace 100 right brace followed by annealing to 525 K results in a sharp c(2 x 2) low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) pattern. The structure of this surface alloy is investigated by means of symmetrized automated tensor low-energy electron diffraction (SATLEED) analysis and ab initio plane wave density functional calculations. The results are then compared with those for the similar system 0.5 ML Pd/Cu left brace 100 right brace. SATLEED results for the Pt/Cu left brace 100 right brace show that it consists of an ordered c(2 x 2) Cu-Pt second layer alloy capped with a pure Cu first layer. The first and second interlayer spacings are found to be expanded by +5.1 +- 1.7 and +3.5 +- 1.7% respectively (relative to the bulk Cu interlayer spacing of 1.807 A) due to the insertion of the 8% larger Pt atoms into the second layer. The ordered mixed layer is found to be rippled by 0.08 +- 0.06 A with Pt atoms rippled outwards towards the solid-vacuum ...

  20. Providence nighttime bracing, in treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simony, A.; Beuschau, Inge; Quisth, Lena;

    2015-01-01

    rate. The night time brace is an excellent alternative to standard conservative treatment. The patients tolerate the night-time brace treatment well, and compliance is high. Function, Self-image, Mental Health, and SRS 22r total are similar to surgically treated patients and health controls......Introduction: Since 2008 the non-surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in the southern part of Denmark, went from full-time bracing with Boston brace, to Providence night-time bracing. Methods: Since 2008, skeletally immature patients diagnosed with AIS and a primary curve...... with apex at T7 or below, were treated with the Providence night-time brace. The patients were evaluated every 6 months, with standing x-rays. Compliance with the treatment was recorded during the study. Bracing was continued up to two years post menarche or, for males upon reaching the expected adult...

  1. Lateral Load Analysis of a Building with & Without Knee Bracing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin S. Kamble

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In last decades steel structures has played an important role in construction industry. Providing strength, stability and ductility are major purposes of seismic design. It is necessary to design a structure to perform well under seismic loads. Steel braced frame is one of the structural systems used to resist earthquake loads in structures. Steel bracing is economical, easy to erect, occupies less space and has flexibility to design for meeting the required strength and stiffness. Bracing can be used as retrofit as well. There are various types of steel bracings such as Diagonal, X, K, V, inverted V type or chevron and global type concentric bracings. In the present study, it was shown that modelling of the G+4 steel bare frame with various bracings (X, V, inverted V, and Knee bracing by computer software SAP2000 and pushover analysis results are obtained. Comparison between the seismic parameters such as base shear, roof displacement, time period, storey drift, performance point for steel bare frame with different bracing patterns are studied. It is found that the X type of steel bracings significantly contributes to the structural stiffness and reduces the maximum interstate drift of steel building than other bracing systems

  2. Initial experience with the providence nighttime bracing in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quisth, Lena; Beuschau, Inge; Simony, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since 2008 the primary non-surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in the southern part of Denmark, went from full-time bracing with Boston brace, to Providence nighttime bracing. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of nighttime bracing, with the Providence brace, in...... control with the Providence nighttime brace and an acceptable 18 % failure rate. The nighttime brace is an excellent alternative to standard conservative treatment, and reduces the need for physiotherapy after brace termination. The patients tolerate the nighttime brace treatment well, and compliance...

  3. Vibration of x-braced portal frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. H.; Wang, P. Y.; Lin, Y. W.

    1987-09-01

    Both free and forced vibrations of elastic X-braced portal frames are investigated. Solutions of the Euler-Bernoulli equation for the transverse vibration coupled with the axial vibration are used. The first five natural frequencies, with the angle of inclination, α, of the bracing bars ranging from 15° to 75°, with different slenderness ratios, R, of the columns, and different stiffness of the floor beam and crossing bars, are presented along with two sets of the natural modes of the frames with α = 45°. For the forced vibration, the dynamic responses of the frames with a concentrated horizontal time dependent force acting at a top joint are studied. The responses of the frames with α = 45° are analyzed in detail.

  4. The Effectiveness of Prophylactic Knee Bracing in American Football

    OpenAIRE

    Salata, Michael J.; Gibbs, Aimee E.; Sekiya, Jon K.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Knee injuries, particularly of the medial collateral ligament (MCL), are the most common injury sustained in American football. In 1979, Anderson et al described a knee brace that could protect uninjured knees from MCL injuries resulting from lateral impact. Since then, a number of light and free-moving bracing devices have been developed. However, the efficacy of prophylactic knee bracing remains in question. Objective: A systematic review of the efficacy of prophylactic knee bracin...

  5. Thermal stability of {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}facet terminated gold nanobelts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Ying [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Milenkovic, Srdjan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); IMDEA Materials Institute, C/ Profesor Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Hassel, Achim Walter, E-mail: hassel@elchem.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Institute for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials, Johannes Kepler University, Altenberger Str. 69, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2012-06-15

    A precise knowledge and understanding of the thermal stability of nanowires is a prerequisite for the reliable implementation of nanowire-based devices. Single crystalline Au nanobelts with {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}surface either in free standing arrays with identical crystallographic orientation or lying on the substrate were prepared by a combination of directional eutectoid decomposition followed by phase selective etching process. The thermal stability in the temperature range 500-700 Degree-Sign C of the obtained free standing and lying Au nanobelts were investigated in situ with a scanning electron microscope equipped with a high temperature stage. The results suggested that free standing Au nanobelts undergo morphological evolution in a different way compared with the substrate contacted lying Au nanobelts. The free standing Au nanobelts broke more easily and decayed into a chain of nanospheres following Rayleigh instability after the belt morphology changed into cylindrical wires; whereas the Au nanobelts lying on the substrate decayed into irregular particles. These findings clearly support a surface energy minimization driven mechanism. Only after transformation into a mainly {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}terminated structure formation of Rayleigh instabilities are observed.

  6. Behavior of concentrically loaded CFT braces connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha M. Hassan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Concrete filled tubes (CFTs composite columns have many economical and esthetic advantages, but the behavior of their connections is complicated. Through this study, it is aimed to investigate the performance and behavior of different connection configurations between concrete filled steel tube columns and bracing diagonals through an experimental program. The study included 12 connection subassemblies consisting of a fixed length steel tube and gusset plate connected to the tube end with different details tested under half cyclic loading. A notable effect was observed on the behavior of the connections due to its detailing changes with respect to capacity, failure mode, ductility, and stress distribution.

  7. Elastoplastic analysis of knee bracing frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zhen; LI Qing-song; CHEN Long-zhu

    2005-01-01

    The knee bracing steel frame (KBF) is a new kind of energy dissipating frame, which combines excellent ductility and lateral stiffness. As the structural fuse of the frame, the knee element will yield first during a severe earthquake so that no damage occurs to the major structural members and the rehabilitation is easy and economical. To help fully understand the relations between its seismic performance and the structural parameters, systematic elastoplastic analysis of the KBF structure with finite element method was conducted in this work. Finally, general design recommendations were made according to the results of the analysis.

  8. Patients' Preferences for Scoliosis Brace Treatment A Discrete Choice Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Bunge; E.W. de Bekker-Grob; F.C. van Biezen; M.L. Essink-Bot; H.J. de Koning

    2010-01-01

    Study Design. Discrete choice experiment. Objective. To investigate the reduction in the risk of surgery that scoliosis patients would require in order to consider brace treatment as acceptable, and to elicit the trade-offs individuals make between characteristics of brace treatment. Summary of Back

  9. Early weaning might reduce the psychological strain of Boston bracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Ø; Andersen, Gert Rahbek; Thomsen, Karsten;

    2002-01-01

    From 1983 to 1990 a total of 136 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were treated with the Boston brace. With the aim of examining the social and psychological impact of the brace treatment all patients received a questionnaire at an average of 3.5 years after termination of the treatment...

  10. Lateral Knee Braces in Football: Do They Prevent Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulos, Lonnie E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The results of three recently presented clinical studies and a biomechanical study of the use of lateral knee braces to prevent knee injuries are reviewed. The results raise serious doubts about the efficacy of the preventive knee braces which are currently available. (Author/MT)

  11. Gait Using Pneumatic Brace for End-Stage Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Cherian, Jeffrey Jai; Starr, Roland; Chughtai, Morad; Mont, Michael A; Harwin, Steven F; Bhave, Anil

    2016-04-01

    More than 20 million individuals in the United States are affected by knee osteoarthritis (OA), which can lead to altered biomechanics and excessive joint loading. The use of an unloader pneumatic brace with extension assist has been proposed as a nonoperative treatment modality that may improve gait mechanics and correct knee malalignment. We assessed the following parameters in patients who have knee OA treated with and without a brace: (1) changes in temporospatial parameters in gait; (2) knee range of motion, knee extension at heel strike, and foot placement; (3) knee joint moments and impulse; and (4) changes in dynamic stiffness and rate of change of knee flexion during midstance to terminal stance. This 2:1 prospective, randomized, single-blinded trial evaluated 36 patients (24 brace and 12 matching). OA knee patients were randomized to receive either a pneumatic unloader brace or a standard nonoperative treatment regimen as the matching cohort for a 3-month period. They underwent evaluation of gait parameters using a three-dimensional gait analysis system at their initial appointment and at 3 months follow-up. All the testing, pre- and postbracing were performed without wearing the brace to examine for retained effects. Treatment with the brace led to significant improvements versus standard treatment in various gait parameters. Patients in the brace group had improvements in walking speed, knee extension at heel strike, total range of motion, knee joint forces, and rate of knee flexion from midstance to terminal stance when compared with the matching cohort. Knee OA patients who used a pneumatic unloader brace for 3 months for at least 3 hours per day had significant improvements various gait parameters when compared with a standard nonoperative therapy cohort. Braced patients demonstrated gait-modifying affects when not wearing the brace. These results are encouraging and suggest that this device represents a promising treatment modality for knee OA that

  12. Excess properties and vapour pressure of left brace3-diethylaminopropylamine + cyclohexaneright brace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khimeche, Kamel, E-mail: kamel.khimeche@yahoo.f [Ecole Militaire Polytechnique EMP, BP 17 Bordj-El-Bahri, Alger (Algeria); Dahmani, Abdallah [Laboratoire de thermodynamique et modelisation moleculaire, Faculte de chimie, USTHB, BP 32 El-Alia, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Mokbel, Ilham [Laboratoire de chimie analytique I, Universite Claude Bernard (Lyon I), 43, bd du 11 Novembre 1918 69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2010-07-15

    The vapour pressures of liquid left brace3-diethylaminopropylamine (3-DEPA) + cyclohexaneright brace were measured by a static method between T = (273.15 and 363.15) K at 10 K intervals. The excess molar volumes V{sup E} at 298.15 K and excess molar enthalpies H{sup E} at 303.15 K were also measured. The molar excess Gibbs free energies G{sup E} were obtained with Barker's method and fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation. The Wilson equation was also used. Deviations between experimental and predicted G{sup E} and H{sup E}, by using DISQUAC model, were evaluated

  13. Control of a flexible bracing manipulator: Integration of current research work to realize the bracing manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dong-Soo

    1991-01-01

    All research results about flexible manipulator control were integrated to show a control scenario of a bracing manipulator. First, dynamic analysis of a flexible manipulator was done for modeling. Second, from the dynamic model, the inverse dynamic equation was derived, and the time domain inverse dynamic method was proposed for the calculation of the feedforward torque and the desired flexible coordinate trajectories. Third, a tracking controller was designed by combining the inverse dynamic feedforward control with the joint feedback control. The control scheme was applied to the tip position control of a single link flexible manipulator for zero and non-zero initial condition cases. Finally, the contact control scheme was added to the position tracking control. A control scenario of a bracing manipulator is provided and evaluated through simulation and experiment on a single link flexible manipulator.

  14. Corrective Bracing for Severe Idiopathic Scoliosis in Adolescence: Influence of Brace on Trunk Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Kinel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the work was to study whether wearing a corrective brace by adolescent girls with severe idiopathic scoliosis can influence external shape of the trunk. Methods. Comparison of clinical deformity of two groups of girls matched for age and Cobb angle: group (1 of 23 girls, aged 14.9±1.3 years, Cobb angle 55.0°±6.8°, who refused surgical treatment and have been wearing Chêneau brace for more than 6 months, compared with group (2 of 22 girls, aged 14.1±1.8 years, Cobb angle 59.7°±14.6° never treated with corrective bracing. Clinical deformity was assessed with the Bunnell scoliometer (angle of trunk rotation ATR and surface topography (posterior trunk symmetry index POTSI and Hump Sum HS. Results. The ATR in the primary curvature was 11.9°±3.4° (5°–18° in group 1 versus 15.1°±5.6° (6°–25° in group 2 (P=0.027. The HS was 16.8°±3.8 versus 19.2°±4.6, respectively, P=0.07. The POTSI value did not differ between groups. Conclusion. Girls with Cobb angle above 45 degrees, who have been subjected to brace treatment, revealed smaller clinical deformity of their back comparing to nontreated girls having similar radiological curvatures.

  15. Three dimensional analysis of brace biomechanical efficacy for patients with AIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebel, David E; Al-Aubaidi, Zaid; Shin, Eyun-Jung;

    2013-01-01

    Corrective three dimensional (3D) effect of different braces is debatable. We evaluated differences in in-brace radiographic correction comparing a custom thoracic-lumbo-sacral-orthosis (TLSO) (T) brace to a Chêneau type TLSO (C) brace using 3D EOS reconstruction technology. Our primary research ...... question was the 3D effect of brace on the spine and in particularly the apical vertebra rotation (AVR)....

  16. Clinician Recommendations and Perceptions of Factors Associated With Ankle Brace Use

    OpenAIRE

    Denton, Jason M.; Waldhelm, Andrew; Hacke, Jonathon D.; Gross, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little information is available regarding the ankle braces orthopaedic sports medicine clinicians recommend or clinicians’ concerns that may influence their decisions to recommend use of an ankle brace. Hypotheses: (1) Clinicians most frequently recommend lace-up braces with straps. (2) Clinicians who are concerned about potential adverse side effects from ankle brace use are less likely to recommend an ankle brace to prevent ankle sprain injuries. Study Design: Descriptive survey...

  17. The brace position for passenger aircraft: a biomechanical evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Brownson, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Hypothesis A modified brace position would help to prevent injury to some aircraft passengers in the event of an impact accident. Aim of Experiments To evaluate a modified crash brace position. Materials and Methods 1. Impact Testing Impact testing was performed at the RAF Institute of Aviation Medicine, Farnborough. Aircraft seats, mounted on a sled, were propelled down a track at an acceleration of 16G. A 50% Hybrid III dummy was used as the experimental model. Four ...

  18. Formation of a near {l_brace}001{r_brace}<110> recrystallization texture in electrical steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, B. de; Wieting, J. [Inst. fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstoffforschung Dresden (Germany)

    1997-09-15

    By means of a continuous production process with two successive cold rolling steps it is possible to get electrical steel sheets with a recrystallization texture after the final annealing treatment exhibiting a strong maximum near the {l_brace}001{r_brace}<110> orientation. The production costs of such steel sheets are comparable to those of non-oriented electrical steels. For the formation of this texture, the recrystallization during the annealing between and after the cold rolling steps is of major importance because during the first annealing an orientation accumulation in the recrystallization texture arises near {l_brace}001{r_brace} <110> which becomes predominant during the final annealing while other components disappear. For this reason this work is dealing with the texture formation during the last production steps starting with the first cold rolling reduction.

  19. Anisotropy and magnetostriction as corrections for the Heisenberg model at the example of the molecule {l_brace}Ni{sub 4}Mo{sub 12}{r_brace}; Anisotropie und Magnetostriktion als Korrekturen zum Heisenberg-Modell am Beispiel des Molekuels {l_brace}Ni{sub 4}Mo{sub 12}{r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueger, Mirko

    2008-07-15

    In the first part of this thesis the different effects of the molecular magnetism were extensively considered and the possibility of their occurence in {l_brace}Ni{sub 4}Mo{sub 12}{r_brace} checked. In the second part of this thesis different models for the description of experimental results were presented. thereby the results of ESR, SQUIO, and high-field pulse measurements on {l_brace}Ni{sub 4}Mo{sub 12}{r_brace} are described.

  20. The Weight Efficiency of Steel Framed Buildings with Various Wind Bracing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Abbassi, Sanaz Khoddam

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This research is about the efficiency of using different types of wind bracing and with different steel profiles for bracing members for multi-storey steel frames. ETABS software was used to obtain the design of frames and bracing systems with the least weight and apropriate steel section selection for beams, columns and bracing members from the standard set of steel sections. The design loads are specified in BS 5950 (2000). The serviceability limit state included in the design...

  1. Atomic structures of symmetrical and asymmetrical facets in a near {sigma} = 9{l_brace}2 2 1{r_brace} tilt grain boundary in copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardouin Duparc, Olivier [LSI, CEA-X-CNRS, UMR 7642, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)]. E-mail: olivier.hardouinduparc@polytechnique.edu; Couzinie, Jean-Philippe [CECM, CNRS, UPR 2801, 15 rue Georges Urbain, 94407 Vitry Sur Seine (France); Thibault-Penisson, Jany [TECSEN, CNRS, UMR 6122, Universite Paul Cezanne Aix-Marseille III, 13397 Marseille Cedex (France); Lartigue-Korinek, Sylvie [CECM, CNRS, UPR 2801, 15 rue Georges Urbain, 94407 Vitry Sur Seine (France); Decamps, Brigitte [LCMTR, CNRS, UPR 209, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Priester, Louisette [CECM, CNRS, UPR 2801, 15 rue Georges Urbain, 94407 Vitry Sur Seine (France)

    2007-03-15

    Atomic structures in a {sigma} = 9{l_brace}2 2 1{r_brace} tilt grain boundary (GB) grown by Bridgman solidification of a tricrystal are determined through high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and numerical simulation. Atomic models are simulated via molecular dynamics annealing using an n-body potential fitted on copper properties including its stacking fault energy. Symmetrical and asymmetrical facets are thus identified. Mainly asymmetrical facets are observed, namely {sigma} = 9{l_brace}11, 11, 1{r_brace}||{l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} and also small parts of incommensurate {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}||{l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}. The symmetrical facets are described by a quasi-mirror plane atomic structure. A specific GB structural unit is recognized as a Lomer unit. Its GB Burgers vector depends on the GB structure itself. Further analyses of these models and of accommodating dislocations are successfully carried out at the atomic level within the framework of the continuous structural unit approach.

  2. Higher braces via formal (non)commutative geometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Markl, Martin

    Cham: Birkhäuser, 2015 - (Kielanowski, P.; Bieliavsky, P.; Odzijewicz, A.; Schlichenmaier, M.; Voronov, T.), s. 67-81. (Trends in Mathematics). ISBN 978-3-319-18211-7. [Workshop on Geometric Methods in Physics /33./. Białowieża (PL), 29.06.2014-05.07.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Koszul braces * Börjeseon braces * (non)commutative geometry Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-18212-4_4

  3. Higher braces via formal (non)commutative geometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Markl, Martin

    Cham : Birkhäuser, 2015 - (Kielanowski, P.; Bieliavsky, P.; Odzijewicz, A.; Schlichenmaier, M.; Voronov, T.), s. 67-81 ISBN 978-3-319-18211-7. - (Trends in Mathematics). [Workshop on Geometric Methods in Physics /33./. Białowieża (PL), 29.06.2014-05.07.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Koszul braces * Börjeseon braces * (non)commutative geometry Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-18212-4_4

  4. Brace technology thematic series - The Sforzesco and Sibilla braces, and the SPoRT (Symmetric, Patient oriented, Rigid, Three-dimensional, active concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchini Gianfranco

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bracing is an effective strategy for scoliosis treatment, but there is no consensus on the best type of brace, nor on the way in which it should act on the spine to achieve good correction. The aim of this paper is to present the family of SPoRT (Symmetric, Patient-oriented, Rigid, Three-dimensional, active braces: Sforzesco (the first introduced, Sibilla and Lapadula. Methods The Sforzesco brace was developed following specific principles of correction. Due to its overall symmetry, the brace provides space over pathological depressions and pushes over elevations. Correction is reached through construction of the envelope, pushes, escapes, stops, and drivers. The real novelty is the drivers, introduced for the first time with the Sforzesco brace; they allow to achieve the main action of the brace: a three-dimensional elongation pushing the spine in a down-up direction. Brace prescription is made plane by plane: frontal (on the "slopes", another novelty of this concept, i.e. the laterally flexed sections of the spine, horizontal, and sagittal. The brace is built modelling the trunk shape obtained either by a plaster cast mould or by CAD-CAM construction. Brace checking is essential, since SPoRT braces are adjustable and customisable according to each individual curve pattern. Treatment time and duration is individually tailored (18-23 hours per day until Risser 3, then gradual reduction. SEAS (Scientific Exercises Approach to Scoliosis exercises are a key factor to achieve success. Results The Sforzesco brace has shown to be more effective than the Lyon brace (matched case/control, equally effective as the Risser plaster cast (prospective cohort with retrospective controls, more effective than the Risser cast + Lyon brace in treating curves over 45 degrees Cobb (prospective cohort, and is able to improve aesthetic appearance (prospective cohort. Conclusions The SPoRT concept of bracing (three-dimensional elongation pushing in

  5. Electronic and structural characterizations of unreconstructed {l_brace}0001{r_brace} surfaces and the growth of graphene overlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emtsev, Konstantin

    2009-06-03

    The present work is focused on the characterization of the clean unreconstructed SiC{l_brace}0001{r_brace} surfaces and the growth of graphene overlayers thereon. Electronic properties of SiC surfaces and their interfaces with graphene and few layer graphene films were investigated by means of angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy electron diffraction. Structural characterizations of the epitaxial graphene films grown on SiC were carried out by atomic force microscopy and low energy electron microscopy. Supplementary data was obtained by scanning tunneling microscopy. (orig.)

  6. Anatase TiO{sub 2} hollow microspheres with exposed {l_brace}0 0 1{r_brace}facets: Facile synthesis and enhanced photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiaoliang, E-mail: wxlsr@yahoo.com.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, 066004 Qinhuangdao (China); He Huanlong; Chen Yan; Zhao Jinqiu; Zhang Xiangyi [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, 066004 Qinhuangdao (China)

    2012-05-15

    Anatase TiO{sub 2} hollow microspheres with a high percentage of exposed {l_brace}0 0 1{r_brace}facets have been successfully synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal strategy in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and hydrofluoric acid solution. It is found that both HF and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} play an essential role in the formation of TiO{sub 2} hollow polyhedron TiO{sub 2} microspheres with exposed {l_brace}0 0 1{r_brace}facets. A plausible mechanism for formation of the TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres with exposed {l_brace}0 0 1{r_brace}facets by dissolution-recrystallization and Ostwald ripening is proposed based on the experimental observations. The products exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activities for degradation of methylene blue dye present in aqueous solution under ultraviolet light irradiation at ambient temperature.

  7. Emergency PTCA and Brace Implantation in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhangquan; Guan Ruming; Zhang Ming

    2000-01-01

    Objective To further improve the rate of reperfusion of infarction related artery in AMI, remove the stricture, rescue ischemic myocardiurn, protect cardiac function and ameliorate the longterm prognosis. Method Among 73 patients with AMI, 50 underwent direct PTCA, 15 immediate PTCA,8 rescue PTCA and 20 braces were implanted. Result The proportion of recanalization is 94.5% (69/73) .The grade of blood flow (TIMI) improved to grade 3 in 20 patients with brace implantation, while 44 to grade 3 and 5 to grade 2 among 49 patients with simple PTCA. Residualstenosis in vessel was 1.8 ± 5.9(-10-10)% in patients with brace implantation versus 15.4 ± 11. (0 -30)% with simple PICA. The incidence of reperfusive cardiac arrythmia was 18.1%(10/62). There was mainly frequent ventricular premature beat and short paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia, if left anterior decending branch was reopened,while bradycardia and atrial ventricular block usually occurred after right coronary reperfused. Conclusion Emergency PTCA and brace implantation can apparently improve the proportion of reperfusioa of IRA in AMI. It is necessary to popularize and apply these treatment in medical units with available conditions.

  8. Development and preliminary validation of Brace Questionnaire (BrQ): a new instrument for measuring quality of life of brace treated scoliotics

    OpenAIRE

    Gkoltsiou Konstantina; Grivas Theodoros B; Vasiliadis Elias

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The quality of life among children with idiopathic scoliosis during their adolescence has been reported to be affected by the brace itself. However, a controversy exists whether brace treated scoliotics experience a poor quality of life, thus there is a need for the development of a brace-oriented instrument, as the now-existing questionnaires that are commonly used, such as the SRS -22, take into consideration the effects of both the conservative and the surgical treatmen...

  9. Stabilizing effects of ankle bracing under a combination of inversion and axial compression loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohyama, Harukazu; Yasuda, Kazunori; Beynnon, Bruce D; Renstrom, Per A

    2006-04-01

    The combined effects of bracing, axial compression and inversion rotation on the ankle-subtalar complexes were evaluated. Ex vivo tests under the load-controlled condition were performed on six cadaver ankle specimens using a six degree-of-freedom fixture. Inversion rotation was measured while subjecting the ankle-subtalar complex to a 2.5 N-m inversion moment and a combination of the testing variables (brace type, no brace, 178 N axial compression load, no compression load, 0 degrees and 20 degrees of plantar flexion) for a total of 16 tests per specimen. Three commercially available braces (two semirigid types and one lace up type) were evaluated. An axial compression load significantly decreased ankle-subtalar motion in unbraced ankles for the tested inversion moment. The contribution of bracing to stabilization of the ankle was smaller in the axial loading condition than in the no axial loading condition. The semirigid braces had greater stabilizing effects in response to the inversion moment than the lace up brace. Stabilizing effects of bracing were significantly greater in 20 degrees of plantar flexion than in 0 degrees of plantar flexion. The most common mechanism for an ankle sprain injury is inversion rotation on a weight-bearing ankle. Therefore, we should not overestimate stabilizing effects of bracing from evaluations of bracing without axial compression loading. PMID:15959767

  10. Arthrometric evaluation of stabilizing effect of knee functional bracing at different flexion angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed Mohseni, Saeedeh; Moss, Farzam; Karimi, Hossein; Kamali, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Previous in-vivo investigations on the stabilizing efficacy of knee bracing for ACL reconstructed patients have been often limited to 20-30 degrees of knee flexion. In this study, the effectiveness of a uniaxial hinged functional brace to improve the knee stability was assessed at 30, 60 and 90 degrees of knee flexion. Arthrometry tests were conducted on 15 healthy subjects before and following wearing the brace and the tibial displacements were measured at up to 150 N anterior forces. Results indicated that functional bracing has a significant stabilizing effect throughout the range of knee flexion examined (p polycentric joint a more significant improvement of the overall brace performance and efficacy might be obtained. Key pointsFunctional bracing improves the knee joint stability mostly in extension posture.Unlike the non-braced condition, the least knee joint stability appears in mid and deep flexion angles when using a hinged brace.Accurate sizing and fitting and attention to correct hinge placement relative to the femoral condyles can limit brace migration and improve its effectiveness in mid and deep knee flexion.The overall brace performance and efficacy might be improved significantly using adaptive limb fittings through flexible pads and/or polycentric joints. PMID:24149533

  11. Modified Elastofiber Element for Steel Slender Column and Brace Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, Swaminathan

    2010-01-01

    An efficient beam element, the modified elastofiber (MEF) element, has been developed to capture the overall features of the elastic and inelastic responses of slender columns and braces under axial cyclic loading without unduly heavy discretization. It consists of three fiber segments, two at the member ends and one at midspan, with two elastic segments sandwiched in between. The segments are demarcated by two exterior nodes and four interior nodes. The fiber segments are divided into 20 fib...

  12. Evaluation of knee braces in Swedish ice hockey players.

    OpenAIRE

    Tegner, Y; Lorentzon, R

    1991-01-01

    In this retrospective investigation we have determined the rate and types of knee injuries among Swedish ice hockey players, and related these data to the use of knee braces. Thirty-seven of the originally selected 50 hockey teams (74%) of elite or first division calibre took part in the study, and 600 players answered a questionnaire. A total of 254 previous knee injuries sustained while playing hockey were reported by 243 players; tears of the medical collateral ligament (60%), meniscus (15...

  13. Efficacy of b-lynch brace suture in postpartum haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massive uncontrolled haemorrhage after childbirth is the leading cause of maternal death in developing countries. Postpartum haemorrhage is traditionally defined as blood loss of more than 500 ml after vaginal delivery and more than 1000 ml after caesarean section, but intraoperative estimation of blood loss is inaccurate. Uterine atony alone accounts for 75 - 90% of PPH. To estimate the effectiveness and safety of B-Lynch brace Suture in the management of primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). (author)

  14. Thermal behavior of cylindrical buckling restrained braces at elevated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Elnaz; Tahir, Mahmood Md; Zahmatkesh, Farshad; Yasreen, Airil; Mirza, Jahangir

    2014-01-01

    The primary focus of this investigation was to analyze sequentially coupled nonlinear thermal stress, using a three-dimensional model. It was meant to shed light on the behavior of Buckling Restraint Brace (BRB) elements with circular cross section, at elevated temperature. Such bracing systems were comprised of a cylindrical steel core encased in a strong concrete-filled steel hollow casing. A debonding agent was rubbed on the core's surface to avoid shear stress transition to the restraining system. The numerical model was verified by the analytical solutions developed by the other researchers. Performance of BRB system under seismic loading at ambient temperature has been well documented. However, its performance in case of fire has yet to be explored. This study showed that the failure of brace may be attributed to material strength reduction and high compressive forces, both due to temperature rise. Furthermore, limiting temperatures in the linear behavior of steel casing and concrete in BRB element for both numerical and analytical simulations were about 196°C and 225°C, respectively. Finally it is concluded that the performance of BRB at elevated temperatures was the same as that seen at room temperature; that is, the steel core yields prior to the restraining system. PMID:24526915

  15. Effect of bracing systems on the fire-induced progressive collapse of steel structures

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Jian; Li, Guo-qiang; Usmani, Asif

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of various bracing systems on the fire-induced progressive collapse resistance of steel-framed structures using OpenSees. Two types of bracing systems (vertical and hat bracing) and various fire scenarios (single and multi-compartment fires) are considered. Four collapse mechanisms of steel frames in fire are found through parametric studies. General collapse is characterized by the collapse of the heated bay followed by lateral drift of adjacent cool bays. ...

  16. Behavior of three-span braced columns with equal and unequal spans

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yu-Wen

    1993-01-01

    Columns with three spans separated by elastic braces are analyzed. The influences of translational and rotational resistance at the braces, various end conditions, and the bracing locations for the perfect columns with equal and unequal spans subjected to uniform and nonuniform axial load are investigated. For imperfect columns with equal or unequal spans subjected to uniform compression, the effects of various end conditions at the top and various initial deflections are studied. "Ide...

  17. Seismic retrofitting of reinforced concrete frame structures using GFRP-tube-confined-concrete composite braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddasi B., Nasim S.; Zhang, Yunfeng; Hu, Xiaobin

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a new type of structural bracing intended for seismic retrofitting use in framed structures. This special composite brace, termed glass-fiber-reinforced-polymer (GFRP)-tube-confined-concrete composite brace, is comprised of concrete confined by a GFRP tube and an inner steel core for energy dissipation. Together with a contribution from the GFRP-tube confined concrete, the composite brace shows a substantially increased stiffness to control story drift, which is often a preferred feature in seismic retrofitting. An analysis model is established and implemented in a general finite element analysis program — OpenSees, for simulating the load-displacement behavior of the composite brace. Using this model, a parametric study of the hysteretic behavior (energy dissipation, stiffness, ductility and strength) of the composite brace was conducted under static cyclic loading and it was found that the area ratio of steel core to concrete has the greatest influence among all the parameters considered. To demonstrate the application of the composite brace in seismic retrofitting, a three-story nonductile reinforced concrete (RC) frame structure was retrofitted with the composite braces. Pushover analysis and nonlinear time-history analyses of the retrofitted RC frame structure was performed by employing a suite of 20 strong ground motion earthquake records. The analysis results show that the composite braces can effectively reduce the peak seismic responses of the RC frame structure without significantly increasing the base shear demand.

  18. Introduction to the "Scoliosis" Journal Brace Technology Thematic Series: increasing existing knowledge and promoting future developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grivas Theodoros B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bracing is the main non-surgical intervention in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis during growth, in hyperkyphosis (and Scheuermann disease and occasionally for spondylolisthesis; it can be used in adult scoliosis, in the elderly when pathological curves lead to a forward leaning posture or in adults after traumatic injuries. Bracing can be defined as the application of external corrective forces to the trunk; rigid supports or elastic bands can be used and braces can be custom-made or prefabricated. The state of research in the field of conservative treatment is insufficient and while it can be stated that there is some evidence to support bracing, we must also acknowledge that today we do not have a common and generally accepted knowledge base, and that instead, individual expertise still prevails, giving rise to different schools of thought on brace construction and principles of correction. The only way to improve the knowledge and understanding of brace type and brace function is to establish a single and comprehensive source of information about bracing. This is what the Scoliosis Journal is going to do through the "Brace Technology" Thematic Series, where technical papers coming from the different schools will be published.

  19. Competition of the Peierls relief and structural defects in damping the domain walls in [Mn left brace (R/S)-pn right brace]2[Mn left brace(R/S)-pn right brace2(H2O)][Cr(CN)6]2 ferrimagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The [ [Mn left brace (R/S)-pn right brace]2[Mn left brace(R/S)-pn right brace2(H2O)][Cr(CN)6]2 molecular ferrimagnet exhibits an inverse sequence of changes in the domain wall motion regimes with increasing temperature in alternative magnetic field of 0.04-1400 Hz frequency. Initiation of the relaxation regime on the background of creep indicates that there are two different systems of the domain walls damping. The threshold amplitude of the alternative magnetic field corresponds to the Peierls relief contribution to the domain wall dynamics as well as the defect contribution usually considered.

  20. On the origin of higher braces and higher-order derivations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Markl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2015), s. 637-667. ISSN 2193-8407 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Koszul braces * Börjeseon braces * higher-order derivation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.571, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40062-014-0079-2

  1. Analysis of multistoried braced steel space frame subjected to gravity and seismic loading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay.S.Pawar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Steel structures are generally more flexible than other types of structure and lower in weight. Earthquake loads are random in nature. It is difficult to predict them exactly. The action applied to a structure by an earthquake is a ground movement with horizontal and vertical components. The horizontal movement is the most specific feature of earthquake action because of its strength and because structures are generally better designed to resist gravity than horizontal forces. These forces produce large stresses, strains, deformation and displacement particularly in tall structures. To keep displacement within limit generally bracing is provided in steel structure. . Bracings are generally used to increase lateral-stiffness, lateral- strength as well as lateral stability of the frame. Variations in the column stiffness can influence the mode of failure and lateral stiffness of the bracing. In this study steel frame is modeled and analyzed three Parts viz., (i Model without Steel bracing (bare frame, (ii Model completely with fully braced steel frame („Cross‟ bracing, (iii Model completely with fully braced steel frame („Single diagonal‟ bracing.

  2. Low-Cost Alternative External Rotation Shoulder Brace and Review of Treatment in Acute Shoulder Dislocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacy, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic dislocations of the shoulder commonly present to emergency departments (EDs. Immediate closed reduction of both anterior and posterior glenohumeral dislocations is recommended and is frequently performed in the ED. Recurrence of dislocation is common, as anteroinferior labral tears (Bankart lesions are present in many anterior shoulder dislocations.14,15,18,23 Immobilization of the shoulder following closed reduction is therefore recommended; previous studies support the use of immobilization with the shoulder in a position of external rotation, for both anterior and posterior shoulder dislocations.7-11,19 In this study, we present a technique for assembling a low-cost external rotation shoulder brace using materials found in most hospitals: cotton roll, stockinette, and shoulder immobilizers. This brace is particularly suited for the uninsured patient, who lacks the financial resources to pay for a pre-fabricated brace out of pocket. We also performed a cost analysis for our low-cost external rotation shoulder brace, and a cost comparison with pre-fabricated brand name braces. At our institution, the total materials cost for our brace was $19.15. The cost of a pre-fabricated shoulder brace at our institution is $150 with markup, which is reimbursed on average at $50.40 according to our hospital billing data. The low-cost external rotation shoulder brace is therefore a more affordable option for the uninsured patient presenting with acute shoulder dislocation. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:114–120.

  3. The Application of Parallel Robotics to Investigate the Effect of Lumbar Bracing on Trunk Muscle Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory N. Kawchuk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar bracing is prescribed frequently for disability caused by low back pain; however, investigations into this practice demonstrate a range of patient outcomes. This inconsistency may arise from the practice of employing voluntary, single-axis trunk movements when investigating braces. Alternatively, this study employed a parallel robot to create a standardised, multi-axis testing environment. Surface electromyographic (sEMG data were collected from the trunk of 24 asymptomatic participants, who were seated on the robot, tilted to 15°, then circumducted while attempting to maintain an upright posture. Multiple trials were performed for three randomised conditions: non-braced, soft-material brace and stiff-material brace. As expected, the sEMG activity was significantly reduced in the majority of muscle responses (201/240. Unexpectedly, a paradoxical increase in the sEMG activity was observed in 39/240 responses. While lumbar bracing reduces the sEMG activity on average, these data suggest the existence of an infrequent paradoxical response that may provide a possible explanation for the discordant results observed in previous bracing investigations.

  4. Prophylactic Ankle Taping and Bracing: A Numbers-Needed-to-Treat and Cost-Benefit Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmsted, Lauren C.; Vela, Luzita I.; Denegar, Craig R.; Hertel, Jay

    2004-03-01

    OBJECTIVE: Taping and bracing are thought to decrease the incidence of ankle sprains; however, few investigators have addressed the effect of preventive measures on the rate of ankle sprains. Our purpose was to examine the effectiveness of ankle taping and bracing in reducing ankle sprains by applying a numbers-needed-to-treat (NNT) analysis to previously published studies. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed, CINAHL, SPORT Discus, and PEDro for original research from 1966 to 2002 with key words ankle taping, ankle sprains, injury incidence, prevention, ankle bracing, ankle prophylaxis, andnumbers needed to treat. We eliminated articles that did not address the effects of ankle taping or bracing on ankle injury rates using an experimental design. DATA SYNTHESIS: The search produced 8 articles, of which 3 permitted calculation of NNT, which addresses the clinical usefulness of an intervention by providing estimates of the number of treatments needed to prevent 1 injury occurrence. In a study of collegiate intramural basketball players, the prevention of 1 ankle sprain required the taping of 26 athletes with a history of ankle sprain and 143 without a prior history. In a military academy intramural basketball program, prevention of 1 sprain required bracing of 18 athletes with a history of ankle sprain and 39 athletes with no history. A study of ankle bracing in competitive soccer players produced an NNT of 5 athletes with a history of previous sprain and 57 without a prior injury. A cost- benefit analysis of ankle taping versus bracing revealed taping to be approximately 3 times more expensive than bracing. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS: Greater benefit is achieved in applying prophylactic ankle taping or bracing to athletes with a history of ankle sprain, compared with those without previous sprains. The generalizability of these results to other physically active populations is unknown. PMID:15085217

  5. Overutilization of bracing in the management of penetrating spinal cord injury from gunshot wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhary, Nima; Nwosu, Kenneth; McCoy, Eric; Fukunaga, Dudley; Rolfe, Kevin

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Penetrating gunshot wounds (GSWs) to the spinal column are stable injuries and do not require spinal orthoses or bracing postinjury. Nonetheless, a high number of GSW-related spinal cord injury (SCI) patients are referred with a brace to national rehabilitation centers. Unnecessary bracing may encumber rehabilitation, create skin breakdown or pressure ulcers, and add excessive costs. The aim of this study was to confirm the stability of spinal column injuries from GSWs and quantify the overutilization rate of bracing based on long-term follow-up. METHODS This retrospective cohort study was performed at a nationally renowned rehabilitation center. In total, 487 GSW-related SCI patients were transferred for rehabilitation and identified over the last 14 years. Retrospective chart review and telephone interviews were conducted to identify patients who were braced at the initial treating institution and determine if late instability, deformity, or neurological deterioration resulted in secondary surgery or intervention. In addition, 396 unoperated patients were available for analysis after 91 patients were excluded for undergoing an initial destabilizing surgical dissection or laminectomy, thereby altering the natural history of the injury. All of these 396 patients who presented with a brace had bracing discontinued upon reaching the facility. RESULTS In total, 203 of 396 patients were transferred with a spinal brace, demonstrating an overutilization rate of 51%. No patients deteriorated neurologically or needed later surgery for spinal column deformity or instability attributable to the injury. All patients had stable injuries. The patterns of injury and severity of neurological injury did not vary between patients who were initially braced or unbraced. The average follow-up was 7.8 years (range 1-14 years) and the average age was 25 years (range 10-62 years). CONCLUSIONS The incidence of brace overutilization for penetrating GSW-related SCI was 51%. Long

  6. Stabilizing effects of ankle bracing under a combination of inversion and axial compression loading

    OpenAIRE

    Tohyama, Harukazu; Yasuda, Kazunori; Beynnon, Bruce D.; Renstrom, Per A.

    2006-01-01

    The combined effects of bracing, axial compression and inversion rotation on the ankle-subtalar complexes were evaluated. Ex vivo tests under the load-controlled condition were performed on six cadaver ankle specimens using a six degree-of-freedom fixture. Inversion rotation was measured while subjecting the ankle-subtalar complex to a 2.5 N-m inversion moment and a combination of the testing variables (brace type, no brace, 178 N axial compression load, no compression load, 0° and 20° of pla...

  7. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Steen Harald; Lange Johan; Brox Jens

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Few studies have evaluated long-term outcome after bracing using validated health related quality of life outcome measures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term outcome in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) 12 years or more after treatment with the Boston brace. Methods 109 (80%) of 135 patients (7 men) with AIS treated with the Boston brace at a mean of 19.2 (range 12–28) years previously responded to long-term follow-up examination. All patients ...

  8. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Johan Emil; Steen, Harald; Brox, Jens Ivar

    2009-01-01

    Background Few studies have evaluated long-term outcome after bracing using validated health related quality of life outcome measures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term outcome in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) 12 years or more after treatment with the Boston brace. Methods 109 (80%) of 135 patients (7 men) with AIS treated with the Boston brace at a mean of 19.2 (range 12–28) years previously responded to long-term follow-up examination. All patients (n = 109)...

  9. Nitric oxide as an activation agent for nucleophilic attack in trans-[Ru(NO)(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}{l_brace}P(OEt){sub 3}{r_brace}](PF{sub 6}){sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzker, Gustavo; Cardoso, Daniel R.; Franco, Douglas W., E-mail: douglas@iqsc.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Toledo Junior, Jose C. [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Lima, Francisco C.A. [Universidade Estadual do Piaui, Teresina, PI (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Natureza. Inst. de Quimica; Magalhaes, Alvicler [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The complex trans-[Ru(NO)(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}{l_brace}P(OEt){sub 3}{r_brace}](PF{sub 6}){sub 3} undergoes nucleophilic attack on the phosphorus ester ligand in the solid state yielding trans-[Ru(NO)(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}{l_brace}P(OH)(OEt){sub 2}{r_brace}](PF{sub 6}){sub 3}. The reaction was monitored and the products analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 31}P{l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace} CP-MAS NMR and {sup 31}P{l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace} NMR), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), cyclic voltammetry (CV), electronic spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and elemental analysis. According to experimental data and quantum mechanical calculations (DFT), the reaction proceeds in the solid state by the nucleophilic attack on the phosphorus ligand, promoted by the strong polarization along the P{sup III}-Ru{sup II}-NO{sup +} axis induced by the nitrosyl ligand, and takes place following the Michaelis-Arbusov type mechanism for phosphorus ester hydrolysis. In solution, the nucleophilic attack occurs simultaneously at the nitrosyl and trimethylphosphite ligands, yielding trans-[Ru(H{sub 2}O)(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}{l_brace}P(OEt){sub 3}{r_brace}]{sup 2+} and trans-[Ru(NO)(H{sub 2}O)(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}]{sup 3+} in comparable amounts. (author)

  10. Efficiency and comfort of knee braces: A parametric study based on computational modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Pierrat, Baptiste; Calmels, Paul; Navarro, Laurent; Avril, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Knee orthotic devices are widely proposed by physicians and medical practitioners for preventive or therapeutic objectives in relation with their effects, usually known as to stabilize joint or restrict ranges of motion. This study focuses on the understanding of force transfer mechanisms from the brace to the joint thanks to a Finite Element Model. A Design Of Experiments approach was used to characterize the stiffness and comfort of various braces in order to identify their mechanically influent characteristics. Results show conflicting behavior: influent parameters such as the brace size or textile stiffness improve performance in detriment of comfort. Thanks to this computational tool, novel brace designs can be tested and evaluated for an optimal mechanical efficiency of the devices and a better compliance of the patient to the treatment.

  11. Effectiveness of an outside-the-boot ankle brace in reducing parachuting related ankle injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, M.; Sulsky, S; Amoroso, P.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the efficacy of an outside-the-boot parachute ankle brace (PAB) in reducing risk of ankle injury to army paratrooper trainees and to identify inadvertent risks associated with PAB use.

  12. Fluorides for the prevention of early tooth decay (demineralised white lesions) during fixed brace treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, P.E.; Parkin, N.; Dyer, F.; Millett, D. T.; Furness, S.; P. Germain

    2013-01-01

    Demineralised white lesions (DWLs) can appear on teeth during fixed brace treatment because of early decay around the brackets that attach the braces to the teeth. Fluoride is effective in reducing decay in susceptible individuals in the general population. Individuals receiving orthodontic treatment may be prescribed various forms of fluoride treatment. This review compares the effects of various forms of fluoride used during orthodontic treatment on the development of DWLs. This is an updat...

  13. Development and preliminary validation of Brace Questionnaire (BrQ): a new instrument for measuring quality of life of brace treated scoliotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadis, Elias; Grivas, Theodoros B; Gkoltsiou, Konstantina

    2006-01-01

    Background The quality of life among children with idiopathic scoliosis during their adolescence has been reported to be affected by the brace itself. However, a controversy exists whether brace treated scoliotics experience a poor quality of life, thus there is a need for the development of a brace-oriented instrument, as the now-existing questionnaires that are commonly used, such as the SRS -22, take into consideration the effects of both the conservative and the surgical treatment on quality of life of scoliotic children. The aim of the present study is to assess the validity and reliability of Brace Questionnaire (BrQ), a new instrument for measuring quality of life of scoliotic adolescents who are treated conservatively with a brace. Material-method Methodology of development involved literature review, patient and health care professionals' in-depth interviews and content validity analysis on patients. A validation study was performed on 28 brace treated scoliotic children aged between 9 and 18 years old. BrQ was assessed for the following psychometric properties: item convergent validity, floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency reliability, clinical validity and responsiveness to change. Results BrQ is self administrated and developmentally appropriate for ages 9 to 18 years old and is consisted of 34 Likert-scale items associated with eight domains: general health perception, physical functioning, emotional functioning, self esteem and aesthetics, vitality, school activity, bodily pain and social functioning of scoliotic children treated conservatively with a brace. The subscales of these eight dimensions can be combined to produce a total score. Higher scores mean a better quality of life. An item convergent validity ≥ 0.40 was satisfied by all items in the present study. A satisfactory internal consistency reliability for the BrQ was recorded (Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.82). There were no floor or ceiling effects. The correlation

  14. Development and preliminary validation of Brace Questionnaire (BrQ: a new instrument for measuring quality of life of brace treated scoliotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gkoltsiou Konstantina

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of life among children with idiopathic scoliosis during their adolescence has been reported to be affected by the brace itself. However, a controversy exists whether brace treated scoliotics experience a poor quality of life, thus there is a need for the development of a brace-oriented instrument, as the now-existing questionnaires that are commonly used, such as the SRS -22, take into consideration the effects of both the conservative and the surgical treatment on quality of life of scoliotic children. The aim of the present study is to assess the validity and reliability of Brace Questionnaire (BrQ, a new instrument for measuring quality of life of scoliotic adolescents who are treated conservatively with a brace. Material-method Methodology of development involved literature review, patient and health care professionals' in-depth interviews and content validity analysis on patients. A validation study was performed on 28 brace treated scoliotic children aged between 9 and 18 years old. BrQ was assessed for the following psychometric properties: item convergent validity, floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency reliability, clinical validity and responsiveness to change. Results BrQ is self administrated and developmentally appropriate for ages 9 to 18 years old and is consisted of 34 Likert-scale items associated with eight domains: general health perception, physical functioning, emotional functioning, self esteem and aesthetics, vitality, school activity, bodily pain and social functioning of scoliotic children treated conservatively with a brace. The subscales of these eight dimensions can be combined to produce a total score. Higher scores mean a better quality of life. An item convergent validity ≥ 0.40 was satisfied by all items in the present study. A satisfactory internal consistency reliability for the BrQ was recorded (Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.82. There were no floor or ceiling

  15. Growth morphology of {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} faces of manganese mercury thiocyanate crystals investigated by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Y.L. [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: ylgeng@icm.sdu.edu.cn; Xu, D. [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: xdoffice@sdu.edu.cn; Wang, X.Q. [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Du, W. [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Liu, H.Y. [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhang, G.H. [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2006-04-10

    Atomic force microscopy is employed to investigate the surface morphology of the {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} faces of MMTC crystals grown at 40 deg. C at a supersaturation of {sigma} = 0.5. Growth hillocks generated by dislocation sources often appear in groups, which leads to faster growth of the local area and forming layers with large height difference up to 30 nm. Growth centers operate nearly equally during the growth process. Serried and sparse monolayer steps dominate alternately on the surface, which is thought to be distinct phenomenon of the two-metal-centered complex compounds family.

  16. The effect of a knee brace on gait parameters of hypertonic hemiplegic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Modisane

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the useof a knee brace on 15 subjects with hypertonic hemiparesis. The middlecerebral artery was involved in all subjects. The Ashworth scale was usedto screen for the presence of spasticity in the quadriceps muscles.Measurements of gait speed, step and stride length were taken in the middle 10 metres of a 15 metre paper walkway. A comparison of these gait parameters without and with the use of a knee brace was made. A ques-tionnaire was also used to evaluate how subjects responded to the use of aknee brace.The results showed that the mean speed for all 15 subjects increased withthe use of a brace, (p = 0.05. Step and stride length without and with the use of a brace showed no statistical differences.It was therefore concluded that the FECK brace appears to have an effect on the walking speed of subjects withhypertonic  hemiparesis

  17. Effects of bracing on human kinematics in low-speed frontal sled tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, Stephanie M; Kemper, Andrew R; Madigan, Michael L; Duma, Stefan M

    2011-12-01

    Continued development of computational models and biofidelic anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) necessitates further analysis of the effects of bracing on an occupant's biomechanical response in automobile collisions. A total of 20 dynamic sled tests were performed, 10 low (2.5 g, Δv = 4.8 kph) and 10 medium severity (5.0 g, Δv = 9.7 kph), with five male human volunteers of approximately 50th percentile male height and weight. Each volunteer was exposed to two impulses at each severity, one relaxed and one braced prior to the impulse. A Vicon motion analysis system, 12 MX-T20 2 megapixel cameras, was used to quantify subject 3D kinematics (±1 mm) (1 kHz). Excursions of select anatomical regions were normalized to their respective initial positions and compared by test condition. At the low severity, bracing significantly reduced (p elbows, shoulders, and head (average 35-70%). At the medium severity, bracing significantly reduced (p elbows, shoulders, and head (average 36-69%). Although not significant, bracing at the medium severity considerably reduced the forward excursion of the knees and hips (average 18-26%). This study illustrates that bracing has a significant influence on the biomechanical response of human occupants in frontal sled tests and provides novel biomechanical data that can be used to refine and validate computational models and ATDs used to assess injury risk in automotive collisions. PMID:21870249

  18. Experimental and analytical studies on the seismic behavior of conventional and hybrid braced frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jiun-Wei

    This dissertation summarizes both experimental and analytical studies on the seismic response of conventional steel concentrically braced frame systems of the type widely used in North America, and preliminary studies of an innovative hybrid braced frame system: the Strong-Back System. The research work is part of NEES small group project entitled "International Hybrid Simulation of Tomorrow's Braced Frames." In the experimental phase, a total of four full-scale, one-bay, two-story conventional braced frame specimens with different bracing member section shapes and gusset plate-to-beam connection details were designed and tested at the NEES Berkeley Laboratory. Three braced frame specimens were tested quasi-statically using the same predefined loading protocol to investigate the inelastic cyclic behavior of code-compliant braced frames at both the global and local level. The last braced frame specimen was nearly identical to one of those tested quasi-statically. However, it was tested using hybrid simulation techniques to examine the sensitivity of inelastic behavior on loading sequence and to relate the behavior observed to different levels of seismic hazard. Computer models of the test specimens were developed using two different computer software programs. In the software framework OpenSees fiber-based line elements were used to simulate global buckling of members and yielding and low-cycle fatigue failure at sections. The LS-DYNA analysis program was also used to model individual struts and the test specimens using shell elements with adaptive meshing and element erosion features. This program provided enhanced ability to simulate section local buckling, strain concentrations and crack development. The numerical results were compared with test results to assess and refine and the ability of the models to predict braced frame behavior. A series of OpenSees numerical cyclic component simulations were then conducted using the validated modeling approach. Two

  19. Seismic Response of R C Building With Different Arrangement of Steel Bracing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaraj R. Chavan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In general the most suitable choices in improvement of reinforcement concrete frame against lateral loading is used steel bracing system. The use of steel bracing has potential advantage over other scheme like higher strength and stiffness, economical, occupies less space, adds much less weight to existing structure. In this study, the seismic analysis of reinforced concrete (RC buildings with different types of bracing (Diagonal, V type, inverted V type, X type is studied. The bracing is provided for peripheral columns. A seven-storey (G+6 building is situated at seismic zone III. The building models are analyze by equivalent static analysis as per IS 1893:2002 using Staad Pro V8i software. The main parameters consider in this paper to compare the seismic analysis of buildings are lateral displacement, storey drift, axial force, base shear. It is found that the X type of steel bracing significantly contributes to the structural stiffness and reduces the maximum interstorey drift of R.C.C building than other bracing system.

  20. An innovative seismic bracing system based on a superelastic shape memory alloy ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nan; Jeon, Jong-Su; Hodgson, Darel E.; DesRoches, Reginald

    2016-05-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have great potential in seismic applications because of their remarkable superelasticity. Seismic bracing systems based on SMAs can mitigate the damage caused by earthquakes. The current study investigates a bracing system based on an SMA ring which is capable of both re-centering and energy dissipation. This lateral force resisting system is a cross-braced system consisting of an SMA ring and four tension-only cable assemblies, which can be applied to both new construction and seismic retrofit. The performance of this bracing system is examined through a quasi-static cyclic loading test and finite element (FE) analysis. This paper describes the experimental design in detail, discusses the experimental results, compares the performance with other bracing systems based on SMAs, and presents an Abaqus FE model calibrated on the basis of experimental results to simulate the superelastic behavior of the SMA ring. The experimental results indicate that the seismic performance of this system is promising in terms of damping and re-centering. The FE model can be used in the simulation of building structures using the proposed bracing system.

  1. The role of ankle bracing for prevention of ankle sprain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael T; Liu, Hsin-Yi

    2003-10-01

    Lateral ankle sprains are one of the most common injuries incurred in recreational and competitive athletics. These injuries have a significant impact in terms of cost, athletic participation, and activities of daily living. Prophylactic ankle braces are often used to reduce the risk of injury recurrence when individuals return to athletic participation. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to review the literature and provide our own experience relative to the use of prophylactic ankle bracing. Relatively high incidence rates of ankle sprain injury have been reported for basketball and soccer athletes, military trainees, and individuals with a previous history of ankle sprain injury. Semirigid and laced ankle braces have significantly reduced the incidence of initial and recurrent ankle sprain injuries in athletic and military samples. With few exceptions, these braces do not appear to affect functional performance adversely. The prophylactic use of semirigid ankle braces appears warranted to reduce the incidence of initial and, in particular, recurrent ankle sprain injuries for individuals who participate in activities that have the highest risk for these injuries. Additional research is needed to evaluate the many new braces that are available and in use and their influence on the incidence of ankle sprain injury and functional performance. PMID:14620786

  2. Development of [l brace]100[r brace] texture in silicon steel sheets by isothermal austenite[yields]ferrite transformations and its mechanism. Keiso kohan ni okeru toon [gamma][yields][alpha] hentai ni yoru [l brace]100[r brace] shugo soshiki no keisei to sono kiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomida, T. (Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan). Advanced Technology Research Lab.); Tanaka, T. (Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan). Iron and Steel Research Lab.)

    1993-12-01

    The texture in silicon steel sheets has been studied during this half of century and the methods for forming the textures suitable as the soft-magnetic materials of [l brace]110[r brace][l angle]001[r angle] as well as [l brace]100[r brace][l angle]001[r angle] have been found. However, few researches has been carried out on the silicon steel using positively the innate properties of the steel such as the transformation between the austenite ([gamma]) and [alpha]-ferrite and the recrystallization in the coexisting area of [alpha]/[gamma] duplex. In this study, the isothermal [alpha][yields][gamma] transformation during the process of vacuum-annealing and decarburizing-annealing of 2% silicon steel containing carbon and Mn and the texture formation accompanied therewith are examined. The conclusions are as follows. The isothermal [alpha][yields][gamma] transformation occurs in the layer just below the surface and the structure of the surface becomes the single phase of [alpha]-ferrite in the vacuum of 10[sup -3]Pa and the temperature is kept constant within the range of [alpha]/[gamma] duplex temperature or [gamma]-phase temperature as from 850 to 1050 centigrade. This surface structure develops to the strong [l brace]100[r brace] texture. 12 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Predicting success or failure of brace treatment for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Eric; Westover, Lindsey; Jacob, Johith; Donauer, Andreas; Zhao, Vicky H; Parent, Eric C; Moreau, Marc J; Mahood, James K; Hedden, Douglas M; Lou, Edmond H M

    2015-10-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a three-dimensional spinal deformity. Brace treatment is a common non-surgical treatment, intended to prevent progression (worsening) of the condition during adolescence. Estimating a braced patient's risk of progression is an essential part of planning treatment, so method for predicting this risk would be a useful decision support tool for practitioners. This work attempts to discover whether failure of brace treatment (progression) can be predicted at the start of treatment. Records were obtained for 62 AIS patients who had completed brace treatment. Subjects were labeled as "progressive" if their condition had progressed despite brace treatment and "non-progressive" otherwise. Wrapper-based feature selection selected two useful predictor variables from a list of 14 clinical measurements taken from the records. A logistic regression model was trained to classify patients as "progressive" or "non-progressive" using these two variables. The logistic regression model's simplicity and interpretability should facilitate its clinical acceptance. The model was tested on data from an additional 28 patients and found to be 75 % accurate. This accuracy is sufficient to make the predictions clinically useful. It can be used online: http://www.ece.ualberta.ca/~dchalmer/SimpleBracePredictor.html . PMID:26002592

  4. On the Modeling of Elastic and Inelastic, Critical- and Post-Buckling Behavior of Slender Columns and Bracing Members

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, Swaminathan

    2009-01-01

    Analyzing tall braced frame buildings with thousands of degrees of freedom in three dimensions subject to strong earthquake ground motion requires an efficient brace element that can capture the overall features of its elastic and inelastic response under axial cyclic loading without unduly heavy discretization. This report details the theory of a modified elastofiber (MEF) element developed to model braces and buckling-sensitive slender columns in such structures. The MEF element...

