WorldWideScience

Sample records for braces

  1. Ingrown toenails (unguis incarnatus): Nail braces/bracing treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chiriac, Anca; Solovan, Caius; Brzezinski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Nail bracing is a safe, simple, and inexpensive treatment option that avoids surgery, requires no anesthetic, requires no recovery period, allows wearing the existing shoes, offers immediate relief from pain, and allows the practice of daily activities. Braces can be used for prolonged periods of times. If recurrence occurs, reapplication of bracing is usually required.

  2. Buckling restrained braces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan ÖZÇELİK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Buckling restrained braces (BRBs have high energy dissipation capacity and equal tension and compression axial load capacity. Therefore, the application of BRBs has gained popularity in seismic regions. The first studies on BRBs started in Japan in 1970 and since then more studies have been undertaken in other earthquake prone countries. Although the BRBs perform well in component and subassembly tests, they do not perform as well in frame tests because of the interaction between beam-column-gusset plate and BRB. In this study, the component and subassembly test of the BRBs and then BRB frame tests available in the literature are summarized.

  3. Bracing Zonohedra With Special Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Gyula

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of simpler preliminary design gives useful input for more complicated three-dimensional building frame structure. A zonohedron, as a preliminary structure of design, is a convex polyhedron for which each face possesses central symmetry. We considered zonohedron as a special framework with the special assumption that the polygonal faces can be deformed in such a way that faces remain planar and centrally symmetric, moreover the length of all edges remains unchanged. Introducing some diagonal braces we got a new mechanism. This paper deals with the flexibility of this kind of mechanisms, and investigates the rigidity of the braced framework. The flexibility of the framework can be characterized by some vectors, which represent equivalence classes of the edges. A necessary and sufficient condition for the rigidity of the braced rhombic face zonohedra is posed. A real mechanical construction, based on two simple elements, provides a CAD prototype of these new mechanisms.

  4. Brace technology thematic series: the progressive action short brace (PASB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulisa Angelo G

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Progressive Action Short Brace (PASB is a custom-made thoraco-lumbar-sacral orthosis (TLSO, devised in 1976 by Dr. Lorenzo Aulisa (Institute of Orthopedics at the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy. The PASB was designed to overcome the limits imposed by the trunk anatomy. Indeed, the particular geometry of the brace is able to generate internal forces that modify the elastic reaction of the spine. The PASB is indicated for the conservative treatment of lumbar and thoraco-lumbar scoliosis. The aim of this article is to explain the biomechanic principles of the PASB and the rationale underlying its design. Recently published studies reporting the results of PASB-based treatment of adolescent scoliotic patients are also discussed. Description and principles On the coronal plane, the upper margin of the PASB, at the side of the curve concavity, prevents the homolateral bending of the scoliotic curve. The opposite upper margin ends just beneath the apical vertebra. The principle underlying such configuration is that the deflection of the inferior tract of a curved elastic structure, fixed at the bottom end, causes straightening of its upper tract. Therefore, whenever the patient bends towards the convexity of the scoliotic curve, the spine is deflected. On the sagittal plane, the inferior margins of the PASB reach the pelvitrochanteric region, in order to stabilize the brace on the pelvis. The transverse section of the brace above the pelvic grip consists of asymmetrical ellipses. This allows the spine to rotate towards the concave side only, leading to the continuous generation of derotating moments. On the sagittal plane, the brace is contoured so as to reduce the lumbar lordosis. The PASB, by allowing only those movements counteracting the progression of the curve, is able to produce corrective forces that are not dissipated. Therefore, the brace is based on the principle that a constrained spine dynamics

  5. Dynamic extensor brace for lateral epicondylitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faes, M.; Akker, B. van den; Lint, J.A. de; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2006-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is a common, often disabling ailment. Based on the failure of current therapies, a new dynamic extensor brace has been developed. In this study, the effects of application of this brace for 3 months on the most important and disabling symptoms of patients with la

  6. Knee Braces to Prevent Injuries in Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Five physicians discuss the use of knee braces to prevent injuries in football players. Questions are raised regarding the strength and design of the braces, whether they prestress the knee in some cases, and whether they actually reduce injuries. More clinical and biomechanical research is called for. (MT)

  7. Brace technology thematic series: the dynamic derotation brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardakos Nikolaos V

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dynamic derotation brace (DDB was designed in Greece in 1982, as a modification of the Boston brace. It is a custom-made, underarm spinal orthosis featuring aluminium blades set to produce derotating and anti-rotating effects on the thorax and trunk of patients with scoliosis. It is indicated for the non-operative correction of most curves, barring the very high thoracic ones, (when the apex vertebra is T5 or above. The purpose of this article is to familiarize physicians with the DDB, analyze the rationale behind its design, and present the published results of its application. Description & Principles The key feature of the DDB is the addition of the aluminium-made derotating blades posteriorly. These function as a force couple, which is added to the side forces exerted by the brace itself. Corrective forces are also directed through pads. One or more of previously proposed pathomechanical models of scoliosis may underline the corrective function of the DDB: it may act directly on the apical intervertebral disc, effecting correction through the Heuter-Volkman principle; the blades may produce an anti-rotatory element against the deforming "spiral composite muscle trunk rotator"; or it may alter the neuro-motor response by constantly providing new somatosensory input to the patient. Results Based on measurements of the Cobb and Perdriolle angles, up to 82% of patients remained stable or improved with the use of the DDB. Results have varied, though, depending on the type/location of the deformity. The overall results showed that 35% of the curves improved, 46% remained stable and 18% became worse, as assessed by measuring the Cobb angle. The DDB has also been shown to improve cosmesis (except for right thoracic curves and leave several aspects of patient quality of life unaffected during use. Conclusion Conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis using the DDB has shown favorable results. Thoracic curves appear more

  8. On immediate functional bracing of Colles' fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledingham, W M; Wytch, R; Goring, C C; Mathieson, A B; Wardlaw, D

    1991-05-01

    A prospective randomized trial was carried out in 60 consecutive patients with Colles' fractures requiring manipulation. They were treated by either a standard Colles' plaster (control group) or in a functional plaster brace applied immediately after reduction of the fracture. The brace extended from the proximal radius and ulna to the level of the radial styloid and allowed a full range of movement at the radiocarpal joint. Both groups comprised 30 patients and were matched for age, sex and dominance of hand. There was no significant difference in initial severity of fracture or the quality of reduction. Radiological results on cast removal (35-42 days) were significantly better in the brace group compared with those treated with a below-elbow cast (P less than 0.05). Wrist function was also significantly better in the brace treated group at 12 weeks after fracture (P less than 0.05). This brace has a number of advantages over standard plaster treatment, but requires a degree of skill and experience in its application. A prefabricated brace has now been developed with a similar 'built in' three-point loading which will be easier for inexperienced staff to apply.

  9. NTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION: WITH BRACE VS WITHOUT BRACE AFTER OPERATION A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH.A NAZEM

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL ruputer specially in athletics induces knee instability results in pateint disability. Surgical treatment consist of ACL reconstruction and repair. In this study the efficacy of surgical management with brace after operation was compaired to surgical management without brace.
    Methods. One hundred ACL ruptured pateints had reconstructed with BPB graft in two randomzed gruops (50 with brace afetr operation and 50 without brace. Study durated 4 year (1997-2000 in alzahra hospital (affiliated to IUMSHS. Patients had followed for 12 months after operation.
    Results. Knee range of motion after 1, 3, 6, 12 months follow up were the same in both groups (P > 0.05. Degree and duration of returning to sport, complications, need to reoperation, stair climbing, specific ACL tests, patelofemoral pain, pain in squatting, running and cutting and quadriceps atrophy, after 12 months follow up were the same in both groups (P > 0.05. Patients without brace returned to their job more sooner than another group (P < 0.05.
    Discussion. There are no significant differnce in cilinical results in tow groups and ACL reconstruction with BPB dose not require to routine bracing. Faster return to job in non bracing group is due to removal of liminting effect of brace wearing. Lesser rate of pain in patients that return to sport due to quadriceps strengthening.

  10. Brace treatment for patients with Scheuermann's disease - a review of the literature and first experiences with a new brace design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turnbull Deborah

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contemporary literature few have written in detail on the in-brace correction effects of braces used for the treatment of hyperkyphosis. Bradford et al. found their attempts effective, treating Scheuermann's kyphosis with Milwaukee braces, but their report did not specifically focus on in-brace corrections. White and Panjabi's research attempted to correct a curvature of > 50° with the help of distraction forces, but consequently led to a reduction in patient comfort in the application of the Milwaukee brace. In Germany they avoid this by utitlising braces to treat hyperkyphosis that use transverse correction forces instead of distraction forces. Further efforts to reduce brace material have resulted in a special bracing design called kyphologic™ brace. The aim of this review is to present appropriate research to collect and evaluate possible in-brace corrections which have been achieved with brace treatment for hyperkyphosis. This paper introduces new methods of bracing and compares the results of these with other successful bracing concepts. Materials and methods 56 adolescents with the diagnosis of thoracic Scheuermann's hyperkyphosis or a thoracic idiopathic hyperkyphosis (22 girls and 34 boys with an average age of 14 years (12-17 yrs. were treated with the kyphologic™ brace between May 2007 and December 2008. The average Stagnara angle was 55,6° (43-80. In-brace correction was recorded and compared to the initial angle using the t-test. Results The average Stagnara angle in the brace was 39°. The average in-brace correction was 16.5° (1-40°. The verage percentage of in-brace correction compared to the initial value was 36%. The differences were significant in the t-test (t = 5.31, p Discussion If we assume that outcome of brace treatment positively correlates with in-brace correction, the treatment should be initiated before the curvature angle exceeds 50 - 55° in a growing adolescent. In scoliosis bracing

  11. Shape- and size-controlled synthesis of uniform anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocuboids enclosed by active {l_brace}100{r_brace} and {l_brace}001{r_brace} facets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiaowei; Jin, Wenzui; Cai, Jinguang; Ye, Jianfeng; Li, Zhenhu; Ma, Yurong; Xie, Jinglin; Qi, Limin [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species, College of Chemistry, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-09-23

    Uniform anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocuboids enclosed by active {l_brace}100{r_brace} and {l_brace}001{r_brace} facets over a wide size range (60-830 nm in length) with controllable aspect ratios were solvothermally synthesized through hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) using acetic acid (HAc) as the solvent and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF{sub 4}]) as the capping agent. The size and aspect ratio of the anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocuboids can be readily adjusted by changing the composition parameters including the contents of [bmim][BF{sub 4}], water, and HAc in the quaternary solution system. It was revealed that [bmim][BF{sub 4}] played an important role in stabilizing both the {l_brace}100{r_brace} and {l_brace}001{r_brace} facets of the anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocuboids. On the one hand, [bmim][BF{sub 4}] acted as a fluoride source to release F{sup -} ions for stabilizing the {l_brace}001{r_brace} facets; on the other hand, the [bmim]{sup +} ions acted as effective capping ions to preferentially stabilize the {l_brace}100{r_brace} facets. The obtained near-monodisperse anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocuboids exhibited an interesting self-assembly behavior during deposition. These single-crystalline anatase nanocuboids showed extremely high crystalline phase stability, retaining the pure phase of anatase as well as the morphology even after being calcined at 900 C. Moreover, the anatase nanocuboids exhibited considerably enhanced photocatalytic activity owing the wholly exposed active {l_brace}100{r_brace} and {l_brace}001{r_brace} facets. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Providence nighttime bracing, in treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simony, A.; Beuschau, Inge; Quisth, Lena;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Since 2008 the non-surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in the southern part of Denmark, went from full-time bracing with Boston brace, to Providence night-time bracing. Methods: Since 2008, skeletally immature patients diagnosed with AIS and a primary curve......, but it seems like patients treated with Providence braces are more likely to experience back pain than healthy adolescents and surgically treated scoliosis patients....

  13. 49 CFR 195.208 - Welding of supports and braces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding of supports and braces. 195.208 Section 195.208 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.208 Welding of supports and braces. Supports or braces...

  14. Valgus bracing in patients with medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee. A gait analysis study of a new brace.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaasbeek, R.D.A.; Groen, B.E.; Hampsink, B.; Heerwaarden, R.J. van; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2007-01-01

    A new valgus brace was evaluated in 15 patients with medial osteoarthritis of the knee and a varus leg axis. Significant improvement of pain and function were found after 6 weeks of brace treatment. Gait analysis showed that the brace had a tendency of lowering the peak varus moment about the knee.

  15. Application of FEM Analysis to Braced Excavation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mingfei; Atsushi Nakamura; CAI Fei; Keizo Ugai

    2008-01-01

    It is becoming possible to do detailed numerical analyses for the various mechanical behavior of braced excavation by researching and developing the numerical analysis technique such as the finite ele-ment method (FEM).However,the mechanical behavior of braced excavation has not been clanfied fully both in theory and in expedence.Therefore,improving the prediction accuracy during the prior design is very important for making the observational method of braced excavation more effective.In this paper,FEM analyses were performed for a model of braced excavation by using Geotechnical Finite Element Elasto-plastic Analysis Software,GeoFEAS (2D).As the constitutive law of ground,MC-DP model, and Dun-can-Chang model were applied.The results were compared and discussed with that of a site measurement,and the effects of the constitutive law of ground on the analyzed result were verified.For the difference be-tween the results,the reason was investigated by the analyses adjusting the elastic modulus of ground,and the appropriate application of the constitutive law was researched.

  16. Cu-capped surface alloys of Pt/Cu left brace 100 right brace

    CERN Document Server

    Alshamaileh, E; Wander, A

    2003-01-01

    The room-temperature deposition of 0.5 monolayer (ML) Pt on Cu left brace 100 right brace followed by annealing to 525 K results in a sharp c(2 x 2) low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) pattern. The structure of this surface alloy is investigated by means of symmetrized automated tensor low-energy electron diffraction (SATLEED) analysis and ab initio plane wave density functional calculations. The results are then compared with those for the similar system 0.5 ML Pd/Cu left brace 100 right brace. SATLEED results for the Pt/Cu left brace 100 right brace show that it consists of an ordered c(2 x 2) Cu-Pt second layer alloy capped with a pure Cu first layer. The first and second interlayer spacings are found to be expanded by +5.1 +- 1.7 and +3.5 +- 1.7% respectively (relative to the bulk Cu interlayer spacing of 1.807 A) due to the insertion of the 8% larger Pt atoms into the second layer. The ordered mixed layer is found to be rippled by 0.08 +- 0.06 A with Pt atoms rippled outwards towards the solid-vacuum ...

  17. Lateral Load Analysis of a Building with & Without Knee Bracing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin S. Kamble

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In last decades steel structures has played an important role in construction industry. Providing strength, stability and ductility are major purposes of seismic design. It is necessary to design a structure to perform well under seismic loads. Steel braced frame is one of the structural systems used to resist earthquake loads in structures. Steel bracing is economical, easy to erect, occupies less space and has flexibility to design for meeting the required strength and stiffness. Bracing can be used as retrofit as well. There are various types of steel bracings such as Diagonal, X, K, V, inverted V type or chevron and global type concentric bracings. In the present study, it was shown that modelling of the G+4 steel bare frame with various bracings (X, V, inverted V, and Knee bracing by computer software SAP2000 and pushover analysis results are obtained. Comparison between the seismic parameters such as base shear, roof displacement, time period, storey drift, performance point for steel bare frame with different bracing patterns are studied. It is found that the X type of steel bracings significantly contributes to the structural stiffness and reduces the maximum interstate drift of steel building than other bracing systems

  18. Initial experience with the providence nighttime bracing in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quisth, Lena; Beuschau, Inge; Simony, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since 2008 the primary non-surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in the southern part of Denmark, went from full-time bracing with Boston brace, to Providence nighttime bracing. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of nighttime bracing, with the Providence brace, i...

  19. Vibration of x-braced portal frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. H.; Wang, P. Y.; Lin, Y. W.

    1987-09-01

    Both free and forced vibrations of elastic X-braced portal frames are investigated. Solutions of the Euler-Bernoulli equation for the transverse vibration coupled with the axial vibration are used. The first five natural frequencies, with the angle of inclination, α, of the bracing bars ranging from 15° to 75°, with different slenderness ratios, R, of the columns, and different stiffness of the floor beam and crossing bars, are presented along with two sets of the natural modes of the frames with α = 45°. For the forced vibration, the dynamic responses of the frames with a concentrated horizontal time dependent force acting at a top joint are studied. The responses of the frames with α = 45° are analyzed in detail.

  20. The Effectiveness of Prophylactic Knee Bracing in American Football

    OpenAIRE

    Salata, Michael J.; Gibbs, Aimee E.; Sekiya, Jon K.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Knee injuries, particularly of the medial collateral ligament (MCL), are the most common injury sustained in American football. In 1979, Anderson et al described a knee brace that could protect uninjured knees from MCL injuries resulting from lateral impact. Since then, a number of light and free-moving bracing devices have been developed. However, the efficacy of prophylactic knee bracing remains in question. Objective: A systematic review of the efficacy of prophylactic knee bracin...

  1. Elastoplastic analysis of knee bracing frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zhen; LI Qing-song; CHEN Long-zhu

    2005-01-01

    The knee bracing steel frame (KBF) is a new kind of energy dissipating frame, which combines excellent ductility and lateral stiffness. As the structural fuse of the frame, the knee element will yield first during a severe earthquake so that no damage occurs to the major structural members and the rehabilitation is easy and economical. To help fully understand the relations between its seismic performance and the structural parameters, systematic elastoplastic analysis of the KBF structure with finite element method was conducted in this work. Finally, general design recommendations were made according to the results of the analysis.

  2. Behavior of concentrically loaded CFT braces connections

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    Maha M. Hassan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Concrete filled tubes (CFTs composite columns have many economical and esthetic advantages, but the behavior of their connections is complicated. Through this study, it is aimed to investigate the performance and behavior of different connection configurations between concrete filled steel tube columns and bracing diagonals through an experimental program. The study included 12 connection subassemblies consisting of a fixed length steel tube and gusset plate connected to the tube end with different details tested under half cyclic loading. A notable effect was observed on the behavior of the connections due to its detailing changes with respect to capacity, failure mode, ductility, and stress distribution.

  3. Patients' Preferences for Scoliosis Brace Treatment A Discrete Choice Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Bunge; E.W. de Bekker-Grob; F.C. van Biezen; M.L. Essink-Bot; H.J. de Koning

    2010-01-01

    Study Design. Discrete choice experiment. Objective. To investigate the reduction in the risk of surgery that scoliosis patients would require in order to consider brace treatment as acceptable, and to elicit the trade-offs individuals make between characteristics of brace treatment. Summary of Back

  4. Lateral Knee Braces in Football: Do They Prevent Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulos, Lonnie E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The results of three recently presented clinical studies and a biomechanical study of the use of lateral knee braces to prevent knee injuries are reviewed. The results raise serious doubts about the efficacy of the preventive knee braces which are currently available. (Author/MT)

  5. Early weaning might reduce the psychological strain of Boston bracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Ø; Andersen, Gert Rahbek; Thomsen, Karsten;

    2002-01-01

    From 1983 to 1990 a total of 136 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were treated with the Boston brace. With the aim of examining the social and psychological impact of the brace treatment all patients received a questionnaire at an average of 3.5 years after termination of the treatment...

  6. Gait Using Pneumatic Brace for End-Stage Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Cherian, Jeffrey Jai; Starr, Roland; Chughtai, Morad; Mont, Michael A; Harwin, Steven F; Bhave, Anil

    2016-04-01

    More than 20 million individuals in the United States are affected by knee osteoarthritis (OA), which can lead to altered biomechanics and excessive joint loading. The use of an unloader pneumatic brace with extension assist has been proposed as a nonoperative treatment modality that may improve gait mechanics and correct knee malalignment. We assessed the following parameters in patients who have knee OA treated with and without a brace: (1) changes in temporospatial parameters in gait; (2) knee range of motion, knee extension at heel strike, and foot placement; (3) knee joint moments and impulse; and (4) changes in dynamic stiffness and rate of change of knee flexion during midstance to terminal stance. This 2:1 prospective, randomized, single-blinded trial evaluated 36 patients (24 brace and 12 matching). OA knee patients were randomized to receive either a pneumatic unloader brace or a standard nonoperative treatment regimen as the matching cohort for a 3-month period. They underwent evaluation of gait parameters using a three-dimensional gait analysis system at their initial appointment and at 3 months follow-up. All the testing, pre- and postbracing were performed without wearing the brace to examine for retained effects. Treatment with the brace led to significant improvements versus standard treatment in various gait parameters. Patients in the brace group had improvements in walking speed, knee extension at heel strike, total range of motion, knee joint forces, and rate of knee flexion from midstance to terminal stance when compared with the matching cohort. Knee OA patients who used a pneumatic unloader brace for 3 months for at least 3 hours per day had significant improvements various gait parameters when compared with a standard nonoperative therapy cohort. Braced patients demonstrated gait-modifying affects when not wearing the brace. These results are encouraging and suggest that this device represents a promising treatment modality for knee OA that

  7. Control of a flexible bracing manipulator: Integration of current research work to realize the bracing manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dong-Soo

    1991-01-01

    All research results about flexible manipulator control were integrated to show a control scenario of a bracing manipulator. First, dynamic analysis of a flexible manipulator was done for modeling. Second, from the dynamic model, the inverse dynamic equation was derived, and the time domain inverse dynamic method was proposed for the calculation of the feedforward torque and the desired flexible coordinate trajectories. Third, a tracking controller was designed by combining the inverse dynamic feedforward control with the joint feedback control. The control scheme was applied to the tip position control of a single link flexible manipulator for zero and non-zero initial condition cases. Finally, the contact control scheme was added to the position tracking control. A control scenario of a bracing manipulator is provided and evaluated through simulation and experiment on a single link flexible manipulator.

  8. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria of {l_brace}heptane + xylene + N-formylmorpholine{r_brace} ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Dongchu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, ChangSha 410083 (China)], E-mail: dcchen@hnust.edu.cn; Ye Hongqi; Hao Wu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, ChangSha 410083 (China)

    2007-12-15

    (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for ternary system {l_brace}heptane (1) + m-xylene (2) + N-formylmorpholine (3){r_brace} have been determined experimentally at temperatures ranging from 298.15 K to 353.15 K. Complete phase diagrams were obtained by determining solubility and tie-line data. Tie-line compositions were correlated by Othmer-Tobias and Bachman methods. The universal quasichemical activity coefficient (UNIQUAC) and The non-random two liquids equation (NRTL) were used to correlate the phase equilibrium in the system using the interaction parameters determined from experimental data. It is found that UNIQUAC and NRTL used for LLE could provide a good correlation. Distribution coefficients, separation factors, and selectivity were evaluated for the immiscibility region.

  9. The Chêneau concept of bracing--biomechanical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, Manuel; Weiss, Hans-Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Current concept of bracing must take in consideration both the three-dimensional (3D) nature of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) and its pathomechanism of progression. A modern brace should be able to correct in 3D in order to break the so called 'vicious cycle' model. Generally speaking, it is necessary to create detorsional forces to derotate in the transversal plane, to correct the lateral deviation in the frontal plane and to normalize the sagittal profile of the spine. Breathing mechanics can be used to fight against the thoracic structural flat back. The original Chêneau brace was introduced at the end of the 70's and its principles were based more in anatomical observations rather than in biomechanics. A further evolution , enunciating new principles, has allowed a higher standard, improving in brace corrections and trunk modelling. This biomechanical principles have been developed under the name of Rigo-Chêneau-System (RSC) and used later in latest brace models like the Chêneau light with reduced material, and similar in brace corrections. Experience is also important to improve the end results. The blueprints to built the brace according to the anatomorradiological pattern are very helpful.

  10. Biomechanical Analysis of the Effects of Bilateral Hinged Knee Bracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hangil; Ha, Dokyeong; Kang, Yeoun-Seung; Park, Hyung-Soon

    2016-01-01

    This research analyzed the effect of bilateral hinged knee braces on a healthy knee from a biomechanical frame in vivo. This was accomplished by fitting a knee brace with two customized wireless force/torque (F/T) sensors that could readily record force and torque during live motion, while the kinetics at the knee were computed using the inverse dynamics of the motion capture and force plate data. Four tasks to test the brace’s effects were drop vertical jumping, pivoting, stop vertical jumping, and cutting. The results showed that the hinges in the knee brace can absorb up to 18% of the force and 2.7% of the torque at the knee during various athletic motions. Thus, the hinges demonstrated minimal effect in reducing the mechanical load on the knee. There were limitations concerning the consistency of the motions performed by the subjects during the trials and the influence of the other portions of the brace to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the brace as a whole. Future works may incorporate a fatigue protocol and injured subjects to better determine the effects of the brace. There is still a need for more research on the biomechanical influence of knee braces to develop safer and more effective products. PMID:27379233

  11. Corrective Bracing for Severe Idiopathic Scoliosis in Adolescence: Influence of Brace on Trunk Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Kinel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the work was to study whether wearing a corrective brace by adolescent girls with severe idiopathic scoliosis can influence external shape of the trunk. Methods. Comparison of clinical deformity of two groups of girls matched for age and Cobb angle: group (1 of 23 girls, aged 14.9±1.3 years, Cobb angle 55.0°±6.8°, who refused surgical treatment and have been wearing Chêneau brace for more than 6 months, compared with group (2 of 22 girls, aged 14.1±1.8 years, Cobb angle 59.7°±14.6° never treated with corrective bracing. Clinical deformity was assessed with the Bunnell scoliometer (angle of trunk rotation ATR and surface topography (posterior trunk symmetry index POTSI and Hump Sum HS. Results. The ATR in the primary curvature was 11.9°±3.4° (5°–18° in group 1 versus 15.1°±5.6° (6°–25° in group 2 (P=0.027. The HS was 16.8°±3.8 versus 19.2°±4.6, respectively, P=0.07. The POTSI value did not differ between groups. Conclusion. Girls with Cobb angle above 45 degrees, who have been subjected to brace treatment, revealed smaller clinical deformity of their back comparing to nontreated girls having similar radiological curvatures.

  12. A magnetorheological fluid based orthopedic active knee brace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zite, Jamaal L.; Ahmadkhanlou, Farzad; Neelakantan, Vijay A.; Washington, Gregory N.

    2006-03-01

    The disadvantage of current knee braces ranges from high cost for customization to a loss in physical mobility and limited rehabilitative value. One approach to solving this problem is to use a Magnetorheological (MR) device to make the knee brace have a controllable resistance. Our design solution is to replace the manufacturer's joint with an rotary MR fluid based shear damper. The device is designed based on a maximum yield stress, a corresponding magnetic field, a torque and the MR fluid viscosity. The analytical and experimental results show the advantages and the feasibility of using the proposed MR based controllable knee braces.

  13. Clinician Recommendations and Perceptions of Factors Associated With Ankle Brace Use

    OpenAIRE

    Denton, Jason M.; Waldhelm, Andrew; Hacke, Jonathon D.; Gross, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little information is available regarding the ankle braces orthopaedic sports medicine clinicians recommend or clinicians’ concerns that may influence their decisions to recommend use of an ankle brace. Hypotheses: (1) Clinicians most frequently recommend lace-up braces with straps. (2) Clinicians who are concerned about potential adverse side effects from ankle brace use are less likely to recommend an ankle brace to prevent ankle sprain injuries. Study Design: Descriptive survey...

  14. Three dimensional analysis of brace biomechanical efficacy for patients with AIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebel, David E; Al-Aubaidi, Zaid; Shin, Eyun-Jung;

    2013-01-01

    Corrective three dimensional (3D) effect of different braces is debatable. We evaluated differences in in-brace radiographic correction comparing a custom thoracic-lumbo-sacral-orthosis (TLSO) (T) brace to a Chêneau type TLSO (C) brace using 3D EOS reconstruction technology. Our primary research ...... question was the 3D effect of brace on the spine and in particularly the apical vertebra rotation (AVR)....

  15. A magnetorheological fluid-based controllable active knee brace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadkhanlou, Farzad; Zite, Jamaal L.; Washington, Gregory N.

    2007-04-01

    High customization costs and reduction of natural mobility put current rehabilitative knee braces at a disadvantage. A resolution to this problem is to integrate a Magnetorheological (MR) fluid-based joint into the system. A MR joint will allow patients to apply and control a resistive torque to knee flexion and extension. The resistance torque can also be continuously adjusted as a function of extension angle and patient strength (or as a function of time), which is currently impossible with state of the art rehabilitative knee braces. A novel MR fluid-based controllable knee brace is designed and prototyped in this research. The device exhibits large resistive torque in the on-state and low resistance in the offstate. The controllable variable stiffness, compactness, and portability of the system make it a proper alternative to current rehabilitative knee braces.

  16. Inelastic behavior of eccentric braces in steel structure

    OpenAIRE

    Nourbakhs, Seyed Mehrdad

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The performance of eccentric braces is to some extent considered as a new subject amongst Civil Engineers. In general, braces are the members that resist against lateral forces in a steel structure while the structures are under seismic excitation. Although the height of a structure and the structural system are the two parameters which can affect the inelastic behavior and response of the structure but these parameters have not been taken into consideration in the current design co...

  17. Formation of a near {l_brace}001{r_brace}<110> recrystallization texture in electrical steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, B. de; Wieting, J. [Inst. fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstoffforschung Dresden (Germany)

    1997-09-15

    By means of a continuous production process with two successive cold rolling steps it is possible to get electrical steel sheets with a recrystallization texture after the final annealing treatment exhibiting a strong maximum near the {l_brace}001{r_brace}<110> orientation. The production costs of such steel sheets are comparable to those of non-oriented electrical steels. For the formation of this texture, the recrystallization during the annealing between and after the cold rolling steps is of major importance because during the first annealing an orientation accumulation in the recrystallization texture arises near {l_brace}001{r_brace} <110> which becomes predominant during the final annealing while other components disappear. For this reason this work is dealing with the texture formation during the last production steps starting with the first cold rolling reduction.

  18. The effects of functional knee braces on speed in collegiate basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, D L

    1995-12-01

    Knee braces are worn by many athletes following injury. The purpose of this study was to determine whether two functional knee braces (noncustom design) significantly affected straight line and successive turning trial running times in noninjured collegiate basketball players. Twenty-five coed basketball players completed 2 days of running trials. Subjects ran three full lengths of a basketball court and 10 lengths between the baseline and the foul line first without wearing a brace, then wearing either a DonJoy GoldPoint brace or an Omni OS-5 brace, and finally wearing the other brace. The results indicated no significant difference (p basketball players. PMID:8580953

  19. Mechanical compression release device in steel bracing system for retrofitting RC frames

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Ghaffarzadeh; M.R. Maheri

    2006-01-01

    The development of an innovative structural system with satisfactory seismic performance of braced systems is an important and challenging area of interest in structural engineering. In this paper, a device that can release the compressive force in the bracing members is developed, and its performance is evaluated. For comparison, four steel braced RC frames were constructed and tested under reverse cyclic loads. Two of them had different amounts of bracing and the other two had the same amount of bracing but incorporated different type of device, called compression release device, which is developed and described in this paper. It can be concluded from the test results that the newly developed device can effectively be used in steel braced systems to prevent buckling failure of the bracing members. Therefore, the device enhances the ductility of brace-framed systems by allowing an adequate capacity for energy dissipation.

  20. Anisotropy and magnetostriction as corrections for the Heisenberg model at the example of the molecule {l_brace}Ni{sub 4}Mo{sub 12}{r_brace}; Anisotropie und Magnetostriktion als Korrekturen zum Heisenberg-Modell am Beispiel des Molekuels {l_brace}Ni{sub 4}Mo{sub 12}{r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueger, Mirko

    2008-07-15

    In the first part of this thesis the different effects of the molecular magnetism were extensively considered and the possibility of their occurence in {l_brace}Ni{sub 4}Mo{sub 12}{r_brace} checked. In the second part of this thesis different models for the description of experimental results were presented. thereby the results of ESR, SQUIO, and high-field pulse measurements on {l_brace}Ni{sub 4}Mo{sub 12}{r_brace} are described.

  1. The Weight Efficiency of Steel Framed Buildings with Various Wind Bracing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Abbassi, Sanaz Khoddam

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This research is about the efficiency of using different types of wind bracing and with different steel profiles for bracing members for multi-storey steel frames. ETABS software was used to obtain the design of frames and bracing systems with the least weight and apropriate steel section selection for beams, columns and bracing members from the standard set of steel sections. The design loads are specified in BS 5950 (2000). The serviceability limit state included in the design...

  2. Atomic structures of symmetrical and asymmetrical facets in a near {sigma} = 9{l_brace}2 2 1{r_brace} tilt grain boundary in copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardouin Duparc, Olivier [LSI, CEA-X-CNRS, UMR 7642, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)]. E-mail: olivier.hardouinduparc@polytechnique.edu; Couzinie, Jean-Philippe [CECM, CNRS, UPR 2801, 15 rue Georges Urbain, 94407 Vitry Sur Seine (France); Thibault-Penisson, Jany [TECSEN, CNRS, UMR 6122, Universite Paul Cezanne Aix-Marseille III, 13397 Marseille Cedex (France); Lartigue-Korinek, Sylvie [CECM, CNRS, UPR 2801, 15 rue Georges Urbain, 94407 Vitry Sur Seine (France); Decamps, Brigitte [LCMTR, CNRS, UPR 209, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Priester, Louisette [CECM, CNRS, UPR 2801, 15 rue Georges Urbain, 94407 Vitry Sur Seine (France)

    2007-03-15

    Atomic structures in a {sigma} = 9{l_brace}2 2 1{r_brace} tilt grain boundary (GB) grown by Bridgman solidification of a tricrystal are determined through high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and numerical simulation. Atomic models are simulated via molecular dynamics annealing using an n-body potential fitted on copper properties including its stacking fault energy. Symmetrical and asymmetrical facets are thus identified. Mainly asymmetrical facets are observed, namely {sigma} = 9{l_brace}11, 11, 1{r_brace}||{l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} and also small parts of incommensurate {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}||{l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}. The symmetrical facets are described by a quasi-mirror plane atomic structure. A specific GB structural unit is recognized as a Lomer unit. Its GB Burgers vector depends on the GB structure itself. Further analyses of these models and of accommodating dislocations are successfully carried out at the atomic level within the framework of the continuous structural unit approach.

  3. [Use of pneumatic braces in the rehabilitation of motor handicaps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideau, Y; Brault, J F; Caillaud, J

    1975-01-01

    The authors describe the advantages of pneumatic orthesis which are: On a mechanical standpoint the comfort related to the lightness and elasticity of the bracing allowing better walking, specialty in paraplegies from thoracic level. The rigidity of the orthesis can be changed by modifying the air-pressure and this type of bracing can be used in various diseases such as cerebral palsy or myopathies. On a social standpoint this type of orthesis can be obtained more rapidly than conventional ones. It allows a shorter hospitalization and, therefore, a better rehabilitation.

  4. Can Bracing Affect Altered Gait Patterns in Femoroacetabular Impingement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Marc R.; Rylander, Jonathan; Shu, Beatrice; Andriacchi, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Altered gait patterns have been identified in patients with Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), a 2nd order reversal in mid stance, that has been shown to be corrected with arthroscopic FAI surgery. Currently, most feel there is no adequate conservative treatment for this malady. The goal of this study is to determine if the gait abnormalities seen with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) can be modified with bracing. Methods: Eight individuals (4 Male, 34.5 ± 12.8 y.o., 24.0±2.3 BMI) who were diagnosed with FAI after reporting to clinic with groin pain were enrolled in this study. The study was approved by the University Internal Review Board before participants were enrolled. History, clinical exam, and imaging including an AP pelvis and cross table lateral radiograph of the affected hip and MR-arthrogram of the affected hip were utilized to make the diagnosis. Participants who enrolled had primarily unilateral hip symptoms, had positive impingement and labral stress tests on the affected side and were free of other lower extremity, back, and spine disorders. Three dimensional lower limb kinematics were collected using a camera and forceplate system with the subjects wearing reflective markers on anatomical landmarks. Participants were tested prior to surgery. Hip kinematics were collected for the symptomatic limb while the patients walked at a self selected normal walking speed, slowly jogged, and ascended a two stair setup. Three trials for each activity were completed with and without wearing a brace that was designed to externally rotate the femur in the treatment of patellofemoral disorders for a total of 6 trials per activity. Peak hip flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal rotation, and external rotation were calculated over the stance phase for each trial. Averages were calculated over the 3 trials for each activity both with and without the brace. Intra-subject differences were compared between the braced and unbraced trials

  5. Brace technology thematic series - The Sforzesco and Sibilla braces, and the SPoRT (Symmetric, Patient oriented, Rigid, Three-dimensional, active concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchini Gianfranco

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bracing is an effective strategy for scoliosis treatment, but there is no consensus on the best type of brace, nor on the way in which it should act on the spine to achieve good correction. The aim of this paper is to present the family of SPoRT (Symmetric, Patient-oriented, Rigid, Three-dimensional, active braces: Sforzesco (the first introduced, Sibilla and Lapadula. Methods The Sforzesco brace was developed following specific principles of correction. Due to its overall symmetry, the brace provides space over pathological depressions and pushes over elevations. Correction is reached through construction of the envelope, pushes, escapes, stops, and drivers. The real novelty is the drivers, introduced for the first time with the Sforzesco brace; they allow to achieve the main action of the brace: a three-dimensional elongation pushing the spine in a down-up direction. Brace prescription is made plane by plane: frontal (on the "slopes", another novelty of this concept, i.e. the laterally flexed sections of the spine, horizontal, and sagittal. The brace is built modelling the trunk shape obtained either by a plaster cast mould or by CAD-CAM construction. Brace checking is essential, since SPoRT braces are adjustable and customisable according to each individual curve pattern. Treatment time and duration is individually tailored (18-23 hours per day until Risser 3, then gradual reduction. SEAS (Scientific Exercises Approach to Scoliosis exercises are a key factor to achieve success. Results The Sforzesco brace has shown to be more effective than the Lyon brace (matched case/control, equally effective as the Risser plaster cast (prospective cohort with retrospective controls, more effective than the Risser cast + Lyon brace in treating curves over 45 degrees Cobb (prospective cohort, and is able to improve aesthetic appearance (prospective cohort. Conclusions The SPoRT concept of bracing (three-dimensional elongation pushing in

  6. Electronic and structural characterizations of unreconstructed {l_brace}0001{r_brace} surfaces and the growth of graphene overlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emtsev, Konstantin

    2009-06-03

    The present work is focused on the characterization of the clean unreconstructed SiC{l_brace}0001{r_brace} surfaces and the growth of graphene overlayers thereon. Electronic properties of SiC surfaces and their interfaces with graphene and few layer graphene films were investigated by means of angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy electron diffraction. Structural characterizations of the epitaxial graphene films grown on SiC were carried out by atomic force microscopy and low energy electron microscopy. Supplementary data was obtained by scanning tunneling microscopy. (orig.)

  7. Anatase TiO{sub 2} hollow microspheres with exposed {l_brace}0 0 1{r_brace}facets: Facile synthesis and enhanced photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiaoliang, E-mail: wxlsr@yahoo.com.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, 066004 Qinhuangdao (China); He Huanlong; Chen Yan; Zhao Jinqiu; Zhang Xiangyi [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, 066004 Qinhuangdao (China)

    2012-05-15

    Anatase TiO{sub 2} hollow microspheres with a high percentage of exposed {l_brace}0 0 1{r_brace}facets have been successfully synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal strategy in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and hydrofluoric acid solution. It is found that both HF and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} play an essential role in the formation of TiO{sub 2} hollow polyhedron TiO{sub 2} microspheres with exposed {l_brace}0 0 1{r_brace}facets. A plausible mechanism for formation of the TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres with exposed {l_brace}0 0 1{r_brace}facets by dissolution-recrystallization and Ostwald ripening is proposed based on the experimental observations. The products exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activities for degradation of methylene blue dye present in aqueous solution under ultraviolet light irradiation at ambient temperature.

  8. Development and preliminary validation of Brace Questionnaire (BrQ): a new instrument for measuring quality of life of brace treated scoliotics

    OpenAIRE

    Gkoltsiou Konstantina; Grivas Theodoros B; Vasiliadis Elias

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The quality of life among children with idiopathic scoliosis during their adolescence has been reported to be affected by the brace itself. However, a controversy exists whether brace treated scoliotics experience a poor quality of life, thus there is a need for the development of a brace-oriented instrument, as the now-existing questionnaires that are commonly used, such as the SRS -22, take into consideration the effects of both the conservative and the surgical treatmen...

  9. "Brace technology" thematic series - the Gensingen brace™ in the treatment of scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Hans-Rudolf

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bracing concepts in use today for the treatment of scoliosis include symmetric and asymmetric hard braces usually made of polyethylene (PE and soft braces. A new asymmetric Chêneau style CAD/CAM derivate has been designed to overcome problems the author experienced with other Chêneau CAD/CAM systems over the recent years. Brace description This CAD/CAM Chêneau derivate has been called Gensingen brace™, a brace available to address all possible curve patterns. Once the patients' trunk is scanned with the help of a whole trunk optical 3D-scan and the patients' data from the clinical measurements are recorded, a model of the brace can be created by (1 modifying the trunk model of the patient 'on screen' to achieve a very individual brace model using the CAD/CAM tools provided or by (2 choosing a brace model from our library and re-size it to the patients' properties 'on screen'. Results End-result studies have been published on the Chêneau brace as early as 1985. Cohort studies on the Chêneau brace are available as is a prospective controlled study respecting the SRS criteria for bracing studies, demonstrating beneficial outcomes, when compared to the controls using a soft brace. Sufficient in-brace correction effects have been demonstrated to be achievable when the Chêneau principles of correction are used appropriately. As there is a positive correlation between in-brace correction and the final outcome, the Chêneau concept of bracing with sufficient in-brace corrections as published can be regarded as being efficient when applied well. Case reports with high in-brace corrections, as shown within this paper using the Gensingen brace™ promise beneficial outcomes when a good compliance can be achieved. Conclusions The use of the Gensingen brace™ leads to sufficient in-brace corrections, when compared to the correction effects achieved with other braces, as described in literature. According to the patients' reports

  10. Conceptual design of joints in braced steel frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, C.M.; Evers, H.G.A.; Gresnigt, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    To help practitioners to find the most economical design of braced frames, this paper proposes a classification of joints in `simple' (e.g. web cleated connections), 'moderate' (e.g. flush end plated connections) and 'complex' (e.g. stiffened extended end plate connections) with respect to the fabri

  11. Emergency PTCA and Brace Implantation in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhangquan; Guan Ruming; Zhang Ming

    2000-01-01

    Objective To further improve the rate of reperfusion of infarction related artery in AMI, remove the stricture, rescue ischemic myocardiurn, protect cardiac function and ameliorate the longterm prognosis. Method Among 73 patients with AMI, 50 underwent direct PTCA, 15 immediate PTCA,8 rescue PTCA and 20 braces were implanted. Result The proportion of recanalization is 94.5% (69/73) .The grade of blood flow (TIMI) improved to grade 3 in 20 patients with brace implantation, while 44 to grade 3 and 5 to grade 2 among 49 patients with simple PTCA. Residualstenosis in vessel was 1.8 ± 5.9(-10-10)% in patients with brace implantation versus 15.4 ± 11. (0 -30)% with simple PICA. The incidence of reperfusive cardiac arrythmia was 18.1%(10/62). There was mainly frequent ventricular premature beat and short paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia, if left anterior decending branch was reopened,while bradycardia and atrial ventricular block usually occurred after right coronary reperfused. Conclusion Emergency PTCA and brace implantation can apparently improve the proportion of reperfusioa of IRA in AMI. It is necessary to popularize and apply these treatment in medical units with available conditions.

  12. Arthrometric evaluation of stabilizing effect of knee functional bracing at different flexion angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed Mohseni, Saeedeh; Moss, Farzam; Karimi, Hossein; Kamali, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Previous in-vivo investigations on the stabilizing efficacy of knee bracing for ACL reconstructed patients have been often limited to 20-30 degrees of knee flexion. In this study, the effectiveness of a uniaxial hinged functional brace to improve the knee stability was assessed at 30, 60 and 90 degrees of knee flexion. Arthrometry tests were conducted on 15 healthy subjects before and following wearing the brace and the tibial displacements were measured at up to 150 N anterior forces. Results indicated that functional bracing has a significant stabilizing effect throughout the range of knee flexion examined (p polycentric joint a more significant improvement of the overall brace performance and efficacy might be obtained. Key pointsFunctional bracing improves the knee joint stability mostly in extension posture.Unlike the non-braced condition, the least knee joint stability appears in mid and deep flexion angles when using a hinged brace.Accurate sizing and fitting and attention to correct hinge placement relative to the femoral condyles can limit brace migration and improve its effectiveness in mid and deep knee flexion.The overall brace performance and efficacy might be improved significantly using adaptive limb fittings through flexible pads and/or polycentric joints. PMID:24149533

  13. A new method of MR total spine imaging for showing the brace effect in scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, A.; Kandyba, J.; Koenig, R.; Jaeger, U.E.; Gieseke, J.; Schmitt, O. [Univ. of Bonn (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Bracing is a method of early, nonsurgical treatment for scoliosis, but a hypokyphotic effect on the thoracic spine is reported. We developed a magnetic resonance tomography (MR) procedure presenting an image of the whole spine in the coronal and sagittal planes (MR total spine imaging), and studied the brace effect, using this technique. We examined 26 female patients with idiopathic scoliosis treated with a Cheneau brace (mean age, 13.2 years; mean duration of brace treatment at the time of investigation, 1.5 years). The MR examinations were performed with the patient in the supine position with and without the brace in direct sequence. As measured on the coronal MR images, the thoracic curve was corrected, on average, from 29 deg to 22 deg (mean correction, 24%). There was a slight reduction in the sagittal Cobb angle measured between T4 and T12 (mean sagittal Cobb angle without brace, 14 deg ; with brace, 12 deg), which was still a significant change. MR total spine imaging could be a useful tool for studying the brace effect in scoliosis in two planes. Using this technique, we found reduced sagittal Cobb angles for the thoracic kyphosis with brace. Because there is no radiation exposure, the MR procedure has a potential use in the monitoring of brace treatment. (author)

  14. Stabilizing effects of ankle bracing under a combination of inversion and axial compression loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohyama, Harukazu; Yasuda, Kazunori; Beynnon, Bruce D; Renstrom, Per A

    2006-04-01

    The combined effects of bracing, axial compression and inversion rotation on the ankle-subtalar complexes were evaluated. Ex vivo tests under the load-controlled condition were performed on six cadaver ankle specimens using a six degree-of-freedom fixture. Inversion rotation was measured while subjecting the ankle-subtalar complex to a 2.5 N-m inversion moment and a combination of the testing variables (brace type, no brace, 178 N axial compression load, no compression load, 0 degrees and 20 degrees of plantar flexion) for a total of 16 tests per specimen. Three commercially available braces (two semirigid types and one lace up type) were evaluated. An axial compression load significantly decreased ankle-subtalar motion in unbraced ankles for the tested inversion moment. The contribution of bracing to stabilization of the ankle was smaller in the axial loading condition than in the no axial loading condition. The semirigid braces had greater stabilizing effects in response to the inversion moment than the lace up brace. Stabilizing effects of bracing were significantly greater in 20 degrees of plantar flexion than in 0 degrees of plantar flexion. The most common mechanism for an ankle sprain injury is inversion rotation on a weight-bearing ankle. Therefore, we should not overestimate stabilizing effects of bracing from evaluations of bracing without axial compression loading. PMID:15959767

  15. Efficacy of b-lynch brace suture in postpartum haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massive uncontrolled haemorrhage after childbirth is the leading cause of maternal death in developing countries. Postpartum haemorrhage is traditionally defined as blood loss of more than 500 ml after vaginal delivery and more than 1000 ml after caesarean section, but intraoperative estimation of blood loss is inaccurate. Uterine atony alone accounts for 75 - 90% of PPH. To estimate the effectiveness and safety of B-Lynch brace Suture in the management of primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). (author)

  16. Evaluation of knee braces in Swedish ice hockey players.

    OpenAIRE

    Tegner, Y; Lorentzon, R

    1991-01-01

    In this retrospective investigation we have determined the rate and types of knee injuries among Swedish ice hockey players, and related these data to the use of knee braces. Thirty-seven of the originally selected 50 hockey teams (74%) of elite or first division calibre took part in the study, and 600 players answered a questionnaire. A total of 254 previous knee injuries sustained while playing hockey were reported by 243 players; tears of the medical collateral ligament (60%), meniscus (15...

  17. Modified Elastofiber Element for Steel Slender Column and Brace Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, Swaminathan

    2010-01-01

    An efficient beam element, the modified elastofiber (MEF) element, has been developed to capture the overall features of the elastic and inelastic responses of slender columns and braces under axial cyclic loading without unduly heavy discretization. It consists of three fiber segments, two at the member ends and one at midspan, with two elastic segments sandwiched in between. The segments are demarcated by two exterior nodes and four interior nodes. The fiber segments are divided into 20 fib...

  18. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of Si donors in GaAs {l_brace}110{r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teichmann, K.; Wenderoth, M.; Loth, S.; Ulbrich, R.G. [Universitaet Goettingen, IV. Physikalisches Institut (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Silicon donors in highly n-doped GaAs(6.5 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}) are investigated by Cross-Sectional Scanning Tunneling Microscopy in UHV at 8K. Donors near the surface of the {l_brace}110{r_brace} cleavage planes are studied by spatially resolved I(V)-spectroscopy. The dopant atoms are identified by their bias dependent topographic and spectroscopic properties. In addition to the known features at negative and small positive voltages, our measurements on single donors show an additional transport channel for larger positive bias voltages. The current distribution has a circular symmetric structure. The diameter is bias dependent, and can extend up to several nanometers around the donor. The minimal bias voltage of the current onset is localized above the donors. We discuss different scenarios - including tip induced band bending - that can lead to the observed ring-like shapes.

  19. Behavior of three-span braced columns with equal and unequal spans

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yu-Wen

    1993-01-01

    Columns with three spans separated by elastic braces are analyzed. The influences of translational and rotational resistance at the braces, various end conditions, and the bracing locations for the perfect columns with equal and unequal spans subjected to uniform and nonuniform axial load are investigated. For imperfect columns with equal or unequal spans subjected to uniform compression, the effects of various end conditions at the top and various initial deflections are studied. "Ide...

  20. Effect of bracing systems on the fire-induced progressive collapse of steel structures

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Jian; Li, Guo-qiang; Usmani, Asif

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of various bracing systems on the fire-induced progressive collapse resistance of steel-framed structures using OpenSees. Two types of bracing systems (vertical and hat bracing) and various fire scenarios (single and multi-compartment fires) are considered. Four collapse mechanisms of steel frames in fire are found through parametric studies. General collapse is characterized by the collapse of the heated bay followed by lateral drift of adjacent cool bays. ...

  1. Inelastic Performance and Economical Assessment of Concentrically Braced Steel Frames by Nonlinear Static (Pushover) Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Farzam, Arash

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Concentric bracing system is one of the most economical systems being used to provide lateral stability for steel structures during earthquake by inelastic behavior. Although inelastic response of structures is affected by their height and structural system, these issues are not considered for the design of concentrically braced frames (CBFs) in the current design codes. The previous research work on the economical comparison of steel bracing systems has compared their elastic r...

  2. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces....

  3. Seismic retrofitting of reinforced concrete frame structures using GFRP-tube-confined-concrete composite braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddasi B., Nasim S.; Zhang, Yunfeng; Hu, Xiaobin

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a new type of structural bracing intended for seismic retrofitting use in framed structures. This special composite brace, termed glass-fiber-reinforced-polymer (GFRP)-tube-confined-concrete composite brace, is comprised of concrete confined by a GFRP tube and an inner steel core for energy dissipation. Together with a contribution from the GFRP-tube confined concrete, the composite brace shows a substantially increased stiffness to control story drift, which is often a preferred feature in seismic retrofitting. An analysis model is established and implemented in a general finite element analysis program — OpenSees, for simulating the load-displacement behavior of the composite brace. Using this model, a parametric study of the hysteretic behavior (energy dissipation, stiffness, ductility and strength) of the composite brace was conducted under static cyclic loading and it was found that the area ratio of steel core to concrete has the greatest influence among all the parameters considered. To demonstrate the application of the composite brace in seismic retrofitting, a three-story nonductile reinforced concrete (RC) frame structure was retrofitted with the composite braces. Pushover analysis and nonlinear time-history analyses of the retrofitted RC frame structure was performed by employing a suite of 20 strong ground motion earthquake records. The analysis results show that the composite braces can effectively reduce the peak seismic responses of the RC frame structure without significantly increasing the base shear demand.

  4. Introduction to the "Scoliosis" Journal Brace Technology Thematic Series: increasing existing knowledge and promoting future developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grivas Theodoros B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bracing is the main non-surgical intervention in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis during growth, in hyperkyphosis (and Scheuermann disease and occasionally for spondylolisthesis; it can be used in adult scoliosis, in the elderly when pathological curves lead to a forward leaning posture or in adults after traumatic injuries. Bracing can be defined as the application of external corrective forces to the trunk; rigid supports or elastic bands can be used and braces can be custom-made or prefabricated. The state of research in the field of conservative treatment is insufficient and while it can be stated that there is some evidence to support bracing, we must also acknowledge that today we do not have a common and generally accepted knowledge base, and that instead, individual expertise still prevails, giving rise to different schools of thought on brace construction and principles of correction. The only way to improve the knowledge and understanding of brace type and brace function is to establish a single and comprehensive source of information about bracing. This is what the Scoliosis Journal is going to do through the "Brace Technology" Thematic Series, where technical papers coming from the different schools will be published.

  5. Competition of the Peierls relief and structural defects in damping the domain walls in [Mn left brace (R/S)-pn right brace]2[Mn left brace(R/S)-pn right brace2(H2O)][Cr(CN)6]2 ferrimagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The [ [Mn left brace (R/S)-pn right brace]2[Mn left brace(R/S)-pn right brace2(H2O)][Cr(CN)6]2 molecular ferrimagnet exhibits an inverse sequence of changes in the domain wall motion regimes with increasing temperature in alternative magnetic field of 0.04-1400 Hz frequency. Initiation of the relaxation regime on the background of creep indicates that there are two different systems of the domain walls damping. The threshold amplitude of the alternative magnetic field corresponds to the Peierls relief contribution to the domain wall dynamics as well as the defect contribution usually considered.

  6. Can Bracing Affect Altered Gait Patterns in Femoroacetabular Impingement

    OpenAIRE

    Safran, Marc R.; Rylander, Jonathan; Shu, Beatrice; Andriacchi, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Altered gait patterns have been identified in patients with Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), a 2nd order reversal in mid stance, that has been shown to be corrected with arthroscopic FAI surgery. Currently, most feel there is no adequate conservative treatment for this malady. The goal of this study is to determine if the gait abnormalities seen with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) can be modified with bracing. Methods: Eight individuals (4 Male, 34.5 ± 12.8 y.o., 24.0±2.3 B...

  7. Immediate effect of valgus bracing on knee joint moments in meniscectomised patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Maria; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Roos, Ewa M;

    2016-01-01

    -dimensional analysis of gait, forward lunge and one-leg rise during two conditions: with and without a valgus unloader knee brace. Outcome measures included the peak and impulse of the knee adduction moment and the peak knee flexion moment. RESULTS: The peak knee flexion moment increased during brace condition...

  8. Low-Cost Alternative External Rotation Shoulder Brace and Review of Treatment in Acute Shoulder Dislocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacy, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic dislocations of the shoulder commonly present to emergency departments (EDs. Immediate closed reduction of both anterior and posterior glenohumeral dislocations is recommended and is frequently performed in the ED. Recurrence of dislocation is common, as anteroinferior labral tears (Bankart lesions are present in many anterior shoulder dislocations.14,15,18,23 Immobilization of the shoulder following closed reduction is therefore recommended; previous studies support the use of immobilization with the shoulder in a position of external rotation, for both anterior and posterior shoulder dislocations.7-11,19 In this study, we present a technique for assembling a low-cost external rotation shoulder brace using materials found in most hospitals: cotton roll, stockinette, and shoulder immobilizers. This brace is particularly suited for the uninsured patient, who lacks the financial resources to pay for a pre-fabricated brace out of pocket. We also performed a cost analysis for our low-cost external rotation shoulder brace, and a cost comparison with pre-fabricated brand name braces. At our institution, the total materials cost for our brace was $19.15. The cost of a pre-fabricated shoulder brace at our institution is $150 with markup, which is reimbursed on average at $50.40 according to our hospital billing data. The low-cost external rotation shoulder brace is therefore a more affordable option for the uninsured patient presenting with acute shoulder dislocation. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:114–120.

  9. Medial knee osteoarthritis treated by insoles or braces: a randomized trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. van Raaij (Tom); M. Reijman (Max); R.W. Brouwer (Reinoud); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: There is controversial evidence regarding whether foot orthoses or knee braces improve pain and function or correct malalignment in selected patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the medial knee compartment. However, insoles are safe and less costly than knee bracing if they r

  10. Can a brace be used to control the frequencies of a plate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumond, Patrick; Baddour, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    Although many improvements in the manufacturing of guitars have been made recently, one aspect that has often been overlooked is that of the acoustical consistency of the final manufactured product. The aim of this paper is to create a better understanding of the effect of a brace on the frequencies of vibration of the brace-soundboard system. This paper seeks to shed light on why a luthier 'tunes' braces when a guitar soundboard is hand-manufactured. A simple analytical model of a rectangular brace and soundboard is derived from first principles using Kirchhoff plate theory in order to develop insight into the effect of the soundboard's stiffness and brace thickness on the frequencies of the combined system. Natural frequencies and modeshapes of the combined system are calculated via the assumed shape method. Results show that by adjusting the thickness of the brace in order to compensate for the stiffness of the plate, one of the natural frequencies of the combined system can be adjusted to meet a desired value. However, simultaneously adjusting several natural frequencies cannot be done with a rectangular brace. Therefore modifications to the shape of the brace are explored. PMID:24255852

  11. Analysis of multistoried braced steel space frame subjected to gravity and seismic loading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay.S.Pawar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Steel structures are generally more flexible than other types of structure and lower in weight. Earthquake loads are random in nature. It is difficult to predict them exactly. The action applied to a structure by an earthquake is a ground movement with horizontal and vertical components. The horizontal movement is the most specific feature of earthquake action because of its strength and because structures are generally better designed to resist gravity than horizontal forces. These forces produce large stresses, strains, deformation and displacement particularly in tall structures. To keep displacement within limit generally bracing is provided in steel structure. . Bracings are generally used to increase lateral-stiffness, lateral- strength as well as lateral stability of the frame. Variations in the column stiffness can influence the mode of failure and lateral stiffness of the bracing. In this study steel frame is modeled and analyzed three Parts viz., (i Model without Steel bracing (bare frame, (ii Model completely with fully braced steel frame („Cross‟ bracing, (iii Model completely with fully braced steel frame („Single diagonal‟ bracing.

  12. Vital capacity evolution in patients treated with the CMCR brace: statistical analysis of 90 scoliotic patients treated with the CMCR brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohn Céline

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary Objective To study the evolution of pulmonary capacity during orthopaedic treatment of scoliosis with the CMCR brace. Background Investigating the impact of moderate scoliosis on respiratory capacity and its evolution during CMCR brace treatment with mobile pads. Context Several studies demonstrate the impact of scoliosis on respiratory capacity but few of them focus on the impact of bracing treatment. We studied the evolution of the pulmonary capacity of a cohort of 90 scoliotic patients. Methods This retrospective study included 90 scoliotic patients treated since 1999 with a brace with mobile pads called CMCR (n = 90; mean age: 13 years; 10-16. These patients were diagnosed with an idiopathic scoliosis (mean angulation 20.6°. All patients underwent a radiographic and respiratory evaluation at the beginning, the middle and the end of treatment. Results Mean age at treatment start was 13. Before treatment, our patients did not have a normal pulmonary capacity: Forced Vital Capacity (FVC was only 75% of the theoretical value. All curvature types (thoracic, thoraco-lumbar and combined scoliosis involved this reduced pulmonary capacity, with moderate-angulated scoliosis having a negative impact. At the beginning of brace treatment, the loss of real vital capacity with brace (0.3 litres was 10% lower than without brace. At CMCR removal, the FVC had increased by 0.4 litre (21% +/- 4.2% compared to the initial value. The theoretical value had increased by 3%. This positive evolution was most important in girls at a low Risser stage (0,1,2, and before 11 years of age. Conclusion These results supported our approach of orthesis conception for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis which uses braces with mobile pads to preserve thorax and spine mobility.

  13. Technology and task parameters relating to the effectiveness of the bracing strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Wayne J.; Wang, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    The bracing strategy has been proposed in various forms as a way to improve robot performance. One version of the strategy employs independent stages of motion. The first stage, referred to as the large or bracing arm, carries the second stage of motion. After the first stage has completed its motion it is braced to provide a more rigid base of motion with a more accurate relationship to the parts to be manipulated. The hypothesis is that more rapid completion of certain tasks is possible with lighter arms using the bracing strategy. While it is easy to make conceptual arguments why this should be so, it is less easy to specify even approximately when this will be true for some reasonably generic situation. There is no relevant experience base with bracing arms to be compared to non-bracing arms. Furthermore, if one were interested in obtaining such practical experience, there would be no methodical guidance on the selection of an interesting case, one in which the unproven approach, bracing, can show its superiority. If one such case exists, only the extent of applicability of the new approach is in question. One set of interesting cases is likely to be applications in which a large workspace must be covered, but where a series of small accurate moves will remain within a smaller region of the total workspace. A prototype application with these characteristics is set up and a skeleton design of arms using the competing strategies are compared.

  14. Cyclic Testing of Steel Chevron Braces with Vertically Slotted Beam Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozlyn K. Bubela

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental tests were performed to study the seismic behavior and performance of modified steel chevron braced frame systems, which incorporate a vertical slotted connection (VSC detail between the top of the braces and the floor beam above. The VSC detail is intended to prevent vertical load transfer to the beam and limit brace forces to the compressive resistance of the members. Full-scale quasi-static cyclic tests were performed on two specimens with hollow tube braces, with one specimen having the braces filled with concrete. Both frames exhibited stable, predictable behavior under cyclic loading. The VSC detail provided free vertical movement of the brace assembly during both tests. However, its flexibility created a moderate reduction in the overall lateral stiffness of the frame. The concrete-filled tube specimen sustained higher peak loads, demonstrated greater residual strength and dissipated more energy than the hollow tube specimen due to the partial inhibition of local buckling by the concrete core. It was found that the VSC chevron braced frame system is a suitable concept for use in buildings in high-risk seismic zones.

  15. The Application of Parallel Robotics to Investigate the Effect of Lumbar Bracing on Trunk Muscle Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory N. Kawchuk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar bracing is prescribed frequently for disability caused by low back pain; however, investigations into this practice demonstrate a range of patient outcomes. This inconsistency may arise from the practice of employing voluntary, single-axis trunk movements when investigating braces. Alternatively, this study employed a parallel robot to create a standardised, multi-axis testing environment. Surface electromyographic (sEMG data were collected from the trunk of 24 asymptomatic participants, who were seated on the robot, tilted to 15°, then circumducted while attempting to maintain an upright posture. Multiple trials were performed for three randomised conditions: non-braced, soft-material brace and stiff-material brace. As expected, the sEMG activity was significantly reduced in the majority of muscle responses (201/240. Unexpectedly, a paradoxical increase in the sEMG activity was observed in 39/240 responses. While lumbar bracing reduces the sEMG activity on average, these data suggest the existence of an infrequent paradoxical response that may provide a possible explanation for the discordant results observed in previous bracing investigations.

  16. Medial collateral ligament knee sprains in college football. Effectiveness of preventive braces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, J P; Powell, J W; Smith, W; Martindale, A; Crowley, E; Monroe, J; Miller, R; Connolly, J; Hill, B A; Miller, D

    1994-01-01

    This is the second of 2 articles on a 3-year investigation of medial collateral ligament sprains of the knee to assess the effectiveness of prophylactic knee braces in NCAA Division I college football players. Position, string, type of session, and daily brace wear were recorded. The injury rates for braced and unbraced knees were used to create an incidence density ratio. The data were stratified and simultaneously controlled for position, string, and session and evaluated for their statistical significance. The 987 Big Ten players generated 155,772 knee exposures over the study period (50% braced). Noticeable differences existed in the rates of injury for the braced and unbraced knees in almost every position during practices, depending on player or nonplayer status. When the influential factors of position, string, and session are considered, there is a consistent but not statistically significant tendency for the players wearing preventive knee braces to experience a lower injury rate than for their unbraced counterparts. For starters and substitutes in the line positions, as well as the linebackers and tight ends, there was a consistent trend toward a lower injury rate in both practices and games. The braced players in the skill positions (backs/kickers), at least during games, exhibited a higher injury rate.

