WorldWideScience

Sample records for braces

  1. The Basics of Braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Bruxism (Teeth Grinding or Clenching) Mouth and Teeth Keeping ... of Your Teeth Taking the Bite Out of Bruxism Braces What's a Cavity? I Have Braces. How ...

  2. Pneumatic osteoarthritis knee brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenović, Dimitrije; Kojić, Milos; Stojanović, Boban; Hunter, David

    2009-04-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is a chronic disease that necessitates long term therapeutic intervention. Biomechanical studies have demonstrated an improvement in the external adduction moment with application of a valgus knee brace. Despite being both efficacious and safe, due to their rigid frame and bulkiness, current designs of knee braces create discomfort and difficulties to patients during prolonged periods of application. Here we propose a novel design of a light osteoarthritis knee brace, which is made of soft conforming materials. Our design relies on a pneumatic leverage system, which, when pressurized, reduces the excessive loads predominantly affecting the medial compartment of the knee and eventually reverses the malalignment. Using a finite-element analysis, we show that with a moderate level of applied pressure, this pneumatic brace can, in theory, counterbalance a greater fraction of external adduction moment than the currently existing braces.

  3. Ingrown toenails (unguis incarnatus): Nail braces/bracing treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chiriac, Anca; Solovan, Caius; Brzezinski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Nail bracing is a safe, simple, and inexpensive treatment option that avoids surgery, requires no anesthetic, requires no recovery period, allows wearing the existing shoes, offers immediate relief from pain, and allows the practice of daily activities. Braces can be used for prolonged periods of times. If recurrence occurs, reapplication of bracing is usually required.

  4. Ingrown toenails (unguis incarnatus): Nail braces/bracing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriac, Anca; Solovan, Caius; Brzezinski, Piotr

    2014-04-01

    Nail bracing is a safe, simple, and inexpensive treatment option that avoids surgery, requires no anesthetic, requires no recovery period, allows wearing the existing shoes, offers immediate relief from pain, and allows the practice of daily activities. Braces can be used for prolonged periods of times. If recurrence occurs, reapplication of bracing is usually required.

  5. ORTHOPEDIC LEG BRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, William Neil (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Knee braces generally have been rigid in both the knee bending direction and in the knee straightening direction unless a manually operated release is incorporated in them to allow the knee to bend. Desirably a braced knee joint should effectively duplicate the compound, complex, actions of a normal knee. The key to knee braces is the knee joint housing. The housing herein carries a number of cam action pawls. with teeth adapted to engage the internal teeth of a ratchet ring mounted in the housing. Cam action return springs and the shape of the cam action pawl teeth allow rotation of the ratchet ring in a leg straightening direction while still supporting a load. The leg can then be extended during walking while at the same time being prevented by the cam action pawls from buckling in the knee bending direction.

  6. Bracing for thoracolumbar fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Victor; Holly, Langston T

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic fractures of the thoracolumbar spine are relatively common occurrences that can be a source of pain and disability. Similarly, osteoporotic vertebral fractures are also frequent events and represent a significant health issue specific to the elderly. Neurologically intact patients with traumatic thoracolumbar fractures can commonly be treated nonoperatively with bracing. Nonoperative treatment is not suitable for patients with neurological deficits or highly unstable fractures. The role of operative versus nonoperative treatment of burst fractures is controversial, with high-quality evidence supporting both options. Osteoporotic vertebral fractures can be managed with bracing or vertebral augmentation in most cases. There is, however, a lack of high-quality evidence comparing operative versus nonoperative fractures in this population. Bracing is a low-risk, cost-effective method to treat certain thoracolumbar fractures and offers efficacy equivalent to that of surgical management in many cases. The evidence for bracing of osteoporotic-type fractures is less clear, and further investigation will be necessary to delineate its optimal role.

  7. Ingrown toenails (unguis incarnatus): Nail braces/bracing treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chiriac, Anca; Solovan, Caius; Brzezinski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Nail bracing is a safe, simple, and inexpensive treatment option that avoids surgery, requires no anesthetic, requires no recovery period, allows wearing the existing shoes, offers immediate relief...

  8. Smart brace versus standard rigid brace for the treatment of scoliosis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Edmond; Hill, Douglas; Raso, Jim; Donauer, Andreas; Moreau, Marc; Mahood, James; Hedden, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    The outcomes of brace treatment for scoliosis depend on how the brace is used. Simply prescribing a brace does not mean it will be worn properly. A smart brace has been developed to control the brace wear tightness with the expectation that appropriately worn braces will improve outcomes. Twelve brace candidates (10F; 2M) agreed to participate into this study and were randomly divided into 2 groups. The smart brace group used the smart brace for the first year, and then wore the standard brace for the following year. The standard rigid brace group wore their TLSO for 2 years. Both groups were followed for 3 years after they finished the brace treatment. The smart brace group showed better quality of brace wear, wearing their brace at the prescribed tightness level a higher proportion of time than the standard brace group. All subjects in the smart brace group had successful outcomes, Cobb angle changed less than 5°, whereas 2/6 subjects in the standard brace group had unsuccessful bracing. One had 7° increment and 1 underwent surgery. The smart brace group also reported that the smart brace was more comfortable to wear than the standard rigid brace.

  9. Speaking Tongues Are Actively Braced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gick, Bryan; Allen, Blake; Roewer-Després, François; Stavness, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Bracing of the tongue against opposing vocal-tract surfaces such as the teeth or palate has long been discussed in the context of biomechanical, somatosensory, and aeroacoustic aspects of tongue movement. However, previous studies have tended to describe bracing only in terms of contact (rather than mechanical support), and only in…

  10. Prophylactic ankle bracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E A; Hergenroeder, A C

    1990-10-01

    Many choices are available to athletes seeking an ankle support. The time-honored tradition of ankle taping with adhesive tape does offer protection against ankle sprains during activity. Laced stabilizers offer an equal or possibly greater amount of support, are less costly and easier to apply, and can be retightened frequently during activity. The physician should become familiar with one of these two methods and choose one based on availability and feasibility in the community. The air stirrup may be indicated for patients with a history of ankle injury who are undergoing a graduated rehabilitation program. Nevertheless, the air stirrup has not been shown to provide significantly greater inversion restriction than taping or lace-on braces and is not recommended as a first-line method of support for individuals with no history of recent ankle sprain. High-top shoes are better when the ankle is taped, although low-top shoes are better when a laced stabilizer is worn. Elastic guards help reduce ankle edema but do not provide ankle stability.

  11. Bracing Zonohedra With Special Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Gyula

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of simpler preliminary design gives useful input for more complicated three-dimensional building frame structure. A zonohedron, as a preliminary structure of design, is a convex polyhedron for which each face possesses central symmetry. We considered zonohedron as a special framework with the special assumption that the polygonal faces can be deformed in such a way that faces remain planar and centrally symmetric, moreover the length of all edges remains unchanged. Introducing some diagonal braces we got a new mechanism. This paper deals with the flexibility of this kind of mechanisms, and investigates the rigidity of the braced framework. The flexibility of the framework can be characterized by some vectors, which represent equivalence classes of the edges. A necessary and sufficient condition for the rigidity of the braced rhombic face zonohedra is posed. A real mechanical construction, based on two simple elements, provides a CAD prototype of these new mechanisms.

  12. [Bracing in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yi-Fang; Huang, Yu-Chu

    2017-04-01

    Scoliosis is a common medical problem, with an incidence of between 0.47% and 5.2% in the general population globally. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) accounts for nearly 80% of all scoliosis. Young people with AIS often experience negative social consequences in association with their condition. Without proper and timely treatment, the potential resulting disabilities range from trunk deformity, pain, and neurological complications to compromised cardiopulmonary function, all of which may cause lifelong suffering. Scoliosis may be treated either conservatively or surgically, based on the severity of the disease. Bracing is the most widely adopted method of conservative treatment. However, the main goal of bracing is to inhibit the progression of the spinal curvature rather than to cure scoliosis. The clinical effectiveness of bracing in Taiwan has often been underutilized as a result of financial or other factors such as the availability of the treatment. The purpose of the present review is to clarify the effectiveness of bracing for AIS by elucidating the pathophysiology of scoliosis and examining the recent clinical evidence. The importance of preventative care and the unique contribution of nursing care to treatment has to date been under-recognized. The positive support that nurses provide to the families of the patients during the early phases of treatment as well as to the patients themselves, including helping them exercise appropriately and wear the brace correctly, is an essential component of effective treatment. Learning how to work with and to adapt to the brace being part of the body is an important part of the treatment as well as a way to avoid pain. Nurses are in an ideal position to facilitate this learning process and, overall, to provide health education.

  13. Locking mechanism for orthopedic braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, J. I.; Epps, C. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An orthopedic brace locking mechanism is described which under standing or walking conditions cannot be unlocked, however under sitting conditions the mechanism can be simply unlocked so as to permit bending of the patient's knee. Other features of the device include: (1) the mechanism is rendered operable, and inoperable, dependent upon the relative inclination of the brace with respect to the ground; (2) the mechanism is automatically locked under standing or walking conditions and is manually unlocked under sitting conditions; and (3) the mechanism is light in weight and is relatively small in size.

  14. A historical perspective of PCL bracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Kyle S; Costello, Kerry E; O'Brien, Luke; Wijdicks, Coen A; Laprade, Robert F

    2013-05-01

    Currently there are many functional knee braces but very few designed to treat the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). No PCL braces have been biomechanically validated to demonstrate that they provide stability with proper force distribution to the PCL-deficient knee. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the history and current state of PCL bracing and to identify areas where further progress is required to improve patient outcomes and treatment options. A PubMed search was conducted with the terms "posterior cruciate ligament", "rehabilitation", "history", "knee", and "brace", and the relevant articles from 1967 to 2011 were analysed. A review of the current available PCL knee bracing options was performed. Little evidence exists from the eight relevant articles to support the biomechanical efficacy of nonoperative and postoperative PCL bracing protocols. Clinical outcomes reported improvements in reducing PCL laxity with anterior directed forces to the tibia during healing following PCL tears. Biomechanics research demonstrates that during knee flexion, the PCL experiences variable tensile forces. One knee brace has been specifically designed and clinically validated to improve stability in PCL-deficient knees during rehabilitation. While available PCL braces demonstrate beneficial patient outcomes, they lack evidence validating their biomechanical effectiveness. There is limited information evaluating the specific effectiveness of PCL knee braces. A properly designed PCL brace should apply correct anatomic joint forces that vary with the knee flexion angle and also provide adjustability to satisfy the demands of various activities. No braces are currently available with biomechanical evidence that satisfies these requirements. IV.

  15. New Generation Lockable Knee Brace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    A knee brace that uses Space Shuttle propulsion technology has moved a step closer to being available to help knee injury and stroke patients and may possibly benefit patients with birth defects, spinal cord injuries, and post-polio conditions. After years of hard work, inventors at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, have turned over the final design and prototype to industry partners at Horton's Orthotic Lab in Little Rock, Arkansas for further clinical testing. The device, called the Selectively Lockable Knee Brace, may mean faster, less painful rehabilitation for patients by allowing the knee to move when weight is not on the heel. Devices currently on the market lock the knee in a rigid, straight-leg position, or allow continuous free motion. The knee brace is just one example of how space technology is being used to improve the lives of people on Earth. NASA's MSFC inventors Michael Shadoan and Neill Myers are space propulsion engineers who use the same mechanisms and materials to build systems for rockets that they used to design and develop the knee brace.

  16. Knee Bracing After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Merchán, E Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Although some articles in the literature are in favor of the use of a postoperative brace after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, this review found that several systematic reviews and other reports on the topic do not support the use of a postoperative brace after ACL reconstruction. There is no scientific evidence so far to support the routine use of a functional knee brace following a successful ACL reconstruction in the postoperative course. Most authors believe that bracing is not necessary. There is insufficient evidence to inform current practice. Good-quality randomized trials are required to remedy this situation. Future studies should better define the role of a brace following ACL surgery. A search of MEDLINE for articles published between January 1, 1995, and September 30, 2013, was performed. Key search terms used were ACL reconstruction and knee brace. Ninety-one articles were found, but only 28 focused on the subject of bracing after ACL reconstruction and were selected for this review. Several systematic reviews and randomized, controlled trials on the topic do not recommend the use of postoperative brace after ACL reconstruction. Postoperative bracing after ACL reconstruction does not seem to help with pain, function, rehabilitation, and stability. The literature does not support the use of a postoperative brace following ACL reconstruction. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):e602-e609.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Brace technology thematic series: the progressive action short brace (PASB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulisa Angelo G

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Progressive Action Short Brace (PASB is a custom-made thoraco-lumbar-sacral orthosis (TLSO, devised in 1976 by Dr. Lorenzo Aulisa (Institute of Orthopedics at the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy. The PASB was designed to overcome the limits imposed by the trunk anatomy. Indeed, the particular geometry of the brace is able to generate internal forces that modify the elastic reaction of the spine. The PASB is indicated for the conservative treatment of lumbar and thoraco-lumbar scoliosis. The aim of this article is to explain the biomechanic principles of the PASB and the rationale underlying its design. Recently published studies reporting the results of PASB-based treatment of adolescent scoliotic patients are also discussed. Description and principles On the coronal plane, the upper margin of the PASB, at the side of the curve concavity, prevents the homolateral bending of the scoliotic curve. The opposite upper margin ends just beneath the apical vertebra. The principle underlying such configuration is that the deflection of the inferior tract of a curved elastic structure, fixed at the bottom end, causes straightening of its upper tract. Therefore, whenever the patient bends towards the convexity of the scoliotic curve, the spine is deflected. On the sagittal plane, the inferior margins of the PASB reach the pelvitrochanteric region, in order to stabilize the brace on the pelvis. The transverse section of the brace above the pelvic grip consists of asymmetrical ellipses. This allows the spine to rotate towards the concave side only, leading to the continuous generation of derotating moments. On the sagittal plane, the brace is contoured so as to reduce the lumbar lordosis. The PASB, by allowing only those movements counteracting the progression of the curve, is able to produce corrective forces that are not dissipated. Therefore, the brace is based on the principle that a constrained spine dynamics

  18. Brace technology thematic series: the progressive action short brace (PASB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulisa, Angelo G; Mastantuoni, Giuseppe; Laineri, Marco; Falciglia, Francesco; Giordano, Marco; Marzetti, Emanuele; Guzzanti, Vincenzo

    2012-02-23

    The Progressive Action Short Brace (PASB) is a custom-made thoraco-lumbar-sacral orthosis (TLSO), devised in 1976 by Dr. Lorenzo Aulisa (Institute of Orthopedics at the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy). The PASB was designed to overcome the limits imposed by the trunk anatomy. Indeed, the particular geometry of the brace is able to generate internal forces that modify the elastic reaction of the spine. The PASB is indicated for the conservative treatment of lumbar and thoraco-lumbar scoliosis. The aim of this article is to explain the biomechanic principles of the PASB and the rationale underlying its design. Recently published studies reporting the results of PASB-based treatment of adolescent scoliotic patients are also discussed. DESCRIPTION AND PRINCIPLES: On the coronal plane, the upper margin of the PASB, at the side of the curve concavity, prevents the homolateral bending of the scoliotic curve. The opposite upper margin ends just beneath the apical vertebra. The principle underlying such configuration is that the deflection of the inferior tract of a curved elastic structure, fixed at the bottom end, causes straightening of its upper tract. Therefore, whenever the patient bends towards the convexity of the scoliotic curve, the spine is deflected. On the sagittal plane, the inferior margins of the PASB reach the pelvitrochanteric region, in order to stabilize the brace on the pelvis. The transverse section of the brace above the pelvic grip consists of asymmetrical ellipses. This allows the spine to rotate towards the concave side only, leading to the continuous generation of derotating moments. On the sagittal plane, the brace is contoured so as to reduce the lumbar lordosis. The PASB, by allowing only those movements counteracting the progression of the curve, is able to produce corrective forces that are not dissipated. Therefore, the brace is based on the principle that a constrained spine dynamics can achieve the correction of a

  19. Knee Braces to Prevent Injuries in Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Five physicians discuss the use of knee braces to prevent injuries in football players. Questions are raised regarding the strength and design of the braces, whether they prestress the knee in some cases, and whether they actually reduce injuries. More clinical and biomechanical research is called for. (MT)

  20. Dynamic extensor brace for lateral epicondylitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faes, M.; Akker, B. van den; Lint, J.A. de; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2006-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is a common, often disabling ailment. Based on the failure of current therapies, a new dynamic extensor brace has been developed. In this study, the effects of application of this brace for 3 months on the most important and disabling symptoms of patients with

  1. Brace management in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Jonathan R; Thakur, Nikhil A; Eberson, Craig P

    2010-03-01

    Skeletally immature patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are at risk for curve progression. Although numerous nonoperative methods have been attempted, including physical therapy, exercise, massage, manipulation, and electrical stimulation, only bracing is effective in preventing curve progression and the subsequent need for surgery. Brace treatment is initiated as either full-time (TLSO, Boston) or nighttime (Charleston, Providence) wear, although patient compliance with either mode of bracing has been a documented problem. We review the natural history of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, identify the risks for curve progression, describe the types of braces available for treatment, and review the indications for and efficacy of brace treatment. Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  2. Unloader knee braces for osteoarthritis: do patients actually wear them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squyer, Emily; Stamper, Daniel L; Hamilton, Deven T; Sabin, Janice A; Leopold, Seth S

    2013-06-01

    Unloader braces are a nonsurgical approach for predominantly unicompartmental knee arthritis. Although noninvasive, braces are expensive and it is unclear whether clinical factors, if any, will predict regular brace use. We asked: (1) Do patients continue to use the unloader brace more than 1 year after it is prescribed? (2) Do any clinical or radiographic factors predict continued use of the unloader brace after the first year? (3) What are the most common subjective reasons that patients give for discontinuing the brace? We administered 110 surveys to all patients who were fitted for unloader knee braces for predominantly unicompartmental osteoarthritis 12 to 40 months before administration of the survey. Standardized indications and fitting protocols were used. The following parameters were tested for association with ongoing brace use: alignment, arthritis severity, compartment involved, BMI, weight, age, gender, pain and function, number of refittings, and problems with the brace. The survey response rate was 81% (89 of 110). Of the 89 responders, 28% reported regular brace use (twice per week, an hour at a time, or more); at 2 years, 25% used the brace regularly. No clinical or radiographic factors considered were associated with ongoing brace use. Patients reported lack of symptomatic relief, brace discomfort, poor fit, and skin irritation as reasons for discontinuing the brace. Surgeons and patients need to balance the benefits and absence of complications of bracing against cost and the low likelihood of ongoing use 1 year or more after the prescription of the brace.

  3. Braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People, Places & Things That Help Feelings Q&A Movies & More Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En ... piece of plastic with metal wires or a thin piece of plastic shaped like a mouthguard. Retainers ...

  4. Patients' preferences for scoliosis brace treatment: a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunge, Eveline M; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W; van Biezen, Frans C; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; de Koning, Harry J

    2010-01-01

    Discrete choice experiment. To investigate the reduction in the risk of surgery that scoliosis patients would require in order to consider brace treatment as acceptable, and to elicit the trade-offs individuals make between characteristics of brace treatment. The effectiveness of brace treatment in idiopathic scoliosis patients has not been established in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Treatment with a brace can be quite bothersome. Patients' preferences for brace treatment are unknown. Insight into patients' preferences for (characteristics of) brace treatment will be useful for future trials and for the development of braces that may optimize compliance with brace treatment. A total of 197 patients who had completed treatment (brace and/or surgery) for scoliosis were approached for the study, of which 135 gave informed consent. A discrete choice experiment was designed in which patients had to choose between hypothetical brace treatment profiles that differed in following 4 treatment attributes: effectiveness, visibility, discomfort, and treatment duration. A multinomial logit model was used to analyze the relative importance of these attributes. Subgroup analyses were conducted for brace-only, brace-surgery, and surgery-only patients. The response rate was 86% (116/135). All treatment attributes proved to be important for patients' choices. All subgroups were prepared to initiate treatment with a Boston brace if the brace would reduce the need for surgery by 53%. Risk reductions in a range of 32% to 74% were required for acceptance of a treatment duration of 3 years. Scoliosis patients stated to be prepared to undergo brace treatment only if it provides sizeable reduction of the risk of surgery. Effectiveness and discomfort in wearing a brace were the most important determinants of the choices. These results are important if RCTs would conclusively establish that bracing is effective, and show directions for the further technical development of braces to

  5. NTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION: WITH BRACE VS WITHOUT BRACE AFTER OPERATION A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH.A NAZEM

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL ruputer specially in athletics induces knee instability results in pateint disability. Surgical treatment consist of ACL reconstruction and repair. In this study the efficacy of surgical management with brace after operation was compaired to surgical management without brace.
    Methods. One hundred ACL ruptured pateints had reconstructed with BPB graft in two randomzed gruops (50 with brace afetr operation and 50 without brace. Study durated 4 year (1997-2000 in alzahra hospital (affiliated to IUMSHS. Patients had followed for 12 months after operation.
    Results. Knee range of motion after 1, 3, 6, 12 months follow up were the same in both groups (P > 0.05. Degree and duration of returning to sport, complications, need to reoperation, stair climbing, specific ACL tests, patelofemoral pain, pain in squatting, running and cutting and quadriceps atrophy, after 12 months follow up were the same in both groups (P > 0.05. Patients without brace returned to their job more sooner than another group (P < 0.05.
    Discussion. There are no significant differnce in cilinical results in tow groups and ACL reconstruction with BPB dose not require to routine bracing. Faster return to job in non bracing group is due to removal of liminting effect of brace wearing. Lesser rate of pain in patients that return to sport due to quadriceps strengthening.

  6. User Survey of 3 Ankle Braces in Soccer, Volleyball, and Running: Which Brace Fits Best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Kasper; Van Den Berg, Anjulie; Van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert

    2017-08-01

      Recurrence rates for ankle sprains are high. Therefore, preventive measures such as ankle bracing during sports are recommended.   To systematically evaluate the perceived ease of use, quality, comfort, stability, and hindrance of and the overall satisfaction with 3 contemporary brace types in 3 types of sports.   Randomized comparative user survey.   Recreational sports: soccer, volleyball, and running.   Young adult recreational athletes (29 soccer players, 26 volleyball players, and 31 runners).   Compression brace (CB), lace-up brace (LB), and semirigid brace (SB).   Rating of perceived ease of use, quality, comfort, stability, and hindrance of and overall satisfaction with the brace types during sports on a 5-point Likert scale. The secondary outcome measure was participants' willingness to buy the tested brace.   Overall, the 3 brace types received high mean scores for ease of use and quality. Soccer players preferred the CB over both alternatives, considering the higher scores for comfort (CB = 4.0, LB = 3.5, SB = 2.8), hindrance (CB = 3.7, LB = 2.9, SB = 2.8), overall satisfaction (CB = 3.6, LB = 3.0, SB = 2.5), and greatest willingness to buy this brace. Volleyball players preferred the LB over both alternatives, considering the higher scores for stability (LB = 4.2, CB = 3.2, SB = 3.3), overall satisfaction (LB = 3.8, CB = 3.0, SB = 3.0), and greatest willingness to buy this brace. Runners preferred the CB over both alternatives considering the better score for hindrance (CB = 3.6, LB = 2.8, SB = 2.9) and greatest willingness to buy this brace.   All 3 ankle-brace types scored high on perceived ease of use and quality. Regarding the brace types, soccer players, volleyball players, and runners differed in their assessments of subjective evaluation of comfort, stability, hindrance, overall satisfaction, and willingness to buy the brace. Soccer players and runners preferred the CB, whereas volleyball players preferred the LB.

  7. How quantity and quality of brace wear affect the brace treatment outcomes for AIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Edmond H M; Hill, Douglas L; Raso, Jim V; Moreau, Marc; Hedden, Douglas

    2016-02-01

    To determine the reliability of a prognostic curve progression model and the role of the quantity and quality of brace wear for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) brace treatment. To develop a curve progression model for full-time AIS brace treatment, 20 AIS subjects (Group 1) prescribed full-time thoracolumbar sacral orthosis (TLSO) were monitored and followed for 2 years beyond maturity. The developed curve progression model was: curve progression (in degrees) = 33 + 0.11 × Peterson risk (%) - 0.07 in-brace correction (%) - 0.45 × quality (%) - 0.48 × quantity (%) + 0.0062 × quantity × quality. To validate the model, 40 new (test) subjects (Group 2) who met the same inclusion criteria and used the same type of monitors, were monitored and followed for 2 years after bracing. For the 40 test subjects (Group 2), the average in-brace correction was 40 ± 22 %. The average quantity and quality of the brace wear were 56 ± 19 and 55 ± 17 %, respectively. Twelve subjects (30 %) progressed of which 10 subjects (25 %) required surgery and 28 subjects (70 %) showed no progression. The accuracy of the model to determine which patients would progress was 88 % (35/40) which was better than the Peterson's risk model (68 %; 26/40) alone. Patients who had the combined quantity times the quality over a threshold 43 % had a success treatment rate of 95 %. This study showed the prognostic model of brace treatment outcome on AIS patients treated with full-time TLSO was reliable. Both the quantity and quality of the brace wear were important factors in achieving successful brace treatment.

  8. Brace treatment for patients with Scheuermann's disease - a review of the literature and first experiences with a new brace design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turnbull Deborah

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contemporary literature few have written in detail on the in-brace correction effects of braces used for the treatment of hyperkyphosis. Bradford et al. found their attempts effective, treating Scheuermann's kyphosis with Milwaukee braces, but their report did not specifically focus on in-brace corrections. White and Panjabi's research attempted to correct a curvature of > 50° with the help of distraction forces, but consequently led to a reduction in patient comfort in the application of the Milwaukee brace. In Germany they avoid this by utitlising braces to treat hyperkyphosis that use transverse correction forces instead of distraction forces. Further efforts to reduce brace material have resulted in a special bracing design called kyphologic™ brace. The aim of this review is to present appropriate research to collect and evaluate possible in-brace corrections which have been achieved with brace treatment for hyperkyphosis. This paper introduces new methods of bracing and compares the results of these with other successful bracing concepts. Materials and methods 56 adolescents with the diagnosis of thoracic Scheuermann's hyperkyphosis or a thoracic idiopathic hyperkyphosis (22 girls and 34 boys with an average age of 14 years (12-17 yrs. were treated with the kyphologic™ brace between May 2007 and December 2008. The average Stagnara angle was 55,6° (43-80. In-brace correction was recorded and compared to the initial angle using the t-test. Results The average Stagnara angle in the brace was 39°. The average in-brace correction was 16.5° (1-40°. The verage percentage of in-brace correction compared to the initial value was 36%. The differences were significant in the t-test (t = 5.31, p Discussion If we assume that outcome of brace treatment positively correlates with in-brace correction, the treatment should be initiated before the curvature angle exceeds 50 - 55° in a growing adolescent. In scoliosis bracing

  9. Simulation of Scoliosis Treatment Using a Brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Čulík

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ivo Maoík M.D. has treated many child patients with scoliosis at the "Centre for Locomotor Defects", Olšanská 7, 130 00 Prague 3. The author has cooperated with him, and composed the computer program for the spine stress state under brace effects and for simulating scoliosis treatment. The program simulates the spinal curve remodelling in time for a specific child patients, and the algorithm for stress state calculation and treatment simulation is given.Orthopaedists in the Czech Republic use Cheneau-type or Cerny-type corrective braces. The brace exerts force effects on the skeleton of a child. The brace is made individually for each patient, in the following way: first, a negative plaster form of the child`s trunk is made, and then the positive plaster form is created. The orthopaedist determines the places where brace has to load the patient`s trunk, and the plaster form deepened in these places on the basis of his advice. The laminate brace made according to this plaster form constricts the child`s trunk (like a tight shoe.This paper shows how the stress state is determined in vertebrae and in inter-vertebral discs, and the solution of spinal curvature correction under brace force effects for a specific child patient. The project aims to find the dependence of the activation and velocity of spinal curvature correction in the spinal stress state for many patients. The paper shows the computing algorithms for spinal deformations and the stress state under brace force effects, and a simulation of spinal curvature correction.Spinal curvature is determined according to measured values on an X-ray of a patient before a brace is applied. The stress state in the spine and the spinal deformation are investigated by the finite element method as beam (spine in an elastic ground (soft tissue. Two algorithms are used. The first algorithm deals with the spine above and below the soft tissues, and it is loaded by given displacements of the trunk surface

  10. Efficacy of Nail Brace Treatment For Ingrown Na

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fatma Gülru Erdoğan; Münevver Güven; Atilla Halil Elhan

    2010-01-01

    .... In this study we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of nail brace treatment which is a cheap conservative treatment, recurrence percentages after nail brace treatment and risk factors for recurrence...

  11. Providence nighttime bracing, in treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simony, A.; Beuschau, Inge; Quisth, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Since 2008 the non-surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in the southern part of Denmark, went from full-time bracing with Boston brace, to Providence night-time bracing. Methods: Since 2008, skeletally immature patients diagnosed with AIS and a primary curve......, but it seems like patients treated with Providence braces are more likely to experience back pain than healthy adolescents and surgically treated scoliosis patients....

  12. Functional bracing of ACL injuries: current state and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sean D; Laprade, Robert F; Jansson, Kyle S; Arøen, Asbjørn; Wijdicks, Coen A

    2014-05-01

    Functional braces are commonly prescribed to treat anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The results of the existing literature on functional brace use are mixed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the history and current state of functional ACL bracing and to identify design criteria that could improve upon current bracing technologies. A literature search was performed through the PubMed MEDLINE database in April 2013 for the keywords "anterior cruciate ligament" and "brace". Articles published between January 1, 1980, and April 4, 2013, were retrieved and reviewed. Current functional braces used to treat ACL injury were identified. The function of the native ACL was carefully studied to identify design requirements that could improve upon current bracing technologies. Biomechanical evaluations of functional brace effects at time zero have been mixed. Functional brace use reportedly does not improve long-term patient outcomes following ACL reconstruction, but has been shown to reduce subsequent injury rates while skiing in both ACL-deficient and reconstructed skiers. In situ force in the ACL varies with flexion angle and activity. Currently, no brace has been designed and validated to replicate the force-flexion behavior of the native ACL. Biomechanical and clinical evidence suggests current functional bracing technologies do not sufficiently restore normal biomechanics to the ACL-deficient knee, protect the reconstructed ACL, and improve long-term patient outcomes. Further research into a functional brace designed to apply forces to the knee joint similar in magnitude to the native ACL should be pursued. III.

  13. 49 CFR 195.208 - Welding of supports and braces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding of supports and braces. 195.208 Section 195.208 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.208 Welding of supports and braces. Supports or braces may...

  14. The effect of prophylactic knee bracing on proprioception ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... knee brace (p < 0.01). Conclusion. Prophylactic knee bracing improved proprioception performance of playing (uninjured) rugby players, and therefore may be responsible for the improvement in knee injury statistics reported in some studies on knee bracing. South African Journal of Sports Medicine Vol.16(1) 2004: 33- ...

  15. Functional bracing and rehabilitation of ankle fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, D; Wiss, D A; Whitelaw, G P

    1985-10-01

    For normal daily activities, 10 degrees of ankle dorsiflexion is essential. Plantiflexion follows dorsiflexion and exceeds it by an average of 5 degrees. Normal ankle motion takes place with the talus rotating on an obliquely oriented axis distal to the tips of the medial and lateral malleolus. Mortise widening of less than 1 mm accommodates the talus with the fibula apparently rotating along its vertical axis. Ankle fractures treated nonsurgically will regain functional range of motion if immobilization in equinus is avoided and early weight-bearing with early functional bracing is applied. With the aid of a functional brace, fractures treated surgically may start weight-bearing and exercise within five to seven days, provided all fracture components have been stabilized. The functional brace allows dorsiflexion and plantiflexion via a rigid hinge and reduces rotational stresses acting on the fractured ankle.

  16. A new flexible brace used in the Ponseti treatment of talipes equinovarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Jeffrey I

    2008-09-01

    The objective was to introduce a flexible brace abduction brace in the Ponseti treatment of clubfeet. Eight patients undergoing Ponseti treatment for talipes equinovarus were assessed. Brace compliance and incidence of relapses were assessed. Patients first used rigid abduction braces, but because of brace noncompliance were switched to a new flexible brace. Seven of 11 feet with compliance issues in a rigid brace had improved compliance when switching to the flexible brace. All seven feet with initial deformity relapse are deformity-free after switching to flexible bracing. This new flexible clubfoot brace may improve compliance in Ponseti clubfoot treatment.

  17. Valgus bracing in patients with medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee. A gait analysis study of a new brace.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaasbeek, R.D.A.; Groen, B.E.; Hampsink, B.; Heerwaarden, R.J. van; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2007-01-01

    A new valgus brace was evaluated in 15 patients with medial osteoarthritis of the knee and a varus leg axis. Significant improvement of pain and function were found after 6 weeks of brace treatment. Gait analysis showed that the brace had a tendency of lowering the peak varus moment about the knee.

  18. Brace treatment for patients with Scheuermann's disease - a review of the literature and first experiences with a new brace design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Hans-Rudolf; Turnbull, Deborah; Bohr, Silvia

    2009-09-29

    In contemporary literature few have written in detail on the in-brace correction effects of braces used for the treatment of hyperkyphosis. Bradford et al. found their attempts effective, treating Scheuermann's kyphosis with Milwaukee braces, but their report did not specifically focus on in-brace corrections. White and Panjabi's research attempted to correct a curvature of > 50 degrees with the help of distraction forces, but consequently led to a reduction in patient comfort in the application of the Milwaukee brace. In Germany they avoid this by utitlising braces to treat hyperkyphosis that use transverse correction forces instead of distraction forces. Further efforts to reduce brace material have resulted in a special bracing design called kyphologic brace. The aim of this review is to present appropriate research to collect and evaluate possible in-brace corrections which have been achieved with brace treatment for hyperkyphosis. This paper introduces new methods of bracing and compares the results of these with other successful bracing concepts. 56 adolescents with the diagnosis of thoracic Scheuermann's hyperkyphosis or a thoracic idiopathic hyperkyphosis (22 girls and 34 boys) with an average age of 14 years (12-17 yrs.) were treated with the kyphologic brace between May 2007 and December 2008. The average Stagnara angle was 55,6 degrees (43-80). In-brace correction was recorded and compared to the initial angle using the t-test. The average Stagnara angle in the brace was 39 degrees . The average in-brace correction was 16.5 degrees (1-40 degrees ). The verage percentage of in-brace correction compared to the initial value was 36%. The differences were significant in the t-test (t = 5.31, p 15 degrees , then it is predicted that the result will lead to a final correction. Applying this to hyperkyphosis patients, the average in-brace correction with this brace was also > 15 degrees . We therefore estimated to achieve a favourable outcome using this brace

  19. Braces for idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, Stefano; Minozzi, Silvia; Bettany-Saltikov, Josette; Chockalingam, Nachiappan; Grivas, Theodoros B; Kotwicki, Tomasz; Maruyama, Toru; Romano, Michele; Zaina, Fabio

    2015-06-18

    Idiopathic scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformity of the spine. The most common form is diagnosed in adolescence. While adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) can progress during growth and cause a surface deformity, it is usually not symptomatic. However, in adulthood, if the final spinal curvature surpasses a certain critical threshold, the risk of health problems and curve progression is increased. To evaluate the efficacy of bracing for adolescents with AIS versus no treatment or other treatments, on quality of life, disability, pulmonary disorders, progression of the curve, and psychological and cosmetic issues. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, five other databases, and two trials registers up to February 2015 for relevant clinical trials. We also checked the reference lists of relevant articles and conducted an extensive handsearch of grey literature. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective controlled cohort studies comparing braces with no treatment, other treatment, surgery, and different types of braces for adolescent with AIS. We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included seven studies (662 participants). Five were planned as RCTs and two as prospective controlled trials. One RCT failed completely, another was continued as an observational study, reporting also the results of the participants that had been randomized.There was very low quality evidence from one small RCT (111 participants) that quality of life (QoL) during treatment did not differ significantly between rigid bracing and observation (mean difference (MD) -2.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) -7.69 to 3.49). There was very low quality evidence from a subgroup of 77 adolescents from one prospective cohort study showing that QoL, back pain, psychological, and cosmetic issues did not differ significantly between rigid bracing and observation in the long term (16 years).Results of the secondary outcomes showed that there was low

  20. Cu-capped surface alloys of Pt/Cu left brace 100 right brace

    CERN Document Server

    Alshamaileh, E; Wander, A

    2003-01-01

    The room-temperature deposition of 0.5 monolayer (ML) Pt on Cu left brace 100 right brace followed by annealing to 525 K results in a sharp c(2 x 2) low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) pattern. The structure of this surface alloy is investigated by means of symmetrized automated tensor low-energy electron diffraction (SATLEED) analysis and ab initio plane wave density functional calculations. The results are then compared with those for the similar system 0.5 ML Pd/Cu left brace 100 right brace. SATLEED results for the Pt/Cu left brace 100 right brace show that it consists of an ordered c(2 x 2) Cu-Pt second layer alloy capped with a pure Cu first layer. The first and second interlayer spacings are found to be expanded by +5.1 +- 1.7 and +3.5 +- 1.7% respectively (relative to the bulk Cu interlayer spacing of 1.807 A) due to the insertion of the 8% larger Pt atoms into the second layer. The ordered mixed layer is found to be rippled by 0.08 +- 0.06 A with Pt atoms rippled outwards towards the solid-vacuum ...

  1. Prophylactic Knee Braces: Where Do They Stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Paul

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of knee braces in preventing knee injuries in football is inconclusive. This article reviews research from epidemiologic, cadaver, and surrogate studies; discusses reasons for conflicting study results, including research design problems; and describes alternative approaches that have been suggested. (IAH)

  2. Initial experience with the providence nighttime bracing in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quisth, Lena; Beuschau, Inge; Simony, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since 2008 the primary non-surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in the southern part of Denmark, went from full-time bracing with Boston brace, to Providence nighttime bracing. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of nighttime bracing, with the Providence brace...

  3. Bracing does not change the sport habits of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, Stefano; Donzelli, Sabrina; Negrini, Francesco; Romano, Michele; Zaina, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    In our Institute for many years we have asked patients to perform sport activities freely while in treatment, wearing braces or not, because of the physical and psychological advantages. Our aim was to verify whether it is really possible for patients to perform sport with the brace on, and if they complied with this proposal. Retrospective cohort study nested in a prospective clinical database. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS), start of brace treatment, never treated before, Risser 0-3, age 10-16 years. 607 patients, 13.0±2.1 of age, 33.1°±12.0° Cobb. The sport practice in the first six months of bracing was evaluated, searching for changes in the number of patients performing sport activities and in the average sport activity in the considered subgroups. Groups considered included type of brace (Lyon, LSO, Sforzesco, Sibilla, others) and hours of bracing: 22-24 (sport in brace), 19-21, 18 (sport without the brace). Patients with worst curves (and more hours of bracing prescribed) at the baseline practiced less sport then the others. Sport behaviour did not change with treatment: number of patients performing sport were 51.3% at start, 49.9% at the end. The hours of sport per week had a slightly but statistically significant reduction from 1.3±1.6 to 1.2±1.5 (Psports (22.4% before, 18.1% after). General results were confirmed in the different subgroups, with no difference between groups performing in-brace or out-of-brace sport. CONCLUSION; It is possible to undergo brace treatment and continue normally practicing sport, if this is explained to patients and parents and if braces are designed in a way to allow it.

  4. Managing anterior shoulder instability with bracing: an expanded update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuss, Bryan L; Harding, Warren G; Nowicki, Kevin D

    2004-06-01

    This article provides an updated report on functional bracing for anterior shoulder instability. A classification of shoulder braces is reintroduced into three separate types. Type A braces limit shoulder motion to a "safe zone," whereas types B and C apply indirect and direct stabilizing forces to the joint, respectively. Thirteen of the most widely available braces were surveyed and the parameters of comfort, convenience, construction, cost, potential sport use, and special features were analyzed. Problem areas included poor fit and range of motion restriction. The system of classifying sports based on shoulder demands is reintroduced.

  5. Permanent Bracing Design for MPC Wood Roof Truss Webs and Chords

    OpenAIRE

    Underwood, Catherine Richardson

    2000-01-01

    Permanent Bracing Design for MPC Wood Roof Truss Webs and Chords Catherine Richardson Underwood (ABSTRACT) The objectives of this research were to determine the required net lateral restraining force to brace j-webs or j-chords braced by one or more continuous lateral braces (CLB's), and to develop a methodology for permanent bracing design using a combination of lateral and diagonal braces. SAP2000 (CSI, 1995), a finite element analysis program, was used to analyze...

  6. Functional Bracing After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Walter R; Warth, Ryan J; Davis, Elizabeth P; Bailey, Lane

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current literature on the use of functional knee braces after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with respect to clinical and in vivo biomechanical data. A systematic search of both the PubMed and Embase databases was performed to identify all studies that reported clinical and/or in vivo biomechanical results of functional bracing versus nonbracing after ACL reconstruction. Extracted data included study design, surgical reconstruction techniques, postoperative rehabilitation protocols, objective outcomes, and subjective outcomes scores. The in vivo biomechanical data collected included kinematics, strength, function, and proprioception. Subjective clinical outcomes scores were collected when available. Quality appraisal analyses were performed using the Cochrane Collaboration tools for randomized and nonrandomized trials to aid in data interpretation. Fifteen studies met the selection criteria (including 3 randomized trials [level II], 11 nonrandomized trials [level II], and 1 retrospective comparative study [level III]), with follow-up intervals ranging from 3 to 48 months. Most studies were designed to compare the effects of functional bracing versus nonbracing on subjective and objective results in patients who underwent previous primary ACL reconstruction. Functional bracing significantly improved kinematics of the knee joint and improved gait kinetics, although functional bracing may decrease quadriceps activation without affecting functional tests, range of motion, and proprioception. Four studies reported no differences in subjective outcomes scores with brace use; however, one study reported increased patient confidence with brace use, whereas another study reported decreased pain and quicker return to work when the brace was not used. The effectiveness of postoperative functional bracing following ACL reconstruction remains elusive. Some data suggest that functional bracing may have some benefit

  7. Effects of Bracing in Adult With Scoliosis: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, Clémence; Montigny, Jean-Paul; Barbot, Frédéric; Bussel, Bernard; Vaugier, Isabelle; Fort, Didier; Courtois, Isabelle; Marty-Poumarat, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of bracing in adult with scoliosis. Retrospective cohort study. Outpatients followed in 2 tertiary care hospitals. Adults (N=38) with nonoperated progressive idiopathic or degenerative scoliosis treated by custom-molded lumbar-sacral orthoses, with a minimum follow-up time of 10 years before bracing and 5 years after bracing. Progression was defined as a variation in Cobb angle ≥10° between the first and the last radiograph before bracing. The brace was prescribed to be worn for a minimum of 6h/d. Not applicable. Rate of progression of the Cobb angle before and after bracing measured on upright 3-ft full-spine radiographs. At the moment of bracing, the mean age was 61.3±8.2 years, and the mean Cobb angle was 49.6°±17.7°. The mean follow-up time was 22.0±11.1 years before bracing and 8.7±3.3 years after bracing. For both types of scoliosis, the rate of progression decreased from 1.28°±.79°/y before to .21°±.43°/y after bracing (Pscoliosis, it dropped from 1.47°±.83°/y before to .24°±.43°/y after bracing (Pscoliosis. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these results. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermal stability of {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}facet terminated gold nanobelts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Ying [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Milenkovic, Srdjan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); IMDEA Materials Institute, C/ Profesor Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Hassel, Achim Walter, E-mail: hassel@elchem.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Institute for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials, Johannes Kepler University, Altenberger Str. 69, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2012-06-15

    A precise knowledge and understanding of the thermal stability of nanowires is a prerequisite for the reliable implementation of nanowire-based devices. Single crystalline Au nanobelts with {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}surface either in free standing arrays with identical crystallographic orientation or lying on the substrate were prepared by a combination of directional eutectoid decomposition followed by phase selective etching process. The thermal stability in the temperature range 500-700 Degree-Sign C of the obtained free standing and lying Au nanobelts were investigated in situ with a scanning electron microscope equipped with a high temperature stage. The results suggested that free standing Au nanobelts undergo morphological evolution in a different way compared with the substrate contacted lying Au nanobelts. The free standing Au nanobelts broke more easily and decayed into a chain of nanospheres following Rayleigh instability after the belt morphology changed into cylindrical wires; whereas the Au nanobelts lying on the substrate decayed into irregular particles. These findings clearly support a surface energy minimization driven mechanism. Only after transformation into a mainly {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}terminated structure formation of Rayleigh instabilities are observed.

  9. Lateral Knee Braces in Football: Do They Prevent Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulos, Lonnie E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The results of three recently presented clinical studies and a biomechanical study of the use of lateral knee braces to prevent knee injuries are reviewed. The results raise serious doubts about the efficacy of the preventive knee braces which are currently available. (Author/MT)

  10. Current state of unloading braces for knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, J Richard; Briggs, Karen K; Pomeroy, Shannon M; Wijdicks, Coen A

    2016-01-01

    Unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis (OA) is often treated with the prescription of an unloading knee brace to decrease pain and stiffness. Braces have been shown to improve the quality of life by applying an external moment to offset increased compressive tibiofemoral contact loads, but evidence regarding mechanical efficacy at the joint is controversial. Thus, the purpose of this study was to review the current state of unloading braces on knee mechanics, clinical impact, and long-term disease progression. A literature search was performed through the PubMed MEDLINE database for the search terms "osteoarthritis," "knee," "brace," and derivatives of the keyword "unload." Articles published since January 1, 1980 were reviewed for their relevance. Evidence for the effectiveness of unloading braces for disease management both biomechanically and clinically was considered. While significant research has been done to show improvement in OA symptoms with the use of an unloading brace, current literature suggests a debate regarding the effectiveness of these braces for biomechanical change. Clinical findings reveal overall improvements in parameters such as pain, instability, and quality of life. Although clinical evidence supports brace use to improve pain and functional ability, current biomechanical evidence suggests that unloading of the affected knee compartment does not significantly hinder disease progression. III.

  11. Nighttime bracing versus observation for early adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemann, John M; Shah, Suken A; Price, Charles T

    2014-09-01

    Spinal bracing is widely utilized in patients with moderate severity adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with the goal of preventing curve progression and therefore preventing the need for surgical correction. Bracing is typically initiated in patients with a primary curve angle between 25 and 40 degrees, who are Risser sign 0 to 2 and TLSO wear if they progressed to >25 degrees primary curve Cobb angle. Curve progression was monitored with minimum 2-year follow-up. Sixteen patients in the observation group and 21 patients in the bracing group completed 2-year follow-up. All patients in the observation group progressed to fulltime bracing threshold. In the nighttime bracing group, 29% of the patients did not progress to 25 degrees primary curve magnitude. Rate of progression to surgical magnitude was similar in the 2 groups. Risser 0 patients presenting with mild idiopathic scoliosis are at high risk for progression to >25 degrees primary curve magnitude. Treatment with the Charleston nighttime bending brace may reduce progression to full-time bracing threshold. No difference in progression to surgical intervention was shown between nighttime bracing and observation for small curves. Level II--therapeutic study (prospective comparative study).

  12. The effect of ankle bracing on athletic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, S.; van Mechelen, W.

    1999-01-01

    Ankle braces in sports are used for prevention of ankle sprains. Besides restricting inversion and eversion, it is possible that an ankle brace also reduces the functional range of motion of the ankle joint. Consequently, their use could also impair athletic performance. It is unlikely that

  13. Early weaning might reduce the psychological strain of Boston bracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Ø; Andersen, Gert Rahbek; Thomsen, Karsten

    2002-01-01

    From 1983 to 1990 a total of 136 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were treated with the Boston brace. With the aim of examining the social and psychological impact of the brace treatment all patients received a questionnaire at an average of 3.5 years after termination of the treatment...

  14. [Biomechanics of the tibiofemoral joint and knee braces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, M; Mannel, H; Spiering, S; Dathe, H; Kubein-Meesenburg, D; Nägerl, H

    2002-09-01

    We investigated whether the kinematics of modern knee braces reflect the natural movement of the knee, especially with regard to the roll-glide ratio. Seven commercially available modern knee braces were analyzed in a new measuring unit with a 6-D positional registration system, which had been developed for this study. The results were compared to the theoretically postulated joint movements. All knee braces produced a roll-glide ratio different from the natural movement of the knee. Only the Townsend brace protected the anterior cruciate ligament at the beginning of the movement.Biomechanically, none of the knee braces tested provided efficient protection for the knee movement. We propose a new functional external joint, which allows restoration of the natural roll-glide mechanism of the articulating surfaces.

  15. Behavior of concentrically loaded CFT braces connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha M. Hassan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Concrete filled tubes (CFTs composite columns have many economical and esthetic advantages, but the behavior of their connections is complicated. Through this study, it is aimed to investigate the performance and behavior of different connection configurations between concrete filled steel tube columns and bracing diagonals through an experimental program. The study included 12 connection subassemblies consisting of a fixed length steel tube and gusset plate connected to the tube end with different details tested under half cyclic loading. A notable effect was observed on the behavior of the connections due to its detailing changes with respect to capacity, failure mode, ductility, and stress distribution.

  16. Biomechanical evaluation of a novel dynamic posterior cruciate ligament brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Christian H; Schmoelz, Werner; Mayr, Raul; Keiler, Alexander; Schöttle, Philip B; Attal, René

    2016-03-01

    Use of a rigid brace or cast immobilization is recommended in conservative treatment or postoperative rehabilitation after a posterior cruciate ligament injury. To prevent the loss of knee joint function and muscle activity often associated with this, a flexible knee brace has been developed that allows an adjustable anteriorly directed force to be applied to the calf in order to prevent posterior tibial translation. The purpose of this biomechanical study was to evaluate the impact of this novel dynamic brace on posterior tibial translation after posterior cruciate ligament injury and reconstruction. A Telos stress device was used to provoke posterior tibial translation in seven human lower limb specimens, and stress radiographs were taken at 90° of knee flexion. Posterior tibial translation was measured in the native knees with an intact posterior cruciate ligament; after arthroscopic posterior cruciate ligament dissection with and without a brace; and after posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with and without a brace. The force applied with the brace was measured using a pressure sensor. Posterior tibial translation was significantly reduced (P=0.032) after application of the brace with an anteriorly directed force of 50N to the knees with the dissected posterior cruciate ligament. The brace also significantly reduced posterior tibial translation after posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in comparison with reconstructed knees without a brace (P=0.005). Posterior tibial translation was reduced to physiological values using this dynamic brace system that allows an anteriorly directed force to be applied to the calf. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of functional knee brace design and hinge misalignment on lower limb joint mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Jonathan C; Lamontagne, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Knee bracing has been shown to alter lower limb joint mechanics, which may protect the anterior cruciate ligament. The effect of brace alignment and brace type, however, remains largely unknown. This study was conducted to determine whether the use of a functional knee brace, the type of brace used or its alignment relative to the knee causes biomechanical alterations to gait. Ten healthy participants took part in two walking conditions (aligned brace and misaligned brace) for two different types of brace (sleeve brace with bilateral hinges and hinge-post-shell). A non-braced condition was included as a baseline measure. Three-dimensional kinematics and force platform data were used to calculate the joint intersegmental forces and net joint moments of the ankle, knee and hip. In comparison to non-braced walking, the shell brace in its aligned position significantly reduced the peak ankle plantarflexor moment. There was a decreased peak knee flexion angle with both the aligned shell and sleeve braces. The shell brace in its aligned position significantly increased peak knee adduction and reduced peak knee internal rotation. In this sample of healthy participants, functional knee bracing failed to alter lower limb mechanics in such a way that would reduce the force transmitted to the anterior cruciate ligament. In addition, although there were brace induced changes in lower limb kinematics with 2cm of distal hinge misalignment, it is unlikely that hinge misalignment of this magnitude is detrimental to an uninjured knee joint during walking.

  18. Three dimensional analysis of brace biomechanical efficacy for patients with AIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebel, David E; Al-Aubaidi, Zaid; Shin, Eyun-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Corrective three dimensional (3D) effect of different braces is debatable. We evaluated differences in in-brace radiographic correction comparing a custom thoracic-lumbo-sacral-orthosis (TLSO) (T) brace to a Chêneau type TLSO (C) brace using 3D EOS reconstruction technology. Our primary research ...

  19. Efficacy of Unloader Bracing in Reducing Symptoms of Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrander, Roger V; Leddon, Charles E; Hackel, Joshua G; O'Grady, Christopher P; Roth, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    Braces designed to unload the more diseased compartment of the knee have been used to provide symptomatic relief from osteoarthritis (OA). Research on the efficacy of these braces is needed. Thirty-one patients with knee OA were randomized to receive an unloader brace (n = 16) or not to receive a brace (control group, n = 15). Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcomes Score (KOOS) and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were used to evaluate outcomes. KOOS results showed that the brace group had significantly less pain (P knee-related quality of life (P = .718). VAS results showed that the brace group had significantly less pain throughout the day (P = .021) and had improved activity levels (P = .035). There was no difference in ability to sleep (P = .117) or in use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (P = .138). Our study results showed that use of an unloader brace for medial compartment knee OA led to significant improvements in pain, arthritis symptoms, and ability to engage in activities.

  20. Biomechanical Analysis of the Effects of Bilateral Hinged Knee Bracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hangil; Ha, Dokyeong; Kang, Yeoun-Seung; Park, Hyung-Soon

    2016-01-01

    This research analyzed the effect of bilateral hinged knee braces on a healthy knee from a biomechanical frame in vivo. This was accomplished by fitting a knee brace with two customized wireless force/torque (F/T) sensors that could readily record force and torque during live motion, while the kinetics at the knee were computed using the inverse dynamics of the motion capture and force plate data. Four tasks to test the brace’s effects were drop vertical jumping, pivoting, stop vertical jumping, and cutting. The results showed that the hinges in the knee brace can absorb up to 18% of the force and 2.7% of the torque at the knee during various athletic motions. Thus, the hinges demonstrated minimal effect in reducing the mechanical load on the knee. There were limitations concerning the consistency of the motions performed by the subjects during the trials and the influence of the other portions of the brace to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the brace as a whole. Future works may incorporate a fatigue protocol and injured subjects to better determine the effects of the brace. There is still a need for more research on the biomechanical influence of knee braces to develop safer and more effective products. PMID:27379233

  1. Excess properties and vapour pressure of left brace3-diethylaminopropylamine + cyclohexaneright brace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khimeche, Kamel, E-mail: kamel.khimeche@yahoo.f [Ecole Militaire Polytechnique EMP, BP 17 Bordj-El-Bahri, Alger (Algeria); Dahmani, Abdallah [Laboratoire de thermodynamique et modelisation moleculaire, Faculte de chimie, USTHB, BP 32 El-Alia, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Mokbel, Ilham [Laboratoire de chimie analytique I, Universite Claude Bernard (Lyon I), 43, bd du 11 Novembre 1918 69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2010-07-15

    The vapour pressures of liquid left brace3-diethylaminopropylamine (3-DEPA) + cyclohexaneright brace were measured by a static method between T = (273.15 and 363.15) K at 10 K intervals. The excess molar volumes V{sup E} at 298.15 K and excess molar enthalpies H{sup E} at 303.15 K were also measured. The molar excess Gibbs free energies G{sup E} were obtained with Barker's method and fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation. The Wilson equation was also used. Deviations between experimental and predicted G{sup E} and H{sup E}, by using DISQUAC model, were evaluated

  2. Corrective Bracing for Severe Idiopathic Scoliosis in Adolescence: Influence of Brace on Trunk Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Kinel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the work was to study whether wearing a corrective brace by adolescent girls with severe idiopathic scoliosis can influence external shape of the trunk. Methods. Comparison of clinical deformity of two groups of girls matched for age and Cobb angle: group (1 of 23 girls, aged 14.9±1.3 years, Cobb angle 55.0°±6.8°, who refused surgical treatment and have been wearing Chêneau brace for more than 6 months, compared with group (2 of 22 girls, aged 14.1±1.8 years, Cobb angle 59.7°±14.6° never treated with corrective bracing. Clinical deformity was assessed with the Bunnell scoliometer (angle of trunk rotation ATR and surface topography (posterior trunk symmetry index POTSI and Hump Sum HS. Results. The ATR in the primary curvature was 11.9°±3.4° (5°–18° in group 1 versus 15.1°±5.6° (6°–25° in group 2 (P=0.027. The HS was 16.8°±3.8 versus 19.2°±4.6, respectively, P=0.07. The POTSI value did not differ between groups. Conclusion. Girls with Cobb angle above 45 degrees, who have been subjected to brace treatment, revealed smaller clinical deformity of their back comparing to nontreated girls having similar radiological curvatures.

  3. A magnetorheological fluid based orthopedic active knee brace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zite, Jamaal L.; Ahmadkhanlou, Farzad; Neelakantan, Vijay A.; Washington, Gregory N.

    2006-03-01

    The disadvantage of current knee braces ranges from high cost for customization to a loss in physical mobility and limited rehabilitative value. One approach to solving this problem is to use a Magnetorheological (MR) device to make the knee brace have a controllable resistance. Our design solution is to replace the manufacturer's joint with an rotary MR fluid based shear damper. The device is designed based on a maximum yield stress, a corresponding magnetic field, a torque and the MR fluid viscosity. The analytical and experimental results show the advantages and the feasibility of using the proposed MR based controllable knee braces.

  4. The three dimensional analysis of the Sforzesco brace correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Donzelli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scoliosis is a three dimensional deformity, and brace correction should be 3D too. There is a lack of knowledge of the effect of braces, particularly in the sagittal and transverse plane. The aim of this study is to analyse the Sforzesco Brace correction, through all the parameters provided by Eos 3D imaging system. Method Design: This is a cross sectional study from a prospective database started in March 2003. Participants: 16 AIS girls (mean age 14.01 in Sforzesco brace treatment, with EOS x-rays, at start, in brace after 1 month and out of brace after the first 4 months of treatment. Outcome measures: All the parameters and the Torsio-Index obtained from 3D Eos System, in and out of brace, in the three planes. Statistical analysis: the variability of the parameters and the mean differences were analyzed and compared using paired T test. ANOVA was used for multiple comparisons. Critical P value was set at 0.05. Results In the comparison of in-brace vs start of treatment, the mean Cobb angle changed significantly from 36.44 +/− 4 to 28.99 + −3.9° (p = 0.01. Significant changes in all the sagittal parameters were found (p = 0.02. In the axial plane, the Torsio Index changed significantly in-brace for thoracolumbar and lumbar curves (P < 0.05. The analysis of the single vertebral tilt demonstrated that the effect of the brace is mostly concentrated at specific segments: T4-T5, T10-T12, L1 and L5 in the axial plane and T3-T6 and T10-L1 in the frontal plane. Conclusion The Sforzesco brace mostly modifies the middle of the spine and preserves the sagittal balance. The single vertebral orientation in each plane should be considered together with the typically used values to assess brace effect.

  5. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, bracing, and the Hueter-Volkmann principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Frank P

    2003-01-01

    Evidence demonstrating the biomechanical effects of the Hueter-Volkmann principle on vertebral body growth in spinal deformities is lacking. Bracing a scoliotic curve should, in theory, unload the growth plates on the concave side of the vertebral bodies near the curve's apex. Growth stimulation, leading to structural remodeling of the vertebral bodies, on the curve's concave side may explain the improvement or lack of curve progression, as measured by Cobb angles, reported with successful brace management of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). To determine whether brace treatment stimulated asymmetric chondrogenesis in the apical three vertebral bodies. A prospective cohort of patients with AIS receiving brace treatment were followed from the initiation of brace treatment until skeletal maturity. Patients were then retrospectively divided into those with and without radiographic progression. This post hoc analysis was included to determine risk factors for curve progression. Forty-one skeletally immature patients with AIS meeting criteria for brace treatment were followed until skeletal maturity. All patients were treated with thoracolumbosacral orthotics (TLSOs). The positional derotation of the TLSO on the spine was measured by comparing the initial radiograph with the first radiograph in a brace. The long-term structural changes of the vertebral bodies were determined by comparing the initial and final radiographs. Differences in initial radiographic parameters between the groups of patients with AIS with and without curve progression indicated predictive factors for successful brace treatment. Initial radiographic measurements were compared with those observed in a brace and those observed at final follow-up. The same analysis was retrospectively repeated comparing patients with AIS with and without radiographic progression. Cobb measurements (p=.0001) and concave-to-convex height ratios of the apical three vertebral bodies improved when the brace was

  6. Shape modification of the Boston brace using a finite-element method with topology optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yi-Ching; Feng, Chi-Kuang; Tsai, Mei-Wun; Chen, Chen-Sheng; Cheng, Cheng-Kung; Ou, Yu-Chih

    2007-12-15

    Using a finite-element (FE) method to reshape the Boston brace, and evaluating the correction effect of the modified Boston brace in terms of Cobb angle. This study aimed to reduce the weight of the Boston brace using a FE method with topology optimization. The Boston brace is widely used to correct an abnormal spinal curve in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. However, patients wearing the brace usually complain about discomfort caused by its bulkiness. An FE model of a traditional Boston brace was constructed using the software ANSYS 9.0. The loading condition was taken from an X-sensor measuring contact pressures between torso and brace. Topology optimization was conducted to modify the Boston brace. Three patients wearing a traditional brace and then the modified brace were examined in terms of Cobb angle. For the patient with King Type III scoliosis, this modified brace was able to offer the same correction effect as the traditional brace, but the modified brace was lighter by about 12.4%, with the potential to be up to 18% lighter. Based on the traditional Boston brace, this FE model, combined with topology optimization, can effectively estimate redundant material distribution and accordingly custom-design a lighter brace without any loss of its corrective effect.

  7. Brace or no-brace after ACL graft? Four-year results of a prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Hermann O; Stüeken, Paul; Münch, Ernst-Otto; Wolter, Morris; Bernstein, Anke; Suedkamp, Norbert P; Stoehr, Amelie

    2014-05-01

    A controversial discussion is held on using stabilizing knee braces after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery. The current study investigated the influence of a stabilizing knee brace on results after ACL reconstruction using patellar tendon autografts. A prospective randomized study was started including 64 patients divided into two equal groups and treated with or without a stabilizing knee brace for 6 weeks post-operatively. A follow-up examination 4 years after operation comprised IKDC 2000, KT1000 measurement, a visual analogue pain scale (VAS; scores 0-10) and radiographic evaluation. The t test for independent and paired samples and the Pearson's Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis (p brace group 90.5 ± 8.9, braceless group 93.2 ± 6.1) and objective results (brace A 30%, B 56%, C 16%; braceless A 32%, B 48%, C 20%) and instrumental measurement of anteroposterior laxity with KT1000 (brace 0.6 ± 2.4 mm, braceless 1.8 ± 3.4 mm) showed no significant differences. VAS pain results were significantly better in the braceless group at 1.0 ± 1.2 versus 1.9 ± 1.4 under sports activity or heavy physical work (p = 0.015). There were no radiographic differences concerning osteoarthritic findings and tunnel widening between the groups. Post-operative treatment with a stabilizing knee brace after ACL replacement showed no advantage over treatment without a brace at 4-year follow-up. The use of a knee-stabilizing brace after isolated ACL reconstruction with autologous patellar tendon graft is not recommended. II.

  8. Phase equilibria in the Sm-{l_brace}Ru,Rh{r_brace}-{l_brace}Si,Ge{r_brace} systems at 870 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozkin, A.V. [Moscow Lomonosov State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chem.; Seropegin, Yu.D. [Moscow Lomonosov State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chem.; Bodak, O.I. [L`viv State Univ. (Ukraine). Dept. of Inorg. Chem.

    1996-02-01

    Physico-chemical analysis techniques, including X-ray phase analysis and electron probe X-ray analysis were employed in constructing the isothermal cross-section of the phase diagrams Sm-{l_brace}Ru,Rh{r_brace}-{l_brace}Si,Ge{r_brace} systems at 870 K. The formation of the new ternary intermetallic compounds, Sm{sub 2}RuGe{sub 2}, Sm{sub 2}RhGe{sub 2} (structure type Zr{sub 2}CoSi{sub 2}); Sm{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Si{sub 2}, Sm{sub 3}Rh{sub 2}Si{sub 2}, Sm{sub 3}Rh{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} (structure type La{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}Ga{sub 2}); SmRh{sub 5}Si{sub 3}, SmRh{sub 5}Ge{sub 3} (structure type UCo{sub 5}Si{sub 3}); Sm{sub 2}Ru{sub 3}Si{sub 5} (structure type Sc{sub 2}Fe{sub 3}Si{sub 5}); SmRu{sub 3}Si{sub 2} (structure type LaRu{sub 3}Si{sub 2}); SmRuSi{sub 3} (structure type BaAl{sub 4}); Sm{sub 33}Rh{sub 20}Ge{sub 47} (structure type AlB{sub 2}); Sm{sub 25}Rh{sub 19}Ge{sub 56} (structure type CeRh{sub 1-x}Ge{sub 2+x}); Sm{sub 2}RhGe{sub 6} (structure type Ce{sub 2}CuGe{sub 6}) and Sm{sub 62}Ru{sub 28}Ge{sub 10}, SmRu{sub 3}Si, Sm{sub 2}RuSi{sub 2}, Sm{sub 62}Ru{sub 10}Si{sub 28}, Sm{sub 33}Rh{sub 50}Si{sub 17}, Sm{sub 16}Rh{sub 68}Si{sub 16}, SmRh{sub 3}Si{sub 6}, Sm{sub 37}Rh{sub 35}Si{sub 28}, Sm{sub 2}RhSi{sub 2}, Sm{sub 4}Rh{sub 4}Si, Sm{sub 33}Rh{sub 53}Ge{sub 14}, SmRh{sub 2}Ge, Sm{sub 18}Rh{sub 64}Ge{sub 18}, SmRh{sub 3}Ge{sub 6}, were detected in Sm-(Ru,Rh)-(Si,Ge) systems. It was found that compound SmRuSi does not belong to the structure type PbFCl. Ternary compound SmRuGe was not found in Sm-Ru-Ge system at 870 K. (orig.)

  9. Results of ultrasound-assisted brace casting for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Edmond H; Hill, Doug L; Donauer, Andreas; Tilburn, Melissa; Hedden, Douglas; Moreau, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Four factors have been reported to affect brace treatment outcome: (1) growth or curve based risk, (2) the in-brace correction, (3) the brace wear quantity, and (4) the brace wear quality. The quality of brace design affects the in-brace correction and comfort which indirectly affects the brace wear quantity and quality. This paper reported the immediate benefits and results on using ultrasound (US) to aid orthotists to design braces for the treatment of scoliosis. Thirty-four AIS subjects participated in this study with 17 (2 males, 15 females) in the control group and 17 (2 males, 15 females) in the intervention (US) group. All participants were prescribed full time TLSO, constructed by either of the 2 orthotists in fabrication of spinal braces. For the control group, the Providence brace design system was adopted to design full time braces. For the intervention group, the custom standing Providence brace design system, plus a medical ultrasound system, a custom pressure measurement system and an in-house software were used to assist brace casting. In the control group, 8 of 17 (47%) subjects needed a total of 11 brace adjustments after initial fabrication requiring a total of 28 in-brace radiographs. Three subjects (18%) required a second adjustment. For the US group, only 1 subject (6%) required adjustment. The total number of in-brace radiographs was 18. The p value of the chi-square for requiring brace adjustment was 0.006 which was a statistically significant difference between the two groups. In the intervention group, the immediate in-brace correction as measured from radiographs was 48 ± 17%, and in the control group the first and second in-brace correction was 33 ± 19% and 40 ± 20%, respectively. The unpaired 2 sided Student's t test of the in-brace correction was significantly different between the US and the first follow-up of the control group (p = 0.02), but was not significant after the second brace adjustment (p = 0.22). The

  10. A magnetorheological fluid-based controllable active knee brace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadkhanlou, Farzad; Zite, Jamaal L.; Washington, Gregory N.

    2007-04-01

    High customization costs and reduction of natural mobility put current rehabilitative knee braces at a disadvantage. A resolution to this problem is to integrate a Magnetorheological (MR) fluid-based joint into the system. A MR joint will allow patients to apply and control a resistive torque to knee flexion and extension. The resistance torque can also be continuously adjusted as a function of extension angle and patient strength (or as a function of time), which is currently impossible with state of the art rehabilitative knee braces. A novel MR fluid-based controllable knee brace is designed and prototyped in this research. The device exhibits large resistive torque in the on-state and low resistance in the offstate. The controllable variable stiffness, compactness, and portability of the system make it a proper alternative to current rehabilitative knee braces.