  5. Accurate and efficient TCAD model for the formation and dissolution of small interstitial clusters and {l_brace}3 1 1{r_brace} defects in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zechner, Christoph [Synopsys Switzerland LLC., Affolternstr. 52, CH-8050 Zurich-Oerlikon (Switzerland)]. E-mail: zechner@synopsys.com; Zographos, Nikolas [Synopsys Switzerland LLC., Affolternstr. 52, CH-8050 Zurich-Oerlikon (Switzerland); Matveev, Dmitri [Synopsys Switzerland LLC., Affolternstr. 52, CH-8050 Zurich-Oerlikon (Switzerland); Erlebach, Axel [Synopsys Switzerland LLC., Affolternstr. 52, CH-8050 Zurich-Oerlikon (Switzerland)

    2005-12-05

    In recent years, physics-based models have been developed for the time evolution of defects formed by Si self-interstitials in ion-implanted Si. The accuracy of these models is crucial for a predictive process simulation of deep sub micron devices. However, the most complete models are usually not considered in applied process simulation, because they use too many equations. In this work, a new model is presented in which the essential physics behind the formation and dissolution of small interstitial clusters and {l_brace}3 1 1{r_brace} defects is described by a minimum set of five reaction equations. Three equations describe the kinetics of small interstitial clusters which governs the initial phase of implantation damage annealing. Two equations describe the formation and Ostwald ripening of {l_brace}3 1 1{r_brace} defects. The model is capable to reproduce experimental data over a wide range of implantation energies, doses and anneal temperatures. It allows predictive simulations of interstitial cluster kinetics at a minimum computational cost.

  6. Comparison of in-and outpatients protocols for providence night time only bracing in AIS patients -- compliance and satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Aubaidi, Zaid Tj; Tropp, Hans; Pedersen, Niels W;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skeletally immature patients diagnosed with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and a Cobb angle above 25degrees is usually treated with a brace. Standard protocols in many centers include hospitalisation for a few days for the purpose of brace adaptation and fitting. The aim of this...... study is to compare compliance and satisfaction in hospitalization and out patient clinic protocols, at the initiation phase of brace treatment.Materials and methodsTwenty-four consecutive patients with AIS were initiated with the Providence night time only brace at our department between October 2008...

  7. Isopiestic studies on the saturated systems {l_brace}H{sub 2}O + BaCl{sub 2}(sat) + NaCl + NH{sub 4}Cl{r_brace} and {l_brace}H{sub 2}O + BaCl{sub 2}(sat) + mannitol(sat) + NaCl + NH{sub 4}Cl{r_brace} at the temperature 298.15 K: Comparison with the ideal-like solution model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Mei [Institute of Metallurgical Resources and Environmental Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China)]. E-mail: wmei1010@tom.com; Zhang, Hui [School of Resources and Civil Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Wang Jun [Department of Chemistry, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Wang Zhichang [Department of Chemistry, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China)

    2007-02-15

    Isopiestic measurements have been carried out at the temperature 298.15 K for two saturated aqueous solutions: {l_brace}H{sub 2}O + BaCl{sub 2}(sat) + NaCl + NH{sub 4}Cl{r_brace} saturated with barium chloride and {l_brace}H{sub 2}O + BaCl{sub 2}(sat) + mannitol(sat) + NaCl + NH{sub 4}Cl{r_brace} saturated with barium chloride and mannitol. Taking sodium chloride (aq) as reference solutions, osmotic coefficients of the aqueous solutions were determined. The experimental results are well represented by the ideal-like solution model.

  8. An Experimental Study on Non-Compression X-Bracing Systems Using Carbon Fiber Composite Cable for Seismic Strengthening of RC Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Seok Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-bracing (X-bracing is one of the most popular methods of seismic retrofitting, and has been shown to significantly increase the structural stiffness and strength of buildings. Conventional steel X-bracing methods typically exhibit brittle failure at the connection between the brace and the building, or buckling failure of the braces. This study investigated the structural properties of a new type of non-compression X-bracing system using carbon fiber composite cable (CFCC. This non-compression X-bracing system uses CFCC bracing and bolt connections between structural members and the terminal fixer of the CFCC, instead of conventional steel bracing. The aim is to overcome the brittle and buckling failures that can occur at the connection and bracings with conventional steel X-bracing methods. We carried out cyclic loading tests, and the maximum load carrying capacity and deformation were investigated, as well as hysteresis in the lateral load–drift relations. The test results revealed that the CFCC X-bracing system installed in reinforced concrete frames enhanced the strength markedly, and buckling failure of the bracing was not observed.

  9. Investigation of the nonlinear seismic behavior of knee braced frames using the incremental dynamic analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheidaii, Mohammad Reza; TahamouliRoudsari, Mehrzad; Gordini, Mehrdad

    2016-06-01

    In knee braced frames, the braces are attached to the knee element rather than the intersection of beams and columns. This bracing system is widely used and preferred over the other commonly used systems for reasons such as having lateral stiffness while having adequate ductility, damage concentration on the second degree convenience of repairing and replacing of these elements after Earthquake. The lateral stiffness of this system is supplied by the bracing member and the ductility of the frame attached to the knee length is supplied through the bending or shear yield of the knee member. In this paper, the nonlinear seismic behavior of knee braced frame systems has been investigated using incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) and the effects of the number of stories in a building, length and the moment of inertia of the knee member on the seismic behavior, elastic stiffness, ductility and the probability of failure of these systems has been determined. In the incremental dynamic analysis, after plotting the IDA diagrams of the accelerograms, the collapse diagrams in the limit states are determined. These diagrams yield that for a constant knee length with reduced moment of inertia, the probability of collapse in limit states heightens and also for a constant knee moment of inertia with increasing length, the probability of collapse in limit states increases.

  10. Investigation of the nonlinear seismic behavior of knee braced frames using the incremental dynamic analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheidaii, Mohammad Reza; TahamouliRoudsari, Mehrzad; Gordini, Mehrdad

    2016-03-01

    In knee braced frames, the braces are attached to the knee element rather than the intersection of beams and columns. This bracing system is widely used and preferred over the other commonly used systems for reasons such as having lateral stiffness while having adequate ductility, damage concentration on the second degree convenience of repairing and replacing of these elements after Earthquake. The lateral stiffness of this system is supplied by the bracing member and the ductility of the frame attached to the knee length is supplied through the bending or shear yield of the knee member. In this paper, the nonlinear seismic behavior of knee braced frame systems has been investigated using incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) and the effects of the number of stories in a building, length and the moment of inertia of the knee member on the seismic behavior, elastic stiffness, ductility and the probability of failure of these systems has been determined. In the incremental dynamic analysis, after plotting the IDA diagrams of the accelerograms, the collapse diagrams in the limit states are determined. These diagrams yield that for a constant knee length with reduced moment of inertia, the probability of collapse in limit states heightens and also for a constant knee moment of inertia with increasing length, the probability of collapse in limit states increases.

  11. Modal parameters of two incomplete and complete guitars differing in the bracing pattern of the soundboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrodzka, Ewa; Łapa, Andrzej; Linde, Bogumił B J; Rosenfeld, Eike

    2011-10-01

    Similarities and differences in vibrational behavior of two guitars having a symmetric Torres bracing pattern and an asymmetric pattern forming a lattice on a soundboard are investigated by means of the modal analysis technique and laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) measurements. Instruments are investigated before and after a bridge and strings assembling (i.e., they are incomplete or complete). The bracing pattern and the absence/presence of the bridge and strings have some effect on modal frequencies and mode shapes. The bracing pattern does not affect the sequence of at least first three low frequency mode shapes of incomplete/complete instruments but affects their modal frequencies. Depending on frequency, the bridge behaves either as a rigid or a flexible structure. PMID:21973373

  12. A New Brace for Maintaining the Neck in a Suitable Position Following Tracheal Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizhan Ziaian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Segmental resection and end-to-end anastomosis is the treatment of choice for patients suffering from tracheal stenosis for whom conservative management is not planned. A complication of this procedure is tension-induced anastomotic failure. To prevent this complication, maintaining the neck in full flexion by means of a suture between the chin and upper chest is a traditional approach. We have designed a new brace (Shiraz brace that securely supports the neck in this position and decreases the bothersome use of the suture alone.

  13. A new brace for maintaining the neck in a suitable position following tracheal reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaian, Bizhan; Foroutan, Ali; Tahamtan, Maryam; Moslemi, Sam

    2014-05-01

    Segmental resection and end-to-end anastomosis is the treatment of choice for patients suffering from tracheal stenosis for whom conservative management is not planned. A complication of this procedure is tension-induced anastomotic failure. To prevent this complication, maintaining the neck in full flexion by means of a suture between the chin and upper chest is a traditional approach. We have designed a new brace (Shiraz brace) that securely supports the neck in this position and decreases the bothersome use of the suture alone. PMID:24850991

  14. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium for ternary mixtures of {l_brace}heptane + aromatic compounds + [EMpy][ESO{sub 4}]{r_brace} at T = 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirkhani, S.A. [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vossoughi, M., E-mail: vosoughi@sharif.edu [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pazuki, G.R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Safekordi, A.A. [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Heydari, A.; Akbari, J. [Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yavari, M. [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: > This paper reports the LLE data of ternary systems {l_brace}heptane (1) + aromatic compounds (2) + [EMpy][ESO{sub 4}] (3){r_brace}. > The distribution coefficient and the selectivity were obtained from the experimental data. > The consistency of LLE data was successfully correlated with Othmer-Tobias and Hand equation. - Abstract: (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for the ternary systems (heptane + toluene + 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium ethylsulfate) and (heptane + benzene + 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium ethylsulfate) were measured at T = 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. The selectivity and aromatic distribution coefficients, calculated from the equilibrium data, were used to determine if this ionic liquid can be used as a potential extracting solvent for the separation of aromatic compounds from heptane. The consistency of tie-line data was ascertained by applying the Othmer-Tobias and Hand equations.

  15. Microband evolution during large plastic strains of stable {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}<1 1 2> Al and Al-Mn crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albou, A.; Driver, J.H. [Ecole des Mines de St Etienne, Centre SMS, CNRS UMR 5146, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint Etienne (France); Maurice, C., E-mail: driver@emse.fr [Ecole des Mines de St Etienne, Centre SMS, CNRS UMR 5146, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint Etienne (France)

    2010-05-15

    The deformation microstructures of Al and Al-Mn {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}<1 1 2> single crystals have been characterized after room temperature channel-die compression up to true strains of 2.1. The evolution of local misorientations and microband structures were quantified by high-resolution electron backscatter diffraction in a field emission gun scanning electron microscope and their alignments compared with the traces of active slip planes and macroscopic shear stress planes. During plane-strain compression these 'Brass' oriented crystals remain stable in terms of the final, average, orientation, with a small orientation spread. However, the microband alignment varies with strain and also with solute content. There is a general tendency for the microbands to be both crystallographic and non-crystallographic at low strains, then crystallographic, and finally mixed again at high strains (with some lamellar banding).

  16. Atomic force microscopy studies on growth mechanisms and defect formations on {l_brace}110{r_brace} faces of cadmium mercury thiocyanate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, X.N.; Xu, D.; Yuan, D.R.; Sun, D.L.; Lu, M.K.; Zhang, G.H.; Guo, S.Y. [Shandong Univ., Jinan, SD (China). Inst. of Crystal Materials

    2001-07-01

    Growth mechanisms and defect formations on {l_brace}110{r_brace} faces of cadmium mercury thiocyanate crystals grown at 30 C ({sigma} = 0.24) were investigated by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that, under this condition, spiral dislocation controlled mechanism and 2D nucleation mechanism operates simultaneously and equally during growth, which is completely different from the traditional 2D nucleation and dislocation source controlled mechanisms. A number of 2D nucleus are formed at the large step terraces generated by dislocation sources, leading to the unequal growth rates of the elementary steps and thereby ''step bunches'' are caused. Various defects are formed under this growth condition, which is assumed to result from the incongruence between the steps generated by different sources. A new kind of 2D defect, corresponding to one growth layer in height, was observed for the first time. (orig.)

  17. Thermophysical properties of binary mixtures of {l_brace}ionic liquid 2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate + (water, methanol, or ethanol){r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Victor H. [School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), P.O. Box 6066, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Chemical Engineering Department, ETSE, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), P.O. Box 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Mattedi, Silvana [Chemical Engineering Department, Polytechnic School, Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), 40210-630 Salvador-BA (Brazil); Martin-Pastor, Manuel [Unidade de Resonancia Magnetica, RIAIDT, edif. CACTUS, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), P.O. Box 15706, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Aznar, Martin [School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), P.O. Box 6066, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Iglesias, Miguel, E-mail: miguel.iglesias@usc.es [Chemical Engineering Department, ETSE, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), P.O. Box 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Research highlights: > This paper reports the density and speed of sound data of binary mixtures {l_brace}2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate + (water, or methanol, or ethanol){r_brace} measured between the temperatures (298.15 and 313.15) K at atmospheric pressure. > The aggregation, dynamic behavior, and hydrogen-bond network were studied using thermo-acoustic, X-ray, and NMR techniques. > The Peng-Robinson equation of state, coupled with the Wong-Sandler mixing rule using the COSMO-SAC model predicted the density of the solutions with relative mean deviations below than 3.0%. - Abstract: In this work, density and speed of sound data of binary mixtures of an ionic liquid consisting of {l_brace}2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate (2-HEAA) + (water, methanol, or ethanol){r_brace} have been measured throughout the entire concentration range, from the temperature of (288.15 to 323.15) K at atmospheric pressure. The excess molar volumes, variations of the isentropic compressibility, the apparent molar volume, isentropic apparent molar compressibility, and thermal expansion coefficient were calculated from the experimental data. The excess molar volumes were negative throughout the whole composition range. Compressibility data in combination with low angle X-ray scattering and NMR measurements proved that the presence of micelles formed due to ion pair interaction above a critical concentration of the ionic liquid in the mixtures. The Peng-Robinson equation of state coupled with the Wong-Sandler mixing rule and COSMO-SAC model was used to predict densities and the calculated deviations were lower than 3%, for binary mixtures in all composition range.

  18. "Brace Technology" Thematic Series - The Lyon approach to the conservative treatment of scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lecante Cyril

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Lyon Brace, or adjustable multi-shell brace, has been used for more than 60 years. The use and function of the Lyon Brace includes: - The utilization of one or two corrective plaster casts, which enables a true lengthening of the concave ligaments. - An oriented CAD-CAM moulding in 3D auto correction after the removal of the plaster cast. - A blueprint adapted to Lenke's classification. - A specific physiotherapy program. Background Pierre Stagnara created the Lyon Brace in 1947. The brace has the following characteristics: - It adjusts to allow for a child's growth of up to seven centimetres and for an increase in weight of up to seven kilograms. - It is 'active' in that the rigidity of the PMM (polymetacrylate of methyl structure stimulates the user to auto-correct. The active axial auto-correction decreases the pressures of the brace on the trunk. - It is decompressive in that the effect of extension between the two pelvic and scapular girdles decreases the pressure on the intervertebral disc allowing for more effective pushes in the other planes. - It is symmetrical making it both more aesthetically pleasing and easier to build. - It is stable at both shoulders and pelvic girdle, facilitating the intermediate 3D corrections. - It is transparent. The pressure of the shells on the skin can be directly controlled so "pads" are usually not necessary. Brace description Two metal bars are fixed vertically, one anterior the other posterior and all shells are attached from the bottom to the top in this order: - Two pelvic shells ensure an optimal stability of the brace. - One lumbar shell T12-L4, which can be either independent or extending, at the abdominal chondrocostal level. - One thoracic shell at the level of the thoracic convexity. - One opposite thoracic shell used as a counter push. - One shoulder balance shell on the side of the thoracic convexity. Long term follow up results This is a retrospective study of 1,338 completed

  19. Isolated ulnar shaft fractures. Comparison of treatment by a functional brace and long-arm cast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Hölmich, P; Orsnes, T; Soelberg, M; Krasheninnikoff, Michael; Kjersgaard, A G

    1992-01-01

    In a prospective study, we randomly allocated 39 patients with isolated fractures of the lower two-thirds of the ulnar shaft to treatment either by a prefabricated functional brace or a long-arm cast. Significantly better wrist function and a higher percentage of satisfied patients were found in...

  20. A Conceptual Design and Structural Analysis for ITER Mid-plane Brace Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ITER, International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, Tokamak machine is mainly composed of 9 vacuum vessel (VV)/toroidal field coils (TFCs)/vacuum vessel thermal shields (VVTS) 40 .deg. sectors. Each VV/TFCs/VVTS 40 .deg. sector is made up of one 40 .deg. VV, two 20 .deg. TFCs and associated VVTS segments. The ITER Tokamak assembly tools are purpose-built tools to assemble the ITER Tokamak machine which includes the cryostat and the components contained therein. Based on the design description document prepared by the IO (ITER international organization), Korea has carried out the conceptual design of assembly tools with IO cooperation. The 40 .deg. sector assemblies attached mid-plane brace tools sub-assembled at assembly hall are transferred to Tokamak hall using the lifting tool operated by Tokamak main cranes. The sector sub-assembly tools are composed of the upending tool, the sector sub-assembly tool, the sector lifting tool and the vacuum vessel support and mid-plane brace tools. The mid-plane brace tool is assembled to inner surface of VV and TFCs in phase of sector sub-assembly after completion of all sector components. VV, TFC and VVTS are separated fully before completion of 9 sectors at Tokamak in-pit. In this paper the mid-plane brace tools is introduced about function, structure and status of research and development are also described

  1. Ankle Bracing, Plantar-Flexion Angle, and Ankle Muscle Latencies During Inversion Stress in Healthy Participants

    OpenAIRE

    Kernozek, Thomas; Durall, Christopher J; Friske, Allison; Mussallem, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Context: Ankle braces may enhance ankle joint proprioception, which in turn may affect reflexive ankle muscle activity during a perturbation. Despite the common occurrence of plantar-flexion inversion ankle injuries, authors of previous studies of ankle muscle latencies have focused on inversion stresses only.

  2. Detailed analysis of the segregation driving forces for Ni(Ag) and Ag(Ni) in the {sigma}=11 {l_brace}1 1 3{r_brace} and {sigma}=11 {l_brace}3 3 2{r_brace} grain boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezzar, B.; Khalfallah, O.; Larere, A.; Paidar, V.; Hardouin Duparc, O

    2004-05-17

    The behaviour with respect to segregation is studied for two qualitatively different symmetrical tilt grain boundaries (GBs): a low energy boundary with mirror-symmetric structure on the {l_brace}1 1 3{r_brace} plane and the high energy {l_brace}3 3 2{r_brace} GB with a 'zigzag' structural pattern. These two structures have been confirmed by high resolution transmission electronic microscopy observations in nickel. Intergranular segregation is studied in the limit of infinitely diluted solution for Ni(Ag) and Ag(Ni) systems modelled with Finnis-Sinclair like potentials. The atomic sites are characterized by a geometrical parameter defined by their exact Voronoy volumes and the pressure locally exerted. The segregation energies and driving forces are compared with these parameters in order to characterize a segregation 'susceptibility' of intergranular atomic sites. The size effect calculated by the method of virtual impurity represents the main segregation driving force for the considered systems.

  3. Correction effects of the ScoliOlogiC® „Chêneau light" brace in patients with scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Carola

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different bracing concepts are used today for the treatment of scoliosis. The plaster cast method worldwide seems to be the most practiced technique at the moment. CAD (Computer Aided Design systems are on the market which allow brace adjustments without plaster. The latest development however, is the use of the ScoliOlogiC™ off the shelf system enabling the orthopaedic technician to construct a light brace for scoliosis correction from a variety of pattern specific shells to be connected to an anterior and a posterior upright. This „Chêneau light" brace, developed according to the Chêneau principle, promises a reduced impediment of quality of life in the brace. However, material reduction should not result in reduced effectiveness. Therefore the primary correction effect in the „Chêneau light" brace has been evaluated and compared with that of other braces used today. Methods The correction effects of the first 81 patients (main diagnosis Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS [n = 64] or Early Onset Scoliosis (EOS [n = 15], treated according to the principle of the „Chêneau light" brace were evaluated after an average treatment time of 6 weeks by a full-body X-ray made in the standing position whilst wearing the brace and compared with the last X-ray before bracing. The average curvature angle of the whole group was 35,6°, the average age was 12,9 years (SD 1,9, average Risser sign was 1,3 (SD 1,5, average Tanner rating 2,75 (SD 0,7. Results The Cobb angle in the whole group was reduced by an average of 16,4°, which corresponds to a correction effect of 51%. The differences were highly significant in the T-test (T = 17,4; p Conclusion The use of the „Chêneau light" brace leads to correction effects above average when compared to the correction effects of other braces described in literature. The reduction of material seems to affect the desired correction in a positive way.

  4. Application of orientation imaging to the study of substructural development in cold deformed Al-0.3%Mn single crystal of {l_brace}110{r_brace}<112> orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, H; Miszczyk, M [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, ul. Reymonta 25, PL-30059 Krakow (Poland); Maurice, C; Driver, J H, E-mail: nmpaul@imim-pan.krakow.pl [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint Etienne, Centre SMS, 158 Cours Fauriel, FR-42023 Saint Etienne (France)

    2010-02-15

    A systematic study of the deformation microstructures over 3 perpendicular surfaces was carried out in the present work in order to correlate better the substructure with slip patterns, initial and final crystal orientation, and the macroscopic coordinate system. The microstructure and texture evolution of high purity Al-0.3 wt% Mn alloy of initial near brass {l_brace}110{r_brace}<112> (or Bs) orientation, channel-die compressed to the strain level of 1.5, were studied by TEM (including TEM orientation mapping) and high-resolution FEG-SEM/EBSD techniques to observe crystal subdivision deformation patterns at the microscopic scale. The grain orientation dependent structures were analyzed in terms of active slip systems focussing on the crystallography of extended planar boundaries. It was concluded that the type of dislocation structure (one or two sets of microbands) in {l_brace}110{r_brace}<112> oriented crystallites, at moderate strains (< 1.5) depended strongly on the crystallographic grain orientation. In this non-ideal initial crystal orientation the applied deformation mode activates a double slip, of which one system predominates and leads to further rotation away from Bs. A general rotation combined with a wide orientation spread is observed after a strain up to 1.5. The microband boundary alignment corresponds very well to the traces of crystallographic {l_brace}111{r_brace} planes, on which most of the slip occurs.

  5. Two Cases of Eating Disorders in Adolescents with Dental Braces Fitted Prior to the Onset of Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Sung-Wan; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment typically occurs during early childhood and adolescence but the wearing of dental braces is often associated with sudden changes in eating patterns that prolong treatment into the teenage years. Despite these changes, psychological assessments related to eating disorders during the course of orthodontic treatment are often ignored. Based on the findings of the present case report, it is suggested that adolescent patients who wear braces and exhibit severe weight loss sho...

  6. The immediate effect of a Boston brace on lung volumes and pulmonary compliance in mild adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Katsaris, G.; Loukos, A.; Valavanis, J.; Vassiliou, M.; Behrakis, P. K.

    1999-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is known to result in lung volume and pulmonary compliance reduction. Boston brace treatment of IS is an additional factor causing restrictive respiratory syndrome due to external chest wall compression. Nevertheless, the immediate effect of Boston bracing on the pulmonary compliance of scoliotic patients has not been studied systematically. Spirometric and plethysmographic lung volumes, static lung compliance (CST(L)) and specific lung compliance (CST(L)/functional ...

  7. Non-slender RC Columns Limits for Braced, End-loaded Members

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Structural frame systems may be analyzed and designed based on forces from conventional first order theory when second order effects of axial forces on displacements in the compression members of the system are negligible. This is often the case. Extensive nonlinear analysis results are presented to document slenderness limits below which this is so for braced, end moment loaded compression members with various end restraints. Major factors that affect lower slenderness limit predictions of s...

  8. Structural Optimization and Design of a Strut-Braced Wing Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Naghshineh-Pour, Amir H.

    1998-01-01

    A significant improvement can be achieved in the performance of transonic transport aircraft using Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) by implementing truss-braced wing concepts in combination with other advanced technologies and novel design innovations. A considerable reduction in drag can be obtained by using a high aspect ratio wing with thin airfoil sections and tip-mounted engines. However, such wing structures could suffer from a significant weight penalty. Thus, the use of an ...

  9. Joint investigation of the local material rotation and lattice spin in a cube {l_brace}100{r_brace} <001> oriented single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darrieulat, M; Fillit, R Y; Mondon, M; Sao-Joao, S, E-mail: darrieulat@emse.f [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, SMS Centre, UMR CNRS n0 5146, 158 cours Fauriel 42023 Saint-Etienne, cedex 2 (France)

    2010-07-01

    Cube {l_brace}100{r_brace} <001> oriented single crystals of Al 1% Mn were compressed in channel-die. Their lateral faces were covered with transferable carbon grids with a step of 100mm . At a deformation of about 0.3, the vertical bars of the grids show undulations whose characteristic length is of the order of the millimetre and which become sharper and smaller as the deformation proceeds. Fiducial golden grids with a step of 20 mm remain largely unaffected. This shows that the investigated heterogeneity is typical of the mesoscopic scale and has no directly related patterns at the macroscopic and microscopic level. Microfocussed X-rays were used to measure the crystallographic rotations during the process. The investigated spot was a few 0.1 mm{sup 2}. At a deformation of 0.6, the lateral faces of the crystal undergo a split into two Cube orientations each rotated of about 15{sup 0} around the transverse axis. This is put in relation with the undulations of the bars. At 0.9 an additional rotation around the longitudinal axis appears. The local material rotation and the lattice spin at the mesoscopic scale are interpreted in accordance with previous analyses of the evolution of the Cube texture based on EBSD and the observation of the traces of slip systems.

  10. Structure and mobility of the 1/2 <111>{l_brace}112{r_brace} edge dislocation in BCC iron studied by molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monnet, G. [EDF-R and D, MMC, Aveneue des Renardieres, 77818 Moret-sur Loing (France)], E-mail: ghiathmonnet@yahoo.fr; Terentyev, D. [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Material Science Institute, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2009-03-15

    In this paper, we carried out atomistic calculations to investigate in detail the core structure and motion mechanism of the 1/2 <111-bar>{l_brace}112{r_brace} edge dislocation in {alpha}-iron. First, molecular statics simulations are used to characterise the dislocation-core structure in the framework of the Peierls-Nabarro model. It is shown that the accommodation of the distortion due to the insertion of the extra half-planes is not equivalent in the planes above and below the dislocation slip plane and that the relative atomic-displacement profile in the dislocation-core region is asymmetrical. Then, molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the mechanism of the dislocation motion at different temperatures. At low temperature, the dislocation is found to move by nucleation and propagation of kink-pairs along its line. Independently of temperature, when loading is performed in the twinning direction, the critical stress is found to be lower than the one corresponding to the antitwinning loading direction.

  11. Developing an Accurate CFD Based Gust Model for the Truss Braced Wing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The increased flexibility of long endurance aircraft having high aspect ratio wings necessitates attention to gust response and perhaps the incorporation of gust load alleviation. The design of civil transport aircraft with a strut or truss-braced high aspect ratio wing furthermore requires gust response analysis in the transonic cruise range. This requirement motivates the use of high fidelity nonlinear computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for gust response analysis. This paper presents the development of a CFD based gust model for the truss braced wing aircraft. A sharp-edged gust provides the gust system identification. The result of the system identification is several thousand time steps of instantaneous pressure coefficients over the entire vehicle. This data is filtered and downsampled to provide the snapshot data set from which a reduced order model is developed. A stochastic singular value decomposition algorithm is used to obtain a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The POD model is combined with a convolution integral to predict the time varying pressure coefficient distribution due to a novel gust profile. Finally the unsteady surface pressure response of the truss braced wing vehicle to a one-minus-cosine gust, simulated using the reduced order model, is compared with the full CFD.

  12. Aeroelasticity of Axially Loaded Aerodynamic Structures for Truss-Braced Wing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Ting, Eric; Lebofsky, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an aeroelastic finite-element formulation for axially loaded aerodynamic structures. The presence of axial loading causes the bending and torsional sitffnesses to change. For aircraft with axially loaded structures such as the truss-braced wing aircraft, the aeroelastic behaviors of such structures are nonlinear and depend on the aerodynamic loading exerted on these structures. Under axial strain, a tensile force is created which can influence the stiffness of the overall aircraft structure. This tension stiffening is a geometric nonlinear effect that needs to be captured in aeroelastic analyses to better understand the behaviors of these types of aircraft structures. A frequency analysis of a rotating blade structure is performed to demonstrate the analytical method. A flutter analysis of a truss-braced wing aircraft is performed to analyze the effect of geometric nonlinear effect of tension stiffening on the flutter speed. The results show that the geometric nonlinear tension stiffening effect can have a significant impact on the flutter speed prediction. In general, increased wing loading results in an increase in the flutter speed. The study illustrates the importance of accounting for the geometric nonlinear tension stiffening effect in analyzing the truss-braced wing aircraft.

  13. Bracing superior to neuromuscular training for the prevention of self-reported recurrent ankle sprains: a three-arm randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Kasper W.; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert A L M

    2014-01-01

    Background Ankle sprain is the most common sports-related injury with a high rate of recurrence and associated costs. Recent studies have emphasised the effectiveness of both neuromuscular training and bracing for the secondary prevention of ankle sprains. Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of combined bracing and neuromuscular training, or bracing alone, against the use of neuromuscular training on recurrences of ankle sprain after usual care. Methods 384 athletes, aged 18–70, who had sustain...

  14. Treatment of chronic low back pain in patients with spinal deformities using a sagittal re-alignment brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Hans-Rudolf

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For adult scoliosis patients with chronic low back pain bracing is initially indicated before spinal surgery is considered. Until recently there has been a lack of research into the effect upon pain reductions in the mid and long-term. Promising results have been documented in short-term studies for the application of a sagittal re-alignment brace in patients with spinal deformities and along with pain; however mid-term and long-term results are not yet available. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mid-term effects of this brace with respect to pain control. Materials and methods 67 patients (58 females and 9 males with chronic low back pain (> 24 months and the diagnosis of scoliosis or hyperkyphosis were treated with a sagittal re-alignment brace (physio-logic brace™ between January 2006 and July 2007. The indication for this kind of brace treatment was derived from a positive sagittal re-alignment test (SRT and the exclusion of successful conservative treatment during the last 24 months. The aim of this type of conservative intervention was to avoid surgery for chronic low back pain. Results The average pain intensity was measured on the Roland and Morris VRS (5 steps before treatment. This was 3.3 (t1, at the time of brace adjustment it was 2.7 (t2 and after at an average observation time of 18 months it was 2.0 (t3. The differences were highly significant in the Wilcoxon test. Discussion Short-term measurements showed that a significant pain reduction is possible in chronic postural low back pain using a sagittal re-alignment brace inducing lumbar re-lordosation. In a preliminary report at adjustment (t2, highly significant improvements of pain intensity have also been demonstrated. At 6 months of treatment however, no improvement was measured. The improvement of the mid-term effects (18 months found in this study compared to the preliminary report may be due to the changed approach to compliance: whilst

  15. Do ankle braces provide similar effects on ankle biomechanical variables in subjects with and without chronic ankle instability during landing?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Songning; Zhang; Michael; Wortley; Julia; Freedman; Silvernail; Daniel; Carson; Maxime; R.Paquette

    2012-01-01

    <正>Purpose:The purpose of this study was to examine effects of a sport version of a semi-rigid ankle brace(ElementTM) and a soft ankle brace (ASO) on ankle biomechanics and ground reaction forces(GRFs) during a drop landing activity in subjects with chronic ankle instability(CAD compared to healthy subjects with no history of CAI. Methods:Ten healthy subjects and 10 subjects who had multiple ankle sprains participated in the study as the control and unstable subjects, respectively.The CAI subjects were age,body mass index and gender matched with the control subjects.The arch index and ankle functions of the subjects were measured in a subject screening session.During the biomechanical test session,participants performed five trials of drop landing from 0.6 m,wearing no brace(NB).Element? brace and ASO brace.Simultaneous recording of three-dimensional kinematic(240 Hz) and GRF(1200 Hz) data were performed. Results:The CAI subjects had lower ankle functional survey scores.The arch index and deformity results showed greater arch deformity of ElementTM against a static load than in NB and ASO due to greater initial arch position held by the brace.CAI participants had greater eversion velocity than healthy controls.The ASO brace reduced the first peak vertical GRF whereas ElementTM increased 2nd peak vertical GRF. ElementTMbrace reduced eversion range of motion(ROM) and peak eversion velocity compared to NB and ASO.In addition,ElementTM reduced dorsiflexion ROM and increased peak plantarflexion moment compared to NB and ASO. Conclusion:Results of static arch measurements and dynamic ankle motion suggest that the restrictions offered by both braces are in part due to more dorsiflexed ankle positions at contact,and higher initial arch position and stiffer ankle for ElementTM.

  16. Fluoroscopic Analysis of Tibial Translation in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injured Knees With and Without Bracing During Forward Lunge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite several studies with different methods, the effect of functional knee braces on knee joint kinematics is not clear. Direct visualization of joint components through medical imaging modalities may provide the clinicians with more useful information. Objectives In this study, for the first time in the literature, video fluoroscopy was used to investigate the effect of knee bracing on the sagittal plane kinematics of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injured patients. Patients and Methods For twelve male unilateral ACL deficient subjects, the anterior tibial translation was measured during lunge exercise in non-braced and braced conditions. Fluoroscopic images were acquired from the subjects using a digital fluoroscopy system with a rate of 10 fps. The image of each frame was scaled using a calibration coin and analyzed in AutoCAD environment. The angle between the two lines, tangent to the posterior cortexes of the femoral and tibial shafts was measured as the flexion angle. For the fluoroscopic images associated with 0°, 15°, 30°, 45° and 60° knee flexion angles, the relative anterior-posterior configuration of the tibiofemoral joint was assessed by measuring the position of landmarks on the tibia and femur. Results Results indicated that the overall anterior translations of the tibia during the eccentric (down and concentric (up phases of lunge exercise were 10.4 ± 1.7 mm and 9.0 ± 2.2 mm for non-braced, and 10.1 ± 3.4 mm and 7.4 ± 2.5 mm, for braced conditions, respectively. The difference of the tibial anterior-posterior translation behaviors of the braced and non-braced knees was not statistically significant. Conclusion Fluoroscopic imaging provides an effective tool to measure the dynamic behavior of the knee joint in the sagittal plane and within the limitations of this study, the pure mechanical stabilizing effect of functional knee bracing is not sufficient to control the anterior tibial translation of the ACL

  17. Effect of Semi-Rigid and Soft Ankle Braces on Static and Dynamic Postural Stability in Young Male Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Noriaki; Urabe, Yukio; Tsutsumi, Shogo; Numano, Shuhei; Morita, Miho; Takeuchi, Takuya; Iwata, Shou; Kobayashi, Toshiki

    2016-06-01

    Ankle braces have been suggested to protect ankle joints from a sprain by restricting inversion and improving proprioception. However, the difference in effects between a semi-rigid brace and a soft brace regarding dynamic postural control after landing is not known. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of soft (SB) and semi-rigid (SRB) ankle braces on static and dynamic postural stability in healthy young men. Altogether, 21 male adults (mean age 24.0 ± 1.5 years) were assessed for one leg while wearing non-brace (NB), SB or SRB. Balance in single-limb stance on a single-force platform with open eyes and closed eyes were assessed for the non-dominant leg under SB, SRB, and NB conditions. Locus length/second (mm/s) and the enveloped area (mm·s(-2)) surrounded by the circumference of the wave pattern during postural sway were calculated. For assessing dynamic postural stability, the participant jumped and landed on one leg on a force platform, and the Dynamic Postural Stability Index (DPSI) and the maximum vertical ground reaction force (vGRFmax) were measured. The data were compared among the three conditions with repeated-measures analysis of variance. The correlations between locus length/second, enveloped area, DPSI values (DPSI, Anterior-Posterior Stability Index, Medial-Lateral Stability Index, and Vertical Stability Index), and vGRFmax were then calculated. The results indicated that locus length/second and enveloped area with open eyes and closed eyes were not significantly different for each condition. However, a significant lower in the DPSI and Vertical Stability Index were observed with the SRB in comparison to the SB and NB. A significant improvement in vGRFmax was also observed with the SRB in comparison to NB. SRB demonstrated a positive effect on dynamic postural stability after landing on a single leg and may improve balance by increasing dynamic postural stability. Key pointsThis study examined the effect of ankle braces on

  18. Characterising the effect of global and local geometric imperfections on the numerical performance of a brace member

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M. S.; Goggins, J.; Salawdeh, S.

    2015-07-01

    A numerical imperfection study is carried out on a hot rolled tubular brace member under displacement controlled amplitudes. An appropriate range of global and local imperfections is used in the finite element analyses to evaluate the initial-post buckling compressive strength, lateral storey drift, energy dissipation and mid-length lateral deformation of the brace member. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of the geometrical imperfection on the numerical performance, and to determine an amplitude range that can be used unequivocally for numerical modelling of brace members. It is shown that the amplitude of global imperfections has an effect on the initial response, whereas the amplitude of local imperfections has influence on the resistance capacity of the brace member at higher ductility level. Based on the results, a refined range of amplitude of global and local imperfections is proposed. This range is found to have a good agreement with design standards. In addition, an already established equation to find lateral deformation is compared to results from the analyses and found that the equation with some modification can be used accurately in design. In this paper, a modification factor is proposed in the equation to find the lateral deformation to account for the imperfection amplitude in the numerical analyses of brace members.

  19. Assessment of buckling-restrained braced frame reliability using an experimental limit-state model and stochastic dynamic analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Blake M. Andrews; Junho Song; Larry A. Fahnestock

    2009-01-01

    Buckling-restrained braces (BRBs) have recently become popular in the United :States for use as primary members of seismic lateral-force-resisting systems. A BRB is a steel brace that does not buckle in compression but instead yields in both tension and compression. Although design guidelines for BRB applications have been developed, systematic procedures for assessing performance and quantifying reliability are still needed. This paper presents an analytical framework for assessing buckling-restrained braced frame (BRBF) reliability when subjected to seismic loads. This framework efficiently quantifies the risk of BRB failure due to low-cycle fatigue fracture of the BRB core. The procedure includes a series of components that: (1) quantify BRB demand in terms of BRB core deformation histories generated through stochastic dynamic analyses; (2) quantify the limit-state of a BRB in terms of its remaining cumulative plastic ductility capacity based on an experimental database; and (3) evaluate the probability of BRB failure, given the quantified demand and capacity, through structural reliability analyses. Parametric studies were conducted to investigate the effects of the seismic load, and characteristics of the BRB and BRBF on the probability of brace failure. In addition, fragility curves (i.e., conditional probabilities of brace failure given ground shaking intensity parameters) were created by the proposed framework. While the framework presented in this paper is applied to the assessment of BRBFs, the modular nature of the framework components allows for application to other structural components and systems.

  20. Analysis of Anchors and Bracing Configurations for Personal Fall Arrest Systems in Residential Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Justin Collins

    2013-01-01

    AbstractAnalysis of Anchors and Bracing Configurations with Personal Fall Arrest Systems in Residential ConstructionJustin Collins Morris    Falls continue to be a major problem in the residential construction industry and account for a large number of injuries and fatalities each year (US Department of Labor, 2012).  The effects of a fall are catastrophic to the workers and their families as well as the construction company and surrounding community.  Prevention of these incidents has been t...

  1. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Harald

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have evaluated long-term outcome after bracing using validated health related quality of life outcome measures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term outcome in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS 12 years or more after treatment with the Boston brace. Methods 109 (80% of 135 patients (7 men with AIS treated with the Boston brace at a mean of 19.2 (range 12–28 years previously responded to long-term follow-up examination. All patients (n = 109 answered a standardised questionnaire including demographics, work status, treatment, Global Back Disability Question, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI (100-worst possible, General Function Score (GFS (100 – worst possible, EuroQol (EQ-5D (1 – best possible, EQ-VAS (100 – best possible and Scoliosis Research Society -22 (SRS – 22 (5 – best possible. Clinical and radiological examination was obtained in 86 patients. Results The magnitude of the primary prebrace major curve was in average 33.4° (range 20 – 52. At weaning and at the last follow-up the corresponding values were 28.3° (9–56 and 34.2° (8 – 87, respectively. The mean age at follow-up was 35 (27 – 46 years. Work status was: full time (80%, on sick-leave (3%, on rehabilitation (4%, disability pension (4%, homemaker (7%, students (2%, 7% had changed their job because of back pain. 88% had had delivered a baby, 55% of them had pain in pregnancy. Global back status was excellent or good in 81%. The mean (standard deviation ODI was 6.4 (9.8, GFS 5.4 (10.5, EQ-5D 0.84 (0.2, SRS-22: pain 4.2 (0.8, mental health 4.2 (0.7, self-image 3.9 (0.7, function 4.1 (0.6, satisfaction with treatment 3.7 (1.0. 28% had taken physiotherapy for back pain the last year and 12% had visited a doctor. Conclusion Long-term results were satisfactory in most patients with AIS treated with the Boston brace.

  2. Effect of Compressive Force on Aeroelastic Stability of a Strut-Braced Wing

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaeman, Erwin

    2001-01-01

    Recent investigations of a strut-braced wing (SBW) aircraft show that, at high positive load factors, a large tensile force in the strut leads to a considerable compressive axial force in the inner wing, resulting in a reduced bending stiffness and even buckling of the wing. Studying the influence of this compressive force on the structural response of SBW is thus of paramount importance in the early stage of SBW design. The purpose of the this research is to investigate the effect of co...

  3. Effect of hot and cold deformation on the P {l_brace}0 1 1{r_brace}<4 5 5> recrystallization texture in a continuous cast Al-Mn-Mg aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.C. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, 177 Anderson Hall, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)]. E-mail: wcliu@engr.uky.edu; Morris, J.G. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, 177 Anderson Hall, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    The effect of different relative amounts of hot and cold deformation on the P {l_brace}0 1 1{r_brace}<4 5 5> recrystallization texture in a continuous cast Al-Mn-Mg aluminum alloy was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The results show that at a given total rolling strain the sheet with a high hot rolling strain exhibits a significantly stronger P texture than sheet with a low hot rolling strain. Hot deformation strongly promotes the formation of the P texture during recrystallization annealing.

  4. The B-Lynch uterine brace suture, and a bit of this and a bit of that...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoshi, Mahantesh

    2010-03-01

    The widespread application of the B-Lynch brace suture to control postpartum hemorrhage has sparked interest in a variety of adjunctive methods, used alone or in combination, to control uterine bleeding. Although the B-Lynch brace suture has been used with good results throughout the world, failures can and do occur in rare instances, especially when the suture is incorrectly placed for use for an inappropriate indication. Four reports of additional methods to control postpartum hemorrhage are published in this issue of IJGO. Three use the B-Lynch brace suture combined with other techniques. The need for additional techniques reminds the reader of the importance of proper suture application for proper indication. Potential reasons for failure of the B-Lynch suture are provided. PMID:20070962

  5. Changes in the carpal tunnel while wearing the Manu® soft hand brace: a sonographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manente, G; Melchionda, D; Staniscia, T; D'Archivio, C; Mazzone, V; Macarini, L

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effect of the Manu(®) soft hand brace, which has been designed to relieve median nerve entrapment in carpal tunnel syndrome. An observational, controlled study was conducted in 10 participants, five with bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome and five controls, using sonography to study changes in the dimensions of the carpal tunnel before and while wearing the brace. An increase in transverse diameter, thinning of the flexor retinaculum, and displacement of the proximal insertion of the lumbrical muscle to the middle finger from the edge of the carpal tunnel were observed in patients while wearing the brace. The changes in the morphology of the carpal tunnel while wearing the Manu(®) support its use as an alternative to a night wrist splint. PMID:22640934

  6. Effects of soft bracing or taping on a lateral ankle sprain : a non-randomised controlled trial evaluating recurrence rates and residual symptoms at one year

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemler, Ellen; van de Port, Ingrid; Schmikli, Sandor; Huisstede, Bionka; Hoes, Arno; Backx, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background: After sustaining an ankle sprain, taping is often the standard treatment in primary care. Ankle braces are sometimes used as an alternative. This study aimed to compare the effects of four weeks of soft bracing or taping following acute lateral ankle ligamentous sprain (ALALS) on sprain

  7. SUPER-CAPACITOR APPLICATION IN ELECTRICAL POWER CABLE TESTING FACILITIES IN THERMAL ENDURANCE AND MECHANICAL BRACING TESTS

    OpenAIRE

    I. V. Oleksyuk

    2015-01-01

    The current-carrying cores of the electrical power cables should be resistant to effects of short-circuit currents whose values depend on the material of the core, its cross-sectional area, cable insulation properties, environment temperature, and the duration of the short-circuit current flow (1 and 3–4 sec. when tested for thermal endurance and mechanical bracing). The facilities for testing the 10 kV aluminum core cables with short-circuit current shall provide mechanical-bracing current 5...

  8. Two Cases of Eating Disorders in Adolescents with Dental Braces Fitted Prior to the Onset of Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment typically occurs during early childhood and adolescence but the wearing of dental braces is often associated with sudden changes in eating patterns that prolong treatment into the teenage years. Despite these changes, psychological assessments related to eating disorders during the course of orthodontic treatment are often ignored. Based on the findings of the present case report, it is suggested that adolescent patients who wear braces and exhibit severe weight loss should be carefully monitored for psychiatric problems, including eating disorders. PMID:26207138

  9. Two Cases of Eating Disorders in Adolescents with Dental Braces Fitted Prior to the Onset of Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Sung-Wan; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2015-07-01

    Orthodontic treatment typically occurs during early childhood and adolescence but the wearing of dental braces is often associated with sudden changes in eating patterns that prolong treatment into the teenage years. Despite these changes, psychological assessments related to eating disorders during the course of orthodontic treatment are often ignored. Based on the findings of the present case report, it is suggested that adolescent patients who wear braces and exhibit severe weight loss should be carefully monitored for psychiatric problems, including eating disorders. PMID:26207138

  10. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in late-onset juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gunderson Ragnhild; Steen Harald; Lange Johan; Brox Jens

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background It is recommended that research in patients with idiopathic scoliosis should focus on short- and long-term patient-centred outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate outcome in patients with late-onset juvenile or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis 16 years or more after Boston brace treatment. Methods 272 (78%) of 360 patients, 251 (92%) women, responded to follow-up examination at a mean of 24.7 (range 16 - 32) years after Boston brace treatment. Fifty-eight (21%...

  11. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in late-onset juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Johan Emil; Steen, Harald; Gunderson, Ragnhild; Brox, Jens Ivar

    2011-01-01

    Background It is recommended that research in patients with idiopathic scoliosis should focus on short- and long-term patient-centred outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate outcome in patients with late-onset juvenile or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis 16 years or more after Boston brace treatment. Methods 272 (78%) of 360 patients, 251 (92%) women, responded to follow-up examination at a mean of 24.7 (range 16 - 32) years after Boston brace treatment. Fifty-eight (21%) patient...

  12. Outcome in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis after brace treatment and surgery assessed by means of the Scoliosis Research Society Instrument 24

    OpenAIRE

    Weigert, Karen Petra; Nygaard, Linda Marie; Christensen, Finn Bjarke; Hansen, Ebbe Stender; Bünger, Cody

    2005-01-01

    A retrospectively designed long-term follow-up study of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients who had completed treatment, of at least 2 years, by means of brace, surgery, or both brace and surgery. This study is to assess the outcome after treatment for AIS by means of the Scoliosis Research Society Outcome Instrument 24 (SRS 24). One hundred and eighteen AIS patients (99 females and 19 males), treated at the Aarhus University Hospital from January 1, 1987 to December 31, 1997, were...

  13. Design and analysis of eccentrically braced steel frames with vertical links using shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, the philosophy behind traditional methods by which structures were designed to withstand natural disasters has gone through major changes. Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are characterized by their superelastic behavior, which enables them to recover their original shape after experiencing large deformations. This characteristic provides an ideal reversibility capacity that can be used in the passive control of buildings exposed to earthquakes. This article has attempted to identify the effects of changing the hysteretic characteristics of SMA materials when they are used as passive control systems in eccentric bracing frames. By evaluating the numerical analysis results obtained from the modeling of an experimental sample and the modeling of the proposed EBF system, the accuracy of the above-stated notion was confirmed. Moreover, the results that pertain to the nonlinear pushover analysis, time-history dynamic analysis and seismic damage analysis of eccentric steel bracing frames of 4-, 9- and 14-story structures indicate that the use of SMA superelastic materials, in addition to effectively improving their ductility, stiffness and lateral strength, provides an excellent reversibility capacity, which considerably reduces both the maximum relative displacement and the residual deformation in the structure. (papers)

  14. Design, testing and control of a magnetorheological actuator for assistive knee braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. Z.; Liao, W. H.

    2010-03-01

    This paper is aimed at developing a smart actuator for assistive knee braces to provide assistance to disabled or elderly people with mobility problems. A magnetorheological (MR) actuator is developed to be used in assistive knee braces to provide controllable torque. The MR actuator can work as a brake or a clutch. When active torque is needed, the DC motor works and the MR actuator functions as a clutch to transfer the torque generated by the motor to the leg; when passive torque is desired, the DC motor is turned off and the MR actuator functions as a brake to provide controllable passive torque. The prototype of the developed MR actuator is fabricated and experiments are carried out to investigate the characteristics of the MR actuator. The results show that the MR actuator is able to provide sufficient torque needed for normal human activities. Adaptive control is proposed for controlling the MR actuator. Anti-windup strategy is used to achieve better control performance. Experiments on the MR actuator under control are also performed to study the torque tracking ability of the system.

  15. Design, testing and control of a magnetorheological actuator for assistive knee braces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is aimed at developing a smart actuator for assistive knee braces to provide assistance to disabled or elderly people with mobility problems. A magnetorheological (MR) actuator is developed to be used in assistive knee braces to provide controllable torque. The MR actuator can work as a brake or a clutch. When active torque is needed, the DC motor works and the MR actuator functions as a clutch to transfer the torque generated by the motor to the leg; when passive torque is desired, the DC motor is turned off and the MR actuator functions as a brake to provide controllable passive torque. The prototype of the developed MR actuator is fabricated and experiments are carried out to investigate the characteristics of the MR actuator. The results show that the MR actuator is able to provide sufficient torque needed for normal human activities. Adaptive control is proposed for controlling the MR actuator. Anti-windup strategy is used to achieve better control performance. Experiments on the MR actuator under control are also performed to study the torque tracking ability of the system

  16. Numerical analysis of effect of friction between diaphragm wall and soil on braced excavation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁钰; 郑刚

    2008-01-01

    A plane strain finite element model was established to investigate the effect of friction between diaphragm wall and soil on braced excavation. The behavior of interface between diaphragm wall and soil was simulated with the interface model of ABAQUS. Parametric studies were conducted with different diaphragm wall external friction angles δ. The results show that deflection of diaphragm wall and ground surface settlement decrease with the decrease of δ. However, the reduction effect on diaphragm wall deflection is the most significant at the depth where the maximum wall deflection occurs and can be neglected at the wall base. The ratio between wall deep inward component and wall cantilever component reaches its peak value 2.7 when δ=5°. The ratio of the maximum ground surface settlement to the maximum wall lateral deflection decreases at a reduced rate with the increase of δ. For excavation with braced diaphragm wall, the effect of friction between diaphragm and soil on the deflection of diaphragm wall and ground settlement, especially the distribution of ground surface settlement behind diaphragm, should be taken into account.

  17. Designing Serious Games for Safety Education: "Learn to Brace" versus Traditional Pictorials for Aircraft Passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittaro, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Serious games for safety education (SGSE) are a novel tool for preparing people to prevent and\\or handle risky situations. Although several SGSE have been developed, design and evaluation methods for SGSE need to be better grounded in and guided by safety-relevant psychological theories. In particular, this paper focuses on threat appeals and the assessment of variables, such as safety locus of control, that influence human behavior in real risky situations. It illustrates how we took into account such models in the design and evaluation of "Learn to Brace", a first-of-its-kind serious game that deals with a major problem in aviation safety, i.e. the scarce effectiveness of the safety cards used by airlines. The study considered a sample of 48 users: half of them received instructions about the brace position through the serious game, the other half through a traditional safety card pictorial. Results showed that the serious game was much more effective than the traditional instructions both in terms of learning and of changing safety-relevant perceptions, especially safety locus of control and recommendation perception. PMID:27045909

  18. Bracing system of the reflecting sheets making up an insulating pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce heat and radiation losses, the body of nuclear reactors and the connected pipe work are encased in reflecting and insulating piles of thin spaced sheets of aluminium or stainless steel. These spaced sheets are then encased in thicker and more solid internal and external shells. The piles and shells are generally shaped to follow the contour of the reactor and connected piping. It is therefore necessary to have available a study bracing system to keep the pile intact during the various handling and assembly operations. The fastening system must also exert an effect on the edge of the pile to prevent the sheets making it up from shifting in relation to each other. The description is given of a fastening system that includes an oblong section to be fitted along the edges of the piles up sheets; bracing substantially perpendicular to the oblong section, to space the sheets of the stack in pairs; and a maintaining system, normally perpendicular to the oblong section, to enable the fastener to be clipped to the edge of the sheets by bending it around the edge of each sheet of the pile

  19. The Differential Effects of Exercise,Brace and Combined Rehabilitation Treatment in Patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis%The Differential Effects of Exercise, Brace and Combined Rehabilitation Treatment in Patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Qing; ZHOU Xuan; LI Jianan; ZHAO Li; TAO Quan; CHEN Ting; CHEN Peijie

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To compare the effects of different conservative managements on patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).Method:One hundred and four AIS patients were recruited for this study.The patients were divided into 3groups:exercise (E group),brace (B group) and combined rehabilitation treatment (brace treatment combined with exercise,CR group).Radiological parameter were used to assess AIS patients before and after treatment.The Chinese version of scoliosis research society-22(SRS-22) patient questionnaires were filled out by patients after treatment.The SRS-22 scores were compared among management groups.Result:The maximal Cobb angles were smaller in E group than in B group or CR group both before and after treatment.The maximal Cobb angles were significantly smaller after treatment than before treatment in B group and CR group.Function/activity was better in E group than in B group or CR group.Self-image/appearance and satisfaction with management were better in E group and CR group than in B group.There was no significant difference among treatment groups in pain and mental health.Conclusion:Both brace and combined rehabilitation treatment can reduce the spinal curve of AIS patients.Both exercise and combined rehabilitation treatment have positive influence on self-image/appearance and satisfaction with management.We support preference of combined rehabilitation treatment above brace treatment.

  20. 'SOSORT consensus paper on brace action: TLSO biomechanics of correction (investigating the rationale for force vector selection'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruyama T

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of orthotic treatment continues to be controversial in international medical literature due to differences in the reported results and conclusions of various studies. Heterogeneity of the samples has been suggested as a reason for conflicting results. Besides the obvious theoretical differences between the brace concepts, the variability in the technical factors can also explain the contradictory results between same brace types. This paper will investigate the degree of variability among responses of scoliosis specialists from the Brace Study Ground of the International Society on Scoliosis Orthopedic and Rehabilitation Treatment SOSORT. Ultimately, this information could be a foundation for establishing a consensus and framework for future prospective controlled studies. Methods A preliminary questionnaire on the topic of 'brace action' relative to the theory of three-dimensional scoliosis correction and brace treatment was developed and circulated to specialists interested in the conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A particular case was presented (main thoracic curve with minor lumbar. Several key points emerged and were used to develop a second questionnaire which was discussed and full filed after the SOSORT consensus meeting (Milano, Italy, January 2005. Results Twenty-one questionnaires were completed. The Chêneau brace was the most frequently recommended. The importance of the three point system mechanism was stressed. Options about proper pad placement on the thoracic convexity were divided 50% for the pad reaching or involving the apical vertebra and 50% for the pad acting caudal to the apical vertebra. There was agreement about the direction of the vector force, 85% selecting a 'dorso lateral to ventro medial' direction but about the shape of the pad to produce such a force. Principles related to three-dimensional correction achieved high consensus (80%–85%, but suggested

  1. Accounting for multiple sources of uncertainty in impact assessments: The example of the BRACE study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing climate change impacts often requires the use of multiple scenarios, types of models, and data sources, leading to a large number of potential sources of uncertainty. For example, a single study might require a choice of a forcing scenario, climate model, bias correction and/or downscaling method, societal development scenario, model (typically several) for quantifying elements of societal development such as economic and population growth, biophysical model (such as for crop yields or hydrology), and societal impact model (e.g. economic or health model). Some sources of uncertainty are reduced or eliminated by the framing of the question. For example, it may be useful to ask what an impact outcome would be conditional on a given societal development pathway, forcing scenario, or policy. However many sources of uncertainty remain, and it is rare for all or even most of these sources to be accounted for. I use the example of a recent integrated project on the Benefits of Reduced Anthropogenic Climate changE (BRACE) to explore useful approaches to uncertainty across multiple components of an impact assessment. BRACE comprises 23 papers that assess the differences in impacts between two alternative climate futures: those associated with Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5. It quantifies difference in impacts in terms of extreme events, health, agriculture, tropical cyclones, and sea level rise. Methodologically, it includes climate modeling, statistical analysis, integrated assessment modeling, and sector-specific impact modeling. It employs alternative scenarios of both radiative forcing and societal development, but generally uses a single climate model (CESM), partially accounting for climate uncertainty by drawing heavily on large initial condition ensembles. Strengths and weaknesses of the approach to uncertainty in BRACE are assessed. Options under consideration for improving the approach include the use of perturbed physics

  2. A comparison of the biomechanical effects of valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard K; Nester, Christopher J; Richards, Jim D; Kim, Winston Y; Johnson, David S; Jari, Sanjiv; Laxton, Philip; Tyson, Sarah F

    2013-03-01

    Increases in the external knee adduction moment (EKAM) have been associated with increased mechanical load at the knee and progression of knee osteoarthritis. Valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles are common approaches to reducing this loading; however no study has directly compared the biomechanical and clinical effects of these two treatments in patients with medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. A cross-over randomised design was used where each intervention was worn by 28 patients for a two week period. Pre- and post-intervention gait kinematic/kinetic data and clinical outcomes were collected to evaluate the biomechanical and clinical effects on the knee joint. The valgus knee brace and the lateral wedged insole significantly increased walking speed, reduced the early stance EKAM by 7% and 12%, and the knee adduction angular impulse by 8.6 and 16.1% respectively. The lateral wedged insole significantly reduced the early stance EKAM compared to the valgus knee brace (p=0.001). The valgus knee brace significantly reduced the knee varus angle compared to the baseline and lateral wedged insole. Improvements in pain and function subscales were comparable for the valgus knee brace and lateral wedged insole. There were no significant differences between the two treatments in any of the clinical outcomes; however the lateral wedged insoles demonstrated greater levels of acceptance by patients. This is the first study to biomechanically compare these two treatments, and demonstrates that given the potential role of knee loading in osteoarthritis progression, that both treatments reduce this but lateral wedge insoles appear to have a greater effect. PMID:22920242

  3. Elastic-plastic analyses for seismic reserve capacity in power plant braced frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory was asked by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to investigate the inelastic behavior of a representative noncategory I structure and determine the amount of reserve seismic capacity that is available beyond elastic design levels. Elastic and elastic-plastic seismic analyses were conducted on a braced steel frame using eight time-history records. In addition, two spectra were ultimate capacity, the reserve strength of the frame was determined. In order to ensure operability, a frame model incorporating a piping system was subjected to the above seismic loadings using elastic analyses. It was found that the piping system components controlled the seismic capacity of the combined structure. The average results show a reserve capacity of 2.6 times the seismic design level

  4. Aerodynamic Analysis of the Truss-Braced Wing Aircraft Using Vortex-Lattice Superposition Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Eric Bi-Wen; Reynolds, Kevin Wayne; Nguyen, Nhan T.; Totah, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    The SUGAR Truss-BracedWing (TBW) aircraft concept is a Boeing-developed N+3 aircraft configuration funded by NASA ARMD FixedWing Project. This future generation transport aircraft concept is designed to be aerodynamically efficient by employing a high aspect ratio wing design. The aspect ratio of the TBW is on the order of 14 which is significantly greater than those of current generation transport aircraft. This paper presents a recent aerodynamic analysis of the TBW aircraft using a conceptual vortex-lattice aerodynamic tool VORLAX and an aerodynamic superposition approach. Based on the underlying linear potential flow theory, the principle of aerodynamic superposition is leveraged to deal with the complex aerodynamic configuration of the TBW. By decomposing the full configuration of the TBW into individual aerodynamic lifting components, the total aerodynamic characteristics of the full configuration can be estimated from the contributions of the individual components. The aerodynamic superposition approach shows excellent agreement with CFD results computed by FUN3D, USM3D, and STAR-CCM+. XXXXX Demand for green aviation is expected to increase with the need for reduced environmental impact. Most large transports today operate within the best cruise L/D range of 18-20 using the conventional tube-and-wing design. This configuration has led to marginal improvements in aerodynamic efficiency over this past century, as aerodynamic improvements tend to be incremental. A big opportunity has been shown in recent years to significantly reduce structural weight or trim drag, hence improved energy efficiency, with the use of lightweight materials such as composites. The Boeing 787 transport is an example of a modern airframe design that employs lightweight structures. High aspect ratio wing design can provide another opportunity for further improvements in energy efficiency. Historically, the study of high aspect ratio wings has been intimately tied to the study of

  5. Aircraft Observations of the Tampa Urban Plume during BRACE: Transport, Photochemical, and Depositional Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, W.; Arnold, J.; Watson, T.; Gunter, L.; Wellman, D.; Dasgupta, P.; Li, J.; Riemer, D.