  17. Prophylactic Ankle Taping and Bracing: A Numbers-Needed-to-Treat and Cost-Benefit Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmsted, Lauren C.; Vela, Luzita I.; Denegar, Craig R.; Hertel, Jay

    2004-03-01

    OBJECTIVE: Taping and bracing are thought to decrease the incidence of ankle sprains; however, few investigators have addressed the effect of preventive measures on the rate of ankle sprains. Our purpose was to examine the effectiveness of ankle taping and bracing in reducing ankle sprains by applying a numbers-needed-to-treat (NNT) analysis to previously published studies. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed, CINAHL, SPORT Discus, and PEDro for original research from 1966 to 2002 with key words ankle taping, ankle sprains, injury incidence, prevention, ankle bracing, ankle prophylaxis, andnumbers needed to treat. We eliminated articles that did not address the effects of ankle taping or bracing on ankle injury rates using an experimental design. DATA SYNTHESIS: The search produced 8 articles, of which 3 permitted calculation of NNT, which addresses the clinical usefulness of an intervention by providing estimates of the number of treatments needed to prevent 1 injury occurrence. In a study of collegiate intramural basketball players, the prevention of 1 ankle sprain required the taping of 26 athletes with a history of ankle sprain and 143 without a prior history. In a military academy intramural basketball program, prevention of 1 sprain required bracing of 18 athletes with a history of ankle sprain and 39 athletes with no history. A study of ankle bracing in competitive soccer players produced an NNT of 5 athletes with a history of previous sprain and 57 without a prior injury. A cost- benefit analysis of ankle taping versus bracing revealed taping to be approximately 3 times more expensive than bracing. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS: Greater benefit is achieved in applying prophylactic ankle taping or bracing to athletes with a history of ankle sprain, compared with those without previous sprains. The generalizability of these results to other physically active populations is unknown. PMID:15085217

  18. Overutilization of bracing in the management of penetrating spinal cord injury from gunshot wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhary, Nima; Nwosu, Kenneth; McCoy, Eric; Fukunaga, Dudley; Rolfe, Kevin

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Penetrating gunshot wounds (GSWs) to the spinal column are stable injuries and do not require spinal orthoses or bracing postinjury. Nonetheless, a high number of GSW-related spinal cord injury (SCI) patients are referred with a brace to national rehabilitation centers. Unnecessary bracing may encumber rehabilitation, create skin breakdown or pressure ulcers, and add excessive costs. The aim of this study was to confirm the stability of spinal column injuries from GSWs and quantify the overutilization rate of bracing based on long-term follow-up. METHODS This retrospective cohort study was performed at a nationally renowned rehabilitation center. In total, 487 GSW-related SCI patients were transferred for rehabilitation and identified over the last 14 years. Retrospective chart review and telephone interviews were conducted to identify patients who were braced at the initial treating institution and determine if late instability, deformity, or neurological deterioration resulted in secondary surgery or intervention. In addition, 396 unoperated patients were available for analysis after 91 patients were excluded for undergoing an initial destabilizing surgical dissection or laminectomy, thereby altering the natural history of the injury. All of these 396 patients who presented with a brace had bracing discontinued upon reaching the facility. RESULTS In total, 203 of 396 patients were transferred with a spinal brace, demonstrating an overutilization rate of 51%. No patients deteriorated neurologically or needed later surgery for spinal column deformity or instability attributable to the injury. All patients had stable injuries. The patterns of injury and severity of neurological injury did not vary between patients who were initially braced or unbraced. The average follow-up was 7.8 years (range 1-14 years) and the average age was 25 years (range 10-62 years). CONCLUSIONS The incidence of brace overutilization for penetrating GSW-related SCI was 51%. Long

  19. Stabilizing effects of ankle bracing under a combination of inversion and axial compression loading

    OpenAIRE

    Tohyama, Harukazu; Yasuda, Kazunori; Beynnon, Bruce D.; Renstrom, Per A.

    2006-01-01

    The combined effects of bracing, axial compression and inversion rotation on the ankle-subtalar complexes were evaluated. Ex vivo tests under the load-controlled condition were performed on six cadaver ankle specimens using a six degree-of-freedom fixture. Inversion rotation was measured while subjecting the ankle-subtalar complex to a 2.5 N-m inversion moment and a combination of the testing variables (brace type, no brace, 178 N axial compression load, no compression load, 0° and 20° of pla...

  20. Nitric oxide as an activation agent for nucleophilic attack in trans-[Ru(NO)(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}{l_brace}P(OEt){sub 3}{r_brace}](PF{sub 6}){sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzker, Gustavo; Cardoso, Daniel R.; Franco, Douglas W., E-mail: douglas@iqsc.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Toledo Junior, Jose C. [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Lima, Francisco C.A. [Universidade Estadual do Piaui, Teresina, PI (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Natureza. Inst. de Quimica; Magalhaes, Alvicler [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The complex trans-[Ru(NO)(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}{l_brace}P(OEt){sub 3}{r_brace}](PF{sub 6}){sub 3} undergoes nucleophilic attack on the phosphorus ester ligand in the solid state yielding trans-[Ru(NO)(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}{l_brace}P(OH)(OEt){sub 2}{r_brace}](PF{sub 6}){sub 3}. The reaction was monitored and the products analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 31}P{l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace} CP-MAS NMR and {sup 31}P{l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace} NMR), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), cyclic voltammetry (CV), electronic spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and elemental analysis. According to experimental data and quantum mechanical calculations (DFT), the reaction proceeds in the solid state by the nucleophilic attack on the phosphorus ligand, promoted by the strong polarization along the P{sup III}-Ru{sup II}-NO{sup +} axis induced by the nitrosyl ligand, and takes place following the Michaelis-Arbusov type mechanism for phosphorus ester hydrolysis. In solution, the nucleophilic attack occurs simultaneously at the nitrosyl and trimethylphosphite ligands, yielding trans-[Ru(H{sub 2}O)(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}{l_brace}P(OEt){sub 3}{r_brace}]{sup 2+} and trans-[Ru(NO)(H{sub 2}O)(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}]{sup 3+} in comparable amounts. (author)

  1. Effectiveness of an outside-the-boot ankle brace in reducing parachuting related ankle injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, M.; Sulsky, S; Amoroso, P.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the efficacy of an outside-the-boot parachute ankle brace (PAB) in reducing risk of ankle injury to army paratrooper trainees and to identify inadvertent risks associated with PAB use.

  2. Semi-rigid brace and taping decrease variability of the ankle joint position sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Barbanera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of taping and the semi-rigid ankle brace on ankle joint position sense. Sixteen healthy women (20.8 ± 2.3 years old actively placed the ankle in a target position. The experimental conditions were: 1 wearing no orthosis device, 2 using semi-rigid brace, and 3 wearing ankle taping. Absolute error (AE and variable error (VE were calculated to obtain the joint position sense. We found an interaction effect between condition and target angle at 15o of plantar flexion for the variable VE, which showed smaller errors during the use of taping and semi-rigid brace. In conclusion, the use of ankle joint orthoses, whether taping or semi-rigid brace, decrease the variability of the position sense at 15o of plantar flexion, potentially decreasing ankle sprains occurrence.

  3. Efficiency and comfort of knee braces: A parametric study based on computational modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Pierrat, Baptiste; Calmels, Paul; Navarro, Laurent; Avril, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Knee orthotic devices are widely proposed by physicians and medical practitioners for preventive or therapeutic objectives in relation with their effects, usually known as to stabilize joint or restrict ranges of motion. This study focuses on the understanding of force transfer mechanisms from the brace to the joint thanks to a Finite Element Model. A Design Of Experiments approach was used to characterize the stiffness and comfort of various braces in order to identify their mechanically influent characteristics. Results show conflicting behavior: influent parameters such as the brace size or textile stiffness improve performance in detriment of comfort. Thanks to this computational tool, novel brace designs can be tested and evaluated for an optimal mechanical efficiency of the devices and a better compliance of the patient to the treatment.

  4. Fluorides for the prevention of early tooth decay (demineralised white lesions) during fixed brace treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, P.E.; Parkin, N.; Dyer, F.; Millett, D. T.; Furness, S.; P. Germain

    2013-01-01

    Demineralised white lesions (DWLs) can appear on teeth during fixed brace treatment because of early decay around the brackets that attach the braces to the teeth. Fluoride is effective in reducing decay in susceptible individuals in the general population. Individuals receiving orthodontic treatment may be prescribed various forms of fluoride treatment. This review compares the effects of various forms of fluoride used during orthodontic treatment on the development of DWLs. This is an updat...

  5. Oriented attachment growth of BiOCl nanosheets with exposed {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} facets and photocatalytic activity of the hierarchical nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Zhankui, E-mail: zkcui@foxmail.com [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China); Mi, Liwei [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China); Zeng, Dawen [State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die and Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-02-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Growth of BiOCl nanosheets in EG medium was experimentally revealed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oriented attachment mechanism governed formation of single crystalline BiOCl. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The exposed facets of BiOCl nanosheets were {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} planes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples could efficiently degrade MO irradiated either by UV or by Vis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high efficiency was associated with the exposed {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} facets of BiOCl. - Abstract: The formation mechanism of nanosheet assembled BiOCl nanostructures in non-aqueous solvothermal system was investigated through time series experiments. The products obtained at different reaction times were characterized by XRD, SEM and (HR)TEM techniques. The photocatalytic property of the samples was measured by decomposing the organic dye of methyl orange. The ability to generate hydroxyl radicals for the samples was also measured by photoluminescence method using coumarin as fluorescence probe molecules. It was revealed that oriented attachment was responsible for the slow transformation of BiOCl from polycrystalline nanoparticles to single crystalline nanosheets. The role of the solvent ethylene glycol and the interaction with the other species during the oriented attachment growth of the BiOCl nanosheets was discussed. The photocatalytic activity tests demonstrated that the BiOCl nanostructures could efficiently decompose methyl orange under either UV light irradiation or visible light irradiation. The high photodegradation efficiency was associated with the atomic arrangement of exposed {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} facets.

  6. The effect of a knee brace on gait parameters of hypertonic hemiplegic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Modisane

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the useof a knee brace on 15 subjects with hypertonic hemiparesis. The middlecerebral artery was involved in all subjects. The Ashworth scale was usedto screen for the presence of spasticity in the quadriceps muscles.Measurements of gait speed, step and stride length were taken in the middle 10 metres of a 15 metre paper walkway. A comparison of these gait parameters without and with the use of a knee brace was made. A ques-tionnaire was also used to evaluate how subjects responded to the use of aknee brace.The results showed that the mean speed for all 15 subjects increased withthe use of a brace, (p = 0.05. Step and stride length without and with the use of a brace showed no statistical differences.It was therefore concluded that the FECK brace appears to have an effect on the walking speed of subjects withhypertonic  hemiparesis

  7. Predicting success or failure of brace treatment for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Eric; Westover, Lindsey; Jacob, Johith; Donauer, Andreas; Zhao, Vicky H; Parent, Eric C; Moreau, Marc J; Mahood, James K; Hedden, Douglas M; Lou, Edmond H M

    2015-10-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a three-dimensional spinal deformity. Brace treatment is a common non-surgical treatment, intended to prevent progression (worsening) of the condition during adolescence. Estimating a braced patient's risk of progression is an essential part of planning treatment, so method for predicting this risk would be a useful decision support tool for practitioners. This work attempts to discover whether failure of brace treatment (progression) can be predicted at the start of treatment. Records were obtained for 62 AIS patients who had completed brace treatment. Subjects were labeled as "progressive" if their condition had progressed despite brace treatment and "non-progressive" otherwise. Wrapper-based feature selection selected two useful predictor variables from a list of 14 clinical measurements taken from the records. A logistic regression model was trained to classify patients as "progressive" or "non-progressive" using these two variables. The logistic regression model's simplicity and interpretability should facilitate its clinical acceptance. The model was tested on data from an additional 28 patients and found to be 75 % accurate. This accuracy is sufficient to make the predictions clinically useful. It can be used online: http://www.ece.ualberta.ca/~dchalmer/SimpleBracePredictor.html . PMID:26002592

  8. An innovative seismic bracing system based on a superelastic shape memory alloy ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nan; Jeon, Jong-Su; Hodgson, Darel E.; DesRoches, Reginald

    2016-05-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have great potential in seismic applications because of their remarkable superelasticity. Seismic bracing systems based on SMAs can mitigate the damage caused by earthquakes. The current study investigates a bracing system based on an SMA ring which is capable of both re-centering and energy dissipation. This lateral force resisting system is a cross-braced system consisting of an SMA ring and four tension-only cable assemblies, which can be applied to both new construction and seismic retrofit. The performance of this bracing system is examined through a quasi-static cyclic loading test and finite element (FE) analysis. This paper describes the experimental design in detail, discusses the experimental results, compares the performance with other bracing systems based on SMAs, and presents an Abaqus FE model calibrated on the basis of experimental results to simulate the superelastic behavior of the SMA ring. The experimental results indicate that the seismic performance of this system is promising in terms of damping and re-centering. The FE model can be used in the simulation of building structures using the proposed bracing system.

  9. Bracing the trunk and neck in young adults leads to a more aged-like gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Daniel M; Kelleran, Kyle J; Morrison, Steven

    2016-09-01

    Older individuals typically walk at slower speeds, with shorter step lengths, greater step widths and spend a larger proportion of the gait cycle in double stance. Changes in neck and trunk mobility may underlie some of the changes in walking seen with increasing age. Consequently, this study was designed to assess whether externally increasing trunk/neck stiffness in young adults leads to similar changes in gait pattern observed with aging. Twelve young adults (20-29 years), sixteen old adults (60-69 years) and fifteen older adults (70-79 years) walked across a 20' pressure sensitive GAITRite© instrumented walkway at their preferred speed. The young adults also walked under three bracing conditions: (1) Neck braced, (2) Trunk braced, and (3) Neck and Trunk braced. The results revealed that the old and older age groups walked significantly slower, with a shorter step length and with a narrower base of support (p'syoung adults. In young adults, combined neck and trunk bracing led to reduced walking speed, shorter step length, wider base of support and a larger proportion of the gait cycle spent in double stance (p'sadults remained less than fully braced young adults (p'syoung individuals leads to systematic gait changes similar to aging. Consequently, age-related changes in mobility of the neck and torso may in part contribute to the decrements in walking seen for older adults.

  10. The role of ankle bracing for prevention of ankle sprain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael T; Liu, Hsin-Yi

    2003-10-01

    Lateral ankle sprains are one of the most common injuries incurred in recreational and competitive athletics. These injuries have a significant impact in terms of cost, athletic participation, and activities of daily living. Prophylactic ankle braces are often used to reduce the risk of injury recurrence when individuals return to athletic participation. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to review the literature and provide our own experience relative to the use of prophylactic ankle bracing. Relatively high incidence rates of ankle sprain injury have been reported for basketball and soccer athletes, military trainees, and individuals with a previous history of ankle sprain injury. Semirigid and laced ankle braces have significantly reduced the incidence of initial and recurrent ankle sprain injuries in athletic and military samples. With few exceptions, these braces do not appear to affect functional performance adversely. The prophylactic use of semirigid ankle braces appears warranted to reduce the incidence of initial and, in particular, recurrent ankle sprain injuries for individuals who participate in activities that have the highest risk for these injuries. Additional research is needed to evaluate the many new braces that are available and in use and their influence on the incidence of ankle sprain injury and functional performance. PMID:14620786

  11. Experimental and analytical studies on the seismic behavior of conventional and hybrid braced frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jiun-Wei

    This dissertation summarizes both experimental and analytical studies on the seismic response of conventional steel concentrically braced frame systems of the type widely used in North America, and preliminary studies of an innovative hybrid braced frame system: the Strong-Back System. The research work is part of NEES small group project entitled "International Hybrid Simulation of Tomorrow's Braced Frames." In the experimental phase, a total of four full-scale, one-bay, two-story conventional braced frame specimens with different bracing member section shapes and gusset plate-to-beam connection details were designed and tested at the NEES Berkeley Laboratory. Three braced frame specimens were tested quasi-statically using the same predefined loading protocol to investigate the inelastic cyclic behavior of code-compliant braced frames at both the global and local level. The last braced frame specimen was nearly identical to one of those tested quasi-statically. However, it was tested using hybrid simulation techniques to examine the sensitivity of inelastic behavior on loading sequence and to relate the behavior observed to different levels of seismic hazard. Computer models of the test specimens were developed using two different computer software programs. In the software framework OpenSees fiber-based line elements were used to simulate global buckling of members and yielding and low-cycle fatigue failure at sections. The LS-DYNA analysis program was also used to model individual struts and the test specimens using shell elements with adaptive meshing and element erosion features. This program provided enhanced ability to simulate section local buckling, strain concentrations and crack development. The numerical results were compared with test results to assess and refine and the ability of the models to predict braced frame behavior. A series of OpenSees numerical cyclic component simulations were then conducted using the validated modeling approach. Two

  12. Seismic Response of R C Building With Different Arrangement of Steel Bracing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaraj R. Chavan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In general the most suitable choices in improvement of reinforcement concrete frame against lateral loading is used steel bracing system. The use of steel bracing has potential advantage over other scheme like higher strength and stiffness, economical, occupies less space, adds much less weight to existing structure. In this study, the seismic analysis of reinforced concrete (RC buildings with different types of bracing (Diagonal, V type, inverted V type, X type is studied. The bracing is provided for peripheral columns. A seven-storey (G+6 building is situated at seismic zone III. The building models are analyze by equivalent static analysis as per IS 1893:2002 using Staad Pro V8i software. The main parameters consider in this paper to compare the seismic analysis of buildings are lateral displacement, storey drift, axial force, base shear. It is found that the X type of steel bracing significantly contributes to the structural stiffness and reduces the maximum interstorey drift of R.C.C building than other bracing system.

  13. Growth morphology of {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} faces of manganese mercury thiocyanate crystals investigated by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Y.L. [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: ylgeng@icm.sdu.edu.cn; Xu, D. [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: xdoffice@sdu.edu.cn; Wang, X.Q. [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Du, W. [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Liu, H.Y. [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhang, G.H. [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2006-04-10

    Atomic force microscopy is employed to investigate the surface morphology of the {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} faces of MMTC crystals grown at 40 deg. C at a supersaturation of {sigma} = 0.5. Growth hillocks generated by dislocation sources often appear in groups, which leads to faster growth of the local area and forming layers with large height difference up to 30 nm. Growth centers operate nearly equally during the growth process. Serried and sparse monolayer steps dominate alternately on the surface, which is thought to be distinct phenomenon of the two-metal-centered complex compounds family.

  14. Development and preliminary validation of Brace Questionnaire (BrQ: a new instrument for measuring quality of life of brace treated scoliotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gkoltsiou Konstantina

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of life among children with idiopathic scoliosis during their adolescence has been reported to be affected by the brace itself. However, a controversy exists whether brace treated scoliotics experience a poor quality of life, thus there is a need for the development of a brace-oriented instrument, as the now-existing questionnaires that are commonly used, such as the SRS -22, take into consideration the effects of both the conservative and the surgical treatment on quality of life of scoliotic children. The aim of the present study is to assess the validity and reliability of Brace Questionnaire (BrQ, a new instrument for measuring quality of life of scoliotic adolescents who are treated conservatively with a brace. Material-method Methodology of development involved literature review, patient and health care professionals' in-depth interviews and content validity analysis on patients. A validation study was performed on 28 brace treated scoliotic children aged between 9 and 18 years old. BrQ was assessed for the following psychometric properties: item convergent validity, floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency reliability, clinical validity and responsiveness to change. Results BrQ is self administrated and developmentally appropriate for ages 9 to 18 years old and is consisted of 34 Likert-scale items associated with eight domains: general health perception, physical functioning, emotional functioning, self esteem and aesthetics, vitality, school activity, bodily pain and social functioning of scoliotic children treated conservatively with a brace. The subscales of these eight dimensions can be combined to produce a total score. Higher scores mean a better quality of life. An item convergent validity ≥ 0.40 was satisfied by all items in the present study. A satisfactory internal consistency reliability for the BrQ was recorded (Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.82. There were no floor or ceiling

  15. On the Modeling of Elastic and Inelastic, Critical- and Post-Buckling Behavior of Slender Columns and Bracing Members

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, Swaminathan

    2009-01-01

    Analyzing tall braced frame buildings with thousands of degrees of freedom in three dimensions subject to strong earthquake ground motion requires an efficient brace element that can capture the overall features of its elastic and inelastic response under axial cyclic loading without unduly heavy discretization. This report details the theory of a modified elastofiber (MEF) element developed to model braces and buckling-sensitive slender columns in such structures. The MEF element...

  16. Accurate and efficient TCAD model for the formation and dissolution of small interstitial clusters and {l_brace}3 1 1{r_brace} defects in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zechner, Christoph [Synopsys Switzerland LLC., Affolternstr. 52, CH-8050 Zurich-Oerlikon (Switzerland)]. E-mail: zechner@synopsys.com; Zographos, Nikolas [Synopsys Switzerland LLC., Affolternstr. 52, CH-8050 Zurich-Oerlikon (Switzerland); Matveev, Dmitri [Synopsys Switzerland LLC., Affolternstr. 52, CH-8050 Zurich-Oerlikon (Switzerland); Erlebach, Axel [Synopsys Switzerland LLC., Affolternstr. 52, CH-8050 Zurich-Oerlikon (Switzerland)

    2005-12-05

    In recent years, physics-based models have been developed for the time evolution of defects formed by Si self-interstitials in ion-implanted Si. The accuracy of these models is crucial for a predictive process simulation of deep sub micron devices. However, the most complete models are usually not considered in applied process simulation, because they use too many equations. In this work, a new model is presented in which the essential physics behind the formation and dissolution of small interstitial clusters and {l_brace}3 1 1{r_brace} defects is described by a minimum set of five reaction equations. Three equations describe the kinetics of small interstitial clusters which governs the initial phase of implantation damage annealing. Two equations describe the formation and Ostwald ripening of {l_brace}3 1 1{r_brace} defects. The model is capable to reproduce experimental data over a wide range of implantation energies, doses and anneal temperatures. It allows predictive simulations of interstitial cluster kinetics at a minimum computational cost.

  17. Isopiestic studies on the saturated systems {l_brace}H{sub 2}O + BaCl{sub 2}(sat) + NaCl + NH{sub 4}Cl{r_brace} and {l_brace}H{sub 2}O + BaCl{sub 2}(sat) + mannitol(sat) + NaCl + NH{sub 4}Cl{r_brace} at the temperature 298.15 K: Comparison with the ideal-like solution model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Mei [Institute of Metallurgical Resources and Environmental Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China)]. E-mail: wmei1010@tom.com; Zhang, Hui [School of Resources and Civil Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Wang Jun [Department of Chemistry, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Wang Zhichang [Department of Chemistry, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China)

    2007-02-15

    Isopiestic measurements have been carried out at the temperature 298.15 K for two saturated aqueous solutions: {l_brace}H{sub 2}O + BaCl{sub 2}(sat) + NaCl + NH{sub 4}Cl{r_brace} saturated with barium chloride and {l_brace}H{sub 2}O + BaCl{sub 2}(sat) + mannitol(sat) + NaCl + NH{sub 4}Cl{r_brace} saturated with barium chloride and mannitol. Taking sodium chloride (aq) as reference solutions, osmotic coefficients of the aqueous solutions were determined. The experimental results are well represented by the ideal-like solution model.

  18. The experience of brace treatment in children/adolescents with scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafiri Vassiliki

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic scoliosis is a chronic illness with several different braces used for its treatment. Brace treatment during childhood/adolescence can produce stress. There are studies supporting that it can decrease body-image perception while other studies support that it has no such effect. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of brace treatment in children/adolescents with scoliosis. The aim was to investigate which feelings are created by the bracing experience in children/adolescents with scoliosis and what are the children/adolescents' with scoliosis opinions of the support provided to them by health-care professionals and by their families. Methods We conducted interviews with the help of a semi-structured interview guide in order to address the topic of the experience of brace treatment. A convenient sample of twelve children and adolescents with scoliosis was selected from patients attending follow-up appointments at the Outpatient Scoliosis Clinics of two Greek hospitals. The data was analysed using the method of content analysis. Results Patients in the sample were 10–16 years old and they were mainly females (71%. Almost all of the participants reported having to deal with stress, denial, fear, anger, and shame. They were satisfied with the information they received regarding their condition and therapy. However, the information was not accompanied by support from the health care professionals. They reported that they were receiving support mainly from their families, friends, and classmates. Conclusion The present study is contributing to the development of a better understanding of significant issues related to the experience of bracing therapy. It is clear that scoliosis children/adolescents have to be provided with support during the long period of bracing. It is apparent that those children/adolescents have unmet needs for care and health professionals and policy makers should try to find a

  19. An Experimental Study on Non-Compression X-Bracing Systems Using Carbon Fiber Composite Cable for Seismic Strengthening of RC Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Seok Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-bracing (X-bracing is one of the most popular methods of seismic retrofitting, and has been shown to significantly increase the structural stiffness and strength of buildings. Conventional steel X-bracing methods typically exhibit brittle failure at the connection between the brace and the building, or buckling failure of the braces. This study investigated the structural properties of a new type of non-compression X-bracing system using carbon fiber composite cable (CFCC. This non-compression X-bracing system uses CFCC bracing and bolt connections between structural members and the terminal fixer of the CFCC, instead of conventional steel bracing. The aim is to overcome the brittle and buckling failures that can occur at the connection and bracings with conventional steel X-bracing methods. We carried out cyclic loading tests, and the maximum load carrying capacity and deformation were investigated, as well as hysteresis in the lateral load–drift relations. The test results revealed that the CFCC X-bracing system installed in reinforced concrete frames enhanced the strength markedly, and buckling failure of the bracing was not observed.

  20. Investigation of the nonlinear seismic behavior of knee braced frames using the incremental dynamic analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheidaii, Mohammad Reza; TahamouliRoudsari, Mehrzad; Gordini, Mehrdad

    2016-06-01

    In knee braced frames, the braces are attached to the knee element rather than the intersection of beams and columns. This bracing system is widely used and preferred over the other commonly used systems for reasons such as having lateral stiffness while having adequate ductility, damage concentration on the second degree convenience of repairing and replacing of these elements after Earthquake. The lateral stiffness of this system is supplied by the bracing member and the ductility of the frame attached to the knee length is supplied through the bending or shear yield of the knee member. In this paper, the nonlinear seismic behavior of knee braced frame systems has been investigated using incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) and the effects of the number of stories in a building, length and the moment of inertia of the knee member on the seismic behavior, elastic stiffness, ductility and the probability of failure of these systems has been determined. In the incremental dynamic analysis, after plotting the IDA diagrams of the accelerograms, the collapse diagrams in the limit states are determined. These diagrams yield that for a constant knee length with reduced moment of inertia, the probability of collapse in limit states heightens and also for a constant knee moment of inertia with increasing length, the probability of collapse in limit states increases.

  1. Inelastic behavior of cold-formed braced walls under monotonic and cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerami, Mohsen; Lotfi, Mohsen; Nejat, Roya

    2015-06-01

    The ever-increasing need for housing generated the search for new and innovative building methods to increase speed and efficiency and enhance quality. One method is the use of light thin steel profiles as load-bearing elements having different solutions for interior and exterior cladding. Due to the increase in CFS construction in low-rise residential structures in the modern construction industry, there is an increased demand for performance inelastic analysis of CFS walls. In this study, the nonlinear behavior of cold-formed steel frames with various bracing arrangements including cross, chevron and k-shape straps was evaluated under cyclic and monotonic loading and using nonlinear finite element analysis methods. In total, 68 frames with different bracing arrangements and different ratios of dimensions were studied. Also, seismic parameters including resistance reduction factor, ductility and force reduction factor due to ductility were evaluated for all samples. On the other hand, the seismic response modification factor was calculated for these systems. It was concluded that the highest response modification factor would be obtained for walls with bilateral cross bracing systems with a value of 3.14. In all samples, on increasing the distance of straps from each other, shear strength increased and shear strength of the wall with bilateral bracing system was 60 % greater than that with lateral bracing system.

  2. Modal parameters of two incomplete and complete guitars differing in the bracing pattern of the soundboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrodzka, Ewa; Łapa, Andrzej; Linde, Bogumił B J; Rosenfeld, Eike

    2011-10-01

    Similarities and differences in vibrational behavior of two guitars having a symmetric Torres bracing pattern and an asymmetric pattern forming a lattice on a soundboard are investigated by means of the modal analysis technique and laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) measurements. Instruments are investigated before and after a bridge and strings assembling (i.e., they are incomplete or complete). The bracing pattern and the absence/presence of the bridge and strings have some effect on modal frequencies and mode shapes. The bracing pattern does not affect the sequence of at least first three low frequency mode shapes of incomplete/complete instruments but affects their modal frequencies. Depending on frequency, the bridge behaves either as a rigid or a flexible structure.

  3. Modal parameters of two incomplete and complete guitars differing in the bracing pattern of the soundboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrodzka, Ewa; Łapa, Andrzej; Linde, Bogumił B J; Rosenfeld, Eike

    2011-10-01

    Similarities and differences in vibrational behavior of two guitars having a symmetric Torres bracing pattern and an asymmetric pattern forming a lattice on a soundboard are investigated by means of the modal analysis technique and laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) measurements. Instruments are investigated before and after a bridge and strings assembling (i.e., they are incomplete or complete). The bracing pattern and the absence/presence of the bridge and strings have some effect on modal frequencies and mode shapes. The bracing pattern does not affect the sequence of at least first three low frequency mode shapes of incomplete/complete instruments but affects their modal frequencies. Depending on frequency, the bridge behaves either as a rigid or a flexible structure. PMID:21973373

  4. Influence of patellofemoral bracing on pain, knee extensor torque, and gait function in females with patellofemoral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Christopher M; Doubleday, Kathryn L; Escudero, Carina

    2008-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of a patellofemoral brace on pain response, knee extensor torque production, and gait function in females with patellofemoral pain (PFP). Sixteen females between the ages of 14 and 46 with diagnosis of PFP participated. Knee extensor torque was measured by using a LIDO isokinetic dynamometer. Pain levels were documented by using the Visual Analog Pain Scale. Stride characteristics during the conditions of free walk, fast walk, ascend stairs, descend stairs, ascend ramp, and descend ramp were obtained with a stride analyzer unit. EMG activity of the vasti musculature was recorded by using indwelling, bipolar, wire electrodes. Knee joint motion was assessed by using a VICON motion analysis system. All testing was performed with and without the Bauerfeind Genutrain P3 patellofemoral brace. There were no significant differences in torque production, pain levels, and stride characteristics between braced and non-braced trials. In addition, there were no significant differences in mean vasti EMG between braced and non-braced trials. When averaged across all conditions, a small but statistically significant increase in knee flexion was found during the braced trials. Although the current study did not find significant improvements in the clinical measures evaluated, 8 of the 16 subjects did experience a decrease in knee pain. This finding suggests that certain patients with PFP may respond favorably to bracing, and criteria must be established to determine which patients would best benefit from such an intervention.

  5. Design and control of multifunctional magnetorheological actuators for assistive knee braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H. T.; Liao, W. H.

    2010-04-01

    This paper is aimed at developing a novel multifunctional actuator utilizing magnetorheological (MR) fluids. As a key component for assistive knee braces, the actuator can work with multiple functions as motor, clutch and brake in order to meet the requirement of normal human walking. In this paper, design considerations including configurations, materials selection, mechanical and electromagnetic designs are illustrated. Prototype of the multifunctional actuator is fabricated, and each of its functions is investigated. Control strategies for mimicking normal human walking using the multifunctional actuator are illustrated. Adaptive control algorithm is adopted. Experiments on torque and speed tracking are conducted. The results show that the developed multifunctional actuator is promising for assistive knee braces.

  6. Application Of Steel Bar Bracings In Renovation And Modernization Of Historic Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchta, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    The use of steel bracings is possible in all four stages of engineering activities in the renovation and modernization of historic buildings, i. e.: protecting, repairing, strengthening and rebuilding. Steel bracings are auxiliary structural systems, which, due to their relatively small cross-section dimensions and low weight, provide an efficient way to achieve the required resistance and stability of the original historic building structural systems. The steel structure in most cases is the tissue that differs in style and material of genuine tissue which is present in a renewed historic building, but is also often a rational solution acceptable to the conservation and structural point of view.

  7. Application Of Steel Bar Bracings In Renovation And Modernization Of Historic Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuchta Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of steel bracings is possible in all four stages of engineering activities in the renovation and modernization of historic buildings, i. e.: protecting, repairing, strengthening and rebuilding. Steel bracings are auxiliary structural systems, which, due to their relatively small cross-section dimensions and low weight, provide an efficient way to achieve the required resistance and stability of the original historic building structural systems. The steel structure in most cases is the tissue that differs in style and material of genuine tissue which is present in a renewed historic building, but is also often a rational solution acceptable to the conservation and structural point of view.

  8. Atomic force microscopy studies on growth mechanisms and defect formations on {l_brace}110{r_brace} faces of cadmium mercury thiocyanate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, X.N.; Xu, D.; Yuan, D.R.; Sun, D.L.; Lu, M.K.; Zhang, G.H.; Guo, S.Y. [Shandong Univ., Jinan, SD (China). Inst. of Crystal Materials

    2001-07-01

    Growth mechanisms and defect formations on {l_brace}110{r_brace} faces of cadmium mercury thiocyanate crystals grown at 30 C ({sigma} = 0.24) were investigated by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that, under this condition, spiral dislocation controlled mechanism and 2D nucleation mechanism operates simultaneously and equally during growth, which is completely different from the traditional 2D nucleation and dislocation source controlled mechanisms. A number of 2D nucleus are formed at the large step terraces generated by dislocation sources, leading to the unequal growth rates of the elementary steps and thereby ''step bunches'' are caused. Various defects are formed under this growth condition, which is assumed to result from the incongruence between the steps generated by different sources. A new kind of 2D defect, corresponding to one growth layer in height, was observed for the first time. (orig.)

  9. Microband evolution during large plastic strains of stable {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}<1 1 2> Al and Al-Mn crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albou, A.; Driver, J.H. [Ecole des Mines de St Etienne, Centre SMS, CNRS UMR 5146, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint Etienne (France); Maurice, C., E-mail: driver@emse.fr [Ecole des Mines de St Etienne, Centre SMS, CNRS UMR 5146, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint Etienne (France)

    2010-05-15

    The deformation microstructures of Al and Al-Mn {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}<1 1 2> single crystals have been characterized after room temperature channel-die compression up to true strains of 2.1. The evolution of local misorientations and microband structures were quantified by high-resolution electron backscatter diffraction in a field emission gun scanning electron microscope and their alignments compared with the traces of active slip planes and macroscopic shear stress planes. During plane-strain compression these 'Brass' oriented crystals remain stable in terms of the final, average, orientation, with a small orientation spread. However, the microband alignment varies with strain and also with solute content. There is a general tendency for the microbands to be both crystallographic and non-crystallographic at low strains, then crystallographic, and finally mixed again at high strains (with some lamellar banding).

  10. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium for ternary mixtures of {l_brace}heptane + aromatic compounds + [EMpy][ESO{sub 4}]{r_brace} at T = 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirkhani, S.A. [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vossoughi, M., E-mail: vosoughi@sharif.edu [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pazuki, G.R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Safekordi, A.A. [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Heydari, A.; Akbari, J. [Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yavari, M. [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: > This paper reports the LLE data of ternary systems {l_brace}heptane (1) + aromatic compounds (2) + [EMpy][ESO{sub 4}] (3){r_brace}. > The distribution coefficient and the selectivity were obtained from the experimental data. > The consistency of LLE data was successfully correlated with Othmer-Tobias and Hand equation. - Abstract: (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for the ternary systems (heptane + toluene + 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium ethylsulfate) and (heptane + benzene + 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium ethylsulfate) were measured at T = 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. The selectivity and aromatic distribution coefficients, calculated from the equilibrium data, were used to determine if this ionic liquid can be used as a potential extracting solvent for the separation of aromatic compounds from heptane. The consistency of tie-line data was ascertained by applying the Othmer-Tobias and Hand equations.

  11. Different coordination modes for disulfoxides towards diorganotin(IV) dichlorides. X-ray crystal structures of 1,2-cis-bis-(phenylsulfinyl)ethene (rac-,cis-cbpse) and adducts [{l_brace}Ph{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}(meso-bpse){r_brace}{sub n}] and [{l_brace}n-Bu{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}(pdtd){r_brace}{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Gerimario F. de [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], e-mail: gfreitas@unb.br; Ellena, Javier [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Malta, Valeria R.S. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica e Biotecnologia; Ardisson, Jose D. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Fisica Aplicada

    2009-07-01

    The reactions of meso-1,2-bis(phenylsulfinyl)ethane (meso-bpse) with Ph{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}, 2-phenyl-1,3-dithiane trans-1-trans-3-dioxide (pdtd) with n-Bu{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2} and 1,2-cis-bis-(phenylsulfinyl) ethene (rac-,cis-cbpse) with Ph{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}, in 1:1 molar ratio, yielded [{l_brace}Ph{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}(meso-bpse){r_brace}{sub n}], [{l_brace}n-Bu{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}(pdtd){r_brace}{sub 2}] and [{l_brace}Ph{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}(rac,cis-cbpse){r_brace}x] (x = 2 or n), respectively. All adducts were studied by IR, Moessbauer and {sup 119}Sn NMR spectroscopic methods, elemental analysis and single crystal X-ray diffractometry. The X-ray crystal structure of [{l_brace}Ph{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}(meso-bpse){r_brace}{sub n}] revealed the occurrence of infinite chains in which the tin(IV) atoms appear in a distorted octahedral geometry with Cl atoms in cis and Ph groups in trans positions. The X-ray crystal structure of [{l_brace}n-Bu{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}(pdtd){r_brace}{sub 2}] revealed discrete centrosymmetric dimeric species in which the tin(IV) atoms possess a distorted octahedral geometry with bridging disulfoxides in cis and n-butyl moieties in trans positions. The spectroscopic data indicated that the adduct containing the rac,cis-cbpse ligand can be dimeric or polymeric. The X-ray structural analysis of the free rac-,cis-cbpse sulfoxide revealed that the crystals belong to the C2/c space group. (author)

  12. Thermophysical properties of binary mixtures of {l_brace}ionic liquid 2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate + (water, methanol, or ethanol){r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Victor H. [School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), P.O. Box 6066, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Chemical Engineering Department, ETSE, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), P.O. Box 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Mattedi, Silvana [Chemical Engineering Department, Polytechnic School, Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), 40210-630 Salvador-BA (Brazil); Martin-Pastor, Manuel [Unidade de Resonancia Magnetica, RIAIDT, edif. CACTUS, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), P.O. Box 15706, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Aznar, Martin [School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), P.O. Box 6066, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Iglesias, Miguel, E-mail: miguel.iglesias@usc.es [Chemical Engineering Department, ETSE, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), P.O. Box 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Research highlights: > This paper reports the density and speed of sound data of binary mixtures {l_brace}2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate + (water, or methanol, or ethanol){r_brace} measured between the temperatures (298.15 and 313.15) K at atmospheric pressure. > The aggregation, dynamic behavior, and hydrogen-bond network were studied using thermo-acoustic, X-ray, and NMR techniques. > The Peng-Robinson equation of state, coupled with the Wong-Sandler mixing rule using the COSMO-SAC model predicted the density of the solutions with relative mean deviations below than 3.0%. - Abstract: In this work, density and speed of sound data of binary mixtures of an ionic liquid consisting of {l_brace}2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate (2-HEAA) + (water, methanol, or ethanol){r_brace} have been measured throughout the entire concentration range, from the temperature of (288.15 to 323.15) K at atmospheric pressure. The excess molar volumes, variations of the isentropic compressibility, the apparent molar volume, isentropic apparent molar compressibility, and thermal expansion coefficient were calculated from the experimental data. The excess molar volumes were negative throughout the whole composition range. Compressibility data in combination with low angle X-ray scattering and NMR measurements proved that the presence of micelles formed due to ion pair interaction above a critical concentration of the ionic liquid in the mixtures. The Peng-Robinson equation of state coupled with the Wong-Sandler mixing rule and COSMO-SAC model was used to predict densities and the calculated deviations were lower than 3%, for binary mixtures in all composition range.

  13. "Brace Technology" Thematic Series - The Lyon approach to the conservative treatment of scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lecante Cyril

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Lyon Brace, or adjustable multi-shell brace, has been used for more than 60 years. The use and function of the Lyon Brace includes: - The utilization of one or two corrective plaster casts, which enables a true lengthening of the concave ligaments. - An oriented CAD-CAM moulding in 3D auto correction after the removal of the plaster cast. - A blueprint adapted to Lenke's classification. - A specific physiotherapy program. Background Pierre Stagnara created the Lyon Brace in 1947. The brace has the following characteristics: - It adjusts to allow for a child's growth of up to seven centimetres and for an increase in weight of up to seven kilograms. - It is 'active' in that the rigidity of the PMM (polymetacrylate of methyl structure stimulates the user to auto-correct. The active axial auto-correction decreases the pressures of the brace on the trunk. - It is decompressive in that the effect of extension between the two pelvic and scapular girdles decreases the pressure on the intervertebral disc allowing for more effective pushes in the other planes. - It is symmetrical making it both more aesthetically pleasing and easier to build. - It is stable at both shoulders and pelvic girdle, facilitating the intermediate 3D corrections. - It is transparent. The pressure of the shells on the skin can be directly controlled so "pads" are usually not necessary. Brace description Two metal bars are fixed vertically, one anterior the other posterior and all shells are attached from the bottom to the top in this order: - Two pelvic shells ensure an optimal stability of the brace. - One lumbar shell T12-L4, which can be either independent or extending, at the abdominal chondrocostal level. - One thoracic shell at the level of the thoracic convexity. - One opposite thoracic shell used as a counter push. - One shoulder balance shell on the side of the thoracic convexity. Long term follow up results This is a retrospective study of 1,338 completed

  14. A Conceptual Design and Structural Analysis for ITER Mid-plane Brace Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ITER, International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, Tokamak machine is mainly composed of 9 vacuum vessel (VV)/toroidal field coils (TFCs)/vacuum vessel thermal shields (VVTS) 40 .deg. sectors. Each VV/TFCs/VVTS 40 .deg. sector is made up of one 40 .deg. VV, two 20 .deg. TFCs and associated VVTS segments. The ITER Tokamak assembly tools are purpose-built tools to assemble the ITER Tokamak machine which includes the cryostat and the components contained therein. Based on the design description document prepared by the IO (ITER international organization), Korea has carried out the conceptual design of assembly tools with IO cooperation. The 40 .deg. sector assemblies attached mid-plane brace tools sub-assembled at assembly hall are transferred to Tokamak hall using the lifting tool operated by Tokamak main cranes. The sector sub-assembly tools are composed of the upending tool, the sector sub-assembly tool, the sector lifting tool and the vacuum vessel support and mid-plane brace tools. The mid-plane brace tool is assembled to inner surface of VV and TFCs in phase of sector sub-assembly after completion of all sector components. VV, TFC and VVTS are separated fully before completion of 9 sectors at Tokamak in-pit. In this paper the mid-plane brace tools is introduced about function, structure and status of research and development are also described

  15. Detailed analysis of the segregation driving forces for Ni(Ag) and Ag(Ni) in the {sigma}=11 {l_brace}1 1 3{r_brace} and {sigma}=11 {l_brace}3 3 2{r_brace} grain boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezzar, B.; Khalfallah, O.; Larere, A.; Paidar, V.; Hardouin Duparc, O

    2004-05-17

    The behaviour with respect to segregation is studied for two qualitatively different symmetrical tilt grain boundaries (GBs): a low energy boundary with mirror-symmetric structure on the {l_brace}1 1 3{r_brace} plane and the high energy {l_brace}3 3 2{r_brace} GB with a 'zigzag' structural pattern. These two structures have been confirmed by high resolution transmission electronic microscopy observations in nickel. Intergranular segregation is studied in the limit of infinitely diluted solution for Ni(Ag) and Ag(Ni) systems modelled with Finnis-Sinclair like potentials. The atomic sites are characterized by a geometrical parameter defined by their exact Voronoy volumes and the pressure locally exerted. The segregation energies and driving forces are compared with these parameters in order to characterize a segregation 'susceptibility' of intergranular atomic sites. The size effect calculated by the method of virtual impurity represents the main segregation driving force for the considered systems.

  16. Ankle Bracing, Plantar-Flexion Angle, and Ankle Muscle Latencies During Inversion Stress in Healthy Participants

    OpenAIRE

    Kernozek, Thomas; Durall, Christopher J; Friske, Allison; Mussallem, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Context: Ankle braces may enhance ankle joint proprioception, which in turn may affect reflexive ankle muscle activity during a perturbation. Despite the common occurrence of plantar-flexion inversion ankle injuries, authors of previous studies of ankle muscle latencies have focused on inversion stresses only.

  17. Hysteretic Behavior of Tubular Steel Braces Having Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Reinforcement Around End Net Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Haydaroğlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an experimental investigation into the seismic retrofit of tubular steel braces using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP members. CFRP retrofitting of net sections for compact tubes are proposed for delaying potential local net section failure. A total of almost full-scale three (TB-1, TB-2, and TB-3 compact steel tubular specimens were designed per AISC specifications, constructed, and cyclically tested to fracture. Retrofitted braces, when compared to the reference specimen, developed fuller hysteretic curves. Increase in cumulative hysteretic energy dissipation and the elongation in fracture life in the specimen retrofitted with CFRP plates and CFRP sheet wraps at net sections are observed during testing. This resulted in a maximum of 82.5% more dissipated energy for compact tube specimens. Also, this retrofit provided a longer experimental fracture life (maximum 59% more. Due to fracture initiation during the last cycles, significant reductions in strength and stiffness have been obtained. No significant change (maximum 10% in the brace stiffness was observed, which could be desirable in seismic retrofit applications. Pushover analysis per FEMA 356 for the bare specimen shows that FEMA does not represent actual brace behavior in the compression side although pushover and experimental results are in good agreement in the tension side.

  18. Clinical use of a neck brace to improve hands-free speech in laryngectomized patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirven, R.; Kooijman, P.G.C.; Wouters, Y.; Marres, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Time of adherence of adhesive baseplate housings to the neck of a laryngectomized patient is one of the main problems that account for the low number of laryngectomy patients who benefit from hands-free speech. An external neck brace (ENB 1.0) was introduced to support peristo

  19. Lateral Bearing Capacity of Single Connectors in Parallel Loaded Battens used for Truss Bracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob

    In order to analyse the stiffness and the strength of joints used for battens in bracing of trusses 70 tests have been made. The joint was made by a single nail or screw located perpendicular to or at an angle to the grain direction. The single fastener joints did not fulfil the requirements for ...

  20. A specific scoliosis classification correlating with brace treatment: description and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villagrasa Mónica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal classification systems for scoliosis which were developed to correlate with surgical treatment historically have been used in brace treatment as well. Previously, there had not been a scoliosis classification system developed specifically to correlate with brace design and treatment. The purpose of this study is to show the intra- and inter- observer reliability of a new scoliosis classification system correlating with brace treatment. Methods An original classification system ("Rigo Classification" was developed in order to define specific principles of correction required for efficacious brace design and fabrication. The classification includes radiological as well as clinical criteria. The radiological criteria are utilized to differentiate five basic types of curvatures including: (I imbalanced thoracic (or three curves pattern, (II true double (or four curve pattern, (III balanced thoracic and false double (non 3 non 4, (IV single lumbar and (V single thoracolumbar. In addition to the radiological criteria, the Rigo Classification incorporates the curve pattern according to SRS terminology, the balance/imbalance at the transitional point, and L4-5 counter-tilting. To test the intra-and inter-observer reliability of the Rigo Classification, three observers (1 MD, 1 PT and 1 CPO measured (and one of them, the MD, re-measured 51 AP radiographs including all curvature types. Results The intra-observer Kappa value was 0.87 (acceptance >0.70. The inter-observer Kappa values fluctuated from 0.61 to 0.81 with an average of 0.71 (acceptance > 0.70. Conclusions A specific scoliosis classification which correlates with brace treatment has been proposed with an acceptable intra-and inter-observer reliability.

  1. Correction effects of the ScoliOlogiC® „Chêneau light" brace in patients with scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Carola

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different bracing concepts are used today for the treatment of scoliosis. The plaster cast method worldwide seems to be the most practiced technique at the moment. CAD (Computer Aided Design systems are on the market which allow brace adjustments without plaster. The latest development however, is the use of the ScoliOlogiC™ off the shelf system enabling the orthopaedic technician to construct a light brace for scoliosis correction from a variety of pattern specific shells to be connected to an anterior and a posterior upright. This „Chêneau light" brace, developed according to the Chêneau principle, promises a reduced impediment of quality of life in the brace. However, material reduction should not result in reduced effectiveness. Therefore the primary correction effect in the „Chêneau light" brace has been evaluated and compared with that of other braces used today. Methods The correction effects of the first 81 patients (main diagnosis Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS [n = 64] or Early Onset Scoliosis (EOS [n = 15], treated according to the principle of the „Chêneau light" brace were evaluated after an average treatment time of 6 weeks by a full-body X-ray made in the standing position whilst wearing the brace and compared with the last X-ray before bracing. The average curvature angle of the whole group was 35,6°, the average age was 12,9 years (SD 1,9, average Risser sign was 1,3 (SD 1,5, average Tanner rating 2,75 (SD 0,7. Results The Cobb angle in the whole group was reduced by an average of 16,4°, which corresponds to a correction effect of 51%. The differences were highly significant in the T-test (T = 17,4; p Conclusion The use of the „Chêneau light" brace leads to correction effects above average when compared to the correction effects of other braces described in literature. The reduction of material seems to affect the desired correction in a positive way.

  2. 2 MeV e-irradiation UHVEM study on the impact of O and Ge doping on {l_brace}113{r_brace}-defect formation in Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhellemont, J. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); On leave from Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Yasuda, H. [Research Center for Ultra-High Voltage Electron Microscopy, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Tokumoto, Y.; Ohno, Y.; Suezawa, M.; Yonenaga, I. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    First results are presented of a study on the impact of O and Ge doping on {l_brace}113{r_brace}-defect formation in Si using in situ 2 MeV e-irradiation in a high voltage electron microscope. Comparison with undoped Si, reveals a suppression of {l_brace}113{r_brace}-defect formation due to O and Ge. The observations are discussed in the frame of a theoretical model assuming quasi-chemical reactions to describe the intrinsic point defect behaviour during irradiation as a function of irradiation temperature and specimen thickness. It is shown that for irradiations at high temperatures, intrinsic point defect diffusivity values derived from crystal growth and metal diffusion experiments can be used to explain the observations semi-quantitatively. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. An intrinsic effect of hydrogen on cyclic slip deformation around a {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} fatigue crack in Fe-3.2 wt.% Si alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Y., E-mail: yoshim.takahashi@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Tanaka, M.; Higashida, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Yamaguchi, K.; Noguchi, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    The effect of gaseous hydrogen on cyclic slip behavior around a fatigue crack tip introduced along the {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} plane in a Fe-3.2 wt.% Si alloy is precisely investigated by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and fractography. The results clearly suggest that the fatigue crack growth rate is promoted by hydrogen, whereas the number of dislocations emitted per load cycle is reduced. In addition, dislocation distribution is localized around the crack, causing quasi-brittle crack morphology. A sustained load test confirms that no subcritical crack growth caused by cleavage or micro-void coalescence exists along the {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} plane, which indicates that the observed increase in the fatigue crack growth rate is correlated solely to the intrinsic effect of hydrogen on the cyclic slip-off process around the crack tip.

  4. Application of orientation imaging to the study of substructural development in cold deformed Al-0.3%Mn single crystal of {l_brace}110{r_brace}<112> orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, H; Miszczyk, M [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, ul. Reymonta 25, PL-30059 Krakow (Poland); Maurice, C; Driver, J H, E-mail: nmpaul@imim-pan.krakow.pl [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint Etienne, Centre SMS, 158 Cours Fauriel, FR-42023 Saint Etienne (France)

    2010-02-15

    A systematic study of the deformation microstructures over 3 perpendicular surfaces was carried out in the present work in order to correlate better the substructure with slip patterns, initial and final crystal orientation, and the macroscopic coordinate system. The microstructure and texture evolution of high purity Al-0.3 wt% Mn alloy of initial near brass {l_brace}110{r_brace}<112> (or Bs) orientation, channel-die compressed to the strain level of 1.5, were studied by TEM (including TEM orientation mapping) and high-resolution FEG-SEM/EBSD techniques to observe crystal subdivision deformation patterns at the microscopic scale. The grain orientation dependent structures were analyzed in terms of active slip systems focussing on the crystallography of extended planar boundaries. It was concluded that the type of dislocation structure (one or two sets of microbands) in {l_brace}110{r_brace}<112> oriented crystallites, at moderate strains (< 1.5) depended strongly on the crystallographic grain orientation. In this non-ideal initial crystal orientation the applied deformation mode activates a double slip, of which one system predominates and leads to further rotation away from Bs. A general rotation combined with a wide orientation spread is observed after a strain up to 1.5. The microband boundary alignment corresponds very well to the traces of crystallographic {l_brace}111{r_brace} planes, on which most of the slip occurs.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Steel Braces Frames and Buckling Restrained Braces Frames in Tall Buildings%高层钢结构支撑方案抗震性能对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强国平

    2012-01-01

    高层钢结构中框架—支撑结构是一种常用的结构形式,文中介绍了支撑结构体系的发展情况.以某实际工程为例,说明了普通钢支撑和屈曲约束支撑两种不同支撑对结构弹性性能的影响,通过静力弹塑性推覆分析对比研究了两种方案的弹塑性性能,并对屈曲约束支撑采用偏心布置形式对框架梁的影响进行了探讨.%Braced steel frame is a normal structural system in high-rise steel buildings. The development of the braced steel frame is introduced. Based on a practical project, the influences of steel braces and bucking restrained braces on the elastic and elasto-plastic behavior are analyzed. By pushover analysis, the seismic behaviors of two frames are studied. And the buckling restrained braces used in eccentrically braces steel frames are analyzed.

  6. Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 14: brace therapy as an adjunct to or substitute for lumbar fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Andrew T; Ghogawala, Zoher; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Watters, William C; Resnick, Daniel K; Sharan, Alok; Eck, Jason C; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Wang, Jeffrey C; Groff, Michael W; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

    2014-07-01

    The utilization of orthotic devices for lumbar degenerative disease has been justified from both a prognostic and therapeutic perspective. As a prognostic tool, bracing is applied prior to surgery to determine if immobilization of the spine leads to symptomatic relief and thus justify the performance of a fusion. Since bracing does not eliminate motion, the validity of this assumption is questionable. Only one low-level study has investigated the predictive value of bracing prior to surgery. No correlation between response to bracing and fusion outcome was observed; therefore a trial of preoperative bracing is not recommended. Based on low-level evidence, the use of bracing is not recommended for the prevention of low-back pain in a general working population, since the incidence of low-back pain and impact on productivity were not reduced. However, in laborers with a history of back pain, a positive impact on lost workdays was observed when bracing was applied. Bracing is recommended as an option for treatment of subacute low-back pain, as several higher-level studies have demonstrated an improvement in pain scores and function. The use of bracing following instrumented posterolateral fusion, however, is not recommended, since equivalent outcomes have been demonstrated with or without the application of a brace.

  7. The immediate effect of a Boston brace on lung volumes and pulmonary compliance in mild adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Katsaris, G.; Loukos, A.; Valavanis, J.; Vassiliou, M.; Behrakis, P. K.

    1999-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is known to result in lung volume and pulmonary compliance reduction. Boston brace treatment of IS is an additional factor causing restrictive respiratory syndrome due to external chest wall compression. Nevertheless, the immediate effect of Boston bracing on the pulmonary compliance of scoliotic patients has not been studied systematically. Spirometric and plethysmographic lung volumes, static lung compliance (CST(L)) and specific lung compliance (CST(L)/functional ...

  8. Two Cases of Eating Disorders in Adolescents with Dental Braces Fitted Prior to the Onset of Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Sung-Wan; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment typically occurs during early childhood and adolescence but the wearing of dental braces is often associated with sudden changes in eating patterns that prolong treatment into the teenage years. Despite these changes, psychological assessments related to eating disorders during the course of orthodontic treatment are often ignored. Based on the findings of the present case report, it is suggested that adolescent patients who wear braces and exhibit severe weight loss sho...

  9. Seismic Response and Evaluation of SDOF Self-Centering Friction Damping Braces Subjected to Several Earthquake Ground Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Wan Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly deals with seismic response and performance for self-centering friction damping braces (SFDBs subjected to several maximum- or design-leveled earthquake ground motions. The self-centering friction damping brace members consist of core recentering components fabricated with superelastic shape memory alloy wires and energy dissipation devices achieved through shear friction mechanism. As compared to the conventional brace members for use in the steel concentrically braced frame structure, these self-centering friction damping brace members make the best use of their representative characteristics to minimize residual deformations and to withstand earthquake loads without member replacement. The configuration and response mechanism of self-centering friction damping brace systems are firstly described in this study, and then parametric investigations are conducted through nonlinear time-history analyses performed on numerical single degree-of-freedom spring models. After observing analysis results, adequate design methodologies that optimally account for recentering capability and energy dissipation according to their comparative parameters are intended to be suggested in order to take advantage of energy capacity and to minimize residual deformation simultaneously.

  10. [Clinical relevance of unloading in cartilage therapy of the knee--shoe insoles, knee braces or additional operative procedure?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, T M; Imhoff, A B; Ateschrang, A; Stöckle, U; Schröter, S

    2015-02-01

    Restoration of a neutral biomechanical environment and reduction of overload is an important factor contributing to the success of any cartilage repair procedure. Reduction of overload can by achieved by so called unloading procedures in order to reduce intraarticular pressure from the repair zone. Unloading can be achieved via loss of weight, wedged shoe insoles, knee braces or via operations such as osteotomies around the knee joint. The cartilage therapy and the concomitant unloading procedure should be adapted to the individual pathology and realistic aims of the patient. Wedged insoles and braces are the least invasive treatment methods. In comparison, however, beneficial effects of braces outline those of laterally wedged heels. Nevertheless long-term compliance with insoles and braces is poor. Concerning braces either because the positive effects of the braces are too small or because the adverse effects are too large. Unloading in the long run may only be achieved through operative procedures. When an osteotomy seems to be too invasive the arthroscopic release of the posterior oblique ligament might be an option. Patients with an intact contralateral chondral status, medium to slight malalignment who want to remain at high activity levels, remain good candidates for unloading osteotomies.

  11. Structural Optimization and Design of a Strut-Braced Wing Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Naghshineh-Pour, Amir H.

    1998-01-01

    A significant improvement can be achieved in the performance of transonic transport aircraft using Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) by implementing truss-braced wing concepts in combination with other advanced technologies and novel design innovations. A considerable reduction in drag can be obtained by using a high aspect ratio wing with thin airfoil sections and tip-mounted engines. However, such wing structures could suffer from a significant weight penalty. Thus, the use of an ...

  12. Effects of Bracing of High-Rise Buildings upon their Static and Dynamic Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivánková Oľga

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes effects of bracing of high-rise buildings upon their static and dynamic behaviour. In static and dynamic analyses, values of displacement for 4 different variants of stiffening elements distribution were calculated. The calculations were made for building both fixed into the ground and rested on elastic supports. The building was modelled as a 3D variant using Finite Element Method (FEM in program Scia Engineer.

  13. Non-slender RC Columns Limits for Braced, End-loaded Members

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Structural frame systems may be analyzed and designed based on forces from conventional first order theory when second order effects of axial forces on displacements in the compression members of the system are negligible. This is often the case. Extensive nonlinear analysis results are presented to document slenderness limits below which this is so for braced, end moment loaded compression members with various end restraints. Major factors that affect lower slenderness limit predictions of s...

  14. Joint investigation of the local material rotation and lattice spin in a cube {l_brace}100{r_brace} <001> oriented single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darrieulat, M; Fillit, R Y; Mondon, M; Sao-Joao, S, E-mail: darrieulat@emse.f [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, SMS Centre, UMR CNRS n0 5146, 158 cours Fauriel 42023 Saint-Etienne, cedex 2 (France)

    2010-07-01

    Cube {l_brace}100{r_brace} <001> oriented single crystals of Al 1% Mn were compressed in channel-die. Their lateral faces were covered with transferable carbon grids with a step of 100mm . At a deformation of about 0.3, the vertical bars of the grids show undulations whose characteristic length is of the order of the millimetre and which become sharper and smaller as the deformation proceeds. Fiducial golden grids with a step of 20 mm remain largely unaffected. This shows that the investigated heterogeneity is typical of the mesoscopic scale and has no directly related patterns at the macroscopic and microscopic level. Microfocussed X-rays were used to measure the crystallographic rotations during the process. The investigated spot was a few 0.1 mm{sup 2}. At a deformation of 0.6, the lateral faces of the crystal undergo a split into two Cube orientations each rotated of about 15{sup 0} around the transverse axis. This is put in relation with the undulations of the bars. At 0.9 an additional rotation around the longitudinal axis appears. The local material rotation and the lattice spin at the mesoscopic scale are interpreted in accordance with previous analyses of the evolution of the Cube texture based on EBSD and the observation of the traces of slip systems.

  15. 1,2-Bis-(1-{l_brace}3-pyridyl-{r_brace}3-methyltriazen-3-yl)ethane: synthesis and x-ray crystal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, K.; Turner, E.; Jenkins, H. [Saint Mary' s Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)]. E-mail: keith.vaughan@smu.ca

    2004-03-01

    3-Aminopyridine is diazotized in the conventional manner and the diazonium salt coupled with N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine to afford the title compound (1), which is a potential antitumour agent. The compound has been characterized by spectroscopic methods. The {sup 1}H NMR spectrum shows evidence of rotational conformerism, from the observation of broadening of the N-methyl signals in the room-temperature spectrum. Low-temperature NMR spectra (down to 223 K) show the presence of three distinct rotamers. The crystal structure of 1,2-bis-(1-{l_brace}3-pyridyl-{r_brace}3-methyltriazen-3-yl)ethane (1) has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The bis-triazene (1) exists as the 'staggered' conformation in the solid state, with an 'anti-anti' configuration around the N-N bond of the triazene units. The crystal structure of 1 is compared with the closely related bis-triazene 2 and also compared with the simple mono-triazene 3. Crystal data for 1, C{sub 14}H{sub 18}N{sub 8}: orthorhombic, space group Pbca, a=11.2550(8) ANGSTROM, b=8.8507(6) ANGSTROM, c=15.0069(10) ANGSTROM, {beta}=90{sup o} and V=1494.91(18) ANGSTROM{sup 3}, for Z=4. (author)

  16. Aeroelasticity of Axially Loaded Aerodynamic Structures for Truss-Braced Wing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Ting, Eric; Lebofsky, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an aeroelastic finite-element formulation for axially loaded aerodynamic structures. The presence of axial loading causes the bending and torsional sitffnesses to change. For aircraft with axially loaded structures such as the truss-braced wing aircraft, the aeroelastic behaviors of such structures are nonlinear and depend on the aerodynamic loading exerted on these structures. Under axial strain, a tensile force is created which can influence the stiffness of the overall aircraft structure. This tension stiffening is a geometric nonlinear effect that needs to be captured in aeroelastic analyses to better understand the behaviors of these types of aircraft structures. A frequency analysis of a rotating blade structure is performed to demonstrate the analytical method. A flutter analysis of a truss-braced wing aircraft is performed to analyze the effect of geometric nonlinear effect of tension stiffening on the flutter speed. The results show that the geometric nonlinear tension stiffening effect can have a significant impact on the flutter speed prediction. In general, increased wing loading results in an increase in the flutter speed. The study illustrates the importance of accounting for the geometric nonlinear tension stiffening effect in analyzing the truss-braced wing aircraft.

  17. Bracing superior to neuromuscular training for the prevention of self-reported recurrent ankle sprains: a three-arm randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Kasper W.; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert A L M

    2014-01-01

    Background Ankle sprain is the most common sports-related injury with a high rate of recurrence and associated costs. Recent studies have emphasised the effectiveness of both neuromuscular training and bracing for the secondary prevention of ankle sprains. Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of combined bracing and neuromuscular training, or bracing alone, against the use of neuromuscular training on recurrences of ankle sprain after usual care. Methods 384 athletes, aged 18–70, who had sustain...

  18. Treatment of chronic low back pain in patients with spinal deformities using a sagittal re-alignment brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Hans-Rudolf

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For adult scoliosis patients with chronic low back pain bracing is initially indicated before spinal surgery is considered. Until recently there has been a lack of research into the effect upon pain reductions in the mid and long-term. Promising results have been documented in short-term studies for the application of a sagittal re-alignment brace in patients with spinal deformities and along with pain; however mid-term and long-term results are not yet available. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mid-term effects of this brace with respect to pain control. Materials and methods 67 patients (58 females and 9 males with chronic low back pain (> 24 months and the diagnosis of scoliosis or hyperkyphosis were treated with a sagittal re-alignment brace (physio-logic brace™ between January 2006 and July 2007. The indication for this kind of brace treatment was derived from a positive sagittal re-alignment test (SRT and the exclusion of successful conservative treatment during the last 24 months. The aim of this type of conservative intervention was to avoid surgery for chronic low back pain. Results The average pain intensity was measured on the Roland and Morris VRS (5 steps before treatment. This was 3.3 (t1, at the time of brace adjustment it was 2.7 (t2 and after at an average observation time of 18 months it was 2.0 (t3. The differences were highly significant in the Wilcoxon test. Discussion Short-term measurements showed that a significant pain reduction is possible in chronic postural low back pain using a sagittal re-alignment brace inducing lumbar re-lordosation. In a preliminary report at adjustment (t2, highly significant improvements of pain intensity have also been demonstrated. At 6 months of treatment however, no improvement was measured. The improvement of the mid-term effects (18 months found in this study compared to the preliminary report may be due to the changed approach to compliance: whilst

  19. Do ankle braces provide similar effects on ankle biomechanical variables in subjects with and without chronic ankle instability during landing?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Songning; Zhang; Michael; Wortley; Julia; Freedman; Silvernail; Daniel; Carson; Maxime; R.Paquette

    2012-01-01

    <正>Purpose:The purpose of this study was to examine effects of a sport version of a semi-rigid ankle brace(ElementTM) and a soft ankle brace (ASO) on ankle biomechanics and ground reaction forces(GRFs) during a drop landing activity in subjects with chronic ankle instability(CAD compared to healthy subjects with no history of CAI. Methods:Ten healthy subjects and 10 subjects who had multiple ankle sprains participated in the study as the control and unstable subjects, respectively.The CAI subjects were age,body mass index and gender matched with the control subjects.The arch index and ankle functions of the subjects were measured in a subject screening session.During the biomechanical test session,participants performed five trials of drop landing from 0.6 m,wearing no brace(NB).Element? brace and ASO brace.Simultaneous recording of three-dimensional kinematic(240 Hz) and GRF(1200 Hz) data were performed. Results:The CAI subjects had lower ankle functional survey scores.The arch index and deformity results showed greater arch deformity of ElementTM against a static load than in NB and ASO due to greater initial arch position held by the brace.CAI participants had greater eversion velocity than healthy controls.The ASO brace reduced the first peak vertical GRF whereas ElementTM increased 2nd peak vertical GRF. ElementTMbrace reduced eversion range of motion(ROM) and peak eversion velocity compared to NB and ASO.In addition,ElementTM reduced dorsiflexion ROM and increased peak plantarflexion moment compared to NB and ASO. Conclusion:Results of static arch measurements and dynamic ankle motion suggest that the restrictions offered by both braces are in part due to more dorsiflexed ankle positions at contact,and higher initial arch position and stiffer ankle for ElementTM.