  11. Nail changes in casted and braced clubfoot: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Anil; Kumar, Anubrat; Khanna, Deepshikha; Shaharyar, Abbas; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2016-12-01

    The study aimed at finding whether there are any nail changes specific to treatment in clubfoot. Sixty new, 26 undergoing serial corrective casting, and 247 clubfoot patients using foot abduction braces were prospectively studied. The casted and braced group formed the basis of the study to observe nail changes, if any. The new patients and opposite normal foot (in unilateral casted cases) were taken as controls. Acute paronychia, ingrown toe nail, onychoshizia, onychorrhexis, nail plate concavity, latent onychomadesis, and distal onycholysis were observed in feet undergoing corrective casting and bracing. Micronychia, malalignment and thinning of nail plate were the observed congenital nail anomalies. Nail changes in clubfeet are not infrequent. Certain nail changes might be etiologically linked to casting and bracing. Some of nail changes might require urgent medical care. Copyright © 2015 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Behaviour of Strengthened RC Frames with Eccentric Steel Braced Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamanli Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After devastating earthquakes in recent years, strengthening of reinforced concrete buildings became an important research topic. Reinforced concrete buildings can be strengthened by steel braced frames. These steel braced frames may be made of concentrically or eccentrically indicated in Turkish Earthquake Code 2007. In this study pushover analysis of the 1/3 scaled 1 reinforced concrete frame and 1/3 scaled 4 strengthened reinforced concrete frames with internal eccentric steel braced frames were conducted by SAP2000 program. According to the results of the analyses conducted, load-displacement curves of the specimens were compared and evaluated. Adding eccentric steel braces to the bare frame decreased the story drift, and significantly increased strength, stiffness and energy dissipation capacity. In this strengthening method lateral load carrying capacity, stiffness and dissipated energy of the structure can be increased.

  13. Behaviour of Strengthened RC Frames with Eccentric Steel Braced Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanli, Mehmet; Unal, Alptug

    2017-10-01

    After devastating earthquakes in recent years, strengthening of reinforced concrete buildings became an important research topic. Reinforced concrete buildings can be strengthened by steel braced frames. These steel braced frames may be made of concentrically or eccentrically indicated in Turkish Earthquake Code 2007. In this study pushover analysis of the 1/3 scaled 1 reinforced concrete frame and 1/3 scaled 4 strengthened reinforced concrete frames with internal eccentric steel braced frames were conducted by SAP2000 program. According to the results of the analyses conducted, load-displacement curves of the specimens were compared and evaluated. Adding eccentric steel braces to the bare frame decreased the story drift, and significantly increased strength, stiffness and energy dissipation capacity. In this strengthening method lateral load carrying capacity, stiffness and dissipated energy of the structure can be increased.

  14. Mobilization brace in post-traumatic elbow stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Alessandro; Bettelli, Graziano; Guerra, Enrico; Nigrisoli, Marco; Rotini, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    Invalidating elbow contractures, a frequent problem after injury, are commonly treated by physical therapy or surgical release. In both cases, results can be frustrating: physical therapy is often not sufficient to gain functional range of motion, and after surgical release it is common to lose part of the motion gained in operating room. Thanks to the viscous-elastic properties of the soft tissue, the mobilization elbow braces can stretch the retracting or retracted tissues inducing a biological lengthening of collagen fibres. In post-traumatic contracture, mobilization braces are effectively employable in two main critical situations: to treat recent onset contractures which do not respond to simple physical therapy and to help in preserving range of motion gained after surgical release. We report our experience with mobilization brace used in 42 patients, 5 for post-traumatic contracture, 4 for contracture following articular fracture fixation and 33 after surgical release. Classification, indications and treatment protocols of the mobilization braces utilized are reported.

  15. Successful brace treatment of Scheuermann's kyphosis with different angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Etemadifar

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Conservative treatment with Milwaukee brace and physiotherapy was effective in our hand for halting kyphosis progression in 97.5% of Scheuermann's kyphosis, which could be advised for cases up to 90° of kyphosis before skeletal maturity. As a result, a trial of brace treatment could be recommended in patients with severe kyphosis (up to 90° which can open a new insight in conservative treatment of Scheuermann's kyphosis.

  16. [Pincer nail. Conservative correction by attachment of a plastic brace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effendy, I; Ossowski, B; Happle, R

    1993-12-01

    In three women, pincer nail deformity of the big toes was successfully treated by means of commercially available plastic braces. The nail plate was first flattened with an electrically driven dermatological grinder, and pliant braces were then stuck transversely on the nail plate to counteract the overcurvature. Within 3-6 months the nail growth was normalized in two cases and almost completely normalized in the third.

  17. Efficacy of Nail Brace Treatment For Ingrown Na

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma Gülru Erdoğan; Münevver Güven; Atilla Halil Elhan

    2010-01-01

    Background and Design: Ingrown nail is a common, painful health problem. Various conservative and surgical methods have been defined for treatment of ingrown nails. In this study we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of nail brace treatment which is a cheap conservative treatment, recurrence percentages after nail brace treatment and risk factors for recurrence. Material and Method: Thirty-two female and 19 male patients with the complaint of ingrown nail aged 14-73 with a total of 73 nails are i...

  18. Effect of uniaxial strain on adatom diffusion across {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}-faceted step

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Jianyu, E-mail: wuliyangjianyu@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Maths and Physics, Hunan Institute of Engineering, Donghu Street, Xiangtan 411104 (China); Hu Wangyu, E-mail: Wangyuhu2001@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Tang Jianfeng [Department of Applied Physics, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China)

    2011-02-01

    Diffusion of Pt adatom across the strained {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}-faceted step is studied by embedded atom method along with nudged elastic band method. For adatom on the flat (1 1 1) surface, the anisotropic diffusion behavior is found as the uniaxial strain is imposed. For the strained {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}-faceted step, our results show that the maximum energy barrier for adatom crossing step edge remains approximately constant as the strain varied from -1.0% to 1.0%, and there is a rise as the larger uniaxial strain is applied. The calculated energy barrier for adatom diffusion along the step edge increases with increasing tensile strain, and the slope of the straight line is small.

  19. Rehabilitation results following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using a hard brace compared to a fluid-filled soft brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Hermann Otto; Hochrein, Alfred; Hein, Werner; Hube, Robert; Bernstein, Anke

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction using a water-filled soft brace to those using a hard brace. The method used in this study was a prospective randomised clinical trial including 36 patients wearing a hard brace and 37 patients wearing a water-filled soft brace for 6 weeks after surgery. Preoperative and postoperative (seven examinations) clinical evaluation within a follow-up period of 1 year including effusion status, swelling and range of motion (ROM), IKDC 2000, KT1000 Arthrometer, Lysholm knee scoring scale and Tegner activity score. Mean values are presented with standard deviations. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and Student's t-test for unpaired samples. Significantly less effusion was found in the soft brace group from 5 days (p=0.002) to 12 weeks (pbrace patients presented with significantly more extension deficit from 5 days (p=0.036) to 12 months (p=0.014) postoperative but no significant difference was detected in complete ROM, laxity or thigh atrophy at any follow-up examination. Patients treated with a soft brace had significantly higher IKDC subjective ratings at 6 weeks (p=0.02) up to 12 months after operation (p=0.002) and rated significantly higher in Tegner activity score (p=0.004) and Lysholm knee scoring scale (p=0.006) 6 and 12 months (pbrace was superior regarding effusion, swelling, extension deficit and patient-measured midterm outcome. The soft brace presents a safe, easy-to-use and effective alternative to the hard brace. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The SpineCor Brace in 2015: A Form of Chiropractic Child Abuse? A Report of Three Cases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, John; Heflin, John

    2016-01-01

    Background When the SpineCor brace was introduced ~15 years ago, it touted promise that a flexible, patient friendly brace could arrest curve progression during growth similar to that documented for a rigid Boston-type brace...

  1. Gait Using Pneumatic Brace for End-Stage Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Cherian, Jeffrey Jai; Starr, Roland; Chughtai, Morad; Mont, Michael A; Harwin, Steven F; Bhave, Anil

    2016-04-01

    More than 20 million individuals in the United States are affected by knee osteoarthritis (OA), which can lead to altered biomechanics and excessive joint loading. The use of an unloader pneumatic brace with extension assist has been proposed as a nonoperative treatment modality that may improve gait mechanics and correct knee malalignment. We assessed the following parameters in patients who have knee OA treated with and without a brace: (1) changes in temporospatial parameters in gait; (2) knee range of motion, knee extension at heel strike, and foot placement; (3) knee joint moments and impulse; and (4) changes in dynamic stiffness and rate of change of knee flexion during midstance to terminal stance. This 2:1 prospective, randomized, single-blinded trial evaluated 36 patients (24 brace and 12 matching). OA knee patients were randomized to receive either a pneumatic unloader brace or a standard nonoperative treatment regimen as the matching cohort for a 3-month period. They underwent evaluation of gait parameters using a three-dimensional gait analysis system at their initial appointment and at 3 months follow-up. All the testing, pre- and postbracing were performed without wearing the brace to examine for retained effects. Treatment with the brace led to significant improvements versus standard treatment in various gait parameters. Patients in the brace group had improvements in walking speed, knee extension at heel strike, total range of motion, knee joint forces, and rate of knee flexion from midstance to terminal stance when compared with the matching cohort. Knee OA patients who used a pneumatic unloader brace for 3 months for at least 3 hours per day had significant improvements various gait parameters when compared with a standard nonoperative therapy cohort. Braced patients demonstrated gait-modifying affects when not wearing the brace. These results are encouraging and suggest that this device represents a promising treatment modality for knee OA that

  2. Effects of bracing on lung function in idiopathic juvenile kyphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priftis, Kostas N; Hager, John; Vlachou, Maria; Anthracopoulos, Michael B

    2003-02-01

    Although considerable information is available on the effects of bracing on lung function in kyphoscoliosis, there is a paucity of data on idiopathic juvenile kyphosis (IJK). The present study was designed to investigate the immediate effect of bracing on lung function in children and adolescents with mild-to-moderate IJK. Spirometry, measurement of lung volumes, and arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO(2)) were performed in 24 patients, 9-17 years of age, who were treated with a corrective brace for mild-to-moderate IJK (Cobb angle, 46-75 degrees ). Children were studied when braced and unbraced. When children were unbraced, mean percent predicted values (+/-standard deviation) for total lung capacity (TLC), vital capacity (VC), functional residual capacity (FRC), and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV(1)) were 100.0% (+/-13.0%), 92.7% (+/-14.2%), 108.2% (+/-20.4%), and 95.0% (+/-16.3%), respectively. With the brace on, significant reductions occurred in all lung function measurements: TLC decreased by 9.5% (P < 0.001), VC by 9.3% (P = 0.001), FRC by 14.2% (P = 0.005), and FEV(1) by 8.9% (P = 0.009). SaO(2) decreased from 96.2% (+/-1.6%) to 95.2% (+/-1.4%) (P = 0.027). An inverse relationship was observed between pre- and postbracing change in TLC and Cobb angle children (P = 0.021). Our findings indicate that corrective bracing in mild-to-moderate IJK results in mild lung restriction and a clinically insignificant drop in SaO(2). The effect of bracing on TLC decreases as the severity of kyphosis increases in these patients. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Quadriceps Function After Exercise in Patients with Anterior Cruciate Ligament–Reconstructed Knees Wearing Knee Braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alexis G.; Pietrosimone, Brian G.; Ingersoll, Christopher D.; Pugh, Kelli; Hart, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Knee braces and neoprene sleeves are commonly worn by people with anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions (ACLRs) during athletic activity. How knee braces and sleeves affect muscle activation in people with ACLRs is unclear. Purpose: To determine the effects of knee braces and neoprene knee sleeves on the quadriceps central activation ratio (CAR) before and after aerobic exercise in people with ACLRs. Design: Crossover study. Patients or Other Participants: Fourteen people with a history of ACLR (9 women, 5 men: age = 23.61 ± 4.44 years, height = 174.09 ± 9.82 cm, mass = 75.35 ± 17.48 kg, months since ACLR = 40.62 ± 20.41). Intervention(s): During each of 3 sessions, participants performed a standardized aerobic exercise protocol on a treadmill. The independent variables were condition (brace, sleeve, or control) and time (baseline, pre-exercise with brace, postexercise with brace, postexercise without brace). Main Outcome Measure(s): Normalized torque measured during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (TMVIC) and CAR were measured by a blinded assessor using the superimposed burst technique. The CAR was expressed as a percentage of full muscle activation. The quadriceps CAR and TMVIC were measured 4 times during each session: baseline, pre-exercise with brace, postexercise with brace, and postexercise without brace. Results: Immediately after the application of the knee brace, TMVIC decreased (P = .01), but no differences between bracing conditions were observed. We noted reduced TMVIC and CAR (P brace. No differences were seen between bracing conditions after aerobic exercise. Conclusions: The decrease in TMVIC immediately after brace application was not accompanied by differences between bracing conditions. Wearing a knee brace or neoprene sleeve did not seem to affect the deterioration of quadriceps function after aerobic exercise. PMID:22488186

  4. Quadriceps function after exercise in patients with anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed knees wearing knee braces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alexis G; Pietrosimone, Brian G; Ingersoll, Christopher D; Pugh, Kelli; Hart, Joseph M

    2011-01-01

    Knee braces and neoprene sleeves are commonly worn by people with anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions (ACLRs) during athletic activity. How knee braces and sleeves affect muscle activation in people with ACLRs is unclear. To determine the effects of knee braces and neoprene knee sleeves on the quadriceps central activation ratio (CAR) before and after aerobic exercise in people with ACLRs. Crossover study. Fourteen people with a history of ACLR (9 women, 5 men: age = 23.61 ± 4.44 years, height = 174.09 ± 9.82 cm, mass = 75.35 ± 17.48 kg, months since ACLR = 40.62 ± 20.41). During each of 3 sessions, participants performed a standardized aerobic exercise protocol on a treadmill. The independent variables were condition (brace, sleeve, or control) and time (baseline, pre-exercise with brace, postexercise with brace, postexercise without brace). Normalized torque measured during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (T(MVIC)) and CAR were measured by a blinded assessor using the superimposed burst technique. The CAR was expressed as a percentage of full muscle activation. The quadriceps CAR and T(MVIC) were measured 4 times during each session: baseline, pre-exercise with brace, postexercise with brace, and postexercise without brace. Immediately after the application of the knee brace, T(MVIC) decreased (P = .01), but no differences between bracing conditions were observed. We noted reduced T(MVIC) and CAR (P brace. No differences were seen between bracing conditions after aerobic exercise. The decrease in T(MVIC) immediately after brace application was not accompanied by differences between bracing conditions. Wearing a knee brace or neoprene sleeve did not seem to affect the deterioration of quadriceps function after aerobic exercise.

  5. A comparative study of TLSO, Charleston, and Milwaukee braces for idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, A; Wright, J G; Hedden, D

    1998-11-15

    Retrospective cohort study. To determine which of TLSO, Charleston, or Milwaukee bracing best prevents curve progression and surgery in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Bracing has been shown to prevent curve progression in idiopathic scoliosis, when compared with no treatment. However, there is little literature available comparing the effectiveness of different brace designs. One hundred seventy patients who completed brace treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis between 1988 and 1995 were studied. Forty-five thoracolumbosacral orthoses, 95 Charleston braces, and 35 Milwaukee braces were used. Thoracolumbosacral orthoses and Charleston braces were used on comparable curves, whereas Milwaukee braces were used in a subgroup in which the other brace designs were considered inappropriate. Evaluated were the absolute increase in curve severity, the percentage of curves that progressed beyond 6 degrees and 10 degrees thresholds, and the percentage of patients who underwent surgery. Age, Risser stage, curve size, and time braced and observed did not differ among groups. Mean progression of the curve during bracing was 1.1 degrees with thoracolumbosacral orthosis, 6.5 degrees with the Charleston brace, and 6.3 degrees with the Milwaukee brace (P = 0.012; analysis of variance). Proportion of patients with more than 10 degrees of curve progression was 14% with thoracolumbosacral orthosis, 28% with the Charleston brace, and 43% with the Milwaukee brace (P = 0.017; chi-square). The proportion of patients who underwent surgery was 18% with thoracolumbosacral orthosis, 31% with the Charleston brace, and 23% with the Milwaukee brace (P = 0.26; chi-square). The thoracolumbosacral orthosis was superior at preventing curve progression in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

  6. Variable criteria for patellofemoral bracing among sports medicine professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solinsky, Ryan; Beaupre, Gary S; Fredericson, Michael

    2014-06-01

    To examine whether the frequency of bracing, geographic region, clinical specialty, or percentage of practice devoted to knee pain influences the criteria used by sports medicine professionals to determine whether a brace should be prescribed for treating patients with nontraumatic patellofemoral pain syndrome. Cross-sectional study. Sports medicine practices in the United States. A total of 1307 athletic trainers, physical therapists, and sports medicine physicians recruited from the e-mail listings of the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, the American Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine, the American Physical Therapy Association Sports Physical Therapy Section, the International Patellofemoral Study Group, the International Patellofemoral Retreat list, and National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 athletic team registries. Not applicable. Thirty-seven potential patellofemoral bracing criteria encompassing history and function, alignment, physical examination, previous treatments, and radiographic evidence. A total of 1307 of 7999 providers replied (response rate, 16.3%). Mean bracing frequencies were 19.8% for athletic trainers, 13.4% for physical therapists, and 25.1% for physicians. The mean number of total bracing criteria used was 10.5. The 10 most commonly cited criteria for prescribing a patellofemoral brace in descending order of frequency were: (1) hypermobile patella on physical examination; (2) positive J sign on physical examination; (3) failure of previous rehabilitation; (4) pain when performing squats or going up/down stairs on history; (5) success with previous taping; (6) pain with running activities on history; (7) pain with jumping activities on history; (8) increased dynamic Q angle; (9) vastus medialis oblique deficiency in timing or strength; and (10) positive apprehension sign on physical examination. No statistically significant trends were noted with regard to experience or percentage of practice devoted to knee

  7. Mechanical compression release device in steel bracing system for retrofitting RC frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarzadeh, H.; Maheri, M. R.

    2006-06-01

    The development of an innovative structural system with satisfactory seismic performance of braced systems is an important and challenging area of interest in structural engineering. In this paper, a device that can release the compressive force in the bracing members is developed, and its performance is evaluated. For comparison, four steel braced RC frames were constructed and tested under reverse cyclic loads. Two of them had different amounts of bracing and the other two had the same amount of bracing but incorporated different type of device, called compression release device, which is developed and described in this paper. It can be concluded from the test results that the newly developed device can effectively be used in steel braced systems to prevent buckling failure of the bracing members. Therefore, the device enhances the ductility of brace-framed systems by allowing an adequate capacity for energy dissipation.

  8. Determination of brace forces caused by construction loads and wind loads during bridge construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The first objective of this study was to develop procedures for determining bracing forces during bridge construction. : Numerical finite element models and analysis techniques were developed for evaluating brace forces induced by construction loads ...

  9. A quantitative method for measuring forces applied by nail braces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Fatma G

    2011-01-01

    Nail bracing is a conservative method used for ingrown nails; however, lack of objective measurements limits its use for various nails. Double-string nail braces with extra metal springs were applied to 12 patients with 21 chronic, thick, and overcurved ingrown nails. Force was measured with a force gauge meter. Treatment was stopped once patients stood on their tiptoes and walked in shoes pain free without braces. A force gauge meter was also used on a model nail to show the forces applied by various nail braces and to compare their pulling forces. After 6 to 10 months of treatment, all of the patients were pain free; 600 to 1,000 centi Newtons of force were applied to the nails. As the width of the nail increased, so did the force. Braces exert more force on larger nails, which may shorten treatment durations. By measuring forces, it may be possible to standardize force and duration of treatment according to variables such as nail thickness, nail width, angle of ingrown nail, and duration of symptoms.

  10. Orthotic treatment of idiopathic hyperkyphosis with Milwaukee brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdikhani, Mahboobeh; Behtash, Hamid; Ganjavian, Mohammad S; Khalaj, Nafiseh

    2016-08-10

    Hyperkyphosis with unknown reason is common in teenagers and can be corrected by orthotic management. Investigation of orthotic outcomes by Milwaukee brace. Sixty-one patients with idiopathic hyperkyphosis (> 45 degrees) were given Milwaukee brace before skeletal maturity. Hyperkyphosis was measured during the first visit without brace, in-brace, at the end of full-time and part time duration of treatment. After treatment completion, participants were categorized in two groups: with hyperkyphosis of 45 degrees and less (Group I) and more than 45 degrees (Group II). These groups were compared to interpret the treatment outcomes. The mean kyphotic curve was 60.1 (SD ± 7.7) and 71 (SD = 10.1) degrees in Group I and II, respectively. The mean kyphotic curve at the time of full time and part time duration of treatment showed no significant difference in patients successfully completed the treatment (P = 0.10) while there was a significant difference between mean kyphotic curve in full time and part time treatment duration for patients with hyperkyphosis of more than 45 degrees (P Hyperkyphosis of less than 70 degrees can be treated if the in-brace correction is saved in part-time duration.

  11. Muscular and Functional Performance Characteristics of Individuals Wearing Prophylactic Knee Braces

    OpenAIRE

    Borsa, Paul A.; Lephart, Scott M.; Fu, Freddie H.

    1993-01-01

    The efficacy of prophylactic knee bracing has been refuted with regard to reducing the incidence and/or severity of injuries to the knee joint. This is thought to be a result of the prophylactic knee brace's ineffectiveness in protecting the knee joint from valgus loads. Furthermore, discrepancies exist regarding the prophylactic knee brace's detrimental effect on functional performance. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of the prophylactic knee brace on selected isokinetic ...

  12. Anisotropy and magnetostriction as corrections for the Heisenberg model at the example of the molecule {l_brace}Ni{sub 4}Mo{sub 12}{r_brace}; Anisotropie und Magnetostriktion als Korrekturen zum Heisenberg-Modell am Beispiel des Molekuels {l_brace}Ni{sub 4}Mo{sub 12}{r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueger, Mirko

    2008-07-15

    In the first part of this thesis the different effects of the molecular magnetism were extensively considered and the possibility of their occurence in {l_brace}Ni{sub 4}Mo{sub 12}{r_brace} checked. In the second part of this thesis different models for the description of experimental results were presented. thereby the results of ESR, SQUIO, and high-field pulse measurements on {l_brace}Ni{sub 4}Mo{sub 12}{r_brace} are described.

  13. Biomechanical effect of unloader braces for medial osteoarthritis of the knee: a systematic review (CRD 42015026136).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Wolf; Ellermann, Andree; Zantop, Thore; Rembitzki, Ingo Volker; Semsch, Hartmut; Liebau, Christian; Best, Raymond

    2016-05-01

    There is a lack of consensus regarding biomechanical effects of unloader braces for the treatment of medial osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of studies examining the biomechanical effect of unloader braces. A systematic search for articles about the biomechanical effect of unloader braces was performed. Primary outcome measure was the influence of the brace on the knee adduction moment. Data sources were Pubmed central and google scholar. Twenty-four articles were included. Twenty articles showed that valgus unloader braces significantly decrease the knee adduction moment. Seven of those studies reported a decrease of pain in braced patients (secondary outcome measure). Positive effects on the knee adduction moment could be found for custom made braces for conventional knee braces and for a foot ankle orthosis. Four studies could not show any effect of knee unloader braces on the knee adduction moment although one of these studies found decreased pain in braced patients. One of these studies examined healthy patients with a neutral axis. This systematic review could demonstrate evidence that unloader braces reduce the adduction moment of the knee. Foresighted, a systematic review about the clinical effect of unloader braces is required.

  14. Bracing patients with idiopathic scoliosis: Design of the Dutch randomized controlled treatment trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Bunge (Eveline); H.J. de Koning (Harry); H.D. Been (Henk); F.C. van Biezen (Frans); B.J. de Gruijter (Bert); H.P.W. van Jonbergen; L.W.L. Klerk (Luuk); M. de Kleuver (Marinus); P.H.J. Klop (Patrick); F. de Nies (Frank); H.E.H. Pruijs (Hans); M.P. Teeuwen (Marcel); P.B.J. Tilman (Pieter)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground. The effectiveness of bracing patients with IS has not yet been convincingly established due to a lack of RCTs. Some authors suggest that their results confirm that bracing is effective; others conclude that the effectiveness of bracing is doubtful or recommend a RCT. The aim

  15. Effects of knee bracing on the sensorimotor function of subjects with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G K; Ng, G Y; Mak, A F

    2001-01-01

    The sensorimotor performance of the knee joint in 31 subjects who had undergone unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction at least 5 months previously was tested under three bracing conditions, 1) the DonJoy Legend brace, 2) a mechanical placebo brace, and 3) no brace, in random order. The accuracy of the subjects' ability to reproduce specified knee joint angles was tested as well as the isokinetic performance of their knee muscles at 60 and 180 deg/sec. The results showed that subjects with the brace or placebo brace performed similarly in reproducing the knee joint positions, but both groups performed better than the subjects without a brace. Isokinetic tests revealed no difference among the three groups in extensor and flexor peak torque production at 60 deg/sec or total work done by the extensors and flexors at 60 and 180 deg/sec. These results suggest that knee bracing can improve the static proprioception of the knee joint, but not the muscle contractile function, in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction under isokinetic testing conditions. The finding of similar performances for joint angle reproduction in the brace and placebo brace groups suggests that the apparent improvement in proprioception with knee bracing was not due to the mechanical restraining action of the brace.

  16. Workflow of CAD / CAM Scoliosis Brace Adjustment in Preparation Using 3D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Hans-Rudolf; Tournavitis, Nicos; Nan, Xiaofeng; Borysov, Maksym; Paul, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    High correction bracing is the most effective conservative treatment for patients with scoliosis during growth. Still today braces for the treatment of scoliosis are made by casting patients while computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) is available with all possibilities to standardize pattern specific brace treatment and improve wearing comfort. CAD / CAM brace production mainly relies on carving a polyurethane foam model which is the basis for vacuuming a polyethylene (PE) or polypropylene (PP) brace. Purpose of this short communication is to describe the workflow currently used and to outline future requirements with respect to 3D printing technology. Description of the steps of virtual brace adjustment as available today are content of this paper as well as an outline of the great potential there is for the future 3D printing technology. For 3D printing of scoliosis braces it is necessary to establish easy to use software plug-ins in order to allow adding 3D printing technology to the current workflow of virtual CAD / CAM brace adjustment. Textures and structures can be added to the brace models at certain well defined locations offering the potential of more wearing comfort without losing in-brace correction. Advances have to be made in the field of CAD / CAM software tools with respect to design and generation of individually structured brace models based on currently well established and standardized scoliosis brace libraries.

  17. Novel Control Effectors for Truss Braced Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Edward V.; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Joshi, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    At cruise flight conditions very high aspect ratio/low sweep truss braced wings (TBW) may be subject to design requirements that distinguish them from more highly swept cantilevered wings. High aspect ratio, short chord length and relative thinness of the airfoil sections all contribute to relatively low wing torsional stiffness. This may lead to aeroelastic issues such as aileron reversal and low flutter margins. In order to counteract these issues, high aspect ratio/low sweep wings may need to carry additional high speed control effectors to operate when outboard ailerons are in reversal and/or must carry additional structural weight to enhance torsional stiffness. The novel control effector evaluated in this study is a variable sweep raked wing tip with an aileron control surface. Forward sweep of the tip allows the aileron to align closely with the torsional axis of the wing and operate in a conventional fashion. Aft sweep of the tip creates a large moment arm from the aileron to the wing torsional axis greatly enhancing aileron reversal. The novelty comes from using this enhanced and controllable aileron reversal effect to provide roll control authority by acting as a servo tab and providing roll control through intentional twist of the wing. In this case the reduced torsional stiffness of the wing becomes an advantage to be exploited. The study results show that the novel control effector concept does provide roll control as described, but only for a restricted class of TBW aircraft configurations. For the configuration studied (long range, dual aisle, Mach 0.85 cruise) the novel control effector provides significant benefits including up to 12% reduction in fuel burn.

  18. Efficacy of Nail Brace Treatment For Ingrown Na

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Gülru Erdoğan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Ingrown nail is a common, painful health problem. Various conservative and surgical methods have been defined for treatment of ingrown nails. In this study we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of nail brace treatment which is a cheap conservative treatment, recurrence percentages after nail brace treatment and risk factors for recurrence. Material and Method: Thirty-two female and 19 male patients with the complaint of ingrown nail aged 14-73 with a total of 73 nails are included to the study. Silver nitrate has been applied every 3-7 days to patients with granulation tissue. Nail brace application has been stopped in patients with granulation tissue once the granulation tissue has subsided and complaints have subsided, in patients without granulation tissue as their complaint was over during weekly controls in first month and monthly controls thereafter. Results: Ninety-eight point six percent of patients having ingrown nail (72/73 benefited from brace treatment. In 12 nails out of 71, recurrence has been established, in 59 nails follow-up without recurrence continues. Two nails have not been reached for followup after the first 3 month relief. Assessing patients treated with nail brace for recurrence, no significant difference was detected between recurrent and non-recurrent groups according to stage of ingrown nail, presence of granulation tissue, nail thickness, angle of nail curve, age, gender, presence of hyperhydrosis, duration of treatment and total force applied. Conclusion: Nail brace application has been found effective for pain relief and as treatment in patients with ingrown nails and no statistically significant predictive factor has been found in terms of recurrence after treatment

  19. Brace technology thematic series - The Sforzesco and Sibilla braces, and the SPoRT (Symmetric, Patient oriented, Rigid, Three-dimensional, active) concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, Stefano; Marchini, Gianfranco; Tessadri, Fabrizio

    2011-05-09

    Bracing is an effective strategy for scoliosis treatment, but there is no consensus on the best type of brace, nor on the way in which it should act on the spine to achieve good correction. The aim of this paper is to present the family of SPoRT (Symmetric, Patient-oriented, Rigid, Three-dimensional, active) braces: Sforzesco (the first introduced), Sibilla and Lapadula. The Sforzesco brace was developed following specific principles of correction. Due to its overall symmetry, the brace provides space over pathological depressions and pushes over elevations. Correction is reached through construction of the envelope, pushes, escapes, stops, and drivers. The real novelty is the drivers, introduced for the first time with the Sforzesco brace; they allow to achieve the main action of the brace: a three-dimensional elongation pushing the spine in a down-up direction.Brace prescription is made plane by plane: frontal (on the "slopes", another novelty of this concept, i.e. the laterally flexed sections of the spine), horizontal, and sagittal. The brace is built modelling the trunk shape obtained either by a plaster cast mould or by CAD-CAM construction. Brace checking is essential, since SPoRT braces are adjustable and customisable according to each individual curve pattern.Treatment time and duration is individually tailored (18-23 hours per day until Risser 3, then gradual reduction). SEAS (Scientific Exercises Approach to Scoliosis) exercises are a key factor to achieve success. The Sforzesco brace has shown to be more effective than the Lyon brace (matched case/control), equally effective as the Risser plaster cast (prospective cohort with retrospective controls), more effective than the Risser cast + Lyon brace in treating curves over 45 degrees Cobb (prospective cohort), and is able to improve aesthetic appearance (prospective cohort). The SPoRT concept of bracing (three-dimensional elongation pushing in a down-up direction) is different from the other corrective

  20. Brace technology thematic series - The Sforzesco and Sibilla braces, and the SPoRT (Symmetric, Patient oriented, Rigid, Three-dimensional, active concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchini Gianfranco

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bracing is an effective strategy for scoliosis treatment, but there is no consensus on the best type of brace, nor on the way in which it should act on the spine to achieve good correction. The aim of this paper is to present the family of SPoRT (Symmetric, Patient-oriented, Rigid, Three-dimensional, active braces: Sforzesco (the first introduced, Sibilla and Lapadula. Methods The Sforzesco brace was developed following specific principles of correction. Due to its overall symmetry, the brace provides space over pathological depressions and pushes over elevations. Correction is reached through construction of the envelope, pushes, escapes, stops, and drivers. The real novelty is the drivers, introduced for the first time with the Sforzesco brace; they allow to achieve the main action of the brace: a three-dimensional elongation pushing the spine in a down-up direction. Brace prescription is made plane by plane: frontal (on the "slopes", another novelty of this concept, i.e. the laterally flexed sections of the spine, horizontal, and sagittal. The brace is built modelling the trunk shape obtained either by a plaster cast mould or by CAD-CAM construction. Brace checking is essential, since SPoRT braces are adjustable and customisable according to each individual curve pattern. Treatment time and duration is individually tailored (18-23 hours per day until Risser 3, then gradual reduction. SEAS (Scientific Exercises Approach to Scoliosis exercises are a key factor to achieve success. Results The Sforzesco brace has shown to be more effective than the Lyon brace (matched case/control, equally effective as the Risser plaster cast (prospective cohort with retrospective controls, more effective than the Risser cast + Lyon brace in treating curves over 45 degrees Cobb (prospective cohort, and is able to improve aesthetic appearance (prospective cohort. Conclusions The SPoRT concept of bracing (three-dimensional elongation pushing in

  1. Three dimensional analysis of brace biomechanical efficacy for patients with AIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, David E; Al-Aubaidi, Zaid; Shin, Eyun-Jung; Howard, Andrew; Zeller, Reinhard

    2013-11-01

    Corrective three dimensional (3D) effect of different braces is debatable. We evaluated differences in in-brace radiographic correction comparing a custom thoracic-lumbo-sacral-orthosis (TLSO) (T) brace to a Chêneau type TLSO (C) brace using 3D EOS reconstruction technology. Our primary research question was the 3D effect of brace on the spine and in particularly the apical vertebra rotation (AVR). This was a retrospective comparative analysis of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who had orthogonal AP and lateral X-rays with and without brace. A 3D image of the spine was reconstructed. Coronal, sagittal and axial spine parameters were measured before bracing and then on the first post-brace X-ray. Brace efficacy in controlling coronal, sagittal and axial parameters was evaluated. Eighteen patients treated with the C brace and ten patients treated with the T brace were included. No difference was found regarding patients' age, gender, magnitude of Cobb angle, sagittal parameters or AVR at inclusion. Following bracing, AVR was significantly reduced by the C brace compared to the T brace [average correction of 8.2° vs. 4.9° (P = 0.02)]. Coronal and sagittal correction did not differ significantly between the two groups. By utilizing a novel 3D reconstruction technology, we were able to demonstrate that braces differ in their immediate effects on the spine. Although clinical relevance should be evaluated in a future trial we feel that the ability to measure treatment effects in 3D, and especially the transverse plane, is an important tool when evaluating different treatments.

  2. Comparison of functional bracing and locked intramedullary nailing in the treatment of displaced tibial shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, A; Benterud, J G; Høgevold, H E; Ekeland, A; Strømsøe, K

    1992-04-01

    Thirty-five displaced tibial shaft fractures, treated with functional bracing were compared with 43 similar fractures, treated with locked intramedullary nailing. There were 22 excellent/good results in the brace group and 38 in the nail group. There was one infection in the brace group and three in the nailed group. There were five delayed unions and two nonunions in the brace group and one delayed union in the nail group. The functional results in the nailed group were better than the braced group but locked intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fractures require special resources and training. Locked intramedullary nailing fullfils all the functional criteria for acceptable fracture care.

  3. Electronic and structural characterizations of unreconstructed {l_brace}0001{r_brace} surfaces and the growth of graphene overlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emtsev, Konstantin

    2009-06-03

    The present work is focused on the characterization of the clean unreconstructed SiC{l_brace}0001{r_brace} surfaces and the growth of graphene overlayers thereon. Electronic properties of SiC surfaces and their interfaces with graphene and few layer graphene films were investigated by means of angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy electron diffraction. Structural characterizations of the epitaxial graphene films grown on SiC were carried out by atomic force microscopy and low energy electron microscopy. Supplementary data was obtained by scanning tunneling microscopy. (orig.)

  4. Prophylactic ankle brace use in high school volleyball players: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Carol; Feder, Keith S; Sleight, Jill

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of prophylactic ankle bracing on the incidence of ankle injuries in a high school population of interscholastic volleyball players followed prospectively for one season. The study was designed to evaluate the effect of different types of ankle braces on the incidence of ankle sprains in high school volleyball players. There were 957 players in the group that wore braces and 42 in the control group who did not wear a brace. Information was collected on age, sex, previous injury, incidence of injury, and time off from play. Only the dominant ankle was studied. Overall, the use of a prophylactic ankle brace did not significantly alter the incidence of ankle sprains in high school volleyball players. However, in players without a previous ankle sprain, the use of an ankle brace did make a significant difference in two of the braced groups. The Active Ankle Trainer II and the Aircast Sports Stirrup protected volleyball players from a sprain only if they had not had a previous sprain. If the player had a history of a previous ankle sprain, these two brace groups did not protect the ankle from another ankle sprain (p injuries in the female group of players who wore a non-rigid brace versus those who wore a more rigid brace. This information may be helpful in deciding whether to recommend prophylactic ankle braces in volleyball players.

  5. Outcome of humeral shaft fractures treated by functional cast brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Nath Pal

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Modified functional cast brace is one of the options in treatment for humeral shaft fractures as it can be applied on the 1 st day of the presentation in most of the situations. Simple objective scoring system was useful particularly in uneducated patients.

  6. Stability of the Scoliotic Spine: Effect of Scoliosis Braces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havey, Robert M; Gavin, Thomas M; Patwardhan, Avinash G

    2016-04-01

    Orthotic treatment (braces) for scoliosis is best understood in light of the natural history of idiopathic scoliosis and the mechanics of spine stability. Idiopathic scoliosis is a spinal deformity confronted often by spine surgeons. With prompt recognition, treatment can be effective.

  7. The effect of prophylactic knee bracing on proprioception ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    prioception in osteoarthritic and replaced knees. ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE. The effect of prophylactic knee bracing on proprioception performance in first division rugby union players. T H Kruger (BSc Hons Biokinetics, MSc Sports Injuries). M F Coetsee (BSc Hons Biokinetics, MSc, PhD). S Davies (BA Hons, MA ...

  8. The effect of Prophylactic knee bracing on selected performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine if the wearing of a prophylactic knee brace by uninjured rugby players affected the following performance based parameters: speed, agility, strength, proprioception and economy of running. Thirty rugby players were subjected to a selected number of carefully monitored ...

  9. Comparison of three knee braces in the treatment of medial knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessery, Yoann; Belzile, Etienne L; Turmel, Sylvie; Corbeil, Philippe

    2014-12-01

    Conservative orthotic treatments rely on different mechanisms, such as three-point bending systems or hinges forcing external rotation of the leg and knee stabilization, to alter the biomechanics of the lower limbs and thus reduce knee loading on the affected compartment in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). No previous study had compared the effects of these mechanisms on external loading and leg kinematics in patients with KOA. Twenty-four patients with medial KOA (Kellgren-Lawrence grade II or III) wore three custom knee braces: a valgus brace with a three-point bending system (V3P-brace), an unloader brace with valgus and external rotation functions (VER-brace) and a functional knee brace used in ligament injuries (ACL-brace). Pain relief, comfort, lower extremity kinematics and kinetics during walking were compared with and without each knee brace. Knee pain was alleviated with all three braces (pbraces allowed a significant reduction in peak knee adduction moment (KAM) during terminal stance from 0.313 to 0.280 Nm/Bw∗Ht (pbrace (p=0.52). Reduced knee adduction and lower ankle and knee external rotation were observed with the V3P-brace but not with the VER-brace. The ACL-brace did not modify lower limb kinematics. No difference between the knee braces was found for pain reduction, discomfort or KAM. The VER-brace was slightly more comfortable, which could ensure better compliance with treatment over the long term. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Brace modifications that can result in improved curve correction in idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Grant

    2014-03-05

    The purpose of this paper is to share with scoliosis professionals the X-rays of different pad placement levels associated with improved curve correction in a case of idiopathic scoliosis (IS). Scoliosis braces of all types and brands utilize common principles of construction that ensure good fit and function. Equally important to the end result is good patient follow-up care and brace quality control by the orthotist. This report reviewed the case of an 11-year-old girl diagnosed with IS, focusing on the in and out-of-brace x-rays, as well as the fit and function of the braces. The first brace was a TLSO-type, the second a Cheneau-type brace using a B1 model following the Rigo classification of scoliosis. The first TLSO-type brace presented an in-brace X-ray that showed a curve increase. The Cheneau-type scoliosis brace reduced the Cobb angles over 50%. The biomechanical changes consequent to modifications in brace design and pad placements appeared to have improved the scoliosis and reduced the Cobb angles in this case. An orthotist must provide optimal fit and function of the brace which was prescribed by the referring physician. Adherence to certain basic design principles, and close follow up by the orthotist-especially during growth spurts - are critical to its effectiveness. Specifically, a skilled orthotist must be experienced with the particular brace-type, apply these principles, maintain a good working relationship with both physician and patient to ensure timely brace adjustments essential to continued brace comfort and efficacy.

  11. Prophylactic bracing decreases ankle injuries in collegiate female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedowitz, David I; Reddy, Sudheer; Parekh, Selene G; Huffman, G Russell; Sennett, Brian J

    2008-02-01

    Ankle injuries account for the highest percentage of injuries among female collegiate volleyball players. Since 1998, all female volleyball players at the authors' institution have worn bilateral double-upright padded ankle braces at all times. To review the authors' experience with this brace in preventing ankle injuries that result in a loss of play. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Injury data, preparticipation medical histories, and total exposure data were collected prospectively on all female volleyball players at the authors' institution from 1998 to 2005. Injuries and exposures were defined based on established National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System criteria. Injury rate was calculated as the number of injuries per 1000 exposures. The National Collegiate Athletic Association female volleyball injury data from 1998 to 2005 were used for comparison. During the study period, there were a total of 13,500 exposures and 1 injury in our group yielding an injury rate of 0.07 per 1000 exposures. Nearly half of our athletes had a preparticipation history of ankle sprains, yet only 1 ankle injury occurred during all of our braced exposures. There were 811 710 exposures and 797 injuries in the National Collegiate Athletic Association comparison group with an increased injury rate of 0.98 per 1000 exposures (P = .001). Prophylactic use of a double-upright ankle brace significantly reduced the ankle injury rate compared with that reported by the National Collegiate Athletic Association. From these data, it appears that the use of such a brace is an effective way to decrease the incidence of ankle injuries in this active but vulnerable group of athletes.

  12. A modified crash brace position for aircraft passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownson, P; Wallace, W A; Anton, D J

    1998-10-01

    In 1989, a Boeing 737-400 aircraft crashed at Kegworth, near Nottingham, England. The survivors suffered a large number of pelvic and lower limb injuries, and approximately one-third of the passengers died. Subsequent research has suggested that the "brace-for-impact" position that passengers are advised to adopt prior to a crash landing might be modified in order to reduce the incidence of such injuries. The aim of this research was to evaluate biomechanically such a modified crash brace position. A modified brace position would help to prevent injuries to some passengers in the event of an impact aircraft accident. Impact testing on forward-facing seats was performed at the Royal Air Force Institute of Aviation Medicine, Farnborough, England. Aircraft seats, mounted on a sled, were propelled down a track to impact at -16 Gx. A test dummy was used as the experimental model. Four dummy positions were investigated: a) upper torso braced forward and lower legs inclined slightly rearward of the vertical; b) upper torso braced forward and lower legs inclined forward; c) upper torso upright and lower legs inclined slightly rearward of the vertical; and d) upper torso upright and lower legs inclined forward. The impact pulses used were based on Federal Aviation Administration guidelines. Transducers located in the head, spine, and lower limbs of the dummy recorded the forces to which each body segment was exposed during the impact. These forces were compared for each brace position. Impact testing revealed that the risk of a head injury as defined by the head injury criterion was greater in the upright position than in the braced forward position. The risk of injury to the lower limbs was dependent in part on the flailing behavior of the limbs. Flailing did not occur when the dummy was placed in a braced, legs-back position. A modified brace position would involve passengers sitting with the upper torso inclined forward so that the passenger's head rested against the

  13. Effects of prophylactic ankle and knee braces on leg stiffness during hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobara, Hiroaki; Hashizume, Satoru; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    During human movement, the leg can be represented as a mechanical spring, with its stiffness potentially contributing to sports performance and injury prevention. Although many individuals perform athletic activities with joint stabilizers, little is known about the effects of prophylactic lower extremity braces on leg stiffness. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ankle and/or knee braces on leg stiffness measured during one-legged hopping at a range of frequencies. Thirteen male participants performed one-legged hopping with their dominant leg at frequencies of 2.2, 2.6, and 3.0 Hz. All participants were randomly tested under the following four brace conditions: 1) no brace (control), 2) prophylactic ankle brace, 3) prophylactic knee brace, and 4) prophylactic ankle and knee braces. Based on a spring-mass model, leg stiffness was calculated using data from an accelerometer. It was found that leg stiffness increased with increasing hopping frequency for each brace condition. However, there were no significant differences in leg stiffness among the four brace conditions at the three hopping frequencies. Since some level of leg stiffness is needed for optimal athletic performance and training, these results suggest that ankle and knee braces do not significantly interfere with dynamic hopping activities.

  14. Effects of prophylactic ankle and knee braces on leg stiffness during hopping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hobara H

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hiroaki Hobara, Satoru Hashizume, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi Human Informatics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: During human movement, the leg can be represented as a mechanical spring, with its stiffness potentially contributing to sports performance and injury prevention. Although many individuals perform athletic activities with joint stabilizers, little is known about the effects of prophylactic lower extremity braces on leg stiffness. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ankle and/or knee braces on leg stiffness measured during one-legged ­hopping at a range of frequencies. Thirteen male participants performed one-legged hopping with their dominant leg at frequencies of 2.2, 2.6, and 3.0 Hz. All participants were randomly tested under the following four brace conditions: 1 no brace (control, 2 prophylactic ankle brace, 3 prophylactic knee brace, and 4 prophylactic ankle and knee braces. Based on a spring–mass model, leg stiffness was calculated using data from an accelerometer. It was found that leg stiffness increased with increasing hopping frequency for each brace condition. However, there were no significant differences in leg stiffness among the four brace conditions at the three hopping frequencies. Since some level of leg stiffness is needed for optimal athletic performance and training, these results suggest that ankle and knee braces do not significantly interfere with dynamic hopping activities. Keywords: spring–mass model, injury prevention, compensatory strategy

  15. Effects of knee bracing on postural control after anterior cruciate ligament rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Hans-Georg; Brattinger, Florian; Stegmueller, Bernd; Achatz, Gerhard; Riesner, Hans-Joachim; Friemert, Benedikt

    2012-10-01

    Randomized clinical trial. To investigate the effects of functional knee braces on postural control in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. ACL rupture leads to both mechanical knee instability and deficits in proprioception. Although elastic knee braces do not increase mechanical stability, patients report improved stability when wearing a brace. Elastic braces were found to reduce the loss of proprioception. It is, however, still unclear whether they also improve postural control, which involves the processing of proprioceptive input at a higher level. We studied 58 patients with isolated unilateral ACL rupture using computerized dynamic posturography and compared overall stability index (OSI) scores for injured and uninjured legs with and without a knee brace. In addition, patients were classified as copers and non-copers depending on knee function. Within subjects, OSI scores were 3.0 ± 1.1° for uninjured legs when unbraced, 2.8±1.3° for uninjured legs when braced (p=0.17), 3.7 ± 1.5° for unbraced injured legs, and 2.9 ± 1.3° for braced injured legs (pbraced condition (p=0.26). Elastic knee braces increase postural stability by approximately 22% in patients with ACL rupture. There was no difference in postural stability between uninjured and injured legs in the braced condition. One possible explanation is that bracing improves both proprioception and postural control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Functional knee brace effects during walking in patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVita, P; Lassiter, T; Hortobagyi, T; Torry, M

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare lower extremity joint kinematics and kinetics during walking with and without a functional knee brace in patients with recent anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. Seven volunteers walked at 1.26 m/s with and without one of two functional knee braces 3 weeks after surgery. Eleven uninjured subjects were also tested as a control group. Video and ground-reaction data were collected and combined with inverse dynamics to estimate the joint positions, moments, and powers during the stance phase. Patients with ligament reconstructions were more erect with the brace, using 19% less knee flexion compared with walking without the brace. Areas under the internal extensor moment curve (angular impulse) and power curve (work) at the hip increased 40% and 44%, respectively, while walking with the brace. Extensor angular impulse decreased 41% at the knee while using the brace, and plantar flexor angular impulse and work increased 21% and 30%, respectively, at the ankle. While walking with the brace, the patients still had different kinematics, moments, and powers than the control subjects. The reduced extensor moment at the knee in the braced condition indicated that the load on the recently reconstructed ligament was reduced and that the brace protected the ligament during the stance phase of walking. We concluded that functional knee braces may be one means of developing neuromuscular adaptations during gait after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery.

  17. A new method of MR total spine imaging for showing the brace effect in scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, A.; Kandyba, J.; Koenig, R.; Jaeger, U.E.; Gieseke, J.; Schmitt, O. [Univ. of Bonn (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Bracing is a method of early, nonsurgical treatment for scoliosis, but a hypokyphotic effect on the thoracic spine is reported. We developed a magnetic resonance tomography (MR) procedure presenting an image of the whole spine in the coronal and sagittal planes (MR total spine imaging), and studied the brace effect, using this technique. We examined 26 female patients with idiopathic scoliosis treated with a Cheneau brace (mean age, 13.2 years; mean duration of brace treatment at the time of investigation, 1.5 years). The MR examinations were performed with the patient in the supine position with and without the brace in direct sequence. As measured on the coronal MR images, the thoracic curve was corrected, on average, from 29 deg to 22 deg (mean correction, 24%). There was a slight reduction in the sagittal Cobb angle measured between T4 and T12 (mean sagittal Cobb angle without brace, 14 deg ; with brace, 12 deg), which was still a significant change. MR total spine imaging could be a useful tool for studying the brace effect in scoliosis in two planes. Using this technique, we found reduced sagittal Cobb angles for the thoracic kyphosis with brace. Because there is no radiation exposure, the MR procedure has a potential use in the monitoring of brace treatment. (author)

  18. Prophylactic ankle braces and knee varus-valgus and internal-external rotation torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venesky, Kandy; Docherty, Carrie L; Dapena, Jesus; Schrader, John

    2006-01-01

    Although prophylactic ankle bracing has been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence of ankle sprains,how these ankle braces might affect the other joints of the lower extremity is not clearly understood. To determine the effects of a prophylactic ankle brace on knee joint varus-valgus and internal-external rotation torque during a drop landing onto a slanted surface. A repeated-measures design. Biomechanics research laboratory. Twenty-four physically active college students. Participants were tested in a brace and no brace condition. We measured 3 dependent variables:(1) peak ankle inversion-eversion torque, (2) peak knee varus-valgus torque, and (3) peak knee internal-external rotation torque. A force plate was used to collect ground reaction force data, and 6 motion analysis cameras collected kinematic data during the unilateral drop landing. An adjustable bar was hung from the ceiling, and a slant board was positioned over the center of the force plate, so that the ankle of the participant's dominant leg would invert upon landing. Peak torque was measure din both the brace and no-brace conditions. The average of the peak values in 3 trials for both conditions was used for the statistical analysis. Ankle eversion torque was significantly greater in the brace condition (F1,23 19.75, P external rotation torque was significantly greater in the brace condition(F1,23 4.33, P external rotation torque increased when the ankle was braced.

  19. Supine Lateral Bending Radiographs Predict the Initial In-brace Correction of the Providence Brace in Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohrt-Nissen, Søren; Hallager, Dennis Winge; Gehrchen, Poul Martin

    2016-01-01

    are used to assess curve flexibility in patients undergoing surgical treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). A low rate of in-brace correction (IBC) has been associated with a higher risk of curve progression, but to what extent SLBR can be used to predict IBC before initiating bracing...

  20. The aerodynamic properties of thick aerofoils suitable for internal bracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, F H

    1920-01-01

    The object of this investigation was to determine the characteristics of various types of wings having sufficient depth to entirely inclose the wing bracing, and also to provide data for the further design of such sections. This type of wing is of interest because it eliminates the resistance of the interplane bracing, a portion of the airplane that sometimes absorbs one-quarter of the total power required to fly, and because these wings may be made to give a very high maximum lift. Results of the investigation of the following subjects are given: (1) effect of changing the upper and lower camber of thick aerofoils of uniform section; (2) effect of thickening the center and thinning the tips of a thin aerofoil; (3) effect of adding a convex lower surface to a tapered section; (4) effect of changing the mean thickness with constant center and tip sections; and (5) effect of varying the chord along the span.

  1. Design of thoracolumbosacral orthosis (TLSO) braces using CT/MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldeeb, H; Boubekri, N; Asfour, S; Khalil, T; Finnieston, A

    2001-01-01

    The field of orthotics has gained scientific attention over the last few years. Its objective is to correct, adjust, or modify the operation of human limbs, joints, or muscles. Thoracolumbosacral orthosis (TLSO) braces are used by scoliosis and postoperative patients who need back correction and/or support. The anatomic dimensions for TLSO braces have been acquired mainly by casting the patient. Casting is a time-proven method for obtaining surface geometry, but it can be inconvenient in certain situations. For example, casting might not be suitable for postoperative and trauma patients owing to the risk of further injury. Such prohibitive cases can still be handled safely by X-ray CT or MR scanning. This article presents an alternative method for data acquisition of TLSO patients' anatomic dimensions using CT/MRI. The experimental results show the method to be statistically accurate, efficient, and feasible compared with the conventional casting method.

  2. Characterisation of Knee Brace Migration and Associated Skin Deformation During Flexion by Full-Field Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Pierrat, Baptiste; Millot, Carine; Molimard, Jérôme; Navarro, Laurent; Calmels, Paul; Edouard, Pascal; Avril, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Fabric-based knee braces are widely used as orthotic devices to support and align the joint. Despite significant prescription, compliance with the treatment is often negatively affected by discomfort issues, in particular brace slippage and migration. Full-field measurements associated with digital image correlation were performed on 11 subjects to determine if the brace was able to follow skin deformation during knee flexion, which was suspected to be a primary slippa...

  3. Effect of knee brace type on braking response time during automobile driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammerer, Dietmar; Giesinger, Johannes M; Biedermann, Rainer; Haid, Christian; Krismer, Martin; Liebensteiner, Michael

    2015-03-01

    To assess driving ability (brake response time [BRT]) with commonly used knee braces. Sixty-four healthy participants (32 women and 32 men) participated in our study. BRT was assessed using a custom-made driving simulator. We assessed BRT for 5 different commonly used knee braces (right leg) used in 9 different settings: without a knee brace (control group); with a typical postoperative knee brace with adjustable range of motion (ROM) and the settings of 0° to 30°, 0° to 60°, 0° to 90°, and 20° to 90° (extension and flexion); and with an unloading knee brace for moderate to severe unicompartmental osteoarthritis, an orthosis for ligament instabilities, a knee brace for patellofemoral disorders, and an elastic knee bandage. The 64 participants (mean age, 33.5 years) showed significantly impaired BRT with the typical postoperative brace set at an ROM of 0° to 30° (673 milliseconds, P knee brace. Right-sided ROM-restricting knee braces involve significant impairment of BRT in healthy participants. No such prolonged BRT was found for a patellofemoral realignment brace, a ligament brace, a valgus/osteoarthritis brace, or an elastic knee bandage. However, our findings should be viewed in light of the limitations of the study, which are (1) the lack of a defined decrease in BRT that could lead to an accident and (2) uncertainty of whether the statistical differences are also clinically important. Level II, lesser-quality randomized controlled trial. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of prophylactic knee bracing on knee joint kinetics and kinematics during netball specific movements

    OpenAIRE

    Sinclair, Jonathan Kenneth; Vincent, Hayley; Richards, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Objective\\ud To investigate the effects of a prophylactic knee brace on knee joint kinetics and kinematics in netball specific movements.\\ud \\ud Design\\ud Repeated measures; Setting: Laboratory; Participants: Twenty university first team level female netball players.\\ud \\ud Outcome measurements\\ud Participants performed three movements, run, cut and vertical jump under two conditions (brace and no-brace). 3-D knee joint kinetics and kinematics were measured using an eight-camera motion analys...

  5. Isolated ulnar shaft fractures. Comparison of treatment by a functional brace and long-arm cast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Hölmich, P; Orsnes, T

    1992-01-01

    In a prospective study, we randomly allocated 39 patients with isolated fractures of the lower two-thirds of the ulnar shaft to treatment either by a prefabricated functional brace or a long-arm cast. Significantly better wrist function and a higher percentage of satisfied patients were found...... in the braced group. Thirteen patients returned to employment while still wearing the brace but only one was able to work in a cast....

  6. Thermal Behavior of Cylindrical Buckling Restrained Braces at Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Talebi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary focus of this investigation was to analyze sequentially coupled nonlinear thermal stress, using a three-dimensional model. It was meant to shed light on the behavior of Buckling Restraint Brace (BRB elements with circular cross section, at elevated temperature. Such bracing systems were comprised of a cylindrical steel core encased in a strong concrete-filled steel hollow casing. A debonding agent was rubbed on the core’s surface to avoid shear stress transition to the restraining system. The numerical model was verified by the analytical solutions developed by the other researchers. Performance of BRB system under seismic loading at ambient temperature has been well documented. However, its performance in case of fire has yet to be explored. This study showed that the failure of brace may be attributed to material strength reduction and high compressive forces, both due to temperature rise. Furthermore, limiting temperatures in the linear behavior of steel casing and concrete in BRB element for both numerical and analytical simulations were about 196°C and 225°C, respectively. Finally it is concluded that the performance of BRB at elevated temperatures was the same as that seen at room temperature; that is, the steel core yields prior to the restraining system.

  7. Analysis of biomechanical effectiveness of valgus-inducing knee brace for osteoarthritis of knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Thomas; Knopf, Elmar; Drewitz, Heiko; Blumentritt, Siegmar

    2010-01-01

    The biomechanical effectiveness of a valgus-inducing knee brace was investigated for 16 patients with knee osteoarthritis (mean +/- standard deviation age 56 +/- 10 yr, height 172 +/- 9 cm, mass 83 +/- 7 kg, body mass index 27.6 +/- 4.5 kg/m(2)). At the time of investigation, all subjects had been wearing the brace for at least 4 weeks. In addition to conducting standard gait analysis, we calculated the valgus moment generated by the brace by using a novel system that measured the actual deformation of the brace during stance phase and determined the reaction force created by the brace on the leg. The mean maximum value of the orthotic valgus moment was 0.053 Nm/kg, which represents approximately 10% of the external genu varus moment without the brace. This finding may explain the pain relief reported by patients using such braces in clinical studies. Use of the tested brace also decreased the magnitude of gait asymmetry between the braced and contralateral legs during walking (horizontal ground reaction force, external knee flexion moment), presumably because the subjects' need to walk abnormally to shield the knee from pain was reduced.

  8. How accurate are lockable orthotic knee braces? An objective gait analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, W S; Jones, R K; Nokes, L; Johnson, D S

    2007-12-01

    There has been an increasing use of orthotic knee braces in the management of knee injuries but, to our knowledge, there is no gait analysis study assessing the accuracy of these braces. Eight healthy male subjects were studied to determine the accuracy of immobilisation or splintage provided by a lockable orthotic knee brace using gait analysis. Six types of immobilisation were studied: locked at 0, 10, 20, 30 degrees and unlocked in an orthotic knee brace, and without a brace. The knee flexion angles measured using the kinematic instruments at 0 and 10 degrees were significantly greater than those set at the knee brace. The knee flexion angle measured using the unlocked knee brace was significantly greater than that measured in the absence of a brace. This study highlights inaccuracies in a knee brace at low knee flexion angles. The higher actual angles alter the biomechanics of the knee joint and result in greater forces across the knee joint and especially the extensor mechanism.

  9. Medial knee osteoarthritis treated by insoles or braces: a randomized trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raaij, Tom; Reijman, Max; Brouwer, Reinoud; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita; Verhaar, Jan

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: There is controversial evidence regarding whether foot orthoses or knee braces improve pain and function or correct malalignment in selected patients with osteoarthritis (OA...

  10. Scoliosis brace design: influence of visual aesthetics on user acceptance and compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Derry; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Yip, Joanne; Yick, Kit-Lun; Wong, Christina

    2017-06-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a common condition found in adolescents. A rigid brace is often prescribed as the treatment for this spinal deformity, which negatively affects user compliance due to the discomfort caused by the brace, and the psychological distress resulting from its appearance. However, the latter, which is the impact of visual aesthetics, has not been thoroughly studied for scoliosis braces. Therefore, a qualitative study with in-depth interviews has been carried out with 10 participants who have a Cobb angle of 20°-30° to determine the impact of visual aesthetics on user acceptance and compliance towards the brace. It is found that co-designing with patients on the aesthetic aspects of the surface design of the brace increases the level of user compliance and induces positive user perception. Therefore, aesthetic preferences need to be taken into consideration in the design process of braces. Practitioner Summary: The impact of visual aesthetics on user acceptance and compliance towards a rigid brace for scoliosis is investigated. The findings indicate that an aesthetically pleasing brace and the involvement of patients in the design process of the brace are important for increasing user compliance and addressing psychological issues during treatment.

  11. Seismic retrofitting of reinforced concrete frame structures using GFRP-tube-confined-concrete composite braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddasi B., Nasim S.; Zhang, Yunfeng; Hu, Xiaobin

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a new type of structural bracing intended for seismic retrofitting use in framed structures. This special composite brace, termed glass-fiber-reinforced-polymer (GFRP)-tube-confined-concrete composite brace, is comprised of concrete confined by a GFRP tube and an inner steel core for energy dissipation. Together with a contribution from the GFRP-tube confined concrete, the composite brace shows a substantially increased stiffness to control story drift, which is often a preferred feature in seismic retrofitting. An analysis model is established and implemented in a general finite element analysis program — OpenSees, for simulating the load-displacement behavior of the composite brace. Using this model, a parametric study of the hysteretic behavior (energy dissipation, stiffness, ductility and strength) of the composite brace was conducted under static cyclic loading and it was found that the area ratio of steel core to concrete has the greatest influence among all the parameters considered. To demonstrate the application of the composite brace in seismic retrofitting, a three-story nonductile reinforced concrete (RC) frame structure was retrofitted with the composite braces. Pushover analysis and nonlinear time-history analyses of the retrofitted RC frame structure was performed by employing a suite of 20 strong ground motion earthquake records. The analysis results show that the composite braces can effectively reduce the peak seismic responses of the RC frame structure without significantly increasing the base shear demand.

  12. Ultrasound-assisted brace casting for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, IRSSD Best research paper 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Edmond H; Chan, Amanda Cy; Donauer, Andreas; Tilburn, Melissa; Hill, Doug L

    2015-01-01

    Brace treatment is the most effective non-surgical treatment for AIS. High initial in-brace correction increases successful brace treatment outcomes. The objective of this study was to investigate if real-time ultrasound (US) can aid orthotists in selecting the pad pressure level and location resulting in optimal in-brace correction of the spine. Twenty six AIS subjects participated in this pilot study with 17 (2 M, 15 F) in the control group and 9 (2 M, 7 F) in the intervention group. For the control group, the standard method was used to design their braces. In addition to the standard of care, a medical 3D ultrasound (US) system, a custom pressure measurement system and in-house software were used to select pad placement and pressure levels for the intervention group. The orthotist used a custom standing Providence brace design system to apply pressures against the patient's torso. The applied pad pressures were recorded. A real-time US spinal image was displayed. Cobb angle measurements from the baseline and the assessment scan were performed. The orthotist then decided if an adjustment was needed in terms of altering the pad locations and pressure levels. The procedures may be repeated until the orthotist attained the best simulated in-brace correction configuration to cast the brace. In the control group, 8 of 17 (47%) subjects needed a total of 16 brace adjustments after initial fabrication requiring a total of 33 in-brace radiographs. For the intervention group, the orthotist tried additional configurations in 7 out of 9 cases (78%). Among these 7 revised cases, 5 showed better stimulated in-brace corrections and were subsequently used to cast the brace. As a result, only 1 subject required a minor adjustment after initial fabrication. The total number of in-brace radiographs in the intervention group was 10. The use of the 3D ultrasound system provided a radiation-free method to determine the optimum pressure level and location to obtain the best

  13. Introduction to the "Scoliosis" Journal Brace Technology Thematic Series: increasing existing knowledge and promoting future developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grivas Theodoros B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bracing is the main non-surgical intervention in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis during growth, in hyperkyphosis (and Scheuermann disease and occasionally for spondylolisthesis; it can be used in adult scoliosis, in the elderly when pathological curves lead to a forward leaning posture or in adults after traumatic injuries. Bracing can be defined as the application of external corrective forces to the trunk; rigid supports or elastic bands can be used and braces can be custom-made or prefabricated. The state of research in the field of conservative treatment is insufficient and while it can be stated that there is some evidence to support bracing, we must also acknowledge that today we do not have a common and generally accepted knowledge base, and that instead, individual expertise still prevails, giving rise to different schools of thought on brace construction and principles of correction. The only way to improve the knowledge and understanding of brace type and brace function is to establish a single and comprehensive source of information about bracing. This is what the Scoliosis Journal is going to do through the "Brace Technology" Thematic Series, where technical papers coming from the different schools will be published.

  14. Is valgus unloader bracing effective in normally aligned individuals: implications for post-surgical protocols following cartilage restoration procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orishimo, Karl F; Kremenic, Ian J; Lee, Steven J; McHugh, Malachy P; Nicholas, Stephen J

    2013-12-01

    Utilizing valgus unloader braces to reduce medial compartment loading in patients undergoing cartilage restoration procedures may be an alternative to non-weightbearing post-operative protocols in these patients. It was hypothesized that valgus unloader braces will reduce knee adduction moment during the stance phase in healthy subjects with normal knee alignment. Gait analysis was performed on twelve adult subjects with normal knee alignment and no history of knee pathology. Subjects were fitted with an off-the-shelf adjustable valgus unloader brace and tested under five conditions: one with no brace and four with increasing valgus force applied by the brace. Frontal and sagittal plane knee angles and external moments were calculated during stance via inverse dynamics. Analyses of variance were used to assess the effect of the brace conditions on frontal and sagittal plane joint angles and moments. With increasing tension in the brace, peak frontal plane knee angle during stance shifted from 1.6° ± 4.2° varus without the brace to 4.1° ± 3.6° valgus with maximum brace tension (P = 0.02 compared with the no brace condition). Peak knee adduction moment and knee adduction impulse decreased with increasing brace tension (main effect of brace, P knee biomechanics were minimally affected. The use of these braces following a cartilage restoration procedure may provide adequate protection of the repair site without limiting the patient's mobility.