    2003-12-01

    Staff from NOAA's Air Resources Laboratory conducted airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosols in the Bay Region Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) using the NOAA Twin Otter. The Twin Otter flew more than 90 hours in 21 flights in and around the Tampa metropolitan region in May, 2002, at altitudes of 60-3000 m MSL. Flights were conducted over rural and suburban areas, over the centers of Tampa and St. Petersburg, and over Tampa Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. The overall objective of the aircraft measurements in BRACE was to study the emission, transport, and photochemical transformations of nitrogen and other ozone precursors in the Tampa area. Continuous instrumentation was used to measure NO, NOX, NOY, HNO3, CO, SO2, O3, CH2O, and H2O2. A semi-continuous GC technique with luminol detection was used to measure PAN. Filter packs were used to make integrated measurements of nitric acid and inorganic aerosols in both fine and bulk aerosol size fractions. Stainless steel grab cans were filled during flight for post-flight analysis of NMHCs by GC/FID/MS. The urban plume was sampled under a variety of meteorological regimes, as it was advected by the prevailing winds over the Florida peninsula (with continuing input of natural and anthropogenic precursors along the advection path) and, in other cases, over the Gulf of Mexico, where additional chemical inputs were negligible and the plume was relatively unaffected by turbulent deposition processes. Case studies will be used to compare and contrast the photochemical processes in the plume under these different regimes. The observed relationships and variations of trace gas concentrations will be used to determine the efficiency of ozone production, as well as instances of NOX or VOC limitation. Sampling the plume at varying downwind distances, over both land and water, allows the determination of overall rates of photochemical ozone production, NOX and SOX oxidation, and estimates of depositional losses of

  6. Densities, excess molar volumes, speeds of sound and isothermal compressibilities for {l_brace}2-(2-hexyloxyethoxy)ethanol + n-alkanol{r_brace} systems at temperatures between (288.15 and 308.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Amalendu [Department of Chemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119 (India)], E-mail: palchem@sify.com; Gaba, Rekha [Department of Chemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119 (India)

    2008-05-15

    The densities, {rho} and the speeds of sound, u, for {l_brace}2-(2-hexyloxyethoxy)ethanol (C{sub 6}E{sub 2}) + methanol, +1-propanol, +1-pentanol, and +1-heptanol{r_brace} have been measured as a function of composition using an Anton-Paar DSA 5000 densimeter at temperatures (288.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, and 308.15) K and atmospheric pressure over the whole concentration range. The {rho} and u values were used to calculate excess molar volumes, V{sup E}, and excess molar isentropic compressibility, K{sub S,m}{sup E}, respectively. Also, thermal expansivity, {alpha}, partial molar volume, V-bar{sub i}, and partial molar volume of the components at infinite dilution, V-bar{sub i}{sup 0}, have been calculated. The variation of these properties with composition and temperature of the mixtures are discussed in terms of molecular interactions.

  7. Synthesis and biological characterization of stable and radioiodinated ({+-})-trans-2-hydroxy-3-P{l_brace}4-(3-iodophenyl)piperidyl{r_brace}-1,2,3,4 -tetrahydronaphthalene (3'-IBVM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efange, S.M.N. E-mail: efang001@maroon.tc.umn.edu; Hohenberg, K. von; Khare, A.B.; Tu, Z.; Mach, R.H.; Parsons, Stanley M

    2000-11-01

    The vesamicol analogue ({+-})-trans-2-Hydroxy-3-{l_brace}4-(3-iodophenyl)piperidyl{r_brace}-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (3'-IBVM), a potent ligand for the c, was evaluated as a potential radiotracer for studying VAChT density in vivo. In radioligand binding experiments, 3'-IBVM displays subnanomolar affinity for VAChT and 100-fold selectivity for VAChT over {sigma}1 and {sigma}2 receptors. Consistent with this profile, radioiodinated ({+-})-3'-IBVM distributed heterogenously in the rat brain following a bolus IV injection, displaying high concentrations in the striatum and moderate to low concentrations in the cortex and cerebellum, respectively. However, co-injection of the radiotracer with the sigma ligand haloperidol resulted in significant reductions of radiotracer levels in all brain regions examined. Therefore, radioiodinated ({+-})-IBVM appears to bind to both VAChT and sigma receptors in vivo.

  8. Lung function measurements in young children with spinal muscle atrophy; a cross sectional survey on the effect of position and bracing

    OpenAIRE

    Tangsrud, S; Lund-Petersen, I; Carlsen, K

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) affects respiratory muscles, which in addition to progressive scoliosis leads to respiratory impairment. Children with developing scoliosis are usually treated with spinal bracing to delay the progress.
AIMS—To assess the impact of body position and application of spinal bracing on lung function during tidal breathing in children with SMA.
METHODS—Lung function was determined by tidal flow volume loops and passive respiratory mechanic...

  9. Effects of soft bracing or taping on a lateral ankle sprain: a non-randomised controlled trial evaluating recurrence rates and residual symptoms at one year

    OpenAIRE

    Kemler, Ellen; van de Port, Ingrid; Schmikli, Sandor; Huisstede, Bionka; Hoes, Arno; Backx, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background After sustaining an ankle sprain, taping is often the standard treatment in primary care. Ankle braces are sometimes used as an alternative. This study aimed to compare the effects of four weeks of soft bracing or taping following acute lateral ankle ligamentous sprain (ALALS) on sprain recurrence rates and residual symptoms at one year. Methods In this pragmatic, non-randomised controlled trial, 157 adult participants with an ALALS caused by an inversion trauma were alternately al...

  10. Effects of soft bracing or taping on a lateral ankle sprain : a non-randomised controlled trial evaluating recurrence rates and residual symptoms at one year

    OpenAIRE

    Kemler, Ellen; van de Port, Ingrid; Schmikli, Sandor; Huisstede, Bionka; Hoes, Arno; Backx, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background: After sustaining an ankle sprain, taping is often the standard treatment in primary care. Ankle braces are sometimes used as an alternative. This study aimed to compare the effects of four weeks of soft bracing or taping following acute lateral ankle ligamentous sprain (ALALS) on sprain recurrence rates and residual symptoms at one year. Methods: In this pragmatic, non-randomised controlled trial, 157 adult participants with an ALALS caused by an inversion trauma were alternately ...

  11. Effects of soft bracing or taping on a lateral ankle sprain : a non-randomised controlled trial evaluating recurrence rates and residual symptoms at one year

    OpenAIRE

    Kemler, Ellen; van de Port, Ingrid; Schmikli, Sandor; Huisstede, Bionka; Hoes, Arno; Backx, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background After sustaining an ankle sprain, taping is often the standard treatment in primary care. Ankle braces are sometimes used as an alternative. This study aimed to compare the effects of four weeks of soft bracing or taping following acute lateral ankle ligamentous sprain (ALALS) on sprain recurrence rates and residual symptoms at one year. Methods In this pragmatic, non-randomised controlled trial, 157 adult participants with an ALALS caused by an inversion trauma were alternately al...

  12. Effectiveness of the SpineCor brace based on the new standardized criteria proposed by the scoliosis research society for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coillard, Christine; Vachon, Valerie; Circo, Alin B; Beauséjour, Marie; Rivard, Charles H

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Dynamic SpineCor brace for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in accordance with the standardized criteria proposed by the Scoliosis Research Society Committee on Bracing and Nonoperative Management. They proposed these guidelines to make the comparison among studies more valid and reliable. From 1993 to 2006, 493 patients were treated using the SpineCor brace. Two hundred forty-nine patients met the criteria for inclusion, and 79 patients were still actively being treated. Overall, 170 patients have a definitive outcome. All girls were premenarchal or less than 1 year postmenarchal. Assessment of brace effectiveness included (1) percentage of patients who have 5 degrees or less curve progression, and percentage of patients who have 6 degrees or more progression; (2) percentage of patients who have been recommended/undergone surgery before skeletal maturity; (3) percentage of patients with curves exceeding 45 degrees at maturity (end of treatment); and (4) Two-year follow-up beyond maturity to determine the percentage of patients who subsequently underwent surgery. Successful treatment (correction, >5 degrees, or stabilization, +/-5 degrees) was achieved in 101 (59.4%) of the 170 patients from the time of the fitting of the SpineCor brace to the point in which it was discontinued. Thirty-nine immature patients (22.9%) required surgical fusion while receiving treatment. Two (1.2%) of 170 patients had curves exceeding 45 degrees at maturity. One mature patient (2.1%) required surgery within 2 years of follow-up beyond skeletal maturity. The conclusion drawn from these findings is that the SpineCor brace is effective for the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Moreover, positive outcomes are maintained after 2 years because 45 (95.7%) of 47 patients stabilized or corrected their end of bracing Cobb angle up to 2 years after bracing. Therapeutic study-investigating the

  13. A new brace treatment similar for adolescent scoliosis and kyphosis based on restoration of thoracolumbar lordosis. Radiological and subjective clinical results after at least one year of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Loon Piet JM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study design A prospective treatment study with a new brace was conducted Objective. To evaluate radiological and subjective clinical results after one year conservative brace treatment with pressure onto lordosis at the thoracolumbar joint in children with scoliosis and kyphosis. Summary of background data Conservative brace treatment of adolescent scoliosis is not proven to be effective in terms of lasting correction. Conservative treatment in kyphotic deformities may lead to satisfactory correction. None of the brace or casting techniques is based on sagittal forces only applied at the thoracolumbar spine (TLI= thoracolumbar lordotic intervention. Previously we showed in patients with scoliosis after forced lordosis at the thoracolumbar spine a radiological instantaneous reduction in both coronal curves of double major scoliosis. Methods A consecutive series of 91 children with adolescent scoliosis and kyphosis were treated with a modified symmetric 30 degrees Boston brace to ensure only forced lordosis at the thoracolumbar spine. Scoliosis was defined with a Cobb angle of at least one of the curves [greater than or equal to] 25 degrees and kyphosis with or without a curve Results Before treatment start ‘in brace’ radiographs showed a strong reduction of the Cobb angles in different curves in kyphosis and scoliosis groups (sagittal n = 5 all p Conclusion Conservative treatment using thoracolumbar lordotic intervention in scoliotic and kyphotic deformities in adolescence demonstrates a marked improvement after one year also in clinical and postural criteria. An effect not obtained with current brace techniques.

  14. Damping characteristics of friction damped braced frame and its effectiveness in the mega-sub controlled structure system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian Yeda; Zhang Xunan; Sheldon Cherry

    2007-01-01

    Based on energy dissipation and structural control principle, a new structural configuration, called the megasub controlled structure (MSCS) with friction damped braces (FDBs), is first presented. Meanwhile, to calculate the damping coefficient in the slipping state a new analytical method is proposed. The damping characteristics of one-storey friction damped braced frame (FDBF) are investigated, and the influence of the structural parameters on the energy dissipation and the practical engineering design are discussed. The nonlinear dynamic equations and the analytical model of the MSCS with FDBs are established. Three building structures with different structural configurations, which were designed with reference to the conventional mega-sub structures such as used in Tokyo City Hall, are comparatively investigated. The results illustrate that the structure presented in the paper has excellent dynamic properties and satisfactory control effectiveness.

  15. Expecting ankle tilts and wearing an ankle brace influence joint control in an imitated ankle sprain mechanism during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Dominic; Wissler, Sabrina; Lohrer, Heinz; Nauck, Tanja; Gollhofer, Albert

    2014-03-01

    A thorough understanding of the functional aspects of ankle joint control is essential to developing effective injury prevention. It is of special interest to understand how neuromuscular control mechanisms and mechanical constraints stabilize the ankle joint. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine how expecting ankle tilts and the application of an ankle brace influence ankle joint control when imitating the ankle sprain mechanism during walking. Ankle kinematics and muscle activity were assessed in 17 healthy men. During gait rapid perturbations were applied using a trapdoor (tilting with 24° inversion and 15° plantarflexion). The subjects either knew that a perturbation would definitely occur (expected tilts) or there was only the possibility that a perturbation would occur (potential tilts). Both conditions were conducted with and without a semi-rigid ankle brace. Expecting perturbations led to an increased ankle eversion at foot contact, which was mediated by an altered muscle preactivation pattern. Moreover, the maximal inversion angle (-7%) and velocity (-4%), as well as the reactive muscle response were significantly reduced when the perturbation was expected. While wearing an ankle brace did not influence muscle preactivation nor the ankle kinematics before ground contact, it significantly reduced the maximal ankle inversion angle (-14%) and velocity (-11%) as well as reactive neuromuscular responses. The present findings reveal that expecting ankle inversion modifies neuromuscular joint control prior to landing. Although such motor control strategies are weaker in their magnitude compared with braces, they seem to assist ankle joint stabilization in a close-to-injury situation. PMID:24365326

  16. Numerical Model of a Hybrid Damping System Composed of a Buckling Restrained Brace with a Magneto Rheological Damper

    OpenAIRE

    Filip-Vacarescu Norin; Vulcu Cristian; Dubina Dan

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of a hybrid damper made from a combination of two dissipative devices. A passive hysteretic device like steel Buckling Restrained Brace (BRB) can be combined with a magneto-rheological (MR) Fluid Damper in order to obtain a hybrid dissipative system. This system can work either as a semi-active system, if the control unit is available, or as a passive system, tuned for working according to performance based seismic engineering (PBSE) scale of reference paramet...

  17. Seismic response of high-rise steel framed buildings with Chevron-braced designed according to Venezuelan codes

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The object of this study is to determine the seismic response of regular high-rise steel buildings with chevron-braced frames. Mechanics models of three buildings of 14, 18 and 20 stories are studied, all of them with similar geometric characteristics in plant and elevation. These models are realized using prescriptions and parameters from venezuelan design codes. The seismic action is carry on through varius synthetic design spectrum compatible accelerograms defined by the seismic codes in t...

  18. ABDOMINAL EXERCISE WITH BRACING, A THERAPEUTIC EFFICACY IN REDUCING DIASTASIS-RECTI AMONG POSTPARTAL FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Acharry

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Diastasis recti abdominis (DRA has been defined as an impairment characterized by the separation of the two rectus abdominis muscles along the linea alba , Diastasis of the rectus abdominis muscle (DRAM is common during and after pregnancy, and has been related to lumbo-pelvic instability and pelvic floor weakness. Women with DRAM are commonly referred to physiotherapists for non surgical management, but very few found to be effective. Objectives To determine if the effectiveness of Abdominal exercise with bracing in reducing the diastasis recti among postpartum females. Methodology: IP&OPD patients of Godavari hospital, Jalgaon for a period of 4 weeks. For this descriptive study a cross-sectional study design was incorporated. A number of (n=30 female patients within 1 month after delivery with Diastasis recti were selected. Each patient was screened, initially by using simple selection proforma relevant to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: A total (n=30 subjects were included in the study, these 30 subjects all are Females and one month and more after child birth. The subjects included in this study with an age from minimal 23 years to 34 years old. Number of off springs which is another variable used, was listed as 1(Minimum and 4(Maximum children’s. In this study a 26.6% of female are primiparous and 56.7% of them are multiparous. The collected information (data was tabulated and analyzed by using appropriate statistical analysis tools. 30 Female subjects having mean age 28.8(SD=3.23 in which both primiparous and multiparous women having diastasis recti within 1 month postpartum. Diastasis recti pretest was found to be 3.5(SD= 0.5085 Diastasis recti posttest was found to be 2.5(SD=0.5074 t value=29.00 and P value found to be less than 0.001 which is highly significant. Conclusion: Based on the available evidence and quality of this evidence, after the exercise regimen and bracing the Diastasis recti muscle

  19. Team care to cure adolescents with braces (avoiding low quality of life, pain and bad compliance: a case–control retrospective study. 2011 SOSORT Award winner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavernaro Marta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bracing could be efficacious, given good compliance and quality of braces. Recently the SOSORT Brace Treatment Management Guidelines (SBTMG have highlighted the perceived importance of the professional teams surrounding braced patients. Purpose To verify the impact of a complete rehabilitation team in the adolescent patient with bracing. Materials and methods Design. Initial cross-sectional study, followed by a retrospective case–control study. Population: Thirty-eight patients (15.8 ± 1.6 years; 26 females; 10 hyperkyphosis, 28 scoliosis of 29.2 ± 7.9° Cobb extracted from a single orthotist database (between January 1, 2008 and September 1, 2009 and treated by the same physician; brace wearing at least 15 hours/day for a minimum of 6 months; age 10 or more. Treatment: Braces: Sforzesco, Sibilla, Lapadula or Maguelone. Exercises: SEAS. Methods: Two questionnaires filled in blindly by patients: SRS-22 and one especially developed and validated with 25 questions on adherence to treatment. Groups (main risk factor: TEAM (private institute: satisfied 44/44 SOSORT criteria; grade of teamwork, “excellent” included 13 patients and NOT 25 (National Health Service Rehabilitation Department: 35/44 SOSORT criteria respected; grade, “insufficient”. Results TEAM was more compliant to bracing than NOT (97 ± 6% vs. 80 ± 24% and performed nearly double the exercises (38 ± 12 vs. 20 ± 13 minutes/session. The self-reduction of bracing was significant in NOT (from 16.8 ± 3.7 to 14.8 ± 4.9 hours/day, , P Conclusions Provided the limits of this first study on the topic, the SBTMG seems to be important for brace treatment, influencing pain, QoL and compliance (and so, presumably, final results. Future studies on the topic are advisable.

  20. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research: Phase II- Volume III-Truss Braced Wing Aeroelastic Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Allen, Timothy J.; Droney, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This Test Report summarizes the Truss Braced Wing (TBW) Aeroelastic Test (Task 3.1) work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, which includes the time period of February 2012 through June 2014. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Virginia Tech, and NextGen Aeronautics. The model was fabricated by NextGen Aeronautics and designed to meet dynamically scaled requirements from the sized full scale TBW FEM. The test of the dynamically scaled SUGAR TBW half model was broken up into open loop testing in December 2013 and closed loop testing from January 2014 to April 2014. Results showed the flutter mechanism to primarily be a coalescence of 2nd bending mode and 1st torsion mode around 10 Hz, as predicted by analysis. Results also showed significant change in flutter speed as angle of attack was varied. This nonlinear behavior can be explained by including preload and large displacement changes to the structural stiffness and mass matrices in the flutter analysis. Control laws derived from both test system ID and FEM19 state space models were successful in suppressing flutter. The control laws were robust and suppressed flutter for a variety of Mach, dynamic pressures, and angle of attacks investigated.

  1. Optimal placement of active braces by using PSO algorithm in near- and far-field earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastali, M.; Kheyroddin, A.; Samali, B.; Vahdani, R.

    2016-03-01

    One of the most important issues in tall buildings is lateral resistance of the load-bearing systems against applied loads such as earthquake, wind and blast. Dual systems comprising core wall systems (single or multi-cell core) and moment-resisting frames are used as resistance systems in tall buildings. In addition to adequate stiffness provided by the dual system, most tall buildings may have to rely on various control systems to reduce the level of unwanted motions stemming from severe dynamic loads. One of the main challenges to effectively control the motion of a structure is limitation in distributing the required control along the structure height optimally. In this paper, concrete shear walls are used as secondary resistance system at three different heights as well as actuators installed in the braces. The optimal actuator positions are found by using optimized PSO algorithm as well as arbitrarily. The control performance of buildings that are equipped and controlled using the PSO algorithm method placement is assessed and compared with arbitrary placement of controllers using both near- and far-field ground motions of Kobe and Chi-Chi earthquakes.

  2. Walking with functional electrical stimulation and unlocking braces in thoracic-level paraplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobet Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Walking was tested in 4 people with thoracic-level paraplegia using stimulation of quadriceps muscles, the flexor reflex and unlocking knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFO. Heart rate, speed, distance, kinematics and ground reaction forces were measured while subjects walked using a walker. None of the subjects could walk without the system; all could walk continuously for at least 4 minutes with it. Joint angles and some other kinematic features resembled normal walking, but the walking was too slow (average speed: 3.8 m/min. and too demanding (heart rate: 128 b/min; physiological cost index: 15 b/m to be practical. Subjects supported about 1/3 of their weight with their arms during stance and about 2/3 during swing. Our results suggest that the braces reduced the effort needed and that the low speeds were due to both a lack of power at push-off and the time needed to stabilize the hip and trunk. The high heart rates arose from excessive contraction of the arm and trunk muscles for balance and propulsion.

  3. Effect of Semi-Rigid and Soft Ankle Braces on Static and Dynamic Postural Stability in Young Male Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Maeda, Yukio Urabe, Shogo Tsutsumi, Shuhei Numano, Miho Morita, Takuya Takeuchi, Shou Iwata, Toshiki Kobayashi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ankle braces have been suggested to protect ankle joints from a sprain by restricting inversion and improving proprioception. However, the difference in effects between a semi-rigid brace and a soft brace regarding dynamic postural control after landing is not known. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of soft (SB and semi-rigid (SRB ankle braces on static and dynamic postural stability in healthy young men. Altogether, 21 male adults (mean age 24.0 ± 1.5 years were assessed for one leg while wearing non-brace (NB, SB or SRB. Balance in single-limb stance on a single-force platform with open eyes and closed eyes were assessed for the non-dominant leg under SB, SRB, and NB conditions. Locus length/second (mm/s and the enveloped area (mm·s-2 surrounded by the circumference of the wave pattern during postural sway were calculated. For assessing dynamic postural stability, the participant jumped and landed on one leg on a force platform, and the Dynamic Postural Stability Index (DPSI and the maximum vertical ground reaction force (vGRFmax were measured. The data were compared among the three conditions with repeated-measures analysis of variance. The correlations between locus length/second, enveloped area, DPSI values (DPSI, Anterior-Posterior Stability Index, Medial-Lateral Stability Index, and Vertical Stability Index, and vGRFmax were then calculated. The results indicated that locus length/second and enveloped area with open eyes and closed eyes were not significantly different for each condition. However, a significant lower in the DPSI and Vertical Stability Index were observed with the SRB in comparison to the SB and NB. A significant improvement in vGRFmax was also observed with the SRB in comparison to NB. SRB demonstrated a positive effect on dynamic postural stability after landing on a single leg and may improve balance by increasing dynamic postural stability.

  4. The influence of elastic orthotic belt on sagittal profile in adolescent idiopathic thoracic scoliosis: a comparative radiographic study with Milwaukee brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Bangping

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of bracing on preventing curve progression in coronal plane for mild and moderate adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS patients has been confirmed by previous radiographic researches. However, a hypokyphotic effect on the sagittal plane has been reported by a few studies. A relatively increasing number of AIS patients were noticed to wear a new kind of elastic orthotic belt for the treatments of scoliosis without doctors' instructions. We postulate the correcting mechanism of this new appliance may cause flattening of the spine. To our knowledge, no study has investigated the effects of this new orthosis on the sagittal profile of AIS patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of elastic orthotic belt and Milwaukee brace on the sagittal alignment in AIS patients. Methods Twenty-eight female AIS patients with mild or moderate thoracic curves were included in this study. Standing full-length lateral radiographs were obtained in three conditions: natural standing posture without any treatment, with elastic orthotic belt and with Milwaukee brace. Thoracic kyphosis (TK, lumber lordosis (LL and pelvic incidence (PI were measured and compared between the above three conditions. Results Both elastic orthotic belt and Milwaukee brace can lead to significant decrease of TK, however, the decrease of TK after wearing elastic orthotic belt is significantly larger than that after wearing Milwaukee brace. Compared with no treatment, LL was found to be significantly smaller after wearing Milwaukee brace, however, such significant decrease was not noted after wearing elastic orthotic belt. No significant changes were observed for the PI between 3 conditions. Conclusions The elastic orthotic belt could lead to more severe thoracic hypokyphosis when compared with Milwaukee brace. This belt may not be a suitable conservative method for the treatment of mild and moderate AIS patients.

  5. A calorimetric and equilibrium investigation of the reaction {l_brace}methyl ferulate(aq) + H{sub 2}O(l) = methanol(aq) + ferulic acid(aq){r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Robert N., E-mail: robert.goldberg@nist.go [Biochemical Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20876 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Lang, Brian E., E-mail: brian.lang@nist.go [Biochemical Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20876 (United States); Selig, Michael J., E-mail: michael.selig@nrel.go [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Biosciences Center, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Decker, Stephen R., E-mail: steve.decker@nrel.go [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Biosciences Center, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Microcalorimetry and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) have been used to conduct a thermodynamic investigation of the reaction: {l_brace}methyl ferulate(aq) + H{sub 2}O(l) = methanol(aq) + ferulic acid(aq){r_brace}, as catalyzed by feruloyl esterase. Values of the apparent equilibrium constant K' = (29.6 {+-} 0.7) (T = 298.15 K, citrate buffer at pH 4.98, ionic strength I = 0.39 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}) and of the calorimetrically determined enthalpy of reaction {Delta}{sub r}H(cal) = (4.0 {+-} 0.9) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} (T = 298.15 K and citrate buffer at pH 4.81, I = 0.36 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}) were measured. A chemical equilibrium model, together with pKs and standard enthalpies of reaction {Delta}{sub r}H{sup 0} for the H{sup +}(aq) binding reactions of the reactants and products, was then used to calculate the values K = (1.89 {+-} 0.06) . 10{sup -4}, {Delta}{sub r}H{sup o} = (7.3 {+-} 1.7) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, {Delta}{sub r}G{sup o} = (21.25 {+-} 0.07) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, and {Delta}{sub r}S{sup o} = - (46.8 {+-} 5.7) J {center_dot} K{sup -1} {center_dot} mol{sup -1} for the chemical reference reaction {l_brace}methyl ferulate(aq) + H{sub 2}O(l) = methanol(aq) + ferulic acid{sup -}(aq) + H{sup +}(aq){r_brace}. These values of K and {Delta}{sub r}H{sup o} are similar in magnitude to the corresponding values reported for the reaction {l_brace}propyl gallate(aq) + H{sub 2}O(l) = 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid{sup -}(aq) + 1-propanol(aq) + H{sup +}(aq){r_brace}. The results obtained in this study can be used in a chemical equilibrium model to calculate how K' and other standard transformed properties such as the standard transformed enthalpy {Delta}{sub r}H'{sup o}, standard transformed Gibbs free energy {Delta}{sub r}G'{sup o}, and the change in binding of H{sup +}(aq), {Delta}{sub r}N(H{sup +}), vary with the independent variables T, pH, and I.

  6. Soft braces in the treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS – Review of the literature and description of a new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Hans-Rudolf

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of soft braces to treat scoliosis has been described by Fischer as early as 1876. With the help of elastic straps, as the authors suggested, a corrective movement for individual curve patterns should be maintained in order to inhibit curve progression. Today this concept has been revived besides soft 3 point pressure systems. Some shortcomings have been revealed in literature in comparison with hard braces, however the concept of improving quality of life of a patient while under brace treatment should furtherly be considered as valuable. Purpose of this review is to gather the body of evidence existent for the use of soft braces and to present recent developments. Method A review of literature as available on Pub Med was performed using the key words ‘scoliosis’ and ‘soft brace’ at first. The search was expanded using ‘scoliosis’ and the known trademarks (1 ‘scoliosis’ and ‘SpineCor’, (2 ‘scoliosis’ and ‘TriaC’, (3 ‘scoliosis’ and ‘St. Etienne brace’, (4 ‘scoliosis’ and ‘Olympe’. The papers considered for inclusion were new technical descriptions, preliminary results, cohort studies and controlled studies. Results When searching for the terms ‘scoliosis’ and ‘SpineCor’: 20 papers have been found, most of them investigating a soft brace, for ‘scoliosis’ and ‘TriaC’: 7 papers displayed, for ‘scoliosis’ and ‘St. Etienne brace’: one paper displayed but not meeting the topic and for ‘scoliosis’ and ‘Olympe’: No paper displayed. Four papers found on the SpineCor™ were of prospective controlled or prospective randomized design. These papers partly presented contradictory results. Two papers were on soft Boston braces used in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis. Discussion There is a small but consistent body of evidence for the use of soft braces in the treatment of scoliosis. Contradictory results have been published for samples treated during

  7. SUPER-CAPACITOR APPLICATION IN ELECTRICAL POWER CABLE TESTING FACILITIES IN THERMAL ENDURANCE AND MECHANICAL BRACING TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Oleksyuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current-carrying cores of the electrical power cables should be resistant to effects of short-circuit currents whose values depend on the material of the core, its cross-sectional area, cable insulation properties, environment temperature, and the duration of the short-circuit current flow (1 and 3–4 sec. when tested for thermal endurance and mechanical bracing. The facilities for testing the 10 kV aluminum core cables with short-circuit current shall provide mechanical-bracing current 56,82 kA and thermal endurance current 11,16 kA. Although capacitors provide such values of the testing currents to the best advantage, utilizing conventional capacitor-units will involve large expenditures for erecting and  running a separate building. It is expedient to apply super-capacitors qua the electric power supply for testing facilities, as they are capacitors with double-electrical layer and involve the current values of tens of kilo-amperes.The insulation voltage during short-circuit current testing being not-standardized, it is not banned to apply voltages less than 10 kV when performing short-circuit thermal endurance and mechanical bracing tests for electrical power cables of 10 kV. The super-capacitor voltage variation-in-time graph consists of two regions: capacitive and resistive. The capacitive part corresponds to the voltage change consequent on the energy change in the super-capacitors. The resistive part shows the voltage variation due to the active resistance presence in the super-capacitor.The author offers the algorithm determining the number of super capacitors requisite for testing 10 kV-electrical power cables with short-circuit currents for thermal endurance and mechanical bracing. The paper shows that installation of super-capacitors in the facilities testing the cables with short-circuit currents reduces the area needed for the super-capacitors in comparison with conventional capacitors more than by one order of magnitude.

  8. Numerical Model of a Hybrid Damping System Composed of a Buckling Restrained Brace with a Magneto Rheological Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip-Vacarescu Norin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the concept of a hybrid damper made from a combination of two dissipative devices. A passive hysteretic device like steel Buckling Restrained Brace (BRB can be combined with a magneto-rheological (MR Fluid Damper in order to obtain a hybrid dissipative system. This system can work either as a semi-active system, if the control unit is available, or as a passive system, tuned for working according to performance based seismic engineering (PBSE scale of reference parameters (i.e. interstory drift.

  9. ESTIMATION OF BEARING STRENGTH OF BRACES AND STRUTS OF FARMS OF COVERAGE OF 6D TYPE HOTHOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degtyarev G. V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The method of estimation of bearing strength of braces and struts of farms of coverage of hothouses is presented in the article. The deep analysis of the question of bearing strength appeared in the light of mass erection of hothouses, especially in the South Federal district, the construction of which had been bought in the countries of Near East. However, simple transfer of the constructions of hothouses made in foreign countries can not be considered as rational on the territory of the Russian Federation. The constructions of hothouses in most do not maintain exploitation even in one winter, when the considerable snow loadings are, and wind as well. The necessity of bringing of clarity for the folded situation became more obvious. Conducted successive static, dynamic and seismic analyses, executed upon the normative documents and due to the norms of supplier operating on the territory of the Russian Federation, in attachment to the real sections of bearings structural elements, allowed to expose the stated below percents of the use of the examined elements of constructions. Supporting braces of farms of coverage: on the norms of the Russian Federation, on the first maximum state percent of the use – 999 %; there is a percent of the use on the second maximum state – 999 %; on the norms of the Russian Federation taking into account loadings of supplier, on the first maximum state percent of the use – 999 %; there is a percent of the use on the second maximum state – 999 %; Stretched braces of farms of coverage: on the norms of the Russian Federation, on the first maximum state percent of the use – 64,2%; there is a percent of the use on the second maximum state – 721,8 %; on the norms of the Russian Federation taking into account loadings of supplier, on the first maximum state percent of the use – 25,8 %; there is a percent of the use on the second maximum state – 721,8%. Analysis presented allows establishing that at the load

  10. A user`s guide to LUGSAN 1.1: A computer program to calculate and archive lug and sway brace loads for aircraft-carried stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, W.N. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Experimental Structural Dynamics Dept.

    1994-07-01

    LUGSAN (LUG and Sway brace ANalysis) is a analysis and database computer program designed to calculate store lug and sway brace loads from aircraft captive carriage. LUGSAN combines the rigid body dynamics code, SWAY85 and the maneuver calculation code, MILGEN, with an INGRES database to function both as an analysis and archival system. This report describes the operation of the LUGSAN application program, including function description, layout examples, and sample sessions. This report is intended to be a user`s manual for version 1.1 of LUGSAN operating on the VAX/VMS system. The report is not intended to be a programmer or developer`s manual.

  11. Treatment of the Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip with an Abduction Brace in Children up to 6 Months Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Wahlen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Use of Pavlik harness for the treatment of DDH can be complicated for parents. Any misuse or failure in the adjustments may lead to significant complications. An abduction brace was introduced in our institution, as it was thought to be easier to use. Aim. We assess the results for the treatment of DDH using our abduction brace in children of 0–6 months old and compare these results with data on treatments using the Pavlik harness. Method. Retrospective analysis of patients with DDH from 0 to 6 months old at diagnosis, performed from 2004 to 2009. Outcomes were rates of reduction of the hip and avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVN. Follow-up was at one year and up to 4 years old. Results. Hip reduction was successful in 28 of 33 patients (85%, with no AVN. Conclusion. Our results in terms of hip reduction rate and AVN rate are similar to those found in literature assessing Pavlik harness use, with a simpler and comfortable treatment procedure.

  12. Analysis of Limit Cycle Oscillation Data from the Aeroelastic Test of the SUGAR Truss-Braced Wing Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Robert E.; Funk, Christie; Scott, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Research focus in recent years has been given to the design of aircraft that provide significant reductions in emissions, noise and fuel usage. Increases in fuel efficiency have also generally been attended by overall increased wing flexibility. The truss-braced wing (TBW) configuration has been forwarded as one that increases fuel efficiency. The Boeing company recently tested the Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) Truss-Braced Wing (TBW) wind-tunnel model in the NASA Langley Research Center Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). This test resulted in a wealth of accelerometer data. Other publications have presented details of the construction of that model, the test itself, and a few of the results of the test. This paper aims to provide a much more detailed look at what the accelerometer data says about the onset of aeroelastic instability, usually known as flutter onset. Every flight vehicle has a location in the flight envelope of flutter onset, and the TBW vehicle is not different. For the TBW model test, the flutter onset generally occurred at the conditions that the Boeing company analysis said it should. What was not known until the test is that, over a large area of the Mach number dynamic pressure map, the model displayed wing/engine nacelle aeroelastic limit cycle oscillation (LCO). This paper dissects that LCO data in order to provide additional insights into the aeroelastic behavior of the model.

  13. The Effect of Analysis Methods on the Response of Steel-Braced Frame Buildings for Seismic Retrofitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodrati Amiri, G.; Hamidi Jamnani, H.; Mohebi, B.

    In this study, steel-braced frame buildings which are designed according to 2800 Standard of Iran (3rd revision), will be evaluated by four main types of structural analysis (Linear Static, Linear Dynamic, Nonlinear Static and Nonlinear Dynamic Analyses) with regard to Seismic Rehabilitation Code for Existing Buildings in Iran (based on FEMA 273). The discrepancy of the results derived from these four types of analysis and also seismic performance of the buildings in both linear and nonlinear treatments will be analyzed. At first, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) for 2 hazard levels has been carried out at center of Tehran, then three 3D models including 3 common buildings (5, 10 and 15-story) have been selected and designed subjected to earthquake according to 2800 Standard. Following this, these three 3D models have been analyzed and controlled based on Seismic Rehabilitation Code for Existing Buildings. The selected rehabilitation goal for this research is Fair (Controlling Life Safety in Hazard Level 1 + Collapse Prevention in Hazard Level 2). According to the results of this research, the accuracy of linear analysis for evaluating bracing elements is very low, in evaluating columns the results of linear static analysis is much more acceptable than linear dynamic and nonlinear static analysis. Also, by increasing the number of stories the accuracy of nonlinear static analysis decreases.

  14. The interdigital brace and other grips for termite nest perforation by chimpanzees of the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnik, Julie J; Sanz, Crickette M; Morgan, David B

    2015-06-01

    Studies of chimpanzee termite foraging enlighten our understanding of early hominin tool use not only by modeling the cognitive ability of our ancestors but also by emphasizing the possible role of social insects in the hominin diet. The chimpanzees of the Goualougo Triangle are known to have one of the largest and most complex tool repertoires reported for wild chimpanzees. One tool set habitually used by this population includes a perforating tool to penetrate the hard outer crust of elevated termite nests before fishing for termite prey with an herbaceous stem. Here, we report the variation present in the grips used on the perforating tool. Our analysis of video recordings of chimpanzee visitation to termite nests over a 3-year period shows that these chimpanzees use a variety of grips to navigate the challenges encountered in opening a termite nest. For situations in which the soil is most hardened, perforating requires force and a power grip is often used. When the soil in the passageway is loose, precision grips are suitable for the task. One of the preferred grips reported here is an interdigital brace, which has previously been described in studies of how some people hold a pencil. In this study, for the first time, the interdigital brace has been thoroughly described for chimpanzees. The various strategies and grips used during perforation emphasize the importance of termites as a nutritional resource that should be considered more strongly as a food used by early hominins. PMID:25916822

  15. Effect of bracing and other conservative interventions in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents : A systematic review of clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenssinck, MLB; Frijlink, AC; Berger, MY; Bierma-Zeinstra, SMA; Verkerk, K; Verhagen, AP

    2005-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Many conservative treatments are available for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis, but the evidence for their accepted use is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of braces and other conservative treatments of idiopathic scoliosis in a

  16. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in late-onset juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunderson Ragnhild

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is recommended that research in patients with idiopathic scoliosis should focus on short- and long-term patient-centred outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate outcome in patients with late-onset juvenile or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis 16 years or more after Boston brace treatment. Methods 272 (78% of 360 patients, 251 (92% women, responded to follow-up examination at a mean of 24.7 (range 16 - 32 years after Boston brace treatment. Fifty-eight (21% patients had late-onset juvenile and 214 had adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. All patients had clinical and radiological examination and answered a standardised questionnaire including work status, demographics, General Function Score (GFS (100 - worst possible and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI (100 - worst possible, EuroQol (EQ-5D (1 - best possible, EQ-VAS (100 - best possible, and Scoliosis Research Society - 22 (SRS - 22 (5 - best possible. Results The mean age at follow-up was 40.4 (31-48 years. The prebrace major curve was in average 33.2 (20 - 57°. At weaning and at the last follow-up the corresponding values were 28.3 (1 - 58° and 32.5 (7 - 80°, respectively. Curve development was similar in patients with late-onset juvenile and adolescent start. The prebrace curve increased > 5° in 31% and decreased > 5° in 26%. Twenty-five patients had surgery. Those who did not attend follow-up (n = 88 had a lower mean curve at weaning: 25.4 (6-53°. Work status was 76% full-time and 10% part-time. Eighty-seven percent had delivered a baby, 50% had pain in pregnancy. The mean (SD GFS was 7.4 (10.8, ODI 9.3 (11.0, EQ-5D 0.82 (0.2, EQ-VAS 77.6 (17.8, SRS-22: pain 4.1 (0.8, mental health 4.1 (0.6, self-image 3.7 (0.7, function 4.0 (0.6, satisfaction with treatment 3.7 (1.0. Surgical patients had significantly reduced scores for SRS-physical function and self-image, and patients with curves ≥ 45° had reduced self-image. Conclusion Long-term results were

  17. SEISMIC RESPONSE AND PERFORMANCE OF BUCKLING-RESTRAINED BRACED FRAMES%偏心BRBFs的抗震性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王菲; 张勇

    2011-01-01

    In order to learn the seismic performance of eccentric buckling-restrained braced frames , two kinds of structures portal eccentric buckling-restrained braced frames and herringbone eccentric buckling-restrained brace frames, were designed with PKPM and numerically simulated based on finite element software ANSYS. The models' response sto- ry drifts, story shear forces under basic seismic intensity were measured. The deformation of the two structures present a shear-flexural type,and the low model has a great influention on the displacement of structure. Story drifts, story shear forces can both meet the seismic-resistent deflection demand, which indicates that the two kinds of structures both have good seismic performance. The components can be equivalent to the structure damping to be analyzed ,when they dissipate the energy through plastic deformation. The solution of calculating the equivalent damping ratio was presented. The seismic performance of the two strutures were evaluated furtherly through the investgation of toplevel displacement and story shear forces under 0.4g peak acceleration seismic ground motion , the result showed that the herringbone eccentric buckling-restrained brace frames performed better in earthquake-resistance.%为了解偏心屈曲约束支撑钢框架(BRBFs)的抗震性能,运用pkpm设计软件设计门架式偏心BRBFs和人字形偏心BRBFs两种结构,基于大型有限元软件ANSYS对两种结构进行有限元数值模拟,分析了两种结构在基本烈度作用下的各层位移反应及层间位移角,结果表明,两种结构变形受低阶振型影响较大,沿高度呈倒三角地形分布,结构变形为弯剪形,各层位移及层间位移角均满足规范要求,体现出良好的抗震性能。构件产生塑性变形而耗能时,可以将结构构件等效为结构阻尼进行分析,介绍了等效阻尼比的求解方法。通过对罕遇地震作用下的两种结

  18. Ankles back in randomized controlled trial (ABrCt: braces versus neuromuscular exercises for the secondary prevention of ankle sprains. Design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhagen Evert ALM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankle sprains are the most common sports and physical activity related injury. There is extensive evidence that there is a twofold increased risk for injury recurrence for at least one year post injury. In up to 50% of all cases recurrences result in disability and lead to chronic pain or instability, requiring prolonged medical care. Therefore ankle sprain recurrence prevention in athletes is essential. This RCT evaluates the effect of the combined use of braces and neuromuscular training (e.g. proprioceptive training/sensorimotor training/balance training against the individual use of either braces or neuromuscular training alone on ankle sprain recurrences, when applied to individual athletes after usual care. Methods/Design This study was designed as three way randomized controlled trial with one year follow-up. Healthy individuals between 12 and 70 years of age, who were actively participating in sports and who had sustained a lateral ankle sprain in the two months prior to inclusion, were eligible for inclusion. After subjects had finished ankle sprain treatment by means of usual care, they were randomised to any of the three study groups. Subjects in group 1 received an eight week neuromuscular training program, subjects in group 2 received a sports brace to be worn during all sports activities for the duration of one year, and group 3 received a combination of the neuromuscular training program and a sports brace to be worn during all sports activities for the duration of eight weeks. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and every month for 12 months therafter. The primary outcome measure was incidence of ankle sprain recurrences. Secondary outcome measures included the direct and indirect costs of recurrent injury, the severity of recurrent injury, and the residual complaints during and after the intervention. Discussion The ABrCt is the first randomized controlled trial to directly compare the secondary preventive

  19. The effect of taping versus semi-rigid bracing on patient outcome and satisfaction in ankle sprains: a prospective, randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lardenoye Sacha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional treatment is a widely used and generally accepted treatment for ankle sprain. A meta-analysis comparing the different functional treatment options could not make definitive conclusions regarding the effectiveness, and until now, little was known about patient satisfaction in relation to the outcome. Methods Patients with acute ankle sprain received rest, ice, compression and elevation with an compressive bandage at the emergency department. After 5-7 days, 100 patients with grade II and III sprains were randomized into two groups: one group was treated with tape and the other with a semi-rigid ankle brace, both for 4 weeks. Post-injury physical and proprioceptive training was standardized. As primary outcome parameter patient satisfaction and skin complications were evaluated using a predefined questionnaire and numeric rating scale. As secondary outcome parameter the ankle joint function was assessed using the Karlsson scoring scale and range of motion. Results Patient-reported comfort and satisfaction during treatment with a semi-rigid brace was significantly increased. The rate of skin complication in this group was significantly lower compared to the tape group (14.6% versus 59.1%, P  Conclusion Treatment of acute ankle sprain with semi-rigid brace leads to significantly higher patient comfort and satisfaction, both with similar good outcome.

  20. The glycine brace: a component of Rab, Rho, and Ran GTPases associated with hinge regions of guanine- and phosphate-binding loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuwald Andrew F

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ras-like GTPases function as on-off switches in intracellular signalling pathways and include the Rab, Rho/Rac, Ran, Ras, Arf, Sar and Gα families. How these families have evolutionarily diverged from each other at the sequence level provides clues to underlying mechanisms associated with their functional specialization. Results Bayesian analysis of divergent patterns within a multiple alignment of Ras-like GTPase sequences identifies a structural component, termed here the glycine brace, as the feature that most distinguishes Rab, Rho/Rac, Ran and (to some degree Ras family GTPases from other Ras-like GTPases. The glycine brace consists of four residues: An aromatic residue that forms a stabilizing CH-π interaction with a conserved glycine at the start of the guanine-binding loop; a second aromatic residue, which is nearly always a tryptophan, that likewise forms stabilizing CH-π and NH-π interactions with a glycine at the start of the phosphate-binding P-loop; and two other residues (typically an aspartate and a serine or threonine that, together with a conserved buried water molecule, form a network of interactions connecting the two aromatic residues. Conclusion It is proposed that the two glycine residues function as hinges and that the glycine brace influences guanine nucleotide binding and release by interacting with these hinges.

  1. PARAMETRIC STUDY OF OUTER-BRACE SCFS IN RIGHTANGLE TWO-PLANAR TUBULAR DKT-JOINTS OF OFFSHORE JACKET STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. AHMADI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, a set of parametric FE stress analyses is carried out for two-planar welded tubular DKT-joints under two different axial load cases. Analysis results are used to present general remarks on the effect of geometrical parameters on the stress concentration factors (SCFs at the inner saddle, outer saddle, crown toe, and crown heel positions on the main (outer brace. Based on the results of finite element analyses which are verified against the experimental data, a complete set of SCF database is constructed. Then a new set of SCF parametric equations is developed through nonlinear regression analysis for the fatigue design of two-planar DKT-joints under axial loads. An assessment study of these equations is conducted against the experimental data and the satisfaction of criteria regarding the acceptance of parametric equations is checked. Significant effort has been devoted by researchers to the study of SCFs in various uni-planar tubular connections. Nevertheless, for multi-planar joints covering the majority of practical applications, very few investigations have been reported due to the complexity and high cost involved.

  2. Corrosion studies of thermally sensitised AGR fuel element brace in pH7 and pH9.2 borate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brace and cladding of AGR fuel elements sensitised in reactor are susceptible to intergranular and crevice corrosion, which may initiate in the pH7 borate pond storage environment of CEGB/SSEB stations. This report considers the benefit in corrosion control that is provided by raising the pond solution pH to 9.2, whilst maintaining the boron level at 1250 gm-3. The greater corrosion protection provided by pH9.2 solution compared to the pH7 borate solution is demonstrated by a series of tests with non-active laboratory sensitised brace samples exposed to solutions dosed with chloride or sulphate in order to promote localised corrosion. The corrosion tests undertaken consisted of 5000 hour immersions at 320C and shorter term electrochemically monitored experiments (rest potential, impedance, anodic current) generally conducted at 220C. The pH9.2 solution effectively inhibited the initiation of crevice and intergranular corrosion in the presence of low levels of chloride and sulphate, whereas the pH7 solution did not always do so. However, the pH9.2 solution, dosed with 40 gm-3 chloride, failed to suppress fully crevice corrosion initiated in unborated 40 gm-3 chloride solution at 220C. Fluoride is not deleterious at low levels ∼ 10 gm-3 in the borate solutions. The significant improvement in corrosion control demonstrated for the change from pH7 to pH9.2 borate solution on laboratory sensitised brace samples should ideally be confirmed using complete irradiated AGR fuel elements. (U.K.)

  3. How to improve aesthetics in patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS: a SPoRT brace treatment according to SOSORT management criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Claudia

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aesthetics is a main goal of both conservative and surgical treatments in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. Previously, we developed and validated a clinical scale - the Aesthetic Index (AI--in order to measure aesthetic impairment and changes during treatment. Aim To verify the efficacy of bracing on aesthetics in AIS. Study Design Prospective Cohort Study. Population Thirty-four consecutive patients, age 13.2 ± 3.7, initial Cobb Angle 32 ± 12°, ATR 10 ± 4° Bunnel, 11 males. Methods Patients with AI scores of at least 5/6 were included. Each of them had a brace prescription (18 to 23 hours per day, according to the SPoRT concept. AI was measured again after six months and at the end of treatment, and then the pre- and post-treatment scores compared. The Wilcoxon test was performed. Results Twenty-nine patients out of the 34 included completed the treatment and had six-month and final results; four patients were lost during the treatment, and one was fused. At baseline, median AI was 6 (95% IC 5-6 but the score decreased to 3 (95% IC 0-5; p Conclusion Aesthetics can be improved in a clinically significant way when the brace treatment is performed according to the SPoRT concept and by following the SOSORT management criteria. This is a relevant result for patients and a major goal of scoliosis treatment, be it conservative or surgical. The use of a more sensitive tool like TRACE could more easily detect the clinical changes; nevertheless, AI proved sensible enough that its use in everyday clinical practice can be suggested.

  4. Nickel sensitization in adolescents and association with ear piercing, use of dental braces and hand eczema. The Odense Adolescence Cohort Study on Atopic Diseases and Dermatitis (TOACS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Lauritsen, Jens Martin; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten;

    2002-01-01

    cases. Nickel allergy was found most frequently in girls and the association with ear piercing was confirmed. Application of dental braces (oral nickel exposure) prior to ear piercing (cutaneous nickel exposure) was associated with a significantly reduced prevalence of nickel allergy. In adolescents a...... significant association was found between hand eczema and nickel allergy. A follow-up study of this population is planned in order to assess the course and development of contact dermatitis, hand eczema and atopic diseases in adulthood and after choice of occupation....

  5. Analysison the improvement of bracing system of European 6.25 m stamp-charging coke oven%欧洲6。25 m捣固焦炉护炉铁件改进分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨泽然; 郑亚杰

    2015-01-01

    叙述了欧洲6.25m捣固焦炉护炉装置的使用情况,并详细介绍了优化设计后焦炉护炉装置的结构及其特点。对护炉装置进行了技术改进,有效改善了焦炉的密封性。%The condition of bracing system of European 6. 25m stamp-charging coke oven is intro-duced. The structure and features of optimized bracing system of coke oven is described in detail. After modification of the bracing system,the tightness of coke oven is remarkably improved.

  6. Behavior of Shear Link of WF Section with Diagonal Web Stiffener of Eccentrically Braced Frame (EBF of Steel Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurisman

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of numerical and experimental study of shear link behavior, utilizing diagonal stiffener on web of steel profile to increase shear link performance in an eccentric braced frame (EBF of a steel structure system. The specimen is to examine the behavior of shear link by using diagonal stiffener on web part under static monotonic and cyclic load. The cyclic loading pattern conducted in the experiment is adjusted according to AISC loading standards 2005. Analysis was carried out using non-linear finite element method using MSC/NASTRAN software. Link was modeled as CQUAD shell element. Along the boundary of the loading area the nodal are constraint to produce only one direction loading. The length of the link in this analysis is 400mm of the steel profile of WF 200.100. Important parameters considered to effect significantly to the performance of shear link have been analyzed, namely flange and web thicknesses, , thickness and length of web stiffener, thickness of diagonal stiffener and geometric of diagonal stiffener. The behavior of shear link with diagonal web stiffener was compared with the behavior of standard link designed based on AISC 2005 criteria. Analysis results show that diagonal web stiffener is capable to increase shear link performance in terms of stiffness, strength and energy dissipation in supporting lateral load. However, differences in displacement ductility’s between shear links with diagonal stiffener and shear links based on AISC standards have not shown to be significant. Analysis results also show thickness of diagonal stiffener and geometric model of stiffener to have a significant influence on the performance of shear links. To perform validation of the numerical study, the research is followed by experimental work conducted in Structural Mechanic Laboratory Center for Industrial Engineering ITB. The Structures and Mechanics Lab rotary PAU-ITB. The experiments were carried out using three test

  7. The Basics of Braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that your kids will, too. Often, your child's dentist will be the first to notice problems during ... and recommend that you see an orthodontist (a dentist who specializes in correcting jaw and/or teeth ...

  8. Knee braces - unloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most people talk about the arthritis in their knees, they are referring to a type of arthritis ... is caused by wear and tear inside your knee joints. Cartilage, the firm, rubbery tissue that cushions ...

  9. An analysis of avoided impacts on climate extremes when comparing RCP8.5 and RCP4.5, as part of the BRACE project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebaldi, C.

    2014-12-01

    We present an overview of detected changes in various aspect of the climate system, both for mean quantities and extremes, while comparing two different scenarios (RCP8.5 and RCP4.5) that were run by the CESM1-CAM5 model with large initial condition ensembles, designed to make the detection robust by sampling internal variability exhaustively. This analysis is one of many organized under the Benefits of Reducing Anthropogenic Climate change (BRACE) project of the Climate and Human System Project at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which focuses on the question of avoided impacts. The differences experienced by the physical system are just the most immediate aspects of avoided impacts, and underpin the explanation of the differences that would be experienced by natural and human systems, which other presentations within this session address.

  10. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria in {l_brace}water + acrylic acid + (1-butanol, or 2-butanol, or 1-pentanol){r_brace} systems at T = 293.2 K, T = 303.2 K, and T = 313.2 K and atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistell, Melissa C.; Alves, Thiago C.; Guadagnini, Talita R.; Hadlich de Oliveira, Leonardo [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas, Av. Albert Einstein 500, 13083-852 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Aznar, Martin, E-mail: maznar@feq.unicamp.br [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas, Av. Albert Einstein 500, 13083-852 Campinas-SP (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > Acrylic acid solubilizes preferably in the studied solvents than in water. > Immiscibility region increases in the order: 2-butanol < 1-butanol < 1-pentanol. > Immiscibility region reduces little with an increase in temperature. > K and S values show that 1-pentanol is the best studied solvent. - Abstract: (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for {l_brace}water + acrylic acid + (1-butanol, or 2-butanol, or 1-pentanol){r_brace} at T = 293.2 K, T = 303.2 K, and T = 313.2 K and atmospheric pressure ({approx}95 kPa) were determined by Karl Fischer titration and densimetry. All systems present type I binodal curves. The size of immiscibility region changes little with an increase in temperature, but increases according to the solvent, following the order: 2-butanol < 1-butanol < 1-pentanol. Values of solute distribution and solvent selectivities show that 1-pentanol is a better solvent than 1-butanol or 2-butanol for acrylic acid removal from water solutions. Quality of data was ascertain by Hand and Othmer-Tobias equations, giving R{sup 2} > 0.916, mass balance and accordance between tie lines and cloud points. The NRTL model was used to correlate experimental data, by estimating new energy parameters, with root mean square deviations below 0.0053 for all systems.

  11. Speeds of sound in {l_brace}(1 - x)CH{sub 4} + xN{sub 2}{r_brace} with x = (0.10001, 0.19999, and 0.5422) at temperatures between 170 K and 400 K and pressures up to 30 MPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estela-Uribe, J.F. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Javeriana-Cali, Calle 18, 118-250 Cali (Colombia); Trusler, J.P.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: m.trusler@imperial.ac.uk; Chamorro, C.R. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Segovia, J.J. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Martin, M.C. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Villamanan, M.A. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain)

    2006-07-15

    The speed of sound in {l_brace}(1 - x)CH{sub 4} + xN{sub 2}{r_brace} has been measured with a spherical acoustic resonator. Two mixtures with x = (0.10001 and 0.19999) were studied along isotherms at temperatures between 220 K and 400 K with pressures up to 20 MPa; a few additional measurements at p = (25 and 30) MPa are also reported. A third mixture with x = 0.5422 was studied along pseudo-isochores at amount-of-substance densities between 0.2 mol . dm{sup -3} and 5 mol . dm{sup -3}. Corrections for molecular vibrational relaxation are discussed in detail and relaxation times are reported. The overall uncertainty of the measured speeds of sound is estimated to be not worse than {+-}0.02%, except for those measurements in the mixture with x = 0.5422 that lie along the pseduo-isochore at the highest amount-of-substance density. The results have been compared with the predictions of several equations of state used for natural gas systems.

  12. Study on Links Length Effect on Y-Eccentrically Braced Frames Seismic Performance%Y形偏心支撑耗能段长度对结构抗震性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宝成; 于安林; 沈淼; 李仁达

    2012-01-01

    In order to research stiffs, strength and energy-dissipation of Y-eccentrically braced frames in changing length of links,the one-bay two-story test specimen was carried out under low reversed cyclic loading. Process and method of test was introduced. Load capacity, displacement ductility, hysteretic behavior, ductility, energy-dissipation and plastic mechanism of Y-eccentrically braced frames were analyzed. Experimental studies and analysis show that changing lengths of links have effect on strength, stiffness and energy-dissipation capacity of Y-eccentrically braced frames. The length of links is shorter, the Y-eccentrically braced frames strength and stiffness are bigger. The links entering the plasticity to form the plastic mechanism dissipate structure seismic energy. Failure of connection between links and braces causes the structure expiration. Specimens have good displacement capacity and the displacement ductility ratios is between 3. 62 ~4. 44. The length of links was designed reasonably,and then Y-eccentrically braced steel frames provide high stiffness and well resistant-seismic.%目的 研究Y形偏心支撑耗能段长度对结构的刚度、承载能力以及滞回性能的影响.方法 对2榀改变耗能段长度的Y形偏心支撑框架进行循环加荷试验.介绍了试验方案和试验过程,对比分析了试件的承载能力、位移延性、耗能能力以及Y形偏心支撑框架塑性机构.结果 耗能段长度对Y形偏心支撑框架强度、刚度以及耗能能力影响较大;耗能段长度越短,Y形偏心支撑框架强度和刚度越大;结构主要由耗能段进入塑性形成塑性机构耗散地震能量;耗能段与支撑之间的连接破坏导致结构失效;试件的位移延性系数为3.62 ~4.44,结构的位移延性较好.结论 Y形偏心支撑耗能段长度选取合理,结构抗侧刚度高、抗震性能好.

  13. Severe psychogenic tremor of both wrists in a 13-year-old girl treated successfully with a customized wrist brace: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schafflhuber Caroline

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Psychogenic movement disorders in childhood have been little researched. As there are few courses of treatment which have been evaluated, further examination and case studies about the treatment and clinical course of this rare occurrence of severe psychogenic tremor in childhood and adolescence are much needed. Case presentation A 13-year-old Caucasian girl with tremor in both wrists, severe enough to prevent her from attending school, was sent to our hospital. After a complete neurological and psychiatric examination, in-patient child-psychotherapeutic treatment was started, with careful consideration given to both chronic and acute stress factors which constitute her performance and exam anxiety in school as well as the girl's parents' conflicted relationship. With the aid of a customized wrist brace our patient was able to go to school and write despite the presence of a marked tremor, which in turn reduced her avoidance behavior and exam anxiety. By the end of her in-patient treatment, the tremor was still noticeable, but markedly reduced in severity (reduction 80%. Two weeks after she was discharged from hospital, the tremor had completely disappeared. Conclusion After careful clinical diagnostics, this kind of dissociative disorder should be treated appropriately with age-adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy to achieve positive and lasting benefits.