  20. Fluoroscopic Analysis of Tibial Translation in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injured Knees With and Without Bracing During Forward Lunge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite several studies with different methods, the effect of functional knee braces on knee joint kinematics is not clear. Direct visualization of joint components through medical imaging modalities may provide the clinicians with more useful information. Objectives In this study, for the first time in the literature, video fluoroscopy was used to investigate the effect of knee bracing on the sagittal plane kinematics of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injured patients. Patients and Methods For twelve male unilateral ACL deficient subjects, the anterior tibial translation was measured during lunge exercise in non-braced and braced conditions. Fluoroscopic images were acquired from the subjects using a digital fluoroscopy system with a rate of 10 fps. The image of each frame was scaled using a calibration coin and analyzed in AutoCAD environment. The angle between the two lines, tangent to the posterior cortexes of the femoral and tibial shafts was measured as the flexion angle. For the fluoroscopic images associated with 0°, 15°, 30°, 45° and 60° knee flexion angles, the relative anterior-posterior configuration of the tibiofemoral joint was assessed by measuring the position of landmarks on the tibia and femur. Results Results indicated that the overall anterior translations of the tibia during the eccentric (down and concentric (up phases of lunge exercise were 10.4 ± 1.7 mm and 9.0 ± 2.2 mm for non-braced, and 10.1 ± 3.4 mm and 7.4 ± 2.5 mm, for braced conditions, respectively. The difference of the tibial anterior-posterior translation behaviors of the braced and non-braced knees was not statistically significant. Conclusion Fluoroscopic imaging provides an effective tool to measure the dynamic behavior of the knee joint in the sagittal plane and within the limitations of this study, the pure mechanical stabilizing effect of functional knee bracing is not sufficient to control the anterior tibial translation of the ACL

  1. Effect of Semi-Rigid and Soft Ankle Braces on Static and Dynamic Postural Stability in Young Male Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Noriaki; Urabe, Yukio; Tsutsumi, Shogo; Numano, Shuhei; Morita, Miho; Takeuchi, Takuya; Iwata, Shou; Kobayashi, Toshiki

    2016-06-01

    Ankle braces have been suggested to protect ankle joints from a sprain by restricting inversion and improving proprioception. However, the difference in effects between a semi-rigid brace and a soft brace regarding dynamic postural control after landing is not known. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of soft (SB) and semi-rigid (SRB) ankle braces on static and dynamic postural stability in healthy young men. Altogether, 21 male adults (mean age 24.0 ± 1.5 years) were assessed for one leg while wearing non-brace (NB), SB or SRB. Balance in single-limb stance on a single-force platform with open eyes and closed eyes were assessed for the non-dominant leg under SB, SRB, and NB conditions. Locus length/second (mm/s) and the enveloped area (mm·s(-2)) surrounded by the circumference of the wave pattern during postural sway were calculated. For assessing dynamic postural stability, the participant jumped and landed on one leg on a force platform, and the Dynamic Postural Stability Index (DPSI) and the maximum vertical ground reaction force (vGRFmax) were measured. The data were compared among the three conditions with repeated-measures analysis of variance. The correlations between locus length/second, enveloped area, DPSI values (DPSI, Anterior-Posterior Stability Index, Medial-Lateral Stability Index, and Vertical Stability Index), and vGRFmax were then calculated. The results indicated that locus length/second and enveloped area with open eyes and closed eyes were not significantly different for each condition. However, a significant lower in the DPSI and Vertical Stability Index were observed with the SRB in comparison to the SB and NB. A significant improvement in vGRFmax was also observed with the SRB in comparison to NB. SRB demonstrated a positive effect on dynamic postural stability after landing on a single leg and may improve balance by increasing dynamic postural stability. Key pointsThis study examined the effect of ankle braces on

  2. Thermophysical properties of {l_brace}({+-})-linalool + propan-1-ol{r_brace}: A first stage towards the development of a green process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Abarrio, Sandra M.; Torcal, Marcos; Haya, M. Luisa; Urieta, Jose S. [Group of Applied Thermodynamics and Surfaces (GATHERS), Aragon Institute for Engineering Research (I3A), Universidad de Zaragoza, Facultad de Ciencias, Zaragoza 50009 (Spain); Mainar, Ana M., E-mail: ammainar@unizar.e [Group of Applied Thermodynamics and Surfaces (GATHERS), Aragon Institute for Engineering Research (I3A), Universidad de Zaragoza, Facultad de Ciencias, Zaragoza 50009 (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: Optimization of supercritical processes needs adequate methods to reproduce the phase behavior. {rho}, u, n{sub D} and related properties of the system linalool+propan-1-ol were studied. Collision Factor (u), Lorentz-Lorenz and Gladstone -Dale (n{sub D}) give the best results. Peng-Robinson, Patel-Teja, SAFT and PC-SAFT were tested as predictive P{rho}T models. PC-SAFT provides the best P{rho}T prediction (20-40 MPa) with an AAD% of 0.83. - Abstract: In this paper, densities, speeds of sound and refractive indexes of binary mixture of {l_brace}({+-})-linalool (1) + propan-1-ol (2){r_brace} at four temperatures (283.15, 298.15, 313.15, and 328.15) K and 0.1 MPa are reported over the whole composition range. These data were used to calculate excess molar volume, speed of sound deviation, excess isentropic compressibility, refractive index deviation, molar refraction, and molar refraction deviation at the four work temperatures. All magnitudes were fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation. Subsequently prediction of speed of sound and refractive index was carried out using several theoretical models or equations. On the other hand, the density of the same mixture was determined in the same temperature range at pressures from 20 MPa to 40 MPa. Four equation of state (Peng-Robinson, Patel-Teja, SAFT, PC-SAFT) were tested as predictive models of the P{rho}T behavior. The best results were obtained by PC-SAFT, with an average absolute deviation of 0.83%.

  3. Assessment of buckling-restrained braced frame reliability using an experimental limit-state model and stochastic dynamic analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Blake M. Andrews; Junho Song; Larry A. Fahnestock

    2009-01-01

    Buckling-restrained braces (BRBs) have recently become popular in the United :States for use as primary members of seismic lateral-force-resisting systems. A BRB is a steel brace that does not buckle in compression but instead yields in both tension and compression. Although design guidelines for BRB applications have been developed, systematic procedures for assessing performance and quantifying reliability are still needed. This paper presents an analytical framework for assessing buckling-restrained braced frame (BRBF) reliability when subjected to seismic loads. This framework efficiently quantifies the risk of BRB failure due to low-cycle fatigue fracture of the BRB core. The procedure includes a series of components that: (1) quantify BRB demand in terms of BRB core deformation histories generated through stochastic dynamic analyses; (2) quantify the limit-state of a BRB in terms of its remaining cumulative plastic ductility capacity based on an experimental database; and (3) evaluate the probability of BRB failure, given the quantified demand and capacity, through structural reliability analyses. Parametric studies were conducted to investigate the effects of the seismic load, and characteristics of the BRB and BRBF on the probability of brace failure. In addition, fragility curves (i.e., conditional probabilities of brace failure given ground shaking intensity parameters) were created by the proposed framework. While the framework presented in this paper is applied to the assessment of BRBFs, the modular nature of the framework components allows for application to other structural components and systems.

  4. Effect of Compressive Force on Aeroelastic Stability of a Strut-Braced Wing

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaeman, Erwin

    2001-01-01

    Recent investigations of a strut-braced wing (SBW) aircraft show that, at high positive load factors, a large tensile force in the strut leads to a considerable compressive axial force in the inner wing, resulting in a reduced bending stiffness and even buckling of the wing. Studying the influence of this compressive force on the structural response of SBW is thus of paramount importance in the early stage of SBW design. The purpose of the this research is to investigate the effect of co...

  5. Functional bracing for comminuted extra-articular fractures of the distal third of the humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, A; Horowitch, A; Aboulafia, A; Vangsness, C T

    1990-03-01

    From 1982 to 1987 we treated 85 extra-articular comminuted distal third humeral fractures in adults with prefabricated plastic braces. Of these, 15% were open fractures and 18% had initial peripheral nerve injury. On average, the sleeve was applied 12 days after injury and used for 10 weeks. There was 96% union, with no infections. All nerve injuries resolved or were improving at the latest examination. At union there was varus deformity averaging 9 degrees in 81% of patients, but loss of range of movement was minimal and functional results were good.

  6. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Harald

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have evaluated long-term outcome after bracing using validated health related quality of life outcome measures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term outcome in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS 12 years or more after treatment with the Boston brace. Methods 109 (80% of 135 patients (7 men with AIS treated with the Boston brace at a mean of 19.2 (range 12–28 years previously responded to long-term follow-up examination. All patients (n = 109 answered a standardised questionnaire including demographics, work status, treatment, Global Back Disability Question, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI (100-worst possible, General Function Score (GFS (100 – worst possible, EuroQol (EQ-5D (1 – best possible, EQ-VAS (100 – best possible and Scoliosis Research Society -22 (SRS – 22 (5 – best possible. Clinical and radiological examination was obtained in 86 patients. Results The magnitude of the primary prebrace major curve was in average 33.4° (range 20 – 52. At weaning and at the last follow-up the corresponding values were 28.3° (9–56 and 34.2° (8 – 87, respectively. The mean age at follow-up was 35 (27 – 46 years. Work status was: full time (80%, on sick-leave (3%, on rehabilitation (4%, disability pension (4%, homemaker (7%, students (2%, 7% had changed their job because of back pain. 88% had had delivered a baby, 55% of them had pain in pregnancy. Global back status was excellent or good in 81%. The mean (standard deviation ODI was 6.4 (9.8, GFS 5.4 (10.5, EQ-5D 0.84 (0.2, SRS-22: pain 4.2 (0.8, mental health 4.2 (0.7, self-image 3.9 (0.7, function 4.1 (0.6, satisfaction with treatment 3.7 (1.0. 28% had taken physiotherapy for back pain the last year and 12% had visited a doctor. Conclusion Long-term results were satisfactory in most patients with AIS treated with the Boston brace.

  7. Analysis of Anchors and Bracing Configurations for Personal Fall Arrest Systems in Residential Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Justin Collins

    2013-01-01

    AbstractAnalysis of Anchors and Bracing Configurations with Personal Fall Arrest Systems in Residential ConstructionJustin Collins Morris    Falls continue to be a major problem in the residential construction industry and account for a large number of injuries and fatalities each year (US Department of Labor, 2012).  The effects of a fall are catastrophic to the workers and their families as well as the construction company and surrounding community.  Prevention of these incidents has been t...

  8. Effect of hot and cold deformation on the P {l_brace}0 1 1{r_brace}<4 5 5> recrystallization texture in a continuous cast Al-Mn-Mg aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.C. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, 177 Anderson Hall, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)]. E-mail: wcliu@engr.uky.edu; Morris, J.G. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, 177 Anderson Hall, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    The effect of different relative amounts of hot and cold deformation on the P {l_brace}0 1 1{r_brace}<4 5 5> recrystallization texture in a continuous cast Al-Mn-Mg aluminum alloy was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The results show that at a given total rolling strain the sheet with a high hot rolling strain exhibits a significantly stronger P texture than sheet with a low hot rolling strain. Hot deformation strongly promotes the formation of the P texture during recrystallization annealing.

  9. The B-Lynch uterine brace suture, and a bit of this and a bit of that...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoshi, Mahantesh

    2010-03-01

    The widespread application of the B-Lynch brace suture to control postpartum hemorrhage has sparked interest in a variety of adjunctive methods, used alone or in combination, to control uterine bleeding. Although the B-Lynch brace suture has been used with good results throughout the world, failures can and do occur in rare instances, especially when the suture is incorrectly placed for use for an inappropriate indication. Four reports of additional methods to control postpartum hemorrhage are published in this issue of IJGO. Three use the B-Lynch brace suture combined with other techniques. The need for additional techniques reminds the reader of the importance of proper suture application for proper indication. Potential reasons for failure of the B-Lynch suture are provided. PMID:20070962

  10. Comparison of in-and outpatients protocols for providence night time only bracing in AIS patients -- compliance and satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Aubaidi, Zaid Tj; Tropp, Hans; Pedersen, Niels W;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skeletally immature patients diagnosed with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and a Cobb angle above 25degrees is usually treated with a brace. Standard protocols in many centers include hospitalisation for a few days for the purpose of brace adaptation and fitting. The aim...... (9-14). Scoliosis Quality of Life Index (SQLI) was used together with the Odense Scoliosis questionnaire, which was developed for this study. Compliance was measured using the patients' own statements and the Landauer compliance scoring system.Findings/resultsThe two groups' matches regarding the age......, Risser grad, Cobb angle and primary correction. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding the SQLI and the Odense Scoliosis questionnaire. The compliance was higher in the ambulatory group. CONCLUSION: Outpatient initiation of bracing in scoliosis seems to give...

  11. Health-related quality of life in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis after treatment: Short-term effects after brace or surgical treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Bunge (Eveline); R.E. Juttmann (Rikard); M. de Kleuver (Marinus); F.C. van Biezen (Frans); H.J. de Koning (Harry); H.D. Been (Henk); L.N.J.E.M. Coene (Luc); H. Creemers (Huub); A.J. de Gruijter; A.A.J.M. Hazebroek-Kampschreur (Alice); P.H.J. Klop (Patrick); H.J.A. Kruls; P.J.M. van Loon (Piet); L.C.F. Luttmer; F. de Nies (Frank); J.E.H. Pruijs; L.W. van Rhijn (Lodewijk); M.P. Teeuwen (Marcel); P.A. Wiegersma (Auke)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractFor treatment of teenagers with progressive adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in an early stage, two options are generally considered: treatment with a brace or observation followed by surgery if necessary. Many doctors and patients prefer conservative treatment (i.e. brace treatment) to s

  12. Effects of soft bracing or taping on a lateral ankle sprain : a non-randomised controlled trial evaluating recurrence rates and residual symptoms at one year

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemler, Ellen; van de Port, Ingrid; Schmikli, Sandor; Huisstede, Bionka; Hoes, Arno; Backx, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background: After sustaining an ankle sprain, taping is often the standard treatment in primary care. Ankle braces are sometimes used as an alternative. This study aimed to compare the effects of four weeks of soft bracing or taping following acute lateral ankle ligamentous sprain (ALALS) on sprain

  13. The Sforzesco brace can replace cast in the correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: A controlled prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaina Fabio

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS has traditionally been divided into two phases–correction and stabilisation–and casts, even if less used today, can be considered the best standard in the correction phase. Till the present, however, no comparison between cast and brace efficacy has been proposed. Methods This is a prospective cohort study with a retrospective control group. The aim was to verify if it is possible to obtain with a specifically developed rigid brace results comparable to a cast. We considered fifty AIS patients who had refused surgery, aged 14.1 ± 1.5 years, with 46.7 ± 7.8° Cobb scoliosis. Thirty-two consecutive patients (with no drop-outs were prospectively followed up with the Sforzesco brace (SBG, and compared against a retrospective group of eighteen patients treated with the Risser cast (RCG. The treatment time (the total correction phase was 19 ± 3 months. Out-of-brace x-rays were compared, as well as clinical results. Results Compliance and hours of treatment were higher in the RCG while all the other parameters were not different. We observed a reduction of 6° Cobb and an important aesthetic gain in both groups (P Conclusion In the corrective phase of AIS treatment it is possible with a specific rigid brace (Sforzesco – SPoRT concept to obtain scoliosis correction similar to cast. Due to the human and social costs of casting, and worst sagittal profile results, Sforzesco brace should be the preferred method wherever possible.

  14. Outcome in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis after brace treatment and surgery assessed by means of the Scoliosis Research Society Instrument 24

    OpenAIRE

    Weigert, Karen Petra; Nygaard, Linda Marie; Christensen, Finn Bjarke; Hansen, Ebbe Stender; Bünger, Cody

    2005-01-01

    A retrospectively designed long-term follow-up study of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients who had completed treatment, of at least 2 years, by means of brace, surgery, or both brace and surgery. This study is to assess the outcome after treatment for AIS by means of the Scoliosis Research Society Outcome Instrument 24 (SRS 24). One hundred and eighteen AIS patients (99 females and 19 males), treated at the Aarhus University Hospital from January 1, 1987 to December 31, 1997, were...

  15. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in late-onset juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Johan Emil; Steen, Harald; Gunderson, Ragnhild; Brox, Jens Ivar

    2011-01-01

    Background It is recommended that research in patients with idiopathic scoliosis should focus on short- and long-term patient-centred outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate outcome in patients with late-onset juvenile or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis 16 years or more after Boston brace treatment. Methods 272 (78%) of 360 patients, 251 (92%) women, responded to follow-up examination at a mean of 24.7 (range 16 - 32) years after Boston brace treatment. Fifty-eight (21%) patient...

  16. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in late-onset juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gunderson Ragnhild; Steen Harald; Lange Johan; Brox Jens

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background It is recommended that research in patients with idiopathic scoliosis should focus on short- and long-term patient-centred outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate outcome in patients with late-onset juvenile or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis 16 years or more after Boston brace treatment. Methods 272 (78%) of 360 patients, 251 (92%) women, responded to follow-up examination at a mean of 24.7 (range 16 - 32) years after Boston brace treatment. Fifty-eight (21%...

  17. SUPER-CAPACITOR APPLICATION IN ELECTRICAL POWER CABLE TESTING FACILITIES IN THERMAL ENDURANCE AND MECHANICAL BRACING TESTS

    OpenAIRE

    I. V. Oleksyuk

    2015-01-01

    The current-carrying cores of the electrical power cables should be resistant to effects of short-circuit currents whose values depend on the material of the core, its cross-sectional area, cable insulation properties, environment temperature, and the duration of the short-circuit current flow (1 and 3–4 sec. when tested for thermal endurance and mechanical bracing). The facilities for testing the 10 kV aluminum core cables with short-circuit current shall provide mechanical-bracing current 5...

  18. Two Cases of Eating Disorders in Adolescents with Dental Braces Fitted Prior to the Onset of Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment typically occurs during early childhood and adolescence but the wearing of dental braces is often associated with sudden changes in eating patterns that prolong treatment into the teenage years. Despite these changes, psychological assessments related to eating disorders during the course of orthodontic treatment are often ignored. Based on the findings of the present case report, it is suggested that adolescent patients who wear braces and exhibit severe weight loss should be carefully monitored for psychiatric problems, including eating disorders. PMID:26207138

  19. Two Cases of Eating Disorders in Adolescents with Dental Braces Fitted Prior to the Onset of Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Sung-Wan; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2015-07-01

    Orthodontic treatment typically occurs during early childhood and adolescence but the wearing of dental braces is often associated with sudden changes in eating patterns that prolong treatment into the teenage years. Despite these changes, psychological assessments related to eating disorders during the course of orthodontic treatment are often ignored. Based on the findings of the present case report, it is suggested that adolescent patients who wear braces and exhibit severe weight loss should be carefully monitored for psychiatric problems, including eating disorders. PMID:26207138

  20. Effect of Kınesıotapıng and Knee Brace on Functıonal Performance in Recreatıonal Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Burak; İldiz, Bülent; Tunay, Volga Bayrakçı

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Kinesiotaping is a popular taping method that is used for both therapeutic and performance enchancement purposes. Knee braces are widely used for prevention in sport injuries but their performance effectiveness is still controversial. The aim of this study was to determine whether kinesiotape or brace was more effective on functional performance. Methods: A total twenty male recreational football players (Mean±Standart Deviation (SD) age: 22.5±0.68 years, height: 175.15±3.37 cm, body weight: 74.52±12.41 kg), voluntarily participated in this study. Participants were tested with kinesiotape, with brace and without kinesiotape and brace. Tests were applied one day after patellar kinesiotaping (correction technique). Balance property measured with Modified Y balance Test (dynamic test), agility measured by T test, muscle strength and anaerobic power assessed by vertical jump and triple hop tests. Wilcoxon signed rank test was employed for determining the statistical significance of tests with kinesiotape, with brace and without kinesiotape and brace. Results: In analysis; There were statistically significant differences found in Triple hop test with kinesiotaping and without kinesiotaping and brace, in T test with bracing and kinesiotaping, in vertical jump with kinesiotaping and without kinesiotaping and brace (pkinesiotaping in all tests) No statistically significant difference was found in modified Y balance test all groups (p> 0.05). Conclusion: Consequently, kinesiotaping had positive effects on agility and muscle strength but had no effects on balance in football players. On the other hand, brace had no effects on functional performance tests.

  1. Mathematical modeling and full-scale shaking table tests for multi-curve buckling restrained braces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. S. Tsai; Yungchang Lin; Wenshin Chen; H. C. Su

    2009-01-01

    Buckling restrained braces (BRBs) have been widely applied in seismic mitigation since they were introduced in the 1970s. However, traditional BRBs have several disadvantages caused by using a steel tube to envelope the mortar to prevent the core plate from buckling, such as: complex interfaces between the materials used, uncertain precision, and time consumption during the manufacturing processes. In this study, a new device called the multi-curve buckling restrained brace (MC-BRB) is proposed to overcome these disadvantages. The new device consists of a core plate with multiple neck portions assembled to form multiple energy dissipation segments, and the enlarged segment, lateral support elements and constraining elements to prevent the BRB from buckling. The enlarged segment located in the middle of the core plate can be welded to the lateral support and constraining elements to increase buckling resistance and to prevent them from sliding during earthquakes. Component tests and a series of shaking table tests on a full-scale steel structure equipped with MC-BRBs were carried out to investigate the behavior and capability of this new BRB design for seismic mitigation. The experimental results illustrate that the MC-BRB possesses a stable mechanical behavior under cyclic loadings and provides good protection to structures during earthquakes. Also, a mathematical model has been developed to simulate the mechanical characteristics of BRBs.

  2. Design, testing and control of a magnetorheological actuator for assistive knee braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. Z.; Liao, W. H.

    2010-03-01

    This paper is aimed at developing a smart actuator for assistive knee braces to provide assistance to disabled or elderly people with mobility problems. A magnetorheological (MR) actuator is developed to be used in assistive knee braces to provide controllable torque. The MR actuator can work as a brake or a clutch. When active torque is needed, the DC motor works and the MR actuator functions as a clutch to transfer the torque generated by the motor to the leg; when passive torque is desired, the DC motor is turned off and the MR actuator functions as a brake to provide controllable passive torque. The prototype of the developed MR actuator is fabricated and experiments are carried out to investigate the characteristics of the MR actuator. The results show that the MR actuator is able to provide sufficient torque needed for normal human activities. Adaptive control is proposed for controlling the MR actuator. Anti-windup strategy is used to achieve better control performance. Experiments on the MR actuator under control are also performed to study the torque tracking ability of the system.

  3. Development and testing of a magnetorheological actuator for an assistive knee brace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinzhou; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2008-03-01

    This paper proposes an assistive knee brace that is aimed to provide assistance to old or disabled people. A magnetorheological (MR) actuator is developed to be used in assistive knee braces to provide controllable torque. The MR actuator consists of a DC motor and an MR brake/clutch. When active torque is needed, the DC motor works and the MR actuator functions as a clutch to transfer the torque generated by the motor to the leg; when passive torque is desired, the DC motor is turned off and the MR actuator functions as a brake to provide controllable passive torque. The prototype of this MR actuator is fabricated and experiments are carried out to investigate the characteristics of the MR actuator. The results show that the MR actuator is able to provide sufficient torque needed for normal human activities. Adaptive control is proposed for controlling the MR actuator. Experiments of the MR actuator under control are performed to study the torque tracking ability of the system.

  4. Ductility demands on buckling-restrained braced frames under earthquake loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Larry A. Fahnestock; Richard Sause; James M. Ricles; Le-Wu Lu

    2003-01-01

    Accurate estimates of ductility demands on buckling-restrained braced frames (BRBFs) are crucial to performance-based design of BRBFs. An analytical study on the seismic behavior of BRBFs has been conducted at the ATLSS Center, Lehigh University to prepare for an upcoming experimental program. The analysis program DRAIN-2DX was used to model a one-bay, four-story prototype BRBF including material and geometric nonlinearities. The bucklingrestrained brace (BRB) model incorporates both isotropic and kinematic hardening. Nonlinear static pushover and timehistory analyses were performed on the prototype BRBF. Performance objectives for the BRBs were defined and uscd to evaluate thc time-history analysis results. Particular emphasis was placed on global ductility demands and ductility demands oa the BRBs. These demands were compared with anticipated ductility capacities. The analysis results, along with results from similar previous studics, are used to evaluate the BRBF design provisions that have been recommended for codification in the United States. Thc results show that BRB maximum ductility demands can be as high as 20 to 25. These demands significantly exceed those anticipated by the BRBF recommended provisions. Results from the static pushover and timehistory analyses are used to demonstrate why the ductility demands exceed those anticipated by the recommended provisions.The BRB qualification testing protocol contained in the BRBF recommended provisions is shown to be inadequate because it requires only a maximum ductility demand of at most 7.5. Modifications to the testing protocol are recommended.

  5. Numerical analysis of effect of friction between diaphragm wall and soil on braced excavation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁钰; 郑刚

    2008-01-01

    A plane strain finite element model was established to investigate the effect of friction between diaphragm wall and soil on braced excavation. The behavior of interface between diaphragm wall and soil was simulated with the interface model of ABAQUS. Parametric studies were conducted with different diaphragm wall external friction angles δ. The results show that deflection of diaphragm wall and ground surface settlement decrease with the decrease of δ. However, the reduction effect on diaphragm wall deflection is the most significant at the depth where the maximum wall deflection occurs and can be neglected at the wall base. The ratio between wall deep inward component and wall cantilever component reaches its peak value 2.7 when δ=5°. The ratio of the maximum ground surface settlement to the maximum wall lateral deflection decreases at a reduced rate with the increase of δ. For excavation with braced diaphragm wall, the effect of friction between diaphragm and soil on the deflection of diaphragm wall and ground settlement, especially the distribution of ground surface settlement behind diaphragm, should be taken into account.

  6. Design, testing and control of a magnetorheological actuator for assistive knee braces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is aimed at developing a smart actuator for assistive knee braces to provide assistance to disabled or elderly people with mobility problems. A magnetorheological (MR) actuator is developed to be used in assistive knee braces to provide controllable torque. The MR actuator can work as a brake or a clutch. When active torque is needed, the DC motor works and the MR actuator functions as a clutch to transfer the torque generated by the motor to the leg; when passive torque is desired, the DC motor is turned off and the MR actuator functions as a brake to provide controllable passive torque. The prototype of the developed MR actuator is fabricated and experiments are carried out to investigate the characteristics of the MR actuator. The results show that the MR actuator is able to provide sufficient torque needed for normal human activities. Adaptive control is proposed for controlling the MR actuator. Anti-windup strategy is used to achieve better control performance. Experiments on the MR actuator under control are also performed to study the torque tracking ability of the system

  7. Designing Serious Games for Safety Education: "Learn to Brace" versus Traditional Pictorials for Aircraft Passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittaro, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Serious games for safety education (SGSE) are a novel tool for preparing people to prevent and\\or handle risky situations. Although several SGSE have been developed, design and evaluation methods for SGSE need to be better grounded in and guided by safety-relevant psychological theories. In particular, this paper focuses on threat appeals and the assessment of variables, such as safety locus of control, that influence human behavior in real risky situations. It illustrates how we took into account such models in the design and evaluation of "Learn to Brace", a first-of-its-kind serious game that deals with a major problem in aviation safety, i.e. the scarce effectiveness of the safety cards used by airlines. The study considered a sample of 48 users: half of them received instructions about the brace position through the serious game, the other half through a traditional safety card pictorial. Results showed that the serious game was much more effective than the traditional instructions both in terms of learning and of changing safety-relevant perceptions, especially safety locus of control and recommendation perception.

  8. Scoliosis bracing and exercise for pain management in adults—a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Hans-Rudolf; Moramarco, Kathryn; Moramarco, Marc

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] For adult patients with late-onset idiopathic scoliosis, cosmetic concerns and pain are the main reasons for seeking treatment at a physician’s office. The purpose of this paper was to describe the mid-term effect of physical rehabilitation and part-time bracing on an adult scoliosis patient who had been suffering from chronic low back pain for fourteen years. [Subject and Methods] Case description: A 37-year-old female patient with late-onset idiopathic scoliosis presented in the office of the first author in January 2014. She reported having chronic pain (low back pain) since the age of 23 and reported daily pain at a level of 5–7 on average on a Visual Analogue Scale of 0 to 10. She received a short scoliosis-specific Schroth exercise program and was also fitted with a Gensingen brace for part-time wear. [Results] At a 16 month follow-up, the patient no longer suffered from daily low back pain (with heavy lifting only) and was fully active. Additionally, her lumbar Cobb angle and angle of trunk rotation improved. [Conclusion] Patients with late-onset idiopathic scoliosis and pain may benefit from a pattern-specific conservative treatment approach. In this population, surgical intervention should be regarded as the last resort, since there are many long-term unknowns with surgery. PMID:27630444

  9. Experimental study on the seismic response of braced reinforced concrete frame with irregular columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianzhuang; Li, Jie; Chen, Jun

    2011-12-01

    A 15-storey K-braced reinforced concrete model frame with irregular columns, i.e., T-shaped, L-shaped, as well as +-shaped columns, was constructed and tested on the six-degree-of-freedom shaking table at the State Key Laboratory for Disaster Reduction in Civil Engineering in Tongji, China. Two types of earthquake records, El-Centro wave (south-north direction) and Shanghai artifi cial wave (SHAW) with various peak accelerations and principal-secondary sequences, were input and experimentally studied. Based on the shaking table tests and theoretical analysis, several observations can be made. The failure sequence of the model structure is brace→beam→column→joints, so that the design philosophy for several lines of defense has been achieved. Earthquake waves with different spectrums not only infl uence the magnitude and distribution of the earthquake force and the storey shear force, but also obviously affect the magnitude of the displacement response. The aftershock seismic response of previously damaged reinforced concrete braced frames with irregular columns possesses the equivalent elastic performance characteristic. Generally speaking, from the aspects of failure features and drift ratio, this type of reinforced concrete structure provides adequate earthquake resistance and can be promoted for use in China.

  10. The Differential Effects of Exercise,Brace and Combined Rehabilitation Treatment in Patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis%The Differential Effects of Exercise, Brace and Combined Rehabilitation Treatment in Patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Qing; ZHOU Xuan; LI Jianan; ZHAO Li; TAO Quan; CHEN Ting; CHEN Peijie

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To compare the effects of different conservative managements on patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).Method:One hundred and four AIS patients were recruited for this study.The patients were divided into 3groups:exercise (E group),brace (B group) and combined rehabilitation treatment (brace treatment combined with exercise,CR group).Radiological parameter were used to assess AIS patients before and after treatment.The Chinese version of scoliosis research society-22(SRS-22) patient questionnaires were filled out by patients after treatment.The SRS-22 scores were compared among management groups.Result:The maximal Cobb angles were smaller in E group than in B group or CR group both before and after treatment.The maximal Cobb angles were significantly smaller after treatment than before treatment in B group and CR group.Function/activity was better in E group than in B group or CR group.Self-image/appearance and satisfaction with management were better in E group and CR group than in B group.There was no significant difference among treatment groups in pain and mental health.Conclusion:Both brace and combined rehabilitation treatment can reduce the spinal curve of AIS patients.Both exercise and combined rehabilitation treatment have positive influence on self-image/appearance and satisfaction with management.We support preference of combined rehabilitation treatment above brace treatment.

  11. Crystal structure of [NBu{sub 4}]{sub 2}[Pd{sub 2}{l_brace}C{sub 4}(COOMe){sub 4}{r_brace}{sub 2}({mu}-OH){sub 2}] determined ab initio by charge flipping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Angel L. [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Energetica y de los Materiales, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)], E-mail: alortiz@unex.es; Cumbrera, Francisco L. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Perez, Jose [Departamento de Ingenieria Minera, Geologica y Cartografica, Area de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Cartagena (Murcia) (Spain); Melendez-Martinez, Juan J. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Palatinus, Lukas [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Laboratoire de Cristallographie, BSP, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-01-07

    The crystal structure of bis(tetra-n-butylammonium)bis({mu}{sub 2}-hydroxo)-bis(1,2,3,4-tetrakis (methoxycarbonyl)-1,3-butadiene-1,4-diyl)-di-palladium, [NBu{sub 4}]{sub 2}[Pd{sub 2}{l_brace}C{sub 4}(COOMe){sub 4}{r_brace}{sub 2} ({mu}-OH){sub 2}], was determined ab initio by X-ray single-crystal diffractometry using the charge flipping method. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system with P2{sub 1}/c as space group and the following cell parameters: a = 12.8481(6) A, b = 63.744(3) A, c = 16.6102(8) A, {beta} = 111.943(10). The asymmetric unit is formed by two molecules, and the unit cell contains eight molecules (Z = 8) giving a density of 1.369 g cm{sup -3}. The coordination around the Pd(II) atoms is approximately planar, the methoxycarbonyl groups at the {alpha} and {beta} positions relative to Pd are perpendicular and parallel to the palladacycle ring, respectively, and the {l_brace}Pd({mu}-O){r_brace}{sub 2} core has a bent conformation. The structure closely resembles the features reported previously for other palladacyclopentadiene complexes.

  12. Body Image and Quality-of-Life in Untreated Versus Brace-Treated Females With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieger, Traci; Campo, Shelly; Weinstein, Stuart L.; Dolan, Lori A.; Ashida, Sato; Steuber, Keli R.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design. The Bracing in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Trial (BrAIST) included skeletally immature high-risk patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) with moderate curve sizes (20°– 40°). BrAIST was a multicenter, controlled trial using both randomized and preference treatment arms into either an observation group or a brace treatment group. Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare body image and quality-of-life (QOL) in female AIS patients who were observed or treated with a brace. Summary of Background Data. Brace treatment is an effective means for controlling progressive scoliosis and preventing the need for surgery, but there is no consensus regarding the effect of brace treatment on body image or on QOL in adolescents with AIS. Methods. Data from female BrAIST patients in the randomized (n = 132) or preference (n = 187) arms and were observed (n = 120) or brace treated (n = 199) were analyzed. Patients completed the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ) and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQOL) 4.0 Generic Scales at baseline and 6 month follow-up visits up to 2 years. Items on the SAQ measured three body image constructs (self, ideal, and overall). The PedsQOL measured health, activities, feelings, social factors, and school. Results. . In general, there were no significant differences within or between study arms or treatments regarding body image or QOL through 2 years of follow-up. Poorer body image was significantly correlated with poorer QOL during the first 2 years of follow-up regardless of study arm or treatment. Patients who crossed-over to a different treatment and patients with largest Cobb angles ≥ 40 degrees had significantly poorer body image, in particular self-body image, compared with those that did not. Conclusion. This study does not support findings from previous research indicating that wearing a brace has a negative impact on or is negatively impacted by body image or

  13. 'SOSORT consensus paper on brace action: TLSO biomechanics of correction (investigating the rationale for force vector selection'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruyama T

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of orthotic treatment continues to be controversial in international medical literature due to differences in the reported results and conclusions of various studies. Heterogeneity of the samples has been suggested as a reason for conflicting results. Besides the obvious theoretical differences between the brace concepts, the variability in the technical factors can also explain the contradictory results between same brace types. This paper will investigate the degree of variability among responses of scoliosis specialists from the Brace Study Ground of the International Society on Scoliosis Orthopedic and Rehabilitation Treatment SOSORT. Ultimately, this information could be a foundation for establishing a consensus and framework for future prospective controlled studies. Methods A preliminary questionnaire on the topic of 'brace action' relative to the theory of three-dimensional scoliosis correction and brace treatment was developed and circulated to specialists interested in the conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A particular case was presented (main thoracic curve with minor lumbar. Several key points emerged and were used to develop a second questionnaire which was discussed and full filed after the SOSORT consensus meeting (Milano, Italy, January 2005. Results Twenty-one questionnaires were completed. The Chêneau brace was the most frequently recommended. The importance of the three point system mechanism was stressed. Options about proper pad placement on the thoracic convexity were divided 50% for the pad reaching or involving the apical vertebra and 50% for the pad acting caudal to the apical vertebra. There was agreement about the direction of the vector force, 85% selecting a 'dorso lateral to ventro medial' direction but about the shape of the pad to produce such a force. Principles related to three-dimensional correction achieved high consensus (80%–85%, but suggested

  14. Accounting for multiple sources of uncertainty in impact assessments: The example of the BRACE study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing climate change impacts often requires the use of multiple scenarios, types of models, and data sources, leading to a large number of potential sources of uncertainty. For example, a single study might require a choice of a forcing scenario, climate model, bias correction and/or downscaling method, societal development scenario, model (typically several) for quantifying elements of societal development such as economic and population growth, biophysical model (such as for crop yields or hydrology), and societal impact model (e.g. economic or health model). Some sources of uncertainty are reduced or eliminated by the framing of the question. For example, it may be useful to ask what an impact outcome would be conditional on a given societal development pathway, forcing scenario, or policy. However many sources of uncertainty remain, and it is rare for all or even most of these sources to be accounted for. I use the example of a recent integrated project on the Benefits of Reduced Anthropogenic Climate changE (BRACE) to explore useful approaches to uncertainty across multiple components of an impact assessment. BRACE comprises 23 papers that assess the differences in impacts between two alternative climate futures: those associated with Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5. It quantifies difference in impacts in terms of extreme events, health, agriculture, tropical cyclones, and sea level rise. Methodologically, it includes climate modeling, statistical analysis, integrated assessment modeling, and sector-specific impact modeling. It employs alternative scenarios of both radiative forcing and societal development, but generally uses a single climate model (CESM), partially accounting for climate uncertainty by drawing heavily on large initial condition ensembles. Strengths and weaknesses of the approach to uncertainty in BRACE are assessed. Options under consideration for improving the approach include the use of perturbed physics

  15. A comparison of the biomechanical effects of valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard K; Nester, Christopher J; Richards, Jim D; Kim, Winston Y; Johnson, David S; Jari, Sanjiv; Laxton, Philip; Tyson, Sarah F

    2013-03-01

    Increases in the external knee adduction moment (EKAM) have been associated with increased mechanical load at the knee and progression of knee osteoarthritis. Valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles are common approaches to reducing this loading; however no study has directly compared the biomechanical and clinical effects of these two treatments in patients with medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. A cross-over randomised design was used where each intervention was worn by 28 patients for a two week period. Pre- and post-intervention gait kinematic/kinetic data and clinical outcomes were collected to evaluate the biomechanical and clinical effects on the knee joint. The valgus knee brace and the lateral wedged insole significantly increased walking speed, reduced the early stance EKAM by 7% and 12%, and the knee adduction angular impulse by 8.6 and 16.1% respectively. The lateral wedged insole significantly reduced the early stance EKAM compared to the valgus knee brace (p=0.001). The valgus knee brace significantly reduced the knee varus angle compared to the baseline and lateral wedged insole. Improvements in pain and function subscales were comparable for the valgus knee brace and lateral wedged insole. There were no significant differences between the two treatments in any of the clinical outcomes; however the lateral wedged insoles demonstrated greater levels of acceptance by patients. This is the first study to biomechanically compare these two treatments, and demonstrates that given the potential role of knee loading in osteoarthritis progression, that both treatments reduce this but lateral wedge insoles appear to have a greater effect.

  16. A comparison of the biomechanical effects of valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard K; Nester, Christopher J; Richards, Jim D; Kim, Winston Y; Johnson, David S; Jari, Sanjiv; Laxton, Philip; Tyson, Sarah F

    2013-03-01

    Increases in the external knee adduction moment (EKAM) have been associated with increased mechanical load at the knee and progression of knee osteoarthritis. Valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles are common approaches to reducing this loading; however no study has directly compared the biomechanical and clinical effects of these two treatments in patients with medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. A cross-over randomised design was used where each intervention was worn by 28 patients for a two week period. Pre- and post-intervention gait kinematic/kinetic data and clinical outcomes were collected to evaluate the biomechanical and clinical effects on the knee joint. The valgus knee brace and the lateral wedged insole significantly increased walking speed, reduced the early stance EKAM by 7% and 12%, and the knee adduction angular impulse by 8.6 and 16.1% respectively. The lateral wedged insole significantly reduced the early stance EKAM compared to the valgus knee brace (p=0.001). The valgus knee brace significantly reduced the knee varus angle compared to the baseline and lateral wedged insole. Improvements in pain and function subscales were comparable for the valgus knee brace and lateral wedged insole. There were no significant differences between the two treatments in any of the clinical outcomes; however the lateral wedged insoles demonstrated greater levels of acceptance by patients. This is the first study to biomechanically compare these two treatments, and demonstrates that given the potential role of knee loading in osteoarthritis progression, that both treatments reduce this but lateral wedge insoles appear to have a greater effect. PMID:22920242

  17. Aerodynamic Analysis of the Truss-Braced Wing Aircraft Using Vortex-Lattice Superposition Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Eric Bi-Wen; Reynolds, Kevin Wayne; Nguyen, Nhan T.; Totah, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    The SUGAR Truss-BracedWing (TBW) aircraft concept is a Boeing-developed N+3 aircraft configuration funded by NASA ARMD FixedWing Project. This future generation transport aircraft concept is designed to be aerodynamically efficient by employing a high aspect ratio wing design. The aspect ratio of the TBW is on the order of 14 which is significantly greater than those of current generation transport aircraft. This paper presents a recent aerodynamic analysis of the TBW aircraft using a conceptual vortex-lattice aerodynamic tool VORLAX and an aerodynamic superposition approach. Based on the underlying linear potential flow theory, the principle of aerodynamic superposition is leveraged to deal with the complex aerodynamic configuration of the TBW. By decomposing the full configuration of the TBW into individual aerodynamic lifting components, the total aerodynamic characteristics of the full configuration can be estimated from the contributions of the individual components. The aerodynamic superposition approach shows excellent agreement with CFD results computed by FUN3D, USM3D, and STAR-CCM+. XXXXX Demand for green aviation is expected to increase with the need for reduced environmental impact. Most large transports today operate within the best cruise L/D range of 18-20 using the conventional tube-and-wing design. This configuration has led to marginal improvements in aerodynamic efficiency over this past century, as aerodynamic improvements tend to be incremental. A big opportunity has been shown in recent years to significantly reduce structural weight or trim drag, hence improved energy efficiency, with the use of lightweight materials such as composites. The Boeing 787 transport is an example of a modern airframe design that employs lightweight structures. High aspect ratio wing design can provide another opportunity for further improvements in energy efficiency. Historically, the study of high aspect ratio wings has been intimately tied to the study of

  18. Aircraft Observations of the Tampa Urban Plume during BRACE: Transport, Photochemical, and Depositional Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, W.; Arnold, J.; Watson, T.; Gunter, L.; Wellman, D.; Dasgupta, P.; Li, J.; Riemer, D.

    2003-12-01

    Staff from NOAA's Air Resources Laboratory conducted airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosols in the Bay Region Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) using the NOAA Twin Otter. The Twin Otter flew more than 90 hours in 21 flights in and around the Tampa metropolitan region in May, 2002, at altitudes of 60-3000 m MSL. Flights were conducted over rural and suburban areas, over the centers of Tampa and St. Petersburg, and over Tampa Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. The overall objective of the aircraft measurements in BRACE was to study the emission, transport, and photochemical transformations of nitrogen and other ozone precursors in the Tampa area. Continuous instrumentation was used to measure NO, NOX, NOY, HNO3, CO, SO2, O3, CH2O, and H2O2. A semi-continuous GC technique with luminol detection was used to measure PAN. Filter packs were used to make integrated measurements of nitric acid and inorganic aerosols in both fine and bulk aerosol size fractions. Stainless steel grab cans were filled during flight for post-flight analysis of NMHCs by GC/FID/MS. The urban plume was sampled under a variety of meteorological regimes, as it was advected by the prevailing winds over the Florida peninsula (with continuing input of natural and anthropogenic precursors along the advection path) and, in other cases, over the Gulf of Mexico, where additional chemical inputs were negligible and the plume was relatively unaffected by turbulent deposition processes. Case studies will be used to compare and contrast the photochemical processes in the plume under these different regimes. The observed relationships and variations of trace gas concentrations will be used to determine the efficiency of ozone production, as well as instances of NOX or VOC limitation. Sampling the plume at varying downwind distances, over both land and water, allows the determination of overall rates of photochemical ozone production, NOX and SOX oxidation, and estimates of depositional losses of

  19. Densities, excess molar volumes, speeds of sound and isothermal compressibilities for {l_brace}2-(2-hexyloxyethoxy)ethanol + n-alkanol{r_brace} systems at temperatures between (288.15 and 308.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Amalendu [Department of Chemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119 (India)], E-mail: palchem@sify.com; Gaba, Rekha [Department of Chemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119 (India)

    2008-05-15

    The densities, {rho} and the speeds of sound, u, for {l_brace}2-(2-hexyloxyethoxy)ethanol (C{sub 6}E{sub 2}) + methanol, +1-propanol, +1-pentanol, and +1-heptanol{r_brace} have been measured as a function of composition using an Anton-Paar DSA 5000 densimeter at temperatures (288.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, and 308.15) K and atmospheric pressure over the whole concentration range. The {rho} and u values were used to calculate excess molar volumes, V{sup E}, and excess molar isentropic compressibility, K{sub S,m}{sup E}, respectively. Also, thermal expansivity, {alpha}, partial molar volume, V-bar{sub i}, and partial molar volume of the components at infinite dilution, V-bar{sub i}{sup 0}, have been calculated. The variation of these properties with composition and temperature of the mixtures are discussed in terms of molecular interactions.

  20. Effects of soft bracing or taping on a lateral ankle sprain: a non-randomised controlled trial evaluating recurrence rates and residual symptoms at one year

    OpenAIRE

    Kemler, Ellen; van de Port, Ingrid; Schmikli, Sandor; Huisstede, Bionka; Hoes, Arno; Backx, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background After sustaining an ankle sprain, taping is often the standard treatment in primary care. Ankle braces are sometimes used as an alternative. This study aimed to compare the effects of four weeks of soft bracing or taping following acute lateral ankle ligamentous sprain (ALALS) on sprain recurrence rates and residual symptoms at one year. Methods In this pragmatic, non-randomised controlled trial, 157 adult participants with an ALALS caused by an inversion trauma were alternately al...

  1. Effects of soft bracing or taping on a lateral ankle sprain : a non-randomised controlled trial evaluating recurrence rates and residual symptoms at one year

    OpenAIRE

    Kemler, Ellen; van de Port, Ingrid; Schmikli, Sandor; Huisstede, Bionka; Hoes, Arno; Backx, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background: After sustaining an ankle sprain, taping is often the standard treatment in primary care. Ankle braces are sometimes used as an alternative. This study aimed to compare the effects of four weeks of soft bracing or taping following acute lateral ankle ligamentous sprain (ALALS) on sprain recurrence rates and residual symptoms at one year. Methods: In this pragmatic, non-randomised controlled trial, 157 adult participants with an ALALS caused by an inversion trauma were alternately ...

  2. Effects of soft bracing or taping on a lateral ankle sprain : a non-randomised controlled trial evaluating recurrence rates and residual symptoms at one year

    OpenAIRE

    Kemler, Ellen; van de Port, Ingrid; Schmikli, Sandor; Huisstede, Bionka; Hoes, Arno; Backx, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background After sustaining an ankle sprain, taping is often the standard treatment in primary care. Ankle braces are sometimes used as an alternative. This study aimed to compare the effects of four weeks of soft bracing or taping following acute lateral ankle ligamentous sprain (ALALS) on sprain recurrence rates and residual symptoms at one year. Methods In this pragmatic, non-randomised controlled trial, 157 adult participants with an ALALS caused by an inversion trauma were alternately al...

  3. Effectiveness of the SpineCor brace based on the new standardized criteria proposed by the scoliosis research society for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coillard, Christine; Vachon, Valerie; Circo, Alin B; Beauséjour, Marie; Rivard, Charles H

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Dynamic SpineCor brace for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in accordance with the standardized criteria proposed by the Scoliosis Research Society Committee on Bracing and Nonoperative Management. They proposed these guidelines to make the comparison among studies more valid and reliable. From 1993 to 2006, 493 patients were treated using the SpineCor brace. Two hundred forty-nine patients met the criteria for inclusion, and 79 patients were still actively being treated. Overall, 170 patients have a definitive outcome. All girls were premenarchal or less than 1 year postmenarchal. Assessment of brace effectiveness included (1) percentage of patients who have 5 degrees or less curve progression, and percentage of patients who have 6 degrees or more progression; (2) percentage of patients who have been recommended/undergone surgery before skeletal maturity; (3) percentage of patients with curves exceeding 45 degrees at maturity (end of treatment); and (4) Two-year follow-up beyond maturity to determine the percentage of patients who subsequently underwent surgery. Successful treatment (correction, >5 degrees, or stabilization, +/-5 degrees) was achieved in 101 (59.4%) of the 170 patients from the time of the fitting of the SpineCor brace to the point in which it was discontinued. Thirty-nine immature patients (22.9%) required surgical fusion while receiving treatment. Two (1.2%) of 170 patients had curves exceeding 45 degrees at maturity. One mature patient (2.1%) required surgery within 2 years of follow-up beyond skeletal maturity. The conclusion drawn from these findings is that the SpineCor brace is effective for the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Moreover, positive outcomes are maintained after 2 years because 45 (95.7%) of 47 patients stabilized or corrected their end of bracing Cobb angle up to 2 years after bracing. Therapeutic study-investigating the

  4. A new brace treatment similar for adolescent scoliosis and kyphosis based on restoration of thoracolumbar lordosis. Radiological and subjective clinical results after at least one year of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Loon Piet JM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study design A prospective treatment study with a new brace was conducted Objective. To evaluate radiological and subjective clinical results after one year conservative brace treatment with pressure onto lordosis at the thoracolumbar joint in children with scoliosis and kyphosis. Summary of background data Conservative brace treatment of adolescent scoliosis is not proven to be effective in terms of lasting correction. Conservative treatment in kyphotic deformities may lead to satisfactory correction. None of the brace or casting techniques is based on sagittal forces only applied at the thoracolumbar spine (TLI= thoracolumbar lordotic intervention. Previously we showed in patients with scoliosis after forced lordosis at the thoracolumbar spine a radiological instantaneous reduction in both coronal curves of double major scoliosis. Methods A consecutive series of 91 children with adolescent scoliosis and kyphosis were treated with a modified symmetric 30 degrees Boston brace to ensure only forced lordosis at the thoracolumbar spine. Scoliosis was defined with a Cobb angle of at least one of the curves [greater than or equal to] 25 degrees and kyphosis with or without a curve Results Before treatment start ‘in brace’ radiographs showed a strong reduction of the Cobb angles in different curves in kyphosis and scoliosis groups (sagittal n = 5 all p Conclusion Conservative treatment using thoracolumbar lordotic intervention in scoliotic and kyphotic deformities in adolescence demonstrates a marked improvement after one year also in clinical and postural criteria. An effect not obtained with current brace techniques.

  5. Damping characteristics of friction damped braced frame and its effectiveness in the mega-sub controlled structure system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian Yeda; Zhang Xunan; Sheldon Cherry

    2007-01-01

    Based on energy dissipation and structural control principle, a new structural configuration, called the megasub controlled structure (MSCS) with friction damped braces (FDBs), is first presented. Meanwhile, to calculate the damping coefficient in the slipping state a new analytical method is proposed. The damping characteristics of one-storey friction damped braced frame (FDBF) are investigated, and the influence of the structural parameters on the energy dissipation and the practical engineering design are discussed. The nonlinear dynamic equations and the analytical model of the MSCS with FDBs are established. Three building structures with different structural configurations, which were designed with reference to the conventional mega-sub structures such as used in Tokyo City Hall, are comparatively investigated. The results illustrate that the structure presented in the paper has excellent dynamic properties and satisfactory control effectiveness.

  6. Numerical Model of a Hybrid Damping System Composed of a Buckling Restrained Brace with a Magneto Rheological Damper

    OpenAIRE

    Filip-Vacarescu Norin; Vulcu Cristian; Dubina Dan

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of a hybrid damper made from a combination of two dissipative devices. A passive hysteretic device like steel Buckling Restrained Brace (BRB) can be combined with a magneto-rheological (MR) Fluid Damper in order to obtain a hybrid dissipative system. This system can work either as a semi-active system, if the control unit is available, or as a passive system, tuned for working according to performance based seismic engineering (PBSE) scale of reference paramet...

  7. Expecting ankle tilts and wearing an ankle brace influence joint control in an imitated ankle sprain mechanism during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Dominic; Wissler, Sabrina; Lohrer, Heinz; Nauck, Tanja; Gollhofer, Albert

    2014-03-01

    A thorough understanding of the functional aspects of ankle joint control is essential to developing effective injury prevention. It is of special interest to understand how neuromuscular control mechanisms and mechanical constraints stabilize the ankle joint. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine how expecting ankle tilts and the application of an ankle brace influence ankle joint control when imitating the ankle sprain mechanism during walking. Ankle kinematics and muscle activity were assessed in 17 healthy men. During gait rapid perturbations were applied using a trapdoor (tilting with 24° inversion and 15° plantarflexion). The subjects either knew that a perturbation would definitely occur (expected tilts) or there was only the possibility that a perturbation would occur (potential tilts). Both conditions were conducted with and without a semi-rigid ankle brace. Expecting perturbations led to an increased ankle eversion at foot contact, which was mediated by an altered muscle preactivation pattern. Moreover, the maximal inversion angle (-7%) and velocity (-4%), as well as the reactive muscle response were significantly reduced when the perturbation was expected. While wearing an ankle brace did not influence muscle preactivation nor the ankle kinematics before ground contact, it significantly reduced the maximal ankle inversion angle (-14%) and velocity (-11%) as well as reactive neuromuscular responses. The present findings reveal that expecting ankle inversion modifies neuromuscular joint control prior to landing. Although such motor control strategies are weaker in their magnitude compared with braces, they seem to assist ankle joint stabilization in a close-to-injury situation. PMID:24365326

  8. ABDOMINAL EXERCISE WITH BRACING, A THERAPEUTIC EFFICACY IN REDUCING DIASTASIS-RECTI AMONG POSTPARTAL FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Acharry

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Diastasis recti abdominis (DRA has been defined as an impairment characterized by the separation of the two rectus abdominis muscles along the linea alba , Diastasis of the rectus abdominis muscle (DRAM is common during and after pregnancy, and has been related to lumbo-pelvic instability and pelvic floor weakness. Women with DRAM are commonly referred to physiotherapists for non surgical management, but very few found to be effective. Objectives To determine if the effectiveness of Abdominal exercise with bracing in reducing the diastasis recti among postpartum females. Methodology: IP&OPD patients of Godavari hospital, Jalgaon for a period of 4 weeks. For this descriptive study a cross-sectional study design was incorporated. A number of (n=30 female patients within 1 month after delivery with Diastasis recti were selected. Each patient was screened, initially by using simple selection proforma relevant to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: A total (n=30 subjects were included in the study, these 30 subjects all are Females and one month and more after child birth. The subjects included in this study with an age from minimal 23 years to 34 years old. Number of off springs which is another variable used, was listed as 1(Minimum and 4(Maximum children’s. In this study a 26.6% of female are primiparous and 56.7% of them are multiparous. The collected information (data was tabulated and analyzed by using appropriate statistical analysis tools. 30 Female subjects having mean age 28.8(SD=3.23 in which both primiparous and multiparous women having diastasis recti within 1 month postpartum. Diastasis recti pretest was found to be 3.5(SD= 0.5085 Diastasis recti posttest was found to be 2.5(SD=0.5074 t value=29.00 and P value found to be less than 0.001 which is highly significant. Conclusion: Based on the available evidence and quality of this evidence, after the exercise regimen and bracing the Diastasis recti muscle

  9. Team care to cure adolescents with braces (avoiding low quality of life, pain and bad compliance: a case–control retrospective study. 2011 SOSORT Award winner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavernaro Marta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bracing could be efficacious, given good compliance and quality of braces. Recently the SOSORT Brace Treatment Management Guidelines (SBTMG have highlighted the perceived importance of the professional teams surrounding braced patients. Purpose To verify the impact of a complete rehabilitation team in the adolescent patient with bracing. Materials and methods Design. Initial cross-sectional study, followed by a retrospective case–control study. Population: Thirty-eight patients (15.8 ± 1.6 years; 26 females; 10 hyperkyphosis, 28 scoliosis of 29.2 ± 7.9° Cobb extracted from a single orthotist database (between January 1, 2008 and September 1, 2009 and treated by the same physician; brace wearing at least 15 hours/day for a minimum of 6 months; age 10 or more. Treatment: Braces: Sforzesco, Sibilla, Lapadula or Maguelone. Exercises: SEAS. Methods: Two questionnaires filled in blindly by patients: SRS-22 and one especially developed and validated with 25 questions on adherence to treatment. Groups (main risk factor: TEAM (private institute: satisfied 44/44 SOSORT criteria; grade of teamwork, “excellent” included 13 patients and NOT 25 (National Health Service Rehabilitation Department: 35/44 SOSORT criteria respected; grade, “insufficient”. Results TEAM was more compliant to bracing than NOT (97 ± 6% vs. 80 ± 24% and performed nearly double the exercises (38 ± 12 vs. 20 ± 13 minutes/session. The self-reduction of bracing was significant in NOT (from 16.8 ± 3.7 to 14.8 ± 4.9 hours/day, , P Conclusions Provided the limits of this first study on the topic, the SBTMG seems to be important for brace treatment, influencing pain, QoL and compliance (and so, presumably, final results. Future studies on the topic are advisable.

  10. Effect of Semi-Rigid and Soft Ankle Braces on Static and Dynamic Postural Stability in Young Male Adults

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    Noriaki Maeda, Yukio Urabe, Shogo Tsutsumi, Shuhei Numano, Miho Morita, Takuya Takeuchi, Shou Iwata, Toshiki Kobayashi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ankle braces have been suggested to protect ankle joints from a sprain by restricting inversion and improving proprioception. However, the difference in effects between a semi-rigid brace and a soft brace regarding dynamic postural control after landing is not known. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of soft (SB and semi-rigid (SRB ankle braces on static and dynamic postural stability in healthy young men. Altogether, 21 male adults (mean age 24.0 ± 1.5 years were assessed for one leg while wearing non-brace (NB, SB or SRB. Balance in single-limb stance on a single-force platform with open eyes and closed eyes were assessed for the non-dominant leg under SB, SRB, and NB conditions. Locus length/second (mm/s and the enveloped area (mm·s-2 surrounded by the circumference of the wave pattern during postural sway were calculated. For assessing dynamic postural stability, the participant jumped and landed on one leg on a force platform, and the Dynamic Postural Stability Index (DPSI and the maximum vertical ground reaction force (vGRFmax were measured. The data were compared among the three conditions with repeated-measures analysis of variance. The correlations between locus length/second, enveloped area, DPSI values (DPSI, Anterior-Posterior Stability Index, Medial-Lateral Stability Index, and Vertical Stability Index, and vGRFmax were then calculated. The results indicated that locus length/second and enveloped area with open eyes and closed eyes were not significantly different for each condition. However, a significant lower in the DPSI and Vertical Stability Index were observed with the SRB in comparison to the SB and NB. A significant improvement in vGRFmax was also observed with the SRB in comparison to NB. SRB demonstrated a positive effect on dynamic postural stability after landing on a single leg and may improve balance by increasing dynamic postural stability.

  11. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research. Phase II - Volume I; Truss Braced Wing Design Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.; Allen, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the Truss Braced Wing (TBW) work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, consisting of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, Georgia Tech, Virginia Tech, NextGen Aeronautics, and Microcraft. A multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) environment defined the geometry that was further refined for the updated SUGAR High TBW configuration. Airfoil shapes were tested in the NASA TCT facility, and an aeroelastic model was tested in the NASA TDT facility. Flutter suppression was successfully demonstrated using control laws derived from test system ID data and analysis models. Aeroelastic impacts for the TBW design are manageable and smaller than assumed in Phase I. Flutter analysis of TBW designs need to include pre-load and large displacement non-linear effects to obtain a reasonable match to test data. With the updated performance and sizing, fuel burn and energy use is reduced by 54% compared to the SUGAR Free current technology Baseline (Goal 60%). Use of the unducted fan version of the engine reduces fuel burn and energy by 56% compared to the Baseline. Technology development roadmaps were updated, and an airport compatibility analysis established feasibility of a folding wing aircraft at existing airports.

  12. Design and Model Test of a Modularized Prefabricated Steel Frame Structure with Inclined Braces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuechun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modularized prefabricated steel structures have become the preferred design in the industrialization of steel structures due to their advantages of fast construction speed, high degree of industrialization, low labour intensity, and more. Prefabricated steel structures have some engineering applications, but all are low-rise structures with few applications in the field of high-rise buildings. Using finite element analysis with line and solid elements, full-scale experiments were conducted to study the single-span frame, which is the core load-bearing part of a modularized prefabricated high-rise steel frame structure with inclined braces. The mechanical mechanisms, computation methods, and design formulas of truss girders were obtained by comparing the finite element and model experiments and building a theoretical and experimental basis for the compilation of design codes. The mechanical characteristics under design load, the deformation and stress state, the elastic-plastic law of development, and the yield failure mode and mechanism under horizontal ultimate load were also obtained. Based on theoretical analysis, finite element analysis, and experiments, the design method of this frame was summarized and incorporated into the design code.

  13. Proteolytic Activation of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab through a Belt-and-Braces Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lian; Pan, Zhi-Zhen; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Bo; Zhu, Yu-Jing; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2016-09-28

    Proteolytic processing of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal toxins by insect midgut proteases plays an essential role in their insecticidal toxicities against target insects. In the present study, proteolysis of Bt crystal toxin Cry2Ab by Plutella xylostella L. midgut proteases (PxMJ) was evaluated. Both trypsin and chymotrypsin were identified involving the proteolytic activation of Cry2Ab and cleaving Cry2Ab at Arg(139) and Leu(144), respectively. Three Cry2Ab mutants (R139A, L144A, and R139A-L144A) were constructed by replacing residues Arg(139), Leu(144), and Arg(139)-Leu(144) with alanine. Proteolysis assays revealed that mutants R139A and L144A but not R139A-L144A could be cleaved into 50 kDa activated toxins by PxMJ. Bioassays showed that mutants R139A and L144A were highly toxic against P. xylostella larvae, while mutant R139A-L144A was almost non-insecticidal. Those results demonstrated that proteolysis by PxMJ was associated with the toxicity of Cry2Ab against P. xylostella. It also revealed that either trypsin or chymotrypsin was enough to activate Cry2Ab protoxin. This characteristic was regarded as a belt-and-braces approach and might contribute to the control of resistance development in target insects. Our studies characterized the proteolytic processing of Cry2Ab and provided new insight into the activation of this Bt toxin.

  14. Height Effect on Response Modification Factor of Open Chevron Eccentrically Braced Frames

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    Gholamreza Abdollahzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of making buildings taller and height of new buildings is now one of the major problems in building design and codes of interest is located. With height, the need for further ductility and the capability of energy dissipation can be a significant role in the proper and safe design of structures to play. It seems that changes the height of buildings can be treated directly on the response modification factor of structures and thus the seismic performance of structures under severe earthquake to be effective. This research is an attempt to evaluate the ductility, over-strength and response modification factors of the Open Chevron Eccentrically Braced Frames (EBFs with 5, 10, 15 and 20 stories under Tabas, Naghan, Bam and El-Centro strong ground motions. These frames were analyzed by using static pushover analysis, linear dynamic and incremental nonlinear dynamic analysis, and the values of these factors for different models have been determined separately and it is resulted that with increasing the height of buildings, the ductility reduction factor and the response modification factor of EBFs, decrease, but this variation hasn’t any influence on the over strength reduction factor.

  15. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research: Phase II- Volume III-Truss Braced Wing Aeroelastic Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Allen, Timothy J.; Droney, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This Test Report summarizes the Truss Braced Wing (TBW) Aeroelastic Test (Task 3.1) work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, which includes the time period of February 2012 through June 2014. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Virginia Tech, and NextGen Aeronautics. The model was fabricated by NextGen Aeronautics and designed to meet dynamically scaled requirements from the sized full scale TBW FEM. The test of the dynamically scaled SUGAR TBW half model was broken up into open loop testing in December 2013 and closed loop testing from January 2014 to April 2014. Results showed the flutter mechanism to primarily be a coalescence of 2nd bending mode and 1st torsion mode around 10 Hz, as predicted by analysis. Results also showed significant change in flutter speed as angle of attack was varied. This nonlinear behavior can be explained by including preload and large displacement changes to the structural stiffness and mass matrices in the flutter analysis. Control laws derived from both test system ID and FEM19 state space models were successful in suppressing flutter. The control laws were robust and suppressed flutter for a variety of Mach, dynamic pressures, and angle of attacks investigated.

  16. The effects of a prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves on the performance of healthy athletes: a crossover randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortaza, Niyousha; Ebrahimi, Ismail; Jamshidi, Ali Ashraf; Abdollah, Vahid; Kamali, Mohammad; Abas, Wan Abu Bakar Wan; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu

    2012-01-01

    Knee injury is one of the major problems in sports medicine, and the use of prophylactic knee braces is an attempt to reduce the occurrence and/or severity of injuries to the knee joint ligament(s) without inhibiting knee mobility. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of one recently designed prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves upon performance of healthy athletes. Thirty-one healthy male athletes (age = 21.2 ± 1.5) volunteered as participants to examine the effect of prophylactic knee brace/sleeves on performance using isokinetic and functional tests. All subjects were tested in four conditions in a random order: 1. nonbraced (control) 2. using a neoprene knee sleeve 3. using a knee sleeve with four bilateral metal supports and 4. using a prophylactic knee brace. The study design was a crossover, randomized, controlled trial. Subjects completed single leg vertical jump, cross-over hop, and the isokinetic knee flexion and extension (at 60, 180, 300°/sec). Data were collected from the above tests and analyzed for jump height, cross-over hop distance, peak torque to body weight ratio and average power, respectively. Comparisons of these variables in the four testing conditions revealed no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). The selected prophylactic brace/sleeves did not significantly inhibit athletic performance which might verify that their structure and design have caused no complication in the normal function of the knee joint. Moreover, it could be speculated that, if the brace or the sleeves had any limiting effect, our young healthy athletic subjects were well able to generate a mean peak torque large enough to overcome this possible restriction. Further studies are suggested to investigate the long term effect of these prophylactic knee brace and sleeves as well as their possible effect on the adjacent joints to the knee.