  15. Surgical rates after observation and bracing for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: an evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Lori A; Weinstein, Stuart L

    2007-09-01

    : Systematic review of clinical studies. : To develop a pooled estimate of the prevalence of surgery after observation and after brace treatment in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). : Critical analysis of the studies evaluating bracing in AIS yields limited evidence concerning the effect of TLSOs on curve progression, rate of surgery, and the burden of suffering associated with AIS. Many patients choose bracing without an evidence-based estimate of their risk of surgery relative to no treatment. Therefore, such an estimate is needed to promote informed decision-making. : Multiple electronic databases were searched using the key words "adolescent idiopathic scoliosis," "observation," "orthotics," "surgery," and "bracing." The search was limited to the English language. Studies were included if observation or a TLSO was evaluated and if the sample closely matched the current indications for bracing (skeletal immaturity, age <15 years, Cobb angle between 20 degrees and 45 degrees ). One reviewer (L.A.D) selected the articles and abstracted the data, including research design, type of brace, minimum follow-up, and surgical rate. Additional data concerning inclusion criteria and risk factors for surgery included gender, Risser, age and Cobb angle at brace initiation, curve type, and dose (hours of recommended brace wear). : Eighteen studies were included (observation = 3, bracing = 15). All were Level III or IV clinical series. Despite some uniformity in surgical indications, the surgical rates were extremely variable, ranging from 1 surgery of 72 patients (1%) to 51 of 120 patients (43%) after bracing, and from 2 surgeries of 15 patients (13%) to 18 of 47 patients (28%) after observation. When pooled, the bracing surgical rate was 23% compared with 22% in the observation group. Pooled estimates for surgical rate by type of brace, curve type, Cobb angle, Risser sign, and dose were also calculated. : Comparing the pooled rates for these two

  16. Protective Knee Braces and the Biomechanics of the Half-Squat Parachute Landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Zheng, Chao; Wu, Ji; Wang, Longfeng; Wei, Xiang; Wang, Lizheng

    2018-01-01

    Knee injuries are common among paratroopers and skydivers during landing maneuvers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dropping height and the use of protective knee braces on parachute landing biomechanics. The study cohort consisted of 30 male elite paratroopers with formal parachute landing training and more than 2 yr of parachute jumping experience. Each participant was instructed to jump off a platform at two different heights (40 and 80 cm, respectively) and land on force plates in a half-squat posture. All participants tested three different knee brace conditions (no-brace, elastic brace, and semi-rigid brace) at each height. With an increase in dropping height, peak vertical ground reaction forces (GRF), peak flexion angle, peak flexion angular displacement, peak abduction angle, peak abduction angular displacement, peak extorsion angle, and peak extorsion angular displacement of the knee joint all increased. As compared without the use of a brace, use of an elastic or semi-rigid knee brace significantly reduced peak flexion angle, peak flexion angular displacement, peak abduction angular displacement, and peak extorsion angle, while there were no significant differences in peak vertical GRF or peak extorsion angular displacement. The semi-rigid brace provided the greatest restriction against peak abduction angle (3-6°). The elastic and semi-rigid knee braces both effectively restricted motion stability of the knee joint in the sagittal and coronal planes. The semi-rigid brace had a more marked effect, although the comfort of this device should be improved.Wu D, Zheng C, Wu J, Wang L, Wei X, Wang L. Protective knee braces and the biomechanics of the half-squat parachute landing. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(1):26-31.

  17. Measurement of Milwaukee Brace Pad Pressure in Adolescent Round Back Deformity Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaee, Taher; Ahmadi, Amir; Sanjari, Mohammad Ali; Ganjavian, Mohammad Saleh

    2017-01-01

    Study Design In this prospective study, we measured the pad pressures of the Milwaukee brace in adolescent hyperkyphosis treatment. Purpose We evaluated the skin-brace interface forces exerted by the main pads of the Milwaukee brace. Overview of Literature A fundamental factor associated with brace effectiveness in spinal deformity is pad force adjustment. However, few studies have evaluated the in-brace force magnitude and its effect on curve correction. Methods Interface forces at four pads of the Milwaukee brace were measured in 73 patients withround back deformity (mean age, 14.04±1.97 years [range, 10–18]; mean initial Cobb angle,67.70°±9.23° [range, 50°–86°]). We used a modified aneroid sphygmomanometer to measure the shoulder and kyphosis pad pressures. Each patient underwent measurement in the standing and sitting positions during inhalation/exhalation. Results The mean pad pressures were significantly higher in the standing than in thesitting position, and significantly higher pressures were observed during inhalation compared toexhalation (p=0.001).There were no statistically significant differences between right and left shoulder pad pressures (p>0.05); however, the pressure differences between the right and left kyphosis pads were statistically significant (p<0.05). In a comparison of corrective forces with bracing for less or more than 6 months, corrective force was larger with bracing for less than 6 months (p=0.02). In the standing position, there were no statistically significant correlations between pad pressures and kyphosis curve correction. Conclusions In the sitting position, there was a trend toward lower forces at the skin-brace interface; therefore, brace adjustment in the standing position may be useful and more effective. There was no significant correlation between the magnitude of the pad pressures and the degree of in-brace curve correction. PMID:28874982

  18. Scoliosis in-brace curve correction and patient preference of CAD/CAM versus plaster molded TLSOs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sankar, Wudbhav N; Albrektson, Josh; Lerman, Lawrence; Tolo, Vernon T; Skaggs, David L

    2007-01-01

    .... To our knowledge there has been only one previous study of CAD/CAM braces. The purpose of our study was to compare patient preference and in-brace correction of Cobb angle between plaster molded thoracolumbosacral orthoses (TLSO...

  19. Functional knee brace use by non-injured subjects while performing an anaerobic capacity task: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishiraj, N; Taunton, J E; Lloyd-Smith, R; Niven, B; Regan, W; Woollard, R

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this paper was to investigate if performance was hindered in non-injured braced athletes during an anaerobic task. If performance was affected, could accommodation to wearing a knee brace occur and thus decreasing performance hindrance concern while using a functional knee brace (FKB). A 2x3 non-braced (NBr) and braced repeated measure factorial design. Five healthy athletes completed all testing. Subjects performed the Repeated High Intensity Shuttle Test (RHIST) over six days (three days NBr and three days braced). Running times were recorded each testing day to determine performance measures and percent fatigue levels while using a FKB and if accommodation to FKB use was possible. Non significant (F1,4=1.42, P=0.299) faster group mean performance time, was recorded for braced subjects relative to the non-braced condition. Although relatively faster performance levels were noted during the braced testing conditions during days 1 and 3 compared to the non-braced condition, these results were also not significant (F2,8=2.82, P=0.118). Lower percent fatigue level was recorded during all three braced days compared to non-braced days. Further, a tendency for accommodation to knee brace trend use was noted as the percentage performance difference between the two conditions had decreased by the last day of testing. Use of a knee brace did not hinder performance once accommodation to using the knee brace occurred and fatigue was not a factor while using a knee brace. Additional research, using a larger sample size and longer testing duration, is required to confirm the potential accommodation trend.

  20. Virtual prototyping of a brace design for the correction of scoliotic deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clin, Julien; Aubin, Carl-Eric; Labelle, Hubert

    2007-05-01

    Based on a three-dimensional patient-specific finite element model of the spine, rib cage, pelvis and abdomen, a parametric model of a thoraco-lumbo-sacral orthosis (TLSO) was built. Its geometry is custom-fit to the patient. The rigid shell, pads and openings are all represented. The interaction between the trunk and the brace is modeled by a point-to-surface contact interface. During the nonlinear simulation process, the brace is opened, positioned on the patient and strap tension is applied. A TLSO similar to Boston brace system was built for a right-thoracic scoliotic patient. The influences of the trochanter pad and strap tension on the 3-D geometrical corrections and on the forces generated by the brace were evaluated. The role of the trochanter pad as a lever arm is confirmed by the model. The brace induces a reduction of the lordosis and pelvic tilt. The reduction of the frontal curvature is about 20% for a strap tension of 60 N. Axial rotation does not significantly change and rib hump is worsened. By using an explicit brace model and a contact interface, a more realistic simulation of orthotic treatment of scoliosis can be achieved. The stabilization of the brace on the patient can be represented and less restrictive boundary conditions can be applied. This model could be used to study the effect of design parameters on the brace efficiency.

  1. Medial knee osteoarthritis treated by insoles or braces: a randomized trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. van Raaij (Tom); M. Reijman (Max); R.W. Brouwer (Reinoud); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: There is controversial evidence regarding whether foot orthoses or knee braces improve pain and function or correct malalignment in selected patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the medial knee compartment. However, insoles are safe and less costly than knee bracing if they

  2. [The effects of functional knee bracing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubljanin-Raspopović, Emilija; Bumbasirević, Marko; Devecerski, Gordana; Matanović, Dragana

    2009-01-01

    Limited surgical technology in treating injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in the past led to the development of a huge number of functional braces. Today, with the advance of the surgical techniques and a more aggressive rehabilitation approach in the postoperative course the use of functional braces after the ACL reconstruction is seriously questioned. The aim of this study was to review the basic functions of functional braces. Mechanical, and biomechanical functions of functional braces have been described, the psychological aspect of wearing them, their impact on thigh circumference, functional performance, muscle activity and postural control and propriocepation have also been addressed. Functional braces definitely increase the knee stability under low clinical loads. However, biomechanical investigations show that functional knee braces do not restore the normal knee stability under high forces related to certain activities. Furthermore, functional braces do not significantly influence proprioceptive abilities, nor functional performance, but have a negative impact on thigh atrophy, and inhibit joint muscle stabilizing activity. Given the generally high surgical success rates, there has been no scientific evidence so far to support the routine use of a functional knee brace following a successful anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in the controlled rehabilitative postoperative course.

  3. Soft-stop knee brace for rehabilitation from ligament injuries: Design and pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, James R J; Hwang, Haram Francis; Davies, Claire; McDaid, Andrew J

    2017-07-01

    Ligaments within the human knee are commonly torn or injured as a result of sports that involve sharp direction changes, pivoting and landing. For this reason, athletes are often side-lined from their respective sports for up to 18 months after injury to rehabilitate. As part of the rehabilitation process, knee braces are often prescribed in an attempt to decrease the recovery period of the injured individual by restraining and minimizing the motion at the knee. However, the true efficacy of knee bracing is yet to be fully evaluated as studies show mixed results to whether braces actually decrease the rehabilitation period for patients. This paper describes the design and pilot trials of a simple but novel knee brace design that aims to actively aid the rehabilitation of the knee from ligament injuries, primarily the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The newly developed knee brace uses an angle locking mechanism with dampers to control both the range of motion of the knee joint and the resistance applied to the knee joint at the limits of extension. Using finite element analysis, these dampers were designed help build muscle strength during everyday use of the knee brace and to reduce the 'jarring effect' which causes significant pain and risk to patients using current knee brace designs. Through providing these features, this new knee brace design has the potential to help improve the extent and speed of recovery for ACL impaired patients.

  4. The predictive value of the extensor grip test for the effectiveness of bracing for tennis elbow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs, Peter A. A.; Assendelft, Willem J. J.; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; Souer, Sebastiaan; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2005-01-01

    Background: Tennis elbow is a common complaint. Several treatment strategies, such as corticosteroid injections and physical therapy and braces, have been described. Hypothesis: The extensor grip test has predictive value in assessing the effectiveness of bracing in tennis elbow. Study Design:

  5. Preoperative bracing affects postoperative outcome of posterior spine fusion with instrumentation for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Mohammad; Sharkey, Melinda; Emans, John; Lenke, Lawrence; Oswald, Timothy; Sucato, Daniel

    2010-09-15

    STUDY DESIGN.: Multicenter, prospective clinical series. OBJECTIVE.: To investigate the effect of preoperative bracing on postoperative outcome of posterior spine fusion with instrumentation for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Bracing is the standard of care for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis between 25° and 45°, yet the efficacy of bracing is questionable. It is important to evaluate the effect of bracing on outcomes in the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis population. METHODS.: We reviewed the outcomes of 281 before surgery braced and 328 before surgery nonbraced patients who underwent posterior spine fusion with instrumentation for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis before operation and at 2 years after operation using the Scoliosis Research Society instrument (SRS-30) and the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire. RESULTS.: At 2 years after operation, nonbraced patients demonstrated a greater improvement in the SRS-30 Pain domain score (0.23 vs. 0.08, P spine-specific" appearance concerns compared to nonbraced patients. These results suggest a negative impact of preoperative bracing on outcomes after posterior spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. This "brace signature" should be taken into account when brace treatment is being considered.

  6. Body Image and Quality of Life and Brace Wear Adherence in Females With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieger, Traci; Campo, Shelly; Weinstein, Stuart L; Dolan, Lori A; Ashida, Sato; Steuber, Keli R

    2017-12-01

    Clinical evidence regarding the ability of braces to decrease the risk of curve progression to surgical threshold in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) continues to strengthen. Unfortunately, there is still a great deal of uncertainty regarding the impact of brace wear on psychosocial well-being or the impact of psychological well-being on brace wear adherence. The purpose of this study is to evaluate psychosocial well-being, in particular body image and quality of life (QOL), and brace wear adherence in female AIS patients undergoing brace treatment. The Bracing in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Trial (BrAIST) was a multicenter, controlled trial using randomized and preference assignments into an observation or brace treatment group. BrAIST patients were skeletally immature adolescents diagnosed with AIS having moderate curve sizes (20 to 40 degrees). Patients in the bracing group were instructed to wear a thoracolumbosacral orthosis, at least 18 h/d. Scores on the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire and the PedsQL4.0 Generic Scales from 167 female BrAIST patients who were randomized to brace treatment (n=58) and patients who chose brace treatment (n=109) were analyzed. At baseline and at 12 months, no differences were found between the least-adherent brace wear group (<6 h/d) and most-adherent brace wear group (≥12 h/d) patients in terms of major curve, body image, and QOL. In the most-adherent group, poorer body image scores were significantly correlated with poorer QOL scores at baseline, at 6 months, and at 12 months but not at 18 months. In general, body image scores and QOL scores were not significantly correlated in the least-adherent group. When comparing patients that had a ≥6 degree increase of their major curve between baseline and 12 months to patients that did not, there were no significant differences in body image or QOL scores. For females adolescents with AIS, body image and QOL do not have a significant impact on brace wear

  7. Bracing for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS and Scheuermann Kyphosis: the issue of overtreatment in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos S. Karavidas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most recent publications have provided evidence for brace treatment in spinal deformities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of overtreatment for AIS and Kyphosis in Greece, according to the Society on Scoliosis Orthopedic Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORT and the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS guidelines for brace treatment. To date, this is the first study to investigate overtreatment percentage in a group of patients with spinal deformities. Methods Cross-sectional study design and data analysis were performed in a group of patients that received treatment in a private clinic, in 2014. Of 289 patients treated with a brace, 167 young adolescents (126 females - 41 males, mean age 15, 7 years were eligible for inclusion criteria (age 9–18 years, brace wearing. Overtreatment was defined as the unnecessary use of brace according to the international indications for brace treatment. Overtreatment was assessed by a BSPTS - Schroth certified physiotherapist. The brace prescription was made by 34 medical doctors from different geographical areas of Greece. Results The data analysis revealed that 71 out of 167 subjects (42,5 % had received some kind of overtreatment. A further analysis showed that in the AIS subgroup, 20 subjects (16,9 % had Cobb angles < 20°, 7 subjects (5,9 % had Cobb angles 20 – 25° but good prognosis, 12 subjects (10,2 % started bracing after Risser 4, and 12 subjects (10,2 % had delayed brace weaning. It is noticeable that 8 subjects (6,8 % were at Risser 5 with Cobb angle < 20° and were prescribed a brace. In the Kyphosis subgroup, 11 subjects (22,5 % showed no signs of Scheuermann’s disease, 3 subjects (6,1 % started bracing after Risser 4 or 5, and 6 subjects (12,2 % had delayed brace weaning. Conclusions An extremely high rate of overtreatment (42, 5 % was identified in a random group of adolescents treated with a brace for AIS and Kyphosis. Overtreating a child

  8. Evaluation of the mechanical efficiency of knee braces based on computational modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrat, Baptiste; Molimard, Jérôme; Navarro, Laurent; Avril, Stéphane; Calmels, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Knee orthotic devices are commonly prescribed by physicians and medical practitioners for preventive or therapeutic purposes on account of their claimed effect: joint stabilisation and proprioceptive input. However, the force transfer mechanisms of these devices and their level of action remain controversial. The objectives of this work are to characterise the mechanical performance of conventional knee braces regarding their anti-drawer effect using a finite element model of a braced lower limb. A design of experiment approach was used to quantify meaningful mechanical parameters related to the efficiency and discomfort tolerance of braces. Results show that the best tradeoff between efficiency and discomfort tolerance is obtained by adjusting the brace length or the strap tightening. Thanks to this computational analysis, novel brace designs can be evaluated for an optimal mechanical efficiency and a better compliance of the patient with the treatment.

  9. Effectiveness of the Charleston bending brace in the treatment of single-curve idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gepstein, Reuven; Leitner, Yossi; Zohar, Edna; Angel, Itzach; Shabat, Shai; Pekarsky, Ilia; Friesem, Tye; Folman, Yoram; Katz, Amiram; Fredman, Brian

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the Charleston bending brace when compared with the thoracolumbosacral orthosis (TLSO or Boston) brace in the treatment of single-curve adolescent-type idiopathic scoliosis. The Charleston and TLSO braces were applied for approximately 8 nighttime hours and 18 to 22 hours per day, respectively. Treatment success was defined as improvement of curve deterioration with TLSO brace. Mean Cobb angle of curvature before bracing was 30.4 degrees. The curvature was lumbar in 60 patients, thoracic in 56, and thoracolumbar in 6. The average follow-up time was 23 months, with a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Surgery was performed in 11.8% and 13.5% of patients in the Charleston and TLSO groups, respectively. In this patient population, no significant difference in success rate was found between the groups.

  10. Ankle sprain prophylaxis: an analysis of the stabilizing effects of braces and tape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, M S; Kabo, J M; Mitchell, P W; Loren, G; Tsenter, M

    1994-01-01

    Five cadaveric ankles were used to determine the effects of prophylactic bracing and tape on resisting an inversion moment applied to the ankle. The ankles were tested in neutral flexion and 30 degrees of plantar flexion and with both low- and high-top shoes. Eight different strap-on braces were studied. High-top sneakers significantly increased the passive resistance to inversion afforded by all braces and tape. Many of the braces functioned to resist inversion at a level that was comparable with or exceeded the capability of freshly applied tape. This finding was independent of the type of footwear. Braces that were not as effective as freshly applied tape nevertheless retained the advantage over tape in that they could be easily readjusted and their effectiveness restored, whereas the quality of the support provided with tape deteriorated with usage.

  11. Vital capacity evolution in patients treated with the CMCR brace: statistical analysis of 90 scoliotic patients treated with the CMCR brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohn Céline

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary Objective To study the evolution of pulmonary capacity during orthopaedic treatment of scoliosis with the CMCR brace. Background Investigating the impact of moderate scoliosis on respiratory capacity and its evolution during CMCR brace treatment with mobile pads. Context Several studies demonstrate the impact of scoliosis on respiratory capacity but few of them focus on the impact of bracing treatment. We studied the evolution of the pulmonary capacity of a cohort of 90 scoliotic patients. Methods This retrospective study included 90 scoliotic patients treated since 1999 with a brace with mobile pads called CMCR (n = 90; mean age: 13 years; 10-16. These patients were diagnosed with an idiopathic scoliosis (mean angulation 20.6°. All patients underwent a radiographic and respiratory evaluation at the beginning, the middle and the end of treatment. Results Mean age at treatment start was 13. Before treatment, our patients did not have a normal pulmonary capacity: Forced Vital Capacity (FVC was only 75% of the theoretical value. All curvature types (thoracic, thoraco-lumbar and combined scoliosis involved this reduced pulmonary capacity, with moderate-angulated scoliosis having a negative impact. At the beginning of brace treatment, the loss of real vital capacity with brace (0.3 litres was 10% lower than without brace. At CMCR removal, the FVC had increased by 0.4 litre (21% +/- 4.2% compared to the initial value. The theoretical value had increased by 3%. This positive evolution was most important in girls at a low Risser stage (0,1,2, and before 11 years of age. Conclusion These results supported our approach of orthesis conception for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis which uses braces with mobile pads to preserve thorax and spine mobility.

  12. Electromyographic and biomechanic analysis of anterior cruciate ligament deficiency and functional knee bracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Dan K; Wretenberg, Per F; Lamontagne, Mario; Németh, Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    Examine the neuromuscular response to functional knee bracing relative to anterior tibial translations in vivo. During randomised brace conditions, electromyographic data with simultaneous skeletal tibiofemoral kinematics were recorded from four anterior cruciate ligament deficient subjects to investigate the effect of the DonJoy Legend functional brace during activity. Knee braces do not increase knee stability but may influence afferent inputs from proprioception and therefore one might expect changes in muscle firing patterns, amplitude and timing. Hoffman bone pins affixed with markers were implanted into the tibia and femur for kinematic measurement. The EMG data from the rectus femoris, semitendinosus, biceps femoris, and lateral head of the gastrocnemius were integrated for each subject in three separate time periods: 250 ms preceding footstrike and two consecutive 125 ms time intervals following footstrike. With brace, semitendinosus activity significantly decreased 17% prior to footstrike whereas bicep femoris significantly decreased 44% during A2, (P<0.05). Rectus femoris activity significantly increased 21% in A2 (P<0.05). No consistent reductions in anterior translations were evident. Our preliminary findings, based on a limited number of subjects, indicate joint stability may result from proprioceptive feedback rather than the mechanical stabilising effect of the brace. Despite a significant increase in rectus femoris activity upon landing, only one subject demonstrated an increase in anterior tibial drawer. Studies have shown functional braces do not mechanically stabilise the anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee. Perhaps bracing alters proprioceptive feedback. It has been shown that bracing the anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee may affect hamstring and quadriceps activity. Our findings stresses the importance of functional knee bracing combined with proprioceptive and muscular coordination training in order to increase joint stability.

  13. Spring tube braces for seismic isolation of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayel, V.; Yuksel, Ercan; Gokce, T.; Sahin, F.

    2017-01-01

    A new low-cost seismic isolation system based on spring tube bracings has been proposed and studied at the Structural and Earthquake Engineering Laboratory of Istanbul Technical University. Multiple compression-type springs are positioned in a special cylindrical tube to obtain a symmetrical response in tension and compression-type axial loading. An isolation floor, which consists of pin-ended steel columns and spring tube bracings, is constructed at the foundation level or any intermediate level of the building. An experimental campaign with three stages was completed to evaluate the capability of the system. First, the behavior of the spring tubes subjected to axial displacement reversals with varying frequencies was determined. In the second phase, the isolation floor was assessed in the quasi-static tests. Finally, a ¼ scaled 3D steel frame was tested on the shake table using actual acceleration records. The transmitted acceleration to the floor levels is greatly diminished because of the isolation story, which effects longer period and higher damping. There are no stability and self-centering problems in the isolation floor.

  14. Cruise Speed Sensitivity Study for Transonic Truss Braced Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Douglas P.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's investment and research in aviation has led to new technologies and concepts that make aircraft more efficient and environmentally friendly. One aircraft design operational concept is the reduction of cruise speed to reduce fuel burned during a mission. Although this is not a new idea, it was used by all of the contractors involved in a 2008 NASA sponsored study that solicited concept and technology ideas to reduce environmental impacts for future subsonic passenger transports. NASA is currently improving and building new analysis capabilities to analyze advanced concepts. To test some of these new capabilities, a transonic truss braced wing configuration was used as a test case. This paper examines the effects due to changes in the design cruise speed and other tradeoffs in the design space. The analysis was baselined to the Boeing SUGAR High truss braced wing concept. An optimization was run at five different design cruise Mach numbers. These designs are compared to provide an initial assessment space and the parameters that should be considered when selecting a design cruise speed. A discussion of the design drivers is also included. The results show that the wing weight in the current analysis has more influence on the takeoff gross weight than expected. This effect caused lower than expected wing sweep angle values for higher cruise speed designs.

  15. Prophylactic Ankle Braces and Knee Varus-Valgus and Internal-External Rotation Torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venesky, Kandy; Docherty, Carrie L; Dapena, Jesus; Schrader, John

    2006-01-01

    Context: Although prophylactic ankle bracing has been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence of ankle sprains, how these ankle braces might affect the other joints of the lower extremity is not clearly understood. Objective: To determine the effects of a prophylactic ankle brace on knee joint varus-valgus and internal-external rotation torque during a drop landing onto a slanted surface. Design: A repeated-measures design. Setting: Biomechanics research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-four physically active college students. Intervention(s): Participants were tested in a brace and no-brace condition. Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured 3 dependent variables: (1) peak ankle inversion-eversion torque, (2) peak knee varus-valgus torque, and (3) peak knee internal-external rotation torque. A forceplate was used to collect ground reaction force data, and 6 motion analysis cameras collected kinematic data during the unilateral drop landing. An adjustable bar was hung from the ceiling, and a slant board was positioned over the center of the forceplate, so that the ankle of the participant's dominant leg would invert upon landing. Peak torque was measured in both the brace and no-brace conditions. The average of the peak values in 3 trials for both conditions was used for the statistical analysis. Results: Ankle eversion torque was significantly greater in the brace condition (F1,23 = 19.75, P Knee external rotation torque was significantly greater in the brace condition (F1,23 = 4.33,P knee torque was smaller in the brace condition, but the difference was not statistically significant (F1,23 = 3.45,P = .08). Conclusions: This study provides an important first step in understanding the effects of prophylactic ankle bracing on other joints of the lower extremity. We found that prophylactic ankle bracing did have an effect on knee torque when the subject was landing on a slanted surface. Specifically, knee external rotation torque increased when

  16. Does an unloader brace reduce knee loading in normally aligned knees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Jay R; Hambly, Karen; Joss, Brendan; Ackland, Timothy R; Donnelly, Cyril J

    2014-03-01

    Unloading knee braces often are used after tibiofemoral articular cartilage repair. However, the experimental basis for their use in patients with normal tibiofemoral alignment such as those undergoing cartilage repair is lacking. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of varus and valgus adjustments to one commercially available unloader knee brace on tibiofemoral joint loading and knee muscle activation in populations with normal knee alignment. The gait of 20 healthy participants (mean age 28.3 years; body mass index 22.9 kg/m(2)) was analyzed with varus and valgus knee brace conditions and without a brace. Spatiotemporal variables were calculated as were knee adduction moments and muscle activation during stance. A directed cocontraction ratio was also calculated to investigate the relative change in the activation of muscles with medial (versus lateral) moment arms about the knee. Group differences were investigated using analysis of variance. The numbers available would have provided 85% power to detect a 0.05 increase or decrease in the knee adduction moment (Nm/kg*m) in the braced condition compared with the no brace condition. With the numbers available, there were no differences between the braced and nonbraced conditions in kinetic or muscle activity parameters. Both varus (directed cocontraction ratio 0.29, SD 0.21, effect size 0.95, p = 0.315) and valgus (directed cocontraction ratio 0.28, SD 0.24, effect size 0.93, p = 0.315) bracing conditions increased the relative activation of muscles with lateral moment arms compared with no brace (directed cocontraction ratio 0.49, SD 0.21). Results revealed inconsistencies in knee kinetics and muscle activation strategies after varus and valgus bracing conditions. Although in this pilot study the results were not statistically significant, the magnitudes of the observed effect sizes were moderate to large and represent suitable pilot data for future work. Varus bracing increased knee

  17. Effect of a functional knee brace on knee flexion and extension strength after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham, Trevor B; Kramer, John F; Kirkley, Alexandra

    2002-10-01

    To investigate the effect of a knee brace on knee flexion and extension muscular strength of patients after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and to evaluate whether the effect of the brace depends on patient symptoms and muscular strength. Repeated measures. A university-based outpatient orthopedic clinic and musculoskeletal assessment laboratory. Twenty-seven patients (14 women, 13 men; mean age, 28+/-11 y) having undergone arthroscopically assisted ACL reconstruction by using a semitendinosus and gracilis autograft. A custom-fit ACL functional knee brace. The brace effect was calculated as the change in peak torque observed with the brace, expressed as a percentage of peak torque observed without the brace, during isokinetic concentric knee flexion and extension movements performed at 90 degrees /s. Patient symptoms were quantified by using a disease-specific health-related quality of life questionnaire. Knee flexion strength decreased significantly with the brace (mean brace effect=-7.3%, Pbrace effect during knee flexion varied considerably (-52% to 47%) and was significantly related to peak torque observed without the brace (r=-.50, Pbrace effects depend on patient strength. A brace may inhibit knee flexion strength of stronger patients, yet result in no change or even improvements in strength of weaker patients. Future research is required to further elucidate which patients may derive most benefit or detriment from bracing. Copyright 2002 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  18. Discrepancy in clinical versus radiological parameters describing deformity due to brace treatment for moderate idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szulc Andrzej

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The shape of the torso in patients with idiopathic scoliosis is considered to reflect the shape of the vertebral column, however the direct correlation between parameters describing clinical deformity and those characterizing radiological curvature was reported to be weak. It is not clear if the management proposed for scoliosis (physiotherapy, brace, surgery affects equally the shape of the axial skeleton and the surface of the body. The aim of the study was to compare clinical deformity of (1 idiopathic scoliosis girls being under brace treatment for radiological curves of 25 to 40 degrees and (2 non treated scoliotic girls matched for age and Cobb angle. Methods Cross-sectional study of 24 girls wearing the brace versus 26 girls without brace treatment, matched for age and Cobb angle. Hypothesis: Patients wearing the brace for more than 6 months, when comparing to patients without brace, may present different external morphology of the trunk, in spite of having similar Cobb angle. Material. Inclusion criteria: girls, idiopathic scoliosis, growing age (10–16 years, Cobb angle minimum 25°, maximum 40°. The braced group consisted of girls wearing a TLSO brace (Cheneau for more than 6 months with minimum of 16 hours per day. The non-braced group consisted of girls first seen for their spinal deformity, previously not treated. The groups presented similar curve pattern. Methods. Scoliometer exam: angle of trunk rotation at three levels of the spine: upper thoracic, main thoracic, lumbar or thoracolumbar. The maximal angle was noted at each level and the sum of three levels was calculated. Posterior trunk symmetry index (POTSI and Hump Sum were measured using surface topography. Results Cobb angle was 34.9° ± 4.8° in braced and 32.7° ± 4.9° in un-braced patients (difference not significant. The age was 14.1 ± 1.6 years in braced patients and 13.1 ± 1.9 years in un-braced group (p = 0.046. The value of angle of trunk

  19. Discrepancy in clinical versus radiological parameters describing deformity due to brace treatment for moderate idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwicki, Tomasz; Kinel, Edyta; Stryla, Wanda; Szulc, Andrzej

    2007-12-03

    The shape of the torso in patients with idiopathic scoliosis is considered to reflect the shape of the vertebral column, however the direct correlation between parameters describing clinical deformity and those characterizing radiological curvature was reported to be weak. It is not clear if the management proposed for scoliosis (physiotherapy, brace, surgery) affects equally the shape of the axial skeleton and the surface of the body. The aim of the study was to compare clinical deformity of (1) idiopathic scoliosis girls being under brace treatment for radiological curves of 25 to 40 degrees and (2) non treated scoliotic girls matched for age and Cobb angle. Cross-sectional study of 24 girls wearing the brace versus 26 girls without brace treatment, matched for age and Cobb angle. Patients wearing the brace for more than 6 months, when comparing to patients without brace, may present different external morphology of the trunk, in spite of having similar Cobb angle. Material. girls, idiopathic scoliosis, growing age (10-16 years), Cobb angle minimum 25 degrees , maximum 40 degrees . The braced group consisted of girls wearing a TLSO brace (Cheneau) for more than 6 months with minimum of 16 hours per day. The non-braced group consisted of girls first seen for their spinal deformity, previously not treated. The groups presented similar curve pattern. Methods. Scoliometer exam: angle of trunk rotation at three levels of the spine: upper thoracic, main thoracic, lumbar or thoracolumbar. The maximal angle was noted at each level and the sum of three levels was calculated. Posterior trunk symmetry index (POTSI) and Hump Sum were measured using surface topography. Cobb angle was 34.9 degrees +/- 4.8 degrees in braced and 32.7 degrees +/- 4.9 degrees in un-braced patients (difference not significant). The age was 14.1 +/- 1.6 years in braced patients and 13.1 +/- 1.9 years in un-braced group (p = 0.046). The value of angle of trunk rotation in the main curvature was 8

  20. The effect of ankle bracing on knee kinetics and kinematics during volleyball-specific tasks.

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    West, T; Ng, L; Campbell, A

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ankle bracing on knee kinetics and kinematics during volleyball tasks. Fifteen healthy, elite, female volleyball players performed a series of straight-line and lateral volleyball tasks with no brace and when wearing an ankle brace. A 14-camera Vicon motion analysis system and AMTI force plate were used to capture the kinetic and kinematic data. Knee range of motion, peak knee anterior-posterior and medial-lateral shear forces, and peak ground reaction forces that occurred between initial contact with the force plate and toe off were compared using paired sample t-tests between the braced and non-braced conditions (P knee kinematics or ground reaction forces during any task or on knee kinetics during the straight-line movement volleyball tasks. However, ankle bracing was demonstrated to reduce knee lateral shear forces during all of the lateral movement volleyball tasks. Wearing the Active Ankle T2 brace will not impact knee joint range of motion and may in fact reduce shear loading to the knee joint in volleyball players. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Biomechanical effects of valgus knee bracing: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Moyer, R F; Birmingham, T B; Bryant, D M; Giffin, J R; Marriott, K A; Leitch, K M

    2015-02-01

    To review and synthesize the biomechanical effects of valgus knee bracing for patients with medial knee osteoarthritis (OA). Electronic databases were searched from their inception to May 2014. Two reviewers independently determined study eligibility, rated study quality and extracted data. Where possible, data were combined into meta-analyses and pooled estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for standardized mean differences (SMD) were calculated. Thirty studies were included with 478 subjects tested while using a valgus knee brace. Various biomechanical methods suggested valgus braces can decrease direct measures of medial knee compressive force, indirect measures representing the mediolateral distribution of load across the knee, quadriceps/hamstring and quadriceps/gastrocnemius co-contraction ratios, and increase medial joint space during gait. Meta-analysis from 17 studies suggested a statistically significant decrease in the external knee adduction moment (KAM) during walking, with a moderate-to-high effect size (SMD = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.83; P brace use only (β, -0.01; 95% CI: -0.03, 0.0001; P = 0.06); with longer durations of brace use associated with smaller treatment effects. Minor complications were commonly reported during brace use and included slipping, discomfort and poor fit, blisters and skin irritation. Systematic review and meta-analysis suggests valgus knee braces can alter knee joint loads through a combination of mechanisms, with moderate-to-high effect sizes in biomechanical outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Functional bracing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a prospective, randomized, multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Edward R; Taylor, Dean C; Miller, Mark D; Gerber, John P; Ziemke, Gregg; Hinkin, Daniel; Uhorchak, John M; Arciero, Robert A; Pierre, Patrick St

    2004-12-01

    Bracing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is expensive and is not proven to prevent injuries or influence outcomes. To determine whether postoperative functional knee bracing influences outcomes. Prospective, randomized, multicenter clinical trial. One hundred volunteers from the 3 US service academies with acute anterior cruciate ligament tears were randomized into braced or nonbraced groups. Only those subjects with anterior cruciate ligament tears treated surgically within the first 8 weeks of injury were included. Patients with chondral injuries, significant meniscal tears, or multiple knee ligament injuries were excluded. Surgical procedures and the postoperative physical therapy protocols were identical for both groups. The braced group was instructed to wear an off-the-shelf functional knee brace for all cutting, pivoting, or jumping activities for the first year after surgery. Ninety-five subjects were available with a minimum 2-year follow-up. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in knee stability, functional testing with the single-legged hop test, International Knee Documentation Committee scores, Lysholm scores, knee range of motion, or isokinetic strength testing. Two braced subjects had reinjuries, and 3 nonbraced subjects had reinjuries. In this young, active population, postoperative bracing does not appear to change the clinical outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

  3. The Application of Parallel Robotics to Investigate the Effect of Lumbar Bracing on Trunk Muscle Activity

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    Gregory N. Kawchuk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar bracing is prescribed frequently for disability caused by low back pain; however, investigations into this practice demonstrate a range of patient outcomes. This inconsistency may arise from the practice of employing voluntary, single-axis trunk movements when investigating braces. Alternatively, this study employed a parallel robot to create a standardised, multi-axis testing environment. Surface electromyographic (sEMG data were collected from the trunk of 24 asymptomatic participants, who were seated on the robot, tilted to 15°, then circumducted while attempting to maintain an upright posture. Multiple trials were performed for three randomised conditions: non-braced, soft-material brace and stiff-material brace. As expected, the sEMG activity was significantly reduced in the majority of muscle responses (201/240. Unexpectedly, a paradoxical increase in the sEMG activity was observed in 39/240 responses. While lumbar bracing reduces the sEMG activity on average, these data suggest the existence of an infrequent paradoxical response that may provide a possible explanation for the discordant results observed in previous bracing investigations.

  4. Postoperative bracing after spine surgery for degenerative conditions: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jesse E; Biswas, Debdut; Whang, Peter G; Simpson, Andrew K; Rechtine, Glenn R; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2009-04-01

    A variety of orthoses are routinely applied after spinal procedures but there are limited data regarding their efficacy, especially with the increasing use of internal fixation. At this time, the proper indications for postoperative bracing are not well established. To assess the postoperative bracing patterns of spine surgeons. Questionnaire study. Spine surgeons attending the "Disorders of the Spine" conference (January 2008, Whistler, Canada). Frequencies of bracing after specific surgical procedures. A single-page questionnaire was distributed to all spine surgeons attending the "Disorders of the Spine" conference (January 2008). The questionnaire focused on whether surgeons typically immobilize patients after specific spinal procedures, the type of orthosis used, the duration of treatment, and the rationale for bracing. Ninety-eight of 118 surgeons completed the survey (response rate: 83%). The frequency of bracing was similar between academic and private as well as orthopedic and neurosurgical practices. The difference in the bracing tendencies of fellowship and non-fellowship trained surgeons was found to be statistically significant (61% vs. 46%, pstudies may play a helpful role in evaluating the efficacy of postoperative bracing protocols.

  5. Characterisation of in-vivo mechanical action of knee braces regarding their anti-drawer effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrat, B; Oullion, R; Molimard, J; Navarro, L; Combreas, M; Avril, S; Philippot, R; Calmels, P

    2015-03-01

    The knee joint is vulnerable to various injuries and degenerative conditions, potentially leading to functional instability. Usual treatments involve knee orthoses to support the joint. However, the level of mechanical action of these devices remains controversial despite high prescription and demand. The mechanical ability of three commercial hinged knee braces and one sleeve to prevent a static drawer was evaluated using a GNRB arthrometer. The testing of both pathological and healthy joints was performed on 16 patients with documented injuries involving the ACL, and an original method allowed decoupling the contribution of the brace. The mean stiffness of the three hinged braces ranged between 2.0 and 7.1 N/mm. The most efficient brace was able to exert a restraining force on the joint equivalent to the one exerted by a healthy ACL, up to a 2.8 mm anterior displacement of the tibia. For higher anterior displacements, the restraining force of the brace dropped below the level of action of the intact ACL because of the particular non-linear behaviour of this structure. Finally, the most efficient brace was found to vary from subject to subject. This study confirmed that fabric-based knee braces may effectively replace the passive mechanical role of the ACL within the low stiffness region of this structure. Although bracing may have other benefits (e.g., proprioception), this shows that they act as an effective passive restraint to low grade anterior laxities. Besides, a high patient-specificity of their effects highlighted the need of personalised objective testing for brace selection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A MECHANICAL HYPOTHESIS FOR THE EFFECTIVENESS OF KNEE BRACING FOR MEDIAL COMPARTMENT KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Dan K; Briem, Kristin; Axe, Michael J; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence that knee braces used for the treatment of osteoarthritis mediate pain relief and improve function by unloading the joint (increased joint separation) remains inconclusive. Alternatively, valgus braces may mediate pain relief by mechanically stabilizing the joint and reducing muscle co-contractions and joint compression. This study therefore sought to examine the degree to which unloader knee braces control knee instability and influence muscle co-contractions during gait. Methods Sixteen subjects with radiographic evidence of medial compartment knee osteoarthritis and malalignment were recruited and fitted with a custom Generation II Unloader Brace. Gait analysis was performed with the knee unbraced and with the brace in neutral alignment and 4° valgus. A two week washout period separated brace conditions. Muscle co-contraction indices were derived for agonist and antagonist muscle pairings. Pain, instability and functional status were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Repeated-measures ANOVA’s, correlations and regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. Results The scores for pain, function and stability were worst when the knee was unsupported (baseline and washout). At baseline, 9 of 16 subjects reported knee instability, of which 5 complained it affected activities of daily living. Poor knee stability was significantly correlated with decreased activities of daily living, quality of life, global knee function and higher pain and symptoms. Knee function and stability scored highest with the neutral brace compared to the valgus brace. Vastus lateralis-lateral hamstring and vastus medialis-medial hamstring muscle co-contractions were significantly reduced as a result of bracing. Subjects with greater varus alignment exhibited greater decreases in vastus lateralis-lateral hamstrings co-contraction. Conclusion Neutral alignment performed as well or better than valgus alignment, in reducing pain, disability, muscle co

  7. Treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee with bracing: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Phillips

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Knee osteoarthritis is a leading cause of disability around the world. Knee bracing provides a conservative management option for symptom relief. A variety of different bracing types, manufacturers and products are currently available on the market. The goal of this study is to examine the current state of the literature regarding the treatment of knee osteoarthritis with unloader bracing, specifically examining the representation of specific brace types, manufacturers and models within the literature. A scoping review technique was used because of its ability to evaluate research activity within an area of study and identify gaps within the literature. A thorough search of the MEDLINE database was conducted for articles where a knee brace model was identified, and we identified characteristics of the studies to evaluate important information about the body of literature related to knee bracing for the treatment of osteoarthritis. Fifty eligible studies were identified. The majority of studies have been published in the United States, and a large increase in the number of publications in this field was seen between 2010-2014. The most prominent study type was prospective comparative studies (44%, however there is a lack of randomized controlled trials (6% within the literature. The most prominent hinge type within the literature is the dual hinge push brace, followed by the single hinge pull. While a large increase in the number of studies evaluating the treatment of knee osteoarthritis with bracing has occurred in the past 5 years, there is a lack of high quality studies evaluating the efficacy of the technique, as well as a lack of studies comparing bracing types and models.

  8. Restorative effects of exercise rehabilitation and bracing on females with lateral displacement of patella

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    Atiye Karimzadehfini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This investigation compared the effects of exercise rehabilitation and bracing on muscle flexibility and strength as well as knee proprioception and pain in female sufferers of lateral displacement of patella (LDP. Materials and Methods: Twenty-two females with unilateral LDP were randomly divided into two groups to receive exercises (n = 12 or patellar brace (n = 10. Both groups were evaluated before and after 8 weeks with isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex System 3 Pro for muscle strength and proprioception, with SLR, Active Knee Flexion, and Sit and Reach tests for flexibility assessment and with a visual analog scale for pain. Results: Muscle flexibility in both exercise and bracing groups improved (F(1,20≥5.99 and P ≤ 0.024, whereas improvement in bracing group was not significant. Significant interaction was observed in favor of exercise group in 2 strength tests of knee flexion and knee extension (F(1,20≥6.564 and P ≤ 0.019. For proprioception, a significant interaction was observed in favor of bracing group (F(1,20 =7.944 and P = 0.011. Also the results showed both exercise rehab and brace decreased significantly pain severity during stair ascending and descending. Conclusion: These results suggest that better flexibility and more strength in exercise group somehow reduced the stress on patellofemoral joint and it, in turn, alleviated the symptoms and pain. It is also likely that relieving effects of brace and improvement of proprioception by it allows patients to be more physically active and it could have, more or less, effects similar to exercise. Therefore both exercise and brace could be prescribed for patients with LDP. It seems application of the patellar brace combined with exercise might be a better treatment for these patients, because they could improve strength, flexibility and proprioception.

  9. Bracing of the Reconstructed and Osteoarthritic Knee during High Dynamic Load Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Harvi F; Crossley, Kay M; Collins, Natalie J; Ackland, David C

    2017-06-01

    Lateral compartment osteoarthritis accompanied by abnormal knee biomechanics is frequently reported in individuals with knee osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in knee biomechanics produced by an adjusted and unadjusted varus knee brace during high dynamic loading activities in individuals with lateral knee osteoarthritis after ACLR and valgus malalignment. Nineteen participants who had undergone ACLR 5 to 20 yr previously and had symptomatic and radiographic lateral knee osteoarthritis with valgus malalignment were assessed. Quantitative motion analysis experiments were conducted during hopping, stair ascent, and descent under three test conditions: (i) no brace, (ii) unadjusted brace with sagittal plane support and neutral frontal plane alignment, and (iii) adjusted brace with sagittal plane support and varus realignment (valgus to neutral). Sagittal, frontal, and transverse plane knee kinematics, external joint moment, and angular impulse data were calculated. Relative to an unbraced knee, braced conditions significantly increased knee flexion and adduction angles during hopping (P = 0.003 and P = 0.005; respectively), stair ascent (P = 0.003 and P brace conditions increased knee flexion (P knee stiffness (P knee adduction moments during stair ascent (P = 0.008) and flexion moments during stair descent (P = 0.006). There were no significant differences between the adjusted and the unadjusted brace conditions (P > 0.05). A knee brace, with or without varus alignment, can modulate knee kinematics and external joint moments during hopping, stairs ascent, and descent in individuals with predominant lateral knee osteoarthritis after ACLR. Longer-term use of a brace may have implications in slowing osteoarthritis progression.

  10. Restorative effects of exercise rehabilitation and bracing on females with lateral displacement of patella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadehfini, Atiye; Zolaktaf, Vahid; Vahdatpour, Babak

    2014-01-01

    Background: This investigation compared the effects of exercise rehabilitation and bracing on muscle flexibility and strength as well as knee proprioception and pain in female sufferers of lateral displacement of patella (LDP). Materials and Methods: Twenty-two females with unilateral LDP were randomly divided into two groups to receive exercises (n = 12) or patellar brace (n = 10). Both groups were evaluated before and after 8 weeks with isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex System 3 Pro) for muscle strength and proprioception, with SLR, Active Knee Flexion, and Sit and Reach tests for flexibility assessment and with a visual analog scale for pain. Results: Muscle flexibility in both exercise and bracing groups improved (F(1,20)≥5.99 and P ≤ 0.024), whereas improvement in bracing group was not significant. Significant interaction was observed in favor of exercise group in 2 strength tests of knee flexion and knee extension (F(1,20)≥6.564 and P ≤ 0.019). For proprioception, a significant interaction was observed in favor of bracing group (F(1,20) =7.944 and P = 0.011). Also the results showed both exercise rehab and brace decreased significantly pain severity during stair ascending and descending. Conclusion: These results suggest that better flexibility and more strength in exercise group somehow reduced the stress on patellofemoral joint and it, in turn, alleviated the symptoms and pain. It is also likely that relieving effects of brace and improvement of proprioception by it allows patients to be more physically active and it could have, more or less, effects similar to exercise. Therefore both exercise and brace could be prescribed for patients with LDP. It seems application of the patellar brace combined with exercise might be a better treatment for these patients, because they could improve strength, flexibility and proprioception. PMID:25221768

  11. Dynamically tensioned ACL functional knee braces reduce ACL and meniscal strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomescu, Sebastian; Bakker, Ryan; Wasserstein, David; Kalra, Mayank; Nicholls, Micah; Whyne, Cari; Chandrashekar, Naveen

    2017-11-29

    The effectiveness of ACL functional knee braces to reduce meniscal and ACL strain after ACL injury or reconstruction is not well understood. A new dynamic knee tensioning brace system has been designed to apply an active stabilizing force to the knee. The ability of this system to reduce tissue strains is unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the ability of the dynamically tensioned brace to reduce strain in both the ACL and meniscus during rehabilitation activities. A combined in vivo/in silico/in vitro method was used to study three activities: gait, double leg squat, and single leg squat. Muscle forces and kinematics for each activity were derived through in vivo motion capture and applied to seven cadaveric knee specimens fitted with custom braces. Medial meniscal strain and ACL strain were measured in ACL intact, deficient and reconstructed conditions. The brace lowered peak and average meniscal strain in ACL deficient knees (P < 0.05) by an average of 1.7%. The brace was also found to lower meniscal strain in reconstructed knees (1.1%) and lower ACL strain in ACL intact (1.3%) and reconstructed knees (1.4%) (P < 0.05). This study supports the use of a brace equipped with a dynamic tensioning system to lower meniscal strain in ACL-deficient knees. Its use may help decrease the risk of subsequent meniscal tears in chronic ACL deficiency or delayed reconstruction. In ACL-intact and reconstructed knees, the brace may be beneficial in injury prophylaxis or in protecting the ACL graft following reconstruction. These results will aid clinicians make informed recommendations for functional brace use in patients with unstable knees. II.

  12. Scapular Bracing and Alteration of Posture and Muscle Activity in Overhead Athletes With Poor Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Ashley K; McGrath, Melanie L; Harrington, Shana E; Padua, Darin A; Rucinski, Terri J; Prentice, William E

    2013-01-01

    Context Overhead athletes commonly have poor posture. Commercial braces are used to improve posture and function, but few researchers have examined the effects of shoulder or scapular bracing on posture and scapular muscle activity. Objective To examine whether a scapular stabilization brace acutely alters posture and scapular muscle activity in healthy overhead athletes with forward-head, rounded-shoulder posture (FHRSP). Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting Applied biomechanics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Thirty-eight healthy overhead athletes with FHRSP. Intervention(s) Participants were assigned randomly to 2 groups: compression shirt with no strap tension (S) and compression shirt with the straps fully tensioned (S + T). Posture was measured using lateral-view photography with retroreflective markers. Electromyography (EMG) of the upper trapezius (UT), middle trapezius (MT), lower trapezius (LT), and serratus anterior (SA) in the dominant upper extremity was measured during 4 exercises (scapular punches, W's, Y's, T's) and 2 glenohumeral motions (forward flexion, shoulder extension). Posture and exercise EMG measurements were taken with and without the brace applied. Main Outcome Measure(s) Head and shoulder angles were measured from lateral-view digital photographs. Normalized surface EMG was used to assess mean muscle activation of the UT, MT, LT, and SA. Results Application of the brace decreased forward shoulder angle in the S + T condition. Brace application also caused a small increase in LT EMG during forward flexion and Y's and a small decrease in UT and MT EMG during shoulder extension. Brace application in the S + T group decreased UT EMG during W's, whereas UT EMG increased during W's in the S group. Conclusions Application of the scapular brace improved shoulder posture and scapular muscle activity, but EMG changes were highly variable. Use of a scapular brace might improve shoulder posture and muscle activity in

  13. Effect of Milwaukee brace on static and dynamic balance of female hyperkyphotic adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshraghi, Arezoo; Maroufi, Nader; Sanjari, Mohammad Ali; Saeedi, Hassan; Keyhani, Mohammad Reza; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu

    2013-02-01

    Biomechanical factors, such as spinal deformities can result in balance control disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of bracing on static and dynamic balance control of hyperkyphotic female adolescents. Clinical trial. A force platform was employed to record center of pressure (COP) parameters. Ten adolescents undergoing Milwaukee brace for hyperkyphosis and 14 normal subjects participated in the study. The COP data were collected with and without brace immediately on first day and after 120 days of continuous brace wear. No significant difference was found in dynamic and static balance tests with and without brace on the first day (P > 0.05). After 120 days, the values of COP displacement in functional reach to the right and left for the hyperkyphotic adolescents when performing without brace enhanced significantly compared to the first day. The forward reach distance was not significantly different between the normal and hyperkyphotic subjects (P = 0.361); however, hyperkyphotic participants had significantly smaller reach distance in the functional reach to the right (21.88 vs. 25.56 cm) and left (17.04 vs. 21.25 cm). It might be concluded that bracing had a possible effect on improvement of dynamic balance performance, because the subjects could reach the target in dynamic reach tests with higher displacement in sagittal plane without losing their balance control. Clinical relevance Little is known about the biomechanical aspects of brace wear in individuals with hyperkyphosis. This study investigated balance differences between the healthy and hyperkyphotic individuals, and outcomes of Milwaukee brace wear. It might provide some new insight into the conservative treatment of hyperkyphosis for clinicians and researchers.

  14. Effects of ankle braces upon agility course performance in high school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beriau, M R; Cox, W B; Manning, J

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of wearing the Aircast(TM) Sports Stirrup, Aircast(TM) Training brace, Swede-O(TM) brace, and DonJoy(TM) Ankle Ligament Protector while running an agility course. Eighty-five high school athletes with no history of ankle injury and no experience in wearing any ankle support served as subjects. Each subject participated in four separate testing sessions. During sessions 1 and 4, subjects ran the agility course under the control (unbraced) conditions. Sessions 2 and 3 consisted of randomly wearing the ankle braces while running the agility course. A questionnaire concerning support, comfort, and restriction was completed by each subject after wearing each of the braces. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures revealed that a significant difference existed between the agility times. Tukey's post hoc test indicated that a significant difference existed between each ankle brace and the control 2 agility times as well as a control 1 and control 2 time difference. The control time difference was attributed to a learning effect. An ANOVA with repeated measures of only the four braces revealed that a significant difference existed between the agility times. Tukey's post hoc test showed the only difference was between the DonJoy Ankle Ligament Protector and the Aircast Training brace. We concluded: 1) there is limited practical performance effect upon agility while wearing an ankle brace; and 2) an athlete's perceived comfort, support, and performance restriction are contributing factors that may directly influence the effectiveness of ankle bracing.

  15. Impact of the type of brace on the quality of life of Adolescents with Spine Deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climent, J M; Sánchez, J

    1999-09-15

    A group of 102 brace-treated adolescents, aged 10-19 years with spine deformities participated in a cross-sectional study. To determine the effect of various types of orthoses on self-perceived health status. Spinal orthosis is an effective means of controlling progressive scoliosis, but bracing has shown a considerable impact on several aspects of adolescent functioning. Skeletally immature patients with spine deformities (75% with idiopathic scoliosis) who visited consecutively for routine biannual follow-up evaluations of orthotic treatment were studied. Twenty-five patients used the Milwaukee brace, 30 the Boston brace, 13 the thoracolumbosacral orthosis (TLSO), and 34 the Charleston bending orthosis. Patients completed the Quality of Life Profile for Spine Deformities (QLPSD), a specific instrument that measures quality of life in five areas labeled psychosocial functioning, sleep disturbances, back pain, body image, and back flexibility. Higher QLPSD scores mean a high level of impairment of quality of life. Milwaukee brace-treated patients scored significantly higher than Boston brace-treated and TLSO-braced patients and patients with Charleston bending orthosis in the overall QLPSD score (mean +/- SD, 53.60 +/- 13.26 vs. 45.65 +/- 12.81 and 42.79 +/- 12.99, respectively) and in back flexibility and psychosocial functioning. Other quality-of-life-related variables selected in multivariate analysis were the Risser sign, clinical diagnosis, duration of brace treatment, and degrees of correction. In cases of different orthoses of proven similar effectiveness in controlling the scoliotic curves, the use of bracing with the lowest impact on the quality of life should be recommended.

  16. The comparative results of psychologic testing in scoliosis patients treated with electrical stimulation or bracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahanovitz, N; Snow, B; Pinter, I

    1984-01-01

    Proponents of the surface stimulation treatment of idiopathic scoliosis have reported approximately 75-85% success rates in arresting progressive curvatures. Although encouraging, these results do not appear to be better than those of the more traditional brace programs. Now recognizing electrical stimulation as a viable alternative to bracing, supporters have advocated the psychologic and physical freedom with electrical stimulation as a major advantage over brace treatment. However, to date, there have been no objective psychologic studies to substantiate these claims. This prospective study was devised to detect any significant differences between a group of patients treated in a TLSO or Milwaukee brace and a group of patients treated with lateral electrical surface stimulation (LESS) (ScoliTron). The study consisted of 40 female private patients with idiopathic scoliosis treated for a minimum of 3 months. Each patient was given a set of seven standardized psychologic tests and an observer rating by the treating physician or physical therapist working with the patient. Results of the Psychological Epidemiology Research Interview (PERI) revealed that the LESS group had significantly higher self esteem than the brace group. The brace patients demonstrated a much greater perception of directed hostility than the LESS group. The coping response inventory showed the brace group to manifest a more primitive coping mechanism than the LESS group. The brace group attempted to avoid problems associated with their disease, rather than cope with them as the LESS group was better able to do. The brace group focused more on their emotions than the realistic problems of their disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. The Dynamic Compression Brace for Pectus Carinatum: Intermediate Results in 286 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Sjoerd A; Gritter, Martin; de Jong, Justin R; van Heurn, Ernst L W

    2017-06-01

    Dynamic brace compression is a novel treatment for patients with pectus carinatum. The dynamic compression system contains a device to measure the flexibility of the thoracic wall and regulate the pressure of the brace. Patients referred to our pediatric surgical center were screened for treatment with the dynamic compression brace. Patients with a pressure of initial correction (PIC) of 10.0 pounds per square inch or less were offered treatment with the brace. Patients with a PIC above 10.0 pounds per square inch were offered surgical correction. Between March 2013 and April 2016, 286 patients were treated with the brace; 260 were male (91%) and 26 were female (9%). Their mean age was 14 years (range, 4 to 21 years). Seventy-eight patients completed brace treatment; the mean treatment time was 14 months. Twenty-seven patients abandoned treatment because of lack of motivation, loss to follow-up, persistent protrusion of the sternal bone or flaring that required surgical correction, failure of treatment because of a bifid rib, fear of locking the brace, and delayed correction. One hundred eighty-one patients are still wearing the brace, either in the active or in the retainer phase. Patients with a high PIC also showed improvement when they were compliant. Adverse events were minor and included skin lesions (n = 4, 1%) and vasovagal reactions at the start of therapy (n = 3, 1%). These data show that brace therapy can be considered a valuable treatment option to correct pectus carinatum in patients with a flexible thorax. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 3D correction of AIS in braces designed using CAD/CAM and FEM: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobetto, Nikita; Aubin, Carl-Éric; Parent, Stefan; Barchi, Soraya; Turgeon, Isabelle; Labelle, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies showed that finite element model (FEM) combined to CAD/CAM improves the design of braces for the conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), using 2D measurements from in-brace radiographs. We aim to assess the immediate effectiveness on curve correction in all three planes of braces designed using CAD/CAM and numerical simulation compared to braces designed with CAD/CAM only. SRS standardized criteria for bracing were followed to recruit 48 AIS patients who were randomized into two groups. For both groups, 3D reconstructions of the spine and patient's torso, respectively built from bi-planar radiographs and surface topography, were obtained and braces were designed using the CAD/CAM approach. For the test group, 3D reconstructions of the spine and patient's torso were additionally used to generate a personalized FEM to simulate and iteratively improve the brace design with the objective of curve correction maximization in three planes and brace material minimization. For the control group (CtrlBraces), average Cobb angle prior to bracing was 29° (thoracic, T) and 25° (lumbar, L) with the planes of maximal curvature (PMC) respectively oriented at 63° and 57° on average with respect to the sagittal plane. Average apical axial rotation prior to bracing was 7° (T) and 9° (L). For the test group (FEMBraces), initial Cobb angles were 33° (T) and 28° (L) with the PMC at 68° (T) and 56° (L) and average apical axial rotation prior to bracing at 9° (T and L). On average, FEMBraces were 50% thinner and had 20% less covering surface than CtrlBraces while reducing T and L curves by 47 and 48%, respectively, compared to 25 and 26% for CtrlBraces. FEMBraces corrected apical axial rotation by 46% compared to 30% for CtrlBraces. The combination of numerical simulation and CAD/CAM approach allowed designing more efficient braces in all three planes, with the advantages of being lighter than standard CAD/CAM braces. Bracing in AIS may

  19. Effect of prophylactic and functional knee brace and knee sleeve on plantar pressure distribution during stance phase of gait in healthy individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Pánková, Barbora

    2009-01-01

    Title: Effect of prophylactic and functional knee brace and knee sleeve on plantar pressure distribution during stance phase of gait in healthy individuals Summary: Knee bracing is a very commonly used method by both doctors and patients. Brace producers and also most of the studies focus the effect of the brace directly on the knee joint, but do not study, how it influences other regions of human body. This work studied the influence of knee bracing on plantar pressure distribution changes a...

  20. Evaluation of the Influence of Upper Extremity Bracing Techniques on Human Response during Vertical Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    4. Hands-on- Knees Position. extended as fully as possible and the hands are braced against the knees or anterior thighs. In addition, the head is...1981, 1982; Hearon et al., 1982b). An anterior cruciate ligament injury was incurred by a subject during an 8 G lateral exposure, but this injury was...to be an upper extremity bracing technique shown in Figure 4. In this so-called "hands-on- knees " bracing technique, the upper extremities are Figure

  1. The effect of lace-up ankle braces on injury rates in high school football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuine, Timothy A; Hetzel, Scott; Wilson, John; Brooks, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Although ankle injuries occur frequently in high school football players, no prospective studies have been performed to determine if wearing lace-up ankle braces will reduce the incidence and severity of ankle and other lower extremity injuries in these athletes. This study was conducted to determine if lace-up ankle braces reduce the incidence and severity of lower extremity injuries sustained by high school football players. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. A total of 2081 players from 50 high schools were randomly assigned to a braced or control group. Braced group players wore lace-up ankle braces during the 2010 football season. Athletic trainers recorded brace compliance, athlete-exposures, and injuries. Cox proportional hazards models were utilized to compare injury rates between groups. Injury severity (days lost) was tested with Wilcoxon rank sum. The rate of acute ankle injury (per 1000 exposures) was 0.48 in the braced group compared with 1.12 in the control group (Cox hazard ratio [HR] = 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24-0.65; P < .001). The severity (median days lost) of acute ankle injuries was the same (5 days) in both groups (P = .985). The rate of acute knee injury was 0.70 in the braced group compared with 0.69 in the control group (HR = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.57-1.47; P = .721). There was no difference (P = .242) in the severity of knee injuries between the groups (controls = 11.5 days, braced = 17 days). The rate of other lower extremity injuries was 0.95 in the braced group and 1.32 in the control group (HR = 0.72; 95% CI, 0.48-1.09; P = .117), while the severity was similar in both groups (6 days vs 7 days; P = .295). Players who used lace-up ankle braces had a lower incidence of acute ankle injuries but no difference in the incidence of acute knee or other lower extremity injuries. Braces did not reduce the severity of ankle, knee, or other lower extremity injuries.

  2. The Effect of Lace-up Ankle Braces on Injury Rates in High School Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuine, Timothy A.; Hetzel, Scott; Wilson, John; Brooks, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Background Although a nkle injuries occur frequently in high school football players no prospective studies have been performed to determine if wearing lace-up ankle braces will reduce the incidence and severity of ankle and other lower extremity injuries in these athletes. Purpose Determine if lace-up ankle braces reduce the incidence and severity of lower extremity injuries sustained by high school football players. Design Cluster randomized controlled trial. Methods 2081 players from 50 high schools were randomly-assigned to braced or control group. Braced group subjects wore lace-up ankle braces during the 2010 football season. Athletic trainers recorded brace compliance, athletic exposures and injuries. Cox Proportional Hazards models were utilized to compare injury rates between groups. Injury severity (days lost) was tested with Wilcoxon Rank Sum. Results The rate of acute ankle injury (per 1,000 exposures) was 0.48 in the braced group compared to 1.12 in the control group (Cox Hazard Ratio (HR)=0.39, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.24, 0.65, pinjuries was the same (5 days) in both groups (p=0.985). The rate of acute knee injury was 0.70 in the braced group compared to 0.69 in the control group, (HR=0.92 [0.57, 1.47], p=0.721). There was no difference (p=0.242) in the severity of knee injuries between the groups (controls 11.5 days, braced =17 days. The rate of other lower extremity injuries was 0.95 in the braced group and 1.32 in the control group, (HR=0.72 [0.48, 1.09], p=0.117) while the severity was similar in both groups (6 days versus 7 days, p=0.295). Conclusions Players who used lace-up ankle braces had a lower incidence of acute ankle injuries but no difference in the incidence of acute knee or other lower extremity injuries. Braces did not reduce the severity of ankle, knee or other lower extremity injuries. PMID:21926383

  3. Brace Success Is Related to Curve Type in Patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Rachel M; Hubbard, Elizabeth W; Jo, Chan-Hee; Virostek, Donald; Karol, Lori A

    2017-06-07

    Curve magnitude and skeletal maturity are important factors in determining the efficacy of bracing for the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, but curve morphology may also affect brace success. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of curve morphology on the response to bracing with a thoracolumbosacral orthosis (TLSO). A retrospective review of patients managed with an orthosis for the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who were prospectively enrolled at the initiation of brace wear and followed through completion of bracing or surgery was performed. Inclusion criteria were main curves of 25° to 45° and a Risser stage of 0, 1, or 2 at the time of brace prescription. Compliance with bracing was measured with Maxim Integrated Thermochrons. Radiographs made at brace initiation, brace cessation, and final follow-up were used to retrospectively categorize curves with use of the modified Lenke (mLenke) classification system and more broadly to categorize them as main thoracic or main lumbar. The effect of morphology on outcome was evaluated using chi-square and Fisher exact tests. One hundred and sixty-eight patients were included. There was no difference in curve magnitude at the time of brace initiation (p = 0.798) or in average hours of daily brace wear (p = 0.146) between groups. The rate of surgery or progression of the curve to ≥50° was 34.5% (29 of 84) in mLenke-I curves, 54.5% (6 of 11) in mLenke-II curves, 29.4% (10 of 34) in mLenke-III curves, 17.6% (3 of 17) in mLenke-V curves, and 13.6% (3 of 22) in mLenke-VI curves. There were no mLenke-IV curves at the time of brace initiation. The rate of surgery or progression to ≥50° was 34.1% (44 of 129) in the combined thoracic group and 15.4% (6 of 39) in the combined lumbar group (p = 0.0277). In brace-compliant patients (>12.9 hours/day), the rate of surgery or progression to ≥50° was 30.3% (20 of 66) in main thoracic curves and 5.3% (1 of 19) in main lumbar curves

  4. Treatment stability of Milwaukee brace in idiopathic hyperkyphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdikhani, Mahboobeh; Behtash, Hamid; Ganjavian, Mohammad Saleh; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Khalaj, Nafiseh

    2014-08-01

    The Milwaukee brace is an efficient method for correcting hyperkyphosis before skeletal maturity. However, loss of correction in long-term follow-up is inevitable. To determine loss of correction and factors affecting the loss of correction. Retrospective study. A total of 49 corrected patients by Milwaukee brace participated minimum 2 years after treatment completion. The participants were categorized into two groups based on their roentgenograms: Group 1 (n = 36) had kyphotic curves of 45° or less and Group 2 (n = 13) had kyphotic curves of more than 45°. The mean loss of corrections for Group 1 and Group 2 were 3.80° (ranges = 0°-13°) and 12.92° (ranges = 8°-22°), respectively. Group 1 showed no significant difference between the average hyperkyphosis of the patients for the part-time and full-time treatment duration (p = 0.02). By contrast, a significant difference was observed between the average hyperkyphosis of patients in Group 2 for the part-time and full-time treatment duration (p < 0.05). Patients with kyphosis of 60° or less who can save the correction in full-time orthotic treatment in part-time treatment may have the least loss of correction over time. As the orthotic treatment is a time-consuming method that needs the close collaboration of patient and treatment team, it is possible that clinicians predict the probable result of treatment and efficiency of orthotic treatment. Thus, a clinician can abandon orthotic treatment and refer the patient for an operation. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2013.

  5. Assessment of functional knee bracing: an in vivo three-dimensional kinematic analysis of the anterior cruciate deficient knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, D K; Lamontagne, M; Wretenberg, P F; Valentin, A; Engström, B; Németh, G

    2001-01-01

    To describe three-dimensional tibial and femoral movements in vivo and examine the effect of a brace on knee kinematics during moderate to intense activity. Skeletal kinematics of anterior cruciate ligament deficient knees was measured with and without braces during moderate to intense activity. Invasive markers implanted into the tibia and femur are the most accurate means to directly measure skeletal motion and may provide a more sensitive measure of the differences between brace conditions. Steinmann traction pins were implanted into the femur and tibia of four subjects having a partial or complete anterior cruciate ligament rupture. Non-braced and braced conditions were randomly assigned and subjects jumped for maximal horizontal distance to sufficiently stress the anterior cruciate ligament. Intra-subject peak vertical force and posterior shear force were generally consistent between conditions. Intra-subject kinematics was repeatable but linear displacements between brace conditions were small. Differences in angular and linear skeletal motion were observed across subjects. Bracing the anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee resulted in only minor kinematic changes in tibiofemoral joint motion. In this study, no consistent reductions in anterior tibial translations were observed as a function of the knee brace tested. Relevance. Investigations have reported that knee braces fail when high loads are encountered or when load is applied in an unpredictable manner. Questions remain regarding tibiofemoral joint motion, in particular linear displacements. The pin technique is a means for direct skeletal measurement and may provide a more sensitive measure of the differences between brace conditions.

