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Sample records for brace centre dot

  1. Face-Centred-Cubic Artificial Opal Embedded with CdS Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐岭; 李明海; 张宇; 马懿; 徐骏; 黄信凡; 陈坤基

    2002-01-01

    Highly monodispersed colloidal silica spheres in sub-micrometre size with distribution standard deviation less than 5% were synthesized by a chemical method. Using the self-crystallization of the silica spheres, we successfully obtained the three-dimensional close-packed face-centred-cubic silica matrices and artificial opals. Then,a colloidal photonic crystal embedded with CdS quantum dots (QDs) was also chemically prepared by using artificial opals as a template. A reflection spectra study reveals that both artificial opals with and without CdS QDs possess (111) directional photonic bandgap features.

  2. Deuteron and triton production in Pb+Pb collisions at 158 A centre dot GeV.

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, A G; Bøggild, H; Boissevain, J G; Conin, L; Christiansen, P; Dodd, J; Erazmus, B; Esumi, S; Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang; Ferenc, D; Fields, D E; Franz, A; Gaardhøje, J J; Hansen, A G; Hansen, O; Hardtke, D; Hecke, H V; Holzer, E B; Humanic, T J; Hummel, P; Jacak, B V; Jayanti, R; Kaimi, K; Kaneta, M; Kohama, T; Kopytine, M; Leltchouk, M; Ljubicic, A; Lörstad, B; Martin, L; Maeda, N; Malina, R; Medvedev, A; Murray, M; Ohnishi, H; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Piuz, François; Pluta, J; Polychronakos, V; Potekhin, M V; Poulard, G; Reichhold, D M; Sakaguchi, A; Simon-Gillo, J; Schmidt-Sørensen, J; Sondheim, W E; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Sumi, Y; Willis, W J; Wolf, K L; Xu, N; Zachary, D S

    1999-01-01

    NA44 has measured the invariant cross section of deuterons and tritons at non zero p sub t in 158 A centre dot GeV lead on lead collisions at CERN SPS. Normalized transverse mass spectra and coalescence parameters versus p sub t have been calculated showing a significant transverse flow. Radius parameters have been extracted using a simple thermal coalescence model. Results from RQMD+coalescence calculations are compared to the data.

  3. Nanodiamond-based nanostructures for coupling nitrogen-vacancy centres to metal nanoparticles and semiconductor quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jianxiao; Steinsultz, Nat; Ouyang, Min

    2016-01-01

    The ability to control the interaction between nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond and photonic and/or broadband plasmonic nanostructures is crucial for the development of solid-state quantum devices with optimum performance. However, existing methods typically employ top-down fabrication, which restrict scalable and feasible manipulation of nitrogen-vacancy centres. Here, we develop a general bottom-up approach to fabricate an emerging class of freestanding nanodiamond-based hybrid nanostructures with external functional units of either plasmonic nanoparticles or excitonic quantum dots. Precise control of the structural parameters (including size, composition, coverage and spacing of the external functional units) is achieved, representing a pre-requisite for exploring the underlying physics. Fine tuning of the emission characteristics through structural regulation is demonstrated by performing single-particle optical studies. This study opens a rich toolbox to tailor properties of quantum emitters, which can facilitate design guidelines for devices based on nitrogen-vacancy centres that use these freestanding hybrid nanostructures as building blocks. PMID:27273426

  4. Nanodiamond-based nanostructures for coupling nitrogen-vacancy centres to metal nanoparticles and semiconductor quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jianxiao; Steinsultz, Nat; Ouyang, Min

    2016-06-01

    The ability to control the interaction between nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond and photonic and/or broadband plasmonic nanostructures is crucial for the development of solid-state quantum devices with optimum performance. However, existing methods typically employ top-down fabrication, which restrict scalable and feasible manipulation of nitrogen-vacancy centres. Here, we develop a general bottom-up approach to fabricate an emerging class of freestanding nanodiamond-based hybrid nanostructures with external functional units of either plasmonic nanoparticles or excitonic quantum dots. Precise control of the structural parameters (including size, composition, coverage and spacing of the external functional units) is achieved, representing a pre-requisite for exploring the underlying physics. Fine tuning of the emission characteristics through structural regulation is demonstrated by performing single-particle optical studies. This study opens a rich toolbox to tailor properties of quantum emitters, which can facilitate design guidelines for devices based on nitrogen-vacancy centres that use these freestanding hybrid nanostructures as building blocks.

  5. Ingrown toenails (unguis incarnatus): Nail braces/bracing treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chiriac, Anca; Solovan, Caius; Brzezinski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Nail bracing is a safe, simple, and inexpensive treatment option that avoids surgery, requires no anesthetic, requires no recovery period, allows wearing the existing shoes, offers immediate relief from pain, and allows the practice of daily activities. Braces can be used for prolonged periods of times. If recurrence occurs, reapplication of bracing is usually required.

  6. Buckling restrained braces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan ÖZÇELİK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Buckling restrained braces (BRBs have high energy dissipation capacity and equal tension and compression axial load capacity. Therefore, the application of BRBs has gained popularity in seismic regions. The first studies on BRBs started in Japan in 1970 and since then more studies have been undertaken in other earthquake prone countries. Although the BRBs perform well in component and subassembly tests, they do not perform as well in frame tests because of the interaction between beam-column-gusset plate and BRB. In this study, the component and subassembly test of the BRBs and then BRB frame tests available in the literature are summarized.

  7. Ferroelectric TGS ((NH sub 2 CH sub 2 COOH) sub 3 centre dot H sub 2 SO sub 4) under high pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Y; Furuta, H; Endo, S; Deguchi, K

    2002-01-01

    The ferroelectric transition temperature T sub c of (NH sub 2 CH sub 2 COOH) sub 3 centre dot H sub 2 SO sub 4 (TGS), which is a typical order-disorder-type ferroelectric, was determined by dielectric constant and Raman scattering measurements under high pressure. T sub c increased, passed through a maximum and then decreased slightly with increasing pressure, and then abruptly dropped at about 2.5 GPa, where a transition to a new high-pressure phase was confirmed to exist. A tentative p-T phase diagram was proposed for TGS.

  8. Activation of silicon quantum dots and coupling between the active centre and the defect state of the photonic crystal in a nanolaser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Wei-Qi; Chen Hang-Qiong; Shu Qin; Liu Shi-Rong; Qin Chao-Jian

    2012-01-01

    A new nanolaser concept using silicon quantum dots (QDs) is proposed.The conduction band opened by the quantum confinement effect gives the pumping levels.Localized states in the gap due to some surface bonds on Si QDs can be formed for the activation of emission.An inversion of population can be generated between the localized states and the valence band in a QD fabricated by using a nanosecond pulse laser.Coupling between the active centres formed by localized states and the defect states of the two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal can be used to select the model in the nanolaser.

  9. Bracing Zonohedra With Special Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Gyula

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of simpler preliminary design gives useful input for more complicated three-dimensional building frame structure. A zonohedron, as a preliminary structure of design, is a convex polyhedron for which each face possesses central symmetry. We considered zonohedron as a special framework with the special assumption that the polygonal faces can be deformed in such a way that faces remain planar and centrally symmetric, moreover the length of all edges remains unchanged. Introducing some diagonal braces we got a new mechanism. This paper deals with the flexibility of this kind of mechanisms, and investigates the rigidity of the braced framework. The flexibility of the framework can be characterized by some vectors, which represent equivalence classes of the edges. A necessary and sufficient condition for the rigidity of the braced rhombic face zonohedra is posed. A real mechanical construction, based on two simple elements, provides a CAD prototype of these new mechanisms.

  10. Optical excitation in doped quasi-one-dimensional antiferromagnet (CsMnCl3 centre dot 2H2O+Cu2+)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the wide range of wavelengths and temperatures, the spectra of light absorption and luminescence excitation as well as the emission decay kinetics of a quasi-one-dimensional dielectric crystal CsMnCl3 centre dot 2H2O doped with copper ions (molar concentration 0-3%) are studied. The conclusion is made of the exchange of electronic excitation energy being possible between the matrix and dopant subsystems only in the lowest excited state due to migration of excitation and their trapping by excitation traps of the copper origin. From the analysis of the shape of decay kinetics curves of the matrix luminescence of the crystal, the values of hopping (along the chains of manganese ions) and trapping rates of magnetic excitons are determined

  11. Brace technology thematic series: the progressive action short brace (PASB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulisa Angelo G

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Progressive Action Short Brace (PASB is a custom-made thoraco-lumbar-sacral orthosis (TLSO, devised in 1976 by Dr. Lorenzo Aulisa (Institute of Orthopedics at the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy. The PASB was designed to overcome the limits imposed by the trunk anatomy. Indeed, the particular geometry of the brace is able to generate internal forces that modify the elastic reaction of the spine. The PASB is indicated for the conservative treatment of lumbar and thoraco-lumbar scoliosis. The aim of this article is to explain the biomechanic principles of the PASB and the rationale underlying its design. Recently published studies reporting the results of PASB-based treatment of adolescent scoliotic patients are also discussed. Description and principles On the coronal plane, the upper margin of the PASB, at the side of the curve concavity, prevents the homolateral bending of the scoliotic curve. The opposite upper margin ends just beneath the apical vertebra. The principle underlying such configuration is that the deflection of the inferior tract of a curved elastic structure, fixed at the bottom end, causes straightening of its upper tract. Therefore, whenever the patient bends towards the convexity of the scoliotic curve, the spine is deflected. On the sagittal plane, the inferior margins of the PASB reach the pelvitrochanteric region, in order to stabilize the brace on the pelvis. The transverse section of the brace above the pelvic grip consists of asymmetrical ellipses. This allows the spine to rotate towards the concave side only, leading to the continuous generation of derotating moments. On the sagittal plane, the brace is contoured so as to reduce the lumbar lordosis. The PASB, by allowing only those movements counteracting the progression of the curve, is able to produce corrective forces that are not dissipated. Therefore, the brace is based on the principle that a constrained spine dynamics

  12. NMR investigation on isotope effect of glycinium phosphite H sub 3 NCH sub 2 COOH centre dot H sub 2 PO sub 3

    CERN Document Server

    Ishibashi, T

    2003-01-01

    The motions of the phosphite anions and glycinium cations in H sub 3 NCH sub 2 COOH centre dot H sub 2 PO sub 3 (GPI) and its deuterated analogue (DGPI) were investigated by sup 1 H, sup 1 sup 3 C and sup 3 sup 1 P spin-lattice relaxation times T sub 1. For both GPI and DGPI, T sub 1 's of the sup 1 H, sup 1 sup 3 C and sup 3 sup 1 P nuclei reflect the amino rotation, methylene libration and motion of the phosphite anions, respectively. Activation energies obtained from T sub 1 's of sup 1 H, sup 1 sup 3 C and sup 3 sup 1 P nuclei are 28.6(2), 26.0(4) and 26.2(4) kJ/mol for GPI and are 34.9(6), 27(1), 47(2) kJ/mol for DGPI, respectively. The deuterium substitution increases E sub a for the motion influenced by the hydrogen bonding. In all the observed motions, correlation times of DGPI are larger than those of GPI. (author)

  13. Aspects of the historical development of targetry for heavy ions of 0.05-2000 A centre dot MeV at GSI

    CERN Document Server

    Folger, H

    1999-01-01

    The progressively improved GSI accelerators provide beams of heavy ions from energies of 0.05-2000 A centre dot MeV at high particle intensities now. Therefore, a wide variety of common and new heavy-ion target techniques had to be installed and developed during the past 25 years to prepare and characterize self-supported or backed heavy-ion-targets of chemical elements and compounds from hydrogen (as polyethylene) to uranium. The thickness ranged from 2x10 sup - sup 6 to 20 g/cm sup 2 for beam spots of about 5 mm in diameter. Homogeneity, surface structure or individual shape had to be adapted to the needs of each experiment. Special setups were required for targets of poisonous materials, of highly enriched stable isotopes or those of radioactive species in minute amounts. The capability of thin-layer technologies was as well applied to prepare and measure stripper foils or various high-vacuum deposits for experimental or accelerator purposes. The development of different rotating target wheels and control ...

  14. Dynamic extensor brace for lateral epicondylitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faes, M.; Akker, B. van den; Lint, J.A. de; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2006-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is a common, often disabling ailment. Based on the failure of current therapies, a new dynamic extensor brace has been developed. In this study, the effects of application of this brace for 3 months on the most important and disabling symptoms of patients with la

  15. Knee Braces to Prevent Injuries in Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Five physicians discuss the use of knee braces to prevent injuries in football players. Questions are raised regarding the strength and design of the braces, whether they prestress the knee in some cases, and whether they actually reduce injuries. More clinical and biomechanical research is called for. (MT)

  16. Brace technology thematic series: the dynamic derotation brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardakos Nikolaos V

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dynamic derotation brace (DDB was designed in Greece in 1982, as a modification of the Boston brace. It is a custom-made, underarm spinal orthosis featuring aluminium blades set to produce derotating and anti-rotating effects on the thorax and trunk of patients with scoliosis. It is indicated for the non-operative correction of most curves, barring the very high thoracic ones, (when the apex vertebra is T5 or above. The purpose of this article is to familiarize physicians with the DDB, analyze the rationale behind its design, and present the published results of its application. Description & Principles The key feature of the DDB is the addition of the aluminium-made derotating blades posteriorly. These function as a force couple, which is added to the side forces exerted by the brace itself. Corrective forces are also directed through pads. One or more of previously proposed pathomechanical models of scoliosis may underline the corrective function of the DDB: it may act directly on the apical intervertebral disc, effecting correction through the Heuter-Volkman principle; the blades may produce an anti-rotatory element against the deforming "spiral composite muscle trunk rotator"; or it may alter the neuro-motor response by constantly providing new somatosensory input to the patient. Results Based on measurements of the Cobb and Perdriolle angles, up to 82% of patients remained stable or improved with the use of the DDB. Results have varied, though, depending on the type/location of the deformity. The overall results showed that 35% of the curves improved, 46% remained stable and 18% became worse, as assessed by measuring the Cobb angle. The DDB has also been shown to improve cosmesis (except for right thoracic curves and leave several aspects of patient quality of life unaffected during use. Conclusion Conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis using the DDB has shown favorable results. Thoracic curves appear more

  17. On immediate functional bracing of Colles' fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledingham, W M; Wytch, R; Goring, C C; Mathieson, A B; Wardlaw, D

    1991-05-01

    A prospective randomized trial was carried out in 60 consecutive patients with Colles' fractures requiring manipulation. They were treated by either a standard Colles' plaster (control group) or in a functional plaster brace applied immediately after reduction of the fracture. The brace extended from the proximal radius and ulna to the level of the radial styloid and allowed a full range of movement at the radiocarpal joint. Both groups comprised 30 patients and were matched for age, sex and dominance of hand. There was no significant difference in initial severity of fracture or the quality of reduction. Radiological results on cast removal (35-42 days) were significantly better in the brace group compared with those treated with a below-elbow cast (P less than 0.05). Wrist function was also significantly better in the brace treated group at 12 weeks after fracture (P less than 0.05). This brace has a number of advantages over standard plaster treatment, but requires a degree of skill and experience in its application. A prefabricated brace has now been developed with a similar 'built in' three-point loading which will be easier for inexperienced staff to apply.

  18. NTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION: WITH BRACE VS WITHOUT BRACE AFTER OPERATION A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH.A NAZEM

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL ruputer specially in athletics induces knee instability results in pateint disability. Surgical treatment consist of ACL reconstruction and repair. In this study the efficacy of surgical management with brace after operation was compaired to surgical management without brace.
    Methods. One hundred ACL ruptured pateints had reconstructed with BPB graft in two randomzed gruops (50 with brace afetr operation and 50 without brace. Study durated 4 year (1997-2000 in alzahra hospital (affiliated to IUMSHS. Patients had followed for 12 months after operation.
    Results. Knee range of motion after 1, 3, 6, 12 months follow up were the same in both groups (P > 0.05. Degree and duration of returning to sport, complications, need to reoperation, stair climbing, specific ACL tests, patelofemoral pain, pain in squatting, running and cutting and quadriceps atrophy, after 12 months follow up were the same in both groups (P > 0.05. Patients without brace returned to their job more sooner than another group (P < 0.05.
    Discussion. There are no significant differnce in cilinical results in tow groups and ACL reconstruction with BPB dose not require to routine bracing. Faster return to job in non bracing group is due to removal of liminting effect of brace wearing. Lesser rate of pain in patients that return to sport due to quadriceps strengthening.

  19. Energies and wave functions of an off-centre donor in hemispherical quantum dot: Two-dimensional finite difference approach and ritz variational principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakra Mohajer, Soukaina; El Harouny, El Hassan; Ibral, Asmaa; El Khamkhami, Jamal; Assaid, El Mahdi

    2016-09-01

    Eigenvalues equation solutions of a hydrogen-like donor impurity, confined in a hemispherical quantum dot deposited on a wetting layer and capped by an insulating matrix, are determined in the framework of the effective mass approximation. Conduction band alignments at interfaces between quantum dot and surrounding materials are described by infinite height barriers. Ground and excited states energies and wave functions are determined analytically and via one-dimensional finite difference approach in case of an on-center donor. Donor impurity is then moved from center to pole of hemispherical quantum dot and eigenvalues equation is solved via Ritz variational principle, using a trial wave function where Coulomb attraction between electron and ionized donor is taken into account, and by two-dimensional finite difference approach. Numerical codes developed enable access to variations of donor total energy, binding energy, Coulomb correlation parameter, spatial extension and radial probability density with respect to hemisphere radius and impurity position inside the quantum dot.

  20. Brace treatment for patients with Scheuermann's disease - a review of the literature and first experiences with a new brace design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turnbull Deborah

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contemporary literature few have written in detail on the in-brace correction effects of braces used for the treatment of hyperkyphosis. Bradford et al. found their attempts effective, treating Scheuermann's kyphosis with Milwaukee braces, but their report did not specifically focus on in-brace corrections. White and Panjabi's research attempted to correct a curvature of > 50° with the help of distraction forces, but consequently led to a reduction in patient comfort in the application of the Milwaukee brace. In Germany they avoid this by utitlising braces to treat hyperkyphosis that use transverse correction forces instead of distraction forces. Further efforts to reduce brace material have resulted in a special bracing design called kyphologic™ brace. The aim of this review is to present appropriate research to collect and evaluate possible in-brace corrections which have been achieved with brace treatment for hyperkyphosis. This paper introduces new methods of bracing and compares the results of these with other successful bracing concepts. Materials and methods 56 adolescents with the diagnosis of thoracic Scheuermann's hyperkyphosis or a thoracic idiopathic hyperkyphosis (22 girls and 34 boys with an average age of 14 years (12-17 yrs. were treated with the kyphologic™ brace between May 2007 and December 2008. The average Stagnara angle was 55,6° (43-80. In-brace correction was recorded and compared to the initial angle using the t-test. Results The average Stagnara angle in the brace was 39°. The average in-brace correction was 16.5° (1-40°. The verage percentage of in-brace correction compared to the initial value was 36%. The differences were significant in the t-test (t = 5.31, p Discussion If we assume that outcome of brace treatment positively correlates with in-brace correction, the treatment should be initiated before the curvature angle exceeds 50 - 55° in a growing adolescent. In scoliosis bracing

  1. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in late-onset juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Johan Emil; Steen, Harald; Gunderson, Ragnhild; Brox, Jens Ivar

    2011-01-01

    Background It is recommended that research in patients with idiopathic scoliosis should focus on short- and long-term patient-centred outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate outcome in patients with late-onset juvenile or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis 16 years or more after Boston brace treatment. Methods 272 (78%) of 360 patients, 251 (92%) women, responded to follow-up examination at a mean of 24.7 (range 16 - 32) years after Boston brace treatment. Fifty-eight (21%) patient...

  2. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in late-onset juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gunderson Ragnhild; Steen Harald; Lange Johan; Brox Jens

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background It is recommended that research in patients with idiopathic scoliosis should focus on short- and long-term patient-centred outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate outcome in patients with late-onset juvenile or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis 16 years or more after Boston brace treatment. Methods 272 (78%) of 360 patients, 251 (92%) women, responded to follow-up examination at a mean of 24.7 (range 16 - 32) years after Boston brace treatment. Fifty-eight (21%...

  3. Shape- and size-controlled synthesis of uniform anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocuboids enclosed by active {l_brace}100{r_brace} and {l_brace}001{r_brace} facets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiaowei; Jin, Wenzui; Cai, Jinguang; Ye, Jianfeng; Li, Zhenhu; Ma, Yurong; Xie, Jinglin; Qi, Limin [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species, College of Chemistry, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-09-23

    Uniform anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocuboids enclosed by active {l_brace}100{r_brace} and {l_brace}001{r_brace} facets over a wide size range (60-830 nm in length) with controllable aspect ratios were solvothermally synthesized through hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) using acetic acid (HAc) as the solvent and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF{sub 4}]) as the capping agent. The size and aspect ratio of the anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocuboids can be readily adjusted by changing the composition parameters including the contents of [bmim][BF{sub 4}], water, and HAc in the quaternary solution system. It was revealed that [bmim][BF{sub 4}] played an important role in stabilizing both the {l_brace}100{r_brace} and {l_brace}001{r_brace} facets of the anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocuboids. On the one hand, [bmim][BF{sub 4}] acted as a fluoride source to release F{sup -} ions for stabilizing the {l_brace}001{r_brace} facets; on the other hand, the [bmim]{sup +} ions acted as effective capping ions to preferentially stabilize the {l_brace}100{r_brace} facets. The obtained near-monodisperse anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocuboids exhibited an interesting self-assembly behavior during deposition. These single-crystalline anatase nanocuboids showed extremely high crystalline phase stability, retaining the pure phase of anatase as well as the morphology even after being calcined at 900 C. Moreover, the anatase nanocuboids exhibited considerably enhanced photocatalytic activity owing the wholly exposed active {l_brace}100{r_brace} and {l_brace}001{r_brace} facets. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Providence nighttime bracing, in treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simony, A.; Beuschau, Inge; Quisth, Lena;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Since 2008 the non-surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in the southern part of Denmark, went from full-time bracing with Boston brace, to Providence night-time bracing. Methods: Since 2008, skeletally immature patients diagnosed with AIS and a primary curve......, but it seems like patients treated with Providence braces are more likely to experience back pain than healthy adolescents and surgically treated scoliosis patients....

  5. 49 CFR 195.208 - Welding of supports and braces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding of supports and braces. 195.208 Section 195.208 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.208 Welding of supports and braces. Supports or braces...

  6. Valgus bracing in patients with medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee. A gait analysis study of a new brace.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaasbeek, R.D.A.; Groen, B.E.; Hampsink, B.; Heerwaarden, R.J. van; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2007-01-01

    A new valgus brace was evaluated in 15 patients with medial osteoarthritis of the knee and a varus leg axis. Significant improvement of pain and function were found after 6 weeks of brace treatment. Gait analysis showed that the brace had a tendency of lowering the peak varus moment about the knee.

  7. Application of FEM Analysis to Braced Excavation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mingfei; Atsushi Nakamura; CAI Fei; Keizo Ugai

    2008-01-01

    It is becoming possible to do detailed numerical analyses for the various mechanical behavior of braced excavation by researching and developing the numerical analysis technique such as the finite ele-ment method (FEM).However,the mechanical behavior of braced excavation has not been clanfied fully both in theory and in expedence.Therefore,improving the prediction accuracy during the prior design is very important for making the observational method of braced excavation more effective.In this paper,FEM analyses were performed for a model of braced excavation by using Geotechnical Finite Element Elasto-plastic Analysis Software,GeoFEAS (2D).As the constitutive law of ground,MC-DP model, and Dun-can-Chang model were applied.The results were compared and discussed with that of a site measurement,and the effects of the constitutive law of ground on the analyzed result were verified.For the difference be-tween the results,the reason was investigated by the analyses adjusting the elastic modulus of ground,and the appropriate application of the constitutive law was researched.

  8. Cu-capped surface alloys of Pt/Cu left brace 100 right brace

    CERN Document Server

    Alshamaileh, E; Wander, A

    2003-01-01

    The room-temperature deposition of 0.5 monolayer (ML) Pt on Cu left brace 100 right brace followed by annealing to 525 K results in a sharp c(2 x 2) low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) pattern. The structure of this surface alloy is investigated by means of symmetrized automated tensor low-energy electron diffraction (SATLEED) analysis and ab initio plane wave density functional calculations. The results are then compared with those for the similar system 0.5 ML Pd/Cu left brace 100 right brace. SATLEED results for the Pt/Cu left brace 100 right brace show that it consists of an ordered c(2 x 2) Cu-Pt second layer alloy capped with a pure Cu first layer. The first and second interlayer spacings are found to be expanded by +5.1 +- 1.7 and +3.5 +- 1.7% respectively (relative to the bulk Cu interlayer spacing of 1.807 A) due to the insertion of the 8% larger Pt atoms into the second layer. The ordered mixed layer is found to be rippled by 0.08 +- 0.06 A with Pt atoms rippled outwards towards the solid-vacuum ...

  9. Inversion of spin levels in Ni sup 2 sup + : Zn(BF sub 4) sub 2 centre dot 6H sub 2 O at all -round compression and effect of transition coincidence

    CERN Document Server

    Krygin, I M; Nejlo, G N; Prokhorov, A D

    2001-01-01

    The study of the EPR spectrum of the Ni sup 2 sup + ion, replacing Zn sup 2 sup + in the Zn(BF sub 4) centre dot 6H sub 2 O crystals in the wide temperature range by the all-round compression in the X- and Q-ranges is carried out. The basic changes by varying temperature and pressure occur with the D parameter, characterizing the initial splitting by practically unchanged g-factor. The increase in the temperature is accompanied by the D nonlinear growth. The all-round compression linearly changes the initial splitting and leads to the change in the D-sign, signifying the spin levels inversion by 3.5 kbar. Coincidence of EPR lines, relative to different transitions, leads to the crevasse appearance in the outline of this one, that is connected with cross-relaxation inside the spin system

  10. Lateral Load Analysis of a Building with & Without Knee Bracing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin S. Kamble

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In last decades steel structures has played an important role in construction industry. Providing strength, stability and ductility are major purposes of seismic design. It is necessary to design a structure to perform well under seismic loads. Steel braced frame is one of the structural systems used to resist earthquake loads in structures. Steel bracing is economical, easy to erect, occupies less space and has flexibility to design for meeting the required strength and stiffness. Bracing can be used as retrofit as well. There are various types of steel bracings such as Diagonal, X, K, V, inverted V type or chevron and global type concentric bracings. In the present study, it was shown that modelling of the G+4 steel bare frame with various bracings (X, V, inverted V, and Knee bracing by computer software SAP2000 and pushover analysis results are obtained. Comparison between the seismic parameters such as base shear, roof displacement, time period, storey drift, performance point for steel bare frame with different bracing patterns are studied. It is found that the X type of steel bracings significantly contributes to the structural stiffness and reduces the maximum interstate drift of steel building than other bracing systems

  11. Initial experience with the providence nighttime bracing in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quisth, Lena; Beuschau, Inge; Simony, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since 2008 the primary non-surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in the southern part of Denmark, went from full-time bracing with Boston brace, to Providence nighttime bracing. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of nighttime bracing, with the Providence brace, i...

  12. Vibration of x-braced portal frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. H.; Wang, P. Y.; Lin, Y. W.

    1987-09-01

    Both free and forced vibrations of elastic X-braced portal frames are investigated. Solutions of the Euler-Bernoulli equation for the transverse vibration coupled with the axial vibration are used. The first five natural frequencies, with the angle of inclination, α, of the bracing bars ranging from 15° to 75°, with different slenderness ratios, R, of the columns, and different stiffness of the floor beam and crossing bars, are presented along with two sets of the natural modes of the frames with α = 45°. For the forced vibration, the dynamic responses of the frames with a concentrated horizontal time dependent force acting at a top joint are studied. The responses of the frames with α = 45° are analyzed in detail.

  13. The Effectiveness of Prophylactic Knee Bracing in American Football

    OpenAIRE

    Salata, Michael J.; Gibbs, Aimee E.; Sekiya, Jon K.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Knee injuries, particularly of the medial collateral ligament (MCL), are the most common injury sustained in American football. In 1979, Anderson et al described a knee brace that could protect uninjured knees from MCL injuries resulting from lateral impact. Since then, a number of light and free-moving bracing devices have been developed. However, the efficacy of prophylactic knee bracing remains in question. Objective: A systematic review of the efficacy of prophylactic knee bracin...

  14. A calorimetric and equilibrium investigation of the reaction {l_brace}methyl ferulate(aq) + H{sub 2}O(l) = methanol(aq) + ferulic acid(aq){r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Robert N., E-mail: robert.goldberg@nist.go [Biochemical Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20876 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Lang, Brian E., E-mail: brian.lang@nist.go [Biochemical Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20876 (United States); Selig, Michael J., E-mail: michael.selig@nrel.go [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Biosciences Center, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Decker, Stephen R., E-mail: steve.decker@nrel.go [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Biosciences Center, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Microcalorimetry and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) have been used to conduct a thermodynamic investigation of the reaction: {l_brace}methyl ferulate(aq) + H{sub 2}O(l) = methanol(aq) + ferulic acid(aq){r_brace}, as catalyzed by feruloyl esterase. Values of the apparent equilibrium constant K' = (29.6 {+-} 0.7) (T = 298.15 K, citrate buffer at pH 4.98, ionic strength I = 0.39 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}) and of the calorimetrically determined enthalpy of reaction {Delta}{sub r}H(cal) = (4.0 {+-} 0.9) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} (T = 298.15 K and citrate buffer at pH 4.81, I = 0.36 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}) were measured. A chemical equilibrium model, together with pKs and standard enthalpies of reaction {Delta}{sub r}H{sup 0} for the H{sup +}(aq) binding reactions of the reactants and products, was then used to calculate the values K = (1.89 {+-} 0.06) . 10{sup -4}, {Delta}{sub r}H{sup o} = (7.3 {+-} 1.7) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, {Delta}{sub r}G{sup o} = (21.25 {+-} 0.07) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, and {Delta}{sub r}S{sup o} = - (46.8 {+-} 5.7) J {center_dot} K{sup -1} {center_dot} mol{sup -1} for the chemical reference reaction {l_brace}methyl ferulate(aq) + H{sub 2}O(l) = methanol(aq) + ferulic acid{sup -}(aq) + H{sup +}(aq){r_brace}. These values of K and {Delta}{sub r}H{sup o} are similar in magnitude to the corresponding values reported for the reaction {l_brace}propyl gallate(aq) + H{sub 2}O(l) = 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid{sup -}(aq) + 1-propanol(aq) + H{sup +}(aq){r_brace}. The results obtained in this study can be used in a chemical equilibrium model to calculate how K' and other standard transformed properties such as the standard transformed enthalpy {Delta}{sub r}H'{sup o}, standard transformed Gibbs free energy {Delta}{sub r}G'{sup o}, and the change in binding of H{sup +}(aq), {Delta}{sub r}N(H{sup +}), vary with the independent variables T, pH, and I.

  15. Elastoplastic analysis of knee bracing frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zhen; LI Qing-song; CHEN Long-zhu

    2005-01-01

    The knee bracing steel frame (KBF) is a new kind of energy dissipating frame, which combines excellent ductility and lateral stiffness. As the structural fuse of the frame, the knee element will yield first during a severe earthquake so that no damage occurs to the major structural members and the rehabilitation is easy and economical. To help fully understand the relations between its seismic performance and the structural parameters, systematic elastoplastic analysis of the KBF structure with finite element method was conducted in this work. Finally, general design recommendations were made according to the results of the analysis.

  16. Behavior of concentrically loaded CFT braces connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha M. Hassan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Concrete filled tubes (CFTs composite columns have many economical and esthetic advantages, but the behavior of their connections is complicated. Through this study, it is aimed to investigate the performance and behavior of different connection configurations between concrete filled steel tube columns and bracing diagonals through an experimental program. The study included 12 connection subassemblies consisting of a fixed length steel tube and gusset plate connected to the tube end with different details tested under half cyclic loading. A notable effect was observed on the behavior of the connections due to its detailing changes with respect to capacity, failure mode, ductility, and stress distribution.

  17. Patients' Preferences for Scoliosis Brace Treatment A Discrete Choice Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Bunge; E.W. de Bekker-Grob; F.C. van Biezen; M.L. Essink-Bot; H.J. de Koning

    2010-01-01

    Study Design. Discrete choice experiment. Objective. To investigate the reduction in the risk of surgery that scoliosis patients would require in order to consider brace treatment as acceptable, and to elicit the trade-offs individuals make between characteristics of brace treatment. Summary of Back

  18. Lateral Knee Braces in Football: Do They Prevent Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulos, Lonnie E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The results of three recently presented clinical studies and a biomechanical study of the use of lateral knee braces to prevent knee injuries are reviewed. The results raise serious doubts about the efficacy of the preventive knee braces which are currently available. (Author/MT)

  19. Early weaning might reduce the psychological strain of Boston bracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Ø; Andersen, Gert Rahbek; Thomsen, Karsten;

    2002-01-01

    From 1983 to 1990 a total of 136 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were treated with the Boston brace. With the aim of examining the social and psychological impact of the brace treatment all patients received a questionnaire at an average of 3.5 years after termination of the treatment...