  17. The effects of a prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves on the performance of healthy athletes: a crossover randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyousha Mortaza

    Full Text Available Knee injury is one of the major problems in sports medicine, and the use of prophylactic knee braces is an attempt to reduce the occurrence and/or severity of injuries to the knee joint ligament(s without inhibiting knee mobility. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of one recently designed prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves upon performance of healthy athletes. Thirty-one healthy male athletes (age = 21.2 ± 1.5 volunteered as participants to examine the effect of prophylactic knee brace/sleeves on performance using isokinetic and functional tests. All subjects were tested in four conditions in a random order: 1. nonbraced (control 2. using a neoprene knee sleeve 3. using a knee sleeve with four bilateral metal supports and 4. using a prophylactic knee brace. The study design was a crossover, randomized, controlled trial. Subjects completed single leg vertical jump, cross-over hop, and the isokinetic knee flexion and extension (at 60, 180, 300°/sec. Data were collected from the above tests and analyzed for jump height, cross-over hop distance, peak torque to body weight ratio and average power, respectively. Comparisons of these variables in the four testing conditions revealed no statistically significant difference (p>0.05. The selected prophylactic brace/sleeves did not significantly inhibit athletic performance which might verify that their structure and design have caused no complication in the normal function of the knee joint. Moreover, it could be speculated that, if the brace or the sleeves had any limiting effect, our young healthy athletic subjects were well able to generate a mean peak torque large enough to overcome this possible restriction. Further studies are suggested to investigate the long term effect of these prophylactic knee brace and sleeves as well as their possible effect on the adjacent joints to the knee.

  18. A calorimetric and equilibrium investigation of the reaction {l_brace}methyl ferulate(aq) + H{sub 2}O(l) = methanol(aq) + ferulic acid(aq){r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Robert N., E-mail: robert.goldberg@nist.go [Biochemical Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20876 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Lang, Brian E., E-mail: brian.lang@nist.go [Biochemical Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20876 (United States); Selig, Michael J., E-mail: michael.selig@nrel.go [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Biosciences Center, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Decker, Stephen R., E-mail: steve.decker@nrel.go [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Biosciences Center, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Microcalorimetry and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) have been used to conduct a thermodynamic investigation of the reaction: {l_brace}methyl ferulate(aq) + H{sub 2}O(l) = methanol(aq) + ferulic acid(aq){r_brace}, as catalyzed by feruloyl esterase. Values of the apparent equilibrium constant K' = (29.6 {+-} 0.7) (T = 298.15 K, citrate buffer at pH 4.98, ionic strength I = 0.39 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}) and of the calorimetrically determined enthalpy of reaction {Delta}{sub r}H(cal) = (4.0 {+-} 0.9) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} (T = 298.15 K and citrate buffer at pH 4.81, I = 0.36 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}) were measured. A chemical equilibrium model, together with pKs and standard enthalpies of reaction {Delta}{sub r}H{sup 0} for the H{sup +}(aq) binding reactions of the reactants and products, was then used to calculate the values K = (1.89 {+-} 0.06) . 10{sup -4}, {Delta}{sub r}H{sup o} = (7.3 {+-} 1.7) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, {Delta}{sub r}G{sup o} = (21.25 {+-} 0.07) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, and {Delta}{sub r}S{sup o} = - (46.8 {+-} 5.7) J {center_dot} K{sup -1} {center_dot} mol{sup -1} for the chemical reference reaction {l_brace}methyl ferulate(aq) + H{sub 2}O(l) = methanol(aq) + ferulic acid{sup -}(aq) + H{sup +}(aq){r_brace}. These values of K and {Delta}{sub r}H{sup o} are similar in magnitude to the corresponding values reported for the reaction {l_brace}propyl gallate(aq) + H{sub 2}O(l) = 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid{sup -}(aq) + 1-propanol(aq) + H{sup +}(aq){r_brace}. The results obtained in this study can be used in a chemical equilibrium model to calculate how K' and other standard transformed properties such as the standard transformed enthalpy {Delta}{sub r}H'{sup o}, standard transformed Gibbs free energy {Delta}{sub r}G'{sup o}, and the change in binding of H{sup +}(aq), {Delta}{sub r}N(H{sup +}), vary with the independent variables T, pH, and I.

  19. LATERAL RESISTANCE OF CHEVRON-BRACED FRAMES WITH WEAK BEAMS%横梁未加强型人字撑框架体系的抗侧性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童根树; 罗桂发; 张磊

    2011-01-01

    对7组横梁未加强的人字支撑框架进行弹塑性分析,支撑几何长细比从43变化至132,支撑又分承担和不承担竖向重力两种。研究表明重力荷载使支撑提前屈曲,降低了支撑抗侧力峰值,抗震设防烈度越低,其影响越大。通过对整体、支撑和框架的侧力.侧移曲线的分析,解释了设计人字撑横梁时不应考虑跨中支撑点作用的原因,对欧美日等将中等长细比的支撑框架列为抗震性能最差的框架支撑体系提供了解释。揭示了支撑与框架的极限抗侧力不同时出现的重要现象,提出了设计对策;提出了塑性破坏机构,推导了横梁跨中挠度和支撑出平面外位移与层侧移角的关系。%The elastic-plastic analysis was performed for seven chevron-braced frames with weak beams, with the brace slenderness varying from 43 to 132. The braces are of two types: carrying and free of gravity load. The effect of gravitational axial force in braces on the lateral resistance of the braced frames was studied. The results showed that the gravity load caused the braces buckle (or yield) earlier; it weakened the peak strength of the chevron braces and the overall braced frames; and those effects were greater for slender braces used in regions of smaller seismic fortification intensity. Based on the overall, the brace's and the frame's lateral force-drift curves, the paper explained why the beam should be designed as if no bracing point at midspan, why the United States and Japan treated the braces of moderate slenderness as the structure having the worst seismic behaviour. It was also found that the braces reached its ultimate state at a much smaller drift than the frame, implying that the current design method of linear combination is not fully justified, and an improved design method is proposed. A plastic mechanism was proposed to evaluate the relations between the midspan-deflection of the beams, the out

  20. Design method for Pall-BRB frictional damping brace system%新型Pall-BRB摩擦阻尼支撑体系设计方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张纪刚; 欧进萍

    2011-01-01

    Based on the geometry nonlinearity,the hysteretic behavior of a new-typed Pall-BRB frictional damping brace system,whose braces are buckling restrained braces(BRB) instead of conventional common Pall-typed frictional damper(PFD) braces,is analyzed using ANSYS finite element software.The hysteretic behavior of Pall-BRB frictional damping brace system is compared with the common PFD brace system.The analytical results show that the buckling restrained braces can reach tension and compression,and the ultimate compression and tension strengths are almost the same,and the energy dissipation is very good.At the same time,the influence of BRB′s stiffness,slip force of the Pall-typed damper,the size of damper and the elevation angle of BRB on hysteretic of system and tension force is analyzed.The results show that the Pall-BRB brace system has better energy dissipation than original Pall brace system,the tension force of the BRBs can keep constant;the maximum tension force of BRBs has relationship with slip force of damper,and the greater the slip force of damper is,the greater the energy dissipation is,and the BRBs can act fully.Finally,a simple design method of Pall-BRB frictional damping brace system is proposed.%考虑几何非线性采用ANSYS有限元软件对一种新型Pall-BRB摩擦阻尼支撑体系(采用防屈曲支撑(BRB)代替Pall型摩擦阻尼器(PFD)的普通支撑)的滞回特性进行分析.首先进行了Pall型普通支撑体系和Pall-BRB摩擦阻尼支撑体系的滞回性能对比分析,结果表明,防屈曲支撑在拉压循环荷载作用下均能达到屈服,拉压承载力基本一致,耗能能力优于普通支撑.然后分析了防屈曲支撑刚度、Pall型阻尼器起滑摩擦力、阻尼器的大小以及防屈曲支撑与水平方向的倾角等因素对体系滞回特性以及支撑内力的影响.结果表明,Pall-

  1. Soft braces in the treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS – Review of the literature and description of a new approach

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    Weiss Hans-Rudolf

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of soft braces to treat scoliosis has been described by Fischer as early as 1876. With the help of elastic straps, as the authors suggested, a corrective movement for individual curve patterns should be maintained in order to inhibit curve progression. Today this concept has been revived besides soft 3 point pressure systems. Some shortcomings have been revealed in literature in comparison with hard braces, however the concept of improving quality of life of a patient while under brace treatment should furtherly be considered as valuable. Purpose of this review is to gather the body of evidence existent for the use of soft braces and to present recent developments. Method A review of literature as available on Pub Med was performed using the key words ‘scoliosis’ and ‘soft brace’ at first. The search was expanded using ‘scoliosis’ and the known trademarks (1 ‘scoliosis’ and ‘SpineCor’, (2 ‘scoliosis’ and ‘TriaC’, (3 ‘scoliosis’ and ‘St. Etienne brace’, (4 ‘scoliosis’ and ‘Olympe’. The papers considered for inclusion were new technical descriptions, preliminary results, cohort studies and controlled studies. Results When searching for the terms ‘scoliosis’ and ‘SpineCor’: 20 papers have been found, most of them investigating a soft brace, for ‘scoliosis’ and ‘TriaC’: 7 papers displayed, for ‘scoliosis’ and ‘St. Etienne brace’: one paper displayed but not meeting the topic and for ‘scoliosis’ and ‘Olympe’: No paper displayed. Four papers found on the SpineCor™ were of prospective controlled or prospective randomized design. These papers partly presented contradictory results. Two papers were on soft Boston braces used in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis. Discussion There is a small but consistent body of evidence for the use of soft braces in the treatment of scoliosis. Contradictory results have been published for samples treated during

  2. Proteolytic Activation of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab through a Belt-and-Braces Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lian; Pan, Zhi-Zhen; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Bo; Zhu, Yu-Jing; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2016-09-28

    Proteolytic processing of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal toxins by insect midgut proteases plays an essential role in their insecticidal toxicities against target insects. In the present study, proteolysis of Bt crystal toxin Cry2Ab by Plutella xylostella L. midgut proteases (PxMJ) was evaluated. Both trypsin and chymotrypsin were identified involving the proteolytic activation of Cry2Ab and cleaving Cry2Ab at Arg(139) and Leu(144), respectively. Three Cry2Ab mutants (R139A, L144A, and R139A-L144A) were constructed by replacing residues Arg(139), Leu(144), and Arg(139)-Leu(144) with alanine. Proteolysis assays revealed that mutants R139A and L144A but not R139A-L144A could be cleaved into 50 kDa activated toxins by PxMJ. Bioassays showed that mutants R139A and L144A were highly toxic against P. xylostella larvae, while mutant R139A-L144A was almost non-insecticidal. Those results demonstrated that proteolysis by PxMJ was associated with the toxicity of Cry2Ab against P. xylostella. It also revealed that either trypsin or chymotrypsin was enough to activate Cry2Ab protoxin. This characteristic was regarded as a belt-and-braces approach and might contribute to the control of resistance development in target insects. Our studies characterized the proteolytic processing of Cry2Ab and provided new insight into the activation of this Bt toxin. PMID:27598769

  3. ESTIMATION OF BEARING STRENGTH OF BRACES AND STRUTS OF FARMS OF COVERAGE OF 6D TYPE HOTHOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degtyarev G. V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The method of estimation of bearing strength of braces and struts of farms of coverage of hothouses is presented in the article. The deep analysis of the question of bearing strength appeared in the light of mass erection of hothouses, especially in the South Federal district, the construction of which had been bought in the countries of Near East. However, simple transfer of the constructions of hothouses made in foreign countries can not be considered as rational on the territory of the Russian Federation. The constructions of hothouses in most do not maintain exploitation even in one winter, when the considerable snow loadings are, and wind as well. The necessity of bringing of clarity for the folded situation became more obvious. Conducted successive static, dynamic and seismic analyses, executed upon the normative documents and due to the norms of supplier operating on the territory of the Russian Federation, in attachment to the real sections of bearings structural elements, allowed to expose the stated below percents of the use of the examined elements of constructions. Supporting braces of farms of coverage: on the norms of the Russian Federation, on the first maximum state percent of the use – 999 %; there is a percent of the use on the second maximum state – 999 %; on the norms of the Russian Federation taking into account loadings of supplier, on the first maximum state percent of the use – 999 %; there is a percent of the use on the second maximum state – 999 %; Stretched braces of farms of coverage: on the norms of the Russian Federation, on the first maximum state percent of the use – 64,2%; there is a percent of the use on the second maximum state – 721,8 %; on the norms of the Russian Federation taking into account loadings of supplier, on the first maximum state percent of the use – 25,8 %; there is a percent of the use on the second maximum state – 721,8%. Analysis presented allows establishing that at the load

  4. Numerical Model of a Hybrid Damping System Composed of a Buckling Restrained Brace with a Magneto Rheological Damper

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    Filip-Vacarescu Norin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the concept of a hybrid damper made from a combination of two dissipative devices. A passive hysteretic device like steel Buckling Restrained Brace (BRB can be combined with a magneto-rheological (MR Fluid Damper in order to obtain a hybrid dissipative system. This system can work either as a semi-active system, if the control unit is available, or as a passive system, tuned for working according to performance based seismic engineering (PBSE scale of reference parameters (i.e. interstory drift.

  5. SUPER-CAPACITOR APPLICATION IN ELECTRICAL POWER CABLE TESTING FACILITIES IN THERMAL ENDURANCE AND MECHANICAL BRACING TESTS

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    I. V. Oleksyuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current-carrying cores of the electrical power cables should be resistant to effects of short-circuit currents whose values depend on the material of the core, its cross-sectional area, cable insulation properties, environment temperature, and the duration of the short-circuit current flow (1 and 3–4 sec. when tested for thermal endurance and mechanical bracing. The facilities for testing the 10 kV aluminum core cables with short-circuit current shall provide mechanical-bracing current 56,82 kA and thermal endurance current 11,16 kA. Although capacitors provide such values of the testing currents to the best advantage, utilizing conventional capacitor-units will involve large expenditures for erecting and  running a separate building. It is expedient to apply super-capacitors qua the electric power supply for testing facilities, as they are capacitors with double-electrical layer and involve the current values of tens of kilo-amperes.The insulation voltage during short-circuit current testing being not-standardized, it is not banned to apply voltages less than 10 kV when performing short-circuit thermal endurance and mechanical bracing tests for electrical power cables of 10 kV. The super-capacitor voltage variation-in-time graph consists of two regions: capacitive and resistive. The capacitive part corresponds to the voltage change consequent on the energy change in the super-capacitors. The resistive part shows the voltage variation due to the active resistance presence in the super-capacitor.The author offers the algorithm determining the number of super capacitors requisite for testing 10 kV-electrical power cables with short-circuit currents for thermal endurance and mechanical bracing. The paper shows that installation of super-capacitors in the facilities testing the cables with short-circuit currents reduces the area needed for the super-capacitors in comparison with conventional capacitors more than by one order of magnitude.

  6. Aging effect in CaLaBa{l_brace}Cu{sub 1 - x}Fe{sub x}{r_brace}{sub 3}O{sub 7 - {delta}} with 0 {<=} x {<=} 0.07 studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, Angel, E-mail: angelbd1@gmail.com [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Laboratorio de Ceramicos y Nanomateriales, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas (Peru); Santos Valladares, Luis De Los, E-mail: ld301@cam.ac.uk [University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory (United Kingdom); Flores, Jesus [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Laboratorio de Ceramicos y Nanomateriales, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas (Peru); Barnes, Crispin H. W. [University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory (United Kingdom); Majima, Yutaka [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Materials and Structures Laboratory (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    In this work, we study the long-term aging effect caused by Fe atoms in the superconductor CaLaBa{l_brace}Cu{sub 1 - x}Fe{sub x}{r_brace}{sub 3}O{sub 7 - {delta}} with 0 {<=} x {<=} 0.07. XRD confirms that this system has a YBCO-like structure. The critical temperature (T{sub c}) is strongly affected by aging and depends on the amount of Fe in the structure. Room temperature Moessbauer spectroscopy reveals the presence of the typical species A, B-B Prime , C and new species E Prime and F. Interestingly; A, which corresponds to the Fe{sup 3 + } atom located in the Cu(1) of the chains with spin S{sub z} = 3/2, shows a drastic reduction which means migration to the species B, B Prime and C. Species B and B Prime correspond to the Fe{sup 3 + } in the Cu(2) site forming planar quasi-octahedral and planar square pyramidal, while the C specie is a square pyramidal with O(5) respectively (spin S{sub z} = 3/2 in all these cases). Aging causes loss of superconductivity in the samples with 5 and 7% of iron content.

  7. Effect of Kınesıotapıng and Knee Brace on Functıonal Performance in Recreatıonal Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Ulusoy, Burak; İldiz, Bülent; Tunay, Volga Bayrakçı

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Kinesiotaping is a popular taping method that is used for both therapeutic and performance enchancement purposes. Knee braces are widely used for prevention in sport injuries but their performance effectiveness is still controversial. The aim of this study was to determine whether kinesiotape or brace was more effective on functional performance. Methods: A total twenty male recreational football players (Mean±Standart Deviation (SD) age: 22.5±0.68 years, height: 175.15±3.37 cm, b...

  8. Nickel sensitization in adolescents and association with ear piercing, use of dental braces and hand eczema. The Odense Adolescence Cohort Study on Atopic Diseases and Dermatitis (TOACS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Lauritsen, Jens Martin; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten;

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of nickel allergy (sensitization) and the associations with ear piercing, use of dental braces and hand eczema were assessed in a cohort of 1,501 8th grade schoolchildren (aged 12-16 years) in Odense, Denmark. Nickel allergy was found in 8.6% and was clinically relevant in 69......% of cases. Nickel allergy was found most frequently in girls and the association with ear piercing was confirmed. Application of dental braces (oral nickel exposure) prior to ear piercing (cutaneous nickel exposure) was associated with a significantly reduced prevalence of nickel allergy. In adolescents...

  9. A user`s guide to LUGSAN 1.1: A computer program to calculate and archive lug and sway brace loads for aircraft-carried stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, W.N. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Experimental Structural Dynamics Dept.

    1994-07-01

    LUGSAN (LUG and Sway brace ANalysis) is a analysis and database computer program designed to calculate store lug and sway brace loads from aircraft captive carriage. LUGSAN combines the rigid body dynamics code, SWAY85 and the maneuver calculation code, MILGEN, with an INGRES database to function both as an analysis and archival system. This report describes the operation of the LUGSAN application program, including function description, layout examples, and sample sessions. This report is intended to be a user`s manual for version 1.1 of LUGSAN operating on the VAX/VMS system. The report is not intended to be a programmer or developer`s manual.

  10. The interdigital brace and other grips for termite nest perforation by chimpanzees of the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnik, Julie J; Sanz, Crickette M; Morgan, David B

    2015-06-01

    Studies of chimpanzee termite foraging enlighten our understanding of early hominin tool use not only by modeling the cognitive ability of our ancestors but also by emphasizing the possible role of social insects in the hominin diet. The chimpanzees of the Goualougo Triangle are known to have one of the largest and most complex tool repertoires reported for wild chimpanzees. One tool set habitually used by this population includes a perforating tool to penetrate the hard outer crust of elevated termite nests before fishing for termite prey with an herbaceous stem. Here, we report the variation present in the grips used on the perforating tool. Our analysis of video recordings of chimpanzee visitation to termite nests over a 3-year period shows that these chimpanzees use a variety of grips to navigate the challenges encountered in opening a termite nest. For situations in which the soil is most hardened, perforating requires force and a power grip is often used. When the soil in the passageway is loose, precision grips are suitable for the task. One of the preferred grips reported here is an interdigital brace, which has previously been described in studies of how some people hold a pencil. In this study, for the first time, the interdigital brace has been thoroughly described for chimpanzees. The various strategies and grips used during perforation emphasize the importance of termites as a nutritional resource that should be considered more strongly as a food used by early hominins. PMID:25916822

  11. Analysis of Limit Cycle Oscillation Data from the Aeroelastic Test of the SUGAR Truss-Braced Wing Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Robert E.; Funk, Christie; Scott, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Research focus in recent years has been given to the design of aircraft that provide significant reductions in emissions, noise and fuel usage. Increases in fuel efficiency have also generally been attended by overall increased wing flexibility. The truss-braced wing (TBW) configuration has been forwarded as one that increases fuel efficiency. The Boeing company recently tested the Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) Truss-Braced Wing (TBW) wind-tunnel model in the NASA Langley Research Center Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). This test resulted in a wealth of accelerometer data. Other publications have presented details of the construction of that model, the test itself, and a few of the results of the test. This paper aims to provide a much more detailed look at what the accelerometer data says about the onset of aeroelastic instability, usually known as flutter onset. Every flight vehicle has a location in the flight envelope of flutter onset, and the TBW vehicle is not different. For the TBW model test, the flutter onset generally occurred at the conditions that the Boeing company analysis said it should. What was not known until the test is that, over a large area of the Mach number dynamic pressure map, the model displayed wing/engine nacelle aeroelastic limit cycle oscillation (LCO). This paper dissects that LCO data in order to provide additional insights into the aeroelastic behavior of the model.

  12. Treatment of the Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip with an Abduction Brace in Children up to 6 Months Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Wahlen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Use of Pavlik harness for the treatment of DDH can be complicated for parents. Any misuse or failure in the adjustments may lead to significant complications. An abduction brace was introduced in our institution, as it was thought to be easier to use. Aim. We assess the results for the treatment of DDH using our abduction brace in children of 0–6 months old and compare these results with data on treatments using the Pavlik harness. Method. Retrospective analysis of patients with DDH from 0 to 6 months old at diagnosis, performed from 2004 to 2009. Outcomes were rates of reduction of the hip and avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVN. Follow-up was at one year and up to 4 years old. Results. Hip reduction was successful in 28 of 33 patients (85%, with no AVN. Conclusion. Our results in terms of hip reduction rate and AVN rate are similar to those found in literature assessing Pavlik harness use, with a simpler and comfortable treatment procedure.

  13. Treatment of thoraco-lumbar curves in adolescent females affected by idiopathic scoliosis with a progressive action short brace (PASB: assessment of results according to the SRS committee on bracing and nonoperative management standardization criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perisano Carlo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of conservative treatment of scoliosis is controversial. Some studies suggest that brace is effective in stopping curve progression, whilst others did not report such an effect. The purpose of the present study was to effectiveness of Progressive Action Short Brace (PASB in the correction of thoraco-lumbar curves, in agreement with the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS Committee on Bracing and Nonoperative Management Standardisation Criteria. Methods Fifty adolescent females (mean age 11.8 ± 0.5 years with thoraco-lumbar curve and a pre-treatment Risser score ranging from 0 to 2 have been enrolled. The minimum duration of follow-up was 24 months (mean: 55.4 ± 44.5 months. Antero-posterior radiographs were used to estimate the curve magnitude (CM and the torsion of the apical vertebra (TA at 5 time points: beginning of treatment (t1, one year after the beginning of treatment (t2, intermediate time between t1 and t4 (t3, end of weaning (t4, 2-year minimum follow-up from t4 (t5. Three situations were distinguished: curve correction, curve stabilisation and curve progression. The Kruskal Wallis and Spearman Rank Correlation tests have been used as statistical tests. Results CM mean value was 29,30 ± 5,16 SD at t1 and 14,67 ± 7,65 SD at t5. TA was 12.70 ± 6,14 SD at t1 and 8,95 ± 5,82 at t5. The variation between measures of Cobb and Perdriolle degrees at t1,2,3,4,5 and between CM t5-t1 and TA t5-t1 were significantly different. Curve correction was accomplished in 94% of patients, whereas a curve stabilisation was obtained in 6% of patients. Conclusion The PASB, due to its peculiar biomechanical action on vertebral modelling, is highly effective in correcting thoraco-lumbar curves.

  14. Effect of bracing and other conservative interventions in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents : A systematic review of clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenssinck, MLB; Frijlink, AC; Berger, MY; Bierma-Zeinstra, SMA; Verkerk, K; Verhagen, AP

    2005-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Many conservative treatments are available for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis, but the evidence for their accepted use is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of braces and other conservative treatments of idiopathic scoliosis in a

  15. Simulation methods for hysteretic curve of steel braces%钢支撑滞回曲线的模拟方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆志; 赵作周; 陆新征; 钱稼茹

    2011-01-01

    Three simulation methods for hysteretic curve of steel braces,including phenomenological description method,finite element method and plastic-hinge method,were reviewed.A new brace model based on phenomenological description method was proposed.This model contains a series of governing variables to envelop the complicated hysteretic curve of steel braces and the governing variables can be calibrated by available test results.Simulation results of some available test data prove that this model is more accurate and proficient than those previous brace models based on phenomenological description method.Furthermore,in order to study a more generous brace model,a fiber brace model was demonstrated as well.In this model,certain geometric initial imperfection in the middle of a brace is required to simulate its buckling and post buckling hysteretic characters.The variables of the model are only geometry and material characters of the brace and can be easily determined.The analytical results show that the fiber brace model is precise enough to carry out integral structure analysis under multi-scale requirement.The proposed two models can be used in analysis and design of a structure system containing braces under earthquake excitation.%钢支撑滞回曲线主要有三种模拟方法:现象描述法、有限元法和塑性铰法。在分析了各模拟方法优劣的基础上,提出一种新型的基于现象描述法的支撑模型。该模型通过一系列控制参数来包络钢支撑复杂的滞回曲线,并根据已有的同类型支撑试验结果标定控制参数。研究表明,该模型具有较高的模拟精度及计算效率,解决了早期基于现象描述法支撑模型模拟结果较为粗糙的问题。此外,为研究通用性更高的支撑模型,还提出了一种纤维支撑模型。该模型在跨中引入初始几何缺陷以模拟钢支撑的屈曲及屈曲后滞回特性,模型参数仅涉及支撑的几何及材料特性而易于确定。分析

  16. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in late-onset juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunderson Ragnhild

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is recommended that research in patients with idiopathic scoliosis should focus on short- and long-term patient-centred outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate outcome in patients with late-onset juvenile or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis 16 years or more after Boston brace treatment. Methods 272 (78% of 360 patients, 251 (92% women, responded to follow-up examination at a mean of 24.7 (range 16 - 32 years after Boston brace treatment. Fifty-eight (21% patients had late-onset juvenile and 214 had adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. All patients had clinical and radiological examination and answered a standardised questionnaire including work status, demographics, General Function Score (GFS (100 - worst possible and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI (100 - worst possible, EuroQol (EQ-5D (1 - best possible, EQ-VAS (100 - best possible, and Scoliosis Research Society - 22 (SRS - 22 (5 - best possible. Results The mean age at follow-up was 40.4 (31-48 years. The prebrace major curve was in average 33.2 (20 - 57°. At weaning and at the last follow-up the corresponding values were 28.3 (1 - 58° and 32.5 (7 - 80°, respectively. Curve development was similar in patients with late-onset juvenile and adolescent start. The prebrace curve increased > 5° in 31% and decreased > 5° in 26%. Twenty-five patients had surgery. Those who did not attend follow-up (n = 88 had a lower mean curve at weaning: 25.4 (6-53°. Work status was 76% full-time and 10% part-time. Eighty-seven percent had delivered a baby, 50% had pain in pregnancy. The mean (SD GFS was 7.4 (10.8, ODI 9.3 (11.0, EQ-5D 0.82 (0.2, EQ-VAS 77.6 (17.8, SRS-22: pain 4.1 (0.8, mental health 4.1 (0.6, self-image 3.7 (0.7, function 4.0 (0.6, satisfaction with treatment 3.7 (1.0. Surgical patients had significantly reduced scores for SRS-physical function and self-image, and patients with curves ≥ 45° had reduced self-image. Conclusion Long-term results were

  17. SEISMIC RESPONSE AND PERFORMANCE OF BUCKLING-RESTRAINED BRACED FRAMES%偏心BRBFs的抗震性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王菲; 张勇

    2011-01-01

    In order to learn the seismic performance of eccentric buckling-restrained braced frames , two kinds of structures portal eccentric buckling-restrained braced frames and herringbone eccentric buckling-restrained brace frames, were designed with PKPM and numerically simulated based on finite element software ANSYS. The models' response sto- ry drifts, story shear forces under basic seismic intensity were measured. The deformation of the two structures present a shear-flexural type,and the low model has a great influention on the displacement of structure. Story drifts, story shear forces can both meet the seismic-resistent deflection demand, which indicates that the two kinds of structures both have good seismic performance. The components can be equivalent to the structure damping to be analyzed ,when they dissipate the energy through plastic deformation. The solution of calculating the equivalent damping ratio was presented. The seismic performance of the two strutures were evaluated furtherly through the investgation of toplevel displacement and story shear forces under 0.4g peak acceleration seismic ground motion , the result showed that the herringbone eccentric buckling-restrained brace frames performed better in earthquake-resistance.%为了解偏心屈曲约束支撑钢框架(BRBFs)的抗震性能,运用pkpm设计软件设计门架式偏心BRBFs和人字形偏心BRBFs两种结构,基于大型有限元软件ANSYS对两种结构进行有限元数值模拟,分析了两种结构在基本烈度作用下的各层位移反应及层间位移角,结果表明,两种结构变形受低阶振型影响较大,沿高度呈倒三角地形分布,结构变形为弯剪形,各层位移及层间位移角均满足规范要求,体现出良好的抗震性能。构件产生塑性变形而耗能时,可以将结构构件等效为结构阻尼进行分析,介绍了等效阻尼比的求解方法。通过对罕遇地震作用下的两种结

  18. Heterogeneity in the Histidine-brace Copper Coordination Sphere in Auxiliary Activity Family 10 (AA10) Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Amanda K; Wilson, Michael T; Hough, Michael A; Svistunenko, Dimitri A; Hemsworth, Glyn R; Walton, Paul H; Vijgenboom, Erik; Worrall, Jonathan A R

    2016-06-10

    Copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are enzymes that oxidatively deconstruct polysaccharides. The active site copper in LPMOs is coordinated by a histidine-brace. This utilizes the amino group and side chain of the N-terminal His residue with the side chain of a second His residue to create a T-shaped arrangement of nitrogen ligands. We report a structural, kinetic, and thermodynamic appraisal of copper binding to the histidine-brace in an auxiliary activity family 10 (AA10) LPMO from Streptomyces lividans (SliLPMO10E). Unexpectedly, we discovered the existence of two apo-SliLPMO10E species in solution that can each bind copper at a single site with distinct kinetic and thermodynamic (exothermic and endothermic) properties. The experimental EPR spectrum of copper-bound SliLPMO10E requires the simulation of two different line shapes, implying two different copper-bound species, indicative of three and two nitrogen ligands coordinating the copper. Amino group coordination was probed through the creation of an N-terminal extension variant (SliLPMO10E-Ext). The kinetics and thermodynamics of copper binding to SliLPMO10E-Ext are in accord with copper binding to one of the apo-forms in the wild-type protein, suggesting that amino group coordination is absent in the two-nitrogen coordinate form of SliLPMO10E. Copper binding to SliLPMO10B was also investigated, and again it revealed the presence of two apo-forms with kinetics and stoichiometry of copper binding identical to that of SliLPMO10E. Our findings highlight that heterogeneity exists in the active site copper coordination sphere of LPMOs that may have implications for the mechanism of loading copper in the cell. PMID:27129229

  19. Ankles back in randomized controlled trial (ABrCt: braces versus neuromuscular exercises for the secondary prevention of ankle sprains. Design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhagen Evert ALM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankle sprains are the most common sports and physical activity related injury. There is extensive evidence that there is a twofold increased risk for injury recurrence for at least one year post injury. In up to 50% of all cases recurrences result in disability and lead to chronic pain or instability, requiring prolonged medical care. Therefore ankle sprain recurrence prevention in athletes is essential. This RCT evaluates the effect of the combined use of braces and neuromuscular training (e.g. proprioceptive training/sensorimotor training/balance training against the individual use of either braces or neuromuscular training alone on ankle sprain recurrences, when applied to individual athletes after usual care. Methods/Design This study was designed as three way randomized controlled trial with one year follow-up. Healthy individuals between 12 and 70 years of age, who were actively participating in sports and who had sustained a lateral ankle sprain in the two months prior to inclusion, were eligible for inclusion. After subjects had finished ankle sprain treatment by means of usual care, they were randomised to any of the three study groups. Subjects in group 1 received an eight week neuromuscular training program, subjects in group 2 received a sports brace to be worn during all sports activities for the duration of one year, and group 3 received a combination of the neuromuscular training program and a sports brace to be worn during all sports activities for the duration of eight weeks. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and every month for 12 months therafter. The primary outcome measure was incidence of ankle sprain recurrences. Secondary outcome measures included the direct and indirect costs of recurrent injury, the severity of recurrent injury, and the residual complaints during and after the intervention. Discussion The ABrCt is the first randomized controlled trial to directly compare the secondary preventive

  20. The glycine brace: a component of Rab, Rho, and Ran GTPases associated with hinge regions of guanine- and phosphate-binding loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuwald Andrew F

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ras-like GTPases function as on-off switches in intracellular signalling pathways and include the Rab, Rho/Rac, Ran, Ras, Arf, Sar and Gα families. How these families have evolutionarily diverged from each other at the sequence level provides clues to underlying mechanisms associated with their functional specialization. Results Bayesian analysis of divergent patterns within a multiple alignment of Ras-like GTPase sequences identifies a structural component, termed here the glycine brace, as the feature that most distinguishes Rab, Rho/Rac, Ran and (to some degree Ras family GTPases from other Ras-like GTPases. The glycine brace consists of four residues: An aromatic residue that forms a stabilizing CH-π interaction with a conserved glycine at the start of the guanine-binding loop; a second aromatic residue, which is nearly always a tryptophan, that likewise forms stabilizing CH-π and NH-π interactions with a glycine at the start of the phosphate-binding P-loop; and two other residues (typically an aspartate and a serine or threonine that, together with a conserved buried water molecule, form a network of interactions connecting the two aromatic residues. Conclusion It is proposed that the two glycine residues function as hinges and that the glycine brace influences guanine nucleotide binding and release by interacting with these hinges.

  1. The effect of taping versus semi-rigid bracing on patient outcome and satisfaction in ankle sprains: a prospective, randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lardenoye Sacha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional treatment is a widely used and generally accepted treatment for ankle sprain. A meta-analysis comparing the different functional treatment options could not make definitive conclusions regarding the effectiveness, and until now, little was known about patient satisfaction in relation to the outcome. Methods Patients with acute ankle sprain received rest, ice, compression and elevation with an compressive bandage at the emergency department. After 5-7 days, 100 patients with grade II and III sprains were randomized into two groups: one group was treated with tape and the other with a semi-rigid ankle brace, both for 4 weeks. Post-injury physical and proprioceptive training was standardized. As primary outcome parameter patient satisfaction and skin complications were evaluated using a predefined questionnaire and numeric rating scale. As secondary outcome parameter the ankle joint function was assessed using the Karlsson scoring scale and range of motion. Results Patient-reported comfort and satisfaction during treatment with a semi-rigid brace was significantly increased. The rate of skin complication in this group was significantly lower compared to the tape group (14.6% versus 59.1%, P  Conclusion Treatment of acute ankle sprain with semi-rigid brace leads to significantly higher patient comfort and satisfaction, both with similar good outcome.

  2. Synthesis, crystal structure and characterization of a 1D polyoxometalate-based compound: {l_brace}[Pr(H{sub 2}O){sub 7}][CrMo{sub 6}H{sub 6}O{sub 24}]{r_brace} . 4H{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Lijie; Shen Shuchang; Yu Haiming [Qiqihar Univ., HL (China). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2008-07-15

    A novel polyoxometalated-based compound, {l_brace}[Pr(H{sub 2}O){sub 7}][CrMo{sub 6}H{sub 6}O{sub 24}]{r_brace} . 4H{sub 2}O, was prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy, TG measurement and single crystal X-ray diffraction. A chain-like coordination polymer is formed from a heteropolyanion [CrMo{sub 6}H{sub 6}O{sub 24}]{sup 3} as a building unit and [Pr(H{sub 2}O){sub 7}]{sup 3+} cations as linker. The chains are linked into an extensive three-dimensional supramolecular network through hydrogen bonding. The synthesis of 1 is accomplished only from pre-synthesized Anderson clusters, but not from simple starting materials. (orig.)

  3. 少钢支撑RC框架结构的概念%THE CONCEPTION OF RC FRAME STRUCTURES WITH A FEW STEEL BRACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨馨; 贺小岗; 赵作周; 钱稼茹

    2015-01-01

    震害表明,在钢筋混凝土(RC)框架结构中增设少量支撑,可以解决纯框架结构抗震防线单一、缺乏足够冗余度的问题,通过多重抗震防线,保护主体结构构件、减小建筑震害、增加结构的安全储备和防倒塌能力.我国现行规范对含有少量剪力墙的框架结构已经有了明确定义和相应的设计方法,而对于含有少量支撑的框架结构没有定义.该文以一个典型RC框架结构及三个带不同钢支撑的RC框架结构为例,基于弹性分析和弹塑性Pushover分析,借鉴少墙框架的定义方法,提出了以底层框架倾覆力矩分担率为控制指标的少钢支撑RC框架结构的定义,并通过基于IDA的结构抗倒塌易损性分析验证了少钢支撑RC框架结构相比纯框架结构的抗倒塌能力提高.%The seismic damage of reinforced concrete (RC) frame structures during earthquakes has indicated that the widely used RC frame structures are lack of sufficient redundancy under earthquake actions.The damage of RC columns in a RC frame leads to its serious damage even collapses during a strong earthquake.If few steel braces are installed,the RC frame will become multi-fortification with steel braces as its first yielding structure elements and RC frame structure elements will be protected and its damage will be delayed.As a result,its safety margin and collapse-resisting capacity will be improved.According to a RC frame structure with few shear walls,this paper proposed the new conception of a RC frame structure with few braces.A typical RC frame structure and 3 RC frame structures with different braces are studied to achieve the definition of a RC frame structure with few braces based on the overturning moment carried by a frame part.With few steel braces,the collapse-resistant capacities of a RC frame structure is proved through a collapse fragility analysis based on an incremental dynamic analysis (IDA).

  4. Corrosion studies of thermally sensitised AGR fuel element brace in pH7 and pH9.2 borate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brace and cladding of AGR fuel elements sensitised in reactor are susceptible to intergranular and crevice corrosion, which may initiate in the pH7 borate pond storage environment of CEGB/SSEB stations. This report considers the benefit in corrosion control that is provided by raising the pond solution pH to 9.2, whilst maintaining the boron level at 1250 gm-3. The greater corrosion protection provided by pH9.2 solution compared to the pH7 borate solution is demonstrated by a series of tests with non-active laboratory sensitised brace samples exposed to solutions dosed with chloride or sulphate in order to promote localised corrosion. The corrosion tests undertaken consisted of 5000 hour immersions at 320C and shorter term electrochemically monitored experiments (rest potential, impedance, anodic current) generally conducted at 220C. The pH9.2 solution effectively inhibited the initiation of crevice and intergranular corrosion in the presence of low levels of chloride and sulphate, whereas the pH7 solution did not always do so. However, the pH9.2 solution, dosed with 40 gm-3 chloride, failed to suppress fully crevice corrosion initiated in unborated 40 gm-3 chloride solution at 220C. Fluoride is not deleterious at low levels ∼ 10 gm-3 in the borate solutions. The significant improvement in corrosion control demonstrated for the change from pH7 to pH9.2 borate solution on laboratory sensitised brace samples should ideally be confirmed using complete irradiated AGR fuel elements. (U.K.)

  5. How to improve aesthetics in patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS: a SPoRT brace treatment according to SOSORT management criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Claudia

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aesthetics is a main goal of both conservative and surgical treatments in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. Previously, we developed and validated a clinical scale - the Aesthetic Index (AI--in order to measure aesthetic impairment and changes during treatment. Aim To verify the efficacy of bracing on aesthetics in AIS. Study Design Prospective Cohort Study. Population Thirty-four consecutive patients, age 13.2 ± 3.7, initial Cobb Angle 32 ± 12°, ATR 10 ± 4° Bunnel, 11 males. Methods Patients with AI scores of at least 5/6 were included. Each of them had a brace prescription (18 to 23 hours per day, according to the SPoRT concept. AI was measured again after six months and at the end of treatment, and then the pre- and post-treatment scores compared. The Wilcoxon test was performed. Results Twenty-nine patients out of the 34 included completed the treatment and had six-month and final results; four patients were lost during the treatment, and one was fused. At baseline, median AI was 6 (95% IC 5-6 but the score decreased to 3 (95% IC 0-5; p Conclusion Aesthetics can be improved in a clinically significant way when the brace treatment is performed according to the SPoRT concept and by following the SOSORT management criteria. This is a relevant result for patients and a major goal of scoliosis treatment, be it conservative or surgical. The use of a more sensitive tool like TRACE could more easily detect the clinical changes; nevertheless, AI proved sensible enough that its use in everyday clinical practice can be suggested.

  6. Analysison the improvement of bracing system of European 6.25 m stamp-charging coke oven%欧洲6。25 m捣固焦炉护炉铁件改进分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨泽然; 郑亚杰

    2015-01-01

    叙述了欧洲6.25m捣固焦炉护炉装置的使用情况,并详细介绍了优化设计后焦炉护炉装置的结构及其特点。对护炉装置进行了技术改进,有效改善了焦炉的密封性。%The condition of bracing system of European 6. 25m stamp-charging coke oven is intro-duced. The structure and features of optimized bracing system of coke oven is described in detail. After modification of the bracing system,the tightness of coke oven is remarkably improved.

  7. Analysis of Seismic Performance of RC Frame Structure with X-bracings%带X型支撑钢筋混凝土框架结构抗震性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊海涛; 王志鑫; 赵黄娟; 孙爱伏

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the seismic performance of reinforced concrete (RC) frame structure under strong earthquake,the influences of rational arranging bracings on the seismic performances were investigated.Analysis models of 8-story RC frame without bracing,with steel tube X-bracings and with concrete-filled steel tube X-bracings were built,and Pushover analysis of mechanical behavior under strong earthquake of these models was carried out.The results show that the rational arranging bracings in RC frame structure can efficiently increase the structural lateral stiffness,energy dissipation capacity and seismic performance,and significantly decrease the top displacement and the story drift of the RC frame structure.The seismic effects for different material bracings are not the same,and to analysis models in the paper,the concretefilled steel tube bracings can provide more seismic effect than the steel tube bracings for the RC frame.%为了提高钢筋混凝土框架结构抵抗超设防烈度地震的能力,研究了在框架中合理设置支撑对结构抗震性能的影响.以某8层框架工程为背景,对3种不同的结构方案——无支撑钢筋混凝土框架、带X型钢管支撑钢筋混凝土框架和带X型钢管混凝土支撑钢筋混凝土框架结构在强震作用下的受力性能进行了Pushover分析.结果表明:在钢筋混凝土框架结构中合理设置支撑可以有效提高结构抗侧刚度,增大结构耗能能力和抗震能力,减小结构顶点侧移和层间侧移;不同材料的支撑起到的抗震效果也不相同,对于本文分析模型,合理设置钢管混凝土支撑起到的抗震效果比设置钢管支撑更加明显.

  8. Behavior of Shear Link of WF Section with Diagonal Web Stiffener of Eccentrically Braced Frame (EBF of Steel Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurisman

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of numerical and experimental study of shear link behavior, utilizing diagonal stiffener on web of steel profile to increase shear link performance in an eccentric braced frame (EBF of a steel structure system. The specimen is to examine the behavior of shear link by using diagonal stiffener on web part under static monotonic and cyclic load. The cyclic loading pattern conducted in the experiment is adjusted according to AISC loading standards 2005. Analysis was carried out using non-linear finite element method using MSC/NASTRAN software. Link was modeled as CQUAD shell element. Along the boundary of the loading area the nodal are constraint to produce only one direction loading. The length of the link in this analysis is 400mm of the steel profile of WF 200.100. Important parameters considered to effect significantly to the performance of shear link have been analyzed, namely flange and web thicknesses, , thickness and length of web stiffener, thickness of diagonal stiffener and geometric of diagonal stiffener. The behavior of shear link with diagonal web stiffener was compared with the behavior of standard link designed based on AISC 2005 criteria. Analysis results show that diagonal web stiffener is capable to increase shear link performance in terms of stiffness, strength and energy dissipation in supporting lateral load. However, differences in displacement ductility’s between shear links with diagonal stiffener and shear links based on AISC standards have not shown to be significant. Analysis results also show thickness of diagonal stiffener and geometric model of stiffener to have a significant influence on the performance of shear links. To perform validation of the numerical study, the research is followed by experimental work conducted in Structural Mechanic Laboratory Center for Industrial Engineering ITB. The Structures and Mechanics Lab rotary PAU-ITB. The experiments were carried out using three test

  9. Control of motion of tibial fractures with use of a functional brace or an external fixator. A study of cadavera with use of a magnetic motion sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellop, H; Hoffmann, R; Sarmiento, A; Ebramzadeh, E

    1993-07-01

    A computer-linked magnetic motion transducer was used to monitor and record the six components of motion of the bone fragments in eight cadaveric tibiae in which a simulated, oblique fracture of the middle of the shaft had been stabilized with a functional brace. The limbs were mounted in a servo-hydraulic testing frame, and a cyclic load of 150 newtons was applied along the axis of the tibia. Motion sensors, attached to each side of the fracture, measured and displayed the values of the three translations (axial, anterior-posterior, and medial-lateral), the axial rotation, and the two angulations (anterior-posterior and varus-valgus) as they occurred. Although only an axial load was applied, the off-axis motions were comparable in magnitude with the motion along the axis. The elastic (recoverable) translations of the fragments ranged from 0.5 to 1.9 millimeters, about four to ten times larger than the corresponding motions that were recorded in an earlier study of such fractures that had been stabilized with two types of external fixators. The recoverable rotation and angulations of the fragments of the limbs in the functional brace ranged from 0.7 to 1.2 degrees, about ten times those recorded when the external fixators were used.

  10. The Basics of Braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that your kids will, too. Often, your child's dentist will be the first to notice problems during ... and recommend that you see an orthodontist (a dentist who specializes in correcting jaw and/or teeth ...

  11. Knee braces - unloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most people talk about the arthritis in their knees, they are referring to a type of arthritis ... is caused by wear and tear inside your knee joints. Cartilage, the firm, rubbery tissue that cushions ...

  12. Functional bracing for delayed union of a femur fracture associated with Paget's disease of the bone in an Asian patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuta Masashi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Paget's disease of the bone is a common metabolic bone disease in most European countries, Australia, New Zealand, and North America. Conversely, this disease is rare in Scandinavia, Asia, and Africa. In Japan, it is extremely rare, with a prevalence of 0.15/100000. Paget's disease is a localized disorder of bone remodeling. Excessive bone resorption and abnormal bone formation result in biomechanically weakened bone and predispose patients to fracture. Delayed union and non-union of fractures have been reported in patients with Paget's disease. Therefore, open reduction and internal fixation of fractures has been recommended to prevent such complications. Here we report an unusual case of a 63-year-old Asian woman with delayed union of a femur fracture secondary to Paget's disease, which was treated successfully by functional bracing.

  13. Determination of gadolinium(III) ions in soil and sediment samples by a novel gadolinium membrane sensor based on 6-methyl-4-{l_brace}[1-(2-thienyl)methylidene]amino{r_brace}3-thioxo-3,4-dihydro-1,2,4 -triazin-5-(2H)-one

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, Hassan Ali [Department of Chemistry, Quchan branch, Islamic Azad University, Quchan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: haszamani@yahoo.com; Rajabzadeh, Ghadir [Khorasan Science and Technology Park, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Norouzi, Parviz [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    Highly selective and sensitive poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane electrodes based on 6-methyl-4-{l_brace}[1-(2-thienyl)methylidene]amino{r_brace}3-thioxo-3,4-dihydro-1,2,4 -triazin-5-(2H)-one (MATDTO) as new carriers for gadolinium ion-selective electrode was reported. The membrane solutions containing PVC, o-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE) as plasticizer, sodium tetraphenyl borate (NaTPB) as lipophilic ionic additive, and MATDTO, displays a calibration response for Gd{sup 3+} ions over a wide concentration range of 1.0 x 10{sup -6}-1.0 x 10{sup -1} M with Nernstian slopes of 19.8 {+-} 0.2 mV per decade and a detection limit as 5.8 x 10{sup -7} M. The sensor has a relatively fast response time of <10 s and can be used in the pH range 3.2-8.7 for at least 2 months without any significant divergence in potentials. The selectivity coefficients for mono-, di-, and trivalent cations indicate good selectivity for Gd(III) ions over a large number of interfering cations. The membrane sensor was used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Gd(III) ions with EDTA. The proposed electrode was also applied to the determination of concentration of Gd(III) ions in soil and sediment samples and validation with CRMs.

  14. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria in {l_brace}water + acrylic acid + (1-butanol, or 2-butanol, or 1-pentanol){r_brace} systems at T = 293.2 K, T = 303.2 K, and T = 313.2 K and atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistell, Melissa C.; Alves, Thiago C.; Guadagnini, Talita R.; Hadlich de Oliveira, Leonardo [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas, Av. Albert Einstein 500, 13083-852 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Aznar, Martin, E-mail: maznar@feq.unicamp.br [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas, Av. Albert Einstein 500, 13083-852 Campinas-SP (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > Acrylic acid solubilizes preferably in the studied solvents than in water. > Immiscibility region increases in the order: 2-butanol < 1-butanol < 1-pentanol. > Immiscibility region reduces little with an increase in temperature. > K and S values show that 1-pentanol is the best studied solvent. - Abstract: (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for {l_brace}water + acrylic acid + (1-butanol, or 2-butanol, or 1-pentanol){r_brace} at T = 293.2 K, T = 303.2 K, and T = 313.2 K and atmospheric pressure ({approx}95 kPa) were determined by Karl Fischer titration and densimetry. All systems present type I binodal curves. The size of immiscibility region changes little with an increase in temperature, but increases according to the solvent, following the order: 2-butanol < 1-butanol < 1-pentanol. Values of solute distribution and solvent selectivities show that 1-pentanol is a better solvent than 1-butanol or 2-butanol for acrylic acid removal from water solutions. Quality of data was ascertain by Hand and Othmer-Tobias equations, giving R{sup 2} > 0.916, mass balance and accordance between tie lines and cloud points. The NRTL model was used to correlate experimental data, by estimating new energy parameters, with root mean square deviations below 0.0053 for all systems.

  15. Speeds of sound in {l_brace}(1 - x)CH{sub 4} + xN{sub 2}{r_brace} with x = (0.10001, 0.19999, and 0.5422) at temperatures between 170 K and 400 K and pressures up to 30 MPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estela-Uribe, J.F. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Javeriana-Cali, Calle 18, 118-250 Cali (Colombia); Trusler, J.P.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: m.trusler@imperial.ac.uk; Chamorro, C.R. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Segovia, J.J. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Martin, M.C. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Villamanan, M.A. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain)

    2006-07-15

    The speed of sound in {l_brace}(1 - x)CH{sub 4} + xN{sub 2}{r_brace} has been measured with a spherical acoustic resonator. Two mixtures with x = (0.10001 and 0.19999) were studied along isotherms at temperatures between 220 K and 400 K with pressures up to 20 MPa; a few additional measurements at p = (25 and 30) MPa are also reported. A third mixture with x = 0.5422 was studied along pseudo-isochores at amount-of-substance densities between 0.2 mol . dm{sup -3} and 5 mol . dm{sup -3}. Corrections for molecular vibrational relaxation are discussed in detail and relaxation times are reported. The overall uncertainty of the measured speeds of sound is estimated to be not worse than {+-}0.02%, except for those measurements in the mixture with x = 0.5422 that lie along the pseduo-isochore at the highest amount-of-substance density. The results have been compared with the predictions of several equations of state used for natural gas systems.

  16. Study on Links Length Effect on Y-Eccentrically Braced Frames Seismic Performance%Y形偏心支撑耗能段长度对结构抗震性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宝成; 于安林; 沈淼; 李仁达

    2012-01-01

    In order to research stiffs, strength and energy-dissipation of Y-eccentrically braced frames in changing length of links,the one-bay two-story test specimen was carried out under low reversed cyclic loading. Process and method of test was introduced. Load capacity, displacement ductility, hysteretic behavior, ductility, energy-dissipation and plastic mechanism of Y-eccentrically braced frames were analyzed. Experimental studies and analysis show that changing lengths of links have effect on strength, stiffness and energy-dissipation capacity of Y-eccentrically braced frames. The length of links is shorter, the Y-eccentrically braced frames strength and stiffness are bigger. The links entering the plasticity to form the plastic mechanism dissipate structure seismic energy. Failure of connection between links and braces causes the structure expiration. Specimens have good displacement capacity and the displacement ductility ratios is between 3. 62 ~4. 44. The length of links was designed reasonably,and then Y-eccentrically braced steel frames provide high stiffness and well resistant-seismic.%目的 研究Y形偏心支撑耗能段长度对结构的刚度、承载能力以及滞回性能的影响.方法 对2榀改变耗能段长度的Y形偏心支撑框架进行循环加荷试验.介绍了试验方案和试验过程,对比分析了试件的承载能力、位移延性、耗能能力以及Y形偏心支撑框架塑性机构.结果 耗能段长度对Y形偏心支撑框架强度、刚度以及耗能能力影响较大;耗能段长度越短,Y形偏心支撑框架强度和刚度越大;结构主要由耗能段进入塑性形成塑性机构耗散地震能量;耗能段与支撑之间的连接破坏导致结构失效;试件的位移延性系数为3.62 ~4.44,结构的位移延性较好.结论 Y形偏心支撑耗能段长度选取合理,结构抗侧刚度高、抗震性能好.

  17. Çelik Çapraz Elemanlarla Güçlendirilen Betonarme Yapıların Deprem Davranışlarının İncelenmesi = Earthquake Behavior Evaluation of R/C Structures Strengthened with Steel Bracings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasım Armağan KORKMAZ

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the seismic behavior of reinforced concrete (R/C frame structures strengthened with eccentric steel bracing is examined. In this aim, a R/C frame structure is designed and then strengthened with different eccentric steel bracings. The existing and the strengthened structures are analyzed using nonlinear static pushover analysis. Their structural behavior under earthquake effect is compared with each other. In the analyses, 10- story R/C frame structure is designed and this structure is strengthened with different types of strengthening bracings. Thus, the earthquake behavior is defined for the strengthened and existing structures. It is also aimed to determine the best strengthening way with steel bracings.

  18. Finite element analysis of structural ductility for diagrid tube structure with buckling restrained braces%设置屈曲约束支撑的斜交网筒结构延性有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丰; 张崇厚

    2013-01-01

    斜交网筒结构具有较大的抗侧刚度,但其延性较差,通过设置屈曲约束支撑可改善斜交网筒结构延性.以30层的斜交网筒结构模型为研究对象,分别对普通斜交网筒结构和设置屈曲约束支撑斜交网筒结构进行静力弹塑性推覆(Pushover)分析.结果表明:屈曲约束支撑可有效改善斜交网筒结构延性.此外,对立面中部、立面角部、底部楼层、上部楼层共4种局部区域布置屈曲约束支撑的方案进行了结构延性分析.局部设置屈曲约束支撑斜交网筒结构的设计应确保斜柱处于弹性工作状态,屈曲约束支撑率先进入塑性耗能状态.建议采用立面中部布置屈曲约束支撑的方案,可实现在保证结构受剪承载力的前提下,较好地改善斜交网筒结构的延性,避免结构发生脆性破坏.%Diagrid tube structures have excellent lateral force resistance but poor structural ductility,which can be improved through buckling restrained brace.With respect to 30-story diagrid tube structures,nonlinear static analysis,i.e.pushover analysis was conducted respectively for the conventional diagrid tube structure and those with buckling restrained brace.The results show that the structural ductility is improved by utilizing buckling restrained brace.Furthermore,four schemes of diagrid tube structures partially with buckling restrained brace in different parts of the facades,including the corner and the middle,the bottom and the upper,were investigated for structural ductility.Diagrid tube structures partially with buckling restrained brace should be designed so that conventional brace remain in elastic state,while buckling restrained brace turn into plastic state in advance for energy dissipation.Diagrid tube structure with buckling restrained brace in the middle part of facade is recommended,which could effectively improve structural ductility to avoid brittle failure without decreasing shear load-bearing capacity.

  19. 佩带膝外翻支具膝骨关节炎患者膝关节的生物力学变化%Biomechanical changes of the knee with the valgus bracing in people with medial knee osteoarthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旻; 江澜

    2011-01-01

    背景:佩带膝关节外翻矫形器已被证明是一种可以有效减轻内侧间室膝骨关节炎患者疼痛的方法,但是佩带矫形器后的膝关节所产生的运动学以及动力学变化至今尚不明确.目的:观察内侧间室膝骨关节炎患者佩带膝关节矫形器前后的膝关节运动学以及动力学参数变化,便于为将来设计新型膝关节矫形器提供依据.方法:纳入20例内侧间室膝骨关节炎患者,分别通过三维步态分析系统和测力板对其在佩带膝外翻矫形器及不佩带膝外翻矫形器两种情况步行中的运动学及动力学参数进行采集,并进行对比.结果与结论:相比未佩带膝关节外翻支具,佩带膝关节外翻支具后患者在步行过程中膝关节内收力矩明显减小,与此同时膝关节内翻角度明显减小,外翻角度明显增加(P均< 0.05),膝关节在步行过程中的最大屈曲角度以及时间空间参数差异无显著性意义.提示膝关节外翻矫形器可有效地通过增加内侧间室膝骨关节炎患者膝关节在步行过程中的外翻角度减小内翻角度从而降低膝内侧间室所承受的压力,与此同时纠正膝关节非正常对线.%BACKGROUND: Unloading valgus knee brace has been proved to be a very effective method which can help patients in medial knee osteoarthritis, but the kinematic and kinetic changes at knee joint after taking knee brace was not clear.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the kinematics and kinetics changes of the medial knee osteoarthritis at knee during walking with and without unloading valgus knee brace which is benefit for designing new type of knee brace in the future.METHODS: Totally 20 patients with medial knee osteoarthritis were included in this test kinematics changes were conducted with three dimensional gait analysis system and the kinetics changes were collected by the force platforms for medial knee osteoarthritis subjects with or without valgus knee brace.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION

  20. 隐形矫治器和传统金属矫治器的疗效比较%Assessment of Invisalign Treatment Outcomes Compared with Braces by Using the ABO Model Grading System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林佳强; 周昱

    2014-01-01

    目的:应用美国ABO客观评分系统,对无托槽隐形矫治器和传统金属矫治器的矫治效果进行评价。方法选择120例成人轻中度错合畸形患者,分为无托槽隐形矫治器组和传统矫治器组各60例。用差异系数评价错合畸形严重程度, OGS评价治疗结果。结果无托槽隐形矫治器可以很好地矫治轻中度错合畸形,与传统金属托槽矫治器无统计学差异。结论无托槽隐形矫治器对轻中度错合畸形临床矫治效果可达到传统矫治器矫治的效果。%Objective The aim of this study is to assessment treatment -outcome of invisalign treatment compared with braces by ABO .Methods This retrospective study select 2 groups of 120 patients ( invisalign and braces groups including both 60 patients ) were evaluated by using methods from the American Board of Orthodontics .The discrepancy index was used to analyze pretreatment records to control for initial severity of malocclusion . The objective grading system ( OGS ) was used to systematically grade posttreatment records .Statistical analyses evaluated treatment outcome of invisalign compared with braces .Results The invisalign group significant improve results and was no difference between both groups .Conclusions According to the OGS , invisalign treat malocclusions as well as braces in this sample .

  1. 支具治疗青少年特发性脊柱侧凸的研究现状及新进展%The new advances and research situation of brace treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施新革; 张永刚

    2013-01-01

      青少年特发性脊柱侧凸是引起青少年脊柱畸形最常见的原因,进展型的青少年特发性脊柱侧凸预后不良,若不及时干预治疗,最终需要外科手术矫正治疗。支具治疗是唯一证明有确切疗效的非手术治疗方法。本文就支具治疗青少年特发性脊柱侧凸的研究现状及新进展作一综述,以促进临床医师更好的应用支具治疗青少年特发性脊柱侧凸。%Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the common cause resulting in the spinal deformity of adolescent. The progressing ad-olescent idiopathic scoliosis have the poor prognosis and the patient ultimately requires surgical treatment without intervention in time. The brace treatment is proved the only effective treatment in non-surgical treatment. We reviewed the new literature of brace treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in order to promote the clinicians to treat the patients of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with brace.

  2. Stress Concentration Factors at Saddle and Crown Positions on the Central Brace of Two-Planar Welded CHS DKT-connections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Ahmadi; Mohammad Ali Lotfollahi-Yaghin; Mohammad H. Aminfar

    2012-01-01

    A set of parametric stress analyses was carried out for two-planar tubular DKT-joints under different axial loading conditions.The analysis results were used to present general remarks on the effects of the geometrical parameters on stress concentration factors (SCFs) at the inner saddle,outer saddle,and crown positions on the central brace.Based on results of finite element (FE) analysis and through nonlinear regression analysis,a new set of SCF parametric equations was established for fatigue design purposes.An assessment study of equations was conducted against the experimental data and original SCF database.The satisfaction of acceptance criteria proposed by the UK Department of Energy (UK DoE) was also checked.Results of parametric study showed that highly remarkable differences exist between the SCF values in a multi-planar DKT-joint and the corresponding SCFs in an equivalent uni-planar KT-joint having the same geometrical properties.It can be clearly concluded from this observation that using the equations proposed for uni-planar KT-connections to compute the SCFs in multi-planar DKT-joints will lead to either considerably under-predicting or over-predicting results.Hence,it is necessary to develop SCF formulae specially designed for multi-planar DKT-joints.Good results of equation assessment according to UK DoE acceptance criteria,high values of correlation coefficients,and the satisfactory agreement between the predictions of the proposed equations and the experimental data guarantee the accuracy of the equations.Therefore,the developed equations can be reliably used for fatigue design of offshore structures.

  3. Normal hips and the hips covered with protective brace A finite-element comparative analysis%正常髋部与佩戴保护支具髋部的有限元对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何剑颖; 董谢平

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Finite element method has become an important means for biomechanical study against sideways falls because of its unlimited sample size, small experimental error and good repeatability.OBJECTIVE: To establish three-dimensional normal pelvis and brace-covered pelvis models and then to analyze the stress, strain and displacement distribution during sideways fall and to verify the effectiveness of hip brace.METHODS: Digital human Abaqus 6.51 software was used to build three-dimensional normal pelvis and brace-covered pelvis models. The rigid constraint surface was fixed. The whole pelvic model was loaded with 2 m/s loading. The stress, strain and displacement variation with time and contours were detected prior to and after wearing the hip brace. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the normal model, the contact force between the pelvis and the ground, the maximal compression strain of the cancellous bone when the maximal contact force between the pelvis and the ground generated, the maximal strain of the greater trochanter and femoral neck, the maximal von-Mises stress of the greater trochanter and femoral neck, and the mean stress of the greater trochanter and femoral neck were significantly reduced in the brace-covered pelvis model during sideways falls. These findings indicate that the hip brace can play a protective role in the greater trochanter, and effectively reduce the incidence of intertrochanteric fractures during sideways fall.%背景:有限元法因其具有不受样本量限制,实验误差小,重复性好等优点而成为防滑倒生物力学研究的重要手段.目的:建立正常骨盆以及佩戴护具骨盆的三维有限元模型,分析滑倒过程中骨盆各部位的应力、应变和位移分布,验证护具的有效性.方法:以中国数字人原始资料应用Abaqus 6.51软件构建正常骨盆以及佩戴护具骨盆的三维有限元模型,固定约束地面刚体,对整个骨盆模型加载2 m/s的速度载荷,程序运算

  4. RESEARCH ON STATIC PERFORMANCE OF CABLE-BRACED FRAME FOR PRESTRESSED MULTIPLE AND HIGH-RISE STEEL STRUCTURES%多高层预应力钢结构索支撑-框架静力性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学春; 林娜; 张爱林; 赵亮; 王艺蒙

    2015-01-01

    将预应力索支撑引入多高层钢结构,提出耗能预应力索支撑-框架结构,该结构体系能有效提高框架结构的抗侧能力和侧移延性,减小柱子计算长度,降低结构用钢量。利用有限元分析方法,分别对预应力索支撑-刚接框架、预应力索支撑-半刚接框架以及纯刚接框架进行静力性能分析,研究轴压比对三者的弹塑性发展、极限承载力、破坏机理、侧移刚度和侧移延性等方面的影响规律。研究表明,设置索支撑除增大框架抗侧刚度和提高极限承载力外,更重要的是提高侧移延性,改善破坏模式,且当外荷载去除或减小时使框架全部或者部分回到原始平衡位置,实现自复位。另外,随着轴压比的增大,三者抗侧承载力均降低,纯框架侧移延性降低,但索支撑-框架延性基本不受轴压比影响。%A new type of prestressed cable-braced energy-dissipation frame structure was proposed by adding prestressed cable brace to a high-rise building.This structure could improve lateral resistance and ductility of steel frame effectively, thus resulting in smaller calculation length of columns and less steel-consumption.By using finite element method, the static behavior of cable-braced rigid frame, cable-braced semi-rigid frame and steel frame was analyzed, and the influence law of axial compression ratio on their elastioplasticity behavior, ultimate bearing capacity, failure mechanism, lateral stiffness and ductility etc was studied.The results showed that cable brace could improve the lateral stiffness and bearing capacity of steel frame, more importantly, could also improve its lateral ductility, change failure model, and produce the self-centering function by tensioning frame back to the original location entirely or partly when the load was removed.In addition, with the increase of axial compression ratio, bearing capacities of the three type frames were all

  5. Volumetric properties and enthalpies of solution of alcohols C{sub k}H{sub 2k+1}OH (k = 1, 2, 6) in 1-methyl-3-alkylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide {l_brace}[C{sub 1}C{sub n}Im][NTf{sub 2}] n = 2, 4, 6, 8, 10{r_brace} ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Y. [CNRS, Laboratoire Thermodynamique et Interactions Moleculaires, UMR 6272, 24 avenue des Landais, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Husson, P. [CNRS, Laboratoire Thermodynamique et Interactions Moleculaires, UMR 6272, 24 avenue des Landais, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, Laboratoire Thermodynamique et Interactions Moleculaires, UMR 6272, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Jacquemin, J. [The QUILL Research Centre, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AG (United Kingdom); Universite Francois Rabelais, Laboratoire PCMB (EA 4244), equipe Chimie-physique des Interfaces et des Milieux Electrolytiques (CIME), Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Youngs, T.G.A. [The QUILL Research Centre, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AG (United Kingdom); Kett, V.L. [The School of Pharmacy, The Queen' s University of Belfast, 97 Lisburn Road, Belfast BT9 7BL (United Kingdom); Hardacre, C. [The QUILL Research Centre, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AG (United Kingdom); Costa Gomes, M.F., E-mail: margarida.c.gomes@univ-bpclermont.fr [CNRS, Laboratoire Thermodynamique et Interactions Moleculaires, UMR 6272, 24 avenue des Landais, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, Laboratoire Thermodynamique et Interactions Moleculaires, UMR 6272, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Excess properties of (ionic liquid + alcohol) mixtures. > Volumetric properties, excess molar volumes. > Heats of mixing of (ionic liquid + alcohol) mixtures. > Molecular simulation of (ionic liquid + alcohol) mixtures. - Abstract: We present a study on the effect of the alkyl chain length of the imidazolium ring in 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquids, [C{sub 1}C{sub n}Im][NTf{sub 2}] (n = 2 to 10), on the mixing properties of (ionic liquid + alcohol) mixtures (enthalpy and volume). We have measured small excess molar volumes with highly asymmetric curves as a function of mole fraction composition (S-shape) with more negative values in the alcohol-rich regions. The excess molar volumes increase with the increase of the alkyl-chain length of the imidazolium cation of the ionic liquid. The values of the partial molar excess enthalpy and the enthalpy of mixing are positive and, for the case of methanol, do not vary monotonously with the length of the alkyl side-chain of the cation on the ionic liquid - increasing from n = 2 to 6 and then decreasing from n = 8. This non-monotonous variation is explained by a more favourable interaction of methanol with the cation head group of the ionic liquid for alkyl chains longer than eight carbon atoms. It is also observed that the mixing is less favourable for the smaller alcohols, the enthalpy of mixing decreasing to less positive values as the alkyl chain of the alcohol increases. Based on the data from this work and on the knowledge of the vapour pressure of {l_brace}[C{sub 1}C{sub n}Im][NTf{sub 2}] + alcohol{r_brace} binary mixtures at T = 298 K reported in the literature, the excess Gibbs free energy, excess enthalpy and excess entropy could be then calculated and it was observed that these mixtures behave like the ones constituted by a non-associating and a non-polar component, with its solution behaviour being determined by the enthalpy.