  6. Effects of knee bracing on tibial rotation during high loading activities in anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotis, Dimitrios; Zampeli, Franceska; Pappas, Evangelos; Mitsionis, Grigoris; Papadopoulos, Pericles; Georgoulis, Anastasios D

    2013-10-01

    To test whether knee bracing restores normal rotational knee kinematics in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-reconstructed knees during high-demand, athletic activities. Twenty male patients who had undergone unilateral ACL reconstruction with a bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft were assessed in vivo. The mean time from surgery to data collection was 26 months (range, 25 to 28 months). An 8-camera optoelectronic system was used to collect kinematic data while each patient performed 2 demanding tasks: (1) immediate pivoting after descending from a stair and (2) immediate pivoting after landing from a platform. Each task was performed under 3 conditions for the reconstructed knee: (1) wearing a prophylactic brace (braced condition), (2) wearing a patellofemoral brace (sleeved condition), and (3) without a brace (non-braced condition). As a control group, patients with intact ACLs were tested without any bracing. This study protocol was identical to the protocol of a previous study that investigated the effect of bracing on ACL-deficient athletes. For both tasks, the range of motion of tibial rotation was significantly lower in the intact knee compared with all 3 conditions of the ACL-reconstructed knee (P ≤ .014). Placing a brace or a sleeve on the ACL-reconstructed knee resulted in lower rotation than the non-braced condition (P ≤ .022), whereas no significant differences were found between the sleeved and the braced conditions (P ≥ .110). Bracing limited the excessive tibial rotation in ACL-reconstructed knees during pivoting that occurs under high-demand activities. However, full restoration to normative values was not achieved. Thereby, braces have the potential to decrease rotational knee instability that still remains after ACL reconstruction. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficiency and comfort of knee braces: A parametric study based on computational modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Pierrat, Baptiste; Calmels, Paul; Navarro, Laurent; Avril, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Knee orthotic devices are widely proposed by physicians and medical practitioners for preventive or therapeutic objectives in relation with their effects, usually known as to stabilize joint or restrict ranges of motion. This study focuses on the understanding of force transfer mechanisms from the brace to the joint thanks to a Finite Element Model. A Design Of Experiments approach was used to characterize the stiffness and comfort of various braces in order to identify their mechanically influent characteristics. Results show conflicting behavior: influent parameters such as the brace size or textile stiffness improve performance in detriment of comfort. Thanks to this computational tool, novel brace designs can be tested and evaluated for an optimal mechanical efficiency of the devices and a better compliance of the patient to the treatment.

  8. Effects of a Knee Extension Constraint Brace on Lower Extremity Movements after ACL Reconstruction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stanley, Christopher J; Creighton, R Alexander; Gross, Michael T; Garrett, William E; Yu, Bing

    2011-01-01

    ... loading.We determined the effects of a knee extension constraint brace on knee flexion angle, peak posterior ground reaction force, and movement speed in functional activities of patients after ACL...

  9. Anterior cruciate ligament bracing: evidence in providing stability and preventing injury or graft re-rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodendorfer, Blake M; Anoushiravani, Afshin A; Feeley, Brian T; Gallo, Robert A

    2013-09-01

    Ligamentous knee injuries are common and costly, both in financial terms and time missed from work and recreational activities. Furthermore, ligamentous injuries appear to predispose patients to future osteoarthritis and other morbidities. Therefore, prevention strategies are important in limiting the potential impact of these injuries. Knee braces are one of the most often prescribed devices in the billion-dollar orthotic industry. Despite widespread use of prophylactic and functional knee braces, the evidence supporting their efficacy in reducing and/or preventing injury remains limited. Knee braces have been shown to be more effective in preventing medial collateral ligament injuries than anterior cruciate ligament injuries in both cadaveric and clinical studies. The use of functional braces after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has been supported and refuted in both postoperative and long-term studies.

  10. Vertebral Body Stapling versus Bracing for Patients with High-Risk Moderate Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laury Cuddihy

    2015-01-01

    =0.07] and gender. Results. For thoracic curves 25–34°, VBS had a success rate (defined as curve progression <10° of 81% versus 61% for bracing (P=0.16. In thoracic curves 35–44°, VBS and bracing both had a poor success rate. For lumbar curves, success rates were similar in both groups for curves measuring 25–34°. Conclusion. In this comparison of two cohorts of patients with high-risk (Risser 0-1 moderate IS (25–44°, in smaller thoracic curves (25–34° VBS provided better results as a clinical trend as compared to bracing. VBS was found not to be effective for thoracic curves ≥35°. For lumbar curves measuring 25–34°, results appear to be similar for both VBS and bracing, at 80% success.

  11. Prospective evaluation of physical activity in patients with idiopathic scoliosis or kyphosis receiving brace treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Müller, Carsten; Fuchs, Katharina; Winter, Corinna; Rosenbaum, Dieter; Schmidt, Carolin; Bullmann, Viola; Schulte, Tobias L

    2011-01-01

    .... The aim of this prospective, controlled study was to objectify the impact of spinal bracing on daily step activity in patients receiving conservative treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS...

  12. Comparison of the effect of semi-rigid ankle bracing on performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of the effect of semi-rigid ankle bracing on performance among injured v. non-injured adolescent female hockey players. TJ Ellapen, N Acampora, S Dawson, J Arling, C van Niekerk, HJ van Heerden ...

  13. The effect of ankle bracing on lower extremity biomechanics during landing: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-Mackay, A R; Whatman, C; Reid, D

    2016-07-01

    To examine the evidence for effect of ankle bracing on lower-extremity landing biomechanics. Literature review. Systematic search of the literature on EBSCO health databases. Articles critiqued by two reviewers. Ten studies were identified which investigated the effect of ankle bracing on landing biomechanics. Overall results suggest that landing biomechanics are altered with some brace types but studies disagree as to the particular variables affected. There is evidence that ankle bracing may alter lower-extremity landing biomechanics in a manner which predisposes athletes to injury. The focus of studies on specific biomechanical variables rather than biomechanical patterns, analysis of pooled data means in the presence of differing landing styles between participants, variation in landing-tasks investigated in different studies, and lack of studies investigating goal-directed sport-specific landing tasks creates difficulty in interpreting results. These areas require further research. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Semi-rigid brace and taping decrease variability of the ankle joint position sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Barbanera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of taping and the semi-rigid ankle brace on ankle joint position sense. Sixteen healthy women (20.8 ± 2.3 years old actively placed the ankle in a target position. The experimental conditions were: 1 wearing no orthosis device, 2 using semi-rigid brace, and 3 wearing ankle taping. Absolute error (AE and variable error (VE were calculated to obtain the joint position sense. We found an interaction effect between condition and target angle at 15o of plantar flexion for the variable VE, which showed smaller errors during the use of taping and semi-rigid brace. In conclusion, the use of ankle joint orthoses, whether taping or semi-rigid brace, decrease the variability of the position sense at 15o of plantar flexion, potentially decreasing ankle sprains occurrence.

  15. Functional Brace in ACL Surgery: Force Quantification in an In Vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPrade, Robert F; Venderley, Melanie B; Dahl, Kimi D; Dornan, Grant J; Turnbull, Travis Lee

    2017-07-01

    A need exists for a functional anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) brace that dynamically supports the knee joint to match the angle-dependent forces of a native ACL, especially in the early postoperative period. The purpose of this study was to quantify the posteriorly directed external forces applied to the anterior proximal tibia by both a static and a dynamic force ACL brace. The proximal strap forces applied by the static force brace were hypothesized to remain relatively constant regardless of knee flexion angle compared with those of the dynamic force brace. Controlled laboratory study. Seven healthy adult males (mean age, 27.4 ± 3.4 years; mean height, 1.8 ± 0.1 m; mean body mass, 84.1 ± 11.3 kg) were fitted with both a static and a dynamic force ACL brace. Participants completed 3 functional activities: unloaded extension, sit-to-stand, and stair ascent. Kinematic data were collected using traditional motion-capture techniques while posteriorly directed forces applied to the anterior aspect of both the proximal and distal tibia were simultaneously collected using a customized pressure-mapping technique. The mean posteriorly directed forces applied to the proximal tibia at 30° of flexion by the dynamic force brace during unloaded extension (80.2 N), sit-to-stand (57.5 N), and stair ascent (56.3 N) activities were significantly larger, regardless of force setting, than those applied by the static force brace (10.1 N, 9.5 N, and 11.9 N, respectively; P brace, compared with the static force brace, applied significantly larger posteriorly directed forces to the anterior proximal tibia in extension, where the ACL is known to experience larger in vivo forces. Further studies are required to determine whether the physiological behavior of the brace will reduce anterior knee laxity and improve long-term patient outcomes. ACL braces that dynamically restrain the proximal tibia in a manner similar to physiological ACL function may improve pre- and postoperative

  16. Biomechanical effectiveness of a distraction-rotation knee brace in medial knee osteoarthritis: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, Davy; Morisset, Claire; Fortunet, Clementine; Gremeaux, Vincent; Maillefert, Jean-Francis; Ornetti, Paul

    2014-06-01

    Non-pharmacological therapies are recommended for the care of knee osteoarthritis patients. Unloader knee braces provide an interesting functional approach, which aims to modulate mechanical stress on the symptomatic joint compartment. We aimed to confirm the biomechanical effects and evaluate functional benefits of a new knee brace that combines a valgus effect with knee and tibial external rotation during gait in medial osteoarthritis patients. Twenty patients with unilateral symptomatic medial knee osteoarthritis were included and they performed two test sessions of 3D gait analysis with and without the brace at the initial evaluation (W0) and after 5weeks (W5) of wearing the brace. VAS-pain, satisfaction scores, WOMAC scores, spatio-temporal gait parameters (gait speed, stride length, stance and double stance phases, step width), and biomechanical data of the ipsilateral lower limb (hip, knee, ankle and foot progression angles) were recorded at each session. VAS-pain and WOMAC significantly decreased at W5. Walking speed was not significantly modified by knee bracing at W0, but increased significantly at W5. Knee adduction moments and foot progression angles significantly decreased in the terminal stance and push off, respectively, with bracing at W0 and W5. Lower-limb joint angles, moments and powers were significantly modified by wearing the brace at W0 and W5. This new knee brace with distraction-rotation effects significantly alters knee adduction moments and foot progression angles during gait, which might lead to significant functional gait improvements and have carry-over effects on pain at the short term in osteoarthritis patients (<2 months). level IV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-term results of an unloader brace in patients with unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Becky; Rankin, Heather; Barnes, C Lowry

    2011-08-08

    Previously, we reported a prospective study of 30 patients with unicompartmental osteoarthritis of the knee treated nonoperatively with an unloader brace and average follow-up of 2.7 years. Although the initial study suggested short-term benefit according to pain and function measures, the objective of the current study was to evaluate these same patients via telephone questionnaire to determine the status of their brace use and any surgical procedures on the affected limb. Because we noted that even at 2.7 years, some patients opted for surgical management despite good response to bracing, our hypothesis was that these patients would not opt for long-term brace wear. Twenty-four of 30 patients were available for reporting based on telephone interview; in addition, we talked with family members of 5 patients who had died. When evaluated at 2.7 years, 41% of the 30 patients were still using the brace, 35% had discontinued brace use, and 24% had undergone arthroplasty. When contacted for the follow-up survey at an average of 11.2 years, 17 (58.6%) of the 29 patients had undergone arthroplasty. The mean interval between initial evaluation and arthroplasty was 3.9 years. In addition, 7 patients had undergone arthroscopic surgery. Importantly, none of the patients were still wearing the brace. The use of an unloader brace is effective in providing short-term pain relief and improved function; however, most patients subsequently opt for total knee replacement on the symptomatic knee. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Effects of the Off-Loading Brace on the Activation of Femoral Muscles -A Preliminary Study-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Hi; Jun, Ah-Young; Choi, Eun-Hye; Choi, Sung-Won; Shin, Ka-Young

    2011-01-01

    Objective To provide the off-loading knee brace was designed relief for the pain associated with osteoarthritis by reduce loads on the degenerative compartment of the knee. This study examined the effects of the off-loading knee brace on activation of femoral muscles during squatting, slow and fast walking exercise in healthy young individuals. Method Ten healthy male subjects without a history of knee pain were recruited. Each subject was asked to do squatting, slow and fast walking exercises with a brace secured to the dominant leg. The same exercises were repeated without the brace. Surface electromyographic (sEMG) data was collected from the vastus medialis oblique (VMO), vastus lateralis (VL) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles from the dominant side of the leg. All dynamic root mean squre (RMS) values of sEMG were standardized to static RMS values of the maximal isometric contraction and expressed as a percentage of maximal activity. Results We found that VMO activity was significantly decreased with application of the off-loading knee brace during squatting and fast walking exercise. However there were no significant differences in VMO activity with application of the off-loading knee brace during slow walking exercise. Conclusion These results suggest that the external moment of the brace which effectively stabilized the patella in the movement in which the knee joints become relatively unstable. The brace could be useful in the short term, but for long-term use, weakening of the VMO is predicted. Therefore the program of selective muscular strength strengthening for the VMO should be emphasized. PMID:22506219

  19. Effects of the Off-Loading Brace on the Activation of Femoral Muscles -A Preliminary Study-

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Eun-Hi; Kim, Keon-Koo; Jun, Ah-Young; Choi, Eun-Hye; Choi, Sung-Won; Shin, Ka-Young

    2011-01-01

    Objective To provide the off-loading knee brace was designed relief for the pain associated with osteoarthritis by reduce loads on the degenerative compartment of the knee. This study examined the effects of the off-loading knee brace on activation of femoral muscles during squatting, slow and fast walking exercise in healthy young individuals. Method Ten healthy male subjects without a history of knee pain were recruited. Each subject was asked to do squatting, slow and fast walking exercise...

  20. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in adolescent patients: limb asymmetry and functional knee bracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Boyi; Butler, Robert J; Garrett, William E; Queen, Robin M

    2012-12-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reinjury rates are high in adolescent patients. Knee braces are commonly used after ACL reconstruction to prevent reinjury during return to sports. Adolescent patients following ACL injury would demonstrate a decreased vertical ground-reaction force, knee extension moment, knee flexion angle, and knee flexion velocity on the surgical limb when compared with the nonsurgical limb during a side-cutting task. A functional knee extension-resistant brace would decrease the limb asymmetries. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty-three adolescent patients 6 months after ACL reconstruction were recruited for this study. Three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data were collected bilaterally (surgical, nonsurgical) during a 35° side-cutting task while the patient was wearing and not wearing a functional knee extension-resistant brace (nonbraced, braced) on the surgical limb. The surgical limb demonstrated a significant decrease in peak impact vertical ground-reaction force (2.55 body weight [BW] vs 2.8 BW; P knee extension moment (0.13 BW × body height [BH] vs 0.17 BW × BH; P knee flexion angle at peak knee flexion velocity (27.8° vs 30.0°; P = .01), peak knee flexion angle (44.1° vs 48.5°; P knee flexion velocity (571.3 deg/sec vs 640.1 deg/sec; P braced conditions. Bracing increased the initial knee flexion velocity (42.4 deg/sec vs -40.2 deg/sec; P = .01) and decreased the initial knee flexion angle on the surgical limb (13.1° vs 15.7°; P knee brace. There were changes in the surgical knee kinematics with and without bracing, especially near initial ground contact. The limb asymmetries are of concern with regard to injuring the graft or the contralateral limb when the patients return to sport.

  1. Impact of ankle bracing on skill performance in recreational soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Alison R; Bandolin, Shakira N; Krabak, Brian J

    2012-08-01

    To determine the effect of ankle braces on kicking accuracy, speed, and agility in competitive, nonelite soccer players. We hypothesized that the use of ankle bracing would significantly decrease performance in soccer-specific drills immediately after use but not after acclimation to the brace. A prospective randomized controlled trial. University. Twenty healthy recreational adult soccer players (5 men and 15 women; mean age, 23 ± 4.8 years) without a history of lower extremity injury in the past 6 months. All the subjects completed the study. The subjects completed a set of performance measures (ie, accuracy shooting at a target, 40-yard dash, S180° run, and T test) with an McDavid 199 Lightweight ankle brace (test subjects) and without an ankle brace (control subjects) during 2 testing sessions spaced 7-10 days apart. Between the 2 testing sessions, the subjects wore the ankle brace on at least 4 occasions while participating in athletic activities to ensure that a learning effect occurred. Outcomes included kicking accuracy (accuracy shooting at a target) and speed and agility (time to complete a 40-yard dash, S180° run, and T test). No significant difference in performance was found for the accuracy in shooting at a target, 40-yard dash, S180° run, and T test (P > .05) with and without an ankle brace during a session and between sessions. Ankle braces did not significantly affect performance in speed, agility, or kicking accuracy in healthy, competitive, recreational soccer athletes. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of load carriage and bracing on the balance of schoolgirls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Daniel H K; Leung, Dawn S S; Holmes, Andrew D

    2007-09-01

    The balance function of children is known to be affected by carriage of a school backpack. Children with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) tend to show poorer balance performance, and are typically treated by bracing, which further affects balance. The objective of this study is to examine the combined effects of school backpack carriage and bracing on girls with AIS. A force platform was used to record center of pressure (COP) motion in 20 schoolgirls undergoing thoraco-lumbar-sacral orthosis (TLSO brace) treatment for AIS. COP data were recorded with and without brace while carrying a backpack loaded at 0, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15% of the participant's bodyweight (BW). Ten participants stood on a solid base and ten stood on a foam base, while all participants kept their eyes closed throughout. Sway parameters were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA. No effect of bracing was found for the participants standing on the solid base, but wearing the brace significantly increased the sway area, displacement and medio-lateral amplitude in the participants standing on the foam base. The medio-lateral sway amplitude of participants standing on the solid base significantly increased with backpack load, whereas significant increases in antero-posterior sway amplitude, sway path length, sway area per second and short term diffusion coefficient were found in participants standing on the foam base. The poorer balance performance exhibited by participants with AIS when visual and somatosensory input is challenged appears to be exacerbated by wearing a TLSO brace, but no interactive effect between bracing and backpack loading was found.

  3. Correlation between compliance and brace treatment in juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: SOSORT 2014 award winner

    OpenAIRE

    Aulisa, Angelo G; Giordano, Marco; Falciglia, Francesco; Marzetti, Emanuele; Poscia, Andrea; Guzzanti, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the last years, evidence has accumulated in support of bracing as an effective treatment option in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Yet, little information is available on the impact of compliance on the outcome of conservative treatment in scoliotic subjects. The aim of the present study was to prospectively evaluate the association between compliance to brace treatment and the progression of scoliotic curve in patients with idiopathic adolescent (AIS) or juvenile scoliosi...

  4. A piezoelectric brace for passive suppression of structural vibration and energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuang-Sheng Walter; Lai, Yong-An; Kim, Jin-Yeon

    2017-08-01

    Power outage after an earthquake would cause an additional chaos to the existing aftermath, greatly aggravating the situation if the outage lasts for an extended period. This research aims at developing an innovative piezoelectric brace, which provides both passive energy-dissipating and energy-harvesting capabilities—a passive suppression of structural vibrations and conversion of vibration energy into reusable electricity. The piezoelectric brace has compression modules that exert compressive loads on the piezoelectric material regardless if the brace is in compression or in tension. The compression module consists of a piezoelectric stack and rubber pads. The rubber pads are used to limit the maximum strain in the piezoelectric material below the allowable operational strain. The electro-mechanical equations of motion are derived for a 1-story and a 3-story frame model with the piezoelectric braces. To evaluate the structural behavior and the energy harvesting performance, numerical simulations are executed for the two model buildings (in downtown Los Angeles) that are equipped with the piezoelectric braces. The effects of design parameters including the geometry of the piezoelectric stack and rubber pads and the electric resistance in the electro-mechanical conversion circuit on the performance are investigated. The numerical results indicate that the piezoelectric braces passively dissipate energy through inclined oval-shaped hysteretic loops. The harvested energy is up to approximately 40% of the input energy. The structural displacements are significantly reduced, as compared to the original frames without the piezoelectric braces. Finally, a design procedure for a frame with the proposed passive piezoelectric braces is also presented.

  5. Ankle brace attenuates the medial-lateral ground reaction force during basketball rebound jump

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Alex [UNESP; Goethel, Márcio Fagundes; Gáspari, Arthur Fernandes; Crozara, Luciano Fernandes; Gonçalves, Mauro [UNESP

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The jump landing is the leading cause for ankle injuries in basketball. It has been shown that the use of ankle brace is effective to prevent these injuries by increasing the mechanical stability of the ankle at the initial contact of the foot with the ground. Objective: To investigate the effects of ankle brace on the ground reaction force (GRF) during the simulation of a basketball rebound jump. Method: Eleven young male basketball players randomly carried out a si...

  6. Efficacy of nighttime brace in preventing progression of idiopathic scoliosis of less than 25°.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lateur, G; Grobost, P; Gerbelot, J; Eid, A; Griffet, J; Courvoisier, A

    2017-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess, at skeletal maturity, the efficacy of non-operative treatment by isolated nighttime brace in the prevention of progression of progressive idiopathic scoliosis of less than 25°. Isolated nighttime brace treatment is effective in the prevention of progression of mild progressive idiopathic scoliosis (Cobbscoliosis with Cobb anglescoliosis (scoliosis, ensuring a safe curve of around 20°. Level IV, retrospective study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. A Case for the Brace: A Critical, Comprehensive, and Up-To-Date Review of Static Progressive Stretch, Dynamic, and Turnbuckle Braces for the Management of Elbow, Knee, and Shoulder Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodhi, Nipun; Yao, Benjamin; Khlopas, Anton; Davidson, Iyooh U; Sultan, Assem A; Samuel, Linsen T; Lamaj, Suela; Newman, Jared M; Pivec, Robert; Fisher, Kristy A; Gaal, Benjamin; Mont, Michael A

    2017-12-22

    Non-operative management of the elbow, shoulder, and knee typically includes braces, such as the: static progressive stretch (SPS), turnbuckle, and dynamic. However, a paucity of literature exists comparing these three bracing modalities. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the current literature on the various bracing modalities for physicians and patients managing elbow, shoulder, or knee joint complications. Specifically, we compared the use of 1) static progressive stretch, 2) dynamic, and 3) turnbuckle braces for the a) elbow, b) knee, and c) shoulder. A PubMed search on dynamic, SPS, and turnbuckle bracing for the elbow, knee, and shoulder joints was performed. Studies that addressed clinical outcomes and relied primarily on the brace for improvement of patient outcomes and not on surgery were included. Because individually-fabricated braces are extremely costly, require great fabrication skill, and are unique to the patient they were specifically designed for, their results are not generalizable to the greater patient population and were, therefore, not included in this analysis. A total of 14 elbow, 24 knee, and 4 shoulder studies met criteria. Elbow-Patients wore the SPS brace for 90 minutes, compared to 8 hours for the turnbuckle and 20 hours for the dynamic brace. The SPS and turnbuckle brace had similar increases in range of motion (ROM) of 37°. The SPS brace was found to provide patients with the greatest reduction in flexion contracture, 26°. There are similar increases in flexion ROM between the SPS and dynamic elbow bracing modalities. Shoulder- The mean duration of use for an SPS was only six weeks compared to the two months required for the dynamic shoulder brace. The dynamic shoulder brace protocol involved upwards of 24 hours per day or night as patients were instructed to wear the brace at all times. Patients treated with both the SPS and dynamic braces had excellent pain outcomes. Knee-The most commonly followed SPS knee

  8. Oriented attachment growth of BiOCl nanosheets with exposed {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} facets and photocatalytic activity of the hierarchical nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Zhankui, E-mail: zkcui@foxmail.com [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China); Mi, Liwei [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China); Zeng, Dawen [State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die and Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-02-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Growth of BiOCl nanosheets in EG medium was experimentally revealed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oriented attachment mechanism governed formation of single crystalline BiOCl. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The exposed facets of BiOCl nanosheets were {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} planes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples could efficiently degrade MO irradiated either by UV or by Vis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high efficiency was associated with the exposed {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} facets of BiOCl. - Abstract: The formation mechanism of nanosheet assembled BiOCl nanostructures in non-aqueous solvothermal system was investigated through time series experiments. The products obtained at different reaction times were characterized by XRD, SEM and (HR)TEM techniques. The photocatalytic property of the samples was measured by decomposing the organic dye of methyl orange. The ability to generate hydroxyl radicals for the samples was also measured by photoluminescence method using coumarin as fluorescence probe molecules. It was revealed that oriented attachment was responsible for the slow transformation of BiOCl from polycrystalline nanoparticles to single crystalline nanosheets. The role of the solvent ethylene glycol and the interaction with the other species during the oriented attachment growth of the BiOCl nanosheets was discussed. The photocatalytic activity tests demonstrated that the BiOCl nanostructures could efficiently decompose methyl orange under either UV light irradiation or visible light irradiation. The high photodegradation efficiency was associated with the atomic arrangement of exposed {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} facets.

  9. SEISMIC FRAGILITY ANALYSIS OF IMPROVED RC FRAMES USING DIFFERENT TYPES OF BRACING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMED HAMIDI JAMNANI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Application of bracings to increase the lateral stiffness of building structures is a technique of seismic improvement that engineers frequently have recourse to. Accordingly, investigating the role of bracings in concrete structures along with the development of seismic fragility curves are of overriding concern to civil engineers. In this research, an ordinary RC building, designed according to the 1st edition of Iranian seismic code, was selected for examination. According to FEMA 356 code, this building is considered to be vulnerable. To improve the seismic performance of this building, 3 different types of bracings, which are Concentrically Braced Frames, Eccentrically Braced Frames and Buckling Restrained Frames were employed, and each bracing element was distributed in 3 different locations in the building. The researchers developed fragility curves and utilized 30 earthquake records on the Peak Ground Acceleration seismic intensity scale to carry out a time history analysis. Tow damage scale, including Inter-Story Drifts and Plastic Axial Deformation were also used. The numerical results obtained from this investigation confirm that Plastic Axial Deformation is more reliable than conventional approaches in developing fragility curves for retrofitted frames. In lieu of what is proposed, the researchers selected the suitable damage scale and developed and compared log-normal distribution of fragility curves first for the original and then for the retrofitted building.

  10. Efficacy of knee braces and foot orthoses in conservative management of knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Kavitha; Dewan, Neha

    2011-03-01

    A systematic analysis was conducted on the effectiveness of knee braces and foot orthoses in conservative management of knee osteoarthritis. The methodologic quality of the randomized clinical trials, controlled clinical trials, and observational studies were systematically reviewed using the Structured Effectiveness Quality Evaluation Scale. Twenty-five studies met the inclusion criteria. The orthoses used in the studies included Generation II osteoarthritis knee brace, valgus knee braces, functional off-loading knee braces, knee sleeves, lateral-wedged insoles with subtalar strapping, medial-wedged insoles, and specialized footwear. Results suggest that knee braces and foot orthoses are effective in decreasing pain, joint stiffness, and drug dosage. They also improve proprioception, balance, Kellgren/Lawrence grading, and physical function scores in subjects with varus and valgus knee osteoarthritis. Knee braces and foot orthoses could be cautiously considered as conservative management for relief of pain and stiffness and improving physical function for persons with knee osteoarthritis. The conclusions of this review are limited by methodologic considerations like poor quality of trials and heterogeneity of interventions.

  11. Does bracing influence brain activity during knee movement: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijs, Youri; Vingerhoets, Guy; Pattyn, Els; Rombaut, Lies; Witvrouw, Erik

    2010-08-01

    Studies have shown that proprioceptive inputs during active and passive arm movements are processed in the primary and secondary somatosensory cortex and supplementary motor area of the brain. At which level of the central nervous system proprioceptive signals coming from the knee are regulated remains to be elucidated. In order to investigate whether there is a detectable difference in brain activity when various proprioceptive inputs are exerted at the knee, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used. fMRI in 13 healthy, right leg-dominant female volunteers compared brain activation during flexion-extension movements of the right knee under three different conditions: with application of a tight knee brace, with application of a moderate tight knee sleeve, and without application of a brace or sleeve. Brain activation was detected in the primary sensorimotor cortex (left and right paracentral lobule) and in the left superior parietal lobule of the brain. There was a significantly higher level of brain activation with the application of the brace and sleeve, respectively, compared to the condition without a brace or sleeve. A significantly higher cortical activation was also seen when comparing the braced condition with the condition when a sleeve was applied. The results suggest that peripheral proprioceptive input to the knee joint by means of a brace or sleeve seems to influence brain activity during knee movement. The results of this study also show that the intensity of brain activation during knee movement can be influenced by the intensity of proprioceptive stimulation at the joint.

  12. An innovative seismic bracing system based on a superelastic shape memory alloy ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nan; Jeon, Jong-Su; Hodgson, Darel E.; DesRoches, Reginald

    2016-05-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have great potential in seismic applications because of their remarkable superelasticity. Seismic bracing systems based on SMAs can mitigate the damage caused by earthquakes. The current study investigates a bracing system based on an SMA ring which is capable of both re-centering and energy dissipation. This lateral force resisting system is a cross-braced system consisting of an SMA ring and four tension-only cable assemblies, which can be applied to both new construction and seismic retrofit. The performance of this bracing system is examined through a quasi-static cyclic loading test and finite element (FE) analysis. This paper describes the experimental design in detail, discusses the experimental results, compares the performance with other bracing systems based on SMAs, and presents an Abaqus FE model calibrated on the basis of experimental results to simulate the superelastic behavior of the SMA ring. The experimental results indicate that the seismic performance of this system is promising in terms of damping and re-centering. The FE model can be used in the simulation of building structures using the proposed bracing system.

  13. ARTHROMETRIC EVALUATION OF STABILIZING EFFECT OF KNEE FUNCTIONAL BRACING AT DIFFERENT FLEXION ANGLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeedeh Seyed Mohseni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous in-vivo investigations on the stabilizing efficacy of knee bracing for ACL reconstructed patients have been often limited to 20-30 degrees of knee flexion. In this study, the effectiveness of a uniaxial hinged functional brace to improve the knee stability was assessed at 30, 60 and 90 degrees of knee flexion. Arthrometry tests were conducted on 15 healthy subjects before and following wearing the brace and the tibial displacements were measured at up to 150 N anterior forces. Results indicated that functional bracing has a significant stabilizing effect throughout the range of knee flexion examined (p < 0.05. The rate of effectiveness, however, was not consistent across the flexion range, e.g., 50% at 30 degrees and only 4% at 90 degrees. It was suggested that accurate sizing and fitting as well as attention to correct hinge placement relative to the femoral condyles can limit brace migration and improve its effectiveness in mid and deep knee flexion. With using adaptive limb fittings, through flexible pads, and a polycentric joint a more significant improvement of the overall brace performance and efficacy might be obtained

  14. The effect of a knee brace on gait parameters of hypertonic hemiplegic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Modisane

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the useof a knee brace on 15 subjects with hypertonic hemiparesis. The middlecerebral artery was involved in all subjects. The Ashworth scale was usedto screen for the presence of spasticity in the quadriceps muscles.Measurements of gait speed, step and stride length were taken in the middle 10 metres of a 15 metre paper walkway. A comparison of these gait parameters without and with the use of a knee brace was made. A ques-tionnaire was also used to evaluate how subjects responded to the use of aknee brace.The results showed that the mean speed for all 15 subjects increased withthe use of a brace, (p = 0.05. Step and stride length without and with the use of a brace showed no statistical differences.It was therefore concluded that the FECK brace appears to have an effect on the walking speed of subjects withhypertonic  hemiparesis

  15. Secondary effects of knee braces on the intracompartmental pressure in the anterior tibial compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerosch, J; Castro, W H; Hoffstetter, I; Reer, R

    1995-01-01

    In 31 healthy volunteers aged 18 to 33 years we investigated the intracompartmental pressure in the anterior tibial compartment while running on a treadmill with, and without, a functional knee brace. All volunteers performed two test series with a constant running speed of 8 km/h. Prior to running, the pressure was documented in the supine, sitting and standing position as well as during running. The intracompartmental pressure in the supine position was significantly less without a brace compared to the pressure with a brace. This was also true for the sitting position and the standing position. While running on the treadmill the average pressure was also significantly higher with, than without, a brace. Running with a functional knee brace leads to increased intracompartmental pressure in the anterior tibial compartment and, as a consequence, may lead to a chronic compartment syndrome. Wearing a functional knee brace may cause secondary muscle ischemia and may be one reason for the increased incidence of injuries in athletes.

  16. Development of [l brace]100[r brace] texture in silicon steel sheets by isothermal austenite[yields]ferrite transformations and its mechanism. Keiso kohan ni okeru toon [gamma][yields][alpha] hentai ni yoru [l brace]100[r brace] shugo soshiki no keisei to sono kiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomida, T. (Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan). Advanced Technology Research Lab.); Tanaka, T. (Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan). Iron and Steel Research Lab.)

    1993-12-01

    The texture in silicon steel sheets has been studied during this half of century and the methods for forming the textures suitable as the soft-magnetic materials of [l brace]110[r brace][l angle]001[r angle] as well as [l brace]100[r brace][l angle]001[r angle] have been found. However, few researches has been carried out on the silicon steel using positively the innate properties of the steel such as the transformation between the austenite ([gamma]) and [alpha]-ferrite and the recrystallization in the coexisting area of [alpha]/[gamma] duplex. In this study, the isothermal [alpha][yields][gamma] transformation during the process of vacuum-annealing and decarburizing-annealing of 2% silicon steel containing carbon and Mn and the texture formation accompanied therewith are examined. The conclusions are as follows. The isothermal [alpha][yields][gamma] transformation occurs in the layer just below the surface and the structure of the surface becomes the single phase of [alpha]-ferrite in the vacuum of 10[sup -3]Pa and the temperature is kept constant within the range of [alpha]/[gamma] duplex temperature or [gamma]-phase temperature as from 850 to 1050 centigrade. This surface structure develops to the strong [l brace]100[r brace] texture. 12 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Long-term results of nail brace application in diabetic patients with ingrown nails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Fatma Gülru; Erdogan, Gürbüz

    2008-01-01

    Ingrown toe nail is a common foot problem; however, there are limited data concerning the treatment options for diabetic patients. Because of the special attention given to avoidance of infection and ulceration of the foot in diabetics, we applied a new, simple nail device as a treatment option without any systemic treatment or surgical intervention. We applied braces to 21 diabetic patients with ingrown toe nails. All had severe pain, erythema, and edema without suppuration or granulation tissue formation. Braces were applied until all the symptoms are cleared. We followed the patients for 2 years for the recurrence of symptoms and signs. All patients had immediate relief of symptoms once the brace was applied. After the dislocation of braces, 15 of 21 patients did not have any recurrences for 2 years. Six patients had recurrence of pain and ingrown nail and were willing to use the brace once more instead of having any operations. Nail brace application is a safe, simple, and inexpensive treatment option for diabetic patients with ingrown toe nails. Although there may be recurrences, patients are willing to use it for a second time as it is simple and pain free.

  18. Experimental and analytical studies on the seismic behavior of conventional and hybrid braced frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jiun-Wei

    This dissertation summarizes both experimental and analytical studies on the seismic response of conventional steel concentrically braced frame systems of the type widely used in North America, and preliminary studies of an innovative hybrid braced frame system: the Strong-Back System. The research work is part of NEES small group project entitled "International Hybrid Simulation of Tomorrow's Braced Frames." In the experimental phase, a total of four full-scale, one-bay, two-story conventional braced frame specimens with different bracing member section shapes and gusset plate-to-beam connection details were designed and tested at the NEES Berkeley Laboratory. Three braced frame specimens were tested quasi-statically using the same predefined loading protocol to investigate the inelastic cyclic behavior of code-compliant braced frames at both the global and local level. The last braced frame specimen was nearly identical to one of those tested quasi-statically. However, it was tested using hybrid simulation techniques to examine the sensitivity of inelastic behavior on loading sequence and to relate the behavior observed to different levels of seismic hazard. Computer models of the test specimens were developed using two different computer software programs. In the software framework OpenSees fiber-based line elements were used to simulate global buckling of members and yielding and low-cycle fatigue failure at sections. The LS-DYNA analysis program was also used to model individual struts and the test specimens using shell elements with adaptive meshing and element erosion features. This program provided enhanced ability to simulate section local buckling, strain concentrations and crack development. The numerical results were compared with test results to assess and refine and the ability of the models to predict braced frame behavior. A series of OpenSees numerical cyclic component simulations were then conducted using the validated modeling approach. Two

  19. Development and preliminary validation of Brace Questionnaire (BrQ: a new instrument for measuring quality of life of brace treated scoliotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gkoltsiou Konstantina

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of life among children with idiopathic scoliosis during their adolescence has been reported to be affected by the brace itself. However, a controversy exists whether brace treated scoliotics experience a poor quality of life, thus there is a need for the development of a brace-oriented instrument, as the now-existing questionnaires that are commonly used, such as the SRS -22, take into consideration the effects of both the conservative and the surgical treatment on quality of life of scoliotic children. The aim of the present study is to assess the validity and reliability of Brace Questionnaire (BrQ, a new instrument for measuring quality of life of scoliotic adolescents who are treated conservatively with a brace. Material-method Methodology of development involved literature review, patient and health care professionals' in-depth interviews and content validity analysis on patients. A validation study was performed on 28 brace treated scoliotic children aged between 9 and 18 years old. BrQ was assessed for the following psychometric properties: item convergent validity, floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency reliability, clinical validity and responsiveness to change. Results BrQ is self administrated and developmentally appropriate for ages 9 to 18 years old and is consisted of 34 Likert-scale items associated with eight domains: general health perception, physical functioning, emotional functioning, self esteem and aesthetics, vitality, school activity, bodily pain and social functioning of scoliotic children treated conservatively with a brace. The subscales of these eight dimensions can be combined to produce a total score. Higher scores mean a better quality of life. An item convergent validity ≥ 0.40 was satisfied by all items in the present study. A satisfactory internal consistency reliability for the BrQ was recorded (Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.82. There were no floor or ceiling

  20. Development and preliminary validation of Brace Questionnaire (BrQ): a new instrument for measuring quality of life of brace treated scoliotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadis, Elias; Grivas, Theodoros B; Gkoltsiou, Konstantina

    2006-05-20

    The quality of life among children with idiopathic scoliosis during their adolescence has been reported to be affected by the brace itself. However, a controversy exists whether brace treated scoliotics experience a poor quality of life, thus there is a need for the development of a brace-oriented instrument, as the now-existing questionnaires that are commonly used, such as the SRS -22, take into consideration the effects of both the conservative and the surgical treatment on quality of life of scoliotic children. The aim of the present study is to assess the validity and reliability of Brace Questionnaire (BrQ), a new instrument for measuring quality of life of scoliotic adolescents who are treated conservatively with a brace. Methodology of development involved literature review, patient and health care professionals' in-depth interviews and content validity analysis on patients. A validation study was performed on 28 brace treated scoliotic children aged between 9 and 18 years old. BrQ was assessed for the following psychometric properties: item convergent validity, floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency reliability, clinical validity and responsiveness to change. BrQ is self administrated and developmentally appropriate for ages 9 to 18 years old and is consisted of 34 Likert-scale items associated with eight domains: general health perception, physical functioning, emotional functioning, self esteem and aesthetics, vitality, school activity, bodily pain and social functioning of scoliotic children treated conservatively with a brace. The subscales of these eight dimensions can be combined to produce a total score. Higher scores mean a better quality of life. An item convergent validity >/= 0.40 was satisfied by all items in the present study. A satisfactory internal consistency reliability for the BrQ was recorded (Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.82). There were no floor or ceiling effects. The correlation between BrQ overall scores and mild and

  1. Influence of functional bracing on the kinetics of anterior cruciate ligament-injured knees during level walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tung-Wu; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Hsu, Horng-Chaung

    2006-06-01

    Use of functional knee braces has been suggested to provide protection and to improve kinetic performance of the knee in anterior cruciate ligament-injured patients. However, the efficacy of knee bracing in achieving these goals is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to examine the immediate effects of functional bracing on the three-dimensional kinetics of the knee in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament injuries during level walking. Fifteen anterior cruciate ligament-deficient and 15 anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed subjects were each fitted with a DonJoy Goldpoint brace and walked at a self-selected pace, first without and then with the brace. Kinematic and kinetic data were measured and three-dimensional joint moments and angular impulses at the knee were calculated and compared between bracing conditions and between limbs. Functional knee bracing did not significantly affect the kinetics of the unaffected knees for either group. Bracing significantly increased the peak abductor moments in anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knees and reduced the bilateral kinetic asymmetry in the coronal plane. For the anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed group, bracing increased peak moments and impulses of the abductors and extensors. It also reduced bilateral kinetic asymmetry in the sagittal and coronal planes. Effects of the knee brace were apparent in the coronal plane for both anterior cruciate ligament-deficient and anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed patients, and in the sagittal plane for anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed patients. Functional bracing can be recommended for anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed patients to assist in achieving better bilateral kinetic symmetry during gait. For anterior cruciate ligament-deficient patients, apart from bracing, additional emphasis on the rehabilitative training for better kinetic knee performance in the sagittal plane is needed.

  2. A pilot evaluation of the role of bracing in stable thoracolumbar burst fractures without neurological deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamji, Mohammed F; Roffey, Darren M; Young, Darryl K; Reindl, Rudy; Wai, Eugene K

    2014-10-01

    Prospective, 2-center, observer-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Investigate clinical and radiologic outcomes of bracing versus no-bracing in the treatment of stable thoracolumbar burst fractures. Management of thoracolumbar burst fractures depends upon clinical presentation of neurological deficit and radiographic features of fracture severity. Neurologically intact patients with mild deformity and biomechanical stability may be treated with conservative therapy. Patients with stable (AO type A3), single level, thoracolumbar burst fractures between T12 and L2 with no neurological deficit were randomized to nonoperative treatment with a customized thoracolumbosacral orthosis (TLSO) or no-brace. Self-reported clinical outcomes of pain, disability, and health-related quality of life, and radiographic outcomes of kyphotic progression and loss of vertebral height, assessed by 2 independent reviewers blinded to treatment group, were measured at 6 months follow-up. Twenty-three consecutive eligible patients were included (TLSO: n=12; no-brace: n=11). There were no between-group differences regarding level of injury (P=0.75) and baseline spine geometry including fractional canal compromise (P=0.49), anterior loss of vertebral body height (P=0.28), and sagittal Cobb angle (P=0.13). In-hospital stay was significantly shorter in the no-brace group (mean: 2.8±3.0 d) compared with the TLSO group (mean: 6.3±2.1 d; P=0.004). At follow-up there were no differences in anterior loss of vertebral body height (TLSO: 12.5%±10.2% vs. no-brace: 11.9%±8.1%; P=0.88), kyphotic progression (TLSO: 5.3±4.4 degrees vs. no-brace 5.2±3.6 degrees; P=0.93), adverse events, or self-reported clinical outcomes. Neurologically intact patients with stable thoracolumbar burst fractures treated with or without bracing had similar radiographic and clinical outcomes at 6 months follow-up. The no-brace group had shorter in-hospital lengths of stay. Conservative therapy involving early

  3. Therapeutic effects of tibial support braces on posterior stability after posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with autogenous hamstring tendon graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B; Shen, P; Wang, J-S; Wang, G -B; He, M; Bai, L -H

    2015-04-01

    In the patients who have to be in supine position for most of the time after posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction, the tibia tends to shift backwards due to the gravity of the lower leg and the tensed hamstring muscle. To observe the effects of tibial support braces on rehabilitation after PCL reconstruction. Retrospective study. Inpatients. Thirty-nine patients were divided into regular brace (N.=18) and tibial support brace (N.=21) groups according to using different types of braces after PCL reconstruction. The follow-up time was more than 2 years in all patients. The function of the affected knee joint was evaluated with International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, Lysholm knee score, Tegner activity rating, range of motion (ROM) and kneelax arthrometer before and after PCL reconstruction, respectively. The function of the affected knee joint was significantly improved in both groups after PCL reconstruction. Compared with regular brace group, postoperative Lysholm and IKDC scores were significantly increased in tibial support brace group (Pbrace group and tibial support brace group (Pbrace can obtain better therapeutic effects for PCL reconstruction. This study suggests that compared with regular brace, tibial support brace can significantly improve the mechanical stability and functional outcomes of the affected knee after PCL reconstruction.

  4. Effects of a knee extension constraint brace on selected lower extremity motion patterns during a stop-jump task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Feng; Liu, Hui; Garrett, William E; Yu, Bing

    2008-05-01

    Small knee flexion angle during landing has been proposed as a potential risk factor for sustaining noncontact ACL injury. A brace that promotes increased knee flexion and decreased posterior ground reaction force during landing may prove to be advantageous for developing prevention strategies. Forty male and forty female recreational athletes were recruited. Three-dimensional videographic and ground reaction force data in a stop-jump task were collected in three conditions. Knee flexion angle at peak posterior ground reaction force, peak posterior ground reaction force, the horizontal velocity of approach run, the vertical velocity at takeoff, and the knee flexion angle at takeoff were compared among conditions: knee extension constraint brace, nonconstraint brace, and no brace. The knee extension constraint brace significantly increased knee flexion angle at peak posterior ground reaction force. Both knee extension constraint brace and nonconstraint brace significantly decreased peak posterior ground reaction force during landing. The brace and knee extension constraint did not significantly affect the horizontal velocity of approach run, the vertical velocity at takeoff, and the knee flexion angle at takeoff. A knee extension constraint brace exhibits the ability to modify the knee flexion angle at peak posterior ground reaction force and peak posterior ground reaction force during landing.

  5. Study on three-dimensional kinematics and electromyography of ACL deficient knee participants wearing a functional knee brace during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Théoret, Daniel; Lamontagne, Mario

    2006-06-01

    This investigation examined the muscular activity and 3D knee joint kinematic changes of anterior cruciate ligament-deficient (ACLD) participants in the involved leg under bracing condition during running. Different adaptation strategies have been found between patients who can cope with the injury and patients who cannot. One of the expected changes can be the muscle activation characteristic of the injured knee during strenuous activity with and without a functional knee brace. Three-dimensional kinematic and electromyographical (EMG) data were collected from 11 participants for 10 consecutive gait cycles during running on a treadmill under both braced and unbraced conditions. Participants were administered the "Knee Outcome Survey Activities of Daily Living Scale" to distinguish functional and non-functional candidates. No significant differences on 3D kinematics and EMG data were noted between functional and non-functional participants, thus data analysis focused on comparisons of bracing conditions for one combined group. Bracing significantly reduced total range of motion in the frontal and transverse planes (Pbraced condition when compared to the unbraced condition. Our findings indicate that bracing the ACLD knee alters the kinematics of the injured leg while running. Tendencies toward reductions in quadriceps and increases in hamstrings activity at heel-strike indicate that bracing might have resulted in added stability of the injured knee. The adaptations to bracing found in this preliminary study further support the potential mechanical and proprioceptive contributions of the functional knee brace to protect the ACLD knee.

  6. Scoliosis in-brace curve correction and patient preference of CAD/CAM versus plaster molded TLSOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Wudbhav N; Albrektson, Josh; Lerman, Lawrence; Tolo, Vernon T; Skaggs, David L

    2007-12-01

    CAD/CAM technology is a newer technique for creating spinal orthoses than standard plaster molded methods. To our knowledge there has been only one previous study of CAD/CAM braces. The purpose of our study was to compare patient preference and in-brace correction of Cobb angle between plaster molded thoracolumbosacral orthoses (TLSO) and CAD/CAM designed TLSOs in a series of patients with scoliosis. Ten patients with an average initial Cobb angle of 30.8 degrees (range 18 degrees -46 degrees ) had both a plaster molded TLSO and a CAD/CAM TLSO fabricated for them. In each case, the decision to brace was made by the treating surgeon based on curve magnitude and skeletal maturity. After 3 weeks of 23 h a day wear, in-brace correction of the Cobb angle was measured for each brace based on standard PA spine radiographs. After 3 months of use, patients were asked which brace they preferred. For the CAD/CAM brace, the mean curve correction after 3 months was 51% compared to 44% in the plaster molded TLSO cohort. (p = 0.46). Seven out of nine patients preferred the CAD/CAM TLSO over the plaster molded TLSO. There were no brace complications in either group. In our matched cohort study, CAD/CAM TLSOs had at least equivalent if not superior correction of the Cobb angle compared to standard plaster molded TLSOs; 78% of our patients preferred the CAD/CAM brace over the standard TLSO.

  7. The Effect of Knee Braces on Quadriceps Strength and Inhibition in Subjects With Patellofemoral Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Michael J; Parkes, Matthew J; Felson, David T

    2016-01-01

    Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. The use of external supports has been questioned because they may lead to weakness in the surrounding muscles. To our knowledge, there is no investigation into the effect of knee supports or braces on quadriceps muscle strength and quadriceps inhibition in individuals with patellofemoral joint (PFJ) osteoarthritis (OA). To investigate the effects of a flexible knee support on quadriceps maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and arthrogenous muscle inhibition (AMI) in patients with PFJ OA. The study included 108 participants who had at least 3 months of patellofemoral pain and a Kellgren-Lawrence score of 2 or 3 for PFJ OA. The participants were randomized to a group that wore a flexible knee support (brace) or a group that did not wear a support (no brace) in a 6-week randomized controlled trial, followed by an open-label trial, in which all participants wore the brace for a total of 12 weeks. Quadriceps MVC, measured isometrically, and quadriceps AMI, measured by twitch interpolation, were assessed at the 6-week and 12-week time points. After 6 weeks, MVC did not differ between the brace and no-brace groups (9.09 Nm; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -4.89, 23.07; P = .20). Arthrogenous muscle inhibition significantly decreased in the brace group (-8.62%; 95% CI: -13.90%, -3.33%; P = .002). After 12 weeks, in all of the participants who wore a flexible knee support, MVC increased by 7.98 Nm (95% CI: 2.52, 13.45; P = .004) and AMI decreased (-8.42%; 95% CI: -11.48%, -5.36%; Pknee support in participants with PFJ OA does not have an adverse effect on quadriceps MVC or AMI. Using a knee support should not be discouraged because of concerns about deleterious effects on quadriceps strength and inhibition. Therapy, level 1b.

  8. Medial knee osteoarthritis treated by insoles or braces: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raaij, Tom M; Reijman, Max; Brouwer, Reinoud W; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; Verhaar, Jan A N

    2010-07-01

    There is controversial evidence regarding whether foot orthoses or knee braces improve pain and function or correct malalignment in selected patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the medial knee compartment. However, insoles are safe and less costly than knee bracing if they relieve pain or improve function. We therefore asked whether laterally wedged insoles or valgus braces would reduce pain, enhance functional scores, and correct varus malalignment comparable to knee braces. We prospectively enrolled 91 patients with symptomatic medial compartmental knee OA and randomized to treatment with either a 10-mm laterally wedged insole (index group, n = 45) or a valgus brace (control group, n = 46). All patients were assessed at 6 months. The primary outcome measure was pain severity as measured on a visual analog scale. Secondary outcome measures were knee function score using WOMAC and correction of varus alignment on AP whole-leg radiographs taken with the patient in the standing position. Additionally, we compared the percentage of responders according to the OMERACT-OARSI criteria for both groups. We observed no differences in pain or WOMAC scores between the two groups. Neither device achieved correction of knee varus malalignment in the frontal plane. According to the OMERACT-OARSI criteria, 17% of our patients responded to the allocated intervention. Patients in the insole group complied better with their intervention. Although subgroup analysis results should be translated into practice cautiously, we observed a slightly higher percentage of responders for the insole compared with bracing for patients with mild medial OA. Our data suggest a laterally wedged insole may be an alternative to valgus bracing for noninvasively treating symptoms of medial knee OA. Level I, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of level of evidence.

  9. Prophylactic knee bracing alters lower-limb muscle forces during a double-leg drop landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Katie A; Fernandez, Justin W; Begg, Rezaul K; Galea, Mary P; Lee, Peter V S

    2016-10-03

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury can be a painful, debilitating and costly consequence of participating in sporting activities. Prophylactic knee bracing aims to reduce the number and severity of ACL injury, which commonly occurs during landing maneuvers and is more prevalent in female athletes, but a consensus on the effectiveness of prophylactic knee braces has not been established. The lower-limb muscles are believed to play an important role in stabilizing the knee joint. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in lower-limb muscle function with prophylactic knee bracing in male and female athletes during landing. Fifteen recreational athletes performed double-leg drop landing tasks from 0.30m and 0.60m with and without a prophylactic knee brace. Motion analysis data were used to create subject-specific musculoskeletal models in OpenSim. Static optimization was performed to calculate the lower-limb muscle forces. A linear mixed model determined that the hamstrings and vasti muscles produced significantly greater flexion and extension torques, respectively, and greater peak muscle forces with bracing. No differences in the timings of peak muscle forces were observed. These findings suggest that prophylactic knee bracing may help to provide stability to the knee joint by increasing the active stiffness of the hamstrings and vasti muscles later in the landing phase rather than by altering the timing of muscle forces. Further studies are necessary to quantify whether prophylactic knee bracing can reduce the load placed on the ACL during intense dynamic movements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. TRUNK MUSCLE ACTIVITIES DURING ABDOMINAL BRACING: COMPARISON AMONG MUSCLES AND EXERCISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumiaki Maeo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal bracing is often adopted in fitness and sports conditioning programs. However, there is little information on how muscular activities during the task differ among the muscle groups located in the trunk and from those during other trunk exercises. The present study aimed to quantify muscular activity levels during abdominal bracing with respect to muscle- and exercise-related differences. Ten healthy young adult men performed five static (abdominal bracing, abdominal hollowing, prone, side, and supine plank and five dynamic (V- sits, curl-ups, sit-ups, and back extensions on the floor and on a bench exercises. Surface electromyogram (EMG activities of the rectus abdominis (RA, external oblique (EO, internal oblique (IO, and erector spinae (ES muscles were recorded in each of the exercises. The EMG data were normalized to those obtained during maximal voluntary contraction of each muscle (% EMGmax. The % EMGmax value during abdominal bracing was significantly higher in IO (60% than in the other muscles (RA: 18%, EO: 27%, ES: 19%. The % EMGmax values for RA, EO, and ES were significantly lower in the abdominal bracing than in some of the other exercises such as V-sits and sit-ups for RA and EO and back extensions for ES muscle. However, the % EMGmax value for IO during the abdominal bracing was significantly higher than those in most of the other exercises including dynamic ones such as curl-ups and sit-ups. These results suggest that abdominal bracing is one of the most effective techniques for inducing a higher activation in deep abdominal muscles, such as IO muscle, even compared to dynamic exercises involving trunk flexion/extension movements

  11. An Experimental Study on Non-Compression X-Bracing Systems Using Carbon Fiber Composite Cable for Seismic Strengthening of RC Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Seok Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-bracing (X-bracing is one of the most popular methods of seismic retrofitting, and has been shown to significantly increase the structural stiffness and strength of buildings. Conventional steel X-bracing methods typically exhibit brittle failure at the connection between the brace and the building, or buckling failure of the braces. This study investigated the structural properties of a new type of non-compression X-bracing system using carbon fiber composite cable (CFCC. This non-compression X-bracing system uses CFCC bracing and bolt connections between structural members and the terminal fixer of the CFCC, instead of conventional steel bracing. The aim is to overcome the brittle and buckling failures that can occur at the connection and bracings with conventional steel X-bracing methods. We carried out cyclic loading tests, and the maximum load carrying capacity and deformation were investigated, as well as hysteresis in the lateral load–drift relations. The test results revealed that the CFCC X-bracing system installed in reinforced concrete frames enhanced the strength markedly, and buckling failure of the bracing was not observed.

  12. Changes in landing mechanics in patients following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction when wearing an extension constraint knee brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Robert J; Dai, Boyi; Garrett, William E; Queen, Robin M

    2014-05-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is associated with a high incidence of second tears (graft tears and contralateral ACL tears). These secondary tears have been attributed to asymmetrical lower extremity mechanics. Knee bracing is one potential intervention that can be used during rehabilitation that has the potential to normalize lower extremity asymmetry; however, little is known about the effect of bracing on movement asymmetry in patients following ACL reconstruction. Wearing a knee brace would increase knee joint flexion and joint symmetry. It was also expected that the joint mechanics would become more symmetrical in the braced condition. To examine how knee bracing affects knee joint function and symmetry over the course of rehabilitation in patients 6 months following ACL reconstruction. Controlled laboratory study. Level 3. Twenty-three adolescent patients rehabilitating from ACL reconstruction surgery were recruited for the study. The subjects all underwent a motion analysis assessment during a stop-jump activity with and without a functional knee brace on the surgical side that resisted extension for 6 months following the ACL reconstruction surgery. Statistical analysis utilized a 2 × 2 (limb × brace) analysis of variance with a significant alpha level of 0.05. Subjects had increased knee flexion on the surgical side when they were braced. The brace condition increased knee flexion velocity, decreased the initial knee flexion angle, and increased the ground reaction force and knee extension moment on both limbs. Side-to-side asymmetry was present across conditions for the vertical ground reaction force and knee extension moment. Wearing a knee brace appears to increase lower extremity compliance and promotes normalized loading on the surgical side. Knee extension constraint bracing in postoperative ACL patients may improve symmetry of lower extremity mechanics, which is potentially beneficial in progressing rehabilitation and reducing

  13. Effect of functional bracing on knee injury in skiers with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterett, William I; Briggs, Karen K; Farley, Timothy; Steadman, J Richard

    2006-10-01

    The role of knee bracing in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions is controversial. Functional bracing will have an effect on subsequent knee injury in skiers with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. From 1991 to 1997, 11606 skiers at a major destination ski resort underwent preseason knee screening. The anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed group consisted of 820 skiers who had had an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction 2 years or more earlier. Of these, 257 skiers selected the use of functional knee brace during skiing. The dependent variable was subsequent knee injury, identified via workers' compensation records. Covariates included age, gender, ski occupation, Lachman grade, pivot-shift grade, KT-1000 arthrometer manual maximum displacement, and use of a functional brace. Univariate and multivariate risk factors for subsequent knee injury were determined. In this study, 257 skier-employees with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction wore braces and 563 skier-employees with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction did not. Braced skiers had significantly higher preseason rates of grade II or higher Lachman and pivot-shift tests (braced, 29% and 22%, respectively; nonbraced, 11% and 10%, respectively; P knee injuries were identified, 51 (8.9 injuries/100 knees/ski season) in the nonbraced group and 10 (4.0 injuries/100 knees/ski season) in the braced group (P = .009). Nonbraced skiers were 2.74 times more likely to suffer subsequent injury than were braced skiers (odds ratio, 2.74 [confidence interval, 1.2-4.9]). Logistic regression modeling identified nonbracing as a significant independent multivariate risk factor for subsequent knee injury in the high-demand skiers with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Because of the increased risk of subsequent knee injury in nonbraced skiers, the authors recommend functional bracing for skiers with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Whether the

  14. A new custom moldable external neck brace (ENB 2.0) to improve hands-free speech in laryngectomized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirven, Richard; Clark, Jonathan R; Wismans, Joris G F; McGuiness, John; Palme, Carsten E; Blyth, Katrina; Baxter, Candice; Stone, Danielle B; Marres, Henri A M

    2013-09-01

    The majority of laryngectomy patients fail to use a hands-free valve on a daily basis, mainly due to fixation problems of the adhesive baseplate housing. To support adhesive housings during hands-free speech a new external neck brace (ENB 2.0) was developed. The effect of the brace was assessed in terms of a qualitative assessment, adhesive lifetime, maximum phonation time and patient self-reports. Twenty laryngectomees participated in this randomized, prospective, crossover trial. All participants used the Provox hands-free HME valve with an Xtrabase adhesive for 1 month, 2 weeks with an ENB 2.0, and 2 weeks without. Outcomes were compared with the previous model of the external neck brace (ENB 1.0). The average total number of adhesive baseplates used during the trial was 16.7 in the non-brace group versus 10.9 in the brace group (P = 0.05). The number of daily replacements was 1.4 in the non-brace group and 1.1 in the brace group (P = 0.025). The average time a hands-free valve was worn per baseplate was 9.5 hours when wearing a neck brace versus 7.3 hours without brace (P = 0.09).The majority (81%) of the patients considered the neck brace 2.0 as a welcome addition to improve hands-free speech after laryngectomy and would use it if prescribed (88%). The new model of the neck brace reduces the number of baseplate replacements during hands-free speech and is considered as a helpful device by 81% of the participants. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Evaluation of the efficiency of the Chêneau brace on scoliosis deformity : A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghi Karimi, Mohammad; Rabczuk, Timon; Kavyani, Mahsa

    2018-02-01

    Scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformity of the spine and rib cage. Depending on the severity of this disease, various kinds of treatment methods have been used and bracing is among the most common. One of the braces which has been used for subjects with scoliosis is the Chêneau brace. The aim of this review was to evaluate the efficiency of the Chêneau brace on the scoliosis curve progression and control based on the available literature. We conducted a Medline search via PubMed, Google Scholar, ISI Web of Sciences, Ebsco and Scopus. Keywords such as Chêneau brace, Chêneau light and CAD/CAM spinal brace were used in combination with scoliosis. The quality of the studies was evaluated by the Down and Black tool. Based on the aforementioned keywords, 55 papers were found. Finally based on the mentioned criteria 14 papers were selected for final analysis. The quality of the studies varied between scores of 13 and 25 using the Down and Black tool. The results of the selected studies confirmed that a good scoliotic curve correction can be achieved with the Chêneau brace. The Chêneau brace provides a 3-dimensional correction of the spinal deformity which not only influences the progression of scoliotic curve but also influences its natural history. It cannot be concluded that the Chêneau brace is superior to other available braces; however, it has been shown that this brace is effective to control the scoliotic curve progression especially in the lumbar and thoracolumbar regions.

  16. The Application of Buckling Reinforced Bracing and Shear Wall in Retrofitting of Existing Concrete Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Izadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerable buildings and their rehabilitation are important problems for earthquake regions. In recent decades the goal of building rehabilitation and strengthening has gained different rehabilitation systems. However, most of these strengthening techniques disturb the occupants, who must vacate the building during renovation. Several retrofitting techniques such as addition masonry infill wall, application of buckling restrained braces and local modification of components has been studied in order to improve the overall seismic performance of such buildings. In response to many of the practical issues and economic considerations, engineers use often convergent unbuckling steel bracing frames as the lateral load resisting system during an earthquake.This kind of bracings increases the hardness and strength of concrete structures.The aim of the present study is the evaluation and comparison of seismic performance and retrofitting of an existing 7-storeys concrete structure with buckling restrained bracings and shear walls by nonlinear static procedure (NSP and accordance with cod-361. The results show that the buckling restrained bracing, decreased drift to acceptable levels and Structure behaves on the life safety of performance level.

  17. Investigation of the nonlinear seismic behavior of knee braced frames using the incremental dynamic analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheidaii, Mohammad Reza; TahamouliRoudsari, Mehrzad; Gordini, Mehrdad

    2016-06-01

    In knee braced frames, the braces are attached to the knee element rather than the intersection of beams and columns. This bracing system is widely used and preferred over the other commonly used systems for reasons such as having lateral stiffness while having adequate ductility, damage concentration on the second degree convenience of repairing and replacing of these elements after Earthquake. The lateral stiffness of this system is supplied by the bracing member and the ductility of the frame attached to the knee length is supplied through the bending or shear yield of the knee member. In this paper, the nonlinear seismic behavior of knee braced frame systems has been investigated using incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) and the effects of the number of stories in a building, length and the moment of inertia of the knee member on the seismic behavior, elastic stiffness, ductility and the probability of failure of these systems has been determined. In the incremental dynamic analysis, after plotting the IDA diagrams of the accelerograms, the collapse diagrams in the limit states are determined. These diagrams yield that for a constant knee length with reduced moment of inertia, the probability of collapse in limit states heightens and also for a constant knee moment of inertia with increasing length, the probability of collapse in limit states increases.

  18. Upgrading the seismic capacity of existing RC buildings using buckling restrained braces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy Abou-Elfath

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many existing RC buildings do not meet the lateral strength requirements of current seismic codes and are vulnerable to significant damage or collapse in the event of future earthquakes. In the past few decades, buckling-restrained braces have become increasingly popular as a lateral force resisting system because of their capability of improving the strength, the stiffness and the energy absorbing capacity of structures. This study evaluates the seismic upgrading of a 6-story RC-building using single diagonal buckling restrained braces. Seismic evaluation in this study has been carried out by static pushover analysis and time history earthquake analysis. Ten ground motions with different PGA levels are used in the analysis. The mean plus one standard deviation values of the roof-drift ratio, the maximum story drift ratio, the brace ductility factors and the member strain responses are used as the basis for the seismic performance evaluations. The results obtained in this study indicate that strengthening of RC buildings with buckling restrained braces is an efficient technique as it significantly increases the PGA capacity of the RC buildings. The results also indicate the increase in the PGA capacity of the RC building with the increase in the amount of the braces.

  19. Gait and neuromuscular adaptations after using a feedback-based gait monitoring knee brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskowski, Jody L

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gait and neuromuscular effects of a feedback-based gait monitoring knee brace. The aim of this paper was to explore how training with this knee brace affected the gait pattern utilized, rate of loading (ROL), and proprioceptive acuity. Fifteen healthy women wore this knee brace that provided audible feedback on gait kinematics for a 30-min training period. We performed pre- and post-gait analyses and proprioceptive acuity assessments to determine gait learning and adaptation with this training. Post-training significant changes were seen in the knee angle prior to and at initial contact and peak knee extensor, flexor, and adductor moments, which ultimately led to a reduced ROL experienced. Subjects also had improved proprioceptive acuity post-training. Our results indicate that using a feedback-based gait monitoring knee brace can change the gait pattern by increasing the knee flexion angle during the swing to stance transition. Though there was an approximate 25% decrease in the ROL experienced, there was also an increase in the knee adductor moment. Future long-term studies are needed to further explore the positive and negative effects of feedback-based gait monitoring knee brace on individuals with a compromised knee joint, such as those post-anterior cruciate ligament injury. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Vertebral Body Stapling versus Bracing for Patients with High-Risk Moderate Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddihy, Laury; Danielsson, Aina J; Cahill, Patrick J; Samdani, Amer F; Grewal, Harsh; Richmond, John M; Mulcahey, M J; Gaughan, John P; Antonacci, M Darryl; Betz, Randal R

    2015-01-01

    We report a comparison study of vertebral body stapling (VBS) versus a matched bracing cohort for immature patients with moderate (25 to 44°) idiopathic scoliosis (IS). 42 of 49 consecutive patients (86%) with IS were treated with VBS and followed for a minimum of 2 years. They were compared to 121 braced patients meeting identical inclusion criteria. 52 patients (66 curves) were matched according to age at start of treatment (10.6 years versus 11.1 years, resp. [P = 0.07]) and gender. For thoracic curves 25-34°, VBS had a success rate (defined as curve progression VBS and bracing both had a poor success rate. For lumbar curves, success rates were similar in both groups for curves measuring 25-34°. In this comparison of two cohorts of patients with high-risk (Risser 0-1) moderate IS (25-44°), in smaller thoracic curves (25-34°) VBS provided better results as a clinical trend as compared to bracing. VBS was found not to be effective for thoracic curves ≥35°. For lumbar curves measuring 25-34°, results appear to be similar for both VBS and bracing, at 80% success.

  1. Enhancement of Seismic Performance Using Shear Link Braces in a Building Designed Only for Gravity Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniyar, S. U.; Paul, D. K.

    2012-02-01

    The present work attempts to study the behaviour of building designed for gravity loads only under the effect of lateral seismic load. Such a building is generally deficient against lateral forces and need to be retrofitted against lateral earthquake forces. A retrofitting scheme by providing aluminium shear link with chevron braces is suggested to improve its performance. Past earthquakes have shown a great deal of damages to the deficient RC frame buildings designed without any consideration to the lateral earthquake forces. Chevron braces with the aluminium shear link can be implemented as an effective retrofit measure. A comparison of the performance of building initially designed for gravity load only with the retrofitted building using chevron braces with the aluminium shear link is presented in this paper. The behaviour of building is worked out by performing nonlinear static pushover analysis and nonlinear time history analyses. A parametric study has also been carried out to study the effect of shear link and braces on the retrofitted building. The performance of RC building designed for gravity loads only as evaluated from the nonlinear static pushover analysis lies in life safety and collapse prevention range for DBE and MCE level of earthquakes respectively. The same building when retrofitted by using chevron braces with aluminium shear link show improved performance. This device is very simple, economic, effective and can be placed in a building very easily. The dissipation of damaging energy/damage is localised in shear link which can be replaced after a major earthquake.