  14. Organic composition of PM 2.5 and size-segregated aerosols and their sources during the 2002 Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE), Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Raphaël T.; Riemer, Daniel D.; Zika, Rod G.

    PM 2.5 and size-segregated aerosols were collected in May 2002 as part of the Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE), Florida, USA. Aerosol organic composition was used to estimate sources of a series of alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using chemical indices, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and a chemical mass balance receptor model (CMB). Aerosols were collected on quartz fiber filters (QFF) using a PM 2.5 high volume sampler and on aluminum foil discs using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI, 50% aerodynamic cut diameters were 18, 10, 5.6, 3.2, 1.8, 1.0, 0.56, 0.315 and 0.171 μm). Target compounds included alkanes and PAHs and were solvent extracted using a mixture of dichloromethane, acetone and hexane, concentrated and then analyzed using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The target compounds in PM 2.5 were dominated by six sources during the study period: mobile sources (39±5%), coal burning (33±5%), biogenic primary emission (20±2%), oil combustion (5±2%), biomass burning (1.0±0.3%) and an unidentified source (3±2%). Results obtained from the chemical indices, HCA and CMB were in very good agreement with each other. PAH size distributions are presented for days dominated by a same source. Seventy-five percent and 50% of the PAH were found below 1.8 and 0.56 μm, respectively (monthly PAH geometric diameters averaged 0.43 μm). Coarse size PAHs were observed on 1 day (15 May) and were correlated with nitrate and sodium size distribution. It is hypothesized that the PAHs, sodium and nitrate were internally mixed and that the PAHs deposited onto a pre-existing marine aerosol. This transfer process has significant implications for PAH deposition and lifetime and warrants further study.

  15. RESEARCH ON STATIC PERFORMANCE OF CABLE-BRACED FRAME FOR PRESTRESSED MULTIPLE AND HIGH-RISE STEEL STRUCTURES%多高层预应力钢结构索支撑-框架静力性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学春; 林娜; 张爱林; 赵亮; 王艺蒙

    2015-01-01

    将预应力索支撑引入多高层钢结构,提出耗能预应力索支撑-框架结构,该结构体系能有效提高框架结构的抗侧能力和侧移延性,减小柱子计算长度,降低结构用钢量。利用有限元分析方法,分别对预应力索支撑-刚接框架、预应力索支撑-半刚接框架以及纯刚接框架进行静力性能分析,研究轴压比对三者的弹塑性发展、极限承载力、破坏机理、侧移刚度和侧移延性等方面的影响规律。研究表明,设置索支撑除增大框架抗侧刚度和提高极限承载力外,更重要的是提高侧移延性,改善破坏模式,且当外荷载去除或减小时使框架全部或者部分回到原始平衡位置,实现自复位。另外,随着轴压比的增大,三者抗侧承载力均降低,纯框架侧移延性降低,但索支撑-框架延性基本不受轴压比影响。%A new type of prestressed cable-braced energy-dissipation frame structure was proposed by adding prestressed cable brace to a high-rise building.This structure could improve lateral resistance and ductility of steel frame effectively, thus resulting in smaller calculation length of columns and less steel-consumption.By using finite element method, the static behavior of cable-braced rigid frame, cable-braced semi-rigid frame and steel frame was analyzed, and the influence law of axial compression ratio on their elastioplasticity behavior, ultimate bearing capacity, failure mechanism, lateral stiffness and ductility etc was studied.The results showed that cable brace could improve the lateral stiffness and bearing capacity of steel frame, more importantly, could also improve its lateral ductility, change failure model, and produce the self-centering function by tensioning frame back to the original location entirely or partly when the load was removed.In addition, with the increase of axial compression ratio, bearing capacities of the three type frames were all

  16. Volumetric properties and enthalpies of solution of alcohols C{sub k}H{sub 2k+1}OH (k = 1, 2, 6) in 1-methyl-3-alkylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide {l_brace}[C{sub 1}C{sub n}Im][NTf{sub 2}] n = 2, 4, 6, 8, 10{r_brace} ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Y. [CNRS, Laboratoire Thermodynamique et Interactions Moleculaires, UMR 6272, 24 avenue des Landais, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Husson, P. [CNRS, Laboratoire Thermodynamique et Interactions Moleculaires, UMR 6272, 24 avenue des Landais, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, Laboratoire Thermodynamique et Interactions Moleculaires, UMR 6272, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Jacquemin, J. [The QUILL Research Centre, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AG (United Kingdom); Universite Francois Rabelais, Laboratoire PCMB (EA 4244), equipe Chimie-physique des Interfaces et des Milieux Electrolytiques (CIME), Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Youngs, T.G.A. [The QUILL Research Centre, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AG (United Kingdom); Kett, V.L. [The School of Pharmacy, The Queen' s University of Belfast, 97 Lisburn Road, Belfast BT9 7BL (United Kingdom); Hardacre, C. [The QUILL Research Centre, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AG (United Kingdom); Costa Gomes, M.F., E-mail: margarida.c.gomes@univ-bpclermont.fr [CNRS, Laboratoire Thermodynamique et Interactions Moleculaires, UMR 6272, 24 avenue des Landais, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, Laboratoire Thermodynamique et Interactions Moleculaires, UMR 6272, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Excess properties of (ionic liquid + alcohol) mixtures. > Volumetric properties, excess molar volumes. > Heats of mixing of (ionic liquid + alcohol) mixtures. > Molecular simulation of (ionic liquid + alcohol) mixtures. - Abstract: We present a study on the effect of the alkyl chain length of the imidazolium ring in 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquids, [C{sub 1}C{sub n}Im][NTf{sub 2}] (n = 2 to 10), on the mixing properties of (ionic liquid + alcohol) mixtures (enthalpy and volume). We have measured small excess molar volumes with highly asymmetric curves as a function of mole fraction composition (S-shape) with more negative values in the alcohol-rich regions. The excess molar volumes increase with the increase of the alkyl-chain length of the imidazolium cation of the ionic liquid. The values of the partial molar excess enthalpy and the enthalpy of mixing are positive and, for the case of methanol, do not vary monotonously with the length of the alkyl side-chain of the cation on the ionic liquid - increasing from n = 2 to 6 and then decreasing from n = 8. This non-monotonous variation is explained by a more favourable interaction of methanol with the cation head group of the ionic liquid for alkyl chains longer than eight carbon atoms. It is also observed that the mixing is less favourable for the smaller alcohols, the enthalpy of mixing decreasing to less positive values as the alkyl chain of the alcohol increases. Based on the data from this work and on the knowledge of the vapour pressure of {l_brace}[C{sub 1}C{sub n}Im][NTf{sub 2}] + alcohol{r_brace} binary mixtures at T = 298 K reported in the literature, the excess Gibbs free energy, excess enthalpy and excess entropy could be then calculated and it was observed that these mixtures behave like the ones constituted by a non-associating and a non-polar component, with its solution behaviour being determined by the enthalpy.

  17. Application of soil-nailing wall in foundation pit bracing of building No.18 for measurement and scientific experiment%土钉墙在18号计量科研实验楼基坑支护中应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春山

    2012-01-01

    总结出土钉墙支护具有经济、安全、质量可靠等优点,通过分析18号计量科研实验楼基坑土钉支护的施工情况,进一步了解土钉墙支护的施工工艺,为土钉墙施工提供一定的参考价值。%This paper outlines advantages of soil-nailing wall bracing,such as economic,safe,and reliable quality and so on.Through analyzing the soil-nailing bracing condition of foundation pit of building No.18 for measurement and scientific experiment,it further knows the bracing technology of soil-nailing wall,which has provided certain valuable reference for the construction of soil-nailing wall.

  18. Lockable Knee Brace Speeds Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center develops key transportation and propulsion technologies for the Space Agency. The Center manages propulsion hardware and technologies of the space shuttle, develops the next generation of space transportation and propulsion systems, oversees science and hardware development for the International Space Station, manages projects and studies that will help pave the way back to the Moon, and handles a variety of associated scientific endeavors to benefit space exploration and improve life here on Earth. It is a large and diversified center, and home to a great wealth of design skill. Some of the same mechanical design skill that made its way into the plans for rocket engines and advanced propulsion at this Alabama-based NASA center also worked its way into the design of an orthotic knee joint that is changing the lives of people with weakened quadriceps.

  19. Schools Brace for Bhutanese Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    American educators in cities such as Syracuse, NY, Burlington, VT, and St. Paul, MN, for reasons including civic culture, existing ethnic communities, availability of jobs, and the location of refugee-resettlement organizations, periodically receive waves of resettling immigrants. Officials in those communities have become adept at educating…

  20. 青少年脊柱侧凸症的支具治疗:应用与评估%Adolescent scoliosis treated with braces: application and evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱雪华; 孙鹏; 施杞

    2005-01-01

    目的:探讨青少年脊柱侧凸症的非手术疗法之一支具治疗的应用历史,疗效评估及其副作用.资料来源:应用计算机检索Medline 1970-01/2003-12和Embase1970-01/2004-04有关青少年脊柱侧凸症支具治疗的文章,检索词为"Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis,brace,review",并限定文章语言种类为English.资料选择:根据综述描述及引用文献,选取使用支具治疗青少年脊柱侧凸症的研究报道.纳入标准:符合随机临床试验,有正常组对照或/和支具类型之间的对比评估分析及10个月以上的随访研究.排除标准:明显不符合临床随机实验要求的文章.资料提炼:共检索到42篇支具治疗青少年脊柱侧凸症的综述文献,从中筛选出24篇文献,分析评估青少年脊柱侧凸症的支具应用,排除的文献包括同一内容的实验研究及未做随访的研究文章.资料综合:24个实验包括5 432例患者,均采取各种支具治疗青少年脊柱侧凸症.支具类型包括Boston、Charleston、胸腰骶支具和Milwaukee等.目前对支具的有效性及支具选择方面仍存在不同意见.不恰当的支具治疗可能引起多种并发症,如皮肤溃疡、心理障碍、背痛、胸廓畸形及影响呼吸功能障碍等.结论:虽然对支具使用和效果评估存在不同意见,但一般认为规范化的早期支具治疗可以有限的控制青少年脊柱侧凸症的畸形进展.

  1. Practical Study on Displacements of Oblique Bracing Supporting System in Excavation of Large Pit%一种改进的斜支撑体系支护某超大深基坑的变形分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘裕华; 陈征宙; 毕港

    2011-01-01

    A modified oblique bracing supporting system was used in supporting construction of foundation pit for a shopping mall in Jinan city,which occupies more than 50000 m2. The oblique bracing supporting system, which is different from normal pattern, includes supporting piles,oblique bracing constructions,vertical pillars and struts. Through the analysis of explicit finite difference numerical calculation with FLAC3D program,considering the results of in-situ monitoring of supporting piles,some conclusions are drawn on the displacements of the supporting system,and the effects of supporting constuctions. It indicates that the supporting constructions in the system are fully utilized to work with the soil at the bottom of pit to resist the soil pressures caused by foundation pit excavation,and that the displacements of soil around the pit are reduced. Furthermore, the normal operation of roads, underground lines, and buildings surrounding the pit are ensured under the effective support of the system.%济南某商业广场超过50000 m2的基坑采用一种改进的斜支撑支护体系进行支护,与普通斜支撑支护型式不同,该支护体系包括支护桩、斜撑、立柱与支撑桩.本文采用FLAC3D显式有限差分数值计算分析方法,并结合支护桩水平位移测斜数据,对该支护体系的变形特性进行分析研究,从中论证各支护单元在3个开挖阶段的运动学效应.研究结果表明,该斜支撑支护体系可以把各支护单元以及它们之间的土体充分调动起来,相互之间积极协调,以抵挡基坑开挖带来的土压力,从而减小基坑周围土体位移,保障周围道路、地下设施及周边建筑的正常运行.

  2. 防屈曲耗能支撑在三边简支网架结构中的应用研究%Applied Analysis of Trilateral Simply Supported Space Grid with Buckling-restrained Brace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓国杰; 傅昶彬

    2012-01-01

    采用SAP2000V14.1对防屈曲耗能支撑在矩形平面三边简支一边自由的斜放四角锥网架结构进行了弹塑性时程分析.在难以直接比较多方案网架结构减震优劣的情况下,提出了以综合轴力减震值作为进一步的比较指标的方法,并用此方法对9种防屈曲耗能支撑替换方案的减震效果进行了对比分析.得出了较优的替换方案.为今后该类网架结构的耗能减震设计提供了参考依据.此外对结构不同部位的动力响应也作了分析.%The elastic-plastic time history analysis of a rectangular planar trilateral simply-supported and one side free diagonal square pyramid grids with buckling-restrained brace was explored with the SAP2000V14. 1 software. Facing the difficulty of determining the better scheme directly, further comparison index synthetic parameters -comprehensive anti-seismic value of axial force were put forward. Comparison analysis of the anti-seismic effect of 9 replacement schemes of buckling-restrained brace in the dynamic process was carried out using this method, and then a replacement scheme of the optimal solution was obtained, providing reference for the energy dissipation and anti-seismic design of grid structure of this kind in the future. The analysis of dynamic response in different parts of the structure was also made.

  3. 双层柱面网壳结构在BRB作用下的减震分析%Vibration reduction analysis of double - layer cylinder lattice shell with bucking- restrained brace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭燕秋; 甄晓慧; 史三元

    2012-01-01

    运用SAP2000有限元软件对跨度30 m,长度42 m的正放四角锥双层柱面网壳建立模型,并进行模态分析和力学性能分析.在EL - Centro波作用下对支撑布置位置不同和布置数量不同时的网壳结构进行地震响应分析.结果表明:防屈曲支撑在双层柱面网壳中替换部分杆件时可以起到较好的减震效果,其中替换受力较大的腹杆要比替换其他位置杆件的减震效果要好,而在替换腹杆的不同方案中,替换了48根杆件的减震效果明显优于替换20根杆件的效果.%The model of square pyramid double - layer cylindrical lattice shell with 30 m span and 42 m length was established for modal analysis and mechanical property analysis by use of the finite element analysis software SAP2000. The seismic response analysis of the shell structures was carried out with the bucking - restrained braces in different locations and different numbers under the EL - Centro wave. The results show that replacing some bars with the bucking - restrained braces in the double -layer cylindrical lattice shell could strengthen the damping effect. The replacement of the web members bearing more loads has a better damping effect than the replacement of other members, and the effect of replacing 48 web members is better than replacing 20 web members in the web - member replacement scheme.

  4. Applied Analysis of Three Layer Flat Diagonal Square Pyramid Grid with Buckling-restrained Brace%防屈曲耗能支撑在三层斜放四角锥网架中的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓国杰; 熊峰

    2012-01-01

    The model of a three layer flat diagonal square pyramid grid was built in space structure designing software MST2011 and then imported into SAP2000. The anti-seismic effect of three layer flat diagonal square pyramid grid of long span with buckling-restrained brace was explored with the large-scale finite element analysing program SAP2000V14. 1 . The bars in different parts of the grid structure were replaced with buckling-restrained brace and dynamic time history analysis was carried out under different replacement schemes. The dynamic response of key bars and key nodes of different replacement schemes is compared, and the better substitution scheme is then drawed, providing reference for the energy dissipation and anti-seismic design of three layer diagonal square pyramid grid of long span. The analysis of dynamic response in different parts of the structure is also made.%采用空间结构设计软件MST2011建立周边中弦简支的正方形大跨度三层网架结构模型,并导入SAP2000中.利用大型有限元分析程序SAP2000V14.1,对防屈曲耗能支撑在大跨度三层网架结构中的减震效果进行探究.对网架结构中不同位置处的杆件用防屈曲支撑进行替换,在不同的替换方案下对结构进行动力时程分析.比较不同替换方案下关键杆件及关键节点的动力响应.得出较优的替换形式,为超大跨度三层网架结构的耗能减震设计提供参考.此外对结构不同部位的动力响应也作了分析.

  5. Design Method of Damped Bracings to Control the Structure with Weak Story%阻尼支撑控制结构薄弱层的设计方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆伟东; 蓝宗建; 刘伟庆

    2011-01-01

    针对地震中震损严重的含薄弱层结构,计算分析了薄弱层对结构抗震性能的影响及其变化规律.基于"补偿刚度"概念,根据阻尼器和附加体系的力学特征,提出了控制薄弱层层间位移的阻尼支撑简化设计方法.通过时程分析验证,该简化设计方法能精准控制薄弱层层间位移到目标值,具有良好的经济性和实用性.%The structure with weak story will be seriously damaged in earthquake, calculation and analysis of the weak story on the seismic performance and its variation of the structure are progressed. Based on the concept of Compensation Stiffness, according to the mechanical behavior of dampers and added component of the system, the simplified design methods are proposed to control the story drift of the structure with weak story by damped bracings. The time-history analysis shows that the simplified design method can precisely control the displacement between the weak story to the target, and has a good economy and practicality.

  6. Transpedicle bone graft after bracing repeatedly for treating severe thoracic and lumbar vertebral burst fractures%多次撑开植骨治疗严重胸腰椎爆裂骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周兆文; 普有登; 尹劲; 袁晓峰; 胡军; 贺云; 段洪

    2013-01-01

    Objective To research the better surgical strategy for severe thoracic and lumbar vertebral burst fracture.To consummate the evaluation methods in operation and technic ofpedicle screw internal fixation combined with transpedicle graft of artificial bone.Methods From August 2007 to March 2013,44 severe cases (compression ratio of vertebral margins > 50%,or encrochment ratio in vertebral canal > 50%) of thoracic and lumbar vertebral burst fractures were cured through the operation of posterior pedicle screw internal fixation combined with transpedicle graft of artificial bone.All cases were braced repeatedly 2~4 times and 6~8cm3 were embedded into the wound vertebral body."One-line sign" or "antrorse arc line sign" of the posterior border of the burst vertebral body and the dgree of compression of the vertebral canal can be oberved clearly on lateral fluoroscopy in the operation.Results The height and configuration of vertebral body restored to 96%~105% and compression ratio of posterior vertebral margins remained 0~6% only.Symptom of nerve injury were not found out.After follow-up of 1~24 months,breakdown of screws and rods,kyphosis,nerve injury were not found out.Conclusion Partial severe lumbar burst fractures can be cured through the operation of posterior pedicle screw internal fixation and bracing several times combined with transpedicle graft of artificial bone.%目的 探讨严重胸腰椎爆裂骨折后路手术更好的复位方法,并规范术中观察方法和经伤椎椎弓根植骨技术.方法 44例胸腰椎严重爆裂骨折(椎管占位>50%或伴高度塌陷>50%)均采用脊柱后路钉棒系统多次撑开方法复位固定,并经椎弓根行伤椎体内打压植骨治疗.术中反复撑开2~4次,植人工骨6~8cm3;术中C臂透视,清楚观察椎体后缘“直线”或“前弧线”恢复情况,借此准确判断椎管占位程度.结果 X线和CT显示骨折复位满意,椎体前后缘高度恢复至96

  7. Application of thermosetting plastic brace for treating adolescent idiopathic scoliosis%热塑矫形器及其材料在青少年特发性脊柱侧凸治疗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林志伟; 王应球; 喻锦成

    2010-01-01

    背景:矫形器治疗是目前公认的适于未发育成熟轻中度特发性脊柱侧凸患者惟一有效的非手术治疗方法.目的:回顾性分析热塑矫形器治疗青少年特发性脊柱侧凸临床疗效.方法:1997-04/2004-03在海南省人民医院康复医学部矫形科收治特发性脊柱侧凸患者113例.佩戴热塑矫形器(brace)从开始2.0-3.0 /d,逐渐增加22 h/d.复查时cobb's角减少大于30%,则佩戴时间减至20 h/d,Risser征Ⅳ度或月经初潮1年后佩戴时间减至4 h/d.同时每天完成1 h矫正体操,包括腰背肌锻练:5点式(即头、双肘及双足支撑)和3点式(即头、双足支撑)锻练.随访2年后复测cobb's角,监测cobb's角变化.结果与结论:全部病例随访2年,有效98例(86.7%);治疗无效15例(13.3%),出现脊柱侧凸进展加重.脊柱侧凸cobb's角在20°-30°者68例,有效63例(92.6%).31°-45°者45例,有效35例(77.8%).未发现材料方面的特殊不良反应.结果证明,热塑矫形器结合矫正体操综合治疗特发性脊柱侧凸疗效明显,可减少∞bb's角度,改善侧凸,防止或延缓特发性脊柱侧凸进展.

  8. 分层装配式支撑钢结构工业化建筑体系抗震性能试验研究%Experimental research on seismic performance of floor-by-floor assembled steel braced structures for prefabricated buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周青; 王伟; 陈以一; 童乐为; 余亚超; 杨建行; 刘大伟; 古海贤二

    2012-01-01

    A quasi-static experiment was carried out on a full scale two-story by four-span structural system.Lateral force resisting mechanism,failure modes and hysteretic properties of the improved floor-by-floor assembled steel braced structure were investigated,as well as the evolution of the structural stiffness and strength under horizontal earthquake.Test results show that the braces are the primary members to resist the lateral load,the elastic lateral stiffness is exclusively provided by the braces.The developed new braces demonstrate good ductile behavior.The structural damage evolution under cyclic loading includes compression buckling and tension yielding of braces,partial yielding of column base,cyclic deformation of beam flange,weld cracking and plastic hinge formation at the column bases.The beam-column frame can participate in resisting horizontal seismic force under the conditions of large story drift due to the improved beam through connections.Thus,it can be viewed as the second defense of the structural system.It is recommended that a certain magnification factor for seismic action should be considered in the seismic design to compensate the low energy dissipation capacity.%对2层4跨足尺结构进行了拟静力加载试验,考察了分层装配式支撑钢结构在水平地震作用下的抗侧力机制、破坏模式与滞回特性,以及刚度和承载力的变化规律。试验结果表明,支撑是主要抗侧力构件,结构弹性阶段的抗侧刚度几乎完全由支撑提供,研制的新型支撑具有良好的延性工作性能。结构体系在往复荷载下失效演进过程表现为支撑受压失稳、支撑受拉屈服、柱脚截面部分屈服、节点处梁翼缘循环拉压变形、柱脚端板连接焊缝开裂和柱脚全截面屈服形成塑性铰。改进后的梁贯通式节点可以保证框架在塑性大变形阶段分担相当比例的水平地震力,因而可作为该结构的第2道防线。鉴于结构体系耗能能力

  9. 夜用式脊柱侧凸矫形器治疗脊柱单侧弯的临床疗效观察%Effectiveness of night-time bending brace in the treatment of adolescent single-curve idiopathic scoliosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈东; 武继祥; 黄丹

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨分析夜用式脊柱侧凸矫形器对青少年特发性脊柱单侧弯的疗效。方法:脊柱单侧凸患者40例,分为观察组22例和对照组18例。观察组在睡觉时佩戴夜用式脊柱侧凸矫形器8~10h ,对照组佩戴传统色努式脊柱侧凸矫形器≥20h。观察2组患者治疗前后的Cobb角,顶椎偏离中线距离(AVT)、躯干位移(TS)和肺活量(VC)的改善。结果:治疗3个月后,2组患者的Cobb角度、AVT及TS距离均明显低于治疗前(P<0.01),且观察组更低于对照组(P<0.01);2组治疗后VC含量均明显高于治疗前,且观察组更高于对照组(P<0.01)。结论:夜用式脊柱侧凸矫形器适合青少年C型侧凸治疗,其矫正效果明显优于传统的脊柱侧凸矫形器,值得临床推广应用。%Objective :To analyze the effectiveness of night-time bending brace in the treatment of adolescent single-curve idiopathic scoliosis .Method:Forty patients with single-curve scoliosis were divided into observation group (n=22) and control group (n=18) .The patients in the observation group wore night-time bending brace for 8-10 h when sleeping ,and those in the control group wore traditional scoliosis brace for more than 20 h .The Cobb's angle , apex vertebral trunking distance from the center line (AVT) ,trunk swing (TS) ,spinal flexibility and vital capacity (VC) were comapred between two groups .Results :After treatment ,the cobb's angle ,AVT and TS in both two groups were significantly reduced as compared with those before treatment (P<0 .01) ,and those indexes were even significantly lower in the observation group than in the control group (P<0 .01) .After treatment ,VC in both two groups was increased as compared with that before treatment ,and the index was significantly higher in the observa-tion group than in the control group (P<0 .01) .Conclusion :Night-time bending brace is suitable for the treatment of adolescent

  10. Bracing up for a global nuclear renaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear new build market is dynamic: the nuclear renaissance is here. The challenge facing today the nuclear industry is to meet this strong demand: design and build new reactors..... and ensure an adequate fuel supply for the existing reactors and the new ones. AREVA is getting ready to meet those needs. To answer in the best possible way the call of several new customers, and to make the necessary investments AREVA has made the choice of complementing its own strength with new alliances. When it was created, AREVA has set a new model: an integrated group capable of supplying all parts of the nuclear cycle, from Uranium mining to reactor design construction and servicing, and then up to used fuel management and recycling. This merger of reactor activities and fuel cycle services has proved successful. Focused acquisitions have further strengthened our own capabilities. In addition, AREVA has set-up several alliances to further develop the nuclear market. In the United States, AREVA joined forces with the US utility Constellation to create Uni Star to promoting the EPR. Today, several US utilities are choosing the AREVA's US-EPR. They will benefit from the experience gained in licensing and building the EPR in Finland, in France and soon in China. And they will benefit of course from the unique features of the EPR: easier maintenance, shorter outage, enhanced safety. Willing to meet the growing demand of countries launching a new nuclear program, AREVA set up an alliance with MHI to design a mid-size reactor, ATEMEA 1. Such an alliance allows to speed-up time to market of this new product, which will offer the latest available technologies. In the fuel cycle, AREVA has also developed acquisitions and alliances. As an example, thanks to such an alliance, the new enrichment plant GB-2, could get access to the most efficient centrifugation process. In this fast growing global market, at AREVA we believe into the value of collaboration and partnership to best serve our customers

  11. Influência da utilização da órtese de tornozelo durante atividades do voleibol: avaliação eletromiográfica Influencia de la utilización de la ortesis del tobillo durante las actividades del voleibol: evaluación electromiográfica Use of ankle bracing for volleyball activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Rosa Cardoso

    2005-10-01

    évias en el miembro dominante. Fué colectada la contracción isométrica voluntaria máxima (CIVM de cada músculo y, en seguida, la actividad electromiográfica en diferentes situaciones con y sin la ortesis, en orden aleatoria. La ortesis utilizada poseía apoyos laterales. La señal electromiográfico fué cuantificado por la raiz cuadrada de la média (RMS y normalizado por la CIVM. Se realizó un análisis de la varianza de las medidas repetidas para verificar la diferencia de la actividad eléctrica de los músculos envueltos en cada actividad, con o sin ortesis, con significación estadística de 5% (p The ankle sprain is the most frequently found acute injury in volleyball. Aiming to prevent the occurrence of ankle injuries, prophylactic equipment as the bracing had been developed. This study had the purpose to evaluate the performance of the ankle muscles (tibialis anterior, peroneous longus, and medial and lateral gastrocnemius by measuring the electrical activity in different volleyball activities (vertical jumping and lateral shuffling with and without using ankle bracing. Nine young female volleyball athletes with ages ranging from 14 to 17 years (: 15.8 ± 1.3 were evaluated, all of them without previous injuries in the dominant member. Maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC of each muscle was collected, and after that, the electromyographic activity in different situations with and without using the bracing, randomly. The bracing used had two lateral supports. The electromyographic signal was quantified by the root mean square (RMS, and normalized by the MVIC. Analysis of the variance with repeated measurement was used to verify the difference of the electric activity of the muscles involved in each activity, with and without using the bracing, with 5% (p < 0.05 significance level. It was identified a statistically significant difference in phase I of the jumping in favor of the tibialis anterior (p < 0.001 and in phase II in favor of the three

  12. Sarmiento A(1970)膝下功能支具治疗胫骨骨折135例报告%Sarmiento A (1970) A functional below-the-knee brace for tibial fractures. A Report on its use in one hundred thirty-five cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Ring; Hartmut R. Siebert; 苏秀云; 梁平

    2006-01-01

    应用膝下功能支具治疗135例胫骨骨折患者,结果表明保留膝关节和踝关节的功能可促进骨折的顺利愈合.大多数病例骨折得以快速愈合,提示早期恢复肢体的正常生理负荷状态有利于及时开始成骨活动.%Results from the first 135 cases of tibial fractures treated with a functional below-the-knee-brace demonstrate uneventful healing while function of the knee and ankle is maintained. Rapid healing of the fracture in most patients suggests that the early resumption of nearly normal physiological conditions in the limb is favorable to timely and uninterrupted osteogenesis.

  13. Optimal design of initative horizontal bracing structure of middle tower column of southern cable stayed bridge of Xiazhang sea-crossing bridge%厦漳跨海大桥南汊斜拉桥索塔中塔柱主动横撑的设计计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林寅

    2011-01-01

    本文介绍了厦漳跨海大桥南汊斜拉桥索塔施工中,为消除中塔柱倾斜塔柱根部混凝土的不良应力状态所采用的主动横撑结构的构造特点,以及考虑了施工因素的该结构的设计计算方法,确保中塔柱根部在施工过程中不开裂。该计算方法对类似工程具有一定的指导意义。%This paper intensively introduces the structural characteristics of the adoption of initiative horizontal bracing structure in order to eliminate the bad stress of concrete in the root of leaned tower column during the cable tower construction of Southern Cable Stayed Bridge of Xia Zhang Sea-crossing Bridge,as well as the structural design calculation method considering the construction factors,which can make sure that the root of leaned tower would not cracked during the construction process,and thie could be a reference for similar engineering.

  14. A bamboo braced frame system for tropical climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echeverria, J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost housing system was developed for use in tropical countries, specifically Haiti, with the aims of minimizing environmental impact (including carbon emissions, maximizing use of local and preferably recycled materials, and using local labor. The housing system integrates low-strength concrete blocks (made using recycled concrete aggregate, an innovative seismically-resistant bamboo frame, earthen plasters, bamboo trusses, and metal deck roofs. The bamboo frame relies on flexural yielding of a short rebar dowel to provide ductile performance at a controlled strength level. The plinth walls below the frame and short rebar dowel protects the bamboo from moisture. The top of a plastic soda bottle is used to protect the rebar from moisture and to seal the base of the bamboo culm, allowing mortar to be introduced into the culm above. This paper focuses on the experimental and analytical results of the flexural yielding of the rebar dowel to establish the structural design of this critical component of the system for resisting wind and seismic loads.En este artículo se presenta un sistema de construcción de viviendas de bajo coste para países tropicales en los cuales existe riesgo sísmico. Los objetivos de este trabajo son generar bajo impacto medioambiental (incluyendo las emisiones de carbono, empleo de materiales locales, preferiblemente reciclados, y mano de obra local. Para esta construcción se han empleado bloques de hormigón de baja resistencia (con agregado reciclado junto con un innovador sistema de pórticos de bambú, botellas de plástico, vigas de bambú y cubiertas de chapa. El comportamiento dúctil de la estructura se garantiza introduciendo una barra de acero en la base del pórtico de bambú. Para proteger el bambú de la humedad, el pórtico se monta sobre un zócalo. Los resultados experimentales y analíticos obtenidos se utilizan para el diseño estructural del sistema frente a cargas de viento y sísmicas.

  15. A bamboo braced frame system for tropical climates

    OpenAIRE

    Echeverria, J. (Juan); Sampson, C.; Vargas, J.; Nilsson, T; Gil-Martin, L. M.; Aschheim, M.

    2014-01-01

    A low-cost housing system was developed for use in tropical countries, specifically Haiti, with the aims of minimizing environmental impact (including carbon emissions), maximizing use of local and preferably recycled materials, and using local labor. The housing system integrates low-strength concrete blocks (made using recycled concrete aggregate), an innovative seismically-resistant bamboo frame, earthen plasters, bamboo trusses, and metal deck roofs. The bamboo frame relies on flexural yi...

  16. US braces itself for gasoline and diesel shortages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New fuel regulations that are progressively being introduced in the US from the beginning of this year are likely to lead to radical changes in the gasoline and diesel fuel markets. The main change for gasoline is the replacement of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) by ethanol, whilst for diesel the principal development is the reduction in the permitted sulphur content. A shortage of the new fuels could increase price volatility and drive up prices. This is not a pleasant prospect for the White House, already under criticism for another energy plan: to cut imports of crude oil from the Middle East. (author)

  17. Curve progression and spinal growth in brace treated idiopathic scoliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonseth, KA; Veldhuizen, AG; Cool, JC; van Horn, [No Value

    2000-01-01

    The risk of progression of idiopathic scoliosis is correlated primarily to factors that predict potential remaining skeletal growth. The aim of the current study was to evaluate spinal growth, measured as the length of the scoliotic spine on serial longitudinal radiographs, and its relationship to p

  18. Formation mechanism of {l_brace}111{r_brace} recrystallization texture in ferritic steels; Ferrite ko no {l_brace}111{r_brace} saikessho shugo shoshiki seisei kiko no ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraki, M.; Toge, T.; Sakata, K.; Obara, T. [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Furubayashi, E. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering

    1999-10-01

    Recrystallized ND//<111> texture is obtained from cold rolled ND//<111> matrix even in single crystals where no grain boundary exists. These ND//<111> recrystallized grains are analyzed to emerge by <112> rotation from cold rolled ND//<111> matrix. This rotation is related to (110)<111> slip systems operated during cold rolling. Recrystallized orientations from cold rolled (111)<110> single crystal are 18 degrees rotated around these <112> axes and deviate from ND//<111> by 6 degrees. Since this deviation is not recognizable in polycrystalline material owing to its symmetry, ND//<111> recrystallized texture in cold rolled commercial ferritic steels such as IF steels or electrical steels, may also be explained by the same <112> rotation, not by conventional ND//<111> rotation. (author)

  19. Renewables industry braces itself for ''lean and mean'' future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on the impact of the UK government's cost conscience market-based approach to renewable energy. The replacement of the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) with an obligation requiring electricity suppliers to achieve an increasing proportion of their power from renewable energy sources, and the ability of the suppliers to meet the target by using tradeable green certificates or by paying fines for non-compliance are examined. The economic feasibility of waste-to-energy (landfill gas), the government's failure to offer clear support for onshore and offshore wind power projects, and possible international trade in green certificates are considered. The funding of renewable energy projects, the question of what happens to contracts made under the last three rounds of NFFO, and concerns raised about the sale of green tariffs in the domestic market are discussed. The way in which the suppliers obligation will work is outlined. (UK)

  20. MINIMUM BRACING STIFFNESS FOR MULTI-COLUMN SYSTEMS: THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. DARÍO ARISTIZÁBAL-OCHOA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se propone un metodo que determina la rigidez minima de arrostramiento requeridos por un sistema elastico de varias columnas para lograr condiciones de pandeo sin deriva entre pisos. Las ecuaciones que evaluan la rigidez minima requerida de los arrostramientos laterales y de torsion y la carga critica de pandeo ¡§arriostrada¡¨ correspondiente para cada columna del nivel de piso se obtienen utilizando las funciones de estabilidad modificadas. Se incluyen los siguientes efectos: 1 tipos de conexiones (rigidas, semirrigidas y simples, 2 la distribucion en planta de las columnas (es decir, la orientacion de la seccion transversal y la ubicacion del centro de gravedad de cada columna, 3 deformaciones por cortante a lo largo de cada columna mediante el metodo modificado propuesto por Haringx en 1948, y 4 distribucion de la carga axial entre las columnas (es decir, el patron de carga. Los efectos de las deformaciones axial y de torsion no estan incluidos. El metodo propuesto es aplicable a estructuras 2D y 3D con conexiones rigidas, semirigidas y simple. La formulacion se presenta en este documento se basa en un trabajo previo presentado por Aristizabal-Ochoa en 2007. Se demuestra que la rigidez minima de los arrostramientos laterales y de torsion requeridos por un sistema de varias columnas depende de: 1 la distribucion en planta las columnas; 2 la variacion en altura y propiedades de la seccion transversal de las columnas; 3las rigideces a flexion y a cortante de cada columna; 4 el patron de cargas en el sistema de columnas; 5 la falta de simetria (en el patron de carga, en la disposicion de las columnas, tamanos de las columnas, y sus alturas que hacen que el pandeo combinado de torsion y flexion lateral pueden reducir la capacidad de pandeo critico de la estructura en su conjunto; y 6 las condiciones de apoyo y restricciones en el extremo superior de las columnas. El metodo propuesto se limita a sistemas multi-columna con columnas elasticas y ortotropicas con secciones transversales doblemente simetricas (es decir, con centro de corte coincidiendo con el centroide orientadas en cualquier direccion con respecto a los ejes globales. Se presentan cuatro ejemplos en detalle en una publicacion adjunta que muestran la eficacia y la simplicidad del metodo propuesto.

  1. Influência do complexo flúor-xilitol no controle da placa dentária e do sangramento gengival em pacientes herbiátricos com aparelho ortodôntico fixo Influence of fluorine-xylitol complex in the dental plaque and gingival bleeding control in herbiatric patients with fixed orthodontic brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Elias

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar os efeitos de um dentifrício contendo flúor/xilitol na redução da adesão da placa à estrutura dentária, bem como no índice de sangramento gengival, em portadores de aparelho ortodôntico fixo. METODOLOGIA: foram avaliados 22 jovens, com idade entre 14 e 17 anos. Após a quantificação inicial dos índices, os jovens receberam instruções de escovação e começaram a utilizar somente os dentifrícios da pesquisa. Houve uma divisão aleatória da amostra em dois grupos (A e B. Na primeira semana todos utilizaram um dentifrício padrão e a partir da segunda semana os jovens do grupo A receberam um dentifrício contendo flúor, enquanto os do grupo B receberam um dentifrício contendo o complexo flúor-xilitol, que utilizaram durante vinte e oito dias, quando foram novamente avaliados (T1. Para a segunda fase (T2 houve inversão dos dentifrícios. RESULTADOS: foram comparados os resultados intra-grupo e nos dois grupos houve redução estatisticamente significante entre as fases inicial e T1, inicial e T2 e entre T1 e T2. Já na comparação entre os grupos não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre eles, embora o dentifrício contendo flúor/xilitol tenha proporcionado uma porcentagem de redução do índice de sangramento gengival maior que o dentifrício contendo apenas o fluoreto de sódio, principalmente entre as fases inicial e T2, onde a redução no grupo A foi de 90,13% e no grupo B foi de 78,84%. CONCLUSÃO: a utilização de dentifrícios contendo flúor e xilitol, associada à instrução e motivação, parece ser um recurso bastante promissor para a manutenção da saúde bucal nos pacientes ortodônticos.AIM: to evaluate the effects of a dentifrice containing fluorine/xylitol in the reduction of the adhesion of the plaque to the dental structure, as well as in the gingival bleeding index in patients who had orthodontic braces. METHODS: 22 teenagers, in between 14 and 17 years old were

  2. Differentiation of osteoporotic and neoplastic vertebral fractures by chemical shift {l_brace}in-phase and out-of phase{r_brace} MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragab, Yasser [Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University (Egypt); Radiology Department, Dr Erfan and Bagedo General Hospital (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: yragab61@hotmail.com; Emad, Yasser [Rheumatology and Rehabilitation Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University (Egypt); Rheumatology and Rehabilitation Department, Dr Erfan and Bagedo General Hospital (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: yasseremad68@yahoo.com; Gheita, Tamer [Rheumatology and Rehabilitation Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University (Egypt)], E-mail: gheitamer@yahoo.com; Mansour, Maged [Oncology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University (Egypt); Oncology Department, Dr Erfan and Bagedo General Hospital (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: magedmansour@yahoo.com; Abou-Zeid, A. [Public Health Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt)], E-mail: alaabouzeid@yahoo.com; Ferrari, Serge [Division of Bone Diseases, Department of Rehabilitation and Geriatrics, and WHO, Collaborating Center for Osteoporosis Prevention, Geneva University Hospital (Switzerland)], E-mail: serge.ferrari@medecine.unige.ch; Rasker, Johannes J. [Rheumatologist University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)], E-mail: j.j.rasker@utwente.nl

    2009-10-15

    Objective: The objective of this study was to establish the cut-off value of the signal intensity drop on chemical shift magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with appropriate sensitivity and specificity to differentiate osteoporotic from neoplastic wedging of the spine. Patients and methods: All patients with wedging of vertebral bodies were included consecutively between February 2006 and January 2007. A chemical shift MRI was performed and signal intensity after (in-phase and out-phase) images were obtained. A DXA was performed in all. Results: A total of 40 patients were included, 20 with osteoporotic wedging (group 1) and 20 neoplastic (group 2). They were 21 males and 19 females. Acute vertebral collapse was observed in 15 patients in group 1 and subacute collapse in another 5 patients, while in group 2, 11 patients showed acute collapse and 9 patients (45%) showed subacute vertebral collapse. On the chemical shift MRI a substantial reduction in signal intensity was found in all lesions in both groups. The proportional changes observed in signal intensity of bone marrow lesions on in-phase compared with out-of-phase images showed significant differences in both groups (P < 0.05). At a cut-off value of 35%, the observed sensitivity of out-of-phase images was 95%, specificity was 100%, positive predictive value was 100% and negative predictive value was 95.2%. Conclusion: A chemical shift MRI is useful in order to differentiate patients with vertebral collapse due to underlying osteoporosis or neoplastic process.

  3. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium of {l_brace}water + phenol + (1-butanol, or 2-butanol, or tert-butanol){r_brace} systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadlich de Oliveira, Leonardo [School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6066, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Aznar, Martin, E-mail: maznar@feq.unicamp.b [School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6066, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) and binodal curve data were determined for the systems (water + phenol + tert-butanol) at T = 298.15 K, (water + phenol + 2-butanol) and (water + phenol + 1-butanol) at T = 298.15 K and T = 313.15 K by the combined techniques of densimetry and refractometry. Type I curve (for tert-butanol) and Type II curves (for 1- and 2-butanol) were found. The data were correlated with the NRTL model and the parameters estimated present root mean square deviations below 2% for the system with tert-butanol and lower than 0.8% for the other systems.

  4. U.S. refiners bracing for Summer: Margin recovery may be short lived

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A promising Spring of widened US refining margins is already withering, crude oil prices having caught up with higher refined product prices. With growing perception that economic recovery and therefore gasoline consumption won't compare well with last year in Summer as they had in Spring, prospects are not bright. Worse, tough competition will rage throughout the remaining months through Autumn, when higher costs of federally mandated oxygenate content will add to price and consumer resistance. Unless crude oil prices fall, margins probably will. This issue also presents the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of June 26, 1992; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, June 1992 Edition

  5. Brace for impact! A thesis on medical care following an airplane crash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.L.E. Postma

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis the events and management of a mass casualty incident (MCI) of an airplane crash are studied from a medical point of view. The incident is broken down into areas that are applicable to other MCIs. it is believed that the detailed study of an exceptional event can provide vital informa

  6. Immediate effect of valgus bracing on knee joint moments in meniscectomised patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Maria; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Roos, Ewa M;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Patients undergoing medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy are at increased risk of developing and/or progressing knee osteoarthritis, with increased medial compartment load being a potential contributor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of a valgus unloader...... forward lunge (mean difference [95% CI]) 0.54 [0.27-0.82] (Nm/(BW×HT)%), p<0.001 and one-leg rise (mean difference 0.45 [95% CI 0.08-0.82] (Nm/(BW×HT)%), p=0.022). No other significant differences were found between conditions in any of the included tasks. CONCLUSIONS: A significant effect of the knee...

  7. MUTUAL BRACING OF THE RADIANT AND THE RADIATION DETECTOR OF THE SENSOR FOR THE PHOTOPLETHYSMOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Alekseev

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The model of interacting of optical radiance with a biological fabric is calculated at the is diffusivedirected and mirror reflectances. Outcomes of calculations are resulted and guidelines for development of constructions of sensors for a photoplethysmography on the basis of the observed model are given.

  8. Pre-test numerical simulations and experimental program on dual eccentrically braced frame with removable links

    OpenAIRE

    STRATAN Aurel; IOAN CHESOAN Adriana; DUBINA Dan; TAUCER, FABIO; POLJANSEK Martin

    2014-01-01

    Different strategies can be employed in order to reduce damage to structures under moderate to strong earthquakes. The most radical solutions are base isolation and various implementations of active and semi-active structural control. Other strategies rely on supplemental damping conferred to the structure through various devices based on viscous, friction, or yielding dampers. More or less efficient for reduction of structural damage, all these solutions have the disadvantage of requiring sp...

  9. The ouverture begins Bracing for a Maelstrom of Data, CERN puts its faith in the Grid

    CERN Multimedia

    Cho, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Next week, physicists at the European particle physics lab, CERN, will fire up the world's biggest atom smasher. Expectations are skyhigh, but discoveries may still be years away. (3 pages) Researchers have hammered out new networking tools to store the LHC's instrument readings and make them available to physicists worldwide. (3 pages)

  10. With Zika At the Doorstep, U.S. Health Officials Brace for Battle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hellerstedt said. The mosquito particularly prefers close-quartered urban areas, where there are many people from which ... incidence of this mosquito breeding in everybody's yard, garden and neighborhood, we will reduce the risk of ...

  11. With Zika At the Doorstep, U.S. Health Officials Brace for Battle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... air conditioning by itself is probably very highly protective," Dr. John Hellerstedt, commissioner of the Texas Department of State Health Services, said during a recent Zika seminar. To limit any potential spread of Zika, health officials on the federal, state and local level are deploying a three- ...

  12. Experimental program for large-scale tests on a re-centring dual eccentrically braced frame

    OpenAIRE

    Stratan, Aurel; IOAN CHESOAN Adriana; DUBINA Dan; TAUCER, FABIO; POLJANSEK Martin; MOLINA RUIZ Francisco Javier; Pegon, Pierre; D'ANIELLO Mario; Landolfo, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    Structural systems that aim at reducing structural damage by isolating plastic deformations in removable or "repairable" elements, and have the ability to return to the initial undeformed shape after an earthquake have received much attention recently. One of the solutions applicable to steel moment-resisting frames relies on post-tensioned beam to column joints [1] and column bases [2]. Other solutions having the same performance objectives use beam to column joints assembled with shape memo...

  13. PROSOPIS CINERARIA (L DRUCE: A DESERT TREE TO BRACE LIVELIHOOD IN RAJASTHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BINA RANI, UPMA SINGH, RAVI SHARMA, A AYUSHI GUPTA, NIDHI GAUBA DHAWAN, AJIT KUMAR SHARMA, SURBHI SHARMA, RAAZ K MAHESHWARI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Prosopis cineraria (L Druce is an important tree (Khejri- a local name in Rajasthanfor the Thar Desert withhard climatic adaptation and one of the lifeline in desert habitat as mentioned in ancient literature. This is a speciesrepresenting all five F viz., Forest, Fiber, Fuel, Fodder and Food. This tree is also mythological important in localcommunities. High value of this species recognized as a State symbol (state tree of Rajasthan. Prosopis cineraria(L. Druce is a tree endemic to hot deserts of India, belonging to the family Leguminosae. Pods locally called“Sangri” are considered as dry fruit of desert and are one of the main ingredients of quintessential Rajasthani dish -The Panchkuta. In the present article, we have attempted to review different characteristics of the pods, tounderstand its health benefits. Various phytoconstituents like tannins (gallic acid, steroids (stigmasterol,campesterol, sitosterol, etc., Flavone derivatives (prosogerin A, B, C, D, and E, alkaloids (spicigerine,prosophylline, etc. have been isolated from the sangri pods .As this plant is found in water stress (or deficient areaso antioxidant potential of pods has also been discussed. Prosopis cineraria (L Druce is one of the highly valuedplant in the Indigenous System of Medicine. P. cineraria pods provide protein, iron, vitamins A and C and othermicro minerals Unripe pods are also nutritious and are used to prepare curries and pickles. Its bark is said to be apotent drug for several ailments such as leprosy, dysentery, bronchitis, asthma, leucoderma, piles, muscular tremors,asthma, rheumatism and inflammations. Pharmacological activities like analgesic, antipyretic, antihyperglycemic,antioxidant, antihypercholesterolemic, antitumor, nootropic anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral andanticancer activities have been reported from different plant extracts. In view of its medicinal importance, thepresent review is focused to delineate its chemical constitution and therapeutic potentiality, precisely.

  14. Initial arch wires for alignment of crooked teeth with fixed orthodontic braces.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wang, Yan

    2010-01-01

    The initial arch wire is the first arch wire to be inserted into the fixed appliance at the beginning of orthodontic treatment and is used mainly for correcting crowding and rotations of teeth. With a number of orthodontic arch wires available for initial tooth alignment, it is important to understand which wire is most efficient, as well as which wires cause the least amount of root resorption and pain during the initial aligning stage of treatment.

  15. PROSOPIS CINERARIA (L) DRUCE: A DESERT TREE TO BRACE LIVELIHOOD IN RAJASTHAN

    OpenAIRE

    BINA RANI, UPMA SINGH, RAVI SHARMA, A AYUSHI GUPTA, NIDHI GAUBA DHAWAN, AJIT KUMAR SHARMA, SURBHI SHARMA, RAAZ K MAHESHWARI

    2013-01-01

    The Prosopis cineraria (L) Druce is an important tree (Khejri- a local name in Rajasthan)for the Thar Desert withhard climatic adaptation and one of the lifeline in desert habitat as mentioned in ancient literature. This is a speciesrepresenting all five F viz., Forest, Fiber, Fuel, Fodder and Food. This tree is also mythological important in localcommunities. High value of this species recognized as a State symbol (state tree of Rajasthan). Prosopis cineraria(L.) Druce is a tree endemic to h...

  16. Effects of Aircast brace and elastic bandage on physical performance of athletes after ankle injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Gunay, Sevtap; Karaduman, Ayse; Ozturk, Burcu Bahar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of using Aircast® orthosis and elastic bandage application on the physical performance of athletes with ankle injuries. Methods: The study included 60 elite male football players with ankle injuries. Ankle range of motion on the sagittal and frontal plane was measured. One maximum repetition test for the tibialis anterior, tibialis posterior and peroneal muscles; fingertip rise test, single- and double-feet vertical jump tests and...

  17. Finite Element Analysis of Wall Deflection And Ground Movements Caused by Braced Excavations

    OpenAIRE

    Kung, Gordon Tung-Chin

    2010-01-01

    To accurately predict excavation-induced ground movements is a complicated but essential task in a routine excavation design for achieving the goal to prevent the damage to buildings adjacent to excavation. Use of numerical methods, such as the finite element method, to predict the ground movements caused by excavation is advantageous due to the stress and strain of the retention system and ground can be provided in the numerical analysis. The analysis results show that the capability of the ...

  18. Application of Cubic Spline in the Implementation of Braces for the Case of a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmin Sham Rambely

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Orthodontic teeth movement is influenced by the characteristics of the applied force, including its magnitude and direction which normally based on the shape of ellipsoid, parabolic and U-shape that are symmetry. However, this will affect the movement of the whole set of tooth. Approach: This study intends to compare the form of general teeth with another method called cubic spline to get a minimum error in presenting the general form of teeth. Cubic spline method is applied in a mathematical model of a child’s teeth, which is produced through resignation of orthodontic wires. It is also meant to create a clear view towards the true nature of orthodontic wires. Results: Based on mathematical characteristics in the spline and the real data of a teeth’s model, cubic spline shows to be very useful in reflecting the shape of a curve because the dots chosen are not totally symmetry. Conclusion/Recommendation: Therefore, symmetrical curve can be produced in teeth’s shape which is basically asymmetry.

  19. Effects of Running Speed, Fatigue, and Bracing on Motor Control of Chronically Unstable Ankles

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Courtney Ann

    2013-01-01

    Ankle sprains are among the most common injuries for participants in running and jumping sports. Following an initial sprain injury, many (30-40%) will develop chronic ankle instability (CAI), characterized by a perception of instability and repeated sprain injuries. Quasi-static test methods indicate poor postural stability and joint position sense (JPS) as associated motor control deficits. Little research, though, has investigated ankle motor control under dynamic (simulated sport) or fati...

  20. Walking with functional electrical stimulation and unlocking braces in thoracic-level paraplegia

    OpenAIRE

    Bobet Jacques; Chong Suling; Rolf Robert; Stein Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Walking was tested in 4 people with thoracic-level paraplegia using stimulation of quadriceps muscles, the flexor reflex and unlocking knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFO). Heart rate, speed, distance, kinematics and ground reaction forces were measured while subjects walked using a walker. None of the subjects could walk without the system; all could walk continuously for at least 4 minutes with it. Joint angles and some other kinematic features resembled normal walking, but the walking was...

  1. Low-Cost Alternative External Rotation Shoulder Brace and Review of Treatment in Acute Shoulder Dislocations

    OpenAIRE

    Lacy, Kyle; Cooke, Chris; Cooke, Pat; Schupbach, Justin; Vaidya, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic dislocations of the shoulder commonly present to emergency departments (EDs). Immediate closed reduction of both anterior and posterior glenohumeral dislocations is recommended and is frequently performed in the ED. Recurrence of dislocation is common, as anteroinferior labral tears (Bankart lesions) are present in many anterior shoulder dislocations.14,15,18,23 Immobilization of the shoulder following closed reduction is therefore recommended; previous studies support the use of im...

  2. Effects of Mo-C dipole on the development of {l_brace}111{r_brace} recrystallization texture in Mo added low carbon steels; Mo wo fukumu teitansokoban no {l_brace}111{r_brace} saikessho shugo soshiki ni oyobosu Mo-C dipole no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagashira, K.; Mutsuji, T.; Endo, T. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Effects of Mo-C dipole on the development of recrystallization texture are discussed in 0.03 mass% carbon steels containing 0.07 to 1.01 mass% Mo. The hot-rolled steels were annealed at 973K and then cold-rolled 85% in reduction. Decarburized and cold rolled steels were also used. These steel sheets were annealed up to 973. 1023 and 1073K with two kinds of heating rate in argon gas and then quenched. The following results were obtained. (1) The development of {gamma}-fiber in the early stage of recrystallization at 1023K is restrained in all the slow-heated carbon steels. But it is accelerated during grain growth up to 1073K in the carbon steels containing 0.51 mass% Mo or more. (2) {gamma}-fiber in all the carbon steels is not developed in quick-heating up to 1023K or 1073K. (3) {gamma}-fiber in the decarburized steels which were slow-heated up to 1073K is developed regardless of molybdenum content. (4) Either the increase of Mo-C dipoles themselves or the decrease of single solute carbon atoms as a result of formation of dipoles may contribute to the development of {gamma}-fiber during grain growth by slow-heating. (author)

  3. A Systematic Review on the Treatment of Acute Ankle Sprain Brace versus Other Functional Treatment Types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Kemler; I. van de Port; F. Backx; C.N. van Dijk

    2011-01-01

    Ankle injuries, especially ankle sprains, are a common problem in sports and medical care. Ankle sprains result in pain and absenteeism from work and/or sports participation, and can lead to physical restrictions such as ankle instability. Nowadays, treatment of ankle injury basically consists of ta

  4. Brace for impact! A thesis on medical care following an airplane crash

    OpenAIRE

    Goslings, J.C.; Bloemers, F.W.; Bijlsma, T.S.; Heetveld, M.J.; Postma, I.L.E.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis the events and management of a mass casualty incident (MCI) of an airplane crash are studied from a medical point of view. The incident is broken down into areas that are applicable to other MCIs. it is believed that the detailed study of an exceptional event can provide vital information for many other kinds of exceptional events.

  5. Microwave assisted facile synthesis of {l_brace}1/1,3-bis/1,3,5-tris-[(2-nitroxyethylnitramino)-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene]{r_brace} using bismuth nitrate pentahydrate as an eco-friendly nitrating agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badgujar, D.M. [School of Chemical Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon, 425001 Maharashtra (India)], E-mail: dmbadgujar@rediffmail.com; Talawar, M.B. [High Energy Material Research Laboratory (HEMRL), Ministry of Defense (MOD), Defense Research and Development Organization - DRDO, Pune, 411021 Maharastra (India)], E-mail: mbtalawar@yahoo.com; Asthana, S.N.; Venugopalan, S.; Rao, A. Subhananda [High Energy Material Research Laboratory (HEMRL), Ministry of Defense (MOD), Defense Research and Development Organization - DRDO, Pune, 411021 Maharastra (India); Mahulikar, P.P. [School of Chemical Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon, 425001 Maharashtra (India)], E-mail: mahulikarpp@rediffmail.com

    2008-04-01

    1-(2-Nitroxyethylnitramino)-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (3a), 1,3-bis(2-nitroxyethyl nitramino)-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (3b) and 1,3,5-tris(2-nitroxyethylnitramino)-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (3c) were prepared by the nitration of 1-(2-hydroxyethylamino)-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (2a) 1,3-bis(2-hydroxyethylamino)-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (2b) and 1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethylamino)-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (2c) using bismuth nitrate pentahydrate (eco-friendly nitrating agent) in tetrahydrofuran adsorbed on silica gel under microwave irradiation, respectively. Key intermediate compounds viz., 2a, 2b and 2c were synthesized by condensing picryl chloride, styphnyl chloride and 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene with ethanol amine, respectively, based on the lines of the reported method. The synthesized compounds were characterized based on their physical constant, infrared (IR) spectroscopy and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The spectroscopic data obtained indicated the formation of nitrate esters (3a-3c). The nitration methodology adopted in the present study is of relevance in the context of green chemistry. The target compounds (3a-3c) synthesized using eco-friendly approach are of interest from the point of high energy materials (HEMs)

  6. Synthesis ofN-(2-chloro-5-methylthiophenyl)-N'-(3-methyl-thiophenyl)-N'-[3H3]methylguanidine, l brace [3H3]CNS-5161 r brace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Andrew R.; Morimoto, Hiromi; VanBrocklin, Henry F.; Williams, Philip G.; Biegon, Anat

    2001-09-28

    The preparation of the title compound, [{sup 3}H{sub 3}]CNS-5161, was accomplished in three steps starting with the production of [{sup 3}H{sub 3}]iodomethane (CT{sub 3}I). The intermediate N-[{sup 3}H{sub 3}]methyl-3-(thiomethylphenyl)cyanamide was prepared in 77% yield by the addition of CT{sub 3}I to 3-(thiomethylphenyl)cyanamide, previously treated with sodium hydride. Reaction of this tritiated intermediate with 2-chloro-5-thiomethylaniline hydrochloride formed the guanidine compound [{sup 3}H{sub 3}]CNS-5161. Purification by HPLC gave the desired labeled product in an overall yield of 9% with greater than 96% radiochemical purity and a final specific activity of 66 Ci mmol{sup -1}.

  7. Partitioning of solutes between liquid water and steam in the system {l_brace}Na-NH{sub 4}-NH{sub 3}-H-Cl{r_brace} to 350{degree}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonson, J.M.; Palmer, D.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical and Analytical Sciences Div.

    1994-12-31

    Measurements have been made of the partitioning of solutes between liquid and vapor phases for hydrochloric acid and chloride salts found in both power plant steam cycles and in natural geothermal systems. Static sampling of equilibrium liquid and vapor phases extended from 350 C to the lowest temperatures for which reliable analytical determinations of vapor-phase solute concentrations could be made. Equilibrium constants for the partitioning of the various solutes were calculated from the measured equilibrium compositions, and represented as functions of temperature and solvent density over the full temperature range investigated. These equilibrium constants can be used to calculate equilibrium compositions of coexisting liquid and vapor phases under conditions ranging from steam production from saline geothermal brines to early-condensate formation in all-volatile treatment steam cycles.