  20. Gait Using Pneumatic Brace for End-Stage Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Cherian, Jeffrey Jai; Starr, Roland; Chughtai, Morad; Mont, Michael A; Harwin, Steven F; Bhave, Anil

    2016-04-01

    More than 20 million individuals in the United States are affected by knee osteoarthritis (OA), which can lead to altered biomechanics and excessive joint loading. The use of an unloader pneumatic brace with extension assist has been proposed as a nonoperative treatment modality that may improve gait mechanics and correct knee malalignment. We assessed the following parameters in patients who have knee OA treated with and without a brace: (1) changes in temporospatial parameters in gait; (2) knee range of motion, knee extension at heel strike, and foot placement; (3) knee joint moments and impulse; and (4) changes in dynamic stiffness and rate of change of knee flexion during midstance to terminal stance. This 2:1 prospective, randomized, single-blinded trial evaluated 36 patients (24 brace and 12 matching). OA knee patients were randomized to receive either a pneumatic unloader brace or a standard nonoperative treatment regimen as the matching cohort for a 3-month period. They underwent evaluation of gait parameters using a three-dimensional gait analysis system at their initial appointment and at 3 months follow-up. All the testing, pre- and postbracing were performed without wearing the brace to examine for retained effects. Treatment with the brace led to significant improvements versus standard treatment in various gait parameters. Patients in the brace group had improvements in walking speed, knee extension at heel strike, total range of motion, knee joint forces, and rate of knee flexion from midstance to terminal stance when compared with the matching cohort. Knee OA patients who used a pneumatic unloader brace for 3 months for at least 3 hours per day had significant improvements various gait parameters when compared with a standard nonoperative therapy cohort. Braced patients demonstrated gait-modifying affects when not wearing the brace. These results are encouraging and suggest that this device represents a promising treatment modality for knee OA that

  1. Magnetic susceptibility of Co sup 2 sup + pairs in [Co sub 2 (ox)tpmc](ClO sub 4) sub 2 centre dot 3H sub 2 O cluster complex

    CERN Document Server

    Spasojevic, V; Sovilj, S P; Mrozinski, J

    2000-01-01

    Calculation of the magnetic susceptibility of Co sup 2 sup + pairs in the recently synthesized cobaltous cluster complex [Co sub 2 (ox)tpmc](ClO sub 4) sub 2 centre dot 3H sub 2 O has been conducted by the use of two different theoretical models. The calculated results were compared to the experimental data collected in a wide temperature region. Conclusions on both the magnetic properties of Co sup 2 sup + dimers and the validity of the proposed models have been drawn. In the temperature region above chi(T) maximum, the best results are obtained with the Heisenberg model that includes spin-orbit coupling and excited single-ion levels. In the low-temperature region anisotropy of the magnetic properties dominates and Ising dimer ground-state model gives a more appropriate description. Obtained g-values (g sub p sub a sub r sub a sub l sub l sub e sub l a=5.67, g sub p sub a sub r sub a sub l sub l sub e sub l b=5.73, and g sub p sub e sub r sub p sub e sub n sub d sub i sub c sub u sub l sub a sub r =1.54) con...

  2. Control of a flexible bracing manipulator: Integration of current research work to realize the bracing manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dong-Soo

    1991-01-01

    All research results about flexible manipulator control were integrated to show a control scenario of a bracing manipulator. First, dynamic analysis of a flexible manipulator was done for modeling. Second, from the dynamic model, the inverse dynamic equation was derived, and the time domain inverse dynamic method was proposed for the calculation of the feedforward torque and the desired flexible coordinate trajectories. Third, a tracking controller was designed by combining the inverse dynamic feedforward control with the joint feedback control. The control scheme was applied to the tip position control of a single link flexible manipulator for zero and non-zero initial condition cases. Finally, the contact control scheme was added to the position tracking control. A control scenario of a bracing manipulator is provided and evaluated through simulation and experiment on a single link flexible manipulator.

  3. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria of {l_brace}heptane + xylene + N-formylmorpholine{r_brace} ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Dongchu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, ChangSha 410083 (China)], E-mail: dcchen@hnust.edu.cn; Ye Hongqi; Hao Wu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, ChangSha 410083 (China)

    2007-12-15

    (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for ternary system {l_brace}heptane (1) + m-xylene (2) + N-formylmorpholine (3){r_brace} have been determined experimentally at temperatures ranging from 298.15 K to 353.15 K. Complete phase diagrams were obtained by determining solubility and tie-line data. Tie-line compositions were correlated by Othmer-Tobias and Bachman methods. The universal quasichemical activity coefficient (UNIQUAC) and The non-random two liquids equation (NRTL) were used to correlate the phase equilibrium in the system using the interaction parameters determined from experimental data. It is found that UNIQUAC and NRTL used for LLE could provide a good correlation. Distribution coefficients, separation factors, and selectivity were evaluated for the immiscibility region.

  4. The Chêneau concept of bracing--biomechanical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, Manuel; Weiss, Hans-Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Current concept of bracing must take in consideration both the three-dimensional (3D) nature of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) and its pathomechanism of progression. A modern brace should be able to correct in 3D in order to break the so called 'vicious cycle' model. Generally speaking, it is necessary to create detorsional forces to derotate in the transversal plane, to correct the lateral deviation in the frontal plane and to normalize the sagittal profile of the spine. Breathing mechanics can be used to fight against the thoracic structural flat back. The original Chêneau brace was introduced at the end of the 70's and its principles were based more in anatomical observations rather than in biomechanics. A further evolution , enunciating new principles, has allowed a higher standard, improving in brace corrections and trunk modelling. This biomechanical principles have been developed under the name of Rigo-Chêneau-System (RSC) and used later in latest brace models like the Chêneau light with reduced material, and similar in brace corrections. Experience is also important to improve the end results. The blueprints to built the brace according to the anatomorradiological pattern are very helpful.

  5. Biomechanical Analysis of the Effects of Bilateral Hinged Knee Bracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hangil; Ha, Dokyeong; Kang, Yeoun-Seung; Park, Hyung-Soon

    2016-01-01

    This research analyzed the effect of bilateral hinged knee braces on a healthy knee from a biomechanical frame in vivo. This was accomplished by fitting a knee brace with two customized wireless force/torque (F/T) sensors that could readily record force and torque during live motion, while the kinetics at the knee were computed using the inverse dynamics of the motion capture and force plate data. Four tasks to test the brace’s effects were drop vertical jumping, pivoting, stop vertical jumping, and cutting. The results showed that the hinges in the knee brace can absorb up to 18% of the force and 2.7% of the torque at the knee during various athletic motions. Thus, the hinges demonstrated minimal effect in reducing the mechanical load on the knee. There were limitations concerning the consistency of the motions performed by the subjects during the trials and the influence of the other portions of the brace to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the brace as a whole. Future works may incorporate a fatigue protocol and injured subjects to better determine the effects of the brace. There is still a need for more research on the biomechanical influence of knee braces to develop safer and more effective products. PMID:27379233

  6. Corrective Bracing for Severe Idiopathic Scoliosis in Adolescence: Influence of Brace on Trunk Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Kinel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the work was to study whether wearing a corrective brace by adolescent girls with severe idiopathic scoliosis can influence external shape of the trunk. Methods. Comparison of clinical deformity of two groups of girls matched for age and Cobb angle: group (1 of 23 girls, aged 14.9±1.3 years, Cobb angle 55.0°±6.8°, who refused surgical treatment and have been wearing Chêneau brace for more than 6 months, compared with group (2 of 22 girls, aged 14.1±1.8 years, Cobb angle 59.7°±14.6° never treated with corrective bracing. Clinical deformity was assessed with the Bunnell scoliometer (angle of trunk rotation ATR and surface topography (posterior trunk symmetry index POTSI and Hump Sum HS. Results. The ATR in the primary curvature was 11.9°±3.4° (5°–18° in group 1 versus 15.1°±5.6° (6°–25° in group 2 (P=0.027. The HS was 16.8°±3.8 versus 19.2°±4.6, respectively, P=0.07. The POTSI value did not differ between groups. Conclusion. Girls with Cobb angle above 45 degrees, who have been subjected to brace treatment, revealed smaller clinical deformity of their back comparing to nontreated girls having similar radiological curvatures.

  7. A magnetorheological fluid based orthopedic active knee brace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zite, Jamaal L.; Ahmadkhanlou, Farzad; Neelakantan, Vijay A.; Washington, Gregory N.

    2006-03-01

    The disadvantage of current knee braces ranges from high cost for customization to a loss in physical mobility and limited rehabilitative value. One approach to solving this problem is to use a Magnetorheological (MR) device to make the knee brace have a controllable resistance. Our design solution is to replace the manufacturer's joint with an rotary MR fluid based shear damper. The device is designed based on a maximum yield stress, a corresponding magnetic field, a torque and the MR fluid viscosity. The analytical and experimental results show the advantages and the feasibility of using the proposed MR based controllable knee braces.

  8. Clinician Recommendations and Perceptions of Factors Associated With Ankle Brace Use

    OpenAIRE

    Denton, Jason M.; Waldhelm, Andrew; Hacke, Jonathon D.; Gross, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little information is available regarding the ankle braces orthopaedic sports medicine clinicians recommend or clinicians’ concerns that may influence their decisions to recommend use of an ankle brace. Hypotheses: (1) Clinicians most frequently recommend lace-up braces with straps. (2) Clinicians who are concerned about potential adverse side effects from ankle brace use are less likely to recommend an ankle brace to prevent ankle sprain injuries. Study Design: Descriptive survey...

  9. Three dimensional analysis of brace biomechanical efficacy for patients with AIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebel, David E; Al-Aubaidi, Zaid; Shin, Eyun-Jung;

    2013-01-01

    Corrective three dimensional (3D) effect of different braces is debatable. We evaluated differences in in-brace radiographic correction comparing a custom thoracic-lumbo-sacral-orthosis (TLSO) (T) brace to a Chêneau type TLSO (C) brace using 3D EOS reconstruction technology. Our primary research ...... question was the 3D effect of brace on the spine and in particularly the apical vertebra rotation (AVR)....

  10. A magnetorheological fluid-based controllable active knee brace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadkhanlou, Farzad; Zite, Jamaal L.; Washington, Gregory N.

    2007-04-01

    High customization costs and reduction of natural mobility put current rehabilitative knee braces at a disadvantage. A resolution to this problem is to integrate a Magnetorheological (MR) fluid-based joint into the system. A MR joint will allow patients to apply and control a resistive torque to knee flexion and extension. The resistance torque can also be continuously adjusted as a function of extension angle and patient strength (or as a function of time), which is currently impossible with state of the art rehabilitative knee braces. A novel MR fluid-based controllable knee brace is designed and prototyped in this research. The device exhibits large resistive torque in the on-state and low resistance in the offstate. The controllable variable stiffness, compactness, and portability of the system make it a proper alternative to current rehabilitative knee braces.

  11. Inelastic behavior of eccentric braces in steel structure

    OpenAIRE

    Nourbakhs, Seyed Mehrdad

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The performance of eccentric braces is to some extent considered as a new subject amongst Civil Engineers. In general, braces are the members that resist against lateral forces in a steel structure while the structures are under seismic excitation. Although the height of a structure and the structural system are the two parameters which can affect the inelastic behavior and response of the structure but these parameters have not been taken into consideration in the current design co...

  12. Formation of a near {l_brace}001{r_brace}<110> recrystallization texture in electrical steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, B. de; Wieting, J. [Inst. fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstoffforschung Dresden (Germany)

    1997-09-15

    By means of a continuous production process with two successive cold rolling steps it is possible to get electrical steel sheets with a recrystallization texture after the final annealing treatment exhibiting a strong maximum near the {l_brace}001{r_brace}<110> orientation. The production costs of such steel sheets are comparable to those of non-oriented electrical steels. For the formation of this texture, the recrystallization during the annealing between and after the cold rolling steps is of major importance because during the first annealing an orientation accumulation in the recrystallization texture arises near {l_brace}001{r_brace} <110> which becomes predominant during the final annealing while other components disappear. For this reason this work is dealing with the texture formation during the last production steps starting with the first cold rolling reduction.

  13. Quadra-Quantum Dots and Related Patterns of Quantum Dot Molecules: Basic Nanostructures for Quantum Dot Cellular Automata Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsak Panyakeow

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Laterally close-packed quantum dots (QDs called quantum dot molecules (QDMs are grown by modified molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. Quantum dots could be aligned and cross hatched. Quantum rings (QRs created from quantum dot transformation during thin or partial capping are used as templates for the formations of bi-quantum dot molecules (Bi-QDMs and quantum dot rings (QDRs. Preferable quantum dot nanostructure for quantum computation based on quantum dot cellular automata (QCA is laterally close-packed quantum dot molecules having four quantum dots at the corners of square configuration. These four quantum dot sets are called quadra-quantum dots (QQDs. Aligned quadra-quantum dots with two electron confinements work like a wire for digital information transmission by Coulomb repulsion force, which is fast and consumes little power. Combination of quadra-quantum dots in line and their cross-over works as logic gates and memory bits. Molecular Beam Epitaxial growth technique called 'Droplet Epitaxy' has been developed for several quantum nanostructures such as quantum rings and quantum dot rings. Quantum rings are prepared by using 20 ML In-Ga (15:85 droplets deposited on a GaAs substrate at 390'C with a droplet growth rate of 1ML/s. Arsenic flux (7'8'10-6Torr is then exposed for InGaAs crystallization at 200'C for 5 min. During droplet epitaxy at a high droplet thickness and high temperature, out-diffusion from the centre of droplets occurs under anisotropic strain. This leads to quantum ring structures having non-uniform ring stripes and deep square-shaped nanoholes. Using these peculiar quantum rings as templates, four quantum dots situated at the corners of a square shape are regrown. Two of these four quantum dots are aligned either or, which are preferable crystallographic directions of quantum dot alignment in general.

  14. The effects of functional knee braces on speed in collegiate basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, D L

    1995-12-01

    Knee braces are worn by many athletes following injury. The purpose of this study was to determine whether two functional knee braces (noncustom design) significantly affected straight line and successive turning trial running times in noninjured collegiate basketball players. Twenty-five coed basketball players completed 2 days of running trials. Subjects ran three full lengths of a basketball court and 10 lengths between the baseline and the foul line first without wearing a brace, then wearing either a DonJoy GoldPoint brace or an Omni OS-5 brace, and finally wearing the other brace. The results indicated no significant difference (p basketball players. PMID:8580953

  15. Mechanical compression release device in steel bracing system for retrofitting RC frames

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Ghaffarzadeh; M.R. Maheri

    2006-01-01

    The development of an innovative structural system with satisfactory seismic performance of braced systems is an important and challenging area of interest in structural engineering. In this paper, a device that can release the compressive force in the bracing members is developed, and its performance is evaluated. For comparison, four steel braced RC frames were constructed and tested under reverse cyclic loads. Two of them had different amounts of bracing and the other two had the same amount of bracing but incorporated different type of device, called compression release device, which is developed and described in this paper. It can be concluded from the test results that the newly developed device can effectively be used in steel braced systems to prevent buckling failure of the bracing members. Therefore, the device enhances the ductility of brace-framed systems by allowing an adequate capacity for energy dissipation.

  16. Anisotropy and magnetostriction as corrections for the Heisenberg model at the example of the molecule {l_brace}Ni{sub 4}Mo{sub 12}{r_brace}; Anisotropie und Magnetostriktion als Korrekturen zum Heisenberg-Modell am Beispiel des Molekuels {l_brace}Ni{sub 4}Mo{sub 12}{r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueger, Mirko

    2008-07-15

    In the first part of this thesis the different effects of the molecular magnetism were extensively considered and the possibility of their occurence in {l_brace}Ni{sub 4}Mo{sub 12}{r_brace} checked. In the second part of this thesis different models for the description of experimental results were presented. thereby the results of ESR, SQUIO, and high-field pulse measurements on {l_brace}Ni{sub 4}Mo{sub 12}{r_brace} are described.

  17. The Weight Efficiency of Steel Framed Buildings with Various Wind Bracing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Abbassi, Sanaz Khoddam

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This research is about the efficiency of using different types of wind bracing and with different steel profiles for bracing members for multi-storey steel frames. ETABS software was used to obtain the design of frames and bracing systems with the least weight and apropriate steel section selection for beams, columns and bracing members from the standard set of steel sections. The design loads are specified in BS 5950 (2000). The serviceability limit state included in the design...

  18. Atomic structures of symmetrical and asymmetrical facets in a near {sigma} = 9{l_brace}2 2 1{r_brace} tilt grain boundary in copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardouin Duparc, Olivier [LSI, CEA-X-CNRS, UMR 7642, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)]. E-mail: olivier.hardouinduparc@polytechnique.edu; Couzinie, Jean-Philippe [CECM, CNRS, UPR 2801, 15 rue Georges Urbain, 94407 Vitry Sur Seine (France); Thibault-Penisson, Jany [TECSEN, CNRS, UMR 6122, Universite Paul Cezanne Aix-Marseille III, 13397 Marseille Cedex (France); Lartigue-Korinek, Sylvie [CECM, CNRS, UPR 2801, 15 rue Georges Urbain, 94407 Vitry Sur Seine (France); Decamps, Brigitte [LCMTR, CNRS, UPR 209, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Priester, Louisette [CECM, CNRS, UPR 2801, 15 rue Georges Urbain, 94407 Vitry Sur Seine (France)

    2007-03-15

    Atomic structures in a {sigma} = 9{l_brace}2 2 1{r_brace} tilt grain boundary (GB) grown by Bridgman solidification of a tricrystal are determined through high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and numerical simulation. Atomic models are simulated via molecular dynamics annealing using an n-body potential fitted on copper properties including its stacking fault energy. Symmetrical and asymmetrical facets are thus identified. Mainly asymmetrical facets are observed, namely {sigma} = 9{l_brace}11, 11, 1{r_brace}||{l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} and also small parts of incommensurate {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}||{l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}. The symmetrical facets are described by a quasi-mirror plane atomic structure. A specific GB structural unit is recognized as a Lomer unit. Its GB Burgers vector depends on the GB structure itself. Further analyses of these models and of accommodating dislocations are successfully carried out at the atomic level within the framework of the continuous structural unit approach.

  19. [Use of pneumatic braces in the rehabilitation of motor handicaps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideau, Y; Brault, J F; Caillaud, J

    1975-01-01

    The authors describe the advantages of pneumatic orthesis which are: On a mechanical standpoint the comfort related to the lightness and elasticity of the bracing allowing better walking, specialty in paraplegies from thoracic level. The rigidity of the orthesis can be changed by modifying the air-pressure and this type of bracing can be used in various diseases such as cerebral palsy or myopathies. On a social standpoint this type of orthesis can be obtained more rapidly than conventional ones. It allows a shorter hospitalization and, therefore, a better rehabilitation.

  20. Can Bracing Affect Altered Gait Patterns in Femoroacetabular Impingement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Marc R.; Rylander, Jonathan; Shu, Beatrice; Andriacchi, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Altered gait patterns have been identified in patients with Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), a 2nd order reversal in mid stance, that has been shown to be corrected with arthroscopic FAI surgery. Currently, most feel there is no adequate conservative treatment for this malady. The goal of this study is to determine if the gait abnormalities seen with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) can be modified with bracing. Methods: Eight individuals (4 Male, 34.5 ± 12.8 y.o., 24.0±2.3 BMI) who were diagnosed with FAI after reporting to clinic with groin pain were enrolled in this study. The study was approved by the University Internal Review Board before participants were enrolled. History, clinical exam, and imaging including an AP pelvis and cross table lateral radiograph of the affected hip and MR-arthrogram of the affected hip were utilized to make the diagnosis. Participants who enrolled had primarily unilateral hip symptoms, had positive impingement and labral stress tests on the affected side and were free of other lower extremity, back, and spine disorders. Three dimensional lower limb kinematics were collected using a camera and forceplate system with the subjects wearing reflective markers on anatomical landmarks. Participants were tested prior to surgery. Hip kinematics were collected for the symptomatic limb while the patients walked at a self selected normal walking speed, slowly jogged, and ascended a two stair setup. Three trials for each activity were completed with and without wearing a brace that was designed to externally rotate the femur in the treatment of patellofemoral disorders for a total of 6 trials per activity. Peak hip flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal rotation, and external rotation were calculated over the stance phase for each trial. Averages were calculated over the 3 trials for each activity both with and without the brace. Intra-subject differences were compared between the braced and unbraced trials

  1. Quadra-quantum Dots and Related Patterns of Quantum Dot Molecules:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsak Panyakeow

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Laterally close-packed quantum dots (QDs called quantum dot molecules (QDMs are grown by modified molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. Quantum dots could be aligned and cross hatched. Quantum rings (QRs created from quantum dot transformation during thin or partial capping are used as templates for the formations of bi-quantum dot molecules (Bi-QDMs and quantum dot rings (QDRs. Preferable quantum dot nanostructure for quantum computation based on quantum dot cellular automata (QCA is laterally close-packed quantum dot molecules having four quantum dots at the corners of square configuration. These four quantum dot sets are called quadra-quantum dots (QQDs. Aligned quadra-quantum dots with two electron confinements work like a wire for digital information transmission by Coulomb repulsion force, which is fast and consumes little power. Combination of quadra-quantum dots in line and their cross-over works as logic gates and memory bits. Molecular Beam Epitaxial growth technique called ‘‘Droplet Epitaxy” has been developed for several quantum nanostructures such as quantum rings and quantum dot rings. Quantum rings are prepared by using 20 ML In-Ga (15:85 droplets deposited on a GaAs substrate at 390°C with a droplet growth rate of 1ML/s. Arsenic flux (7–8×10-6Torr is then exposed for InGaAs crystallization at 200°C for 5 min. During droplet epitaxy at a high droplet thickness and high temperature, out-diffusion from the centre of droplets occurs under anisotropic strain. This leads to quantum ring structures having non-uniform ring stripes and deep square-shaped nanoholes. Using these peculiar quantum rings as templates, four quantum dots situated at the corners of a square shape are regrown. Two of these four quantum dots are aligned either or , which are preferable crystallographic directions of quantum dot alignment in general.

  2. Brace technology thematic series - The Sforzesco and Sibilla braces, and the SPoRT (Symmetric, Patient oriented, Rigid, Three-dimensional, active concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchini Gianfranco

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bracing is an effective strategy for scoliosis treatment, but there is no consensus on the best type of brace, nor on the way in which it should act on the spine to achieve good correction. The aim of this paper is to present the family of SPoRT (Symmetric, Patient-oriented, Rigid, Three-dimensional, active braces: Sforzesco (the first introduced, Sibilla and Lapadula. Methods The Sforzesco brace was developed following specific principles of correction. Due to its overall symmetry, the brace provides space over pathological depressions and pushes over elevations. Correction is reached through construction of the envelope, pushes, escapes, stops, and drivers. The real novelty is the drivers, introduced for the first time with the Sforzesco brace; they allow to achieve the main action of the brace: a three-dimensional elongation pushing the spine in a down-up direction. Brace prescription is made plane by plane: frontal (on the "slopes", another novelty of this concept, i.e. the laterally flexed sections of the spine, horizontal, and sagittal. The brace is built modelling the trunk shape obtained either by a plaster cast mould or by CAD-CAM construction. Brace checking is essential, since SPoRT braces are adjustable and customisable according to each individual curve pattern. Treatment time and duration is individually tailored (18-23 hours per day until Risser 3, then gradual reduction. SEAS (Scientific Exercises Approach to Scoliosis exercises are a key factor to achieve success. Results The Sforzesco brace has shown to be more effective than the Lyon brace (matched case/control, equally effective as the Risser plaster cast (prospective cohort with retrospective controls, more effective than the Risser cast + Lyon brace in treating curves over 45 degrees Cobb (prospective cohort, and is able to improve aesthetic appearance (prospective cohort. Conclusions The SPoRT concept of bracing (three-dimensional elongation pushing in

  3. Electronic and structural characterizations of unreconstructed {l_brace}0001{r_brace} surfaces and the growth of graphene overlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emtsev, Konstantin

    2009-06-03

    The present work is focused on the characterization of the clean unreconstructed SiC{l_brace}0001{r_brace} surfaces and the growth of graphene overlayers thereon. Electronic properties of SiC surfaces and their interfaces with graphene and few layer graphene films were investigated by means of angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy electron diffraction. Structural characterizations of the epitaxial graphene films grown on SiC were carried out by atomic force microscopy and low energy electron microscopy. Supplementary data was obtained by scanning tunneling microscopy. (orig.)

  4. Anatase TiO{sub 2} hollow microspheres with exposed {l_brace}0 0 1{r_brace}facets: Facile synthesis and enhanced photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiaoliang, E-mail: wxlsr@yahoo.com.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, 066004 Qinhuangdao (China); He Huanlong; Chen Yan; Zhao Jinqiu; Zhang Xiangyi [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, 066004 Qinhuangdao (China)

    2012-05-15

    Anatase TiO{sub 2} hollow microspheres with a high percentage of exposed {l_brace}0 0 1{r_brace}facets have been successfully synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal strategy in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and hydrofluoric acid solution. It is found that both HF and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} play an essential role in the formation of TiO{sub 2} hollow polyhedron TiO{sub 2} microspheres with exposed {l_brace}0 0 1{r_brace}facets. A plausible mechanism for formation of the TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres with exposed {l_brace}0 0 1{r_brace}facets by dissolution-recrystallization and Ostwald ripening is proposed based on the experimental observations. The products exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activities for degradation of methylene blue dye present in aqueous solution under ultraviolet light irradiation at ambient temperature.

  5. Development and preliminary validation of Brace Questionnaire (BrQ): a new instrument for measuring quality of life of brace treated scoliotics

    OpenAIRE

    Gkoltsiou Konstantina; Grivas Theodoros B; Vasiliadis Elias

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The quality of life among children with idiopathic scoliosis during their adolescence has been reported to be affected by the brace itself. However, a controversy exists whether brace treated scoliotics experience a poor quality of life, thus there is a need for the development of a brace-oriented instrument, as the now-existing questionnaires that are commonly used, such as the SRS -22, take into consideration the effects of both the conservative and the surgical treatmen...

  6. "Brace technology" thematic series - the Gensingen brace™ in the treatment of scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Hans-Rudolf

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bracing concepts in use today for the treatment of scoliosis include symmetric and asymmetric hard braces usually made of polyethylene (PE and soft braces. A new asymmetric Chêneau style CAD/CAM derivate has been designed to overcome problems the author experienced with other Chêneau CAD/CAM systems over the recent years. Brace description This CAD/CAM Chêneau derivate has been called Gensingen brace™, a brace available to address all possible curve patterns. Once the patients' trunk is scanned with the help of a whole trunk optical 3D-scan and the patients' data from the clinical measurements are recorded, a model of the brace can be created by (1 modifying the trunk model of the patient 'on screen' to achieve a very individual brace model using the CAD/CAM tools provided or by (2 choosing a brace model from our library and re-size it to the patients' properties 'on screen'. Results End-result studies have been published on the Chêneau brace as early as 1985. Cohort studies on the Chêneau brace are available as is a prospective controlled study respecting the SRS criteria for bracing studies, demonstrating beneficial outcomes, when compared to the controls using a soft brace. Sufficient in-brace correction effects have been demonstrated to be achievable when the Chêneau principles of correction are used appropriately. As there is a positive correlation between in-brace correction and the final outcome, the Chêneau concept of bracing with sufficient in-brace corrections as published can be regarded as being efficient when applied well. Case reports with high in-brace corrections, as shown within this paper using the Gensingen brace™ promise beneficial outcomes when a good compliance can be achieved. Conclusions The use of the Gensingen brace™ leads to sufficient in-brace corrections, when compared to the correction effects achieved with other braces, as described in literature. According to the patients' reports

  7. Conceptual design of joints in braced steel frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, C.M.; Evers, H.G.A.; Gresnigt, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    To help practitioners to find the most economical design of braced frames, this paper proposes a classification of joints in `simple' (e.g. web cleated connections), 'moderate' (e.g. flush end plated connections) and 'complex' (e.g. stiffened extended end plate connections) with respect to the fabri

  8. Emergency PTCA and Brace Implantation in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhangquan; Guan Ruming; Zhang Ming

    2000-01-01

    Objective To further improve the rate of reperfusion of infarction related artery in AMI, remove the stricture, rescue ischemic myocardiurn, protect cardiac function and ameliorate the longterm prognosis. Method Among 73 patients with AMI, 50 underwent direct PTCA, 15 immediate PTCA,8 rescue PTCA and 20 braces were implanted. Result The proportion of recanalization is 94.5% (69/73) .The grade of blood flow (TIMI) improved to grade 3 in 20 patients with brace implantation, while 44 to grade 3 and 5 to grade 2 among 49 patients with simple PTCA. Residualstenosis in vessel was 1.8 ± 5.9(-10-10)% in patients with brace implantation versus 15.4 ± 11. (0 -30)% with simple PICA. The incidence of reperfusive cardiac arrythmia was 18.1%(10/62). There was mainly frequent ventricular premature beat and short paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia, if left anterior decending branch was reopened,while bradycardia and atrial ventricular block usually occurred after right coronary reperfused. Conclusion Emergency PTCA and brace implantation can apparently improve the proportion of reperfusioa of IRA in AMI. It is necessary to popularize and apply these treatment in medical units with available conditions.

  9. Experimental program for large-scale tests on a re-centring dual eccentrically braced frame

    OpenAIRE

    Stratan, Aurel; IOAN CHESOAN Adriana; DUBINA Dan; TAUCER, FABIO; POLJANSEK Martin; MOLINA RUIZ Francisco Javier; Pegon, Pierre; D'ANIELLO Mario; Landolfo, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    Structural systems that aim at reducing structural damage by isolating plastic deformations in removable or "repairable" elements, and have the ability to return to the initial undeformed shape after an earthquake have received much attention recently. One of the solutions applicable to steel moment-resisting frames relies on post-tensioned beam to column joints [1] and column bases [2]. Other solutions having the same performance objectives use beam to column joints assembled with shape memo...

  10. Arthrometric evaluation of stabilizing effect of knee functional bracing at different flexion angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed Mohseni, Saeedeh; Moss, Farzam; Karimi, Hossein; Kamali, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Previous in-vivo investigations on the stabilizing efficacy of knee bracing for ACL reconstructed patients have been often limited to 20-30 degrees of knee flexion. In this study, the effectiveness of a uniaxial hinged functional brace to improve the knee stability was assessed at 30, 60 and 90 degrees of knee flexion. Arthrometry tests were conducted on 15 healthy subjects before and following wearing the brace and the tibial displacements were measured at up to 150 N anterior forces. Results indicated that functional bracing has a significant stabilizing effect throughout the range of knee flexion examined (p polycentric joint a more significant improvement of the overall brace performance and efficacy might be obtained. Key pointsFunctional bracing improves the knee joint stability mostly in extension posture.Unlike the non-braced condition, the least knee joint stability appears in mid and deep flexion angles when using a hinged brace.Accurate sizing and fitting and attention to correct hinge placement relative to the femoral condyles can limit brace migration and improve its effectiveness in mid and deep knee flexion.The overall brace performance and efficacy might be improved significantly using adaptive limb fittings through flexible pads and/or polycentric joints. PMID:24149533

  11. A new method of MR total spine imaging for showing the brace effect in scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, A.; Kandyba, J.; Koenig, R.; Jaeger, U.E.; Gieseke, J.; Schmitt, O. [Univ. of Bonn (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Bracing is a method of early, nonsurgical treatment for scoliosis, but a hypokyphotic effect on the thoracic spine is reported. We developed a magnetic resonance tomography (MR) procedure presenting an image of the whole spine in the coronal and sagittal planes (MR total spine imaging), and studied the brace effect, using this technique. We examined 26 female patients with idiopathic scoliosis treated with a Cheneau brace (mean age, 13.2 years; mean duration of brace treatment at the time of investigation, 1.5 years). The MR examinations were performed with the patient in the supine position with and without the brace in direct sequence. As measured on the coronal MR images, the thoracic curve was corrected, on average, from 29 deg to 22 deg (mean correction, 24%). There was a slight reduction in the sagittal Cobb angle measured between T4 and T12 (mean sagittal Cobb angle without brace, 14 deg ; with brace, 12 deg), which was still a significant change. MR total spine imaging could be a useful tool for studying the brace effect in scoliosis in two planes. Using this technique, we found reduced sagittal Cobb angles for the thoracic kyphosis with brace. Because there is no radiation exposure, the MR procedure has a potential use in the monitoring of brace treatment. (author)

  12. Stabilizing effects of ankle bracing under a combination of inversion and axial compression loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohyama, Harukazu; Yasuda, Kazunori; Beynnon, Bruce D; Renstrom, Per A

    2006-04-01

    The combined effects of bracing, axial compression and inversion rotation on the ankle-subtalar complexes were evaluated. Ex vivo tests under the load-controlled condition were performed on six cadaver ankle specimens using a six degree-of-freedom fixture. Inversion rotation was measured while subjecting the ankle-subtalar complex to a 2.5 N-m inversion moment and a combination of the testing variables (brace type, no brace, 178 N axial compression load, no compression load, 0 degrees and 20 degrees of plantar flexion) for a total of 16 tests per specimen. Three commercially available braces (two semirigid types and one lace up type) were evaluated. An axial compression load significantly decreased ankle-subtalar motion in unbraced ankles for the tested inversion moment. The contribution of bracing to stabilization of the ankle was smaller in the axial loading condition than in the no axial loading condition. The semirigid braces had greater stabilizing effects in response to the inversion moment than the lace up brace. Stabilizing effects of bracing were significantly greater in 20 degrees of plantar flexion than in 0 degrees of plantar flexion. The most common mechanism for an ankle sprain injury is inversion rotation on a weight-bearing ankle. Therefore, we should not overestimate stabilizing effects of bracing from evaluations of bracing without axial compression loading. PMID:15959767

  13. Efficacy of b-lynch brace suture in postpartum haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massive uncontrolled haemorrhage after childbirth is the leading cause of maternal death in developing countries. Postpartum haemorrhage is traditionally defined as blood loss of more than 500 ml after vaginal delivery and more than 1000 ml after caesarean section, but intraoperative estimation of blood loss is inaccurate. Uterine atony alone accounts for 75 - 90% of PPH. To estimate the effectiveness and safety of B-Lynch brace Suture in the management of primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). (author)

  14. Evaluation of knee braces in Swedish ice hockey players.

    OpenAIRE

    Tegner, Y; Lorentzon, R

    1991-01-01

    In this retrospective investigation we have determined the rate and types of knee injuries among Swedish ice hockey players, and related these data to the use of knee braces. Thirty-seven of the originally selected 50 hockey teams (74%) of elite or first division calibre took part in the study, and 600 players answered a questionnaire. A total of 254 previous knee injuries sustained while playing hockey were reported by 243 players; tears of the medical collateral ligament (60%), meniscus (15...