  2. Evaluating the ductility characteristics of self-centering buckling-restrained shape memory alloy braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elfath, Hamdy

    2017-05-01

    Recently, self-centering earthquake resistant systems have attracted attention because of their promising potential in controlling the residual drifts and reducing repair costs after earthquake events. Considerable portion of self-centering research is based on using short-segment superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) braces as strengthening technique because of the lower modulus of elasticity of SMA in comparison with that of steel. The goal of this study is to investigate the ductility characteristics of these newly proposed short-segment SMA braces to evaluate their safety levels against fracture failures under earthquake loading. This goal has been achieved by selecting an appropriate seismic performance criterion for steel frames equipped with SMA braces, defining the level of strain capacity of SMA and calculating the strain demands in the SMA braces by conducting a series of pushover and earthquake time history analyzes on typical frame structure. The results obtained in this study indicated the inability of short-segment SMA designs to provide adequate ductility to the lateral resistant systems. An alternative approach is introduced by using hybrid steel-SMA braces that are capable of controlling the residual drifts and providing the structure with adequate lateral stiffness.

  3. {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}<1 1 0> textured Ag tapes for biaxially oriented YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, T.; Inoue, K.; Hakuraku, Y.; Onabe, K.; Okada, M.; Kashima, N.; Nagaya, S

    2003-10-15

    Textured Ag tape is one of the most ideal substrates for the next generation high-T{sub c} wires operable in liquid nitrogen. {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}<1 1 0> textured Ag tapes were obtained by cold rolling and subsequent heat treatments. The texture of the tape after cold rolling (before annealing) was typical 'brass type'. For obtaining the {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}<1 1 0> texture, oxygen should exist in the Ag tape during the heat treatment. We find a two-step annealing is very effective to achieve the better {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}<1 1 0> textured Ag tape, compared with the samples annealed in one-step; the better grain alignment and the smoother surface could be obtained. Moreover, 300 deg. C annealing in O{sub 2} atmosphere allow us to obtain the {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}<1 1 0> texture by only 3 min final heat treatment at around 800 deg. C. This is beneficial to achieve the higher production speed of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} coated conductors.

  4. Bracing improves clinical outcomes but does not affect the medial knee joint space in osteoarthritic patients during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haladik, Jeffrey A; Vasileff, William K; Peltz, Cathryn D; Lock, Terrence R; Bey, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is commonly treated through the use of medial compartment unloading braces which have been shown to improve clinical symptoms. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of a medial compartment unloading brace on biomechanical measurements and clinical outcomes. We hypothesized that brace usage would lead to increased medial joint space and improved clinical outcomes. Ten patients with medial compartment OA were prescribed a medial compartment unloading brace and underwent dynamic biplane radiograph imaging while walking with and without the brace. The Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) Index was used to assess pain before brace wear and at the time of testing. The 3D position and orientation of the femur and tibia were determined using a model-based tracking technique. Patients saw an average improvement of 33 % in their WOMAC scores (p = 0.01). This study failed to detect any statistically significant changes in the functional joint space, knee kinematics, or contact centre location between the braced and unbraced condition (n.s.). The data from this study, using a highly accurate (±0.6 mm and ±0.6°) 3D radiograph analysis of dynamic tibiofemoral motion, suggest that the brace is ineffective at increasing joint space. However, it was shown to be effective in improving clinical outcome and therefore should continue to be prescribed to patients even though the mechanism of its effectiveness remains unknown. IV.

  5. A preliminary assessment of a novel pneumatic unloading knee brace on the gait mechanics of patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Croce, Ugo; Crapanzano, Fausto; Li, Ling; Kasi, Patrick K; Patritti, Benjamin L; Mancinelli, Chiara; Hunter, David J; Stamenović, Dimitrije; Harvey, William F; Bonato, Paolo

    2013-10-01

    To determine whether a knee brace incorporating inflatable air bladders can alter the net peak external knee adduction moment in persons with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. Prospective cohort study. Motion analysis laboratory. Subjects (n = 18) diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis as defined by the Diagnostic and Therapeutic Criteria Committee of the American Rheumatism Association. Instrumented gait analysis was performed while subjects walked with and without the knee brace. When subjects wore the knee brace, the air bladders were either uninflated or inflated to 7 psi. The net external knee adduction moment was obtained by subtracting the abduction moment produced by the knee brace (estimated using a finite element analysis model) from the external knee adduction moment (estimated using a camera-based motion analysis system). The net external knee adduction moment was compared across all testing conditions. A 7.6% decrease in net peak external knee adduction moment was observed when subjects wore the knee brace uninflated compared with when they did not wear the brace. Inflation of the bladders to 7 psi led to a 26.0% decrease in net peak external knee adduction moment. The results of the study suggest that the effects of an unloading knee brace may be enhanced by incorporating inflatable air bladders into the design of the brace, thus leading to an improved correction of the excessive peak external knee adduction moment observed in patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Three-dimensional spinal motion measurements. Part 2: A noninvasive assessment of lumbar brace immobilization of the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchalter, D; Kahanovitz, N; Viola, K; Dorsky, S; Nordin, M

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the limitation of motion as well as comfort provided by four different types of lumbar braces. The four braces were the Raney jacket, the Camp lace-up corset, a molded-polypropylene thoracolumbar-sacral orthosis (TLSO), and a common elastic corset. The data revealed that all braces significantly restrict free lumbar and thoracic motion in the sagittal and frontal planes. All braces restricted lumbar motion more in the frontal than in the sagittal plane. The rigid TLSO and Raney jackets were most restrictive when compared with the Camp corset and the elastic corset. Axial rotation in the lumbar spine is normally minimal and further limitation by a brace would be negligible. All braces restricted thoracic motion despite the fact that lumbar braces were used. The elastic corset was rated the most comfortable and the Raney jacket the least comfortable. This verifies that there is an inverse relationship between a brace's ability to restrict motion and comfort.

  7. Treatment of ingrown toenails using a new conservative method: a prospective study comparing brace treatment with Emmert's procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrer, Jörg; Schöffl, Volker; Hohenberger, Werner; Schneider, Ignaz

    2005-01-01

    Ingrown toenails cause incapacitation and pain for the patient and lost time from work. Many different conservative and surgical treatment methods have been described. European chiropodists and podologists have long treated ingrown toenails with orthonyxia, which consists of implantation of a small metal brace or plate onto the dorsum of the nail. To determine whether orthonyxia is an acceptable alternative to surgery, we compared the VHO-Osthold brace (VHO-Osthold-Spange GmbH, Deisenhofen, Germany), a new method of orthonyxia, with Emmert's procedure, a standard surgical method that is virtually identical to the Winograd-type procedure, in a prospective study of 41 patients (21 in the brace group and 20 in the Emmert procedure group). Pain due to treatment was significantly lower in the brace group than in the Emmert procedure group, and patients in the brace group could wear regular shoes again without appreciable pain much earlier than those in the Emmert procedure group. In the brace group, there were four recurrences, and one patient was still receiving treatment at the end of follow-up; in the Emmert procedure group, there were three recurrences. None of the patients in the brace group had to take time off from work, whereas in the Emmert procedure group, working patients were off from work for an average of 14.7 days. Brace treatment proved to be a good conservative alternative to operative procedures.

  8. Early mobilization with customized TLSO brace in thoracolumbar burst fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Irfan; Ertürer, Erden; Sönmez, Mehmet Mesut; Sarı, Seçkin; Şeker, Ali; Seçkin, Mustafa Faik

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to research the effectiveness of customized thoracolumbosacral orthosis treatment for stable burst type thoracolumbar vertebral fractures without neurological deficits. The study included 26 patients (14 males, 12 females; mean age: 46.03 years; range: 18 to 64 years) conservatively treated for thoracolumbar (T11-L2) burst type vertebral fractures according to Denis classification between 2002 and 2009. Etiology were a fall from various heights in 12 patients (46.2%), motor vehicle accidents as an occupant in 7 (26.9%) and as a pedestrian in 4 (15.4%), and simple fall in 3 (11.5%). None of the patients had neurologic deficit and no damage was found in the posterior ligamentous complex in MRI evaluations. Denis pain and functional scales were used in the clinical evaluation. Local kyphosis angle, sagittal index and height loss percentage were measured in the radiologic evaluation. Post-fracture and follow-up values were compared. Mean follow-up period was 41.30 (range: 14 to 80) months. Mean pain and functional scores were 1.65 and 1.15 points, respectively, at the final follow-up. Twenty patients returned to their pre-trauma work and activities completely and six patients with small limitations. Mean period for returning to work was 3.64 (range: 2 to 6) months. Local kyphosis angle, sagittal index and height loss percentage values increased significantly at follow-up (pTLSO brace appears to produce effective functional results despite loss of vertebral body height.

  9. The effect of the Futuro wrist brace in pain conditions of the wrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddulph, S L

    1981-09-05

    In a study to assess the effects of the Futuro wrist brace (Adcock-Ingram) in 22 patients with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, tenosynovitis and gout of the wrist, grip and pinch dynamometers were used to measure improvement in function. The study confirmed the efficacy of the wrist brace by demonstrating an average of 23.7% improvement in grip strength over the 10-day study, as well as a significant average improvement in pinch strength of 14.8% (P less than 0.05). In the subgroup of 8 rheumatoid arthritis patients a significant average increase in grip strength of 48.9% (P less than 0.025) was obtained. Both day and night pain was reduced and there was improvement in patients' ability to carry out their daily activities. The brace was found to be comfortable and easy to use.

  10. Hinged cast brace for persistent flexion contracture following total knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Matthew D; Pugely, Andrew; Callaghan, John J; Shurr, Donald

    2011-01-01

    The reported incidence of persistent knee flexion contracture following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has varied from 1-15 percent Various treatment modalities have been described in attempts to manage this often difficult problem. This paper describes a novel method of treatment by using a hinged cast brace (previously reported for treatment of femur fractures and knee contractures secondary to hemophilia and cerebral palsy) for use in patients with symptomatic knee flexion contractures. Application of this cast brace with frequent adjustment (every three to four days, initially) toward full extension can often improve knee extension, after physical therapy and other modalities such as extension-assist braces have failed. Care must be taken in the application and use of this device which utilizes frequent manipulations to reduce and maintain the knee flexion angle. We report two clinical cases in which this protocol was effectively used in decreasing symptomatic knee flexion contractures.

  11. Knee Medial Collateral Ligament and Posteromedial Corner Anatomic Repair With Internal Bracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowitz, James H.; MacKay, Gordon; Gilmer, Brian

    2014-01-01

    An internal brace is a ligament repair bridging concept using braided ultrahigh–molecular-weight polyethylene/polyester suture tape and knotless bone anchors to reinforce ligament strength as a secondary stabilizer after repair and return to sports, which may help resist injury recurrence. An internal brace may provide augmentation during knee medial and posteromedial corner anatomic repair. In patients with combined, chronic, symptomatic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)–posteromedial corner laxity, combined ACL reconstruction with posteromedial corner reconstruction is indicated. Our ACL technique was previously published with video illustration in Arthroscopy and Arthroscopy Techniques. The purpose of this article is to describe, with video illustration, knee posteromedial corner reconstruction using anatomic repair with internal brace augmentation. PMID:25276610

  12. Immediate effect of valgus bracing on knee joint moments in meniscectomised patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Maria; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Roos, Ewa M

    2016-01-01

    knee brace on knee joint moments in patients following medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy. DESIGN: Within-participant design. METHODS: Twenty-two patients (age 35-55 years) who had undergone medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy within the previous 8-15 months completed three......OBJECTIVES: Patients undergoing medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy are at increased risk of developing and/or progressing knee osteoarthritis, with increased medial compartment load being a potential contributor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of a valgus unloader......-dimensional analysis of gait, forward lunge and one-leg rise during two conditions: with and without a valgus unloader knee brace. Outcome measures included the peak and impulse of the knee adduction moment and the peak knee flexion moment. RESULTS: The peak knee flexion moment increased during brace condition...

  13. Does wearing a functional knee brace affect hamstring reflex time in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency during muscle fatigue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Rita Y; Ng, Gabriel Y; Chien, Eric P

    2002-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of wearing a functional knee brace and muscle fatigue on hamstring reflex time in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency. Repeated-measures clinical trial. Outpatient physical therapy department. Sixteen subjects with ACL deficiency. Subjects tested with and without a functional knee brace before and after an exercise protocol designed to fatigue the knee muscles. Latency of hamstring reflex muscle activity after sudden perturbation of the knee. Wearing a knee brace shortened the hamstring reflex latency regardless of fatigue (F(1,15)=20.62, Pknee brace facilitated hamstring muscle reflex, but muscle fatigue lengthened the hamstring reflex latency. Subjects with ACL deficiency should not rely on the knee brace to facilitate hamstring reflex for joint protection during prolonged sporting activities when muscles are fatigued. Copyright 2002 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  14. The effect of extension constraint knee bracing on dynamic balance, gait mechanics, and joint alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Robert J; Queen, Robin M; Wilson, Becky; Stephenson, John; Barnes, C Lowry

    2014-04-01

    To examine how an extension constraint knee brace affects active and passive standing knee joint alignment, dynamic balance, and gait mechanics. Repeated-measures, within-subjects design. Research laboratory. Persons (N = 24) with no current diagnosed gait dysfunction or neuromuscular limitations that limit activities of daily living. All subjects were tested with use of dynamic balance and gait analysis. Dynamic balance was examined with the Lower Quarter Y Balance Test. Gait analysis was conducted at a freely chosen walking speed for 2 conditions: (1) use of a brace with free range of motion (FROM) and (2) use of a brace with 30-degree extension constraint (ECON). In a subset of subjects, radiographs were used to examine standing knee alignment for 3 conditions: (1) FROM, (2) use of a knee ECON brace in a relaxed position; and (3) use of a knee ECON brace with maximal volitional quadriceps contraction. Peak knee flexion, knee flexion range of motion, peak vertical ground reaction force during weight acceptance and propulsion, and maximum reach distance in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions were measured. Differences in dynamic balance were observed between ECON and FROM for the anterior reach. Peak knee flexion increased 3.2° and peak knee extension decreased 7.4° in the ECON condition. Vertical GRF values were found to increase bilaterally during ECON at midstance but decreased bilaterally during propulsion. Radiographic images revealed that the ECON elicited a 22.2° flexion contracture with minimal quadriceps activation but only reduced motion by 4.8° with maximal volitional quadriceps activation. Extension constraint knee braces alter joint alignment, dynamic balance, knee mechanics during gait, and vertical loading during gait. However, the changes in motion observed were lower than those induced by the constraining mechanism. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc

  15. A randomised trial of a brace for patellofemoral osteoarthritis targeting knee pain and bone marrow lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Michael J; Parkes, Matthew J; Hutchinson, Charles E; Gait, Andrew D; Forsythe, Laura M; Marjanovic, Elizabeth J; Lunt, Mark; Felson, David T

    2015-06-01

    Braces used to treat (PF) osteoarthritis (OA) may reduce contact stress across the PF joint. We hypothesised that in PF OA, braces would decrease knee pain and shrink PF bone marrow lesions (BMLs). Eligible subjects had painful PF OA. Subjects were randomly allocated to brace or no brace for 6 weeks. Knee MRIs were acquired at baseline and 6 weeks. We measured BMLs on post-contrast fat suppressed sagittal and proton density weighted axial images. The primary symptom outcome was change in pain at 6 weeks during a preselected painful activity, and the primary structural outcome was BML volume change in the PF joint. Analyses used multiple linear regression. We randomised 126 subjects aged 40-70 years (mean age 55.5  years; 72 females (57.1%)). Mean nominated visual analogue scale (0-10 cm) pain score at baseline was 6.5 cm. 94 knees (75%) had PF BMLs at baseline. Subjects wore the brace for a mean of 7.4 h/day. 6 subjects withdrew during the trial. After accounting for baseline values, the brace group had lower knee pain than the control group at 6 weeks (difference between groups -1.3 cm, 95% CI -2.0 to -0.7; pbrace reduces BML volume in the targeted compartment of the knee, and relieves knee pain. UK. ISRCTN50380458. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Combining valgus knee brace and lateral foot wedges reduces external forces and moments in osteoarthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarnezhadgero, Amir Ali; Oliveira, Anderson S; Mousavi, Seyed Hamed; Madadi-Shad, Morteza

    2018-01-01

    Osteoarthritis progression can be related to the external knee adduction and flexion moments during walking. Lateral foot wedges and knee braces have been used as treatment for osteoarthritis, but little is known about their influence on knee joint moments generated in the sagittal and frontal planes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was determine the effects of the isolated and combined use of valgus knee brace and lateral wedge foot orthotic on peak forces and moments during gait in knee osteoarthritis patients. Twenty four males (age: 62.1±2.0years) with varus alignment, symptomatic medial compartment knee osteoarthritis participated in this study. Subjects walked over ground at preferred speed in four conditions: (1) no assistive device (control); (2) using lateral wedges, (3) using knee braces, and (4) using both lateral wedges and knee braces. Ground reaction forces (GRF) and moments, as well as lower limb kinematics were recorded. Peak GRF, vertical loading rate, free moment, external knee adduction and flexion moments were compared across conditions. The concurrent use of lateral wedge and knee brace reduced the first peak GRF in the vertical (6%, p=0.002), anterior-posterior (30%, p=0.028) and medial-lateral directions (44%, p=0.029). Moreover, the use of these devices reduced the peak external knee adduction moment (25%, p=0.019), but not the external flexion moment and free moment (p>0.05). The combined use of lateral wedges and knee braces can reduce medial-lateral knee joint loading, but despite reduced peak forces in the sagittal plane, these device do not reduce joint moments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ankle Spatting Compared to Bracing or Taping during Maximal-Effort Sprint Drills

    Science.gov (United States)

    REUTER, GRANT D; DAHL, ANGELA R; SENCHINA, DAVID S

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the influences of 4 ankle conditions (no support, bracing, taping, taping + spatting; all in football cleats) during 2 maximal-effort field drills (40-yd dash and 34-yd cutting drill) on perceptions of comfort and stability and performance outcomes. Fourteen young adult males participated. Subjects’ perceptions of comfort and stability were assessed by visual analogue scales after each drill for each ankle condition. Time-to-completion and post-completion heart rate were recorded. For both drills, significant differences in comfort perception were found such that subjects perceived no support as equivocal to bracing but more comfortable than either taping or spatting + taping. Stability results differed by drill. For the dash, significant differences in stability perception were found such that subjects perceived no support as equivocal to bracing but less stable than either taping or spatting + taping. By contrast, for the cutting drill significant differences in stability perception were found such that subjects perceived their ankles as less stable during the no support condition as compared to all 3 other conditions. Generally, bracing was perceived as equivocal to all 3 other conditions for comfort and stability. There were no significant differences in time-to-completion or heart rate for any comparison. Compared to bracing or taping, spatting + taping (a) did not influence performance time in explosive/sprint-type drills, (b) was perceived as equivalent to taping alone in terms of ankle comfort and stability, and (c) was perceived as equivalent to bracing in terms of stability but not comfort. PMID:27478530

  18. Clinical and postural behaviour of scoliosis during daily brace weaning hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, S; Fusco, C; Romano, M; Zaina, F; Atanasio, S

    2008-01-01

    What happens to scoliosis when the brace is daily weaned is not described in the literature, even if this can have a significant clinical impact. Our aim was to evaluate the postural and clinical changes at brace weaning. We developed a pre-post trial in 10 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis female patients 12.6 years old, with 42.8+/-7.4 degrees Cobb curves. more than 30 degrees Cobb; TLSO worn at least 20 hours/day. Patients have been divided according to the hours of brace wearing per day: group 23H (6 patients, 23 hours per day) and group 20H (20-21 hours per day). We evaluated the patients at brace weaning and every hour per 4 hours, clinically (Bunnell degrees, hump and plumbline distances through usual clinical instruments) and posturally (scoliosis degree), by means of a non-ionising instrument that allow a 3D reconstruction of the spine. Paired ANOVA and t-test were used for statistical analysis. Group 23H showed statistically significant variations in 1 to 3 hours in all clinical parameters, and a tendency to progression of scoliosis. Group 20H did not show any statistically significant variation in 4 hours, a part from slight improvements. These results could be explained in terms of scoliosis reactions to usual/unusual daily load on the spine. Moreover, these data show the possible existence of the "concertina effect" due to brace weaning, and the importance of standardizing clinical examination with respect to the daily brace weaning hours.

  19. Design and control of multifunctional magnetorheological actuators for assistive knee braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H. T.; Liao, W. H.

    2010-04-01

    This paper is aimed at developing a novel multifunctional actuator utilizing magnetorheological (MR) fluids. As a key component for assistive knee braces, the actuator can work with multiple functions as motor, clutch and brake in order to meet the requirement of normal human walking. In this paper, design considerations including configurations, materials selection, mechanical and electromagnetic designs are illustrated. Prototype of the multifunctional actuator is fabricated, and each of its functions is investigated. Control strategies for mimicking normal human walking using the multifunctional actuator are illustrated. Adaptive control algorithm is adopted. Experiments on torque and speed tracking are conducted. The results show that the developed multifunctional actuator is promising for assistive knee braces.

  20. Semi-rigid brace and taping decrease variability of the ankle joint position sense

    OpenAIRE

    Barbanera,Márcia; Mazuchi,Flávia de Andrade e Souza; Batista,José Paulo Berretta; Ultremare,Janaina de Moura; Iwashita,Juliana da Silva; Ervilha,Ulysses Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of taping and the semi-rigid ankle brace on ankle joint position sense. Sixteen healthy women (20.8 ± 2.3 years old) actively placed the ankle in a target position. The experimental conditions were: 1) wearing no orthosis device, 2) using semi-rigid brace, and 3) wearing ankle taping. Absolute error (AE) and variable error (VE) were calculated to obtain the joint position sense. We found an interaction effect between condition and target angle at 15o ...

  1. Localized erythema multiforme-like contact dermatitis from a knee brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Aubrey E; Pace, Sarah; Adams, Erin G

    2015-05-01

    A 47-year-old woman developed allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to a knee brace after anterior cruciate ligament repair, manifesting as numerous erythema multiforme-like lesions. No previous cases of ACD to this Townsend Rebel knee brace, which is commonly worn postoperatively, have been reported. The patient was treated with triamcinolone ointment, cetirizine, and diphenhydramine. On follow-up, the lesions had resolved. We share this case to increase knowledge of this reaction pattern and encourage further similar reports to clarify the nature of the reaction.

  2. Damping of Offshore Wind Turbine Tower Vibrations by a Stroke Amplifying Brace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Mark Laier; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2014-01-01

    The potential of installing dampers inside the tower of an offshore wind turbine is investigated through simulations. Dampers are installed at the bottom to act on the curvature of the tower, and it is shown that dampers installed in suitable braces have the potential to increase the critical...... damping ratio of the two lowest tower modes by 1 percent. By using a toggle-brace system, damper stroke is increased, while the damper force is reduced. Finally, by installing the dampers in a symmetric configuration, tuning for maximum damping is approximately independent of the orientation of the rotor......, thereby making this installation of dampers feasible....

  3. Nickel sensitization in adolescents and association with ear piercing, use of dental braces and hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Lauritsen, Jens Martin; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of nickel allergy (sensitization) and the associations with ear piercing, use of dental braces and hand eczema were assessed in a cohort of 1,501 8th grade schoolchildren (aged 12-16 years) in Odense, Denmark. Nickel allergy was found in 8.6% and was clinically relevant in 69......% of cases. Nickel allergy was found most frequently in girls and the association with ear piercing was confirmed. Application of dental braces (oral nickel exposure) prior to ear piercing (cutaneous nickel exposure) was associated with a significantly reduced prevalence of nickel allergy. In adolescents...

  4. 450 closed fractures of the distal third of the tibia treated with a functional brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Augusto; Latta, Loren L

    2004-11-01

    Four hundred fifty closed fractures of the distal third of the tibial diaphysis, treated with a functional brace, are the subject of this study. Four (0.9%) of the fractures resulted in nonunion. The average healing time was 16.6 +/- 5.6 weeks, with a range from 10-40 weeks. The average final shortening was 5.1 +/- 4.8 mm with a range from 0-25 mm. Four hundred twenty four (94.2%) fractures healed with nails. It seems that functional bracing is an effective method of treatment of a selected group of tibial fractures.

  5. A systematic review on the treatment of acute ankle sprain: brace versus other functional treatment types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemler, Ellen; van de Port, Ingrid; Backx, Frank; van Dijk, C Niek

    2011-03-01

    Ankle injuries, especially ankle sprains, are a common problem in sports and medical care. Ankle sprains result in pain and absenteeism from work and/or sports participation, and can lead to physical restrictions such as ankle instability. Nowadays, treatment of ankle injury basically consists of taping the ankle. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness of ankle braces as a treatment for acute ankle sprains compared with other types of functional treatments such as ankle tape and elastic bandages. A computerized literature search was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Clinical Trial Register. This review includes randomized controlled trials in English, German and Dutch, published between 1990 and April 2009 that compared ankle braces as a treatment for lateral ankle sprains with other functional treatments. The inclusion criteria for this systematic review were (i) individuals (sports participants as well as non-sports participants) with an acute injury of the ankle (acute ankle sprains); (ii) use of an ankle brace as primary treatment for acute ankle sprains; (iii) control interventions including any other type of functional treatment (e.g. Tubigrip™, elastic wrap or ankle tape); and (iv) one of the following reported outcome measures: re-injuries, symptoms (pain, swelling, instability), functional outcomes and/or time to resumption of sports, daily activities and/or work. Eight studies met all inclusion criteria. Differences in outcome measures, intervention types and patient characteristics precluded pooling of the results, so best evidence syntheses were conducted. A few individual studies reported positive outcomes after treatment with an ankle brace compared with other functional methods, but our best evidence syntheses only demonstrated a better treatment result in terms of functional outcome. Other studies have suggested that ankle brace treatment is a more cost-effective method, so the use of braces after acute

  6. A New Brace for Maintaining the Neck in a Suitable Position Following Tracheal Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizhan Ziaian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Segmental resection and end-to-end anastomosis is the treatment of choice for patients suffering from tracheal stenosis for whom conservative management is not planned. A complication of this procedure is tension-induced anastomotic failure. To prevent this complication, maintaining the neck in full flexion by means of a suture between the chin and upper chest is a traditional approach. We have designed a new brace (Shiraz brace that securely supports the neck in this position and decreases the bothersome use of the suture alone.

  7. Bracing can partially limit tibial rotation during stressful activities after anterior crucial ligament reconstruction with a hamstring graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotis, D; Paschos, N K; Zampeli, F; Pappas, E; Mitsionis, G; Georgoulis, A D

    2016-09-01

    Hamstring graft has substantial differences with BPTB graft regarding initial mechanical strength, healing sequence, and vascularization, which may imply that a different approach during rehabilitation period is required. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of knee bracing on tibial rotation in ACL-reconstructed patients with a hamstring autograft during high loading activities. The hypothesis was that there would be a decrease in tibial rotation in the ACL-reconstructed braced knee as compared to the unbraced knee. Twenty male patients having undergone unilateral ACL reconstruction with a semitendinosus/gracilis autograft were assessed. Kinematic data were collected with an eight-camera optoelectronic system during two stressful tasks: (1) descending from a stair and subsequent pivoting; and (2) landing from a platform and subsequent pivoting. In each patient, three different experimental conditions were evaluated: (A) wearing a prophylactic brace (braced condition); (B) wearing a patellofemoral brace (sleeved condition); (C) without brace (unbraced condition). The intact knee without brace served as a control. Tibial rotation was significantly lower in the intact knee compared to all three conditions of the ACL-reconstructed knee (P≤0.01 for both tasks). Presence of a brace or sleeve resulted in lower tibial rotation than in the unbraced condition (p=0.003 for descending/pivot and P=0.0004 for landing/pivot). The braced condition resulted in lower rotation than the sleeved condition for descending/pivoting (P=0.031) while no differences were found for landing/pivoting (P=0.230). Knee bracing limited the excessive tibial rotation during pivoting under high loading activities in ACL-reconstructed knees with a hamstring graft. This partial restoration of normal kinematics may have a potential beneficial effect in patients recovering from ACL reconstruction with a hamstring autograft. Level III, case-control therapeutic study. Copyright

  8. Densities and vapor pressures of mixed-solvent desiccant systems containing {l_brace}glycol (diethylene, or triethylene, or tetraethylene glycol) + salt (magnesium chloride) + water{r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Shangyi [R and D Center for Membrane Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Soriano, Allan N. [R and D Center for Membrane Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan (China); School of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Mapua Institute of Technology, Manila 1002 (Philippines); Li Menghui, E-mail: mhli@cycu.edu.t [R and D Center for Membrane Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan (China)

    2010-09-15

    In this present work, new experimental data for density and vapor pressure of the mixed-solvent desiccant systems containing {l_brace}(40.0 wt%) glycol + salt + water{r_brace} were reported for temperatures up to 343.15 K at normal atmospheric condition. The considered glycols were diethylene, triethylene, and tetraethylene glycol; and the salt is magnesium chloride (wt% = 4.0, 9.0, and 16.0). The density and vapor pressure were presented as functions of temperature and compositions. An empirical equation was used to correlate the temperature and compositional dependence of the present density data and a model based on the mean spherical approximation for aqueous electrolyte solutions incorporating the pseudo-solvent approach was used to represent the measured vapor pressure as functions of temperature and composition. Satisfactory results were obtained for both density and vapor pressure calculations.

  9. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium for ternary mixtures of {l_brace}heptane + aromatic compounds + [EMpy][ESO{sub 4}]{r_brace} at T = 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirkhani, S.A. [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vossoughi, M., E-mail: vosoughi@sharif.edu [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pazuki, G.R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Safekordi, A.A. [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Heydari, A.; Akbari, J. [Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yavari, M. [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: > This paper reports the LLE data of ternary systems {l_brace}heptane (1) + aromatic compounds (2) + [EMpy][ESO{sub 4}] (3){r_brace}. > The distribution coefficient and the selectivity were obtained from the experimental data. > The consistency of LLE data was successfully correlated with Othmer-Tobias and Hand equation. - Abstract: (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for the ternary systems (heptane + toluene + 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium ethylsulfate) and (heptane + benzene + 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium ethylsulfate) were measured at T = 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. The selectivity and aromatic distribution coefficients, calculated from the equilibrium data, were used to determine if this ionic liquid can be used as a potential extracting solvent for the separation of aromatic compounds from heptane. The consistency of tie-line data was ascertained by applying the Othmer-Tobias and Hand equations.

  10. Surface tension, density, and speed of sound for the ternary mixture {l_brace}diethyl carbonate + p-xylene + decane{r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosteiro, Laura; Casas, Lidia M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Legido, Jose L. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain)], E-mail: xllegido@uvigo.es

    2009-05-15

    This paper reports the results of a new experimental study of thermophysical properties for the ternary mixture of {l_brace}diethyl carbonate + p-xylene + decane{r_brace}. Surface tension has been measured at 298.15 K and, density and speed of sound have been measured in the temperature range T = (288.15 to 308.15) K. Excess molar volumes, excess isentropic compressibilities, and surface tension deviations, have been calculated from experimental data. Surface tension deviations have been correlated with Cibulka equation and Nagata and Tamura equation was used for the other excess properties. Good accuracy has been obtained. These excess magnitudes are discussed qualitatively in terms of the nature and type of intermolecular interactions of the components involved.

  11. Thermophysical properties of binary mixtures of {l_brace}ionic liquid 2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate + (water, methanol, or ethanol){r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Victor H. [School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), P.O. Box 6066, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Chemical Engineering Department, ETSE, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), P.O. Box 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Mattedi, Silvana [Chemical Engineering Department, Polytechnic School, Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), 40210-630 Salvador-BA (Brazil); Martin-Pastor, Manuel [Unidade de Resonancia Magnetica, RIAIDT, edif. CACTUS, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), P.O. Box 15706, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Aznar, Martin [School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), P.O. Box 6066, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Iglesias, Miguel, E-mail: miguel.iglesias@usc.es [Chemical Engineering Department, ETSE, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), P.O. Box 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Research highlights: > This paper reports the density and speed of sound data of binary mixtures {l_brace}2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate + (water, or methanol, or ethanol){r_brace} measured between the temperatures (298.15 and 313.15) K at atmospheric pressure. > The aggregation, dynamic behavior, and hydrogen-bond network were studied using thermo-acoustic, X-ray, and NMR techniques. > The Peng-Robinson equation of state, coupled with the Wong-Sandler mixing rule using the COSMO-SAC model predicted the density of the solutions with relative mean deviations below than 3.0%. - Abstract: In this work, density and speed of sound data of binary mixtures of an ionic liquid consisting of {l_brace}2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate (2-HEAA) + (water, methanol, or ethanol){r_brace} have been measured throughout the entire concentration range, from the temperature of (288.15 to 323.15) K at atmospheric pressure. The excess molar volumes, variations of the isentropic compressibility, the apparent molar volume, isentropic apparent molar compressibility, and thermal expansion coefficient were calculated from the experimental data. The excess molar volumes were negative throughout the whole composition range. Compressibility data in combination with low angle X-ray scattering and NMR measurements proved that the presence of micelles formed due to ion pair interaction above a critical concentration of the ionic liquid in the mixtures. The Peng-Robinson equation of state coupled with the Wong-Sandler mixing rule and COSMO-SAC model was used to predict densities and the calculated deviations were lower than 3%, for binary mixtures in all composition range.

  12. The effects of a functional knee brace during early treatment of patients with a nonoperated acute anterior cruciate ligament tear: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swirtun, Linda R; Jansson, Anna; Renström, Per

    2005-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of a functional knee brace on nonoperated acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient patients. : Prospective randomized clinical trial. University clinic. Ninety-five patients (18-50 years old) with an acute ACL tear were included in the present study. The subjects were randomized to either brace group, treated with functional bracing from the first testing session (partial rupture or articular cartilage injury shown on MRI or with arthroscopy, or other injuries that negatively affected rehabilitation, or dropped out due to surgery (n = 22), or personal reasons (n = 10). Forty-two patients remained in the study, 22 in the brace group and 20 in the control group. Visual analogue scale, Knee Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Cincinnati knee score, a brace evaluation form, and muscle peak torque. When using the brace the subjects in the brace group experienced less (P = 0.047) sense of instability, evaluated with visual analogue scale, than the control group. However, bracing had no effect on any of the variables in Knee Osteoarthritis Outcome Score or Cincinnati knee score and no effect on quadriceps or hamstring muscle peak torque. Subjectively, the brace group experienced a positive effect of the brace on rehabilitation. Nonoperated acute ACL-deficient patients experienced a positive effect of the brace regarding sense of instability and rehabilitation. However, these findings were not supported by objective outcomes.

  13. Twitter analysis of the orthodontic patient experience with braces vs Invisalign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Daniel; Mahon, Brendan; Shroff, Bhavna; Carrico, Caroline; Lindauer, Steven J

    2017-05-01

    To examine the orthodontic patient experience having braces compared with Invisalign by means of a large-scale Twitter sentiment analysis. A custom data collection program was created that collected tweets containing the words "braces" or "Invisalign" for a period of 5 months. A hierarchal Naïve Bayes sentiment analysis classifier was developed to sort the tweets into five categories: positive, negative, neutral, advertisement, or not applicable. Each category was then analyzed for specific content. A total of 419,363 tweets applicable to orthodontics were collected. Users posted significantly more positive tweets (61%) than they did negative tweets (39%; P ≤ .0001). There was no significant difference in the distribution of positive and negative sentiment between braces and Invisalign tweets (P = .4189). Positive orthodontics-related tweets often highlighted gratitude for a great smile accompanied with selfies. Negative orthodontic tweets frequently focused on pain. Twitter users expressed more positive than negative sentiment about orthodontic treatment with no significant difference in sentiment between braces and Invisalign tweets.

  14. An Experimental Investigation on the Ultimate Strength of Partially Infilled: Braced Steel Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Shailendra Kumar Damodar; Kute, Sunil Y.

    2017-12-01

    Infilled walls are usually, considered as non-structural elements. However, these walls are effective in carrying lateral loads. In this regard, an experimental investigation was planned and conducted to study the effect of braced and partially infilled steel frames with cement mortar and concrete in comparison to the bare frames. All these frames were tested up to collapse and subjected only to horizontal loads to obtain an effective and possible solution for soft storey which are generally not infilled. In comparison to bare steel frames, partially infilled frames have an increase of lateral load capacity by 45-60%. Central bracing is more effective than that of the corner bracing. For the same load partially infilled frames have significantly less deflection than that of the bare frames. A reduced load factor is suggested for the design of soft storey columns with the partial infills. A mathematical model has been proposed to calculate the theoretical ultimate load for the braced, cement mortar and concrete partial infilled frames.

  15. Economic Evaluation of a Soft Ankle Brace Compared to Tape in Acute Lateral Ankle Ligamentous Sprains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemler, Ellen; Krist, MR; van de Port, Ingrid; van de Port, Ingrid G. L.; Hoes, Arno W.; de Wit, GA; Backx, FJG

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ankle sprains are common injuries, associated with high healthcare and societal costs. After sustaining an acute ankle sprain, ankle taping is the standard treatment in the Netherlands. Ankle braces are sometimes used as an alternative. The aim of the present study was to assess the

  16. Cumulative Ductility and Hysteretic Behavior of Small Buckling-Restrained Braces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidajat Sugihardjo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative ductility is defined as a ratio of total energy to elastic energy which is dissipated by an element of the structural system during cyclic loading. An element of the structural system is categorized hysteretic if the cumulative ductility factor fulfills certain criteria. This study investigated both analytically and experimentally Small Buckling-Restrained Braces (SBRBs. The core of bracings was modeled using Menegotto-Pinto and bilinear functions. The restrained bracing members were in the shape of square hollow steel section. They were made of the assembly of two L-shaped steel sections. From the experimental study on four SBRB specimens, it was proven that the proposed SBRBs have performed relatively stable hysteretic curves up to two percent of strain and the cumulative ductility factor of 199–450. This value is sufficient for the Buckling-Restrained Brace (BRB elements as elastoplastic structural components. The comparisons of the hysteretic behaviors resulted by SBRB specimens using the Menegotto-Pinto functions and experiments exhibited good agreements, while the amount of energy dissipated by the SBRB specimens using the bilinear model agreed well with the experimental results. Based on the behavior of the experimental hysteretic, implementing the proposed SBRBs as components in ductile truss system is recommended.

  17. Comparison of the effect of semi-rigid ankle bracing on performance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in the direction around their opponents to gain advantage play.[1] Due to the similarities in motor skills among these sports and the absence of literature examining the effect of ..... advantages and disadvantages of wearing semi-rigid ankle braces. References. 1. Gallagher D. Top women hockey teams visit South. Africa.

  18. Hysteretic Behavior of Tubular Steel Braces Having Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Reinforcement Around End Net Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Haydaroğlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an experimental investigation into the seismic retrofit of tubular steel braces using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP members. CFRP retrofitting of net sections for compact tubes are proposed for delaying potential local net section failure. A total of almost full-scale three (TB-1, TB-2, and TB-3 compact steel tubular specimens were designed per AISC specifications, constructed, and cyclically tested to fracture. Retrofitted braces, when compared to the reference specimen, developed fuller hysteretic curves. Increase in cumulative hysteretic energy dissipation and the elongation in fracture life in the specimen retrofitted with CFRP plates and CFRP sheet wraps at net sections are observed during testing. This resulted in a maximum of 82.5% more dissipated energy for compact tube specimens. Also, this retrofit provided a longer experimental fracture life (maximum 59% more. Due to fracture initiation during the last cycles, significant reductions in strength and stiffness have been obtained. No significant change (maximum 10% in the brace stiffness was observed, which could be desirable in seismic retrofit applications. Pushover analysis per FEMA 356 for the bare specimen shows that FEMA does not represent actual brace behavior in the compression side although pushover and experimental results are in good agreement in the tension side.

  19. Clinical use of a neck brace to improve hands-free speech in laryngectomized patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirven, R.; Kooijman, P.G.C.; Wouters, Y.; Marres, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Time of adherence of adhesive baseplate housings to the neck of a laryngectomized patient is one of the main problems that account for the low number of laryngectomy patients who benefit from hands-free speech. An external neck brace (ENB 1.0) was introduced to support

  20. Design and validation of a knee brace with feedback to reduce the rate of loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskowski, J L; Mikesky, A E; Bahamonde, R E; Burr, D B

    2009-08-01

    The repetitive nature of walking can lead to repetitive stress and associated complications due to the rate of loading (ROL) experienced by the body at the initial contact of the foot with the ground. An individual's gait kinematics at initial contact has been suggested to give rise to the ROL, and a repetitive, high ROL may lead to several disorders, including osteoarthritis. We present the design, development, and validation of a knee brace that provides feedback to the user during gait. The feedback consists of an auditory signal when the specific parameters of knee angle or tibial acceleration 50 ms prior to contact are exceeded. Nine women were recruited for the gait analysis, and the gait characteristics with and without the brace and feedback are analyzed. Our results indicate that using a knee brace with feedback can effectively change the gait kinematics used during walking, leading to a reduced ROL experienced at initial contact. Using a knee brace with feedback is a novel approach to gait retraining. Al-though the kinetics of how the subjects change in gait pattern is unknown, the reduced ROL experienced is significant and warrants further investigation.

  1. Effects of bottom bracings on torsional dynamic characteristics of horizontally curved twin I-girder bridges with different curvatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awall, Md. Robiul; Hayashikawa, Toshiro; Matsumoto, Takashi; He, Xingwen

    2012-03-01

    Curved twin I-girder bridges (CTIGBs) have low torsional stiffness that makes them vulnerable to dynamic loads. This study investigates the effects of bottom bracings on the torsional dynamic characteristics of CTIGBs. Five types of bottom bracings are designed to investigate their effects on the dynamic characteristics of CTIGBs with different curvatures under free and forced vibrations. To perform numerical investigations, three-dimensional (3-D) finite element (FE) bridge and vehicle models are established using commercial ANSYS code, and then a vehicle-bridge interaction analysis approach is proposed. Road roughness profiles generated from power spectral density and cross spectral functions are also taken into account in the analyses. The numerical results show that torsional frequencies increase significantly after providing bottom bracings, and the increasing rate depends on the type of bottom bracings and their locations of installation. Bottom bracings can act as load transmitting members from one main girder to the others. Large negative bearing forces that have occurred in bridges with small radii of curvatures can be remarkably reduced by providing bottom bracing systems. It is found that the performances of several bottom bracing systems are effective in improving the torsional dynamic characteristics of the bridges in this study.

  2. An Experimental Study on Hybrid Noncompression CF Bracing and GF Sheet Wrapping Reinforcement Method to Restore Damaged RC Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Seok Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel technique for restoration of reinforced concrete (RC structures that have sustained damage during an earthquake. The reinforcement scheme described here is a hybrid seismic retrofitting technique that combines noncompression X-bracing using CF with externally bonded GF sheets to strengthen RC structures that have sustained damage following an earthquake. The GF sheet is used to improve the ductility of columns, and the noncompression CF X-bracing system, which consists of CF bracing and anchors to replace the conventional steel bracing and bolt connections, is used to increase the lateral strength of the framing system. We report seismic restoration capacity, which enables reuse of the damaged RC frames via the hybrid CF X-bracing and GF sheet wrapping system. Cyclic loading tests were carried out to investigate hysteresis of the lateral load-drift relations, as well as the ductility. The GF sheet significantly improved the ductility of columns, resulting in a change in failure mode. The strengthening effect of conventional CF sheets used in columns is not sufficient with respect to lateral strength and stiffness. However, this study results in a significant increase in the strength of the structure due to the use of CF X-bracing and inhibited buckling failure of the bracing. This result can be exploited to develop guidelines for the application of the reinforcement system to restore damaged RC structures.

  3. Gait and clinical improvements with a novel knee brace for knee OA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aaron J; Starr, Roland; Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Bhave, Anil; Mont, Michael A

    2013-06-01

    Knee osteoarthritis causes debilitating pain, and results in characteristic gait changes. Some authors believe that a system of neuromuscular retraining may improve these parameters. We therefore evaluated a novel brace that combines pneumatic joint unloading and active swing-assist to assess: (1) differences in pain levels or medication usage; (2) reductions in additional interventions; (3) changes in quadriceps muscle strength; and (4) improvements in specific gait measurements after 3 months. A prospective pilot series of 10 knee osteoarthritis patients who had exhausted other nonoperative treatment measures were enrolled. These patients were compared with the previous 15 knee osteoarthritis patients who met similar criteria, but were not braced. Quadriceps muscle strength was measured, as were pain levels, and additional interventions such as injections or total knee arthroplasty procedures. Gait parameters measured included: walking speed, total range-of-motion, knee flexion at foot-strike, and knee adduction moment. All but one of the compliant patients reported a decrease of at least two pain points after 3 months of use. There was one additional intervention in the brace cohort versus a statistical increase of 10 in the nonbrace cohort. All patients who were compliant with the brace showed an increase in thigh girth measurements, compared with none in the nonbrace cohort. Braced patients experienced retained improvements in at least one gait parameter including improved walking speed, total range of motion, and improved knee-angle at heel strike. The mean improvement in knee adduction moment was a decrease of 0.2255 Nm/kg (range, 0.56 to 0.564 Nm/kg), showing a mean improvement of 48% (range, 16 to 76% of original peak moment). The use of a brace that has features including a combination of unloader characteristics along with active swing-assist, provided neuromuscular retraining benefits for patients who have knee osteoarthritis. In summary, although quite

  4. Effects of an unloader knee brace on knee-related symptoms and function in people with post-traumatic knee osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Harvi F; Crossley, Kay M; Ackland, David C; Cowan, Sallie M; Collins, Natalie J

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the immediate and four-week effects of an unloader knee brace on knee-related symptoms and performance-based function in people with knee osteoarthritis (OA) after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Individuals with knee OA, five to 20years post-ACLR, were recruited for two within-subject randomized studies: immediate effects (n=18) and four-week effects (n=11). Patient-reported knee-related symptoms (knee pain, perceived task difficulty, confidence, stability) were assessed during hop for distance and step-down tests, while performance-based function was assessed with hopping distance under three conditions: i) no brace; ii) unadjusted brace (sagittal plane support); and iii) adjusted brace (sagittal plane support with varus/valgus readjustment). Participants in the four-week brace effect study were randomized to wear the unadjusted or adjusted brace for four weeks after baseline (no brace) testing, and repeated tests in their allocated brace at four-week follow-up. Friedman tests evaluated differences between the three brace conditions for each variable for the immediate brace effect study (pbrace and allocated brace for the four-week study (pbraces produced immediate improvements in knee confidence during hop for distance, and knee pain during step-down. Following the four-week brace intervention, the allocated brace improved knee confidence, perceived task difficulty and stability during hop for distance; and knee pain, perceived task difficulty, confidence, and stability during step-down. The unloader knee brace, adjusted or unadjusted, has the potential to improve knee-related symptoms associated with knee OA after ACLR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Unloading knee brace is a cost-effective method to bridge and delay surgery in unicompartmental knee arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paul YF; Winfield, Thomas G; Harris, Shaun RS; Storey, Emerald; Chandratreya, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Background Unloading knee braces can provide good short-term pain relief for some patients with unicompartmental osteoarthritis (UOA). Their cost is relatively small compared with surgical interventions. However, no previous studies have reported their use over a duration of 5 years or more. Methods Up to 8 years of prospective data were collected from 63 patients who presented with UOA. After conservative management with analgesia and physiotherapy, patients were offered an unloading brace. EQ-5D (EuroQol five dimensions) questionnaires were collected at baseline and after wearing the brace. Cost and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were compared with a total knee replacement (TKR) with an 8-month waiting duration and 8 years of results. Results Patients experienced a mean increase in EQ-5D of 0.42 with an average duration of wear of 26.1 months resulting in an increase of 0.44 in QALYs with a mean cost of £625. The adoption of an unloader knee brace was found to be a short-term cost-effective treatment option with an 8-month incremental cost effectiveness ratio of £9599. Compared with no treatment, the unloader knee brace can be considered cost effective at 4 months or more. At 8 years follow-up, the unloader knee brace demonstrated QALYs gain of 0.43 and with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of -£6467 compared with TKR. Conclusion Unloading knee braces are cost effective for the management of UOA. These findings strongly support the undertaking of further research into the long-term impact of unloading knee brace. The unloader knee brace has benefits to the National Health Service for capacity, budget, waiting list duration, frequency of surgery and reducing the required severity of surgical intervention. PMID:28879034

  6. Fluoroscopic Analysis of Tibial Translation in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injured Knees With and Without Bracing During Forward Lunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Maryam; Farahmand, Farzam; Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad Ebrahim; Golestanha, Seyed Ali; Rezaeian, Tahmineh; Shirvani Broujeni, Shahram; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Esfandiarpour, Fateme

    2015-07-01

    Despite several studies with different methods, the effect of functional knee braces on knee joint kinematics is not clear. Direct visualization of joint components through medical imaging modalities may provide the clinicians with more useful information. In this study, for the first time in the literature, video fluoroscopy was used to investigate the effect of knee bracing on the sagittal plane kinematics of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injured patients. For twelve male unilateral ACL deficient subjects, the anterior tibial translation was measured during lunge exercise in non-braced and braced conditions. Fluoroscopic images were acquired from the subjects using a digital fluoroscopy system with a rate of 10 fps. The image of each frame was scaled using a calibration coin and analyzed in AutoCAD environment. The angle between the two lines, tangent to the posterior cortexes of the femoral and tibial shafts was measured as the flexion angle. For the fluoroscopic images associated with 0°, 15°, 30°, 45° and 60° knee flexion angles, the relative anterior-posterior configuration of the tibiofemoral joint was assessed by measuring the position of landmarks on the tibia and femur. Results indicated that the overall anterior translations of the tibia during the eccentric (down) and concentric (up) phases of lunge exercise were 10.4 ± 1.7 mm and 9.0 ± 2.2 mm for non-braced, and 10.1 ± 3.4 mm and 7.4 ± 2.5 mm, for braced conditions, respectively. The difference of the tibial anterior-posterior translation behaviors of the braced and non-braced knees was not statistically significant. Fluoroscopic imaging provides an effective tool to measure the dynamic behavior of the knee joint in the sagittal plane and within the limitations of this study, the pure mechanical stabilizing effect of functional knee bracing is not sufficient to control the anterior tibial translation of the ACL deficient patients during lunge exercise.

  7. The Effects of Elbow Bracing on Medial Elbow Joint Space Gapping Associated With Repetitive Throwing in High School Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Hiroshi; Akasaka, Kiyokazu; Otsudo, Takahiro; Takei, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Mitsuru

    2017-04-01

    Throwing athletes risk medial elbow injury from extreme valgus stress generated across the medial elbow during throwing. Braces have been developed to protect the elbow joint; however, no previous study has investigated the effects of elbow bracing on medial elbow joint space gapping associated with repetitive throwing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of elbow bracing on medial elbow joint space gapping during repetitive throwing. Our hypothesis was that an elbow brace may reduce mechanical stress on the elbow by reducing medial elbow joint space gapping. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty-five high school baseball players participated in this study. Each subject pitched 100 times under 2 conditions: control (without elbow brace) and elbow brace. The ulnohumeral joint space was measured ultrasonically before pitching and after every block of 20 pitches. Measurement of the ulnohumeral joint space was carried out using ultrasound with the forearm hanging by the side. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and post hoc tests were used to compare ulnohumeral joint space with repeated pitching and between the elbow brace and control conditions. In the control condition, ulnohumeral joint space after 60 pitches was significantly greater than that before pitching ( P space was not significantly different after repeated pitching. When comparing these 2 conditions, ulnohumeral joint space in the control condition was significantly greater than that in the elbow brace condition after 60 pitches ( P space gapping with repeated throwing when determined ultrasonically by measuring the ulnohumeral joint space under gravity load. An elbow brace worn during baseball pitching practice may help reduce mechanical stress on the elbow by reducing medial elbow joint space gapping.

  8. Influence of a knee brace intervention on perceived pain and patellofemoral loading in recreational athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Jonathan K; Selfe, James; Taylor, Paul J; Shore, Hannah F; Richards, Jim D

    2016-08-01

    The current investigation aimed to investigate the effects of an intervention using knee bracing on pain symptoms and patellofemoral loading in male and female recreational athletes. Twenty participants (11 males & 9 females) with patellofemoral pain were provided with a knee brace which they wore for a period of 2weeks. Lower extremity kinematics and patellofemoral loading were obtained during three sport specific tasks, jog, cut and single leg hop. In addition their self-reported knee pain scores were examined using the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score. Data were collected before and after wearing the knee brace for 2weeks. Significant reductions were found in the run and cut movements for peak patellofemoral force/pressure and in all movements for the peak knee abduction moment when wearing the brace. Significant improvements were also shown for Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score subscale symptoms (pre: male=70.27, female=73.22 & post: male=85.64, female=82.44), pain (pre: male=72.36, female=78.89 & post: male=85.73, female=84.20), sport (pre: male=60.18, female=59.33 & post: male=80.91, female=79.11), function and daily living (pre: male=82.18, female=86.00 & post: male=88.91, female=90.00) and quality of life (pre: male=51.27, female=54.89 & post: male=69.36, female=66.89). Male and female recreational athletes who suffer from patellofemoral pain can be advised to utilise knee bracing as a conservative method to reduce pain symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The potential role of prophylactic/functional knee bracing in preventing knee ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishiraj, Neetu; Taunton, Jack E; Lloyd-Smith, Robert; Woollard, Robert; Regan, William; Clement, D B

    2009-01-01

    It is estimated that knee injuries account for up to 60% of all sport injuries, with the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) accounting for almost half of these knee injuries. These knee injuries can result in high healthcare costs, as an ACL injury is often associated with surgery, long and costly rehabilitation, differing degrees of impairment and potential long-term consequences such as osteoarthritis. The interest in ACL injury prevention has been extensive for the past decade. Over this period, many ACL (intrinsic and extrinsic) injury risk factors have been identified and investigated by numerous researchers. Although prevention programmes have shown potential in decreasing knee ligament injuries, several researchers have suggested that no conclusive evidence has been presented in reducing the rate and/or severity of ACL injuries during sporting competition. Knee braces have been available for the last 30 years and have been used to assist individuals with ACL-deficient and ACL-reconstructed knees. However, research is limited on the use of knee braces (prophylactic and functional) to potentially prevent knee ligament injury in the non-injured population. One possible explanation for the limited research could be that the use of these devices has raised concerns of decreased or impaired athletic performance. In summary, the review of subjective and some objective publications suggests that a functional knee brace may offer stability to an ACL-deficient knee joint; however, research is limited on the use of a knee brace for prophylactic use in non-injured athletes. The limited research could be a result of fear of performance hindrance that has led to poor knee brace compliance.

  10. Electromyographic analysis of anterior cruciate deficient knees with and without functional bracing during lunge exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Maryam; Farahmand, Farzam; Rezaeian, Tahmineh; Ramsey, Daniel K; Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad Ebrahim

    2016-04-01

    The use of functional knee braces for returning to sports or during demanding activities following anterior cruciate ligament rupture is common; yet despite being commonly prescribed, its mechanism of action remains unknown. To examine the effect of functional knee braces on mean muscle activity when performing lunge exercises. Pre-/post-test (within-subject research design). A total of 10 male participants with unilateral isolated anterior cruciate ligament deficiency participated. Electromyographic activities of six muscles around the knee were recorded during lunge exercises, with and without wearing a custom functional knee brace. The lunge cycle movement was subdivided into three phases: eccentric, isometric, and concentric. The quadriceps and hamstrings were no different in the braced and unbraced conditions. When braced, the mean amplitude of the medial gastrocnemius was significantly lower throughout the whole movement (p = 0.01) and during the concentric (p = 0.006) and eccentric (p = 0.028) phases, but not within the isometric phase. The lateral gastrocnemius was found to have lower mean amplitude in the isometric phase (p = 0.044). With its origin on the medial femoral condyle, perhaps reduced medial gastrocnemius activity may better guide knee rotation and assist the joint achieving a healthier kinematic pattern. Lower medial gastrocnemius activity may facilitate lower medial compartment contact pressure, for which greater loading is known to increase the risk of osteoarthritis in anterior cruciate ligament-deficient (ACLD) knees. However, further research is needed. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  11. An objective measurement of brace usage for the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Edmond; Hill, Doug; Hedden, Douglas; Mahood, Jim; Moreau, Marc; Raso, Jim

    2011-04-01

    Effectiveness of orthotic treatment for scoliosis depends on how much time and how well the orthosis is worn. Questionnaires and clinical judgment are subjective methods to wear compliance. Even though using a temperature sensor can objectively record how long the orthosis has been used, it may not be able to answer the orthosis effectiveness without knowing the wear tightness. Custom made thoracolumbosacral orthoses (TLSO) were instrumented with low power wireless data acquisition systems to measure the time and loads imposed by the pressure pad during daily activities. Force measurements were recorded at 1 sample/min and the system was able to record data up to 4 months without patient-involvement. Ten subjects (9F, 1M), age between 9 and 13.5 years, average 11.6±1.3 years, who prescribed a new TLSO and full-time brace wear were took part in this study over 4.4±1.0 months. Long-term logging of loads within a spinal orthosis is a reliable method to measure compliance objectively. The monthly quantity of brace wear ranged from 33% to 82%, average 60.0±4.3%. The monthly average loads imposed by the pressure pads varied from 39% to 78% relative to the reference level, average 64.3±4.6%. There was a statistically significant decrease in force, but increase in wear time over the period after the brace fitting session. This information may help to better understand the effectiveness of bracing and to predict the brace treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2010 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A specific scoliosis classification correlating with brace treatment: description and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villagrasa Mónica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal classification systems for scoliosis which were developed to correlate with surgical treatment historically have been used in brace treatment as well. Previously, there had not been a scoliosis classification system developed specifically to correlate with brace design and treatment. The purpose of this study is to show the intra- and inter- observer reliability of a new scoliosis classification system correlating with brace treatment. Methods An original classification system ("Rigo Classification" was developed in order to define specific principles of correction required for efficacious brace design and fabrication. The classification includes radiological as well as clinical criteria. The radiological criteria are utilized to differentiate five basic types of curvatures including: (I imbalanced thoracic (or three curves pattern, (II true double (or four curve pattern, (III balanced thoracic and false double (non 3 non 4, (IV single lumbar and (V single thoracolumbar. In addition to the radiological criteria, the Rigo Classification incorporates the curve pattern according to SRS terminology, the balance/imbalance at the transitional point, and L4-5 counter-tilting. To test the intra-and inter-observer reliability of the Rigo Classification, three observers (1 MD, 1 PT and 1 CPO measured (and one of them, the MD, re-measured 51 AP radiographs including all curvature types. Results The intra-observer Kappa value was 0.87 (acceptance >0.70. The inter-observer Kappa values fluctuated from 0.61 to 0.81 with an average of 0.71 (acceptance > 0.70. Conclusions A specific scoliosis classification which correlates with brace treatment has been proposed with an acceptable intra-and inter-observer reliability.

  13. An effect of the epicondilar brace and tape on hand clutch power which is measured by a manual dynamometer

    OpenAIRE

    Kindlová, Alena

    2010-01-01

    Thesis title: An effect of the epicondilar brace and tape on hand clutch power which is measured by a manual dynamometer Name: Alena Kindlová The aim of the thesis: The goal of my thesis is to find out the effect of the epicondilar brace and tape which these two have on maximal muscular power of a dominant upper limb while clutching the hand. This is measured by a manual dynamometer. Their effect hasn't been clarified yet. The epicondilar brace and taping are used as a part of a conservative ...

  14. [Influence of Ankle Braces on the Prevalence of Ankle Inversion Injuries in the Swiss Volleyball National League A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, J; Kneubühler, S; Rogan, S

    2016-06-01

    Ankle inversion is a common injury among volleyball players. The injury rate during a game is 2.1 times higher than during training. As a result, the preventive use of ankle braces is frequently observed in Swiss volleyball leagues. Studies have shown that ankle braces have a preventive effect on the prevalence of ankle inversion. In Switzerland there has been no investigation into the preventive use of braces and their influence on prevalence. For this reason, the goals of this study are 1) to determine when, why and by whom ankle braces are worn and 2) to evaluate the injury rate of users and non-users of ankle braces. A modified questionnaire was sent to 18 men's and women's teams of the Swiss National League A. The questionnaire included questions about injury rates and the circumstances of ankle inversion injuries. The data were statistically analysed with Microsoft Excel 2012 and SPSS Version 20. The overall response rate was 61 %, allowing data from 181 players to be analysed. 33 % (59 of 181) of the players used an ankle brace. There was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of ankle inversion between users (12 injured) and non-users (8 injured) (p = 0.006). Wearing an ankle brace during training or during a game made no difference in the prevention of injuries (p = 0.356). More athletes were injured during training (n = 13) than during a game (n = 7). The results of the present study indicate that volleyball players preferably wear ankle braces to prevent injury. More than one third of the players in the study wore an ankle brace, 60 % for primary prevention and 40 % for secondary prevention due to a previous injury. The study shows that significantly more users than non-users of ankle braces were injured. This is contrary to literature. Furthermore it was shown that more injuries occur during training than during a game. This finding results from the fact that ankle braces were rarely worn during training. It is

  15. Structures and photoluminescence of another crown-typed polyoxotungstoeuropate [H{sub 2}O-bar {l_brace}Eu(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}{r_brace}{sub 2}{l_brace}Eu(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(AsW{sub 9}O{sub 33}){r_brace}{sub 4}]{sup x-} in the presence of Na{sup +} or Ca{sup 2+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukaya, Keisuke [Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST), 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi 332-3312 (Japan); Yamase, Toshihiro [Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan) and Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST), 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi 332-3312 (Japan)]. E-mail: tyamase@res.titech.ac.jp

    2006-02-09

    Two novel polyoxotungstoeuropates [H{sub 2}O-bar {l_brace}Eu{sub n}Na{sub 1-n}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}{r_brace}{sub 2}{l_brace}Eu(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(AsW{sub 9}O{sub 33}){r_brace}{sub 4}]{sup 21-} (n=1/4) 1a and [H{sub 2}O-bar {l_brace}Eu{sub n}Ca{sub 1-n}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}{r_brace}{sub 2}{l_brace}Eu{sub n}Ca{sub 1-n}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(AsW{sub 9}O{sub 33}){r_brace}{sub 4}]{sup 20-} (n=2/3) 2a were formed by the reaction of {alpha}-B-[AsW{sub 9}O{sub 33}]{sup 9-} and Eu{sup 3+} with Na{sup +} or Ca{sup 2+} as the counter cation. Na{sub 18}H{sub 3}[H{sub 2}O-bar {l_brace}Eu{sub n}Na{sub 1-n}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}{r_brace}{sub 2}{l_brace}Eu(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(AsW{sub 9}O{sub 33}){r_brace}{sub 4}].48H{sub 2}O (n=1/4) 1 crystallized in the tetragonal space group P4/ncc, with a=28.82(2)A, c=26.45(2)A, V=21974(23)A{sup 3} and Z=4, while Ca{sub 9}Na{sub 2}[H{sub 2}O-bar {l_brace}Eu{sub n}Ca{sub 1-n}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}{r_brace}{sub 2}{l_brace}Eu{sub n}Ca{sub 1-n}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(AsW{sub 9}O{sub 33}){r_brace}{sub 4}].63H{sub 2}O (n=2/3) 2 crystallized in the triclinic space group P1-bar , with a=14.27(1)A, b=20.26(2)A, c=20.54(2)A, {alpha}=81.69(3){sup o}, {beta}=86.10(3){sup o}, {gamma}=72.93(3){sup o}, V=5613(7)A{sup 3} and Z=1. These anion structures consisted of tetramer of L-shaped units [Eu(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(AsW{sub 9}O{sub 33})]{sup 6-} with water molecules encapsulated in the center. Interestingly, these tetramers also contained an apical attachment of two square-antiprismatic Eu{sup 3+} centers each of which is coordinated by one bridging O atom for each [AsW{sub 9}O{sub 33}]{sup 9-} ligand and four aqua molecules. These apical Eu atoms had different coordination environments from Eu atom in L-shaped unit, and were disordered together with Na atoms with a quarter occupancy of Eu for 1, while all the Eu atoms together with Ca atoms with a 2/3 occupancy of Eu for 2. The photoluminescence spectra, excitation spectra and lifetimes for these two complexes were discussed based on

  16. Bracing can partially limit tibial rotation during stressful activities after anterior crucial ligament reconstruction with a hamstring graft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giotis, D; Paschos, N K; Zampeli, F; Pappas, E; Mitsionis, G; Georgoulis, A D

    2016-01-01

    ... during rehabilitation period is required. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of knee bracing on tibial rotation in ACL-reconstructed patients with a hamstring autograft during high loading activities...

  17. Enhanced performance of {l_brace}0 0 1{r_brace} facets dominated mesoporous TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst composed of high-reactive nanocrystals and mesoporous spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Wei [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Orient Chemical Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China); Lu Chunhua, E-mail: lchnjut@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Orient Chemical Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China); Ni Yaru; Peng Fengping [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Orient Chemical Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China); Xu Zhongzi, E-mail: xzznjut@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Orient Chemical Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mesoporous {l_brace}0 0 1{r_brace} facets dominated TiO{sub 2} sheets were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High reactive nanocrystals and mesoporous spheres were introduced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High specific surface area was obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The role of N and F species were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The superior structure is very favorable for photocatalysis. - Abstract: {l_brace}0 0 1{r_brace} facets dominated mesoporous anatase TiO{sub 2} sheets composed of mesoporous spheres and high reactive nanocrystals with exposed {l_brace}0 0 1{r_brace} facets were synthesized successfully with NH{sub 4}F as the capping agent by the hydrothermal and heat treatment method. The photocatalyst exhibits a high specific surface area and a higher photocatalytic activity than Degussa P25 and pure TiO{sub 2} nanosheets in the degradation of organic dyes under UV irradiation.

  18. Fabrication of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} films on {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}<1 1 0> textured Ag tapes by MOD process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, N.J.; Doi, T.; Hakuraku, Y.; Kashima, N.; Nagaya, S

    2004-10-01

    The YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} films were prepared on polycrystalline {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}<1 1 0> textured Ag substrates without any buffer layers using a MOD (metal organic deposition) method in various heat treatment condition. The Y:Ba:Cu cation ratio of the precursor solution was 1:2.6:4.5 molar ratio. The deficient of a Cu element was observed in the films prepared under a low oxygen partial pressure (p(O{sub 2})=0.0002 atm). The amount of Cu element was decreased with increasing the annealing temperature. From X-ray pole figure measurements, we confirmed a weak biaxial crystal orientation in the YBCO films prepared on a {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}<1 1 0> textured polycrystalline Ag substrates at 900 deg. C for 2.5 h in air. On the polycrystalline {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}<1 1 0> textured Ag substrates, the observed epitaxial relationship with YBCO lattice is <1 1 0> YBCO parallel <1 1 0> Ag.