  8. Key findings from HSC's 2010 site visits: health care markets weather economic downturn, brace for health reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felland, Laurie E; Grossman, Joy M; Tu, Ha T

    2011-05-01

    Lingering fallout--loss of jobs and employer coverage--from the great recession slowed demand for health care services but did little to slow aggressive competition by dominant hospital systems for well-insured patients, according to key findings from the Center for Studying Health System Change's (HSC) 2010 site visits to 12 nationally representative metropolitan communities. Hospitals with significant market clout continued to command high payment rate increases from private insurers, and tighter hospital-physician alignment heightened concerns about growing provider market power. High and rising premiums led to increasing employer adoption of consumer-driven health plans and continued increases in patient cost sharing, but the broader movement to educate and engage consumers in care decisions did not keep pace. State and local budget deficits led to some funding cuts for safety net providers, but an influx of federal stimulus funds increased support to community health centers and shored up Medicaid programs, allowing many people who lost private insurance because of job losses to remain covered. Hospitals, physicians and insurers generally viewed health reform coverage expansions favorably, but all worried about protecting revenues as reform requirements phase in. PMID:21614861

  9. Neutron diffraction method towards residual stress on stiffener-web- flange joint of eccentrically braced frame (EBF) link element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research focused on the experimental study on the residual stress resulted from the welding process in and around k area stiffener joint, web and flange plates of link element. The measurement was done with the Neutron Diffraction Method using the Neutron Diffractometer DN1-M PSTBM BATAN. A number of 15 points with 45 measurement directions were conducted on the k area in normal, transversal and longitudinal directions. The result of the experiment showed 185 Mpa and 160 Mpa residual stress magnitude in longitudinal and transversal directions in the same directions with the weld toe welding between the web and flange with the extent of the stress region 8 times of the flange thickness. The perpendicular welding of the weld toe resulted in 162 Mpa and 145 Mpa residual stress in longitudinal and transversal directions with 4 times of the extent of stress region from the flange thickness. The residual stress magnitude and the width of stress region indicated the k area as a vulnerable area to the initial crack occurrence which may decrease the link performance. Creating a welding gap 4 to 5 times of the flange between the stiffener and the flange may increase the link performance because it may minimize the residual stress magnitude and distribution.

  10. Prevalence of phocine distemper virus specific antibodies: bracing for the next seal epizootic in north-western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Bodewes, Rogier; Morick, Danny; van de Bildt, Marco WG; Osinga, Nynke; Rubio García, Ana; Sánchez Contreras, Guillermo J; Smits, Saskia L.; Reperant, Leslie AP; Kuiken, Thijs; Osterhaus, Albert DME

    2013-01-01

    In 1988 and 2002, two major phocine distemper virus (PDV) outbreaks occurred in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in north-western European coastal waters, causing the death of tens of thousands seals. Here we investigated whether PDV is still circulating among seals of the Dutch coastal waters and whether seals have protective serum-antibodies against PDV. Therefore seal serum samples, collected from 2002 to 2012, were tested for the presence of PDV-neutralizing antibodies. Antibodies were dete...

  11. Stability and minimum lateral bracing for stepped columns with semi-rigid connections including shear effects: ii) verification and examples

    OpenAIRE

    Aristizabal-Ochoa, Jose Dario

    2012-01-01

    The elastic stability analysis of single-stepped columns with sidesway totally inhibited, partially inhibited, and uninhibited subjected to concentrated axial loads located at the ends and at the intermediate joint including semi-rigid connections and shear force effects are presented using three different approaches in a companion paper. The first two approaches are those by Engesser and Haringx that include the shear component of the applied axial force proportional to the total slope (dy/d...

  12. STABILITY AND MINIMUM LATERAL BRACING FOR STEPPED COLUMNS WITH SEMI-RIGID CONNECTIONS INCLUDING SHEAR EFFECTS: II VERIFICATION AND EXAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. DARIO ARISTIZABAL-OCHOA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de estabilidad elástica de columnas con un cambio de sección con derivas laterales totalmente inhibidas, parcialmente inhibidas, y desinhibidas sometidas a cargas axiales concentradas en los extremos y en el nudo intermedio incluyendo los efectos de las conexiones y de las fuerzas a cortante utilizando tres modelos diferentes es presentado y discutido en una publicación adjunta. Los dos primeros modelos son de Engesser y de Haringx que incluyen la componente de la fuerza axial aplicada a cortante proporcional a la pendiente total (dy/dx y al ángulo de giro de la sección transversal ( a lo largo del miembro, respectivamente. El tercer modelo es una formulación simplificada basada en la teoría clásica de Euler, que incluye los efectos de las deformaciones por cortante, pero desprecia la componente a cortante de la fuerza axial aplicada a lo largo de la columna. Se presenta también criterios definidos para determinar la rigidez mínima de los arriostramientos laterales para columnas con un cambio de sección. Se incluye cinco ejemplos completos en esta publicación que muestran la efectividad de las ecuaciones de métodos propuesto en el análisis de estabilidad y en el cálculo de los arriostramientos mínimos para columnas con un cambio de sección.

  13. Assessing performance, stability, and cleat comfort/support in collegiate club soccer players using prophylactic ankle taping and bracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, Sean M; Di Trani, Andrea M; Swanik, Charles Buz; Glutting, Joseph J; Kaminski, Thomas W

    2016-01-01

    Soccer athletes at all levels of play are keenly aware of their equipment needs including cleat wear, and want to be protected from injury but without impeding on-field performance. Ankle injury is a common disorder that is prevalent in the sport of soccer and recent improvements in ankle prophylaxis interventions have proven effective. The aim of this study was to determine if the use of elastic taping or a neoprene sleeve alters performance, stability, and cleat comfort/support in soccer players compared to wearing a soccer cleat without any external support. Twenty male collegiate club soccer players were recruited and randomly assigned to the three conditions (untaped control, taped, neoprene sleeve). Performance testing and comfort/support assessment for each condition took place in one on-field test session, while stability testing was completed during a separate laboratory session. The only significant finding was improved inversion/eversion stability in both the tape and sleeve conditions as compared to the cleated condition. The addition of tape or a sleeve did not have an adverse effect on performance or comfort during functional and stability testing, and should therefore be considered as a method to decrease ankle injuries in soccer athletes as external supports provide increased stability in inversion/eversion range of motion. PMID:26967719

  14. A simple bracing technique to correct kinking of arterial branches to avoid ischemic sequelae during neurovascular surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Motoyama

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The insertion of prostheses with fibrin glue into the crotch of a kinked artery for repair is considered a simple and useful method for correcting a kinked artery that avoids ischemic sequelae.

  15. The creation of the artificial RING finger from the cross-brace zinc finger by α-helical region substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The creation of the artificial RING finger as ubiquitin-ligating enzyme (E3) has been demonstrated. In this study, by the α-helical region substitution between the EL5 RING finger and the Williams-Beuren syndrome transcription factor (WSTF) PHD finger, the artificial E3 (WSTF PHDRING finger) was newly created. The experiments of the chemical modification of residues Cys and the circular dichroism spectra revealed that the WSTF PHDRING finger binds two zinc atoms and adopts the zinc-dependent ordered-structure. In the substrate-independent ubiquitination assay, the WSTF PHDRING finger functions as E3 and was poly- or mono-ubiquitinated. The present strategy is very simple and convenient, and consequently it might be widely applicable to the creation of various artificial E3 RING fingers with the specific ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2)-binding capability.

  16. Physical exercises in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis at risk of brace treatment – SOSORT consensus paper 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grivas Theodoros B

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on a recognized need for research to examine the premise that nonsurgical approaches can be used effectively to treat signs and symptoms of scoliosis, a scientific society on scoliosis orthopaedic and rehabilitation treatment (SOSORT was established in Barcelona in 2004. SOSORT has a primary goal of implementing multidisciplinary research to develop quantitative, objective data to address the role of conservative therapies in the treatment of scoliosis. This international working group of clinicians and scientists specializing in treatment of scoliosis met in Milan, Italy in January 2005. Methods As a baseline for developing a consensus for language and goals for proposed multicenter clinical studies, we developed questionnaires to examine current beliefs, before and after the meeting, regarding (1 the aims of physical exercises; (2 standards of treatment; and (3 the impact of such treatment performed by specialists in the field. Results The responses to the questionnaires show that, in principle, specialists in scoliosis physiotherapy do not disagree and that several features can be regarded, currently, as standard features in the rehabilitation of scoliosis patients. These features include autocorrection in 3D, training in ADL, stabilizing the corrected posture, and patient education.

  17. Disorder and the quantum critical point in UCu{sub 5-x}Pd{sub x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, R.; Freeman, E.J.; Maple, M.B. [Department of Physics and Institute for Pure and Applied Physical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Aronson, M.C. [Harrison M. Randall Laboratory of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2000-05-22

    We have measured the magnetization of UCu{sub 5-x}Pd{sub x} (x=0.7, 1, 1.5, 2) in fields H as large as 30 T and for temperatures between 1.4 K and 150 K. A composition- and temperature-dependent characteristic field {l_brace}H{r_brace}*({l_brace}x{r_brace},{l_brace}T{r_brace}) is identified, which separates two different non-Fermi liquid scaling regimes, present even in zero field. For {l_brace}H{r_brace} {>=}{l_brace}H{r_brace}*({l_brace}x{r_brace},{l_brace}T{r_brace}), composition-independent scaling is found, while for {l_brace}H{r_brace}{<=}{l_brace}H{r_brace}*({l_brace}x{r_brace},{l_brace}T{r_brace}), different exponents are found for each composition. This second phase is centred in temperature and composition around the x=1,T=0 critical point, and we argue that it is consistent with the presence of a Griffiths phase. (author)

  18. The evolution of recrystallization texture in IF steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y.B. [Sunchon National Univ., Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Sunchon (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of); Lee, D.N. [Seoul National Univ., Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering, Seoul (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of); Gottstein, G. [Institut fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik, RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    During annealing of Ti/Nb-bearing interstitial free (IF) steel, the main components {l_brace}112{r_brace}<110> and {l_brace}225{r_brace}<110> of the cold rolling textures changed to the {l_brace}567{r_brace}<943> and {l_brace}322{r_brace}<274> recrystallized components, respectively. The texture changes have been discussed based on a model in which the absolute maximum principal stress direction in deformed grains becomes the minimum elastic modulus direction in recrystallized grains. (au).

  19. Severe psychogenic tremor of both wrists in a 13-year-old girl treated successfully with a customized wrist brace: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Schafflhuber Caroline; Sauerhoefer Elisabeth; Kratz Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Psychogenic movement disorders in childhood have been little researched. As there are few courses of treatment which have been evaluated, further examination and case studies about the treatment and clinical course of this rare occurrence of severe psychogenic tremor in childhood and adolescence are much needed. Case presentation A 13-year-old Caucasian girl with tremor in both wrists, severe enough to prevent her from attending school, was sent to our hospital. After a ...

  20. Treatment of the humeral shaft fractures - minimally invasive osteosynthesis with bridge plate versus conservative treatment with functional brace: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Matsunaga, Fabio T; Tamaoki, Marcel J S; Matsumoto, Marcelo H; dos Santos, João B G; Faloppa, Flavio; Belloti, João C

    2013-01-01

    Background Humeral shaft fractures account for 1 to 3% of all fractures in adults and for 20% of all humeral fractures. Non-operative treatment is still the standard treatment of isolated humeral shaft fractures, although this method can present unsatisfactory results. Surgical treatment is reserved for specific conditions. Modern concepts of internal fixation of long bone shaft fractures advocate relative stabilisation techniques with no harm to fracture zone. Recently described, minimally i...

  1. Metabolism of [14C] terbutryn brace2-(t-butylamino)-4-(ethylamino)-6-(methylthio)-s-triazine by rats and goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen metabolites of terbutryn were isolated from the urine and feces of either rats or a goat given single oral doses of terbutryn-[14C] [2-(t-butylamino)-4-(ethylamino)-6-(methylthio)-s-triazine]. The metabolites resulted from one or more of the following changes: S-demethylation, conversion of the methylthio group to a hydroxy group; N-deethylation; oxidation of the terminal carbon of the ethyl group to a carboxylic acid; oxidation of a terminal carbon of the t-butyl group to either an alcohol or a carboxylic acid; or conjugation with glucuronic acid. (author)

  2. The effect of taping versus semi-rigid bracing on patient outcome and satisfaction in ankle sprains: A prospective, randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Lardenoye (Sacha); E. Theunissen (Ed); B.I. Cleffken (Berry); P.R. Brink (Peter Rg); R.A. de Bie (Robert); H. Poeze

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Functional treatment is a widely used and generally accepted treatment for ankle sprain. A meta-analysis comparing the different functional treatment options could not make definitive conclusions regarding the effectiveness, and until now, little was known about patient satis

  3. The glycine brace: a component of Rab, Rho, and Ran GTPases associated with hinge regions of guanine- and phosphate-binding loops

    OpenAIRE

    Neuwald Andrew F

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Ras-like GTPases function as on-off switches in intracellular signalling pathways and include the Rab, Rho/Rac, Ran, Ras, Arf, Sar and Gα families. How these families have evolutionarily diverged from each other at the sequence level provides clues to underlying mechanisms associated with their functional specialization. Results Bayesian analysis of divergent patterns within a multiple alignment of Ras-like GTPase sequences identifies a structural component, termed here th...

  4. Labelling of glycerolipids in the cotyledons of developing oilseeds by [1-14C] acetate and brace2-3H] glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3-sn-Phosphatidylcholine was identified as the major lipid in cotyledons from the developing seeds of soya bean, linseed and safflower when tissue was steamed before lipid extraction. Incubation for up to 3h changed the composition of this lipid and of diacylglycerol. Labelling studies, including pulse-chase experiments, were carried out with [1-14C] acetate and [2-3H] glycerol supplied to detached cotyledons. The results suggest a rapid turnover of 3-sn-phosphatidylcholine during triacylglycerol accumu-lation in developing oilseeds, and are consistent with the operation of a biosynthetic route whereby oleate initially esterified to the phospholipid is first desaturated, then polyunsaturated fatty acids transferred to triacylglycerol, via diacylglycerol. The possible role of oleoyl phosphatidylcholine as a substrate for oleate desaturation is discussed. (author)

  5. The Patella Pro study — effect of a knee brace on patellofemoral pain syndrome: design of a randomized clinical trial (DRKS-ID:DRKS00003291)

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Wolf; Ellermann, Andree; Rembitzki, Ingo Volker; Scheffler, Sven; Herbort, Mirco; Sprenker, Frederike Sophie; Achtnich, Andrea; Brüggemann, Gert Peter; Best, Raymond; Hoffmann, Frank [Hrsg.; Koppenburg, Andreas Gösele; Liebau, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Background Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is a frequent cause of anterior knee pain predominantly affecting young female patients who do not have significant chondral damage. Development of PFPS is probably multifactorial, involving various knee, hip, and foot kinematic factors. Biomechanical studies have described patellar maltracking and dynamic valgus (functional malalignment) in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. The literature provides evidence for short-term use of nonster...

  6. Inhomogeneity of texture, particle precipitation and grain size under recrystallization of Al-Mg, Al-Mg-Li and Al-Mg-Sc ALLOYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betsofen, S.Ya.; Lapin, A.L. [MATI - Russian State Technology Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    The X-ray rocking curve method (RCM) was used to characterize microstructure and texture of Al and alloys: Al-Mg (AMg6) and Al-Mg-Li (1420), Al- Mg-Sc (1570) after cold rolling to a 8-70% reduction in thickness, and then annealing at 300-500 C. The fractions of recrystallized grains with {l_brace}111{r_brace}, {l_brace}100{r_brace}, {l_brace}113{r_brace} and {l_brace}110{r_brace} orientation in the sheet plane and its distribution on the sizes was measured by a RCM. For these alloys a grains with orientation of {l_brace}111{r_brace} and {l_brace}100{r_brace} grow much faster than grains {l_brace}113{r_brace} and particularly {l_brace}110{r_brace}. In an alloy 1420 at 300-400 C continuous recrystallization takes place with fine grains and weakening rolling texture. (orig.)

  7. Going to the Orthodontist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to have his braces checked. One day the dentist told Lamar's mom that Lamar should see an ... say: or-thoh-DONtist) is a type of dentist. Using braces, retainers , and other devices, an orthodontist ...

  8. ACL reconstruction - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the brace yourself. Ask your provider or physical therapist about sleeping without the brace and removing it ... activity and movement while your knee mends. Your physical therapist will give you an exercise program to help ...

  9. The use of X-ray diffraction to determine slip and twinning activity in commercial-purity (CP) titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungar, T. [Department of Materials Physics, Eoetvoes University Budapest, POB 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary)], E-mail: ungar@ludens.elte.hu; Glavicic, M.G. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, AFRL/MLLM, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); UES Inc., Dayton, OH 45432 (United States); Balogh, L.; Nyilas, K. [Department of Materials Physics, Eoetvoes University Budapest, POB 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Salem, A.A. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, AFRL/MLLM, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); Universal Technology Corporation, Dayton, OH 45432 (United States); Ribarik, G. [Department of Materials Physics, Eoetvoes University Budapest, POB 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Semiatin, S.L. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, AFRL/MLLM, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    High-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD) line-profile analysis was used to characterize slip activity and twinning in commercial-purity titanium (CP-Ti) during hot rolling. The effect of {l_brace}10.1{r_brace} and {l_brace}10.2{r_brace} twins on XRD patterns was deduced using the DIFFAX software. The density of twin boundaries was then incorporated into the XRD pattern-fitting procedure for evaluating dislocation densities, slip activity, and subgrain size. It was found that and type slip occurred during hot rolling. The X-ray data revealed 0.07({+-}0.02)% twin-boundary frequency for the {l_brace}10.2{r_brace} twin family, but zero twinning (within the experimental accuracy) in the {l_brace}10.1{r_brace} family. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) data confirmed the X-ray findings.

  10. Lattice mismatch and crystal growth of monoclinic KY{sub 1-x}Yb{sub x}(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}/KY (WO{sub 4}){sub 2} layers by liquid phase epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre, O; Aznar, A; Sole, R; Pujol, M C; Diaz, F; Aguilo, M [Fisica i Cristallografia de Materials (FiCMA), Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV), Campus Sescelades c/Marcel-Ii Domingo, s/n, E-43007-Tarragona (Spain)], E-mail: magdalena.aguilo@urv.cat

    2008-06-04

    Monoclinic layers of KY{sub 1-x}Yb{sub x}(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} with a thickness of up to 330 {mu}m were grown on KY (WO{sub 4}){sub 2} substrates by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) using K{sub 2}W{sub 2}O{sub 7} solvent. The layers grown from solutions of up to 7.5 at.% substitution of Y by Yb generally had flat surfaces on {l_brace}010{r_brace} and {l_brace}110{r_brace} crystal faces with no macroscopic defects at the layer/substrate interface. Already at 10 at.% of Yb substituting Y, some defects at the interface tend to appear and increase for higher concentrations. The layers grown on {l_brace}310{r_brace} and {l_brace}111{r_brace} faces show more growth instabilities even at low Yb concentrations. The thermal evolutions of the lattice mismatches between the epilayer and the substrate for {l_brace}110{r_brace}, {l_brace}110{r_brace}, {l_brace}310{r_brace} and {l_brace}111{r_brace} faces were calculated to range from 0.55% at 1273 K to -0.31% at 298 K. The optical spectroscopic studies carried out with these samples agree well with Yb-doped KYW bulk crystals, the measured absorption and calculated (by the reciprocity method) emission cross-sections at 981 nm with E II N{sub m} being {sigma}{sub abs} = 12.5 x 10{sup -20} cm{sup 2} and {sigma}{sub em} = 15.8 x 10{sup -20} cm{sup 2}, respectively.

  11. Texture of primary recrystallization on nonoriented electrical steel sheet with phase transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumano, T.; Kubota, T.; Takahashi, N. [Nippon Steel Corp., Kitakyushyu (Japan)

    1995-08-01

    The magnetic properties of nonoriented (NO) electrical steel sheet are commonly improved if the texture of their products possesses cube texture e.g., {l_brace}100{r_brace} <0vw>, ``goss texture`` i.e., {l_brace}110{r_brace}<011>, and less {l_brace}222{r_brace} texture. Industrially ``cube type`` has not been obtained, but ``goss texture`` has been. In a greater or lesser degree, {l_brace}222{r_brace} texture exists. To improve ``goss texture`` and reduce {l_brace}222{r_brace} texture, the grain size of the material prior to cold rolling should be larger. When the grain size before cold rolling is larger, during primary recrystallization, ``goss texture`` is enriched, {l_brace}222{r_brace} texture is decreased, and the grain grows so easily that higher induction and lower core loss can be obtained. This does not depend on the presence of phase transformation. In case of NO steel with phase transformation, heat treatment before cold rolling has been done below the austenite transition temperature (Ac{sub 1}) in order to prevent the fine grain size caused by {alpha} {yields} {gamma}(+{alpha}) {yields} {alpha} transformation. By using material that was heated over Ac{sub 1} and cooled with changing cool rates, this study describes (a) the relationship between textures before cold rolling and the texture of the final product, and (b) the development of the magnetic properties.

  12. Application of Three-nail Head Brace in Microvascular Decompression and Intraoperative Nursing Care%三钉头架用于微血管减压术的护理配合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李轶敏; 周亚昭

    2009-01-01

    将三钉头架应用于613例行微血管减压术患者.手术过程中巡回护士协助做好微血管减压术体位摆放,稳固安置三钉头架,做好体位护理等;器械护士仔细检查三钉头架性能,确保有效使用.结果术中体位固定稳定牢固,手术顺利进行,术中无体位相关并发症发生.提出巡回、器械护士紧密配合是三钉头架固定稳定、保证手术顺利进行的重要保障.

  13. 门式刚架轻钢结构支撑体系的建模及受力分析%MODELING AND FORCED ANALYSIS OF THE BRACING SYSTEM IN LIGHT-WEIGHT BUILDINGS WITH PORTAL FRAMES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天; 赵东杰; 董建华; 李月华

    2005-01-01

    门式刚架轻钢结构的支撑体系对结构的整体稳定性起着重要的作用.实际结构中支撑体系为空间受力体系,而一般在支撑体系设计计算中通常采用简化模式,这与结构实际受力存在较大差异.根据门式刚架轻钢结构支撑体系的实际受力特点,结合具体实例讨论了采用通用有限元软件ANSYS进行支撑体系计算的空间建模过程,通过与平面模型及简化模式得到的支撑构件内力的对比分析,找出了现行设计计算中存在的问题,并给出了相应的合理化建议.

  14. 钢筋混凝土桁架在较大跨度底框结构中的应用%APPLICATION OF THE STELL-CONCRETE BRACED FRAME IN MID-SPAN FRAME STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄太华; 肖建波; 周靖

    2003-01-01

    用简单混凝土桁架替代较大跨度底框结构中框架梁,采用传统的荷载计算模式分析其结构构件的受力特点,并通过工程实例验证表明,桁架形式的底框梁应用于中等跨度的底框结构中,不仅结构安全可靠,而且有很好的经济效益.

  15. Clinical research on plastic teeth braces in treating sleep bruxism in special agents%塑胶牙套治疗特勤人员夜磨牙症的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马才顺; 单守勤; 郑梁; 周炜; 徐辉; 孙永春; 周明

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨塑胶牙套治疗特勤人员夜磨牙的疗效.方法 对我院2009-01-11收治的夜磨牙特勤人员95例,使用多导睡眠监测技术记录戴用牙套前与戴用2周后的磨牙事件、微觉醒次数及睡眠结构,并进行比较分析.结果 使用塑胶牙套2周后,每小时磨牙事件比治疗前明显减少,睡眠质量明显改善.结论 塑胶牙套对夜磨牙患者的牙齿磨动、睡眠结构和睡眠微觉醒均有明显效果.

  16. Brace for the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis practice and demonstration in biomechanics%支具治疗特发性脊柱侧凸:生物力学的实践与论证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 李明

    2004-01-01

    特发性脊柱侧凸是不明原因引起的脊柱在冠状面上的弯曲,常合并脊柱矢状面的异常及椎体的旋转,是最常见的脊柱畸形.近30年来,随着脊柱三维矫形理论的提出与推广,各种新型内固定器械的出现,使得脊柱手术成功率大大提高,然而手术治疗毕竟创伤巨大,花费高且有一定的风险和并发症.因而,对于没有手术指征的轻度脊柱侧凸,如何进行有效的非手术治疗,避免手术或推迟手术治疗的年龄,一直以来是学者们努力的方向.非手术治疗包括锻炼、脊柱按摩、电刺激及支具治疗,经过漫长的实践和研究发现,对于早期发现的轻中度青少年特发性脊柱侧凸,支具治疗是惟一有效的非手术疗法.由于对特发性脊柱侧凸自然病程的研究并不十分清楚,支具能否影响其自然病程,经历了数10年曲折而又漫长的实践和论证,近10余年的生物力学研究证明支具治疗是有效的.

  17. Nonsurgical Management of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jaime A; Hresko, M Timothy; Glotzbecker, Michael P

    2016-08-01

    Pediatric patient visits for spinal deformity are common. Most of these visits are for nonsurgical management of scoliosis, with approximately 600,000 visits for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) annually. Appropriate management of scoliotic curves that do not meet surgical indication parameters is essential. Renewed enthusiasm for nonsurgical management of AIS (eg, bracing, physical therapy) exists in part because of the results of the Bracing in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Trial, which is the only randomized controlled trial available on the use of bracing for AIS. Bracing is appropriate for idiopathic curves between 20° and 40°, with successful control of these curves reported in >70% of patients. Patient adherence to the prescribed duration of wear is essential to maximize the effectiveness of the brace. The choice of brace type must be individualized according to the deformity and the patient's personality as well as the practice setting and brace availability. PMID:27388720

  18. Microstructure and microtexture evolution during strain path changes of an initially stable Cu single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, H., E-mail: nmpaul@imim-pan.krakow.pl [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, 25 Reymonta St., 30-059 Krakow (Poland)] [Opole University of Technology, Mechanical Department, 5 Mikolajczyka St., 45-271 Opole (Poland); Maurice, C.; Driver, J.H. [Ecole des Mines de Saint-Etienne, Centre SMS, Laboratoire PECM CNRS UMR 5146, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint-Etienne, Cedex 2 (France)

    2010-05-15

    The microstructure and microtexture evolution in a deformed Goss oriented crystal were characterized after a sample rotation and consequent change in strain path, over a range of scales by optical microscopy, high resolution scanning electron microscopy equipped with field emission gun and electron packscattered diffraction facilities and transmission electron microscopy orientation mapping. High purity copper single crystals with initial Goss{l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}<0 0 1> orientation were channel-die compressed 59% to develop a homogeneous structure composed of two sets of symmetrical primary microbands. New samples with ND rotated orientations of Goss{l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}<0 0 1>, brass{l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}<1 1 2>, M{l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}<1 1 1> and H{l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}<0 0 1>, were then cut out and further compressed in channel-die by a few per cent. The change in flow stress could be correlated with the change in dislocation substructure and microtexture, particularly along shear bands initiated by the strain path change. In the H{l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}<0 1 1> and M{l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}<1 1 1> orientations, the flow stress increased by Taylor factor hardening then decreased by intense macroscopic shear band (MSB) formation. In the softer brass orientation and in the absence of Taylor factor hardening, more diffuse MSB formation occurred. The local rotations in the band were used to deduce the possible local slip systems initiated during the strain path change.

  19. Effect of rolling reduction on the development of rolling and recrystallization textures in Al-Mg alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endou, S.; Inagaki, H. [Shonan Inst. of Tech., Fujisawashi (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    In order to investigate the effect of Mg content on the development of the rolling textures in Al pure Al, Al-3% Mg alloy and Al-5% Mg alloy were cold rolled by varying rolling reductions up to 97%. Their rolling textures were investigated by the orientation distribution function analysis. The extent of work hardening introduced by cold rolling was estimated by the hardness measurements. It was found that, at all rolling reductions, the main orientations of the rolling textures depended strongly on the Mg content. In pure Al, {l_brace}123{r_brace} left angle 634 right angle was always the main orientation, whereas {l_brace}112{r_brace} left angle 111 right angle was most strong in the Al-3%Mg alloy. In the Al-5% Mg alloy, the development of both {l_brace}123{r_brace} left angle 634 right angle and {l_brace}112{r_brace} left angle 111 right angle were strongly suppressed, whereas {l_brace}110{r_brace} left angle 112 right angle developed remarkably. In pure Al, most of the texture development occurred at the later half of work hardening, i.e. at rolling reductions above 70%. With increasing Mg content, rolling texture tended to develop already at lower rolling reductions. Dynamic recovery, which occurred at very high rolling reductions, suppressed the development of the rolling textures. All these results strongly suggested that the formation of dislocation cell structures and shear banding are origins of the formation of these rolling textures. On annealing these specimens at 450 C for 30 min, recrystallization textures developed only in specimens having strong rolling textures, i. e. in the specimens cold rolled more than 70%. {l_brace}100{r_brace} left angle 001 right angle developed only in pure Al and in the Al-3% Mg ally, in which {l_brace}123{r_brace} left angle 634 right angle and {l_brace}112{r_brace} left angle 111 right angle were strong in the rolling textures. Recrystallization textures of the Al-5% Mg alloy was wather random. Its main orientation, {l_brace

  20. Control growth of single crystalline ZnO nanorod arrays and nanoflowers with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Jiuju [College of Geography and Environmental Science, Zhejiang Normal University (China); Wang Zhenzhen [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan Normal University (China); Li Yongfang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan Institute of Science and Technology (China); Chen Jianrong; Wang Aijun, E-mail: ajwang@zjnu.cn [College of Geography and Environmental Science, Zhejiang Normal University (China)

    2013-04-15

    Single crystalline vertical nanorod arrays and nanoflowers of ZnO have been grown in situ on cheap zinc foils under hydrothermal conditions, by means of hexamethylenetetramine and ethanolamine, respectively. Their morphologies and crystal structures are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The nanorods and flowers of ZnO grew along the {l_brace} 10 1-bar 1{r_brace} and {l_brace} 0001{r_brace} planes, respectively. Both types of ZnO display high photocatalytic ability toward the degradation of methylene orange under UV irradiation. The ZnO nanorods show better performance than that of the ZnO nanoflowers, and the {l_brace} 10 1-bar 1{r_brace} facets of the ZnO nanorods have higher photoactivity than that of the {l_brace} 000 1-bar {r_brace} or {l_brace} 10 1-bar 0{r_brace} crystal planes. This is because the weaker coordinated O atoms on the surface are more likely to be saturated by H atoms in aqueous solution, thereby releasing more free OH radicals.Graphical AbstractA facile method was developed for selective control synthesis of ZnO nanoflowers and nanorod arrays on Zinc foil, with the assistance of ethanolamine and the hexamethylenetetramine, respectively. The illustration shows the time evolution of the two ZnO structures.

  1. A modeling of radiation induced microstructural evolution under applied stress in austenitic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Kohyama, Akira [Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan). Inst. of Advanced Energy; Katoh, Yutai; Kohno, Yutaka

    1996-10-01

    Effects of applied stress on interstitial type Frank loop evolution at early stages of irradiation were investigated by both numerical calculation and irradiation experiments. In the experimental part of this work, microstructural inspection has been made by transmission electron microscopy with a special emphasis on Frank loops and perfect loops on every {l_brace}111{r_brace} plane. The results of the TEM observation revealed that Frank loop concentration on a {l_brace}111{r_brace} plane increased as the resolved normal stress to a {l_brace}111{r_brace} plane increased and that small perfect loops were more likely produced on {l_brace}111{r_brace} planes where larger resolved shear stress was applied. The model of a stress effect on Frank loop unfaulting was provided, which is triggered by nucleation of a Shockley partial dislocation loop in a Frank loop, was proposed. The results of the numerical calculation was successful to predict the strong dependence of Frank loop concentration on the resolved normal stress to {l_brace}111{r_brace} plane, which was the characteristic feature seen in the irradiation experiments. (author)

  2. Electron backscattered diffraction analysis of copper damascene interconnect for ultralarge-scale integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyo-Jong [Research Institute of Advanced Materials and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Ik [Research Institute of Advanced Materials and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jeong Hun [Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Giheung-Eup, Yong-in City, Gyeonggi-Do 449-711 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Nyung [Research Institute of Advanced Materials and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: dnlee@snu.ac.kr

    2005-03-01

    This study focuses on the structures and the crystallographic orientations of copper electrodeposits in trench patterns by the electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) technique. The EBSD measurement was made on the surface of annealed deposits before and after removal of their over-plated layers by chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) and also on the section normal to trench lines. The textures of the annealed deposit with and without the over-plated layer are almost same. The major and minor orientation components in the annealing textures of trench specimens were approximated by {l_brace}111{r_brace}<110> and its twin components, {l_brace}115{r_brace}<110> and {l_brace}115{r_brace}<141>, respectively. Here {l_brace}hkl{r_brace} indicates that {l_brace}hkl{r_brace} is the crystallographic planes parallel to the trench base plane and is the crystallographic directions parallel to the trench line direction. By measuring the line-normal sectional EBSD analysis, the copper electrodeposit in a trench plug is figured as a single crystal having a few of twinning, and hence the over-plated layer has almost the same texture as the trench plug. Therefore, the texture of trench plugs can be inferred by that of the over-plated layer.

  3. Effects of segregated sulfur on recrystallization texture and magnetic induction in thin-gauged 3% silicon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, K.H.; Heo, N.H.; Na, J.G.; Jeong, H.T.; Lee, S.R.

    1999-09-01

    During final annealing at 1200 C under a high vacuum, changes in recrystallization texture with final annealing time were observed in thin-gauged 3% Si-Fe alloys. In the alloy containing 30 ppm bulk sulfur, the recrystallization texture varied from the {l{underscore}brace}111{r{underscore}brace} to the {l{underscore}brace}001{r{underscore}brace} and finally to the {l{underscore}brace}110{r{underscore}brace} < 001 > Goss texture, resulting in higher magnetic induction than 1.90 T. The trough in magnetic induction, which corresponds to the relatively high surface-segregated sulfur range, is due to the magnetically detrimental effect of those textures, i.e., the {l{underscore}brace}111{r{underscore}brace} and the {l{underscore}brace}011{r{underscore}brace} . In the alloy containing 6 ppm bulk sulfur, the correlation between magnetic induction and surface-segregated sulfur was the same as that in the other alloy. These results clearly indicate that the surface energy induced recrystallization in the thin-gauged 3% Si-Fe alloys is strongly affected by the segregation and the evaporation of sulfur.

  4. Texture evolution during the recrystallization of a warm-rolled low-carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Araiza, M. [Department of Metals and Materials Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, Que., H3A 2B2 (Canada)]. E-mail: miguel.sanchez-araiza@mail.mcgill.ca; Godet, S. [Department of Metals and Materials Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, Que., H3A 2B2 (Canada) and Universite Catholique de Louvain, Departement des Sciences des Materiaux et des Procedes, IMAP, Place Sainte Barbe 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)]. E-mail: stephane.godet@mail.mcgill.ca; Jacques, P.J. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Departement des Sciences des Materiaux et des Procedes, IMAP, Place Sainte Barbe 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)]. E-mail: jacques@imap.ucl.ac.be; Jonas, J.J. [Department of Metals and Materials Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, Que., H3A 2B2 (Canada)]. E-mail: john.jonas@mcgill.ca

    2006-06-15

    The texture changes taking place during the recrystallization of a warm-rolled low-carbon steel were examined using electron backscattered diffraction. The deformation textures of the warm-rolled material are similar in shape to those of cold-rolled materials, but are somewhat more intense. The recrystallization textures resemble the deformation textures but with a more extended {alpha} fibre that includes the {l_brace}1 1 3{r_brace}<4 7 1> orientation; the {gamma} fibre extends to the {l_brace}5 5 4{r_brace}<2 2 5> orientation. These two orientations are related to the {l_brace}1 1 2{r_brace}<1 1 0> deformed grains by near 26 deg, rotations about selected <1 1 0> axes. Nevertheless, both orientations appear in the early stages of recrystallization, an observation that does not support the oriented growth theory. The {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} orientations are the first to recrystallize while the {alpha} fibre is present until the end of recrystallization. It is finally consumed by all types of grains as well as by subgrain coalescence. The similarities in the growth rates for the {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} and random orientations and the late disappearance of the {alpha} fibre suggest that recrystallization takes place according to the high stored energy oriented nucleation concept.

  5. Novel N-benzoyltyramines of Swinglea glutinosa (Rutaceae); Novas N-benzoiltiraminas de Swinglea glutinosa (Rutaceae).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerqueira, Cristovam do Nascimento; Santos, Djalma A.P. dos; Malaquias, Karla da Silva; Lima, Murilo Marinho de Castro; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar, E-mail: dmfs@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    Phytochemical studies of the leaves and fruits have led to the identification of the known amides (E)-N-methyl-cinnamamide, N-benzoyltyramine, N-benzoyl-O-geranyl tyramine, N-benzoyl-O-(4-acetoxyl)-geranyl tyramine, in addition to the new N-{l_brace}2-[4-(butoxyl-3-one)phenyl]ethyl{r_brace}benzamide, N-{l_brace}2-[4-(2,3-dihydroxy-2-methyl-butoxylanal)phenyl]ethyl{r_brace}benzamide, N-{l_brace}2-[4-(2,3-dihydroxy-2-methyl-butoxyloic) phenyl]ethyl{r_brace}benzamide, N-benzoyl-O-(4-acetoxyl-6,7-epoxy)-geranyltyramine, N-benzoyl-O-(4-acetoxyl-6,7-dihydroxy)-geranyltyramine and N-benzoyl-O-(6-acetoxyl-4,7-dihydroxy)-geranyltyramine. The isolated compounds clearly point to Swinglea phytochemical affinities with other Aurantioideae species. (author)

  6. First observation of the exchange of transverse and longitudinal emittances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, J.; Johnson, A.S.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Thurman-Keup, R.; Edwards, H.; Fliller, R.P.; Koeth, T.; Sun, Y.-E; /Fermilab

    2011-02-01

    An experimental program to demonstrate a novel phase space manipulation in which the horizontal and longitudinal emittances of a particle beam are exchanged has been completed at the Fermilab A0 Photoinjector. A new beamline, consisting of a TM{sub 110} deflecting mode cavity flanked by two horizontally dispersive doglegs has been installed. We report on the first direct observation of transverse and longitudinal emittance exchange: {l_brace}{var_epsilon}{sub x}{sup n}, {var_epsilon}{sub y}{sup n}, {var_epsilon}{sub z}{sup n}{r_brace} = {l_brace} 2.9 {+-} 0.1, 2.4 {+-} 0.1, 13.1 {+-} 1.3{r_brace} {yields} {l_brace}11.3 {+-} 1.1, 2.9 {+-} 0.5, 3.1 {+-} 0.3{r_brace} mm-mrad.

  7. Shear texture and recrystallization texture formation in high speed hot rolling of Al-Mg alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, T.; Lee, S.H.; Yoneda, K.; Hamada, S.; Saito, Y. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Effects of inhomogeneous shear strain distribution through the thickness of hot rolled Al-Mg alloy sheet on recrystallization behavior and texture formation has been investigated. Al-2.5%Mg alloy sheets were rolled to various reductions at the temperature of 460 to 560 C. Due to the high friction, severely sheared region was formed beneath the surface. A band of equiaxed grains is formed at the severely sheared region by recrystallization immediately after rolling. The deformation texture consisted mainly of {l_brace}111{r_brace} left angle 110 right angle, {l_brace}112{r_brace} left angle 110 right angle and {l_brace}001{r_brace} left angle 110 right angle in the severely sheared region. The recrystallization texture in severely sheared region retained the components of deformation texture, although intensities became weak with the progress of recrystallization. (orig.)

  8. Texture development in Al-high Mg alloys during recrystallization and grain growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endou, S.; Inagaki, H. [Shonan Inst. of Tech., Fujisawashi (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Al-high Mg alloys containing Mg more than 6% were cold rolled 95% and annealed at temperatures between 275 and 450 C. Textures developed in these alloys were investigated with the orientation distribution function analysis. It was found that the heating rate to the annealing temperature strongly influenced the annealing textures of these alloys. Annealing with the slow heating rate resulted in the development of {l_brace}100{r_brace} left angle 001 right angle, whereas annealing with the rapid heating rate enhanced the development of {l_brace}100{r_brace} left angle 013 right angle and {l_brace}103{r_brace} left angle 321 right angle. This is because the orientation distribution established at complete recrystallization had strong influences on the texture development during subsequent grain growth. Annealing textures in the Al-9% Mg alloy were always random, since its rolling textures were random (orig.)

  9. Phase equilibrium properties of binary aqueous solutions containing ethanediamine, 1,2-diaminopropane, 1,3-diaminopropane, or 1,4-diaminobutane at several temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Nouria Chiali-Baba [LATA2M, Laboratoire de Thermodynamique Appliquee et Modelisation Moleculaire, University AbouBekr Belkaid of Tlemcen, P.O. Box 119, Tlemcen 13000 (Algeria); Negadi, Latifa, E-mail: l_negadi@mail.univ-tlemcen.d [LATA2M, Laboratoire de Thermodynamique Appliquee et Modelisation Moleculaire, University AbouBekr Belkaid of Tlemcen, P.O. Box 119, Tlemcen 13000 (Algeria); Mokbel, Ilham; Jose, Jacques [LSA, Laboratoire des Sciences Analytiques, CNRS-UMR 5180, Universite Claude Bernard - Lyon I. 43, Bd du 11 Novembre 1918, Villeurbanne Cedex 69622 (France)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: Vapour pressures of ethanediamine (EDA), 1,2-diaminopropane, 1,3-diaminopropane (1,3-DAP), or 1,4-diaminobutane (1,4-DAB) aqueous solutions are reported between (293 and 363) K. The two first mixtures show negative azeotropic behaviour. The aqueous solutions of EDA, 1,2-DAP, or 1,3-DAP exhibit negative G{sup E} whereas the one containing 1,4-DAB shows either negative G{sup E} or sinusoidal shape for G{sup E}. - Abstract: The vapour pressures of {l_brace}ethanediamine (EDA) + water{r_brace}, {l_brace}1,2-diaminopropane (1,2-DAP) + water{r_brace}, {l_brace}1,3-diaminopropane (1,3-DAP) + water{r_brace} or {l_brace}1,4-diaminobutane (1,4-DAB) + water{r_brace} binary mixtures, and of pure EDA, 1,2-DAP, 1,3-DAP, 1,4-DAB, and water components were measured by means of two static devices at temperatures between (293 and 363) K. The data were correlated with the Antoine equation. From these data, the excess Gibbs function (G{sup E}) was calculated for several constant temperatures and fitted to a fourth-order Redlich-Kister equation using the Barker's method. The {l_brace}ethanediamine (EDA) + water{r_brace}, and {l_brace}1,2-diaminopropane (1,2-DAP) + water{r_brace} binary systems show negative azeotropic behaviour. The aqueous solutions of EDA, 1,2-DAP, or 1,3-DAP exhibit negative deviations in G{sup E} for all investigated temperatures over the whole composition range whereas the (1,4-DAB + water) binary mixture shows negative G{sup E} for temperatures (293.15 < T/K < 353.15) and a sinusoidal shape for G{sup E} at T = 363.15 K.

  10. Pengaruh Diferensiasi Produk Terhadap Brand Image Sikat Gigi Oral-B Pada Mahasiswa Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi Universitas Sumatera Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Ginting, Irma Renatha

    2012-01-01

    The health problems, especially the health problems of dental and mouth have become the public interest because they are closely related to an individual performance. One of these problems is dental crowding, and one of the attempts to fix dental crowding is by using dental braces. One of toothbrushes which uses special variant for dental brace users is Oral-B toothbrush. Oral-B is one of the toothbrush brands which differentiate its product with special variant for the dental brace users...

  11. The synthesis of ( sup 14 C)SCH 40054/A-57219 hydrochloride. [Nasal decongestant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duelfer, Tim; Holland, Amy; Bowlen, Christine (Schering-Plough Corp., Bloomfield, NJ (USA))

    1990-01-01

    A two-step, no carrier-added synthesis of 2-(4-amino-3,5-dichlorobenzyl){l brace}{sup 14}C{r brace}imidazoline, SCH 40054 A- 57219, a nasal decongestant, was performed starting with {l brace}{sup 14}C{r brace}KCN. The labelled cyanide ion was reacted with the appropriate benzyl chloride to give a nitrile. The nitrile was converted to an imidazoline by reaction with ethylene diamine. Purification of the product was complicated by its instability at neutral or alkaline pH. (author).

  12. Phase equilibrium data and thermodynamic modeling of the system (CO{sub 2} + biodiesel + methanol) at high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Leandro F.; Segalen da Silva, Diogo Italo [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Parana, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rosa da Silva, Fabiano; Ramos, Luiz P. [Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Parana, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ndiaye, Papa M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Parana, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Corazza, Marcos L., E-mail: corazza@ufpr.br [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Parana, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: > We measured phase behavior for the system involving {l_brace}CO{sub 2} + biodiesel + methanol{r_brace}. > The saturation pressures were obtained using a variable-volume view cell. > The experimental data were modeled using PR-vdW2 and PR-WS equations of state. - Abstract: The main objective of this work was to investigate the high pressure phase behavior of the binary systems {l_brace}CO{sub 2}(1) + methanol(2){r_brace} and {l_brace}CO{sub 2}(1) + soybean methyl esters (biodiesel)(2){r_brace} and the ternary system {l_brace}CO{sub 2}(1) + biodiesel(2) + methanol(3){r_brace} were determined. Biodiesel was produced from soybean oil, purified, characterized and used in this work. The static synthetic method, using a variable-volume view cell, was employed to obtain the experimental data in the temperature range of (303.15 to 343.15) K and pressures up to 21 MPa. The mole fractions of carbon dioxide were varied according to the systems as follows: (0.2383 to 0.8666) for the binary system {l_brace}CO{sub 2}(1) + methanol(2){r_brace}; (0.4201 to 0.9931) for the binary system {l_brace}CO{sub 2}(1) + biodiesel(2){r_brace}; (0.4864 to 0.9767) for the ternary system {l_brace}CO{sub 2}(1) + biodiesel(2) + methanol(3){r_brace} with a biodiesel to methanol molar ratio of (1:3); and (0.3732 to 0.9630) for the system {l_brace}CO{sub 2} + biodiesel + methanol{r_brace} with a biodiesel to methanol molar ratio of (8:1). For these systems, (vapor + liquid), (liquid + liquid), (vapor + liquid + liquid) transitions were observed. The phase equilibrium data obtained for the systems were modeled using the Peng-Robinson equation of state with the classical van der Waals (PR-vdW2) and Wong-Sandler (PR-WS) mixing rules. Both thermodynamic models were able to satisfactorily correlate the phase behavior of the systems investigated and the PR-WS presented the best performance.

  13. Orthodontics and Aligners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Repairing Chipped Teeth Teeth Whitening Tooth-Colored Fillings Orthodontics and Aligners Straighten teeth for a healthier smile. Orthodontics When consumers think about orthodontics, braces are the ...

  14. Compressive mechanical behavior of Au nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Yuhua, E-mail: yhwen@xmu.edu.c [Department of Physics, and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 5V6 (Canada); Wang Quan, E-mail: q_wang@umanitoba.c [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 5V6 (Canada); Liew, Kim Meow [Department of Building and Construction, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Zhu Zizhong [Department of Physics, and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2010-06-28

    The structural evolution, deformation mechanism, and failure behavior of Au [001] nanowires with various sizes and slenderness ratios under uniaxial compression have been investigated using molecular dynamics. The results show that the elastic modulus, yield stress, and strain all are dependent on the diameters and slenderness ratios of the nanowires. Buckling behavior is observed in a long nanowire, followed by slips in the {l_brace}111{r_brace} planes. Differences are identified in the failure behavior of a short nanowire and a medium nanowire, although the plastic deformation of both types of nanowire originates from the slips in the {l_brace}111{r_brace} planes.

  15. Thermodynamic study of (alkyl esters + {alpha},{omega}-alkyl dihalides) VI. H{sub m}{sup E} and V{sub m}{sup E} for 20 binary mixtures {l_brace}xC{sub u-1}H{sub 2u-1}CO{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}CH{sub 3} + (1 - x){alpha},{omega}-BrCH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub v-2}CH{sub 2}Br{r_brace}, where u = 1 to 5, {alpha} = 1, and v = {omega} = 2 to 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navas, A. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Ortega, J. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)], E-mail: jortega@dip.ulpgc.es; Nuez, I. de la [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2009-11-15

    This work shows the experimental values obtained for H{sub m}{sup E} and V{sub m}{sup E} at the temperature of 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure, for a set of 20 binary mixtures comprised of the first four butyl esters (methanoate to butanoate) with five {alpha},{omega}-dibromoalkanes (1,2-dibromoethane to 1,6-dibromohexane). The H{sub m}{sup E} are endothermic for mixtures with butyl methanoate, while for the other esters the H{sub m}{sup E} adopt a sigmoidal shape. The V{sub m}{sup E} are positive for mixtures with low molecular weight dibromoalkanes, becoming negative with contractive effects in the final mixture, as the dihalide chain increases. The results indicate that the mixtures present specific interactions, with simultaneous expansion/contraction and exothermic/endothermic effects, and an explanation is given for the different types of interaction taking place. Experimental data are correlated with a polynomial equation used in previous works with satisfactory results. Modelling of the experimental results of the mixtures is carried out on the H{sub m}{sup E} values, giving rise to an adequate definition of the different interactions taking place. Two versions of the UNIFAC method were used, and for Dang and Tassios' version different possibilities were considered for the interaction parameters of the ester (G)/dibromide (G'). The best estimations were obtained when the pair of interaction parameters, type a{sub G/G{sup '}}, depended on the number of carbon atoms in the compounds constituting the mixture.

  16. Thermodynamic study of (alkyl esters+{alpha},{omega}-alkyl dihalides) V. H{sub m}{sup E}andV{sub m}{sup E} for 25 binary mixtures {l_brace}xC{sub u-1}H{sub 2u-1}CO{sub 2}CH{sub 3}+(1-x){alpha},{omega}-ClCH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub v-2}CH{sub 2}Cl{r_brace}, where u=1 to 5, {alpha}=1 and v={omega}=2 to 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, J. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)]. E-mail: jortega@dip.ulpgc.es; Marrero, E. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    The experimental data of excess molar enthalpies H{sub m}{sup E} and excess molar volumes V{sub m}{sup E} are presented for a set of 25 binary mixtures comprised of the first five methyl esters C{sub u-1}H{sub 2u-1}COOCH{sub 3} (u=1 to 5) and five {alpha},{omega}-dichloroalkanes, ClCH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub v-2}CH{sub 2}Cl (v=2 to 6), obtained at a temperature of 298.15K and atmospheric pressure. Except for the mixtures with u=1 and v=2 to 6, which are all endothermic and with u=5 and v=2 to 6, which are all exothermic, the others present net endo/exothermic effects and these mixing effects evolve quasiregularly, from endothermic to exothermic, depending on the dichloroalkane present. However, the V{sub m}{sup E} are positive in most mixtures except for those corresponding to u=4,5 and v=5,6, which present contraction effects. These results indicate a set of specific interactions with simultaneous effects for V{sub m}{sup E} of expansion/contraction and for exothermic/endothermic H{sub m}{sup E} for this set of mixtures. The change in V{sub m}{sup E} with the chain length of the compounds is irregular. To achieve a good application of the UNIFAC model using the version of Dang and Tassios, parameters of the ester (G)/dichloride (G') interaction were calculated again, making a distinction, during its application, dependent on the acid part of the ester u. Hence, interaction parameters are presented as a function of u, and of the dichloroalkane chain length v. The most appropriate general expression was of the type:a{sub G/G{sup '}}={phi}(u,v)={sigma}sub(i=0)sup(n)a{sub i-1}u{sup i-1}+{sigma}sub(i=0= )sup(n)b{sub i-1}v{sup i-1}and with this proposal good estimations of enthalpies were obtained with the UNIFAC model.

  17. Thermodynamic study of (alkyl esters+{alpha},{omega}-alkyl dihalides) I: H{sub m}{sup E} and V{sub m}{sup E} for 25 binary mixtures {l_brace}xC{sub u-1}H{sub 2u-1}CO{sub 2}C{sub 2}H{sub 5}+(1-x){alpha},{omega}-ClCH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub v-2}CH{sub 2}C= l{r_brace}, where u=1 to 5, {alpha}=1 and v={omega}=2 to 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, J. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)]. E-mail: jortega@dip.ulpgc.es; Marrero, E. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Toledo, F.J. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Espiau, F. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2005-12-15

    This article presents the experimental data of H{sub m}{sup E} and V{sub m}{sup E}, obtained at atmospheric pressure and at a temperature of 298.15K, for a set of 25 binary mixtures composed of the first 5 ethyl alkanoates (methanoate to pentanoate) and five {alpha},{omega}-dichloroalkanes (1,2-dichloroethane to 1,6-dichlorohexane). Quantitatively, and with only a few exceptions, small values are obtained for the excess properties and the results imply that specific interactions exist between both types of compounds, with exothermic process for most mixtures, but with the exception of some that contain ethyl methanoate and ethanoate. The change in enthalpies with increasing length of the dichloroalkane chain for the same ester is regular, and also the change in H{sub m}{sup E} with the acid portion of the ethyl ester. However, the change in excess volumes does not present such a regular variation. A behavioural structural model is established to explain the results of the excess properties. Experimental values of H{sub m}{sup E} and V{sub m}{sup E} were correlated, as a function of ester concentration, x with a new expression which uses the so-called active fraction as a variable and which, in turn, is a function of this concentration. The application of two versions of the UNIFAC group contribution models produces no good estimations of H{sub m}{sup E}.

  18. Thermodynamic study of (alkyl esters + {alpha},{omega}-alkyl dihalides) VII. H{sub m}{sup E} and V{sub m}{sup E} for 20 binary mixtures {l_brace}xC{sub u-1}H{sub 2u-1}CO{sub 2}C{sub 3}H{sub 7} + (1 - x){alpha},{omega}-ClCH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub v-2}CH{sub 2}Cl{r_brace}, where u = 1 to 4, {alpha} = 1 and v = {omega} = 2 to 6. An analysis of behavior using the COSMO-RS methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero, E. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos (www.thermo.ulpgc.es), Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Ortega, J. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos (www.thermo.ulpgc.es), Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)], E-mail: jortega@dip.ulpgc.es; Palomar, J. [Seccion de Ingenieria Quimica, Dpto. de Quimica-Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    Summary: Excess enthalpies H{sub m}{sup E} and excess volumes V{sub m}{sup E} obtained at a temperature of 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure are presented for a set of 20 binary mixtures comprised of the first four propyl esters, C{sub u-1}H{sub 2u-1}COOC{sub 3}H{sub 7} (u = 1 to 4), and five {alpha},{omega}-dichloroalkanes, ClCH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub v-2}CH{sub 2}Cl (v = 2 to 6). All the mixtures are exothermic except for those corresponding to propyl methanoate with v {>=} 4. The V{sub m}{sup E} are positive in most mixtures except for those where v = 4, 5, 6, for V{sub m}{sup E}<0. There is a regular rise in H{sub m}{sup E} with v, while the increase in u produces a greater exothermicity in the mixing process, which becomes inverted for propyl butanoate. The variation in V{sub m}{sup E} with the chain length of the compounds of the mixtures studied is not regular since both the enthalpic and the volumetric effects are due to interactions of different nature, positive and negative. Interpretation of the behavior was assisted by applying the quantum-chemistry method COSMO-RS. This method describes qualitatively and quantitatively the contribution of the different types of interactions, electrostatic, van der Waals, and those due to the (Cl, Cl) bond in the dihalide, and the influence of the ester and dichloroalkane chains. This information was also useful to adequately modify the application of the UNIFAC group contribution model, proposing parameters for the Cl, Cl/carboxylate interaction that vary with the chain length of the compounds involved. With this modification, the results estimated by UNIFAC model can be considered good.

  19. Thermodynamic study of (alkyl esters+{alpha},{omega}-alkyl dihalides) II: H{sub m}{sup E} and V{sub m}{sup E} for 25 binary mixtures {l_brace}xC{sub u-1}H{sub 2u-1}CO{sub 2}C{sub 2}H{sub 5}+(1-x){alpha},{omega}-BrCH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub v-2}CH{sub 2}B= r{r_brace}, where u=1 to 5, {alpha}=1 and v={omega}=2 to 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, J. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)]. E-mail: jortega@dip.ulpgc.es; Navas, A. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Placido, J. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Toledo, F.J. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2006-05-15

    Excess molar enthalpies H{sub m}{sup E}, and excess molar volumes V{sub m}{sup E}, have been determined experimentally at constant conditions of atmospheric pressure and a temperature of T=298.15K, for a set of 25 binary mixtures, composed of ethyl alkanoate (methanoate to pentanoate) with each of the {alpha},{omega}-dibromoalkanes (1,2-dibromoethane to 1,6-dibromohexane), presenting the values of excess quantities Y{sub m}{sup E} as a function of the ester composition x. Most of the mixtures presented V{sub m}{sup E}>0, except those formed by 1,5-dibromopentane and 1,6-dibromohexane with propanoate, butanoate and ethyl pentanoate, for which V{sub m}{sup E}<0. The five mixtures of (ethyl methanoate+{alpha},{omega}-dibromoalkanes) are all endothermic, although, in the other systems this endothermicity decreases slightly with the increase in the ester acid chain length, producing sigmoidal curves that reflect exo/endothermic effects in the mixing process. The results are explained on the basis of a structural model that considers the existence of several effects, some positive and some negative, which produce the previously mentioned variations in excess quantities. In all cases, the experimental values are correlated with a suitable polynomial equation. Finally, predictions of H{sub m}{sup E} are made using two versions of the UNIFAC group contribution model. The version proposed by Dang and Tassios produces unacceptable estimations, while the version of Gmehling et al. produces results closer to experimentals.

  20. Thermodynamic study of (alkyl esters+{alpha},{omega}-alkyl dihalides) III. H{sub m}{sup E}andV{sub m}{sup E} for 20 binary mixtures {l_brace}xC{sub u-1}H{sub 2u-1}CO{sub 2}C{sub 4}H{sub 9}+(1-x){alpha},{omega}-ClCH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub v-2}CH{sub 2}Cl{r_brace}, where u=1 to 4, {alpha}=1 and v={omega}=2 to 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, J. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)]. E-mail: jortega@dip.ulpgc.es; Marrero, E. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Toledo, F.J. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2006-09-15

    In this article, the experimental data of excess molar enthalpies H{sub m}{sup E} and excess molar volumes V{sub m}{sup E} are presented for a set of 20 binary mixtures comprised of the first four butyl alkanoates (methanoate to butanoate) and five {alpha},{omega}-dichloroalkanes (1,2-dichloroethane to 1,6-dichlorohexane), obtained at atmospheric pressure and at a temperature of 298.15K. The results indicate the existence of specific interactions between both kinds of compounds resulting in exothermic processes for most mixtures, except for those containing butyl methanoate which give rise to net endo/exothermic effects. The V{sub m}{sup E} are positive for mixtures of (butyl esters+1,2-dichloroethane or 1,3-dichloropropane) and negative for the remaining ones. The change in H{sub m}{sup E} with the dichloroethane chain length for a same ester is regular although the V{sub m}{sup E} presents an irregular variation. It can, therefore, be deuced from this that the mixing process involves both effects, exothermic/endothermic and expansion/contraction, simultaneously. The behaviour of the mixtures is interpreted on the basis of the results observed and attributed to different effects taking place among the molecules studied. To improve application of the UNIFAC model using the version of Dang and Tassios, average values were recalculated again for parameters of the ester/chloride interaction, distinguishing, during its application, the functional group of the acid part of the ester. In spite of this, the model does not adequately reproduce the systems' behaviour.

  1. Ergodic property of recurrent right processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Ruili [School of Mathematical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail: 022018031@fudan.edu.cn; Wang Bo [Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China)]. E-mail: 012018058@fudan.edu.cn

    2007-11-15

    Let {l_brace}X(t),t>=0{r_brace} be a recurrent right process with state space (E,E) where E is a Polish space and E is the Borel {sigma}-algebra of E. The purpose of the present paper is to study some problems about the invariant measure and the ergodic property of the process.