  15. Modified Elastofiber Element for Steel Slender Column and Brace Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, Swaminathan

    2010-01-01

    An efficient beam element, the modified elastofiber (MEF) element, has been developed to capture the overall features of the elastic and inelastic responses of slender columns and braces under axial cyclic loading without unduly heavy discretization. It consists of three fiber segments, two at the member ends and one at midspan, with two elastic segments sandwiched in between. The segments are demarcated by two exterior nodes and four interior nodes. The fiber segments are divided into 20 fib...

  16. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of Si donors in GaAs {l_brace}110{r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teichmann, K.; Wenderoth, M.; Loth, S.; Ulbrich, R.G. [Universitaet Goettingen, IV. Physikalisches Institut (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Silicon donors in highly n-doped GaAs(6.5 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}) are investigated by Cross-Sectional Scanning Tunneling Microscopy in UHV at 8K. Donors near the surface of the {l_brace}110{r_brace} cleavage planes are studied by spatially resolved I(V)-spectroscopy. The dopant atoms are identified by their bias dependent topographic and spectroscopic properties. In addition to the known features at negative and small positive voltages, our measurements on single donors show an additional transport channel for larger positive bias voltages. The current distribution has a circular symmetric structure. The diameter is bias dependent, and can extend up to several nanometers around the donor. The minimal bias voltage of the current onset is localized above the donors. We discuss different scenarios - including tip induced band bending - that can lead to the observed ring-like shapes.

  17. Behavior of three-span braced columns with equal and unequal spans

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yu-Wen

    1993-01-01

    Columns with three spans separated by elastic braces are analyzed. The influences of translational and rotational resistance at the braces, various end conditions, and the bracing locations for the perfect columns with equal and unequal spans subjected to uniform and nonuniform axial load are investigated. For imperfect columns with equal or unequal spans subjected to uniform compression, the effects of various end conditions at the top and various initial deflections are studied. "Ide...

  18. Effect of bracing systems on the fire-induced progressive collapse of steel structures

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Jian; Li, Guo-qiang; Usmani, Asif

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of various bracing systems on the fire-induced progressive collapse resistance of steel-framed structures using OpenSees. Two types of bracing systems (vertical and hat bracing) and various fire scenarios (single and multi-compartment fires) are considered. Four collapse mechanisms of steel frames in fire are found through parametric studies. General collapse is characterized by the collapse of the heated bay followed by lateral drift of adjacent cool bays. ...

  19. Inelastic Performance and Economical Assessment of Concentrically Braced Steel Frames by Nonlinear Static (Pushover) Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Farzam, Arash

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Concentric bracing system is one of the most economical systems being used to provide lateral stability for steel structures during earthquake by inelastic behavior. Although inelastic response of structures is affected by their height and structural system, these issues are not considered for the design of concentrically braced frames (CBFs) in the current design codes. The previous research work on the economical comparison of steel bracing systems has compared their elastic r...

  20. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces....

  1. Seismic retrofitting of reinforced concrete frame structures using GFRP-tube-confined-concrete composite braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddasi B., Nasim S.; Zhang, Yunfeng; Hu, Xiaobin

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a new type of structural bracing intended for seismic retrofitting use in framed structures. This special composite brace, termed glass-fiber-reinforced-polymer (GFRP)-tube-confined-concrete composite brace, is comprised of concrete confined by a GFRP tube and an inner steel core for energy dissipation. Together with a contribution from the GFRP-tube confined concrete, the composite brace shows a substantially increased stiffness to control story drift, which is often a preferred feature in seismic retrofitting. An analysis model is established and implemented in a general finite element analysis program — OpenSees, for simulating the load-displacement behavior of the composite brace. Using this model, a parametric study of the hysteretic behavior (energy dissipation, stiffness, ductility and strength) of the composite brace was conducted under static cyclic loading and it was found that the area ratio of steel core to concrete has the greatest influence among all the parameters considered. To demonstrate the application of the composite brace in seismic retrofitting, a three-story nonductile reinforced concrete (RC) frame structure was retrofitted with the composite braces. Pushover analysis and nonlinear time-history analyses of the retrofitted RC frame structure was performed by employing a suite of 20 strong ground motion earthquake records. The analysis results show that the composite braces can effectively reduce the peak seismic responses of the RC frame structure without significantly increasing the base shear demand.

  2. Introduction to the "Scoliosis" Journal Brace Technology Thematic Series: increasing existing knowledge and promoting future developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grivas Theodoros B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bracing is the main non-surgical intervention in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis during growth, in hyperkyphosis (and Scheuermann disease and occasionally for spondylolisthesis; it can be used in adult scoliosis, in the elderly when pathological curves lead to a forward leaning posture or in adults after traumatic injuries. Bracing can be defined as the application of external corrective forces to the trunk; rigid supports or elastic bands can be used and braces can be custom-made or prefabricated. The state of research in the field of conservative treatment is insufficient and while it can be stated that there is some evidence to support bracing, we must also acknowledge that today we do not have a common and generally accepted knowledge base, and that instead, individual expertise still prevails, giving rise to different schools of thought on brace construction and principles of correction. The only way to improve the knowledge and understanding of brace type and brace function is to establish a single and comprehensive source of information about bracing. This is what the Scoliosis Journal is going to do through the "Brace Technology" Thematic Series, where technical papers coming from the different schools will be published.

  3. Competition of the Peierls relief and structural defects in damping the domain walls in [Mn left brace (R/S)-pn right brace]2[Mn left brace(R/S)-pn right brace2(H2O)][Cr(CN)6]2 ferrimagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The [ [Mn left brace (R/S)-pn right brace]2[Mn left brace(R/S)-pn right brace2(H2O)][Cr(CN)6]2 molecular ferrimagnet exhibits an inverse sequence of changes in the domain wall motion regimes with increasing temperature in alternative magnetic field of 0.04-1400 Hz frequency. Initiation of the relaxation regime on the background of creep indicates that there are two different systems of the domain walls damping. The threshold amplitude of the alternative magnetic field corresponds to the Peierls relief contribution to the domain wall dynamics as well as the defect contribution usually considered.

  4. Can Bracing Affect Altered Gait Patterns in Femoroacetabular Impingement

    OpenAIRE

    Safran, Marc R.; Rylander, Jonathan; Shu, Beatrice; Andriacchi, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Altered gait patterns have been identified in patients with Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), a 2nd order reversal in mid stance, that has been shown to be corrected with arthroscopic FAI surgery. Currently, most feel there is no adequate conservative treatment for this malady. The goal of this study is to determine if the gait abnormalities seen with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) can be modified with bracing. Methods: Eight individuals (4 Male, 34.5 ± 12.8 y.o., 24.0±2.3 B...

  5. Immediate effect of valgus bracing on knee joint moments in meniscectomised patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Maria; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Roos, Ewa M;

    2016-01-01

    -dimensional analysis of gait, forward lunge and one-leg rise during two conditions: with and without a valgus unloader knee brace. Outcome measures included the peak and impulse of the knee adduction moment and the peak knee flexion moment. RESULTS: The peak knee flexion moment increased during brace condition...

  6. Low-Cost Alternative External Rotation Shoulder Brace and Review of Treatment in Acute Shoulder Dislocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacy, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic dislocations of the shoulder commonly present to emergency departments (EDs. Immediate closed reduction of both anterior and posterior glenohumeral dislocations is recommended and is frequently performed in the ED. Recurrence of dislocation is common, as anteroinferior labral tears (Bankart lesions are present in many anterior shoulder dislocations.14,15,18,23 Immobilization of the shoulder following closed reduction is therefore recommended; previous studies support the use of immobilization with the shoulder in a position of external rotation, for both anterior and posterior shoulder dislocations.7-11,19 In this study, we present a technique for assembling a low-cost external rotation shoulder brace using materials found in most hospitals: cotton roll, stockinette, and shoulder immobilizers. This brace is particularly suited for the uninsured patient, who lacks the financial resources to pay for a pre-fabricated brace out of pocket. We also performed a cost analysis for our low-cost external rotation shoulder brace, and a cost comparison with pre-fabricated brand name braces. At our institution, the total materials cost for our brace was $19.15. The cost of a pre-fabricated shoulder brace at our institution is $150 with markup, which is reimbursed on average at $50.40 according to our hospital billing data. The low-cost external rotation shoulder brace is therefore a more affordable option for the uninsured patient presenting with acute shoulder dislocation. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:114–120.

  7. Medial knee osteoarthritis treated by insoles or braces: a randomized trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. van Raaij (Tom); M. Reijman (Max); R.W. Brouwer (Reinoud); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: There is controversial evidence regarding whether foot orthoses or knee braces improve pain and function or correct malalignment in selected patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the medial knee compartment. However, insoles are safe and less costly than knee bracing if they r

  8. Can a brace be used to control the frequencies of a plate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumond, Patrick; Baddour, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    Although many improvements in the manufacturing of guitars have been made recently, one aspect that has often been overlooked is that of the acoustical consistency of the final manufactured product. The aim of this paper is to create a better understanding of the effect of a brace on the frequencies of vibration of the brace-soundboard system. This paper seeks to shed light on why a luthier 'tunes' braces when a guitar soundboard is hand-manufactured. A simple analytical model of a rectangular brace and soundboard is derived from first principles using Kirchhoff plate theory in order to develop insight into the effect of the soundboard's stiffness and brace thickness on the frequencies of the combined system. Natural frequencies and modeshapes of the combined system are calculated via the assumed shape method. Results show that by adjusting the thickness of the brace in order to compensate for the stiffness of the plate, one of the natural frequencies of the combined system can be adjusted to meet a desired value. However, simultaneously adjusting several natural frequencies cannot be done with a rectangular brace. Therefore modifications to the shape of the brace are explored. PMID:24255852

  9. Analysis of multistoried braced steel space frame subjected to gravity and seismic loading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay.S.Pawar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Steel structures are generally more flexible than other types of structure and lower in weight. Earthquake loads are random in nature. It is difficult to predict them exactly. The action applied to a structure by an earthquake is a ground movement with horizontal and vertical components. The horizontal movement is the most specific feature of earthquake action because of its strength and because structures are generally better designed to resist gravity than horizontal forces. These forces produce large stresses, strains, deformation and displacement particularly in tall structures. To keep displacement within limit generally bracing is provided in steel structure. . Bracings are generally used to increase lateral-stiffness, lateral- strength as well as lateral stability of the frame. Variations in the column stiffness can influence the mode of failure and lateral stiffness of the bracing. In this study steel frame is modeled and analyzed three Parts viz., (i Model without Steel bracing (bare frame, (ii Model completely with fully braced steel frame („Cross‟ bracing, (iii Model completely with fully braced steel frame („Single diagonal‟ bracing.

  10. Vital capacity evolution in patients treated with the CMCR brace: statistical analysis of 90 scoliotic patients treated with the CMCR brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohn Céline

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary Objective To study the evolution of pulmonary capacity during orthopaedic treatment of scoliosis with the CMCR brace. Background Investigating the impact of moderate scoliosis on respiratory capacity and its evolution during CMCR brace treatment with mobile pads. Context Several studies demonstrate the impact of scoliosis on respiratory capacity but few of them focus on the impact of bracing treatment. We studied the evolution of the pulmonary capacity of a cohort of 90 scoliotic patients. Methods This retrospective study included 90 scoliotic patients treated since 1999 with a brace with mobile pads called CMCR (n = 90; mean age: 13 years; 10-16. These patients were diagnosed with an idiopathic scoliosis (mean angulation 20.6°. All patients underwent a radiographic and respiratory evaluation at the beginning, the middle and the end of treatment. Results Mean age at treatment start was 13. Before treatment, our patients did not have a normal pulmonary capacity: Forced Vital Capacity (FVC was only 75% of the theoretical value. All curvature types (thoracic, thoraco-lumbar and combined scoliosis involved this reduced pulmonary capacity, with moderate-angulated scoliosis having a negative impact. At the beginning of brace treatment, the loss of real vital capacity with brace (0.3 litres was 10% lower than without brace. At CMCR removal, the FVC had increased by 0.4 litre (21% +/- 4.2% compared to the initial value. The theoretical value had increased by 3%. This positive evolution was most important in girls at a low Risser stage (0,1,2, and before 11 years of age. Conclusion These results supported our approach of orthesis conception for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis which uses braces with mobile pads to preserve thorax and spine mobility.

  11. Technology and task parameters relating to the effectiveness of the bracing strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Wayne J.; Wang, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    The bracing strategy has been proposed in various forms as a way to improve robot performance. One version of the strategy employs independent stages of motion. The first stage, referred to as the large or bracing arm, carries the second stage of motion. After the first stage has completed its motion it is braced to provide a more rigid base of motion with a more accurate relationship to the parts to be manipulated. The hypothesis is that more rapid completion of certain tasks is possible with lighter arms using the bracing strategy. While it is easy to make conceptual arguments why this should be so, it is less easy to specify even approximately when this will be true for some reasonably generic situation. There is no relevant experience base with bracing arms to be compared to non-bracing arms. Furthermore, if one were interested in obtaining such practical experience, there would be no methodical guidance on the selection of an interesting case, one in which the unproven approach, bracing, can show its superiority. If one such case exists, only the extent of applicability of the new approach is in question. One set of interesting cases is likely to be applications in which a large workspace must be covered, but where a series of small accurate moves will remain within a smaller region of the total workspace. A prototype application with these characteristics is set up and a skeleton design of arms using the competing strategies are compared.

  12. Cyclic Testing of Steel Chevron Braces with Vertically Slotted Beam Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozlyn K. Bubela

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental tests were performed to study the seismic behavior and performance of modified steel chevron braced frame systems, which incorporate a vertical slotted connection (VSC detail between the top of the braces and the floor beam above. The VSC detail is intended to prevent vertical load transfer to the beam and limit brace forces to the compressive resistance of the members. Full-scale quasi-static cyclic tests were performed on two specimens with hollow tube braces, with one specimen having the braces filled with concrete. Both frames exhibited stable, predictable behavior under cyclic loading. The VSC detail provided free vertical movement of the brace assembly during both tests. However, its flexibility created a moderate reduction in the overall lateral stiffness of the frame. The concrete-filled tube specimen sustained higher peak loads, demonstrated greater residual strength and dissipated more energy than the hollow tube specimen due to the partial inhibition of local buckling by the concrete core. It was found that the VSC chevron braced frame system is a suitable concept for use in buildings in high-risk seismic zones.

  13. The Application of Parallel Robotics to Investigate the Effect of Lumbar Bracing on Trunk Muscle Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory N. Kawchuk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar bracing is prescribed frequently for disability caused by low back pain; however, investigations into this practice demonstrate a range of patient outcomes. This inconsistency may arise from the practice of employing voluntary, single-axis trunk movements when investigating braces. Alternatively, this study employed a parallel robot to create a standardised, multi-axis testing environment. Surface electromyographic (sEMG data were collected from the trunk of 24 asymptomatic participants, who were seated on the robot, tilted to 15°, then circumducted while attempting to maintain an upright posture. Multiple trials were performed for three randomised conditions: non-braced, soft-material brace and stiff-material brace. As expected, the sEMG activity was significantly reduced in the majority of muscle responses (201/240. Unexpectedly, a paradoxical increase in the sEMG activity was observed in 39/240 responses. While lumbar bracing reduces the sEMG activity on average, these data suggest the existence of an infrequent paradoxical response that may provide a possible explanation for the discordant results observed in previous bracing investigations.

  14. Medial collateral ligament knee sprains in college football. Effectiveness of preventive braces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, J P; Powell, J W; Smith, W; Martindale, A; Crowley, E; Monroe, J; Miller, R; Connolly, J; Hill, B A; Miller, D

    1994-01-01

    This is the second of 2 articles on a 3-year investigation of medial collateral ligament sprains of the knee to assess the effectiveness of prophylactic knee braces in NCAA Division I college football players. Position, string, type of session, and daily brace wear were recorded. The injury rates for braced and unbraced knees were used to create an incidence density ratio. The data were stratified and simultaneously controlled for position, string, and session and evaluated for their statistical significance. The 987 Big Ten players generated 155,772 knee exposures over the study period (50% braced). Noticeable differences existed in the rates of injury for the braced and unbraced knees in almost every position during practices, depending on player or nonplayer status. When the influential factors of position, string, and session are considered, there is a consistent but not statistically significant tendency for the players wearing preventive knee braces to experience a lower injury rate than for their unbraced counterparts. For starters and substitutes in the line positions, as well as the linebackers and tight ends, there was a consistent trend toward a lower injury rate in both practices and games. The braced players in the skill positions (backs/kickers), at least during games, exhibited a higher injury rate.

  15. Prophylactic Ankle Taping and Bracing: A Numbers-Needed-to-Treat and Cost-Benefit Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmsted, Lauren C.; Vela, Luzita I.; Denegar, Craig R.; Hertel, Jay

    2004-03-01

    OBJECTIVE: Taping and bracing are thought to decrease the incidence of ankle sprains; however, few investigators have addressed the effect of preventive measures on the rate of ankle sprains. Our purpose was to examine the effectiveness of ankle taping and bracing in reducing ankle sprains by applying a numbers-needed-to-treat (NNT) analysis to previously published studies. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed, CINAHL, SPORT Discus, and PEDro for original research from 1966 to 2002 with key words ankle taping, ankle sprains, injury incidence, prevention, ankle bracing, ankle prophylaxis, andnumbers needed to treat. We eliminated articles that did not address the effects of ankle taping or bracing on ankle injury rates using an experimental design. DATA SYNTHESIS: The search produced 8 articles, of which 3 permitted calculation of NNT, which addresses the clinical usefulness of an intervention by providing estimates of the number of treatments needed to prevent 1 injury occurrence. In a study of collegiate intramural basketball players, the prevention of 1 ankle sprain required the taping of 26 athletes with a history of ankle sprain and 143 without a prior history. In a military academy intramural basketball program, prevention of 1 sprain required bracing of 18 athletes with a history of ankle sprain and 39 athletes with no history. A study of ankle bracing in competitive soccer players produced an NNT of 5 athletes with a history of previous sprain and 57 without a prior injury. A cost- benefit analysis of ankle taping versus bracing revealed taping to be approximately 3 times more expensive than bracing. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS: Greater benefit is achieved in applying prophylactic ankle taping or bracing to athletes with a history of ankle sprain, compared with those without previous sprains. The generalizability of these results to other physically active populations is unknown. PMID:15085217

  16. Overutilization of bracing in the management of penetrating spinal cord injury from gunshot wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhary, Nima; Nwosu, Kenneth; McCoy, Eric; Fukunaga, Dudley; Rolfe, Kevin

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Penetrating gunshot wounds (GSWs) to the spinal column are stable injuries and do not require spinal orthoses or bracing postinjury. Nonetheless, a high number of GSW-related spinal cord injury (SCI) patients are referred with a brace to national rehabilitation centers. Unnecessary bracing may encumber rehabilitation, create skin breakdown or pressure ulcers, and add excessive costs. The aim of this study was to confirm the stability of spinal column injuries from GSWs and quantify the overutilization rate of bracing based on long-term follow-up. METHODS This retrospective cohort study was performed at a nationally renowned rehabilitation center. In total, 487 GSW-related SCI patients were transferred for rehabilitation and identified over the last 14 years. Retrospective chart review and telephone interviews were conducted to identify patients who were braced at the initial treating institution and determine if late instability, deformity, or neurological deterioration resulted in secondary surgery or intervention. In addition, 396 unoperated patients were available for analysis after 91 patients were excluded for undergoing an initial destabilizing surgical dissection or laminectomy, thereby altering the natural history of the injury. All of these 396 patients who presented with a brace had bracing discontinued upon reaching the facility. RESULTS In total, 203 of 396 patients were transferred with a spinal brace, demonstrating an overutilization rate of 51%. No patients deteriorated neurologically or needed later surgery for spinal column deformity or instability attributable to the injury. All patients had stable injuries. The patterns of injury and severity of neurological injury did not vary between patients who were initially braced or unbraced. The average follow-up was 7.8 years (range 1-14 years) and the average age was 25 years (range 10-62 years). CONCLUSIONS The incidence of brace overutilization for penetrating GSW-related SCI was 51%. Long

  17. Stabilizing effects of ankle bracing under a combination of inversion and axial compression loading

    OpenAIRE

    Tohyama, Harukazu; Yasuda, Kazunori; Beynnon, Bruce D.; Renstrom, Per A.

    2006-01-01

    The combined effects of bracing, axial compression and inversion rotation on the ankle-subtalar complexes were evaluated. Ex vivo tests under the load-controlled condition were performed on six cadaver ankle specimens using a six degree-of-freedom fixture. Inversion rotation was measured while subjecting the ankle-subtalar complex to a 2.5 N-m inversion moment and a combination of the testing variables (brace type, no brace, 178 N axial compression load, no compression load, 0° and 20° of pla...

  18. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in late-onset juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunderson Ragnhild

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is recommended that research in patients with idiopathic scoliosis should focus on short- and long-term patient-centred outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate outcome in patients with late-onset juvenile or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis 16 years or more after Boston brace treatment. Methods 272 (78% of 360 patients, 251 (92% women, responded to follow-up examination at a mean of 24.7 (range 16 - 32 years after Boston brace treatment. Fifty-eight (21% patients had late-onset juvenile and 214 had adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. All patients had clinical and radiological examination and answered a standardised questionnaire including work status, demographics, General Function Score (GFS (100 - worst possible and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI (100 - worst possible, EuroQol (EQ-5D (1 - best possible, EQ-VAS (100 - best possible, and Scoliosis Research Society - 22 (SRS - 22 (5 - best possible. Results The mean age at follow-up was 40.4 (31-48 years. The prebrace major curve was in average 33.2 (20 - 57°. At weaning and at the last follow-up the corresponding values were 28.3 (1 - 58° and 32.5 (7 - 80°, respectively. Curve development was similar in patients with late-onset juvenile and adolescent start. The prebrace curve increased > 5° in 31% and decreased > 5° in 26%. Twenty-five patients had surgery. Those who did not attend follow-up (n = 88 had a lower mean curve at weaning: 25.4 (6-53°. Work status was 76% full-time and 10% part-time. Eighty-seven percent had delivered a baby, 50% had pain in pregnancy. The mean (SD GFS was 7.4 (10.8, ODI 9.3 (11.0, EQ-5D 0.82 (0.2, EQ-VAS 77.6 (17.8, SRS-22: pain 4.1 (0.8, mental health 4.1 (0.6, self-image 3.7 (0.7, function 4.0 (0.6, satisfaction with treatment 3.7 (1.0. Surgical patients had significantly reduced scores for SRS-physical function and self-image, and patients with curves ≥ 45° had reduced self-image. Conclusion Long-term results were

  19. Nitric oxide as an activation agent for nucleophilic attack in trans-[Ru(NO)(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}{l_brace}P(OEt){sub 3}{r_brace}](PF{sub 6}){sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzker, Gustavo; Cardoso, Daniel R.; Franco, Douglas W., E-mail: douglas@iqsc.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Toledo Junior, Jose C. [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Lima, Francisco C.A. [Universidade Estadual do Piaui, Teresina, PI (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Natureza. Inst. de Quimica; Magalhaes, Alvicler [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The complex trans-[Ru(NO)(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}{l_brace}P(OEt){sub 3}{r_brace}](PF{sub 6}){sub 3} undergoes nucleophilic attack on the phosphorus ester ligand in the solid state yielding trans-[Ru(NO)(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}{l_brace}P(OH)(OEt){sub 2}{r_brace}](PF{sub 6}){sub 3}. The reaction was monitored and the products analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 31}P{l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace} CP-MAS NMR and {sup 31}P{l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace} NMR), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), cyclic voltammetry (CV), electronic spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and elemental analysis. According to experimental data and quantum mechanical calculations (DFT), the reaction proceeds in the solid state by the nucleophilic attack on the phosphorus ligand, promoted by the strong polarization along the P{sup III}-Ru{sup II}-NO{sup +} axis induced by the nitrosyl ligand, and takes place following the Michaelis-Arbusov type mechanism for phosphorus ester hydrolysis. In solution, the nucleophilic attack occurs simultaneously at the nitrosyl and trimethylphosphite ligands, yielding trans-[Ru(H{sub 2}O)(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}{l_brace}P(OEt){sub 3}{r_brace}]{sup 2+} and trans-[Ru(NO)(H{sub 2}O)(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}]{sup 3+} in comparable amounts. (author)

  20. Effectiveness of an outside-the-boot ankle brace in reducing parachuting related ankle injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, M.; Sulsky, S; Amoroso, P.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the efficacy of an outside-the-boot parachute ankle brace (PAB) in reducing risk of ankle injury to army paratrooper trainees and to identify inadvertent risks associated with PAB use.

  1. Semi-rigid brace and taping decrease variability of the ankle joint position sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Barbanera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of taping and the semi-rigid ankle brace on ankle joint position sense. Sixteen healthy women (20.8 ± 2.3 years old actively placed the ankle in a target position. The experimental conditions were: 1 wearing no orthosis device, 2 using semi-rigid brace, and 3 wearing ankle taping. Absolute error (AE and variable error (VE were calculated to obtain the joint position sense. We found an interaction effect between condition and target angle at 15o of plantar flexion for the variable VE, which showed smaller errors during the use of taping and semi-rigid brace. In conclusion, the use of ankle joint orthoses, whether taping or semi-rigid brace, decrease the variability of the position sense at 15o of plantar flexion, potentially decreasing ankle sprains occurrence.

  2. Efficiency and comfort of knee braces: A parametric study based on computational modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Pierrat, Baptiste; Calmels, Paul; Navarro, Laurent; Avril, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Knee orthotic devices are widely proposed by physicians and medical practitioners for preventive or therapeutic objectives in relation with their effects, usually known as to stabilize joint or restrict ranges of motion. This study focuses on the understanding of force transfer mechanisms from the brace to the joint thanks to a Finite Element Model. A Design Of Experiments approach was used to characterize the stiffness and comfort of various braces in order to identify their mechanically influent characteristics. Results show conflicting behavior: influent parameters such as the brace size or textile stiffness improve performance in detriment of comfort. Thanks to this computational tool, novel brace designs can be tested and evaluated for an optimal mechanical efficiency of the devices and a better compliance of the patient to the treatment.

  3. Fluorides for the prevention of early tooth decay (demineralised white lesions) during fixed brace treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, P.E.; Parkin, N.; Dyer, F.; Millett, D. T.; Furness, S.; P. Germain

    2013-01-01

    Demineralised white lesions (DWLs) can appear on teeth during fixed brace treatment because of early decay around the brackets that attach the braces to the teeth. Fluoride is effective in reducing decay in susceptible individuals in the general population. Individuals receiving orthodontic treatment may be prescribed various forms of fluoride treatment. This review compares the effects of various forms of fluoride used during orthodontic treatment on the development of DWLs. This is an updat...

  4. Oriented attachment growth of BiOCl nanosheets with exposed {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} facets and photocatalytic activity of the hierarchical nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Zhankui, E-mail: zkcui@foxmail.com [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China); Mi, Liwei [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China); Zeng, Dawen [State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die and Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-02-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Growth of BiOCl nanosheets in EG medium was experimentally revealed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oriented attachment mechanism governed formation of single crystalline BiOCl. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The exposed facets of BiOCl nanosheets were {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} planes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples could efficiently degrade MO irradiated either by UV or by Vis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high efficiency was associated with the exposed {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} facets of BiOCl. - Abstract: The formation mechanism of nanosheet assembled BiOCl nanostructures in non-aqueous solvothermal system was investigated through time series experiments. The products obtained at different reaction times were characterized by XRD, SEM and (HR)TEM techniques. The photocatalytic property of the samples was measured by decomposing the organic dye of methyl orange. The ability to generate hydroxyl radicals for the samples was also measured by photoluminescence method using coumarin as fluorescence probe molecules. It was revealed that oriented attachment was responsible for the slow transformation of BiOCl from polycrystalline nanoparticles to single crystalline nanosheets. The role of the solvent ethylene glycol and the interaction with the other species during the oriented attachment growth of the BiOCl nanosheets was discussed. The photocatalytic activity tests demonstrated that the BiOCl nanostructures could efficiently decompose methyl orange under either UV light irradiation or visible light irradiation. The high photodegradation efficiency was associated with the atomic arrangement of exposed {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} facets.

  5. The effect of a knee brace on gait parameters of hypertonic hemiplegic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Modisane

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the useof a knee brace on 15 subjects with hypertonic hemiparesis. The middlecerebral artery was involved in all subjects. The Ashworth scale was usedto screen for the presence of spasticity in the quadriceps muscles.Measurements of gait speed, step and stride length were taken in the middle 10 metres of a 15 metre paper walkway. A comparison of these gait parameters without and with the use of a knee brace was made. A ques-tionnaire was also used to evaluate how subjects responded to the use of aknee brace.The results showed that the mean speed for all 15 subjects increased withthe use of a brace, (p = 0.05. Step and stride length without and with the use of a brace showed no statistical differences.It was therefore concluded that the FECK brace appears to have an effect on the walking speed of subjects withhypertonic  hemiparesis

  6. Predicting success or failure of brace treatment for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Eric; Westover, Lindsey; Jacob, Johith; Donauer, Andreas; Zhao, Vicky H; Parent, Eric C; Moreau, Marc J; Mahood, James K; Hedden, Douglas M; Lou, Edmond H M

    2015-10-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a three-dimensional spinal deformity. Brace treatment is a common non-surgical treatment, intended to prevent progression (worsening) of the condition during adolescence. Estimating a braced patient's risk of progression is an essential part of planning treatment, so method for predicting this risk would be a useful decision support tool for practitioners. This work attempts to discover whether failure of brace treatment (progression) can be predicted at the start of treatment. Records were obtained for 62 AIS patients who had completed brace treatment. Subjects were labeled as "progressive" if their condition had progressed despite brace treatment and "non-progressive" otherwise. Wrapper-based feature selection selected two useful predictor variables from a list of 14 clinical measurements taken from the records. A logistic regression model was trained to classify patients as "progressive" or "non-progressive" using these two variables. The logistic regression model's simplicity and interpretability should facilitate its clinical acceptance. The model was tested on data from an additional 28 patients and found to be 75 % accurate. This accuracy is sufficient to make the predictions clinically useful. It can be used online: http://www.ece.ualberta.ca/~dchalmer/SimpleBracePredictor.html . PMID:26002592

  7. An innovative seismic bracing system based on a superelastic shape memory alloy ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nan; Jeon, Jong-Su; Hodgson, Darel E.; DesRoches, Reginald

    2016-05-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have great potential in seismic applications because of their remarkable superelasticity. Seismic bracing systems based on SMAs can mitigate the damage caused by earthquakes. The current study investigates a bracing system based on an SMA ring which is capable of both re-centering and energy dissipation. This lateral force resisting system is a cross-braced system consisting of an SMA ring and four tension-only cable assemblies, which can be applied to both new construction and seismic retrofit. The performance of this bracing system is examined through a quasi-static cyclic loading test and finite element (FE) analysis. This paper describes the experimental design in detail, discusses the experimental results, compares the performance with other bracing systems based on SMAs, and presents an Abaqus FE model calibrated on the basis of experimental results to simulate the superelastic behavior of the SMA ring. The experimental results indicate that the seismic performance of this system is promising in terms of damping and re-centering. The FE model can be used in the simulation of building structures using the proposed bracing system.

  8. Bracing the trunk and neck in young adults leads to a more aged-like gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Daniel M; Kelleran, Kyle J; Morrison, Steven

    2016-09-01

    Older individuals typically walk at slower speeds, with shorter step lengths, greater step widths and spend a larger proportion of the gait cycle in double stance. Changes in neck and trunk mobility may underlie some of the changes in walking seen with increasing age. Consequently, this study was designed to assess whether externally increasing trunk/neck stiffness in young adults leads to similar changes in gait pattern observed with aging. Twelve young adults (20-29 years), sixteen old adults (60-69 years) and fifteen older adults (70-79 years) walked across a 20' pressure sensitive GAITRite© instrumented walkway at their preferred speed. The young adults also walked under three bracing conditions: (1) Neck braced, (2) Trunk braced, and (3) Neck and Trunk braced. The results revealed that the old and older age groups walked significantly slower, with a shorter step length and with a narrower base of support (p'syoung adults. In young adults, combined neck and trunk bracing led to reduced walking speed, shorter step length, wider base of support and a larger proportion of the gait cycle spent in double stance (p'sadults remained less than fully braced young adults (p'syoung individuals leads to systematic gait changes similar to aging. Consequently, age-related changes in mobility of the neck and torso may in part contribute to the decrements in walking seen for older adults.