  19. Influence of functional knee bracing on the isokinetic and functional tests of anterior cruciate ligament deficient patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortaza, Niyousha; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Jamshidi, Ali Ashraf; Razjouyan, Javad

    2013-01-01

    Use of functional knee braces has been suggested to provide protection and to improve kinetic performance of the knee in Anterior cruciate ligament(ACL)-injured patients. However, many athletes might refrain from wearing the braces because of the fear of performance hindrance in the playing field. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of three functional knee brace/sleeves upon the isokinetic and functional performance of ACL-deficient and healthy subjects. Six anterior cruciate ligament deficient (29.0 ± 5.3 yrs., 175.2 ± 5.4 cm, and 73.0 ± 10.0 kg) and six healthy male subjects (27.2 ± 3.7 yrs., 176.4 ± 6.4 cm, and 70.3 ± 6.9 kg) were selected. The effect of a custom-made functional knee brace, and two neoprene knee sleeves, one with four metal supports and one without support were examined via the use of isokinetic and functional tests in four sets (non-braced,wearing functional knee brace,and wearing the sleeves). Cross-over hop and single leg vertical jump test were performed and jump height, and hop distance were recorded. Peak torque to body weight ratio and average power in two isokinetic velocities(60°.s(-1),180°.s(-1)) were recorded and the brace/sleeves effect was calculated as the changes in peak torque measured in the brace/sleeves conditions, expressed as a percentage of peak torque measured in non-braced condition. Frequency content of the isokinetic torque-time curves was also analyzed. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the measured values in four test conditions within each control and ACL-deficient group,and Mann-Whitney U test was used for the comparison between the two groups. No significant differences in peak torque, average power, torque-time curve frequency content, vertical-jump and hop measurements were found within the experimental and the non-braced conditions (p>0.05). Although the examined functional knee brace/sleeves had no significant effect on the knee muscle performance, there have been some

  20. Influence of functional knee bracing on the isokinetic and functional tests of anterior cruciate ligament deficient patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyousha Mortaza

    Full Text Available Use of functional knee braces has been suggested to provide protection and to improve kinetic performance of the knee in Anterior cruciate ligament(ACL-injured patients. However, many athletes might refrain from wearing the braces because of the fear of performance hindrance in the playing field. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of three functional knee brace/sleeves upon the isokinetic and functional performance of ACL-deficient and healthy subjects. Six anterior cruciate ligament deficient (29.0 ± 5.3 yrs., 175.2 ± 5.4 cm, and 73.0 ± 10.0 kg and six healthy male subjects (27.2 ± 3.7 yrs., 176.4 ± 6.4 cm, and 70.3 ± 6.9 kg were selected. The effect of a custom-made functional knee brace, and two neoprene knee sleeves, one with four metal supports and one without support were examined via the use of isokinetic and functional tests in four sets (non-braced,wearing functional knee brace,and wearing the sleeves. Cross-over hop and single leg vertical jump test were performed and jump height, and hop distance were recorded. Peak torque to body weight ratio and average power in two isokinetic velocities(60°.s(-1,180°.s(-1 were recorded and the brace/sleeves effect was calculated as the changes in peak torque measured in the brace/sleeves conditions, expressed as a percentage of peak torque measured in non-braced condition. Frequency content of the isokinetic torque-time curves was also analyzed. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the measured values in four test conditions within each control and ACL-deficient group,and Mann-Whitney U test was used for the comparison between the two groups. No significant differences in peak torque, average power, torque-time curve frequency content, vertical-jump and hop measurements were found within the experimental and the non-braced conditions (p>0.05. Although the examined functional knee brace/sleeves had no significant effect on the knee muscle performance, there have been

  1. Effect of K?nes?otap?ng and Knee Brace on Funct?onal Performance in Recreat?onal Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Ulusoy, Burak; ?ldiz, B?lent; Tunay, Volga Bayrak??

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Kinesiotaping is a popular taping method that is used for both therapeutic and performance enchancement purposes. Knee braces are widely used for prevention in sport injuries but their performance effectiveness is still controversial. The aim of this study was to determine whether kinesiotape or brace was more effective on functional performance. Methods: A total twenty male recreational football players (Mean?Standart Deviation (SD) age: 22.5?0.68 years, height: 175.15?3.37 cm, b...

  2. The effect of valgus braces on medial compartment load of the knee joint - in vivo load measurements in three subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, Ines; Küther, Steffen; Heinlein, Bernd; Dymke, Jörn; Bender, Alwina; Halder, Andreas M; Bergmann, Georg

    2011-04-29

    Knee osteoarthritis occurs predominately at the medial compartment. To unload the affected compartment, valgus braces are used which induce an additional valgus moment in order to shift the load more laterally. Until now the biomechanical effect of braces was mainly evaluated by measuring changes in external knee adduction moments. The aim of this study was to investigate if and to which extent the medial compartment load is reduced in vivo when wearing valgus braces. Six components of joint contact load were measured in vivo in three subjects, using instrumented, telemeterized knee implants. From the forces and moments the medio-lateral force distribution was calculated. Two braces, MOS Genu (Bauerfeind AG) and Genu Arthro (Otto Bock) were investigated in neutral, 4° and 8° valgus adjustment during walking, stair ascending and descending. During walking with the MOS brace in 4°/8° valgus adjustment, medial forces were reduced by 24%/30% on average at terminal stance. During walking with the GA in the 8° valgus position, medial forces were reduced by only 7%. During stair ascending/descending significant reductions of 26%/24% were only observed with the MOS (8°). The load reducing ability of the two investigated valgus braces was confirmed in three subjects. However, the load reduction depends on the brace stiffness and its valgus adjustment and varies strongly inter-individually. Valgus adjustments of 8° might, especially with the MOS brace, not be tolerated by patients for a long time. Medial load reductions of more than 25% can therefore probably not be expected in clinical practise. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Unloading knee brace is a cost-effective method to bridge and delay surgery in unicompartmental knee arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Paul YF; Winfield, Thomas G; Harris, Shaun RS; Storey, Emerald; Chandratreya, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Background Unloading knee braces can provide good short-term pain relief for some patients with unicompartmental osteoarthritis (UOA). Their cost is relatively small compared with surgical interventions. However, no previous studies have reported their use over a duration of 5 years or more. Methods Up to 8 years of prospective data were collected from 63 patients who presented with UOA. After conservative management with analgesia and physiotherapy, patients were offered an unloading brace. ...

  4. Effect of an anterior-sloped brace joint on anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation: a motion analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeow, C H; Gan, W L; Lee, P V S; Goh, J C H

    2010-12-01

    Anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation are major biomechanical factors involved in anterior cruciate ligament injuries. This study sought to evaluate a brace prototype designed with an anterior-sloped joint, in terms of its efficacy in attenuating anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation during landing, using a motion analysis approach. Ten healthy male subjects performed single-leg landing tasks from a 0.6-m height with and without the brace prototype. Ground reaction force and kinematics data were obtained using a motion-capture system and force-plates. Anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation were determined based on tibial and femoral marker reference frames. Vertical and anterior-posterior ground reaction forces, hip, knee and ankle joint range-of-motions and angular velocities, anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation were compared between unbraced and braced conditions using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. We found no significant difference in peak vertical and anterior-posterior ground reaction forces (p=0.770 and p=0.332 respectively) between unbraced and braced conditions. Knee joint range-of-motion and angular velocity were lower (p=0.037 and p=0.038 respectively) for braced condition than unbraced condition. Anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation were reduced (p=0.027 and p=0.006 respectively) in braced condition, compared to unbraced condition. The anterior-sloped brace joint helps to attenuate anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation present in the knee joint during landing. It is necessary to test the brace prototype in a sporting population with realistic sports landing situations in order to assess its effectiveness in lowering anterior cruciate ligament injury risk. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A knee brace alters patella position in patellofemoral osteoarthritis: a study using weight bearing magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, M J; Guney, H; Reeves, N D; Bailey, D; Doslikova, K; Maganaris, C N; Hodgson, R; Felson, D T

    2016-12-01

    To assess using weight bearing magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs), whether a patellar brace altered patellar position and alignment in patellofemoral joint (PFJ) osteoarthritis (OA). Subjects age 40-70 years old with symptomatic and a radiographic Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) evidence of PFJOA. Weight bearing knee MRIs with and without a patellar brace were obtained using an upright open 0.25 T scanner (G-Scan, Easote Biomedica, Italy). Five aspects of patellar position were measured: mediolateral alignment by the bisect offset index, angulation by patellar tilt, patellar height by patellar height ratio (patellar length/patellar tendon length), lateral patellofemoral (PF) contact area and finally a measurement of PF bony separation of the lateral patellar facet and the adjacent surface on the femoral trochlea (Fig. 1). Thirty participants were recruited (mean age 57 SD 27.8; body mass index (BMI) 27.8 SD 4.2); 17 were females. Four patients had non-usable data. Main analysis used paired t tests comparing within subject patellar position with and without brace. For bisect offset index, patellar tilt and patellar height ratio there were no significant differences between the brace and no brace conditions. However, the brace increased lateral facet contact area (P = .04) and decreased lateral PF separation (P = .03). A patellar brace alters patellar position and increases contact area between the patella and femoral trochlea. These changes would lower contact stress at the PFJ. Such changes in patella position in weight bearing provide a possible biomechanical explanation for the success of the PFJ brace in clinical trials on PFJOA. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. 'SOSORT consensus paper on brace action: TLSO biomechanics of correction (investigating the rationale for force vector selection)'

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama T; Grivas TB; Weiss HR; Negrini S; Rigo M; Kotwicki T

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The effectiveness of orthotic treatment continues to be controversial in international medical literature due to differences in the reported results and conclusions of various studies. Heterogeneity of the samples has been suggested as a reason for conflicting results. Besides the obvious theoretical differences between the brace concepts, the variability in the technical factors can also explain the contradictory results between same brace types. This paper will investiga...

  7. Initial Cobb angle reduction velocity following bracing as a new predictor for curve progression in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Saihu; Shi, Benlong; Xu, Leilei; Wang, Zhiwei; Hung, Alec Lik Hang; Lam, Tsz Ping; Yu, Fiona Wai Ping; Lee, Kwong Man; Ng, Bobby Kin Wah; Cheng, Jack Chun Yiu; Zhu, Zezhang; Qiu, Yong

    2016-02-01

    The initial correction rate (ICR) has been widely used as a predictor for curve progression in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) undergoing bracing treatment. We proposed a new parameter, the initial Cobb angle reduction velocity (ARV), for prediction of curve progression. The purpose of this study was to identify whether the initial ARV was a more effective predictor than ICR for curve progression in AIS patients undergoing brace treatment, and to evaluate the ideal cut-off point of initial ARV for prediction of curve progression. This was a retrospective cohort study on AIS girls receiving standardized bracing treatment regularly followed up every 3-6 months. Standardized SRS criteria for bracing study were utilized in the case selection. The demographic data, maturity status and Cobb angle of each visit were recorded. The initial ARV and ICR were identified. Patients were divided into progressive (≥6°) and non-progressive (Cobb angle reduction velocity serves as a better predictor for curve progression than initial correction rate in braced AIS patients with follow-up interval of 3-6 months. At the second visit following bracing prescription, those AIS patients with reduction velocity in Cobb angle lower than 10°/year have significantly higher risk of curve progression.

  8. [Clinical relevance of unloading in cartilage therapy of the knee--shoe insoles, knee braces or additional operative procedure?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, T M; Imhoff, A B; Ateschrang, A; Stöckle, U; Schröter, S

    2015-02-01

    Restoration of a neutral biomechanical environment and reduction of overload is an important factor contributing to the success of any cartilage repair procedure. Reduction of overload can by achieved by so called unloading procedures in order to reduce intraarticular pressure from the repair zone. Unloading can be achieved via loss of weight, wedged shoe insoles, knee braces or via operations such as osteotomies around the knee joint. The cartilage therapy and the concomitant unloading procedure should be adapted to the individual pathology and realistic aims of the patient. Wedged insoles and braces are the least invasive treatment methods. In comparison, however, beneficial effects of braces outline those of laterally wedged heels. Nevertheless long-term compliance with insoles and braces is poor. Concerning braces either because the positive effects of the braces are too small or because the adverse effects are too large. Unloading in the long run may only be achieved through operative procedures. When an osteotomy seems to be too invasive the arthroscopic release of the posterior oblique ligament might be an option. Patients with an intact contralateral chondral status, medium to slight malalignment who want to remain at high activity levels, remain good candidates for unloading osteotomies. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. The Effectiveness of a Functional Knee Brace on Joint-Position Sense in Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Reconstructed Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Dai; LeBlanc, Jessica C; Wooley, Sarah E; Micheli, Lyle J; Kramer, Dennis E

    2016-05-01

    It is estimated that approximately 350,000 individuals undergo anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery in each year in the US. Although ACL-reconstruction surgery and postoperative rehabilitation are successfully completed, deficits in postural control remain prevalent in ACL-reconstructed individuals. In order to assist the lack of balance ability and reduce the risk of retear of the reconstructed ACL, physicians often provide a functional knee brace on the patients' return to physical activity. However, it is not known whether use of the functional knee brace enhances knee-joint position sense in individuals with ACL reconstruction. Thus, the effect of a functional knee brace on knee-joint position sense in an ACL-reconstructed population needs be critically appraised. After systematically review of previously published literature, 3 studies that investigated the effect of a functional knee brace in ACL-reconstructed individuals using joint-position-sense measures were found. They were rated as level 2b evidence in the Centre of Evidence Based Medicine Level of Evidence chart. Synthesis of the reviewed studies indicated inconsistent evidence of a functional knee brace on joint-position improvement after ACL reconstruction. More research is needed to provide sufficient evidence on the effect of a functional knee brace on joint-position sense after ACL reconstruction. Future studies need to measure joint-position sense in closed-kinetic-chain fashion since ACL injury usually occurs under weight-bearing conditions.

  10. The Study of Prophylactic Knee Braces Efficacy on Strain Reduction on the Medial Collateral Ligament in Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Yavarikia

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The most frequent site of injury in football is the knee. In this study the value of prophylactic knee braces in reduction of MCL injuries was evaluated.Materials & Methods: In this prospective cohort study we evaluated 11480 athlete-exposure that lasted 30 minutes. After the explanation of study method to coaches and athlete we gave them two kind of study questionnaires. After data collection we analyzed data with SPSS 10.Results: In this study 149 injuries happened out of which. 28 were knee injuries (21 in unbraced athletes and 7 in braced athletes (P=0.21 and 23 were knee ligamentous injuries (16 in unbraced athletes and 7 in braced athletes (P=0.662. There were 16 MCL injuries (11 in unbraced athletes and 5 in braced athletes. The relative risk in this study was 0.454. We evaluated the severity of ligamnetous injury and there was no significant difference between the two groups (P=0.5.Conclusion: In conclusion in this study we found that the prophylactic knee braces had no positive effect in prevention of knee injuries. Some epidemiological studies with large samples and longer period should be designed to discover the real effect of these braces in knee injuries prevention.

  11. The effect of a dynamic PCL brace on patellofemoral compartment pressures in PCL-and PCL/PLC-deficient knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Tyler; Keller, Thomas; Maldonado, Ruben; Metzger, Melodie; Mohr, Karen; Kvitne, Ronald

    2017-12-01

    The natural history of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) deficiency includes the development of arthrosis in the patellofemoral joint (PFJ). The purpose of this biomechanical study was to evaluate the hypothesis that dynamic bracing reduces PFJ pressures in PCL- and combined PCL/posterolateral corner (PLC)-deficient knees. Controlled Laboratory Study. Eight fresh frozen cadaveric knees with intact cruciate and collateral ligaments were included. PFJ pressures and force were measured using a pressure mapping system via a lateral arthrotomy at knee flexion angles of 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120° in intact, PCL-deficient, and PCL/PLC-deficient knees under a combined quadriceps/hamstrings load of 400 N/200 N. Testing was then repeated in PCL- and PCL/PLC-deficient knees after application of a dynamic PCL brace. Application of a dynamic PCL brace led to a reduction in peak PFJ pressures in PCL-deficient knees. In addition, the brace led to a significant reduction in peak pressures in PCL/PLC-deficient knees at 60°, 90°, and 120° of flexion. Application of the dynamic brace also led to a reduction in total PFJ force across all flexion angles for both PCL- and PCL/PLC-deficient knees. Dynamic bracing reduces PFJ pressures in PCL- and combined PCL/PLC-deficient knees, particularly at high degrees of knee flexion.

  12. Quantification of functional brace forces for posterior cruciate ligament injuries on the knee joint: an in vivo investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPrade, Robert F; Smith, Sean D; Wilson, Katharine J; Wijdicks, Coen A

    2015-10-01

    Counteracting posterior translation of the tibia with an anterior force on the posterior proximal tibia has been demonstrated clinically to improve posterior knee laxity following posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury. This study quantified forces applied to the posterior proximal tibia by two knee braces designed for treatment of PCL injuries. The forces applied by two knee braces to the posterior proximal tibia and in vivo three-dimensional knee kinematics of six adult, male, healthy volunteer subjects (mean ± standard deviation: height, 182.5 ± 5.2 cm; body mass, 83.2 ± 9.3 kg; body mass index, 24.9 ± 1.5 kg/m(2); age, 25.8 ± 2.9 years) were measured using a custom pressure mapping technique and traditional surface marker motion capture techniques, while subjects performed three functional activities. The activities included seated unloaded knee flexion, squatting, and stair descent in a new generation dynamic force (DF) PCL brace and a static force (SF) PCL brace. During unloaded flexion at the lowest force level setting, the force applied by the DF brace increased as a function of flexion angle (slope = 0.7 N/°; p brace effect. Force applied by the SF brace did not significantly change as a function of flexion angle (slope = 0.0 N/°; n.s.). By 45° of flexion, the average force applied by the DF brace (48.1 N) was significantly larger (p brace (25.0 N). The difference in force continued to increase as flexion angle increased. During stair descent, average force (mean ± standard deviation) at toe off was significantly higher (p = 0.013) for the DF brace (78.7 ± 21.6 N) than the SF brace (37.3 ± 7.2 N). Similar trends were observed for squatting and for the higher force level settings. The DF brace applied forces to the posterior proximal tibia that dynamically increased with increased flexion angle. Additionally, the DF brace applied significantly larger forces at higher flexion angles compared to the SF brace

  13. Seismic Performance and Ice-Induced Vibration Control of Offshore Platform Structures Based on the ISO-PFD-SMA Brace System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigang Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pall-typed frictional damper (PFD has higher capacity of energy dissipation, whereas shape memory alloy (SMA has excellent superelastic performance. Therefore, combining PFD and SMA together as a brace system has a great prospect in vibration control of structures. This paper investigates the performance of offshore platform with three structural configurations including the SMA brace system, the ISO-SMA (where ISO stands for isolation brace system, and the ISO-PFD-SMA brace system, which are subjected to seismic and ice-induced excitations. In this study, PFD-SMA brace system is installed on the isolation layer of jacket platform, which is under earthquake excitations and ice loading. Then, the reduction of vibration is evaluated by using ANSYS program. The results show that the PFD-SMA brace system is useful in reducing the seismic response and ice-induced response of offshore platform structures; meanwhile, it also demonstrates excellent energy dissipation and hysteretic behavior.

  14. Seismic design of steel structures with lead-extrusion dampers as knee braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    monir, Habib Saeed; Naser, Ali

    2008-07-01

    One of the effective methods in decreasing the seismic response of structure against dynamic loads due to earthquake is using energy dissipating systems. Lead-extrusion dampers (LED)are one of these systems that dissipate energy in to one lead sleeve because of steel rod movement. Hysteresis loops of these dampers are approximately rectangular and acts independent from velocity in frequencies that are in the seismic frequency rang. In this paper lead dampers are considered as knee brace in steel frames and are studied in an economical view. Considering that lead dampers don't clog structural panels, so this characteristic can solve brace problems from architectural view. The behavior of these dampers is compared with the other kind of dampers such as XADAS and TADAS. The results indicate that lead dampers act properly in absorbing the induced energy due to earthquake and good function in controlling seismic movements of multi-story structures

  15. Effectiveness of an indirect bonding technique in reducing plaque accumulation around braces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalessandri, Domenico; Dalessandri, Michela; Bonetti, Stefano; Visconti, Luca; Paganelli, Corrado

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate if the use of an indirect braces bonding protocol for localized enamel etching and adhesive application could help reduce plaque accumulation and demineralization around the brackets compared with a conventional direct-bonding technique. Thirty patients were bonded with a split-mouth approach: two randomly selected opposite quadrants were used as the test sides and the other two as control sides. During the first 6 months, the plaque presence around the braces was recorded monthly according to a plaque accumulation index (PAI), as was the presence of demineralization. PAI values were measured at each of the four bracket sides for every bonded tooth. Analysis of variance was used to identify significant differences between different bracket margins and between test and control sides. Test and control sides differed significantly for PAI measurements from t(1) (1 month after bonding) to t(4) (4 months after bonding), with the highest value of significance (P orthodontic treatment.

  16. Closed fractures of the proximal tibia treated with a functional brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alberto; Sarmiento, Augusto; Latta, Loren L

    2003-12-01

    It generally is agreed that fractures of the proximal tibia, when treated with intramedullary nails, are more likely to present technical difficulties and to be associated with an increased rate of complications. This study reports on 108 closed fractures located in the proximal third of the tibia that were treated with functional braces. Nonunion occurred in 2.7% of the patients; the final displacement and shortening averaged 20% and 3.5 mm, respectively. Eighty-eight percent of the fractures healed with less than 6 degrees of angular deformity. It seems that functional braces for closed fractures of the tibia, located in its proximal third, are a viable therapeutic approach that offers satisfactory clinical and radiographic results in a high percentage of instances.

  17. Ground reaction force in basketball cutting maneuvers with and without ankle bracing and taping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel de Camargo Neves Sacco

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: In basketball, the most common injuries are ankle sprains. For this reason, players frequently use external ankle devices or taping as prophylactic and rehabilitation measures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate ground reaction force (GRF responses in basketball players while performing typical cutting maneuvers with and without ankle bracing and ankle taping. DESIGN AND SETTING: Comparative study with experimental design of single-group repeated measurements, at Medical Rehabilitation Division, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: Vertical (Fy and medial-lateral (Fz GRF measurements were made under three conditions (taping, Aircast-type orthosis and basketball shoes alone, with analysis of peak forces at foot contact (Fymax1, Fzmax1, Fymax2 and Fzmax2, growth gradient (peak/time (GG Fymax1, GG Fzmax1, GG Fymax2 and GG Fzmax2 and impulse after foot contact. RESULTS: Bracing significantly reduced Fymax2 and GG Fymax2. GG Fzmax1 was significantly higher for the sport shoe condition than for the taping condition. Taping increased Fy in relation to the sport shoe at foot contact, but over a longer time interval, without increasing excessive ankle loading. Fz reached a peak in less time, which might generate greater inversion/eversion loading on a player's foot. The Aircast exerted better shock-absorbing effect than did the other two conditions, since it generated less vertical force over longer time intervals and smaller medial-lateral forces in relation to taping. CONCLUSIONS: Ankle bracing and ankle taping action mechanisms are still unclear and therefore should be carefully prescribed. More studies are needed to clarify taping and bracing effects on sporting activities.

  18. Effect of abdominal bracing training on strength and power of trunk and lower limb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayashiki, Kota; Maeo, Sumiaki; Usui, Seiji; Miyamoto, Naokazu; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2016-09-01

    It is unknown whether maximal voluntary co-contraction of abdominal muscles, called abdominal bracing, can be a training maneuver for improving strength and power of trunk and lower limb muscles. The present study aimed to elucidate this. Twenty young adult men (23.3 ± 1.8 years) were allocated to training (TG, n = 11) or control (CG, n = 9) group. TG conducted an 8-week training program (3 days/week) consisting of 2-s maximal abdominal bracing followed by 2-s muscle relaxation (5 × 10 repetitions/day). Maximal voluntary isometric strength during trunk flexion and extension, hip extension, and knee extension, maximal lifting power from sitting position, and the thicknesses of abdominal muscles were measured before and after the intervention. In addition, surface electromyograms from trunk and lower limb muscles and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) during the maximal abdominal bracing and maximal lifting tasks were also determined. After the intervention, TG showed significant increases in isometric trunk extension (+14.4 %) and hip extension (+34.7 %) strength and maximal lifting power (+15.6 %), while CG did not show any changes in strength and power variables. Furthermore, TG had significant gains in the muscle thickness of the oblique internal (+22.4 %), maximal IAP during abdominal bracing (+36.8 %), and the rate of IAP rise during lifting task (+58.8 %), without corresponding changes in CG. The current study indicates that a training style with maximal voluntary co-contraction of abdominal muscles can be an effective maneuver for increasing strength and power during movements involving trunk and hip extensions, without using external load.

  19. The effect of ankle bracing on landing biomechanics in female netballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-Mackay, Anna Ruth; Whatman, Chris; Reid, Duncan; Lorimer, Anna

    2016-07-01

    Investigate the impact of lace-up ankle braces on landing biomechanics. Within-subject repeated measures. Participants completed a drop jump, drop land, and netball-specific task in braced and unbraced conditions. Biomechanical research laboratory. Twenty female high school netballers. Leg, knee, and ankle stiffness, knee/ankle stiffness ratio, knee and ankle sagittal excursion, peak vertical ground reaction force, time-to-peak vertical ground reaction force, and loading rate. In the brace condition leg stiffness increased bilaterally during the drop land (ES = 0.21, 0.22), ankle stiffness increased bilaterally during the drop jump (ES = 0.37, 0.29) and drop land (ES = 0.40, 0.60), and knee/ankle stiffness ratio decreased in all three tasks (ES = -0.22 to -0.45). Ankle sagittal excursion decreased bilaterally during the drop jump (ES = -0.35, -0.53) and drop land (ES = -0.23, -0.46), and decreased in the lead limb during the netball jump (ES = -0.36). Knee excursion decreased bilaterally during the drop jump (ES = -0.36, -0.40) and in the lead limb during netball task (ES = -0.59). Lead limb TTP was greater during the netball jump (ES = 0.41). Lace-up ankle braces may increase leg and joint stiffness and reduce joint excursion during landing but do not appear to affect landing forces. The observed effect on landing biomechanics may predispose young netballers to injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Bracing of High-Rise Buildings upon their Static and Dynamic Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivánková Oľga

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes effects of bracing of high-rise buildings upon their static and dynamic behaviour. In static and dynamic analyses, values of displacement for 4 different variants of stiffening elements distribution were calculated. The calculations were made for building both fixed into the ground and rested on elastic supports. The building was modelled as a 3D variant using Finite Element Method (FEM in program Scia Engineer.

  1. Clinical effect of continuous corrective force delivery in the non-operative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis: a prospective cohort study of the triac-brace

    OpenAIRE

    Bulthuis, Gerben J.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.; Nijenbanning, Gert

    2007-01-01

    A prospective cohort study of skeletally immature idiopathic scoliotic patients treated with the TriaC brace. To determine if the TriaC brace is effective in preventing curve progression in immature adolescent idiopathic scoliotic patients with a very high risk of curve progression based on reported natural history data. The aim of the newly introduced TriaC brace is to reverse the pathologic transverse force pattern by externally applied and continuously present orthotic forces. In the front...

  2. The Effect of Abdominal Bracing in Combination with Low Extremity Movements on Changes in Thickness of Abdominal Muscles and Lumbar Strength for Low Back Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, So Hee; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Byoung Hee

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of abdominal bracing with low extremity movement on changes in thickness of abdominal muscles and lumbar strength. [Subjects] Sixteen patients with chronic low back pain were randomly assigned to two groups: an abdominal bracing with active straight leg raise (ABSLR) group and abdominal bracing with ankle dorsiflexion (ABDF) group. [Methods] All subjects were evaluated for their abdominal muscle strength using a MedX Lumbar Ex...

  3. Light Steel-Timber Frame with Composite and Plaster Bracing Panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotta, Roberto; Trutalli, Davide; Fiorin, Laura; Pozza, Luca; Marchi, Luca; De Stefani, Lorenzo

    2015-11-03

    The proposed light-frame structure comprises steel columns for vertical loads and an innovative bracing system to efficiently resist seismic actions. This seismic force resisting system consists of a light timber frame braced with an Oriented Strand Board (OSB) sheet and an external technoprene plaster-infilled slab. Steel brackets are used as foundation and floor connections. Experimental cyclic-loading tests were conduced to study the seismic response of two shear-wall specimens. A numerical model was calibrated on experimental results and the dynamic non-linear behavior of a case-study building was assessed. Numerical results were then used to estimate the proper behavior factor value, according to European seismic codes. Obtained results demonstrate that this innovative system is suitable for the use in seismic-prone areas thanks to the high ductility and dissipative capacity achieved by the bracing system. This favorable behavior is mainly due to the fasteners and materials used and to the correct application of the capacity design approach.

  4. Light Steel-Timber Frame with Composite and Plaster Bracing Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Scotta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The proposed light-frame structure comprises steel columns for vertical loads and an innovative bracing system to efficiently resist seismic actions. This seismic force resisting system consists of a light timber frame braced with an Oriented Strand Board (OSB sheet and an external technoprene plaster-infilled slab. Steel brackets are used as foundation and floor connections. Experimental cyclic-loading tests were conduced to study the seismic response of two shear-wall specimens. A numerical model was calibrated on experimental results and the dynamic non-linear behavior of a case-study building was assessed. Numerical results were then used to estimate the proper behavior factor value, according to European seismic codes. Obtained results demonstrate that this innovative system is suitable for the use in seismic-prone areas thanks to the high ductility and dissipative capacity achieved by the bracing system. This favorable behavior is mainly due to the fasteners and materials used and to the correct application of the capacity design approach.

  5. Design method of redundancy of brace-anchor sharing supporting based on cooperative deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-yan; Li, Bing; Liu, Yan; Cai, Shan-bing

    2017-11-01

    Because of the complicated environment requirement, the support form of foundation pit is diversified, and the brace-anchor sharing support is widely used. However, the research on the force deformation characteristics and the related aspects of the cooperative response of the brace-anchor sharing support is insufficient. The application of redundancy theory in structural engineering has been more mature, but there is little theoretical research on redundancy theory in underground engineering. Based on the idea of collaborative deformation, the paper calculates the ratio of the redundancy degree of the cooperative deformation by using the local reinforcement design method and the structural component redundancy parameter calculation formula based on Frangopol. Combined with the engineering case, through the calculation of the ratio of cooperative deformation redundancy in the joint of brace-anchor sharing support. This paper explores the optimal anchor distribution form under the condition of cooperative deformation, and through the analysis and research of displacement field and stress field, the results of the collaborative deformation are validated by comparing the field monitoring data. It provides theoretical basis for the design of this kind of foundation pit in the future.

  6. The effect of bracing on proprioception of knees with anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beynnon, Bruce D; Good, Lars; Risberg, May Arna

    2002-01-01

    This paper is a comprehensive review on the effect of bandaging, bracing, and neoprene sleeves on knee proprioception following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstruction with a focus on studies that have measured joint position sense and threshold to detection of passive knee motion. Disruption of the ACL does not appear to alter joint position sense soon after injury, although there is evidence that in some subjects deterioration may occur over time. An ACL tear creates a deficit in the threshold to detection of passive knee motion soon after injury and in those with chronic tears. The magnitude of worsening is less then 1.0 degree of movement in flexion-extension and of questionable concern from a clinical and functional perspective. Application of a functional brace or neoprene sleeve to the ACL-deficient limb does not improve the threshold to detection of passive knee motion; however, application of an elastic bandage to a knee with an ACL tear improves joint position sense. Reconstruction of a torn ACL is associated with a deficit in the threshold to detection of passive knee motion, and during the first year of healing the use of a neoprene sleeve provides improvement. Two years following ACL reconstruction there is no deficit in the threshold to detection of passive knee motion and the use of a brace has no effect on this outcome.

  7. Fractures of the middle third of the tibia treated with a functional brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Augusto; Latta, Loren L

    2008-12-01

    It generally is accepted that fractures of the tibia located in the proximal and distal thirds tend to angulate more than midshaft fractures when treated with intramedullary nails. We therefore compared the angular deformities and final shortening of 434 closed fractures located in the middle third of the tibia treated with a functional brace with those in fractures in the proximal and distal thirds treated in the same manner. Ninety-seven percent in the middle third healed with 8 degrees or less angulation in the mediolateral plane, which was a higher percentage than we had experienced in distal and proximal third fractures treated with this method. Nonunions occurred in four (0.9%) fractures. We found correlations between initial shortening, final shortening, initial displacement, final displacement, and time to brace with initial angulation and final angulation in the mediolateral and anteroposterior planes. The overall mean final shortening of the fractures located in the middle third was 4.3 mm. These experiences suggest satisfactory results can be obtained in most instances using a functional brace for management of closed fractures of the middle third of the tibia. Level II, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  8. Effectiveness of TLSO bracing in the conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Feliberti, R; Flynn, J; Ramirez, N; Trautmann, M; Alegria, M

    1995-01-01

    A clear understanding of the effectiveness of the thoracolumbosacral orthosis (TLSO) as a conservative treatment for idiopathic scoliosis is still necessary. In the past few years, the review of pertinent literature has emphasized the lack of properly matched control studies and erroneous interpretations of results due to the use of univariate analysis. Also, in a previous controlled study evaluating the bracing of idiopathic scoliosis, the researchers mixed different types of braces and patients. Therefore, their findings were not specific to any kind of orthosis. In our study, we responded to these criticisms by providing a homogeneous group of patients with a control group and by conducting a multivariate analysis to assess the effectiveness of the TLSO. All the patients at the University Pediatric Hospital Scoliosis Clinic aged 8 through 15 with initial Cobb's angle between 20 and 40 degrees and evidence of progression were assessed. All the patients who used the TLSO and showed full compliance with treatment (n = 54) were compared with a control group. The control group consisted of the patients who needed the treatment with the brace but did not use it for several reasons (n = 47). Neither group showed significant differences in sex, initial age, initial Cobb's angle, menarche, Risser sign, or curve pattern. The mean follow-up period was 3.3 years after skeletal maturity. The results were analyzed using a multivariate analysis because the natural history of scoliosis is determined by multiple factors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Aeroelasticity of Axially Loaded Aerodynamic Structures for Truss-Braced Wing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Ting, Eric; Lebofsky, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an aeroelastic finite-element formulation for axially loaded aerodynamic structures. The presence of axial loading causes the bending and torsional sitffnesses to change. For aircraft with axially loaded structures such as the truss-braced wing aircraft, the aeroelastic behaviors of such structures are nonlinear and depend on the aerodynamic loading exerted on these structures. Under axial strain, a tensile force is created which can influence the stiffness of the overall aircraft structure. This tension stiffening is a geometric nonlinear effect that needs to be captured in aeroelastic analyses to better understand the behaviors of these types of aircraft structures. A frequency analysis of a rotating blade structure is performed to demonstrate the analytical method. A flutter analysis of a truss-braced wing aircraft is performed to analyze the effect of geometric nonlinear effect of tension stiffening on the flutter speed. The results show that the geometric nonlinear tension stiffening effect can have a significant impact on the flutter speed prediction. In general, increased wing loading results in an increase in the flutter speed. The study illustrates the importance of accounting for the geometric nonlinear tension stiffening effect in analyzing the truss-braced wing aircraft.

  10. Clinical use of a neck brace to improve hands-free speech in laryngectomized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirven, Richard; Kooijman, Piet G C; Wouters, Yannick; Marres, Henri A M

    2012-06-01

    Time of adherence of adhesive baseplate housings to the neck of a laryngectomized patient is one of the main problems that account for the low number of laryngectomy patients who benefit from hands-free speech. An external neck brace (ENB 1.0) was introduced to support peristomal fixation of adhesive baseplates. A prospective randomized controlled clinical cross-over trial. A total of 28 laryngectomy patients participated in this randomized, prospective, crossover trial. All used the Provox hands-free heat and moisture exchanger (HME) valve for 1 month: 2 weeks with an ENB and 2 weeks without. The median lifetime of an adhesive baseplate without a brace was 52.5 minutes versus 210 minutes with a brace (P = .03). Four participants considered the ENB as "a little" bit of a welcome addition, nine as "quite a bit," and six as "very much" (79%) to improve hands-free speech. The ENB significantly increases the lifetime of an adhesive baseplate and therefore contributes to achieving hands-free speech for a greater number of patients with laryngectomy. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. The Effect of Dynamic Hyperextension Brace on Osteoporosis and Hyperkyphosis Reduction in Postmenopausal Osteoporotic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariatzadeh, Hooman; Modaghegh, Bagher Saeed; Mirzaei, Alireza

    2017-05-01

    Osteoporosis and hyperkyphosis could impose a considerable financial and therapeutic burden on the affected society. Thus, new strategies to prevent or manage such complications are of significant importance. Here we evaluate the effect of 'Dynamic Hyperextension Brace' (DHB) on bone density, and hyperkyphosis correction. Sixty postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to the case and control groups and followed for one year. DHB was applied in the case group according to the pre-designed protocol and the patients' clinical and paraclinical parameters, including bone mineral density (BMD), kyphosis angle, osteoporotic fracture, and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were evaluated in two groups. Despite no significant difference in basic BMD and kyphosis between the case and control groups, BMD and kyphosis were significantly improved in the DHB treated group, at the end of the study (P=0.003 and P=0.001, respectively). Serum ALP level was significantly higher in cases compared to the controls (P=0.48). The vertebral fracture rate was also lower in the case group compared to the controls. The efficacy of bracing in osteoporosis and kyphosis management should be more emphasized. However, more detailed and controlled studies with more patients and a longer follow-up period is needed to adequately evaluate the long-term results of braces, including DHB.

  12. A displacement-based approach for determining non-linear effects on pre-tensioned-cable cross-braced structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaccu, Gian Felice; Caracoglia, Luca

    2017-04-01

    Pre-tensioned-cable bracing systems are widely employed in structural engineering to limit lateral deflections and stabilize structures. A suitable configuration of the pre-tensioned-cable bracing systems in a structure is an important issue since the internal force distribution, emerging from the interaction with the existing structure, significantly affects the structural dynamic behavior. The design, however, is often based on the intuition and the previous experience of the engineer. In recent years, the authors have been investigating the non-linear dynamic response of cable systems, installed on cable-stayed bridges, and in particular the so-called ;cable-cross-tie systems; forming a cable network. The bracing cables (cross-ties) can exhibit slackening or snapping. Therefore, a non-linear unilateral model, combined with the taut-cable theory, is required to simulate the incipient slackening conditions in the stays. Capitalizing from this work on non-linear cable dynamics, this paper proposes a new approach to analyze, in laterally- braced truss structures, the unilateral effects and dynamic response accounting for the loss in the pre-tensioning force imparted to the bracing cables. This effect leads to non-linear vibration of the structure. In this preliminary study, the free vibrations of the structure are investigated by using the ;Equivalent Linearization Method;. A performance coefficient, a real positive number between 0.5 and 1.0, is defined and employed to monitor the relative reduction in the apparent stiffness of the braces during structural vibration, ;mode by mode;. It is shown that the system can exhibit alternate unilateral behavior of the cross-braces. A reduction of the performance coefficient close to fifty percent is observed in the braces when the initial pre-tensioning force is small. On the other hand the performance coefficient tends to one in the case of a high level of pre-stress. It is concluded that the performance coefficient may

  13. A randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of functional knee brace and neoprene sleeve use after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham, Trevor B; Bryant, Dianne M; Giffin, J Robert; Litchfield, Robert B; Kramer, John F; Donner, Allan; Fowler, Peter J

    2008-04-01

    Despite a lack of evidence for their effectiveness, functional knee braces are commonly prescribed to patients after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. This trial was conducted to compare postoperative outcomes in patients using an ACL functional knee brace and patients using a neoprene knee sleeve. Patients using a brace will have superior outcomes than those using a sleeve. Randomized controlled clinical trial; Level of evidence, 1. One hundred fifty patients were randomized to receive a brace (n = 76) or neoprene sleeve (n = 74) at their 6-week postoperative visit after primary ACL reconstruction with hamstring autograft. Patients were assessed preoperatively, then 6 weeks and 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. Outcome measures included disease-specific quality of life (Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Quality of Life [ACL-QOL] Questionnaire), anterior tibial translation (KT-1000 arthrometer side-to-side difference), the single-limb forward hop test (limb symmetry index), and Tegner Activity Scale. Outcomes at 1 and 2 years were compared after adjusting for baseline scores. Subjective ratings of how patients felt while using the brace/sleeve were also collected for descriptive purposes using a questionnaire. Four a priori directional subgroup hypotheses were evaluated using tests for interactions. There were no significant differences between brace (n = 62) and sleeve (n = 65) groups for any of the outcomes at 1- and 2-year follow-ups. Adjusted mean differences at 2 years were as follows: -0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI], -7.52 to 5.64) for the ACL-QOL Questionnaire, -0.10 mm (95% CI, -0.99 to 0.81) for KT-1000 arthrometer side-to-side difference, -0.87% (95% CI, -8.89 to 7.12) for hop limb symmetry index, and -0.05 (95% CI, -0.72 to 0.62) for the Tegner Activity Scale. Subjective ratings of confidence in the knee provided by the brace/sleeve were higher for the brace group than the sleeve group. Subgroup findings were minimal. Adverse events were

  14. Effects of a Custom-Made Hinged Knee Brace with Knee Flexion Support for Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    OTA, Susumu; KANAI, AKIRA; TORII, YOSHIYA; TANIYAMA, Hiroyuki; IMAIZUMI, FUMIO; MATSUI, YASUMOTO

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A knee brace for medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) is required to restrict knee adduction moment (KAM), but must not restrict knee flexion during swing phase. There is no report of a knee brace with both functions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the custom-made hinged knee brace for patients with knee OA compared to the hinged knee brace generally used, and to assess the KAM and knee flexion angle during swing phase. Fifteen patients (average age: 71.6 ? 7.8 ...

  15. The immediate effects of tension of counterforce forearm brace on neuromuscular performance of wrist extensor muscles in subjects with lateral humeral epicondylosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, G Y F; Chan, H L

    2004-02-01

    Within-subject repeated-measures study. To examine the immediate effects of counterforce forearm brace on isokinetic strenght stretch reflex, passive stretching pain threshold of the wrist extensors, and proprioception of the wrist in subjects with lateral humeral epicondylosis for different strap tensions of a forearm brace. Counterforce forearm bracing has been used for treating lateral humeral epicondylosis, but the effect of brace tension has not been well reported. Fifteen subjects diagnosed with lateral humeral epicondylosis on their dominant arm were tested under 4 randomized conditions: (1) no brace, (2) brace with minimal tension, (3) brace with 25-N tension, and (4) brace with 50-N tension. The tests included isokinetic wrist extensors strength, passive stretching force in wrist flexion to elicit pain in the wrist extensors, wrist proprioception, and stretch reflex latency of the extensor carpi ulnari. A repeated-measures MANOVA was used to analyze the data and significant results were further analyzed with post hoc linear contrasts (alpha = .05). Among the 4 conditions, significant differences were found in wrist proprioception P = .032) and pain threshold to passive stretching of the wrist extensors (P = .05), but were not found in wrist extension isokinetic strength and stretch reflex latency of the extensor carpi ulnaris. A forearm counterforce brace, as applied in this study, affects wrist joint proprioception and increases the pain threshold to passive stretching of the wrist extensors in subjects with lateral humeral epicondylosis, but it has no effect on wrist extensor strength and stretch reflex latency of the extensor carpi ulnaris.

  16. Treatment of chronic low back pain in patients with spinal deformities using a sagittal re-alignment brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Hans-Rudolf

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For adult scoliosis patients with chronic low back pain bracing is initially indicated before spinal surgery is considered. Until recently there has been a lack of research into the effect upon pain reductions in the mid and long-term. Promising results have been documented in short-term studies for the application of a sagittal re-alignment brace in patients with spinal deformities and along with pain; however mid-term and long-term results are not yet available. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mid-term effects of this brace with respect to pain control. Materials and methods 67 patients (58 females and 9 males with chronic low back pain (> 24 months and the diagnosis of scoliosis or hyperkyphosis were treated with a sagittal re-alignment brace (physio-logic brace™ between January 2006 and July 2007. The indication for this kind of brace treatment was derived from a positive sagittal re-alignment test (SRT and the exclusion of successful conservative treatment during the last 24 months. The aim of this type of conservative intervention was to avoid surgery for chronic low back pain. Results The average pain intensity was measured on the Roland and Morris VRS (5 steps before treatment. This was 3.3 (t1, at the time of brace adjustment it was 2.7 (t2 and after at an average observation time of 18 months it was 2.0 (t3. The differences were highly significant in the Wilcoxon test. Discussion Short-term measurements showed that a significant pain reduction is possible in chronic postural low back pain using a sagittal re-alignment brace inducing lumbar re-lordosation. In a preliminary report at adjustment (t2, highly significant improvements of pain intensity have also been demonstrated. At 6 months of treatment however, no improvement was measured. The improvement of the mid-term effects (18 months found in this study compared to the preliminary report may be due to the changed approach to compliance: whilst

  17. Ankle Bracing, Fatigue, and Time to Stabilization in Collegiate Volleyball Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Megan Y; Gribble, Phillip A; Frye, Jamie L

    2008-01-01

    Context: Fatigue has been shown to disrupt dynamic stability in healthy volunteers. It is not known if wearing prophylactic ankle supports can improve dynamic stability in fatigued athletes. Objective: To determine the type of ankle brace that may be more effective at providing dynamic stability after a jump-landing task during normal and fatigued conditions. Design: Two separate repeated-measures analyses of variance with 2 within-subjects factors (condition and time) were performed for each dependent variable. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Ten healthy female collegiate volleyball athletes participated (age  =  19.5 ± 1.27 years, height  =  179.07 ± 7.6 cm, mass  =  69.86 ± 5.42 kg). Intervention(s): Athletes participated in 3 separate testing sessions, applying a different bracing condition at each session: no brace (NB), Swede-O Universal lace-up ankle brace (AB), and Active Ankle brace (AA). Three trials of a jump-landing task were performed under each condition before and after induced functional fatigue. The jump-landing task consisted of a single-leg landing onto a force plate from a height equivalent to 50% of each participant's maximal jump height and from a starting position 70 cm from the center of the force plate. Main Outcome Measure(s): Time to stabilization in the anterior-posterior (APTTS) and medial-lateral (MLTTS) directions. Results: For APTTS, a condition-by-time interaction existed (F2,18  =  5.55, P  =  .013). For the AA condition, Tukey post hoc testing revealed faster pretest (2.734 ± 0.331 seconds) APTTS than posttest (3.817 ± 0.263 seconds). Post hoc testing also revealed that the AB condition provided faster APTTS (2.492 ± 0.271 seconds) than AA (3.817 ± 0.263 seconds) and NB (3.341 ± 0.339 seconds) conditions during posttesting. No statistically significant findings were associated with MLTTS. Conclusions: Fatigue increased APTTS for the AA condition. Because the

  18. The 2- and 8-week effects of decompressive brace use in people with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberg, Eric M; Streb, Robert; Werner, Marc; Kremenic, Ian; Penna, James

    2016-08-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is a prevalent disease. Unloading the affected compartment using a brace is a treatment option. To determine whether a decompressive knee brace alters loading in medial knee osteoarthritis following 2 and 8 weeks of use. Within subjects; pre- and post-testing. A total of 15 individuals with medial knee osteoarthritis attended four sessions: baseline, fitting, 2 weeks after fitting (post), and 8 weeks after fitting (final). A gait analysis was performed at baseline (without knee brace), post and final. Knee adduction impulse, first and second peak knee adduction moment, knee motion, and walking velocity were calculated. Participants also recorded hours and steps taken while wearing the brace. On average, the brace was worn for more than 6 h/day. Through use of repeated-measures analysis of variance, it was determined that the knee adduction impulse and second peak knee adduction moment were reduced (p knee adduction impulse, 26% reduction in second peak knee adduction moment for post and final, respectively). Furthermore, participants walked faster with increased knee motion during stance. The studied decompressive brace was effective in reducing potentially detrimental forces at the knee-knee adduction impulse and second peak knee adduction moment during the stance phase of gait. The data from this study suggest that use of a medial unloading brace can reduce potentially detrimental adduction moments at the knee. Clinicians should use this evidence to advocate for use of this noninvasive treatment for people presenting with medial knee osteoarthritis. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  19. The Mechanical Functionality of the EXO-L Ankle Brace: Assessment With a 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleipool, Roeland P; Natenstedt, Jerry J; Streekstra, Geert J; Dobbe, Johannes G G; Gerards, Rogier M; Blankevoort, Leendert; Tuijthof, Gabriëlle J M

    2016-01-01

    A new type of ankle brace (EXO-L) has recently been introduced. It is designed to limit the motion of most sprains without limiting other motions and to overcome problems such as skin irritation associated with taping or poor fit in the sports shoe. To evaluate the claimed functionality of the new ankle brace in limiting only the motion of combined inversion and plantar flexion. Controlled laboratory study. In 12 patients who received and used the new ankle brace, the mobility of the joints was measured with a highly accurate and objective in vivo 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) stress test. Primary outcomes were the ranges of motion as expressed by helical axis rotations without and with the ankle brace between the following extreme positions: dorsiflexion to plantar flexion, and combined eversion and dorsiflexion to combined inversion and plantar flexion. Rotations were acquired for both talocrural and subtalar joints. A paired Student t test was performed to test the significance of the differences between the 2 conditions (P ≤ .05). The use of the ankle brace significantly restricted the rotation of motion from combined eversion and dorsiflexion to combined inversion and plantar flexion in both the talocrural (P = .004) and subtalar joints (P < .001). No significant differences were found in both joints for the motion from dorsiflexion to plantar flexion. The 3D CT stress test confirmed that under static and passive testing conditions, the new ankle brace limits the inversion-plantar flexion motion that is responsible for most ankle sprains without limiting plantar flexion or dorsiflexion. This test demonstrated its use in the objective evaluation of braces. © 2015 The Author(s).

  20. Female patients' and parents' assessment of deformity- and brace-related stress in the conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misterska, Ewa; Glowacki, Maciej; Latuszewska, Joanna

    2012-06-15

    A cross-sectional analysis of parents' and patients' perceptions of deformity- and brace-related stress regarding conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the agreement between patients' and parents' assessments of emotional stress and to compare these assessments with radiographical measurements of spinal deformity. Conservative treatment in patients with scoliosis may cause emotional stress. To our knowledge, no group has ever reported patient and parental estimation of stress related to wearing a brace and spinal deformity in girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Sixty-three pairs of parents and girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis treated with a Cheneau brace were separately asked to complete the Bad Sobberheim Stress Questionnaire-Deformity and the Bad Sobberheim Stress Questionnaire-Brace. The age range of the patients was from 10 to 17 years. Patients were assessed at a mean of 14.12 (SD, 10.99) months after the start of the conservative treatment. Patients thought that a moderate level of stress was connected with conservative treatment; however, the stress level, related to perceived trunk deformation, was low. From the parents' perspective, patients experienced a moderate level of stress during conservative treatment and related to spinal deformity. The study groups differ in their perception of stress levels due to body disfigurement but not during the conservative treatment. Parent-patient stress-level disparities were not related to body mass index, age of the patient, brace application, and radiographical measurements of spinal deformity. Patients and parents perceive the emotional stress related to brace treatment in the same way; however, parents overestimate the assessment of stress levels related to body deformity. From the perspective of patients and parents, brace wearing increased the level of stress induced by the deformity alone. Complete assessment of conservative

  1. The effects of a semi-rigid brace or taping on talocrural and subtalar kinematics in chronic ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takumi; Saka, Masayuki; Suzuki, Eiichi; Yamazaki, Naohito; Suzukawa, Makoto; Akaike, Atsushi; Shimizu, Kuniaki; Gamada, Kazuyoshi

    2014-12-01

    A semi-rigid brace or taping is often used to prevent giving-ways in the joint with chronic ankle instability (CAI). However, it remains unknown whether the application of a semi-rigid brace or taping modifies abnormal kinematics in CAI joints. The objective of this study was to determine if the application of a semi-rigid brace or taping of the ankle normalizes abnormal weight-bearing kinematics in CAI joints during ankle internal rotation in plantar flexion. A total of 14 male patients with unilateral CAI (mean age 21.1 ± 2.5 years) were enrolled. Three-dimensional bone models created from the computed tomography images were matched to the fluoroscopic images to compute the 6 degrees-of-freedom talocrural, subtalar, and ankle joint complex (AJC) kinematics for the healthy and contralateral CAI joints, as well as for CAI joints with a brace or taping. Selected outcome measures were talocrural anterior translation, talocrural internal rotation, and subtalar internal rotation. There was no significant difference in talocrural anterior translation and internal rotation induced by applying either a semi-rigid brace or taping (P > .05). For subtalar internal rotation, there was a tendency toward restoration of normal kinematics in CAI joints after applying a semi-rigid brace or taping. However, the difference was not significant (P > .05). Application of a semi-rigid brace or taping had limited effects on the CAI joint during weight-bearing ankle internal rotation in plantar flexion. Further studies using a variety of testing conditions should be conducted in the future. Therapeutic, Level IV: Cross-Sectional Case Series. © 2014 The Author(s).

  2. Body Image and Quality-of-Life in Untreated Versus Brace-Treated Females With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieger, Traci; Campo, Shelly; Weinstein, Stuart L; Dolan, Lori A; Ashida, Sato; Steuber, Keli R

    2016-02-01

    The Bracing in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Trial (BrAIST) included skeletally immature high-risk patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) with moderate curve sizes (20°- 40°). BrAIST was a multicenter, controlled trial using both randomized and preference treatment arms into either an observation group or a brace treatment group. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare body image and quality-of-life (QOL) in female AIS patients who were observed or treated with a brace. Brace treatment is an effective means for controlling progressive scoliosis and preventing the need for surgery, but there is no consensus regarding the effect of brace treatment on body image or on QOL in adolescents with AIS. Data from female BrAIST patients in the randomized (n = 132) or preference (n = 187) arms and were observed (n = 120) or brace treated (n = 199) were analyzed. Patients completed the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ) and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQOL) 4.0 Generic Scales at baseline and 6 month follow-up visits up to 2 years. Items on the SAQ measured three body image constructs (self, ideal, and overall). The PedsQOL measured health, activities, feelings, social factors, and school. . In general, there were no significant differences within or between study arms or treatments regarding body image or QOL through 2 years of follow-up. Poorer body image was significantly correlated with poorer QOL during the first 2 years of follow-up regardless of study arm or treatment. Patients who crossed-over to a different treatment and patients with largest Cobb angles ≥ 40 degrees had significantly poorer body image, in particular self-body image, compared with those that did not. This study does not support findings from previous research indicating that wearing a brace has a negative impact on or is negatively impacted by body image or QOL. 2.

  3. Effects of Prophylactic Knee Bracing on Lower Limb Kinematics, Kinetics, and Energetics During Double-Leg Drop Landing at 2 Heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Katie A; Begg, Rezaul K; Galea, Mary P; Lee, Peter V S

    2016-07-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries commonly occur during landing maneuvers. Prophylactic knee braces were introduced to reduce the risk of ACL injuries, but their effectiveness is debated. We hypothesized that bracing would improve biomechanical factors previously related to the risk of ACL injuries, such as increased hip and knee flexion angles at initial contact and at peak vertical ground-reaction force (GRF), increased ankle plantar flexion angles at initial contact, decreased peak GRFs, and decreased peak knee extension moment. We also hypothesized that bracing would increase the negative power and work of the hip joint and would decrease the negative power and work of the knee and ankle joints. Controlled laboratory study. Three-dimensional motion and force plate data were collected from 8 female and 7 male recreational athletes performing double-leg drop landings from 0.30 m and 0.60 m with and without a prophylactic knee brace. GRFs, joint angles, moments, power, and work were calculated for each athlete with and without a knee brace. Prophylactic knee bracing increased the hip flexion angle at peak GRF by 5.56° (P knee flexion angle at peak GRF by 4.75° (P = .001), and peak hip extension moment by 0.44 N·m/kg (P knee and ankle. No differences in peak GRFs and peak knee extension moment were observed with bracing. The application of a prophylactic knee brace resulted in improvements in important biomechanical factors associated with the risk of ACL injuries. Prophylactic knee braces may help reduce the risk of noncontact knee injuries in recreational and professional athletes while playing sports. Further studies should investigate different types of prophylactic knee braces in conjunction with existing training interventions so that the sports medicine community can better assess the effectiveness of prophylactic knee bracing. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Effectiveness of Schroth exercises during bracing in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: results from a preliminary study-SOSORT Award 2017 Winner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Kenny Yat Hong; Cheng, Aldous C S; Koh, Hui Yu; Chiu, Alice Y Y; Cheung, Kenneth Man Chee

    2017-01-01

    Bracing has been shown to decrease significantly the progression of high-risk curves to the threshold for surgery in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), but the treatment failure rate remains high. There is evidence to suggest that Schroth scoliosis-specific exercises can slow progression in mild scoliosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Schroth exercises in AIS patients with high-risk curves during bracing. A prospective, historical cohort-matched study was carried out. Patients diagnosed with AIS who fulfilled the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) criteria for bracing were recruited to receive Schroth exercises during bracing. An outpatient-based Schroth program was given. Data for these patients were compared with a 1:1 matched historical control group who were treated with bracing alone. The assessor and statistician were blinded. Radiographic progression, truncal shift, and SRS-22r scores were compared between cases and controls. Twenty-four patients (5 males and 19 females, mean age 12.3 ± 1.4 years) were included in the exercise group, and 24 patients (mean age 11.8 ± 1.1 years) were matched in the control group. The mean follow-up period for the exercise group was 18.1 ± 6.2 months. In the exercise group, spinal deformity improved in 17% of patients (Cobb angle improvement of ≥ 6°), worsened in 21% (Cobb angle increases of ≥ 6°), and remained stable in 62%. In the control group, 4% improved, 50% worsened, and 46% remained stable. In the subgroup analysis, 31% of patients who were compliant (13 cases) improved, 69% remained static, and none had worsened, while in the non-compliant group (11 cases), none had improved, 46% worsened, and 46% remained stable. Analysis of the secondary outcomes showed improvement of the truncal shift, angle of trunk rotation, the SRS function domain, and total scores in favor of the exercise group. This is the first study to investigate the effects of Schroth exercises

  5. Assessment of buckling-restrained braced frame reliability using an experimental limit-state model and stochastic dynamic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Blake M.; Song, Junho; Fahnestock, Larry A.

    2009-09-01

    Buckling-restrained braces (BRBs) have recently become popular in the United States for use as primary members of seismic lateral-force-resisting systems. A BRB is a steel brace that does not buckle in compression but instead yields in both tension and compression. Although design guidelines for BRB applications have been developed, systematic procedures for assessing performance and quantifying reliability are still needed. This paper presents an analytical framework for assessing buckling-restrained braced frame (BRBF) reliability when subjected to seismic loads. This framework efficiently quantifies the risk of BRB failure due to low-cycle fatigue fracture of the BRB core. The procedure includes a series of components that: (1) quantify BRB demand in terms of BRB core deformation histories generated through stochastic dynamic analyses; (2) quantify the limit-state of a BRB in terms of its remaining cumulative plastic ductility capacity based on an experimental database; and (3) evaluate the probability of BRB failure, given the quantified demand and capacity, through structural reliability analyses. Parametric studies were conducted to investigate the effects of the seismic load, and characteristics of the BRB and BRBF on the probability of brace failure. In addition, fragility curves (i.e., conditional probabilities of brace failure given ground shaking intensity parameters) were created by the proposed framework. While the framework presented in this paper is applied to the assessment of BRBFs, the modular nature of the framework components allows for application to other structural components and systems.

  6. No beneficial effect of bracing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in a cohort of 969 athletes followed in rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordes, P; Laboute, E; Bertolotti, A; Dalmay, J F; Puig, P; Trouve, P; Verhaegue, E; Joseph, P A; Dehail, P; De Seze, M

    2017-07-01

    Compare the clinical outcomes of different knee braces in the early phase of rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) in athletes. We conducted a retrospective database study of athletes during early rehabilitation in a tertiary referral hospital between 1 February 2008 and 30 October 2010 after ACLR using bone patellar tendon bone (BPTB) or hamstring autograft. Differences in mid-patellar knee circumference, pain, and range of motion were assessed at admission. All patients followed the same rehabilitation protocol. Patients who had complications preventing them from following the assigned rehabilitation program were analyzed separately. Patients who completed their rehabilitation program were also assessed for thigh muscle atrophy, extension deficit≥2°, quality of walking, PPLP1 and subjective IKDC scores. The type and frequency of complications and their frequency was documented. The above-mentioned parameters were analyzed in 3 different groups: rigid brace in full extension, articulated brace (0°-90° for first 3 weeks then 0-120°) or no brace. The analysis included 969 patients. Rehabilitation started at 4.5±2.9 days after surgery and ended at 32.4±3.0 days postoperative. At the beginning, flexion was lower in patients with a rigid brace (Pbrace had limited flexion early on. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Post-operative bracing after ACL reconstruction has no effect on knee joint effusion. A prospective, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Maria; Wredmark, Torsten; Wretling, Marie-Louise; Henriksson, Marketta; Felländer-Tsai, Li

    2015-12-01

    It is unclear what factors contribute to knee joint effusion after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstruction. Knee homeostasis after injury and surgery is crucial for rehabilitation and knee well-being. We examined if effusion was affected by post-operative bracing, and if patients with effusion fit into a common profile. Patients were randomized to wearing or not wearing a post-operative brace for three weeks after ACL reconstruction with semitendinosus-gracilis tendons. Knee joint effusion was detected by computed tomography in 60 patients (22 women), before and three and 12 months after surgery. Joint effusion, clinical and subjective tests were analyzed. This is the first prospective, randomized study on post-operative bracing for patients with a semitendinosus-gracilis graft showed that bracing had no effect on three-months presence of joint effusion. Excessive joint effusion was present in 68% of the patients three months after surgery and was associated to prior meniscus injury (p=0.05) and higher prior Tegner activity level (p=0.006). We found a positive association between longer time from injury to surgery and joint effusion three months post-operatively (rho=0.29, pknee joint effusion after ACL reconstruction. Post-operative bracing had no effect. A larger clinical cohort is needed to confirm findings of this logistic regression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Analytical Analysis of Seismic Behavior of Cold-Formed Steel Frames with Strap Brace and Sheathings Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gerami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold-formed steel frames (CFS are popular all over the world. In this study, we have investigated 112 frames with different bracing arrangements and different dimensional ratios with different thicknesses of sheathing plates under cyclic and monotonic loading using Finite Element Nonlinear Analysis. We also evaluated seismic parameters including resistance reduction factor, ductility, and force reduction factor due to ductility for all specimens. On the other hand, we calculated the seismic response modification factor for these systems. The maximum modification factor among shear wall panels with sheathing plates related to GWB (gypsum wall board specimen with thickness of 15 mm was 5.14; among bracing specimens in bilateral bracing mode related to B sample was 3.14. The maximum amount of resistance among the specimens with bilateral (2-side bracing systems belongs to the specimen C (2-side double X-bracing with the dimension ratio of 2 (4.8 m × 2.4 m and resistance of 305.60 kN and also among the shear wall panels with sheathing plates, it belongs to DFP (douglas fir plywood with a thickness of 20 mm and resistance of 371.34 kN.

  9. EFFECTS OF A CUSTOM-MADE HINGED KNEE BRACE WITH KNEE FLEXION SUPPORT FOR PATIENTS WITH KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS:A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    OTA, SUSUMU; KANAI, AKIRA; TORII, YOSHIYA; TANIYAMA, HIROYUKI; IMAIZUMI, FUMIO; MATSUI, YASUMOTO

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A knee brace for medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) is required to restrict knee adduction moment (KAM), but must not restrict knee flexion during swing phase. There is no report of a knee brace with both functions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the custom-made hinged knee brace for patients with knee OA compared to the hinged knee brace generally used, and to assess the KAM and knee flexion angle during swing phase. Fifteen patients (average age: 71.6 ± 7.8 years old) with medial knee OA participated. Gait analysis was performed using a 3-D motion analysis system to measure two conditions: hinged knee brace (KB), and a custom-made hinged knee brace with knee-flexion support- equipped rubber tubes at the posterior of the lateral and medial side poles (KBF). The peak KAM with KBF was significantly smaller than those with the KB (P=0.004, the difference between these conditions of KAM: 0.06 Nm/kg). The peak knee flexion angles during swing phase with KBF were also significantly larger than those with the KB (P=0.004, the difference between these conditions of knee flexion angle: 1.5 degrees). The custom-made brace with one type of tube actuator in the present study could decrease KAM and make for a small increase of knee flexion angle as opposed to the hinged knee brace. PMID:25797974

  10. Can a knee brace reduce the strain in the anterior cruciate ligament? A study using combined in vivo/in vitro method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangalur, Gajendra; Brenneman, Elora; Nicholls, Micah; Bakker, Ryan; Laing, Andrew; Chandrashekar, Naveen

    2016-06-01

    It is unknown whether prophylactic knee braces can reduce the strain in the anterior cruciate ligament during dynamic activities. An athlete, who had characteristics of high anterior cruciate ligament injury risk, was chosen. A motion capture system (Optotrak Certus; Northern Digital, Waterloo, ON, Canada) was used to record dynamic trials during drop-landing activity of this subject with and without the knee brace being worn. A musculoskeletal model was used to estimate the muscle forces during this activity. A dynamic knee simulator then applied kinematics and muscle forces on a cadaver knee with and without the brace mounted on it. The anterior cruciate ligament strain was measured. The peak strain in the anterior cruciate ligament was substantially lower for the braced (7%) versus unbraced (20%) conditions. Functional knee braces could decrease the strain in the anterior cruciate ligament during dynamic activities in a high-risk subject. However, the reduction seems to be a result of altered muscle firing pattern due to the brace. Prophylactic knee brace could reduce the strain in the anterior cruciate ligament of high-risk subjects during drop-landing through altered muscle firing pattern associated with brace wear. This could help reduce the anterior cruciate ligament injury risk. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  11. The effects of a varus unloader brace for lateral tibiofemoral osteoarthritis and valgus malalignment after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a single case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, H F; Ackland, D C; Schache, A G; Pandy, M G; Collins, N J; Crossley, K M

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the immediate effects of a varus knee brace on knee symptoms and knee-joint biomechanics in an individual with predominant lateral tibiofemoral joint osteoarthritis (TFJOA) and valgus malalignment after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. A varus unloader brace was prescribed to a 48-year-old male with predominant lateral radiographic and symptomatic TFJOA and valgus malalignment eight-years following ACL reconstruction. During a step-down task, the participant rated knee pain, task-difficulty, knee-stability and knee-confidence on four separate visual analogue scales. Quantitative gait analysis was conducted during self-selected walking trials under three test conditions in a randomized order: (i) no brace; (ii) brace without frontal plane adjustment (no varus re-alignment); and (ii) brace with frontal plane adjustment (varus re-alignment). Post-processing of gait data involved calculation of knee kinematics and net joint moments for the reconstructed limb. The participant reported improved pain (3%), task difficulty (41%), stability (46%) and confidence (49%) when performing the step-down task with the brace. The varus brace resulted in immediate reductions in knee abduction angle (24%) and internal rotation angle (56%), and increased knee adduction moment (18%). These findings provide preliminary evidence for potentially beneficial effects of bracing on knee-symptoms and biomechanics in individuals with lateral TFJOA after reconstruction.

  12. Health-related quality of life in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis after treatment: Short-term effects after brace or surgical treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Bunge (Eveline); R.E. Juttmann (Rikard); M. de Kleuver (Marinus); F.C. van Biezen (Frans); H.J. de Koning (Harry); H.D. Been (Henk); L.N.J.E.M. Coene (Luc); H. Creemers (Huub); A.J. de Gruijter; A.A.J.M. Hazebroek-Kampschreur (Alice); P.H.J. Klop (Patrick); H.J.A. Kruls; P.J.M. van Loon (Piet); L.C.F. Luttmer; F. de Nies (Frank); J.E.H. Pruijs; L.W. van Rhijn (Lodewijk); M.P. Teeuwen (Marcel); P.A. Wiegersma (Auke)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractFor treatment of teenagers with progressive adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in an early stage, two options are generally considered: treatment with a brace or observation followed by surgery if necessary. Many doctors and patients prefer conservative treatment (i.e. brace treatment) to

  13. Effects of soft bracing or taping on a lateral ankle sprain : a non-randomised controlled trial evaluating recurrence rates and residual symptoms at one year

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemler, Ellen; van de Port, Ingrid; Schmikli, Sandor; Huisstede, Bionka; Hoes, Arno; Backx, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background: After sustaining an ankle sprain, taping is often the standard treatment in primary care. Ankle braces are sometimes used as an alternative. This study aimed to compare the effects of four weeks of soft bracing or taping following acute lateral ankle ligamentous sprain (ALALS) on sprain

  14. Brace treatment during pubertal growth spurt in girls with idiopathic scoliosis (IS): a prospective trial comparing two different concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Hans-Rudolf; Weiss, Grita Maria

    2005-01-01

    Prospective comparison of the survival rates of two different bracing concepts with respect to curve progression and duration of treatment during pubertal growth spurt in two cohorts of patients followed up prospectively. To determine whether the results obtained by the use of a soft brace (SpineCor) is comparable to the results of the Chêneau derived TLSO during pubertal growth spurt. In recent peer reviewed literature, the SpineCor is described as an effective method of treatment for patients with scoliosis. However, until now, no controlled study has been presented comparing the results obtained with this soft brace to a sample treated with other bracing concepts proven effective. Twelve patients with Cobb angles between 16-32 degrees during pubertal growth spurt are presented as a case series treated with the SpineCor. The survival rate of this sample is described and compared to a matched group of patients treated with the Chêneau brace of the same age group. All girls treated in both studies were pre-menarchial with the first clinical signs of maturation (Tanner 1-3). During the pubertal growth spurt, most of the patients (11/12) with SpineCor progressed clinicly and radiologicly as well (at least 5 degrees ). Progression could be stopped changing SpineCor to the Chêneau brace in most of the samples described (7/10). The avarage Cobb angle at the start of treatment with the SpineCor was 21.3 degrees , after an avarage observation time of 21.5 months, 31 degrees. The control sample, primarily treated with the Chêneau brace (n=15), showed at average no progression. Cobb angle at the start of treatment was 33.7 degrees and after the observation time of 37 months, 33.9 degrees . Radiological improvements can be reported for some of the cases (3/15) as well as progressions (3/15). At 24 months of treatment time, 73% of the patients with a Chêneau brace and 33% of the patients with the SpineCor where still under treatment with their original bracing concept

  15. Comparison of in-and outpatients protocols for providence night time only bracing in AIS patients -- compliance and satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Aubaidi, Zaid Tj; Tropp, Hans; Pedersen, Niels W

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skeletally immature patients diagnosed with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and a Cobb angle above 25degrees is usually treated with a brace. Standard protocols in many centers include hospitalisation for a few days for the purpose of brace adaptation and fitting. The aim...... (9-14). Scoliosis Quality of Life Index (SQLI) was used together with the Odense Scoliosis questionnaire, which was developed for this study. Compliance was measured using the patients' own statements and the Landauer compliance scoring system.Findings/resultsThe two groups' matches regarding the age......, Risser grad, Cobb angle and primary correction. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding the SQLI and the Odense Scoliosis questionnaire. The compliance was higher in the ambulatory group. CONCLUSION: Outpatient initiation of bracing in scoliosis seems to give...