  2. Scoliosis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... becomes necessary to correct the curvature of the spine. Overall, braces prevent surgery about 60% to 70% of the time and ... hours. No brace or cast is needed after surgery because the rods hold the spine in place while it heals. The child is ...

  3. Low-temperature and ambient-pressure synthesis and shape evolution of nanocrystalline pure, La-doped and Gd-doped CeO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Joysurya, E-mail: jbasu@engr.uconn.edu [Department of Chemical, Materials and Biomolecular Engineering, 191 Auditorium Road, University of Connecticut, Storrs 06269, CT (United States); Divakar, R. [Physical Metallurgy Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, TN (India); Winterstein, Jonathan P.; Carter, C. Barry [Department of Chemical, Materials and Biomolecular Engineering, 191 Auditorium Road, University of Connecticut, Storrs 06269, CT (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Nanocrystalline cuboidal ceria has been synthesized by low-temperature hydrothermal reaction of cerium nitrate hexahydrate with hexamethylene tetramine. The particles have been doped with La and Gd by adding aqueous solution of the nitrate salts of the metals to the reaction mixture. The pure and doped particles are cubic in crystal structure and 10-25 nm in size. The pure and La-doped ceria are cuboidal in morphology, whereas the Gd-doped particles are irregular in shape. High-resolution TEM imaging and image simulation indicates that atomic level steps are present on the particle surfaces. The particles are faceted parallel to the {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} and {l_brace}1 0 0{r_brace} crystallographic planes and a continuous switching takes place between the two possible surface facets. It appears that the surface energies of the {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} and {l_brace}1 0 0{r_brace} facets are quite similar in magnitude and the interplay of surface energy determines the particle shape. Chemically sensitive imaging and spectroscopy shows that the dopants are homogeneously distributed within the particles and that the oxidation state of Ce is a mixture of +3 and +4. No preferential segregation either of the dopant or the oxidation state was observed. However, since the facet switching does depend on the chemistry of the dopant, there must be an affect on the atomic scale.

  4. Modal analysis of a classical guitar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David; Rossing, Thomas D.

    2002-11-01

    Using holographic interferometry, we have determined the modes of vibration of a classical guitar (by the first author) having an asymmetrically-braced top plate and a crossed braced back of unique design. The vibrational modes and acoustical properties are compared with other classical guitars.

  5. TiAlN coatings deposited by triode magnetron sputtering varying the bias voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devia, D.M. [Laboratorio de Fisica del Plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Cra. 27 No. 64-60, Manizales, Caldas (Colombia); Laboratorio de Materiales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Medellin, Sede Medellin, Antioquia (Colombia); Restrepo-Parra, E., E-mail: erestrepopa@unal.edu.co [Laboratorio de Fisica del Plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Cra. 27 No. 64-60, Manizales, Caldas (Colombia); Arango, P.J. [Laboratorio de Fisica del Plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Cra. 27 No. 64-60, Manizales, Caldas (Colombia); Tschiptschin, A.P. [Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Depto. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Velez, J.M. [Laboratorio de Materiales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Medellin, Sede Medellin, Antioquia (Colombia)

    2011-05-01

    TiAlN films were deposited on AISI O1 tool steel using a triode magnetron sputtering system. The bias voltage effect on the composition, thickness, crystallography, microstructure, hardness and adhesion strength was investigated. The coatings thickness and elemental composition analyses were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) together with energy dispersive X-ray (EDS). The re-sputtering effect due to the high-energy ions bombardment on the film surface influenced the coatings thickness. The films crystallography was investigated using X-ray diffraction characterization. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) data show that TiAlN coatings were crystallized in the cubic NaCl B1 structure, with orientations in the {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}, {l_brace}2 0 0{r_brace} {l_brace}2 2 0{r_brace} and {l_brace}3 1 1{r_brace} crystallographic planes. The surface morphology (roughness and grain size) of TiAlN coatings was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). By increasing the substrate bias voltage from -40 to -150 V, hardness decreased from 32 GPa to 19 GPa. Scratch tester was used for measuring the critical loads and for measuring the adhesion.

  6. Microstructure and texture evolution during static recrystallization of Zr-2Hf alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, K.Y.; Chaubet, D.; Bacroix, B.; Bechade, J.L. [MPMTM-CNRS, Inst. Galilee, Univ. Paris-Nord, Villetaneuse (France); CEA SACLAY, CEREM/DECM/SRMA, Gif-fur-Yvette (France)

    2004-07-01

    The recrystallization of a Zr-2Hf alloy sheet deformed by plane strain compression at room temperature and then heat treated in the temperature range 500-650 C is studied. The microstructure, local and global crystallographic textures are investigated by EBSD and X-ray techniques. The as-deformed condition exhibits a heterogeneous microstructure composed of highly and less deformed zones, the EBSD indexing of the latter ones being more reliable. The as-deformed condition displays a (0001) <10 anti 10> crystallographic texture. The evolution of the microstructure during recrystallization very much depends on the amount of local deformation. Recrystallization begins in highly deformed zones, new grains having two variants of texture components, {l_brace}0001{r_brace} <10 anti 10> and {l_brace}0001{r_brace} <11 anti 20>. Some change of preferred orientations concomitant with grain growth at 600 and 650 C has been observed with a decrease in the {l_brace}0001{r_brace} <10 anti 10> component and an increase in the {l_brace}0001{r_brace} <11 anti 20> component. (orig.)

  7. Evolution of recrystallization texture from aluminum sheet cold rolled under unlubricated condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, C.H.; Lee, D.N. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-11-01

    The texture of cold-rolled aluminum sheet has been known to vary through thickness due to inhomogeneous deformation, which can be caused by a characteristic deformation zone geometry and friction between materials and rolls during rolling. The copper texture is obtained in the center layer, which is plane strain compressed, while the shear texture is in the surface layer, which is approximated by major {l_brace}001{r_brace}{l_angle}110{r_angle} and minor {l_brace}111{r_brace}{l_angle}112{r_angle} and {l_brace}111{r_brace}{l_angle}110{r_angle} components. The recrystallization texture of the surface layer is approximated by {l_brace}225{r_brace}{l_angle}10 5 2{r_angle}. The evolution of the recrystallization texture has been explained by the maximum energy release theory, in which the absolute maximum normal stress direction in the deformed state becomes parallel to the minimum elastic modulus direction of the recrystallized grains.

  8. Scattering theory for finitely many sphere interactions supported by concentric spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hounkonnou, M.N.; Hounkpe, M. [Institut de Mathematiques et de Sciences Physiques, Universite Nationale du Benin, BP 613 Porto-Novo (Benin); Shabani, J. [UNESCO Nairobi Office, P. O. Box 30592 Nairobi (Kenya)

    1997-06-01

    We study stationary scattering theory for finitely many sphere interactions formally given by the Hamiltonian H={minus}{Delta}+{summation}{sub j=1}{sup N}{alpha}{sub j}{delta}({vert_bar}x{vert_bar}{minus}R{sub j}) and its generalizations to the case of interactions of the second type and interactions with nonseparated boundary conditions. In a previous publication [J. Math. Phys. {bold 29}, 660{endash}664 (1988)], it was shown that the self-adjoint Hamiltonian H{sub {l_brace}{alpha}{sub l}{r_brace},{l_brace}R{r_brace}} corresponding to H may be defined as a limit in norm resolvent convergence of a family H{sub {var_epsilon}} of local scaled short-range Hamiltonians. In this paper we also study scattering theory corresponding to H{sub {var_epsilon}} and show that the scattering quantities associated with H{sub {var_epsilon}} converge to those of H{sub {l_brace}{alpha}{sub l}{r_brace},{l_brace}R{r_brace}} as {var_epsilon}{r_arrow}0. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Modelling of Boron Trapping at End-of-Range defects in pre-amorphized ultra-shallow junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazizi, E.M. [LAAS/CNRS, University of Toulouse, 7 av. Col. Roche, 31077 Toulouse (France); STMicroelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Crolles Cedex (France); CEMES/CNRS, 29 rue J. Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France)], E-mail: bazizi@laas.fr; Fazzini, P.F. [LAAS/CNRS, University of Toulouse, 7 av. Col. Roche, 31077 Toulouse (France); Zechner, C.; Tsibizov, A. [Synopsys Switzerland LLC, Affolternstrasse 52, 8050 Zuerich (Switzerland); Kheyrandish, H. [CSMA, Queens Road, Penkhull, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire ST4 7LQ (United Kingdom); Pakfar, A.; Ciampolini, L.; Tavernier, C. [STMicroelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Crolles Cedex (France); Cristiano, F. [LAAS/CNRS, University of Toulouse, 7 av. Col. Roche, 31077 Toulouse (France)

    2008-12-05

    In this work, the evolution of boron trapping at End-of-Range (EOR) defects was investigated by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Si wafers with a constant boron concentration of 2 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} were implanted with 30 keV germanium and with a dose of 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} and then annealed at 700, 800, or 900 deg. C in an N{sub 2} ambient for various times. The experimental results suggest that the evolution of boron-trapping peak is driven by the evolution of {l_brace}3 1 1{r_brace} defects and that the dislocation loops contribution to the trapping mechanism is less pronounced. An analytic model for the concurrent boron trapping at {l_brace}3 1 1{r_brace} defects and dislocation loops was developed by taking into account the geometry of the EOR defects. The trapped species is represented by neutral BI pairs which can be captured either by {l_brace}3 1 1{r_brace} defects or by dislocation loops. The model accurately reproduces the complex evolution of the trapping peak as a function of both the annealing time and temperature. These results confirm that the evolution of the boron-trapping peak is closely related to the evolution of the {l_brace}3 1 1{r_brace} defects, therefore suggesting that boron trapping is associated to the capture and release of boron atoms at the {l_brace}3 1 1{r_brace} defects formed in the EOR region.

  10. Radiochemical synthesis of etomoxir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Hafiz G. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology (INMOL), New Campus Road, Lahore (Pakistan); Yunus, M. [University of the Punjab, New Campus Road, Lahore (Pakistan); Feinendegen, Ludwig E., E-mail: feinendegen@gmx.ne [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heinrich-Heine University Duesseldorf, Wannental 45, 88131 Lindau (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    Sodium 2-{l_brace}6-(4-chlorophenoxy)hexyl{r_brace}oxirane-2-carboxylate (Etomoxir) inhibits transport of fatty acids via the carnitine shuttle into mitochondria of muscle cells and prevents long chain fatty acids from providing energy through {beta}-oxidation especially for muscle contraction. The objective of this synthesis is to develop a method for radioiodination of Etomoxir in order to explore its potential in diagnostic metabolic studies and molecular imaging. Thus, a method is described for the radiochemical synthesis and purification of ethyl 2-{l_brace}6-(4-[{sup 131}I]iodophenoxy)hexyl{r_brace}oxirane-2-carboxylate (3) and 2-{l_brace}6-(4-[{sup 131}I]iodo-phenoxy)hexyl{r_brace}oxirane-2-carboxylic acid (4). For the synthesis of these new agents, ethyl 2-{l_brace}6-(4-bromophenoxy)hexyl{r_brace}oxirane-2-carboxylate (1) and 2-{l_brace}6-(4-bromophenoxy)hexyl{r_brace}oxirane-2-carboxylic acid (2) were refluxed with [{sup 131}I]NaI in the presence of anhydrous acetone at a temperature of 80 {sup o}C and 90 {sup o}C for a period of 3-4 hours, respectively. The method of radiolabeling, based on the nucleophilic exchange reaction, resulted in a radiochemical yield of 43% and 67% for compounds 3 and 4, respectively. This paper reports on the labeling of etomoxir with radioiodine as {sup 124}I labeled etomoxir may be of great importance in molecular imaging.

  11. 速度型阻尼器和防屈曲支撑在装配式框架结构纵向体系中减震效果研究%Damping Effect Research of Velocity Type Damper and Buckling-restrained Brace in the Longitudinal System of Fabricated Frame Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严俊; 庞金来; 施卫星

    2015-01-01

    For the lack of researches of the longitudinal framing of fabricated structure with weak lateral stiffness, non-damped, buckling-restrainedbrace and damped structure finite element analysis models were es-tablished .The three models'earthquake reaction in the longitudinal system were compared by the nonlinear time history analysis method .Analysis shows that the similar structure with damper can significantly improve the damping effect , and keep the structure in the elastic stage under the major earthquake .The paper can provide a reference for damper's application in the longitudinal framing .%针对抗侧刚度较弱的装配式结构纵向框架研究较少的现状,建立了纯框架、增设防屈曲支撑及增设阻尼器的装配式框架有限元分析模型,通过非线性的时程对比分析了在地震作用下三种模型纵向体系的结构反应。分析表明,在类似结构中增设阻尼器,可显著提高减震效果,使结构在大震中依然处于弹性状态。对于进一步提高阻尼器在纵向框架的应用水平具有一定的借鉴意义。

  12. Influência da utilização da órtese de tornozelo durante atividades do voleibol: avaliação eletromiográfica Influencia de la utilización de la ortesis del tobillo durante las actividades del voleibol: evaluación electromiográfica Use of ankle bracing for volleyball activities

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferson Rosa Cardoso; Christiane de Souza Macedo Guerino; Marcelo Bannwart Santos; Thiago André Del Arco Mustafá; Anália Rosário Lopes; Marcelo Costa de Paula

    2005-01-01

    Entorse de tornozelo é a lesão aguda mais freqüentemente encontrada no voleibol. Com o intuito de prevenir a ocorrência de lesões de tornozelos, foram desenvolvidos equipamentos profiláticos, como as órteses. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desempenho dos músculos do tornozelo (tibial anterior, fibular longo e gastrocnêmio – porção medial e lateral) por meio da medida da atividade elétrica em diferentes atividades esportivas do voleibol (salto vertical e deslocamento lateral) com e...

  13. Influência do complexo flúor-xilitol no controle da placa dentária e do sangramento gengival em pacientes herbiátricos com aparelho ortodôntico fixo Influence of fluorine-xylitol complex in the dental plaque and gingival bleeding control in herbiatric patients with fixed orthodontic brace

    OpenAIRE

    Fabíola Elias; Arnaldo Pinzan; José Roberto Magalhães Bastos

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: avaliar os efeitos de um dentifrício contendo flúor/xilitol na redução da adesão da placa à estrutura dentária, bem como no índice de sangramento gengival, em portadores de aparelho ortodôntico fixo. METODOLOGIA: foram avaliados 22 jovens, com idade entre 14 e 17 anos. Após a quantificação inicial dos índices, os jovens receberam instruções de escovação e começaram a utilizar somente os dentifrícios da pesquisa. Houve uma divisão aleatória da amostra em dois grupos (A e B). Na prime...

  14. The observation of effects in treating the mild or moderate Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis with brace and Chinese manipulation%支具联合中医手法治疗轻中度青少年特发性脊柱侧凸疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄柏辉; 潘锰

    2010-01-01

    目的:通过对19例青少年特发性脊柱侧凸患者运用支具联合中医手法治疗的临床随访观察,评价该疗法在治疗AIS的有效性;方法:本组青少年特发性脊柱侧凸患者19例,女10例.男9例,年龄4-16岁,其中单腰弯的4例,胸腰弯的15例,Cobb角为20°-45°(26.26°±10.06),均采用支具联合中医手法矫形治疗,随访时间,3~12个月,平均6个月,治疗后评价患者前后的Cobb角、身高、坐高;结果:19例AIS患者进行支具联合中医手法治疗,治疗后,根据Cobb角,消退患者为6例,好转的为11例,无效的为2例;结论:支具联合中医手法矫形治疗可以减少青少年特发性脊柱侧凸患者侧弯角度,减缓侧弯进展.

  15. The evolution of the cube recrystallization texture in cold rolled copper sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Dong Nyung

    2003-06-25

    The S{l_brace}123{r_brace}<634> deformation texture has often been addressed to be responsible for the cube {l_brace}001<100> recrystallization texture in fcc metals from {approx}40 deg. <111> rotational relation. After the 95% cold rolled copper sample was heated up to various temperatures at the rate of 2.5 K s{sup -1} and quenched, the density of the S component was slightly lowered while that of the copper component {l_brace}112{r_brace}<111> was decreased drastically. This result suggests indirectly that the decrease in the density of the copper component is closely linked to the increase in the cube component. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) studies also indicated that the cube rerystallization texture was linked with the {l_brace}112{r_brace}<111> deformation texture. The results have been discussed based on the strain energy release maximization (SERM) model, in which the recrystallization texture is determined so that release of the strain energy due to dislocations can be maximized during annealing.

  16. Behaviour of parallel girders stabilised with U-frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virdi, Kuldeep; Azzi, Walid

    2010-01-01

    Lateral torsional buckling is a key factor in the design of steel girders. Stability can be enhanced by cross-bracing, reducing the effective length and thus increasing the ultimate capacity. U-frames are an option often used to brace the girders when designing through type of bridges and where...... overhead bracing is not practical. This paper investigates the effect of the U-frame spacing on the stability of the parallel girders. Eigenvalue buckling analysis was undertaken with four different spacings of the U-frames. Results were extracted from finite element analysis, interpreted and conclusions...

  17. Gene : CBRC-HSAP-06-0003 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-06-0003 Novel 6 D UNKNOWN CN165_HUMAN 2e-21 63% dbj|BAC85887.1| unnamed protein product [Homo sapi...ens] 7e-35 68% gnl|UG|Hs#S28297950 DA109160 BRACE3 Homo sapiens cDNA clone BRACE302...5623 5', mRNA sequence /clone=BRACE3025623 /clone_end=5' /gb=DA109160 /gi=80475782 /ug=Hs.690917 /len=598 1e-39 69% MAPI...YRHMPPYPTNFCIFSRDRLSLCWPGWSPFLISGDPAALVSQSAGITGVSHGTWPFDCFSSFELGLFLPPHSPIAILEILGYQILPGQVSAPIDAYSNAVPFSHGF ...

  18. Atomistic study of edge and screw dislocations in magnesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogaret, T., E-mail: thomas_nogaret@brown.edu [Division of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Curtin, W.A. [Division of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Yasi, J.A. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Hector, L.G. [General Motors R and D Center, 30500 Mound Road, Warren, MI 48090-9055 (United States); Trinkle, D.R. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    The gamma surfaces in the pyramidal I {l_brace}1 -1 0 1{r_brace} and II {l_brace}1 1-2 2{r_brace} planes for hexagonal close packed Mg have been calculated using two embedded-atom-method potentials and by ab initio methods, and reasonable agreement is obtained for key stacking fault energies. Screw and edge dislocation core structures and Peierls stresses at 0 K and finite temperature have been examined using the embedded-atom-method potentials. Screw dislocations glide in the {l_brace}1 -1 0 1{r_brace} pyramidal plane I, and in the prism plane for larger stresses, but not in the {l_brace}1 1 -2 2{r_brace} plane as observed in experiments. However, the preference for pyramidal I glide correlates well with the gamma surfaces. New low energy edge dislocation cores were found in addition to the sessile Type I and Type III cores observed in previous simulations while the Type II core was not observed. The lowest energy core is a glissile core that lies in the {l_brace}1 1 -2 2{r_brace} plane and has a 3 nm long {l_brace}1 1 -2 1{r_brace} twin embryo, rather than the sessile Type III core found in previous simulations. As the temperature increases from 0 to 300 K, the Peierls stresses in compression/tension drop from -80 MPa/+140 MPa and -140 MPa/+220 MPa for the most glissile screw and edge dislocations to -5/+2.5 MPa and -27/+5 MPa, and dislocation glide changes from kink motion to face-centered-cubic-like motion. At 300 K and under an applied stress, almost all the edge cores found at low temperature transform into a glissile core denoted IT, which glides at low stresses. Thus, at 300 K both screw and edge dislocations were found to glide at stresses smaller than the {approx}40 MPa measured experimentally.

  19. Spherical harmonics: coherent states constructed by the second lowest and second highest bases of su(1, 1) Lie algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehghani, A [Payam Noor University, Tabriz Center, Emamieh, Hakimnezami Street, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fakhri, H, E-mail: a_dehghani@tabrizu.ac.ir, E-mail: hfakhri@tabrizu.ac.ir [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics, University of Tabriz, PO Box 51666-16471, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-25

    The second lowest and second highest bases of the discrete positive and negative irreducible representations of su(1, 1) Lie algebra via spherical harmonics are used to construct generalized coherent states. Depending on whether the representation label is an even or odd integer, each of the new coherent states is separated into two different classes. They are constituted by appropriate superpositions of the increasing and decreasing infinite sequences with respect to the m index of the spherical harmonics {l_brace}Y{sup m}{sub 2j{+-}m}({theta}, {phi}){r_brace}{sub m}= {sub mnplusj{+-}1}{sup {+-}{infinity}} and {l_brace}Y{sup m}{sub 2k{+-}m-1}({theta}, {phi}){r_brace}{sub m=mnplusk{+-}2}{sup {+-}{infinity}}, and converge to the known functions. Also the non-oscillating measures to realize the resolution of the identity condition on the unit disk are calculated.

  20. Electronic conductivity and structural distortion at the interface between insulators SrTiO{sub 3} and LaAlO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurice, J.L.; Carretero, C.; Bouzehouane, K.; Guyard, S.; Contour, J.P. [Unite Mixte de Physique CNRS/Thales, Route departementale 128, 91767 Palaiseau cedex (France); Casanove, M.J. [CEMES CNRS, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, BP 4347, 31055 Toulouse cedex (France); Larquet, E. [IMPMC, Universite P. and M. Curie, Campus Boucicaut, 75015 Paris (France)

    2006-07-15

    When insulator LaAlO{sub 3} is grown by epitaxy onto a TiO{sub 2}-terminated {l_brace}100{r_brace} surface of insulator SrTiO{sub 3}, the system obtained has a metallic character. This phenomenon has been associated with an electrostatic frustration at the interface, as {l_brace}100{r_brace} surfaces of SrTiO{sub 3} are neutral while those of LaAlO{sub 3} are polar, but its microscopic mechanism is not quite understood. Here, we present a structural characterisation of this interface by aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. The unit cells at the interface appear elongated: we discuss this distortion in terms of electrostatic charge and extra carriers at the interface. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Zero Tolerance, Zero Sense%过分苛责,有悖情理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文炳

    2012-01-01

    Two good kids. Two broken rules. Two parables2 of justice, except one offers a bracing3 lesson in honor and the other just leaves you heartsick at the latest evidence that zero tolerance often makes zero sense.

  2. Strategic focus. A game plan for collaboration in a competitive marketplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweed, S C

    1993-10-01

    How can home care agencies brace for the coming changes and not only survive health care reform, but thrive in it? Collaboration is an effective tool for gaining competitive advantage in the marketplace. PMID:10129037

  3. DC motor proportional control system for orthotic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, H. T.; Allen, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Multi-channel proportional control system for operation of dc motors for use with externally-powered orthotic arm braces is described. Components of circuitry and principles of operation are described. Schematic diagram of control circuit is provided.

  4. Bone marrow transplant - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugar-free popsicles or sugar-free hard candies. Take care of your dentures, braces, or other dental products. ... Take care not to get infections for up to 1 year or more after your transplant. Practice safe ...

  5. After chemotherapy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugar-free popsicles or sugar-free hard candies. Take care of your dentures, braces, or other dental products. ... Take care not to get infections for up to 1 year or more after your chemotherapy. Practice safe ...

  6. About Kids' Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for tooth decay and gum disease. Good oral hygiene is especially important for people wearing braces. And ... bottle pool around the teeth while the child sleeps. Bacteria in the mouth use these sugars as ...

  7. Aging Studies of Filled and Unfilled VCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letant, S; Herberg, J; Alviso, C; Small, W; Mulcahy, H; Pearson, M; Wilson, T; Chinn, S; Maxwell, R

    2009-11-10

    This report presents data on the effects of temperature and gamma radiation on the chemical and structural properties of both filled and unfilled VCE material produced by the Kansas City Plant using WR-qualified processes. Thermal effects up to 300 C and gamma irradiation doses of 1 MRad and 25 MRad were investigated under atmospheric conditions. Characterization techniques used in the study comprise Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Tensile Testing, Solid Phase MicroExtraction - Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS), phenol extraction followed by HPLC, and various Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques including: {sup 13}C, {sup 13}C {l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace} cross polarization (CP), {sup 1}H magic angle spinning (MAS), 13C{l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace} Wide-line-Separation (2D-WISE) and development of Center band-Only Detection of Exchange (CODEX).

  8. Bankart Repair to Correct Shoulder Instability

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Page 16 of 18 that brace in the emergency room and using it on kids who come ... Orthopedic and Sports Medicine here at Akron Children's Hospital. Feel like under one roof and one facility ...

  9. Motor Neuron Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... braces, orthotics, speech synthesizers, and wheelchairs help some patients retain independence. Proper nutrition and a balanced diet are essential to maintaining weight and strength. What is the ... and progress slowly. Patients with spinal muscular atrophy may appear to be ...

  10. 49 CFR 174.115 - Loading Division 1.4 (explosive) materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... automatic heating or refrigerating machinery with which the truck body, trailer, or container is equipped is... be relied on to prevent shifting of heavy loads. For recommended methods of blocking and bracing...

  11. 49 CFR 174.112 - Loading Division 1.3 materials and Division 1.2 (explosive) materials (Also see § 174.101).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... is closed and tight; (2) All automatic heating or refrigerating machinery with which the truck body... heavy loads). For recommended methods of blocking and bracing see Bureau of Explosives Pamphlet No....

  12. Bankart Repair to Correct Shoulder Instability

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stronger; often four, six, eight weeks of a strengthening program for those muscles behind the shoulder to support ... a harness type brace may, along with a strengthening program, help to try to keep that ball back ...

  13. Medical Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... email share facebook twitter google plus linkedin Medical Management Although there’s no cure for CMT, there are ... individualized physical therapy program. For more on medical management of CMT, see Surgery Sometimes, Bracing Often, Caution ...

  14. Synthesis and characterization of copolymers 4,5-dihydroisoxazole and (-)-menthyl acrylates; Sintese e caracterizacao de copolimeros de cadeia lateral derivados de acrilatos de 4,5-di-hidroisoxazol e do (-)-mentol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passo, Joel A.; Merlo, Aloir A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Eccher, Juliana; Bechtold, Ivan H. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Campus Universitario Trindade. Dept. de Fisica; Kelly, Stephen M., E-mail: aloir@iq.ufrgs.br [University of Hull, Hull (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    Five monomers 5-[4-(5-cyano-4,5-dihydroisoxazol-3-yl)phenoxy]undecyl acrylate (7a); n-alkyl 3-{l_brace}4-[5-(acryloyloxyundecyl)oxyphenyl]{r_brace}-4,5-dihydroisoxazole-5-carboxylate (7b,c for n-butyl and n-hexyl, respectively); 3-{l_brace}4-[5-(acryloyloxyundecyl) oxyphenyl]{r_brace}-4,5-dihydroisoxazole-5-carboxylic acid (7d) and (1R,2S,5R)-2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexyl acrylate (9) and the corresponding copolymers 10a-d,11 and homopolymers 12 from 7a and 13 from 9 were designed and synthesized. Except for acrylate 9 which is derived from (-)-menthol, all of the monomers belong to the series containing the isoxazoline ring linked to the acrylate unit by a flexible spacer chain of eleven methylene units. They presented low glass temperature and despite birefringence behavior, these copolymers showed no mesomorphic properties. (author)

  15. CP Violation in Tau to K* Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgkinson, Mark; /Manchester U.

    2006-03-10

    A sample of {tau}{sup {+-}} {yields} K*{sup {+-}} decays with K*{sup {+-}} {yields} K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup {+-}} and K{sub S}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, using 123.4 fb{sup -1} of data collected by the BaBar detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, is used to search for a direct CP violation effect in the charged Higgs sector. No evidence of CP violation is found and the imaginary part of the charged Higgs coupling, {l_brace}Im{r_brace}({Lambda}), in the Multi-Higgs-Doublet-Model is found to be at -0.284 < {l_brace}Im{r_brace}({Lambda}) < 0.200 at 90% Confidence Level. In addition the installation of the kk2f Monte Carlo generator into the BaBar software framework is described.

  16. Climate science hit by job cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Climate researchers in Australia are bracing themselves for heavy job cuts as the country's national scientific agency - the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) - said last month it will reprioritize towards innovation.

  17. Malocclusion of teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are easier to clean and decrease risk of tooth decay and periodontal diseases ( gingivitis or periodontitis ). Eliminate strain ... braces and may permanently mark teeth or cause tooth decay if not properly cared for. You will need ...

  18. Arthritic Pain Relief through Partial Knee Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and I have made a concerted effort to capture the data on our patients. We have baseline ... put on a brace that applies a valgus stress and straightens out the leg a little bit ...

  19. Dental care - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as fluoride, extractions, fillings, or braces and other orthodontics. Information Healthy teeth and gums are essential to ... herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any ...

  20. Comparative Efficacy of Oral Hygiene, a Complex Containing Triklogard and Herbal Extracts you have Patients on the Orthodontic Treatment with Braket-system

    OpenAIRE

    Suyetenkov D.Ye.; Juk А.О.; Usachev V.V.; Zakharov A.V.

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of the effectiveness of hygiene containing Triklogard and plant extracts in patients with a bracket system. Preference is not revealed. A modification of the index of oral hygiene for patients with braces

  1. The dp{yields}ppn reaction as a method to study neutron-proton charge-exchange amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiladze, D. [Tbilisi State Univ., High Energy Physics Inst., Tbilisi (Georgia); Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); Juelich Centre for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Carbonell, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Grenoble (France); Dymov, S. [JINR, Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, Dubna (Russian Federation); Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Physikalisches Institut II, Erlangen (Germany); Dzyuba, A.; Valdau, Yu. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, High Energy Physics Department, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Glagolev, V. [JINR, Laboratory of High Energies, Dubna (Russian Federation); Hartmann, M.; Kacharava, A.; Nekipelov, M.; Ohm, H.; Rathmann, F.; Stroeher, H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); Juelich Centre for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Keshelashvili, I. [Tbilisi State University, High Energy Physics Institute, Tbilisi (Georgia); University of Basel, Department of Physics, Basel (Switzerland); Khoukaz, A.; Mersmann, T.; Mielke, M. [Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Muenster (Germany); Komarov, V.; Kulikov, A.; Uzikov, Yu. [JINR, Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kulessa, P. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Krakow (Poland); Lomidze, N.; Mchedlishvili, D.; Nioradze, M.; Tabidze, M. [Tbilisi State University, High Energy Physics Institute, Tbilisi (Georgia); Macharashvili, G. [Tbilisi State University, High Energy Physics Institute, Tbilisi (Georgia); JINR, Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, Dubna (Russian Federation); Maeda, Y. [Osaka University, Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka Ibaraki (Japan); Merzliakov, S. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); Juelich Centre for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); JINR, Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, Dubna (Russian Federation)] [and others

    2009-04-15

    The differential cross section and deuteron analysing powers of the (vector)dp{yields}{l_brace}pp{r_brace}n charge-exchange reaction have been measured with the ANKE spectrometer at the COSY storage ring. Using a deuteron beam of energy 1170MeV, data were obtained for small momentum transfers to a {l_brace}pp{r_brace} system with low excitation energy. A good quantitative understanding of all the measured observables is provided by the impulse approximation using known neutron-proton amplitudes. The proof of principle achieved here for the method suggests that measurements at higher energies will provide useful information in regions where the existing np database is far less reliable. (orig.)

  2. Cosmetic Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have stained, broken or uneven teeth, cosmetic dentistry can help. Cosmetic dentistry is different from orthodontic treatment, which can straighten your teeth with braces or other devices. Cosmetic dental procedures include Bleaching to make teeth whiter ...

  3. Fast photo-switchable surfaces for boiling heat transfer applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, C. N.; Glavin, N. R.; Voevodin, A. A. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, 2941 Hobson Way, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Turner, D. B.; Check, M. H. [Universal Technology Corporation, 1270 North Fairfield Road, Dayton, Ohio 45532 (United States); Jespersen, M. L.; Borton, P. T. [University of Dayton Research Institute, 300 College Park, Dayton, Ohio 45469 (United States)

    2012-11-05

    Several milligrams of the ruthenium-centered organometallic complex, ruthenium bis-4,4 Prime -di(thiomethyl)-2,2 Prime -bipyridine, mono-2 -(2-pyridyl)-1,3-oxathiane ([Ru{l_brace}(HS-CH{sub 2}){sub 2}-bpy{r_brace}{sub 2}{l_brace}pox{r_brace}](PF{sub 6}){sub 2}) were synthesized and used to produce a self assembled monolayer film on a gold substrate. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the film detected the presence of bound thiolate, which is an indication of a chemisorbed film. Water contact angle measurements were performed before and after 5 min of visible light irradiation using an ozone-free 1000 W Xe(Hg) arc source with a 425-680 nm long pass mirror. The contact angle changed from 52 Degree-Sign pre-irradiation (hydrophilic state) to 95 Degree-Sign post-irradiation (hydrophobic state).

  4. CDC Zika Summit Details Plans to Fight Mosquito-Borne Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158094.html CDC Zika Summit Details Plans to Fight Mosquito-Borne Illness ... the continental United States braces itself for the Zika virus, federal, state and local health officials gathered ...

  5. Modeling texture change during the static recrystallization of interstitial free steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kestens, L.; Jonas, J.J. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering

    1996-01-01

    A recrystallization model was developed based on the principal features of oriented nucleation and selective growth. The nucleation mechanism that is adopted assumes that nucleation takes place in deformed grains with relatively high Taylor factors. The selective growth law is based on the assumed high mobility of {l_brace}110{r_brace} plane matching (PM) boundaries and also includes a variant selection rule. The two submodels enable the full recrystallization process to be simulated. The theory is applied to the annealing of a Ti-Nb alloyed interstitial free (IF) steel. It is demonstrated that the nucleation and growth algorithms can successfully account for the annealing textures observed, including the presence of a strong {l_brace}111{r_brace}<211> component. An important feature of the model is that it permits the role of variant selection to be assessed; it also shows the effect on the texture of the low mobility of low-angle grain boundaries (LAGBs).

  6. 29 CFR (non - mandatory) Appendix D to Subpart L of Part 1926-List of Training Topics for Scaffold Erectors and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... • working platforms • foundations • guys, ties and braces • Tubular Welded Frame Scaffolds • specific... • rolling scaffold assembly • putlogs • Tube and Clamp Scaffolds • specific regulations and...

  7. Ankle Sprains. A Round Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Types of ankle sprains, surgical versus nonsurgical treatment, tape versus brace for support, rehabilitation, exercise, and prevention of ankle sprains are discussed by a panel of experts. An acute ankle taping technique is illustrated. (MT)

  8. Nanoindentation of BaTiO{sub 3}: dislocation nucleation and mechanical twinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, Y; Anglada, M [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy (CMEM), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Avda. Diagonal 647 (ETSEIB), 08028 Barcelona (Spain); MacIas, A Hurtado [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, SC, Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua, 31109 (Mexico); Munoz-Saldana, J; Trapaga, G, E-mail: jmunoz@qro.cinvestav.m [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Queretaro Apdo, Postal 1-798, 76001 Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico)

    2009-04-21

    This paper presents a study of the deformation mechanisms of barium titanate under nanoindentation. The (0 0 1) and (1 1 0) crystallographic orientations of BaTiO{sub 3} giant grains were indented and critical mean contact pressures for dislocation nucleation were extracted from the indentation curves. The orientation of the dislocation slip lines was identified by atomic force microscopy, showing that the (1 1 0){l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} glide systems were activated. Twin bands, observed on both orientations, also occur on the {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} habit planes and actively participate in the accommodation of the plastic deformation. Furthermore, dislocation pile-ups introduced by spherical indentations have shown a close relation between dislocations and twinning formation.

  9. Seismic behavior of concrete filled steel tubular arch structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Feng; Sashi K Kunnath; Liu Haowu

    2005-01-01

    Shaking table tests of a 1:10 scale arch model performed to investigate the seismic behavior and resistance of concrete filled steel tubular (CFT) arch structures are described in this paper. The El-Centro record and Shanghai artificial wave were adopted as the input excitation. The entire test process can be divided into three stages depending on the lateral brace configurations, i.e., fully (five) braced, two braces removed, and all braces removed. A total of 46 tests, starting from the elastic state to failure condition, have been conducted. The natural vibration frequencies, responses of acceleration,displacement and strain were measured. From the test results, it is demonstrated that the CFT arch structures are capable of resisting severe ground motions and that CFT arches offer a credible alternative to reinforced concrete arches, especially in regions of high seismic intensity.

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... during MRI, but this is rarely a problem. Tooth fillings and braces usually are not affected by ... Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  11. Arthrography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... during MRI, but this is rarely a problem. Tooth fillings and braces usually are not affected by ... vessel or a nerve adjacent to the joint. Injury to these structures, however, is minimal particularly when ...

  12. Arthritic Pain Relief through Partial Knee Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... put on a brace that applies a valgus stress and straightens out the leg a little bit ... after you, you know, go in there and work on such a delicate joint. But this particular ...

  13. Quaternary isobaric (vapor + liquid + liquid) equilibrium and (vapor + liquid) equilibrium for the system (water + ethanol + cyclohexane + heptane) at 101.3 kPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pequenin, Ana; Asensi, Juan Carlos [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Alicante, Ap. 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Gomis, Vicente, E-mail: vgomis@ua.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Alicante, Ap. 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Water-ethanol-cyclohexane-heptane and water-cyclohexane-heptane isobaric VLLE. > Isobaric experimental data were determined at 101.3 kPa. > A dynamic recirculating still with an ultrasonic homogenizer was used. > The quaternary system does not present quaternary azeotropes. - Abstract: Experimental isobaric (vapor + liquid + liquid) and (vapor + liquid) equilibrium data for the ternary system {l_brace}water (1) + cyclohexane (2) + heptane (3){r_brace} and the quaternary system {l_brace}water (1) + ethanol (2) + cyclohexane (3) + heptane (4){r_brace} were measured at 101.3 kPa. An all-glass, dynamic recirculating still equipped with an ultrasonic homogenizer was used to determine the VLLE. The results obtained show that the system does not present quaternary azeotropes. The point-by-point method by Wisniak for testing the thermodynamic consistency of isobaric measurements was used to test the equilibrium data.

  14. Diving Medicine: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navy Diving Medical Officer Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia(PSVT) Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO) Raynaud's Syndrome or Phenomenon Vasovagal ... with a cracked tooth Diving With Dental Braces Diabetes & Diving Diabetes — The Risks Diving Accidents Basic Instincts ...

  15. Variable-Fidelity Aeroservoelastic Analysis Tool for Concept Evaluation, Design and Wind-Tunnel Test Support Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ongoing work in advanced air-vehicles, such as ultra-light-weight truss-braced and elastically tailored concepts is beginning to provide the insight necessary to...

  16. Cation-cation interactions, magnetic communication and reactivity of the pentavalent uraniumion [U(NR)2]+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Liam P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schelter, Eric J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Boncella, James M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Ping [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gsula, Robyn L [NON LANL; Scott, Brian L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, Joe D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kiplinger, Jacqueline L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batista, Enrique R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The dimeric bis(imido) uranium complex [{l_brace}U(NtBu)2(I)(tBu2bpy){r_brace}2] (see picture; U green, N blue, I red) has cation-cation interactions between [U(NR)2]+ ions. This f1-f1 system also displays f orbital communication between uranium(V) centers at low temperatures, and can be oxidized to generate uranium(VI) bis(imido) complexes.

  17. Complete {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR structural assignments for a group of four goyazensolide-type furanoheliangolides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Ana Carolina Ferreira; Silva, Aline Nazare; Matos, Priscilla Mendonca; Silva, Eder Henrique da; Heleno, Vladimir Constantino Gomes [Universidade de Franca, Franca, SP (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas em Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Lopes, Joao Luis Callegari [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FCFRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto. Dept. de Quimica e Fisica; Sass, Daiane Cristina, E-mail: vheleno_05@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto. Dept. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    Four goyazensolide-type sesquiterpene lactones - lychnofolide, centratherin, goyazensolide and goyazensolide acetate - were thoroughly studied by NMR experimental techniques. {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR {l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace}, COSY, HMQC, HMBC, J-res. and NOE experiments were performed to provide the needed structural information. Complete and unequivocal assignment, including the determination of all multiplicities, was obtained for each structure and the data collections are presented in tables (author)

  18. Monte carlo simulations of segregation in Pt-Re catalyst nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guofeng; Van Hove, M.A.; Ross, P.N.; Baskes, M.I.

    2004-04-01

    We have investigated the segregation of Pt atoms to the surfaces of Pt-Re nanoparticles using the Monte Carlo method and Modified Embedded Atom Method potentials that we have developed for Pt-Re alloys. The Pt75Re25 nanoparticles (containing from 586 to 4033 atoms) are assumed to have disordered fcc configurations and cubo-octahedral shapes (terminated by {l_brace}111{r_brace} and {l_brace}100{r_brace} facets), while the Pt50Re50 and Pt25Re75 nanoparticles (containing from 587 to 4061 atoms) are assumed to have disordered hcp configurations and truncated hexagonal bipyramidal shapes (terminated by {l_brace}0001{r_brace} and {l_brace}101 {bar 1}{r_brace} facets). We predict that due to the segregation process the equilibrium Pt-Re nanoparticles would achieve a core-shell structure, with a Pt-enriched shell surrounding a Pt-deficient core. For fcc cubo-octahedral Pt75Re25 nanoparticles, the shells consist of almost 100 at. percent of Pt atoms. Even in the shells of hcp truncated hexagonal bipyramidal Pt50Re50 nanoparticles, the concentrations of Pt atoms exceed 85 at. percent (35 at. percent higher than the overall concentration of Pt atoms in these nanoparticles). Most prominently, all Pt atoms will segregate to the surfaces in the hcp truncated hexagonal bipyramidal Pt25Re75 nanoparticles containing less than 1000 atoms. We also find that the Pt atoms segregate preferentially to the vertex sites, less to edge sites, and least to facet sites on the shell of Pt-Re nanoparticles.

  19. The Therapeutic Effects Of Kinesio Tape on a Grade I Lateral Ankle Sprain

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrick, Carrie Rayette

    2010-01-01

    The Therapeutic Effects OF Kinesioâ ¢ Tape On A Grade I Lateral Ankle Sprain? By Carrie Rayette Hendrick ABSTRACT Ankle taping and bracing are important components in the world of sports medicine and athletic training. There are different types of tape that are used for athletes by athletic trainers. However, little research has compared the performance of Kinesioâ ¢ Tape and an ASO ankle brace on a lateral grade...

  20. Hot rolling textures of Al-Cu-Li and Al-Zn-Mg-Cu aeronautical alloys: Experiments and simulations to high strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contrepois, Q.; Maurice, C. [Ecole des Mines de Saint-Etienne, Centre SMS, CNRS UMR 5146, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint-Etienne, CEDEX 2 (France); Driver, J.H., E-mail: driver@emse.fr [Ecole des Mines de Saint-Etienne, Centre SMS, CNRS UMR 5146, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint-Etienne, CEDEX 2 (France)

    2010-10-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Systematic hot plane strain compression tests have been made under controlled conditions of temperature and strain to compare texture evolution in Al-Zn-Mg and Al-Li-Cu. {yields} The hot rolling textures in Al-Cu-Li are the same as those of standard Al-Zn-Mg alloys, when deformed under the same conditions. {yields} The stronger textures, particularly the Brass {l_brace}110{r_brace}<112> component, of industrially rolled Al-Cu-Li are due to the higher rolling temperatures. {yields} The experimental results are consistent with the model of non-octahedral slip at high temperaturesz. - Abstract: The development of hot rolling textures, and particularly the Brass {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} <1 1 2> component, of two typical aeronautical alloys: Al-Cu-Li AA2050 and Al-Zn-Mg-Cu AA7050, has been investigated by EBSD and X-ray diffraction measurements after plane strain compression tests and industrial hot rolling. Systematic hot channel-die compression tests were performed to strains of 2.7 at 420-450 deg. C, on both as-homogenized alloys. Under the same processing conditions, the two alloys develop the same rolling textures showing that the presence of Li is not intrinsically responsible for the development of strong Brass components. However, it is shown, by further channel-die compression tests between 350 and 500 deg. C and up to strains of 3.9, that the deformation temperature can have a major influence: with increasing temperature {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} <1 1 2> orientations are strongly favoured at the expense of the Copper {l_brace}1 1 2{r_brace} <1 1 1> component. Numerical simulations demonstrate that previous and current experimental observations of the influence of temperature on texture development can be explained by increasing slip on non-octahedral slip systems.

  1. Control component retainer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An apparatus is described for retaining an undriven control component assembly disposed in a fuel assembly in a nuclear reactor of the type having a core grid plate. The first part of the mechanism involves a housing for the control component and the second part is a brace with a number of arms that reach under the grid plate. The brace and the housing are coupled together to firmly hold the control components in place even under strong flows of th coolant

  2. Thermodynamics of the ternary systems: (water + glycine, L-alanine and L-serine + di-ammonium hydrogen citrate) from volumetric, compressibility, and (vapour + liquid) equilibria measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat, E-mail: rahsadeghi@yahoo.co [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gholamireza, Afsaneh [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    The apparent molar volumes and isentropic compressibility of glycine, L-alanine and L-serine in water and in aqueous solutions of (0.500 and 1.00) mol . kg{sup -1} di-ammonium hydrogen citrate {l_brace}(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit{r_brace} and those of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit in water have been obtained over the (288.15 to 313.15) K temperature range at 5 K intervals at atmospheric pressure from measurements of density and ultrasonic velocity. The apparent molar volume and isentropic compressibility values at infinite dilution of the investigated amino acids have been obtained and their variations with temperature and their transfer properties from water to aqueous solutions of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit have also been obtained. The results have been interpreted in terms of the hydration of the amino acids. In the second part of this work, water activity measurements by the isopiestic method have been carried out on the aqueous solutions of {l_brace}glycine + (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit{r_brace}, {l_brace}alanine + (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit{r_brace}, and {l_brace}serine + (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit{r_brace} at T = 298.15 K at atmospheric pressure. From these measurements, values of vapour pressure, osmotic coefficient, activity coefficient and Gibbs free energy were obtained. The effect of the type of amino acids on the (vapour + liquid) equilibrium of the systems investigated has been studied. The experimental water activities have been correlated successfully with the segment-based local composition Wilson model. Furthermore, the thermodynamic behaviour of the ternary solutions investigated has been studied by using the semi-ideal hydration model and the linear concentration relations have been tested by comparing with the isopiestic measurements for the studied systems at T = 298.15 K.

  3. A health economic evaluation of screening and treatment in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Summary of background data Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis can progress and affect the health related quality of life of the patients. Research shows that screening is effective in early detection, which allows for bracing and reduced surgical rates, and may save costs, but is still controversial from a health economic perspective. Study design Model based cost minimisation analysis using hospital’s costs, administrative data, and market prices to estimate costs in screening, bracing and surg...

  4. {gamma}-Fibre recrystallization texture in IF-steel: an investigation on the recrystallization mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samajdar, I.; Verlinden, B.; Van Houtte, P. [Katholieke Univ. Leuven, Heverlee (Belgium). Dept. MTM; Vanderschueren, D. [OCAS, John Kennedylaan, B-9060 Zelzate (Belgium)

    1997-11-15

    Development of recrystallization texture in cold-rolled Ti-bearing IF-steel was investigated using X-ray diffraction, Electron Back Scattered Diffraction/Orientation Imaging Microscopy (EBSD/OIM) and TEM. During cold-rolling, both the {alpha} (RD// left angle 110 right angle) and the {gamma} (ND// left angle 111 right angle) fibres were observed to be strengthened, although the increase in {alpha} was more pronounced. Simulations of the cold-rolling using Taylor type theories demonstrated an approximate predictability of the textural changes. Recrystallization strengthened the {gamma}, as F (={l_brace}111{r_brace} left angle 112 right angle) increased but E (={l_brace}111{r_brace} left angle 110 right angle) remained essentially unchanged. A corresponding decrease in {alpha}, more in H (={l_brace}001{r_brace} left angle 110 right angle) than in I (={l_brace}112{r_brace} left angle 110 right angle), was also observed. The strong {gamma}-fibre recrystallization texture was mainly due to the larger numbers (i.e. `frequency advantage`) of the {gamma}-oriented grains, as the {gamma} grains were no larger than grains of other orientations. TEM studies showed an increase in cell size and a decrease and cell misorientation (which means an increase in stored energy) from H{yields}I{yields}E{yields}F. With the exception of a slight drop from E to F, increase in the Taylor factor always corresponded to an increase in the stored energy. The spread of stored energies, corresponding to inhomogeneities in dislocation substructure, were observed to increase from I=>H=>E=>F. A combination of the higher stored energy and the stronger inhomogeneities in dislocation substructure is possibly responsible for the preferred nucleation behavior causing the frequency advantage for the {gamma} grains. (orig.) 27 refs.

  5. Phase equilibrium properties of binary aqueous solutions of benzylamine, 1,2-bis(2-aminoethoxy)ethane, or 2-[2-(dimethylamino)ethoxy]ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belabbaci, Aouicha [University Abou Bekr Belkaid of Tlemcen, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 119, Tlemcen 13000 (Algeria); Mokbel, Ilham [LSA, Laboratoire des Sciences Analytiques, CNRS-UMR 5180, Universite Claude Bernard, Lyon I. 43, Bd du 11 Novembre 1918, Villeurbanne Cedex 69622 (France); Kaci, Ahmed Ait [Laboratoire de Thermodynamique et Modelisation Moleculaire, Universite Houari Boumediene des Sciences et Technologie, P.O. Box 132, 16111 El Alia, Bab ezzouar (Algeria); Jose, Jacques [LSA, Laboratoire des Sciences Analytiques, CNRS-UMR 5180, Universite Claude Bernard, Lyon I. 43, Bd du 11 Novembre 1918, Villeurbanne Cedex 69622 (France); Negadi, Latifa, E-mail: l_negadi@mail.univ-tlemcen.d [University Abou Bekr Belkaid of Tlemcen, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 119, Tlemcen 13000 (Algeria)

    2011-01-15

    The vapour pressures of (benzylamine + water), {l_brace}1,2-bis(2-aminoethoxy)ethane + water{r_brace}, or {l_brace}2-[2-(dimethylamino)ethoxy]ethanol + water{r_brace} binary mixtures, and pure 2-[2-(dimethylamino)ethoxy]ethanol component were measured by means of two static devices at temperatures between (283.15 and 363.15 (or 323.15)) K. The data were correlated with the Antoine equation. From these data, excess Gibbs functions (G{sup E}) were calculated for several constant temperatures and fitted to a fourth-order Redlich-Kister equation using the Barker's method. The (benzylamine + water) binary mixture exhibits positive deviations in G{sup E} for (303.15 < T/K < 323.15) and a sinusoidal shape in G{sup E} for T > 323.15 K over the whole composition range. The aqueous 1,2-bis(2-aminoethoxy)ethane or {l_brace}2-[2-(dimethylamino)ethoxy]ethanol + water{r_brace} solutions exhibit negative deviations in G{sup E} for all investigated temperatures over the whole composition range.

  6. Lattice dynamic studies from {sup 151}Eu-Moessbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katada, Motomi [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Hachioji (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1997-03-01

    New complexes {l_brace}(Eu(napy){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3})(Fe(CN){sub 6})4H{sub 2}O{r_brace}{sub x}, bpy({l_brace}(Eu(bpy)(H{sub 2}O){sub 4})(Fe(CN){sub 6})1.5bpy4H{sub 2}O{r_brace}{sub x}) and ({l_brace}(Eu(phen){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2})(Fe(CN){sub 6})2phen{r_brace}{sub x}) etc were synthesized using phenanthroline and bipyridine. Lattice dynamic behaviors of Eu and Fe atom in the complexes were investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy. By {sup 151}Eu-Moessbauer spectrum and parameters of new complexes, bpy complex showed the largest quadrupole splitting value, indicating bad symmetry of Eu ligand in the environment. Molecular structure of napy, bpy and phen complex were shown. These complexes are consisted of Eu atom coordinated with ligand and water molecule, of which (Fe(CN){sub 6}){sup 3-} ion formed one dimentional polymer chain and naphthyridines formed stacking structure. New complexes were observed by {sup 57}Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy, too. The quadrupole splitting values were very different each other, indicating change of symmetry of Fe atom in the environment and three valence low spin state of Fe in the complex. (S.Y.)

  7. The predictive value of extensor grip test for the effectiveness of treatment for tennis elbow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to compare the effectiveness of 5 different modalities and determine the usefulness of recently proposed extensor grip test (EGT) in predicting the response to treatment. In a randomized controlled clinical trial, 92 of 98 tennis elbow patients in Sina Hospital Tehran, Iran between 2006 and 2007 fulfilled the trial entry criteria. Among these patients 56 (60.9%) had positive EGT results, were randomly allocated to 5 treatment groups: brace, physiotherapy, brace plus physiotherapy, injection and injection plus physiotherapy. Patients with a positive EGT result had better response to treatments. Among them, injection plus physiotherapy was the most successful, then brace plus physiotherapy was the worst treatment modality. Response to treatment was comparable in all groups between EGT positive and negative patients except bracing, in which positive EGT was correlated with dramatic response to treatment. In all patients, injection plus physiotherapy and the brace plus physiotherapy is recommended, but in EGT negatives, bracing seems to be of no use. Injection alone is not recommended in either group. (author)

  8. A generalized Zakharov-Shabat equation with finite-band solutions and a soliton-equation hierarchy with an arbitrary parameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yufeng, E-mail: mathzhang@126.com [College of Science, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Tam, Honwah [Department of Computer Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Feng Binlu [School of Mathematics and Information Sciences, Weifang University, Shandong Weifang 261061 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > A generalized Zakharov-Shabat equation is obtained. > The generalized AKNS vector fields are established. > The finite-band solution of the g-ZS equation is obtained. > By using a Lie algebra presented in the paper, a new soliton hierarchy with an arbitrary parameter is worked out. - Abstract: In this paper, a generalized Zakharov-Shabat equation (g-ZS equation), which is an isospectral problem, is introduced by using a loop algebra G{sup {approx}}. From the stationary zero curvature equation we define the Lenard gradients {l_brace}g{sub j{r_brace}} and the corresponding generalized AKNS (g-AKNS) vector fields {l_brace}X{sub j{r_brace}} and X{sub k} flows. Employing the nonlinearization method, we obtain the generalized Zhakharov-Shabat Bargmann (g-ZS-B) system and prove that it is Liouville integrable by introducing elliptic coordinates and evolution equations. The explicit relations of the X{sub k} flows and the polynomial integrals {l_brace}H{sub k{r_brace}} are established. Finally, we obtain the finite-band solutions of the g-ZS equation via the Abel-Jacobian coordinates. In addition, a soliton hierarchy and its Hamiltonian structure with an arbitrary parameter k are derived.

  9. Evolution of recrystallization texture in a 0.78 wt.% Cr extra-low-carbon steel after warm and cold rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazder, Azdiar A., E-mail: azdiar@uow.edu.au [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); Sanchez-Araiza, Miguel; Jonas, John J. [Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2B2 (Canada); Pereloma, Elena V. [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia)

    2011-07-15

    The detailed evolution of microstructure and microtexture during the annealing of warm-rolled (WR) and cold-rolled (CR) 0.78 wt.% Cr extra-low-carbon steels was studied via electron back-scattering diffraction (EBSD). The partially recrystallized maps were deconstructed into deformed, recovered, newly nucleated and growing grain fractions using a newly developed procedure. In the early stages of recrystallization, the WR samples contained a mixture of discontinuously recrystallized {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}<1 1 2> newly nucleated grains and previously recovered {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}<1 1 0> growing grains. During the later stages of annealing, continuous recrystallization was the predominant mechanism with the strengthening orientations confined mostly to the {alpha}-fibre at {approx}(112)[11-bar0]. Conversely, during the annealing of the CR samples, discontinuous recrystallization took place, with the newly nucleated and growing grain fractions consisting mostly of {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}<1 1 2> orientations.

  10. Temperature dependence of the radiation damage microstructure in V-4Cr-4Ti neutron irradiated to low dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, P.M.; Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., IL (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed on the US program heat of V-4Cr-4Ti (heat No. 83665) irradiated to damage levels of 0.1--0.5 displacements per atom (dpa) at 110--505 C in the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven. A high density ({approximately}1 {times} 10{sup 23}/m{sup 3}) of small ({approximately}3.0 nm diameter) faulted dislocation loops were observed at irradiation temperatures blow 275 C. These dislocation loops became unfaulted at temperatures above {approximately}275 C, and a high density of small Ti-rich defect clusters lying on {l_brace}001{r_brace} planes appeared along with the unfaulted loops at temperatures above 300 C. The density of the {l_brace}001{r_brace} defect clusters was much higher than that of the dislocation loops at all temperatures above {approximately}300 C. The density of both types of defects decreased with increasing temperature above 300 C, with the most rapid decrease occurring for temperatures above 400 C. Based on the TEM and tensile measurements, the dislocation barrier strengths of the faulted dislocation loops and {l_brace}001{r_brace} defect clusters are {approximately}0.4--0.5 and 0.25, respectively. This indicates that both types of defects can be easily sheared by dislocations during deformation. Cleared dislocation channels were observed following tensile deformation in a specimen irradiated at 268 C.

  11. Assessment of the specific absorption rate and calibration of decoupling parameters for proton decoupled carbon-13 MR spectroscopy at 3.0 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Moyoko [Biomedical Imaging Group, Photonics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: moyoko-saitou@aist.go.jp; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi [Imaging Application Tech. Center, GE Yokogawa Medical Systems Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tropp, James [General Electric Company, CA (United States); Inubushi, Toshiro [Molecular Neuroscience Research Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga (Japan); Nakai, Toshiharu [Biomedical Imaging Group, Photonics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan) and Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe (Japan)]. E-mail: t-nakai@aist.go.jp

    2005-08-01

    A strategy for proton decoupled carbon-13 MR spectroscopy ({l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace}-{sup 13}C MRS) with a strong static magnetic field (3.0 T) in vivo was investigated. The proton decoupling improves the signal-to-noise ratio, however, the effect of the decoupling power on the human body, especially in strong magnetic fields, should be considered. In order to establish a technique for monitoring the metabolism of glucose in the liver using {l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace}-{sup 13}C MRS at 3.0 T, two phantom experiments were performed. To assess whether the decoupling energy conformed to SAR limits defined by the IEC, temperature rises inside an agar gel phantom were monitored during a {l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace}-{sup 13}C MRS experiment. Then, the decoupling conditions of a glucose solution phantom were systematically optimized with combinations of decoupling bandwidth and power. The reliability of this procedure was discussed in conjunction with IEC guidelines.

  12. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: Indications and efficacy of nonoperative treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Canavese

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The strategy for the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis depends essentially upon the magnitude and pattern of the deformity, and its potential for progression. Treatment options include observation, bracing and/or surgery. During the past decade, several studies have demonstrated that the natural history of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis can be positively affected by nonoperative treatment, especially bracing. Other forms of conservative treatment, such as chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation, acupuncture, exercise or other manual treatments, or diet and nutrition, have not yet been proven to be effective in controlling spinal deformity progression, and those with a natural history that is favorable at the completion of growth. Observation is appropriate treatment for small curves, curves that are at low risk of progression, and those with a natural history that is favorable at the completion of growth. Indications for brace treatment are a growing child presenting with a curve of 25°-40° or a curve less than 25° with documented progression. Curves of 20°-25° in patients with pronounced skeletal immaturity should also be treated. The purpose of this review is to provide information about conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Indications for conservative treatment, hours daily wear and complications of brace treatment as well as brace types are discussed.