  9. The role of ankle bracing for prevention of ankle sprain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael T; Liu, Hsin-Yi

    2003-10-01

    Lateral ankle sprains are one of the most common injuries incurred in recreational and competitive athletics. These injuries have a significant impact in terms of cost, athletic participation, and activities of daily living. Prophylactic ankle braces are often used to reduce the risk of injury recurrence when individuals return to athletic participation. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to review the literature and provide our own experience relative to the use of prophylactic ankle bracing. Relatively high incidence rates of ankle sprain injury have been reported for basketball and soccer athletes, military trainees, and individuals with a previous history of ankle sprain injury. Semirigid and laced ankle braces have significantly reduced the incidence of initial and recurrent ankle sprain injuries in athletic and military samples. With few exceptions, these braces do not appear to affect functional performance adversely. The prophylactic use of semirigid ankle braces appears warranted to reduce the incidence of initial and, in particular, recurrent ankle sprain injuries for individuals who participate in activities that have the highest risk for these injuries. Additional research is needed to evaluate the many new braces that are available and in use and their influence on the incidence of ankle sprain injury and functional performance. PMID:14620786

  10. Experimental and analytical studies on the seismic behavior of conventional and hybrid braced frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jiun-Wei

    This dissertation summarizes both experimental and analytical studies on the seismic response of conventional steel concentrically braced frame systems of the type widely used in North America, and preliminary studies of an innovative hybrid braced frame system: the Strong-Back System. The research work is part of NEES small group project entitled "International Hybrid Simulation of Tomorrow's Braced Frames." In the experimental phase, a total of four full-scale, one-bay, two-story conventional braced frame specimens with different bracing member section shapes and gusset plate-to-beam connection details were designed and tested at the NEES Berkeley Laboratory. Three braced frame specimens were tested quasi-statically using the same predefined loading protocol to investigate the inelastic cyclic behavior of code-compliant braced frames at both the global and local level. The last braced frame specimen was nearly identical to one of those tested quasi-statically. However, it was tested using hybrid simulation techniques to examine the sensitivity of inelastic behavior on loading sequence and to relate the behavior observed to different levels of seismic hazard. Computer models of the test specimens were developed using two different computer software programs. In the software framework OpenSees fiber-based line elements were used to simulate global buckling of members and yielding and low-cycle fatigue failure at sections. The LS-DYNA analysis program was also used to model individual struts and the test specimens using shell elements with adaptive meshing and element erosion features. This program provided enhanced ability to simulate section local buckling, strain concentrations and crack development. The numerical results were compared with test results to assess and refine and the ability of the models to predict braced frame behavior. A series of OpenSees numerical cyclic component simulations were then conducted using the validated modeling approach. Two

  11. Seismic Response of R C Building With Different Arrangement of Steel Bracing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaraj R. Chavan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In general the most suitable choices in improvement of reinforcement concrete frame against lateral loading is used steel bracing system. The use of steel bracing has potential advantage over other scheme like higher strength and stiffness, economical, occupies less space, adds much less weight to existing structure. In this study, the seismic analysis of reinforced concrete (RC buildings with different types of bracing (Diagonal, V type, inverted V type, X type is studied. The bracing is provided for peripheral columns. A seven-storey (G+6 building is situated at seismic zone III. The building models are analyze by equivalent static analysis as per IS 1893:2002 using Staad Pro V8i software. The main parameters consider in this paper to compare the seismic analysis of buildings are lateral displacement, storey drift, axial force, base shear. It is found that the X type of steel bracing significantly contributes to the structural stiffness and reduces the maximum interstorey drift of R.C.C building than other bracing system.

  12. Growth morphology of {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} faces of manganese mercury thiocyanate crystals investigated by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Y.L. [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: ylgeng@icm.sdu.edu.cn; Xu, D. [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: xdoffice@sdu.edu.cn; Wang, X.Q. [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Du, W. [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Liu, H.Y. [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhang, G.H. [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2006-04-10

    Atomic force microscopy is employed to investigate the surface morphology of the {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} faces of MMTC crystals grown at 40 deg. C at a supersaturation of {sigma} = 0.5. Growth hillocks generated by dislocation sources often appear in groups, which leads to faster growth of the local area and forming layers with large height difference up to 30 nm. Growth centers operate nearly equally during the growth process. Serried and sparse monolayer steps dominate alternately on the surface, which is thought to be distinct phenomenon of the two-metal-centered complex compounds family.

  13. Development and preliminary validation of Brace Questionnaire (BrQ: a new instrument for measuring quality of life of brace treated scoliotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gkoltsiou Konstantina

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of life among children with idiopathic scoliosis during their adolescence has been reported to be affected by the brace itself. However, a controversy exists whether brace treated scoliotics experience a poor quality of life, thus there is a need for the development of a brace-oriented instrument, as the now-existing questionnaires that are commonly used, such as the SRS -22, take into consideration the effects of both the conservative and the surgical treatment on quality of life of scoliotic children. The aim of the present study is to assess the validity and reliability of Brace Questionnaire (BrQ, a new instrument for measuring quality of life of scoliotic adolescents who are treated conservatively with a brace. Material-method Methodology of development involved literature review, patient and health care professionals' in-depth interviews and content validity analysis on patients. A validation study was performed on 28 brace treated scoliotic children aged between 9 and 18 years old. BrQ was assessed for the following psychometric properties: item convergent validity, floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency reliability, clinical validity and responsiveness to change. Results BrQ is self administrated and developmentally appropriate for ages 9 to 18 years old and is consisted of 34 Likert-scale items associated with eight domains: general health perception, physical functioning, emotional functioning, self esteem and aesthetics, vitality, school activity, bodily pain and social functioning of scoliotic children treated conservatively with a brace. The subscales of these eight dimensions can be combined to produce a total score. Higher scores mean a better quality of life. An item convergent validity ≥ 0.40 was satisfied by all items in the present study. A satisfactory internal consistency reliability for the BrQ was recorded (Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.82. There were no floor or ceiling

  14. Formation and ordering of epitaxial quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Paola; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Bremner, Stephen P.; Ritchie, David A.

    2008-10-01

    Single quantum dots (QDs) have great potential as building blocks for quantum information processing devices. However, one of the major difficulties in the fabrication of such devices is the placement of a single dot at a pre-determined position in the device structure, for example, in the centre of a photonic cavity. In this article we review some recent investigations in the site-controlled growth of InAs QDs on GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy. The method we use is ex-situ patterning of the GaAs substrate by electron beam lithography and conventional wet or dry etching techniques to form shallow pits in the surface which then determine the nucleation site of an InAs dot. This method is easily scalable and can be incorporated with marker structures to enable simple post-growth lithographic alignment of devices to each site-controlled dot. We demonstrate good site-control for arrays with up to 10 micron spacing between patterned sites, with no dots nucleating between the sites. We discuss the mechanism and the effect of pattern size, InAs deposition amount and growth conditions on this site-control method. Finally we discuss the photoluminescence from these dots and highlight the remaining challenges for this technique. To cite this article: P. Atkinson et al., C. R. Physique 9 (2008).

  15. CMS Centre at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    A new "CMS Centre" is being established on the CERN Meyrin site by the CMS collaboration. It will be a focal point for communications, where physicists will work together on data quality monitoring, detector calibration, offline analysis of physics events, and CMS computing operations. Construction of the CMS Centre begins in the historic Proton Synchrotron (PS) control room. The historic Proton Synchrotron (PS) control room, Opened by Niels Bohr in 1960, will be reused by CMS to built its control centre. TThe LHC@FNAL Centre, in operation at Fermilab in the US, will work very closely with the CMS Centre, as well as the CERN Control Centre. (Photo Fermilab)The historic Proton Synchrotron (PS) control room is about to start a new life. Opened by Niels Bohr in 1960, the room will be reused by CMS to built its control centre. When finished, it will resemble the CERN Contro...

  16. On the Modeling of Elastic and Inelastic, Critical- and Post-Buckling Behavior of Slender Columns and Bracing Members

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, Swaminathan

    2009-01-01

    Analyzing tall braced frame buildings with thousands of degrees of freedom in three dimensions subject to strong earthquake ground motion requires an efficient brace element that can capture the overall features of its elastic and inelastic response under axial cyclic loading without unduly heavy discretization. This report details the theory of a modified elastofiber (MEF) element developed to model braces and buckling-sensitive slender columns in such structures. The MEF element...

  17. Accurate and efficient TCAD model for the formation and dissolution of small interstitial clusters and {l_brace}3 1 1{r_brace} defects in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zechner, Christoph [Synopsys Switzerland LLC., Affolternstr. 52, CH-8050 Zurich-Oerlikon (Switzerland)]. E-mail: zechner@synopsys.com; Zographos, Nikolas [Synopsys Switzerland LLC., Affolternstr. 52, CH-8050 Zurich-Oerlikon (Switzerland); Matveev, Dmitri [Synopsys Switzerland LLC., Affolternstr. 52, CH-8050 Zurich-Oerlikon (Switzerland); Erlebach, Axel [Synopsys Switzerland LLC., Affolternstr. 52, CH-8050 Zurich-Oerlikon (Switzerland)

    2005-12-05

    In recent years, physics-based models have been developed for the time evolution of defects formed by Si self-interstitials in ion-implanted Si. The accuracy of these models is crucial for a predictive process simulation of deep sub micron devices. However, the most complete models are usually not considered in applied process simulation, because they use too many equations. In this work, a new model is presented in which the essential physics behind the formation and dissolution of small interstitial clusters and {l_brace}3 1 1{r_brace} defects is described by a minimum set of five reaction equations. Three equations describe the kinetics of small interstitial clusters which governs the initial phase of implantation damage annealing. Two equations describe the formation and Ostwald ripening of {l_brace}3 1 1{r_brace} defects. The model is capable to reproduce experimental data over a wide range of implantation energies, doses and anneal temperatures. It allows predictive simulations of interstitial cluster kinetics at a minimum computational cost.

  18. Isopiestic studies on the saturated systems {l_brace}H{sub 2}O + BaCl{sub 2}(sat) + NaCl + NH{sub 4}Cl{r_brace} and {l_brace}H{sub 2}O + BaCl{sub 2}(sat) + mannitol(sat) + NaCl + NH{sub 4}Cl{r_brace} at the temperature 298.15 K: Comparison with the ideal-like solution model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Mei [Institute of Metallurgical Resources and Environmental Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China)]. E-mail: wmei1010@tom.com; Zhang, Hui [School of Resources and Civil Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Wang Jun [Department of Chemistry, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Wang Zhichang [Department of Chemistry, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China)

    2007-02-15

    Isopiestic measurements have been carried out at the temperature 298.15 K for two saturated aqueous solutions: {l_brace}H{sub 2}O + BaCl{sub 2}(sat) + NaCl + NH{sub 4}Cl{r_brace} saturated with barium chloride and {l_brace}H{sub 2}O + BaCl{sub 2}(sat) + mannitol(sat) + NaCl + NH{sub 4}Cl{r_brace} saturated with barium chloride and mannitol. Taking sodium chloride (aq) as reference solutions, osmotic coefficients of the aqueous solutions were determined. The experimental results are well represented by the ideal-like solution model.

  19. The experience of brace treatment in children/adolescents with scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafiri Vassiliki

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic scoliosis is a chronic illness with several different braces used for its treatment. Brace treatment during childhood/adolescence can produce stress. There are studies supporting that it can decrease body-image perception while other studies support that it has no such effect. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of brace treatment in children/adolescents with scoliosis. The aim was to investigate which feelings are created by the bracing experience in children/adolescents with scoliosis and what are the children/adolescents' with scoliosis opinions of the support provided to them by health-care professionals and by their families. Methods We conducted interviews with the help of a semi-structured interview guide in order to address the topic of the experience of brace treatment. A convenient sample of twelve children and adolescents with scoliosis was selected from patients attending follow-up appointments at the Outpatient Scoliosis Clinics of two Greek hospitals. The data was analysed using the method of content analysis. Results Patients in the sample were 10–16 years old and they were mainly females (71%. Almost all of the participants reported having to deal with stress, denial, fear, anger, and shame. They were satisfied with the information they received regarding their condition and therapy. However, the information was not accompanied by support from the health care professionals. They reported that they were receiving support mainly from their families, friends, and classmates. Conclusion The present study is contributing to the development of a better understanding of significant issues related to the experience of bracing therapy. It is clear that scoliosis children/adolescents have to be provided with support during the long period of bracing. It is apparent that those children/adolescents have unmet needs for care and health professionals and policy makers should try to find a

  20. An Experimental Study on Non-Compression X-Bracing Systems Using Carbon Fiber Composite Cable for Seismic Strengthening of RC Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Seok Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-bracing (X-bracing is one of the most popular methods of seismic retrofitting, and has been shown to significantly increase the structural stiffness and strength of buildings. Conventional steel X-bracing methods typically exhibit brittle failure at the connection between the brace and the building, or buckling failure of the braces. This study investigated the structural properties of a new type of non-compression X-bracing system using carbon fiber composite cable (CFCC. This non-compression X-bracing system uses CFCC bracing and bolt connections between structural members and the terminal fixer of the CFCC, instead of conventional steel bracing. The aim is to overcome the brittle and buckling failures that can occur at the connection and bracings with conventional steel X-bracing methods. We carried out cyclic loading tests, and the maximum load carrying capacity and deformation were investigated, as well as hysteresis in the lateral load–drift relations. The test results revealed that the CFCC X-bracing system installed in reinforced concrete frames enhanced the strength markedly, and buckling failure of the bracing was not observed.

  1. Quantum dot spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan

    1999-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots ("solid state atoms") are promising candidates for quantum computers and future electronic and optoelectronic devices. Quantum dots are zero-dimensional electronic systems and therefore have discrete energy levels, similar to atoms or molecules. The size distribution...

  2. Client Centred Desing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Nielsen, Janni; Levinsen, Karin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we argue for the use of Client Centred preparation phases when designing complex systems. Through Client Centred Design human computer interaction can extend the focus on end-users to alse encompass the client's needs, context and resources.......In this paper we argue for the use of Client Centred preparation phases when designing complex systems. Through Client Centred Design human computer interaction can extend the focus on end-users to alse encompass the client's needs, context and resources....

  3. Canadian Irradiation Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Irradiation Centre is a non-profit cooperative project between Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Radiochemical Company and Universite du Quebec, Institut Armand-Frappier, Centre for Applied Research in Food Science. The Centre's objectives are to develop, demonstrate and promote Canada's radiation processing technology and its applications by conducting applied research; training technical, professional and scientific personnel; educating industry and government; demonstrating operational and scientific procedures; developing processing procedures and standards, and performing product and market acceptance trials. This pamphlet outlines the history of radoation technology and the services offered by the Canadian Irradiation Centre

  4. Investigation of the nonlinear seismic behavior of knee braced frames using the incremental dynamic analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheidaii, Mohammad Reza; TahamouliRoudsari, Mehrzad; Gordini, Mehrdad

    2016-06-01

    In knee braced frames, the braces are attached to the knee element rather than the intersection of beams and columns. This bracing system is widely used and preferred over the other commonly used systems for reasons such as having lateral stiffness while having adequate ductility, damage concentration on the second degree convenience of repairing and replacing of these elements after Earthquake. The lateral stiffness of this system is supplied by the bracing member and the ductility of the frame attached to the knee length is supplied through the bending or shear yield of the knee member. In this paper, the nonlinear seismic behavior of knee braced frame systems has been investigated using incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) and the effects of the number of stories in a building, length and the moment of inertia of the knee member on the seismic behavior, elastic stiffness, ductility and the probability of failure of these systems has been determined. In the incremental dynamic analysis, after plotting the IDA diagrams of the accelerograms, the collapse diagrams in the limit states are determined. These diagrams yield that for a constant knee length with reduced moment of inertia, the probability of collapse in limit states heightens and also for a constant knee moment of inertia with increasing length, the probability of collapse in limit states increases.

  5. Inelastic behavior of cold-formed braced walls under monotonic and cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerami, Mohsen; Lotfi, Mohsen; Nejat, Roya

    2015-06-01

    The ever-increasing need for housing generated the search for new and innovative building methods to increase speed and efficiency and enhance quality. One method is the use of light thin steel profiles as load-bearing elements having different solutions for interior and exterior cladding. Due to the increase in CFS construction in low-rise residential structures in the modern construction industry, there is an increased demand for performance inelastic analysis of CFS walls. In this study, the nonlinear behavior of cold-formed steel frames with various bracing arrangements including cross, chevron and k-shape straps was evaluated under cyclic and monotonic loading and using nonlinear finite element analysis methods. In total, 68 frames with different bracing arrangements and different ratios of dimensions were studied. Also, seismic parameters including resistance reduction factor, ductility and force reduction factor due to ductility were evaluated for all samples. On the other hand, the seismic response modification factor was calculated for these systems. It was concluded that the highest response modification factor would be obtained for walls with bilateral cross bracing systems with a value of 3.14. In all samples, on increasing the distance of straps from each other, shear strength increased and shear strength of the wall with bilateral bracing system was 60 % greater than that with lateral bracing system.

  6. Modal parameters of two incomplete and complete guitars differing in the bracing pattern of the soundboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrodzka, Ewa; Łapa, Andrzej; Linde, Bogumił B J; Rosenfeld, Eike

    2011-10-01

    Similarities and differences in vibrational behavior of two guitars having a symmetric Torres bracing pattern and an asymmetric pattern forming a lattice on a soundboard are investigated by means of the modal analysis technique and laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) measurements. Instruments are investigated before and after a bridge and strings assembling (i.e., they are incomplete or complete). The bracing pattern and the absence/presence of the bridge and strings have some effect on modal frequencies and mode shapes. The bracing pattern does not affect the sequence of at least first three low frequency mode shapes of incomplete/complete instruments but affects their modal frequencies. Depending on frequency, the bridge behaves either as a rigid or a flexible structure.

  7. Modal parameters of two incomplete and complete guitars differing in the bracing pattern of the soundboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrodzka, Ewa; Łapa, Andrzej; Linde, Bogumił B J; Rosenfeld, Eike

    2011-10-01

    Similarities and differences in vibrational behavior of two guitars having a symmetric Torres bracing pattern and an asymmetric pattern forming a lattice on a soundboard are investigated by means of the modal analysis technique and laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) measurements. Instruments are investigated before and after a bridge and strings assembling (i.e., they are incomplete or complete). The bracing pattern and the absence/presence of the bridge and strings have some effect on modal frequencies and mode shapes. The bracing pattern does not affect the sequence of at least first three low frequency mode shapes of incomplete/complete instruments but affects their modal frequencies. Depending on frequency, the bridge behaves either as a rigid or a flexible structure. PMID:21973373

  8. Improved operability of the CANDU 9 control centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macbeth, M. J.; Webster, A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Saskatoon (Canada)

    1996-04-15

    The next generation CANDU nuclear power plant being designed by AECL is the 900 MWe class CANDU 9 station. It is based upon the Darlington CANDU station design which is among the world leaders in capacity factor with low Operation, Maintenance and Administration (OM and A) costs. This Control Centre design includes the proven functionality of existing CANDU control centres (including the Wolsong 2,3, and 4 control centre improvements, such as the Emergency Core Cooling panels), the characteristics identified by systematic design with human factors analysis of operations requirements and the advanced features needed to improve station operability which is made possible by the application of new technology. The CANDU 9 Control Centre provides plant staff with an improved operability capability due to the combination of proveness, systematic design with human factors engineering and enhanced operating features. Significant features which contribute to this improved operability include: {center_dot} Standard NSP, BOP and F/H panels with controls and indicators integrated by a standard display/presentation philosophy. {center_dot} Common plant parameter signal database for extensive monitoring, checking, display and annunciation. {center_dot} Powerful annunciation system allowing alarm filtering, prioritizing and interrogation to enhance staff recognition of events, plant state and required corrective procedural actions. {center_dot} The use of an overview display to present immediate and uncomplicated plant status information to facilitate operator awareness of unit status in a highly readable and recognizable format. {center_dot} Extensive cross checking of similar process parameters amongst themselves, with the counterpart safety system parameters and as well as with 'signature' values obtained from known steady state conditions. {center_dot} Powerful calculation capabilities, using the plant wide database, providing immediate recognizable and readable and

  9. Influence of patellofemoral bracing on pain, knee extensor torque, and gait function in females with patellofemoral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Christopher M; Doubleday, Kathryn L; Escudero, Carina

    2008-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of a patellofemoral brace on pain response, knee extensor torque production, and gait function in females with patellofemoral pain (PFP). Sixteen females between the ages of 14 and 46 with diagnosis of PFP participated. Knee extensor torque was measured by using a LIDO isokinetic dynamometer. Pain levels were documented by using the Visual Analog Pain Scale. Stride characteristics during the conditions of free walk, fast walk, ascend stairs, descend stairs, ascend ramp, and descend ramp were obtained with a stride analyzer unit. EMG activity of the vasti musculature was recorded by using indwelling, bipolar, wire electrodes. Knee joint motion was assessed by using a VICON motion analysis system. All testing was performed with and without the Bauerfeind Genutrain P3 patellofemoral brace. There were no significant differences in torque production, pain levels, and stride characteristics between braced and non-braced trials. In addition, there were no significant differences in mean vasti EMG between braced and non-braced trials. When averaged across all conditions, a small but statistically significant increase in knee flexion was found during the braced trials. Although the current study did not find significant improvements in the clinical measures evaluated, 8 of the 16 subjects did experience a decrease in knee pain. This finding suggests that certain patients with PFP may respond favorably to bracing, and criteria must be established to determine which patients would best benefit from such an intervention.

  10. Design and control of multifunctional magnetorheological actuators for assistive knee braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H. T.; Liao, W. H.

    2010-04-01

    This paper is aimed at developing a novel multifunctional actuator utilizing magnetorheological (MR) fluids. As a key component for assistive knee braces, the actuator can work with multiple functions as motor, clutch and brake in order to meet the requirement of normal human walking. In this paper, design considerations including configurations, materials selection, mechanical and electromagnetic designs are illustrated. Prototype of the multifunctional actuator is fabricated, and each of its functions is investigated. Control strategies for mimicking normal human walking using the multifunctional actuator are illustrated. Adaptive control algorithm is adopted. Experiments on torque and speed tracking are conducted. The results show that the developed multifunctional actuator is promising for assistive knee braces.

  11. Application Of Steel Bar Bracings In Renovation And Modernization Of Historic Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchta, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    The use of steel bracings is possible in all four stages of engineering activities in the renovation and modernization of historic buildings, i. e.: protecting, repairing, strengthening and rebuilding. Steel bracings are auxiliary structural systems, which, due to their relatively small cross-section dimensions and low weight, provide an efficient way to achieve the required resistance and stability of the original historic building structural systems. The steel structure in most cases is the tissue that differs in style and material of genuine tissue which is present in a renewed historic building, but is also often a rational solution acceptable to the conservation and structural point of view.

  12. Application Of Steel Bar Bracings In Renovation And Modernization Of Historic Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuchta Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of steel bracings is possible in all four stages of engineering activities in the renovation and modernization of historic buildings, i. e.: protecting, repairing, strengthening and rebuilding. Steel bracings are auxiliary structural systems, which, due to their relatively small cross-section dimensions and low weight, provide an efficient way to achieve the required resistance and stability of the original historic building structural systems. The steel structure in most cases is the tissue that differs in style and material of genuine tissue which is present in a renewed historic building, but is also often a rational solution acceptable to the conservation and structural point of view.

  13. Atomic force microscopy studies on growth mechanisms and defect formations on {l_brace}110{r_brace} faces of cadmium mercury thiocyanate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, X.N.; Xu, D.; Yuan, D.R.; Sun, D.L.; Lu, M.K.; Zhang, G.H.; Guo, S.Y. [Shandong Univ., Jinan, SD (China). Inst. of Crystal Materials

    2001-07-01

    Growth mechanisms and defect formations on {l_brace}110{r_brace} faces of cadmium mercury thiocyanate crystals grown at 30 C ({sigma} = 0.24) were investigated by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that, under this condition, spiral dislocation controlled mechanism and 2D nucleation mechanism operates simultaneously and equally during growth, which is completely different from the traditional 2D nucleation and dislocation source controlled mechanisms. A number of 2D nucleus are formed at the large step terraces generated by dislocation sources, leading to the unequal growth rates of the elementary steps and thereby ''step bunches'' are caused. Various defects are formed under this growth condition, which is assumed to result from the incongruence between the steps generated by different sources. A new kind of 2D defect, corresponding to one growth layer in height, was observed for the first time. (orig.)

  14. Microband evolution during large plastic strains of stable {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}<1 1 2> Al and Al-Mn crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albou, A.; Driver, J.H. [Ecole des Mines de St Etienne, Centre SMS, CNRS UMR 5146, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint Etienne (France); Maurice, C., E-mail: driver@emse.fr [Ecole des Mines de St Etienne, Centre SMS, CNRS UMR 5146, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint Etienne (France)

    2010-05-15

    The deformation microstructures of Al and Al-Mn {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}<1 1 2> single crystals have been characterized after room temperature channel-die compression up to true strains of 2.1. The evolution of local misorientations and microband structures were quantified by high-resolution electron backscatter diffraction in a field emission gun scanning electron microscope and their alignments compared with the traces of active slip planes and macroscopic shear stress planes. During plane-strain compression these 'Brass' oriented crystals remain stable in terms of the final, average, orientation, with a small orientation spread. However, the microband alignment varies with strain and also with solute content. There is a general tendency for the microbands to be both crystallographic and non-crystallographic at low strains, then crystallographic, and finally mixed again at high strains (with some lamellar banding).

  15. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium for ternary mixtures of {l_brace}heptane + aromatic compounds + [EMpy][ESO{sub 4}]{r_brace} at T = 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirkhani, S.A. [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vossoughi, M., E-mail: vosoughi@sharif.edu [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pazuki, G.R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Safekordi, A.A. [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Heydari, A.; Akbari, J. [Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yavari, M. [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: > This paper reports the LLE data of ternary systems {l_brace}heptane (1) + aromatic compounds (2) + [EMpy][ESO{sub 4}] (3){r_brace}. > The distribution coefficient and the selectivity were obtained from the experimental data. > The consistency of LLE data was successfully correlated with Othmer-Tobias and Hand equation. - Abstract: (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for the ternary systems (heptane + toluene + 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium ethylsulfate) and (heptane + benzene + 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium ethylsulfate) were measured at T = 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. The selectivity and aromatic distribution coefficients, calculated from the equilibrium data, were used to determine if this ionic liquid can be used as a potential extracting solvent for the separation of aromatic compounds from heptane. The consistency of tie-line data was ascertained by applying the Othmer-Tobias and Hand equations.

  16. Different coordination modes for disulfoxides towards diorganotin(IV) dichlorides. X-ray crystal structures of 1,2-cis-bis-(phenylsulfinyl)ethene (rac-,cis-cbpse) and adducts [{l_brace}Ph{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}(meso-bpse){r_brace}{sub n}] and [{l_brace}n-Bu{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}(pdtd){r_brace}{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Gerimario F. de [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], e-mail: gfreitas@unb.br; Ellena, Javier [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Malta, Valeria R.S. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica e Biotecnologia; Ardisson, Jose D. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Fisica Aplicada

    2009-07-01

    The reactions of meso-1,2-bis(phenylsulfinyl)ethane (meso-bpse) with Ph{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}, 2-phenyl-1,3-dithiane trans-1-trans-3-dioxide (pdtd) with n-Bu{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2} and 1,2-cis-bis-(phenylsulfinyl) ethene (rac-,cis-cbpse) with Ph{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}, in 1:1 molar ratio, yielded [{l_brace}Ph{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}(meso-bpse){r_brace}{sub n}], [{l_brace}n-Bu{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}(pdtd){r_brace}{sub 2}] and [{l_brace}Ph{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}(rac,cis-cbpse){r_brace}x] (x = 2 or n), respectively. All adducts were studied by IR, Moessbauer and {sup 119}Sn NMR spectroscopic methods, elemental analysis and single crystal X-ray diffractometry. The X-ray crystal structure of [{l_brace}Ph{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}(meso-bpse){r_brace}{sub n}] revealed the occurrence of infinite chains in which the tin(IV) atoms appear in a distorted octahedral geometry with Cl atoms in cis and Ph groups in trans positions. The X-ray crystal structure of [{l_brace}n-Bu{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}(pdtd){r_brace}{sub 2}] revealed discrete centrosymmetric dimeric species in which the tin(IV) atoms possess a distorted octahedral geometry with bridging disulfoxides in cis and n-butyl moieties in trans positions. The spectroscopic data indicated that the adduct containing the rac,cis-cbpse ligand can be dimeric or polymeric. The X-ray structural analysis of the free rac-,cis-cbpse sulfoxide revealed that the crystals belong to the C2/c space group. (author)

  17. Thermophysical properties of binary mixtures of {l_brace}ionic liquid 2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate + (water, methanol, or ethanol){r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Victor H. [School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), P.O. Box 6066, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Chemical Engineering Department, ETSE, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), P.O. Box 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Mattedi, Silvana [Chemical Engineering Department, Polytechnic School, Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), 40210-630 Salvador-BA (Brazil); Martin-Pastor, Manuel [Unidade de Resonancia Magnetica, RIAIDT, edif. CACTUS, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), P.O. Box 15706, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Aznar, Martin [School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), P.O. Box 6066, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Iglesias, Miguel, E-mail: miguel.iglesias@usc.es [Chemical Engineering Department, ETSE, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), P.O. Box 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Research highlights: > This paper reports the density and speed of sound data of binary mixtures {l_brace}2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate + (water, or methanol, or ethanol){r_brace} measured between the temperatures (298.15 and 313.15) K at atmospheric pressure. > The aggregation, dynamic behavior, and hydrogen-bond network were studied using thermo-acoustic, X-ray, and NMR techniques. > The Peng-Robinson equation of state, coupled with the Wong-Sandler mixing rule using the COSMO-SAC model predicted the density of the solutions with relative mean deviations below than 3.0%. - Abstract: In this work, density and speed of sound data of binary mixtures of an ionic liquid consisting of {l_brace}2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate (2-HEAA) + (water, methanol, or ethanol){r_brace} have been measured throughout the entire concentration range, from the temperature of (288.15 to 323.15) K at atmospheric pressure. The excess molar volumes, variations of the isentropic compressibility, the apparent molar volume, isentropic apparent molar compressibility, and thermal expansion coefficient were calculated from the experimental data. The excess molar volumes were negative throughout the whole composition range. Compressibility data in combination with low angle X-ray scattering and NMR measurements proved that the presence of micelles formed due to ion pair interaction above a critical concentration of the ionic liquid in the mixtures. The Peng-Robinson equation of state coupled with the Wong-Sandler mixing rule and COSMO-SAC model was used to predict densities and the calculated deviations were lower than 3%, for binary mixtures in all composition range.

  18. "Brace Technology" Thematic Series - The Lyon approach to the conservative treatment of scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lecante Cyril

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Lyon Brace, or adjustable multi-shell brace, has been used for more than 60 years. The use and function of the Lyon Brace includes: - The utilization of one or two corrective plaster casts, which enables a true lengthening of the concave ligaments. - An oriented CAD-CAM moulding in 3D auto correction after the removal of the plaster cast. - A blueprint adapted to Lenke's classification. - A specific physiotherapy program. Background Pierre Stagnara created the Lyon Brace in 1947. The brace has the following characteristics: - It adjusts to allow for a child's growth of up to seven centimetres and for an increase in weight of up to seven kilograms. - It is 'active' in that the rigidity of the PMM (polymetacrylate of methyl structure stimulates the user to auto-correct. The active axial auto-correction decreases the pressures of the brace on the trunk. - It is decompressive in that the effect of extension between the two pelvic and scapular girdles decreases the pressure on the intervertebral disc allowing for more effective pushes in the other planes. - It is symmetrical making it both more aesthetically pleasing and easier to build. - It is stable at both shoulders and pelvic girdle, facilitating the intermediate 3D corrections. - It is transparent. The pressure of the shells on the skin can be directly controlled so "pads" are usually not necessary. Brace description Two metal bars are fixed vertically, one anterior the other posterior and all shells are attached from the bottom to the top in this order: - Two pelvic shells ensure an optimal stability of the brace. - One lumbar shell T12-L4, which can be either independent or extending, at the abdominal chondrocostal level. - One thoracic shell at the level of the thoracic convexity. - One opposite thoracic shell used as a counter push. - One shoulder balance shell on the side of the thoracic convexity. Long term follow up results This is a retrospective study of 1,338 completed

  19. The IGU Knowledge Centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, Bernardus

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an innovative service for members of the International Gas Union - IGU. The IGU Knowledge Centre provides members with relevant information and data. In this article is described why, how and where.

  20. CENTRE FOR GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    The objective of this Annual Report is to give a general introduction to CGM as well as to give an account of the tasks carried out using the facilities of CGM's Instrument Centre during 1998 and 1999....