  16. Clinical effectiveness and safety of a distraction-rotation knee brace for medial knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornetti, P; Fortunet, C; Morisset, C; Gremeaux, V; Maillefert, J F; Casillas, J M; Laroche, D

    2015-06-01

    Evaluation of the clinical effectiveness and safety of a new custom-made valgus knee brace (OdrA) in medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) in terms of pain and secondary symptoms. Open-label prospective study of patients with symptomatic medial knee OA with clinical evaluation at 6 and 52 weeks (W6, W52). We systematically assessed pain on a visual analog scale (VAS), Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), spatio-temporal gait variables, use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and analgesic-sparing effects of the brace and tolerance. Mean scores were compared at baseline, W6 and W52 and the effect size (ES) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. We included 20 patients with knee OA (mean age 64.2±10.2 years, mean body mass index 27.2±5.4 kg/m2). VAS pain and KOOS were improved at W6 and W52: pain (ES=0.9 at 1 year), amelioration of other symptoms (ES=0.4), and function in activities of daily living (ES=1.1), sports and leisure (ES=1.5), quality of life (ES=0.9) and gait speed (ES=0.41). In total, 76% of patients showed clinical improvement at 1 year. Analgesic and NSAIDs consumption was significantly decreased at W6 and W52. One serious adverse effect noted was lower-limb varices, and observance was deemed satisfactory at 1 year. This new unloader brace appeared to have good effect on medial knee OA, with an acceptable safety profile and good patient compliance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of different skin-ankle brace application pressures on quiet single-limb balance and electromyographic activation onset of lower limb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Emmanuel S; Nikolopoulos, Christos; Badekas, Athanasios; Vagenas, George; Papadakis, Stamatios A; Athanasopoulos, Spyros

    2007-09-12

    Several studies have been carried out in order to investigate the effect of ankle bracing on ankle joint function and performance. However, no study so far has examined the role of skin-brace interface pressure in neuromuscular control. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different skin-ankle brace interface pressures on quiet single limb balance and the electromyographic (EMG) activation sequence of four lower limb muscles. Thirty three male physical education students who volunteered to take part in the study were measured under three ankle brace conditions: i) without brace, ii) with brace and 30 kPa application pressure and iii) with brace and 60 kPa application pressure. Single limb balance (anteroposterior and mediolateral parameter) was assessed on the dominant lower limb, with open and closed eyes, on a force platform, simultaneously with the EMG recording of four lower lower limb muscles' (gastrocnemius, peroneus longus, rectus femoris and biceps femoris) activation onset. The results showed that overall balance (total stability parameter) was not significantly affected in any of the three ankle brace conditions. However, the anteroposterior centre of pressure excursion and centre of pressure excursion velocity were significantly increased with the application of ankle brace, both with 30 and 60 kPa application pressures. Furthermore, it was found that single limb balance was significantly worse with closed eyes compared to open eyes. EMG measurements showed that the sequence of lower limb activation onset was not affected in any of the three ankle brace application conditions. The results of this study showed that the application of an ankle brace with two different skin-brace interface pressures had no effect on overall single limb balance and the sequence of lower limb muscle activation. These findings suggest that peripheral joint receptors are either not adequately stimulated by the brace application and therefore are not able to

  18. The effect of different skin-ankle brace application pressures on quiet single-limb balance and electromyographic activation onset of lower limb muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadakis Stamatios A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have been carried out in order to investigate the effect of ankle bracing on ankle joint function and performance. However, no study so far has examined the role of skin-brace interface pressure in neuromuscular control. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different skin-ankle brace interface pressures on quiet single limb balance and the electromyographic (EMG activation sequence of four lower limb muscles. Methods Thirty three male physical education students who volunteered to take part in the study were measured under three ankle brace conditions: i without brace, ii with brace and 30 kPa application pressure and iii with brace and 60 kPa application pressure. Single limb balance (anteroposterior and mediolateral parameter was assessed on the dominant lower limb, with open and closed eyes, on a force platform, simultaneously with the EMG recording of four lower lower limb muscles' (gastrocnemius, peroneus longus, rectus femoris and biceps femoris activation onset. Results The results showed that overall balance (total stability parameter was not significantly affected in any of the three ankle brace conditions. However, the anteroposterior centre of pressure excursion and centre of pressure excursion velocity were significantly increased with the application of ankle brace, both with 30 and 60 kPa application pressures. Furthermore, it was found that single limb balance was significantly worse with closed eyes compared to open eyes. EMG measurements showed that the sequence of lower limb activation onset was not affected in any of the three ankle brace application conditions. The results of this study showed that the application of an ankle brace with two different skin-brace interface pressures had no effect on overall single limb balance and the sequence of lower limb muscle activation. Conclusion These findings suggest that peripheral joint receptors are either not adequately

  19. Lateral Bearing Capacity of Single Connectors in Parallel Loaded Battens used for Truss Bracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob

    In order to analyse the stiffness and the strength of joints used for battens in bracing of trusses 70 tests have been made. The joint was made by a single nail or screw located perpendicular to or at an angle to the grain direction. The single fastener joints did not fulfil the requirements...... for edge distances and the number of nails according to the standard. Three different nails and one screw were tested in 7 different series. The fasteners, test series and the test arrangement are presented. The failure loads and the load-displacements curves are given and the results are compared...

  20. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Harald

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have evaluated long-term outcome after bracing using validated health related quality of life outcome measures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term outcome in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS 12 years or more after treatment with the Boston brace. Methods 109 (80% of 135 patients (7 men with AIS treated with the Boston brace at a mean of 19.2 (range 12–28 years previously responded to long-term follow-up examination. All patients (n = 109 answered a standardised questionnaire including demographics, work status, treatment, Global Back Disability Question, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI (100-worst possible, General Function Score (GFS (100 – worst possible, EuroQol (EQ-5D (1 – best possible, EQ-VAS (100 – best possible and Scoliosis Research Society -22 (SRS – 22 (5 – best possible. Clinical and radiological examination was obtained in 86 patients. Results The magnitude of the primary prebrace major curve was in average 33.4° (range 20 – 52. At weaning and at the last follow-up the corresponding values were 28.3° (9–56 and 34.2° (8 – 87, respectively. The mean age at follow-up was 35 (27 – 46 years. Work status was: full time (80%, on sick-leave (3%, on rehabilitation (4%, disability pension (4%, homemaker (7%, students (2%, 7% had changed their job because of back pain. 88% had had delivered a baby, 55% of them had pain in pregnancy. Global back status was excellent or good in 81%. The mean (standard deviation ODI was 6.4 (9.8, GFS 5.4 (10.5, EQ-5D 0.84 (0.2, SRS-22: pain 4.2 (0.8, mental health 4.2 (0.7, self-image 3.9 (0.7, function 4.1 (0.6, satisfaction with treatment 3.7 (1.0. 28% had taken physiotherapy for back pain the last year and 12% had visited a doctor. Conclusion Long-term results were satisfactory in most patients with AIS treated with the Boston brace.

  1. Effects of foot orthoses and valgus bracing on the knee adduction moment and medial joint load during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelburne, Kevin B; Torry, Michael R; Steadman, J Richard; Pandy, Marcus G

    2008-07-01

    Lateral shoe wedges and valgus knee braces are designed to decrease the force acting in the medial knee compartment by reducing the external adduction moment applied at the knee. The biomechanical changes introduced by these orthoses can be relatively small. Computer modeling and simulation offers an alternative approach for assessing the biomechanical performance of these devices. A three-dimensional model of the lower-limb was used to calculate muscle, ligament, and joint loading at the knee during gait. A lateral shoe wedge was simulated by moving the center of pressure of the ground reaction force up to 5mm laterally. A valgus knee brace was simulated by applying abduction moments of up to 12 Nm at the knee. Knee adduction moment and medial compartment load decreased linearly with lateral displacement of the center of pressure of the ground reaction force. A 1 mm displacement of the center of pressure decreased the peak knee adduction moment by 2%, while the peak medial compartment load was reduced by 1%. Knee adduction moment and medial compartment force also decreased linearly with valgus moments applied about the knee. A 1 Nm increase in brace moment decreased the peak knee adduction moment by 3%, while the peak medial compartment load was reduced by 1%. Changes in knee joint loading due to lateral shoe wedges and valgus bracing are small and may be difficult to measure by conventional gait analysis methods. The relationships between lateral shift in the center of pressure of the ground force, valgus brace moment, knee adduction moment, and medial joint load can be quantified and explained using computer modeling and simulation. These relationships may serve as a useful guide for evaluating the biomechanical efficacy of a generic wedge insole or knee brace.

  2. The Sforzesco brace can replace cast in the correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: A controlled prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaina Fabio

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS has traditionally been divided into two phases–correction and stabilisation–and casts, even if less used today, can be considered the best standard in the correction phase. Till the present, however, no comparison between cast and brace efficacy has been proposed. Methods This is a prospective cohort study with a retrospective control group. The aim was to verify if it is possible to obtain with a specifically developed rigid brace results comparable to a cast. We considered fifty AIS patients who had refused surgery, aged 14.1 ± 1.5 years, with 46.7 ± 7.8° Cobb scoliosis. Thirty-two consecutive patients (with no drop-outs were prospectively followed up with the Sforzesco brace (SBG, and compared against a retrospective group of eighteen patients treated with the Risser cast (RCG. The treatment time (the total correction phase was 19 ± 3 months. Out-of-brace x-rays were compared, as well as clinical results. Results Compliance and hours of treatment were higher in the RCG while all the other parameters were not different. We observed a reduction of 6° Cobb and an important aesthetic gain in both groups (P Conclusion In the corrective phase of AIS treatment it is possible with a specific rigid brace (Sforzesco – SPoRT concept to obtain scoliosis correction similar to cast. Due to the human and social costs of casting, and worst sagittal profile results, Sforzesco brace should be the preferred method wherever possible.

  3. Static progressive stretch brace as a treatment of pain and functional limitations associated with plantar fasciitis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neena K; Loudon, Janice K

    2010-06-01

    Plantar fasciitis is a common and hard-to-treat disorder of the foot. Numerous studies have compared various stretching exercises, but the use of a day-wear static progressive stretch brace has not been studied. A randomized, single-blinded trial was conducted to compare the effectiveness of a static progressive stretch brace to standard care of active stretching exercises. Thirteen subjects (12 women and 1 man; mean age, 42 +/- 9.0 years) with plantar fasciitis participated in this study between January 2004 and March 2007. Subjects were randomized to either an exercise group (static stretch group, n = 8) or a brace group (static progressive stretch group, n = 9) for an 8-week treatment period and 1-month follow up. Both groups received basic off-the-shelf foot orthoses. Data were available for 7 subjects in the exercise group and 6 in the brace group. Pain and functional limitations were evaluated with the Foot Functional Index pain subscale, the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot Scale, and great toe extension motion. Overall pain and morning pain improved in both groups as compared with baseline measures (repeated-measures analysis of variance, P = .04 and P = .02, respectively). Functional rating also improved in both groups (repeated-measures analysis of variance, P = .005). No changes were found in either group with great toe extension range of motion. In addition, there was no significant group difference or interaction with time and group with any measures. Both interventions (static, exercise, and brace stretching) were beneficial for treating pain and functional limitations, suggesting that static progressive stretch brace is an effective alternative option to static stretching exercises for people with plantar fasciitis.

  4. Do Knee Bracing and Delayed Weight Bearing Affect Mid-Term Functional Outcome after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Miceli, Riccardo; Marambio, Carlotta Bustos; Zati, Alessandro; Monesi, Roberta; Benedetti, Maria Grazia

    2017-12-01

    Purpose  The aim of this study was to assess the effect of knee bracing and timing of full weight bearing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) on functional outcomes at mid-term follow-up. Methods  We performed a retrospective study on 41 patients with ACLR. Patients were divided in two groups: ACLR group, who received isolated ACL reconstruction and ACLR-OI group who received ACL reconstruction and adjunctive surgery. Information about age at surgery, bracing, full or progressive weight bearing permission after surgery were collected for the two groups. Subjective IKDC score was obtained at follow-up. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the two groups for IKDC score. Subgroup analysis was performed to assess the effect of postoperative regimen (knee bracing and weight bearing) on functional outcomes. Results  The mean age of patients was 30.8 ± 10.6 years. Mean IKDC score was 87.4 ± 13.9. The mean follow-up was 3.5 ± 1.8 years. Twenty-two (53.7%) patients underwent ACLR only, while 19 (46.3%) also received other interventions, such as meniscal repair and/or collateral ligament suture. Analysis of overall data showed no differences between the groups for IKDC score. Patients in the ACLR group exhibited a significantly better IKDC score when no brace and full weight bearing after 4 weeks from surgery was prescribed in comparison with patients who worn a brace and had delayed full weight bearing. No differences were found with respect to the use of brace and postoperative weight bearing regimen in the ACLR-OI group. Conclusion  Brace and delayed weight bearing after ACLR have a negative influence on long-term functional outcomes. Further research is required to explore possible differences in the patients operated on ACLR and other intervention with respect to the use of a brace and the timing of full weight bearing to identify optimal recovery strategies. Level of Evidence  Level III, retrospective observational

  5. Nail Braces as an Alternative Treatment for Ingrown Toenails: Results From a Comparison With the Winograd Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Olcay; Tuna, Hamide; Mahirogullari, Mahir; Erdil, Mehmet; Mutlu, Serhat; Isyar, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Ingrown toenails are one of the most frequent nail disorders and can be treated with conservative or surgical approaches. Although discovered a long time ago, the available data are still very limited on the potential effectiveness of nail braces for ingrown toenail treatment. In the present retrospective study, we compared nail braces with surgical wedge excision using the Winograd technique with respect to the time to return to work, recurrence, interval to recurrence, and patient satisfaction. A total of 159 patients were divided into the nail brace (n = 74; mean age 29.51 ± 8.48 years) and Winograd technique (n = 85; mean age 26.95 ± 8.06 years) groups. In the nail brace group, the mean time to return to work (4.15 ± 1.07 days) was significantly shorter than that in the Winograd technique group (13.8 ± 2.26 days; p nail brace group (94.6%) compared with the Winograd technique group (82.4%; p = .018). Of the 159 patients, 6 (8.1%) in the nail brace group and 8 (9.4%) in the Winograd technique group developed recurrence; however, this difference was not statistically significant (p > .05). A statistically significant difference was observed in the mean interval to recurrence (12.46 ± 1.60 versus 13.24 ± 2.48 months, respectively; p = .031). The progression-free follow-up periods for the nail brace and Winograd technique groups were 15.45 ± 0.22 months (95% confidence interval 15.02 to 15.88) and 17.18 ± 0.29 months (95% confidence interval 16.61 to 17.84), respectively. We have concluded that the use of nail braces is an appropriate alternative treatment of ingrown toenails with high patient satisfaction, fast recovery times, and a low recurrence rate. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Kınesıotapıng and Knee Brace on Functıonal Performance in Recreatıonal Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Burak; İldiz, Bülent; Tunay, Volga Bayrakçı

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Kinesiotaping is a popular taping method that is used for both therapeutic and performance enchancement purposes. Knee braces are widely used for prevention in sport injuries but their performance effectiveness is still controversial. The aim of this study was to determine whether kinesiotape or brace was more effective on functional performance. Methods: A total twenty male recreational football players (Mean±Standart Deviation (SD) age: 22.5±0.68 years, height: 175.15±3.37 cm, body weight: 74.52±12.41 kg), voluntarily participated in this study. Participants were tested with kinesiotape, with brace and without kinesiotape and brace. Tests were applied one day after patellar kinesiotaping (correction technique). Balance property measured with Modified Y balance Test (dynamic test), agility measured by T test, muscle strength and anaerobic power assessed by vertical jump and triple hop tests. Wilcoxon signed rank test was employed for determining the statistical significance of tests with kinesiotape, with brace and without kinesiotape and brace. Results: In analysis; There were statistically significant differences found in Triple hop test with kinesiotaping and without kinesiotaping and brace, in T test with bracing and kinesiotaping, in vertical jump with kinesiotaping and without kinesiotaping and brace (pkinesiotaping in all tests) No statistically significant difference was found in modified Y balance test all groups (p> 0.05). Conclusion: Consequently, kinesiotaping had positive effects on agility and muscle strength but had no effects on balance in football players. On the other hand, brace had no effects on functional performance tests.

  7. Bracing superior to neuromuscular training for the prevention of self-reported recurrent ankle sprains: a three-arm randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Kasper W; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert A L M

    2014-08-01

    Ankle sprain is the most common sports-related injury with a high rate of recurrence and associated costs. Recent studies have emphasised the effectiveness of both neuromuscular training and bracing for the secondary prevention of ankle sprains. To evaluate the effectiveness of combined bracing and neuromuscular training, or bracing alone, against the use of neuromuscular training on recurrences of ankle sprain after usual care. 384 athletes, aged 18-70, who had sustained a lateral ankle sprain, were included (training group n=120; brace group n=126; combi group n=138). The training group received an 8-week home-based neuromuscular training programme, the brace group received a semirigid ankle brace to be worn during all sports activities for 12 months, and the combi group received both the training programme, as well as the ankle brace, to be worn during all sports activities for 8 weeks. The main outcome measure was self-reported recurrence of the ankle sprain. During the 1-year follow-up, 69 participants (20%) reported a recurrent ankle sprain: 29 (27%) in the training group, 17 (15%) in the brace group and 23 (19%) in the combi group. The relative risk for a recurrent ankle sprain in the brace group versus the training group was 0.53 (95% CI 0.29 to 0.97). No significant differences were found for time losses or costs due to ankle sprains between the intervention groups. Bracing was superior to neuromuscular training in reducing the incidence but not the severity of self-reported recurrent ankle sprains after usual care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Development and testing of a magnetorheological actuator for an assistive knee brace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinzhou; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2008-03-01

    This paper proposes an assistive knee brace that is aimed to provide assistance to old or disabled people. A magnetorheological (MR) actuator is developed to be used in assistive knee braces to provide controllable torque. The MR actuator consists of a DC motor and an MR brake/clutch. When active torque is needed, the DC motor works and the MR actuator functions as a clutch to transfer the torque generated by the motor to the leg; when passive torque is desired, the DC motor is turned off and the MR actuator functions as a brake to provide controllable passive torque. The prototype of this MR actuator is fabricated and experiments are carried out to investigate the characteristics of the MR actuator. The results show that the MR actuator is able to provide sufficient torque needed for normal human activities. Adaptive control is proposed for controlling the MR actuator. Experiments of the MR actuator under control are performed to study the torque tracking ability of the system.

  9. Design, testing and control of a magnetorheological actuator for assistive knee braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. Z.; Liao, W. H.

    2010-03-01

    This paper is aimed at developing a smart actuator for assistive knee braces to provide assistance to disabled or elderly people with mobility problems. A magnetorheological (MR) actuator is developed to be used in assistive knee braces to provide controllable torque. The MR actuator can work as a brake or a clutch. When active torque is needed, the DC motor works and the MR actuator functions as a clutch to transfer the torque generated by the motor to the leg; when passive torque is desired, the DC motor is turned off and the MR actuator functions as a brake to provide controllable passive torque. The prototype of the developed MR actuator is fabricated and experiments are carried out to investigate the characteristics of the MR actuator. The results show that the MR actuator is able to provide sufficient torque needed for normal human activities. Adaptive control is proposed for controlling the MR actuator. Anti-windup strategy is used to achieve better control performance. Experiments on the MR actuator under control are also performed to study the torque tracking ability of the system.

  10. Ductility demands on buckling-restrained braced frames under earthquake loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahnestock, Larry A.; Sause, Richard; Ricles, James M.; Lu, Le-Wu

    2003-12-01

    Accurate estimates of ductility demands on buckling-restrained braced frames (BRBFs) are crucial to performance-based design of BRBFs. An analytical study on the seismic behavior of BRBFs has been conducted at the ATLSS Center, Lehigh University to prepare for an upcoming experimental program. The analysis program DRAIN-2DX was used to model a one-bay, four-story prototype BRBF including material and geometric nonlinearities. The buckling-restrained brace (BRB) model incorporates both isotropic and kinematic hardening. Nonlinear static pushover and time-history analyses were performed on the prototype BRBF. Performance objectives for the BRBs were defined and used to evaluate the time-history analysis results. Particular emphasis was placed on global ductility demands and ductility demands on the BRBs. These demands were compared with anticipated ductility capacities. The analysis results, along with results from similar previous studies, are used to evaluate the BRBF design provisions that have been recommended for codification in the United States. The results show that BRB maximum ductility demands can be as high as 20 to 25. These demands significantly exceed those anticipated by the BRBF recommended provisions. Results from the static pushover and time-history analyses are used to demonstrate why the ductility demands exceed those anticipated by the recommended provisions. The BRB qualification testing protocol contained in the BRBF recommended provisions is shown to be inadequate because it requires only a maximum ductility demand of at most 7.5. Modifications to the testing protocol are recommended.

  11. Design and analysis of eccentrically braced steel frames with vertical links using shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massah, Saeed Reza; Dorvar, Hosein

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, the philosophy behind traditional methods by which structures were designed to withstand natural disasters has gone through major changes. Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are characterized by their superelastic behavior, which enables them to recover their original shape after experiencing large deformations. This characteristic provides an ideal reversibility capacity that can be used in the passive control of buildings exposed to earthquakes. This article has attempted to identify the effects of changing the hysteretic characteristics of SMA materials when they are used as passive control systems in eccentric bracing frames. By evaluating the numerical analysis results obtained from the modeling of an experimental sample and the modeling of the proposed EBF system, the accuracy of the above-stated notion was confirmed. Moreover, the results that pertain to the nonlinear pushover analysis, time-history dynamic analysis and seismic damage analysis of eccentric steel bracing frames of 4-, 9- and 14-story structures indicate that the use of SMA superelastic materials, in addition to effectively improving their ductility, stiffness and lateral strength, provides an excellent reversibility capacity, which considerably reduces both the maximum relative displacement and the residual deformation in the structure.

  12. Flexible Wing Model for Structural Sizing and Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of a Strut-Braced Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gern, Frank H.; Naghshineh, Amir H.; Sulaeman, Erwin; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Haftka, Raphael T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a structural and aeroelastic model for wing sizing and weight calculation of a strut-braced wing. The wing weight is calculated using a newly developed structural weight analysis module considering the special nature of strut-braced wings. A specially developed aeroelastic model enables one to consider wing flexibility and spanload redistribution during in-flight maneuvers. The structural model uses a hexagonal wing-box featuring skin panels, stringers, and spar caps, whereas the aerodynamics part employs a linearized transonic vortex lattice method. Thus, the wing weight may be calculated from the rigid or flexible wing spanload. The calculations reveal the significant influence of the strut on the bending material weight of the wing. The use of a strut enables one to design a wing with thin airfoils without weight penalty. The strut also influences wing spanload and deformations. Weight savings are not only possible by calculation and iterative resizing of the wing structure according to the actual design loads. Moreover, as an advantage over the cantilever wing, employment of the strut twist moment for further load alleviation leads to increased savings in structural weight.

  13. Cast brace management of the femoral shaft fracture in children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, R H; Davidson, R; Sullivan, J A; Peeples, R E; Hufft, R

    1983-11-01

    Seventy-two children and adolescents, 5-19 years of age, sustaining femoral fractures were treated with immediate cast bracing at Oklahoma Children's Memorial Hospital. Ambulation was started an average of 3 days after fracture when there were no associated injuries. The average length of hospitalization was 18.7 days; the average length of immobilization in plaster was 67.4 days. Results were generally comparable to those of more standard methods of treating a fractured femur in this age group. Proximal as well as middle and distal fractures were treated, but varus and anterior angulation was not well controlled in proximal fractures. No patient had a clinically significant deformity. Sixty-one percent of the entire group healed with less than 6 mm discrepancy. Middle-third fractures showed more tendency toward shortening. All six fractures that healed with more than 1.5 cm of shortening were middle third. No injured femur was longer than the uninjured femur at a 6-month follow-up. Immediate cast bracing can provide an opportunity for early ambulation and avoid the sequelae of immobilization. Weekly assessment for the first 4 weeks is mandatory to monitor length and angulation. The adolescent male with a midshaft fracture was most difficult to manage, and in this situation, closed intramedullary nailing is recommended.

  14. Gait training with a robotic leg brace after stroke: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Joel; Bishop, Lauri; Stein, Daniel J; Wong, Christopher Kevin

    2014-11-01

    Robot-aided exercise therapy is a promising approach to enhance walking ability in stroke survivors. This study was designed to test a new robotic knee brace for restoring mobility in stroke survivors. Twenty-four ambulatory individuals with chronic hemiparesis after stroke were enrolled in this pilot study. The participants were randomly assigned in equal numbers to either treatment with the experimental device or to a group exercise program and received a total of 18 hrs of their assigned therapy during a 6-wk training period. The primary outcome was gait velocity, as measured with the 10-m walk test. Secondary measures included 6-min walk test, Timed Up and Go test, Five-Times-Sit-to-Stand test, Romberg test, Emory Functional Ambulation Profile, Berg Balance scale, and the California Functional Evaluation 40. Twenty subjects completed the entire protocol and all follow-up visits. No significant differences between the two groups were found for the primary outcome measure at either the completion of training (week 6) or at the 3-mo follow-up (week 19), with inconsistent findings for secondary measures. No within-group changes were seen in the primary outcome measure (10-m walk test) in either group. Within-group improvements were seen in several of the secondary measures for both groups. No complications of robotic therapy were observed. Robotic therapy for ambulatory stroke patients with chronic hemiparesis using a robotic knee brace resulted in only modest functional benefits that were comparable with a group exercise intervention.

  15. Evaluation of seismic reliability of steel moment resisting frames rehabilitated by concentric braces with probabilistic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Rezaei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Probability of structure failure which has been designed by "deterministic methods" can be more than the one which has been designed in similar situation using probabilistic methods and models considering "uncertainties". The main purpose of this research was to evaluate the seismic reliability of steel moment resisting frames rehabilitated with concentric braces by probabilistic models. To do so, three-story and nine-story steel moment resisting frames were designed based on resistant criteria of Iranian code and then they were rehabilitated based on controlling drift limitations by concentric braces. Probability of frames failure was evaluated by probabilistic models of magnitude, location of earthquake, ground shaking intensity in the area of the structure, probabilistic model of building response (based on maximum lateral roof displacement and probabilistic methods. These frames were analyzed under subcrustal source by sampling probabilistic method "Risk Tools" (RT. Comparing the exceedance probability of building response curves (or selected points on it of the three-story and nine-story model frames (before and after rehabilitation, seismic response of rehabilitated frames, was reduced and their reliability was improved. Also the main effective variables in reducing the probability of frames failure were determined using sensitivity analysis by FORM probabilistic method. The most effective variables reducing the probability of frames failure are  in the magnitude model, ground shaking intensity model error and magnitude model error

  16. The Effect of Dynamic Hyperextension Brace on Osteoporosis and Hyperkyphosis Reduction in Postmenopausal Osteoporotic Women

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    Hooman Shariatzadeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis and hyperkyphosis could impose a considerable financial and therapeutic burden on the affected society. Thus, new strategies to prevent or manage such complications are of significant importance. Here we evaluate the effect of ‘Dynamic Hyperextension Brace’ (DHB on bone density, and hyperkyphosis correction. Methods:Sixty postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to the case and control groups and followed for one year. DHB was applied in the case group according to the pre-designed protocol and the patients’ clinical and paraclinical parameters, including bone mineral density (BMD, kyphosis angle, osteoporotic fracture, and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP were evaluated in two groups. Results:Despite no significant difference in basic BMD and kyphosis between the case and control groups, BMD and kyphosis were significantly improved in the DHB treated group, at the end of the study (P=0.003 and P=0.001, respectively. Serum ALP level was significantly higher in cases compared to the controls (P=0.48. The vertebral fracture rate was also lower in the case group compared to the controls. Conclusion:The efficacy of bracing in osteoporosis and kyphosis management should be more emphasized. However, more detailed and controlled studies with more patients and a longer follow-up period is needed to adequately evaluate the long-term results of braces, including DHB.

  17. Crystal structure of [NBu{sub 4}]{sub 2}[Pd{sub 2}{l_brace}C{sub 4}(COOMe){sub 4}{r_brace}{sub 2}({mu}-OH){sub 2}] determined ab initio by charge flipping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Angel L. [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Energetica y de los Materiales, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)], E-mail: alortiz@unex.es; Cumbrera, Francisco L. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Perez, Jose [Departamento de Ingenieria Minera, Geologica y Cartografica, Area de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Cartagena (Murcia) (Spain); Melendez-Martinez, Juan J. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Palatinus, Lukas [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Laboratoire de Cristallographie, BSP, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-01-07

    The crystal structure of bis(tetra-n-butylammonium)bis({mu}{sub 2}-hydroxo)-bis(1,2,3,4-tetrakis (methoxycarbonyl)-1,3-butadiene-1,4-diyl)-di-palladium, [NBu{sub 4}]{sub 2}[Pd{sub 2}{l_brace}C{sub 4}(COOMe){sub 4}{r_brace}{sub 2} ({mu}-OH){sub 2}], was determined ab initio by X-ray single-crystal diffractometry using the charge flipping method. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system with P2{sub 1}/c as space group and the following cell parameters: a = 12.8481(6) A, b = 63.744(3) A, c = 16.6102(8) A, {beta} = 111.943(10). The asymmetric unit is formed by two molecules, and the unit cell contains eight molecules (Z = 8) giving a density of 1.369 g cm{sup -3}. The coordination around the Pd(II) atoms is approximately planar, the methoxycarbonyl groups at the {alpha} and {beta} positions relative to Pd are perpendicular and parallel to the palladacycle ring, respectively, and the {l_brace}Pd({mu}-O){r_brace}{sub 2} core has a bent conformation. The structure closely resembles the features reported previously for other palladacyclopentadiene complexes.

  18. The Mechanical Functionality of the EXO-L Ankle Brace: Assessment With a 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography Stress Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleipool, Roeland P.; Natenstedt, Jerry J.; Streekstra, Geert J.; Dobbe, Johannes G. G.; Gerards, Rogier M.; Blankevoort, Leendert; Tuijthof, Gabriëlle J. M.

    2016-01-01

    A new type of ankle brace (EXO-L) has recently been introduced. It is designed to limit the motion of most sprains without limiting other motions and to overcome problems such as skin irritation associated with taping or poor fit in the sports shoe. To evaluate the claimed functionality of the new

  19. Healing of the Acutely Injured Anterior Cruciate Ligament: Functional Treatment with the ACL-Jack, a Dynamic Posterior Drawer Brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Matthias; Reischl, Nikolaus; Rönn, Karolin; Magnusson, Robert A; Gautier, Emanuel; Jakob, Roland P

    2016-01-01

    Background. The injured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has a limited healing capacity leading to persisting instability. Hypothesis/Purpose. To study if the application of a brace, producing a dynamic posterior drawer force, after acute ACL injury reduces initial instability. Study Design. Cohort study. Methods. Patients treated with the ACL-Jack brace were compared to controls treated with primary ACL reconstruction und controls treated nonsurgically with functional rehabilitation. Measurements included anterior laxity (Rolimeter), clinical scores (Lysholm, Tegner, and IKDC), and MRI evaluation. Patients were followed up to 24 months. Results. Patients treated with the ACL-Jack brace showed a significant improvement of anterior knee laxity comparable to patients treated with ACL reconstruction, whereas laxity persisted after nonsurgical functional rehabilitation. The failure risk (secondary reconstruction necessary) of the ACL-Jack group was however 21% (18 of 86) within 24 months. Clinical scores were similar in all treatment groups. Conclusion. Treatment of acute ACL tears with the ACL-Jack brace leads to improved anterior knee laxity compared to nonsurgical treatment with functional rehabilitation.

  20. Brace treatment of thoracolumbar kyphosis in spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with restoration of vertebral morphology and sagittal profile: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sameh; Labelle, Hubert; Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc

    2015-06-01

    The Kozlowski type of spondylometaphyseal dysplasia (SMD-K) is characterized by vertebral and metaphyseal abnormalities. The longitudinal evolution of thoracolumbar kyphosis associated with vertebral anomalies in SMD-K is unclear. To document the longitudinal changes in sagittal alignment and vertebral morphology in a patient with SMD-K treated nonoperatively with a Milwaukee brace. Case report. Patient with SMD-K having multiple vertebral anomalies and a thoracolumbar kyphosis. A girl with SMD-K seen initially at 21 months old was followed for 14 years. She presented with thoracolumbar kyphosis associated with multiple vertebral anomalies consisting primarily of hypoplasia at L1, beaking at L2, and ovoid shape of adjacent vertebrae. The patient was treated with a Milwaukee brace and followed until she was 16 years old. After initiation of brace treatment, the thoracolumbar kyphosis gradually resolved and she had a normal sagittal alignment at last follow-up. Normal vertebral morphology was also completely restored in the sagittal plane. The patient developed a main thoracic scoliosis that did not require additional treatment. Nonoperative treatment with bracing can be attempted in patients with SMD-K affected by thoracolumbar kyphosis and multiple vertebral anomalies, because full restoration of normal sagittal alignment and vertebral morphology is possible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bracing versus nonbracing in rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a randomized prospective study with 2-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, E; Forssblad, M; Hansson, L; Wange, P; Weidenhielm, L

    2001-01-01

    This study prospectively randomized 62 patients to rehabilitation programs either with or without postoperative brace for 6 weeks following bone-tendon-bone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The nonbraced group had a smaller knee circumference 2 weeks after surgery. At 6-month follow-up the nonbraced group had a better Tegner score. At 2 years there was no difference between the groups. There was one partial rupture of the graft in the nonbraced group after a new trauma 1 year after surgery. There were no differences between the groups in either subjective or objective knee stability at 2 or 6 weeks or at follow-up 3, 6, and 24 months after surgery. This study found no benefit of using a postoperative knee brace on patients' knee function at any stage up to 24 months after surgery. Furthermore, the braced group was not more stable than the nonbraced group, indicating that the brace does not contribute to a more stable knee during rehabilitation or 2-year follow-up.

  2. Single (sub)species then and now: An examination of the nonracial perspective of C. Loring Brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shelley L

    2018-01-01

    C. Loring Brace's writings on the concept of race have been among the most influential within anthropology. A review of the development of Brace's perspective on race shows that his philosophical approaches to fossil and modern human variation are consistent and integrated. Brace's views on race are compared with those of Ashley Montagu and Frank Livingstone, who also proposed eliminating "race" from anthropology, and with those of Stanley Garn and Alice Brues, who accepted "racial" subdivisions of humans. Carleton Coon's writings are more divergent; the aftermath of the publication of his Origin of Races highlights significant political tensions of the 1960s that intersected with scientific changes in anthropology emanating from the Evolutionary Synthesis. Recent forensic and "no race" positions are compared to explore their differences and the possibility of reconciliation, and the role of Brace and others in combating proposals of intellectual differences among human groups is discussed. While a spectrum of anthropological opinion regarding race exists, the commonalities are sufficient to allow valuable, united commentary emphasizing the complexity of modern human cultural and biological variation. © 2018 American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

  3. A new custom moldable external neck brace (ENB 2.0) to improve hands-free speech in laryngectomized patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirven, R.; Clark, J.R.; Wismans, J.G.; McGuiness, J.; Palme, C.E.; Blyth, K.; Baxter, C.; Stone, D.B.; Marres, H.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The majority of laryngectomy patients fail to use a hands-free valve on a daily basis, mainly due to fixation problems of the adhesive baseplate housing. To support adhesive housings during hands-free speech a new external neck brace (ENB 2.0) was developed. The effect of the

  4. Healing of the Acutely Injured Anterior Cruciate Ligament: Functional Treatment with the ACL-Jack, a Dynamic Posterior Drawer Brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Jacobi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The injured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL has a limited healing capacity leading to persisting instability. Hypothesis/Purpose. To study if the application of a brace, producing a dynamic posterior drawer force, after acute ACL injury reduces initial instability. Study Design. Cohort study. Methods. Patients treated with the ACL-Jack brace were compared to controls treated with primary ACL reconstruction und controls treated nonsurgically with functional rehabilitation. Measurements included anterior laxity (Rolimeter, clinical scores (Lysholm, Tegner, and IKDC, and MRI evaluation. Patients were followed up to 24 months. Results. Patients treated with the ACL-Jack brace showed a significant improvement of anterior knee laxity comparable to patients treated with ACL reconstruction, whereas laxity persisted after nonsurgical functional rehabilitation. The failure risk (secondary reconstruction necessary of the ACL-Jack group was however 21% (18 of 86 within 24 months. Clinical scores were similar in all treatment groups. Conclusion. Treatment of acute ACL tears with the ACL-Jack brace leads to improved anterior knee laxity compared to nonsurgical treatment with functional rehabilitation.

  5. The Effects of Functional Knee Brace on Postural Control in Patients Who Underwent Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salehi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The current study aimed to evaluate the postural control in patients underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction pre and post wearing functional knee brace. Methods Eighteen athletes undergone unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction included in the study. They had unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction at least six months before session test. Postural control was assessed pre and post wearing custom-fit functional knee brace using a posturographic platform prokin 254. The balance tests included: 1 standing on prokin platform with eyes open/closed on anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction limb, 2 standing on prokin platform with eyes open/closed on both limbs. The standard deviation (SD of body sway along the anteroposterior (AP and mediolateral (ML axis, mean velocity of center of pressure (COP along AP/ ML axis and the area ellipse (measured in 2 mm were calculated. Results Results of the paired T-test revealed a significant effect on selected postural control variables for the brace conditions especially in low challengeable conditions (double leg, eyes open test situations (P < 0.05. But in high challengeable conditions this effect was not significant. Conclusions Functional knee brace improved postural control in the simple balancing task in the subjects with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. But this improvement in more difficult balancing task was limited.

  6. Effects of a Knee Brace With a Patellar Hole Versus Without a Patellar Hole in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Added, Marco Aurélio Nemitalla; Added, Caroline; Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Rotta, Viviane Perez; de Freitas, Diego Galace

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to observe the immediate effect of a knee brace with a patellar hole versus without a patellar hole on pain perception in patients with knee osteoarthritis. To accomplish this, a double-blind, randomized controlled trial enrolled 108 patients divided into two groups (knee brace with a patellar hole or without a patellar hole). Patients were evaluated by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) in order to measure their pain sensation, the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test was used to evaluate their ability to walk, and the 8-m walking test (8MWT) was used to estimate their walking speed. Both groups presented significant reduction in pain perception, higher function of the lower extremities, and greater mobility while wearing a knee brace. However, the patients who wore a knee brace without a patellar hole presented more favorable results than those who wore a knee brace with a patellar hole: a 1.6-point reduction was found versus 1.1 points in the VAS, the patients presented 0.7 s less time versus 0.4 s in the TUG, and the speed was reduced by 1.4 s versus 0.8 s in the 8MWT. Therefore, the knee brace without a patellar hole presented more favorable results when compared with the knee brace with a patellar hole.

  7. Combined versus individual effects of a valgus knee brace and lateral wedge foot orthotic during stair use in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Rebecca; Birmingham, Trevor; Dombroski, Colin; Walsh, Robert; Giffin, J Robert

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the combined and individual biomechanical effects of a valgus knee brace and a lateral wedge foot orthotic during stair ascent and descent in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Thirty-five patients with varus alignment and medial knee OA were prescribed a custom valgus knee brace and lateral wedge foot orthotic. Knee angles and moments in the frontal and sagittal planes were determined from 3D gait analysis completed under four randomized conditions: (1) control (no knee brace or foot orthotic), (2) knee brace, (3) foot orthotic, and (4) combined knee brace and foot orthotic. Additional measures included the vertical ground reaction force, trunk lean, toe out and gait speed. During the combined use of a knee brace and foot orthotic, significant decreases in the knee adduction angle (2.17, 95%CI: 0.50-3.84, p=0.013) and 2nd peak EKAM (0.35, 95%CI: 0.17-0.52, pknee brace and foot orthotic are used together, resulting in a more normal gait pattern. However, whether or not a true change in knee joint load can be inferred when using these orthoses remains unclear. Further research is required to determine the clinical importance of the observed changes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Retrospective analysis of idiopathic scoliosis medical records coming from one out-patient clinic for compatibility with Scoliosis Research Society criteria for brace treatment studies

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    Krzysztof Korbel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background First author attempted to analyse medical records of patients with idiopathic scoliosis for compliance with the Scoliosis Research Society brace studies criteria. A retrospective analysis of medical records of 2705 girls treated from 1989 to 2002 was carried out. Methods Age, Cobb, Risser and menarchal status were analyzed for compliance with the Scoliosis Research Society brace studies criteria: a age ≥10 years, b Risser 0–2, c 25–40° Cobb angle, d no earlier treatment, e patients before first menses or not more than one year from first menses. Results It has been found that 183 girls out of 2705 were ≥10 years old and in the range 25–40° Cobb angle. One hundred two out of 2705 patients revealed eligible for brace effectiveness study according to SRS 2005 criteria. 120 out of 2705 patients revealed eligible for brace brace effectiveness study according to SRS-SOSORT 2014 criteria. Conclusion The excluded patients revealed too old or with too significant Cobb angles. This indicates the changing criteria for scoliosis brace treatment over the time. Direct comparison of current results of brace treatment with historical series of cases turns out to be very difficult.

  9. 'SOSORT consensus paper on brace action: TLSO biomechanics of correction (investigating the rationale for force vector selection)'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, M; Negrini, S; Weiss, H R; Grivas, T B; Maruyama, T; Kotwicki, T

    2006-07-20

    The effectiveness of orthotic treatment continues to be controversial in international medical literature due to differences in the reported results and conclusions of various studies. Heterogeneity of the samples has been suggested as a reason for conflicting results. Besides the obvious theoretical differences between the brace concepts, the variability in the technical factors can also explain the contradictory results between same brace types. This paper will investigate the degree of variability among responses of scoliosis specialists from the Brace Study Ground of the International Society on Scoliosis Orthopedic and Rehabilitation Treatment SOSORT. Ultimately, this information could be a foundation for establishing a consensus and framework for future prospective controlled studies. A preliminary questionnaire on the topic of 'brace action' relative to the theory of three-dimensional scoliosis correction and brace treatment was developed and circulated to specialists interested in the conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A particular case was presented (main thoracic curve with minor lumbar). Several key points emerged and were used to develop a second questionnaire which was discussed and full filed after the SOSORT consensus meeting (Milano, Italy, January 2005). Twenty-one questionnaires were completed. The Chêneau brace was the most frequently recommended. The importance of the three point system mechanism was stressed. Options about proper pad placement on the thoracic convexity were divided 50% for the pad reaching or involving the apical vertebra and 50% for the pad acting caudal to the apical vertebra. There was agreement about the direction of the vector force, 85% selecting a 'dorso lateral to ventro medial' direction but about the shape of the pad to produce such a force. Principles related to three-dimensional correction achieved high consensus (80%-85%), but suggested methods of correction were quite diverse. This study

  10. 'SOSORT consensus paper on brace action: TLSO biomechanics of correction (investigating the rationale for force vector selection'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruyama T

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of orthotic treatment continues to be controversial in international medical literature due to differences in the reported results and conclusions of various studies. Heterogeneity of the samples has been suggested as a reason for conflicting results. Besides the obvious theoretical differences between the brace concepts, the variability in the technical factors can also explain the contradictory results between same brace types. This paper will investigate the degree of variability among responses of scoliosis specialists from the Brace Study Ground of the International Society on Scoliosis Orthopedic and Rehabilitation Treatment SOSORT. Ultimately, this information could be a foundation for establishing a consensus and framework for future prospective controlled studies. Methods A preliminary questionnaire on the topic of 'brace action' relative to the theory of three-dimensional scoliosis correction and brace treatment was developed and circulated to specialists interested in the conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A particular case was presented (main thoracic curve with minor lumbar. Several key points emerged and were used to develop a second questionnaire which was discussed and full filed after the SOSORT consensus meeting (Milano, Italy, January 2005. Results Twenty-one questionnaires were completed. The Chêneau brace was the most frequently recommended. The importance of the three point system mechanism was stressed. Options about proper pad placement on the thoracic convexity were divided 50% for the pad reaching or involving the apical vertebra and 50% for the pad acting caudal to the apical vertebra. There was agreement about the direction of the vector force, 85% selecting a 'dorso lateral to ventro medial' direction but about the shape of the pad to produce such a force. Principles related to three-dimensional correction achieved high consensus (80%–85%, but suggested

  11. Can a post-operative brace in slight hyperextension prevent extension deficit after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction? A prospective randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, C; Cerulli, G; Lorenzini, M; Bergstrand, G; Werner, S

    2003-09-01

    It has been our observation that post-operative anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) braces together with the post-operative bandages do not always allow the knee to reach full extension. In ten uninjured knees with known hyperextension, the knees were bandaged in the same way as after an ACL-reconstruction. The knees were then studied radiologically in a Hypex brace set at 0 degrees, -5 degrees and -10 degrees of knee extension. Not a single knee was found to be straight in the brace set at 0 degrees. At -5 degrees most of the knees were straight or in slight hyperextension. It took -10 degrees to get all knees straight or in hyperextension. In a prospective randomised study 44 patients who underwent an arthroscopic ACL-reconstruction with a bone patellar tendon bone graft were randomised to use either a brace set at -5 degrees or a straight brace (0 degrees ) for at least the first three postoperative weeks. Before and three months after surgery range of motion was determined, using a goniometer with long arms, and sagittal knee laxity was measured with a KT-2000 arthrometer at manual max. Pre- and post-operative pain was evaluated with the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The same examiner (blindfolded to what type of brace was used) performed all the measurements. At three months, two of the 22 patients with the brace set at -5 degrees and twelve of the 22 patients with the straight brace had a loss of full extension of 2 degrees or more ( pknee flexion, sagittal knee laxity or post-operative pain. Although extension deficit after ACL-reconstruction can be prevented also in other ways, a Hypex brace set at -5 degrees seems to be an easy way of ensuring full knee extension.

  12. The effect of knee braces on tibial rotation in anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knees during high-demand athletic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotis, Dimitrios; Zampeli, Franceska; Pappas, Evangelos; Mitsionis, Grigoris; Papadopoulos, Pericles; Georgoulis, Anastasios D

    2013-07-01

    To examine if bracing can restrict tibial rotation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient patients during high loading activities. Repeated measures. Kinematic data were collected with an 8-camera Vicon system while each patient performed 2 tasks that are known to cause increased rotational and translational loads on the knee: (1) descending from a stair and subsequent pivoting, and (2) landing from a platform and subsequent pivoting. The tasks were repeated under 3 brace conditions for the ACL-deficient knee: (1) wearing a prophylactic brace (braced condition), (2) wearing a patellofemoral brace (sleeved condition), and (3) without brace (unbraced condition). Biomechanical laboratory study. Twenty-one male subjects with a confirmed unilateral ACL rupture were assessed in vivo. Tibial internal rotation. Two repeated measures ANOVAs tested for differences in tibial internal rotation among the 3 conditions of the ACL-deficient knee and the unbraced condition of the intact knee. In both tasks, tibial rotation was significantly lower in the intact knee compared with all 3 conditions of the ACL-deficient knee (P ≤ 0.031). Bracing the ACL-deficient knee resulted in lower rotation than the unbraced (P ≤ 0.001) and sleeved (P ≤ 0.033) conditions. The sleeved condition resulted in lower tibial rotation in the drop landing and pivoting task compared with the unbraced condition (P = 0.019) but not in the stair descending and pivoting task (P = 0.256). Bracing decreased the excessive tibial rotation in ACL-deficient patients during high-demand activities but failed to fully restore normative values. If knee braces can enhance rotational knee stability in ACL-deficient patients, then they could possibly play an important role in preventing further knee pathology in such patients.

  13. The additional value of a pneumatic leg brace in the treatment of recruits with medial tibial stress syndrome; a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, M H; Bongers, T; Bakker, E W P; Weir, A; Zimmermann, W O; van der Werve, M; Backx, F J G

    2010-12-01

    To study the additional effect of a pneumatic leg brace with standard rehabilitation for the treatment of medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) in recruits. In a single blinded randomized study, 15 recruits (age 17-22) followed a rehabilitation programme consisting of leg exercises and a graded running programme. Recruits performed daily exercises and ran three times a week. The running programme consisted of 6 consecutive phases. One group was, after randomization, additionally provided with a pneumatic leg brace. Follow-up was provided every other week. Days to completing the running programme was the primary outcome measure, the Sports Activity Rating Scale (SARS) score and satisfaction with the treatment were secondary outcome measures. In total 14 recruits completed the rehabilitation programme. No differences were found in the number of days until phase six of the running schedule was finished between the brace and the control group (Brace 58.8 +/- 27.7 (mean +/- SD) vs Non-Brace 57.9 +/- 26.2 (mean +/- SD, p = 0.57). Also no differences were found in the SARS scores between the groups. Overall satisfaction with the treatment was 6.4 +/- 1.1 (mean +/- SD) on a 1-10 scale for the brace group and 7.1 +/- 0.7 (mean +/- SD) for the control group (p = 0.06). Comfort of the brace was assessed as 4.8 +/- 1.3 (mean +/- SD) on a 1-10 scale. No additional large effect of the pneumatic leg brace could be found in recruits and wearing of the brace was not feasible, since the wearing comfort was low.

  14. A comparison of the biomechanical effects of valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard K; Nester, Christopher J; Richards, Jim D; Kim, Winston Y; Johnson, David S; Jari, Sanjiv; Laxton, Philip; Tyson, Sarah F

    2013-03-01

    Increases in the external knee adduction moment (EKAM) have been associated with increased mechanical load at the knee and progression of knee osteoarthritis. Valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles are common approaches to reducing this loading; however no study has directly compared the biomechanical and clinical effects of these two treatments in patients with medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. A cross-over randomised design was used where each intervention was worn by 28 patients for a two week period. Pre- and post-intervention gait kinematic/kinetic data and clinical outcomes were collected to evaluate the biomechanical and clinical effects on the knee joint. The valgus knee brace and the lateral wedged insole significantly increased walking speed, reduced the early stance EKAM by 7% and 12%, and the knee adduction angular impulse by 8.6 and 16.1% respectively. The lateral wedged insole significantly reduced the early stance EKAM compared to the valgus knee brace (p=0.001). The valgus knee brace significantly reduced the knee varus angle compared to the baseline and lateral wedged insole. Improvements in pain and function subscales were comparable for the valgus knee brace and lateral wedged insole. There were no significant differences between the two treatments in any of the clinical outcomes; however the lateral wedged insoles demonstrated greater levels of acceptance by patients. This is the first study to biomechanically compare these two treatments, and demonstrates that given the potential role of knee loading in osteoarthritis progression, that both treatments reduce this but lateral wedge insoles appear to have a greater effect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of the rehabilitation brace in restoring knee extension after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a prospective controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melegati, G; Tornese, D; Bandi, M; Volpi, P; Schonhuber, H; Denti, M

    2003-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of a rehabilitation brace locked in extension for the first week on the recovery of full extension after ACL reconstruction we compared two groups of subjects who underwent ACL bone-patellar tendon-bone reconstruction. The brace was unlocked twice a day for assisted physiotherapy. In Group A, 18 male subjects wore a post-operative brace locked from 0 degrees to 90 degrees. In Group B, 18 male subjects wore the same post-op brace locked in full extension for the first week. In both groups the brace was unlocked (0 degrees -120 degrees ) at the beginning of the second postoperative week, and then removed at the beginning of the third week. All the subjects followed the same rigorous, accelerated rehabilitation protocol. Each subject was evaluated pre and post-operatively (at second, fourth and eighth week) with bubble-level heel height difference (HHD) measurements and KT 1000 arthrometric assessment at the fourth postoperative month. Preoperative bubble-level HHD measurements of the two groups were statistically similar (Group A 0.6 cm, Group B 1 cm; not significant, n.s.). At the fourth week (Group A 2.2 cm, Group B 0.6 cm) and eighth week (Group A 1.6 cm, Group B 0.1 cm) follow-ups, bubble-level HHD measurements showed that the extension of the operated knees of Group B was significantly greater than in Group A. KT 1000 arthrometric scores showed no difference between the two groups (Group A 1.8 mm, Group B 1.5; n.s.).

  16. Functional knee brace use effect on peak vertical ground reaction forces during drop jump landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishiraj, Neetu; Taunton, Jack E; Lloyd-Smith, Robert; Regan, William; Niven, Brian; Woollard, Robert

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the landing strategies used by non-injured athletes while wearing functional knee braces (FKB, BR condition) during a drop jump task compared with non-injured, non-braced (NBR condition) subjects and also to ascertain whether accommodation to a FKB was possible by non-injured BR subjects. Twenty-three healthy male provincial and national basketball and field hockey athletes (age, 19.4 ± 3.0 years) were tested. Each subject was provided with a custom-fitted FKB. Five NBR testing sessions were performed over 3 days followed by five BR testing sessions also over 3 days, for a total of 17.5 h of testing per condition. Each subject performed eight trials of the drop jump task during each testing session per condition. Single-leg peak vertical ground reaction forces (PVGRF) and the time to PVGRF were recorded for each NBR and BR trail. The BR group mean PVGRF at landing was significantly lower (1,628 ± 405 N, 2.1 ± 0.5 BW versus 1,715 ± 403 N, 2.2 ± 0.5 BW, F (1,22) = 6.83, P = 0.01) compared with NBR subjects, respectively. The group mean time to PVGRF was not statistically longer during the BR condition (F (1,22) = 0.967, P = 0.3). Further, an accommodation trend was noted as percent performance difference decreased with continued FKB use. The significantly lower group mean PVGRF while using a FKB could keep traumatic forces from reaching the ACL until the active neuromuscular restraints are activated to provide protection to the knee joint ligaments. Also, accommodation to FKB is possible after approximately 14.0 h of brace use. The results of this paper will assist clinicians in providing information to their patients regarding a FKB ability to offer protection to an ACL-deficient knee or to address concerns about early muscle fatigue, energy expenditure, heart rate, and decrease in performance level. Prospective study, Level I.

  17. Performance of Healthy Braced Participants During Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishiraj, Neetu; Taunton, Jack E.; Niven, Brian; Lloyd-Smith, Robert; Regan, William; Woollard, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Context: Knee braces were introduced in sports approximately 30 years ago. However, the effects of a functional knee brace (FKB) on aerobic and anaerobic performance after fatigue are unknown. Objective: To investigate whether FKB use in noninjured participants hindered performance during aerobic (Léger beep test) and anaerobic (repeated high-intensity shuttle test [RHIST]) tasks. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-seven healthy male provincial and national basketball and field hockey athletes (age = 19.4 ± 3.0 years, range, 17–26 years; height = 182.6 ± 6.8 cm, range, 168–196 cm; mass = 80.0 ± 9.1 kg, range, 66–108 kg). Interventions : Each participant was provided a custom-fitted FKB and performed 5 nonbraced (NBR) testing sessions over 3 days, followed by 5 braced (BR) testing sessions over 3 days, for a total of 17.5 hours of testing per condition. During each testing session, participants performed 1 trial of the Léger beep test and 1 trial of the RHIST in each condition. Main Outcome Measure(s): Predicted maximal oxygen consumption (V˙o2max) and time performance measures were recorded for each NBR and BR trial. Results: Initial performance levels were lower for BR than NBR for both the Léger beep test (BR = 44.3 mL/kg/min, NBR = 47.3 mL/kg/min; F1,26 = 8.726; P = .007) and the RHIST (BR = 16.5 seconds, NBR = 16.2 seconds; F1,26 = 13.98, P = .001). However, with continued FKB use, the aerobic performance measure remained higher for only the first 2 BR testing sessions (NBR = 46.9 mL/kg/min, BR = 42.4 mL/kg/min; F3.0,79.8 = 4.95, P = .003). For the anaerobic test, no performance difference was noted between the testing conditions (NBR = 16.2 seconds, BR = 16.4 seconds; P = .7), whereas fatigue levels were lower during BR testing sessions (NBR = 33%, BR = 31%). After 14.0 hours of FKB use, performance levels were almost equal between the testing conditions (NBR = 47.6 mL/kg/min, BR = 46.1 m

  18. Accounting for multiple sources of uncertainty in impact assessments: The example of the BRACE study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing climate change impacts often requires the use of multiple scenarios, types of models, and data sources, leading to a large number of potential sources of uncertainty. For example, a single study might require a choice of a forcing scenario, climate model, bias correction and/or downscaling method, societal development scenario, model (typically several) for quantifying elements of societal development such as economic and population growth, biophysical model (such as for crop yields or hydrology), and societal impact model (e.g. economic or health model). Some sources of uncertainty are reduced or eliminated by the framing of the question. For example, it may be useful to ask what an impact outcome would be conditional on a given societal development pathway, forcing scenario, or policy. However many sources of uncertainty remain, and it is rare for all or even most of these sources to be accounted for. I use the example of a recent integrated project on the Benefits of Reduced Anthropogenic Climate changE (BRACE) to explore useful approaches to uncertainty across multiple components of an impact assessment. BRACE comprises 23 papers that assess the differences in impacts between two alternative climate futures: those associated with Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5. It quantifies difference in impacts in terms of extreme events, health, agriculture, tropical cyclones, and sea level rise. Methodologically, it includes climate modeling, statistical analysis, integrated assessment modeling, and sector-specific impact modeling. It employs alternative scenarios of both radiative forcing and societal development, but generally uses a single climate model (CESM), partially accounting for climate uncertainty by drawing heavily on large initial condition ensembles. Strengths and weaknesses of the approach to uncertainty in BRACE are assessed. Options under consideration for improving the approach include the use of perturbed physics

  19. Design and testing of a regenerative magnetorheological actuator for assistive knee braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hao; Chen, Bing; Qin, Ling; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a multifunctional magneto-rheological actuator with power regeneration capability, named regenerative magnetorheological actuator (RMRA), is designed for gait assistance in the knee joint. RMRA has motor and magnetorheological (MR) brake parts working in parallel that can harvest energy through regenerative braking. This novel design provides multiple functions with good energy efficiency. The configuration and basic design of the RMRA are first introduced. Then geometrical optimization of the MR brake is conducted based on a parameterized model, and multiple factors are considered in the design objectives: braking torque, weight, and power consumption. After the optimal design is obtained, an RMRA prototype is fabricated and associated driver circuits are designed. Finally, multiple functions of the RMRA, especially three different braking modes, are modeled and tested. Experimental results of RMRA output performances in all working modes match the modeling and simulation. Assistive knee braces with the developed RMRA are promising for future applications in gait assistance and rehabilitation.

  20. Bracing Later and Coping Better: Benefits of Mindfulness During a Stressful Waiting Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Kate; Howell, Jennifer L

    2017-10-01

    People frequently await uncertain news, yet research reveals that the strategies people naturally use to cope with uncertainty are largely ineffective. We tested the role of mindfulness for improving the experience of a stressful waiting period. Law graduates awaiting their bar exam results either reported their trait mindfulness (Study 1; N = 150) or were instructed to practice mindfulness meditation (Study 2; N = 90). As hypothesized, participants who were naturally more mindful or who practiced mindfulness managed their expectations more effectively by bracing for the worst later in the waiting period and perceived themselves as coping better. Additionally, participants who were low in dispositional optimism and high in intolerance of uncertainty benefited most from mindfulness (relative to control) meditation. These findings point to a simple and effective way to wait better, particularly for those most vulnerable to distress.

  1. Aeroservoelastic Wind-Tunnel Test of the SUGAR Truss Braced Wing Wind-Tunnel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert C.; Allen, Timothy J.; Funk, Christie J.; Castelluccio, Mark A.; Sexton, Bradley W.; Claggett, Scott; Dykman, John; Coulson, David A.; Bartels, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    The Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) Truss-Braced Wing (TBW) aeroservoelastic (ASE) wind-tunnel test was conducted in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) and was completed in April, 2014. The primary goals of the test were to identify the open-loop flutter boundary and then demonstrate flutter suppression. A secondary goal was to demonstrate gust load alleviation (GLA). Open-loop flutter and limit cycle oscillation onset boundaries were identified for a range of Mach numbers and various angles of attack. Two sets of control laws were designed for the model and both sets of control laws were successful in suppressing flutter. Control laws optimized for GLA were not designed; however, the flutter suppression control laws were assessed using the TDT Airstream Oscillation System. This paper describes the experimental apparatus, procedures, and results of the TBW wind-tunnel test. Acquired system ID data used to generate ASE models is also discussed.2 study.

  2. Treatment of supracondylar fracture of the humerus in children by skeletal traction in a brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, K; Nakatani, N; Harada, M; Tamaki, T

    2004-03-01

    In 1980, we developed a specially designed brace for treating supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children, along with an easy and safe technique of reduction by skeletal traction. This method, which takes into consideration only the medial tilting and anterior angulation of the distal fragment, achieves complete reduction, ignoring any lateral, posterior and minor rotational displacements of the fragment. Skeletal traction is applied through a screw inserted into the olecranon and the angulation at the fracture site is reduced regardless of the anatomical position without manipulation. We treated 193 children with displaced supracondylar fractures of the humerus using this method between 1980 and 2001. Only four children (2%) developed cubitus varus. The majority obtained an excellent range of movement at the elbow; one had a 25 degree limitation of flexion. This technique is an effective and easy method of treating supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children.

  3. [Ligament bracing--augmented primary suture repair in multiligamentous knee injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, M; Gerau, M; Hötzel, J; Giannakos, A; Frosch, K-H; Preiss, A

    2014-02-01

    Reconstruction of knee stability by primary ligament sutures and additional augmentation after knee dislocation. Acute knee dislocation Schenck type III and IV. Operative treatment should be performed within 7 days after injury. Chronic instability after knee dislocation, refixable bony avulsions, critical soft tissue, infection, lack of compliance. Supine position with electric leg holder. Short arthroscopic assessment of concomitant injuries. Schenck type III medial injuries and Schenck IV injuries: anteromedial parapatellar arthrotomy. Injuries type Schenck III lateral: anteromedian arthrotomy. Armoring of ligament stumps for transosseus sutures. Placement of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) drill tunnels. Extracortical diversion of the suture armorings and insertion of augmentation systems. Fixation of the PCL augmentation in 70-90° flexion. Fixation of the ACL augmentation in 20-30° flexion. Knotting of the transosseus ligament sutures. If necessary (postero-)lateral and/or medial stabilization. Limited weight bearing with 20 kg for 6 weeks. Stabilizing brace (e.g., Hypex-Lite®, Albrecht) generally for 12 weeks. Mobilization under tension of the quadriceps muscle for 6 weeks. In total, 20 patients have been treated using the principle of "ligament bracing". So far 8 patients (aged 18-60 years, median 33 years) have been assessed with a follow-up of 10-15 months (median 12 months) postoperatively. In all, 6 patients showed stable knees with good results. Recurrent instability of the ACL was observed in 2 patients; the collateral ligaments and PCL were stable. For the evaluation the following scores were used: IKDC score, Tegner score, and Lysholm score. To objectify the data, stress radiography and physical examination were performed. Using the operative technique mentioned above, no complications occurred. During follow-up 2 patients reported a deficiency of flexion.

  4. Flexibility Predicts Curve Progression in Providence Nighttime Bracing of Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrt-Nissen, Søren; Hallager, Dennis W; Gehrchen, Martin; Dahl, Benny

    2016-11-15

    Retrospective cohort study. To determine treatment outcome with providence brace (PB) and to assess the ability of pretreatment supine lateral bending radiographs (SLBR) in predicting curve progression. Results from treatment with the PB for adolescent idiopathic ccoliosis (AIS) have been inconsistent and further research is needed. The association between flexibility, as determined by pretreatment SLBR, and curve progression has not previously been examined. All patients treated with the PB from 2006 to 2011 who met Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) bracing criteria were included. Flexibility of the curve was determined based on SLBR and radiographic variables were registered at beginning of treatment and at skeletal maturity (SM) or before surgery. An increase in standing Cobb angle by more than 5 degrees was considered progression. Follow-up SRS-22 scores were compared with a control group with minor AIS. Analysis included multiple linear and logistic regression. A total of 63 patients were included. Mean age was 13.3 years (SD: 1.5) and mean standing Cobb angle was 34° (SD: 5°). Radiographic progression was observed in 43% of patients at SM and surgical rate was 27% and 37% at SM and 2-year follow up, respectively. SRS-22 total scores were similar but the mental health score was significantly better in the control group (P = 0.042). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that decreased flexibility adjusted for age, Cobb angle, and menarchal status was significantly associated with curve progression (P flexibility was associated with a decrease in risk of curve progression ≥6° (odds ratio = 0.95; 95% confidence interval 0.90-0.98; P = 0.013). Progression was seen in 43% of AIS patients treated with the PB. Increase in flexibility was independently associated with a decreased risk of progression. 3.

  5. Effectiveness of damped braces to mitigate seismic torsional response of unsymmetric-plan buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Fabio; Pedace, Emilia; Favero, Francesco Del

    2017-02-01

    The seismic retrofitting of unsymmetric-plan reinforced concrete (r.c.) framed buildings can be carried out by the incorporation of damped braces (DBs). Yet most of the proposals to mitigate the seismic response of asymmetric framed buildings by DBs rest on the hypothesis of elastic (linear) structural response. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the effectiveness and reliability of a Displacement-Based Design procedure of hysteretic damped braces (HYDBs) based on the nonlinear behavior of the frame members, which adopts the extended N2 method considered by Eurocode 8 to evaluate the higher mode torsional effects. The Town Hall of Spilinga (Italy), a framed structure with an L-shaped plan built at the beginning of the 1960s, is supposed to be retrofitted with HYDBs to attain performance levels imposed by the Italian seismic code (NTC08) in a high-risk zone. Ten structural solutions are compared by considering two in-plan distributions of the HYDBs, to eliminate (elastic) torsional effects, and different design values of the frame ductility combined with a constant design value of the damper ductility. A computer code for the nonlinear dynamic analysis of r.c. spatial framed structures is adopted to evaluate the critical incident angle of bidirectional earthquakes. Beams and columns are simulated with a lumped plasticity model, including flat surface modeling of the axial load-biaxial bending moment elastic domain at the end sections, while a bilinear law is used to idealize the behavior of the HYDBs. Damage index domains are adopted to estimate the directions of least seismic capacity, considering artificial earthquakes whose response spectra match those adopted by NTC08 at serviceability and ultimate limit states.

  6. The Effect of Abdominal Bracing in Combination with Low Extremity Movements on Changes in Thickness of Abdominal Muscles and Lumbar Strength for Low Back Pain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SO HEE LEE; TAE HOON KIM; BYOUNG HEE LEE

    2014-01-01

    [Abstract.] [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of abdominal bracing with low extremity movement on changes in thickness of abdominal muscles and lumbar strength. [Subjects...