  13. EFFECT OF LINK DIMENSIONS ON D TYPE ECCENTRIC STEEL FRAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen Ali Musmar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In seismic prone regions, buildings are designed to maintain sufficient stiffness during moderate earthquakes and to absorb and dissipate a large amount of the energy released due to severe earthquakes. The usual steel framing systems; the moment frames require larger member sections to satisfy stiffness requirements and have large ductility capacity, the concentrically braced frames satisfy stiffness on the expense of ductility requirements, resulting in poor energy dissipation. This study deals with the eccentrically Braced Steel Frames (EBF. EBF configuration is similar to traditional braced frames with the exception that at least one end of each brace must be eccentrically connected to the frame. The energy dissipation is achieved through the yielding of a beam segment called the link, while the other frame members, including outer beam segments, braces and columns, should remain essentially elastic. EBFs offer an economical steel framing system satisfying both stiffness and ductility requirements. The study incorporates conducting nonlinear finite element analysis to study the effect of the link length and link section on the behavior of D types EBF systems. The study involves material and geometric nonlinearities.

  14. Modification of the colony tower for the Rio Blanco detonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supplemental structural bracing was designed and installed for the 180-ft-tall Colony Tower, an experimental oil shale processing retort structure, in anticipation of its lateral response to the Rio Blanco detonation. The tower is a steel structure with both horizontal and vertical diagonal bracing. Data obtained from the earlier Project Rulison detonation indicated that an evaluation study was necessary. Design criteria that would provide an adequate margin of safety were developed based on predicted Rio Blanco ground motion. The evaluation of the unmodified structure showed that several bracing members would be subjected to forces exceeding their yield strength, and some would reach a level at which failure could occur. Further analyses were made with assumed modified bracing members. A final scheme for modified vertical bracing was established and installed. After modification, the response of the tower during the Rio Blanco detonation was measured by instruments on the ground and at various locations on the tower, and no evidence of damage was discovered. The modification of the Colony Tower and the procedures used to determine these modifications show the usefulness of current ground motion and structural response prediction technology for forecasting dynamic behavior of important structures subjected to ground motion from underground nuclear explosions. (auth)

  15. Thermodynamics of the hydrolysis reactions of {alpha}-D-galactose 1-phosphate, sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, 4-nitrophenyl phosphate, phosphocreatine, and 3-phospho-D-glycerate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Robert N. [Biochemical Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20876 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States)], E-mail: robert.goldberg@nist.gov; Lang, Brian E. [Biochemical Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20876 (United States)], E-mail: brian.lang@nist.gov; Lo, Catherine [Biochemical Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20876 (United States)], E-mail: catherine.lo@nist.gov; Ross, David J. [Biochemical Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20876 (United States)], E-mail: david.ross@nist.gov; Tewari, Yadu B. [Biochemical Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20876 (United States)], E-mail: yadu.tewari@nist.gov

    2009-05-15

    Microcalorimetry, high-performance liquid chromatography (h.p.l.c.), and an enzymatic assay have been used to conduct a thermodynamic investigation of five phosphate hydrolysis reactions: {l_brace}{alpha}-D-galactose 1-phosphate(aq) + H{sub 2}O(l) = D-galactose(aq) + orthophosphate(aq){r_brace} (1), {l_brace}sn-glycerol 3-phosphate(aq) + H{sub 2}O(l) = glycerol(aq) + orthophosphate(aq){r_brace} (2), {l_brace}4-nitrophenyl phosphate(aq) + H{sub 2}O(l) = 4-nitrophenol(aq) + orthophosphate(aq){r_brace} (3), {l_brace}phosphocreatine(aq) + H{sub 2}O(l) = creatine(aq) + orthophosphate(aq){r_brace} (4), and {l_brace}3-phospho-D-glycerate(aq) + H{sub 2}O(l) = D-glycerate(aq) + orthophosphate(aq){r_brace} (5). Calorimetrically determined enthalpies of reaction {delta}{sub r}H(cal) were measured for reactions (1)-(5) and the apparent equilibrium constant K' was measured for reaction (2). The pKs and standard enthalpies of reaction {delta}{sub r}H{sup 0} for the H{sup +} and Mg{sup 2+} binding reactions of the reactants and products in the aforementioned reactions were obtained either from the literature or by estimation. A chemical equilibrium model was then used to calculate standard equilibrium constants K and standard enthalpies of reaction {delta}{sub r}H{sup 0} for chemical reference reactions that correspond to the overall biochemical reactions that were studied experimentally. Property values from the literature and thermodynamic network calculations were used to obtain values of the equilibrium constants for the chemical reference reactions that correspond to the overall biochemical reactions (1). These values were compared with other results from the literature and also correlated with structural features. The results obtained in this study can be used in the chemical equilibrium model to calculate values of K', the standard apparent Gibbs free energy changes {delta}{sub r}G{sup '0}, the standard apparent enthalpy changes {delta}{sub r}H{sup '0

  16. Octacyanoniobate(IV)-based molecular magnets revealing 3D long-range order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelka, R; Balanda, M [Institute of Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342, Krakow (Poland); Pinkowicz, D; Drath, O; Nitek, W; Sieklucka, B [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Rams, M; Majcher, A, E-mail: robert.pelka@ifj.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2011-07-06

    Isostructural series of chemical formula {l_brace}[M{sup II}(pirazol){sub 4}]{sub 2}[Nb{sup IV}(CN){sub 8}]{center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O{r_brace}{sub n} (M{sup II} = Mn (1), Fe (2), Co (3), Ni (4)) has been obtained by the self-assembly technique. Its unique crystallographic structure consists in the formation of a 3D extended network of magnetic centers braced by geometrically identical cyanido bridges. Magnetic measurements reveal the transitions to the 3D order at temperatures 23.7, 8.3, 5.9, 13.4 K for 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The character of order is demonstrated to be ferrimagnetic for 1 and 2 and ferromagnetic for 3 and 4. The mean-field approach is used to determine the corresponding exchange coupling constants. The observed interactions are discussed within the magnetic orbital model.

  17. Dislocation of primary total hip arthroplasty and the risk of redislocation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, Stephen A

    2012-09-01

    6554 primary total hip arthroplasties were reviewed. Risk factors for dislocation were analysed to assess which were important in terms of predicting recurrent instability. The patients risk of having a second dislocation was independently associated with the surgical approach adopted (p = 0.03) and the time to first dislocation from the primary hip replacement (p = 0.002). Early dislocators whose surgery was performed through an anterolateral approach had less recurrence than late dislocators through a posterior or transtrochanteric approach. None of the other risk factors including head size (p = 0.59), modularity (p = 0.54), mechanism of dislocation (p = 0.23), leg length discrepancy (p = 0.69) and acetabular inclination (p = 0.31) were influential. The use of an abduction brace was not useful in preventing a further dislocation with 69.2% of those braced re-dislocating compared to 68.5% who were not braced (p = 0.96).

  18. A new look at the quantum mechanics of the harmonic oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastrup, H.A.

    2006-12-15

    At first sight it is probably hard to believe that something new can be said about the harmonic oscillator (HO). But that is so indeed: Classically the Harmonic Oscillator (HO) is the generic example for the use of angle and action variables {phi} element of R mod 2{pi} and I>0. However, the transformation q= {radical}(2I)cos {phi}, p=-{radical}(2I)sin {phi} is only locally symplectic and singular for (q,p)=(0,0). Globally the phase space {l_brace}(q,p){r_brace} has the topological structure of the plane R{sup 2}, whereas the phase space {l_brace}({phi},I){r_brace} corresponds globally to the punctured plane R{sup 2}-(0,0) or to a simple cone S{sup 1} x R{sup +} with the tip deleted. This makes a qualitative difference as to the quantum theory of the two phase spaces: The quantizing canonical group for the plane R{sup 2} consists of the (centrally extended) translations generated by the Poisson Lie algebra basis {l_brace}q,p,1{r_brace}, whereas the corresponding canonical group of the phase space {l_brace}({phi},I){r_brace} is the group SO{up_arrow}(1,2)=Sp(2,R)/Z{sub 2}, where Sp(2,R) is the sympletic group of the plane, with the generating Poisson Lie algebra basis {l_brace}h{sub 0}=I,h{sub 1}=Icos{phi},h{sub 2}=-Isin{phi}{r_brace} which provides also the basic ''observables'' on {l_brace}({phi}, I){r_brace}. In the quantum mechanics of the ({phi},I)-model of the HO the three h{sub j} correspond to self-adjoint generators K{sub j}, j=0,1,2, of irreducible unitary representations from the positive discrete series of the group SO{up_arrow}(1,2) or one of its infinitely many covering groups, the representations parametrized by the Bargmann index k>0. This index k determines the ground state energy E{sub k,n=0}={Dirac_h}{omega}k of the ({phi},I)-Hamiltonian H(anti K)={Dirac_h}{omega}K{sub 0}. For an m-fold covering the lowest possible value for k is k=1/m, which can be made arbitrarily small by choosing m accordingly. This is not in contraction to

  19. Lateral-Torsional Buckling Instability Caused by Individuals Walking on Wood Composite I-Joists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasenor Aguilar, Jose Maria

    Recent research has shown that a significant number of the falls from elevation occur when laborers are working on unfinished structures. Workers walking on wood I-joists on roofs and floors are prone to fall hazards. Wood I-joists have been replacing dimension lumber for many floor systems and a substantial number of roof systems in light-frame construction. Wood I-joists are designed to resist axial stresses on the flanges and shear stresses on the web while minimizing material used. However, wood I-joists have poor resistance to applied lateral and torsional loads and are susceptible to lateral-torsional buckling instability. Workers walking on unbraced or partially braced wood I-joists can induce axial and lateral forces as well as twist. Experimental testing demonstrated that workers cause lateral-torsional buckling instability in wood I-joists. However, no research was found related to the lateral-torsional buckling instability induced by individuals walking on the wood I-joists. Furthermore, no research was found considering the effects of the supported end conditions and partial bracing in the lateral-torsional buckling instability of wood I-joists. The goal of this research was to derive mathematical models to predict the dynamic lateral-torsional buckling instability of wood composite I-joists loaded by individuals walking considering different supported end conditions and bracing system configurations. The dynamic lateral-torsional buckling instability was analyzed by linearly combining the static lateral-torsional buckling instability with the lateral bending motion of the wood Ijoists. Mathematical models were derived to calculate the static critical loads for the simply supported end condition and four wood I-joist hanger supported end conditions. Additionally, mathematical models were derived to calculate the dynamic maximum lateral displacements and positions of the individual walking on the wood Ijoists for the same five different supported end

  20. Isobaric (vapor + liquid) equilibria of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate plus (propionaldehyde or valeraldehyde): Experimental data and prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Victor H. [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av. Albert Einstein 500, 13083-852 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Mattedi, Silvana [Chemical Engineering Department, Polytechnic School, Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), R. Aristides Novis 2, 40210-630 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Aznar, Martin, E-mail: maznar@feq.unicamp.b [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av. Albert Einstein 500, 13083-852 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: We report density, refraction index, and VLE for (propionaldehyde or valeraldehyde) + [emim][EtSO{sub 4}]. The Peng-Robinson + Wong-Sandler + COSMO-SAC model was used to predict density and VLE. The densities were predicted with deviations below than 2.3%. The experimental VLE was predicted with deviations below than 1.6%. - Abstract: This paper reports the density, refraction index, and (vapor + liquid) equilibria (VLE) for binary systems {l_brace}aldehyde + 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate ([emim][EtSO{sub 4}]){r_brace}: {l_brace}propionaldehyde + [emim][EtSO{sub 4}]{r_brace} and {l_brace}valeraldehyde + [emim][EtSO{sub 4}]{r_brace}. The uncertainties for the temperature, pressure, and compositions measurements for the phase equilibria are {+-}0.1 K, {+-}0.01 kPa and {+-}0.0004, respectively. A qualitative analysis of the variation of the properties with changes in solvent and temperature was performed. The Peng-Robinson equation of state (PR EoS), coupled with the Wong-Sandler mixing rule (WS), is used to describe the experimental data. To calculate activity coefficients we used three different models: NRTL, UNIQUAC, and COSMO-SAC. Since the predictive liquid activity coefficient model COSMO-SAC is used in the Wong-Sandler mixing rule, the resulting thermodynamic model is a completely predictive one. The prediction results for the density and for the (vapor + liquid) equilibria have a deviation lower than 2.3% and 1.6%, respectively. The (vapor + liquid) equilibria predictions show a good description for the propionaldehyde system and only a qualitative description for the valeraldehyde system.

  1. The neutron-proton charge-exchange amplitudes measured in the dp {yields} ppn reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mchedlishvili, D.; Chiladze, D. [Tbilisi State University, High Energy Physics Institute, Tbilisi (Georgia); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Centre for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Barsov, S.; Dzyuba, A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, High Energy Physics Department, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Carbonell, J. [Universite Paris-Sud, IN2P3-CNRS, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay Cedex (France); Dymov, S. [JINR, Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, Dubna (Russian Federation); Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Physikalisches Institut II, Erlangen (Germany); Engels, R.; Gebel, R.; Hartmann, M.; Kacharava, A.; Kamerdzhiev, V.; Lehrach, A.; Lorentz, B.; Maier, R.; Ohm, H.; Prasuhn, D.; Rathmann, F.; Serdyuk, V.; Seyfarth, H.; Stein, H.J.; Stockhorst, H.; Stroeher, H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Centre for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Glagolev, V. [JINR, Laboratory of High Energies, Dubna (Russian Federation); Grigoryev, K.; Mikirtychyants, M.; Mikirtychyants, S.; Valdau, Yu. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Centre for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, High Energy Physics Department, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Goslawski, P.; Khoukaz, A.; Mielke, M.; Papenbrock, M. [Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Muenster (Germany); Keshelashvili, I. [Tbilisi State University, High Energy Physics Institute, Tbilisi (Georgia); University of Basel, Department of Physics, Basel (Switzerland); Komarov, V.; Kulikov, A. [JINR, Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kulessa, P. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Krakow (Poland); Lomidze, N.; Nioradze, M.; Tabidze, M. [Tbilisi State University, High Energy Physics Institute, Tbilisi (Georgia); Macharashvili, G. [Tbilisi State University, High Energy Physics Institute, Tbilisi (Georgia); JINR, Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, Dubna (Russian Federation); Merzliakov, S. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Centre for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); JINR, Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, Dubna (Russian Federation); Steffens, E. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Physikalisches Institut II, Erlangen (Germany); Trusov, S. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Institut fuer Kern- und Hadronenphysik, Dresden (Germany); Uzikov, Yu. [JINR, Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, Dubna (Russian Federation); M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Wilkin, C. [UCL, Physics and Astronomy Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-15

    The unpolarised differential cross section and the two deuteron tensor analysing powers A{sub xx} and A{sub yy} of the vector dp {yields} {l_brace}pp{r_brace}{sub s}n charge-exchange reaction have been measured with the ANKE spectrometer at the COSY storage ring. Using deuteron beams with energies 1.2, 1.6, 1.8, and 2.27GeV, data were obtained for small momentum transfers to a {l_brace}pp{r_brace}{sub s} system with low excitation energy. The results at the three lower energies are consistent with impulse approximation predictions based upon the current knowledge of the neutron-proton amplitudes. However, at 2.27GeV, where these amplitudes are far more uncertain, agreement requires a reduction in the overall double-spin-flip contribution, with an especially significant effect in the longitudinal direction. These conclusions are supported by measurements of the deuteron-proton spin-correlation parameters C{sub x,x} and C{sub y,y} that were carried out in the vector dvector p {yields} {l_brace}pp{r_brace}{sub s}n reaction at 1.2 and 2.27GeV. The values obtained for the proton analysing power A{sub y}{sup p} also suggest the need for a radical re-evaluation of the neutron-proton elastic scattering amplitudes at the higher energy. It is therefore clear that such measurements can provide a valuable addition to the neutron-proton database in the charge-exchange region. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of deformation residual stresses caused by uniaxial plastic strain of ferritic and ferritic-austenitic steels. [25 CrMo 4; 54 NiCrMoV 6; X2 CrNiMoN 22 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauk, V.; Nikolin, H.J. (Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany, F.R.). Lehrstuhl fuer Werkstoffkunde A und Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde); Pintschovius, L. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Nukleare Festkoerperphysik)

    1990-08-01

    The residual stresses caused by uniaxial plastic strain were investigated in two heat-treatment steels and a ferritic-austenitic steel. The lattice strains were determined by X-ray and neutron diffraction for several different reflection lines on platelets cut out of the specimens at different angles. Additional X-ray measurements were performed on the ground surfaces. Some D{sub {l brace}hkl{r brace}} vs sin{sup 2}{psi} distributions show strong non-linearities, although the intensity distributions indicate only weak textures. Averaging the different D{sub {l brace}hKl{r brace}} vs sin{sup 2}{psi} distributions weighted with the multiplicity factor of teh lattice planes {l brace}hkl{r brace} resulted in linear D vs sin{sup 2}{psi} distributions. From these we conclude the following residual stress state after uniaxial plastic strain: In the interior of the heat-treatment steels a uniaxial compressive stress state is found. In the two-phase steel the ferritic phase shows a compressive and the austenitic phase a tensile residual stress state. The residual stresses in the two phases approximately cancel each other. As the neutron measurements were performed in such a way that they were sensitive to residual stresses of type II (micro-residual stresses) only, and as neutron and X-ray results agree very well, the residual stresses observed in the interior of the specimens are entirely of type II. At the ground surfaces a two-axial residual stress state was found for the two-phase steel, whereas for a heat-treatment steel a tri-axial stress state was observed. Our results are discussed with respect to results reported in the literature. (orig.).

  3. The effect of substrate orientation on the kinetics and thermodynamics of initial oxide-film growth on metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichel, Friederike

    2007-11-19

    This thesis addresses the effect of the parent metal-substrate orientation on the thermodynamics and kinetics of ultra-thin oxide-film growth on bare metals upon their exposure to oxygen gas at low temperatures (up to 650 K). A model description has been developed to predict the thermodynamically stable microstructure of a thin oxide film grown on its bare metal substrate as function of the oxidation conditions and the substrate orientation. For Mg and Ni, the critical oxide-film thickness is less than 1 oxide monolayer and therefore the initial development of an amorphous oxide phase on these metal substrates is unlikely. Finally, for Cu and densely packed Cr and Fe metal surfaces, oxide overgrowth is predicted to proceed by the direct formation and growth of a crystalline oxide phase. Further, polished Al single-crystals with {l_brace}111{r_brace}, {l_brace}100{r_brace} and {l_brace}110{r_brace} surface orientations were introduced in an ultra-high vacuum system for specimen processing and analysis. After surface cleaning and annealing, the bare Al substrates have been oxidized by exposure to pure oxygen gas. During the oxidation, the oxide-film growth kinetics has been established by real-time in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry. After the oxidation, the oxide-film microstructures were investigated by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy electron diffraction. Finally, high-resolution transmission electron microscopic analysis was applied to study the microstructure and morphology of the grown oxide films on an atomic scale. (orig.)

  4. Early detection by MRI and conservative therapy of lumbar spondylolysis in the growing period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1991 the early cases of spondylolysis in the growing stage have been diagnosed with MRI and treated conservatively by the authors. The final results were obtained in 153 cases (207 arches). The fusion rate of the separated part of these arches was 82% of the total. Treatment consisted mainly of prohibition of exercise and wearing a hard brace. The brace was more effective when worn not only during the day but also throughout the night. On MRI T1-weighted images low signal intensity changes of the pars interarticularis proved that bony fusion had been attained with conservative therapy. (author)

  5. Variable Geometry Aircraft Wing Supported by Struts And/Or Trusses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, John E. (Inventor); Dudley, Michael R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides an aircraft having variable airframe geometry for accommodating efficient flight. The aircraft includes an elongated fuselage, an oblique wing pivotally connected with said fuselage, a wing pivoting mechanism connected with said oblique wing and said fuselage, and a brace operably connected between said oblique wing and said fuselage. The present invention also provides an aircraft having an elongated fuselage, an oblique wing pivotally connected with said fuselage, a wing pivoting mechanism connected with said oblique wing and said fuselage, a propulsion system pivotally connected with said oblique wing, and a brace operably connected between said propulsion system and said fuselage.

  6. Symmetries of differential-difference dynamical systems in a two-dimensional lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ste-Marie, Isabelle; Tremblay, Sebastien [Departement de mathematiques et d' informatique, Universite du Quebec, Trois-Rivieres, Quebec, G9A 5H7 (Canada)], E-mail: isabelle.ste-marie@uqtr.ca, E-mail: sebastien.tremblay@uqtr.ca

    2009-10-30

    The classification of differential-difference equations of the form u-ddot{sub nm}(t,{l_brace}u{sub pq}{r_brace} (p,q) element of {gamma}) is considered according to their Lie point symmetry groups. The set {gamma} represents the point (n, m) and its six nearest neighbors in a two-dimensional triangular lattice. It is shown that the symmetry group can be at most 12 dimensional for Abelian symmetry algebras and 13 dimensional for nonsolvable symmetry algebras.

  7. Expectation values in relativistic Coulomb problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suslov, Sergei K, E-mail: sks@asu.ed [School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences and Mathematical, Computational, and Modeling Sciences Center, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1804 (United States)

    2009-09-28

    We evaluate the matrix elements (Or{sup p}), where O = {l_brace}, {beta},i{alpha}n{beta}{r_brace} are the standard Dirac matrix operators and the angular brackets denote the quantum-mechanical average for the relativistic Coulomb problem, in terms of generalized hypergeometric functions {sub 3}F{sub 2}(1) for all suitable powers. Their connections with the Chebyshev and Hahn polynomials of a discrete variable are emphasized. As a result, we derive two sets of Pasternack-type matrix identities for these integrals, when p -> -p - 1 and p -> -p - 3, respectively. Some applications to the theory of hydrogenlike relativistic systems are reviewed.

  8. Neptunium (VI) and neptunium (VI/V) mixed valence cluster compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Iain [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Neptunium has three readily accessible oxidation states, IV, V and VI, which can coexist under certain conditions, with the aqueous soluble neptunyl(V) moiety, {l_brace}NpO{sub 2}{r_brace}{sup +}, of most environmental relevance. Careful control of Np chemistry is required during actinide separation processes. In addition, the long half life of the major alpha emitting isotope ({sup 237}Np, t{sub 1/2} = 2.144 x 10{sup 6} years) renders Np a major contributor to the radiotoxicity of nuclear waste as a function of time. Significant quantities of neptunium are generated in nuclear reactors and the current surge in interest in nuclear power will lead to an increase in our need to further understand the chemistry of this element. It is clearly of importance that Np chemistry is well understood and there have been several recent investigations into the structural, spectroscopic and magnetic properties of Np compounds. However, the vast majority of this chemistry has been performed in aqueous solution, prohibiting the use of air and moisture sensitive ligands. This is in stark contrast to uranium and thorium where inert atmosphere chemistry with moisture sensitive donor ligands has flourished, yielding greater insight into the structural and electronic properties of these early actinides. For the uranyl(VI) moiety, {l_brace}UO{sub 2}{r_brace}{sup 2+}, UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(thf){sub 3} (and the desolvated dimer [UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(thf)]{sub 2}) have proven to be excellent moisture-free reagents for inert atmosphere uranyl chemistry. These starting reagents have been used extensively within our group to study soft donor ligand coordination in the uranyl equatorial plane and oxo-activation to Lewis acid coordination. However, until now the absence of such a starting reagent for Np has limited our ability to extend this chemistry any further across the actinide series, which is required if we are to gain a more complete understanding of 5f element chemistry. The synthesis of [Np

  9. Microstructural and conductivity comparison of Ag films grown on amorphous TiO2 and polycrystalline ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannenberg, Rand; Stach, Eric; Glenn, Darin; Sieck, Peter; Hukari, Kyle

    2001-03-26

    8 nm thick Ag films were sputter deposited onto amorphous TiO{sub 2} underlayers 25 nm thick, and also amorphous TiO{sub 2} (25 nm)/ZnO (5 nm) multiunderlayers. The substrates were back-etched Si with a 50 nm thick LPCVD Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} electron transparent membrane. The ZnO, sputtered onto amorphous TiO{sub 2}, formed a continuous layer with a grain size of 5 nm in diameter, on the order of the film thickness. There are several microstructural differences in the Ag dependent on the underlayers, revealed by TEM. First a strong {l_brace}0001{r_brace} ZnO to {l_brace}111{r_brace} Ag fibre-texture relationship exists. On TiO{sub 2} the Ag microstructure shows many abnormal grains whose average diameter is about 60-80 nm, whereas the films on ZnO show few abnormal grains. The background matrix of normal grains on the TiO{sub 2} is roughly 15 nm, while the normal grain size on the ZnO is about 25 nm. Electron diffraction patterns show that the film on ZnO has a strong {l_brace}111{r_brace} orientation, and dark field images with this diffraction condition have a grain size of about 30 nm. In a region near the center of the TEM grid where there is the greatest local heating during deposition, Ag films grown on amorphous TiO{sub 2} are discontinuous, whereas on ZnO, the film is continuous. When films 8 nm films are grown on solid glass substrates, those with ZnO underlayers have sheet resistances of 5.68 {Omega}/, whereas those on TiO{sub 2} are 7.56 {Omega}/, and when 16 nm thick, the corresponding sheet resistances are 2.7 {Omega}/ and 3.3 {Omega}/. The conductivity difference is very repeatable. The improved conductivity is thought to be a combined effect of reduced grain boundary area per unit volume, the predominance of low grain boundary resistivity Coincidence Site Lattice boundaries from the Ag {l_brace}111{r_brace} orientation, and Ag planarization on ZnO resulting in less groove formation on deposition, concluded from atomic force microscopy.

  10. <研究論文>平鋼を挿入した膨張コンクリート充填鋼管ブレース材の平鋼とコンクリートとの圧縮時の付着特性

    OpenAIRE

    大田, 和彦

    2010-01-01

    [Synopsis]This study is on the bond characteristic between a flat bar and a concrete in the expansive concrete filled steel tube with the flat bar in center. This tube is used for the brace member of the energy dissipative braced frame. To obtain the bond characteristic, I carried out the repeated tension and compression loading test of the tube. And then obtained the relationship between the bond stress and the slip on the interface under compression load. Based on this relationship, by solv...

  11. Localized electron nature of the antiferromagnetism of (CePd sub 3) sub 8 Ge Response to hydrostatic pressure and neutron diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Tabata, Y; Ohoyama, K

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic properties of the compound (CePd sub 3) sub 8 Ge have been studied by means of neutron diffraction and specific heat measurement at ambient pressure and also of measurements of susceptibility and electrical resistivity under hydrostatic pressure. The magnetic modulation vector, q, of the antiferromagnetic phase is left brace 001 right brace and the spin polarization is parallel to q. With increasing the applied pressure up to 6 GPa, the Neel temperature keeps increasing, which indicates a strongly localized nature of the 4f-electrons of the compound.

  12. Effect of pseudo cross-rolling on the recrystallization texture of a continuous cast Al-Mg alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Wenchang [Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, No. 438 Hebei Avenue, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)], E-mail: wcliu@ysu.edu.cn; Li Xingyi; Meng Xiangcai [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiamusi University, Jiamusi 154007 (China)

    2009-05-15

    The hot band of a continuous cast Al-Mg alloy was cold-rolled to different reductions along the original rolling direction and the original transverse direction, and then annealed at 399 deg. C for 3 h. The effect of the cross-rolling on recrystallization texture was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The cross-rolled sheet appears to be a continuous recrystallization texture transition from the cube component through the {l_brace}4 0 7{r_brace}<7 3 4> component to the R component when the cross-rolling reduction increases from 0% to 91%.

  13. Texture and microtexture evolution in an ultra-low carbon steel during recrystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novillo, E.; Petite, M.M.; Bocos, J.L.; Iza-Mendia, A.; Gutierrez, I. [CEIT (Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Tecnicas de Gipuzkoa), TECNUN, Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 15, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain)

    2003-08-01

    Recrystallization texture and microtexture in a cold-rolled ultra-low-carbon steel was investigated using X-ray diffraction and electron-back-scattered diffraction based orientation imaging microscopy (ESBD/OIM). Special emphasis was put on the grain coarsening of various texture components during recrystallization: grain selection with an excess in size and number of {l_brace}111{r_brace} recrystallized grains was observed, generating in the final stages of recrystallization a strong {gamma}-fibre that results in good drawing properties. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Deformation and recrystallization texture of extruded NiAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamm, R.; Lemke, M.; Oertel, C.-G.; Skrotzki, W. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Kristallographie und Festkoerperphysik

    1998-12-31

    Axisymmetric tension of polycrystalline NiAl leads to a double fibre texture with left angle 110 right angle and left angle 111 right angle dominating at low and high temperatures, respectively. Pure shear at high temperature yields a strong {l_brace}110{r_brace} left angle 110 right angle component. The low temperature texture can be simulated with the FC Taylor model. Relaxation at high temperature due to diffusional processes leads to the components representing the recrystallisation texture. The microstructure and local texture suggests that dynamic recrystallization is by subgrain rotation and limited subgrain growth in a grain core/mantle strain and orientation gradient. (orig.) 7 refs.

  15. Recrystallization and development of cube texture in Ti and Ti+Cr added Ni-Fe-Cu alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manna, I. (Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering , I.I.T., Kharagpur (India)); Ray, R.K. (Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering, I.I.T., Kanpur (India)); Gupta, K.P. (Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering, I.I.T., Kanpur (India))

    1994-06-01

    The development of a sharp cube or [l brace]100[r brace]<100> texture in two Ti and Ti+Cr added Ni-Fe-Cu alloys is presented. Texture studies in deformed as well as recrystallized conditions have been carried out by both conventional pole figure and orientation distribution function analysis. Microstructural evolution in course of recrystallization texture development has been extensively studied with both optical and electron microscopes. Heavy cold deformation (97 to 98%) followed by annealing at 1050 C for 2 h has been found to optimize the conditions for the desired texture development. (orig.)

  16. Domain patterns on ferroelectric Rh:BaTiO{sub 3} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayavel, R. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 25 (India)]. E-mail: rjvel@annauniv.edu; Madeswaran, S. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 25 (India); Kumar, R. Mohan [Advanced Materials Laboratory, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba (Japan); Terabe, K. [Advanced Materials Laboratory, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba (Japan); Kitamura, K. [Advanced Materials Laboratory, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2005-07-15

    Single crystal growth and domain structure of Rh:Barium titanate (BaTiO{sub 3}) have been investigated. Rh doping in BaTiO{sub 3} is effective for the growth of bulk crystals without twin formation. Atomic force microscope (AFM) and optical microscope studies reveal the formation 180 deg. and 90 deg. domains on the grown crystals. It has been observed that the complex 180 deg. domain structure with typical size of around 20 {mu}m exists in the c-domain of {l_brace}0 0 1{r_brace} face of Rh doped BaTiO{sub 3} crystals.

  17. 20 MV/m accelerating gradient with heat treatment of a six cell, 1.5 GHz cavity for TESLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to use superconducting RF accelerating structures in the construction of a high energy linear collider, the structures must be designed to meet specific goals. These include low peak surface electric fields, good higher order mode power extraction from the ends, maximum accelerating gradient and, above all, low cost per unit accelerating voltage. Such a structure has been designed, manufactured and tested. Preliminary results have been reported. The cavity was then mechanically braced with Niobium braces and then heat treated. The final test gave 20 MV/m accelerating field. Details of some difficulties encountered will also be presented at this time

  18. Shaking table experimental study of recycled concrete frame-shear wall structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianwei; Cao, Wanlin; Meng, Shaobin; Yu, Cheng; Dong, Hongying

    2014-06-01

    In this study, four 1/5 scaled shaking table tests were conducted to investigate the seismic performance of recycled concrete frame-shear wall structures with different recycled aggregates replacement rates and concealed bracing detail. The four tested structures included one normal concrete model, one recycled coarse aggregate concrete model, and two recycled coarse and fine aggregate concrete models with or without concealed bracings inside the shear walls. The dynamic characteristics, dynamic response and failure mode of each model were compared and analyzed. Finite element models were also developed and nonlinear time-history response analysis was conducted. The test and analysis results show that the seismic performance of the recycled coarse aggregate concrete frame-shear wall structure is slightly worse than the normal concrete structure. The seismic resistance capacity of the recycled concrete frame-shear wall structure can be greatly improved by setting up concealed bracings inside the walls. With appropriate design, the recycled coarse aggregate concrete frame-shear wall structure and recycled concrete structure with concealed bracings inside the walls can be applied in buildings.

  19. New Rule on Spending by States Lacks Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelderman, Eric

    2009-01-01

    A new federal requirement that states provide consistent spending for higher education may not yet have much effect. As state budgets sour and colleges brace for cuts, only one state seems likely to have run afoul of the new rules this year, according to a "Chronicle" analysis of available data on state higher-education spending. Under the rule,…

  20. China and the Global Financial Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Economies around the world are bracing themselves for full-scale recession. But while the Shanghai stock exchange has lost almost two-thirds of its value so far this year, and although export industries are struggling, China's economy appears to have emerged relatively unscathed.

  1. Four days of muscle disuse impairs single fiber contractile function in young and old healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars Grøndahl; Suetta, Charlotte Arneboe; Aagaard, Per;

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of 4 days of disuse (knee brace) on contractile function of isolated vastus lateralis fibers (n=486) from 11 young (24.3+/-0.9 yrs) and 11 old (67.2+/-1.0 yrs) healthy men having comparable levels of physical activity. Prior to disuse single...

  2. Roping in 6111 aluminum alloys with various iron contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, H. [Novelis Global Technology Centre, Novelis Inc., P.O. Box 8400, Kingston, Ont., K7L 5L9 (Canada)]. E-mail: haiou.jin@novelis.com; Lloyd, D.J. [Novelis Global Technology Centre, Novelis Inc., P.O. Box 8400, Kingston, Ont., K7L 5L9 (Canada)

    2005-08-25

    The development of surface roughness and roping after straining and its correlation with grain size and texture were investigated in AA6111 aluminum alloys with various Fe contents, using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) in SEM, X-ray diffraction, and 3D non-contact profilometry. It has been demonstrated that the spatial distribution of texture components is a critical factor for roping. When the {l_brace}0 0 1{r_brace}<1 0 0> (cube) and {l_brace}0 1 1{r_brace}<1 0 0> (Goss) texture components are banded along the rolling direction (RD) and alternately distributed in the transverse direction (TD), intensive roping develops when the sheet is stretched in the TD regardless of grain size. During rolling the cube and Goss are metastable orientations in AA6111 and form cube and Goss bands along the RD. These bands are the preferred nucleation sites for recrystallization, resulting in the banded structure being retained in the final solutionised sheet. Increasing the Fe content leads to a finer grain size and lower strain induced surface roughness, but roping is insensitive to the Fe content and simply dependent on the degree of cold rolling prior to solutionising.

  3. On Flood Alert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    lina braces fora particularly dangerous flood season in the wake of disastrous rainstorms Aseries of heavy storms since early May led to severe flooding and landslides in south and southwest China,causing heavy casualties and economic losses. Severe convective weather such as downpours,

  4. Training in Interaction Analysis as a Means of Staff Development for Master Teachers, Classroom Teachers and Paraprofessionals. Maxi II Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph H.

    The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of an inservice staff development program in promoting change in patterns of teacher-child interaction. The program used (1) the combined techniques of systematic analysis of teaching behavior with the Behavior Ratings and Analysis of Communication in Education (BRACE) observation system, (2)…

  5. Kyphosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Is Kyphosis Diagnosed? What Do Doctors Do? Braces Surgery en español Cifosis Your spine (backbone) curves forward gently as it runs up ... kyphosis to an orthopedist, who will examine the spine to determine the cause and ... kyphosis sometimes requires surgery at an early age to fix (if you ...

  6. Structural characterisation of amorphous materials by solid state NMR

    CERN Document Server

    Mollison, N B

    2002-01-01

    Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a structural elucidation technique that is ideal as a probe in the investigation of atomic structure of highly complex amorphous materials. In this study, NMR is employed in the structural characterisation of a series of sodium-lithium disilicate glasses. These so-called 'mixed-alkali' glasses are of great scientific interest, since they exhibit non-linear ionic transport related properties; the theory of which is not understood, but is thought to be related to the cation distribution in the disilicate network. This project attempts to utilise solid state NMR to its fullest potential, by combining several techniques, including the novel MQMAS experiment and a series of double resonance measurements. The double resonance techniques TRAPDOR and SEDOR have been attempted to measure sup 2 sup 9 Si-left brace sup 2 sup 3 Na right brace and sup 6 sup , sup 7 Li-left brace sup 7 sup , sup 6 Li right brace interactions respectively. Since these experiments rely on the d...

  7. Coordination of dibensothiophenes and corannulenes to organometallic ruthenium (II) fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecchi, Paul Anthony

    2005-05-01

    This dissertation contains five papers in the format required for journal publication which describe (in part) my research accomplishments as a graduate student at Iowa State University. This work can be broadly categorized as the binding of weakly-coordinating ligands to cationic organometallic ruthenium fragments, and consists of two main areas of study. Chapters 2-4 are investigations into factors that influence the binding of dibenzothiophenes to {l_brace}Cp'Ru(CO){sub 2}{r_brace}{sup +} fragments, where Cp' = {eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5} (Cp) and {eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}Me{sub 5} (Cp*). Chapters 5 and 6 present the synthesis and structural characterization of complexes containing corannulene buckybowls that are {eta}{sup 6}-coordinated to {l_brace}Cp*Ru{r_brace}{sup +} fragments. The first chapter contains a brief description of the difficulty in lowering sulfur levels in diesel fuel along with a review of corannulene derivatives and their metal complexes. After the final paper is a short summary of the work herein (Chapter 7). Each chapter is independent, and all equations, schemes, figures, tables, references, and appendices in this dissertation pertain only to the chapter in which they appear.

  8. Caring for Kids With Medical Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... others have learning problems and delays in their development. Ask parents: If your child uses a wheelchair, leg braces, or walker, does ... to suggest activities for your time with their child. You can start with simple puzzles or coloring and plan other things to do ...

  9. 49 CFR 230.31 - Flues to be removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... inspecting the entire interior of the boiler and its bracing. After removing the flues, the steam locomotive..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Inspection and Repair § 230.31 Flues to be removed. (a) Inspection of the boiler interior. During the...

  10. Adsorption properties and inhibition of mild steel corrosion in hydrochloric solution by some newly synthesized diamine derivatives: Experimental and theoretical investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrag, L.; Hammouti, B.; Elkadiri, S.; Aouniti, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Appliquee et Environnement, LCAE-URAC18, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mohammed Premier, B.P. 717, M-6000 Oujda (Morocco); Jama, C. [Unite Materiaux et Transformations (UMET), Ingenierie des Systemes Polymeres, CNRS UMR 8207, ENSCL, B.P. 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Vezin, H. [Laboratoire de Spectrochimie Infrarouge et Raman (LASIR), UMR-CNRS 8516, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Batiment C5, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Bentiss, F., E-mail: fbentiss@enscl.f [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination et d' Analytique (LCCA), Faculte des Sciences, Universite Chouaib Doukkali, B.P. 20, M-24000 El Jadida (Morocco)

    2010-09-15

    New diamine derivatives, namely 2-[{l_brace}2-[bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl{r_brace}(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethanol (DAME) and 2-[{l_brace}2-[bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl{r_brace}(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]propanol (DAMP) were synthesised and their inhibitive action against the corrosion of mild steel in 1 M HCl solution were investigated at 308 K. The detailed study of DAME is given using gravimetric measurements and polarization curves method. Results show that DAME is a good inhibitor and inhibition efficiency reaches 91.7% at 10{sup -3} M. Tafel polarization study revealed that DAME acts as a mixed-type inhibitor. The inhibitor adsorption process in mild steel/DAME/hydrochloric acid system was studied at different temperatures (308-353 K) by means of weight loss measurements. The adsorption of DAME on steel surface obeyed Langmuir's adsorption isotherm. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for mild steel corrosion and inhibitor adsorption, respectively, were determined and discussed. The comparative study of inhibitive performance of the two diamine derivatives revealed that DAME is more effective than DAMP. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) approach has been conducted in attempt to correlate the corrosion inhibition properties of these diamine derivatives with their calculated quantum chemical parameters.

  11. Inertial Force Coupling to Nonlinear Aeroelasticity of Flexible Wing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Ting, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the inertial force effect on nonlinear aeroelasticity of flexible wing aircraft. The geometric are nonlinearity due to rotational and tension stiffening. The effect of large bending deflection will also be investigated. Flutter analysis will be conducted for a truss-braced wing aircraft concept with tension stiffening and inertial force coupling.

  12. Bankart Repair to Correct Shoulder Instability

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Page 16 of 18 that brace in the emergency room and using it on kids who come in ... collision sports, or getting back in the weight room and lifting weights again. And ... on the athlete that's in front of us. 00:49:17 ...

  13. Magneto-elastic effects in single-crystal USb{sub 0.8}Te{sub 0.2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuttall, W.J.; Perry, S.C.; Bowyer, D.R.; Stirling, W.G. [Keele Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Lander, G.H. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Postfach 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Vogt, O. [Laboratorium fuer Festkoerperphysik, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zuerich, CH-8093, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1997-10-01

    A high resolution X-ray diffraction study has been performed on a single crystal of USb{sub 0.8}Te{sub 0.2}. At room temperature this material has the cubic FCC (NaCl) structure. On cooling through the Neel point of {proportional_to}205 K USb{sub 0.8}Te{sub 0.2} is known to enter a triple-q antiferromagnetic phase. Below T{sub C}{proportional_to}175 K USb{sub 0.8}Te{sub 0.2} is a ferromagnet with net magnetisation along the left angle 111 right angle body diagonal. Four-circle X-ray scattering data from high-symmetry {l_brace}h0h{r_brace} and {l_brace}hhh{r_brace} reflections are presented as a function of temperature. We confirm that this magnetisation directly leads to a magneto-elastic distortion of the crystal lattice with a rhombohedral extension along the left angle 111 right angle body diagonals. At 130 K, this distortion is found to correspond to a rhombohedral bond angle of {alpha}=89.856 {+-}0.004 consistent with previous results. In this single-crystal study we also present evidence for additional associated effects which we attribute to inter-grain stresses and sample mosaic structure. (orig.). 10 refs.

  14. JIMA GROUP: Pioneer of Innovation & Advocator of Green-Tech

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ A Steel Giant from Malaysia Malaysia-based Jima Group is a giant enterprise group specialized in developing,manufacturing,and delivering a wide variety of steel products including the braced hot-rolled stainless composite steel (steel sections),various composite pipes and highly-processed composite vessels,large-scaled pipes and welding composite pipes.

  15. Hutchinson Advocates Preparedness and Collaboration for Pandemic Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security

    2014-01-01

    As the Ebola virus plagues West Africa and public health officials brace for its potential spread beyond Africa and possibly to the United States, a September Inspector General audit of the Department of Homeland Security scored the department poorly for its internal pandemic readiness.

  16. Studies on the controlled growth of InAs nanostructures on scission surfaces; Untersuchungen zum kontrollierten Wachstum von InAs-Nanostrukturen auf Spaltflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, J.

    2006-01-15

    The aim of this thesis was the controlled alignment of self-assembled InAs nano-structures on a {l_brace}110{r_brace}-oriented surface. The surface is prestructured with the atomic precision offered by molecular beam epitaxy, using the cleaved edge overgrowth-technique. On all samples grown within this work, the epitaxial template in the first growth step was deposited on a (001)GaAs substrate, while the InAs-layer forming the nanostructures during the second growth step was grown on cleaved {l_brace}110{r_brace}-GaAs surfaces. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) investigations demonstrate the formation of quantum dot (QD)-like nanostructures on top of the AlAs-stripes. X-ray diffraction measurements on large arrays of aligned quantum dots demonstrate that the quantum dots are formed of pure InAs. First investigations on the optical properties of these nanostructures were done using microphotoluminescence-spectroscopy with both high spatial and spectral resolution. (orig.)

  17. Low temperature magnetic behaviour of TmIn{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murasik, A. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock (Poland); Czopnik, A. [Polska Akademia Nauk, Wroclaw (Poland). Inst. Niskich Temperatur i Badan Strukturalnych; Keller, L. [Lab. for Neutron Scattering, ETH and PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Konter, T. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    2002-02-16

    Recently, we have reported a neutron diffraction study in which a striking magnetic behaviour of TmIn{sub 3} was observed. Namely in contrast to earlier bulk measurements, the powder sample of TmIn{sub 3} used in the neutron diffraction experiment revealed an unexpectedly high Neel temperature of {approx}3.2 K as compared to 1.6 K or 1.45 K determined from the heat capacity measurements. Moreover, in the whole temperature range 0.25-3.2 K the coexistence of two magnetic phases described by the propagation vectors k{sub 1} = {l_brace}0, 0, 1/2{r_brace} and k{sub 2} = {l_brace}1/2, 1/2, 0{r_brace} was observed, although no visible deformation of the crystal lattice could be detected. We have attributed this effect to unreleased strains which occurred after crushing and powdering the polycrystalline ingots. Indeed, the low-temperature susceptibility study performed later on two test samples proved that the sample with unreleased strains exhibits drastically different magnetic properties. Therefore it was of interest to examine how the annealing process influences the long-range magnetic ordering in comparison to the one with unreleased strains studied earlier. (orig.)

  18. Microstructure and texture development during high-strain torsion of NiAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloeden, B.

    2006-07-01

    In this study polycrystalline NiAl has been subjected to torsion deformation. The deformation, microstructure and texture development subject to the shear strain are studied by different techniques (Electron Back-Scatter and High Energy Synchrotron Radiation). Beside the development of microstructure and texture with shear strain, the effect of an initial texture as well as the deformation temperature on the development of texture and microstructure constitute an important part of this study. Therefore, samples with three different initial textures were deformed in the temperature range T=700 K-1300 K. The shear stress-shear strain curves are characterized by a peak at low strains, which is followed by softening and a steady state at high strains. Grain refinement takes place for all samples and the average grain size decreases with temperature. For temperatures T>1000 K, discontinuous dynamic recrystallization occurs, by which new grains form by nucleation and subsequent growth. The texture is characterized by two components, {l_brace}100{r_brace}<100> (cube,C) and {l_brace}110{r_brace}<100> (Goss,G). Torsional creep of NiAl is characterized by a stress exponent, which depends on temperature and an activation energy, which is stress dependent. The Swift effect, due to which samples change their axial dimension during torsion without applied axial stress, is observed for NiAl. (orig.)

  19. Book review: the Labour Party in Britain and Norway: elections and the pursuit of power between the World Wars

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hara, Glen

    2012-01-01

    Glen O’Hara finds The Labour Party in Britain and Norway to be an excellent and bracing study of two nations and two parties struggling with the implications of a restive mass democracy between the World Wars. David Redvaldsen’s work is a most welcome contribution to the literature.

  20. Running on Empty: Schools Cope with the Roller-Coaster World of Cost Run-Ups and Budget Let-Downs

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFee, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Public education is like riding a roller-coaster, except that in education the thrill tends to come on the way up, when the economy is flying high, and funding is flush and the future feels as bracing as the wind rushing past. However, this is not one of those times. The economy seems to be almost in free fall. Optimism plummets with each…

  1. Gum Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... embarrassing (like bad breath) to the serious — like pain and tooth loss (which is both embarrassing and serious!). What ... also feed the acids that eat into your tooth enamel. If you have braces, ... certain medicines increase the risk of gum disease. Running yourself ...

  2. Amid Uncertainty, Districts Weighing "Sequester" Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Alyson

    2013-01-01

    Even as they seek to quantify the impact of across-the-board federal budget cuts on K-12 programs, some of the nation's neediest school districts are bracing for tough choices. The pinch from sequestration--or "the sequester," in Washington shorthand--is expected to be particularly painful for districts that depend on the most on the federal…

  3. Influenza A(H1N1) pandemic: 2 years after

    OpenAIRE

    ALLAM, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, the emergence of the new H1N1 influenza virus saw the world brace itself for the first influenza pandemic since 1968. Two years after, it is time to evaluate the situation of that Influenza A(H1N1) pandemic and its combat measures.

  4. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-16-0019 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-16-0019 gnl|UG|Hs#S4616986 Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ37133 fis, clone BRACE202...3268, highly similar to Homo sapiens pheromone receptor V1RL1 long form (V1RL1) mRNA /gb=AK094452 /gi=21753517 /ug=Hs.677423 /len=2356 2e-69 48% ...

  5. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-19-0115 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-19-0115 gnl|UG|Hs#S4616986 Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ37133 fis, clone BRACE202...3268, highly similar to Homo sapiens pheromone receptor V1RL1 long form (V1RL1) mRNA /gb=AK094452 /gi=21753517 /ug=Hs.677423 /len=2356 2e-64 43% ...

  6. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-07-0118 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-07-0118 gnl|UG|Hs#S16886067 Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ44679 fis, clone BRACE30...09416, highly similar to Homo sapiens testis specific ankyrin-like protein 1 /cds=p(2056,2805) /gb=AK126637 /gi=34533193 /ug=Hs.656615 /len=4762 2e-63 42% ...

  7. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-03-0006 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-03-0006 gnl|UG|Hs#S4616986 Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ37133 fis, clone BRACE202...3268, highly similar to Homo sapiens pheromone receptor V1RL1 long form (V1RL1) mRNA /gb=AK094452 /gi=21753517 /ug=Hs.677423 /len=2356 8e-19 28% ...

  8. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-16-0018 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-16-0018 gnl|UG|Hs#S4616986 Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ37133 fis, clone BRACE202...3268, highly similar to Homo sapiens pheromone receptor V1RL1 long form (V1RL1) mRNA /gb=AK094452 /gi=21753517 /ug=Hs.677423 /len=2356 8e-19 45% ...

  9. 24 CFR 3285.803 - Interior close-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interior close-up. 3285.803 Section... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Exterior and Interior Close-Up § 3285.803 Interior close-up. (a) All shipping blocking, strapping, or bracing must be removed from appliances, windows,...

  10. Star-Crossed Platonic Lovers, or Bowdler Redux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Maureen F.

    1985-01-01

    Assesses extent and nature of cutss made in the version of Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet" used in a 1980 Harcourt, Brace and World anthology. Suggests that rather than serving to shorten or clarify the play as claimed by the editor, cuts were actually made to clean up the text and eliminate any passages with a sexual connotation. (RBW)

  11. 14 CFR 23.349 - Rolling conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rolling conditions. 23.349 Section 23.349... Rolling conditions. The wing and wing bracing must be designed for the following loading conditions: (a..., the rolling accelerations may be obtained by modifying the symmetrical flight conditions in §...

  12. Validation of the walking index for spinal cord injury in a US and European clinical population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditunno, J.F.; Scivoletto, G.; Patrick, M.;

    2008-01-01

    , the deviation from MDI occurred only at one time-point in 10/15 participants. LEMS correlated with WISCI at initial and final assessment (0.47 and 0.91 P<0.001). Parallel bar use differed between the US and Europe possibly due to patterns of care. Use of braces also differed.Conclusion:The results...

  13. Evolution of cementite morphology in pearlitic steel wire during wet wire drawing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xiaodan [Advanced Materials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 (China); Godfrey, Andrew, E-mail: awgodfrey@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Advanced Materials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 (China); Hansen, Niels; Huang Xiaoxu [Center for Fundamental Research: Metal Structures in Four Dimensions, Materials Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, DTU, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Liu Wei [Advanced Materials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 (China); Liu Qing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400030 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The evolution of the cementite phase during wet wire drawing of a pearlitic steel wire has been followed as a function of strain. Particular attention has been given to a quantitative characterization of changes in the alignment and in the dimensions of the cementite phase. Scanning electron microscope observations show that cementite plates become increasingly aligned with the wire axis as the drawing strain is increased. Measurements in the transmission electron microscope show that the cementite deforms plastically during wire drawing , with the average thickness of the cementite plates decreasing from 19 nm ({epsilon} = 0) to 2 nm ({epsilon} = 3.7) in correspondence with the reduction in wire diameter. The deformation of the cementite is strongly related to plastic deformation in the ferrite, with coarse slip steps, shear bands and cracks in the cementite plates/particles observed parallel to either {l_brace}110{r_brace}{sub {alpha}} or {l_brace}112{r_brace}{sub {alpha}} slip plane traces in the ferrite.

  14. The crystallography of fatigue crack initiation in Incoloy-908 and A-286 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krenn, C.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Fatigue crack initiation in the austenitic Fe-Ni superalloys Incoloy-908 and A-286 is examined using local crystallographic orientation measurements. Results are consistent with sharp transgranular initiation and propagation occurring almost exclusively on {l_brace}111{r_brace} planes in Incoloy-908 but on a variety of low index planes in A-286. This difference is attributed to the influence of the semicoherent grain boundary {eta} phase in A-286. Initiation in each alloy occurred both intergranularly and transgranularly and was often associated with blocky surface oxide and carbide inclusions. Taylor factor and resolved shear stress and strain crack initiation hypotheses were tested, but despite an inconclusive suggestion of a minimum required {l_brace}111{r_brace} shear stress, none of the hypotheses were found to convincingly describe preferred initiation sites, even within the subsets of transgranular cracks apparently free from the influence of surface inclusions. Subsurface inclusions are thought to play a significant role in crack initiation. These materials have applications for use in structural conduit for high field superconducting magnets designed for fusion energy use.

  15. Orthodontia - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) Orthodontics English 我需要矯正牙齒嗎? - 繁體中文 (Chinese - Traditional) PDF California Dental Association Hmong (Hmoob) Orthodontics English Zawm Hniav (Braces)...rau kuv los? - Hmoob ( ...

  16. 49 CFR 230.106 - Steam locomotive frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive frame. 230.106 Section 230.106... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.106 Steam locomotive frame. (a) Maintenance and inspection. Frames, decks, plates, tailpieces, pedestals, and braces shall be maintained in a safe...

  17. First-principles calculation of mechanical properties of Si <001> nanowires and comparison to nanomechanical theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B; Rudd, R E

    2006-10-19

    We report the results of first-principles density functional theory calculations of the Young's modulus and other mechanical properties of hydrogen-passivated Si {l_angle}001{r_angle} nanowires. The nanowires are taken to have predominantly {l_brace}100{r_brace}surfaces, with small {l_brace}110{r_brace} facets according to the Wulff shape. The Young's modulus, the equilibrium length and the constrained residual stress of a series of prismatic beams of differing sizes are found to have size dependences that scale like the surface area to volume ratio for all but the smallest beam. The results are compared with a continuum model and the results of classical atomistic calculations based on an empirical potential. We attribute the size dependence to specific physical structures and interactions. In particular, the hydrogen interactions on the surface and the charge density variations within the beam are quantified and used both to parameterize the continuum model and to account for the discrepancies between the two models and the first-principles results.

  18. Quality evaluation of the available Internet information regarding pain during orthodontic treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos; Delli, Konstantina; Ren, Yijin

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the quality of the data disseminated via the Internet regarding pain experienced by orthodontic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic online search was performed for 'orthodontic pain' and 'braces pain' separately using five search engines. The first 25 results from

  19. Orthodontic treatment: Introducing finite element analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, W.D. van; Leeuwen, E.J. van

    1998-01-01

    The aim of orthodontic treatment is the displacement of teeth by means ofspecial appliances, like braces and brackets. Through these appliances the orthodontist can apply a set of forces to the teeth which wilt result in its displacement through the jawbone. Finite Element analysis of this process e

  20. Bird watching splendour as Rufiji celebrates Wetlands Day

    OpenAIRE

    Luhikula, G.

    2003-01-01

    It is five in the morning as residents of Utete in Rufiji District in Tanzania brace the morning chill to participate in the bird watching walk. Led by the District Commissioner Brigadier Hemed, they are joining the world in celebrating the World Wetlands Day that is dedicated to sustainable management of wetlands and associated resources.

  1. Surface-Energy-Anisotropy-Induced Orientation Effects on RayleighInstabilities in Sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santala, Melissa; Glaeser, Andreas M.

    2006-01-01

    Arrays of controlled-geometry, semi-infinite pore channels of systematically varied crystallographic orientation were introduced into undoped m-plane (10{bar 1}0) sapphire substrates using microfabrication techniques and ion-beam etching and subsequently internalized by solid-state diffusion bonding. A series of anneals at 1700 C caused the breakup of these channels into discrete pores via Rayleigh instabilities. In all cases, channels broke up with a characteristic wavelength larger than that expected for a material with isotropic surface energy, reflecting stabilization effects due to surface-energy anisotropy. The breakup wavelength and the time required for complete breakup varied significantly with channel orientation. For most orientations, the instability wavelength for channels of radius R was in the range of 13.2R-25R, and complete breakup occurred within 2-10 h. To first order, the anneal times for complete breakup scale with the square of the breakup wavelength. Channels oriented along a <11{bar 2}0> direction had a wavelength of {approx} 139R, and required 468 h for complete breakup. Cross-sectional analysis of channels oriented along a <11{bar 2}0> direction showed the channel to be completely bounded by stable c(0001), r{l_brace}{bar 1}012{r_brace}, and s{l_brace}10{bar 1}1{r_brace} facets.

  2. Molecular dynamics simulation of dislocation-void interactions in BCC Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyon-Jee [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)], E-mail: hyon-jee@nuc.Berkeley.EDU; Wirth, Brian D. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-04-30

    Molecular dynamics (MD) and molecular statics (MS) simulations have been performed to simulate the motion of a screw dislocation and its interaction with voids in irradiated body centered cubic (BCC) Mo. Considering the unique non-planar core structures of the screw dislocation in BCC metals, the behavior of screw dislocation motion as a function of temperature and applied shear stress is first discussed. A transition from smooth to rough motion of the screw dislocation is observed with increasing shear stress, as well as a change of dislocation glide plane from {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} to {l_brace}1 1 2{r_brace} with increasing temperature. The interaction of a screw dislocation with nanometer-sized voids observed in both dynamic and static conditions is then reported. The obstacle strength calculated from MS calculations shows a large increase in critical resolved shear stress for void diameter larger than about 3 nm. However, the MD results indicate that the screw dislocation interaction with void occurs via a simple shear mechanism.

  3. Molecular dynamics simulation of dislocation-void interactions in BCC Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.J. [California Univ., Berkeley, Dept. NE/ERL, CA (United States); Osetksy, Y.N. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Computer Sciences and Mathematics Div., TN, AK (United States); Wirth, B. [California Univ., Berkeley, Nuclear Engineering Dept., UC, AK CA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The interaction between moving dislocations and nano-meter-sized radiation defect clusters controls the yield strength, ductility and flow localization behavior of structural materials under irradiation. To understand plastic deformation processes in body centered cubic (BCC) Mo, molecular Dynamics (MD) and molecular statics (MS) simulations have been performed. Considering the unique non-planar core structures of BCC screw dislocation, we first report the behavior of screw dislocation motion as a function of temperature and applied shear stress. A transition from smooth to rough motion of the screw dislocation is observed with increasing shear stress. The double kink nucleation and migration occurs in the smooth motion regime while interstitial clusters, prismatic dislocation loops, and vacancies are produced in the rough motion regime. As well, the screw dislocation glide plane is observed to change from {l_brace}110{r_brace} to {l_brace}112{r_brace} with increasing temperature. Then, we introduce the commonly observed radiation obstacles into the system and observe their interaction behavior with screw dislocations in both dynamic and static conditions. The initial results indicate that the screw dislocation interaction with void occurs via a simple shear mechanism, which shears the void by one Burgers vector per each passage. However, the obstacle strength calculated from molecular statics (MS) calculations of the energetics of the interaction shows a large increase in critical resolved shear stress for void diameter larger than about 3 nm. (authors)

  4. 42 CFR 411.15 - Particular services excluded from coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... devices for the feet, except when shoes are integral parts of leg braces. (g) Custodial care, except as... the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and.... (Custodial care is any care that does not meet the requirements for coverage as SNF care as set forth...