  1. Virtual particle therapy centre

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Particle therapy is an advanced technique of cancer radiation therapy, using protons or other ions to target the cancerous mass. This advanced technique requires a multi-disciplinary team working in a specialised centre. 3D animation: Nymus3D

  2. The Bruce Energy Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bruce Energy Centre Development Corporation is a joint venture of the Ontario Energy Corporation and 6 private companies formed to market surplus steam from the Bruce Nuclear Power Development. The corporation will also sell or lease land near Bruce NPD. The Bruce Energy Centre has an energy output of 900 BTU per day per dollar invested. Potential customers include greenhouse operators, aquaculturalists, food and beverage manufacturers, and traditional manufacturers

  3. A Conceptual Design and Structural Analysis for ITER Mid-plane Brace Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ITER, International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, Tokamak machine is mainly composed of 9 vacuum vessel (VV)/toroidal field coils (TFCs)/vacuum vessel thermal shields (VVTS) 40 .deg. sectors. Each VV/TFCs/VVTS 40 .deg. sector is made up of one 40 .deg. VV, two 20 .deg. TFCs and associated VVTS segments. The ITER Tokamak assembly tools are purpose-built tools to assemble the ITER Tokamak machine which includes the cryostat and the components contained therein. Based on the design description document prepared by the IO (ITER international organization), Korea has carried out the conceptual design of assembly tools with IO cooperation. The 40 .deg. sector assemblies attached mid-plane brace tools sub-assembled at assembly hall are transferred to Tokamak hall using the lifting tool operated by Tokamak main cranes. The sector sub-assembly tools are composed of the upending tool, the sector sub-assembly tool, the sector lifting tool and the vacuum vessel support and mid-plane brace tools. The mid-plane brace tool is assembled to inner surface of VV and TFCs in phase of sector sub-assembly after completion of all sector components. VV, TFC and VVTS are separated fully before completion of 9 sectors at Tokamak in-pit. In this paper the mid-plane brace tools is introduced about function, structure and status of research and development are also described

  4. Detailed analysis of the segregation driving forces for Ni(Ag) and Ag(Ni) in the {sigma}=11 {l_brace}1 1 3{r_brace} and {sigma}=11 {l_brace}3 3 2{r_brace} grain boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezzar, B.; Khalfallah, O.; Larere, A.; Paidar, V.; Hardouin Duparc, O

    2004-05-17

    The behaviour with respect to segregation is studied for two qualitatively different symmetrical tilt grain boundaries (GBs): a low energy boundary with mirror-symmetric structure on the {l_brace}1 1 3{r_brace} plane and the high energy {l_brace}3 3 2{r_brace} GB with a 'zigzag' structural pattern. These two structures have been confirmed by high resolution transmission electronic microscopy observations in nickel. Intergranular segregation is studied in the limit of infinitely diluted solution for Ni(Ag) and Ag(Ni) systems modelled with Finnis-Sinclair like potentials. The atomic sites are characterized by a geometrical parameter defined by their exact Voronoy volumes and the pressure locally exerted. The segregation energies and driving forces are compared with these parameters in order to characterize a segregation 'susceptibility' of intergranular atomic sites. The size effect calculated by the method of virtual impurity represents the main segregation driving force for the considered systems.

  5. Ankle Bracing, Plantar-Flexion Angle, and Ankle Muscle Latencies During Inversion Stress in Healthy Participants

    OpenAIRE

    Kernozek, Thomas; Durall, Christopher J; Friske, Allison; Mussallem, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Context: Ankle braces may enhance ankle joint proprioception, which in turn may affect reflexive ankle muscle activity during a perturbation. Despite the common occurrence of plantar-flexion inversion ankle injuries, authors of previous studies of ankle muscle latencies have focused on inversion stresses only.

  6. Hysteretic Behavior of Tubular Steel Braces Having Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Reinforcement Around End Net Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Haydaroğlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an experimental investigation into the seismic retrofit of tubular steel braces using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP members. CFRP retrofitting of net sections for compact tubes are proposed for delaying potential local net section failure. A total of almost full-scale three (TB-1, TB-2, and TB-3 compact steel tubular specimens were designed per AISC specifications, constructed, and cyclically tested to fracture. Retrofitted braces, when compared to the reference specimen, developed fuller hysteretic curves. Increase in cumulative hysteretic energy dissipation and the elongation in fracture life in the specimen retrofitted with CFRP plates and CFRP sheet wraps at net sections are observed during testing. This resulted in a maximum of 82.5% more dissipated energy for compact tube specimens. Also, this retrofit provided a longer experimental fracture life (maximum 59% more. Due to fracture initiation during the last cycles, significant reductions in strength and stiffness have been obtained. No significant change (maximum 10% in the brace stiffness was observed, which could be desirable in seismic retrofit applications. Pushover analysis per FEMA 356 for the bare specimen shows that FEMA does not represent actual brace behavior in the compression side although pushover and experimental results are in good agreement in the tension side.

  7. Clinical use of a neck brace to improve hands-free speech in laryngectomized patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirven, R.; Kooijman, P.G.C.; Wouters, Y.; Marres, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Time of adherence of adhesive baseplate housings to the neck of a laryngectomized patient is one of the main problems that account for the low number of laryngectomy patients who benefit from hands-free speech. An external neck brace (ENB 1.0) was introduced to support peristo

  8. Lateral Bearing Capacity of Single Connectors in Parallel Loaded Battens used for Truss Bracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob

    In order to analyse the stiffness and the strength of joints used for battens in bracing of trusses 70 tests have been made. The joint was made by a single nail or screw located perpendicular to or at an angle to the grain direction. The single fastener joints did not fulfil the requirements for ...

  9. A specific scoliosis classification correlating with brace treatment: description and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villagrasa Mónica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal classification systems for scoliosis which were developed to correlate with surgical treatment historically have been used in brace treatment as well. Previously, there had not been a scoliosis classification system developed specifically to correlate with brace design and treatment. The purpose of this study is to show the intra- and inter- observer reliability of a new scoliosis classification system correlating with brace treatment. Methods An original classification system ("Rigo Classification" was developed in order to define specific principles of correction required for efficacious brace design and fabrication. The classification includes radiological as well as clinical criteria. The radiological criteria are utilized to differentiate five basic types of curvatures including: (I imbalanced thoracic (or three curves pattern, (II true double (or four curve pattern, (III balanced thoracic and false double (non 3 non 4, (IV single lumbar and (V single thoracolumbar. In addition to the radiological criteria, the Rigo Classification incorporates the curve pattern according to SRS terminology, the balance/imbalance at the transitional point, and L4-5 counter-tilting. To test the intra-and inter-observer reliability of the Rigo Classification, three observers (1 MD, 1 PT and 1 CPO measured (and one of them, the MD, re-measured 51 AP radiographs including all curvature types. Results The intra-observer Kappa value was 0.87 (acceptance >0.70. The inter-observer Kappa values fluctuated from 0.61 to 0.81 with an average of 0.71 (acceptance > 0.70. Conclusions A specific scoliosis classification which correlates with brace treatment has been proposed with an acceptable intra-and inter-observer reliability.

  10. Correction effects of the ScoliOlogiC® „Chêneau light" brace in patients with scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Carola

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different bracing concepts are used today for the treatment of scoliosis. The plaster cast method worldwide seems to be the most practiced technique at the moment. CAD (Computer Aided Design systems are on the market which allow brace adjustments without plaster. The latest development however, is the use of the ScoliOlogiC™ off the shelf system enabling the orthopaedic technician to construct a light brace for scoliosis correction from a variety of pattern specific shells to be connected to an anterior and a posterior upright. This „Chêneau light" brace, developed according to the Chêneau principle, promises a reduced impediment of quality of life in the brace. However, material reduction should not result in reduced effectiveness. Therefore the primary correction effect in the „Chêneau light" brace has been evaluated and compared with that of other braces used today. Methods The correction effects of the first 81 patients (main diagnosis Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS [n = 64] or Early Onset Scoliosis (EOS [n = 15], treated according to the principle of the „Chêneau light" brace were evaluated after an average treatment time of 6 weeks by a full-body X-ray made in the standing position whilst wearing the brace and compared with the last X-ray before bracing. The average curvature angle of the whole group was 35,6°, the average age was 12,9 years (SD 1,9, average Risser sign was 1,3 (SD 1,5, average Tanner rating 2,75 (SD 0,7. Results The Cobb angle in the whole group was reduced by an average of 16,4°, which corresponds to a correction effect of 51%. The differences were highly significant in the T-test (T = 17,4; p Conclusion The use of the „Chêneau light" brace leads to correction effects above average when compared to the correction effects of other braces described in literature. The reduction of material seems to affect the desired correction in a positive way.

  11. The ideal Atomic Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author presents considerations which should prove to be of interest to all those who have to design, to construct and to operate a nuclear research centre. A large number of the ideas presented can also be applied to non-nuclear scientific research centres. In his report the author reviews: various problems with which the constructor is faced: ground-plan, infrastructure, buildings and the large units of scientific equipment in the centre, and those problems facing the director: maintenance, production, supplies, security. The author stresses the relationship which ought to exist between the research workers and the management. With this aim in view he proposes the creation of National School for Administration in Research which would train administrative executives for public or private organisations; they would be specialised in the fields of fundamental or applied research. (author)

  12. Lidar Calibration Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Freudenthaler, Volker; Nicolae, Doina; Mona, Lucia; Belegante, Livio; D'Amico, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the newly established Lidar Calibration Centre, a distributed infrastructure in Europe, whose goal is to offer services for complete characterization and calibration of lidars and ceilometers. Mobile reference lidars, laboratories for testing and characterization of optics and electronics, facilities for inspection and debugging of instruments, as well as for training in good practices are open to users from the scientific community, operational services and private sector. The Lidar Calibration Centre offers support for trans-national access through the EC HORIZON2020 project ACTRIS-2.

  13. 2 MeV e-irradiation UHVEM study on the impact of O and Ge doping on {l_brace}113{r_brace}-defect formation in Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhellemont, J. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); On leave from Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Yasuda, H. [Research Center for Ultra-High Voltage Electron Microscopy, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Tokumoto, Y.; Ohno, Y.; Suezawa, M.; Yonenaga, I. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    First results are presented of a study on the impact of O and Ge doping on {l_brace}113{r_brace}-defect formation in Si using in situ 2 MeV e-irradiation in a high voltage electron microscope. Comparison with undoped Si, reveals a suppression of {l_brace}113{r_brace}-defect formation due to O and Ge. The observations are discussed in the frame of a theoretical model assuming quasi-chemical reactions to describe the intrinsic point defect behaviour during irradiation as a function of irradiation temperature and specimen thickness. It is shown that for irradiations at high temperatures, intrinsic point defect diffusivity values derived from crystal growth and metal diffusion experiments can be used to explain the observations semi-quantitatively. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. An intrinsic effect of hydrogen on cyclic slip deformation around a {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} fatigue crack in Fe-3.2 wt.% Si alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Y., E-mail: yoshim.takahashi@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Tanaka, M.; Higashida, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Yamaguchi, K.; Noguchi, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    The effect of gaseous hydrogen on cyclic slip behavior around a fatigue crack tip introduced along the {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} plane in a Fe-3.2 wt.% Si alloy is precisely investigated by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and fractography. The results clearly suggest that the fatigue crack growth rate is promoted by hydrogen, whereas the number of dislocations emitted per load cycle is reduced. In addition, dislocation distribution is localized around the crack, causing quasi-brittle crack morphology. A sustained load test confirms that no subcritical crack growth caused by cleavage or micro-void coalescence exists along the {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} plane, which indicates that the observed increase in the fatigue crack growth rate is correlated solely to the intrinsic effect of hydrogen on the cyclic slip-off process around the crack tip.

  15. Quantum dot spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan

    Semiconductor quantum dots ("solid-state atoms") are promising candidates for quantum computers and future electronic and optoelectronic devices. Quantum dots are zero-dimensional electronic systems and therefore have discrete energy levels, similar to atoms or molecules. The size distribution...

  16. Quantum Dots: Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukmirovic, Nenad; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2009-11-10

    This review covers the description of the methodologies typically used for the calculation of the electronic structure of self-assembled and colloidal quantum dots. These are illustrated by the results of their application to a selected set of physical effects in quantum dots.

  17. Ultrasmall silicon quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwanenburg, F.A.; Van Loon, A.A.; Steele, G.A.; Rijmenam, C.E.W.M.; Balder, T.; Fang, Y.; Lieber, C.M.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.

    2009-01-01

    We report the realization of extremely small single quantum dots in p-type silicon nanowires, defined by Schottky tunnel barriers with Ni and NiSi contacts. Despite their ultrasmall size the NiSi–Si–NiSi nanowire quantum dots readily allow spectroscopy of at least ten consecutive holes, and addition

  18. International research centre launched

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The first scientific research and educational institution to be set up on a completely international basis was officially inaugurated in Trieste on 5 October 1964 by the Director General of IAEA, Dr. Sigvard Eklund, when he opened the first seminar of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics. As evidence of the international nature of the institution he noted that the scientists who would work and teach there during the first year represented sixteen different countries. By the end of 1964, the Centre building was nearing completion and three of the five floors were occupied. A successful symposium had been held on the subject of plasma physics, and a score of professors and fellows were at work, from Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Greece, India, Japan, Jordan, the Netherlands, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. A dozen scientific papers had been issued as preprints. The main purpose of the Centre is to foster the advancement of theoretical physics through training and research; at first the chief subject will be high-energy and elementary particle physics. Plasma physics, low energy physics and solid-state physics will also be dealt with. Special attention is paid to the needs of the developing countries. Of the 25 fellows selected for the academic year 1964-65, more than half are from South America, Africa and Asia. In conjunction with the Research Centre, there is an Advanced School for theoretical Physics to provide graduate training for fellows who need such preparation before they embark upon research. The Centre works under the guidance of a Scientific Council comprising the president, Prof. M. Sandoval-Vallarta (Nuclear Energy Commission of Mexico); Prof. A. Abragam (Saclay, France); Prof. R. Oppenheimer (Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, USA); Dr. V. Soloviev (Dubna, USSR); Prof V.F. Weiskopf (Director General, CERN) ; Prof Abdus Salam (Imperial College, London) ; Prof. P. Budini (University of Trieste

  19. Quantum dot density studies for quantum dot intermediate band solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomassen, Sedsel Fretheim; Zhou, Dayong; Vitelli, Stefano; Mayani, Maryam Gholami; Fimland, Bjoern-Ove; Reenaas, Turid Worren

    2010-07-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have been an active area of research for many years and have been implemented in several applications, such as lasers and detectors. During the last years, some attempts have been made to increase the absorption and efficiency of solar cells by inserting QDs into the intrinsic region of pin solar cells. So far, these attempts have been successful in increasing the absorption, but not the cell efficiency. There are probably several reasons for this lack of efficiency increase, but we believe that one important reason is the low density of the implemented QDs. In this work, samples of single layer InAs QDs on n-GaAs(001) substrates have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and we have performed a systematic study of how deposition parameters affect the QD density. The aim is to achieve densities > 1011 cm-2. The nominal substrate temperature (360 - 500 deg. C), the InAs growth rate (0.085 - 1 ML/s) and thickness (2.0 - 2.8 ML) have been varied in a systematic way for two different deposition methods of InAs, i.e. continuous deposition or deposition with interruptions. In addition, we have for the continuous growth samples also varied the As-flux (0.5 - 6 centre dot10-6 torr). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been the main characterization method to determine quantum dot sizes and densities, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used for evaluation of the quantum dot heights. We find that the QD density increases with reduced growth temperature and that it is higher for samples grown continuously than for samples grown with growth interruptions. The homogeneity is also strongly affected by temperature, InAs deposition method and the As-flux. We have observed QD densities as high as 2.5 centre dot1011 cm-2 for the samples grown at the lowest growth temperatures. (Author)

  20. Application of orientation imaging to the study of substructural development in cold deformed Al-0.3%Mn single crystal of {l_brace}110{r_brace}<112> orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, H; Miszczyk, M [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, ul. Reymonta 25, PL-30059 Krakow (Poland); Maurice, C; Driver, J H, E-mail: nmpaul@imim-pan.krakow.pl [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint Etienne, Centre SMS, 158 Cours Fauriel, FR-42023 Saint Etienne (France)

    2010-02-15

    A systematic study of the deformation microstructures over 3 perpendicular surfaces was carried out in the present work in order to correlate better the substructure with slip patterns, initial and final crystal orientation, and the macroscopic coordinate system. The microstructure and texture evolution of high purity Al-0.3 wt% Mn alloy of initial near brass {l_brace}110{r_brace}<112> (or Bs) orientation, channel-die compressed to the strain level of 1.5, were studied by TEM (including TEM orientation mapping) and high-resolution FEG-SEM/EBSD techniques to observe crystal subdivision deformation patterns at the microscopic scale. The grain orientation dependent structures were analyzed in terms of active slip systems focussing on the crystallography of extended planar boundaries. It was concluded that the type of dislocation structure (one or two sets of microbands) in {l_brace}110{r_brace}<112> oriented crystallites, at moderate strains (< 1.5) depended strongly on the crystallographic grain orientation. In this non-ideal initial crystal orientation the applied deformation mode activates a double slip, of which one system predominates and leads to further rotation away from Bs. A general rotation combined with a wide orientation spread is observed after a strain up to 1.5. The microband boundary alignment corresponds very well to the traces of crystallographic {l_brace}111{r_brace} planes, on which most of the slip occurs.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Steel Braces Frames and Buckling Restrained Braces Frames in Tall Buildings%高层钢结构支撑方案抗震性能对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强国平

    2012-01-01

    高层钢结构中框架—支撑结构是一种常用的结构形式,文中介绍了支撑结构体系的发展情况.以某实际工程为例,说明了普通钢支撑和屈曲约束支撑两种不同支撑对结构弹性性能的影响,通过静力弹塑性推覆分析对比研究了两种方案的弹塑性性能,并对屈曲约束支撑采用偏心布置形式对框架梁的影响进行了探讨.%Braced steel frame is a normal structural system in high-rise steel buildings. The development of the braced steel frame is introduced. Based on a practical project, the influences of steel braces and bucking restrained braces on the elastic and elasto-plastic behavior are analyzed. By pushover analysis, the seismic behaviors of two frames are studied. And the buckling restrained braces used in eccentrically braces steel frames are analyzed.

  2. Academic Drug Discovery Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Henriette Schultz; Valentin, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Academic drug discovery centres (ADDCs) are seen as one of the solutions to fill the innovation gap in early drug discovery, which has proven challenging for previous organisational models. Prior studies of ADDCs have identified the need to analyse them from the angle of their economic...

  3. Implementing Responsibility Centre Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonasek, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Recently, institutes of higher education (universities) have shown a renewed interest in organisational structures and operating methodologies that generate productivity and innovation; responsibility centre budgeting (RCB) is one such process. This paper describes the underlying principles constituting RCB, its origin and structural elements, and…

  4. ATLAS Visitors Centre

    CERN Multimedia

    claudia Marcelloni

    2009-01-01

    ATLAS Visitors Centre has opened its shiny new doors to the public. Officially launched on Monday February 23rd, 2009, the permanent exhibition at Point 1 was conceived as a tour resource for ATLAS guides, and as a way to preserve the public’s opportunity to get a close-up look at the experiment in action when the cavern is sealed.

  5. Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 14: brace therapy as an adjunct to or substitute for lumbar fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Andrew T; Ghogawala, Zoher; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Watters, William C; Resnick, Daniel K; Sharan, Alok; Eck, Jason C; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Wang, Jeffrey C; Groff, Michael W; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

    2014-07-01

    The utilization of orthotic devices for lumbar degenerative disease has been justified from both a prognostic and therapeutic perspective. As a prognostic tool, bracing is applied prior to surgery to determine if immobilization of the spine leads to symptomatic relief and thus justify the performance of a fusion. Since bracing does not eliminate motion, the validity of this assumption is questionable. Only one low-level study has investigated the predictive value of bracing prior to surgery. No correlation between response to bracing and fusion outcome was observed; therefore a trial of preoperative bracing is not recommended. Based on low-level evidence, the use of bracing is not recommended for the prevention of low-back pain in a general working population, since the incidence of low-back pain and impact on productivity were not reduced. However, in laborers with a history of back pain, a positive impact on lost workdays was observed when bracing was applied. Bracing is recommended as an option for treatment of subacute low-back pain, as several higher-level studies have demonstrated an improvement in pain scores and function. The use of bracing following instrumented posterolateral fusion, however, is not recommended, since equivalent outcomes have been demonstrated with or without the application of a brace.

  6. The immediate effect of a Boston brace on lung volumes and pulmonary compliance in mild adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Katsaris, G.; Loukos, A.; Valavanis, J.; Vassiliou, M.; Behrakis, P. K.

    1999-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is known to result in lung volume and pulmonary compliance reduction. Boston brace treatment of IS is an additional factor causing restrictive respiratory syndrome due to external chest wall compression. Nevertheless, the immediate effect of Boston bracing on the pulmonary compliance of scoliotic patients has not been studied systematically. Spirometric and plethysmographic lung volumes, static lung compliance (CST(L)) and specific lung compliance (CST(L)/functional ...

  7. Two Cases of Eating Disorders in Adolescents with Dental Braces Fitted Prior to the Onset of Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Sung-Wan; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment typically occurs during early childhood and adolescence but the wearing of dental braces is often associated with sudden changes in eating patterns that prolong treatment into the teenage years. Despite these changes, psychological assessments related to eating disorders during the course of orthodontic treatment are often ignored. Based on the findings of the present case report, it is suggested that adolescent patients who wear braces and exhibit severe weight loss sho...

  8. Seismic Response and Evaluation of SDOF Self-Centering Friction Damping Braces Subjected to Several Earthquake Ground Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Wan Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly deals with seismic response and performance for self-centering friction damping braces (SFDBs subjected to several maximum- or design-leveled earthquake ground motions. The self-centering friction damping brace members consist of core recentering components fabricated with superelastic shape memory alloy wires and energy dissipation devices achieved through shear friction mechanism. As compared to the conventional brace members for use in the steel concentrically braced frame structure, these self-centering friction damping brace members make the best use of their representative characteristics to minimize residual deformations and to withstand earthquake loads without member replacement. The configuration and response mechanism of self-centering friction damping brace systems are firstly described in this study, and then parametric investigations are conducted through nonlinear time-history analyses performed on numerical single degree-of-freedom spring models. After observing analysis results, adequate design methodologies that optimally account for recentering capability and energy dissipation according to their comparative parameters are intended to be suggested in order to take advantage of energy capacity and to minimize residual deformation simultaneously.

  9. [Clinical relevance of unloading in cartilage therapy of the knee--shoe insoles, knee braces or additional operative procedure?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, T M; Imhoff, A B; Ateschrang, A; Stöckle, U; Schröter, S

    2015-02-01

    Restoration of a neutral biomechanical environment and reduction of overload is an important factor contributing to the success of any cartilage repair procedure. Reduction of overload can by achieved by so called unloading procedures in order to reduce intraarticular pressure from the repair zone. Unloading can be achieved via loss of weight, wedged shoe insoles, knee braces or via operations such as osteotomies around the knee joint. The cartilage therapy and the concomitant unloading procedure should be adapted to the individual pathology and realistic aims of the patient. Wedged insoles and braces are the least invasive treatment methods. In comparison, however, beneficial effects of braces outline those of laterally wedged heels. Nevertheless long-term compliance with insoles and braces is poor. Concerning braces either because the positive effects of the braces are too small or because the adverse effects are too large. Unloading in the long run may only be achieved through operative procedures. When an osteotomy seems to be too invasive the arthroscopic release of the posterior oblique ligament might be an option. Patients with an intact contralateral chondral status, medium to slight malalignment who want to remain at high activity levels, remain good candidates for unloading osteotomies.

  10. Structural Optimization and Design of a Strut-Braced Wing Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Naghshineh-Pour, Amir H.

    1998-01-01

    A significant improvement can be achieved in the performance of transonic transport aircraft using Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) by implementing truss-braced wing concepts in combination with other advanced technologies and novel design innovations. A considerable reduction in drag can be obtained by using a high aspect ratio wing with thin airfoil sections and tip-mounted engines. However, such wing structures could suffer from a significant weight penalty. Thus, the use of an ...

  11. Effects of Bracing of High-Rise Buildings upon their Static and Dynamic Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivánková Oľga

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes effects of bracing of high-rise buildings upon their static and dynamic behaviour. In static and dynamic analyses, values of displacement for 4 different variants of stiffening elements distribution were calculated. The calculations were made for building both fixed into the ground and rested on elastic supports. The building was modelled as a 3D variant using Finite Element Method (FEM in program Scia Engineer.

  12. Non-slender RC Columns Limits for Braced, End-loaded Members

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Structural frame systems may be analyzed and designed based on forces from conventional first order theory when second order effects of axial forces on displacements in the compression members of the system are negligible. This is often the case. Extensive nonlinear analysis results are presented to document slenderness limits below which this is so for braced, end moment loaded compression members with various end restraints. Major factors that affect lower slenderness limit predictions of s...

  13. Joint investigation of the local material rotation and lattice spin in a cube {l_brace}100{r_brace} <001> oriented single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darrieulat, M; Fillit, R Y; Mondon, M; Sao-Joao, S, E-mail: darrieulat@emse.f [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, SMS Centre, UMR CNRS n0 5146, 158 cours Fauriel 42023 Saint-Etienne, cedex 2 (France)

    2010-07-01

    Cube {l_brace}100{r_brace} <001> oriented single crystals of Al 1% Mn were compressed in channel-die. Their lateral faces were covered with transferable carbon grids with a step of 100mm . At a deformation of about 0.3, the vertical bars of the grids show undulations whose characteristic length is of the order of the millimetre and which become sharper and smaller as the deformation proceeds. Fiducial golden grids with a step of 20 mm remain largely unaffected. This shows that the investigated heterogeneity is typical of the mesoscopic scale and has no directly related patterns at the macroscopic and microscopic level. Microfocussed X-rays were used to measure the crystallographic rotations during the process. The investigated spot was a few 0.1 mm{sup 2}. At a deformation of 0.6, the lateral faces of the crystal undergo a split into two Cube orientations each rotated of about 15{sup 0} around the transverse axis. This is put in relation with the undulations of the bars. At 0.9 an additional rotation around the longitudinal axis appears. The local material rotation and the lattice spin at the mesoscopic scale are interpreted in accordance with previous analyses of the evolution of the Cube texture based on EBSD and the observation of the traces of slip systems.

  14. 1,2-Bis-(1-{l_brace}3-pyridyl-{r_brace}3-methyltriazen-3-yl)ethane: synthesis and x-ray crystal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, K.; Turner, E.; Jenkins, H. [Saint Mary' s Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)]. E-mail: keith.vaughan@smu.ca

    2004-03-01

    3-Aminopyridine is diazotized in the conventional manner and the diazonium salt coupled with N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine to afford the title compound (1), which is a potential antitumour agent. The compound has been characterized by spectroscopic methods. The {sup 1}H NMR spectrum shows evidence of rotational conformerism, from the observation of broadening of the N-methyl signals in the room-temperature spectrum. Low-temperature NMR spectra (down to 223 K) show the presence of three distinct rotamers. The crystal structure of 1,2-bis-(1-{l_brace}3-pyridyl-{r_brace}3-methyltriazen-3-yl)ethane (1) has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The bis-triazene (1) exists as the 'staggered' conformation in the solid state, with an 'anti-anti' configuration around the N-N bond of the triazene units. The crystal structure of 1 is compared with the closely related bis-triazene 2 and also compared with the simple mono-triazene 3. Crystal data for 1, C{sub 14}H{sub 18}N{sub 8}: orthorhombic, space group Pbca, a=11.2550(8) ANGSTROM, b=8.8507(6) ANGSTROM, c=15.0069(10) ANGSTROM, {beta}=90{sup o} and V=1494.91(18) ANGSTROM{sup 3}, for Z=4. (author)

  15. Aeroelasticity of Axially Loaded Aerodynamic Structures for Truss-Braced Wing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Ting, Eric; Lebofsky, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an aeroelastic finite-element formulation for axially loaded aerodynamic structures. The presence of axial loading causes the bending and torsional sitffnesses to change. For aircraft with axially loaded structures such as the truss-braced wing aircraft, the aeroelastic behaviors of such structures are nonlinear and depend on the aerodynamic loading exerted on these structures. Under axial strain, a tensile force is created which can influence the stiffness of the overall aircraft structure. This tension stiffening is a geometric nonlinear effect that needs to be captured in aeroelastic analyses to better understand the behaviors of these types of aircraft structures. A frequency analysis of a rotating blade structure is performed to demonstrate the analytical method. A flutter analysis of a truss-braced wing aircraft is performed to analyze the effect of geometric nonlinear effect of tension stiffening on the flutter speed. The results show that the geometric nonlinear tension stiffening effect can have a significant impact on the flutter speed prediction. In general, increased wing loading results in an increase in the flutter speed. The study illustrates the importance of accounting for the geometric nonlinear tension stiffening effect in analyzing the truss-braced wing aircraft.

  16. Elderly Care Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagiman, Aliani; Haja Bava Mohidin, Hazrina; Ismail, Alice Sabrina

    2016-02-01

    The demand for elderly centre has increased tremendously abreast with the world demographic change as the number of senior citizens rose in the 21st century. This has become one of the most crucial problems of today's era. As the world progress into modernity, more and more people are occupied with daily work causing the senior citizens to lose the care that they actually need. This paper seeks to elucidate the best possible design of an elderly care centre with new approach in order to provide the best service for them by analysing their needs and suitable activities that could elevate their quality of life. All these findings will then be incorporated into design solutions so as to enhance the living environment for the elderly especially in Malaysian context.

  17. Bracing superior to neuromuscular training for the prevention of self-reported recurrent ankle sprains: a three-arm randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Kasper W.; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert A L M

    2014-01-01

    Background Ankle sprain is the most common sports-related injury with a high rate of recurrence and associated costs. Recent studies have emphasised the effectiveness of both neuromuscular training and bracing for the secondary prevention of ankle sprains. Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of combined bracing and neuromuscular training, or bracing alone, against the use of neuromuscular training on recurrences of ankle sprain after usual care. Methods 384 athletes, aged 18–70, who had sustain...

  18. Graphene quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Güçlü, Alev Devrim; Korkusinski, Marek; Hawrylak, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    This book reflects the current status of theoretical and experimental research of graphene based nanostructures, in particular quantum dots, at a level accessible to young researchers, graduate students, experimentalists and theorists. It presents the current state of research of graphene quantum dots, a single or few monolayer thick islands of graphene. It introduces the reader to the electronic and optical properties of graphite, intercalated graphite and graphene, including Dirac fermions, Berry's phase associated with sublattices and valley degeneracy, covers single particle properties of

  19. Tele-centres in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Tele-centres offer a low cost opportunity for the many who cannot afford their own phone or Internet connection. This paper presents a field study of tele-centres in Ghana and analyses how they contribute to universal access.......Tele-centres offer a low cost opportunity for the many who cannot afford their own phone or Internet connection. This paper presents a field study of tele-centres in Ghana and analyses how they contribute to universal access....

  20. Treatment of chronic low back pain in patients with spinal deformities using a sagittal re-alignment brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Hans-Rudolf

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For adult scoliosis patients with chronic low back pain bracing is initially indicated before spinal surgery is considered. Until recently there has been a lack of research into the effect upon pain reductions in the mid and long-term. Promising results have been documented in short-term studies for the application of a sagittal re-alignment brace in patients with spinal deformities and along with pain; however mid-term and long-term results are not yet available. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mid-term effects of this brace with respect to pain control. Materials and methods 67 patients (58 females and 9 males with chronic low back pain (> 24 months and the diagnosis of scoliosis or hyperkyphosis were treated with a sagittal re-alignment brace (physio-logic brace™ between January 2006 and July 2007. The indication for this kind of brace treatment was derived from a positive sagittal re-alignment test (SRT and the exclusion of successful conservative treatment during the last 24 months. The aim of this type of conservative intervention was to avoid surgery for chronic low back pain. Results The average pain intensity was measured on the Roland and Morris VRS (5 steps before treatment. This was 3.3 (t1, at the time of brace adjustment it was 2.7 (t2 and after at an average observation time of 18 months it was 2.0 (t3. The differences were highly significant in the Wilcoxon test. Discussion Short-term measurements showed that a significant pain reduction is possible in chronic postural low back pain using a sagittal re-alignment brace inducing lumbar re-lordosation. In a preliminary report at adjustment (t2, highly significant improvements of pain intensity have also been demonstrated. At 6 months of treatment however, no improvement was measured. The improvement of the mid-term effects (18 months found in this study compared to the preliminary report may be due to the changed approach to compliance: whilst

  1. Treatment Outcomes of Patients Placed on Treatment Under Directly Observed Therapy Short-Course (Dots)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur Gurpreet; Goel N; Kumar Dinesh; Janmeja A; Swami H; Kalia Meenu

    2008-01-01

    Background : Tuberculosis continues to be a pressing health problem in India. The Revised National Tuberculosis Programme (RNTCP), an application of Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) in India, launched in 1997 needs contin-uous evaluation. Objective : To study the outcomes of treatment among the patients put on DOTS under RNTCP in Chandigarh, UT. Material & Methods : A Longitudi-nal study was conducted during 2004-2005 in 13 Microscopic centres (MC′s) spread over...

  2. Binding Energies of Negatively Charged Donors in a Gaussian Potential Quantum Dot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-Fang

    2005-01-01

    @@ We investigate a negatively charged donor centre (D-) trapped by a quantum dot, which is subjected to a Gaussian potential confinement. Calculations are carried out by using the method of numerical diagonalization of Hamiltonian within the effective-mass approximation. The dependence of the ground state of the negatively charged donor on the dot size and the potential depth is studied. The same calculations performed with the parabolic approximation of the Gaussian potential lead to the results that are qualitatively and quantitatively different.

  3. Do ankle braces provide similar effects on ankle biomechanical variables in subjects with and without chronic ankle instability during landing?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Songning; Zhang; Michael; Wortley; Julia; Freedman; Silvernail; Daniel; Carson; Maxime; R.Paquette

    2012-01-01

    <正>Purpose:The purpose of this study was to examine effects of a sport version of a semi-rigid ankle brace(ElementTM) and a soft ankle brace (ASO) on ankle biomechanics and ground reaction forces(GRFs) during a drop landing activity in subjects with chronic ankle instability(CAD compared to healthy subjects with no history of CAI. Methods:Ten healthy subjects and 10 subjects who had multiple ankle sprains participated in the study as the control and unstable subjects, respectively.The CAI subjects were age,body mass index and gender matched with the control subjects.The arch index and ankle functions of the subjects were measured in a subject screening session.During the biomechanical test session,participants performed five trials of drop landing from 0.6 m,wearing no brace(NB).Element? brace and ASO brace.Simultaneous recording of three-dimensional kinematic(240 Hz) and GRF(1200 Hz) data were performed. Results:The CAI subjects had lower ankle functional survey scores.The arch index and deformity results showed greater arch deformity of ElementTM against a static load than in NB and ASO due to greater initial arch position held by the brace.CAI participants had greater eversion velocity than healthy controls.The ASO brace reduced the first peak vertical GRF whereas ElementTM increased 2nd peak vertical GRF. ElementTMbrace reduced eversion range of motion(ROM) and peak eversion velocity compared to NB and ASO.In addition,ElementTM reduced dorsiflexion ROM and increased peak plantarflexion moment compared to NB and ASO. Conclusion:Results of static arch measurements and dynamic ankle motion suggest that the restrictions offered by both braces are in part due to more dorsiflexed ankle positions at contact,and higher initial arch position and stiffer ankle for ElementTM.