  6. Seismic Analysis of Frame Structures with Self-centering Friction Energy Dissipative Braces%自复位摩擦耗能支撑框架的抗震性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡丹; 周臻; 苗建义; 王维影

    2014-01-01

    Self-centering friction energy dissipative ( SCFED) brace is a novel bracing system that has both energy dissipative and self-centering capacity. A 9-storey benchmark steel frame structure model was equipped with SCFED braces. OpenSEES software was employed to conduct nonlinear static pushover analysis and dynamic time-history analysis. As compared to buckling restrained brace ( BRB) frames, the seismic performance of SCFED frames was investigated. Results show that SCFED frames have smaller peak storey drift angel than BRB frames. The storey drift distributes more uniformly along the structural height for SCFED frames. The average residual peak storey drift angel of BRB frames is 10-20% of peak storey drift angel, while it is only 1-2% for SCFED frames. This demonstrates that SCFED can effectively control the structural residual deformation. However, since the stiffness transfer is acute in the re-centering process of SCFED, the storey acceleration of SCFED frames is larger than BRB frames.%自复位摩擦耗能支撑( SCFED)是一种兼具耗能能力与自定心能力的新型支撑。本文将SCFED应用于一9层Benchmark钢框架,采用OpenSEES有限元软件,进行了非线性静力推覆分析( Pushover)和非线性动力时程分析,通过与屈曲约束支撑( BRB)框架结构的对比,研究了SCFED框架结构的抗震性能。结果表明:SCFED框架的最大层间位移角较BRB框架小,且沿楼层高度分布更为均匀;BRB框架平均残余层间位移角约为最大位移角的10%~20%,而SCFED框架的残余位移角仅为最大位移角的1%~2%,表明SCFED能有效控制结构的残余变形;由于SCFED在自复位时的刚度转换较为剧烈,导致SCFED框架的层加速度比BRB框架大。

  7. Application of soil-nailing wall in foundation pit bracing of building No.18 for measurement and scientific experiment%土钉墙在18号计量科研实验楼基坑支护中应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春山

    2012-01-01

    总结出土钉墙支护具有经济、安全、质量可靠等优点,通过分析18号计量科研实验楼基坑土钉支护的施工情况,进一步了解土钉墙支护的施工工艺,为土钉墙施工提供一定的参考价值。%This paper outlines advantages of soil-nailing wall bracing,such as economic,safe,and reliable quality and so on.Through analyzing the soil-nailing bracing condition of foundation pit of building No.18 for measurement and scientific experiment,it further knows the bracing technology of soil-nailing wall,which has provided certain valuable reference for the construction of soil-nailing wall.

  8. 刚架拱桥斜撑破坏及加固后可靠性分析%Bracing strut failure and its reliability analysis after reinforce in framed arch bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚良云; 陈燊

    2013-01-01

    Based on the framed arch bridge mechanical behavior and its component structure defects, a solid model of batter brace by means of ANSYS program was established to simulate the reduction of the strength in the wet formed joint of the batter brace, resulting from the descent of the elastic modulus of the concrete. Based on its reliability analysis after reinforce in the framed arch bridge, the the residual service-life of bridge could be predicted.%根据刚架拱桥结构的受力特性和构件本身存在的缺陷,利用斜撑的ANSYS实体模型分析刚架拱桥斜撑的破坏机理,以弹模的降低来模拟斜撑湿接缝处混凝土强度的衰变.研究表明湿接缝处混凝土强度不足是斜撑破坏的主要原因,并对斜撑加固后的可靠性进行分析,预测了斜撑的剩余使用寿命.

  9. Analysis and design on buckling restrained braces-reinforced concrete frame structures%屈曲约束支撑-钢筋混凝土框架结构的设计与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱江; 李帼昌; 马传正

    2012-01-01

    Computer models of buckling restrained braces-reinforced concrete frame and RC frame were set up,and seismic performances of the models were calculated by adopting response spectrum analysis and Pushover analysis based on SAP2000.The results show that the RC frame including buckling restrained braces will increase story-stiffness,decrease lateral deformation of frame structure significantly,and reach requirement of more defences in seismic concept design of buildings.%利用SAP2000软件建立包含和不包含屈曲约束支撑的钢筋混凝土框架计算模型,分别采用反应谱分析和Pushover分析方法对两种模型进行对比计算分析。结果表明:在纯钢筋混凝土框架结构中合理设置屈曲约束支撑,可以达到增加框架结构的侧向刚度、明显降低结构侧向变形、实现多道设防的效果。

  10. RESPONSE MODIFICATION FACTOR R AND OVERSTRENGTH FACTOR OF Y-ECCENTRIC BRACED STEEL FRAME%Y形偏心支撑钢框架的地震反应折减系数和超强系数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文侠; 顾强; 宋振森; 李东; 方有珍

    2012-01-01

    该文采用静力推覆和能力谱方法分析了基于我国抗震规范设计的12个Y形偏心支撑钢框架的地震反应折减系数R和超强系数及赘余度超强系数3,分析了结构层数、楼层高跨比对各系数的影响。研究结果表明:Y形偏心支撑钢框架的设计地震作用可在我国现行抗震规范的基础上降低20%左右。%Twelve Y-eccentric braced steel frames were designed to complie with Chinese seismic code. The response modification factor R, overstrength factor and redundancy factor of each building were evaluated by the capacity spectrum method combined with the global capacity envelops obtained from an improved pushover analysis. Moreover, the effects of storey numbers and spans of the structure on these factors were analyzed. The results show that the 20% elastic design earthquake action of Y-eccentric braced steel frames can be approximately reduced on the base of Chinese seismic code.

  11. Lockable Knee Brace Speeds Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center develops key transportation and propulsion technologies for the Space Agency. The Center manages propulsion hardware and technologies of the space shuttle, develops the next generation of space transportation and propulsion systems, oversees science and hardware development for the International Space Station, manages projects and studies that will help pave the way back to the Moon, and handles a variety of associated scientific endeavors to benefit space exploration and improve life here on Earth. It is a large and diversified center, and home to a great wealth of design skill. Some of the same mechanical design skill that made its way into the plans for rocket engines and advanced propulsion at this Alabama-based NASA center also worked its way into the design of an orthotic knee joint that is changing the lives of people with weakened quadriceps.

  12. Schools Brace for Bhutanese Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    American educators in cities such as Syracuse, NY, Burlington, VT, and St. Paul, MN, for reasons including civic culture, existing ethnic communities, availability of jobs, and the location of refugee-resettlement organizations, periodically receive waves of resettling immigrants. Officials in those communities have become adept at educating…

  13. 青少年脊柱侧凸症的支具治疗:应用与评估%Adolescent scoliosis treated with braces: application and evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱雪华; 孙鹏; 施杞

    2005-01-01

    目的:探讨青少年脊柱侧凸症的非手术疗法之一支具治疗的应用历史,疗效评估及其副作用.资料来源:应用计算机检索Medline 1970-01/2003-12和Embase1970-01/2004-04有关青少年脊柱侧凸症支具治疗的文章,检索词为"Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis,brace,review",并限定文章语言种类为English.资料选择:根据综述描述及引用文献,选取使用支具治疗青少年脊柱侧凸症的研究报道.纳入标准:符合随机临床试验,有正常组对照或/和支具类型之间的对比评估分析及10个月以上的随访研究.排除标准:明显不符合临床随机实验要求的文章.资料提炼:共检索到42篇支具治疗青少年脊柱侧凸症的综述文献,从中筛选出24篇文献,分析评估青少年脊柱侧凸症的支具应用,排除的文献包括同一内容的实验研究及未做随访的研究文章.资料综合:24个实验包括5 432例患者,均采取各种支具治疗青少年脊柱侧凸症.支具类型包括Boston、Charleston、胸腰骶支具和Milwaukee等.目前对支具的有效性及支具选择方面仍存在不同意见.不恰当的支具治疗可能引起多种并发症,如皮肤溃疡、心理障碍、背痛、胸廓畸形及影响呼吸功能障碍等.结论:虽然对支具使用和效果评估存在不同意见,但一般认为规范化的早期支具治疗可以有限的控制青少年脊柱侧凸症的畸形进展.

  14. Practical Study on Displacements of Oblique Bracing Supporting System in Excavation of Large Pit%一种改进的斜支撑体系支护某超大深基坑的变形分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘裕华; 陈征宙; 毕港

    2011-01-01

    A modified oblique bracing supporting system was used in supporting construction of foundation pit for a shopping mall in Jinan city,which occupies more than 50000 m2. The oblique bracing supporting system, which is different from normal pattern, includes supporting piles,oblique bracing constructions,vertical pillars and struts. Through the analysis of explicit finite difference numerical calculation with FLAC3D program,considering the results of in-situ monitoring of supporting piles,some conclusions are drawn on the displacements of the supporting system,and the effects of supporting constuctions. It indicates that the supporting constructions in the system are fully utilized to work with the soil at the bottom of pit to resist the soil pressures caused by foundation pit excavation,and that the displacements of soil around the pit are reduced. Furthermore, the normal operation of roads, underground lines, and buildings surrounding the pit are ensured under the effective support of the system.%济南某商业广场超过50000 m2的基坑采用一种改进的斜支撑支护体系进行支护,与普通斜支撑支护型式不同,该支护体系包括支护桩、斜撑、立柱与支撑桩.本文采用FLAC3D显式有限差分数值计算分析方法,并结合支护桩水平位移测斜数据,对该支护体系的变形特性进行分析研究,从中论证各支护单元在3个开挖阶段的运动学效应.研究结果表明,该斜支撑支护体系可以把各支护单元以及它们之间的土体充分调动起来,相互之间积极协调,以抵挡基坑开挖带来的土压力,从而减小基坑周围土体位移,保障周围道路、地下设施及周边建筑的正常运行.

  15. 巨型钢框架--拉索支撑体系在水平荷载作用下的破坏性能%Mechanical performance of mega steel frame-cable bracing structure under horizontal loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王飞; 缪冬冬; 朱佳锋; 彭小龙

    2014-01-01

    The Pushover analysis is applied to investigate the failure mode and anti-seismic performance of the mega steel frame and cable bracing structure system under two different lateral loading patterns :the inverted tri-angular and uniform distribution .The developing sequence of plastic hinges , lateral stiffness , and characteristics of pre-stressed cables in a typical mega steel frame and cable bracing structure with optimized member sections are researched .The results indicate that the developing sequences of plastic hinges under these two lateral load -ing patterns are the same .The failure sequence of members is: braces between columns , web rods of mega beams, floor beams, and columns.The lateral stiffness under the uniform loading is larger than that under the inverted triangular loading .The earlier the cable fails , the more rapidly the tension of the other cable in the same story increases .%为了解巨型钢框架-拉索支撑体系在水平荷载作用下的破坏性能,采用倒三角和均匀分布两种水平加载模式对经抗风抗震优化后的巨型钢框架-拉索支撑结构进行Pushover分析,研究在不同水平加载模式下的出铰顺序,并考察其抗侧刚度及拉索受力特征。研究表明,在倒三角和均匀分布两种加载模式下,结构的出铰顺序基本一致,构件破坏先后顺序为巨型柱肢间支撑、巨型梁腹杆、楼层梁、柱肢。均布加载得到的抗侧刚度大于倒三角分布;拉索退出工作的时间越早,则同一层中另一侧索拉力增加得越快。

  16. 防屈曲耗能支撑在三边简支网架结构中的应用研究%Applied Analysis of Trilateral Simply Supported Space Grid with Buckling-restrained Brace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓国杰; 傅昶彬

    2012-01-01

    采用SAP2000V14.1对防屈曲耗能支撑在矩形平面三边简支一边自由的斜放四角锥网架结构进行了弹塑性时程分析.在难以直接比较多方案网架结构减震优劣的情况下,提出了以综合轴力减震值作为进一步的比较指标的方法,并用此方法对9种防屈曲耗能支撑替换方案的减震效果进行了对比分析.得出了较优的替换方案.为今后该类网架结构的耗能减震设计提供了参考依据.此外对结构不同部位的动力响应也作了分析.%The elastic-plastic time history analysis of a rectangular planar trilateral simply-supported and one side free diagonal square pyramid grids with buckling-restrained brace was explored with the SAP2000V14. 1 software. Facing the difficulty of determining the better scheme directly, further comparison index synthetic parameters -comprehensive anti-seismic value of axial force were put forward. Comparison analysis of the anti-seismic effect of 9 replacement schemes of buckling-restrained brace in the dynamic process was carried out using this method, and then a replacement scheme of the optimal solution was obtained, providing reference for the energy dissipation and anti-seismic design of grid structure of this kind in the future. The analysis of dynamic response in different parts of the structure was also made.

  17. 双层柱面网壳结构在BRB作用下的减震分析%Vibration reduction analysis of double - layer cylinder lattice shell with bucking- restrained brace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭燕秋; 甄晓慧; 史三元

    2012-01-01

    运用SAP2000有限元软件对跨度30 m,长度42 m的正放四角锥双层柱面网壳建立模型,并进行模态分析和力学性能分析.在EL - Centro波作用下对支撑布置位置不同和布置数量不同时的网壳结构进行地震响应分析.结果表明:防屈曲支撑在双层柱面网壳中替换部分杆件时可以起到较好的减震效果,其中替换受力较大的腹杆要比替换其他位置杆件的减震效果要好,而在替换腹杆的不同方案中,替换了48根杆件的减震效果明显优于替换20根杆件的效果.%The model of square pyramid double - layer cylindrical lattice shell with 30 m span and 42 m length was established for modal analysis and mechanical property analysis by use of the finite element analysis software SAP2000. The seismic response analysis of the shell structures was carried out with the bucking - restrained braces in different locations and different numbers under the EL - Centro wave. The results show that replacing some bars with the bucking - restrained braces in the double -layer cylindrical lattice shell could strengthen the damping effect. The replacement of the web members bearing more loads has a better damping effect than the replacement of other members, and the effect of replacing 48 web members is better than replacing 20 web members in the web - member replacement scheme.

  18. Performance-based Seismic Design Method of Chevron Steel Braced Frames Using YPS%人字形中心支撑钢框架基于屈服点谱的陛态抗震设计方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚; 顾强

    2011-01-01

    屈服点谱(Yield Point Spectra,YPS)是一种新的位移一加速度反应谱的表述形式。基于结构屈服位移的稳定性.根据性态目标得出延性限值,通过YPS结构屈服强度,采用能力方法设计了1榀人字形中心支撑钢框架结构,通过非线性静力分析和动力时程分析,结果表明运用屈服点谱对中心支撑钢框架进行性态设计具有可行性。%Yield point spectra (YPS) is a constant ductility response spectra with the yield displacementacceleration format, which is different from the elastic response spectra of Chinese code and the elastic-plastic displacement response spectra (ADRS spectra). The spectra build the seismic demand curve of different ductility factor between Cy and improves the traditional methods, which can be convenient to the performance-based design and evaluation. Based on the stability of yield displacement, this paper estimates the allowable system displacement ductility according to the desired peak roof displacement. Using the simple graphical construction and the capacity design method to determine sectional dimension constraints on strength and stiffness, the paper designs a plane Chevron steel braced frames, the nonlinear static analyses and nonlinear dynamic analyses were used for verification purposes. Results indicate that the yield point spectrum method on Chevron steel braced frames design is feasible.

  19. Dynamic Analysis of Steel Frame with Double-tube Buckling Restrained Braces%带改进型双钢管约束屈曲支撑的钢框架力学性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷占忠; 张素峰; 孙源; 王立功

    2016-01-01

    Pushover analysis and nonlinear time-history analysis of the retrofitted steel frame structures with im-proved double-tube buckling restrained braces and original steel frame were performed using Opensees and the seis-mic performances were compared.The conclusions are following: the stiffness and strength of the retrofitted steel frame are improved, and the roof drift ratio reduces while the base shear ratio has a little increase;under the earth quake, the degree of damage is far less than that of original steel frame, and the formed plastic hinges mainly con-centrate on the middle beams and brace, avoiding the damages on other members.%基于Opensees程序对原框架和增设改进型双钢管约束屈曲支撑加固的钢框架进行Pushover分析和非线性时程分析,对两者的抗震性能进行比较。得出以下结论:加固后的钢框架刚度和强度明显提高,顶层侧移比减小而底部剪力比增加较小;地震作用下,加固后的框架破坏程度远小于原框架,所产生的塑性铰主要集中在中间跨梁和支撑处,避免了其他构件发生破坏。说明对原框架增设改进型双钢管约束屈曲支撑加固,可提高结构的抗震性能。

  20. STUDY ON RESTORING-FORCE MODEL OF THE ECCENTRICALLY BUCKLING-RESTRAINED BRACED REINFORCED CONCRETE FRAMES%防屈曲偏心支撑混凝土框架结构恢复力模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘如月; 杨勇; 伊波松; 马晨光; 王婷; 韦超谋; 叶明坤

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the seismic performance of a full-scale eccentrically buckling-restrained braced reinforced concrete frame specimen was tested.The frame had three stories and one bay.The specimen was tested under low-cycle loading.Based on the test results, and with full analysis of the hysteresis curve and skeleton curves, a simplified restoring-force model was founded and proposed.Compared to the experimental hysteresis curves, it was indicated that the proposed restoring-force models was well.And furthermore this proposed restoring-force model could well enough to characterize the hysteresis performance of buckling-restrained braced-frame very well.%对防屈曲偏心支撑混凝土框架结构(BRB frame)进行低周反复试验研究,对试验得到的滞回曲线及骨架曲线进行分析,在已有恢复力模型的基础上,简化得到了防屈曲偏心支撑框架结构的恢复力模型.通过实测滞回曲线与所建立恢复力模型的分析对比,结果表明:所建立的恢复力模型和实测滞回曲线吻合较好,该模型能够较好地描述防屈曲偏心支撑框架在反复荷载作用下的滞回特性.

  1. 现存蜉蝣翅基纵脉走向及愈合模式(昆虫纲:蜉蝣目)%The bracing and fusing pattern of longitudinal veins at base in living mayflies (Insecta: Ephemeroptera)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周长发

    2007-01-01

    The bracing and merging pattern of basal longitudinal veins plays an important role in phylogeny reconstruction within Pterygota. Unfortunately, the basal venation pattern of living mayflies has changed from the ancestral state in most species, but in very rare cases, the origins of some longitudinal vein bases are preserved and visible. The wing base of Siphluriscus chinensis has an independent subcostal brace, partial stem of the media, visible stem of the cubitus, and indications of the origins of MA and Rs. This kind of wing base plus those of Ephemera rufomaculata and Chromarcys magnifica show the venation groundplan of modern Ephemeroptera (stem of M parallel to or fused with R basally, MA and Rs fused together for certain distance then separate, Cu independent at base).This pattern seems close to that of Neoptera while different from Odonata. In the latter, the M fused with Cu basally.The hypothesized function of subcostal brace in mayflies is to strengthen the connection between distantly separated longitudinal veins because of sclerite plate at radius vein base. This hypothesis also can be used to explain complicated and unique venation of dragonfly.%有翅昆虫翅基纵脉的走向及愈合模式在系统发育重建中占有重要地位.然而,现存蜉蝣翅基纵脉的走向及愈合状况在大部分种类变化极大,无法推测其原始状况,只在极少数种类保留有部分可见残迹.中国拟短丝蜉Siphluriscus chinensis的翅基保留有独立的亚前缘脉弓、部分中脉M和肘脉Cu主干以及前中脉MA及径分脉Rs的走向痕迹.据此并结合红斑蜉Ephemera rufomaculata和大网脉蜉Chromarcys magnifica翅基的相关特征,本文提出了蜉蝣目主要纵脉基部走向及愈合的基本模式,其要点有:中脉主干在基部与径脉主干独自发出后先接近或愈合后又分离、它们各自分成两支后的前中脉及径分脉又先愈合再分离、肘脉始终独立.这种中脉与径脉先接近或愈

  2. 髋关节镜结合外展支具承重法治疗Perthes病的近期临床疗效观察%Short-term clinical results of hip arthroscopy and ambulatory abduction brace for Perthes disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何锐; 陈光兴; 杨柳; 郭林; 段小军; 戴刚

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effects of hip arthroscopy in treatment of Perthes disease with ambutlatory abduction brace, and evaluate the advantages of this therapy in clinic. Methods 19 patients who were diagnosed as Perthes disease were treated with hip arthroscopy. After operation, these patients were required to use ambulatory abduction brace and began weight loading gradually. The HOS scores before arthroscopy and 12 months after operation were recorded. All the data were compared by t test. Results All the patients were followed up for more than one year, all of whom felt pain relief. The range of motion of hip improved obviously. The HOS scores after operation were higher than those before operation. Conclusions Hip arthroscopy has been therapeutically effective for patients with Perthes disease, by which loose bodies can be removed, and debridements of cartilage flaps, injury glenoid labrum and pathological synovial membrane can be accomplished. It may provide an improvement in symptoms for patients postoperatively. Combined ambulatory abduction brace with stepwise weight loading, it might be an effective procedure of treatment for Perthes disease. The short-term results are heartening.%目的 随访采用髋关节镜手术结合外展支具限制负重治疗Legg-Calve-Perthes患者临床疗效,探讨微创髋关节镜结合外展承重法治疗perthes病的临床应用价值.方法 19例perthes病患者行HOS评分后行髋关节镜下关节腔情理术,术后佩戴外展支具早期限制性功能锻炼,术后6个月开始逐步由限制性负重过渡为完全负重,在术后12个月对患者行HOS评分,采用t检验对术前、术后HOS评分进行统计学分析.结果 19例患者行髋关节镜术后疼痛明显缓解,髋关节自主活动范围增加,术后HOS评分中ADL和Sport评分较术前明显升高.结论 应用髋关节镜微创的方式有效清除既往病变导致的髋关节腔内病变滑膜、软骨碎屑、盂唇损伤

  3. 屈曲约束支撑满足高层结构高性能要求的研究分析%Analysis of Anti-buckling Brace Used for High-rise Structure to Meet the High Performance Requirements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淼鑫; 魏路; 伍阳; 钟维浩

    2014-01-01

    以某实际高层框筒结构工程为例,根据规范设定较高的抗震性能目标,研究分析屈曲约束支撑体系对提高结构的整体抗震性能的效果。分别进行多遇地震作用下的弹性反应谱分析和罕遇地震作用下的推覆分析,结果表明:加设屈曲约束支撑后结构的抗震性能得到明显加强。在多遇地震作用下,屈曲约束支撑体系减小层间位移角;在罕遇地震作用下,屈曲约束支撑体系有效耗散地震能量,减小主体结构变形和损伤,形成合理的整体型结构屈服机制。%In this paper, Based on the higher seismic performance objectives set by the code, a real high-rise framed-tube building is established to research and analysis the overall seismic performance and to investigate damping control effect of the anti-buckling brace. Respectively, the elastic earthquake response spectrum analysis and rare earthquake pushover analysis show that anti-buckling brace has significantly enhanced the seismic performance of the structure.The results show that anti-buckling brace system significantly reduces drift angle in the weak earthquake and in rare earthquake, the anti-buckling brace system effectively dissipate seismic energy, reducing the main structural damage and form a reasonable yield mechanism to the overall structure.

  4. Applied Analysis of Three Layer Flat Diagonal Square Pyramid Grid with Buckling-restrained Brace%防屈曲耗能支撑在三层斜放四角锥网架中的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓国杰; 熊峰

    2012-01-01

    The model of a three layer flat diagonal square pyramid grid was built in space structure designing software MST2011 and then imported into SAP2000. The anti-seismic effect of three layer flat diagonal square pyramid grid of long span with buckling-restrained brace was explored with the large-scale finite element analysing program SAP2000V14. 1 . The bars in different parts of the grid structure were replaced with buckling-restrained brace and dynamic time history analysis was carried out under different replacement schemes. The dynamic response of key bars and key nodes of different replacement schemes is compared, and the better substitution scheme is then drawed, providing reference for the energy dissipation and anti-seismic design of three layer diagonal square pyramid grid of long span. The analysis of dynamic response in different parts of the structure is also made.%采用空间结构设计软件MST2011建立周边中弦简支的正方形大跨度三层网架结构模型,并导入SAP2000中.利用大型有限元分析程序SAP2000V14.1,对防屈曲耗能支撑在大跨度三层网架结构中的减震效果进行探究.对网架结构中不同位置处的杆件用防屈曲支撑进行替换,在不同的替换方案下对结构进行动力时程分析.比较不同替换方案下关键杆件及关键节点的动力响应.得出较优的替换形式,为超大跨度三层网架结构的耗能减震设计提供参考.此外对结构不同部位的动力响应也作了分析.

  5. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF PARAMETERS OF CABLES FOR STEEL MEGA FRAME AND CABLE-BRACED STRUCTURE%巨型钢框架-拉索支撑结构中拉索参数灵敏度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周效国; 张福星; 朱佳锋; 彭小龙

    2014-01-01

    为研究巨型钢框架-拉索支撑结构体系中拉索预拉力和直径这两个参数对结构体系抗震性能的影响,获得拉索参数设计方法,对具有不同拉索参数的典型巨型钢框架-拉索支撑结构进行Pushover分析,考察不同拉索预拉力和直径对结构破坏模式、极限荷载、顶点位移、初始抗侧刚度、性能点处的基底剪力、相应顶点位移及最大层间位移角的影响。结果表明:拉索预应力对最大层间位移角有一定影响,对结构其他综合性能的影响可忽略;拉索直径增量不超过100%时,对结构的破坏模式影响较小,但拉索直径变化对结构的其他综合性能影响显著。%To investigate the influence of two parameters of cable pretension and diameter, on the seismic behavior of a steel mega frame and cable-braced structure and obtain appropriate values of these two parameters, the Pushover analyses were made for typical steel mega frame and cable-braced structures with different pretensions and diameters of cables.It was examined the effects of different cable pretension and diameter on the failure modes, initial lateral stiffnesses, ultimate loads, top displacements and the base shears at performance points, and maximum inner-story drift angles of the structure, it could be found that the cable pretensions only have a limited impact on the maximum inner-story drift angle, and their influences on other comprehensive performance of the structure could be ignored, and the cable diameter had a small impact on the failure mode when its increment did not exceed 100%, but the cable diameter change had significant effect on the other comprehensive properties.

  6. Active Opposite Transverse Bracing Technology in Cable-stayed Bridge with Large Angle Tower Column%斜拉桥大倾角斜塔柱对顶横撑施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童林鸿; 胡军

    2014-01-01

    The design height of the main tower of large span cable-stayed bridge is large. The construction of the inclined pylon with large dip angle is the difficulty and key. Based on the construction of main tower in Fuzhou railway Tongling Yangtze River Bridge, this paper introduces the tower construction by setting the active opposite transverse bracing to ensure construction safety and alignment of the tower structure.%大跨度斜拉桥主塔设计高度较大,其大倾角斜塔柱的施工是难点及重点所在。本文以合福铁路铜陵长江大桥主塔施工为依托,重点介绍了其中塔柱施工时通过设置主动对顶横撑保证塔柱结构安全及线形的施工技术。

  7. Design Method of Damped Bracings to Control the Structure with Weak Story%阻尼支撑控制结构薄弱层的设计方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆伟东; 蓝宗建; 刘伟庆

    2011-01-01

    针对地震中震损严重的含薄弱层结构,计算分析了薄弱层对结构抗震性能的影响及其变化规律.基于"补偿刚度"概念,根据阻尼器和附加体系的力学特征,提出了控制薄弱层层间位移的阻尼支撑简化设计方法.通过时程分析验证,该简化设计方法能精准控制薄弱层层间位移到目标值,具有良好的经济性和实用性.%The structure with weak story will be seriously damaged in earthquake, calculation and analysis of the weak story on the seismic performance and its variation of the structure are progressed. Based on the concept of Compensation Stiffness, according to the mechanical behavior of dampers and added component of the system, the simplified design methods are proposed to control the story drift of the structure with weak story by damped bracings. The time-history analysis shows that the simplified design method can precisely control the displacement between the weak story to the target, and has a good economy and practicality.

  8. A modern-day solution to a 100-year-old problem: the use of a Bespoke Off-loading Brace in the rehabilitation of 'Deck-Slap' and other high-energy lower limb injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, M A; Jarvis, H L; Bennett, N; Phillip, R D

    2014-01-01

    'Deck-Slap' is an injury pattern first described at the Battle of Jutland; it is still relevant today, with anti-vehicle mines a significant threat to Coalition troops. The effect of a device exploding beneath a vehicle produces a wave of high energy that is rapidly transmitted through the steel floor; this causes significant axial loading of lower limbs often resulting in severe fractures (notably of the calcaneum). Recent advancements in orthopaedic surgery have allowed for limbs that were destined for immediate amputation following significant trauma to be salvaged. However, despite intense rehabilitation, many of these salvaged limbs have subsequently gone on to delayed amputation, as functional outcomes are often poor. Technologically advanced prosthetic devices are available that afford good quality of life and allow for increased activity levels; these devices are, however, expensive to procure and maintain. This report describes a United Kingdom (UK) Armed Forces soldier who suffered a typical 'deck-slap' injury in Afghanistan with subsequent limb salvage. The use of the Bespoke Off-loading Brace (BOB) is discussed. The results presented here indicate that the biomechanical function of a patient with this type of injury improves when wearing the BOB. Further studies are needed to assess long-term clinical outcomes and the functional benefit of the device as a viable and cost-effective alternative to delayed limb amputation.

  9. 顺式阿曲库铵与琥珀胆碱用于支撑喉镜检查手术的比较研究%Comparision of Cisatracurium and Succinylcholine in Brace Laryngoscopy Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏梗; 陈汝聘; 王艳辉; 施萍萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the muscular relaxation effect and side effects of Cisatracurium and Succinylcholine in brace laryngoscopy operation. Methods Sixty adult patients(ASA Ⅰ ~Ⅱ ), agreed to be on electively brace laryngoscopy operation,were divided randomly into three groups(group Cl ,group C2 and group S, n=20 each). All patients in these three groups were injected intravenously with Fen tanil 4 μg/kg and Propofol 2 mg/kg during the induction of general anesthesia,and then be injected intrave nously with muscle relaxant (Cisatracurium 0. 15 mg/kg for group Cl , Cisatracurium 0. 2 mg/kg for group C2 or succinylcholine 1 mg/kg for group S, respectively). After the induction, continuously intravenous injection with Propofol 5~6 mg ? Kg-1 ? H-1 were used until the operation was over. Two minutes before the operations,all patients in group S were injected intravenously with Fentanil 1. 5 jug/kg and succinylcho line 0. 5 mg/kg, Cisatracurium 0. 05 mg/kg just in case depending on the relaxation level. Neuromuscular (N-M) function -was monitored with accelerograph F(TOF-Watch SX, Organon, the netherlands). The degree of muscle relexation was recorded at the time point of the tracheal intubation, brace laryngoscopy, the end of the operation, 15 min after the operation, 30 min after the operation. Brace laryngoscopy con dition was graded according to a criteria set by the surgeons. Heart rate(HR) was especlly recorded be fore and after the second dose of muscle relaxant was injected intravenously. The rates of muscle pain were also recorded 24 h after the operation. Results The degree of muscle relexation at the time point of 15 min after the operation was significantly lower in group S than that in group Cl and group C2 (P 0. 05). HR was stable and none needed the second dose of muscle relaxant in group Cland group C2, however, HR of all of the patients in group S was significantly slower after the second dose of muscle re laxant was injected intravenously than that

  10. Study on passive earth pressure acting on the embedment of an earth retaining wall for braced excavation work in cohesive soil; Nenseido jiban ni okeru kussaku dodomeheki neirebu no judo doatsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H. [Pacific Consultants K.K., Tokyo (Japan); Hirashima, K. [Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-12-15

    Passive earth pressure exerts a great influence on the stress and deformation of earth retaining walls in braced excavation. To calculate this pressure, conventional ultimate earth pressure equation, or Rankine-Resals and Coulomb`s equation, are currently applied respectively to cohesive and sandy soil. However, these intentional equation to determine passive earth pressure do not adequately take into account the excavation width during work and the shearing resistance on the earth retaining wall surface. This paper deals with cohesive soil only, deriving a calculation equation for passive earth pressure, which takes into account excavation width and the shearing resistance of the earth retaining wall surface. Then, constants in this equation are determined using the calculation results obtained from the finite element method with blasts-plastic elements. The calculation results are also compared with measured values in the model test in order to check the applicability of the calculation equation for passive earth pressure thus obtained. Finally, this paper proposes a practicable calculation equation for passive earth pressure. 13 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. 双核芯全钢防屈曲支撑的设计与试验%Design and experiments of double-core all-steel buckling restrained braces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉梅; 王爽

    2015-01-01

    为了解防屈曲支撑作为抗侧力构件的性能,设计一种可拆解组合的全钢双核芯防屈曲支撑,并通过拟静力试验,研究了其承载能力和耗能特性.首先通过一个单核芯试件的试验发现了设计和锚固的不足,改进后成功获得了单、双核芯试件的荷载位移曲线和低周疲劳曲线,并通过研究曲线特征和规律,取得了强度、变形、耗能等设计参数,最后用Bouc-Wen模型对防屈曲支撑进行了地震作用下的数值模拟.试验和分析结果表明:防屈曲支撑克服了普通支撑受压屈曲的缺点,滞回曲线拉压基本对称,呈饱满的梭形,具有较高的阻尼比,且往复荷载下耐疲劳. Bouc-Wen模型可以较好地模拟其滞回性能.所设计的双核芯支撑性能稳定,组装灵活,适合工程应用.%To understand the performance of buckling-restrained brace ( BRB ) as a lateral-force resisting component, an assembled all-steel double-core BRB was designed, and its bearing and energy dissipation capacities was studied through quasi-static experiments. Firstly, a single-core BRB specimen was tested to find any design and anchorage deficiencies, and after improvement, the load-displacement curves and low-cycle fatigue curves were successfully obtained for other single-or double-core specimens, and the design parameters of the BRBs, such as strength, deformation, and energy dissipation, etc., were obtained after studying the characteristics and laws of the curves. Furthermore, numerical simulations were conducted on BRBs using Bouc-Wen model under earthquake excitations. The test and analysis results show that BRBs overcome the deficiencies of the traditional braces which tend to buckle under compression. The hysteretic curves are basically symmetric for compression and tension, in full spindle shape, with high damping ratios, and endure fatigue well under reciprocal loads. The hysteretic properties can be simulated well by Bouc-Wen model. The proposed

  12. Transpedicle bone graft after bracing repeatedly for treating severe thoracic and lumbar vertebral burst fractures%多次撑开植骨治疗严重胸腰椎爆裂骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周兆文; 普有登; 尹劲; 袁晓峰; 胡军; 贺云; 段洪

    2013-01-01

    Objective To research the better surgical strategy for severe thoracic and lumbar vertebral burst fracture.To consummate the evaluation methods in operation and technic ofpedicle screw internal fixation combined with transpedicle graft of artificial bone.Methods From August 2007 to March 2013,44 severe cases (compression ratio of vertebral margins > 50%,or encrochment ratio in vertebral canal > 50%) of thoracic and lumbar vertebral burst fractures were cured through the operation of posterior pedicle screw internal fixation combined with transpedicle graft of artificial bone.All cases were braced repeatedly 2~4 times and 6~8cm3 were embedded into the wound vertebral body."One-line sign" or "antrorse arc line sign" of the posterior border of the burst vertebral body and the dgree of compression of the vertebral canal can be oberved clearly on lateral fluoroscopy in the operation.Results The height and configuration of vertebral body restored to 96%~105% and compression ratio of posterior vertebral margins remained 0~6% only.Symptom of nerve injury were not found out.After follow-up of 1~24 months,breakdown of screws and rods,kyphosis,nerve injury were not found out.Conclusion Partial severe lumbar burst fractures can be cured through the operation of posterior pedicle screw internal fixation and bracing several times combined with transpedicle graft of artificial bone.%目的 探讨严重胸腰椎爆裂骨折后路手术更好的复位方法,并规范术中观察方法和经伤椎椎弓根植骨技术.方法 44例胸腰椎严重爆裂骨折(椎管占位>50%或伴高度塌陷>50%)均采用脊柱后路钉棒系统多次撑开方法复位固定,并经椎弓根行伤椎体内打压植骨治疗.术中反复撑开2~4次,植人工骨6~8cm3;术中C臂透视,清楚观察椎体后缘“直线”或“前弧线”恢复情况,借此准确判断椎管占位程度.结果 X线和CT显示骨折复位满意,椎体前后缘高度恢复至96

  13. Les charpentes à entrait retroussé moisé : exemples orléanais des XVe et XVIe siècles Braced collar-beam roofs: examples from 15th and 16th century Orleans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Alix

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La ville d’Orléans possède un ensemble important et inédit de charpentes à pannes des XVe et XVIe s. présentant la particularité de posséder un entrait retroussé moisé. Attesté dès le premier quart du XVe siècle, ce procédé innovant, constitué de deux pièces jumelées venant enserrer les principaux éléments de la ferme, va largement se diffuser dans les édifices religieux mais surtout dans l’habitat domestique, de la maison polyvalente en pan-de-bois au riche hôtel particulier. Ce mode de construction, démontrant une parfaite maîtrise de la statique de la charpente dès sa conception en vue de renforcer la triangulation de la ferme, s’impose donc rapidement dans un contexte architectural local marqué par la rareté de l’emploi de structures à chevrons-formant-fermes. Ainsi, on le retrouve également dans les charpentes à enrayure (tourelle d’escalier, toiture en pavillon, abside. L’utilisation généralisée de la moise à Orléans, et de manière plus ponctuelle en val de Loire et dans certaines régions de France, amène aussi à s’interroger sur l’origine de ce procédé connu sous d’autres formes dans des charpentes dès les XIIe-XIIIe s.The town of Orleans possesses an important and unpublished collection of timber-framed roof structures of the 15th and 16th centuries, with a braced collar-beam. Known since the first quarter of the 15th century, this innovative process, involving two twinned pieces clasping the main elements of the frame, became widely spread in religious buildings but particularly in domestic housing, from the multipurpose timber-framed home to the elaborate town house. This method of construction, demonstrating a perfect mastery of the statics of a roof structure from its design with a view to reinforcing the triangulation of the truss, rapidly established itself in a local architectural context marked by the rare use of “chevrons-formant-fermes” (common rafters forming a

  14. Seismic Performance of High-strength-steel Composite Eccentrically Braced Frames%高强钢组合偏心支撑框架抗震性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭艳; 苏明周; 胡长明

    2016-01-01

    In high-strength-steel composite eccentrically braced frames (HSS-EBFs),links and braces are made of Q345 steel,whereas other structural members are made of Q460 steel.This structure can reduce member section sizes and thus the weight of the steel and achieve improved economic efficiency by reducing the amount of steel used and applying HSS.To compare the seis-mic performance of K-type HSS-EBFs (K-HSS-EBFs)with traditional K-type EBFs (K-EBFs), in this study,we designed four K-HSS-EBFs and four K-EBFs of different structural heights.We used nonlinear static pushover analysis and nonlinear dynamic analyses to investigate the seismic performance of the K-HSS-EBF and K-EBF models.The results indicate that both K-EBFs and K-HSS-EBFs well satisfy seismic requirements and that the deformation of the K-HSS-EBFs was more obvious than that of the K-EBFs.However,the comparatively smaller member section sizes of the K-HSS-EBFs can reduce the steel weight and project building costs.%高强钢组合K型偏心支撑框架耗能梁段和支撑采用 Q345钢,其余构件采用 Q460钢,不仅能有效减小构件截面、节约钢材、降低造价,而且有助于推广高强钢的应用。为了比较高强钢组合 K型偏心支撑框架与 Q345钢K型偏心支撑框架的抗震性能,在试验研究的基础上,设计两组共8个不同层数的高强钢组合K型偏心支撑框架与 Q345钢K型偏心支撑框架,并分别对其进行非线性静力推覆分析和动力时程分析,对比分析两种结构形式的承载力、刚度、延性以及地震作用下层间变形能力和耗能梁段。结果表明:在满足抗震性能要求的前提下,相同设计条件下高强钢组合 K型偏心支撑框架变形略差于 Q345钢K型偏心支撑框架,但是其构件截面较小,可以节省钢材,降低工程造价,具有较高的经济效益。

  15. A STUDY OF SEISMIC PROPERTY OF MEGA-SUSPENDED BRACED FRAME-WITH DAMPER%附加阻尼的悬挂式巨型钢框架支撑体系抗震性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴星洙; 王佩; 倪慧敏; 唐柏鉴

    2012-01-01

    A new mega-suspended braced-frame structure with dampers is presented. Based on simplified guidelines, the lattice major structure of the structure is simplified as a beam-column model, SAP2000 is used to check its rationality. Then, the beam-column model is simplified as a multi-mass-system shear model by pushover method, and the effectiveness is proved. Based on the above process, a time-history method is used to analyze the five structures under three art-earthquake waves. Results show that the stiffness gap between main structure and substructure increase the relative displacement. For a mega-suspended braced-frame with dampers, the displacement of the main structure and relative displacement between the substructure and main structure can be reduced effectively by the viscous dampers. The system has some characteristics including lower input energy, less plastic deformation and more damping dissipation. The new system avoids the damage failure concentrated on the substructure under rare earthquakes. The substructure protects the main structure. Compared with other general suspension structures, it is a better aseismic structure.%提出一种附加阻尼的悬挂式巨型钢框架支撑体系,并基于简化准则,将其格构式主体简化为梁、柱模型,利用SAP2000软件讨论其模型合理性,而后利用静力弹塑性分析方法将梁、柱模型简化为质点系剪切模型,通过分析证实其质点系剪切模型的有效性。在此基础上,采用3条人工地震波对设定的五种结构进行地震响应弹塑性时程分析,其结果表明:对于悬挂式结构,加强其主体结构约束后,子结构与主结构之间出现刚度差,其相对位移增大,而附加阻尼的悬挂式巨型钢框架支撑体系,在减小其主结构水平位移的同时,其粘性阻尼可有效的减小主子结构问的位移差,避免其差较大而产生的结构碰撞。该体系具有地震动输入能量小、塑性变

  16. The role of initial bone mineral status in predicting the early outcome of brace treatment in girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis%初诊骨密度对女性青少年特发性脊柱侧凸患者早期支具治疗效果的预测价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙旭; 朱泽章; 邱勇; 王斌; 李卫国; 朱锋; 俞杨; 钱邦平; 马薇薇

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether initial bone mineral status acts as a predictor factor in evaluating the early outcome of brace treatment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) girls. Methods Seventy-sevengirls with AIS, aged 10-15 years old, were included in this study. A standardized bracing protocol was performed in these girls, and the early outcomes of brace treatment were evaluated at over-1-year follow-up. Girls with a progressed scoliosis and those with a non-progressed scoliosis were identified.The associations between the outcome and the indices before bracing, including age, menstrual status,Risser grade, bone mineral density (BMD) status, curve magnitude and curve pattern were assessed using univariate analysis. A multiple Logistic stepwise regression was used to determine the risk factors in curve progression in AIS girls treated with brace treatment. Results There were 16 girls (21%) with a progressed scoliosis and 61 girls (79%) with a non-progressed scoliosis, respectively. In the girls with a progressed scoliosis, higher ratios of subjects were found with premenarchal status ( X2>= 9. 628, P =0. 004), lower Risser grade ( X2> = 4. 565, P = 0.037 ), main thoracic scoliosis ( X2> = 4. 009, P = 0. 045 ), a larger curve (X2> = 1. 685 ,P = 0.194), as well as osteopenia (X2>= 3. 828, P = 0. 050), as compared with those with a non- progressed scoliosis. During brace treatment, besides premenarchal status, a larger Cobb angle, and a main thoracic scoliosis, osteopenia ( OR = 5. 362, P = 0. 022) was identified as the risk factor in curve progression in AIS girls, as revealed by the multiple Logistic regression analysis. Conclusions Osteopenia might be an independent risk factor in the curve progression during brace treatment. The analysis of initial BMD status before bracing may help to predict the outcome of brace treatment.%目的 探讨青少年特发性脊柱侧凸女性患者初诊时骨密度对短期支具治疗期间侧凸畸

  17. Application of thermosetting plastic brace for treating adolescent idiopathic scoliosis%热塑矫形器及其材料在青少年特发性脊柱侧凸治疗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林志伟; 王应球; 喻锦成

    2010-01-01

    背景:矫形器治疗是目前公认的适于未发育成熟轻中度特发性脊柱侧凸患者惟一有效的非手术治疗方法.目的:回顾性分析热塑矫形器治疗青少年特发性脊柱侧凸临床疗效.方法:1997-04/2004-03在海南省人民医院康复医学部矫形科收治特发性脊柱侧凸患者113例.佩戴热塑矫形器(brace)从开始2.0-3.0 /d,逐渐增加22 h/d.复查时cobb's角减少大于30%,则佩戴时间减至20 h/d,Risser征Ⅳ度或月经初潮1年后佩戴时间减至4 h/d.同时每天完成1 h矫正体操,包括腰背肌锻练:5点式(即头、双肘及双足支撑)和3点式(即头、双足支撑)锻练.随访2年后复测cobb's角,监测cobb's角变化.结果与结论:全部病例随访2年,有效98例(86.7%);治疗无效15例(13.3%),出现脊柱侧凸进展加重.脊柱侧凸cobb's角在20°-30°者68例,有效63例(92.6%).31°-45°者45例,有效35例(77.8%).未发现材料方面的特殊不良反应.结果证明,热塑矫形器结合矫正体操综合治疗特发性脊柱侧凸疗效明显,可减少∞bb's角度,改善侧凸,防止或延缓特发性脊柱侧凸进展.

  18. Nonlinear seismic response analysis of direct air-cooled vertical hybrid structures with diagonal bracing%带斜撑型直接空冷钢-混凝土竖向混合结构非线性地震响应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代慧娟; 白国良; 王博; 张淑云; 董叶辉

    2015-01-01

    Steel-concrete vertical hybrid structure with diagonal bracing is a new structure system which has been proposed for applying the direct air-cooled technology in high earthquake intensity areas,according to the type of platform. The structure can be divided into two types:steel truss-diagonal bracing structure and solid web girder-diagonal bracing structure.On the basis of the seismic experiments of steel truss-diagonal bracing model structures,finite element software ABAQUS was used to calculate and analyze the base shear response,deformation properties and damage evolution characteristics of reinforced concrete pipe columns of the two kinds of structures with diagonal bracing.The results show that:the proposed simplification principles and finite element modeling methods are reasonable,the calculated results agree well with the test results;under different earthquake intensities,the biggest base shear force and the shear-weight ratio of the steel truss-diagonal bracing structure are greater than those of the solid web girder-diagonal structure;the lateral displacement curves for the two kinds of structures are both shifting from shear-moment-type toward shear-type as the earthquake intensity increases;the lateral displacements on and below the corbel of the steel truss-diagonal bracing structure is slightly greater than those of the solid web girder-diagonal structure,while above the corbel,it is just the opposite;the lateral displacement angle at the top of the column for the steel truss-diagonal bracing structure is slightly smaller than that of the solid web girder-diagonal structure;seismic performances of the two kinds of structures are both good,which can meet the seismic requirement of the large-capacity units in high earthquake intensity areas.%带斜撑型钢-混凝土竖向混合结构是为将直接空冷技术推广应用于高烈度地区而提出的一种新型结构体系,根据上部结构平台型式的不同,可分为钢桁架+斜撑结

  19. 分层装配式支撑钢结构工业化建筑体系抗震性能试验研究%Experimental research on seismic performance of floor-by-floor assembled steel braced structures for prefabricated buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周青; 王伟; 陈以一; 童乐为; 余亚超; 杨建行; 刘大伟; 古海贤二

    2012-01-01

    A quasi-static experiment was carried out on a full scale two-story by four-span structural system.Lateral force resisting mechanism,failure modes and hysteretic properties of the improved floor-by-floor assembled steel braced structure were investigated,as well as the evolution of the structural stiffness and strength under horizontal earthquake.Test results show that the braces are the primary members to resist the lateral load,the elastic lateral stiffness is exclusively provided by the braces.The developed new braces demonstrate good ductile behavior.The structural damage evolution under cyclic loading includes compression buckling and tension yielding of braces,partial yielding of column base,cyclic deformation of beam flange,weld cracking and plastic hinge formation at the column bases.The beam-column frame can participate in resisting horizontal seismic force under the conditions of large story drift due to the improved beam through connections.Thus,it can be viewed as the second defense of the structural system.It is recommended that a certain magnification factor for seismic action should be considered in the seismic design to compensate the low energy dissipation capacity.%对2层4跨足尺结构进行了拟静力加载试验,考察了分层装配式支撑钢结构在水平地震作用下的抗侧力机制、破坏模式与滞回特性,以及刚度和承载力的变化规律。试验结果表明,支撑是主要抗侧力构件,结构弹性阶段的抗侧刚度几乎完全由支撑提供,研制的新型支撑具有良好的延性工作性能。结构体系在往复荷载下失效演进过程表现为支撑受压失稳、支撑受拉屈服、柱脚截面部分屈服、节点处梁翼缘循环拉压变形、柱脚端板连接焊缝开裂和柱脚全截面屈服形成塑性铰。改进后的梁贯通式节点可以保证框架在塑性大变形阶段分担相当比例的水平地震力,因而可作为该结构的第2道防线。鉴于结构体系耗能能力

  20. 夜用式脊柱侧凸矫形器治疗脊柱单侧弯的临床疗效观察%Effectiveness of night-time bending brace in the treatment of adolescent single-curve idiopathic scoliosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈东; 武继祥; 黄丹

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨分析夜用式脊柱侧凸矫形器对青少年特发性脊柱单侧弯的疗效。方法:脊柱单侧凸患者40例,分为观察组22例和对照组18例。观察组在睡觉时佩戴夜用式脊柱侧凸矫形器8~10h ,对照组佩戴传统色努式脊柱侧凸矫形器≥20h。观察2组患者治疗前后的Cobb角,顶椎偏离中线距离(AVT)、躯干位移(TS)和肺活量(VC)的改善。结果:治疗3个月后,2组患者的Cobb角度、AVT及TS距离均明显低于治疗前(P<0.01),且观察组更低于对照组(P<0.01);2组治疗后VC含量均明显高于治疗前,且观察组更高于对照组(P<0.01)。结论:夜用式脊柱侧凸矫形器适合青少年C型侧凸治疗,其矫正效果明显优于传统的脊柱侧凸矫形器,值得临床推广应用。%Objective :To analyze the effectiveness of night-time bending brace in the treatment of adolescent single-curve idiopathic scoliosis .Method:Forty patients with single-curve scoliosis were divided into observation group (n=22) and control group (n=18) .The patients in the observation group wore night-time bending brace for 8-10 h when sleeping ,and those in the control group wore traditional scoliosis brace for more than 20 h .The Cobb's angle , apex vertebral trunking distance from the center line (AVT) ,trunk swing (TS) ,spinal flexibility and vital capacity (VC) were comapred between two groups .Results :After treatment ,the cobb's angle ,AVT and TS in both two groups were significantly reduced as compared with those before treatment (P<0 .01) ,and those indexes were even significantly lower in the observation group than in the control group (P<0 .01) .After treatment ,VC in both two groups was increased as compared with that before treatment ,and the index was significantly higher in the observa-tion group than in the control group (P<0 .01) .Conclusion :Night-time bending brace is suitable for the treatment of adolescent

  1. Influência da utilização da órtese de tornozelo durante atividades do voleibol: avaliação eletromiográfica Influencia de la utilización de la ortesis del tobillo durante las actividades del voleibol: evaluación electromiográfica Use of ankle bracing for volleyball activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Rosa Cardoso

    2005-10-01

    évias en el miembro dominante. Fué colectada la contracción isométrica voluntaria máxima (CIVM de cada músculo y, en seguida, la actividad electromiográfica en diferentes situaciones con y sin la ortesis, en orden aleatoria. La ortesis utilizada poseía apoyos laterales. La señal electromiográfico fué cuantificado por la raiz cuadrada de la média (RMS y normalizado por la CIVM. Se realizó un análisis de la varianza de las medidas repetidas para verificar la diferencia de la actividad eléctrica de los músculos envueltos en cada actividad, con o sin ortesis, con significación estadística de 5% (p The ankle sprain is the most frequently found acute injury in volleyball. Aiming to prevent the occurrence of ankle injuries, prophylactic equipment as the bracing had been developed. This study had the purpose to evaluate the performance of the ankle muscles (tibialis anterior, peroneous longus, and medial and lateral gastrocnemius by measuring the electrical activity in different volleyball activities (vertical jumping and lateral shuffling with and without using ankle bracing. Nine young female volleyball athletes with ages ranging from 14 to 17 years (: 15.8 ± 1.3 were evaluated, all of them without previous injuries in the dominant member. Maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC of each muscle was collected, and after that, the electromyographic activity in different situations with and without using the bracing, randomly. The bracing used had two lateral supports. The electromyographic signal was quantified by the root mean square (RMS, and normalized by the MVIC. Analysis of the variance with repeated measurement was used to verify the difference of the electric activity of the muscles involved in each activity, with and without using the bracing, with 5% (p < 0.05 significance level. It was identified a statistically significant difference in phase I of the jumping in favor of the tibialis anterior (p < 0.001 and in phase II in favor of the three

  2. Sarmiento A(1970)膝下功能支具治疗胫骨骨折135例报告%Sarmiento A (1970) A functional below-the-knee brace for tibial fractures. A Report on its use in one hundred thirty-five cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Ring; Hartmut R. Siebert; 苏秀云; 梁平

    2006-01-01

    应用膝下功能支具治疗135例胫骨骨折患者,结果表明保留膝关节和踝关节的功能可促进骨折的顺利愈合.大多数病例骨折得以快速愈合,提示早期恢复肢体的正常生理负荷状态有利于及时开始成骨活动.%Results from the first 135 cases of tibial fractures treated with a functional below-the-knee-brace demonstrate uneventful healing while function of the knee and ankle is maintained. Rapid healing of the fracture in most patients suggests that the early resumption of nearly normal physiological conditions in the limb is favorable to timely and uninterrupted osteogenesis.

  3. 反对称Pratt桁架中斜腹杆受压大偏心N形圆钢管节点静力性能试验研究%Experimental research on static behavior of big eccentric circular hollow section(CHS) N-joints with inclination brace under compression in anti-symmetrical Pratt truss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈誉; 刘飞飞

    2012-01-01

    To research the static behavior of big eccentric circular hollow section N-joints with inclined brace under compression in antisymmetrical Pratt truss, four big negative eccentric specimens, four big positive eccentric specimens and one non-eccentric specimen were tested under monotonic loading. The test procedure, joint failure phenomenon, vertical jack load-displacement curves, axial force of brace-deformation of wall and strain distribution curves were presented. The effect of eccentricity on bearing capacity, stiffness and ductility of the joints was also studied. Results of these tests show that big eccentric CHS N-joints with inclined brace under compression can be regarded as hingejoint by comparing experimental result with theoretical value. From - 1.30 to 0 eccentricity joints, with the increase of eccentricity, the bearing capacity of joints increase. From 0 eccentricity to O. 50 eccentricity joints, the bearing capacity of joints reduces. Finally, with the increase of eccentricity, the bearing capacity of joints slightly increases. Although the calculated averages value of bearing capacity by Chinese code and Euro code are close to experimental result, calculated value of bearing capacity by Chinese code is closer to experimental result than Euro code. Trends of joint bearing capacity from calculation by the two codes are totally different from that of the experimental result.%对反对称Pratt桁架中的斜腹杆受压大偏心N形圆钢管节点的静力性能进行了单调加载试验研究。实施了4个负向大偏心、4个正向大偏心和1个无偏心斜腹杆受压N形圆钢管节点静力试验。介绍了节点试验方案,考察了斜腹杆受压大偏心圆钢管节点破坏现象,给出了加载点荷载-端位移曲线、腹杆轴力-管壁变形曲线以及折算应变分布曲线,并分析了偏心率对节点承载力、刚度和延性的影响。研究结果表明:该节点可以作为理想铰接节点

  4. 巨型钢框架-预应力复合支撑体系在水平荷载作用下的破坏性能%Mechanical Performance of Mega Steel Frame-Prestressed Composite Bracing Structure under Horizontal Loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵建华; 唐柏鉴

    2012-01-01

    Mega steel frame-prestressed composite bracing structure is a new lateral resistant system in the modern high rise buildings, which is designed on the elastic response spectrum for the wind-resistant and seismic design and then studied by using the Pushover analytic method based on two different lateral loading patterns of uniform distribution and inverse triangle distribution in order to investigate the horizontal elastic lateral stiffness, the mechanical characteristic of cable, the yield mechanism when plastic hinge occurring in the members, and the overall seismic performance as well. The results indicate that the horizontal limit bearing capacity and lateral stiffness under inverse triangle distribution are less than that under uniform distribution. The maximum tension stress of cables is less than the yield strength of 650MPa under these two loading patterns. With the increasing horizontal load, the tension stress for one part of cables gradually decreases up to zero, but the tension stress for another part of cables further increases on the basis of the pretensioned stress. The failure modes of all members of the mega steel frame-prestressed composite bracing structure under lateral loads are as follows: web members of giant beam appear to yield at first, and then the supports between giant column limbs, giant A-shape steel brace truss, floor beams in order. Meanwhile, the seismic design based on elastic response spectrum is unsuitable for this dual lateral load resisting system and the theory of performance-based seismic design should be adopted to obtain the reasonable and economic structure.%巨型钢框架-预应力复合支撑体系是现代高层建筑中的一种新型抗侧体系,本文基于弹性反应谱对其进行抗风、抗震设计,然后在倒三角型分布和均匀分布的两种水平荷载加载模式下进行Pushover分析,研究出该结构体系在不同水平加载模式下的破坏机理,考察其抗侧刚度、拉索受力特征

  5. 硬化土模型在桩锚与桩撑组合支护深基坑工程中的应用%Application of hardening soil model in deep excavations supported by pile-anchor and pile-braced composite supporting structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢建斌; 曾宪明; 胡井友; 温一波; 吴昌长

    2014-01-01

    基于硬化土模型(hardening soil模型),针对一位于昆明市中心复杂周边环境桩锚与桩撑组合支护的城市深基坑工程实例,通过基坑场地土样固结排水三轴压缩试验和固结试验选取了硬化土模型中的参数;采用 MADIS/GTS对该基坑工程的开挖支护过程进行三维有限元分析,并将分析结果与m法计算结果、工程实测结果进行了对比。分析结果与m法计算结果、实测数据的对比表明:硬化土模型可用于桩锚与桩撑组合支护深基坑工程的数值分析;利用硬化土模型可得较符合实际的基坑开挖变形规律。%Based on the hardening soil model, a deep excavation supported by pile-anchor and pile-braced composite supporting structures is analyzed. The excavation is located in the downtown of Kunming City, and the surrounding environment of the deep foundation pit is complex. The associated parameters of the hardening soil model are designed by consolidated-drained triaxial compression test and consolidation test. Then three-dimensional finite element analysis of the excavation during constructing and supporting processes is carried out using the software of MADIS/GTS. The results of finite element method are compared with the measured data and the calculated results ofm-method. The comparison shows that the hardening soil model can be adopted to analyze the deep excavation supported by pile-anchor and pile-braced composite supporting structures. The real deformation mechanism and regularity of foundation excavation can be obtained by using the hardening soil model.

  6. Optimal design of initative horizontal bracing structure of middle tower column of southern cable stayed bridge of Xiazhang sea-crossing bridge%厦漳跨海大桥南汊斜拉桥索塔中塔柱主动横撑的设计计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林寅

    2011-01-01

    本文介绍了厦漳跨海大桥南汊斜拉桥索塔施工中,为消除中塔柱倾斜塔柱根部混凝土的不良应力状态所采用的主动横撑结构的构造特点,以及考虑了施工因素的该结构的设计计算方法,确保中塔柱根部在施工过程中不开裂。该计算方法对类似工程具有一定的指导意义。%This paper intensively introduces the structural characteristics of the adoption of initiative horizontal bracing structure in order to eliminate the bad stress of concrete in the root of leaned tower column during the cable tower construction of Southern Cable Stayed Bridge of Xia Zhang Sea-crossing Bridge,as well as the structural design calculation method considering the construction factors,which can make sure that the root of leaned tower would not cracked during the construction process,and thie could be a reference for similar engineering.

  7. Performance based seismic design method of eccentrically braced steel frames under near-fault earthquake with velocity pulse%有速度脉冲近场地震下偏心支撑钢框架性态设计方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶硕; 顾强

    2012-01-01

    由于长周期速度脉冲的作用,近场地震会对结构产生严重的速度和位移冲击,根据5条近场地震波建立了屈服点谱(YPS)。基于屈服点谱法方法设计了一榀K型偏心支撑钢框架结构,采用pushover方法和弹塑性时程法对所设计的结构进行了地震反应分析。结果表明,结构的屈服位移基本稳定,层间侧移比满足我国现行抗震规范的要求,结构呈现理想的梁铰屈服机构,证明了对偏心支撑钢框架进行性态设计方法的可靠性。%Because of the long-period velocity pulse, the near-fauh ground motion would have an intense impact on structures in the form of velocity and displacement, a total of 5 near-fauh ground motion records were selected to construct the Yield Point Spectra (YPS). This paper designed a span of K-eccentrically braced steel frame based on the YPS. By the means of Pushover method and nonlinear time history method, the results showed that the yield displacement of the example was fundamentally stable, the ratio of the displacement could satisfy the deformation requirement of the seismic code of our country, and the K-EBF structure takes on the ideal progressively plastic mechanism, which proves the reliability of this new design method.

  8. MINIMUM BRACING STIFFNESS FOR MULTI-COLUMN SYSTEMS: THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. DARÍO ARISTIZÁBAL-OCHOA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se propone un metodo que determina la rigidez minima de arrostramiento requeridos por un sistema elastico de varias columnas para lograr condiciones de pandeo sin deriva entre pisos. Las ecuaciones que evaluan la rigidez minima requerida de los arrostramientos laterales y de torsion y la carga critica de pandeo ¡§arriostrada¡¨ correspondiente para cada columna del nivel de piso se obtienen utilizando las funciones de estabilidad modificadas. Se incluyen los siguientes efectos: 1 tipos de conexiones (rigidas, semirrigidas y simples, 2 la distribucion en planta de las columnas (es decir, la orientacion de la seccion transversal y la ubicacion del centro de gravedad de cada columna, 3 deformaciones por cortante a lo largo de cada columna mediante el metodo modificado propuesto por Haringx en 1948, y 4 distribucion de la carga axial entre las columnas (es decir, el patron de carga. Los efectos de las deformaciones axial y de torsion no estan incluidos. El metodo propuesto es aplicable a estructuras 2D y 3D con conexiones rigidas, semirigidas y simple. La formulacion se presenta en este documento se basa en un trabajo previo presentado por Aristizabal-Ochoa en 2007. Se demuestra que la rigidez minima de los arrostramientos laterales y de torsion requeridos por un sistema de varias columnas depende de: 1 la distribucion en planta las columnas; 2 la variacion en altura y propiedades de la seccion transversal de las columnas; 3las rigideces a flexion y a cortante de cada columna; 4 el patron de cargas en el sistema de columnas; 5 la falta de simetria (en el patron de carga, en la disposicion de las columnas, tamanos de las columnas, y sus alturas que hacen que el pandeo combinado de torsion y flexion lateral pueden reducir la capacidad de pandeo critico de la estructura en su conjunto; y 6 las condiciones de apoyo y restricciones en el extremo superior de las columnas. El metodo propuesto se limita a sistemas multi-columna con columnas elasticas y ortotropicas con secciones transversales doblemente simetricas (es decir, con centro de corte coincidiendo con el centroide orientadas en cualquier direccion con respecto a los ejes globales. Se presentan cuatro ejemplos en detalle en una publicacion adjunta que muestran la eficacia y la simplicidad del metodo propuesto.