  5. Structural relations of harmonic sums and Mellin transformers at weight w=6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, Johannes

    2009-01-15

    We derive the structural relations between nested harmonic sums and the corresponding Mellin transforms of Nielsen integrals and harmonic polylogarithms at weight w=6. They emerge in the calculations of massless single-scale quantities in QED and QCD, such as anomalous dimensions and Wilson coefficients, to 3- and 4-loop order. We consider the set of the multiple harmonic sums at weight six without index {l_brace}-1{r_brace}. This restriction is sufficient for all known physical cases. The structural relations supplement the algebraic relations, due to the shuffle product between harmonic sums, studied earlier. The original amount of 486 possible harmonic sums contributing at weight w=6 reduces to 99 sums with no index {l_brace}-1{r_brace}. Algebraic and structural relations lead to a further reduction to 20 basic functions. These functions supplement the set of 15 basic functions up to weight w=5 derived formerly. We line out an algorithm to obtain the analytic representation of the basic sums in the complex plane. (orig.)

  6. 29 CFR 1910.21 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Tube and coupler scaffold. An assembly consisting of tubing which serves as posts, bearers, braces... uprights and to join the various members. (33) Tubular welded frame scaffold. A sectional, panel, or frame metal scaffold substantially built up of prefabricated welded sections which consist of posts...

  7. Catalytic Ionic Hydrogenation of Ketones by {[Cp*Ru(CO)2]2(µ-H)}+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullock, R.M.; Fagan, P.J.; Voges, M.H.

    2010-02-22

    {l_brace}[Cp*Ru(CO){sub 2}]{sub 2}({mu}-H){r_brace}{sup +}OTf{sup -} functions as a homogeneous catalyst precursor for hydrogenation of ketones to alcohols, with hydrogenations at 1 mol % catalyst loading at 90 C under H{sub 2} (820 psi) proceeding to completion and providing >90% yields. Hydrogenation of methyl levulinate generates {gamma}-valerolactone, presumably by ring-closing of the initially formed alcohol with the methyl ester. Experiments in neat Et{sub 2}C=O show that the catalyst loading can be <0.1 mol % and that at least 1200 turnovers of the catalyst can be obtained. These reactions are proposed to proceed by an ionic hydrogenation pathway, with the highly acidic dihydrogen complex [Cp*Ru(CO){sub 2}({eta}{sup 2}-H{sub 2})]{sup +}OTf{sup -} being formed under the reaction conditions from reaction of H2 with {l_brace}[Cp*Ru(CO){sub 2}]{sub 2}({mu}-H){r_brace}{sup +}OTf{sup -}.

  8. Rapid Learning in a Children's Museum via Analogical Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentner, Dedre; Levine, Susan C.; Ping, Raedy; Isaia, Ashley; Dhillon, Sonica; Bradley, Claire; Honke, Garrett

    2016-01-01

    We tested whether analogical training could help children learn a key principle of elementary engineering--namely, the use of a diagonal brace to stabilize a structure. The context for this learning was a construction activity at the Chicago Children's Museum, in which children and their families build a model skyscraper together. The results…

  9. Screening for Scoliosis: Different Countries' Perspectives and Evidence-Based Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaszewski, Maciej; Nowobilski, Roman; Kowalski, Pawel; Cieslinski, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis affects 2-3% of adolescents. Large, progressing deformities, mostly present in girls, may lead to pulmonary complications, pain symptoms, the feeling of social isolation, and even mental disorders. The correlation of screening programs with surgery rate reduction and the clinical effectiveness of bracing remain a matter of…

  10. The "Turkey Buzzard" glider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Roy G; Brown, D T

    1923-01-01

    The "Turkey Buzzard" is a semi-internally braced monoplane (Fig. 1). The wing is placed above the fuselage for two important aerodynamical reasons: first, because this position minimizes the mutual interference between the wing and the fuselage, and, second, useful lifting surface is utilized with the wing passing over the fuselage instead of through it.

  11. Rally for Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MATT; YOUNG

    2006-01-01

    U.S. immigrants boycott, but economy unscathed A nation of immigrants, the United States braced for a nationwide boycott May 1 by, ironically, the latest newcomers to its shores. The Statue of Liberty still proclaims at its base, "Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe

  12. 49 CFR 39.93 - What wheelchairs and other assistive devices may passengers with a disability bring onto a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... must permit individuals with mobility disabilities to use wheelchairs and manually powered mobility aids, such as walkers, crutches, canes, braces, or other similar devices designed for use by individuals with mobility disabilities in any areas open to pedestrian use. (b)(1) As A PVO subject to...

  13. microPET Imaging of Glioma Integrin (alpha-v, beta-3) Expression Using Cu-64-Labeled Tetrameric RGD Peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yun; Zhang, , Xianzhong; Xiong, , Zhengming; Cheng, Zhen; Fisher, Darrell R.; Liu, Shu-hong; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2005-10-01

    Integrins ?v?3 and ?v?5 play a critical role in tumor-induced angiogenesis and metastasis, and have become promising diagnostic indicators and therapeutic targets of tumors. Radiolabeled RGD peptides that are integrin-specific may be used for non-invasive imaging of integrin expression level as well as for integrin-targeted radionuclide therapy. We previously conjugated a series of mono- and dimeric RGD peptides with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N, N?,N??,N???-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) and labeled these with copper-64 for microPET imaging in various mouse xenograft models. The copper-64 tracers showed ?v?3-selective tumor uptake, but the magnitude of tumor uptake was relatively low, the tumor washout was rapid, and non-target organ/tissue retention was high. In this study we developed a tetrameric RGD peptide tracer 64Cu-DOTA-E{l_brace}E[c(RGDfK)]2{r_brace}2 for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of integrin ?v?3 expression in a subcutaneous U87MG glioma xenograft model in female athymic nude mice. The RGD tetramer showed significantly higher integrin binding affinity than the corresponding mono- and dimeric RGD analogs, most likely due to polyvalency effect. The radiolabeled peptide showed rapid blood clearance (0.61 ? 0.01%ID/g at 30 min and 0.21 ? 0.01 %ID/g at 4 h postinjection (p.i.), respectively) and predominantly renal excretion. Tumor uptake was rapid and high and the tumor washout was slow (9.93 ? 1.05 %ID/g at 30 min p.i. and 4.56 ? 0.51 %ID/g at 24 h post-injection). The metabolic stability of 64Cu-DOTA-E{l_brace}E[c(RGDfK)]2{r_brace}2 was determined in mouse blood, urine, and liver and kidney homogenates at different times after tracer injection. The average fractions of intact tracer in these organs at 1 h were approximately 70, 58, 51 and 26 percent, respectively. Non-invasive microPET imaging studies showed significant tumor uptake and good contrast in the subcutaneous tumor-bearing mice, which agreed well with the biodistribution results

  14. Kinesthesia Is Not Affected by Functional Ankle Instability Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Tricia J; Kaminski, Thomas W

    2002-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether subjects with functional ankle instability suffered kinesthetic deficits in the injured ankle compared with the healthy ankle and to examine the effect of prophylactic ankle bracing on kinesthesia in uninjured and functionally unstable ankles. DESIGN AND SETTING: We tested subjects over 4 consecutive days in a climate-controlled athletic training/sports medicine laboratory setting. A single-group time-series design enabled all subjects to serve as their own controls. A different bracing condition was tested on each of those occasions. SUBJECTS: Sixteen subjects (8 men, 8 women; age = 21.6 +/- 1.7 years; mass = 73.5 +/- 15.0 kg; height = 172.9 +/- 8.8 cm) with unilateral functional ankle instability participated in this study. MEASUREMENTS: Kinesthetic threshold-to-detection of passive motion (TTDPM) measurements were obtained during passive inversion and eversion movements (0.5 degrees.s(-1)) under 4 different bracing or taping conditions (unbraced, Swede-O Ankle Lok, Aircast Air-Stirrup, and tape). RESULTS: We analyzed the data using a 3-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures on the ankle and motion factors. Threshold-to-detection of passive motion scores in the unbraced condition were significantly better than the TTDPM scores in any of the other 3 test conditions. No significant differences were seen in TTDPM scores between the 2 ankles under any of the 4 conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Threshold-to-detection of passive motion scores did not differ in uninjured ankles and those with functional instability; however, bracing with either the Ankle Lok or Air-Stirrup decreased the ability to detect passive motion when compared with the no-tape (unbraced) condition. Further research is needed to determine the exact contributions of taping and bracing on ankle joint kinesthesia. PMID:12937571

  15. Which one Enhances Muscular Performance in ACL Reconstructed Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harput, Gulcan; Ulusoy, Burak; Atay, Ahmet Ozgur; Baltacı, Gul

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of functional knee brace and kinesiotaping on muscular performance in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects who reached return to sport phase of the rehabilitation. Methods: Twenty (17 males, 3 females, Age: 24.7±7.1 years, Body weight: 74.4±12.0 kg, Height: 177.9±6.5 cm, BMI: 23.9±3.6 kg/m2) subjects who underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by using hamstring tendon auto graft were included in this study. When the subjects reached the return to sports phase of rehabilitation which was 6th months after surgery, knee muscle strength, jump performance and balance tests were performed 3 times: bare, with knee brace and with kinesio taping. The order of the tests were randomized to eliminate the effects of fatigue and motor learning. Quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength was measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at 180 °/s and 60°/s angular velocities. Vertical Jump (VJ) and One Leg Hop Tests (OLHT) were used to assess jump performance. Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) with anterior, posteromedial and posterolateral reach distance was used to assess the dynamic balance. When all tests were performed, the subjects were asked under which test condition they felt more confident. Repeated measures of ANOVA was used to analyze the difference among three test conditions (bare, kinesiotaping, knee brace). Bonferroni post hoc test was used for pairwise comparison. Results: SEBT posteromedial (PM)and posterolateral (PL) reach distances were found significantly different among three test conditions(PM: F(2,38)=3.42,p=0.04), PL: F(2,38)=4.37,p=0.02). Kinesiotaping increased posteromedial reach distance (p=0.03). On the other hand, brace decreased posterolateral reach distance (p=0.04). VJ and OLHT performance were also found significantly different between three test conditions (VJ: F (2,38)=3.44,p=0.04, OLHT: (F(2,38)=4.04,p=0.02). Kinesio taping increased one leg hop distance

  16. Unspecific chronic low back pain – a simple functional classification tested in a case series of patients with spinal deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werkmann Mario

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up to now, chronic low back pain without radicular symptoms is not classified and attributed in international literature as being "unspecific". For specific bracing of this patient group we use simple physical tests to predict the brace type the patient is most likely to benefit from. Based on these physical tests we have developed a simple functional classification of "unspecific" low back pain in patients with spinal deformities. Methods Between January 2006 and July 2007 we have tested 130 patients (116 females and 14 males with spinal deformities (average age 45 years, ranging from 14 years to 69 and chronic unspecific low back pain (pain for > 24 months along with the indication for brace treatment for chronic unspecific low back pain. Some of the patients had symptoms of spinal claudication (n = 16. The "sagittal realignment test" (SRT was applied, a lumbar hyperextension test, and the "sagittal delordosation test" (SDT. Additionally 3 female patients with spondylolisthesis were tested, including one female with symptoms of spinal claudication and 2 of these patients were 14 years of age and the other 43yrs old at the time of testing. Results 117 Patients reported significant pain release in the SRT and 13 in the SDT (>/= 2 steps in the Roland & Morris VRS. 3 Patients had no significant pain release in both of the tests ( Pain intensity was high (3,29 before performing the physical tests (VRS-scale 0–5 and low (1,37 while performing the physical test for the whole sample of patients. The differences where highly significant in the Wilcoxon test (z = -3,79; p In the 16 patients who did not respond to the SRT in the manual investigation we found hypermobility at L5/S1 or a spondylolisthesis at level L5/S1. In the other patients who responded well to the SRT loss of lumbar lordosis was the main issue, a finding which, according to scientific literature, correlates well with low back pain. The 3 patients who did not

  17. Structure, properties and proton conductivity of Nafion/[(TiO{sub 2}).(WO{sub 3}){sub 0.148}]{sub p}si{sub TiO{sub 2}} nanocomposite membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Noto, Vito, E-mail: vito.dinoto@unipd.i [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 1, 35131 Padova (PD) (Italy); Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, ISTM-CNR c/o Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Via Marzolo 1, 35131 Padova (PD) (Italy); Piga, Matteo; Lavina, Sandra; Negro, Enrico [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 1, 35131 Padova (PD) (Italy); Yoshida, Kensuke; Ito, Ryosuke; Furukawa, Takeo [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science 1-3, Kagurazaka, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)

    2010-01-25

    In this report are presented the preparation and the characterization of six nanocomposite membranes of formula left braceNafion/[(TiO{sub 2}).(WO{sub 3}){sub 0.148}]{sub p}si{sub T{sub i{sub O{sub 2}}}}right brace with psi{sub TiO{sub 2}} in the range 0-2.988. These materials are based on Nafion and [(TiO{sub 2}).(WO{sub 3}){sub 0.148}] nanofiller. The effect of [(TiO{sub 2}).(WO{sub 3}){sub 0.148}] nanopowders on the structural, thermal, mechanical and electrical properties of left braceNafion/[(TiO{sub 2}).(WO{sub 3}){sub 0.148}]{sub p}si{sub T{sub i{sub O{sub 2}}}}right brace membranes was studied. The water uptake (WU) value of materials was lower than that of pristine Nafion and was correlated with psi{sub TiO{sub 2}}. The thermal transitions were investigated by modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC). The mechanical parameters and relaxation processes on temperature were studied by dynamical mechanical analyses (DMA). The FT-IR ATR and mu-Raman vibrational investigations allowed to determine the structure of the hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) domains of Nafion and the interactions Nafion-[(TiO{sub 2}).(WO{sub 3}){sub 0.148}] and Nafion-[H{sub 2}O] in bulk materials. The analysis of complex conductivity plots were evaluated in the 10{sup -2} Hz-10 MHz and 5-155 deg. C regions. Results indicated that the conductivity of left braceNafion/[(TiO{sub 2}).(WO{sub 3}){sub 0.148}]{sub p}si{sub T{sub i{sub O{sub 2}}}}right brace nanocomposite membrane, with psi{sub TiO{sub 2}}=1.616, at 135 deg. C, is 5.0 x 10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1}, while its stability range of conductivity (SRC) extends up to 135 deg. C.

  18. Highly Selective Synthesis of Catalytically Active Monodisperse Rhodium Nanocubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Grass, M.E.; Kuhn, J.N.; Tao, F.; Habas, S.E.; Huang, W.; Yang, P.; Somorjai, G.A.

    2009-02-21

    Synthesis of monodisperse and shape-controlled colloidal inorganic nanocrystals (NCs) is of increasing scientific interest and technological significance. Recently, shape control of Pt, Pd, Ag, Au, and Rh NCs has been obtained by tuning growth kinetics in various solution-phase approaches, including modified polyol methods, seeded growth by polyol reduction, thermolysis of organometallics, and micelle techniques. Control of reduction kinetics of the noble metal precursors and regulation of the relative growth rates of low-index planes (i.e. {l_brace}100{r_brace} and {l_brace}111{r_brace}) via selective adsorption of selected chemical species are two keys for achieving shape modification of noble metal NCs. One application for noble metal NCs of well-defined shape is in understanding how NC faceting (determines which crystallographic planes are exposed) affects catalytic performance. Rh NCs are used in many catalytic reactions, including hydrogenation, hydroformylation, hydrocarbonylation, and combustion reactions. Shape manipulation of Rh NCs may be important in understanding how faceting on the nanoscale affects catalytic properties, but such control is challenging and there are fewer reports on the shape control of Rh NCs compared to other noble metals. Xia and coworkers obtained Rh multipods exhibiting interesting surface plasmonic properties by a polyol approach. The Somorjai and Tilley groups synthesized crystalline Rh multipods, cubes, horns and cuboctahedra, via polyol seeded growth. Son and colleagues prepared catalytically active monodisperse oleylamine-capped tetrahedral Rh NCs for the hydrogenation of arenes via an organometallic route. More recently, the Somorjai group synthesized sizetunable monodisperse Rh NCs using a one-step polyol technique. In this Communication, we report the highly selective synthesis of catalytically active, monodisperse Rh nanocubes of < 10 nm by a seedless polyol method. In this approach, Br{sup -} ions from trimethyl

  19. PET imaging of acute and chronic inflammation in living mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Qizhen; Cai, Weibo; Li, Zi-Bo; Chen, Kai; He, Lina; Chen, Xiaoyuan [Stanford University School of Medicine, The Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS), Department of Radiology and Bio-X Program, Stanford, CA (United States); Li, Hui-Cheng; Hui, Mizhou [AmProtein Corporation, Camarillo, CA (United States)

    2007-11-15

    In this study, we evaluated the 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced acute and chronic inflammation in living mice by PET imaging of TNF-{alpha} and integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} expression. TPA was topically applied to the right ear of BALB/c mice every other day to create the inflammation model. {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-etanercept and {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-E{l_brace}E[c(RGDyK)]{sub 2}{r_brace}{sub 2} were used for PET imaging of TNF-{alpha} and integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} expression in both acute and chronic inflammation. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, ex vivo autoradiography, direct tissue sampling, and immunofluorescence staining were also performed to confirm the non-invasive PET imaging results. The ear thickness increased significantly and the TNF-{alpha} level more than tripled after a single TPA challenge. MicroPET imaging using {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-etanercept revealed high activity accumulation in the inflamed ear, reaching 11.1 {+-} 1.3, 13.0 {+-} 2.0, 10.9 {+-} 1.4, 10.2 {+-} 2.2%ID/g at 1, 4, 16, and 24 h post injection, respectively (n = 3). Repeated TPA challenges caused TPA-specific chronic inflammation and reduced {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-etanercept uptake due to lowered TNF-{alpha} expression. {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-E{l_brace}E[c(RGDyK)]{sub 2}{r_brace}{sub 2} uptake in the chronically inflamed ears (after four and eight TPA challenges) was significantly higher than in the control ears and those after one TPA challenge. Immunofluorescence staining revealed increased integrin {beta}{sub 3} expression, consistent with the non-invasive PET imaging results using {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-E{l_brace}E[c(RGDyK)]{sub 2}{r_brace}{sub 2} as an integrin {alpha}{sub v} {beta}{sub 3}-specific radiotracer. Biodistribution and autoradiography studies further confirmed the quantification capability of microPET imaging. Successful PET imaging of TNF- {alpha} expression in acute inflammation and integrin {alpha}{sub v} {beta}{sub 3} expression in chronic inflammation provides

  20. Growth, spectral and thermal studies of ibuprofen crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramukutty, S.; Ramachandran, E. [Department of Physics, Thiruvalluvar College, Papanasam (India)

    2012-01-15

    RS -Ibuprofen was crystallized for the first time in silica gel under suitable pH conditions by reduction of solubility method. The grown crystals were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and density measurement. The functional groups present in the crystal were identified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Optical bandgap energy of ibuprofen was estimated as 3.19(3) eV from UV-Vis spectrum. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that ibuprofen is thermally stable upto 102.9 C and the initial loss of mass was due to evaporation only. Morphological study showed that the growth is prominent along b-axis and the prominent face is {l_brace}100{r_brace}. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Amoebas of Complex Hypersurfaces in Statistical Thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passare, Mikael [Stockholm University, Department of Mathematics (Sweden); Pochekutov, Dmitry, E-mail: potchekutov@gmail.com [Siberian Federal University, Institute of Core Undergraduate Programmes (Russian Federation); Tsikh, August, E-mail: atsikh@sfu-kras.ru [Siberian Federal University, Institute of Mathematics (Russian Federation)

    2013-03-15

    The amoeba of a complex hypersurface is its image under the logarithmic projection. A number of properties of algebraic hypersurface amoebas are carried over to the case of transcendental hypersurfaces. We demonstrate the potential that amoebas can bring into statistical physics by considering the problem of energy distribution in a quantum thermodynamic ensemble. The spectrum {l_brace}{epsilon}{sub k}{r_brace} Subset-Of Z{sup n} of the ensemble is assumed to be multidimensional; this leads us to the notions of multidimensional temperature and a vector of differential thermodynamic forms. Strictly speaking, in the paper we develop the multidimensional Darwin-Fowler method and give the description of the domain of admissible average values of energy for which the thermodynamic limit exists.

  2. Orbit equivalence and von Neumann algebras for expansive interval maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia Ramos, C. [Department of Mathematics, Universidade de Evora, R. Romao Ramalho, 59, 7000-671 Evora (Portugal)]. E-mail: ccr@uevora.pt; Martins, Nuno [Department of Mathematics, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: nmartins@math.ist.utl.pt; Pinto, Paulo R. [Department of Mathematics, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: ppinto@math.ist.utl.pt; Sousa Ramos, J. [Department of Mathematics, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: sramos@math.ist.utl.pt

    2007-07-15

    We study the orbit equivalence relation R{sub {tau}} for dynamical systems (I,{tau}) arising from piecewise linear maps {tau}: I->I on the interval I=[0,1]. Under regularity conditions, we prove that the crossed product von Neumann algebra L{sup {approx}}(I)xR{sub {tau}} is the type III{sub {lambda}} hyperfinite factor where {lambda} is an element of ]0,1] is determined by the subgroup of R{sup +} generated by {l_brace}m({tau}(I{sub i}))/m(I{sub i}){r_brace}, with the I{sub i}'s being the underlying partitioning intervals for {tau} and m the Lebesgue measure. Thus we compute the complete invariant for the orbit structures of these maps.

  3. Adjunctive orthodontic treatment with lingual orthodontic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, D; Humagain, M; Upadhaya, C

    2011-01-01

    The lingual orthodontic therapy though started in 1972, could not be popular till the beginning of 1990. In Nepal it does not have a history of more than a year. It is started in Dhulikhel Hospital for the first time in Nepal. Usually orthodontic therapy is meant for putting braces on the labial surface of the teeth which is called labial orthodontic system. Lingual orthodontic system is a purely invisible kind of orthodontic therapy in which braces are placed behind the teeth. The advantages of lingual orthodontic therapy are: invisibility, better biomechanics and improved patient compliance. On the other hand it is difficult to master and costlier than labial orthodontics. We have presented six adjunctive orthodontic cases treated by lingual system with the same end result comparable to labial orthodontic system. PMID:22710545

  4. Vertebral compression fractures: a review of current management and multimodal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong CC

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyrus C Wong, Matthew J McGirt Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: Vertebral compression fractures are a prevalent disease affecting osteoporotic patients. When symptomatic, they cause significant pain and loss of function and have a high public health impact. In this paper we outline the diagnosis and management of these patients, with evidence-based review of treatment outcomes for the various therapeutic options. Diagnosis involves a clinical history focusing on the nature of the patient's pain as well as various imaging studies. Management is multimodal in nature and starts with conservative therapy consisting of analgesic medication, medication for osteoporosis, physical therapy, and bracing. Patients who are refractory to conservative management may be candidates for vertebral augmentation through either vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty. Keywords: vertebral compression fractures, osteoporosis, bracing, vertebroplasty, kyphoplasty

  5. Health-related quality-of-life in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients 25 years after treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simony, Ane; Hansen, Emil Jesper; Carreon, Leah Y;

    2015-01-01

    long-term studies exists, focusing on the health related quality of life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term health related outcome, in a cohort of AIS patients, treated 25 years ago. METHOD: 219 consecutive patients treated with Boston brace (Brace) or posterior spinal fusion (PSF......) using Harrington- DDT instrumentation between 1983 and 1990 at Rigshospitalet Copenhagen, were invited to participate in a long-term evaluation study. A validated Danish version of the Scoliosis Research Society 22R (SRS22R) and Short Form-36 (SF36v1) were administrated to the patients two weeks before...... the clinical and radiological examination. RESULTS: 159 (72,6 %) patients participated in the clinical follow up and questionnaires, 11 patients participated only in the questionnaires, 8 emigrated, 4 were excluded due to progressive neurological disease and 2 were deceased. The total follow up was...

  6. Localization in two-dimensional quantum percolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soukoulis, C.M. (Ames Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa (USA)); Grest, G.S. (Corporate Research Science Laboratory, Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, New Jersey (USA))

    1991-09-01

    The quantum site and bond percolation problem, which is defined by a disordered tight-binding Hamiltonian with a binary probability distribution, is studied using finite-size-scaling methods. For the simple square lattice, we find that all states are exponentially localized for any amount of disorder, in agreement with the scalng theory of localization and in disagreement with recent claims of a localization transition in two dimensions. The localization length {lambda} is given by exp{l brace}{ital B}({ital p}/(1{minus}{ital p})){sup {ital y}}{r brace} with {ital y} very close to 0.5 and {ital p} the probability that a site or a bond is present.

  7. Massive 3-loop ladder diagrams for quarkonic local operator matrix elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablinger, Jakob; Schneider, Carsten [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation; Bluemlein, Johannes; Hasselhuhn, Alexander; Wissbrock, Fabian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Klein, Sebastian [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2012-06-15

    3-loop diagrams of the ladder-type, which emerge for local quarkonic twist-2 operator matrix elements, are computed directly for general values of the Mellin variable N using Appell-function representations and applying modern summation technologies provided by the package Sigma and the method of hyperlogarithms. In some of the diagrams generalized harmonic sums with {xi} element of {l_brace}1,1/2,2{r_brace} emerge beyond the usual nested harmonic sums. As the asymptotic representation of the corresponding integrals shows, the generalized sums conspire giving well behaved expressions for large values of N. These diagrams contribute to the 3-loop heavy flavor Wilson coefficients of the structure functions in deep-inelastic scattering in the region Q{sup 2} >> m{sup 2}.

  8. Deposition of gold nanoparticles on glass substrate by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garza, Maria de la; Hernandez, Tomas [Laboratorio de Materiales I, Centro de Laboratorios Especializados, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon. Av. Universidad s/n Cd. Universitaria, C.P. 66451, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Colas, Rafael [Programa Doctoral en Ingenieria de Materiales, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon. Av. Universidad s/n Cd. Universitaria, C.P. 66451, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Gomez, Idalia, E-mail: mgomez@fcq.uanl.mx [Laboratorio de Materiales I, Centro de Laboratorios Especializados, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon. Av. Universidad s/n Cd. Universitaria, C.P. 66451, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2010-10-25

    Ultrasonic spray pyrolysis was used to deposit gold nanoparticles on a glass substrate using ZrO{sub 2} as a surrounding medium. The deposition was made using three flow rates of caring gas. The characterization was made by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The UV-Vis spectra showed that the surface plasmon resonance peak, indicative of the presence of gold nanoparticles, was shown to shift towards the red spectrum as the flow rate increased; this shift can be associated to the change in size of the particles, which are assumed to grow on a {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} planes, as was detected by X-ray diffraction. Gold nanoparticles of spheroidal morphology with a relation of around 2:1 were detected by scanning electron microscopy, these observations were confirmed by atomic force microscopy.

  9. Electron microscope study of stacking fault formation in boron implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upon annealing silicon, implanted with boron at fluences greater than 5 x 1015 B+/cm2, stacking faults in concentrations up to 2 x 108/cm2 were observed on all four brace 111 brace planes to a depth of 1800 A below the specimen surface. The faults were enclosed by interstitial Frank sessile loops. Annihilation occurred on annealing between 980 to 10000C. The region in which the loops nucleate is assumed to contain silicon rendered amorphous at this high fluence, and the faults are believed to be condensed sheets of silicon atoms whose sites become occupied by boron atoms upon annealing between 800 to 9500C. Annihilation at temperatures close to 10000C may be caused by solute stress due to enhanced boron diffusion. Additional data on anneals in dry O2 at 11500C are presented. (author)

  10. CdS thin films obtained by thermal treatment of cadmium(II) complex precursor deposited by MAPLE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotaru, Andrei [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PPAM - Lasers Department, 409 Atomistilor Bvd., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Mietlarek-Kropidlowska, Anna [Gdansk University of Technology, Chemistry Faculty, 11/12 G. Narutowicza Str., PL-90-233 Gdansk (Poland); Constantinescu, Catalin, E-mail: catalin.constantinescu@inflpr.ro [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PPAM - Lasers Department, 409 Atomistilor Bvd., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Scarisoreanu, Nicu; Dumitru, Marius [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PPAM - Lasers Department, 409 Atomistilor Bvd., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Strankowski, Michal [Gdansk University of Technology, Chemistry Faculty, 11/12 G. Narutowicza Str., PL-90-233 Gdansk (Poland); Rotaru, Petre [University of Craiova, Faculty of Physics, 13 A.I. Cuza St., Craiova RO-200585, Dolj (Romania); Ion, Valentin [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PPAM - Lasers Department, 409 Atomistilor Bvd., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Vasiliu, Cristina [INOE 2000 - National Institute for Optoelectronics, 1 Atomistilor Bvd., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Becker, Barbara [Gdansk University of Technology, Chemistry Faculty, 11/12 G. Narutowicza Str., PL-90-233 Gdansk (Poland); Dinescu, Maria [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PPAM - Lasers Department, 409 Atomistilor Bvd., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania)

    2009-05-15

    Thin films of [Cd{l_brace}SSi(O-Bu{sup t}){sub 3}{r_brace}(S{sub 2}CNEt{sub 2})]{sub 2}, precursor for semiconducting CdS layers, were deposited on silicon substrates by Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. Structural analysis of the obtained films by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the viability of the procedure. After the deposition of the coordination complex, the layers are manufactured by appropriate thermal treatment of the system (thin film and substrate), according to the thermal analysis of the compound. Surface morphology of the thin films was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectroscopic-ellipsometry (SE) measurements.

  11. Study on lifting of large structure module in AP1000 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Modularization is one of characteristics of AP1000 nuclear power plant, however, the challenge of large module lifting should be met. Purpose: An analysis method for large module lifting has been studied in this paper: Methods: Based on ANSYS software and steel design code of America, the finite element analysis of CA01 structure module in AP1000 nuclear power plant was conducted. Results: The analysis results show that stress and deformation meet the requirements of codes and construction when the temporary brace is properly set in CA01 module. The maximum stress can be found in the juncture of wall, and maximum deformation occurs at the corner of CA01 module. Conclusions: Proper temporary brace is important to the lifting of structure and maximum stress or deformation usually occurs at irregular locations of structure. And it is necessary to perform detail analysis before structure lifted. (authors)

  12. Organonickel(II) complexes with anionic tridentate 1, 3-bis(azolylmethyl)phenyl ligands. synthesis, structural characterization and catalytic behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado, John; Rojas, Rene; Valderrama, Mauricio, E-mail: jmvalder@puc.cl [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Quimica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Ibanez, Andres [Centro para la Investigacion Interdisciplinaria Avanzada en Ciencia de los Materiales (CIMAT), Santiago (Chile); Froehlich, Roland [Organisch Chemisches Institut der Universitaet Muenster, Muenster (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    The reaction of 2-bromo-1,3-bis(bromomethyl)benzene with 3,5-dimethylpyrazole and {sup 1}H-indazole yields the tridentate ligands 2-bromo-1,3-bis(3,5-dimethylpirazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene (1) and 2-bromo-1,3-bis(indazol-2-ylmethyl)benzene (2). These compounds react with [Ni(cod)2] in tetrahydrofuran (thf) to form the oxidative addition complexes [NiBr{l_brace}1,3-bis(azolylmethyl)phenyl-N,C,N{r_brace}], azol 3,5-dimethylpyrazol (3), indazol (4), which were isolated in good yields as stable yellow solids and characterized by elemental analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In addition, the molecular structures of 2 and 4 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Complex 4 was tested as a catalyst in ethylene polymerization reaction. (author)

  13. Discovery of GSK2126458, a Highly Potent Inhibitor of PI3K and the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Steven D.; Adams, Nicholas D.; Burgess, Joelle L.; Chaudhari, Amita M.; Darcy, Michael G.; Donatelli, Carla A.; Luengo, Juan I.; Newlander, Ken A.; Parrish, Cynthia A.; Ridgers, Lance H.; Sarpong, Martha A.; Schmidt, Stanley J.; Aller, Glenn S.Van; Carson, Jeffrey D.; Diamond, Melody A.; Elkins, Patricia A.; Gardiner, Christine M.; Garver, Eric; Gilbert, Seth A.; Gontarek, Richard R.; Jackson, Jeffrey R.; Kershner, Kevin L.; Luo, Lusong; Raha, Kaushik; Sherk, Christian S.; Sung, Chiu-Mei; Sutton, David; Tummino, Peter J.; Wegrzyn, Ronald J.; Auger, Kurt R.; Dhanak, Dashyant (GSKPA)

    2010-09-30

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase {alpha} (PI3K{alpha}) is a critical regulator of cell growth and transformation, and its signaling pathway is the most commonly mutated pathway in human cancers. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a class IV PI3K protein kinase, is also a central regulator of cell growth, and mTOR inhibitors are believed to augment the antiproliferative efficacy of PI3K/AKT pathway inhibition. 2,4-Difluoro-N-{l_brace}2-(methyloxy)-5-[4-(4-pyridazinyl)-6-quinolinyl]-3-pyridinyl{r_brace}benzenesulfonamide (GSK2126458, 1) has been identified as a highly potent, orally bioavailable inhibitor of PI3K{alpha} and mTOR with in vivo activity in both pharmacodynamic and tumor growth efficacy models. Compound 1 is currently being evaluated in human clinical trials for the treatment of cancer.

  14. Low temperature Laue topography of strontium titanate at SPring-8

    CERN Document Server

    Ozaki, T; Mizuno, K; Iida, S; Kajiwara, K; Taira, T; Yoshimura, J; Shimura, T; Chikaura, Y

    2003-01-01

    We performed the X-ray Laue topography of strontium titanate from 300 K down to 4 K through the cubic-tetragonal phase transition temperature T sub a =105 K. We found that the left brace 1 1 0 right brace domain boundaries formed below T sub a clearly showed the bright and dark stripe contrasts. The appearance of the contrasts depends on the diffraction vector g. The boundaries parallel to g show the strongest contrasts, while those normal to g show no contrasts. This proves the spontaneous deformation around the boundaries. The difference between the X-ray intensities of the adjacent bright and dark stripes shows the same temperature dependence as the order parameter. The present X-ray topography provides a new method of studying order parameters in structural phase transitions.

  15. Defect structures and phase transitions of FeRh alloys deformed at high speed deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshima, Ryuichiro; Hori, Fuminobu; Kibata, Yasunori; Komatsu, Masao; Kiritani, Michio

    2003-06-15

    Fe-Rh alloys of Rh concentrations ranging from 40 to 50at.% and of B2 phase were deformed by use of a compression machine capable of running tests at high speeds of impact. Induced complicated substructures and phases were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). A characteristic arrangement of L1{sub 0} domains was observed, along with very small transformed A1 domains and dispersed in the residual B2 matrix. On the basis of the experimental results, we suggest a coupling of a pair of shears along {l_brace}112{r_brace}<11-1>{sub B2} for the transformation mechanisms from B2 to L1{sub 0} and A1 phases.

  16. Simultaneous bilateral tibal tubercle avulsion: A rare fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Metineren

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tibial tuberosity avulsion is a rare fracture in adolescence.Due to the shear forces on the immature epiphysis. Thirteenyears old girl was admitted to the emergency departmentwith knee pain and tenderness in both knees afterjumping from a height of about one meter. İn examinationshe had tenderness and swelling over both tibial tuberosities.The patient could not do active knee extension. TypeIIA fracture on the left and type IIIA fracture on the rightknee were detected. For the patient’s fractures, closedreduction and fixation with 3 smooth Kirschner wires wasperformed. After immobilization in long-leg brace for threeweeks the brace was removed and she include in therehabilitation program. In this report, we discuss similarcases in the literature and the results of the treatment appliedto our patient.Key words: Tuberositas tibia, avulsion fracture, percutaneouspinning

  17. Dynamic properties of structural transition in iron under uniaxial compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, J L; Duan, S Q; He, A M; Qin, C S; Wang, P [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, PO Box 8009, Beijing 100088 (China)], E-mail: shao_jianli@iapcm.ac.cn

    2009-06-17

    By using molecular dynamics simulations, we have successfully simulated the bcc {yields} hcp structural transition in single-crystal iron under isothermal compression along the [001] direction. The results reveal a distinct softening of C{sub 33} and a hardening of C{sub 31} (or C{sub 32}) prior to the transition and an over-relaxation of the stress after transition. Above the critical stress the morphology evolution of structural transition is analyzed, which can be divided into four stages: hcp homogeneously nucleated, columnar grains formed, nuclei competed and merged, and a laminar structure formed along {l_brace}110{r_brace} planes. Besides, our simulations demonstrate that in mixed phases the hcp phase has negative shear stress and the potential of the hcp phase is higher than the bcc phase, and the shear stress of the system keeps a linear decrease with hcp mass fraction. The effect of temperature on the structural transition is also discussed.

  18. Synthesis of anisotropic gold nanoparticles using xylitol as a dual functional reductant and stabilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Jinmiao; Yao, Chengli; Yuan, Xinsong; Chen, Chen; Qi, Chunxia; Xia, Yuehua; Dong, Lin [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hefei Normal University, Hefei (China)

    2010-08-15

    The morphology of gold nanoparticles was controlled with hydrogentetrachloroaurate (HAuCl{sub 4}) and xylitol through a hydrothermal process using xylitol as reducing agent and controlled reagent. The molar ratio of xylitol relative to HAuCl{sub 4}, reaction time and temperature played important roles in determining the geometric shape and size of the product. These nanoplates were single crystals with planar width of 80-500 nm. The formation of nanobelts and two-dimensional single-crystal nanosheets is explained by the preferential adsorption of xylitol molecules from the solution onto the {l_brace}111{r_brace} planes of Au nuclei. These nanosheets could be used, for example, in gas sensors, in the fabrication of nanodevices and substrate materials, in property studies, and also for inducing hypothermia in tumors. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Characterization studies on the additives mixed L-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP) crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haja Hameed, A.S., E-mail: hajahameed2001@gmail.co [PG and Research Department of Physics, Jamal Mohamed College, Tiruchirappalli 620 020, Tamil Nadu (India); Karthikeyan, C. [PG and Research Department of Physics, Jamal Mohamed College, Tiruchirappalli 620 020, Tamil Nadu (India); Ravi, G. [Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003 (India); Rohani, S. [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2011-04-01

    L-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP), potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) mixed LAP (LAP:KSCN) and sodium sulfite (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}) mixed LAP (LAP:Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}) single crystals were grown by slow cooling technique. The effect of microbial contamination and coloration on the growth solutions was studied. The crystalline powders of the grown crystals were examined by X-ray diffraction and the lattice parameters of the crystals were estimated. From the FTIR spectroscopic analysis, various functional group frequencies associated with the crystals were assigned. Vickers microhardness studies were done on {l_brace}1 0 0{r_brace} faces for pure and additives mixed LAP crystals. From the preliminary surface second harmonic generation (SHG) results, it was found that the SHG intensity at (1 0 0) face of LAP:KSCN crystal was much stronger than that of pure LAP.

  20. Molecular dynamic simulations of the sputtering of multilayer organic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Postawa, Z; Piaskowy, J; Krantzman, K; Winograd, N; Garrison, B J

    2003-01-01

    Sputtering of organic overlayers has been modeled using molecular dynamics computer simulations. The investigated systems are composed of benzene molecules condensed into one, two and three layers on an Ag left brace 1 1 1 right brace surface. The formed organic overlayers were bombarded with 4 keV Ar projectiles at normal incidence. The development of the collision cascade in the organic overlayer was investigated. The sputtering yield, mass, internal and kinetic energy distributions of ejected particles have been analyzed as a function of the thickness of the organic layer. The results show that all emission characteristics are sensitive to the variation of layer thickness. Although most of the ejected intact benzene molecules originate from the topmost layer, the emission of particles located initially in second and third layers is significant. The analysis indicates that the metallic substrate plays a dominant role in the ejection of intact organic molecules.

  1. Fluid Mechanics, Drag Reduction and Advanced Configuration Aeronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses Advanced Aircraft configurational approaches across the speed range, which are either enabled, or greatly enhanced, by clever Flow Control. Configurations considered include Channel Wings with circulation control for VTOL (but non-hovering) operation with high cruise speed, strut-braced CTOL transports with wingtip engines and extensive ('natural') laminar flow control, a midwing double fuselage CTOL approach utilizing several synergistic methods for drag-due-to-lift reduction, a supersonic strut-braced configuration with order of twice the L/D of current approaches and a very advanced, highly engine flow-path-integrated hypersonic cruise machine. This paper indicates both the promise of synergistic flow control approaches as enablers for 'Revolutions' in aircraft performance and fluid mechanic 'areas of ignorance' which impede their realization and provide 'target-rich' opportunities for Fluids Research.

  2. A global view of F-region electron density and temperature at solar maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brace, L. H.; Theis, R. F.; Hoegy, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that the thermal structure of the ionosphere represents a quasi-static balance between a variety of heat sources and sinks which vary spatially and temporally on a wide range of time scales. The present investigation has the objective to present selected early results from the Dynamics Explorer-2 (DE-2) Langmuir probe instrument and to make an initial evaluation of how the thermal structure of the ionosphere at solar maximum differs from that observed at solar minimum. Bowen et al. (1964) and Brace and Reddy (1965) devised early empirical models of the F region electron temperature (Te), based on satellite Langmuir probe measurements at low levels of solar activity. The global structure of Te and the electron density (Ne) obtained in the current investigation is not very different from that reported by Brace and Reddy. The primary difference at solar maximum is that Ne is everywhere much higher, but Te differs only in detail.

  3. Modelling dislocation-induced anisotropic line broadening in Rietveld refinements using a Voigt function. II. Application to neutron powder diffraction data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, E.; Gray, E.M.A. [Griffith Univ., Nathan (Australia). Fac. of Sci. and Technol.; Kisi, E.H

    1998-06-01

    For pt.I see ibid., vol.31, p.356-62, 1998. In paper I an approach was developed to the problem of modelling dislocation-induced X-ray or neutron-diffraction-line broadening. This paper applies those findings to the Rietveld refinement of the neutron powder diffraction profiles of deuterium-cycled LaNi{sub 5} and {beta}-PdD{sub 0.66}. These interstitially modified materials exhibit, respectively, strong and weak anisotropic strain broadening. The broadening in LaNi{sub 5} is consistent with a dislocation slip system a/3 left angle anti 2110 right angle {l_brace}0 anti 110{r_brace}, in agreement with transmission electron microscopy studies. In PdD{sub 0.66} the model predicts a regular distribution of screw dislocations, which remains to be confirmed by other techniques. (orig.) 28 refs.

  4. Reduced frequency of nickel allergy upon oral nickel contact at an early age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hoogstraten, I M; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Von Blomberg, B M;

    1991-01-01

    an effective way to prevent undesired T cell-mediated immune functions, such as playing a role in allograft reaction, autoimmune and allergic diseases. In the present study allergic contact hypersensitivity (ACH) to nickel, currently presenting the most frequent contact allergy in man, was chosen to...... establish the feasibility of oral prevention of undesired T cell-mediated immunity in man. Potentially tolerizing (oral nickel contacts via orthodontic braces) as well as sensitizing (ear piercing) events were studied retrospectively in 2176 patients attending nine European patch test clinics. Patients were...... interviewed by means of a confidential questionnaire. The results show that ear piercing strongly favoured development of nickel ACH. More importantly, patients having had oral contacts with nickel-releasing appliances (dental braces) at an early age, but only if prior to ear piercing, showed a reduced...

  5. A new type of <0 0 1> junction observed in a (B2) Fe-Al-Ni-B alloy by TEM in situ straining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraczkiewicz, Anna, E-mail: anna.fraczkiewicz@emse.f [PECM, UMR CNRS 5146, Ecole des Mines de St-Etienne, Centre SMS, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42100 St-Etienne (France); Decamps, Brigitte [CSNSM, UMR CNRS 8609, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Colas, David; Calonne, Olivier [PECM, UMR CNRS 5146, Ecole des Mines de St-Etienne, Centre SMS, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42100 St-Etienne (France); Louchet, Francois [LGGE, UMR 5183 CNRS, Domaine Universitaire BP96, 38402 St Martin d' Heres (France)

    2010-06-11

    Single crystal foils of an FeAl alloy containing Ni and B are strained at elevated temperatures in an in situ dedicated transmission electron microscope (TEM). The observed characteristic 'fork-shaped' dislocation configurations are shown to be a kind of '<0 0 1> junction'. This junction comes from a reaction between two <1 1 1> superdislocations gliding on different {l_brace}1 1 2{r_brace} planes; it results in the presence of a long and sessile edge <0 0 1> dislocation along the intersection of the glide planes. Several hypothetical core structures of such a junction are proposed and their possible effects on macroscopic mechanical properties of the alloy are discussed.

  6. Recrystallization texture in nickel-chromium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, B. de; Reger, N.; Holzapfel, B. [Inst. of Metallic Materials, IFW Dresden, Dresden (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Ni and Ni-Cr tapes with Cr contents up to 20 at.% have been prepared by cold rolling with a thickness reduction of more than 99.5%. These tapes were heat treated at different temperatures between 200 C and 1000 C to examine the influence of recovery, recrystallization and grain growth on the development of the annealing texture. The recrystallization temperature increases with increasing alloying content. At 14at.% Cr content the main component of the recrystallisation texture changes from the cube orientation to {l_brace}025{r_brace} left angle 100 right angle. At the same time the size of the recrystallized grains decreases. These changes correlate with changes in the deformation texture and the stacking fault energy. (orig.)

  7. The effect of cold rolling parameters on the recrystallization texture of non-oriented electrical steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamata, R.; Kubota, T.; Yamada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Futtsu, Chiba (Japan). Steel Research Lab.

    1997-12-01

    The effect of cold rolling condition on magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steel was investigated. For evaluation of cold rolling condition, utilizing rolling shape factor (RSF) was proposed. In the case of small RSF, magnetic induction was improved. Development of ND {parallel} <111> components was suppressed in the recrystallized texture near the surface, and the vicinity of the {l_brace}100{r_brace}<001> component was developed after grain growth. The relation between RSF and cold-rolling condition was examined by computer simulation; such results were attributed to the increment of shear strain in the surface texture. Magnetic properties would be improved by adequate control of cold-rolling condition.

  8. Cube recrystallization texture in warm deformed aluminum: Understanding and prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samajdar, I.; Doherty, R.D. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Engineering

    1998-05-22

    The formation of cube {l_brace}100{r_brace}<001> recrystallization texture was studied in warm plane-strain deformed aluminum. Recrystallization cube texture intensity increased from 4 to 200 times random, as the true strain was increased from 0.92 to 3.2. The increased cube was primarily due to larger numbers of recrystallized near cube grains, as cube grains had either no or very limited size advantage over grains of other orientations. The origin of cube nucleation was found in the partial stability of existing cube grains which produced thin bands of near-cube oriented deformed material and the lower stored energy of these cube bands. A simple geometrical model is proposed for the prediction of cube recrystallization texture in plane strain deformed f.c.c. metals.

  9. Influence of shear bands on recrystallization texture in Fe-3%Si alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, K.; Ohata, Y.; Senuma, T. [Yawata R and D Lab., Nippon Steel Corp., Fukuoka-ken (Japan); Chang, C. [Dept. of Metals and Materials Engineering, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The initial stage of shear band formation and its annealing texture in Fe-3%Si {l_brace}111{r_brace} left angle 112 right angle single crystal was investigated. Only one type of shear band was introduced in the initial stage during cold rolling deformation. In the 28% cold rolled and annealed sample, recrystallized Goss grains did not consume whole shear bands. The crystal rotations of subgrains within shear bands in the 40% cold rolled sample were larger than those in the 28% cold rolled sample. It is inferred that the crystal rotation within shear bands in a large cold rolled specimen is larger than that in a small cold rolled specimen. (orig.)

  10. Solubility of fragrance raw materials in water: Experimental study, correlations, and Mod. UNIFAC (Do) predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanska, Urszula, E-mail: ula@ch.pw.edu.p [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland); Paduszynski, Kamil; Niszczota, Zaneta K. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-01-15

    The (liquid + liquid) and (solid + liquid) phase equilibria of nine binary mixtures containing fragrance raw materials (FRM) such as aliphatic ketones and compounds based on cyclohexane with water were investigated. The systems {l_brace}2-heptanone, or 2-nonanone, or 2-undecanone, or 2-tridecanone, or cyclohexyl carboxylic acid (CCA), or cyclohexyl acetic acid (CAA), or 2-cyclohexyl ethanol (2CE) or cyclohexyl acetate (CA), or 2-cyclohexyl ethyl acetate (2CEA) + water (2){r_brace} have been measured by a dynamic method in wide range of temperatures from (290 to 360) K and ambient pressure. For all systems immiscibility in the liquid phase was detected. The experimental data was correlated by means of the NRTL equation, utilizing parameters derived from the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium. Additionally, the binary mixtures were predicted with the Mod. UNIFAC (Do) model, with known from literature parameters, with very good results.

  11. Chemical stability of hydroxysulphate green rust synthetised in the presence of foreign anions: carbonate, phosphate and silicate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruby, C., E-mail: ruby@lcpme.cnrs-nancy.fr; Gehin, A.; Aissa, R.; Ghanbaja, J.; Abdelmoula, M.; Genin, J.-M. R. [UMR 7564 CNRS-Universite Henri Poincare-Nancy 1, Equipe Microbiologie et Physique and Departement Materiaux et Structures, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement (France)

    2006-01-15

    Hydroxysulphate green rust {l_brace}GR(SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}){r_brace} species were precipitated in the presence of various anions. GR(SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) is stable at {approx}pH 7 and is transformed into a mixture of magnetite and ferrous hydroxide when the pH raised at {approx}12. In the presence of carbonate species, GR(SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) is partially transformed into a mixture of magnetite and siderite at {approx}pH 8.5. This transformation is stopped when silicate anions are present in the solution. As already observed for phosphate anions, the adsorption of silicate anions on the lateral faces of the GR(SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) crystals may explain this stabilization effect. Sulphate anions are easily exchanged by carbonate species at {approx}pH 10.5. In contrast, anionic exchange between sulphate and phosphate anions was not observed.

  12. Crystal Growth Inhibitors for the Prevention of L-Cystine Kidney Stones Through Molecular Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimer, Jeffrey D.; An, Zhihua; Zhu, Zina; Lee, Michael H.; Goldfarb, David S.; Wesson, Jeffrey A.; Ward, Michael D. (NY Univ.); (MCW)

    2010-11-12

    Crystallization of L-cystine is a critical step in the pathogenesis of cystine kidney stones. Treatments for this disease are somewhat effective but often lead to adverse side effects. Real-time in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals that L-cystine dimethylester (L-CDME) and L-cystine methylester (L-CME) dramatically reduce the growth velocity of the six symmetry-equivalent {l_brace}100{r_brace} steps because of specific binding at the crystal surface, which frustrates the attachment of L-cystine molecules. L-CDME and L-CME produce L-cystine crystals with different habits that reveal distinct binding modes at the crystal surfaces. The AFM observations are mirrored by reduced crystal yield and crystal size in the presence of L-CDME and L-CME, collectively suggesting a new pathway to the prevention of L-cystine stones by rational design of crystal growth inhibitors.

  13. Reliability-Based Earthquake Design of Jacket-Type Offshore Platforms Considering Pile-Soil-Structure Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Asgarian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There are plenty of uncertainties in environmental condition of ocean and also in platform element capacities. Reliability-based method could consider these uncertainties. A reliability-based earthquake design method was used to determine the earthquake LRFD parameters for two conventional, steel, pile-supported (template-type offshore platforms located in the Persian Gulf. The pile-soil-structure interaction, the buckling and postbuckling behavior of the braces were considered. Two steel platforms were simulated accurately by the finite element program Opensees. Field data were assumed based on past studies. Sensitiveness of reliability-based method was studied. It was found that the geometry of jacket and different types of braces was important in the capacity and the behavior of offshore platforms. Finally the calculated LRFD elements resistance factors for these two platforms were compared with API recommended factors and it was observed that API recommended element resistance factors were more appropriate for SSL 3.

  14. [Exercise therapy in the treatment of idiopathic adolescent scoliosis: Is it useful?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porte, M; Patte, K; Dupeyron, A; Cottalorda, J

    2016-06-01

    Many practitioners, pediatricians, and general practitioners prescribe physical therapy when tracking scoliosis. However, has physical therapy alone proved its efficacy in the care of the scoliosis to slow down progression? Our purpose is to report the results of a literature review on the effectiveness of rehabilitation in idiopathic scoliosis. No current study presents sufficient scientific proof to validate the efficacy of isolated exercise therapy in scoliosis. Learned societies recognize, however, the efficacy of combining conservative therapy (brace+physiotherapy) in idiopathic scoliosis. Should we then still prescribe rehabilitation without brace treatment? Although physical therapy alone does not seem effective in treating scoliosis, it can limit potential painful phenomena and be beneficial for respiratory function. The physical therapist can also teach the teenager the classic principles of hygiene of the back. It may therefore be appropriate to prescribe physical therapy, but the principles and objectives must be explained to the patient and family in light of current evidence-based medicine. PMID:27117993

  15. A fully automated two-step synthesis of an {sup 18}F-labelled tyrosine kinase inhibitor for EGFR kinase activity imaging in tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobus, D.; Giesen, Y.; Ullrich, R.; Backes, H. [Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research with Klaus-Joachim-Zuelch Laboratories of the Max Planck Society and the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Neumaier, B. [Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research with Klaus-Joachim-Zuelch Laboratories of the Max Planck Society and the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany)], E-mail: bernd.neumaier@nf.mpg.de

    2009-11-15

    Radiolabelled epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitors potentially facilitate the assessment of EGFR overexpression in tumors. Since elaborate multi-step radiosyntheses are required for {sup 18}F-labelling of EGFR-specific anilinoquinazolines we report on the development of a two-step click labelling approach that was adapted to a fully automated synthesis module. 6-(4-N,N-Dimethylaminocrotonyl)amido-4-(3-chloro-4-fluoro)phenylamino-7-{l_brace}3- [4-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-2,3,4-triazol-1-yl]propoxy{r_brace}quinazoline ([{sup 18}F]6) was synthesized via Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethylazide ([{sup 18}F]4) and the alkyne modified anilinoquinazoline precursor 5. PET images of PC9 tumor xenograft using the novel biomarker showed promising results to visualize EGFR overexpression.

  16. Epitaxial layer-by-layer growth of Yb:YAG and YbAG PLD-films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guen, Teoman; Kuzminykh, Yury; Tellkamp, Friedjof; Petermann, Klaus; Huber, Guenter [University of Hamburg, Institute of Laser-Physics, Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-11-15

    In this contribution, we report on the 2-dimensional (2D) layer-by-layer growth of Yb(10%):Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} (YAG) and Yb{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} (YbAG) PLD-films on {l_brace}100{r_brace}-oriented YAG. The epitaxial growth was observed in situ by Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED) as intensity oscillations of the specularly reflected electron beam. The properties of the films were investigated ex situ by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and optical spectroscopy. The optical emission spectra of the films are similar to those of the corresponding crystalline bulk materials. (orig.)

  17. SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF STEEL MONORAIL BRIDGES UNDER TRAIN LOAD DURING STRONG EARTHQUAKES

    OpenAIRE

    C.W. KIM; Kawatani, M.; Kanbara, T; NISHIMURA, N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigated dynamic responses of steel monorail bridges incorporating train-bridge interaction under strong earthquakes. Two types of steel monorail bridges were considered in the study: a conventional type with steel track-girder; an advanced type with composite track-girder and simplified lateral bracing system. During strong earthquakes, monorail train was assumed standing on the track-girder of monorail bridges. Observations through the analytical study showed that considering...

  18. Liquid-liquid miscibility and volumetric properties of aqueous solutions of ionic liquids as a function of temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Silu [QUILL Research Center, School of Chemistry, Queen' s University of Belfast (United Kingdom); Jacquemin, Johan [QUILL Research Center, School of Chemistry, Queen' s University of Belfast (United Kingdom); Thermodynamique et Interactions Moleculaires, FRE 3099, Universite Blaise Pascal Clermont-Ferrand/CNRS, 24 avenue des Landais, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Husson, Pascale [Thermodynamique et Interactions Moleculaires, FRE 3099, Universite Blaise Pascal Clermont-Ferrand/CNRS, 24 avenue des Landais, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France)], E-mail: pascale.husson@univ-bpclermont.fr; Hardacre, Christopher [QUILL Research Center, School of Chemistry, Queen' s University of Belfast (United Kingdom); Costa Gomes, Margarida F. [Thermodynamique et Interactions Moleculaires, FRE 3099, Universite Blaise Pascal Clermont-Ferrand/CNRS, 24 avenue des Landais, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France)

    2009-11-15

    The volumetric properties of seven {l_brace}water + ionic liquid{r_brace} binary mixtures have been studied as a function of temperature from (293 to 343) K. The phase behaviour of the systems was first investigated using a nephelometric method and excess molar volumes were calculated from densities measured using an Anton Paar densimeter and fitted using a Redlich-Kister type equation. Two ionic liquids fully miscible with water (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C{sub 1}C{sub 4}Im][BF{sub 4}]) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate ([C{sub 1}C{sub 2}Im][EtSO{sub 4}])) and five ionic liquids only partially miscible with water (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C{sub 1}C{sub 2}Im][NTf{sub 2}]), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C{sub 1}C{sub 4}Im][NTf{sub 2}]), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C{sub 1}C{sub 4}Im][PF{sub 6}]), 1-butyl-3-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C{sub 1}C{sub 4}Pyrro][NTf{sub 2}]), and butyltrimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([N{sub 4111}][NTf{sub 2}])) were chosen. Small excess volumes (less than 0.5 cm{sup 3} . mol{sup -1} at 298 K) are obtained compared with the molar volumes of the pure components (less than 0.3% of the molar volume of the pure ionic liquid). For all the considered systems, except for {l_brace}[C{sub 1}C{sub 2}Im][EtSO{sub 4}] + water{r_brace}, positive excess molar volumes were calculated. Finally, an increase of the non-ideality character is observed for all the systems as temperature increases.

  19. Musculoskeletal modelling of muscle activation and applied external forces for the correction of scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Curtin, Maurice; Lowery, Madeleine M.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study uses biomechanical modelling and computational optimization to investigate muscle activation in combination with applied external forces as a treatment for scoliosis. Bracing, which incorporates applied external forces, is the most popular non surgical treatment for scoliosis. Non surgical treatments which make use of muscle activation include electrical stimulation, postural control, and therapeutic exercises. Electrical stimulation has been largely dismissed as a viabl...

  20. Study of small partial-wave contributions in the neighbourhood of dominating resonance states of the proton by linearly polarized photons; Untersuchung kleiner Partialwellenbeitraege in der Naehe dominierender Resonanzzustaende des Protons mit linear polarisierten Photonen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, D.

    2007-04-15

    The reaction p(e, e'p){pi}{sup 0} has been studied at Q{sup 2}=0.2 (GeV/c){sup 2} in the region of W=1232 MeV. From measurements left and right of (vector)q cross section asymmetries {rho}{sub LT} have been obtained in forward {rho}{sub LT}({theta}{sub {pi}{sup 0}}{sup cm}=20 )=(-11.68{+-}2.36{sub stat}{+-}2.36{sub sys}) and backward {rho}{sub LT}({theta}{sub {pi}}{sub {sup 0}}{sup cm}=160)=(12.18{+-}0.27{sub stat}{+-}0.82{sub sys}) {pi}{sup 0} kinematics, from which R{l_brace}S{sub 1+}{sup *}M{sub 1+}{r_brace}/ vertical stroke M{sub 1+} vertical stroke {sup 2} and R{l_brace}S{sub 0+}{sup *}M{sub 1+}{r_brace}/ vertical stroke M{sub 1+} vertical stroke {sup 2} could be determined. Using linear polarised tagged photon beams of energy up to E{sub {gamma}}{approx_equal}1.5 GeV the photon beam asymmetry {sigma} has been measured in the reaction p((vector){gamma}, {eta})p. Based on coherent bremsstrahlung off a diamond crystal a maximum polarisation of P{sub {gamma}}=49% has been achieved at E{sub {gamma}}=1305 MeV. The beam asymmetry has been extracted from the azimuthal modulation of the cross section using both decay modes of the {eta} into two photons and 3{pi}{sup 0}. Large asymmetries up to 80% are observed, in agreement with previous measurements where already available. There is also agreement with standard model calculations. However, the required partial waves to describe the measurements differ significantly. (orig.)