  4. Transition energies and magnetic properties of a neutral donor complex in a Gaussian GaAs quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boda, Aalu; Chatterjee, Ashok

    2016-09-01

    The problem of a neutral hydrogenic donor (D0) centre located at the centre of a GaAs quantum dot with Gaussian confinement is studied in the presence of an external magnetic field. The ground and the first excited state energies and the corresponding binding energies are obtained as functions of the potential strength, quantum dot radius and the magnetic field using a variational method. It is suggested that the first excited state of the D0 centre is bound for sufficiently strong confinement potential. The 1 s - 2p- transition energy and the magnetic susceptibilities for the ground and the first excited states are also determined.

  5. DGNB certified Healthcare Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla; Larsen, Tine Steen

    2015-01-01

    for sustainability and wants a certification. This research investigates the decision‐making and design process (DMaDP) behind four DGNB certified Healthcare Centres (HCC) in Northern Jutland in Denmark. In general, knowledge about the DMaDP is important. However it is important to know what part DGNB plays...... a dialog about DGNB and energy concept is important even before anyone start sketching. Experiences with the different approaches will be further outlined in the paper.Future research has the intention to collect further knowledge about DGNB and DMaDP in practise. This project was limited to Healthcare...

  6. Centre liikekeskuksen digital signage

    OpenAIRE

    Bincl, Suzana

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni tarkastelee digital signagen suunnittelussa huomioitavia tekijöitä ja sen arvoa markkinointikanavana. Työ on toteutettu tilaustyönä Lappeenrantalaiselle mainostoimisto Mediakolmiolle. Työ sisältää teoriaosuuden lisäksi sisältösuunnitelman rakenteilla olevalle Centre liikekeskukselle. Tavoitteena oli luoda liikekeskukselle sen brändiä tukeva digital signage konsepti. Työ ei sisällä valmista tuotetta, vaan se toimii ehdotelmana myöhemmin alkavalle tuotanno...

  7. Town Centre Redevelopment Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagnby, Bo Hellisen

    urban planning and design strategieswhich have been practised in most of the larger Danish towns: pedestrian streets, shopping centres, preservation of historic features, waterfronts, concentration of offices, conference and sports facilities, improvement og traffic and transport conditions as well...... as slum clearence and urban renewal. To a certain extent parallels are drawn to international experiences, especially where these are of such a nature that they can be assumed transferred to Danish connctions. Conclusively, the strategies are discussed in the light of the turn of Danish urban planning...

  8. A novel POSS-coated quantum dot for biological application

    OpenAIRE

    Rizvi SB; Yildirimer L; Ghaderi S; Ramesh B; Seifalian AM; Keshtgar M

    2012-01-01

    Sarwat B Rizvi,1 Lara Yildirimer,1 Shirin Ghaderi,1 Bala Ramesh,1 Alexander M Seifalian,1,2 Mo Keshtgar1,21UCL Centre for Nanotechnology and Regenerative Medicine, Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, United Kingdom; 2Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust Hospital, London, United KingdomAbstract: Quantum dots (QDs) are fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals that have the potential for major advancements in the field of nanomedicine through their unique photophys...

  9. Fluoroscopic Analysis of Tibial Translation in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injured Knees With and Without Bracing During Forward Lunge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite several studies with different methods, the effect of functional knee braces on knee joint kinematics is not clear. Direct visualization of joint components through medical imaging modalities may provide the clinicians with more useful information. Objectives In this study, for the first time in the literature, video fluoroscopy was used to investigate the effect of knee bracing on the sagittal plane kinematics of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injured patients. Patients and Methods For twelve male unilateral ACL deficient subjects, the anterior tibial translation was measured during lunge exercise in non-braced and braced conditions. Fluoroscopic images were acquired from the subjects using a digital fluoroscopy system with a rate of 10 fps. The image of each frame was scaled using a calibration coin and analyzed in AutoCAD environment. The angle between the two lines, tangent to the posterior cortexes of the femoral and tibial shafts was measured as the flexion angle. For the fluoroscopic images associated with 0°, 15°, 30°, 45° and 60° knee flexion angles, the relative anterior-posterior configuration of the tibiofemoral joint was assessed by measuring the position of landmarks on the tibia and femur. Results Results indicated that the overall anterior translations of the tibia during the eccentric (down and concentric (up phases of lunge exercise were 10.4 ± 1.7 mm and 9.0 ± 2.2 mm for non-braced, and 10.1 ± 3.4 mm and 7.4 ± 2.5 mm, for braced conditions, respectively. The difference of the tibial anterior-posterior translation behaviors of the braced and non-braced knees was not statistically significant. Conclusion Fluoroscopic imaging provides an effective tool to measure the dynamic behavior of the knee joint in the sagittal plane and within the limitations of this study, the pure mechanical stabilizing effect of functional knee bracing is not sufficient to control the anterior tibial translation of the ACL

  10. Effect of Semi-Rigid and Soft Ankle Braces on Static and Dynamic Postural Stability in Young Male Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Noriaki; Urabe, Yukio; Tsutsumi, Shogo; Numano, Shuhei; Morita, Miho; Takeuchi, Takuya; Iwata, Shou; Kobayashi, Toshiki

    2016-06-01

    Ankle braces have been suggested to protect ankle joints from a sprain by restricting inversion and improving proprioception. However, the difference in effects between a semi-rigid brace and a soft brace regarding dynamic postural control after landing is not known. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of soft (SB) and semi-rigid (SRB) ankle braces on static and dynamic postural stability in healthy young men. Altogether, 21 male adults (mean age 24.0 ± 1.5 years) were assessed for one leg while wearing non-brace (NB), SB or SRB. Balance in single-limb stance on a single-force platform with open eyes and closed eyes were assessed for the non-dominant leg under SB, SRB, and NB conditions. Locus length/second (mm/s) and the enveloped area (mm·s(-2)) surrounded by the circumference of the wave pattern during postural sway were calculated. For assessing dynamic postural stability, the participant jumped and landed on one leg on a force platform, and the Dynamic Postural Stability Index (DPSI) and the maximum vertical ground reaction force (vGRFmax) were measured. The data were compared among the three conditions with repeated-measures analysis of variance. The correlations between locus length/second, enveloped area, DPSI values (DPSI, Anterior-Posterior Stability Index, Medial-Lateral Stability Index, and Vertical Stability Index), and vGRFmax were then calculated. The results indicated that locus length/second and enveloped area with open eyes and closed eyes were not significantly different for each condition. However, a significant lower in the DPSI and Vertical Stability Index were observed with the SRB in comparison to the SB and NB. A significant improvement in vGRFmax was also observed with the SRB in comparison to NB. SRB demonstrated a positive effect on dynamic postural stability after landing on a single leg and may improve balance by increasing dynamic postural stability. Key pointsThis study examined the effect of ankle braces on

  11. Thermophysical properties of {l_brace}({+-})-linalool + propan-1-ol{r_brace}: A first stage towards the development of a green process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Abarrio, Sandra M.; Torcal, Marcos; Haya, M. Luisa; Urieta, Jose S. [Group of Applied Thermodynamics and Surfaces (GATHERS), Aragon Institute for Engineering Research (I3A), Universidad de Zaragoza, Facultad de Ciencias, Zaragoza 50009 (Spain); Mainar, Ana M., E-mail: ammainar@unizar.e [Group of Applied Thermodynamics and Surfaces (GATHERS), Aragon Institute for Engineering Research (I3A), Universidad de Zaragoza, Facultad de Ciencias, Zaragoza 50009 (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: Optimization of supercritical processes needs adequate methods to reproduce the phase behavior. {rho}, u, n{sub D} and related properties of the system linalool+propan-1-ol were studied. Collision Factor (u), Lorentz-Lorenz and Gladstone -Dale (n{sub D}) give the best results. Peng-Robinson, Patel-Teja, SAFT and PC-SAFT were tested as predictive P{rho}T models. PC-SAFT provides the best P{rho}T prediction (20-40 MPa) with an AAD% of 0.83. - Abstract: In this paper, densities, speeds of sound and refractive indexes of binary mixture of {l_brace}({+-})-linalool (1) + propan-1-ol (2){r_brace} at four temperatures (283.15, 298.15, 313.15, and 328.15) K and 0.1 MPa are reported over the whole composition range. These data were used to calculate excess molar volume, speed of sound deviation, excess isentropic compressibility, refractive index deviation, molar refraction, and molar refraction deviation at the four work temperatures. All magnitudes were fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation. Subsequently prediction of speed of sound and refractive index was carried out using several theoretical models or equations. On the other hand, the density of the same mixture was determined in the same temperature range at pressures from 20 MPa to 40 MPa. Four equation of state (Peng-Robinson, Patel-Teja, SAFT, PC-SAFT) were tested as predictive models of the P{rho}T behavior. The best results were obtained by PC-SAFT, with an average absolute deviation of 0.83%.

  12. Assessment of buckling-restrained braced frame reliability using an experimental limit-state model and stochastic dynamic analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Blake M. Andrews; Junho Song; Larry A. Fahnestock

    2009-01-01

    Buckling-restrained braces (BRBs) have recently become popular in the United :States for use as primary members of seismic lateral-force-resisting systems. A BRB is a steel brace that does not buckle in compression but instead yields in both tension and compression. Although design guidelines for BRB applications have been developed, systematic procedures for assessing performance and quantifying reliability are still needed. This paper presents an analytical framework for assessing buckling-restrained braced frame (BRBF) reliability when subjected to seismic loads. This framework efficiently quantifies the risk of BRB failure due to low-cycle fatigue fracture of the BRB core. The procedure includes a series of components that: (1) quantify BRB demand in terms of BRB core deformation histories generated through stochastic dynamic analyses; (2) quantify the limit-state of a BRB in terms of its remaining cumulative plastic ductility capacity based on an experimental database; and (3) evaluate the probability of BRB failure, given the quantified demand and capacity, through structural reliability analyses. Parametric studies were conducted to investigate the effects of the seismic load, and characteristics of the BRB and BRBF on the probability of brace failure. In addition, fragility curves (i.e., conditional probabilities of brace failure given ground shaking intensity parameters) were created by the proposed framework. While the framework presented in this paper is applied to the assessment of BRBFs, the modular nature of the framework components allows for application to other structural components and systems.

  13. Effect of Compressive Force on Aeroelastic Stability of a Strut-Braced Wing

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaeman, Erwin

    2001-01-01

    Recent investigations of a strut-braced wing (SBW) aircraft show that, at high positive load factors, a large tensile force in the strut leads to a considerable compressive axial force in the inner wing, resulting in a reduced bending stiffness and even buckling of the wing. Studying the influence of this compressive force on the structural response of SBW is thus of paramount importance in the early stage of SBW design. The purpose of the this research is to investigate the effect of co...

  14. Functional bracing for comminuted extra-articular fractures of the distal third of the humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, A; Horowitch, A; Aboulafia, A; Vangsness, C T

    1990-03-01

    From 1982 to 1987 we treated 85 extra-articular comminuted distal third humeral fractures in adults with prefabricated plastic braces. Of these, 15% were open fractures and 18% had initial peripheral nerve injury. On average, the sleeve was applied 12 days after injury and used for 10 weeks. There was 96% union, with no infections. All nerve injuries resolved or were improving at the latest examination. At union there was varus deformity averaging 9 degrees in 81% of patients, but loss of range of movement was minimal and functional results were good.

  15. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Harald

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have evaluated long-term outcome after bracing using validated health related quality of life outcome measures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term outcome in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS 12 years or more after treatment with the Boston brace. Methods 109 (80% of 135 patients (7 men with AIS treated with the Boston brace at a mean of 19.2 (range 12–28 years previously responded to long-term follow-up examination. All patients (n = 109 answered a standardised questionnaire including demographics, work status, treatment, Global Back Disability Question, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI (100-worst possible, General Function Score (GFS (100 – worst possible, EuroQol (EQ-5D (1 – best possible, EQ-VAS (100 – best possible and Scoliosis Research Society -22 (SRS – 22 (5 – best possible. Clinical and radiological examination was obtained in 86 patients. Results The magnitude of the primary prebrace major curve was in average 33.4° (range 20 – 52. At weaning and at the last follow-up the corresponding values were 28.3° (9–56 and 34.2° (8 – 87, respectively. The mean age at follow-up was 35 (27 – 46 years. Work status was: full time (80%, on sick-leave (3%, on rehabilitation (4%, disability pension (4%, homemaker (7%, students (2%, 7% had changed their job because of back pain. 88% had had delivered a baby, 55% of them had pain in pregnancy. Global back status was excellent or good in 81%. The mean (standard deviation ODI was 6.4 (9.8, GFS 5.4 (10.5, EQ-5D 0.84 (0.2, SRS-22: pain 4.2 (0.8, mental health 4.2 (0.7, self-image 3.9 (0.7, function 4.1 (0.6, satisfaction with treatment 3.7 (1.0. 28% had taken physiotherapy for back pain the last year and 12% had visited a doctor. Conclusion Long-term results were satisfactory in most patients with AIS treated with the Boston brace.

  16. Analysis of Anchors and Bracing Configurations for Personal Fall Arrest Systems in Residential Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Justin Collins

    2013-01-01

    AbstractAnalysis of Anchors and Bracing Configurations with Personal Fall Arrest Systems in Residential ConstructionJustin Collins Morris    Falls continue to be a major problem in the residential construction industry and account for a large number of injuries and fatalities each year (US Department of Labor, 2012).  The effects of a fall are catastrophic to the workers and their families as well as the construction company and surrounding community.  Prevention of these incidents has been t...

  17. [The primary healthcare centres].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Antonio; Maciocco, Gavino

    2014-04-01

    The central attributes of primary care are: first contact (accessibility), longitudinality (person- focused preventive and curative care overtime), patient-oriented comprehensiveness and coordination (including navigation towards secondary and tertiary care). Besides taking care of the needs of the individuals, primary health care teams are also looking at the community, especially when addressing social determinants of health. The rationale for the benefits for primary care for health has been found in: 1) greater access to needed services; 2) better quality of care; 3) a greater focus on prevention; 4) early management of health problems; 5) organizing and delivering high quality care for chronic non-communicable diseases. This paper describes the role of primary healthcare centres in strengthening community primary services and in reducing health inequalities. Furthemore, the experiences of Regional Health Services from Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna are discussed, with a brief overview of the literature. PMID:24770539

  18. Effect of hot and cold deformation on the P {l_brace}0 1 1{r_brace}<4 5 5> recrystallization texture in a continuous cast Al-Mn-Mg aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.C. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, 177 Anderson Hall, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)]. E-mail: wcliu@engr.uky.edu; Morris, J.G. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, 177 Anderson Hall, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    The effect of different relative amounts of hot and cold deformation on the P {l_brace}0 1 1{r_brace}<4 5 5> recrystallization texture in a continuous cast Al-Mn-Mg aluminum alloy was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The results show that at a given total rolling strain the sheet with a high hot rolling strain exhibits a significantly stronger P texture than sheet with a low hot rolling strain. Hot deformation strongly promotes the formation of the P texture during recrystallization annealing.

  19. The B-Lynch uterine brace suture, and a bit of this and a bit of that...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoshi, Mahantesh

    2010-03-01

    The widespread application of the B-Lynch brace suture to control postpartum hemorrhage has sparked interest in a variety of adjunctive methods, used alone or in combination, to control uterine bleeding. Although the B-Lynch brace suture has been used with good results throughout the world, failures can and do occur in rare instances, especially when the suture is incorrectly placed for use for an inappropriate indication. Four reports of additional methods to control postpartum hemorrhage are published in this issue of IJGO. Three use the B-Lynch brace suture combined with other techniques. The need for additional techniques reminds the reader of the importance of proper suture application for proper indication. Potential reasons for failure of the B-Lynch suture are provided. PMID:20070962

  20. Comparison of in-and outpatients protocols for providence night time only bracing in AIS patients -- compliance and satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Aubaidi, Zaid Tj; Tropp, Hans; Pedersen, Niels W;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skeletally immature patients diagnosed with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and a Cobb angle above 25degrees is usually treated with a brace. Standard protocols in many centers include hospitalisation for a few days for the purpose of brace adaptation and fitting. The aim...... (9-14). Scoliosis Quality of Life Index (SQLI) was used together with the Odense Scoliosis questionnaire, which was developed for this study. Compliance was measured using the patients' own statements and the Landauer compliance scoring system.Findings/resultsThe two groups' matches regarding the age......, Risser grad, Cobb angle and primary correction. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding the SQLI and the Odense Scoliosis questionnaire. The compliance was higher in the ambulatory group. CONCLUSION: Outpatient initiation of bracing in scoliosis seems to give...

  1. Quantum dot solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    The third generation of solar cells includes those based on semiconductor quantum dots. This sophisticated technology applies nanotechnology and quantum mechanics theory to enhance the performance of ordinary solar cells. Although a practical application of quantum dot solar cells has yet to be achieved, a large number of theoretical calculations and experimental studies have confirmed the potential for meeting the requirement for ultra-high conversion efficiency. In this book, high-profile scientists have contributed tutorial chapters that outline the methods used in and the results of variou

  2. Experiences of Telebased Information Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    1999-01-01

    Tele-based information community centres or just tele-centres have been seen as the killer application to empower local communities in developed and developing countries to meet the challenges of the information society. This paper will present a number of models for introducing such centres and ...... and discuss the different models and national strategies used for setting up tele-based information in relation to the Ghana experience.......Tele-based information community centres or just tele-centres have been seen as the killer application to empower local communities in developed and developing countries to meet the challenges of the information society. This paper will present a number of models for introducing such centres...

  3. Update on System Coordination Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stangl, W. [Power Pool of Alberta, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    The new System Coordination Centre at the Power Pool of Alberta was designed to meet the unique requirements of Alberta`s electric industry under the new regulatory regime. Development of the Centre, key provisions of the energy management system (EMS) are highlighted. The centre will provide an energy management system for the Pool`s system controller function and interface with the Power Pool Administrator`s market functions and the operations of the Transmission Administrator. System controllers are expected to be operating from the new location by the end of 1998. Unique EMS features of the centre include: (1) real-time management of energy market and network operations using diverse SCADA/EMS, (2) inter-control centre protocol used to accommodate the unique participant information requirements, and (3) special custom applications. The Centre is expected to be fully functioning by July 1999. 1 fig.

  4. Health-related quality of life in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis after treatment: Short-term effects after brace or surgical treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Bunge (Eveline); R.E. Juttmann (Rikard); M. de Kleuver (Marinus); F.C. van Biezen (Frans); H.J. de Koning (Harry); H.D. Been (Henk); L.N.J.E.M. Coene (Luc); H. Creemers (Huub); A.J. de Gruijter; A.A.J.M. Hazebroek-Kampschreur (Alice); P.H.J. Klop (Patrick); H.J.A. Kruls; P.J.M. van Loon (Piet); L.C.F. Luttmer; F. de Nies (Frank); J.E.H. Pruijs; L.W. van Rhijn (Lodewijk); M.P. Teeuwen (Marcel); P.A. Wiegersma (Auke)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractFor treatment of teenagers with progressive adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in an early stage, two options are generally considered: treatment with a brace or observation followed by surgery if necessary. Many doctors and patients prefer conservative treatment (i.e. brace treatment) to s

  5. Effects of soft bracing or taping on a lateral ankle sprain : a non-randomised controlled trial evaluating recurrence rates and residual symptoms at one year

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemler, Ellen; van de Port, Ingrid; Schmikli, Sandor; Huisstede, Bionka; Hoes, Arno; Backx, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background: After sustaining an ankle sprain, taping is often the standard treatment in primary care. Ankle braces are sometimes used as an alternative. This study aimed to compare the effects of four weeks of soft bracing or taping following acute lateral ankle ligamentous sprain (ALALS) on sprain

  6. The Sforzesco brace can replace cast in the correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: A controlled prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaina Fabio

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS has traditionally been divided into two phases–correction and stabilisation–and casts, even if less used today, can be considered the best standard in the correction phase. Till the present, however, no comparison between cast and brace efficacy has been proposed. Methods This is a prospective cohort study with a retrospective control group. The aim was to verify if it is possible to obtain with a specifically developed rigid brace results comparable to a cast. We considered fifty AIS patients who had refused surgery, aged 14.1 ± 1.5 years, with 46.7 ± 7.8° Cobb scoliosis. Thirty-two consecutive patients (with no drop-outs were prospectively followed up with the Sforzesco brace (SBG, and compared against a retrospective group of eighteen patients treated with the Risser cast (RCG. The treatment time (the total correction phase was 19 ± 3 months. Out-of-brace x-rays were compared, as well as clinical results. Results Compliance and hours of treatment were higher in the RCG while all the other parameters were not different. We observed a reduction of 6° Cobb and an important aesthetic gain in both groups (P Conclusion In the corrective phase of AIS treatment it is possible with a specific rigid brace (Sforzesco – SPoRT concept to obtain scoliosis correction similar to cast. Due to the human and social costs of casting, and worst sagittal profile results, Sforzesco brace should be the preferred method wherever possible.

  7. Outcome in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis after brace treatment and surgery assessed by means of the Scoliosis Research Society Instrument 24

    OpenAIRE

    Weigert, Karen Petra; Nygaard, Linda Marie; Christensen, Finn Bjarke; Hansen, Ebbe Stender; Bünger, Cody

    2005-01-01

    A retrospectively designed long-term follow-up study of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients who had completed treatment, of at least 2 years, by means of brace, surgery, or both brace and surgery. This study is to assess the outcome after treatment for AIS by means of the Scoliosis Research Society Outcome Instrument 24 (SRS 24). One hundred and eighteen AIS patients (99 females and 19 males), treated at the Aarhus University Hospital from January 1, 1987 to December 31, 1997, were...

  8. SUPER-CAPACITOR APPLICATION IN ELECTRICAL POWER CABLE TESTING FACILITIES IN THERMAL ENDURANCE AND MECHANICAL BRACING TESTS

    OpenAIRE

    I. V. Oleksyuk

    2015-01-01

    The current-carrying cores of the electrical power cables should be resistant to effects of short-circuit currents whose values depend on the material of the core, its cross-sectional area, cable insulation properties, environment temperature, and the duration of the short-circuit current flow (1 and 3–4 sec. when tested for thermal endurance and mechanical bracing). The facilities for testing the 10 kV aluminum core cables with short-circuit current shall provide mechanical-bracing current 5...

  9. Two Cases of Eating Disorders in Adolescents with Dental Braces Fitted Prior to the Onset of Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment typically occurs during early childhood and adolescence but the wearing of dental braces is often associated with sudden changes in eating patterns that prolong treatment into the teenage years. Despite these changes, psychological assessments related to eating disorders during the course of orthodontic treatment are often ignored. Based on the findings of the present case report, it is suggested that adolescent patients who wear braces and exhibit severe weight loss should be carefully monitored for psychiatric problems, including eating disorders. PMID:26207138

  10. Two Cases of Eating Disorders in Adolescents with Dental Braces Fitted Prior to the Onset of Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Sung-Wan; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2015-07-01

    Orthodontic treatment typically occurs during early childhood and adolescence but the wearing of dental braces is often associated with sudden changes in eating patterns that prolong treatment into the teenage years. Despite these changes, psychological assessments related to eating disorders during the course of orthodontic treatment are often ignored. Based on the findings of the present case report, it is suggested that adolescent patients who wear braces and exhibit severe weight loss should be carefully monitored for psychiatric problems, including eating disorders. PMID:26207138

  11. Carbon nanotube quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sapmaz, S.

    2006-01-01

    Low temperature electron transport measurements on individual single wall carbon nanotubes are described in this thesis. Carbon nanotubes are small hollow cylinders made entirely out of carbon atoms. At low temperatures (below ~10 K) finite length nanotubes form quantum dots. Because of its small si

  12. Effect of Kınesıotapıng and Knee Brace on Functıonal Performance in Recreatıonal Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Burak; İldiz, Bülent; Tunay, Volga Bayrakçı

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Kinesiotaping is a popular taping method that is used for both therapeutic and performance enchancement purposes. Knee braces are widely used for prevention in sport injuries but their performance effectiveness is still controversial. The aim of this study was to determine whether kinesiotape or brace was more effective on functional performance. Methods: A total twenty male recreational football players (Mean±Standart Deviation (SD) age: 22.5±0.68 years, height: 175.15±3.37 cm, body weight: 74.52±12.41 kg), voluntarily participated in this study. Participants were tested with kinesiotape, with brace and without kinesiotape and brace. Tests were applied one day after patellar kinesiotaping (correction technique). Balance property measured with Modified Y balance Test (dynamic test), agility measured by T test, muscle strength and anaerobic power assessed by vertical jump and triple hop tests. Wilcoxon signed rank test was employed for determining the statistical significance of tests with kinesiotape, with brace and without kinesiotape and brace. Results: In analysis; There were statistically significant differences found in Triple hop test with kinesiotaping and without kinesiotaping and brace, in T test with bracing and kinesiotaping, in vertical jump with kinesiotaping and without kinesiotaping and brace (pkinesiotaping in all tests) No statistically significant difference was found in modified Y balance test all groups (p> 0.05). Conclusion: Consequently, kinesiotaping had positive effects on agility and muscle strength but had no effects on balance in football players. On the other hand, brace had no effects on functional performance tests.

  13. Colloidal Double Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelboim, Ayelet; Meir, Noga; Kazes, Miri; Oron, Dan

    2016-05-17

    Pairs of coupled quantum dots with controlled coupling between the two potential wells serve as an extremely rich system, exhibiting a plethora of optical phenomena that do not exist in each of the isolated constituent dots. Over the past decade, coupled quantum systems have been under extensive study in the context of epitaxially grown quantum dots (QDs), but only a handful of examples have been reported with colloidal QDs. This is mostly due to the difficulties in controllably growing nanoparticles that encapsulate within them two dots separated by an energetic barrier via colloidal synthesis methods. Recent advances in colloidal synthesis methods have enabled the first clear demonstrations of colloidal double quantum dots and allowed for the first exploratory studies into their optical properties. Nevertheless, colloidal double QDs can offer an extended level of structural manipulation that allows not only for a broader range of materials to be used as compared with epitaxially grown counterparts but also for more complex control over the coupling mechanisms and coupling strength between two spatially separated quantum dots. The photophysics of these nanostructures is governed by the balance between two coupling mechanisms. The first is via dipole-dipole interactions between the two constituent components, leading to energy transfer between them. The second is associated with overlap of excited carrier wave functions, leading to charge transfer and multicarrier interactions between the two components. The magnitude of the coupling between the two subcomponents is determined by the detailed potential landscape within the nanocrystals (NCs). One of the hallmarks of double QDs is the observation of dual-color emission from a single nanoparticle, which allows for detailed spectroscopy of their properties down to the single particle level. Furthermore, rational design of the two coupled subsystems enables one to tune the emission statistics from single photon

  14. Mathematical modeling and full-scale shaking table tests for multi-curve buckling restrained braces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. S. Tsai; Yungchang Lin; Wenshin Chen; H. C. Su

    2009-01-01

    Buckling restrained braces (BRBs) have been widely applied in seismic mitigation since they were introduced in the 1970s. However, traditional BRBs have several disadvantages caused by using a steel tube to envelope the mortar to prevent the core plate from buckling, such as: complex interfaces between the materials used, uncertain precision, and time consumption during the manufacturing processes. In this study, a new device called the multi-curve buckling restrained brace (MC-BRB) is proposed to overcome these disadvantages. The new device consists of a core plate with multiple neck portions assembled to form multiple energy dissipation segments, and the enlarged segment, lateral support elements and constraining elements to prevent the BRB from buckling. The enlarged segment located in the middle of the core plate can be welded to the lateral support and constraining elements to increase buckling resistance and to prevent them from sliding during earthquakes. Component tests and a series of shaking table tests on a full-scale steel structure equipped with MC-BRBs were carried out to investigate the behavior and capability of this new BRB design for seismic mitigation. The experimental results illustrate that the MC-BRB possesses a stable mechanical behavior under cyclic loadings and provides good protection to structures during earthquakes. Also, a mathematical model has been developed to simulate the mechanical characteristics of BRBs.

  15. Design, testing and control of a magnetorheological actuator for assistive knee braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. Z.; Liao, W. H.

    2010-03-01

    This paper is aimed at developing a smart actuator for assistive knee braces to provide assistance to disabled or elderly people with mobility problems. A magnetorheological (MR) actuator is developed to be used in assistive knee braces to provide controllable torque. The MR actuator can work as a brake or a clutch. When active torque is needed, the DC motor works and the MR actuator functions as a clutch to transfer the torque generated by the motor to the leg; when passive torque is desired, the DC motor is turned off and the MR actuator functions as a brake to provide controllable passive torque. The prototype of the developed MR actuator is fabricated and experiments are carried out to investigate the characteristics of the MR actuator. The results show that the MR actuator is able to provide sufficient torque needed for normal human activities. Adaptive control is proposed for controlling the MR actuator. Anti-windup strategy is used to achieve better control performance. Experiments on the MR actuator under control are also performed to study the torque tracking ability of the system.

  16. Development and testing of a magnetorheological actuator for an assistive knee brace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinzhou; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2008-03-01

    This paper proposes an assistive knee brace that is aimed to provide assistance to old or disabled people. A magnetorheological (MR) actuator is developed to be used in assistive knee braces to provide controllable torque. The MR actuator consists of a DC motor and an MR brake/clutch. When active torque is needed, the DC motor works and the MR actuator functions as a clutch to transfer the torque generated by the motor to the leg; when passive torque is desired, the DC motor is turned off and the MR actuator functions as a brake to provide controllable passive torque. The prototype of this MR actuator is fabricated and experiments are carried out to investigate the characteristics of the MR actuator. The results show that the MR actuator is able to provide sufficient torque needed for normal human activities. Adaptive control is proposed for controlling the MR actuator. Experiments of the MR actuator under control are performed to study the torque tracking ability of the system.

  17. Ductility demands on buckling-restrained braced frames under earthquake loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Larry A. Fahnestock; Richard Sause; James M. Ricles; Le-Wu Lu

    2003-01-01

    Accurate estimates of ductility demands on buckling-restrained braced frames (BRBFs) are crucial to performance-based design of BRBFs. An analytical study on the seismic behavior of BRBFs has been conducted at the ATLSS Center, Lehigh University to prepare for an upcoming experimental program. The analysis program DRAIN-2DX was used to model a one-bay, four-story prototype BRBF including material and geometric nonlinearities. The bucklingrestrained brace (BRB) model incorporates both isotropic and kinematic hardening. Nonlinear static pushover and timehistory analyses were performed on the prototype BRBF. Performance objectives for the BRBs were defined and uscd to evaluate thc time-history analysis results. Particular emphasis was placed on global ductility demands and ductility demands oa the BRBs. These demands were compared with anticipated ductility capacities. The analysis results, along with results from similar previous studics, are used to evaluate the BRBF design provisions that have been recommended for codification in the United States. Thc results show that BRB maximum ductility demands can be as high as 20 to 25. These demands significantly exceed those anticipated by the BRBF recommended provisions. Results from the static pushover and timehistory analyses are used to demonstrate why the ductility demands exceed those anticipated by the recommended provisions.The BRB qualification testing protocol contained in the BRBF recommended provisions is shown to be inadequate because it requires only a maximum ductility demand of at most 7.5. Modifications to the testing protocol are recommended.

  18. Numerical analysis of effect of friction between diaphragm wall and soil on braced excavation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁钰; 郑刚

    2008-01-01

    A plane strain finite element model was established to investigate the effect of friction between diaphragm wall and soil on braced excavation. The behavior of interface between diaphragm wall and soil was simulated with the interface model of ABAQUS. Parametric studies were conducted with different diaphragm wall external friction angles δ. The results show that deflection of diaphragm wall and ground surface settlement decrease with the decrease of δ. However, the reduction effect on diaphragm wall deflection is the most significant at the depth where the maximum wall deflection occurs and can be neglected at the wall base. The ratio between wall deep inward component and wall cantilever component reaches its peak value 2.7 when δ=5°. The ratio of the maximum ground surface settlement to the maximum wall lateral deflection decreases at a reduced rate with the increase of δ. For excavation with braced diaphragm wall, the effect of friction between diaphragm and soil on the deflection of diaphragm wall and ground settlement, especially the distribution of ground surface settlement behind diaphragm, should be taken into account.

  19. Design, testing and control of a magnetorheological actuator for assistive knee braces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is aimed at developing a smart actuator for assistive knee braces to provide assistance to disabled or elderly people with mobility problems. A magnetorheological (MR) actuator is developed to be used in assistive knee braces to provide controllable torque. The MR actuator can work as a brake or a clutch. When active torque is needed, the DC motor works and the MR actuator functions as a clutch to transfer the torque generated by the motor to the leg; when passive torque is desired, the DC motor is turned off and the MR actuator functions as a brake to provide controllable passive torque. The prototype of the developed MR actuator is fabricated and experiments are carried out to investigate the characteristics of the MR actuator. The results show that the MR actuator is able to provide sufficient torque needed for normal human activities. Adaptive control is proposed for controlling the MR actuator. Anti-windup strategy is used to achieve better control performance. Experiments on the MR actuator under control are also performed to study the torque tracking ability of the system

  20. Designing Serious Games for Safety Education: "Learn to Brace" versus Traditional Pictorials for Aircraft Passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittaro, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Serious games for safety education (SGSE) are a novel tool for preparing people to prevent and\\or handle risky situations. Although several SGSE have been developed, design and evaluation methods for SGSE need to be better grounded in and guided by safety-relevant psychological theories. In particular, this paper focuses on threat appeals and the assessment of variables, such as safety locus of control, that influence human behavior in real risky situations. It illustrates how we took into account such models in the design and evaluation of "Learn to Brace", a first-of-its-kind serious game that deals with a major problem in aviation safety, i.e. the scarce effectiveness of the safety cards used by airlines. The study considered a sample of 48 users: half of them received instructions about the brace position through the serious game, the other half through a traditional safety card pictorial. Results showed that the serious game was much more effective than the traditional instructions both in terms of learning and of changing safety-relevant perceptions, especially safety locus of control and recommendation perception.