  9. A bamboo braced frame system for tropical climates

    OpenAIRE

    Echeverria, J. (Juan); Sampson, C.; Vargas, J.; Nilsson, T; Gil-Martin, L. M.; Aschheim, M.

    2014-01-01

    A low-cost housing system was developed for use in tropical countries, specifically Haiti, with the aims of minimizing environmental impact (including carbon emissions), maximizing use of local and preferably recycled materials, and using local labor. The housing system integrates low-strength concrete blocks (made using recycled concrete aggregate), an innovative seismically-resistant bamboo frame, earthen plasters, bamboo trusses, and metal deck roofs. The bamboo frame relies on flexural yi...

  10. Formation mechanism of {l_brace}111{r_brace} recrystallization texture in ferritic steels; Ferrite ko no {l_brace}111{r_brace} saikessho shugo shoshiki seisei kiko no ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraki, M.; Toge, T.; Sakata, K.; Obara, T. [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Furubayashi, E. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering

    1999-10-01

    Recrystallized ND//<111> texture is obtained from cold rolled ND//<111> matrix even in single crystals where no grain boundary exists. These ND//<111> recrystallized grains are analyzed to emerge by <112> rotation from cold rolled ND//<111> matrix. This rotation is related to (110)<111> slip systems operated during cold rolling. Recrystallized orientations from cold rolled (111)<110> single crystal are 18 degrees rotated around these <112> axes and deviate from ND//<111> by 6 degrees. Since this deviation is not recognizable in polycrystalline material owing to its symmetry, ND//<111> recrystallized texture in cold rolled commercial ferritic steels such as IF steels or electrical steels, may also be explained by the same <112> rotation, not by conventional ND//<111> rotation. (author)

  11. Renewables industry braces itself for ''lean and mean'' future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on the impact of the UK government's cost conscience market-based approach to renewable energy. The replacement of the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) with an obligation requiring electricity suppliers to achieve an increasing proportion of their power from renewable energy sources, and the ability of the suppliers to meet the target by using tradeable green certificates or by paying fines for non-compliance are examined. The economic feasibility of waste-to-energy (landfill gas), the government's failure to offer clear support for onshore and offshore wind power projects, and possible international trade in green certificates are considered. The funding of renewable energy projects, the question of what happens to contracts made under the last three rounds of NFFO, and concerns raised about the sale of green tariffs in the domestic market are discussed. The way in which the suppliers obligation will work is outlined. (UK)

  12. Review of the windpower activities at the Brace Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawand, T. A.

    1973-01-01

    A chronology of windpower studies at the experimental station on Barbados is presented that includes the various development activities on wheeling windmills whose power output is utilized through electrical and electronic systems. A list of institute publications on windpower is included.

  13. Curve progression and spinal growth in brace treated idiopathic scoliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonseth, KA; Veldhuizen, AG; Cool, JC; van Horn, [No Value

    2000-01-01

    The risk of progression of idiopathic scoliosis is correlated primarily to factors that predict potential remaining skeletal growth. The aim of the current study was to evaluate spinal growth, measured as the length of the scoliotic spine on serial longitudinal radiographs, and its relationship to p

  14. A bamboo braced frame system for tropical climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echeverria, J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost housing system was developed for use in tropical countries, specifically Haiti, with the aims of minimizing environmental impact (including carbon emissions, maximizing use of local and preferably recycled materials, and using local labor. The housing system integrates low-strength concrete blocks (made using recycled concrete aggregate, an innovative seismically-resistant bamboo frame, earthen plasters, bamboo trusses, and metal deck roofs. The bamboo frame relies on flexural yielding of a short rebar dowel to provide ductile performance at a controlled strength level. The plinth walls below the frame and short rebar dowel protects the bamboo from moisture. The top of a plastic soda bottle is used to protect the rebar from moisture and to seal the base of the bamboo culm, allowing mortar to be introduced into the culm above. This paper focuses on the experimental and analytical results of the flexural yielding of the rebar dowel to establish the structural design of this critical component of the system for resisting wind and seismic loads.En este artículo se presenta un sistema de construcción de viviendas de bajo coste para países tropicales en los cuales existe riesgo sísmico. Los objetivos de este trabajo son generar bajo impacto medioambiental (incluyendo las emisiones de carbono, empleo de materiales locales, preferiblemente reciclados, y mano de obra local. Para esta construcción se han empleado bloques de hormigón de baja resistencia (con agregado reciclado junto con un innovador sistema de pórticos de bambú, botellas de plástico, vigas de bambú y cubiertas de chapa. El comportamiento dúctil de la estructura se garantiza introduciendo una barra de acero en la base del pórtico de bambú. Para proteger el bambú de la humedad, el pórtico se monta sobre un zócalo. Los resultados experimentales y analíticos obtenidos se utilizan para el diseño estructural del sistema frente a cargas de viento y sísmicas.

  15. Online Learning's 'Yellow Pages' Are Bracing for a Shakeout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Sarah

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the growing competition among commercial portal Web sites which list online courses available through various colleges, universities, and other institutions, noting that institutions may pay a flat fee to be listed or pay a commission for each individual who enrolls. Considers some hidden costs for institutions, the business strategies…

  16. Influência do complexo flúor-xilitol no controle da placa dentária e do sangramento gengival em pacientes herbiátricos com aparelho ortodôntico fixo Influence of fluorine-xylitol complex in the dental plaque and gingival bleeding control in herbiatric patients with fixed orthodontic brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Elias

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar os efeitos de um dentifrício contendo flúor/xilitol na redução da adesão da placa à estrutura dentária, bem como no índice de sangramento gengival, em portadores de aparelho ortodôntico fixo. METODOLOGIA: foram avaliados 22 jovens, com idade entre 14 e 17 anos. Após a quantificação inicial dos índices, os jovens receberam instruções de escovação e começaram a utilizar somente os dentifrícios da pesquisa. Houve uma divisão aleatória da amostra em dois grupos (A e B. Na primeira semana todos utilizaram um dentifrício padrão e a partir da segunda semana os jovens do grupo A receberam um dentifrício contendo flúor, enquanto os do grupo B receberam um dentifrício contendo o complexo flúor-xilitol, que utilizaram durante vinte e oito dias, quando foram novamente avaliados (T1. Para a segunda fase (T2 houve inversão dos dentifrícios. RESULTADOS: foram comparados os resultados intra-grupo e nos dois grupos houve redução estatisticamente significante entre as fases inicial e T1, inicial e T2 e entre T1 e T2. Já na comparação entre os grupos não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre eles, embora o dentifrício contendo flúor/xilitol tenha proporcionado uma porcentagem de redução do índice de sangramento gengival maior que o dentifrício contendo apenas o fluoreto de sódio, principalmente entre as fases inicial e T2, onde a redução no grupo A foi de 90,13% e no grupo B foi de 78,84%. CONCLUSÃO: a utilização de dentifrícios contendo flúor e xilitol, associada à instrução e motivação, parece ser um recurso bastante promissor para a manutenção da saúde bucal nos pacientes ortodônticos.AIM: to evaluate the effects of a dentifrice containing fluorine/xylitol in the reduction of the adhesion of the plaque to the dental structure, as well as in the gingival bleeding index in patients who had orthodontic braces. METHODS: 22 teenagers, in between 14 and 17 years old were

  17. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium of {l_brace}water + phenol + (1-butanol, or 2-butanol, or tert-butanol){r_brace} systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadlich de Oliveira, Leonardo [School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6066, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Aznar, Martin, E-mail: maznar@feq.unicamp.b [School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6066, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) and binodal curve data were determined for the systems (water + phenol + tert-butanol) at T = 298.15 K, (water + phenol + 2-butanol) and (water + phenol + 1-butanol) at T = 298.15 K and T = 313.15 K by the combined techniques of densimetry and refractometry. Type I curve (for tert-butanol) and Type II curves (for 1- and 2-butanol) were found. The data were correlated with the NRTL model and the parameters estimated present root mean square deviations below 2% for the system with tert-butanol and lower than 0.8% for the other systems.

  18. Synthesis and biological activity of N-{l_brace}5-(4-methylphenyl) diazenyl-4-phenyl-1, 3-thiazole-2-yl{r_brace}benzamide derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prajapati, Ashishkumar K.; Modi, Vishal P. [The M.S. University of Baroda, Gujarat (India). Faculty of Technology and Engineering. Applied Chemistry Dept.

    2011-07-01

    In the present study, various amides of 2-amino-5-(4-methylphenyl)-diazenyl-4-phenyl-1, 3-thiazole was synthesized and their biological activities were evaluated. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by the combination of elemental analysis and standard spectroscopic methods. They are screened for anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as well as screened for antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae by cup plate method at 1 {mu}g/ mL concentration in DMF. (author)

  19. An AFM investigation of the interaction of chiral amino acids with the {l_brace}104{r_brace} face of calcite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orme, C A; Noy, A; McBride, M T; DeYoreo, J J

    2000-10-01

    In biomineralized tissue, Nature often uses a single crystal system to form tools with widely varied form and functionality. To accomplish this, organisms have developed methods to deterministically modify and control crystal habit, commonly creating shapes with lower symmetry than is possessed by the pure crystal. In this paper we use atomic force microscopy to investigate the effect of chiral amino acids on calcite growth. We show that the atomic steps and resultant macroscopic shape exhibit a lower symmetry that reflects the chirality of the amino acid. We use this result to constrain the possible stereospecific binding sites. We argue that the change in morphology is not due to the incorporation of the amino acid, but rather that it acts like a surfactant changing the energetics of the interface. These results suggest that the conventional paradigm for understanding the geometrical and chemical aspects of biomineralization in terms of stereochemical recognition should be expanded to capture the energetic controls that determine the mechanisms of mineral modification by biomolecules.

  20. Comparison study of N- and In-polar {l_brace}0001{r_brace} InN layers grown by MOVPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, Duc V.; Pristovsek, M.; Solopow, S.; Skuridina, D.; Kneissl, M. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    We compare InN layers grown directly on c -plane (0001) sapphire and on (0001) GaN templates using metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. InN grown on nitridated c -plane sapphire showed N-polarity, while InN grown on c -plane GaN templates showed In-polarity. N-polar and In-polar InN layers showed different surface morphology and crystallinity. N-polar InN was smoothest when grown at higher growth temperatures, while In-polar InN was smoothest at intermediate growth temperatures. Growth mode of the N-polar InN on sapphire is Frank-Van der Merwe, while growth mode of the In-polar InN on GaN templates is Volmer-Weber. Electrical properties were similar for both layers. Lowtemperature photoluminescence of In-polar InN layers is shifted to higher energies most likely due to biaxial compressive stresses. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. PROSOPIS CINERARIA (L DRUCE: A DESERT TREE TO BRACE LIVELIHOOD IN RAJASTHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BINA RANI, UPMA SINGH, RAVI SHARMA, A AYUSHI GUPTA, NIDHI GAUBA DHAWAN, AJIT KUMAR SHARMA, SURBHI SHARMA, RAAZ K MAHESHWARI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Prosopis cineraria (L Druce is an important tree (Khejri- a local name in Rajasthanfor the Thar Desert withhard climatic adaptation and one of the lifeline in desert habitat as mentioned in ancient literature. This is a speciesrepresenting all five F viz., Forest, Fiber, Fuel, Fodder and Food. This tree is also mythological important in localcommunities. High value of this species recognized as a State symbol (state tree of Rajasthan. Prosopis cineraria(L. Druce is a tree endemic to hot deserts of India, belonging to the family Leguminosae. Pods locally called“Sangri” are considered as dry fruit of desert and are one of the main ingredients of quintessential Rajasthani dish -The Panchkuta. In the present article, we have attempted to review different characteristics of the pods, tounderstand its health benefits. Various phytoconstituents like tannins (gallic acid, steroids (stigmasterol,campesterol, sitosterol, etc., Flavone derivatives (prosogerin A, B, C, D, and E, alkaloids (spicigerine,prosophylline, etc. have been isolated from the sangri pods .As this plant is found in water stress (or deficient areaso antioxidant potential of pods has also been discussed. Prosopis cineraria (L Druce is one of the highly valuedplant in the Indigenous System of Medicine. P. cineraria pods provide protein, iron, vitamins A and C and othermicro minerals Unripe pods are also nutritious and are used to prepare curries and pickles. Its bark is said to be apotent drug for several ailments such as leprosy, dysentery, bronchitis, asthma, leucoderma, piles, muscular tremors,asthma, rheumatism and inflammations. Pharmacological activities like analgesic, antipyretic, antihyperglycemic,antioxidant, antihypercholesterolemic, antitumor, nootropic anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral andanticancer activities have been reported from different plant extracts. In view of its medicinal importance, thepresent review is focused to delineate its chemical constitution and therapeutic potentiality, precisely.

  2. Low-Cost Alternative External Rotation Shoulder Brace and Review of Treatment in Acute Shoulder Dislocations

    OpenAIRE

    Lacy, Kyle; Cooke, Chris; Cooke, Pat; Schupbach, Justin; Vaidya, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic dislocations of the shoulder commonly present to emergency departments (EDs). Immediate closed reduction of both anterior and posterior glenohumeral dislocations is recommended and is frequently performed in the ED. Recurrence of dislocation is common, as anteroinferior labral tears (Bankart lesions) are present in many anterior shoulder dislocations.14,15,18,23 Immobilization of the shoulder following closed reduction is therefore recommended; previous studies support the use of im...

  3. Effects of Mo-C dipole on the development of {l_brace}111{r_brace} recrystallization texture in Mo added low carbon steels; Mo wo fukumu teitansokoban no {l_brace}111{r_brace} saikessho shugo soshiki ni oyobosu Mo-C dipole no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagashira, K.; Mutsuji, T.; Endo, T. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Effects of Mo-C dipole on the development of recrystallization texture are discussed in 0.03 mass% carbon steels containing 0.07 to 1.01 mass% Mo. The hot-rolled steels were annealed at 973K and then cold-rolled 85% in reduction. Decarburized and cold rolled steels were also used. These steel sheets were annealed up to 973. 1023 and 1073K with two kinds of heating rate in argon gas and then quenched. The following results were obtained. (1) The development of {gamma}-fiber in the early stage of recrystallization at 1023K is restrained in all the slow-heated carbon steels. But it is accelerated during grain growth up to 1073K in the carbon steels containing 0.51 mass% Mo or more. (2) {gamma}-fiber in all the carbon steels is not developed in quick-heating up to 1023K or 1073K. (3) {gamma}-fiber in the decarburized steels which were slow-heated up to 1073K is developed regardless of molybdenum content. (4) Either the increase of Mo-C dipoles themselves or the decrease of single solute carbon atoms as a result of formation of dipoles may contribute to the development of {gamma}-fiber during grain growth by slow-heating. (author)

  4. Brace for impact! A thesis on medical care following an airplane crash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.L.E. Postma

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis the events and management of a mass casualty incident (MCI) of an airplane crash are studied from a medical point of view. The incident is broken down into areas that are applicable to other MCIs. it is believed that the detailed study of an exceptional event can provide vital informa

  5. Effects of Running Speed, Fatigue, and Bracing on Motor Control of Chronically Unstable Ankles

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Courtney Ann

    2013-01-01

    Ankle sprains are among the most common injuries for participants in running and jumping sports. Following an initial sprain injury, many (30-40%) will develop chronic ankle instability (CAI), characterized by a perception of instability and repeated sprain injuries. Quasi-static test methods indicate poor postural stability and joint position sense (JPS) as associated motor control deficits. Little research, though, has investigated ankle motor control under dynamic (simulated sport) or fati...

  6. Initial arch wires for alignment of crooked teeth with fixed orthodontic braces.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wang, Yan

    2010-01-01

    The initial arch wire is the first arch wire to be inserted into the fixed appliance at the beginning of orthodontic treatment and is used mainly for correcting crowding and rotations of teeth. With a number of orthodontic arch wires available for initial tooth alignment, it is important to understand which wire is most efficient, as well as which wires cause the least amount of root resorption and pain during the initial aligning stage of treatment.

  7. The ouverture begins Bracing for a Maelstrom of Data, CERN puts its faith in the Grid

    CERN Multimedia

    Cho, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Next week, physicists at the European particle physics lab, CERN, will fire up the world's biggest atom smasher. Expectations are skyhigh, but discoveries may still be years away. (3 pages) Researchers have hammered out new networking tools to store the LHC's instrument readings and make them available to physicists worldwide. (3 pages)

  8. A Systematic Review on the Treatment of Acute Ankle Sprain Brace versus Other Functional Treatment Types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Kemler; I. van de Port; F. Backx; C.N. van Dijk

    2011-01-01

    Ankle injuries, especially ankle sprains, are a common problem in sports and medical care. Ankle sprains result in pain and absenteeism from work and/or sports participation, and can lead to physical restrictions such as ankle instability. Nowadays, treatment of ankle injury basically consists of ta

  9. With Zika At the Doorstep, U.S. Health Officials Brace for Battle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hellerstedt said. The mosquito particularly prefers close-quartered urban areas, where there are many people from which ... incidence of this mosquito breeding in everybody's yard, garden and neighborhood, we will reduce the risk of ...

  10. Experimental program for large-scale tests on a re-centring dual eccentrically braced frame

    OpenAIRE

    Stratan, Aurel; IOAN CHESOAN Adriana; DUBINA Dan; TAUCER, FABIO; POLJANSEK Martin; MOLINA RUIZ Francisco Javier; Pegon, Pierre; D'ANIELLO Mario; Landolfo, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    Structural systems that aim at reducing structural damage by isolating plastic deformations in removable or "repairable" elements, and have the ability to return to the initial undeformed shape after an earthquake have received much attention recently. One of the solutions applicable to steel moment-resisting frames relies on post-tensioned beam to column joints [1] and column bases [2]. Other solutions having the same performance objectives use beam to column joints assembled with shape memo...

  11. PROSOPIS CINERARIA (L) DRUCE: A DESERT TREE TO BRACE LIVELIHOOD IN RAJASTHAN

    OpenAIRE

    BINA RANI, UPMA SINGH, RAVI SHARMA, A AYUSHI GUPTA, NIDHI GAUBA DHAWAN, AJIT KUMAR SHARMA, SURBHI SHARMA, RAAZ K MAHESHWARI

    2013-01-01

    The Prosopis cineraria (L) Druce is an important tree (Khejri- a local name in Rajasthan)for the Thar Desert withhard climatic adaptation and one of the lifeline in desert habitat as mentioned in ancient literature. This is a speciesrepresenting all five F viz., Forest, Fiber, Fuel, Fodder and Food. This tree is also mythological important in localcommunities. High value of this species recognized as a State symbol (state tree of Rajasthan). Prosopis cineraria(L.) Druce is a tree endemic to h...

  12. Numerical Evaluation Of Shape Memory Alloy Recentering Braces In Reinforced Concrete Buildings Subjected To Seismic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Winsbert Curt

    Seismic protective techniques utilizing specialized energy dissipation devices within the lateral resisting frames have been successfully used to limit inelastic deformation in reinforced concrete buildings by increasing damping and/or altering the stiffness of these structures. However, there is a need to investigate and develop systems with self-centering capabilities; systems that are able to assist in returning a structure to its original position after an earthquake. In this project, the efficacy of a shape memory alloy (SMA) based device, as a structural recentering device is evaluated through numerical analysis using the OpenSees framework. OpenSees is a software framework for simulating the seismic response of structural and geotechnical systems. OpenSees has been developed as the computational platform for research in performance-based earthquake engineering at the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER). A non-ductile reinforced concrete building, which is modelled using OpenSees and verified with available experimental data is used for the analysis in this study. The model is fitted with Tension/Compression (TC) SMA devices. The performance of the SMA recentering device is evaluated for a set of near-field and far-field ground motions. Critical performance measures of the analysis include residual displacements, interstory drift and acceleration (horizontal and vertical) for different types of ground motions. The results show that the TC device's performance is unaffected by the type of ground motion. The analysis also shows that the inclusion of the device in the lateral force resisting system of the building resulted in a 50% decrease in peak horizontal displacement, and inter-story drift elimination of residual deformations, acceleration was increased up to 110%.

  13. Effects of Aircast brace and elastic bandage on physical performance of athletes after ankle injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Gunay, Sevtap; Karaduman, Ayse; Ozturk, Burcu Bahar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of using Aircast® orthosis and elastic bandage application on the physical performance of athletes with ankle injuries. Methods: The study included 60 elite male football players with ankle injuries. Ankle range of motion on the sagittal and frontal plane was measured. One maximum repetition test for the tibialis anterior, tibialis posterior and peroneal muscles; fingertip rise test, single- and double-feet vertical jump tests and...

  14. The Effect of Hip Bracing on Gait in Patients with Medial Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wallace

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Impaired hip motion has been associated with heightened medial knee joint loading in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA. A hip external rotation strap designed to pull the femur into external rotation and abduction may serve as one protective mechanism. The primary aim of our study is to determine if the strap decreases medial knee joint loading during level walking in people with knee OA. Design. This study is a single-day repeated measures design. Methods. 15 volunteers with medial knee OA underwent motion analysis data collection during two randomly assigned walking conditions: (1 wearing the strap and (2 control (no strap. Primary outcome measures were peak pelvis, hip and knee joint motions, and torques. These outcomes were averaged across five trials for each condition. Results. Hip abduction (<0.01, trunk lean towards the stance limb (=0.04 and pelvic tilt (=0.02 significantly increased with the strap versus control trials. Knee adduction loading did not significantly change with the strap (=0.33. Conclusion. The use of the hip external rotation strap resulted in angular changes at the hip and pelvis which may be beneficial for patients with medial knee osteoarthritis.

  15. Finite Element Analysis of Wall Deflection And Ground Movements Caused by Braced Excavations

    OpenAIRE

    Kung, Gordon Tung-Chin

    2010-01-01

    To accurately predict excavation-induced ground movements is a complicated but essential task in a routine excavation design for achieving the goal to prevent the damage to buildings adjacent to excavation. Use of numerical methods, such as the finite element method, to predict the ground movements caused by excavation is advantageous due to the stress and strain of the retention system and ground can be provided in the numerical analysis. The analysis results show that the capability of the ...

  16. Application of Cubic Spline in the Implementation of Braces for the Case of a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmin Sham Rambely

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Orthodontic teeth movement is influenced by the characteristics of the applied force, including its magnitude and direction which normally based on the shape of ellipsoid, parabolic and U-shape that are symmetry. However, this will affect the movement of the whole set of tooth. Approach: This study intends to compare the form of general teeth with another method called cubic spline to get a minimum error in presenting the general form of teeth. Cubic spline method is applied in a mathematical model of a child’s teeth, which is produced through resignation of orthodontic wires. It is also meant to create a clear view towards the true nature of orthodontic wires. Results: Based on mathematical characteristics in the spline and the real data of a teeth’s model, cubic spline shows to be very useful in reflecting the shape of a curve because the dots chosen are not totally symmetry. Conclusion/Recommendation: Therefore, symmetrical curve can be produced in teeth’s shape which is basically asymmetry.

  17. Synthesis ofN-(2-chloro-5-methylthiophenyl)-N'-(3-methyl-thiophenyl)-N'-[3H3]methylguanidine, l brace [3H3]CNS-5161 r brace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Andrew R.; Morimoto, Hiromi; VanBrocklin, Henry F.; Williams, Philip G.; Biegon, Anat

    2001-09-28

    The preparation of the title compound, [{sup 3}H{sub 3}]CNS-5161, was accomplished in three steps starting with the production of [{sup 3}H{sub 3}]iodomethane (CT{sub 3}I). The intermediate N-[{sup 3}H{sub 3}]methyl-3-(thiomethylphenyl)cyanamide was prepared in 77% yield by the addition of CT{sub 3}I to 3-(thiomethylphenyl)cyanamide, previously treated with sodium hydride. Reaction of this tritiated intermediate with 2-chloro-5-thiomethylaniline hydrochloride formed the guanidine compound [{sup 3}H{sub 3}]CNS-5161. Purification by HPLC gave the desired labeled product in an overall yield of 9% with greater than 96% radiochemical purity and a final specific activity of 66 Ci mmol{sup -1}.

  18. Volumetric properties of room temperature ionic liquid 1. The system of {l_brace}1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium ethyl sulfate+water{r_brace} at temperature in the range (278.15 to 333.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Xingmei [Department of Chemistry, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China); Department of Chemistry, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Xu Weiguo [Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Science, Xining 810008 (China); Gui Jinsong [Department of Chemistry, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China); Li Huawei [Department of Chemistry, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China); Yang Jiazhen [Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Science, Xining 810008 (China)]. E-mail: jzyanglnu@yahoo.com.cn

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports densities of aqueous solutions of ionic liquid (IL) 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium ethyl sulfate (EMISE) that were measured gravimetrically at temperatures (278.15 to 333.15) K. The values of the apparent molar volume, {sup {phi}}V{sub B} and partial molar volume, V-bar B, were determined and apparent molar expansibilities {sup {phi}}E=(({partial_derivative}{phi}{sub B})/{partial_derivative}T)){sub p} of EMISE and the coefficients of thermal expansion of the solutions, {alpha}, were calculated. The values of the apparent molar volume, {sup {phi}}V{sub B}, were fitted by the method of least-squares to a Pitzer's equation to determine the parameters, {beta}{sub MX}{sup (0)V}, {beta}{sub MX}{sup (1)V}, and C{sub MX}{sup V}.

  19. Pushover contrastive analysis of linked columns braced with K-eccentrically braced steel structures%连柱支撑与K形偏心支撑钢结构的Pushover对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    为了研究连柱支撑钢结构的抗震性能,对该结构进行了Pushover分析,并与K形偏心支撑钢结构进行了对比.分析了两组结构的塑性铰发展过程、顶点位移与基底剪力曲线、耗能段剪切变形及结构层剪力分布.分析结果表明:连柱支撑钢结构耗能段的塑性铰首先出现在结构的2~5层,最后整个结构的耗能段均进入塑性耗能,塑性铰分布合理,K形偏心支撑钢结构的塑性铰主要出现在结构下部,结构上部耗能段处在弹性阶段,耗能不够充分;达到控制加载位移时,连柱支撑钢结构仍可继续承载耗能,K形偏心支撑钢结构则不适于继续加载;Pushover加载过程中,连柱支撑钢结构层间位移角满足建筑抗震设计规范要求,K形偏心支撑钢结构层间位移角已超出要求;连柱支撑结构的耗能段转角除底层外,其余层耗能段的转角几乎相同,而K形偏心支撑钢结构耗能段转角沿层高方向相差较大.分析表明,连柱支撑钢结构抗震性能优于K形偏心支撑钢结构.

  20. Key findings from HSC's 2010 site visits: health care markets weather economic downturn, brace for health reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felland, Laurie E; Grossman, Joy M; Tu, Ha T

    2011-05-01

    Lingering fallout--loss of jobs and employer coverage--from the great recession slowed demand for health care services but did little to slow aggressive competition by dominant hospital systems for well-insured patients, according to key findings from the Center for Studying Health System Change's (HSC) 2010 site visits to 12 nationally representative metropolitan communities. Hospitals with significant market clout continued to command high payment rate increases from private insurers, and tighter hospital-physician alignment heightened concerns about growing provider market power. High and rising premiums led to increasing employer adoption of consumer-driven health plans and continued increases in patient cost sharing, but the broader movement to educate and engage consumers in care decisions did not keep pace. State and local budget deficits led to some funding cuts for safety net providers, but an influx of federal stimulus funds increased support to community health centers and shored up Medicaid programs, allowing many people who lost private insurance because of job losses to remain covered. Hospitals, physicians and insurers generally viewed health reform coverage expansions favorably, but all worried about protecting revenues as reform requirements phase in. PMID:21614861

  1. Neutron diffraction method towards residual stress on stiffener-web- flange joint of eccentrically braced frame (EBF) link element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research focused on the experimental study on the residual stress resulted from the welding process in and around k area stiffener joint, web and flange plates of link element. The measurement was done with the Neutron Diffraction Method using the Neutron Diffractometer DN1-M PSTBM BATAN. A number of 15 points with 45 measurement directions were conducted on the k area in normal, transversal and longitudinal directions. The result of the experiment showed 185 Mpa and 160 Mpa residual stress magnitude in longitudinal and transversal directions in the same directions with the weld toe welding between the web and flange with the extent of the stress region 8 times of the flange thickness. The perpendicular welding of the weld toe resulted in 162 Mpa and 145 Mpa residual stress in longitudinal and transversal directions with 4 times of the extent of stress region from the flange thickness. The residual stress magnitude and the width of stress region indicated the k area as a vulnerable area to the initial crack occurrence which may decrease the link performance. Creating a welding gap 4 to 5 times of the flange between the stiffener and the flange may increase the link performance because it may minimize the residual stress magnitude and distribution.

  2. Prevalence of phocine distemper virus specific antibodies: bracing for the next seal epizootic in north-western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Bodewes, Rogier; Morick, Danny; van de Bildt, Marco WG; Osinga, Nynke; Rubio García, Ana; Sánchez Contreras, Guillermo J; Smits, Saskia L.; Reperant, Leslie AP; Kuiken, Thijs; Osterhaus, Albert DME

    2013-01-01

    In 1988 and 2002, two major phocine distemper virus (PDV) outbreaks occurred in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in north-western European coastal waters, causing the death of tens of thousands seals. Here we investigated whether PDV is still circulating among seals of the Dutch coastal waters and whether seals have protective serum-antibodies against PDV. Therefore seal serum samples, collected from 2002 to 2012, were tested for the presence of PDV-neutralizing antibodies. Antibodies were dete...

  3. Sources of propionate for the biogenesis of ethyl-braced insect juvenile hormones: role of isoleucine and valine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brindle, P.A.; Baker, F.C.; Tsai, L.W.; Reuter, C.C.; Schooley, D.A.

    1987-11-01

    Corpora allata from adult female Manduca sexta biosynthesis the sesquiterpenoid juvenile hormone (JH) III and the unusual ethyl-branched homologue JH II in vitro. The authors maintained corpora allata in medium 199 using (methyl-/sup 3/H)methionine as the source of the JH methyl ester moiety and as a mass marker. This allowed measurement of the relative contributions of /sup 14/C-labeled precursors to the biogenesis of JH II and III carbon skeletons. They showed efficient incorporation of a propionate equivalent, from isoleucine or valine catabolism, into the ethyl-branched portion of JH II, using double-label liquid scintillation counting of isolated JHs and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring of JH deuteromethoxyhydrin derivatives. Methionine was a poor source of propionate for JH II biosynthesis, while glucose, succinate, threonine, and ..beta..-alanine did not contribute propionate at all. Leucine, isoleucine, and glucose incorporated into JH III and the acetate-derivative portion of JH II.

  4. A simple bracing technique to correct kinking of arterial branches to avoid ischemic sequelae during neurovascular surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Motoyama

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The insertion of prostheses with fibrin glue into the crotch of a kinked artery for repair is considered a simple and useful method for correcting a kinked artery that avoids ischemic sequelae.

  5. Stability and minimum lateral bracing for stepped columns with semi-rigid connections including shear effects: ii) verification and examples

    OpenAIRE

    Aristizabal-Ochoa, Jose Dario

    2012-01-01

    The elastic stability analysis of single-stepped columns with sidesway totally inhibited, partially inhibited, and uninhibited subjected to concentrated axial loads located at the ends and at the intermediate joint including semi-rigid connections and shear force effects are presented using three different approaches in a companion paper. The first two approaches are those by Engesser and Haringx that include the shear component of the applied axial force proportional to the total slope (dy/d...

  6. Pushover Analysis of the Buckling-restrained Brace Frame%防屈曲支撑结构的Pushover分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红梅

    2008-01-01

    对结构进行弹塑性静力分析代替复杂的时程分析,采用了静力弹塑性方法对防屈曲支撑框架进行Pushover研究,揭示了防屈曲支撑结构从屈服到达到极限状态时,结构的整个破坏过程及塑性铰出现的顺序与规律.

  7. Do Laterally Wedged Insoles or Valgus Braces Unload the Medial Compartment of the Knee in Patients With Osteoarthritis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Duivenvoorden (Tijs); T.M. van Raaij (Tom); H.L.D. Horemans (Herwin); R.W. Brouwer (Reinoud); P.K. Bos (Koen); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); M. Reijman (Max)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The results of conservative treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA) are generally evaluated in epidemiological studies with clinical outcome measures as primary outcomes. Biomechanical evaluation of orthoses shows that there are potentially beneficial biomechanical changes to j

  8. Physical exercises in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis at risk of brace treatment – SOSORT consensus paper 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grivas Theodoros B

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on a recognized need for research to examine the premise that nonsurgical approaches can be used effectively to treat signs and symptoms of scoliosis, a scientific society on scoliosis orthopaedic and rehabilitation treatment (SOSORT was established in Barcelona in 2004. SOSORT has a primary goal of implementing multidisciplinary research to develop quantitative, objective data to address the role of conservative therapies in the treatment of scoliosis. This international working group of clinicians and scientists specializing in treatment of scoliosis met in Milan, Italy in January 2005. Methods As a baseline for developing a consensus for language and goals for proposed multicenter clinical studies, we developed questionnaires to examine current beliefs, before and after the meeting, regarding (1 the aims of physical exercises; (2 standards of treatment; and (3 the impact of such treatment performed by specialists in the field. Results The responses to the questionnaires show that, in principle, specialists in scoliosis physiotherapy do not disagree and that several features can be regarded, currently, as standard features in the rehabilitation of scoliosis patients. These features include autocorrection in 3D, training in ADL, stabilizing the corrected posture, and patient education.

  9. Disorder and the quantum critical point in UCu{sub 5-x}Pd{sub x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, R.; Freeman, E.J.; Maple, M.B. [Department of Physics and Institute for Pure and Applied Physical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Aronson, M.C. [Harrison M. Randall Laboratory of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2000-05-22

    We have measured the magnetization of UCu{sub 5-x}Pd{sub x} (x=0.7, 1, 1.5, 2) in fields H as large as 30 T and for temperatures between 1.4 K and 150 K. A composition- and temperature-dependent characteristic field {l_brace}H{r_brace}*({l_brace}x{r_brace},{l_brace}T{r_brace}) is identified, which separates two different non-Fermi liquid scaling regimes, present even in zero field. For {l_brace}H{r_brace} {>=}{l_brace}H{r_brace}*({l_brace}x{r_brace},{l_brace}T{r_brace}), composition-independent scaling is found, while for {l_brace}H{r_brace}{<=}{l_brace}H{r_brace}*({l_brace}x{r_brace},{l_brace}T{r_brace}), different exponents are found for each composition. This second phase is centred in temperature and composition around the x=1,T=0 critical point, and we argue that it is consistent with the presence of a Griffiths phase. (author)

  10. The evolution of recrystallization texture in IF steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y.B. [Sunchon National Univ., Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Sunchon (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of); Lee, D.N. [Seoul National Univ., Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering, Seoul (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of); Gottstein, G. [Institut fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik, RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    During annealing of Ti/Nb-bearing interstitial free (IF) steel, the main components {l_brace}112{r_brace}<110> and {l_brace}225{r_brace}<110> of the cold rolling textures changed to the {l_brace}567{r_brace}<943> and {l_brace}322{r_brace}<274> recrystallized components, respectively. The texture changes have been discussed based on a model in which the absolute maximum principal stress direction in deformed grains becomes the minimum elastic modulus direction in recrystallized grains. (au).

  11. Bulk Nanolayered Composites: Interfacial Influence on Microstructural Evolution at Large Plastic Strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mara, Nathan A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carpenter, John S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Han, Weizhong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zheng, Shijian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; McCabe, Rodney J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Jian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Beyerlein, Irene J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-31

    Conclusions are: (1) As-processed ARB material has similar morphology, chemistry as PVD, but different interfacial structure; (2) Density of interfaces AND interfacial structure play a role in determining hardness, an example is twinning in Cu at the {l_brace}112{r_brace}Cu//{l_brace}112{r_brace}Nb interface and higher strength, no twinning in Cu in the {l_brace}111{r_brace}Cu//{l_brace}110{r_brace}Nb interface; and (3) Need to understand effects of processing history to predict the effects on the interfaces we produce - Amount of strain, Strain Path, Annealing.

  12. 激光快速成形支撑框的精密加工技术研究%Precision Machining Research of Laser Rapid Prototyping Braced Frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志刚; 江希龙

    2013-01-01

    针对激光快速成形的钛合金产品会出现“鱼鳞状”波纹表面、一般机械加工手段不易去除的难题,析钛合金材料特性和激光快速成形的原理及过程,总结激光快速成形典型零件支撑框生产过程中的加工经验,采取了针对艺措施及合理的工艺流程,并结合材料特性选用了合理的加工方法。通过对慢走丝线切割等精密加工技术的研究和应用,解决了去除激光快速成形产品“鱼鳞状”波纹表面的难题。。%The paper is aimed at the poser that the general technical process and machining methods can’t remove the fish scale-shaped corrugated surface of the titanium alloy products generated by laser rapid prototyping easily. By analyzing the material characters of titanium alloy together with the principles and process of laser rapid prototyping, the paper summarizes the process experience of the procedure of typical component that supporting-frame is generated by laser rapid prototyping. And the paper adopts individualized processing measures and reasonable processing flows,chooses reasonable machining methods with material characters. Through the research and appliance of the slow-feeding wire-cutting and other manufacturing technology, the paper resolves the poser to remove the fish scale-shaped corrugated surface of the titanium alloy products generated by laser rapid prototyping.

  13. The Patella Pro study — effect of a knee brace on patellofemoral pain syndrome: design of a randomized clinical trial (DRKS-ID:DRKS00003291)

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Wolf; Ellermann, Andree; Rembitzki, Ingo Volker; Scheffler, Sven; Herbort, Mirco; Sprenker, Frederike Sophie; Achtnich, Andrea; Brüggemann, Gert Peter; Best, Raymond; Hoffmann, Frank [Hrsg.; Koppenburg, Andreas Gösele; Liebau, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Background Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is a frequent cause of anterior knee pain predominantly affecting young female patients who do not have significant chondral damage. Development of PFPS is probably multifactorial, involving various knee, hip, and foot kinematic factors. Biomechanical studies have described patellar maltracking and dynamic valgus (functional malalignment) in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. The literature provides evidence for short-term use of nonster...

  14. The glycine brace: a component of Rab, Rho, and Ran GTPases associated with hinge regions of guanine- and phosphate-binding loops

    OpenAIRE

    Neuwald Andrew F

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Ras-like GTPases function as on-off switches in intracellular signalling pathways and include the Rab, Rho/Rac, Ran, Ras, Arf, Sar and Gα families. How these families have evolutionarily diverged from each other at the sequence level provides clues to underlying mechanisms associated with their functional specialization. Results Bayesian analysis of divergent patterns within a multiple alignment of Ras-like GTPase sequences identifies a structural component, termed here th...

  15. On the evolutionary conservation of hydrogen bonds made by buried polar amino acids: the hidden joists, braces and trusses of protein architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worth Catherine L

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hydrogen bond patterns between mainchain atoms in protein structures not only give rise to regular secondary structures but also satisfy mainchain hydrogen bond potential. However, not all mainchain atoms can be satisfied through hydrogen bond interactions that arise in regular secondary structures; in some locations sidechain-to-mainchain hydrogen bonds are required to provide polar group satisfaction. Buried polar residues that are hydrogen-bonded to mainchain amide atoms tend to be highly conserved within protein families, confirming that mainchain architecture is a critical restraint on the evolution of proteins. We have investigated the stabilizing roles of buried polar sidechains on the backbones of protein structures by performing an analysis of solvent inaccessible residues that are entirely conserved within protein families and superfamilies and hydrogen bonded to an equivalent mainchain atom in each family member. Results We show that polar and sometimes charged sidechains form hydrogen bonds to mainchain atoms in the cores of proteins in a manner that has been conserved in evolution. Although particular motifs have previously been identified where buried polar residues have conserved roles in stabilizing protein structure, for example in helix capping, we demonstrate that such interactions occur in a range of architectures and highlight those polar amino acid types that fulfil these roles. We show that these buried polar residues often span elements of secondary structure and provide stabilizing interactions of the overall protein architecture. Conclusions Conservation of buried polar residues and the hydrogen-bond interactions that they form implies an important role for maintaining protein structure, contributing strong restraints on amino acid substitutions during divergent protein evolution. Our analysis sheds light on the important stabilizing roles of these residues in protein architecture and provides further insight into factors influencing the evolution of protein families and superfamilies.

  16. Treatment of the humeral shaft fractures - minimally invasive osteosynthesis with bridge plate versus conservative treatment with functional brace: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Matsunaga, Fabio T; Tamaoki, Marcel J S; Matsumoto, Marcelo H; dos Santos, João B G; Faloppa, Flavio; Belloti, João C

    2013-01-01

    Background Humeral shaft fractures account for 1 to 3% of all fractures in adults and for 20% of all humeral fractures. Non-operative treatment is still the standard treatment of isolated humeral shaft fractures, although this method can present unsatisfactory results. Surgical treatment is reserved for specific conditions. Modern concepts of internal fixation of long bone shaft fractures advocate relative stabilisation techniques with no harm to fracture zone. Recently described, minimally i...

  17. Labelling of glycerolipids in the cotyledons of developing oilseeds by [1-14C] acetate and brace2-3H] glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3-sn-Phosphatidylcholine was identified as the major lipid in cotyledons from the developing seeds of soya bean, linseed and safflower when tissue was steamed before lipid extraction. Incubation for up to 3h changed the composition of this lipid and of diacylglycerol. Labelling studies, including pulse-chase experiments, were carried out with [1-14C] acetate and [2-3H] glycerol supplied to detached cotyledons. The results suggest a rapid turnover of 3-sn-phosphatidylcholine during triacylglycerol accumu-lation in developing oilseeds, and are consistent with the operation of a biosynthetic route whereby oleate initially esterified to the phospholipid is first desaturated, then polyunsaturated fatty acids transferred to triacylglycerol, via diacylglycerol. The possible role of oleoyl phosphatidylcholine as a substrate for oleate desaturation is discussed. (author)

  18. 受压支撑屈曲后剩余承载能力探讨%DISCUSSION ON THE REMAINING BEARING CAPACITY OF COMPRESSIVE BRACES AFTER BUCKLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊芬; 顾强; 万红; 彭奕亮

    2011-01-01

    为考察受压支撑屈曲之后的剩余承载力,按照受压支撑屈曲之后还有70%剩余承载能力的假设,设计了一缩尺人字形中心支撑钢框架试件,并进行了推覆试验研究,在经历相当于结构高度1/30的顶点位移变形下,横梁并未出现明显破坏.然后分别采用SAP和ANSYS有限元程序对试验进行有限元模拟,通过SAP中塑性铰的参数设置以及ANSYS中受压支撑屈曲之后轴力的提取发现,受压支撑屈曲之后的剩余承载能力约为70%.最后采用ANSYS有限元程序分别对一人字形和V形中心支撑钢框架进行大震作用下的弹塑性时程分析,通过提取大震下受压支撑屈曲之后的轴力,进一步证实了受压支撑屈曲之后的剩余承载能力约为70%.

  19. The Structural Influencing Coefficient in Eccentrically K-braced Steel Frame%K型偏心支撑钢框架的结构影响系数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王二标; 顾强

    2007-01-01

    结构在强震作用下要进入弹塑性,其地震反应与结构的延性和超强有关.结构的延性和超强能力可用结构影响系数R反映,通过对三个K型偏心支撑钢框架用Pushover方法分析得出了其结构影响系数,就所分析的三个算例而言,现行(GB50011-2001)对K型偏心支撑钢框架的水平地震作用取值偏大.

  20. Equivalent Spring Diagonal Bracing Model of the Infilled Fframe Structure%框架填充墙的等效弹簧斜撑模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周智彬; 潘志宏

    2013-01-01

    填充墙的破坏形式较为复杂,为了有效地模拟填充墙的非线性性能,在对恢复力模型研究的基础上,提出静力非线性分析方法.由于SAP2000软件中无法直接模拟填充墙的非线性性能,本文结合填充墙的破坏特征,使用LINK单元建立填充墙等效模型,通过与试验结果对比,验证了该模型的合理性.在此基础上,以某5层框架填充墙结构为算例,建立考虑填充墙和不考虑填充墙的分析模型,分别进行了模态分析和Pushover分析.分析结果表明,考虑填充墙影响的周期折减系数为0.4 ~0.5,填充墙对框架结构中塑性铰的出铰顺序、塑性铰的发展情况都会产生重要影响.

  1. Pushover analysis of plate stair diagonal brace role release%现浇板式楼梯斜撑作用释放的Pushover分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊; 沈火明

    2013-01-01

    为了研究框架结构现浇板式楼梯采用滑动支座措施释放斜撑作用后对结构抗震性能的影响,本文应用有限元软件建立6层框架结构模型,通过对“不带楼梯模型”、“带楼梯模型”、“带采用滑动支座楼梯模型”进行静力推覆(Pushover)分析,对比了罕遇地震作用下三种结构的地震效应,并研究“带采用滑动支座楼梯模型”的屈服机制.研究表明:采用滑动支座措施释放斜撑作用,避免楼梯成为第一道防线,可以减少结构顺梯段板方向的抗侧刚度,减少地震作用力效应,减少配筋;但可能造成结构变柔,层间位移过大;罕遇地震下,梯柱下端,以及与框架柱相连的平台梁端都易出现塑性铰,导致楼梯整体稳定性得不到保证,为此提出增强楼梯间整体稳定性的构造措施.

  2. 三种支撑钢框架性能的比较分析%Comparative Analysis of Three Types of Steel Braced Frames

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉小萍; 董军

    2008-01-01

    基于Pushover方法,分析了K形偏心支撑、Y形偏心支撑、Y形隅撑支撑等三种支撑钢框架耗能梁段长度和截面刚度对结构抗震性能的影响,从刚度、延性和耗能三方面比较了三种支撑钢框架的结构性能.结果表明,在合理设计的情况下,Y形隅撑支撑钢框架可同时达到最好的刚度和延性;K形偏心支撑钢框架耗能最好;Y形偏心支撑钢框架的刚度和耗能最差,延性介于前两者之间.

  3. Structural Influencing Coefficient of Concentrically X-braced Steel Frame%X型中心支撑钢框架的结构影响系数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余翔; 顾强

    2007-01-01

    不同结构体系的设计地震作用与结构影响系数有关.结构影响系数的取值与结构延性、强度储备有关.基于《建筑抗震设计规范》(GB50011-2001),设计了三个X型中心支撑钢框架,采用Pushover方法,得出了其结构影响系数.仅就上面的算例而言,抗震设计规范对X型中心支撑钢框架水平地震作用的取值偏大.

  4. Design of Steel Braced Frame Structure%某中心支撑钢框架主厂房结构方案分析比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张付可; 宁志刚; 蒋小蓉

    2007-01-01

    某钢铁厂炼铁系统中喷煤主厂房的二期工程受现场条件及工艺布置要求的限制,结构平、立面布置及各层平台的设备荷载分布均存在较大的不规则性.基于不同方案的对比分析,采用中心支撑钢框架结构方案.用Pushover分析方法对拟定方案在罕遇地震作用下的抗震性能进行了补充验算,校核了方案的合理程度,并针对薄弱部位采取了相应的加强措施.

  5. The Structural Influencing Coefficient of Concentrically V-braced Frame%V型中心支撑钢框架的结构影响系数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王栉枫; 何若全

    2007-01-01

    不同结构体系的设计地震作用与结构影响系数有关.结构影响系数取决于结构延性、强度储备等.基于《建筑抗震设计规范》(GB50011-2001),设计了3个V型中心支撑钢框架,采用Pushover方法,得出了其结构影响系数.对在设防烈度下,中心支撑钢框架水平地震作用的取值提出了建议.

  6. Pushover analysis of pre-stress-mega-braced steel frame structures%预应力巨型支撑-钢框架结构的Pushover分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福星; 郭君渊; 王祎; 唐柏鉴

    2015-01-01

    采用Pushover分析方法,从底部剪力、破坏模式和抗震性能方面,研究在两种典型水平荷载模式下,预应力巨型支撑-钢框架结构的非线性性能.结果表明:结构在均布荷载模式下的极限荷载比倒三角模式下的大;两种水平荷载模式下,结构破坏模式相似,首先是下部楼层梁屈服,当较多水平梁屈服后柱出现屈服,极限状态时拉索才会出现屈服;经过抗风抗震弹性设计的预应力巨型支撑-钢框架结构,弹塑性抗震性能满足规范要求.

  7. 隅撑支撑钢框架结构抗震性能分析%Analysis on anti - earthquake performances of knee bracing steel frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史三元; 刘春生; 马裕超; 韩亚强

    2009-01-01

    采用pushover方法对单角隅撑支撑钢框架在三种罕遇地震烈度下的抗震性能进行分析,得出该结构在不同罕遇地震作用下的破坏模式及抗震性能点,并对其抗震性能进行评定:该结构在地震作用下塑性铰依次出现在隅撑、斜支撑及框架梁上,从而可以消耗大量的地震能量.同时避免了框架柱遭受破坏,符合"强柱弱梁"的设计要求.

  8. K形中心支撑钢框架的结构影响系数%Structural Influence Factors of Concentrically K-braced Steel Frames

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙广璟; 何若全

    2007-01-01

    通过对K形中心支撑钢框架的pushover分析,考虑不同层数对结构影响系数的影响,对6、9、12层中心支撑钢框架进行了分析,得出在不同层数下的结构影响系数,为结构影响系数的取值提供参考.

  9. THE PUSHOVER ANALYSIS OF MEGA STEEL FRAME-CABLE BRACING STRUCTURE%巨型钢框架-拉索支撑体系的Pushover分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐柏鉴; 彭小龙; 邵建华

    2013-01-01

    为研究新型结构巨型钢框架-拉索支撑体系的破坏模式及其抗震性能,分别采用倒三角形和均布荷载两种水平荷载加载方式,进行Pushover推覆分析.研究表明:在达到水平极限状态时,倒三角形加载模式比均匀分布加载模式出现破坏层数相对高一些,两种水平荷载加载方式的破坏模式基本一致.构件破坏先后顺序为柱肢间支撑、巨型梁腹杆、楼层梁、巨型梁弦杆、柱肢.拉索退出工作的时间越早,则同一层中另一侧拉索拉力增加的速度越快.8度多遇地震作用下,结构处于弹性状态;8度罕遇地震下,结构部分构件进入塑性状态;层间位移均满足抗震规范要求.

  10. Metabolism of [14C] terbutryn brace2-(t-butylamino)-4-(ethylamino)-6-(methylthio)-s-triazine by rats and goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen metabolites of terbutryn were isolated from the urine and feces of either rats or a goat given single oral doses of terbutryn-[14C] [2-(t-butylamino)-4-(ethylamino)-6-(methylthio)-s-triazine]. The metabolites resulted from one or more of the following changes: S-demethylation, conversion of the methylthio group to a hydroxy group; N-deethylation; oxidation of the terminal carbon of the ethyl group to a carboxylic acid; oxidation of a terminal carbon of the t-butyl group to either an alcohol or a carboxylic acid; or conjugation with glucuronic acid. (author)

  11. The effect of taping versus semi-rigid bracing on patient outcome and satisfaction in ankle sprains: A prospective, randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Lardenoye (Sacha); E. Theunissen (Ed); B.I. Cleffken (Berry); P.R. Brink (Peter Rg); R.A. de Bie (Robert); H. Poeze

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Functional treatment is a widely used and generally accepted treatment for ankle sprain. A meta-analysis comparing the different functional treatment options could not make definitive conclusions regarding the effectiveness, and until now, little was known about patient satis

  12. Inhomogeneity of texture, particle precipitation and grain size under recrystallization of Al-Mg, Al-Mg-Li and Al-Mg-Sc ALLOYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betsofen, S.Ya.; Lapin, A.L. [MATI - Russian State Technology Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    The X-ray rocking curve method (RCM) was used to characterize microstructure and texture of Al and alloys: Al-Mg (AMg6) and Al-Mg-Li (1420), Al- Mg-Sc (1570) after cold rolling to a 8-70% reduction in thickness, and then annealing at 300-500 C. The fractions of recrystallized grains with {l_brace}111{r_brace}, {l_brace}100{r_brace}, {l_brace}113{r_brace} and {l_brace}110{r_brace} orientation in the sheet plane and its distribution on the sizes was measured by a RCM. For these alloys a grains with orientation of {l_brace}111{r_brace} and {l_brace}100{r_brace} grow much faster than grains {l_brace}113{r_brace} and particularly {l_brace}110{r_brace}. In an alloy 1420 at 300-400 C continuous recrystallization takes place with fine grains and weakening rolling texture. (orig.)

  13. Grain growth in nanocrystalline Ni-20%Fe alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y.B.; Park, J.; Kim, S.S. [Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Sunchon National Univ., Sunchon (Korea); Yim, T.H. [Materials Process Technology R and D Center, Korea Inst. of Industrial Technology, Chonan (Korea)

    2001-07-01

    Grain growth was investigated in a nanocrystalline Ni-20wt-%Fe alloy fabricated by an electrodeposition method, and its effect on the texture evolution was examined. The as-deposited specimens revealed a strong {l_brace}100{r_brace} and a weak {l_brace}111{r_brace} fibre-type textures. Grain growth in the material occurred on annealing beyond 370 C and resulted in the texture change that the {l_brace}111{r_brace} fibre strongly developed at the expense of the {l_brace}100{r_brace} fibre. It was observed using orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) that the {l_brace}111{r_brace} grains are much coarser than other oriented grains in the early stages of grain growth. The relationship between the texture evolution and the microstructural change accompanied by grain growth is interpreted and discussed in terms of the orientation dependency of grain growth. (orig.)

  14. Modelling (vapour + liquid) and (vapour + liquid + liquid) equilibria of {l_brace}water (H{sub 2}O) + methanol (MeOH) + dimethyl ether (DME) + carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}){r_brace} quaternary system using the Peng-Robinson EoS with Wong-Sandler mixing rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Kongmeng [Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems, Sandtorstr. 1, D-39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Freund, Hannsjoerg, E-mail: freund@mpi-magdeburg.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems, Sandtorstr. 1, D-39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Sundmacher, Kai [Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems, Sandtorstr. 1, D-39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Process Systems Engineering, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Universitaetsplatz 2, D-39106 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > Phase behaviour modelling of H{sub 2}O-MeOH-DME under pressurized CO{sub 2} (anti-solvent) using PRWS. > PRWS-UNIFAC-PSRK has better performance than PRWS-UNIFAC-Lby in general. > Reliable to extend the VLE and VLLE phase behaviour from binary to multicomponent systems. > Successful prediction of the VLE and VLLE of binary, ternary, and quaternary systems. > Potential to apply the model for designing new DME separation process. - Abstract: The (vapour + liquid) equilibria (VLE) and (vapour + liquid + liquid) equilibria (VLLE) binary data from literature were correlated using the Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EoS) with the Wong-Sandler mixing rule (WS). Two group contribution activity models were used in the PRWS: UNIFAC-PSRK and UNIFAC-Lby. The systems were successfully extrapolated from the binary systems to ternary and quaternary systems. Results indicate that the PRWS-UNIFAC-PSRK generally displays a better performance than the PRWS-UNIFAC-Lby.

  15. Seismic retrofitting of reinforced concrete frame and concentric braced steel buildings with dissipative bracings%采用耗能支撑对钢筋混凝土框架和中心支撑钢结构房屋的抗震加固

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bergami A.V.; 刘栩; 周志浩; Nuti C.

    2014-01-01

    研究了如何通过被动耗能方式对既有框架进行抗震加固.提出了一个基于能力谱和位移控制的迭代设计流程,并结合既有中心支撑钢框架结构讨论了该设计流程在实际应用中的有效性.该设计流程能够用于基于不同性能目标、采用任何类型的耗能装置进行抗震加固.在加固时采用的屈曲约束支撑用来防止结构构件和非结构构件的破坏.采用了传统的单模态Pushover分析(荷载和第一阶模态成正比)和多模态Pushover分析对既有框架结构的抗震加固进行分析.分析发现,对于中高层框架混凝土结构房屋(30m以上),耗能支撑设计过程中采用多模态Pushover分析比单模态Pushover分析结果更有效;然而采用屈曲约束支撑进行抗震加固后,房屋刚度变得规则,此时单模态Pushover分析和多模态Pushover分析得到的结果差别不大.

  16. Going to the Orthodontist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to have his braces checked. One day the dentist told Lamar's mom that Lamar should see an ... say: or-thoh-DONtist) is a type of dentist. Using braces, retainers , and other devices, an orthodontist ...

  17. ACL reconstruction - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the brace yourself. Ask your provider or physical therapist about sleeping without the brace and removing it ... activity and movement while your knee mends. Your physical therapist will give you an exercise program to help ...

  18. Lattice mismatch and crystal growth of monoclinic KY{sub 1-x}Yb{sub x}(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}/KY (WO{sub 4}){sub 2} layers by liquid phase epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre, O; Aznar, A; Sole, R; Pujol, M C; Diaz, F; Aguilo, M [Fisica i Cristallografia de Materials (FiCMA), Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV), Campus Sescelades c/Marcel-Ii Domingo, s/n, E-43007-Tarragona (Spain)], E-mail: magdalena.aguilo@urv.cat

    2008-06-04

    Monoclinic layers of KY{sub 1-x}Yb{sub x}(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} with a thickness of up to 330 {mu}m were grown on KY (WO{sub 4}){sub 2} substrates by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) using K{sub 2}W{sub 2}O{sub 7} solvent. The layers grown from solutions of up to 7.5 at.% substitution of Y by Yb generally had flat surfaces on {l_brace}010{r_brace} and {l_brace}110{r_brace} crystal faces with no macroscopic defects at the layer/substrate interface. Already at 10 at.% of Yb substituting Y, some defects at the interface tend to appear and increase for higher concentrations. The layers grown on {l_brace}310{r_brace} and {l_brace}111{r_brace} faces show more growth instabilities even at low Yb concentrations. The thermal evolutions of the lattice mismatches between the epilayer and the substrate for {l_brace}110{r_brace}, {l_brace}110{r_brace}, {l_brace}310{r_brace} and {l_brace}111{r_brace} faces were calculated to range from 0.55% at 1273 K to -0.31% at 298 K. The optical spectroscopic studies carried out with these samples agree well with Yb-doped KYW bulk crystals, the measured absorption and calculated (by the reciprocity method) emission cross-sections at 981 nm with E II N{sub m} being {sigma}{sub abs} = 12.5 x 10{sup -20} cm{sup 2} and {sigma}{sub em} = 15.8 x 10{sup -20} cm{sup 2}, respectively.

  19. Atomistic study of the buckling of gold nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Paer A.T., E-mail: par.olsson@mek.lth.se [Division of Mechanics, Lund University, PO Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Park, Harold S., E-mail: parkhs@bu.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    In this work, we present results from atomistic simulations of gold nanowires under axial compression, with a focus on examining the effects of both axial and surface orientation effects on the buckling behavior. This was accomplished by using molecular statics simulations while considering three different crystallographic systems: <1 0 0>/{l_brace}1 0 0{r_brace}, <1 0 0>/{l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} and <1 1 0>/{l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}{l_brace}1 0 0{r_brace}, with aspect ratios spanning from 20 to 50 and cross-sectional dimensions ranging from 2.45 to 5.91 nm. The simulations indicate that there is a deviation from the inverse square length dependence of critical forces predicted from traditional linear elastic Bernoulli-Euler and Timoshenko beam theories, where the nature of the deviation from the perfect inverse square length behavior differs for different crystallographic systems. This variation is found to be strongly correlated to either stiffening or increased compliance of the tangential stiffness due to the influence of nonlinear elasticity, which leads to normalized critical forces that decrease with decreasing aspect ratio for the <1 0 0>/{l_brace}1 0 0{r_brace} and <1 0 0>/{l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} systems, but increase with decreasing aspect ratio for the <1 1 0>/{l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}{l_brace}1 0 0{r_brace} system. In contrast, it was found that the critical strains are all lower than their bulk counterparts, and that the critical strains decrease with decreasing cross-sectional dimensions; the lower strains may be an effect emanating from the presence of the surfaces, which are all more elastically compliant than the bulk and thus give rise to a more compliant flexural rigidity.

  20. Texture of primary recrystallization on nonoriented electrical steel sheet with phase transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumano, T.; Kubota, T.; Takahashi, N. [Nippon Steel Corp., Kitakyushyu (Japan)

    1995-08-01

    The magnetic properties of nonoriented (NO) electrical steel sheet are commonly improved if the texture of their products possesses cube texture e.g., {l_brace}100{r_brace} <0vw>, ``goss texture`` i.e., {l_brace}110{r_brace}<011>, and less {l_brace}222{r_brace} texture. Industrially ``cube type`` has not been obtained, but ``goss texture`` has been. In a greater or lesser degree, {l_brace}222{r_brace} texture exists. To improve ``goss texture`` and reduce {l_brace}222{r_brace} texture, the grain size of the material prior to cold rolling should be larger. When the grain size before cold rolling is larger, during primary recrystallization, ``goss texture`` is enriched, {l_brace}222{r_brace} texture is decreased, and the grain grows so easily that higher induction and lower core loss can be obtained. This does not depend on the presence of phase transformation. In case of NO steel with phase transformation, heat treatment before cold rolling has been done below the austenite transition temperature (Ac{sub 1}) in order to prevent the fine grain size caused by {alpha} {yields} {gamma}(+{alpha}) {yields} {alpha} transformation. By using material that was heated over Ac{sub 1} and cooled with changing cool rates, this study describes (a) the relationship between textures before cold rolling and the texture of the final product, and (b) the development of the magnetic properties.

  1. Assessing the standards of online oral hygiene instructions for patients with fixed orthodontic appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Willem A.; Livas, Christos; Delli, Konstantina; Ren, Yijin

    2015-01-01

    Background. The authors conducted this study to assess the quality of the information available on the Web about oral hygiene for patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. Methods. The authors entered the search terms "cleaning braces," " brushing braces," and "oral hygiene and braces" into Google

  2. Resonant magnetic X-ray scattering studies of heavy fermion superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaulin, B.D. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada)); Isaacs, E.D. (AT and T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ 07973 (United States)); Lussier, J.G. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada)); Reimers, J.N. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada)); Gibbs, D. (Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)); Zschack, P. (Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)); Schroeder, A. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada)); Taillefer, L. (Laboratoire Louis-Neel, CNRS, 38042, Grenoble (France)); Garrett, J.D. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada))

    1994-04-01

    The uranium-based heavy fermion superconductors which are known to display weak antiferromagnetism at low temperatures are well suited to study by the newly developed resonant magnetic X-ray scattering technique. We review recent synchrotron X-ray scattering studies of the magnetic behavior of UPd[sub 2]Al[sub 3] and URu[sub 2]Si[sub 2] and the interaction between magnetism and superconductivity in these materials. These measurements show resolution-limited magnetic Bragg peaks in UPd[sub 2]Al[sub 3] in contrast to those in URu[sub 2]Si[sub 2]. The order parameter as measured at the (0 0 [l brace]1[r brace]/[l brace]2[r brace]) magnetic reciprocal lattice position in UPd[sub 2]Al[sub 3] is different from that at (0, 0, [l brace]3[r brace]/[l brace]2[r brace]), the latter of which indicates a strong anomaly at T[sub N1] similar 11.8 K below the sharp onset of the antiferromagnetic phase at T[sub N] similar 14.5 K. Finally, the behavior of the (0 0 [l brace]1[r brace]/[l brace]2[r brace]) order parameter is smooth for T[<=]T[sub C]=2.00[+-]0.04 K. ((orig.))

  3. Application of Three-nail Head Brace in Microvascular Decompression and Intraoperative Nursing Care%三钉头架用于微血管减压术的护理配合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李轶敏; 周亚昭

    2009-01-01

    将三钉头架应用于613例行微血管减压术患者.手术过程中巡回护士协助做好微血管减压术体位摆放,稳固安置三钉头架,做好体位护理等;器械护士仔细检查三钉头架性能,确保有效使用.结果术中体位固定稳定牢固,手术顺利进行,术中无体位相关并发症发生.提出巡回、器械护士紧密配合是三钉头架固定稳定、保证手术顺利进行的重要保障.

  4. Ved人字型支撑结构体系非线性地震反应控制分析%The Control of the Earthquake Responses of Nonlinear Buildings Added Viscoelastic Damper and Λ Shape Steel Brace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏文晖; 瞿伟廉; 杨志勇

    2000-01-01

    Ved(粘弹性阻尼器)是抗震被动控制中一种十分有效的耗能减震装置.推导了粘弹性阻尼器和人字型支撑的组合层间单元刚度矩阵,并建立了在罕遇地震作用下,设置粘弹性阻尼器人字型支撑的钢筋混凝土框架结构非线性地震反应时程分析的方法.

  5. 新蜀河隧道炭质片岩变形特性与支护设计%Deformation Characteristic of Carbonaceous Rock and Bracing Design of Xinshu River Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈花顺

    2010-01-01

    介绍新蜀河隧道炭质片岩分布形态和岩性特征,分析炭质片岩变形特征.在炭质片岩地段隧道设计中,提出采用降低围岩级别与加强支护、双层支护+模筑衬砌结构、加大外墙曲率断面、咨询专家、优化断面形式及支护等措施,并对设计与施工提出建议.

  6. Clinical research on plastic teeth braces in treating sleep bruxism in special agents%塑胶牙套治疗特勤人员夜磨牙症的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马才顺; 单守勤; 郑梁; 周炜; 徐辉; 孙永春; 周明

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨塑胶牙套治疗特勤人员夜磨牙的疗效.方法 对我院2009-01-11收治的夜磨牙特勤人员95例,使用多导睡眠监测技术记录戴用牙套前与戴用2周后的磨牙事件、微觉醒次数及睡眠结构,并进行比较分析.结果 使用塑胶牙套2周后,每小时磨牙事件比治疗前明显减少,睡眠质量明显改善.结论 塑胶牙套对夜磨牙患者的牙齿磨动、睡眠结构和睡眠微觉醒均有明显效果.