  7. Functional outcome after air-stirrup ankle brace or fiberglass backslab for pediatric low-risk ankle fractures: a randomized observer-blinded controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Peter Leslie John; Lee, Melissa H; Oh, Luke; Cull, Greg; Babl, Franz

    2012-08-01

    Pediatric ankle fractures are usually treated by immobilization with either a posterior splint, cast, or ankle brace. We set out to determine if the below-knee fiberglass posterior splint was as effective as the Air-Stirrup ankle brace in returning children with a low risk ankle fracture to their normal level of activity. This was a randomized, single-blinded, noninferiority, controlled trial at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne. Children aged 5 to 15 years presenting acutely with a low-risk ankle fracture were randomized to the Air-Stirrup ankle brace or fiberglass posterior splint. A validated self-reported outcome tool, the Activities Scale for Kids performance (ASKp), was used to measure physical functioning over the 4 week period. Main outcome was ASKp scores at 2 and 4 weeks with secondary outcomes including pain, weight-bearing ability, and acceptability of device. Forty-five patients were randomized: 23 in the posterior splint group and 22 in the Air-Stirrup ankle brace. Study groups were similar in terms of age, fracture type, and baseline pain. More of the posterior splint group were non-weight bearing "at enrollment" (96%) compared with the ankle brace group (77%). The median ASKp score at 4 weeks was 91.9 in the brace group and 84.2 in the posterior splint group. Scores on the ASKp as well as ASKp differences were favorable toward the brace in the 11- to 15-year age group at 2 weeks (69.6 vs 55.6) and 4 weeks (97.5 vs 90.2) but trended toward the posterior splint in the 5- to 10-year age group (47.5 vs 56). There was no difference between the Air-Stirrup ankle brace and the fiberglass posterior splint in returning children to their normal levels of activity.

  8. The effect of anterior cruciate ligament deficiency and functional bracing on translation of the tibia relative to the femur during nonweightbearing and weightbearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beynnon, Bruce D; Fleming, Braden C; Churchill, David L; Brown, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Much of what is known about functional bracing is derived from studies of the knee during unweighted or weightbearing conditions, whereas little is known about the transition between these postures. Bracing the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee during nonweightbearing, throughout the transition to weightbearing, and during weightbearing reduces the abnormal translations of the tibia relative to the femur to within the limits of normal. Controlled laboratory study. Subjects with chronic anterior cruciate ligament tears were studied with and without braces. Anteroposterior shear and compressive loads were applied to the knee, and translations of the tibia relative to the femur were measured while subjects were nonweightbearing, throughout the transition to weightbearing, and during weightbearing. Bracing the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee resulted in a significant reduction of anteroposterior laxity values, to a level within the limits of the normal knee during nonweightbearing and weightbearing postures. In contrast, when the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knees transitioned from nonweightbearing to weightbearing, the anterior translation of the tibia relative to the femur was 3.5 times greater than in the normal knee, and bracing did not reduce this to within the limits of normal. Bracing a knee with a chronic anterior cruciate ligament tear was effective in reducing abnormal anteroposterior laxity during nonweightbearing and weightbearing; however, braces were not effective in reducing the abnormal anterior translations produced by the change between these postures. This study explains why subjects with anterior cruciate ligament tears gain partial control of pathologic anteroposterior laxity with the use of a brace but may continue to experience abnormal translations during activity. Copyright 2003 American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine

  9. The effect of scapular posterior tilt exercise, pectoralis minor stretching, and shoulder brace on scapular alignment and muscles activity in subjects with round-shoulder posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-hyun; Cynn, Heon-seock; Yoon, Tae-lim; Ko, Chang-hee; Choi, Woo-jeong; Choi, Sil-ah; Choi, Bong-sam

    2015-02-01

    There are various methods for rehabilitating round-shoulder posture (RSP), including strengthening exercises, stretching, and using a shoulder brace or taping to correct the altered posture. However, no study has determined which intervention is the most effective of the three methods to decrease RSP (intervention #1: scapular posterior tilting exercise alone [hereafter, SPT], intervention #2: the scapular posterior tilting exercise after PM stretching [PM stretch+SPT], and intervention #3: the scapular posterior tilting exercise with use of a shoulder brace [SPT+brace]). The purpose of this study was to compare the SPT, PM stretch+SPT, and SPT+brace on RSP, PM index (PMI), and lower trapezius (LT) and serratus anterior (SA) activity in subjects with RSP. In total, fifteen young men with RSP, participated in the study (21.46 ± 2.30 years old). RSP was confirmed using a caliper measure. Surface electromyography (SEMG) data for LT and SA activity were collected during the three interventions, and the SEMG data are expressed as a percentage of the maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC). RSP was significantly less in the PM stretch+SPT and SPT+brace than in the SPT (Pstretch+SPT and SPT+brace than in the SPT (Pstretch+SPT than in the SPT or SPT+brace in subjects with RSP (Pstretching exercise and application of a shoulder brace may help correct RSP and restore the length of the PM. The posterior tilting exercise after PM stretching was the most effective method for eliciting greater LT muscle activation among the interventions tested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effectiveness of the SpineCor brace based on the new standardized criteria proposed by the scoliosis research society for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coillard, Christine; Vachon, Valerie; Circo, Alin B; Beauséjour, Marie; Rivard, Charles H

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Dynamic SpineCor brace for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in accordance with the standardized criteria proposed by the Scoliosis Research Society Committee on Bracing and Nonoperative Management. They proposed these guidelines to make the comparison among studies more valid and reliable. From 1993 to 2006, 493 patients were treated using the SpineCor brace. Two hundred forty-nine patients met the criteria for inclusion, and 79 patients were still actively being treated. Overall, 170 patients have a definitive outcome. All girls were premenarchal or less than 1 year postmenarchal. Assessment of brace effectiveness included (1) percentage of patients who have 5 degrees or less curve progression, and percentage of patients who have 6 degrees or more progression; (2) percentage of patients who have been recommended/undergone surgery before skeletal maturity; (3) percentage of patients with curves exceeding 45 degrees at maturity (end of treatment); and (4) Two-year follow-up beyond maturity to determine the percentage of patients who subsequently underwent surgery. Successful treatment (correction, >5 degrees, or stabilization, +/-5 degrees) was achieved in 101 (59.4%) of the 170 patients from the time of the fitting of the SpineCor brace to the point in which it was discontinued. Thirty-nine immature patients (22.9%) required surgical fusion while receiving treatment. Two (1.2%) of 170 patients had curves exceeding 45 degrees at maturity. One mature patient (2.1%) required surgery within 2 years of follow-up beyond skeletal maturity. The conclusion drawn from these findings is that the SpineCor brace is effective for the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Moreover, positive outcomes are maintained after 2 years because 45 (95.7%) of 47 patients stabilized or corrected their end of bracing Cobb angle up to 2 years after bracing. Therapeutic study-investigating the

  11. High-pressure phase behaviour of the binary system {l_brace}CO{sub 2} + cis-decalin{r_brace} from (292.75 to 373.75) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitu, Stephane [Laboratoire de Thermodynamique des Milieux Polyphases, Nancy-Universite, INPL-ENSIC, 1 rue Grandville, B.P. 20451, 54001 Nancy (France); Jaubert, Jean-Noel [Laboratoire de Thermodynamique des Milieux Polyphases, Nancy-Universite, INPL-ENSIC, 1 rue Grandville, B.P. 20451, 54001 Nancy (France)], E-mail: jean-noel.jaubert@ensic.inpl-nancy.fr; Pauly, Jerome; Daridon, Jean-Luc [Laboratoire des Fluides Complexes, UMR CNRS 5150, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, B.P. 1155, 64013 Pau Cedex (France)

    2008-09-15

    The phase behaviour of the {l_brace}CO{sub 2} (1) + cis-decalin (2){r_brace} binary system has been experimentally studied at temperatures ranging from (292.75 to 373.75) K. Saturation pressures, ranging from (15.9 to 490.5) bar, were obtained using a variable volume high-pressure cell by visual observation of phase transitions at constant overall composition. For this system, no literature data are available and the results obtained in this study reveal the occurrence of vapor-liquid, liquid-liquid, and vapor-liquid-liquid phase transitions in the investigated temperature range. A total of 133 experimental points are reported including bubble points, dew points, liquid-liquid phase equilibria, and coordinates of the three-phase line. The experimental data can be reasonably predicted by the PPR78 model in which the temperature-dependent binary interaction parameter is calculated by a group contribution method.

  12. 3-D micromagnetic simulation of a Bloch line between C-sections of a 180 deg. domain wall in a left brace 1 0 0 right brace iron film

    CERN Document Server

    Huo, S; Tucker, J W; Rainforth, W M; Davies, H A

    2000-01-01

    The micromagnetic structure and energy of a Bloch line (BL) in an asymmetric 180 deg. Bloch domain wall in a 60 nm left brace 1 0 0 right brace iron film have been calculated. In the wall cross-sections on either side of the BL, the flux of magnetisation transverse to that of the domains was 'C' shaped, roughly normal to the plane of the film in its interior but bending nearly parallel to the surfaces as they are approached. The sense of this transverse flux is reversed at the BL. The energy of this BL was calculated to be considerably lower than the energies reported earlier for BLs in walls having 'S' shaped transverse flux cross-sections.

  13. Immediate effects of a knee brace with a constraint to knee extension on knee kinematics and ground reaction forces in a stop-jump task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bing; Herman, Daniel; Preston, Jennifer; Lu, William; Kirkendall, Donald T; Garrett, William E

    2004-01-01

    A small knee flexion angle in landing tasks was identified as a possible risk factor for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries that are common in sports. A specially designed knee brace with a constraint to knee extension would significantly increase the knee flexion angle at the landing of athletic tasks preceded with horizontal movement components, such as stop-jump tasks. Repeated measure design for brace effects. Three-dimensional videographic and force plate data were collected for 10 male and 10 female recreational athletes performing a stop-jump task with and without the specially designed brace. Knee flexion angle at landing, maximum knee flexion angle, and peak ground reaction forces during the stance phase of the stop-jump task were determined for each subject with and without the knee brace. The knee brace decreased the knee flexion angle at the landing by 5 degrees for both genders but did not significantly affect the peak ground reaction forces during the landing. The specially designed knee brace may be a useful device in the prevention and rehabilitation of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in sports. Copyright 2004 American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine

  14. Immediate Effects of a Brace on Gait Biomechanics for Predominant Lateral Knee Osteoarthritis and Valgus Malalignment After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Harvi F; Collins, Natalie J; Ackland, David C; Cowan, Sallie M; Hunt, Michael A; Crossley, Kay M

    2016-04-01

    Lateral knee osteoarthritis is notably common after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). While valgus bracing has been investigated as an intervention for medial knee osteoarthritis (OA), little is known about the effectiveness of varus bracing for lateral knee OA after ACLR. To determine the immediate effects of a varus unloader knee brace on gait biomechanics in people with lateral knee OA and valgus malalignment after ACLR. Controlled laboratory study. Nineteen participants who had undergone primary ACLR 5 to 20 years previously and had symptomatic and radiographic lateral knee OA as well as valgus malalignment were included. Three-dimensional gait analyses were conducted during walking under 3 test conditions: (1) no brace, (2) unadjusted brace (sagittal plane support with neutral frontal plane adjustment), and (3) adjusted brace (sagittal plane support with varus adjustment). Knee, pelvis, hip, and ankle kinematics and moments data were statistically analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance (α = 0.05). Compared with walking with no brace, the adjusted brace significantly increased peak knee flexion angle (mean difference [95% CI]: 3.2° [1.3° to 5.0°]) and adduction angle (1.7° [0.8° to 2.6°]) and reduced peak internal rotation angle (-3.0° [-4.0° to -2.0°]). Significant increases in peak knee flexion moment (0.14 N·m/kg [0.06 to 0.20 N·m/kg]), adduction moment (0.10 N·m/kg [0.07 to 0.14 N·m/kg]), and external rotation moment (0.01 N·m/kg [0.00 to 0.02 N·m/kg]) were observed with the adjusted brace. The adjusted brace also reduced peak hip adduction angle (-1.29° [-2.12 to -0.47]) and increased peak hip adduction (0.17 N·m/kg [0.04 to 0.31 N·m/kg]) and external rotation moments (0.09 N·m/kg [0.03 to 0.14 N·m/kg]). There were no significant differences between the adjusted and unadjusted brace conditions, except for knee internal rotation angle, where the adjusted brace produced significantly greater reductions

  15. Post-operative use of knee brace in bone-tendon-bone patellar tendon anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: 5-year follow-up results of a randomized prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harilainen, A; Sandelin, J

    2006-02-01

    Sixty patients were prospectively randomized to brace and no-brace groups after bone-tendon-bone patellar tendon anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The brace group wore a rehabilitation knee brace for 12 weeks post-operatively, while the no-brace group was mobilized immediately, and crutches were discarded 2 weeks post-operatively. The groups were comparable with respect to age, gender, time from injury to surgery and concomitant injuries. There were no differences either pre-operatively or 5 years post-operatively (80% of patients reviewed) between the groups in terms of the knee score (Lysholm), activity level (Tegner), degree of laxity or isokinetic peak muscle torque. Thus it appears that knee braces are not needed in the post-operative rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction with the patellar tendon graft.

  16. Strength and Functional Improvement Using Pneumatic Brace with Extension Assist for End-Stage Knee Osteoarthritis: A Prospective, Randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Jeffrey J; Bhave, Anil; Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Starr, Roland; McElroy, Mark J; Mont, Michael A

    2015-05-01

    Pneumatic unloader bracing with extension assists have been proposed as a non-operative modality that may delay the need for knee surgery by reducing pain and improving function. This prospective, randomized trial evaluated 52 patients who had knee osteoarthritis for changes in: (1) muscle strength; (2) objective functional improvements; (3); subjective functional improvements; (4) pain; (5) quality of life; and (6) conversion to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) compared to standard of care. Patient outcomes were evaluated at a minimum 3 months. Braced patient's demonstrated significant improvements in muscle strength, several functional tests, and patient reported outcomes when compared to the matched cohort. These results are encouraging and suggest that this device may represent a promising alternative to standard treatment methods for knee osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Performance Based Plastic Design of Concentrically Braced Frame attuned with Indian Standard code and its Seismic Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejal Purvang Dalal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Performance Based Plastic design method, the failure is predetermined; making it famous throughout the world. But due to lack of proper guidelines and simple stepwise methodology, it is not quite popular in India. In this paper, stepwise design procedure of Performance Based Plastic Design of Concentrically Braced frame attuned with the Indian Standard code has been presented. The comparative seismic performance evaluation of a six storey concentrically braced frame designed using the displacement based Performance Based Plastic Design (PBPD method and currently used force based Limit State Design (LSD method has also been carried out by nonlinear static pushover analysis and time history analysis under three different ground motions. Results show that Performance Based Plastic Design method is superior to the current design in terms of displacement and acceleration response. Also total collapse of the frame is prevented in the PBPD frame.

  18. Hybrid Structural Skin : Prototype of a gfrp elastic gridshell braced by a fiber-reinforced concrete envelope.

    OpenAIRE

    Cuvilliers, Pierre; Douthe, Cyril; Le Roy, Robert; du Peloux, Lionel

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The simulation and construction of elastic gridshells in composite materials is nowadays a technique that one can consider mastered. The bracing of the grid in its final form remains however a time consuming step with a lot of manual work. The lack of alternatives to membrane covering is also an important limitation to the development of such technology. The proposed paper tries to tackle both issues through a novel concept of a hybrid structural skin made of an elasti...

  19. External Rotation Brace Combined with a Physiotherapy Program for First Time Anterior Shoulder Dislocators; A 2 year Follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus P. Moxon

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThere are a multitude of international studies that haveconsidered the rates of redislocation and instability ofshoulders managed non-operatively vs. operatively afterfirst time anterior dislocation. Initial management hasincluded no treatment, internal rotation slingimmobiliser, external rotation brace and early or latestabilisation. The majority of those managed in internalrotation or with no support initially have had poor longterm results.There are several small trials of the use of the ExternalRotation Brace that have shown promising resultscomparable to acute surgical stabilisation.The use of the External Rotation brace for first timeanterior dislocators in the 15-40 years age group wasinitiated to attempt to reduce the rates of redislocationand instability without requiring surgical intervention.MethodConsecutive patients that fit the selection criteria wereselected and followed over time. A physiotherapyprogram was initiated early in the management andregular clinic reviews undertaken. 2 years post first timeanterior dislocation, patients were reviewed subjectivelyand a Quick DASH score performed. They wereasked to give an estimate of their recovery andreport any redislocations, instability or subluxation.ResultsThere was 1 redislocation (3% during this period inthe 32 patients. The majority were functioning atpredislocation levels at review and no surgicalintervention for instability was required. Quick-Dashresults were excellent, with a vast majority scoringless than 2/100 level of disability. Estimatedrecovery scores supported these findings with themajority of patients reporting 90-95% recoverycompared with the unaffected side.ConclusionThe external rotation brace has proven to be anexcellent alternative to early shoulder stabilisationfor first time anterior dislocators in the 15-40 yearsage group.

  20. Use of a shoulder abduction brace after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: A study on gait performance and falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Yuma; Nishioka, Takashi; Nakajima, Ryo; Imai, Shinji; Vigers, Piers; Kawasaki, Taku

    2017-03-01

    Fall prevention is essential in patients after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair because of the high risk of re-rupture. However, there are no reports related to falls that occur during the early postoperative period, while the affected limb is immobilized. This study assessed gait performance and falls in patients using a shoulder abduction brace after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Prospective cohort and postoperative repeated measures. This study included 29 patients (mean age, 67.1 ± 7.4 years) who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair followed by rehabilitation. The timed up and go test, Geriatric Depression Scale, and Falls Efficacy Scale were measured, and the numbers of falls were compared between those shoulder abduction brace users and patients who had undergone total hip or knee arthroplasty. In arthroscopic rotator cuff repair patients, there were significant improvements in timed up and go test and Geriatric Depression Scale, but no significant differences in Falls Efficacy Scale, between the second and fifth postoperative weeks ( p arthroscopic rotator cuff repair patients fell more often than patients with total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty during the same period. The findings suggest that rehabilitation in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair patients is beneficial, but decreased gait performance due to the immobilizing shoulder abduction brace can lead to falls. Clinical relevance Although rehabilitation helps motor function and mental health after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, shoulder abduction brace use is associated with impaired gait performance, high Falls Efficacy Scale scores, and risk of falls, so awareness of risk factors including medications and lower limb dysfunctions is especially important after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

  1. Synergistic effect of using a transcutaneous electrical joint stimulator and an unloading brace in treating osteoarthritis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, David S; Maclaughlin, Edmund J; Mines, Craig M; Deveshwar, Shaili; Elliott, Cynthia; Tuber, Jack S; Principe, John R; Ford, Theresa Lawrence; Schechtman, Joy; Zizic, Thomas M

    2013-10-01

    Medical treatments and less invasive surgical approaches for knee osteoarthritis are variably effective, and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is generally reserved for the most severe cases. The care gap between more conservative treatments and TKA leaves many patients with unresolved pain and loss of function for long periods. We conducted a study to determine if incorporating the BioniCare stimulator into an unloading brace would produce more rapid improvement and result in increased adherence and efficacy. Two hundred eighty-nine patients treated only with BioniCare served as historical controls and were compared with 225 patients treated with BioniCare combined with an unloading brace. Means and standard deviations of the changes in scores for pain intensity in the past 48 hours, pain and associated symptoms, patient global assessment, pain on going up or down stairs, and pain on walking on a flat surface and the effect sizes at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, as well as the percentages of patients achieving at least 20% improvement, and at least 50% improvement, demonstrated that treatment with stimulator and unloading brace combined was significantly superior to treatment with the stimulator alone.

  2. Design Optimization of Long-Span Cold-Formed Steel Portal Frames Accounting for Effect of Knee Brace Joint Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Duoc Phan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of cold-formed steel channel sections for portal frames becomes more popular for industrial and residential purposes. Experimental tests showed that such structures with long-span up to 20 m can be achieved when knee brace joints are included. In this paper, the influence of knee brace configuration on the optimum design of long-span cold-formed steel portal frames is investigated. The cold-formed steel portal frames are designed using Eurocode 3 under ultimate limit states. A novel method in handling design constraints integrated with genetic algorithm is proposed for searching the optimum design of cold-formed steel portal frames. The result showed that the proposed routine for design optimization effectively searched the near global optimum solution with the computational time is approximate 50% faster than methods being popularly used in literature. The optimum configuration for knee brace joint can reduce the section size of rafter and so the lighter frame could be obtained especially for long-span portal frame. The minimum weight of main frame obtained from optimization process is approximate 19.72% lighter than a Benchmark Frame used in the full-scale experimental test.

  3. Experimental Investigation on Seismic Behavior of Steel Truss-RC Column Hybrid Structure with Steel Diagonal Braces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide an experimental support on seismic performance evaluation of the steel braced truss-RC (reinforced concrete column hybrid structure, which could be applied as the air-cooled supporting structural system in large-capacity thermal power plants located in strong earthquake prone regions. A series of pseudo-dynamic tests (PDTs and quasi-static tests (QSTs were performed on a 1/8-scaled sub-structure. The dynamic characteristics, lateral deformation patterns, deterioration behavior, hysteretic behavior and failure mechanisms were investigated. Test results showed that the first vibration mode is torsion, which is caused by the small torsional stiffness of this kind of hybrid structure. The lateral deformation shape is shear mode, and the drift ratio of the structure above the corbel is significantly less than that of the column below the corbel. Earthquake energy is mainly dissipated by the RC pipe columns where cracks mainly occurred at the bottom of column and lower part of corbel. The failure mechanisms were identified indicating that the steel braces improved the global stiffness and modified the load transfer mechanism. This study affirms that the steel braced truss-RC column hybrid structure has the sufficient ductility and good energy dissipation capacity to satisfy the design requirements in high seismic regions.

  4. Team care to cure adolescents with braces (avoiding low quality of life, pain and bad compliance: a case–control retrospective study. 2011 SOSORT Award winner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavernaro Marta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bracing could be efficacious, given good compliance and quality of braces. Recently the SOSORT Brace Treatment Management Guidelines (SBTMG have highlighted the perceived importance of the professional teams surrounding braced patients. Purpose To verify the impact of a complete rehabilitation team in the adolescent patient with bracing. Materials and methods Design. Initial cross-sectional study, followed by a retrospective case–control study. Population: Thirty-eight patients (15.8 ± 1.6 years; 26 females; 10 hyperkyphosis, 28 scoliosis of 29.2 ± 7.9° Cobb extracted from a single orthotist database (between January 1, 2008 and September 1, 2009 and treated by the same physician; brace wearing at least 15 hours/day for a minimum of 6 months; age 10 or more. Treatment: Braces: Sforzesco, Sibilla, Lapadula or Maguelone. Exercises: SEAS. Methods: Two questionnaires filled in blindly by patients: SRS-22 and one especially developed and validated with 25 questions on adherence to treatment. Groups (main risk factor: TEAM (private institute: satisfied 44/44 SOSORT criteria; grade of teamwork, “excellent” included 13 patients and NOT 25 (National Health Service Rehabilitation Department: 35/44 SOSORT criteria respected; grade, “insufficient”. Results TEAM was more compliant to bracing than NOT (97 ± 6% vs. 80 ± 24% and performed nearly double the exercises (38 ± 12 vs. 20 ± 13 minutes/session. The self-reduction of bracing was significant in NOT (from 16.8 ± 3.7 to 14.8 ± 4.9 hours/day, , P Conclusions Provided the limits of this first study on the topic, the SBTMG seems to be important for brace treatment, influencing pain, QoL and compliance (and so, presumably, final results. Future studies on the topic are advisable.

  5. The effects of a prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves on the performance of healthy athletes: a crossover randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortaza, Niyousha; Ebrahimi, Ismail; Jamshidi, Ali Ashraf; Abdollah, Vahid; Kamali, Mohammad; Abas, Wan Abu Bakar Wan; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu

    2012-01-01

    Knee injury is one of the major problems in sports medicine, and the use of prophylactic knee braces is an attempt to reduce the occurrence and/or severity of injuries to the knee joint ligament(s) without inhibiting knee mobility. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of one recently designed prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves upon performance of healthy athletes. Thirty-one healthy male athletes (age = 21.2 ± 1.5) volunteered as participants to examine the effect of prophylactic knee brace/sleeves on performance using isokinetic and functional tests. All subjects were tested in four conditions in a random order: 1. nonbraced (control) 2. using a neoprene knee sleeve 3. using a knee sleeve with four bilateral metal supports and 4. using a prophylactic knee brace. The study design was a crossover, randomized, controlled trial. Subjects completed single leg vertical jump, cross-over hop, and the isokinetic knee flexion and extension (at 60, 180, 300°/sec). Data were collected from the above tests and analyzed for jump height, cross-over hop distance, peak torque to body weight ratio and average power, respectively. Comparisons of these variables in the four testing conditions revealed no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). The selected prophylactic brace/sleeves did not significantly inhibit athletic performance which might verify that their structure and design have caused no complication in the normal function of the knee joint. Moreover, it could be speculated that, if the brace or the sleeves had any limiting effect, our young healthy athletic subjects were well able to generate a mean peak torque large enough to overcome this possible restriction. Further studies are suggested to investigate the long term effect of these prophylactic knee brace and sleeves as well as their possible effect on the adjacent joints to the knee.

  6. Combined effects of a valgus knee brace and lateral wedge foot orthotic on the external knee adduction moment in patients with varus gonarthrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Rebecca F; Birmingham, Trevor B; Dombroski, Colin E; Walsh, Robert F; Leitch, Kristyn M; Jenkyn, Thomas R; Giffin, J Robert

    2013-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that a custom-fit valgus knee brace and custom-made lateral wedge foot orthotic will have greatest effects on decreasing the external knee adduction moment during gait when used concurrently. Proof-of-concept, single test session, crossover trial. Biomechanics laboratory within a tertiary care center. Patients (n=16) with varus alignment and knee osteoarthritis (OA) primarily affecting the medial compartment of the tibiofemoral joint (varus gonarthrosis). Custom-fit valgus knee brace and custom-made full-length lateral wedge foot orthotic. Amounts of valgus angulation and wedge height were tailored to each patient to ensure comfort. The external knee adduction moment (% body weight [BW]*height [Ht]), frontal plane lever arm (cm), and ground reaction force (N/kg), determined from 3-dimensional gait analysis completed under 4 randomized conditions: (1) control (no knee brace, no foot orthotic), (2) knee brace, (3) foot orthotic, and (4) knee brace and foot orthotic. The reduction in knee adduction moment was greatest when concurrently using the knee brace and foot orthotic (effect sizes ranged from 0.3 to 0.4). The mean decrease in first peak knee adduction moment compared with control was .36% BW*Ht (95% confidence interval [CI], -.66 to -.07). This was accompanied by a mean decrease in frontal plane lever arm of .59cm (95% CI, -.94 to -.25). These findings suggest that using a custom-fit knee brace and custom-made foot orthotic concurrently can produce a greater overall reduction in the knee adduction moment, through combined effects in decreasing the frontal plane lever arm. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The effects of a prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves on the performance of healthy athletes: a crossover randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyousha Mortaza

    Full Text Available Knee injury is one of the major problems in sports medicine, and the use of prophylactic knee braces is an attempt to reduce the occurrence and/or severity of injuries to the knee joint ligament(s without inhibiting knee mobility. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of one recently designed prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves upon performance of healthy athletes. Thirty-one healthy male athletes (age = 21.2 ± 1.5 volunteered as participants to examine the effect of prophylactic knee brace/sleeves on performance using isokinetic and functional tests. All subjects were tested in four conditions in a random order: 1. nonbraced (control 2. using a neoprene knee sleeve 3. using a knee sleeve with four bilateral metal supports and 4. using a prophylactic knee brace. The study design was a crossover, randomized, controlled trial. Subjects completed single leg vertical jump, cross-over hop, and the isokinetic knee flexion and extension (at 60, 180, 300°/sec. Data were collected from the above tests and analyzed for jump height, cross-over hop distance, peak torque to body weight ratio and average power, respectively. Comparisons of these variables in the four testing conditions revealed no statistically significant difference (p>0.05. The selected prophylactic brace/sleeves did not significantly inhibit athletic performance which might verify that their structure and design have caused no complication in the normal function of the knee joint. Moreover, it could be speculated that, if the brace or the sleeves had any limiting effect, our young healthy athletic subjects were well able to generate a mean peak torque large enough to overcome this possible restriction. Further studies are suggested to investigate the long term effect of these prophylactic knee brace and sleeves as well as their possible effect on the adjacent joints to the knee.

  8. The immediate effect of a soft knee brace on pain, activity limitations, self-reported knee instability, and self-reported knee confidence in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudejko, Tomasz; van der Esch, Martin; van der Leeden, Marike; van den Noort, Josien C; Roorda, Leo D; Lems, Willem; Twisk, Jos; Steultjens, Martijn; Woodburn, James; Harlaar, Jaap; Dekker, Joost

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to (i) evaluate the immediate effect of a soft knee brace on pain, activity limitations, self-reported knee instability, and self-reported knee confidence, and (ii) to assess the difference in effect between a non-tight and a tight soft brace in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Forty-four patients with knee OA and self-reported knee instability participated in the single-session, laboratory, experimental study. A within-subject design was used, comparing a soft brace with no brace, and comparing a non-tight with a tight soft brace. The outcome measures were pain, self-reported knee instability and knee confidence during level and perturbed walking on the treadmill and activity limitations (10-m walk test and the get up and go (GUG) test). Linear mixed-effect model analysis for continuous outcomes and logistic generalized estimating equations for categorical outcomes were used to evaluate the effect of wearing a soft brace. Wearing a soft brace significantly reduced pain during level walking (B - 0.60, P = 0.001) and perturbed walking (B - 0.80, P self-reported knee instability during level walking (OR 0.41, P = 0.002) and perturbed walking (OR 0.36, P confidence in the knees during level walking (OR 0.45, P self-reported knee instability, and knee confidence in the immediate term in patients with knee OA. Further studies are needed evaluating the mode of action based on exerted pressure, and on the generalization to functioning in daily life. trialregister.nl, NTR6363 . Retrospectively registered on 15 May 2017.

  9. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research. Phase II - Volume I; Truss Braced Wing Design Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.; Allen, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the Truss Braced Wing (TBW) work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, consisting of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, Georgia Tech, Virginia Tech, NextGen Aeronautics, and Microcraft. A multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) environment defined the geometry that was further refined for the updated SUGAR High TBW configuration. Airfoil shapes were tested in the NASA TCT facility, and an aeroelastic model was tested in the NASA TDT facility. Flutter suppression was successfully demonstrated using control laws derived from test system ID data and analysis models. Aeroelastic impacts for the TBW design are manageable and smaller than assumed in Phase I. Flutter analysis of TBW designs need to include pre-load and large displacement non-linear effects to obtain a reasonable match to test data. With the updated performance and sizing, fuel burn and energy use is reduced by 54% compared to the SUGAR Free current technology Baseline (Goal 60%). Use of the unducted fan version of the engine reduces fuel burn and energy by 56% compared to the Baseline. Technology development roadmaps were updated, and an airport compatibility analysis established feasibility of a folding wing aircraft at existing airports.

  10. Numerical study on the modification of long links in eccentrically braced frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musbar, Budiono, Bambang; Kusumastuti, Dyah; Setio, Herlien D.

    2017-11-01

    In anticipating damages to buildings caused by earthquakes, many types of building constructions have been developed and studied. One of these is eccentrically braced frames that uses the link element as part of the structural element that serves to absorb seismic energy. When tested for its ductility, strength, rigidity and energy absorption, the long link performed more poorly compared to short ones. However, advantages of using long links includes space for architectural design and the ease of meeting building requirements. The focus of this study is to provide information on using supplemental double stiffeners on both sides of the web at the ends of long links. The behavior of long links is maintained by positioning the flange failures at the end of the link. The supplemental double stiffeners can improve performance of the long link due to the extension of the inelastic zone and the slowing of failure in the flange at both ends of the link. A numerical study was carried out on several specimens of the long link consisting of a standard specimen and specimens modified by the addition of supplemental double stiffeners. Long link specimens were modified by varying the thickness and hole width on the supplemental double stiffeners. The results showed that the addition of double stiffeners can improve the performance of long links compared to the standard link according to the requirements of AISC 341-10.

  11. Conceptualizing community resilience to natural hazards - the emBRACE framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Sylvia; Abeling, Thomas; Deeming, Hugh; Fordham, Maureen; Forrester, John; Jülich, Sebastian; Nuray Karanci, A.; Kuhlicke, Christian; Pelling, Mark; Pedoth, Lydia; Schneiderbauer, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    The level of community is considered to be vital for building disaster resilience. Yet, community resilience as a scientific concept often remains vaguely defined and lacks the guiding characteristics necessary for analysing and enhancing resilience on the ground. The emBRACE framework of community resilience presented in this paper provides a heuristic analytical tool for understanding, explaining and measuring community resilience to natural hazards. It was developed in an iterative process building on existing scholarly debates, on empirical case study work in five countries and on participatory consultation with community stakeholders where the framework was applied and ground-tested in different contexts and for different hazard types. The framework conceptualizes resilience across three core domains: (i) resources and capacities, (ii) actions and (iii) learning. These three domains are conceptualized as intrinsically conjoined within a whole. Community resilience is influenced by these integral elements as well as by extra-community forces comprising disaster risk governance and thus laws, policies and responsibilities on the one hand and on the other, the general societal context, natural and human-made disturbances and system change over time. The framework is a graphically rendered heuristic, which through application can assist in guiding the assessment of community resilience in a systematic way and identifying key drivers and barriers of resilience that affect any particular hazard-exposed community.

  12. Conceptualizing community resilience to natural hazards – the emBRACE framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kruse

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of community is considered to be vital for building disaster resilience. Yet, community resilience as a scientific concept often remains vaguely defined and lacks the guiding characteristics necessary for analysing and enhancing resilience on the ground. The emBRACE framework of community resilience presented in this paper provides a heuristic analytical tool for understanding, explaining and measuring community resilience to natural hazards. It was developed in an iterative process building on existing scholarly debates, on empirical case study work in five countries and on participatory consultation with community stakeholders where the framework was applied and ground-tested in different contexts and for different hazard types. The framework conceptualizes resilience across three core domains: (i resources and capacities, (ii actions and (iii learning. These three domains are conceptualized as intrinsically conjoined within a whole. Community resilience is influenced by these integral elements as well as by extra-community forces comprising disaster risk governance and thus laws, policies and responsibilities on the one hand and on the other, the general societal context, natural and human-made disturbances and system change over time. The framework is a graphically rendered heuristic, which through application can assist in guiding the assessment of community resilience in a systematic way and identifying key drivers and barriers of resilience that affect any particular hazard-exposed community.

  13. Soft braces in the treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS – Review of the literature and description of a new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Hans-Rudolf

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of soft braces to treat scoliosis has been described by Fischer as early as 1876. With the help of elastic straps, as the authors suggested, a corrective movement for individual curve patterns should be maintained in order to inhibit curve progression. Today this concept has been revived besides soft 3 point pressure systems. Some shortcomings have been revealed in literature in comparison with hard braces, however the concept of improving quality of life of a patient while under brace treatment should furtherly be considered as valuable. Purpose of this review is to gather the body of evidence existent for the use of soft braces and to present recent developments. Method A review of literature as available on Pub Med was performed using the key words ‘scoliosis’ and ‘soft brace’ at first. The search was expanded using ‘scoliosis’ and the known trademarks (1 ‘scoliosis’ and ‘SpineCor’, (2 ‘scoliosis’ and ‘TriaC’, (3 ‘scoliosis’ and ‘St. Etienne brace’, (4 ‘scoliosis’ and ‘Olympe’. The papers considered for inclusion were new technical descriptions, preliminary results, cohort studies and controlled studies. Results When searching for the terms ‘scoliosis’ and ‘SpineCor’: 20 papers have been found, most of them investigating a soft brace, for ‘scoliosis’ and ‘TriaC’: 7 papers displayed, for ‘scoliosis’ and ‘St. Etienne brace’: one paper displayed but not meeting the topic and for ‘scoliosis’ and ‘Olympe’: No paper displayed. Four papers found on the SpineCor™ were of prospective controlled or prospective randomized design. These papers partly presented contradictory results. Two papers were on soft Boston braces used in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis. Discussion There is a small but consistent body of evidence for the use of soft braces in the treatment of scoliosis. Contradictory results have been published for samples treated during

  14. Effect of kinesiotaping, non-elastic taping and bracing on segmental foot kinematics during drop landing in healthy subjects and subjects with chronic ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuni, B; Mussler, J; Kalkum, E; Schmitt, H; Wolf, S I

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of kinesiotape, non-elastic tape, and soft brace on segmental foot kinematics during drop landing in subjects with chronic ankle instability and healthy subjects. Controlled study with repeated measurements. Three-dimensional motion analysis laboratory. Twenty participants with chronic ankle instability and 20 healthy subjects. The subjects performed drop landings with 17 retroreflective markers on the foot and lower leg in four conditions: barefoot, with kinesiotape, with non-elastic tape and with a soft brace. Ranges of motion of foot segments using a foot measurement method. In participants with chronic ankle instability, midfoot movement in the frontal plane (inclination of the medial arch) was reduced significantly by non-elastic taping, but kinesiotaping and bracing had no effect. In healthy subjects, both non-elastic taping and bracing reduced that movement. In both groups, non-elastic taping and bracing reduced rearfoot excursion in inversion/eversion significantly, which indicates a stabilisation effect. No such effect was found with kinesiotaping. All three methods reduced maximum plantar flexion significantly. Non-elastic taping stabilised the midfoot best in patients with chronic ankle instability, while kinesiotaping did not influence foot kinematics other than to stabilise the rearfoot in the sagittal plane. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01810471. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effectiveness of proprioceptive and neuromuscular training compared to bracing in reducing the recurrence rate of ankle sprains in athletes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, M; Dreyer, D; Fisher, R L; Foot, D; O'connor, D H; Galante, M; Zalgaonkir, S

    2017-11-10

    Ankle sprains are common musculoskeletal injuries in which the ligaments of the ankle partially or completely tear due to sudden stretching. To critically appraise, evaluate and establish the best available evidence to determine the effectiveness of proprioceptive and neuromuscular training (PNT) compared to bracing in reducing the recurrence rate of ankle sprains in athletes. The following seven databases were searched in June 2017: PubMed, Cochrane Library, PEDro, ScienceDirect, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, EBSCO Host: CINAHL. The main search terms used were "ankle sprains", "proprioceptive training", "neuromuscular training" and "bracing". The quality of the trials were critically appraised according to the PEDro scale. The RevMan 5© software was used to pool results. Three studies met the inclusion criteria and the quality according to the PEDro scale ranged from 4/10-7/10. The pooled data showed no difference between PNT and bracing in reducing the recurrence rate of ankle sprains in athletes at 12 months after initiation of the study. This systematic review of the overall effect suggested that current evidence (Level II) does not favour the use of PNT over bracing in reducing the recurrence rate of ankle sprains. Physiotherapists are advised to use either PNT or bracing according to the patients preference and their own expertise.

  16. The effect of knee brace on coordination and neuronal leg muscle control: an early postoperative functional study in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebel, M; Paessler, H H

    2001-09-01

    Two studies were carried out after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction to determine the effect of a knee brace on coordination (test 1) and electromyographic muscle activity in drop jumps (test 2). Test 1 studied 25 patients with ACL reconstruction under three test conditions (one-leg static, two-legged static, two-legged dynamic) compared with a control (n=30). The results showed highly significant improvements in all braced conditions. In test 2 ten patients with ACL reconstruction and ten healthy subjects performed a two-legged drop-jump; this was repeated 15 times and again 15 times with a knee brace worn on the reconstructed limb. Changes in electromyographically determined muscle activity (vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius) were observed, but they were significant in only few cases because of high variability. Drop-jumps with knee brace improved jumping height, increased the maximum knee angle in the ground contact phase, and reduced the maximum knee angle in the landing phase. Patients thus develop an increased confidence in the stability of their knees. We conclude that the benefits of the knee brace are due to the mechanical action, an enhanced coordination, and a psychological effect.

  17. Influence of a mono-centric knee brace on the tension of the collateral ligaments in knee joints after sectioning of the anterior cruciate ligament--an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinterwimmer, S; Graichen, H; Baumgart, R; Plitz, W

    2004-08-01

    To analyze the influence of knee bracing on the tension of the medial and lateral collateral ligaments in anterior cruciate ligament deficiency. The tension of the collateral ligaments in anterior cruciate ligament deficient knees was measured with and without knee bracing using an in vitro model. Anterior cruciate ligament deficiency increases the tension in both collateral ligaments at the knee joint. Therefore knee braces should reduce that tension increase. However, that effect has never been proven quantitatively. After anterior cruciate ligament-transection, the forces of the medial (anterior/posterior part) and lateral collateral ligament were measured in ten fresh human cadaver knees at 0 degrees, 20 degrees, 40 degrees, 60 degrees, 80 degrees and 100 degrees of flexion, with and without application of a mono-centric knee brace. To quantify the ligament forces, strain gauges were fixed at the bony origins of the ligaments. Bracing led to a significant decrease of ligament forces (20-100 degrees: P anterior part of the medial collateral ligament in all joint positions. In the posterior aspect, this effect was observed only at 40 degrees (P ligament, bracing caused a strain reduction from 60 degrees to 100 degrees of flexion (P knee bracing on the strain was seen in the posterior aspect of the medial and in the lateral collateral ligament in anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee joints. Application of a mono-centric knee brace leads to a significant position dependent reduction of collateral ligament tension after anterior cruciate ligament-rupture.

  18. Do laterally wedged insoles or valgus braces unload the medial compartment of the knee in patients with osteoarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duivenvoorden, Tijs; van Raaij, Tom M; Horemans, Herwin L D; Brouwer, Reinoud W; Bos, P Koen; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; Verhaar, Jan A N; Reijman, Max

    2015-01-01

    The results of conservative treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA) are generally evaluated in epidemiological studies with clinical outcome measures as primary outcomes. Biomechanical evaluation of orthoses shows that there are potentially beneficial biomechanical changes to joint loading; however, evaluation in relation to clinical outcome measures in longitudinal studies is needed. We asked (1) is there an immediate effect on gait in patients using a laterally wedged insole or valgus knee brace; (2) is there a late (6 weeks) effect; and (3) is there a difference between subgroups within each group with respect to patient compliance, body mass index, and OA status? This was a secondary analysis of data from a previous randomized controlled trial of patients with early medial knee OA. A total of 91 patients were enrolled in that trial, and 73 (80%) completed it after 6 months. Of the enrolled patients, 80 (88%) met prespecified inclusion criteria for analysis in the present study. The patients were randomized to an insole or brace. Gait was analyzed with and without wearing the orthosis (insole or brace) at baseline and after 6 weeks. Measurements were taken of the knee adduction moment, ground reaction force, moment arm, walking speed, and toe-out angle. Data were analyzed with regression analyses based on an intention-to-treat principle. A mean reduction of 4% (±10) (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.147 to -0.03, p=0.003) of the peak knee adduction moment and 4% (±13) (95% CI, -0.009 to -0.001, p=0.01) of the moment arm at baseline was observed in the insole group when walking with an insole was compared with walking without an insole. A mean reduction of 1% (±10) (95% CI, -0.002 to -0.001, p=0.001) of the peak knee adduction moment and no reduction of the moment arm were measured after 6 weeks. No reduction of knee adduction moment, moment arm, or ground reaction force was seen in the brace group at baseline and after 6 weeks. Subgroup analysis showed no

  19. Evaluating the efficacy of an active compression brace on orthostatic cardiovascular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moein, Hadi; Jhalli, Ramandeep; Blaber, Andrew P; Claydon, Victoria E; Menon, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance, one of the principle causes of syncope, can occur secondary to concomitant venous pooling and enhanced capillary filtration. We aimed to evaluate a prototype portable calf active compression brace (ACB) designed to improve orthostatic haemodynamic control. Fourteen healthy volunteers participated in a randomized, placebo controlled, cross-over, double-blind study. Testing consisted of head-upright tilting and walking on a treadmill conducted on two consecutive days with a pair of ACBs wrapped around both calves. The ACB was actuated on one test day, but not on the other (placebo). Wearability, comfort, and ambulatory use of the ACB were assessed using questionnaires. The average calf pressure exerted by the ACB was 46.3±2.2 mmHg and the actuation pressure was 20.7±1.7 mmHg. When considering the differences between ACB actuation and placebo during tilt after supine rest there were trends for a larger stroke volume (+5.20±2.34%, p = 0.05) and lower heart rate (-5.12±2.41%, p = 0.06) with ACB actuation, with no effect on systolic arterial pressure (+4.86±3.41%, p = 0.18). The decrease in stroke volume after ten minutes of tilting was positively correlated with the height:calf circumference (r = 0.464; p = 0.029; n = 22; both conditions combined). The increase in heart rate after ten minutes of tilting was negatively correlated with the height:calf circumference (r = -0.485; p = 0.022; n = 22; both conditions combined) and was positively correlated with the average calf circumference (r = 0.539; p = 0.009; n = 22; both conditions combined). Participants reported good ACB wearability and comfort during ambulatory use. These data verify that the ACB increased stroke volume during tilting in healthy controls. Active calf compression garments may be a viable option for the management of orthostatic intolerance.

  20. Patellar Tendon Repair Augmentation With a Knotless Suture Anchor Internal Brace: A Biomechanical Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothfeld, Alex; Pawlak, Amanda; Liebler, Stephenie A H; Morris, Michael; Paci, James M

    2018-02-01

    Patellar tendon repair with braided polyethylene suture alone is subject to knot slippage and failure. Several techniques to augment the primary repair have been described. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose was to evaluate a novel patellar tendon repair technique augmented with a knotless suture anchor internal brace with suture tape (SAIB). The hypothesis was that this technique would be biomechanically superior to a nonaugmented repair and equivalent to a standard augmentation with an 18-gauge steel wire. Controlled laboratory study. Midsubstance patellar tendon tears were created in 32 human cadaveric knees. Two comparison groups were created. Group 1 compared #2 supersuture repair without augmentation to #2 supersuture repair with SAIB augmentation. Group 2 compared #2 supersuture repair with an 18-gauge stainless steel cerclage wire augmentation to #2 supersuture repair with SAIB augmentation. The specimens were potted and biomechanically loaded on a materials testing machine. Yield load, maximum load, mode of failure, plastic displacement, elastic displacement, and total displacement were calculated for each sample. Standard statistical analysis was performed. There was a statistically significant increase in the mean ± SD yield load and maximum load in the SAIB augmentation group compared with supersuture alone (mean yield load: 646 ± 202 N vs 229 ± 60 N; mean maximum load: 868 ± 162 N vs 365 ± 54 N; P load: 495 ± 213 N vs 566 ± 172 N; P = .476; mean maximum load: 737 ± 210 N vs 697 ± 130 N; P = .721). Patellar tendon repair augmented with SAIB is biomechanically superior to repair without augmentation and is equivalent to repair with augmentation with an 18-gauge stainless steel cerclage wire. This novel patellar tendon repair augmentation is equivalent to standard 18-gauge wire augmentation at time zero. It does not require a second surgery for removal, and it is biomechanically superior to primary repair alone.

  1. The subacromial impingement syndrome of the shoulder treated by conventional physiotherapy, self-training, and a shoulder brace: results of a prospective, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Markus; Werner, Andreas; Stahlschmidt, Theresa; Woelfel, Rainer; Gohlke, Frank

    2004-01-01

    This prospective, randomized trial was performed to compare the results of treating subacromial impingement syndrome of the shoulder by a guided self-training program with the treatment by conventional physiotherapy or a functional brace. Sixty patients with the diagnosis of an outlet impingement syndrome of the shoulder (Neer I and II) were treated either by strengthening the depressors of the humeral head with a guided self-training program, by conventional physiotherapy, or by wearing a functional brace. The Constant-Murley score was assessed after 6 and 12 weeks. Shoulder pain was monitored with a visual analog scale. All three groups showed a significant improvement in shoulder function as well as a significant reduction in pain. There were no statistically significant differences among the groups. Guided self-training can lead to results similar to those of conventional physiotherapy. The comparable effect of the functional brace remains unclear and might be explained by an influence on proprioception.

  2. Minimally Invasive Osteosynthesis with a Bridge Plate Versus a Functional Brace for Humeral Shaft Fractures: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Fabio Teruo; Tamaoki, Marcel Jun Sugawara; Matsumoto, Marcelo Hide; Netto, Nicola Archetti; Faloppa, Flavio; Belloti, Joao Carlos

    2017-04-05

    Nonoperative treatment has historically been considered the standard for fractures of the shaft of the humerus. Minimally invasive bridge-plate osteosynthesis for isolated humeral shaft fractures has been proven to be a safe technique, with good and reproducible results. This study was designed to compare clinical and radiographic outcomes between patients who had been treated with bridge plate osteosynthesis and those who had been managed nonoperatively with a functional brace. A prospective randomized trial was designed and included 110 patients allocated to 1 of 2 groups: surgery with a bridge plate or nonoperative treatment with a functional brace. The primary outcome was the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score at 6 months. The score on the Short Form-36 (SF-36) life-quality questionnaire, complications of treatment, Constant-Murley score for the shoulder, pain level, and radiographic results were assessed as secondary outcomes. Participants were assessed at 2 weeks; 1, 2, and 6 months; and 1 year after the interventions. The mean DASH score of the bridge plate group was statistically superior to that of the functional brace group (mean scores, 10.9 and 16.9, respectively; p = 0.046) only at 6 months. The bridge plate group also had a significantly more favorable nonunion rate (0% versus 15%) and less mean residual angular displacement seen on the anteroposterior radiograph (2.0° versus 10.5°) (both p bridge plate has a statistically significant advantage, of uncertain clinical benefit, with respect to self-reported outcome (DASH score) at 6 months, nonunion rate, and residual deformity in the coronal plane as seen on radiographs. Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  3. Fluorides for the prevention of early tooth decay (demineralised white lesions) during fixed brace treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Philip E; Parkin, Nicola; Dyer, Fiona; Millett, Declan T; Furness, Susan; Germain, Peter

    2013-12-12

    Demineralised white lesions (DWLs) can appear on teeth during fixed brace treatment because of early decay around the brackets that attach the braces to the teeth. Fluoride is effective in reducing decay in susceptible individuals in the general population. Individuals receiving orthodontic treatment may be prescribed various forms of fluoride treatment. This review compares the effects of various forms of fluoride used during orthodontic treatment on the development of DWLs. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2004. The primary objective of this review was to evaluate the effects of fluoride in reducing the incidence of DWLs on the teeth during orthodontic treatment.The secondary objectives were to examine the effectiveness of different modes of fluoride delivery in reducing the incidence of DWLs, as well as the size of lesions. Participant-assessed outcomes, such as perception of DWLs, and oral health-related quality of life data were to be included, as would reports of adverse effects. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 31 January 2013); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 12); MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 31 January 2013); and EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 31 January 2013). We included trials if they met the following criteria: (1) parallel-group randomised clinical trials comparing the use of a fluoride-containing product versus placebo, no treatment or a different type of fluoride treatment, in which (2) the outcome of enamel demineralisation was assessed at the start and at the end of orthodontic treatment. At least two review authors independently, in duplicate, conducted risk of bias assessments and extracted data. Authors of trials were contacted to obtain missing data or to ask for clarification of aspects of trial methodology. The Cochrane Collaboration's statistical guidelines were followed. For the 2013 update of this review, three changes were made

  4. Numerical Model of a Hybrid Damping System Composed of a Buckling Restrained Brace with a Magneto Rheological Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip-Vacarescu Norin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the concept of a hybrid damper made from a combination of two dissipative devices. A passive hysteretic device like steel Buckling Restrained Brace (BRB can be combined with a magneto-rheological (MR Fluid Damper in order to obtain a hybrid dissipative system. This system can work either as a semi-active system, if the control unit is available, or as a passive system, tuned for working according to performance based seismic engineering (PBSE scale of reference parameters (i.e. interstory drift.

  5. SUPER-CAPACITOR APPLICATION IN ELECTRICAL POWER CABLE TESTING FACILITIES IN THERMAL ENDURANCE AND MECHANICAL BRACING TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Oleksyuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current-carrying cores of the electrical power cables should be resistant to effects of short-circuit currents whose values depend on the material of the core, its cross-sectional area, cable insulation properties, environment temperature, and the duration of the short-circuit current flow (1 and 3–4 sec. when tested for thermal endurance and mechanical bracing. The facilities for testing the 10 kV aluminum core cables with short-circuit current shall provide mechanical-bracing current 56,82 kA and thermal endurance current 11,16 kA. Although capacitors provide such values of the testing currents to the best advantage, utilizing conventional capacitor-units will involve large expenditures for erecting and  running a separate building. It is expedient to apply super-capacitors qua the electric power supply for testing facilities, as they are capacitors with double-electrical layer and involve the current values of tens of kilo-amperes.The insulation voltage during short-circuit current testing being not-standardized, it is not banned to apply voltages less than 10 kV when performing short-circuit thermal endurance and mechanical bracing tests for electrical power cables of 10 kV. The super-capacitor voltage variation-in-time graph consists of two regions: capacitive and resistive. The capacitive part corresponds to the voltage change consequent on the energy change in the super-capacitors. The resistive part shows the voltage variation due to the active resistance presence in the super-capacitor.The author offers the algorithm determining the number of super capacitors requisite for testing 10 kV-electrical power cables with short-circuit currents for thermal endurance and mechanical bracing. The paper shows that installation of super-capacitors in the facilities testing the cables with short-circuit currents reduces the area needed for the super-capacitors in comparison with conventional capacitors more than by one order of magnitude.

  6. The Effects of a Prophylactic Knee Brace and Two Neoprene Knee Sleeves on the Performance of Healthy Athletes: A Crossover Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Niyousha Mortaza; Ismail Ebrahimi; Ali Ashraf Jamshidi; Vahid Abdollah; Mohammad Kamali; Wan Abu Bakar Wan Abas; Noor Azuan Abu Osman

    2012-01-01

    Knee injury is one of the major problems in sports medicine, and the use of prophylactic knee braces is an attempt to reduce the occurrence and/or severity of injuries to the knee joint ligament(s) without inhibiting knee mobility. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of one recently designed prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves upon performance of healthy athletes. Thirty-one healthy male athletes (age = 21.2 ± 1.5) volunteered as participants to examine th...

  7. The effects of functional knee bracing and taping of the tibio-femoral joint in athletes with an ACL-deficient knee

    OpenAIRE

    Rahimi, Abbas

    2001-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this study were to determine the usefulness of a functional knee brace (FKB) or a spiral method of taping in modifying the impaired biomechanics of the ACL-deficient knees towards a safe and more normal pattern, and to assess any compensatory changes at the ankle and hip joints following knee bracing or taping. The study also aimed to compare the difference in gait patterns during simple· level walking and treadmill activities for ACL-deficient subjects. \\ud \\ud Methods: A p...

  8. Nickel sensitization in adolescents and association with ear piercing, use of dental braces and hand eczema. The Odense Adolescence Cohort Study on Atopic Diseases and Dermatitis (TOACS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Lauritsen, Jens Martin; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of nickel allergy (sensitization) and the associations with ear piercing, use of dental braces and hand eczema were assessed in a cohort of 1,501 8th grade schoolchildren (aged 12-16 years) in Odense, Denmark. Nickel allergy was found in 8.6% and was clinically relevant in 69......% of cases. Nickel allergy was found most frequently in girls and the association with ear piercing was confirmed. Application of dental braces (oral nickel exposure) prior to ear piercing (cutaneous nickel exposure) was associated with a significantly reduced prevalence of nickel allergy. In adolescents...

  9. A user`s guide to LUGSAN 1.1: A computer program to calculate and archive lug and sway brace loads for aircraft-carried stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, W.N. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Experimental Structural Dynamics Dept.

    1994-07-01

    LUGSAN (LUG and Sway brace ANalysis) is a analysis and database computer program designed to calculate store lug and sway brace loads from aircraft captive carriage. LUGSAN combines the rigid body dynamics code, SWAY85 and the maneuver calculation code, MILGEN, with an INGRES database to function both as an analysis and archival system. This report describes the operation of the LUGSAN application program, including function description, layout examples, and sample sessions. This report is intended to be a user`s manual for version 1.1 of LUGSAN operating on the VAX/VMS system. The report is not intended to be a programmer or developer`s manual.

  10. The effect of different skin-ankle brace application pressures with and without shoes on single-limb balance, electromyographic activation onset and peroneal reaction time of lower limb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, E S; Nikolopoulos, C S; Athanasopoulos, S

    2008-12-01

    Several studies have been carried out in order to investigate the effect of ankle bracing on ankle joint function and performance. However, no study so far has examined the role of skin-brace interface pressure in neuromuscular control. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different skin-ankle brace interface pressures, with and without shoes, on quiet single-limb balance and the electromyographic (EMG) activation sequence of four lower limb muscles. Twelve male physical education students who volunteered to take part in the study were measured with and without shoes under three ankle brace conditions: (i) without brace, (ii) with brace and 30 kilopascals (kPa) application pressure and (iii) with brace and 60 kPa application pressure. Single-limb balance (anteroposterior and mediolateral parameter) was assessed on the dominant lower limb, with open and closed eyes, on a force platform, simultaneously with the EMG recording of four lower lower limb muscles' (gastrocnemius, peroneus longus, rectus femoris and biceps femoris) activation onset. Peroneus longus reaction time was also measured by provoking a sudden subtalar inversion stress test using a trap-door. The results showed that the application of athletic footwear resulted in a significant difference between the condition with shoes and without shoes, with a significantly increased anteroposterior sway and sway velocity, in all three ankle brace application conditions with shoes (F=50.9, d.f.=1, plower limb muscles. Lastly, ankle brace application with 30 and 60 kPa application pressures, with and without athletic footwear, led to a significant delay in the peroneus longus reaction time (F=9.71, d.f.=2, plimb balance, and peroneal reaction time. The application of athletic footwear, further adversely affects these parameters significantly. Further research is needed in this area with more dynamic and functional measurements, before the safe use of ankle bracing can be widely recommended.

  11. Aging effect in CaLaBa{l_brace}Cu{sub 1 - x}Fe{sub x}{r_brace}{sub 3}O{sub 7 - {delta}} with 0 {<=} x {<=} 0.07 studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, Angel, E-mail: angelbd1@gmail.com [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Laboratorio de Ceramicos y Nanomateriales, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas (Peru); Santos Valladares, Luis De Los, E-mail: ld301@cam.ac.uk [University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory (United Kingdom); Flores, Jesus [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Laboratorio de Ceramicos y Nanomateriales, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas (Peru); Barnes, Crispin H. W. [University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory (United Kingdom); Majima, Yutaka [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Materials and Structures Laboratory (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    In this work, we study the long-term aging effect caused by Fe atoms in the superconductor CaLaBa{l_brace}Cu{sub 1 - x}Fe{sub x}{r_brace}{sub 3}O{sub 7 - {delta}} with 0 {<=} x {<=} 0.07. XRD confirms that this system has a YBCO-like structure. The critical temperature (T{sub c}) is strongly affected by aging and depends on the amount of Fe in the structure. Room temperature Moessbauer spectroscopy reveals the presence of the typical species A, B-B Prime , C and new species E Prime and F. Interestingly; A, which corresponds to the Fe{sup 3 + } atom located in the Cu(1) of the chains with spin S{sub z} = 3/2, shows a drastic reduction which means migration to the species B, B Prime and C. Species B and B Prime correspond to the Fe{sup 3 + } in the Cu(2) site forming planar quasi-octahedral and planar square pyramidal, while the C specie is a square pyramidal with O(5) respectively (spin S{sub z} = 3/2 in all these cases). Aging causes loss of superconductivity in the samples with 5 and 7% of iron content.

  12. First principle calculation on the electronic structure of the copper (II)-azido compound [{l_brace}Cu(L)(N{sub 3}){sub 2}{r_brace}{sub n}] (L=benzylamine)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.S. [Department of Physics and State Key Lab of Laser Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)]. E-mail: zhangysthinker@hotmail.com; Yao, K.L. [Department of Physics and State Key Lab of Laser Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); International Center of Materials Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenyang 110015 (China); Liu, Z.L. [Department of Physics and State Key Lab of Laser Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2005-03-01

    Cu{sup 2+} ions are alternatively bridged by end-on and asymmetrical end-to-end (EE) azido groups in copper (II)-azido compound [{l_brace}Cu(L)(N{sub 3}){sub 2}{r_brace}{sub n}] (L=benzylamine). The electronic structure of its ferromagnetic ground state has been calculated using the self-consistent full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method based on the density functional theory. The spin populations have been found to be strongly positive on the Cu{sup 2+} ions, weakly positive on the terminal nitrogen atoms of the azido groups as well as on the nitrogen atoms of the benzylamine, and feeble on the central nitrogen atoms of the azido groups. Based on the spin distribution obtained from calculation, the ferromagnetic coupling through the azido groups has been analyzed as resulting from a spin delocalization from the Cu{sup 2+} ions toward the azido groups. But the result also indicates that the spin polarization effect may also take part in the magnetic coupling through the asymmetrical EE azido groups, though its effect is weak.

  13. Fabrication of a new samarium(III) ion-selective electrode based on 3-{l_brace}[2-oxo-1(2h)-acenaphthylenyliden]amino{r_brace}-2-thioxo -1,3-thiazolidin-4-one

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, Hassan Ali [Islamic Azad University, Quchan (Iran, islamic Republic of). Quchan Branch. Dept. of Chemistry]. E-mail: haszamani@yahoo.com; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center; Adib, Mehdi [University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Faculty of Chemistry. Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry

    2007-07-01

    This paper introduces the development of an original PVC membrane electrode, based on 3-{l_brace}[2-oxo-1(2H)-acenaphthylenyliden]amino{r_brace}-2-thioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one (ATTO) which has revealed to be a suitable carrier for Sm{sup 3+} ions. The resulting data illustrated that the electrode shows a Nernstian slope of 19.3 {+-} 0.6 mV per decade for Sm{sup 3+} ions over a broad working concentration range of 1.0 X 10{sup -6} to 1.0 X 10{sup -1} mol L{sup -1}. The lower detection limit was found to be equal to (5.5{+-} 0.3) X 10{sup -7} mol L{sup -}'1 in the pH range of 3.5-7.5, and the response time was very short ({approx}10 s). The potentiometric sensor displayed good selectivities for a number of cations such as alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions. (author)

  14. Influence of temperature on the (liquid + liquid) equilibria of {l_brace}3-methyl pentane + cyclopentane + methanol{r_brace} ternary system at T = (293.15, 297.15, and 299.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramajo de Doz, Monica B. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Avenida Independencia 1800, 4000 Tucuman (Argentina)], E-mail: mgramajo@herrera.unt.edu.ar; Cases, Alicia M.; Bonatti, Carlos M.; Solimo, Horacio N. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Avenida Independencia 1800, 4000 Tucuman (Argentina)

    2009-11-15

    In order to show the influence of temperature on the (liquid + liquid) equilibria (LLE) of the {l_brace}3-methyl pentane (1) + cyclopentane (2) + methanol (3){r_brace} ternary system, equilibrium results at T = (293.15, 297.15, and 299.15) K are reported. The effect of the temperature on the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium is determined and discussed. Experimental results show that this ternary system is completely homogeneous beyond T = 300 K. All chemicals were quantified by gas chromatography using a thermal conductivity detector. The tie line results were satisfactorily correlated by the Othmer and Tobias method, and the plait point coordinates for the three temperatures were estimated. Experimental values for the ternary system are compared with values calculated by the NRTL and UNIQUAC equations, and predicted by means of the UNIFAC group contribution method. It is found that the UNIQUAC and NRTL models provide similar good correlations of the solubility curve at these three temperatures. Finally, the UNIFAC model predicts binodal band type curves in the range of temperatures studied here, similar to those observed for systems classified by Treybal as type 2, instead of type 1 as experimentally observed. Distribution coefficients were also analysed through distribution curves.

  15. Influence of a valgus knee brace on muscle activation and co-contraction in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini Pagani, Cynthia H; Willwacher, Steffen; Kleis, Barbara; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of a valgus knee orthosis designed for patients with knee osteoarthritis on the electromyographic activity (EMG) of seven muscles of the lower limb during gait. Twelve patients with medial knee osteoarthritis walked on a treadmill in three different conditions: without orthosis, with a knee orthosis in 4° valgus adjustment and with an orthosis in a neutral flexible adjustment. Root-mean-square (RMS) was analysed in each condition during a 150 ms pre-activation phase and during the stance phase of gait, which was divided in four sub-phases. In addition, co-contraction ratios (CCRs) were calculated between extensor/flexor, medial/lateral muscles and between agonist and antagonist muscle pairs. Significant decreases in muscle activity and CCRs were observed with the use of the knee orthosis in both adjustments compared to the condition without orthosis. Using the valgus brace, medial/lateral CCR decreased significantly during the late stance and the flexor/extensor CCR decreased significantly during the loading phase and late stance. Decreases of muscle pairs CCRs were observed with the neutral flexible adjustment. The results support the theory of a possible beneficial effect of knee braces in reducing knee loading by decreasing muscle activation and co-contraction levels, which could contribute to decelerate disease progression in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Asymmetric pelvic bracing and altered kinematics in patients with posterior pelvic pain who present with postural muscle delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, Melanie D; Milosavljevic, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the muscle activity and hip-spine kinematics in a group of individuals diagnosed with posterior pelvic girdle pain and confirmed postural muscle delay during a repeated fast hip flexion task. Twenty-four (12 pain and 12 control) age and sex matched participants performed a repeated fast hip flexion task to auditory signal. Surface EMG activity in the external and internal oblique, the multifidus, the gluteus maximus and biceps femoris in the stance-limb was examined for onset timing and EMG integral. Sagittal plane hip (swing limb) and spine kinematics were examined for group and side differences over the repeated trials. While the pain group lacked significant feedforward muscle activity they displayed higher muscle activity at movement onset in the biceps femoris bilaterally (ppain group experienced asymmetrical spinal range of motion with increased motion on the contralateral side (ppelvic control during lumbo-pelvic rotation. Further, there appears to be a symptom led strategy for bracing the innominate through opposing tension in the biceps and external oblique during movement of the painful side. Such asymmetrical pelvic girdle bracing may be a strategy to increase the stability of the pelvis in light of the failed load transfer mechanism. Putatively, this strategy may increase the mechanical stress on the sacroiliac joint exacerbating pain complaints. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pengaruh Kinesio Taping dan Abduction Brace Terhadap Panjang Otot Adduktor Hip pada Anak Palsi Serebral Tipe Spastik Diplegi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvi Natsir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang. Anak palsi serebral tipe spastik diplegi mengalami peningkatan tonus pada beberapa otot, salah satunya adalah otot adduktor hip, akibatnya tungkai mengalami kekakuan yang akan berdampak pada perkembangan anak. Tujuan. Menilai pengaruh kinesio taping dan abduction brace dalam mengubah tonus otot dan meningkatkan panjang otot adduktor. Metode. Desain penelitian yang digunakan adalah pra-eksperimental dengan responden terdiri dari 15 anak palsi serebral tipe spastik diplegi yang berusia 2-13 tahun. Data yang dikumpulkan meliputi nilai tonus otot dan panjang otot adduktor yang dievaluasi menggunakan skala Ashworth dan manual goniometer sebelum dan sesudah 6 kali intervensi. Hasil. Terdapat perbedaan sebelum dan setelah intervensi dinilai dengan skala Asworth mengalami penurunan (p=0,002, sedangkan panjang otot adduktor mengalami peningkatan (p=0,000. Hasil korelasi negatif yang signifikan juga diperoleh antara tingkat spastisitas dengan panjang otot adduktor (r=0,866; p=0,000. Kesimpulan. Kombinasi kinesio taping dan abduction brace dapat meningkatkan panjang otot adduktor hip melalui penurunan tonus otot pada anak palsi serebral tipe spastik diplegi.

  18. Analysis of Limit Cycle Oscillation Data from the Aeroelastic Test of the SUGAR Truss-Braced Wing Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Robert E.; Funk, Christie; Scott, Robert C.

    2015-01-01