  1. Scoliosis bracing and exercise for pain management in adults—a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Hans-Rudolf; Moramarco, Kathryn; Moramarco, Marc

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] For adult patients with late-onset idiopathic scoliosis, cosmetic concerns and pain are the main reasons for seeking treatment at a physician’s office. The purpose of this paper was to describe the mid-term effect of physical rehabilitation and part-time bracing on an adult scoliosis patient who had been suffering from chronic low back pain for fourteen years. [Subject and Methods] Case description: A 37-year-old female patient with late-onset idiopathic scoliosis presented in the office of the first author in January 2014. She reported having chronic pain (low back pain) since the age of 23 and reported daily pain at a level of 5–7 on average on a Visual Analogue Scale of 0 to 10. She received a short scoliosis-specific Schroth exercise program and was also fitted with a Gensingen brace for part-time wear. [Results] At a 16 month follow-up, the patient no longer suffered from daily low back pain (with heavy lifting only) and was fully active. Additionally, her lumbar Cobb angle and angle of trunk rotation improved. [Conclusion] Patients with late-onset idiopathic scoliosis and pain may benefit from a pattern-specific conservative treatment approach. In this population, surgical intervention should be regarded as the last resort, since there are many long-term unknowns with surgery. PMID:27630444

  2. Experimental study on the seismic response of braced reinforced concrete frame with irregular columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianzhuang; Li, Jie; Chen, Jun

    2011-12-01

    A 15-storey K-braced reinforced concrete model frame with irregular columns, i.e., T-shaped, L-shaped, as well as +-shaped columns, was constructed and tested on the six-degree-of-freedom shaking table at the State Key Laboratory for Disaster Reduction in Civil Engineering in Tongji, China. Two types of earthquake records, El-Centro wave (south-north direction) and Shanghai artifi cial wave (SHAW) with various peak accelerations and principal-secondary sequences, were input and experimentally studied. Based on the shaking table tests and theoretical analysis, several observations can be made. The failure sequence of the model structure is brace→beam→column→joints, so that the design philosophy for several lines of defense has been achieved. Earthquake waves with different spectrums not only infl uence the magnitude and distribution of the earthquake force and the storey shear force, but also obviously affect the magnitude of the displacement response. The aftershock seismic response of previously damaged reinforced concrete braced frames with irregular columns possesses the equivalent elastic performance characteristic. Generally speaking, from the aspects of failure features and drift ratio, this type of reinforced concrete structure provides adequate earthquake resistance and can be promoted for use in China.

  3. Electron correlations in quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Tipton, D L J

    2001-01-01

    Quantum dot structures confine electrons in a small region of space. Some properties of semiconductor quantum dots, such as the discrete energy levels and shell filling effects visible in addition spectra, have analogies to those of atoms and indeed dots are sometimes referred to as 'artificial atoms'. However, atoms and dots show some fundamental differences due to electron correlations. For real atoms, the kinetic energy of electrons dominates over their mutual Coulomb repulsion energy and for this reason the independent electron approximation works well. For quantum dots the confining potential may be shallower than that of real atoms leading to lower electron densities and a dominance of mutual Coulomb repulsion over kinetic energy. In this strongly correlated regime the independent electron picture leads to qualitatively incorrect results. This thesis concentrates on few-electron quantum dots in the strongly correlated regime both for quasi-one-dimensional and two-dimensional dots in a square confining p...

  4. Fuzzy Dot Structure of BG-algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Tapan Senapati; Monoranjan Bhowmik; Madhumangal Pal

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the notions of fuzzy dot subalgebras is introduced together with fuzzy normal dot subalgebras and fuzzy dot ideals of BG-algebras. The homomorphic image and inverse image are investigated in fuzzy dot subalgebras and fuzzy dot ideals of BG-algebras. Also, the notion of fuzzy relations on the family of fuzzy dot subalgebras and fuzzy dot ideals of BG-algebras are introduced with some related properties.

  5. Council celebrates CERN Control Centre

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    With the unveiling of its new sign, the CERN Control Centre was officially inaugurated on Thursday 16 March. To celebrate its startup, CERN Council members visited the sleek centre, a futuristic-looking room filled with a multitude of monitoring screens.

  6. The Differential Effects of Exercise,Brace and Combined Rehabilitation Treatment in Patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis%The Differential Effects of Exercise, Brace and Combined Rehabilitation Treatment in Patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Qing; ZHOU Xuan; LI Jianan; ZHAO Li; TAO Quan; CHEN Ting; CHEN Peijie

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To compare the effects of different conservative managements on patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).Method:One hundred and four AIS patients were recruited for this study.The patients were divided into 3groups:exercise (E group),brace (B group) and combined rehabilitation treatment (brace treatment combined with exercise,CR group).Radiological parameter were used to assess AIS patients before and after treatment.The Chinese version of scoliosis research society-22(SRS-22) patient questionnaires were filled out by patients after treatment.The SRS-22 scores were compared among management groups.Result:The maximal Cobb angles were smaller in E group than in B group or CR group both before and after treatment.The maximal Cobb angles were significantly smaller after treatment than before treatment in B group and CR group.Function/activity was better in E group than in B group or CR group.Self-image/appearance and satisfaction with management were better in E group and CR group than in B group.There was no significant difference among treatment groups in pain and mental health.Conclusion:Both brace and combined rehabilitation treatment can reduce the spinal curve of AIS patients.Both exercise and combined rehabilitation treatment have positive influence on self-image/appearance and satisfaction with management.We support preference of combined rehabilitation treatment above brace treatment.

  7. Crystal structure of [NBu{sub 4}]{sub 2}[Pd{sub 2}{l_brace}C{sub 4}(COOMe){sub 4}{r_brace}{sub 2}({mu}-OH){sub 2}] determined ab initio by charge flipping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Angel L. [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Energetica y de los Materiales, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)], E-mail: alortiz@unex.es; Cumbrera, Francisco L. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Perez, Jose [Departamento de Ingenieria Minera, Geologica y Cartografica, Area de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Cartagena (Murcia) (Spain); Melendez-Martinez, Juan J. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Palatinus, Lukas [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Laboratoire de Cristallographie, BSP, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-01-07

    The crystal structure of bis(tetra-n-butylammonium)bis({mu}{sub 2}-hydroxo)-bis(1,2,3,4-tetrakis (methoxycarbonyl)-1,3-butadiene-1,4-diyl)-di-palladium, [NBu{sub 4}]{sub 2}[Pd{sub 2}{l_brace}C{sub 4}(COOMe){sub 4}{r_brace}{sub 2} ({mu}-OH){sub 2}], was determined ab initio by X-ray single-crystal diffractometry using the charge flipping method. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system with P2{sub 1}/c as space group and the following cell parameters: a = 12.8481(6) A, b = 63.744(3) A, c = 16.6102(8) A, {beta} = 111.943(10). The asymmetric unit is formed by two molecules, and the unit cell contains eight molecules (Z = 8) giving a density of 1.369 g cm{sup -3}. The coordination around the Pd(II) atoms is approximately planar, the methoxycarbonyl groups at the {alpha} and {beta} positions relative to Pd are perpendicular and parallel to the palladacycle ring, respectively, and the {l_brace}Pd({mu}-O){r_brace}{sub 2} core has a bent conformation. The structure closely resembles the features reported previously for other palladacyclopentadiene complexes.

  8. Body Image and Quality-of-Life in Untreated Versus Brace-Treated Females With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieger, Traci; Campo, Shelly; Weinstein, Stuart L.; Dolan, Lori A.; Ashida, Sato; Steuber, Keli R.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design. The Bracing in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Trial (BrAIST) included skeletally immature high-risk patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) with moderate curve sizes (20°– 40°). BrAIST was a multicenter, controlled trial using both randomized and preference treatment arms into either an observation group or a brace treatment group. Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare body image and quality-of-life (QOL) in female AIS patients who were observed or treated with a brace. Summary of Background Data. Brace treatment is an effective means for controlling progressive scoliosis and preventing the need for surgery, but there is no consensus regarding the effect of brace treatment on body image or on QOL in adolescents with AIS. Methods. Data from female BrAIST patients in the randomized (n = 132) or preference (n = 187) arms and were observed (n = 120) or brace treated (n = 199) were analyzed. Patients completed the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ) and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQOL) 4.0 Generic Scales at baseline and 6 month follow-up visits up to 2 years. Items on the SAQ measured three body image constructs (self, ideal, and overall). The PedsQOL measured health, activities, feelings, social factors, and school. Results. . In general, there were no significant differences within or between study arms or treatments regarding body image or QOL through 2 years of follow-up. Poorer body image was significantly correlated with poorer QOL during the first 2 years of follow-up regardless of study arm or treatment. Patients who crossed-over to a different treatment and patients with largest Cobb angles ≥ 40 degrees had significantly poorer body image, in particular self-body image, compared with those that did not. Conclusion. This study does not support findings from previous research indicating that wearing a brace has a negative impact on or is negatively impacted by body image or

  9. 'SOSORT consensus paper on brace action: TLSO biomechanics of correction (investigating the rationale for force vector selection'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruyama T

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of orthotic treatment continues to be controversial in international medical literature due to differences in the reported results and conclusions of various studies. Heterogeneity of the samples has been suggested as a reason for conflicting results. Besides the obvious theoretical differences between the brace concepts, the variability in the technical factors can also explain the contradictory results between same brace types. This paper will investigate the degree of variability among responses of scoliosis specialists from the Brace Study Ground of the International Society on Scoliosis Orthopedic and Rehabilitation Treatment SOSORT. Ultimately, this information could be a foundation for establishing a consensus and framework for future prospective controlled studies. Methods A preliminary questionnaire on the topic of 'brace action' relative to the theory of three-dimensional scoliosis correction and brace treatment was developed and circulated to specialists interested in the conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A particular case was presented (main thoracic curve with minor lumbar. Several key points emerged and were used to develop a second questionnaire which was discussed and full filed after the SOSORT consensus meeting (Milano, Italy, January 2005. Results Twenty-one questionnaires were completed. The Chêneau brace was the most frequently recommended. The importance of the three point system mechanism was stressed. Options about proper pad placement on the thoracic convexity were divided 50% for the pad reaching or involving the apical vertebra and 50% for the pad acting caudal to the apical vertebra. There was agreement about the direction of the vector force, 85% selecting a 'dorso lateral to ventro medial' direction but about the shape of the pad to produce such a force. Principles related to three-dimensional correction achieved high consensus (80%–85%, but suggested

  10. Accounting for multiple sources of uncertainty in impact assessments: The example of the BRACE study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing climate change impacts often requires the use of multiple scenarios, types of models, and data sources, leading to a large number of potential sources of uncertainty. For example, a single study might require a choice of a forcing scenario, climate model, bias correction and/or downscaling method, societal development scenario, model (typically several) for quantifying elements of societal development such as economic and population growth, biophysical model (such as for crop yields or hydrology), and societal impact model (e.g. economic or health model). Some sources of uncertainty are reduced or eliminated by the framing of the question. For example, it may be useful to ask what an impact outcome would be conditional on a given societal development pathway, forcing scenario, or policy. However many sources of uncertainty remain, and it is rare for all or even most of these sources to be accounted for. I use the example of a recent integrated project on the Benefits of Reduced Anthropogenic Climate changE (BRACE) to explore useful approaches to uncertainty across multiple components of an impact assessment. BRACE comprises 23 papers that assess the differences in impacts between two alternative climate futures: those associated with Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5. It quantifies difference in impacts in terms of extreme events, health, agriculture, tropical cyclones, and sea level rise. Methodologically, it includes climate modeling, statistical analysis, integrated assessment modeling, and sector-specific impact modeling. It employs alternative scenarios of both radiative forcing and societal development, but generally uses a single climate model (CESM), partially accounting for climate uncertainty by drawing heavily on large initial condition ensembles. Strengths and weaknesses of the approach to uncertainty in BRACE are assessed. Options under consideration for improving the approach include the use of perturbed physics

  11. Quantum Dot Sensitized Photoelectrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Nann; Thomas J. Macdonald

    2011-01-01

    Quantum Dots (QDs) are promising alternatives to organic dyes as sensitisers for photocatalytic electrodes. This review article provides an overview of the current state of the art in this area. More specifically, different types of QDs with a special focus on heavy-metal free QDs and the methods for preparation and adsorption onto metal oxide electrodes (especially titania and zinc oxide) are discussed. Eventually, the key areas of necessary improvements are identified and assessed.

  12. Quantum Dot Sensitized Photoelectrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Nann

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantum Dots (QDs are promising alternatives to organic dyes as sensitisers for photocatalytic electrodes. This review article provides an overview of the current state of the art in this area. More specifically, different types of QDs with a special focus on heavy-metal free QDs and the methods for preparation and adsorption onto metal oxide electrodes (especially titania and zinc oxide are discussed. Eventually, the key areas of necessary improvements are identified and assessed.

  13. Plasmonic fluorescent quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yongdong; Gao, Xiaohu

    2009-01-01

    Combining multiple discrete components into a single multifunctional nanoparticle could be useful in a variety of applications. Retaining the unique optical and electrical properties of each component after nanoscale integration is, however, a long-standing problem1,2. It is particularly difficult when trying to combine fluorophores such as semiconductor quantum dots with plasmonic materials such as gold, because gold and other metals can quench the fluorescence3,4. So far, the combination of...

  14. Nanocrystal quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Klimov, Victor I

    2010-01-01

    ""Soft"" Chemical Synthesis and Manipulation of Semiconductor Nanocrystals, J.A. Hollingsworth and V.I. Klimov Electronic Structure in Semiconductor Nanocrystals: Optical Experiment, D.J. NorrisFine Structure and Polarization Properties of Band-Edge Excitons in Semiconductor Nanocrystals, A.L. EfrosIntraband Spectroscopy and Dynamics of Colloidal Semiconductor Quantum Dots, P. Guyot-Sionnest, M. Shim, and C. WangMultiexciton Phenomena in Semiconductor Nanocrystals, V.I. KlimovOptical Dynamics in Single Semiconductor Quantum Do

  15. Quantum dot nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Henini

    2002-06-01

    These sophisticated technologies for the growth of high quality epitaxial layers of compound semiconductor materials on single crystal semiconductor substrates are becoming increasingly important for the development of the semiconductor electronics industry. This article is intended to convey the flavor of the subject by focusing on the technology and applications of self-assembled quantum dots (QDs and to give an introduction to some of the essential characteristics.

  16. The Aube centre; Le Centre de l`Aube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This educational booklet is devoted to a general presentation of the Aube radioactive wastes storage centre. After a short presentation of the Andra, the French national agency for the management of radioactive wastes, it gives some general information about radioactive wastes (origin, classification), containers (quality assurance and different types), wastes transportation (planning, safety), and about the Aube centre itself: description, treatment and conditioning of drums (compacting and injection), storage facilities, geological situation of the site, and environmental controls. (J.S.)

  17. A comparison of the biomechanical effects of valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard K; Nester, Christopher J; Richards, Jim D; Kim, Winston Y; Johnson, David S; Jari, Sanjiv; Laxton, Philip; Tyson, Sarah F

    2013-03-01

    Increases in the external knee adduction moment (EKAM) have been associated with increased mechanical load at the knee and progression of knee osteoarthritis. Valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles are common approaches to reducing this loading; however no study has directly compared the biomechanical and clinical effects of these two treatments in patients with medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. A cross-over randomised design was used where each intervention was worn by 28 patients for a two week period. Pre- and post-intervention gait kinematic/kinetic data and clinical outcomes were collected to evaluate the biomechanical and clinical effects on the knee joint. The valgus knee brace and the lateral wedged insole significantly increased walking speed, reduced the early stance EKAM by 7% and 12%, and the knee adduction angular impulse by 8.6 and 16.1% respectively. The lateral wedged insole significantly reduced the early stance EKAM compared to the valgus knee brace (p=0.001). The valgus knee brace significantly reduced the knee varus angle compared to the baseline and lateral wedged insole. Improvements in pain and function subscales were comparable for the valgus knee brace and lateral wedged insole. There were no significant differences between the two treatments in any of the clinical outcomes; however the lateral wedged insoles demonstrated greater levels of acceptance by patients. This is the first study to biomechanically compare these two treatments, and demonstrates that given the potential role of knee loading in osteoarthritis progression, that both treatments reduce this but lateral wedge insoles appear to have a greater effect.

  18. A comparison of the biomechanical effects of valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard K; Nester, Christopher J; Richards, Jim D; Kim, Winston Y; Johnson, David S; Jari, Sanjiv; Laxton, Philip; Tyson, Sarah F

    2013-03-01

    Increases in the external knee adduction moment (EKAM) have been associated with increased mechanical load at the knee and progression of knee osteoarthritis. Valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles are common approaches to reducing this loading; however no study has directly compared the biomechanical and clinical effects of these two treatments in patients with medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. A cross-over randomised design was used where each intervention was worn by 28 patients for a two week period. Pre- and post-intervention gait kinematic/kinetic data and clinical outcomes were collected to evaluate the biomechanical and clinical effects on the knee joint. The valgus knee brace and the lateral wedged insole significantly increased walking speed, reduced the early stance EKAM by 7% and 12%, and the knee adduction angular impulse by 8.6 and 16.1% respectively. The lateral wedged insole significantly reduced the early stance EKAM compared to the valgus knee brace (p=0.001). The valgus knee brace significantly reduced the knee varus angle compared to the baseline and lateral wedged insole. Improvements in pain and function subscales were comparable for the valgus knee brace and lateral wedged insole. There were no significant differences between the two treatments in any of the clinical outcomes; however the lateral wedged insoles demonstrated greater levels of acceptance by patients. This is the first study to biomechanically compare these two treatments, and demonstrates that given the potential role of knee loading in osteoarthritis progression, that both treatments reduce this but lateral wedge insoles appear to have a greater effect. PMID:22920242

  19. Aerodynamic Analysis of the Truss-Braced Wing Aircraft Using Vortex-Lattice Superposition Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Eric Bi-Wen; Reynolds, Kevin Wayne; Nguyen, Nhan T.; Totah, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    The SUGAR Truss-BracedWing (TBW) aircraft concept is a Boeing-developed N+3 aircraft configuration funded by NASA ARMD FixedWing Project. This future generation transport aircraft concept is designed to be aerodynamically efficient by employing a high aspect ratio wing design. The aspect ratio of the TBW is on the order of 14 which is significantly greater than those of current generation transport aircraft. This paper presents a recent aerodynamic analysis of the TBW aircraft using a conceptual vortex-lattice aerodynamic tool VORLAX and an aerodynamic superposition approach. Based on the underlying linear potential flow theory, the principle of aerodynamic superposition is leveraged to deal with the complex aerodynamic configuration of the TBW. By decomposing the full configuration of the TBW into individual aerodynamic lifting components, the total aerodynamic characteristics of the full configuration can be estimated from the contributions of the individual components. The aerodynamic superposition approach shows excellent agreement with CFD results computed by FUN3D, USM3D, and STAR-CCM+. XXXXX Demand for green aviation is expected to increase with the need for reduced environmental impact. Most large transports today operate within the best cruise L/D range of 18-20 using the conventional tube-and-wing design. This configuration has led to marginal improvements in aerodynamic efficiency over this past century, as aerodynamic improvements tend to be incremental. A big opportunity has been shown in recent years to significantly reduce structural weight or trim drag, hence improved energy efficiency, with the use of lightweight materials such as composites. The Boeing 787 transport is an example of a modern airframe design that employs lightweight structures. High aspect ratio wing design can provide another opportunity for further improvements in energy efficiency. Historically, the study of high aspect ratio wings has been intimately tied to the study of

  20. Aircraft Observations of the Tampa Urban Plume during BRACE: Transport, Photochemical, and Depositional Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, W.; Arnold, J.; Watson, T.; Gunter, L.; Wellman, D.; Dasgupta, P.; Li, J.; Riemer, D.

    2003-12-01

    Staff from NOAA's Air Resources Laboratory conducted airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosols in the Bay Region Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) using the NOAA Twin Otter. The Twin Otter flew more than 90 hours in 21 flights in and around the Tampa metropolitan region in May, 2002, at altitudes of 60-3000 m MSL. Flights were conducted over rural and suburban areas, over the centers of Tampa and St. Petersburg, and over Tampa Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. The overall objective of the aircraft measurements in BRACE was to study the emission, transport, and photochemical transformations of nitrogen and other ozone precursors in the Tampa area. Continuous instrumentation was used to measure NO, NOX, NOY, HNO3, CO, SO2, O3, CH2O, and H2O2. A semi-continuous GC technique with luminol detection was used to measure PAN. Filter packs were used to make integrated measurements of nitric acid and inorganic aerosols in both fine and bulk aerosol size fractions. Stainless steel grab cans were filled during flight for post-flight analysis of NMHCs by GC/FID/MS. The urban plume was sampled under a variety of meteorological regimes, as it was advected by the prevailing winds over the Florida peninsula (with continuing input of natural and anthropogenic precursors along the advection path) and, in other cases, over the Gulf of Mexico, where additional chemical inputs were negligible and the plume was relatively unaffected by turbulent deposition processes. Case studies will be used to compare and contrast the photochemical processes in the plume under these different regimes. The observed relationships and variations of trace gas concentrations will be used to determine the efficiency of ozone production, as well as instances of NOX or VOC limitation. Sampling the plume at varying downwind distances, over both land and water, allows the determination of overall rates of photochemical ozone production, NOX and SOX oxidation, and estimates of depositional losses of

  1. Contemporary design for 'landmark' centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    As one of the UK's largest builders of healthcare facilities, construction company Morgan Ashurst is accustomed to delivering complex, challenging hospital projects. The construction of a new oncology centre at Musgrove Park Hospital, Taunton for Taunton and Somerset NHS Foundation Trust-- said to be the first new stand-alone radiotherapy centre to be built in the UK for almost 20 years--was no exception. Health Estate Journal reports. PMID:19711668

  2. The centre of the action

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    The CERN Control Centre (CCC) has all the ingredients of an action movie control room: hundreds of screens, technicians buzzing in and out, huge floor-to-ceiling windows revealing the looming vista of a mountain range, flashing lights, microphones… This is the place where not just the LHC, but the whole of CERN’s accelerator complex and technical support is based - truly the centre of the action at CERN.

  3. Inter-dot coupling effects on transport through correlated parallel coupled quantum dots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shyam Chand; G Rajput; K C Sharma; P K Ahluwalia

    2009-05-01

    Transport through symmetric parallel coupled quantum dot system has been studied, using non-equilibrium Green function formalism. The inter-dot tunnelling with on-dot and inter-dot Coulomb repulsion is included. The transmission coefficient and Landaur–Buttiker like current formula are shown in terms of internal states of quantum dots. The effect of inter-dot tunnelling on transport properties has been explored. Results, in intermediate inter-dot coupling regime show signatures of merger of two dots to form a single composite dot and in strong coupling regime the behaviour of the system resembles the two decoupled dots.

  4. Training centres - organization and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the lecture 'Training centres - organization and management' some principles and requirements which influence the organization, management and activity pattern of nuclear training centres, are briefly introduced. It is demonstrated, step by step, how these general principles are implemented in the development of the Czechoslovak nuclear power programme, it means, how the training of the NPP personnel proceeds in Czechoslovak nuclear training centres. General principles which are selected: a connection between the capacity of the training centre and the scope and needs of the nuclear power programme, a position of the training center within the institutional set-up, a structure and organization of the training system which complies with the system of NPP construction, reflect the pattern and the activity of the nuclear training centre and nuclear power technical level, a research group of workers in the nuclear training centre, main tasks and technical facilities, management of the training process and a transfer of knowledge and research results into the training process. The lecture is supplemented by pictures and slides. (orig.)

  5. Perceptual strategies of pigeons to detect a rotational centre--a hint for star compass learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alert, Bianca; Michalik, Andreas; Helduser, Sascha; Mouritsen, Henrik; Güntürkün, Onur

    2015-01-01

    Birds can rely on a variety of cues for orientation during migration and homing. Celestial rotation provides the key information for the development of a functioning star and/or sun compass. This celestial compass seems to be the primary reference for calibrating the other orientation systems including the magnetic compass. Thus, detection of the celestial rotational axis is crucial for bird orientation. Here, we use operant conditioning to demonstrate that homing pigeons can principally learn to detect a rotational centre in a rotating dot pattern and we examine their behavioural response strategies in a series of experiments. Initially, most pigeons applied a strategy based on local stimulus information such as movement characteristics of single dots. One pigeon seemed to immediately ignore eccentric stationary dots. After special training, all pigeons could shift their attention to more global cues, which implies that pigeons can learn the concept of a rotational axis. In our experiments, the ability to precisely locate the rotational centre was strongly dependent on the rotational velocity of the dot pattern and it crashed at velocities that were still much faster than natural celestial rotation. We therefore suggest that the axis of the very slow, natural, celestial rotation could be perceived by birds through the movement itself, but that a time-delayed pattern comparison should also be considered as a very likely alternative strategy.

  6. Perceptual strategies of pigeons to detect a rotational centre--a hint for star compass learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Alert

    Full Text Available Birds can rely on a variety of cues for orientation during migration and homing. Celestial rotation provides the key information for the development of a functioning star and/or sun compass. This celestial compass seems to be the primary reference for calibrating the other orientation systems including the magnetic compass. Thus, detection of the celestial rotational axis is crucial for bird orientation. Here, we use operant conditioning to demonstrate that homing pigeons can principally learn to detect a rotational centre in a rotating dot pattern and we examine their behavioural response strategies in a series of experiments. Initially, most pigeons applied a strategy based on local stimulus information such as movement characteristics of single dots. One pigeon seemed to immediately ignore eccentric stationary dots. After special training, all pigeons could shift their attention to more global cues, which implies that pigeons can learn the concept of a rotational axis. In our experiments, the ability to precisely locate the rotational centre was strongly dependent on the rotational velocity of the dot pattern and it crashed at velocities that were still much faster than natural celestial rotation. We therefore suggest that the axis of the very slow, natural, celestial rotation could be perceived by birds through the movement itself, but that a time-delayed pattern comparison should also be considered as a very likely alternative strategy.

  7. The ideal Atomic Centre; Le Centre Atomique ideal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The author presents considerations which should prove to be of interest to all those who have to design, to construct and to operate a nuclear research centre. A large number of the ideas presented can also be applied to non-nuclear scientific research centres. In his report the author reviews: various problems with which the constructor is faced: ground-plan, infrastructure, buildings and the large units of scientific equipment in the centre, and those problems facing the director: maintenance, production, supplies, security. The author stresses the relationship which ought to exist between the research workers and the management. With this aim in view he proposes the creation of National School for Administration in Research which would train administrative executives for public or private organisations; they would be specialised in the fields of fundamental or applied research. (author) [French] L'auteur propose une base de reflexions a tous ceux qui doivent concevoir, realiser et faire vivre un Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires. Un grand nombre des idees exprimees peut d'ailleurs s'appliquer a un Centre d'Etudes Scientifiques non nucleaires. Dans son ouvrage, l'auteur passe en revue les differents problemes qui se posent au constructeur: plan, masse, infrastructure, batiments et grands appareils du Centre, et ceux qu'a a resoudre le directeur: entretien, fabrication, approvisionnements, securite. L'auteur insiste sur l'aspect des rapports qui doivent exister entre les chercheurs et ceux qui les administrent. Il propose a cette fin la creation d'une Ecole Nationale d'Administration de la Recherche qui formerait des cadres administratifs pour les organismes publics ou prives, specialises dans la Recherche fondamentale ou appliquee. (auteur)

  8. Densities, excess molar volumes, speeds of sound and isothermal compressibilities for {l_brace}2-(2-hexyloxyethoxy)ethanol + n-alkanol{r_brace} systems at temperatures between (288.15 and 308.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Amalendu [Department of Chemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119 (India)], E-mail: palchem@sify.com; Gaba, Rekha [Department of Chemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119 (India)

    2008-05-15

    The densities, {rho} and the speeds of sound, u, for {l_brace}2-(2-hexyloxyethoxy)ethanol (C{sub 6}E{sub 2}) + methanol, +1-propanol, +1-pentanol, and +1-heptanol{r_brace} have been measured as a function of composition using an Anton-Paar DSA 5000 densimeter at temperatures (288.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, and 308.15) K and atmospheric pressure over the whole concentration range. The {rho} and u values were used to calculate excess molar volumes, V{sup E}, and excess molar isentropic compressibility, K{sub S,m}{sup E}, respectively. Also, thermal expansivity, {alpha}, partial molar volume, V-bar{sub i}, and partial molar volume of the components at infinite dilution, V-bar{sub i}{sup 0}, have been calculated. The variation of these properties with composition and temperature of the mixtures are discussed in terms of molecular interactions.

  9. Effects of soft bracing or taping on a lateral ankle sprain: a non-randomised controlled trial evaluating recurrence rates and residual symptoms at one year

    OpenAIRE

    Kemler, Ellen; van de Port, Ingrid; Schmikli, Sandor; Huisstede, Bionka; Hoes, Arno; Backx, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background After sustaining an ankle sprain, taping is often the standard treatment in primary care. Ankle braces are sometimes used as an alternative. This study aimed to compare the effects of four weeks of soft bracing or taping following acute lateral ankle ligamentous sprain (ALALS) on sprain recurrence rates and residual symptoms at one year. Methods In this pragmatic, non-randomised controlled trial, 157 adult participants with an ALALS caused by an inversion trauma were alternately al...

  10. Effects of soft bracing or taping on a lateral ankle sprain : a non-randomised controlled trial evaluating recurrence rates and residual symptoms at one year

    OpenAIRE

    Kemler, Ellen; van de Port, Ingrid; Schmikli, Sandor; Huisstede, Bionka; Hoes, Arno; Backx, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background: After sustaining an ankle sprain, taping is often the standard treatment in primary care. Ankle braces are sometimes used as an alternative. This study aimed to compare the effects of four weeks of soft bracing or taping following acute lateral ankle ligamentous sprain (ALALS) on sprain recurrence rates and residual symptoms at one year. Methods: In this pragmatic, non-randomised controlled trial, 157 adult participants with an ALALS caused by an inversion trauma were alternately ...

  11. Effects of soft bracing or taping on a lateral ankle sprain : a non-randomised controlled trial evaluating recurrence rates and residual symptoms at one year

    OpenAIRE

    Kemler, Ellen; van de Port, Ingrid; Schmikli, Sandor; Huisstede, Bionka; Hoes, Arno; Backx, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background After sustaining an ankle sprain, taping is often the standard treatment in primary care. Ankle braces are sometimes used as an alternative. This study aimed to compare the effects of four weeks of soft bracing or taping following acute lateral ankle ligamentous sprain (ALALS) on sprain recurrence rates and residual symptoms at one year. Methods In this pragmatic, non-randomised controlled trial, 157 adult participants with an ALALS caused by an inversion trauma were alternately al...

  12. Effectiveness of the SpineCor brace based on the new standardized criteria proposed by the scoliosis research society for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coillard, Christine; Vachon, Valerie; Circo, Alin B; Beauséjour, Marie; Rivard, Charles H

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Dynamic SpineCor brace for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in accordance with the standardized criteria proposed by the Scoliosis Research Society Committee on Bracing and Nonoperative Management. They proposed these guidelines to make the comparison among studies more valid and reliable. From 1993 to 2006, 493 patients were treated using the SpineCor brace. Two hundred forty-nine patients met the criteria for inclusion, and 79 patients were still actively being treated. Overall, 170 patients have a definitive outcome. All girls were premenarchal or less than 1 year postmenarchal. Assessment of brace effectiveness included (1) percentage of patients who have 5 degrees or less curve progression, and percentage of patients who have 6 degrees or more progression; (2) percentage of patients who have been recommended/undergone surgery before skeletal maturity; (3) percentage of patients with curves exceeding 45 degrees at maturity (end of treatment); and (4) Two-year follow-up beyond maturity to determine the percentage of patients who subsequently underwent surgery. Successful treatment (correction, >5 degrees, or stabilization, +/-5 degrees) was achieved in 101 (59.4%) of the 170 patients from the time of the fitting of the SpineCor brace to the point in which it was discontinued. Thirty-nine immature patients (22.9%) required surgical fusion while receiving treatment. Two (1.2%) of 170 patients had curves exceeding 45 degrees at maturity. One mature patient (2.1%) required surgery within 2 years of follow-up beyond skeletal maturity. The conclusion drawn from these findings is that the SpineCor brace is effective for the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Moreover, positive outcomes are maintained after 2 years because 45 (95.7%) of 47 patients stabilized or corrected their end of bracing Cobb angle up to 2 years after bracing. Therapeutic study-investigating the

  13. A new brace treatment similar for adolescent scoliosis and kyphosis based on restoration of thoracolumbar lordosis. Radiological and subjective clinical results after at least one year of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Loon Piet JM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study design A prospective treatment study with a new brace was conducted Objective. To evaluate radiological and subjective clinical results after one year conservative brace treatment with pressure onto lordosis at the thoracolumbar joint in children with scoliosis and kyphosis. Summary of background data Conservative brace treatment of adolescent scoliosis is not proven to be effective in terms of lasting correction. Conservative treatment in kyphotic deformities may lead to satisfactory correction. None of the brace or casting techniques is based on sagittal forces only applied at the thoracolumbar spine (TLI= thoracolumbar lordotic intervention. Previously we showed in patients with scoliosis after forced lordosis at the thoracolumbar spine a radiological instantaneous reduction in both coronal curves of double major scoliosis. Methods A consecutive series of 91 children with adolescent scoliosis and kyphosis were treated with a modified symmetric 30 degrees Boston brace to ensure only forced lordosis at the thoracolumbar spine. Scoliosis was defined with a Cobb angle of at least one of the curves [greater than or equal to] 25 degrees and kyphosis with or without a curve Results Before treatment start ‘in brace’ radiographs showed a strong reduction of the Cobb angles in different curves in kyphosis and scoliosis groups (sagittal n = 5 all p Conclusion Conservative treatment using thoracolumbar lordotic intervention in scoliotic and kyphotic deformities in adolescence demonstrates a marked improvement after one year also in clinical and postural criteria. An effect not obtained with current brace techniques.