  7. Discuss the Hoisting Construction Technology of Double Brace Type and Four-post Type Mine Main Headframe%双斜撑式四柱式矿井主井井架吊装施工技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙瑜; 白立涛; 丁海方

    2014-01-01

    本文结合赤峪矿井主井井架吊装实例,分析了该井架所采取的吊装方法,系统地总结了大型井架吊装施工工艺,提出了可行的技术措施以及吊装过程的安全措施,为同类工程提供了参考借鉴。%This paper presents an example of red val ey mine main headframe hoisting to analysis the hoisting method of this headframe, systematical y summarizes the large headframe hoisting construction craft, put forward the feasible technical measures and the safety measures of hoisting process to provide reference for similar projects.

  8. APPLICATION ANALYSIS AND INSTALLATION TECHNOLOGY OF COMPLICATED CAST STEEL NODE WITH MULTI-BRACE MEMBERS%复杂多支管铸钢节点应用分析及安装技术∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪晓阳; 段海; 李士杰

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:The general situation and application of complex crown-shaped cast steel node of roof applied in Shenyang Henglong Project were introduced in this paper.The operating state and stress-strain changing process under design load were investigated through finite element analysis,the process of installation and positioning at high altitude were also described in detail.The cast steel node of 350 meter-high complex heterosexual space grids may lead to extremely complicated process of high altitude lifting,positioning and calibration.The problems of high precision docking were solved by specific supports and measures as well as reasonable lifting technology.%介绍沈阳恒隆项目屋顶复杂皇冠铸钢节点的概况及应用情况,对其进行有限元分析,了解其在设计荷载作用下的工作状态及应力应变变化过程,并对其高空吊装及定位过程进行详细说明。铸钢节点处于350 m 高空复杂异型空间网架之上,其高空吊装、定位、校正过程异常复杂,通过采用特制的支撑与测量措施,并采用合理的吊装工艺,解决了高空高精度对接难题,效果良好,满足使用要求。

  9. Review of Yanomamö Interactive: The Ax Fight. Peter Biella, Napoleon A. Chagnon and Gary Seaman. Harcourt Brace and Company, 1997 [ISBN 0-15-507653-1] [CD-ROM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Banks

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available In an as yet unpublished paper on computer-assisted visual anthropology, Michael D Fischer and David Zeitlyn [1] describe a 'book model' approach to multimedia, not strictly sequenced, but essentially consisting of a main text with hyperlinks to supporting information. At first glance this CD-ROM appears to conform to this model: a dominant text, in this case a complete digitization of Tim Asch and Napoleon Chagnon's 1974 film The Ax Fight, supplemented with a variety of additional information in the form of still photographs, genealogies of the main participants, maps, diagrams, short essays and transcriptions. In short, a main text plus footnotes and appendixes. If this were so, then Yanomamö Interactive would be a valuable but rather limited product, useful really only to those aquainted with the film who wished to learn a little more about it and its content.

  10. Construction Technology of Excavation Bracing for Deep Foundation Pit of Bank of Shanghai Tower%上海银行大厦深基坑围护工程施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩爱民

    2007-01-01

    上海银行大厦深基坑施工通过技术经济比较,采用了经济合理、对围护变形控制有利的围护支撑方案.其土体加固采用了分层劈裂注浆方案,对PHC桩起到了保护作用;地墙施工采用槽壁加固的方法,解决了砂层土质槽壁稳定的困难;支撑设计避开竖向结构,采用后拆方法,加快了施工进度,对环境起到了保护作用.

  11. 美军铁路制式加固器材的种类、特点及启示%Present Situation,Traits and Enlightment of Standard Blocking and Bracing Materials for Railway Transportation of US Army

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程虹; 王康; 曾运清; 辛昕

    2011-01-01

    介绍美军几种常用的轮式和履带式装备铁路制式加固器材的种类、结构组成、使用方法以及在运输工具上所采取的技术措施,分析美军铁路制式加固器材的特点,并提出对我军的几点启示.

  12. 广西沿边金融综合改革的理论支撑及难点探讨%Study on the Theory Brace and the Difficulties for Comprehensive Financial Reform in Guangxi Border

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华

    2016-01-01

    沿边金融综合改革是推动广西科学发展的又一重大制度创新,给广西发展带来了重大机遇。文章从区域金融合作理论和制度创新理论两个方面论述了广西沿边金融综合改革的意义。从跨境人民币业务创新、拓展人民币回流机制、实现人民币资本项目可兑换等三方面,分析了广西推进沿边金融综合改革所面临的难点问题,并就如何推进广西沿边金融综合改革提出了相应的对策建议。%The border financial comprehensive reform is an important institutional innovation in promoting the sci⁃entific development of Guangxi. It has brought great opportunities for the development of Guangxi. This paper dis⁃cussed the significance of the Guangxi border finance comprehensive reform from regional financial cooperation theory and the theory of institutional innovation. It analysed the difficult points of Guangxi border financial comprehensive re⁃form from the cross-border RMB business innovation, expanding RMB back mechanism, realizing the convertibility of RMB capital Finally. This paper put forward the corresponding countermeasures and suggestions how to promote the Guangxi border financial comprehensive reform.

  13. 软黏土中某内支撑式深基坑稳定性安全系数分析%Factor of safety of a braced deep excavation in soft clay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忠超; 陈仁朋; 陈云敏; 饶猛

    2015-01-01

    The factor of safety (FS) is a very important design index for deep excavation in soft clay. The existing methods for FS mainly include the conventional methods and finite element method (FEM) based on the reduced shear strength technique. In this study, the conventional methods and reduced shear strength FEM are used forFS evaluation of a failed deep excavation in soft clay. By comparing the values ofFS of the excavation using different soil strength parameters and methods, the applicability of the analysis methods and soil strength parameters is evaluated. The research results indicate that the values of FS of the excavation calculated by the conventional methods and the reduced shear strength FEM using the total stress indexes, i.e.,su,ϕ=0, are very close to 1.0 and those from Terzaghi’s method, while the values ofFS of the excavation are much greater than 1.0 using the soil strength parametersc andϕ from triaxial tests. When the reduced shear strength FEM is applied forFS evaluation, the values ofFS obtained from the convergence criterion method are much greater than those from the intersection method. The values ofFS of the excavations using the intersection method and Terzaghi’s method are both very close to 1.0, which is consistent with the limited equilibrium state of the excavations at failure.%软黏土中深基坑稳定性安全系数是基坑设计的重要指标,目前基坑稳定性安全系数评估方法主要有传统经验公式法和有限元强度折减法。针对深厚软黏土中某倒塌内支撑式深基坑,采用传统经验公式法和有限元强度折减法对该基坑稳定性安全系数FS进行了计算分析,比较了不同土体强度指标计算结果的差异,结合其它学者的研究,对各计算方法及其所采用土体强度指标的合理性进行了评价。研究结果表明:无论是应用经验公式法还是有限元强度折减法,采用不排水抗剪强度指标su计算得到的基坑FS均比较接近1.0,而采用土体c,ϕ强度指标得到基坑FS均远大于1.0。应用有限元强度折减法时,数值计算不收敛准则相对交点法得到基坑 FS偏大。采用交点法与 Terzaghi 法得到基坑 FS最接近1.0,与基坑处于极限平衡状态事实相符。

  14. 人字支撑复合结构的合理耗能机制选择分析%THE PUSHOVER ANALYSIS AND OPTIMIZATION OF ENERGY DISSIPATION MECHANISM FOR CHEVRON BRACING COMPOUND STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新玲; 杨建中; 张(龙夭); 毕淑萍

    2007-01-01

    通过对柔性梁柱加"人字"支撑形成的一榀新型复合结构进行静力弹塑性(Pushover)分析,从理论上研究该复合结构的抗震性能,满足按9度多遇地震的抗震能力和罕遇地震的抗倒塌验算.其耗能机制为"混合机制",塑性铰出现的位置及顺序为:支撑、梁端、柱下端、柱上端.为了得到更合理的抗震耗能机制,对影响复合结构耗能机制的主要因素、底层柱刚度和配筋、底层及二层支撑的配筋进行分析,由此优化出满足"强柱、中梁、弱支撑"多道防线抗震性能要求的合理耗能机制.计算结果表明,人字支撑复合结构的水平侧移表现为剪切变形.

  15. Seismic Analysis of the Braced Frame Structure with Dampers in Power Plant%设置阻尼器的火电厂框架-支撑结构的减震性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常兆中; 周锡元; 姚德康

    2003-01-01

    用非线性静力分析方法(Pushover)对设置减震装置的火电厂框架-支撑结构进行了分析计算.结果表明安装阻尼器以后结构的抗震性能获得了明显的改善.与普通的框架-支撑结构相比,阻尼器不仅保护了钢支撑,而且也在很大程度上推迟和减少了主体结构中塑性铰的发展.

  16. Nonlinear analysis model SAP2000 for eccentrically braced steel frames with Y-links%Y形偏心支撑钢框架SAP2000非线性分析模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文侠; 李春燕; 顾强

    2010-01-01

    为研究Y形偏心支撑钢框架结构的弹塑性性能,根据剪切耗能梁段恢复力特性和钢框架的力学性能,提出符合抗震规范的耗能粱段独立剪切铰参数的定义方法,建立Y形偏心支撑钢框架SAP2000非线性塑性铰分析模型.通过3个模型试件在循环荷载下的骨架曲线和有限元分析的PUSHOVER曲线的对比,论证模型的合理性.结果表明,本文提出的改进塑性铰模型能够较为合理地反映Y形偏心支撑钢框架结构的非线性性能.

  17. 基于性能的支撑钢框架结构方案对比分析%ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURAL SCHEMES OF BRACED STEEL FRAMES BASED ON PERFORMANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉小萍; 董军

    2007-01-01

    采用Pushover能力谱法对8层钢框架建筑进行基于性能的结构方案设计,考虑偏心支撑钢框架、隅撑支撑钢框架、纯钢框架3种结构体系,对结构自振特性、层间位移角及楼层侧移变化规律、结构刚度及耗能特征以及投资-收益等进行详细对比分析.结果表明:隅撑支撑钢框架和偏心支撑钢框架具有良好的结构性能,同样性能目标下,两者的经济效益相差不大,均可比纯钢框架节省近40%的用钢量,隅撑支撑钢框架的损失期望比例最小.

  18. COMPARISON OF THREE ANTI-SEISMIC ANALYSIS METHODS OF MEGA STEEL FRAME-CABLE BRACING STRUCTURES%巨型钢框架-拉索支撑结构的三种抗震分析方法比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱佳锋; 王飞; 彭小龙

    2014-01-01

    针对新型巨型钢框架-拉索支撑结构体系的抗震性能,采用Pushover分析、振型分解反应谱分析及时程分析三种方法,分别研究典型巨型钢框架-拉索支撑结构在8度多遇地震作用下的底部剪力和层间位移角.结果表明,三种不同抗震分析方法得到的底部剪力和层间位移角最大值由小到大的顺序均为:Pushove分析、反应谱分析、时程分析.由于时程分析法能更好地反映巨型钢框架-拉索支撑结构顶部的地震作用响应,在评估其抗震性能时应作为其他两种方法的补充.

  19. Analysis on Anti-earthquake Performances of V Style Eccentric Braced Steel Frame%V型偏心支撑钢框架结构抗震性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭燕秋; 陈林; 邵莎莎; 张景丽

    2011-01-01

    采用pushover方法对V型偏心支撑钢框架在三种罕遇地震烈度下的抗震性能进行分析,得出该结构在不同罕遇地震作用下的抗震模式及结构性能点,并对其抗震性能进行评定;该结构在地震作用下塑性铰依次出现于耗能梁段和框架梁上,耗散大量的地震能量,同时避免框架柱遭受破坏,满足强柱弱梁和规范要求.

  20. 屈曲约束支撑框架Pushover分析的加载模式研究%Research on the lateral load pattern of Pushover analysis for a buckling restrained braced frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁钰; 吴京

    2010-01-01

    Pushover分析方法存在的不足主要表现在不能考虑高阶振型的影响和结构进入弹塑性状态后振型的变化2个方面.对此,文中提出了振型组合方式为完全平方组合的多段加载模式,并通过OpenSees对一个屈曲约束支撑框架结构算例进行分析,说明了采用多段加载模式计算精度明显提高.

  1. Application of Buckling Restrained Braces in Seismic Retrofitting of High-Rise Concrete Frames%防屈曲支撑在高层混凝土框架结构抗震加固中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史先进

    2016-01-01

    某十层的纯框架结构建筑检测结果表明,其弹性层间变形和弹塑性层间变形均不满足现行规范要求.采用防屈曲支撑对该结构进行了抗震加固设计,并基于SATWE软件分析了其小震下的结构性能.利用SAP2000软件,基于Pushover分析方法进行了抗震性能分析.由分析结果得知,防屈曲支撑增加了结构的抗侧刚度,增强了结构延性,改善了原结构薄弱层的抗震承载力.经防届曲支撑加固后的结构,其变形特性仍与原框架结构类似.对实际工程所采用的防屈曲支撑进行了抗震性能抽检试验,结果表明,构件力学性能与设计数据吻合良好.防屈曲支撑技术用于高层框架结构的抗震加固具有良好的技术优势.

  2. Design based on performance of applied research of several kinds braced frame systems in the steel structural building%基于性能的几种钢结构支撑框架体系应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙飞; 叶献国

    2009-01-01

    采用SAP2000(V11.0.8 Advanced C)有限元分析软件,对12层钢结构框架建筑进行基于性能的Pushover能力谱法分析,考虑了纯框架、中心支撑框架、偏心支撑框架、隅撑支撑框架4种结构体系,结果表明:相对于纯框架和中心支撑框架,偏心支撑框架和隅撑支撑框架具有更优越的力学性能和更好的经济效益,设计中宜优先考虑使用.

  3. A study on the seismic collapse margin capacity of X-concentrically braced steel frames%X形中心支撑钢框架倒塌储备能力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何鹏飞; 赵宝成

    2014-01-01

    根据中心支撑在循环荷载作用下的受力特点,提出一种针对X形中心支撑钢框架的倒塌判定标准.按照中国规范设计了一组不同层数和跨度的算例,采用增量动力分析方法确定并评估X形中心支撑钢框架结构的倒塌储备能力.结果表明:X形中心支撑结构的倒塌储备能力随层数的增加而减弱,随跨度的增加而增强,所有算例均具备FEMA695规定的倒塌储备能力.X形中心支撑与倒塌水准对应的基于结构层延性的整体抗侧刚度与初始弹性抗侧刚度之比大都在2%~3%之间,表明文中提出的倒塌标准具有一定的适用性,符合实际结构最终依靠延性来耗散地震能量的受力和变形规律.

  4. K型偏心支撑钢框架基于能量的性态设计方法%Energy-based seismic design method of K type steel eccentrically braced frame under near-fault earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    结构在近场地震作用下的损伤通常与强速度脉冲所携带的瞬时输入能量相关.因此,在基于能量的性态设计中,应以引起结构瞬间破坏的那部分能量作为设计依据.考虑近场地震动的强速度脉冲效应,基于最大有效滞回能(MECE)谱及能量平衡关系,提出了K型偏心支撑钢框架基于能量的性态设计方法,并采用此方法设计了一榀10层K型偏心支撑钢框架.通过对所设计结构进行Pushover分析和弹塑性时程分析评估了结构的抗震性能,验证了设计方法的可靠性.

  5. Research on pushover test of inverted-V concentrically braced steel frame%人字形中心支撑钢框架静力推覆试验与有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊芬; 顾强; 万红; 彭奕亮

    2010-01-01

    为研究中心支撑钢框架在水平荷载作用下的抗侧刚度、延性、极限承载力及破坏模式,对一缩尺人字形中心支撑钢框架进行静力推覆试验.并分别采用SAP2000和ANSYS有限元程序对试验进行模拟.结果表明:受压支撑的屈曲会导致结构抗侧刚度的显著降低,但结构的水平承载力并无显著降低;受压支撑屈曲后,结构还具有较好的延性;规范中认为受压支撑杆屈曲后只有30%的承载能力,且据此来验算横梁的做法偏于保守.

  6. Study and application of seismic energy dissipation bracing system in Expo Center%耗能减震支撑体系研究及其在世博中心工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪大绥; 陈建兴; 包联进; 孙飞飞; 周建龙; 李国强; 姜文伟; 黄永强

    2010-01-01

    结合世博中心工程,对防屈曲耗能支撑(BRB)体系的设计关键问题进行研究,包括结构抗震性能目标、BRB布置、BRB的节点设计、BRB产品验收标准等.对世博中心工程中采用的BRB进行足尺试验,试验结果表明:BRB具有较好的滞回性能,满足产品验收标准.BRB的承载力因应变强化和受压而提高,而且不同厂家的产品性能有一定差别,制订统一的产品验收标准是必要的.对耗能减震支撑结构进行静力弹塑性分析和弹塑性动力时程分析,追踪地震作用下结构的受力和变形发展过程,验证中震和大震作用下结构的抗震性能,满足结构抗震性能目标的要求.两种弹塑性分析结果均表明,合理布置BRB,在罕遇地震作用下可使BRB同步屈曲,整体结构具有较好的抗震性能.

  7. Using Unbonded Braces in Aseismatic Design for Steel Tower of Beijing Yintai Center%屈曲约束支撑在北京银泰中心结构抗震设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培彬; 娄宇; 赵广鹏; 韩合军; 吕佐超; 黄健

    2007-01-01

    北京银泰中心钢结构主楼为框架筒中筒结构,为了加强其抗侧刚度,除了在各层以钢梁连接内外筒,还在3个设备层设置了贯通内外筒的伸臂桁架形成加强层.由于伸臂桁架对结构整体抗震性能有较为突出的影响,因此将伸臂桁架在内、外筒之间的钢支撑用屈曲约束支撑代替,以改善其力学性能.通过合理选择屈曲约束支撑的力学参数,并经过Pushover分析计算,表明该屈曲约束支撑的设置能够改善结构的整体抗震性能,达到了预期目的.

  8. 基于PUSHOVER的钢筋混凝土斜支撑框架结构分析计算%Calculation and analysis of ReinforcedConcrete Braced Frame Structure based on PUSHOVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刘伟; 王绍杰

    2013-01-01

    以三种常见的斜撑框架结构为研究对象,利用PKPM中EPSA模块分别对其进行静力弹塑性分析计算,并对该种结构体系在静力推覆作用下的反应性能进行分析.计算结果说明,斜撑的形式对整体结构的抗倒塌性能有较大的影响,不同斜撑形式的斜撑结构在静力推覆作用下的反应特性有较大不同.

  9. K形、V形偏心支撑钢框架抗震性能对比研究%Comparison Study on Properties of EBSFs with K-shape and V-shape Braces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐永胜; 赵风华; 李卫青

    2015-01-01

    K形、V形偏心支撑钢框架在设计、制作、用钢量等方面都较为接近,但结构特性有所不同.设计了K形、V形偏心支撑钢框架典型算例各20个,采用显式有限元工具建立数值模型,利用基于位移模式的Pushover方法对结构进行推覆分析,对比了两种体系在极限水平变形、耗能能力和极限承载能力方面的不同并分析了原因,得出了V形偏心支撑钢框架性能优于K形偏心支撑钢框架的结论,建议在设计中优先选用V形偏心支撑钢框架.

  10. 某屈曲约束支撑框架-核心筒混合结构静力推覆分析%Pushover analysis of a super-high hybrid structure with budding-restrained braces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司林军; 胡大柱; 李国强; 黄本才

    2010-01-01

    兰州云天皇冠酒店为屈曲约束支撑框架-核心筒混合结构,属超限高层建筑.介绍了工程的特点及结构布置情况,针对结构平面布置不对称和高度超限的情况,对比了结构分别采用普通支撑和屈曲约束支撑时的弹塑性性能.结果表明,在小震作用下,屈曲约束支撑处于弹性状态,为结构提供支撑刚度;在罕遇地震作用下,部分屈曲约束支撑达到屈服状态,为结构提供耗能能力.通过采用屈曲约束支撑,既减轻了结构地震反应,又达到设计的预期性能目标且满足规范的要求.

  11. 钢筋混凝土桁架在较大跨度底框结构中的应用%APPLICATION OF THE STELL-CONCRETE BRACED FRAME IN MID-SPAN FRAME STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄太华; 肖建波; 周靖

    2003-01-01

    用简单混凝土桁架替代较大跨度底框结构中框架梁,采用传统的荷载计算模式分析其结构构件的受力特点,并通过工程实例验证表明,桁架形式的底框梁应用于中等跨度的底框结构中,不仅结构安全可靠,而且有很好的经济效益.

  12. 门式刚架轻钢结构支撑体系的建模及受力分析%MODELING AND FORCED ANALYSIS OF THE BRACING SYSTEM IN LIGHT-WEIGHT BUILDINGS WITH PORTAL FRAMES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天; 赵东杰; 董建华; 李月华

    2005-01-01

    门式刚架轻钢结构的支撑体系对结构的整体稳定性起着重要的作用.实际结构中支撑体系为空间受力体系,而一般在支撑体系设计计算中通常采用简化模式,这与结构实际受力存在较大差异.根据门式刚架轻钢结构支撑体系的实际受力特点,结合具体实例讨论了采用通用有限元软件ANSYS进行支撑体系计算的空间建模过程,通过与平面模型及简化模式得到的支撑构件内力的对比分析,找出了现行设计计算中存在的问题,并给出了相应的合理化建议.

  13. Brace for the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis practice and demonstration in biomechanics%支具治疗特发性脊柱侧凸:生物力学的实践与论证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 李明

    2004-01-01

    特发性脊柱侧凸是不明原因引起的脊柱在冠状面上的弯曲,常合并脊柱矢状面的异常及椎体的旋转,是最常见的脊柱畸形.近30年来,随着脊柱三维矫形理论的提出与推广,各种新型内固定器械的出现,使得脊柱手术成功率大大提高,然而手术治疗毕竟创伤巨大,花费高且有一定的风险和并发症.因而,对于没有手术指征的轻度脊柱侧凸,如何进行有效的非手术治疗,避免手术或推迟手术治疗的年龄,一直以来是学者们努力的方向.非手术治疗包括锻炼、脊柱按摩、电刺激及支具治疗,经过漫长的实践和研究发现,对于早期发现的轻中度青少年特发性脊柱侧凸,支具治疗是惟一有效的非手术疗法.由于对特发性脊柱侧凸自然病程的研究并不十分清楚,支具能否影响其自然病程,经历了数10年曲折而又漫长的实践和论证,近10余年的生物力学研究证明支具治疗是有效的.

  14. Nonsurgical Management of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jaime A; Hresko, M Timothy; Glotzbecker, Michael P

    2016-08-01

    Pediatric patient visits for spinal deformity are common. Most of these visits are for nonsurgical management of scoliosis, with approximately 600,000 visits for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) annually. Appropriate management of scoliotic curves that do not meet surgical indication parameters is essential. Renewed enthusiasm for nonsurgical management of AIS (eg, bracing, physical therapy) exists in part because of the results of the Bracing in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Trial, which is the only randomized controlled trial available on the use of bracing for AIS. Bracing is appropriate for idiopathic curves between 20° and 40°, with successful control of these curves reported in >70% of patients. Patient adherence to the prescribed duration of wear is essential to maximize the effectiveness of the brace. The choice of brace type must be individualized according to the deformity and the patient's personality as well as the practice setting and brace availability. PMID:27388720

  15. Microstructure and microtexture evolution during strain path changes of an initially stable Cu single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, H., E-mail: nmpaul@imim-pan.krakow.pl [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, 25 Reymonta St., 30-059 Krakow (Poland)] [Opole University of Technology, Mechanical Department, 5 Mikolajczyka St., 45-271 Opole (Poland); Maurice, C.; Driver, J.H. [Ecole des Mines de Saint-Etienne, Centre SMS, Laboratoire PECM CNRS UMR 5146, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint-Etienne, Cedex 2 (France)

    2010-05-15

    The microstructure and microtexture evolution in a deformed Goss oriented crystal were characterized after a sample rotation and consequent change in strain path, over a range of scales by optical microscopy, high resolution scanning electron microscopy equipped with field emission gun and electron packscattered diffraction facilities and transmission electron microscopy orientation mapping. High purity copper single crystals with initial Goss{l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}<0 0 1> orientation were channel-die compressed 59% to develop a homogeneous structure composed of two sets of symmetrical primary microbands. New samples with ND rotated orientations of Goss{l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}<0 0 1>, brass{l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}<1 1 2>, M{l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}<1 1 1> and H{l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}<0 0 1>, were then cut out and further compressed in channel-die by a few per cent. The change in flow stress could be correlated with the change in dislocation substructure and microtexture, particularly along shear bands initiated by the strain path change. In the H{l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}<0 1 1> and M{l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}<1 1 1> orientations, the flow stress increased by Taylor factor hardening then decreased by intense macroscopic shear band (MSB) formation. In the softer brass orientation and in the absence of Taylor factor hardening, more diffuse MSB formation occurred. The local rotations in the band were used to deduce the possible local slip systems initiated during the strain path change.

  16. Synthesis and Some Reactions of the Heterometallic C[subscript 7] Complex {Cp*(dppe)Ru}CCCCCCC{Co[subscript 3]([mu]-dppm)(CO)[subscript 7]}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, Michael I.; Cole, Marcus L.; Parker, Christian R.; Skelton, Brian W.; White, Allan H. (UWA); (Adelaide)

    2008-10-02

    The heterometallic carbon-chain complex {l_brace}Cp*(dppe)Ru{r_brace}CCCCCCC{l_brace}Co{sub 3}({mu}-dppm)(CO){sub 7}{r_brace} (1) has been obtained by three routes that involve assembly of the C{sub 7} chain by combination of appropriate C{sub 1} + C{sub 6}, C{sub 2} + C{sub 5}, or C{sub 3} + C{sub 4} precursors. The Cp analogue 2 and Co{sub 3}(CO){sub 9} cluster analogue 3 were obtained via the C{sub 2} + C{sub 5} and C{sub 1} + C{sub 6} routes, respectively. Reaction of 1 with PPh{sub 3} gave 4 via substitution of a Co{sub 3} cluster-bonded CO group. Addition of MeOTf to the second carbon from the Ru center in 1 afforded the vinylidene [{l_brace}Cp*(dppe)Ru{r_brace}CCMeCCCCC{l_brace}Co{sub 3}({mu}-dppm)(CO){sub 7}{r_brace}]OTf (5), while addition of tcne or tcnq across the central CC bond gave {l_brace}Cp*(dppe)Ru{r_brace}CCC[C(CN){sub 2}]C[C(CN){sub 2}]CCC{l_brace}Co{sub 3}({mu}-dppm)(CO){sub 7}{r_brace} (6) and {l_brace}Cp*(dppe)Ru{r_brace}CCC[C{sub 6}H{sub 4}C(CN){sub 2}]C[C(CN){sub 2}]CCC{l_brace}Co{sub 3}({mu}-dppm)(CO){sub 7}{r_brace} (7), respectively. The reaction between 1 and Fe 2(CO){sub 9} was more complex, the major product being {l_brace}Cp*(dppe)Ru{r_brace}CCC{l_brace}Fe{sub 3}(CO){sub 9}{r_brace}CCCC{l_brace}Co{sub 3}({mu}-dppm)(CO){sub 7}{r_brace} (8), accompanied by an Fe{sub 2}(CO){sub 6} derivative (9) of as yet undetermined structure. {l_brace}Cp*(dppe)Ru{r_brace}CCCCCCC{l_brace}Co{sub 2}Ni({mu}-dppm)(CO){sub 4}Cp{r_brace} (10) was obtained from the reaction with NiCp{sub 2}. An unstable adduct containing two Co{sub 2}(CO){sub 6} groups attached to the C{sub 7} chain was formed in reactions between 1 and Co{sub 2}(CO){sub 8}. XRD structural studies of 1, 2, 6-8, and 10 are reported. Electrochemical measurements suggest that there is some interaction between the two end groups, although this cannot presently be quantified. It is concluded that the C{sub 7} chain is long enough for the properties of the individual end caps to be preserved

  17. Effect of rolling reduction on the development of rolling and recrystallization textures in Al-Mg alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endou, S.; Inagaki, H. [Shonan Inst. of Tech., Fujisawashi (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    In order to investigate the effect of Mg content on the development of the rolling textures in Al pure Al, Al-3% Mg alloy and Al-5% Mg alloy were cold rolled by varying rolling reductions up to 97%. Their rolling textures were investigated by the orientation distribution function analysis. The extent of work hardening introduced by cold rolling was estimated by the hardness measurements. It was found that, at all rolling reductions, the main orientations of the rolling textures depended strongly on the Mg content. In pure Al, {l_brace}123{r_brace} left angle 634 right angle was always the main orientation, whereas {l_brace}112{r_brace} left angle 111 right angle was most strong in the Al-3%Mg alloy. In the Al-5% Mg alloy, the development of both {l_brace}123{r_brace} left angle 634 right angle and {l_brace}112{r_brace} left angle 111 right angle were strongly suppressed, whereas {l_brace}110{r_brace} left angle 112 right angle developed remarkably. In pure Al, most of the texture development occurred at the later half of work hardening, i.e. at rolling reductions above 70%. With increasing Mg content, rolling texture tended to develop already at lower rolling reductions. Dynamic recovery, which occurred at very high rolling reductions, suppressed the development of the rolling textures. All these results strongly suggested that the formation of dislocation cell structures and shear banding are origins of the formation of these rolling textures. On annealing these specimens at 450 C for 30 min, recrystallization textures developed only in specimens having strong rolling textures, i. e. in the specimens cold rolled more than 70%. {l_brace}100{r_brace} left angle 001 right angle developed only in pure Al and in the Al-3% Mg ally, in which {l_brace}123{r_brace} left angle 634 right angle and {l_brace}112{r_brace} left angle 111 right angle were strong in the rolling textures. Recrystallization textures of the Al-5% Mg alloy was wather random. Its main orientation, {l_brace

  18. Control growth of single crystalline ZnO nanorod arrays and nanoflowers with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Jiuju [College of Geography and Environmental Science, Zhejiang Normal University (China); Wang Zhenzhen [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan Normal University (China); Li Yongfang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan Institute of Science and Technology (China); Chen Jianrong; Wang Aijun, E-mail: ajwang@zjnu.cn [College of Geography and Environmental Science, Zhejiang Normal University (China)

    2013-04-15

    Single crystalline vertical nanorod arrays and nanoflowers of ZnO have been grown in situ on cheap zinc foils under hydrothermal conditions, by means of hexamethylenetetramine and ethanolamine, respectively. Their morphologies and crystal structures are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The nanorods and flowers of ZnO grew along the {l_brace} 10 1-bar 1{r_brace} and {l_brace} 0001{r_brace} planes, respectively. Both types of ZnO display high photocatalytic ability toward the degradation of methylene orange under UV irradiation. The ZnO nanorods show better performance than that of the ZnO nanoflowers, and the {l_brace} 10 1-bar 1{r_brace} facets of the ZnO nanorods have higher photoactivity than that of the {l_brace} 000 1-bar {r_brace} or {l_brace} 10 1-bar 0{r_brace} crystal planes. This is because the weaker coordinated O atoms on the surface are more likely to be saturated by H atoms in aqueous solution, thereby releasing more free OH radicals.Graphical AbstractA facile method was developed for selective control synthesis of ZnO nanoflowers and nanorod arrays on Zinc foil, with the assistance of ethanolamine and the hexamethylenetetramine, respectively. The illustration shows the time evolution of the two ZnO structures.

  19. Effects of segregated sulfur on recrystallization texture and magnetic induction in thin-gauged 3% silicon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, K.H.; Heo, N.H.; Na, J.G.; Jeong, H.T.; Lee, S.R.

    1999-09-01

    During final annealing at 1200 C under a high vacuum, changes in recrystallization texture with final annealing time were observed in thin-gauged 3% Si-Fe alloys. In the alloy containing 30 ppm bulk sulfur, the recrystallization texture varied from the {l{underscore}brace}111{r{underscore}brace} to the {l{underscore}brace}001{r{underscore}brace} and finally to the {l{underscore}brace}110{r{underscore}brace} < 001 > Goss texture, resulting in higher magnetic induction than 1.90 T. The trough in magnetic induction, which corresponds to the relatively high surface-segregated sulfur range, is due to the magnetically detrimental effect of those textures, i.e., the {l{underscore}brace}111{r{underscore}brace} and the {l{underscore}brace}011{r{underscore}brace} . In the alloy containing 6 ppm bulk sulfur, the correlation between magnetic induction and surface-segregated sulfur was the same as that in the other alloy. These results clearly indicate that the surface energy induced recrystallization in the thin-gauged 3% Si-Fe alloys is strongly affected by the segregation and the evaporation of sulfur.

  20. Texture evolution during the recrystallization of a warm-rolled low-carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Araiza, M. [Department of Metals and Materials Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, Que., H3A 2B2 (Canada)]. E-mail: miguel.sanchez-araiza@mail.mcgill.ca; Godet, S. [Department of Metals and Materials Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, Que., H3A 2B2 (Canada) and Universite Catholique de Louvain, Departement des Sciences des Materiaux et des Procedes, IMAP, Place Sainte Barbe 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)]. E-mail: stephane.godet@mail.mcgill.ca; Jacques, P.J. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Departement des Sciences des Materiaux et des Procedes, IMAP, Place Sainte Barbe 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)]. E-mail: jacques@imap.ucl.ac.be; Jonas, J.J. [Department of Metals and Materials Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, Que., H3A 2B2 (Canada)]. E-mail: john.jonas@mcgill.ca

    2006-06-15

    The texture changes taking place during the recrystallization of a warm-rolled low-carbon steel were examined using electron backscattered diffraction. The deformation textures of the warm-rolled material are similar in shape to those of cold-rolled materials, but are somewhat more intense. The recrystallization textures resemble the deformation textures but with a more extended {alpha} fibre that includes the {l_brace}1 1 3{r_brace}<4 7 1> orientation; the {gamma} fibre extends to the {l_brace}5 5 4{r_brace}<2 2 5> orientation. These two orientations are related to the {l_brace}1 1 2{r_brace}<1 1 0> deformed grains by near 26 deg, rotations about selected <1 1 0> axes. Nevertheless, both orientations appear in the early stages of recrystallization, an observation that does not support the oriented growth theory. The {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} orientations are the first to recrystallize while the {alpha} fibre is present until the end of recrystallization. It is finally consumed by all types of grains as well as by subgrain coalescence. The similarities in the growth rates for the {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} and random orientations and the late disappearance of the {alpha} fibre suggest that recrystallization takes place according to the high stored energy oriented nucleation concept.

  1. Evidence for Conservative Treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis - Update 2015 (Mini-Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Ng; Bettany-Saltikov, Josette; Moramarco, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis predominantly afflicts adolescents. Adolescents with mild curvatures do not generally have any symptoms. However spinal fusion is indicated when the deformity exceeds 45°. Treatment is thus necessary to prevent and/or reduce the progression of curvatures to that below which surgery is indicated. Conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis includes observation, scoliosis-specific exercises (SSE) and bracing. There is increasing evidence suggesting that SSE and brace treatment can significantly limit the progression of spinal curvatures. In growing adolescents with curvatures more than 20°, bracing is indicated and should be used in conjunction with SSE. The effectiveness of bracing varies according to the type of brace applied to the patient. In general rigid braces are preferable to soft flexible braces, as the latter falls short of halting curvatures progression. Also, preliminary evidence suggests that asymmetric braces which enable over-correction provide more correction when compared with symmetrical braces. Recently it has also been reported that high quality bracing can also reduce curvatures exceeding 45° in over 70% of growing adolescents. This new knowledge might possibly increase the threshold of surgical indications to beyond 50° or above in the near future.

  2. A modeling of radiation induced microstructural evolution under applied stress in austenitic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Kohyama, Akira [Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan). Inst. of Advanced Energy; Katoh, Yutai; Kohno, Yutaka

    1996-10-01

    Effects of applied stress on interstitial type Frank loop evolution at early stages of irradiation were investigated by both numerical calculation and irradiation experiments. In the experimental part of this work, microstructural inspection has been made by transmission electron microscopy with a special emphasis on Frank loops and perfect loops on every {l_brace}111{r_brace} plane. The results of the TEM observation revealed that Frank loop concentration on a {l_brace}111{r_brace} plane increased as the resolved normal stress to a {l_brace}111{r_brace} plane increased and that small perfect loops were more likely produced on {l_brace}111{r_brace} planes where larger resolved shear stress was applied. The model of a stress effect on Frank loop unfaulting was provided, which is triggered by nucleation of a Shockley partial dislocation loop in a Frank loop, was proposed. The results of the numerical calculation was successful to predict the strong dependence of Frank loop concentration on the resolved normal stress to {l_brace}111{r_brace} plane, which was the characteristic feature seen in the irradiation experiments. (author)

  3. Characterization of {gamma}{prime}-Fe{sub 4}N precipitates in a compound layer formed by austenitic nitrocarburizing treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Rong, Y.; Chen, X.; Hu, G. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Materials Science

    1995-04-01

    The precipitation of {gamma}{prime}-Fe{sub 4}N phase from the {var_epsilon}-matrix in a quenched and aged compound layer of 0.2% C steel formed by austenitic nitrocarburizing treatment has been investigated through transmission electron microscopy. The orientation relationships between the {gamma}{prime} phase and the {var_epsilon} matrix is determined to be {l_brace}0001{r_brace}{sub {var_epsilon}}//{l_brace}111{r_brace}{sub {gamma}{prime}} and <1{bar 2}10>{sub {var_epsilon}}//<011>{sub {gamma}{prime}}. The {gamma}{prime} precipitates appearing in thin plates in the {l_brace}0001{r_brace} planes of {var_epsilon} matrix are sometimes observed to be 180{degree} related to each other. The mechanism of age-hardening in the compound layer is also discussed.

  4. Shear texture and recrystallization texture formation in high speed hot rolling of Al-Mg alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, T.; Lee, S.H.; Yoneda, K.; Hamada, S.; Saito, Y. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Effects of inhomogeneous shear strain distribution through the thickness of hot rolled Al-Mg alloy sheet on recrystallization behavior and texture formation has been investigated. Al-2.5%Mg alloy sheets were rolled to various reductions at the temperature of 460 to 560 C. Due to the high friction, severely sheared region was formed beneath the surface. A band of equiaxed grains is formed at the severely sheared region by recrystallization immediately after rolling. The deformation texture consisted mainly of {l_brace}111{r_brace} left angle 110 right angle, {l_brace}112{r_brace} left angle 110 right angle and {l_brace}001{r_brace} left angle 110 right angle in the severely sheared region. The recrystallization texture in severely sheared region retained the components of deformation texture, although intensities became weak with the progress of recrystallization. (orig.)

  5. Texture development in Al-high Mg alloys during recrystallization and grain growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endou, S.; Inagaki, H. [Shonan Inst. of Tech., Fujisawashi (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Al-high Mg alloys containing Mg more than 6% were cold rolled 95% and annealed at temperatures between 275 and 450 C. Textures developed in these alloys were investigated with the orientation distribution function analysis. It was found that the heating rate to the annealing temperature strongly influenced the annealing textures of these alloys. Annealing with the slow heating rate resulted in the development of {l_brace}100{r_brace} left angle 001 right angle, whereas annealing with the rapid heating rate enhanced the development of {l_brace}100{r_brace} left angle 013 right angle and {l_brace}103{r_brace} left angle 321 right angle. This is because the orientation distribution established at complete recrystallization had strong influences on the texture development during subsequent grain growth. Annealing textures in the Al-9% Mg alloy were always random, since its rolling textures were random (orig.)

  6. Plastic anisotropy of straight and cross rolled molybdenum sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oertel, C.-G. [Institut fuer Strukturphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)], E-mail: oertel@physik.tu-dresden.de; Huensche, I.; Skrotzki, W. [Institut fuer Strukturphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Knabl, W.; Lorich, A.; Resch, J. [PLANSEE Metall GmbH, A-6600 Reutte, Tyrol (Austria)

    2008-06-15

    The microstructure, texture and mechanical properties of molybdenum sheets produced by different rolling processes were investigated by orientation imaging in the scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and tensile tests, respectively. For comparable recrystallization degree of the sheets investigated, straight rolling with low reduction ratio produces {alpha}-fiber textures with a maximum at {l_brace}100{r_brace} <110>. At higher rolling degrees the maximum shifts to {l_brace}112{r_brace} <110>. Cross rolling increases the rotated cube component {l_brace}100{r_brace} <110>. The strong differences in the texture measured are reflected in the plastic anisotropy characterized by differences in the yield stress and Lankford parameter which were measured along directions in the rolling plane at angles of 0 deg., 45 deg. and 90 deg. with the rolling direction. The Taylor-Bishop-Hill theory is used successfully to qualitatively explain the plastic anisotropy.

  7. Novel N-benzoyltyramines of Swinglea glutinosa (Rutaceae); Novas N-benzoiltiraminas de Swinglea glutinosa (Rutaceae).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerqueira, Cristovam do Nascimento; Santos, Djalma A.P. dos; Malaquias, Karla da Silva; Lima, Murilo Marinho de Castro; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar, E-mail: dmfs@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    Phytochemical studies of the leaves and fruits have led to the identification of the known amides (E)-N-methyl-cinnamamide, N-benzoyltyramine, N-benzoyl-O-geranyl tyramine, N-benzoyl-O-(4-acetoxyl)-geranyl tyramine, in addition to the new N-{l_brace}2-[4-(butoxyl-3-one)phenyl]ethyl{r_brace}benzamide, N-{l_brace}2-[4-(2,3-dihydroxy-2-methyl-butoxylanal)phenyl]ethyl{r_brace}benzamide, N-{l_brace}2-[4-(2,3-dihydroxy-2-methyl-butoxyloic) phenyl]ethyl{r_brace}benzamide, N-benzoyl-O-(4-acetoxyl-6,7-epoxy)-geranyltyramine, N-benzoyl-O-(4-acetoxyl-6,7-dihydroxy)-geranyltyramine and N-benzoyl-O-(6-acetoxyl-4,7-dihydroxy)-geranyltyramine. The isolated compounds clearly point to Swinglea phytochemical affinities with other Aurantioideae species. (author)

  8. First observation of the exchange of transverse and longitudinal emittances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, J.; Johnson, A.S.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Thurman-Keup, R.; Edwards, H.; Fliller, R.P.; Koeth, T.; Sun, Y.-E; /Fermilab

    2011-02-01

    An experimental program to demonstrate a novel phase space manipulation in which the horizontal and longitudinal emittances of a particle beam are exchanged has been completed at the Fermilab A0 Photoinjector. A new beamline, consisting of a TM{sub 110} deflecting mode cavity flanked by two horizontally dispersive doglegs has been installed. We report on the first direct observation of transverse and longitudinal emittance exchange: {l_brace}{var_epsilon}{sub x}{sup n}, {var_epsilon}{sub y}{sup n}, {var_epsilon}{sub z}{sup n}{r_brace} = {l_brace} 2.9 {+-} 0.1, 2.4 {+-} 0.1, 13.1 {+-} 1.3{r_brace} {yields} {l_brace}11.3 {+-} 1.1, 2.9 {+-} 0.5, 3.1 {+-} 0.3{r_brace} mm-mrad.

  9. Phase equilibrium properties of binary aqueous solutions containing ethanediamine, 1,2-diaminopropane, 1,3-diaminopropane, or 1,4-diaminobutane at several temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Nouria Chiali-Baba [LATA2M, Laboratoire de Thermodynamique Appliquee et Modelisation Moleculaire, University AbouBekr Belkaid of Tlemcen, P.O. Box 119, Tlemcen 13000 (Algeria); Negadi, Latifa, E-mail: l_negadi@mail.univ-tlemcen.d [LATA2M, Laboratoire de Thermodynamique Appliquee et Modelisation Moleculaire, University AbouBekr Belkaid of Tlemcen, P.O. Box 119, Tlemcen 13000 (Algeria); Mokbel, Ilham; Jose, Jacques [LSA, Laboratoire des Sciences Analytiques, CNRS-UMR 5180, Universite Claude Bernard - Lyon I. 43, Bd du 11 Novembre 1918, Villeurbanne Cedex 69622 (France)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: Vapour pressures of ethanediamine (EDA), 1,2-diaminopropane, 1,3-diaminopropane (1,3-DAP), or 1,4-diaminobutane (1,4-DAB) aqueous solutions are reported between (293 and 363) K. The two first mixtures show negative azeotropic behaviour. The aqueous solutions of EDA, 1,2-DAP, or 1,3-DAP exhibit negative G{sup E} whereas the one containing 1,4-DAB shows either negative G{sup E} or sinusoidal shape for G{sup E}. - Abstract: The vapour pressures of {l_brace}ethanediamine (EDA) + water{r_brace}, {l_brace}1,2-diaminopropane (1,2-DAP) + water{r_brace}, {l_brace}1,3-diaminopropane (1,3-DAP) + water{r_brace} or {l_brace}1,4-diaminobutane (1,4-DAB) + water{r_brace} binary mixtures, and of pure EDA, 1,2-DAP, 1,3-DAP, 1,4-DAB, and water components were measured by means of two static devices at temperatures between (293 and 363) K. The data were correlated with the Antoine equation. From these data, the excess Gibbs function (G{sup E}) was calculated for several constant temperatures and fitted to a fourth-order Redlich-Kister equation using the Barker's method. The {l_brace}ethanediamine (EDA) + water{r_brace}, and {l_brace}1,2-diaminopropane (1,2-DAP) + water{r_brace} binary systems show negative azeotropic behaviour. The aqueous solutions of EDA, 1,2-DAP, or 1,3-DAP exhibit negative deviations in G{sup E} for all investigated temperatures over the whole composition range whereas the (1,4-DAB + water) binary mixture shows negative G{sup E} for temperatures (293.15 < T/K < 353.15) and a sinusoidal shape for G{sup E} at T = 363.15 K.

  10. Pengaruh Diferensiasi Produk Terhadap Brand Image Sikat Gigi Oral-B Pada Mahasiswa Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi Universitas Sumatera Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Ginting, Irma Renatha

    2012-01-01

    The health problems, especially the health problems of dental and mouth have become the public interest because they are closely related to an individual performance. One of these problems is dental crowding, and one of the attempts to fix dental crowding is by using dental braces. One of toothbrushes which uses special variant for dental brace users is Oral-B toothbrush. Oral-B is one of the toothbrush brands which differentiate its product with special variant for the dental brace users...

  11. Experimental and theoretical aspects of the growth and equilibrium morphology of NaNO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benages Vilau, R.; Cuevas-Diarte, M.A.; Calvet i Pallas, T. [Dept. Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain); Costa, E.; Bruno, M.; Aquilano, D. [Dipartimento di Scienze Mineralogiche e Petrologiche, Torino Univ. (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    Sodium nitrate (mineral nitratine, NaNO{sub 3}, space group R anti 3c at room temperature) is a material used in a great variety of fields, such as the molten salt technology. It is also of very interest from a crystallographic point of view, being iso-structural with calcite (CaCO{sub 3}). We performed several growth experiments in aqueous solution, near-equilibrium, with the aim of finding the ideal conditions for investigating both face-by-face growth kinetics and surface characterization, as well as the influence of K{sup +} and Li{sup +} ions on the growth morphology. Single {l_brace}10.4{r_brace} rhombohedral crystals have been systematically grown from pure aqueous solution, while {l_brace}00.1{r_brace} truncated rhombohedra were obtained in the presence of K{sup +} and Li{sup +} ions in the mother solution. When determining the theoretical equilibrium morphology of NaNO{sub 3} crystals, the {l_brace}00.1{r_brace} and {l_brace}10.4{r_brace} surfaces were studied by using the 2D-slab model and relaxed and athermal surface energies (surfaces energies at T = 0 K) were evaluated at DFT level (B3LYP Hamiltonian) by using the CRYSTAL06 package. The {l_brace}00.1{r_brace} dipolar surfaces were reconstructed by the octopolar Hartman-Lacmann's model, already proposed for NaCl-like lattices. This type of reconstruction is the only one which respects the bulk symmetry of the crystal. The octopolar Na{sup +} terminated {l_brace}00.1{r_brace} form resulted to be more stable than the NO{sub 3}{sup -} terminated one. However, the {l_brace}00.1{r_brace} form does not enter the theoretical athermal equilibrium shape of nitratine crystals, being {gamma}{sub (10.4)Na}=160, {gamma}{sub (00.1)Na}= 695 and {gamma}{sub (00.1)NO3}=1535 erg/cm{sup 2}. Finally, a simple 2D-epitaxy model is proposed to explain the appearance of NaNO{sub 3}{l_brace}00.1{r_brace} truncated rhombohedra in the presence of K{sup +} and Li{sup +} ions. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGa

  12. Structural archetypes in nickel(II) hybrid vanadates. Towards a directed hydrothermal synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis, R. Fernandez de; Urtiaga, M.K. [Dpto. Mineralogia y Petrologia, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco/UPV/EHU, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Mesa, J.L.; Rojo, T. [Dpto. Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco UPV/EHU, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Arriortua, M.I. [Dpto. Mineralogia y Petrologia, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco/UPV/EHU, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)], E-mail: maribel.arriortua@ehu.es

    2009-07-01

    In the present work, we relate the modifications of the initial synthesis parameters (pH value, stoichiometry and concentration) with the different structural archetypes obtained in the {l_brace}Ni/Bpy/VO{r_brace} and {l_brace}Ni/Bpe/VO{r_brace} systems (4,4'-bipyridine (Bpy), 1,2-di(4-pyridyl) ethylene (Bpe)). The vanadium coordination is partially controlled by the hydrothermal synthesis conditions, and the final crystal structures depend on the synergetic interaction between the metal-organic subnets and the vanadium oxide subunits.

  13. Orthodontics and Aligners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Repairing Chipped Teeth Teeth Whitening Tooth-Colored Fillings Orthodontics and Aligners Straighten teeth for a healthier smile. Orthodontics When consumers think about orthodontics, braces are the ...

  14. Compressive mechanical behavior of Au nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Yuhua, E-mail: yhwen@xmu.edu.c [Department of Physics, and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 5V6 (Canada); Wang Quan, E-mail: q_wang@umanitoba.c [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 5V6 (Canada); Liew, Kim Meow [Department of Building and Construction, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Zhu Zizhong [Department of Physics, and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2010-06-28

    The structural evolution, deformation mechanism, and failure behavior of Au [001] nanowires with various sizes and slenderness ratios under uniaxial compression have been investigated using molecular dynamics. The results show that the elastic modulus, yield stress, and strain all are dependent on the diameters and slenderness ratios of the nanowires. Buckling behavior is observed in a long nanowire, followed by slips in the {l_brace}111{r_brace} planes. Differences are identified in the failure behavior of a short nanowire and a medium nanowire, although the plastic deformation of both types of nanowire originates from the slips in the {l_brace}111{r_brace} planes.

  15. Thermodynamic study of (alkyl esters+{alpha},{omega}-alkyl dihalides) III. H{sub m}{sup E}andV{sub m}{sup E} for 20 binary mixtures {l_brace}xC{sub u-1}H{sub 2u-1}CO{sub 2}C{sub 4}H{sub 9}+(1-x){alpha},{omega}-ClCH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub v-2}CH{sub 2}Cl{r_brace}, where u=1 to 4, {alpha}=1 and v={omega}=2 to 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, J. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)]. E-mail: jortega@dip.ulpgc.es; Marrero, E. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Toledo, F.J. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2006-09-15

    In this article, the experimental data of excess molar enthalpies H{sub m}{sup E} and excess molar volumes V{sub m}{sup E} are presented for a set of 20 binary mixtures comprised of the first four butyl alkanoates (methanoate to butanoate) and five {alpha},{omega}-dichloroalkanes (1,2-dichloroethane to 1,6-dichlorohexane), obtained at atmospheric pressure and at a temperature of 298.15K. The results indicate the existence of specific interactions between both kinds of compounds resulting in exothermic processes for most mixtures, except for those containing butyl methanoate which give rise to net endo/exothermic effects. The V{sub m}{sup E} are positive for mixtures of (butyl esters+1,2-dichloroethane or 1,3-dichloropropane) and negative for the remaining ones. The change in H{sub m}{sup E} with the dichloroethane chain length for a same ester is regular although the V{sub m}{sup E} presents an irregular variation. It can, therefore, be deuced from this that the mixing process involves both effects, exothermic/endothermic and expansion/contraction, simultaneously. The behaviour of the mixtures is interpreted on the basis of the results observed and attributed to different effects taking place among the molecules studied. To improve application of the UNIFAC model using the version of Dang and Tassios, average values were recalculated again for parameters of the ester/chloride interaction, distinguishing, during its application, the functional group of the acid part of the ester. In spite of this, the model does not adequately reproduce the systems' behaviour.

  16. Thermodynamic study of (alkyl esters+{alpha},{omega}-alkyl dihalides) II: H{sub m}{sup E} and V{sub m}{sup E} for 25 binary mixtures {l_brace}xC{sub u-1}H{sub 2u-1}CO{sub 2}C{sub 2}H{sub 5}+(1-x){alpha},{omega}-BrCH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub v-2}CH{sub 2}B= r{r_brace}, where u=1 to 5, {alpha}=1 and v={omega}=2 to 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, J. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)]. E-mail: jortega@dip.ulpgc.es; Navas, A. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Placido, J. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Toledo, F.J. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2006-05-15

    Excess molar enthalpies H{sub m}{sup E}, and excess molar volumes V{sub m}{sup E}, have been determined experimentally at constant conditions of atmospheric pressure and a temperature of T=298.15K, for a set of 25 binary mixtures, composed of ethyl alkanoate (methanoate to pentanoate) with each of the {alpha},{omega}-dibromoalkanes (1,2-dibromoethane to 1,6-dibromohexane), presenting the values of excess quantities Y{sub m}{sup E} as a function of the ester composition x. Most of the mixtures presented V{sub m}{sup E}>0, except those formed by 1,5-dibromopentane and 1,6-dibromohexane with propanoate, butanoate and ethyl pentanoate, for which V{sub m}{sup E}<0. The five mixtures of (ethyl methanoate+{alpha},{omega}-dibromoalkanes) are all endothermic, although, in the other systems this endothermicity decreases slightly with the increase in the ester acid chain length, producing sigmoidal curves that reflect exo/endothermic effects in the mixing process. The results are explained on the basis of a structural model that considers the existence of several effects, some positive and some negative, which produce the previously mentioned variations in excess quantities. In all cases, the experimental values are correlated with a suitable polynomial equation. Finally, predictions of H{sub m}{sup E} are made using two versions of the UNIFAC group contribution model. The version proposed by Dang and Tassios produces unacceptable estimations, while the version of Gmehling et al. produces results closer to experimentals.

  17. Thermodynamic study of (alkyl esters+{alpha},{omega}-alkyl dihalides) V. H{sub m}{sup E}andV{sub m}{sup E} for 25 binary mixtures {l_brace}xC{sub u-1}H{sub 2u-1}CO{sub 2}CH{sub 3}+(1-x){alpha},{omega}-ClCH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub v-2}CH{sub 2}Cl{r_brace}, where u=1 to 5, {alpha}=1 and v={omega}=2 to 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, J. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)]. E-mail: jortega@dip.ulpgc.es; Marrero, E. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    The experimental data of excess molar enthalpies H{sub m}{sup E} and excess molar volumes V{sub m}{sup E} are presented for a set of 25 binary mixtures comprised of the first five methyl esters C{sub u-1}H{sub 2u-1}COOCH{sub 3} (u=1 to 5) and five {alpha},{omega}-dichloroalkanes, ClCH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub v-2}CH{sub 2}Cl (v=2 to 6), obtained at a temperature of 298.15K and atmospheric pressure. Except for the mixtures with u=1 and v=2 to 6, which are all endothermic and with u=5 and v=2 to 6, which are all exothermic, the others present net endo/exothermic effects and these mixing effects evolve quasiregularly, from endothermic to exothermic, depending on the dichloroalkane present. However, the V{sub m}{sup E} are positive in most mixtures except for those corresponding to u=4,5 and v=5,6, which present contraction effects. These results indicate a set of specific interactions with simultaneous effects for V{sub m}{sup E} of expansion/contraction and for exothermic/endothermic H{sub m}{sup E} for this set of mixtures. The change in V{sub m}{sup E} with the chain length of the compounds is irregular. To achieve a good application of the UNIFAC model using the version of Dang and Tassios, parameters of the ester (G)/dichloride (G') interaction were calculated again, making a distinction, during its application, dependent on the acid part of the ester u. Hence, interaction parameters are presented as a function of u, and of the dichloroalkane chain length v. The most appropriate general expression was of the type:a{sub G/G{sup '}}={phi}(u,v)={sigma}sub(i=0)sup(n)a{sub i-1}u{sup i-1}+{sigma}sub(i=0= )sup(n)b{sub i-1}v{sup i-1}and with this proposal good estimations of enthalpies were obtained with the UNIFAC model.

  18. Thermodynamic study of (alkyl esters + {alpha},{omega}-alkyl dihalides) VI. H{sub m}{sup E} and V{sub m}{sup E} for 20 binary mixtures {l_brace}xC{sub u-1}H{sub 2u-1}CO{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}CH{sub 3} + (1 - x){alpha},{omega}-BrCH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub v-2}CH{sub 2}Br{r_brace}, where u = 1 to 5, {alpha} = 1, and v = {omega} = 2 to 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navas, A. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Ortega, J. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)], E-mail: jortega@dip.ulpgc.es; Nuez, I. de la [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2009-11-15

    This work shows the experimental values obtained for H{sub m}{sup E} and V{sub m}{sup E} at the temperature of 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure, for a set of 20 binary mixtures comprised of the first four butyl esters (methanoate to butanoate) with five {alpha},{omega}-dibromoalkanes (1,2-dibromoethane to 1,6-dibromohexane). The H{sub m}{sup E} are endothermic for mixtures with butyl methanoate, while for the other esters the H{sub m}{sup E} adopt a sigmoidal shape. The V{sub m}{sup E} are positive for mixtures with low molecular weight dibromoalkanes, becoming negative with contractive effects in the final mixture, as the dihalide chain increases. The results indicate that the mixtures present specific interactions, with simultaneous expansion/contraction and exothermic/endothermic effects, and an explanation is given for the different types of interaction taking place. Experimental data are correlated with a polynomial equation used in previous works with satisfactory results. Modelling of the experimental results of the mixtures is carried out on the H{sub m}{sup E} values, giving rise to an adequate definition of the different interactions taking place. Two versions of the UNIFAC method were used, and for Dang and Tassios' version different possibilities were considered for the interaction parameters of the ester (G)/dibromide (G'). The best estimations were obtained when the pair of interaction parameters, type a{sub G/G{sup '}}, depended on the number of carbon atoms in the compounds constituting the mixture.

  19. Thermodynamic study of (alkyl esters+{alpha},{omega}-alkyl dihalides) I: H{sub m}{sup E} and V{sub m}{sup E} for 25 binary mixtures {l_brace}xC{sub u-1}H{sub 2u-1}CO{sub 2}C{sub 2}H{sub 5}+(1-x){alpha},{omega}-ClCH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub v-2}CH{sub 2}C= l{r_brace}, where u=1 to 5, {alpha}=1 and v={omega}=2 to 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, J. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)]. E-mail: jortega@dip.ulpgc.es; Marrero, E. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Toledo, F.J. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Espiau, F. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2005-12-15

    This article presents the experimental data of H{sub m}{sup E} and V{sub m}{sup E}, obtained at atmospheric pressure and at a temperature of 298.15K, for a set of 25 binary mixtures composed of the first 5 ethyl alkanoates (methanoate to pentanoate) and five {alpha},{omega}-dichloroalkanes (1,2-dichloroethane to 1,6-dichlorohexane). Quantitatively, and with only a few exceptions, small values are obtained for the excess properties and the results imply that specific interactions exist between both types of compounds, with exothermic process for most mixtures, but with the exception of some that contain ethyl methanoate and ethanoate. The change in enthalpies with increasing length of the dichloroalkane chain for the same ester is regular, and also the change in H{sub m}{sup E} with the acid portion of the ethyl ester. However, the change in excess volumes does not present such a regular variation. A behavioural structural model is established to explain the results of the excess properties. Experimental values of H{sub m}{sup E} and V{sub m}{sup E} were correlated, as a function of ester concentration, x with a new expression which uses the so-called active fraction as a variable and which, in turn, is a function of this concentration. The application of two versions of the UNIFAC group contribution models produces no good estimations of H{sub m}{sup E}.

  20. Thermodynamic study of (alkyl esters + {alpha},{omega}-alkyl dihalides) VII. H{sub m}{sup E} and V{sub m}{sup E} for 20 binary mixtures {l_brace}xC{sub u-1}H{sub 2u-1}CO{sub 2}C{sub 3}H{sub 7} + (1 - x){alpha},{omega}-ClCH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub v-2}CH{sub 2}Cl{r_brace}, where u = 1 to 4, {alpha} = 1 and v = {omega} = 2 to 6. An analysis of behavior using the COSMO-RS methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero, E. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos (www.thermo.ulpgc.es), Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Ortega, J. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos (www.thermo.ulpgc.es), Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)], E-mail: jortega@dip.ulpgc.es; Palomar, J. [Seccion de Ingenieria Quimica, Dpto. de Quimica-Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    Summary: Excess enthalpies H{sub m}{sup E} and excess volumes V{sub m}{sup E} obtained at a temperature of 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure are presented for a set of 20 binary mixtures comprised of the first four propyl esters, C{sub u-1}H{sub 2u-1}COOC{sub 3}H{sub 7} (u = 1 to 4), and five {alpha},{omega}-dichloroalkanes, ClCH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub v-2}CH{sub 2}Cl (v = 2 to 6). All the mixtures are exothermic except for those corresponding to propyl methanoate with v {>=} 4. The V{sub m}{sup E} are positive in most mixtures except for those where v = 4, 5, 6, for V{sub m}{sup E}<0. There is a regular rise in H{sub m}{sup E} with v, while the increase in u produces a greater exothermicity in the mixing process, which becomes inverted for propyl butanoate. The variation in V{sub m}{sup E} with the chain length of the compounds of the mixtures studied is not regular since both the enthalpic and the volumetric effects are due to interactions of different nature, positive and negative. Interpretation of the behavior was assisted by applying the quantum-chemistry method COSMO-RS. This method describes qualitatively and quantitatively the contribution of the different types of interactions, electrostatic, van der Waals, and those due to the (Cl, Cl) bond in the dihalide, and the influence of the ester and dichloroalkane chains. This information was also useful to adequately modify the application of the UNIFAC group contribution model, proposing parameters for the Cl, Cl/carboxylate interaction that vary with the chain length of the compounds involved. With this modification, the results estimated by UNIFAC model can be considered good.

  1. Low-temperature and ambient-pressure synthesis and shape evolution of nanocrystalline pure, La-doped and Gd-doped CeO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Joysurya, E-mail: jbasu@engr.uconn.edu [Department of Chemical, Materials and Biomolecular Engineering, 191 Auditorium Road, University of Connecticut, Storrs 06269, CT (United States); Divakar, R. [Physical Metallurgy Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, TN (India); Winterstein, Jonathan P.; Carter, C. Barry [Department of Chemical, Materials and Biomolecular Engineering, 191 Auditorium Road, University of Connecticut, Storrs 06269, CT (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Nanocrystalline cuboidal ceria has been synthesized by low-temperature hydrothermal reaction of cerium nitrate hexahydrate with hexamethylene tetramine. The particles have been doped with La and Gd by adding aqueous solution of the nitrate salts of the metals to the reaction mixture. The pure and doped particles are cubic in crystal structure and 10-25 nm in size. The pure and La-doped ceria are cuboidal in morphology, whereas the Gd-doped particles are irregular in shape. High-resolution TEM imaging and image simulation indicates that atomic level steps are present on the particle surfaces. The particles are faceted parallel to the {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} and {l_brace}1 0 0{r_brace} crystallographic planes and a continuous switching takes place between the two possible surface facets. It appears that the surface energies of the {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} and {l_brace}1 0 0{r_brace} facets are quite similar in magnitude and the interplay of surface energy determines the particle shape. Chemically sensitive imaging and spectroscopy shows that the dopants are homogeneously distributed within the particles and that the oxidation state of Ce is a mixture of +3 and +4. No preferential segregation either of the dopant or the oxidation state was observed. However, since the facet switching does depend on the chemistry of the dopant, there must be an affect on the atomic scale.

  2. Microstructure and texture evolution during static recrystallization of Zr-2Hf alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, K.Y.; Chaubet, D.; Bacroix, B.; Bechade, J.L. [MPMTM-CNRS, Inst. Galilee, Univ. Paris-Nord, Villetaneuse (France); CEA SACLAY, CEREM/DECM/SRMA, Gif-fur-Yvette (France)

    2004-07-01

    The recrystallization of a Zr-2Hf alloy sheet deformed by plane strain compression at room temperature and then heat treated in the temperature range 500-650 C is studied. The microstructure, local and global crystallographic textures are investigated by EBSD and X-ray techniques. The as-deformed condition exhibits a heterogeneous microstructure composed of highly and less deformed zones, the EBSD indexing of the latter ones being more reliable. The as-deformed condition displays a (0001) <10 anti 10> crystallographic texture. The evolution of the microstructure during recrystallization very much depends on the amount of local deformation. Recrystallization begins in highly deformed zones, new grains having two variants of texture components, {l_brace}0001{r_brace} <10 anti 10> and {l_brace}0001{r_brace} <11 anti 20>. Some change of preferred orientations concomitant with grain growth at 600 and 650 C has been observed with a decrease in the {l_brace}0001{r_brace} <10 anti 10> component and an increase in the {l_brace}0001{r_brace} <11 anti 20> component. (orig.)

  3. Evolution of recrystallization texture from aluminum sheet cold rolled under unlubricated condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, C.H.; Lee, D.N. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-11-01

    The texture of cold-rolled aluminum sheet has been known to vary through thickness due to inhomogeneous deformation, which can be caused by a characteristic deformation zone geometry and friction between materials and rolls during rolling. The copper texture is obtained in the center layer, which is plane strain compressed, while the shear texture is in the surface layer, which is approximated by major {l_brace}001{r_brace}{l_angle}110{r_angle} and minor {l_brace}111{r_brace}{l_angle}112{r_angle} and {l_brace}111{r_brace}{l_angle}110{r_angle} components. The recrystallization texture of the surface layer is approximated by {l_brace}225{r_brace}{l_angle}10 5 2{r_angle}. The evolution of the recrystallization texture has been explained by the maximum energy release theory, in which the absolute maximum normal stress direction in the deformed state becomes parallel to the minimum elastic modulus direction of the recrystallized grains.

  4. Upper Limb Exoskeleton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusak, Z.; Luijten, J.; Kooijman, A.

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates a wearable exoskeleton for a user having a torso with an upper limb to support motion of the said upper limb. The wearable exoskeleton comprises a first fixed frame mountable to the torso, an upper arm brace and a first group of actuators for moving the upper arm brace

  5. TiAlN coatings deposited by triode magnetron sputtering varying the bias voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devia, D.M. [Laboratorio de Fisica del Plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Cra. 27 No. 64-60, Manizales, Caldas (Colombia); Laboratorio de Materiales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Medellin, Sede Medellin, Antioquia (Colombia); Restrepo-Parra, E., E-mail: erestrepopa@unal.edu.co [Laboratorio de Fisica del Plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Cra. 27 No. 64-60, Manizales, Caldas (Colombia); Arango, P.J. [Laboratorio de Fisica del Plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Cra. 27 No. 64-60, Manizales, Caldas (Colombia); Tschiptschin, A.P. [Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Depto. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Velez, J.M. [Laboratorio de Materiales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Medellin, Sede Medellin, Antioquia (Colombia)

    2011-05-01

    TiAlN films were deposited on AISI O1 tool steel using a triode magnetron sputtering system. The bias voltage effect on the composition, thickness, crystallography, microstructure, hardness and adhesion strength was investigated. The coatings thickness and elemental composition analyses were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) together with energy dispersive X-ray (EDS). The re-sputtering effect due to the high-energy ions bombardment on the film surface influenced the coatings thickness. The films crystallography was investigated using X-ray diffraction characterization. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) data show that TiAlN coatings were crystallized in the cubic NaCl B1 structure, with orientations in the {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}, {l_brace}2 0 0{r_brace} {l_brace}2 2 0{r_brace} and {l_brace}3 1 1{r_brace} crystallographic planes. The surface morphology (roughness and grain size) of TiAlN coatings was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). By increasing the substrate bias voltage from -40 to -150 V, hardness decreased from 32 GPa to 19 GPa. Scratch tester was used for measuring the critical loads and for measuring the adhesion.

  6. 49 CFR 393.104 - What standards must cargo securement devices and systems meet in order to satisfy the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Material for dunnage, chocks, cradles, shoring bars, blocking and bracing. Material used as dunnage or dunnage bags, chocks, cradles, shoring bars, or used for blocking and bracing, must not have damage or... Seals, American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D3953-97, February 1998. 4 (2) Chain...

  7. Scoliosis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... becomes necessary to correct the curvature of the spine. Overall, braces prevent surgery about 60% to 70% of the time and ... hours. No brace or cast is needed after surgery because the rods hold the spine in place while it heals. The child is ...

  8. 76 FR 8622 - Airworthiness Directives; Fokker Services B.V. Model F.28 Mark 0070 and 0100 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... of the downlock actuator and the upper side brace, and was accumulated during taxi on slush-and snow... turning freely relative to the upper side brace during landing gear down selection, likely resulting in... problems, possibly resulting in loss of control of the aeroplane during landing roll-out. * * * * * We...

  9. The Paneitz curvature problem on lower dimensional spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Ayed, M

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we prescribe a fourth order conformal invariant (the Paneitz curvature) on the n-spheres, with n is an element of left brace 5, 6 right brace. Using dynamical and topological methods involving the study of critical points at infinity of the associated variational problem, we prove some existence results.

  10. Job Grading Standard for Blocker and Bracer WG-4602.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Policies and Standards.

    The standard is used to grade nonsupervisor's work involved in blocking, bracing, staying, and securing cargo for shipment by land, sea, or air. It requires skill in constructing, placing, and installing wooden blocks, wedges, bracing structures and other staying devices, as well as skill in securing items using wires, ropes, chains, cables,…

  11. Modal analysis of a classical guitar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David; Rossing, Thomas D.

    2002-11-01

    Using holographic interferometry, we have determined the modes of vibration of a classical guitar (by the first author) having an asymmetrically-braced top plate and a crossed braced back of unique design. The vibrational modes and acoustical properties are compared with other classical guitars.

  12. Radiochemical synthesis of etomoxir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Hafiz G. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology (INMOL), New Campus Road, Lahore (Pakistan); Yunus, M. [University of the Punjab, New Campus Road, Lahore (Pakistan); Feinendegen, Ludwig E., E-mail: feinendegen@gmx.ne [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heinrich-Heine University Duesseldorf, Wannental 45, 88131 Lindau (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    Sodium 2-{l_brace}6-(4-chlorophenoxy)hexyl{r_brace}oxirane-2-carboxylate (Etomoxir) inhibits transport of fatty acids via the carnitine shuttle into mitochondria of muscle cells and prevents long chain fatty acids from providing energy through {beta}-oxidation especially for muscle contraction. The objective of this synthesis is to develop a method for radioiodination of Etomoxir in order to explore its potential in diagnostic metabolic studies and molecular imaging. Thus, a method is described for the radiochemical synthesis and purification of ethyl 2-{l_brace}6-(4-[{sup 131}I]iodophenoxy)hexyl{r_brace}oxirane-2-carboxylate (3) and 2-{l_brace}6-(4-[{sup 131}I]iodo-phenoxy)hexyl{r_brace}oxirane-2-carboxylic acid (4). For the synthesis of these new agents, ethyl 2-{l_brace}6-(4-bromophenoxy)hexyl{r_brace}oxirane-2-carboxylate (1) and 2-{l_brace}6-(4-bromophenoxy)hexyl{r_brace}oxirane-2-carboxylic acid (2) were refluxed with [{sup 131}I]NaI in the presence of anhydrous acetone at a temperature of 80 {sup o}C and 90 {sup o}C for a period of 3-4 hours, respectively. The method of radiolabeling, based on the nucleophilic exchange reaction, resulted in a radiochemical yield of 43% and 67% for compounds 3 and 4, respectively. This paper reports on the labeling of etomoxir with radioiodine as {sup 124}I labeled etomoxir may be of great importance in molecular imaging.

  13. Modelling of Boron Trapping at End-of-Range defects in pre-amorphized ultra-shallow junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazizi, E.M. [LAAS/CNRS, University of Toulouse, 7 av. Col. Roche, 31077 Toulouse (France); STMicroelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Crolles Cedex (France); CEMES/CNRS, 29 rue J. Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France)], E-mail: bazizi@laas.fr; Fazzini, P.F. [LAAS/CNRS, University of Toulouse, 7 av. Col. Roche, 31077 Toulouse (France); Zechner, C.; Tsibizov, A. [Synopsys Switzerland LLC, Affolternstrasse 52, 8050 Zuerich (Switzerland); Kheyrandish, H. [CSMA, Queens Road, Penkhull, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire ST4 7LQ (United Kingdom); Pakfar, A.; Ciampolini, L.; Tavernier, C. [STMicroelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Crolles Cedex (France); Cristiano, F. [LAAS/CNRS, University of Toulouse, 7 av. Col. Roche, 31077 Toulouse (France)

    2008-12-05

    In this work, the evolution of boron trapping at End-of-Range (EOR) defects was investigated by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Si wafers with a constant boron concentration of 2 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} were implanted with 30 keV germanium and with a dose of 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} and then annealed at 700, 800, or 900 deg. C in an N{sub 2} ambient for various times. The experimental results suggest that the evolution of boron-trapping peak is driven by the evolution of {l_brace}3 1 1{r_brace} defects and that the dislocation loops contribution to the trapping mechanism is less pronounced. An analytic model for the concurrent boron trapping at {l_brace}3 1 1{r_brace} defects and dislocation loops was developed by taking into account the geometry of the EOR defects. The trapped species is represented by neutral BI pairs which can be captured either by {l_brace}3 1 1{r_brace} defects or by dislocation loops. The model accurately reproduces the complex evolution of the trapping peak as a function of both the annealing time and temperature. These results confirm that the evolution of the boron-trapping peak is closely related to the evolution of the {l_brace}3 1 1{r_brace} defects, therefore suggesting that boron trapping is associated to the capture and release of boron atoms at the {l_brace}3 1 1{r_brace} defects formed in the EOR region.

  14. 设置斜撑粘弹性阻尼器框架结构空间协同工作分析方法的控制研究%Control of earthquake responses of buildings with viscoelastic damper and steel brace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏文晖; 王雪亮; 卢哲安

    2002-01-01

    粘弹性阻尼器(ved)是抗震被动控制中一种十分有效的耗能减震装置.本文根据粘弹性阻尼材料的应力-应变关系,推导了粘弹性阻尼器和人字型支撑的组合层间单元刚度矩阵及单元控制力向量;并基于框架结构的空间特性,建立了设置斜撑Vd框架结构在考虑空间协同分析的基础上地震反应时程分析的控制方法;最后,应用本文的方法,对设置Ved斜支撑后钢筋混凝土框架结构进行了结构地震反应时程分析,并根据计算结果对其减震效果进行了分析讨论.

  15. Utilização de terapêuticas comprovadamente úteis no tratamento da coronariopatia aguda: comparação entre diferentes regiões brasileiras. Análise do Registro Brasileiro de Síndromes Coronarianas Agudas (BRACE - Brazilian Registry on Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Nicolau

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Pouco se sabe, em nosso meio, sobre diferenças regionais no tratamento da coronariopatia aguda. OBJETIVO: Analisar o comportamento regional relativamente à utilização de terapêuticas comprovadamente úteis na coronariopatia aguda. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados aleatoriamente 71 hospitais, respeitando-se a proporcionalidade do país em relação à localização geográfica, entre outros critérios. Na população global, foi analisada regionalmente a utilização de AAS, clopidogrel, inibidor da ECA/bloqueador de AT1, betabloqueador e estatina, isoladamente e agrupados por escore individual que variou de 0 (nenhum medicamento utilizado a 100 (todos utilizados. No infarto com supradesnivelamento de ST (IAMCSST foram analisadas diferenças regionais sobre utilização de terapêuticas de recanalização (fibrinolíticos e angioplastia primária. RESULTADOS: No global da população, nas primeiras 24 horas de hospitalização, a média de escore na região Norte-Nordeste (70,5 ± 22,1 foi menor (p < 0,05 do que nas regiões Sudeste (77,7 ± 29,5, Centro-Oeste (82 ± 22,1 e Sul (82,4 ± 21. Por ocasião da alta, o escore da região Norte-Nordeste (61,4 ± 32,9 foi menor (p < 0,05 do que nas regiões Sudeste (69,2 ± 31,6, Centro-Oeste (65,3 ± 33,6, e Sul (73,7 ± 28,1; adicionalmente, o escore do Centro-Oeste foi menor (p < 0,05 do que o do Sul. No IAMCSST, o uso de terapêuticas de recanalização foi maior no Sudeste (75,4%, p = 0,001 em relação ao restante do país, e menor no Norte-Nordeste (52,5%, p < 0,001 em relação ao restante do país. CONCLUSÃO: O uso de terapêuticas comprovadamente úteis no tratamento da coronariopatia aguda está aquém do desejável no país, com importantes diferenças regionais.

  16. 速度型阻尼器和防屈曲支撑在装配式框架结构纵向体系中减震效果研究%Damping Effect Research of Velocity Type Damper and Buckling-restrained Brace in the Longitudinal System of Fabricated Frame Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严俊; 庞金来; 施卫星

    2015-01-01

    For the lack of researches of the longitudinal framing of fabricated structure with weak lateral stiffness, non-damped, buckling-restrainedbrace and damped structure finite element analysis models were es-tablished .The three models'earthquake reaction in the longitudinal system were compared by the nonlinear time history analysis method .Analysis shows that the similar structure with damper can significantly improve the damping effect , and keep the structure in the elastic stage under the major earthquake .The paper can provide a reference for damper's application in the longitudinal framing .%针对抗侧刚度较弱的装配式结构纵向框架研究较少的现状,建立了纯框架、增设防屈曲支撑及增设阻尼器的装配式框架有限元分析模型,通过非线性的时程对比分析了在地震作用下三种模型纵向体系的结构反应。分析表明,在类似结构中增设阻尼器,可显著提高减震效果,使结构在大震中依然处于弹性状态。对于进一步提高阻尼器在纵向框架的应用水平具有一定的借鉴意义。

  17. Influência da utilização da órtese de tornozelo durante atividades do voleibol: avaliação eletromiográfica Influencia de la utilización de la ortesis del tobillo durante las actividades del voleibol: evaluación electromiográfica Use of ankle bracing for volleyball activities

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferson Rosa Cardoso; Christiane de Souza Macedo Guerino; Marcelo Bannwart Santos; Thiago André Del Arco Mustafá; Anália Rosário Lopes; Marcelo Costa de Paula

    2005-01-01

    Entorse de tornozelo é a lesão aguda mais freqüentemente encontrada no voleibol. Com o intuito de prevenir a ocorrência de lesões de tornozelos, foram desenvolvidos equipamentos profiláticos, como as órteses. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desempenho dos músculos do tornozelo (tibial anterior, fibular longo e gastrocnêmio – porção medial e lateral) por meio da medida da atividade elétrica em diferentes atividades esportivas do voleibol (salto vertical e deslocamento lateral) com e...

  18. Pavlik支具治疗婴儿化脓性髋关节炎病理性脱位的家庭健康教育%Family health education of Pavlik brace used in pathological dislocation of septic arthritis in hip for infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓秋; 吴娇臻; 李若; 祝崇雪

    2010-01-01

    @@ 婴儿期化脓性髋关节炎早期延误诊断或治疗不当,常使股骨头、颈和髋臼遭到破坏,以致病理性髋关节脱位,造成患髋不稳定、活动受限、肢体短缩、畸形[1].传统治疗方法有悬吊牵引、 髋人字形石膏外固定,但因婴儿皮肤娇嫩,悬吊牵引时间长易导致皮肤溃烂、过敏、坏死,石膏固定也易出现石膏内皮肤压疮、石膏压迫等不良状况.

  19. 基于均匀层间位移的多层梁贯通式支撑钢框架简化抗震设计方法%Seismic design method of multistory concentrically braced beam-through frames aimed at uniform inter-story drift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    为实现均匀层间位移的目标,提出了基于均匀层间位移的梁贯通式支撑钢框架简化抗震设计方法,设计了梁贯通式支撑钢框架.在地震作用下,作为耗能构件的只拉不压中心支撑抵抗大部分水平作用,而主体钢框架则因其可忽略的抗侧刚度而保持弹性.只拉不压支撑单元的滞回耗能作用可等效为结构的黏滞阻尼,同时支撑和框架的抗侧刚度比对结构的地震响应影响较大.基于均匀层间位移响应提出设计方法的3个性能目标,并合理考虑刚度比和等效阻尼比,给出具体设计流程.分别设计了4层和6层平面支撑钢框架模型,通过Pushover分析和弹塑性时程分析验证了该方法的合理性.分析结果表明:支撑与框架抗侧刚度比最优取值为4~6.

  20. 远场地震下K型偏心支撑钢框架基于能量的性态设计方法%Energy-based seismic design method of K type steel eccentrically braced frames under far field earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈希杰; 顾强; 王炳监

    2016-01-01

    现行结构抗震设计采用基于强度的弹性设计方法,对结构的非弹性性能涉及较少.基于能量的性态设计方法可以同时考虑到力、位移、强震持时等因素的影响,能反映结构进入塑性后的破坏情况,是有发展潜力的抗震设计方法.基于滞回耗能谱与累积延性比谱,根据能量平衡关系,提出了远场地震下K型偏心支撑钢框架的性态设计方法,并设计了10层K型偏心支撑钢框架;采用Pushover方法验证了结构的屈服位移与屈服模式;结构弹塑性时程分析结果验证了设计方法的可信性.

  1. 近场地震下人字形中心支撑钢框架基于能量的性态设计方法%Energy-based seismic design of Chevron concentrically braced steel frames under the near-field earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋彬; 顾强

    2015-01-01

    在基于能量的性态设计中,不能以结构的累积滞回能作为设计依据,应该以引起结构瞬间破坏的那部分有效能量作为设计依据.介绍了近场地震的特征及最大有效滞回耗能(MECE)谱的概念,提出了近场地震下人字形中心支撑钢框架基于MECE谱的性态设计方法;设计了一个人字形中心支撑钢框架;采用Pushover和时程分析方法评估了该结构的地震反应及能量分布,并证明了设计方法的可信性.

  2. 偏心支撑钢框架基于屈服点谱的性态抗震设计(Ⅱ)——算例验证%Performance-based Seismic Design Method of Eccentrically Braced Steel Frame YPS-Part Ⅱ: Numerical Verification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵建中; 顾强

    2011-01-01

    Literature [1] proposed the performance-based seismic design of K-EBF using YPS. In the paper, the seismic behavior of the ten-story-three-span K-EBF was designed and evaluated based on the Pushover method and the nonlinear time history method. The results showed that the yield displacement of the example was funda- mentally stable, satisfying the deformation requirement of the seismic code under the occasional and rare earth- quake level. The K-EBF structure presented the ideal progressively plastic mechanism. This new design proved reasonable and reliable.%基于屈服点谱(YieldPointSpectra,YPS)方法设计了1榀10层3跨K型偏心支撑钢框架结构(K—EBF),采用Pushover方法和弹塑性时程法对所设计的结构进行了地震反应分析。结果表明,算例结构的屈服位移是基本稳定的,在偶遇和罕遇地震作用下结构的层间侧移比满足我国现行抗震规范的要求,结构最终呈现理想的渐进式梁铰屈服机构;最终证明了该设计方法的合理性和可靠性。

  3. 拉索参数对预应力巨型支撑-钢框架结构弹塑性的影响%EFFECTS OF CABLE'S PARAMETERS ON THE ELASTO PLASTIC BEHAVIORS OF PRE-STRESSED MEGA BRACING-STEEL FRAME STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许为强; 王祎; 张福星

    2015-01-01

    为研究拉索参数对预应力巨型支撑-钢框架结构的弹塑性性能的影响,通过改变拉索直径及预拉力,采用Pushover分析法进行静力推覆对比分析.结果表明:拉索预拉力上下浮动20%,对结构极限承载力和抗侧刚度产生的影响很小.拉索直径上下浮动20%,对结构极限承载力和抗侧刚度产生了可观的变化,结构抗侧刚度变化量与之呈正比关系.

  4. The observation of effects in treating the mild or moderate Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis with brace and Chinese manipulation%支具联合中医手法治疗轻中度青少年特发性脊柱侧凸疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄柏辉; 潘锰

    2010-01-01

    目的:通过对19例青少年特发性脊柱侧凸患者运用支具联合中医手法治疗的临床随访观察,评价该疗法在治疗AIS的有效性;方法:本组青少年特发性脊柱侧凸患者19例,女10例.男9例,年龄4-16岁,其中单腰弯的4例,胸腰弯的15例,Cobb角为20°-45°(26.26°±10.06),均采用支具联合中医手法矫形治疗,随访时间,3~12个月,平均6个月,治疗后评价患者前后的Cobb角、身高、坐高;结果:19例AIS患者进行支具联合中医手法治疗,治疗后,根据Cobb角,消退患者为6例,好转的为11例,无效的为2例;结论:支具联合中医手法矫形治疗可以减少青少年特发性脊柱侧凸患者侧弯角度,减缓侧弯进展.

  5. 考虑节点域变形效应的空间支撑钢框架结构二阶弹塑性分析%A SECOND-ORDER INELASTIC ANALYSIS APPROACH FOR BRACED SPACE STEEL FRAME CONSIDERING JOINT PANEL ZONE EFFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑廷银; 马梦寒; 张玉; 赵惠麟

    2005-01-01

    详细推导了基于非线性连续介质力学理论和考虑剪切效应的稳定插值函数所建立的严格三维梁柱单元虚功增量方程和切线刚度方程,该方程包含了轴向、剪切、双向弯曲与扭转及其各耦合效应.提出的三维单元简化塑性区模型可模拟塑性扩展.建立了考虑支撑效应的节点域剪切变形模型,该模型可更真实地反映节点域的变形影响.使用包括几何、材料非线性和节点域变形影响的数值算例来检验本文方法和所编计算机程序的可行性、有效性与精确度.算例表明:利用该程序,每个构件只需一个单元即可准确预测三维结构的极限荷载与失稳模态,可提高结构非线性空间性能的分析效率.该程序可用于三维结构的非线性全过程分析,为建立高层钢结构的高等分析方法奠定了基础.

  6. The evolution of the cube recrystallization texture in cold rolled copper sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Dong Nyung

    2003-06-25

    The S{l_brace}123{r_brace}<634> deformation texture has often been addressed to be responsible for the cube {l_brace}001<100> recrystallization texture in fcc metals from {approx}40 deg. <111> rotational relation. After the 95% cold rolled copper sample was heated up to various temperatures at the rate of 2.5 K s{sup -1} and quenched, the density of the S component was slightly lowered while that of the copper component {l_brace}112{r_brace}<111> was decreased drastically. This result suggests indirectly that the decrease in the density of the copper component is closely linked to the increase in the cube component. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) studies also indicated that the cube rerystallization texture was linked with the {l_brace}112{r_brace}<111> deformation texture. The results have been discussed based on the strain energy release maximization (SERM) model, in which the recrystallization texture is determined so that release of the strain energy due to dislocations can be maximized during annealing.

  7. Estimation of the stress related to conservative scoliosis therapy: an analysis based on BSSQ questionnaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szulc Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent girls treated with a brace for scoliosis are submitted to prolonged stress related to both the disease and the therapy. Currently proposed quality of life questionnaires are focused on the outcome of therapy. Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire (BSSQ enables monitoring of patients being under treatment with a brace or exercises. The aim of the study was to assess the stress level in conservatively managed scoliotic girls using BSSQ. Materials and methods 111 girls, aged 14,2 ± 2,2 years, mean Cobb angle of the primary curve 42,8° ± 17,0° and mean Bunnell angle of 11,4° ± 4,5° were examined with two versions of BSSQ (Deformity and Brace. The analysis considered the type of treatment, curve location, correlation of the total score with age, Cobb angle and Bunnell rotation angle. Results The BSSQ Deformity revealed the median of 17 points in patients managed with exercises (from 4 to 24 points, 18 in patients managed with a brace (from 8 to 24 points and 12 in patients before surgery (from 3 to 21 points. Braced patients who completed both questionnaires (n = 50 revealed significantly higher score with BSSQ Deformity (median = 18 comparing to BSSQ Brace (median = 9. There was a correlation between the total score of BSSQ Deformity and the Cobb angle (r = -0,34, Bunnell primary curve rotation (r = -0,34 and Bunnell sum of rotation (r = -0,33 but not with the age of patients. Conclusion Scoliotic adolescents managed with exercises and brace suffered little stress from the deformity. The brace increased the level of stress over the stress induced by the deformity. The stress level correlated with clinical deformity (Bunnell angle, radiological deformity (Cobb angle and the type of treatment (exercises, bracing, surgery. Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaires are simple and helpful in the management of girls treated conservatively for idiopathic scoliosis.

  8. Gene : CBRC-HSAP-06-0003 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-06-0003 Novel 6 D UNKNOWN CN165_HUMAN 2e-21 63% dbj|BAC85887.1| unnamed protein product [Homo sapi...ens] 7e-35 68% gnl|UG|Hs#S28297950 DA109160 BRACE3 Homo sapiens cDNA clone BRACE302...5623 5', mRNA sequence /clone=BRACE3025623 /clone_end=5' /gb=DA109160 /gi=80475782 /ug=Hs.690917 /len=598 1e-39 69% MAPI...YRHMPPYPTNFCIFSRDRLSLCWPGWSPFLISGDPAALVSQSAGITGVSHGTWPFDCFSSFELGLFLPPHSPIAILEILGYQILPGQVSAPIDAYSNAVPFSHGF ...

  9. Behaviour of parallel girders stabilised with U-frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virdi, Kuldeep; Azzi, Walid

    2010-01-01

    Lateral torsional buckling is a key factor in the design of steel girders. Stability can be enhanced by cross-bracing, reducing the effective length and thus increasing the ultimate capacity. U-frames are an option often used to brace the girders when designing through type of bridges and where...... overhead bracing is not practical. This paper investigates the effect of the U-frame spacing on the stability of the parallel girders. Eigenvalue buckling analysis was undertaken with four different spacings of the U-frames. Results were extracted from finite element analysis, interpreted and conclusions...

  10. Spherical harmonics: coherent states constructed by the second lowest and second highest bases of su(1, 1) Lie algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehghani, A [Payam Noor University, Tabriz Center, Emamieh, Hakimnezami Street, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fakhri, H, E-mail: a_dehghani@tabrizu.ac.ir, E-mail: hfakhri@tabrizu.ac.ir [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics, University of Tabriz, PO Box 51666-16471, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-25

    The second lowest and second highest bases of the discrete positive and negative irreducible representations of su(1, 1) Lie algebra via spherical harmonics are used to construct generalized coherent states. Depending on whether the representation label is an even or odd integer, each of the new coherent states is separated into two different classes. They are constituted by appropriate superpositions of the increasing and decreasing infinite sequences with respect to the m index of the spherical harmonics {l_brace}Y{sup m}{sub 2j{+-}m}({theta}, {phi}){r_brace}{sub m}= {sub mnplusj{+-}1}{sup {+-}{infinity}} and {l_brace}Y{sup m}{sub 2k{+-}m-1}({theta}, {phi}){r_brace}{sub m=mnplusk{+-}2}{sup {+-}{infinity}}, and converge to the known functions. Also the non-oscillating measures to realize the resolution of the identity condition on the unit disk are calculated.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of copolymers 4,5-dihydroisoxazole and (-)-menthyl acrylates; Sintese e caracterizacao de copolimeros de cadeia lateral derivados de acrilatos de 4,5-di-hidroisoxazol e do (-)-mentol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passo, Joel A.; Merlo, Aloir A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Eccher, Juliana; Bechtold, Ivan H. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Campus Universitario Trindade. Dept. de Fisica; Kelly, Stephen M., E-mail: aloir@iq.ufrgs.br [University of Hull, Hull (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    Five monomers 5-[4-(5-cyano-4,5-dihydroisoxazol-3-yl)phenoxy]undecyl acrylate (7a); n-alkyl 3-{l_brace}4-[5-(acryloyloxyundecyl)oxyphenyl]{r_brace}-4,5-dihydroisoxazole-5-carboxylate (7b,c for n-butyl and n-hexyl, respectively); 3-{l_brace}4-[5-(acryloyloxyundecyl) oxyphenyl]{r_brace}-4,5-dihydroisoxazole-5-carboxylic acid (7d) and (1R,2S,5R)-2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexyl acrylate (9) and the corresponding copolymers 10a-d,11 and homopolymers 12 from 7a and 13 from 9 were designed and synthesized. Except for acrylate 9 which is derived from (-)-menthol, all of the monomers belong to the series containing the isoxazoline ring linked to the acrylate unit by a flexible spacer chain of eleven methylene units. They presented low glass temperature and despite birefringence behavior, these copolymers showed no mesomorphic properties. (author)

  12. Medical Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... email share facebook twitter google plus linkedin Medical Management Although there’s no cure for CMT, there are ... individualized physical therapy program. For more on medical management of CMT, see Surgery Sometimes, Bracing Often, Caution ...

  13. Electronic conductivity and structural distortion at the interface between insulators SrTiO{sub 3} and LaAlO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurice, J.L.; Carretero, C.; Bouzehouane, K.; Guyard, S.; Contour, J.P. [Unite Mixte de Physique CNRS/Thales, Route departementale 128, 91767 Palaiseau cedex (France); Casanove, M.J. [CEMES CNRS, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, BP 4347, 31055 Toulouse cedex (France); Larquet, E. [IMPMC, Universite P. and M. Curie, Campus Boucicaut, 75015 Paris (France)

    2006-07-15

    When insulator LaAlO{sub 3} is grown by epitaxy onto a TiO{sub 2}-terminated {l_brace}100{r_brace} surface of insulator SrTiO{sub 3}, the system obtained has a metallic character. This phenomenon has been associated with an electrostatic frustration at the interface, as {l_brace}100{r_brace} surfaces of SrTiO{sub 3} are neutral while those of LaAlO{sub 3} are polar, but its microscopic mechanism is not quite understood. Here, we present a structural characterisation of this interface by aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. The unit cells at the interface appear elongated: we discuss this distortion in terms of electrostatic charge and extra carriers at the interface. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. CP Violation in Tau to K* Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgkinson, Mark; /Manchester U.

    2006-03-10

    A sample of {tau}{sup {+-}} {yields} K*{sup {+-}} decays with K*{sup {+-}} {yields} K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup {+-}} and K{sub S}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, using 123.4 fb{sup -1} of data collected by the BaBar detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, is used to search for a direct CP violation effect in the charged Higgs sector. No evidence of CP violation is found and the imaginary part of the charged Higgs coupling, {l_brace}Im{r_brace}({Lambda}), in the Multi-Higgs-Doublet-Model is found to be at -0.284 < {l_brace}Im{r_brace}({Lambda}) < 0.200 at 90% Confidence Level. In addition the installation of the kk2f Monte Carlo generator into the BaBar software framework is described.

  15. About Kids' Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for tooth decay and gum disease. Good oral hygiene is especially important for people wearing braces. And ... bottle pool around the teeth while the child sleeps. Bacteria in the mouth use these sugars as ...

  16. Updating sea spray aerosol emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model version 5.0.2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The uploaded data consists of the BRACE Na aerosol observations paired with CMAQ model output, the updated model's parameterization of sea salt aerosol emission...

  17. Aging Studies of Filled and Unfilled VCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letant, S; Herberg, J; Alviso, C; Small, W; Mulcahy, H; Pearson, M; Wilson, T; Chinn, S; Maxwell, R

    2009-11-10

    This report presents data on the effects of temperature and gamma radiation on the chemical and structural properties of both filled and unfilled VCE material produced by the Kansas City Plant using WR-qualified processes. Thermal effects up to 300 C and gamma irradiation doses of 1 MRad and 25 MRad were investigated under atmospheric conditions. Characterization techniques used in the study comprise Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Tensile Testing, Solid Phase MicroExtraction - Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS), phenol extraction followed by HPLC, and various Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques including: {sup 13}C, {sup 13}C {l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace} cross polarization (CP), {sup 1}H magic angle spinning (MAS), 13C{l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace} Wide-line-Separation (2D-WISE) and development of Center band-Only Detection of Exchange (CODEX).

  18. Modeling texture change during the static recrystallization of interstitial free steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kestens, L.; Jonas, J.J. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering

    1996-01-01

    A recrystallization model was developed based on the principal features of oriented nucleation and selective growth. The nucleation mechanism that is adopted assumes that nucleation takes place in deformed grains with relatively high Taylor factors. The selective growth law is based on the assumed high mobility of {l_brace}110{r_brace} plane matching (PM) boundaries and also includes a variant selection rule. The two submodels enable the full recrystallization process to be simulated. The theory is applied to the annealing of a Ti-Nb alloyed interstitial free (IF) steel. It is demonstrated that the nucleation and growth algorithms can successfully account for the annealing textures observed, including the presence of a strong {l_brace}111{r_brace}<211> component. An important feature of the model is that it permits the role of variant selection to be assessed; it also shows the effect on the texture of the low mobility of low-angle grain boundaries (LAGBs).

  19. 29 CFR (non - mandatory) Appendix D to Subpart L of Part 1926-List of Training Topics for Scaffold Erectors and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... • working platforms • foundations • guys, ties and braces • Tubular Welded Frame Scaffolds • specific... • rolling scaffold assembly • putlogs • Tube and Clamp Scaffolds • specific regulations and...

  20. Ankle Sprains. A Round Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Types of ankle sprains, surgical versus nonsurgical treatment, tape versus brace for support, rehabilitation, exercise, and prevention of ankle sprains are discussed by a panel of experts. An acute ankle taping technique is illustrated. (MT)

  1. Variable-Fidelity Aeroservoelastic Analysis Tool for Concept Evaluation, Design and Wind-Tunnel Test Support Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ongoing work in advanced air-vehicles, such as ultra-light-weight truss-braced and elastically tailored concepts is beginning to provide the insight necessary to...

  2. Grain boundary structure in Ni{sub 3}Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, D. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Materials Engineering

    1996-08-01

    The multiplicity of possible grain boundary structures was studied for the ordered compound Ni{sub 3}Al. Two symmetrical tilt boundaries were chosen for the detailed study corresponding to {Sigma}=3 left angle 110 right angle {l_brace}112{r_brace} and {Sigma}=9 left angle 110 right angle {l_brace}114{r_brace}. These boundaries were investigated considering possible variations of the local chemical composition and environment using atomistic computer simulation with EAM interatomic potentials. Many different grain boundary structures were found having very similar energies for the same orientation of the two crystals and the grain boundary plane. Possible transformations among these structures may result from the interaction of the boundaries with dislocations or antiphase boundaries. The role of the multiplicity of structures and these transformations in the grain boundary mechanical properties is discussed. In this paper, we explore the role that different possible grain boundary structures play in intermetallic alloys. (orig.)

  3. Malocclusion of teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are easier to clean and decrease risk of tooth decay and periodontal diseases ( gingivitis or periodontitis ). Eliminate strain ... braces and may permanently mark teeth or cause tooth decay if not properly cared for. You will need ...

  4. Bone marrow transplant - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugar-free popsicles or sugar-free hard candies. Take care of your dentures, braces, or other dental products. ... Take care not to get infections for up to 1 year or more after your transplant. Practice safe ...

  5. After chemotherapy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugar-free popsicles or sugar-free hard candies. Take care of your dentures, braces, or other dental products. ... Take care not to get infections for up to 1 year or more after your chemotherapy. Practice safe ...

  6. Diving Medicine: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navy Diving Medical Officer Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia(PSVT) Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO) Raynaud's Syndrome or Phenomenon Vasovagal ... with a cracked tooth Diving With Dental Braces Diabetes & Diving Diabetes — The Risks Diving Accidents Basic Instincts ...

  7. Cosmetic Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have stained, broken or uneven teeth, cosmetic dentistry can help. Cosmetic dentistry is different from orthodontic treatment, which can straighten your teeth with braces or other devices. Cosmetic dental procedures include Bleaching to make teeth whiter ...

  8. Climate science hit by job cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Climate researchers in Australia are bracing themselves for heavy job cuts as the country's national scientific agency - the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) - said last month it will reprioritize towards innovation.

  9. Zero Tolerance, Zero Sense%过分苛责,有悖情理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文炳

    2012-01-01

    Two good kids. Two broken rules. Two parables2 of justice, except one offers a bracing3 lesson in honor and the other just leaves you heartsick at the latest evidence that zero tolerance often makes zero sense.

  10. Strategic focus. A game plan for collaboration in a competitive marketplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweed, S C

    1993-10-01

    How can home care agencies brace for the coming changes and not only survive health care reform, but thrive in it? Collaboration is an effective tool for gaining competitive advantage in the marketplace. PMID:10129037

  11. Bankart Repair to Correct Shoulder Instability

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Page 16 of 18 that brace in the emergency room and using it on kids who come ... Orthopedic and Sports Medicine here at Akron Children's Hospital. Feel like under one roof and one facility ...

  12. Motor Neuron Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... braces, orthotics, speech synthesizers, and wheelchairs help some patients retain independence. Proper nutrition and a balanced diet are essential to maintaining weight and strength. What is the ... and progress slowly. Patients with spinal muscular atrophy may appear to be ...

  13. Dental care - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as fluoride, extractions, fillings, or braces and other orthodontics. Information Healthy teeth and gums are essential to ... herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any ...

  14. Comparative Efficacy of Oral Hygiene, a Complex Containing Triklogard and Herbal Extracts you have Patients on the Orthodontic Treatment with Braket-system

    OpenAIRE

    Suyetenkov D.Ye.; Juk А.О.; Usachev V.V.; Zakharov A.V.

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of the effectiveness of hygiene containing Triklogard and plant extracts in patients with a bracket system. Preference is not revealed. A modification of the index of oral hygiene for patients with braces

  15. Seismic behavior of concrete filled steel tubular arch structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Feng; Sashi K Kunnath; Liu Haowu

    2005-01-01

    Shaking table tests of a 1:10 scale arch model performed to investigate the seismic behavior and resistance of concrete filled steel tubular (CFT) arch structures are described in this paper. The El-Centro record and Shanghai artificial wave were adopted as the input excitation. The entire test process can be divided into three stages depending on the lateral brace configurations, i.e., fully (five) braced, two braces removed, and all braces removed. A total of 46 tests, starting from the elastic state to failure condition, have been conducted. The natural vibration frequencies, responses of acceleration,displacement and strain were measured. From the test results, it is demonstrated that the CFT arch structures are capable of resisting severe ground motions and that CFT arches offer a credible alternative to reinforced concrete arches, especially in regions of high seismic intensity.

  16. Fast photo-switchable surfaces for boiling heat transfer applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, C. N.; Glavin, N. R.; Voevodin, A. A. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, 2941 Hobson Way, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Turner, D. B.; Check, M. H. [Universal Technology Corporation, 1270 North Fairfield Road, Dayton, Ohio 45532 (United States); Jespersen, M. L.; Borton, P. T. [University of Dayton Research Institute, 300 College Park, Dayton, Ohio 45469 (United States)

    2012-11-05

    Several milligrams of the ruthenium-centered organometallic complex, ruthenium bis-4,4 Prime -di(thiomethyl)-2,2 Prime -bipyridine, mono-2 -(2-pyridyl)-1,3-oxathiane ([Ru{l_brace}(HS-CH{sub 2}){sub 2}-bpy{r_brace}{sub 2}{l_brace}pox{r_brace}](PF{sub 6}){sub 2}) were synthesized and used to produce a self assembled monolayer film on a gold substrate. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the film detected the presence of bound thiolate, which is an indication of a chemisorbed film. Water contact angle measurements were performed before and after 5 min of visible light irradiation using an ozone-free 1000 W Xe(Hg) arc source with a 425-680 nm long pass mirror. The contact angle changed from 52 Degree-Sign pre-irradiation (hydrophilic state) to 95 Degree-Sign post-irradiation (hydrophobic state).

  17. Hot rolling textures of Al-Cu-Li and Al-Zn-Mg-Cu aeronautical alloys: Experiments and simulations to high strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contrepois, Q.; Maurice, C. [Ecole des Mines de Saint-Etienne, Centre SMS, CNRS UMR 5146, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint-Etienne, CEDEX 2 (France); Driver, J.H., E-mail: driver@emse.fr [Ecole des Mines de Saint-Etienne, Centre SMS, CNRS UMR 5146, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint-Etienne, CEDEX 2 (France)

    2010-10-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Systematic hot plane strain compression tests have been made under controlled conditions of temperature and strain to compare texture evolution in Al-Zn-Mg and Al-Li-Cu. {yields} The hot rolling textures in Al-Cu-Li are the same as those of standard Al-Zn-Mg alloys, when deformed under the same conditions. {yields} The stronger textures, particularly the Brass {l_brace}110{r_brace}<112> component, of industrially rolled Al-Cu-Li are due to the higher rolling temperatures. {yields} The experimental results are consistent with the model of non-octahedral slip at high temperaturesz. - Abstract: The development of hot rolling textures, and particularly the Brass {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} <1 1 2> component, of two typical aeronautical alloys: Al-Cu-Li AA2050 and Al-Zn-Mg-Cu AA7050, has been investigated by EBSD and X-ray diffraction measurements after plane strain compression tests and industrial hot rolling. Systematic hot channel-die compression tests were performed to strains of 2.7 at 420-450 deg. C, on both as-homogenized alloys. Under the same processing conditions, the two alloys develop the same rolling textures showing that the presence of Li is not intrinsically responsible for the development of strong Brass components. However, it is shown, by further channel-die compression tests between 350 and 500 deg. C and up to strains of 3.9, that the deformation temperature can have a major influence: with increasing temperature {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} <1 1 2> orientations are strongly favoured at the expense of the Copper {l_brace}1 1 2{r_brace} <1 1 1> component. Numerical simulations demonstrate that previous and current experimental observations of the influence of temperature on texture development can be explained by increasing slip on non-octahedral slip systems.

  18. {gamma}-Fibre recrystallization texture in IF-steel: an investigation on the recrystallization mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samajdar, I.; Verlinden, B.; Van Houtte, P. [Katholieke Univ. Leuven, Heverlee (Belgium). Dept. MTM; Vanderschueren, D. [OCAS, John Kennedylaan, B-9060 Zelzate (Belgium)

    1997-11-15

    Development of recrystallization texture in cold-rolled Ti-bearing IF-steel was investigated using X-ray diffraction, Electron Back Scattered Diffraction/Orientation Imaging Microscopy (EBSD/OIM) and TEM. During cold-rolling, both the {alpha} (RD// left angle 110 right angle) and the {gamma} (ND// left angle 111 right angle) fibres were observed to be strengthened, although the increase in {alpha} was more pronounced. Simulations of the cold-rolling using Taylor type theories demonstrated an approximate predictability of the textural changes. Recrystallization strengthened the {gamma}, as F (={l_brace}111{r_brace} left angle 112 right angle) increased but E (={l_brace}111{r_brace} left angle 110 right angle) remained essentially unchanged. A corresponding decrease in {alpha}, more in H (={l_brace}001{r_brace} left angle 110 right angle) than in I (={l_brace}112{r_brace} left angle 110 right angle), was also observed. The strong {gamma}-fibre recrystallization texture was mainly due to the larger numbers (i.e. `frequency advantage`) of the {gamma}-oriented grains, as the {gamma} grains were no larger than grains of other orientations. TEM studies showed an increase in cell size and a decrease and cell misorientation (which means an increase in stored energy) from H{yields}I{yields}E{yields}F. With the exception of a slight drop from E to F, increase in the Taylor factor always corresponded to an increase in the stored energy. The spread of stored energies, corresponding to inhomogeneities in dislocation substructure, were observed to increase from I=>H=>E=>F. A combination of the higher stored energy and the stronger inhomogeneities in dislocation substructure is possibly responsible for the preferred nucleation behavior causing the frequency advantage for the {gamma} grains. (orig.) 27 refs.

  19. Thermodynamics of the ternary systems: (water + glycine, L-alanine and L-serine + di-ammonium hydrogen citrate) from volumetric, compressibility, and (vapour + liquid) equilibria measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat, E-mail: rahsadeghi@yahoo.co [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gholamireza, Afsaneh [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    The apparent molar volumes and isentropic compressibility of glycine, L-alanine and L-serine in water and in aqueous solutions of (0.500 and 1.00) mol . kg{sup -1} di-ammonium hydrogen citrate {l_brace}(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit{r_brace} and those of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit in water have been obtained over the (288.15 to 313.15) K temperature range at 5 K intervals at atmospheric pressure from measurements of density and ultrasonic velocity. The apparent molar volume and isentropic compressibility values at infinite dilution of the investigated amino acids have been obtained and their variations with temperature and their transfer properties from water to aqueous solutions of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit have also been obtained. The results have been interpreted in terms of the hydration of the amino acids. In the second part of this work, water activity measurements by the isopiestic method have been carried out on the aqueous solutions of {l_brace}glycine + (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit{r_brace}, {l_brace}alanine + (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit{r_brace}, and {l_brace}serine + (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit{r_brace} at T = 298.15 K at atmospheric pressure. From these measurements, values of vapour pressure, osmotic coefficient, activity coefficient and Gibbs free energy were obtained. The effect of the type of amino acids on the (vapour + liquid) equilibrium of the systems investigated has been studied. The experimental water activities have been correlated successfully with the segment-based local composition Wilson model. Furthermore, the thermodynamic behaviour of the ternary solutions investigated has been studied by using the semi-ideal hydration model and the linear concentration relations have been tested by comparing with the isopiestic measurements for the studied systems at T = 298.15 K.

  20. On K sub 2 of division algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Guo Xue Jun; Qin Hou Rong

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, it is proved that if F is a global field or a local field, then every element of K sub 2 D is generated by symbols of form left brace a, b right brace with an element of F*, b is an element of D*, where D is a central division algebra over F. The tame kernel and wild kernel of central division algebra over F are expressed explicitly.

  1. Control component retainer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An apparatus is described for retaining an undriven control component assembly disposed in a fuel assembly in a nuclear reactor of the type having a core grid plate. The first part of the mechanism involves a housing for the control component and the second part is a brace with a number of arms that reach under the grid plate. The brace and the housing are coupled together to firmly hold the control components in place even under strong flows of th coolant

  2. Magnetic dipole bands in {sup 198}Bi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwartz, G.; Drake, T.E.; Cromaz, M. [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A7 (Canada); Ward, D.; Janzen, V.; Galindo-Uribarria, A. [Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario K0J 1J0 (Canada); Prevost, D.; Waddington, J.; Mullins, S.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1 (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    High spin states in {sup 198}{l_brace}Bi{r_brace} were populated using a {sup 184}W({sup 19}F, 5n) reaction at 107 MeV. Three {sup 198}Bi {gamma}-ray cascades resulting from aseries of magnetic dipole transitions were observed. Measurements of the B(M1)/B(E2) ratio, angular correlation ratios and second moment of inertia are presented. (author)

  3. Complete {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR structural assignments for a group of four goyazensolide-type furanoheliangolides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Ana Carolina Ferreira; Silva, Aline Nazare; Matos, Priscilla Mendonca; Silva, Eder Henrique da; Heleno, Vladimir Constantino Gomes [Universidade de Franca, Franca, SP (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas em Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Lopes, Joao Luis Callegari [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FCFRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto. Dept. de Quimica e Fisica; Sass, Daiane Cristina, E-mail: vheleno_05@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto. Dept. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    Four goyazensolide-type sesquiterpene lactones - lychnofolide, centratherin, goyazensolide and goyazensolide acetate - were thoroughly studied by NMR experimental techniques. {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR {l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace}, COSY, HMQC, HMBC, J-res. and NOE experiments were performed to provide the needed structural information. Complete and unequivocal assignment, including the determination of all multiplicities, was obtained for each structure and the data collections are presented in tables (author)

  4. Cation-cation interactions, magnetic communication and reactivity of the pentavalent uraniumion [U(NR)2]+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Liam P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schelter, Eric J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Boncella, James M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Ping [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gsula, Robyn L [NON LANL; Scott, Brian L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, Joe D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kiplinger, Jacqueline L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batista, Enrique R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The dimeric bis(imido) uranium complex [{l_brace}U(NtBu)2(I)(tBu2bpy){r_brace}2] (see picture; U green, N blue, I red) has cation-cation interactions between [U(NR)2]+ ions. This f1-f1 system also displays f orbital communication between uranium(V) centers at low temperatures, and can be oxidized to generate uranium(VI) bis(imido) complexes.

  5. The Therapeutic Effects Of Kinesio Tape on a Grade I Lateral Ankle Sprain

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrick, Carrie Rayette

    2010-01-01

    The Therapeutic Effects OF Kinesioâ ¢ Tape On A Grade I Lateral Ankle Sprain? By Carrie Rayette Hendrick ABSTRACT Ankle taping and bracing are important components in the world of sports medicine and athletic training. There are different types of tape that are used for athletes by athletic trainers. However, little research has compared the performance of Kinesioâ ¢ Tape and an ASO ankle brace on a lateral grade...

  6. Cu K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Reveals Differential Copper Coordimation Within Amyloid-beta Oligomers Compared to Amyloid-beta Monomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Shearer; P Callan; T Tran; V Szalai

    2011-12-31

    The fatal neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been linked to the formation of soluble neurotoxic oligomers of amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) peptides. These peptides have high affinities for copper cations. Despite their potential importance in AD neurodegeneration few studies have focused on probing the Cu{sup 2+/1+} coordination environment within A{beta} oligomers. Herein we present a Cu K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopic study probing the copper-coordination environment within oligomers of A{beta}(42) (sequence: DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLVFFAEDVGSNKGAIIGLMVGGVVIA). We find that the Cu{sup 2+} cation is contained within a square planar mixed N/O ligand environment within A{beta}(42) oligomers, which is similar to the copper coordination environment of the monomeric forms of {l_brace}Cu{sup II}A{beta}(40){r_brace} and {l_brace}Cu{sup II}A{beta}(16){r_brace}. Reduction of the Cu{sup 2+} cation within the A{beta}(42) oligomers to Cu{sup 1+} yields a highly dioxygen sensitive copper-species that contains Cu{sup 1+} in a tetrahedral coordination geometry. This can be contrasted with monomers of {l_brace}Cu{sup I}A{beta}(40){r_brace} and {l_brace}Cu{sup I}A{beta}(16){r_brace}, which contain copper in a dioxygen inert linear bis-histidine ligand environment [Shearer and Szalai, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2008, 130, 17826]. The biological implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. Evolution of recrystallization texture in a 0.78 wt.% Cr extra-low-carbon steel after warm and cold rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazder, Azdiar A., E-mail: azdiar@uow.edu.au [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); Sanchez-Araiza, Miguel; Jonas, John J. [Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2B2 (Canada); Pereloma, Elena V. [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia)

    2011-07-15

    The detailed evolution of microstructure and microtexture during the annealing of warm-rolled (WR) and cold-rolled (CR) 0.78 wt.% Cr extra-low-carbon steels was studied via electron back-scattering diffraction (EBSD). The partially recrystallized maps were deconstructed into deformed, recovered, newly nucleated and growing grain fractions using a newly developed procedure. In the early stages of recrystallization, the WR samples contained a mixture of discontinuously recrystallized {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}<1 1 2> newly nucleated grains and previously recovered {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}<1 1 0> growing grains. During the later stages of annealing, continuous recrystallization was the predominant mechanism with the strengthening orientations confined mostly to the {alpha}-fibre at {approx}(112)[11-bar0]. Conversely, during the annealing of the CR samples, discontinuous recrystallization took place, with the newly nucleated and growing grain fractions consisting mostly of {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}<1 1 2> orientations.

  8. Interplay between the deposition mode and microstructure in electrochemically deposited Cu thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremmer, K. [Institute of Materials Science, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Gustav-Zeuner-Str. 5, D-09599 Freiberg (Germany); Yezerska, O. [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Applied Materials Research, Wiener Str. 12, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Schreiber, G. [Institute of Materials Science, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Gustav-Zeuner-Str. 5, D-09599 Freiberg (Germany); Masimov, M. [Institute of Materials Science, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Gustav-Zeuner-Str. 5, D-09599 Freiberg (Germany); Klemm, V. [Institute of Materials Science, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Gustav-Zeuner-Str. 5, D-09599 Freiberg (Germany); Schneider, M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Applied Materials Research, Wiener Str. 12, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Rafaja, D. [Institute of Materials Science, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Gustav-Zeuner-Str. 5, D-09599 Freiberg (Germany)]. E-mail: rafaja@ww.tu-freiberg.de

    2007-06-13

    The influence of the electrochemical potential and the deposition mode on the preferred orientation and morphology of crystallites and on the microstrain in electrochemically deposited copper thin films was investigated using a combination of cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, X-ray diffraction, SEM and the diffraction of backscattered electrons. With increasing negative electrochemical potential, the deposition mode changed from the charge transfer controlled one to the diffusion controlled one. At the highest electrochemical potentials, copper deposition was accompanied by hydrogen reduction. In potentiostatically deposited thin films, the preferred orientation of crystallites changed from {l_brace}111{r_brace} in the charge transfer controlled deposition mode to {l_brace}110{r_brace} in the diffusion controlled one. The increase of the electrochemical potential in the charge transport controlled deposition mode caused an increase of the dislocation density. The increasing electrochemical potential in the diffusion controlled mode led to a decrease of the dislocation density. The copper deposition, which was accompanied by the hydrogen reduction, produced needle-like crystallites with the {l_brace}100{r_brace} texture and with the lowest dislocation density.

  9. Shear faults and dislocation core structure simulations in B2 FeAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vailhe, C.; Farkas, D. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1997-11-01

    Embedded atom potentials were derived for the Fe-Al system reproducing lattice and elastic properties of B2 FeAl. The structure and energy of vacancies, antisites and anti phase boundaries (APBs) were studied. A significant decrease in the APB energy was obtained for Fe-rich B2 alloys. Shear fault energies along the {l_brace}110{r_brace} and {l_brace}112{r_brace} planes were computed showing that stable planar faults deviated from the exact APB fault. Core structures and critical Peierls stress values were simulated for the <100> and <111> dislocations. The superpartials created in the dissociation reactions were not of the 1/2<111> type, but 1/8<334> in accordance with the stable planar fault in the {l_brace}110{r_brace} planes. The results obtained for these simulations are discussed in terms of the mechanical behavior of FeAl and in comparison with B2 NiAl.

  10. Lattice dynamic studies from {sup 151}Eu-Moessbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katada, Motomi [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Hachioji (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1997-03-01

    New complexes {l_brace}(Eu(napy){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3})(Fe(CN){sub 6})4H{sub 2}O{r_brace}{sub x}, bpy({l_brace}(Eu(bpy)(H{sub 2}O){sub 4})(Fe(CN){sub 6})1.5bpy4H{sub 2}O{r_brace}{sub x}) and ({l_brace}(Eu(phen){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2})(Fe(CN){sub 6})2phen{r_brace}{sub x}) etc were synthesized using phenanthroline and bipyridine. Lattice dynamic behaviors of Eu and Fe atom in the complexes were investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy. By {sup 151}Eu-Moessbauer spectrum and parameters of new complexes, bpy complex showed the largest quadrupole splitting value, indicating bad symmetry of Eu ligand in the environment. Molecular structure of napy, bpy and phen complex were shown. These complexes are consisted of Eu atom coordinated with ligand and water molecule, of which (Fe(CN){sub 6}){sup 3-} ion formed one dimentional polymer chain and naphthyridines formed stacking structure. New complexes were observed by {sup 57}Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy, too. The quadrupole splitting values were very different each other, indicating change of symmetry of Fe atom in the environment and three valence low spin state of Fe in the complex. (S.Y.)

  11. Temperature dependence of the radiation damage microstructure in V-4Cr-4Ti neutron irradiated to low dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, P.M.; Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., IL (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed on the US program heat of V-4Cr-4Ti (heat No. 83665) irradiated to damage levels of 0.1--0.5 displacements per atom (dpa) at 110--505 C in the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven. A high density ({approximately}1 {times} 10{sup 23}/m{sup 3}) of small ({approximately}3.0 nm diameter) faulted dislocation loops were observed at irradiation temperatures blow 275 C. These dislocation loops became unfaulted at temperatures above {approximately}275 C, and a high density of small Ti-rich defect clusters lying on {l_brace}001{r_brace} planes appeared along with the unfaulted loops at temperatures above 300 C. The density of the {l_brace}001{r_brace} defect clusters was much higher than that of the dislocation loops at all temperatures above {approximately}300 C. The density of both types of defects decreased with increasing temperature above 300 C, with the most rapid decrease occurring for temperatures above 400 C. Based on the TEM and tensile measurements, the dislocation barrier strengths of the faulted dislocation loops and {l_brace}001{r_brace} defect clusters are {approximately}0.4--0.5 and 0.25, respectively. This indicates that both types of defects can be easily sheared by dislocations during deformation. Cleared dislocation channels were observed following tensile deformation in a specimen irradiated at 268 C.

  12. Crystallographic features of {alpha}``-martensite in titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivasishin, O.M. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Metallov Fiziki; Kosenko, N.S. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Metallov Fiziki; Shevchenko, S.V. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Metallov Fiziki

    1995-12-01

    Equilibrium volume fractions of twins ({alpha}{sub 0}) and habit plane orientation (anti n{sub 0}) of the orthorhombic {alpha}``-martensite in titanium alloys with {beta}-stabilizing elements were determined by minimization of the elastic strain energy. Calculations were made in the basis of one of the twinned domains. It was shown that these parameters are varying considerably depending on the solute element content. For Ti-Ta and Ti-Mo systems habit plane rotated from {l_brace}434{r_brace}{sub {beta}} to {l_brace}433{r_brace}{sub {beta}} pole and {alpha}{sub 0} grew with Ta (Mo) content increase. For Ti-20at%Ta {alpha}{sub 0} reached the value of 1, i.e. martensite plate became monodomain. For Ti-Mo system monodomain state was not achieved. For Ti-Nb system converse concentrational dependence of martensite parameters was obtained: {alpha}{sub 0} decreased with Nb content increase, and n showed a rotation from {l_brace}434{r_brace}{sub {beta}} pole in a direction opposite to that for Ti-Ta and Ti-Mo systems. (orig.).

  13. A generalized Zakharov-Shabat equation with finite-band solutions and a soliton-equation hierarchy with an arbitrary parameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yufeng, E-mail: mathzhang@126.com [College of Science, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Tam, Honwah [Department of Computer Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Feng Binlu [School of Mathematics and Information Sciences, Weifang University, Shandong Weifang 261061 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > A generalized Zakharov-Shabat equation is obtained. > The generalized AKNS vector fields are established. > The finite-band solution of the g-ZS equation is obtained. > By using a Lie algebra presented in the paper, a new soliton hierarchy with an arbitrary parameter is worked out. - Abstract: In this paper, a generalized Zakharov-Shabat equation (g-ZS equation), which is an isospectral problem, is introduced by using a loop algebra G{sup {approx}}. From the stationary zero curvature equation we define the Lenard gradients {l_brace}g{sub j{r_brace}} and the corresponding generalized AKNS (g-AKNS) vector fields {l_brace}X{sub j{r_brace}} and X{sub k} flows. Employing the nonlinearization method, we obtain the generalized Zhakharov-Shabat Bargmann (g-ZS-B) system and prove that it is Liouville integrable by introducing elliptic coordinates and evolution equations. The explicit relations of the X{sub k} flows and the polynomial integrals {l_brace}H{sub k{r_brace}} are established. Finally, we obtain the finite-band solutions of the g-ZS equation via the Abel-Jacobian coordinates. In addition, a soliton hierarchy and its Hamiltonian structure with an arbitrary parameter k are derived.

  14. Assessment of the specific absorption rate and calibration of decoupling parameters for proton decoupled carbon-13 MR spectroscopy at 3.0 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Moyoko [Biomedical Imaging Group, Photonics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: moyoko-saitou@aist.go.jp; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi [Imaging Application Tech. Center, GE Yokogawa Medical Systems Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tropp, James [General Electric Company, CA (United States); Inubushi, Toshiro [Molecular Neuroscience Research Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga (Japan); Nakai, Toshiharu [Biomedical Imaging Group, Photonics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan) and Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe (Japan)]. E-mail: t-nakai@aist.go.jp

    2005-08-01

    A strategy for proton decoupled carbon-13 MR spectroscopy ({l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace}-{sup 13}C MRS) with a strong static magnetic field (3.0 T) in vivo was investigated. The proton decoupling improves the signal-to-noise ratio, however, the effect of the decoupling power on the human body, especially in strong magnetic fields, should be considered. In order to establish a technique for monitoring the metabolism of glucose in the liver using {l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace}-{sup 13}C MRS at 3.0 T, two phantom experiments were performed. To assess whether the decoupling energy conformed to SAR limits defined by the IEC, temperature rises inside an agar gel phantom were monitored during a {l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace}-{sup 13}C MRS experiment. Then, the decoupling conditions of a glucose solution phantom were systematically optimized with combinations of decoupling bandwidth and power. The reliability of this procedure was discussed in conjunction with IEC guidelines.

  15. The influence of rolling practice on notch toughness and texture development in high-strength linepipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baczynski, G.J.; Jonas, J.J.; Collins, L.E.

    1999-12-01

    The mechanical properties and notch toughnesses of an X80 linepipe steel were determined for various test directions in the plane of sheet that had been finish rolled in the {gamma} and in the intercritical ({alpha} + {gamma}) regions. The anisotropies of yield strength (YS) and of impact energy are correlated to the presence of various texture components, as detected by the use of an orientation distribution function (ODF) analysis. The final microstructures were similar and consisted of polygonal and acicular ferrite. The textures were also similar; however, after rolling in the ({alpha} + {gamma}) region, the intensity of the texture was significantly higher. These textures were mainly comprised of two fibers, the rolling direction (RD), {l{underscore}angle}110{r{underscore}angle}//RD, and the normal direction (ND), {l{underscore}angle}111{r{underscore}angle}//ND, fibers. The observations show that the RD fiber centered at {l{underscore}brace}112{r{underscore}brace}{l{underscore}angle}110{r{underscore}angle} and the {l{underscore}brace}10{r{underscore}brace}{l{underscore}angle}001{r{underscore}angle} orientation were responsible for the YS anisotropy. The relationships between notch toughness and texture were considered for the brittle or cleavage ({minus}196 C), mixed brittle-ductile ({minus}60 C), and ductile (room temperature (RT)) modes of fracture. This work shows that the anisotropy of impact energy associated with ductile fracture at the higher temperatures is caused by the {l{underscore}brace}112{r{underscore}brace}{l{underscore}angle}110{r{underscore}angle} component, and that the {l{underscore}brace}001{r{underscore}brace}{l{underscore}angle}110{r{underscore}angle} and {l{underscore}brace}110{r{underscore}brace}{l{underscore}angle}001{r{underscore}angle} components (if present) are responsible for the anisotropy of the impact energy associated with cleavage at low temperatures. The lack of anisotropy of the impact energy observed at {minus}196 C and

  16. Modification of the colony tower for the Rio Blanco detonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supplemental structural bracing was designed and installed for the 180-ft-tall Colony Tower, an experimental oil shale processing retort structure, in anticipation of its lateral response to the Rio Blanco detonation. The tower is a steel structure with both horizontal and vertical diagonal bracing. Data obtained from the earlier Project Rulison detonation indicated that an evaluation study was necessary. Design criteria that would provide an adequate margin of safety were developed based on predicted Rio Blanco ground motion. The evaluation of the unmodified structure showed that several bracing members would be subjected to forces exceeding their yield strength, and some would reach a level at which failure could occur. Further analyses were made with assumed modified bracing members. A final scheme for modified vertical bracing was established and installed. After modification, the response of the tower during the Rio Blanco detonation was measured by instruments on the ground and at various locations on the tower, and no evidence of damage was discovered. The modification of the Colony Tower and the procedures used to determine these modifications show the usefulness of current ground motion and structural response prediction technology for forecasting dynamic behavior of important structures subjected to ground motion from underground nuclear explosions. (auth)

  17. Parametric analysis and design equation of ultimate capacity for unstiffened overlapped CHS K-joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A finite element model simulating an experiment on unstiffened,overlapped circular hollow structure (CHS)K-joints was generated and validated by comparing the ultimate capacities,deformation processes and failure modes of the experimental results.Using this model,the stress distribution,propagation of plasticity and the failure modes of overlapped joints with through-brace-in-compression and welded hidden seams were analyzed.The effect of geometric parameters,with or without hidden welds,and the loading hierarchy reversal of braces on the ultimate capacity of the joints were also studied.The results of finite element parametric analysis indicate that the brace-tochord thickness ratio has relatively large effects on the failure mechanism and ultimate capacity of overlapped joints.It was also found that the absence of hidden welds has less significance on the ultimate capacity of through-brace-incompression joints than through-brace-in tension joints.Finally,based on the design equation of gap joints,a formula predicting the ultimate capacity of overlapped CHS K-joints was derived by applying multivariate regression analysis.Results from the proposed design equation are consistent with experimental results.

  18. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: Indications and efficacy of nonoperative treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Canavese

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The strategy for the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis depends essentially upon the magnitude and pattern of the deformity, and its potential for progression. Treatment options include observation, bracing and/or surgery. During the past decade, several studies have demonstrated that the natural history of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis can be positively affected by nonoperative treatment, especially bracing. Other forms of conservative treatment, such as chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation, acupuncture, exercise or other manual treatments, or diet and nutrition, have not yet been proven to be effective in controlling spinal deformity progression, and those with a natural history that is favorable at the completion of growth. Observation is appropriate treatment for small curves, curves that are at low risk of progression, and those with a natural history that is favorable at the completion of growth. Indications for brace treatment are a growing child presenting with a curve of 25°-40° or a curve less than 25° with documented progression. Curves of 20°-25° in patients with pronounced skeletal immaturity should also be treated. The purpose of this review is to provide information about conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Indications for conservative treatment, hours daily wear and complications of brace treatment as well as brace types are discussed.

  19. Dislocation of primary total hip arthroplasty and the risk of redislocation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, Stephen A

    2012-09-01

    6554 primary total hip arthroplasties were reviewed. Risk factors for dislocation were analysed to assess which were important in terms of predicting recurrent instability. The patients risk of having a second dislocation was independently associated with the surgical approach adopted (p = 0.03) and the time to first dislocation from the primary hip replacement (p = 0.002). Early dislocators whose surgery was performed through an anterolateral approach had less recurrence than late dislocators through a posterior or transtrochanteric approach. None of the other risk factors including head size (p = 0.59), modularity (p = 0.54), mechanism of dislocation (p = 0.23), leg length discrepancy (p = 0.69) and acetabular inclination (p = 0.31) were influential. The use of an abduction brace was not useful in preventing a further dislocation with 69.2% of those braced re-dislocating compared to 68.5% who were not braced (p = 0.96).

  20. Octacyanoniobate(IV)-based molecular magnets revealing 3D long-range order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelka, R; Balanda, M [Institute of Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342, Krakow (Poland); Pinkowicz, D; Drath, O; Nitek, W; Sieklucka, B [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Rams, M; Majcher, A, E-mail: robert.pelka@ifj.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2011-07-06

    Isostructural series of chemical formula {l_brace}[M{sup II}(pirazol){sub 4}]{sub 2}[Nb{sup IV}(CN){sub 8}]{center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O{r_brace}{sub n} (M{sup II} = Mn (1), Fe (2), Co (3), Ni (4)) has been obtained by the self-assembly technique. Its unique crystallographic structure consists in the formation of a 3D extended network of magnetic centers braced by geometrically identical cyanido bridges. Magnetic measurements reveal the transitions to the 3D order at temperatures 23.7, 8.3, 5.9, 13.4 K for 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The character of order is demonstrated to be ferrimagnetic for 1 and 2 and ferromagnetic for 3 and 4. The mean-field approach is used to determine the corresponding exchange coupling constants. The observed interactions are discussed within the magnetic orbital model.