  14. The Galactic centre pulsar population

    CERN Document Server

    Chennamangalam, Jayanth

    2013-01-01

    The recent discovery of a magnetar in the Galactic centre region has allowed Spitler et al. to characterize the interstellar scattering in that direction. They find that the temporal broadening of the pulse profile of the magnetar is substantially less than that predicted by models of the electron density of that region. This raises the question of what the plausible limits for the number of potentially observable pulsars - i.e., the number of pulsars beaming towards the Earth - in the Galactic centre region are. In this paper, using realistic assumptions, we show that the potentially observable population of pulsars in the inner parsec has a conservative upper limit of $\\sim$950, and that it is premature to conclude that the number of pulsars in this region is small. We also show that the observational results so far are consistent with this number and make predictions for future radio pulsar surveys of the Galactic centre.

  15. Damping characteristics of friction damped braced frame and its effectiveness in the mega-sub controlled structure system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian Yeda; Zhang Xunan; Sheldon Cherry

    2007-01-01

    Based on energy dissipation and structural control principle, a new structural configuration, called the megasub controlled structure (MSCS) with friction damped braces (FDBs), is first presented. Meanwhile, to calculate the damping coefficient in the slipping state a new analytical method is proposed. The damping characteristics of one-storey friction damped braced frame (FDBF) are investigated, and the influence of the structural parameters on the energy dissipation and the practical engineering design are discussed. The nonlinear dynamic equations and the analytical model of the MSCS with FDBs are established. Three building structures with different structural configurations, which were designed with reference to the conventional mega-sub structures such as used in Tokyo City Hall, are comparatively investigated. The results illustrate that the structure presented in the paper has excellent dynamic properties and satisfactory control effectiveness.

  16. Construction of the Wigner Data Centre

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    A remote extension of the CERN data centre has recently been inaugurated. Hosted at the Wigner Research Centre for Physics in Hungary, it provides extra computing power required to cover CERN’s needs. This video presents the construction of the Wigner Data Centre from initial demolishing work through to its completion and details the major technical characteristics of the Data Centre.

  17. Complex dynamics in planar two-electron quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeter, Sebastian Josef Arthur

    2013-06-25

    Quantum dots play an important role in a wide range of recent experimental and technological developments. In particular they are promising candidates for realisations of quantum bits and further applications in quantum information theory. The harmonically confined Hooke's atom model is experimentally verified and separates in centre-of-mass and relative coordinates. Findings that are contradictory to this separability call for an extension of the model, in particular changing the confinement potential. In order to study effects of an anharmonic confinement potential on spectral properties of planar two-electron quantum dots a sophisticated numerical approach is developed. Comparison between the Helium atom, Hooke's atom and an anharmonic potential model are undertaken in order to improve the description of quantum dots. Classical and quantum features of complexity and chaos are investigated and used to characterise the dynamics of the system to be mixed regular-chaotic. Influence of decoherence can be described by quantum fidelity, which measures the effect of a perturbation on the time evolution. The quantum fidelity of eigenstates of the system depends strongly on the properties of the perturbation. Several methods for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation are implemented and a high level of accuracy for long time evolutions is achieved. The concept of offset entanglement, the entanglement of harmonic models in the noninteracting limit, is introduced. This concept explains different questions raised in the literature for harmonic quantum dot models, recently. It shows that only in the groundstate the electrons are not entangled in the fermionic sense. The applicability, validity, and origin of Hund's first rule in general quantum dot models is further addressed. In fact Hund's first rule is only applicable, and in this case also valid, for one pair of singlet and triplet states in Hooke's atom. For more realistic models of two

  18. Complex dynamics in planar two-electron quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum dots play an important role in a wide range of recent experimental and technological developments. In particular they are promising candidates for realisations of quantum bits and further applications in quantum information theory. The harmonically confined Hooke's atom model is experimentally verified and separates in centre-of-mass and relative coordinates. Findings that are contradictory to this separability call for an extension of the model, in particular changing the confinement potential. In order to study effects of an anharmonic confinement potential on spectral properties of planar two-electron quantum dots a sophisticated numerical approach is developed. Comparison between the Helium atom, Hooke's atom and an anharmonic potential model are undertaken in order to improve the description of quantum dots. Classical and quantum features of complexity and chaos are investigated and used to characterise the dynamics of the system to be mixed regular-chaotic. Influence of decoherence can be described by quantum fidelity, which measures the effect of a perturbation on the time evolution. The quantum fidelity of eigenstates of the system depends strongly on the properties of the perturbation. Several methods for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation are implemented and a high level of accuracy for long time evolutions is achieved. The concept of offset entanglement, the entanglement of harmonic models in the noninteracting limit, is introduced. This concept explains different questions raised in the literature for harmonic quantum dot models, recently. It shows that only in the groundstate the electrons are not entangled in the fermionic sense. The applicability, validity, and origin of Hund's first rule in general quantum dot models is further addressed. In fact Hund's first rule is only applicable, and in this case also valid, for one pair of singlet and triplet states in Hooke's atom. For more realistic models of two-electron quantum dots an

  19. Numerical Model of a Hybrid Damping System Composed of a Buckling Restrained Brace with a Magneto Rheological Damper

    OpenAIRE

    Filip-Vacarescu Norin; Vulcu Cristian; Dubina Dan

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of a hybrid damper made from a combination of two dissipative devices. A passive hysteretic device like steel Buckling Restrained Brace (BRB) can be combined with a magneto-rheological (MR) Fluid Damper in order to obtain a hybrid dissipative system. This system can work either as a semi-active system, if the control unit is available, or as a passive system, tuned for working according to performance based seismic engineering (PBSE) scale of reference paramet...

  20. Expecting ankle tilts and wearing an ankle brace influence joint control in an imitated ankle sprain mechanism during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Dominic; Wissler, Sabrina; Lohrer, Heinz; Nauck, Tanja; Gollhofer, Albert

    2014-03-01

    A thorough understanding of the functional aspects of ankle joint control is essential to developing effective injury prevention. It is of special interest to understand how neuromuscular control mechanisms and mechanical constraints stabilize the ankle joint. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine how expecting ankle tilts and the application of an ankle brace influence ankle joint control when imitating the ankle sprain mechanism during walking. Ankle kinematics and muscle activity were assessed in 17 healthy men. During gait rapid perturbations were applied using a trapdoor (tilting with 24° inversion and 15° plantarflexion). The subjects either knew that a perturbation would definitely occur (expected tilts) or there was only the possibility that a perturbation would occur (potential tilts). Both conditions were conducted with and without a semi-rigid ankle brace. Expecting perturbations led to an increased ankle eversion at foot contact, which was mediated by an altered muscle preactivation pattern. Moreover, the maximal inversion angle (-7%) and velocity (-4%), as well as the reactive muscle response were significantly reduced when the perturbation was expected. While wearing an ankle brace did not influence muscle preactivation nor the ankle kinematics before ground contact, it significantly reduced the maximal ankle inversion angle (-14%) and velocity (-11%) as well as reactive neuromuscular responses. The present findings reveal that expecting ankle inversion modifies neuromuscular joint control prior to landing. Although such motor control strategies are weaker in their magnitude compared with braces, they seem to assist ankle joint stabilization in a close-to-injury situation. PMID:24365326

  1. ABDOMINAL EXERCISE WITH BRACING, A THERAPEUTIC EFFICACY IN REDUCING DIASTASIS-RECTI AMONG POSTPARTAL FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Acharry

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Diastasis recti abdominis (DRA has been defined as an impairment characterized by the separation of the two rectus abdominis muscles along the linea alba , Diastasis of the rectus abdominis muscle (DRAM is common during and after pregnancy, and has been related to lumbo-pelvic instability and pelvic floor weakness. Women with DRAM are commonly referred to physiotherapists for non surgical management, but very few found to be effective. Objectives To determine if the effectiveness of Abdominal exercise with bracing in reducing the diastasis recti among postpartum females. Methodology: IP&OPD patients of Godavari hospital, Jalgaon for a period of 4 weeks. For this descriptive study a cross-sectional study design was incorporated. A number of (n=30 female patients within 1 month after delivery with Diastasis recti were selected. Each patient was screened, initially by using simple selection proforma relevant to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: A total (n=30 subjects were included in the study, these 30 subjects all are Females and one month and more after child birth. The subjects included in this study with an age from minimal 23 years to 34 years old. Number of off springs which is another variable used, was listed as 1(Minimum and 4(Maximum children’s. In this study a 26.6% of female are primiparous and 56.7% of them are multiparous. The collected information (data was tabulated and analyzed by using appropriate statistical analysis tools. 30 Female subjects having mean age 28.8(SD=3.23 in which both primiparous and multiparous women having diastasis recti within 1 month postpartum. Diastasis recti pretest was found to be 3.5(SD= 0.5085 Diastasis recti posttest was found to be 2.5(SD=0.5074 t value=29.00 and P value found to be less than 0.001 which is highly significant. Conclusion: Based on the available evidence and quality of this evidence, after the exercise regimen and bracing the Diastasis recti muscle

  2. LDE centres: sprint or marathon?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonger, S.; Van Rein, E.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the Strategic Leiden-Delft-Erasmus Alliance, established by the three universities in 2012, was to improve research and education and competitiveness. Projects are intended to develop from the ground up, which led to the establishment of eight joint centres in 2013. A quick look around re

  3. Team care to cure adolescents with braces (avoiding low quality of life, pain and bad compliance: a case–control retrospective study. 2011 SOSORT Award winner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavernaro Marta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bracing could be efficacious, given good compliance and quality of braces. Recently the SOSORT Brace Treatment Management Guidelines (SBTMG have highlighted the perceived importance of the professional teams surrounding braced patients. Purpose To verify the impact of a complete rehabilitation team in the adolescent patient with bracing. Materials and methods Design. Initial cross-sectional study, followed by a retrospective case–control study. Population: Thirty-eight patients (15.8 ± 1.6 years; 26 females; 10 hyperkyphosis, 28 scoliosis of 29.2 ± 7.9° Cobb extracted from a single orthotist database (between January 1, 2008 and September 1, 2009 and treated by the same physician; brace wearing at least 15 hours/day for a minimum of 6 months; age 10 or more. Treatment: Braces: Sforzesco, Sibilla, Lapadula or Maguelone. Exercises: SEAS. Methods: Two questionnaires filled in blindly by patients: SRS-22 and one especially developed and validated with 25 questions on adherence to treatment. Groups (main risk factor: TEAM (private institute: satisfied 44/44 SOSORT criteria; grade of teamwork, “excellent” included 13 patients and NOT 25 (National Health Service Rehabilitation Department: 35/44 SOSORT criteria respected; grade, “insufficient”. Results TEAM was more compliant to bracing than NOT (97 ± 6% vs. 80 ± 24% and performed nearly double the exercises (38 ± 12 vs. 20 ± 13 minutes/session. The self-reduction of bracing was significant in NOT (from 16.8 ± 3.7 to 14.8 ± 4.9 hours/day, , P Conclusions Provided the limits of this first study on the topic, the SBTMG seems to be important for brace treatment, influencing pain, QoL and compliance (and so, presumably, final results. Future studies on the topic are advisable.

  4. Effect of Semi-Rigid and Soft Ankle Braces on Static and Dynamic Postural Stability in Young Male Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Maeda, Yukio Urabe, Shogo Tsutsumi, Shuhei Numano, Miho Morita, Takuya Takeuchi, Shou Iwata, Toshiki Kobayashi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ankle braces have been suggested to protect ankle joints from a sprain by restricting inversion and improving proprioception. However, the difference in effects between a semi-rigid brace and a soft brace regarding dynamic postural control after landing is not known. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of soft (SB and semi-rigid (SRB ankle braces on static and dynamic postural stability in healthy young men. Altogether, 21 male adults (mean age 24.0 ± 1.5 years were assessed for one leg while wearing non-brace (NB, SB or SRB. Balance in single-limb stance on a single-force platform with open eyes and closed eyes were assessed for the non-dominant leg under SB, SRB, and NB conditions. Locus length/second (mm/s and the enveloped area (mm·s-2 surrounded by the circumference of the wave pattern during postural sway were calculated. For assessing dynamic postural stability, the participant jumped and landed on one leg on a force platform, and the Dynamic Postural Stability Index (DPSI and the maximum vertical ground reaction force (vGRFmax were measured. The data were compared among the three conditions with repeated-measures analysis of variance. The correlations between locus length/second, enveloped area, DPSI values (DPSI, Anterior-Posterior Stability Index, Medial-Lateral Stability Index, and Vertical Stability Index, and vGRFmax were then calculated. The results indicated that locus length/second and enveloped area with open eyes and closed eyes were not significantly different for each condition. However, a significant lower in the DPSI and Vertical Stability Index were observed with the SRB in comparison to the SB and NB. A significant improvement in vGRFmax was also observed with the SRB in comparison to NB. SRB demonstrated a positive effect on dynamic postural stability after landing on a single leg and may improve balance by increasing dynamic postural stability.

  5. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research. Phase II - Volume I; Truss Braced Wing Design Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.; Allen, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the Truss Braced Wing (TBW) work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, consisting of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, Georgia Tech, Virginia Tech, NextGen Aeronautics, and Microcraft. A multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) environment defined the geometry that was further refined for the updated SUGAR High TBW configuration. Airfoil shapes were tested in the NASA TCT facility, and an aeroelastic model was tested in the NASA TDT facility. Flutter suppression was successfully demonstrated using control laws derived from test system ID data and analysis models. Aeroelastic impacts for the TBW design are manageable and smaller than assumed in Phase I. Flutter analysis of TBW designs need to include pre-load and large displacement non-linear effects to obtain a reasonable match to test data. With the updated performance and sizing, fuel burn and energy use is reduced by 54% compared to the SUGAR Free current technology Baseline (Goal 60%). Use of the unducted fan version of the engine reduces fuel burn and energy by 56% compared to the Baseline. Technology development roadmaps were updated, and an airport compatibility analysis established feasibility of a folding wing aircraft at existing airports.

  6. Design and Model Test of a Modularized Prefabricated Steel Frame Structure with Inclined Braces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuechun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modularized prefabricated steel structures have become the preferred design in the industrialization of steel structures due to their advantages of fast construction speed, high degree of industrialization, low labour intensity, and more. Prefabricated steel structures have some engineering applications, but all are low-rise structures with few applications in the field of high-rise buildings. Using finite element analysis with line and solid elements, full-scale experiments were conducted to study the single-span frame, which is the core load-bearing part of a modularized prefabricated high-rise steel frame structure with inclined braces. The mechanical mechanisms, computation methods, and design formulas of truss girders were obtained by comparing the finite element and model experiments and building a theoretical and experimental basis for the compilation of design codes. The mechanical characteristics under design load, the deformation and stress state, the elastic-plastic law of development, and the yield failure mode and mechanism under horizontal ultimate load were also obtained. Based on theoretical analysis, finite element analysis, and experiments, the design method of this frame was summarized and incorporated into the design code.

  7. Proteolytic Activation of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab through a Belt-and-Braces Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lian; Pan, Zhi-Zhen; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Bo; Zhu, Yu-Jing; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2016-09-28

    Proteolytic processing of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal toxins by insect midgut proteases plays an essential role in their insecticidal toxicities against target insects. In the present study, proteolysis of Bt crystal toxin Cry2Ab by Plutella xylostella L. midgut proteases (PxMJ) was evaluated. Both trypsin and chymotrypsin were identified involving the proteolytic activation of Cry2Ab and cleaving Cry2Ab at Arg(139) and Leu(144), respectively. Three Cry2Ab mutants (R139A, L144A, and R139A-L144A) were constructed by replacing residues Arg(139), Leu(144), and Arg(139)-Leu(144) with alanine. Proteolysis assays revealed that mutants R139A and L144A but not R139A-L144A could be cleaved into 50 kDa activated toxins by PxMJ. Bioassays showed that mutants R139A and L144A were highly toxic against P. xylostella larvae, while mutant R139A-L144A was almost non-insecticidal. Those results demonstrated that proteolysis by PxMJ was associated with the toxicity of Cry2Ab against P. xylostella. It also revealed that either trypsin or chymotrypsin was enough to activate Cry2Ab protoxin. This characteristic was regarded as a belt-and-braces approach and might contribute to the control of resistance development in target insects. Our studies characterized the proteolytic processing of Cry2Ab and provided new insight into the activation of this Bt toxin.

  8. Height Effect on Response Modification Factor of Open Chevron Eccentrically Braced Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Abdollahzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of making buildings taller and height of new buildings is now one of the major problems in building design and codes of interest is located. With height, the need for further ductility and the capability of energy dissipation can be a significant role in the proper and safe design of structures to play. It seems that changes the height of buildings can be treated directly on the response modification factor of structures and thus the seismic performance of structures under severe earthquake to be effective. This research is an attempt to evaluate the ductility, over-strength and response modification factors of the Open Chevron Eccentrically Braced Frames (EBFs with 5, 10, 15 and 20 stories under Tabas, Naghan, Bam and El-Centro strong ground motions. These frames were analyzed by using static pushover analysis, linear dynamic and incremental nonlinear dynamic analysis, and the values of these factors for different models have been determined separately and it is resulted that with increasing the height of buildings, the ductility reduction factor and the response modification factor of EBFs, decrease, but this variation hasn’t any influence on the over strength reduction factor.

  9. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research: Phase II- Volume III-Truss Braced Wing Aeroelastic Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Allen, Timothy J.; Droney, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This Test Report summarizes the Truss Braced Wing (TBW) Aeroelastic Test (Task 3.1) work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, which includes the time period of February 2012 through June 2014. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Virginia Tech, and NextGen Aeronautics. The model was fabricated by NextGen Aeronautics and designed to meet dynamically scaled requirements from the sized full scale TBW FEM. The test of the dynamically scaled SUGAR TBW half model was broken up into open loop testing in December 2013 and closed loop testing from January 2014 to April 2014. Results showed the flutter mechanism to primarily be a coalescence of 2nd bending mode and 1st torsion mode around 10 Hz, as predicted by analysis. Results also showed significant change in flutter speed as angle of attack was varied. This nonlinear behavior can be explained by including preload and large displacement changes to the structural stiffness and mass matrices in the flutter analysis. Control laws derived from both test system ID and FEM19 state space models were successful in suppressing flutter. The control laws were robust and suppressed flutter for a variety of Mach, dynamic pressures, and angle of attacks investigated.

  10. Fossil Dot Com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Since the start of the industrial revolution in 1800, with breakthrough innovations in iron production, textile industry and the steam engine, society has sustained incredible growth and transformation. During the 200 years, worldwide individual productivity has grown more than 32 times...... technological examples from his background as director of the innovation centre at DONG Energy, Charles Nielsen will discuss the impact of upcoming changes to the backbone of industry: the energy supply. DONG Energy has an ambitious strategy of changing the energy supply from 15% to 85% renewable energy before...

  11. Quantum dots: Rethinking the electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishnoi, Dimple

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate theoretically that the Quantum dots are quite interesting for the electronics industry. Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are nanometer-scale crystals, which have unique photo physical, quantum electrical properties, size-dependent optical properties, There small size means that electrons do not have to travel as far as with larger particles, thus electronic devices can operate faster. Cheaper than modern commercial solar cells while making use of a wider variety of photon energies, including "waste heat" from the sun's energy. Quantum dots can be used in tandem cells, which are multi junction photovoltaic cells or in the intermediate band setup. PbSe (lead selenide) is commonly used in quantum dot solar cells.

  12. Electroluminescent hybrid organic/inorganic quantum dot devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of PbS crystallites in aqueous solution in the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) has been investigated. Nanocrystalline material exhibiting charge confinement effects have been observed. The factors affecting crystallite growth, and hence the optical properties of the ultimately synthesised sample have been studied. A simple analytical model of the linear optical properties of quantum dots of finite size distribution has been developed. The model has been used in conjunction with the effective mass approximation (EMA) in order to model the optical properties of the synthesised PbS with a great deal of success. The EMA is found to limit the applicability of the optical model to samples of quantum dots consisting of larger crystallites as one would expect. Size-quantised CdSe particles have also been synthesised in aqueous solution. The same optical model successfully models the absorption spectra of these quantum dots, subject to the constraints of the EMA. Excessive scattering of light in solutions containing flocculated and/or bulk material is also found to limit the applicability of the model. The incorporation of colloidally suspended quantum dots into optoelectronic device structures has been considered. Energy level offsets between the quantum dots and host matrices have been studied and have been found to be unfavourable to the injection of electronic charge from the matrix into the dots. Alternative electroluminescent device structures in which the quantum dots are incorporated into electroluminescent host matrices which optically pump the quantum dots have therefore been proposed. Such devices have proved difficult to fabricate, eventual luminescence from quantum dot surface states having been obtained, but luminescence from the quantum dot effective bandgap not having been obtained. The scope of the project has extended to the investigation of charge injection into the quantum dot matrix materials themselves from the device

  13. The effects of a prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves on the performance of healthy athletes: a crossover randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortaza, Niyousha; Ebrahimi, Ismail; Jamshidi, Ali Ashraf; Abdollah, Vahid; Kamali, Mohammad; Abas, Wan Abu Bakar Wan; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu

    2012-01-01

    Knee injury is one of the major problems in sports medicine, and the use of prophylactic knee braces is an attempt to reduce the occurrence and/or severity of injuries to the knee joint ligament(s) without inhibiting knee mobility. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of one recently designed prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves upon performance of healthy athletes. Thirty-one healthy male athletes (age = 21.2 ± 1.5) volunteered as participants to examine the effect of prophylactic knee brace/sleeves on performance using isokinetic and functional tests. All subjects were tested in four conditions in a random order: 1. nonbraced (control) 2. using a neoprene knee sleeve 3. using a knee sleeve with four bilateral metal supports and 4. using a prophylactic knee brace. The study design was a crossover, randomized, controlled trial. Subjects completed single leg vertical jump, cross-over hop, and the isokinetic knee flexion and extension (at 60, 180, 300°/sec). Data were collected from the above tests and analyzed for jump height, cross-over hop distance, peak torque to body weight ratio and average power, respectively. Comparisons of these variables in the four testing conditions revealed no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). The selected prophylactic brace/sleeves did not significantly inhibit athletic performance which might verify that their structure and design have caused no complication in the normal function of the knee joint. Moreover, it could be speculated that, if the brace or the sleeves had any limiting effect, our young healthy athletic subjects were well able to generate a mean peak torque large enough to overcome this possible restriction. Further studies are suggested to investigate the long term effect of these prophylactic knee brace and sleeves as well as their possible effect on the adjacent joints to the knee.

  14. The effects of a prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves on the performance of healthy athletes: a crossover randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyousha Mortaza

    Full Text Available Knee injury is one of the major problems in sports medicine, and the use of prophylactic knee braces is an attempt to reduce the occurrence and/or severity of injuries to the knee joint ligament(s without inhibiting knee mobility. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of one recently designed prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves upon performance of healthy athletes. Thirty-one healthy male athletes (age = 21.2 ± 1.5 volunteered as participants to examine the effect of prophylactic knee brace/sleeves on performance using isokinetic and functional tests. All subjects were tested in four conditions in a random order: 1. nonbraced (control 2. using a neoprene knee sleeve 3. using a knee sleeve with four bilateral metal supports and 4. using a prophylactic knee brace. The study design was a crossover, randomized, controlled trial. Subjects completed single leg vertical jump, cross-over hop, and the isokinetic knee flexion and extension (at 60, 180, 300°/sec. Data were collected from the above tests and analyzed for jump height, cross-over hop distance, peak torque to body weight ratio and average power, respectively. Comparisons of these variables in the four testing conditions revealed no statistically significant difference (p>0.05. The selected prophylactic brace/sleeves did not significantly inhibit athletic performance which might verify that their structure and design have caused no complication in the normal function of the knee joint. Moreover, it could be speculated that, if the brace or the sleeves had any limiting effect, our young healthy athletic subjects were well able to generate a mean peak torque large enough to overcome this possible restriction. Further studies are suggested to investigate the long term effect of these prophylactic knee brace and sleeves as well as their possible effect on the adjacent joints to the knee.

  15. Photonics of shungite quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Razbirin, Boris S.; Rozhkova, Natalia N.; Sheka, Elena F.

    2014-01-01

    Shungite quantum dots are associated with nanosize fragments of reduced graphene oxide similarly to synthetic graphene quantum dots thus forming a common class of GQDs. Colloidal dispersions of powdered shungite in water, carbon tetrachloride, and toluene form the ground for the GQD photonic peculiarities manifestation. Morphological study shows a steady trend of GQDs to form fractals and a drastic change in the colloids fractal structure caused by solvent was reliably established. Spectral s...

  16. Spin pumping through quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Rojek, Stephan; Governale, Michele; König, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    We propose schemes for generating spin currents into a semiconductor by adiabatic or non-adiabatic pumping of electrons through interacting quantum dots. The appeal of such schemes lies in the possibility to tune the pumping characteristics via gate voltages that control the properties of the quantum dot. The calculations are based on a systematic perturbation expansion in the tunnel-coupling strength and the pumping frequency, expressed within a diagrammatic real-time technique. Special focu...

  17. The INTEGRAL Science Data Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Beckmann, V.

    2002-01-01

    The INTEGRAL Science Data Centre (ISDC) processes, archives and distributes data from the INTEGRAL mission. At the ISDC incoming data from the satellite are processed and searched for transient sources and Gamma-Ray bursts. The data are archived and distributed to the guest observers. As soon as the data are public, any astronomer can access the data via the internet. ISDC also provides the tools which are necessary for the data analysis and offers user support concerning questions related to...

  18. Radwaste Treatment Centre Jaslovske Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this leaflet the Bohunice Radwaste Treatment Centre (BSC RAO) is presented. BSC RAO is designed to process and treat liquid and solid radwaste, arising from the NPP A-1 decommissioning, from NPPs V-1, V-2, and Mochovce operations, as well as institutional radwaste of diverse institutional (hospitals, research institutes) in the Slovak Republic. Transport, sorting, incineration, compacting, concentration and cementation of radwaste as well as monitoring of emission are described

  19. LATERAL RESISTANCE OF CHEVRON-BRACED FRAMES WITH WEAK BEAMS%横梁未加强型人字撑框架体系的抗侧性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童根树; 罗桂发; 张磊

    2011-01-01

    对7组横梁未加强的人字支撑框架进行弹塑性分析,支撑几何长细比从43变化至132,支撑又分承担和不承担竖向重力两种。研究表明重力荷载使支撑提前屈曲,降低了支撑抗侧力峰值,抗震设防烈度越低,其影响越大。通过对整体、支撑和框架的侧力.侧移曲线的分析,解释了设计人字撑横梁时不应考虑跨中支撑点作用的原因,对欧美日等将中等长细比的支撑框架列为抗震性能最差的框架支撑体系提供了解释。揭示了支撑与框架的极限抗侧力不同时出现的重要现象,提出了设计对策;提出了塑性破坏机构,推导了横梁跨中挠度和支撑出平面外位移与层侧移角的关系。%The elastic-plastic analysis was performed for seven chevron-braced frames with weak beams, with the brace slenderness varying from 43 to 132. The braces are of two types: carrying and free of gravity load. The effect of gravitational axial force in braces on the lateral resistance of the braced frames was studied. The results showed that the gravity load caused the braces buckle (or yield) earlier; it weakened the peak strength of the chevron braces and the overall braced frames; and those effects were greater for slender braces used in regions of smaller seismic fortification intensity. Based on the overall, the brace's and the frame's lateral force-drift curves, the paper explained why the beam should be designed as if no bracing point at midspan, why the United States and Japan treated the braces of moderate slenderness as the structure having the worst seismic behaviour. It was also found that the braces reached its ultimate state at a much smaller drift than the frame, implying that the current design method of linear combination is not fully justified, and an improved design method is proposed. A plastic mechanism was proposed to evaluate the relations between the midspan-deflection of the beams, the out

  20. Fuzzy dot ideals and fuzzy dot H-ideals of BCH-algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Jia-yin

    2008-01-01

    The notions of fuzzy dot ideals and fuzzy dot H-ideals in BCH-algebras are intro duced,several appropriate examples are provided,and their some properties are investigated.The relations among fuzzy ideal,fuzzy H-ideal,fuzzy dot ideal and fuzzy dot H-ideals in BCH algebras are discussed,several equivalent depictions of fuzzy dot ideal are obtained. How to deal with the homomorphic image and inverse image of fuzzy dot ideals (fuzzy dot H-ideals) are studied. The relations between a fuzzy dot ideal (fuzzy dot H-ideal) in BCH-algebras and a fuzzy dot ideal (fuzzy dot H-ideal) in the product algebra of BCH-algebras are given.

  1. Design method for Pall-BRB frictional damping brace system%新型Pall-BRB摩擦阻尼支撑体系设计方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张纪刚; 欧进萍

    2011-01-01

    Based on the geometry nonlinearity,the hysteretic behavior of a new-typed Pall-BRB frictional damping brace system,whose braces are buckling restrained braces(BRB) instead of conventional common Pall-typed frictional damper(PFD) braces,is analyzed using ANSYS finite element software.The hysteretic behavior of Pall-BRB frictional damping brace system is compared with the common PFD brace system.The analytical results show that the buckling restrained braces can reach tension and compression,and the ultimate compression and tension strengths are almost the same,and the energy dissipation is very good.At the same time,the influence of BRB′s stiffness,slip force of the Pall-typed damper,the size of damper and the elevation angle of BRB on hysteretic of system and tension force is analyzed.The results show that the Pall-BRB brace system has better energy dissipation than original Pall brace system,the tension force of the BRBs can keep constant;the maximum tension force of BRBs has relationship with slip force of damper,and the greater the slip force of damper is,the greater the energy dissipation is,and the BRBs can act fully.Finally,a simple design method of Pall-BRB frictional damping brace system is proposed.%考虑几何非线性采用ANSYS有限元软件对一种新型Pall-BRB摩擦阻尼支撑体系(采用防屈曲支撑(BRB)代替Pall型摩擦阻尼器(PFD)的普通支撑)的滞回特性进行分析.首先进行了Pall型普通支撑体系和Pall-BRB摩擦阻尼支撑体系的滞回性能对比分析,结果表明,防屈曲支撑在拉压循环荷载作用下均能达到屈服,拉压承载力基本一致,耗能能力优于普通支撑.然后分析了防屈曲支撑刚度、Pall型阻尼器起滑摩擦力、阻尼器的大小以及防屈曲支撑与水平方向的倾角等因素对体系滞回特性以及支撑内力的影响.结果表明,Pall-

  2. Soft braces in the treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS – Review of the literature and description of a new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Hans-Rudolf

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of soft braces to treat scoliosis has been described by Fischer as early as 1876. With the help of elastic straps, as the authors suggested, a corrective movement for individual curve patterns should be maintained in order to inhibit curve progression. Today this concept has been revived besides soft 3 point pressure systems. Some shortcomings have been revealed in literature in comparison with hard braces, however the concept of improving quality of life of a patient while under brace treatment should furtherly be considered as valuable. Purpose of this review is to gather the body of evidence existent for the use of soft braces and to present recent developments. Method A review of literature as available on Pub Med was performed using the key words ‘scoliosis’ and ‘soft brace’ at first. The search was expanded using ‘scoliosis’ and the known trademarks (1 ‘scoliosis’ and ‘SpineCor’, (2 ‘scoliosis’ and ‘TriaC’, (3 ‘scoliosis’ and ‘St. Etienne brace’, (4 ‘scoliosis’ and ‘Olympe’. The papers considered for inclusion were new technical descriptions, preliminary results, cohort studies and controlled studies. Results When searching for the terms ‘scoliosis’ and ‘SpineCor’: 20 papers have been found, most of them investigating a soft brace, for ‘scoliosis’ and ‘TriaC’: 7 papers displayed, for ‘scoliosis’ and ‘St. Etienne brace’: one paper displayed but not meeting the topic and for ‘scoliosis’ and ‘Olympe’: No paper displayed. Four papers found on the SpineCor™ were of prospective controlled or prospective randomized design. These papers partly presented contradictory results. Two papers were on soft Boston braces used in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis. Discussion There is a small but consistent body of evidence for the use of soft braces in the treatment of scoliosis. Contradictory results have been published for samples treated during

  3. The Notting Dale Urban Studies Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Chris; Lynas, Sue

    1976-01-01

    Founded in 1974, the Centre is one of the most intensively used resource centres in the United Kingdom. Adults and students from elementary to college level use its facilities to learn about the urban environment. (BD)

  4. Single to quadruple quantum dots with tunable tunnel couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takakura, T.; Noiri, A.; Obata, T.; Yoneda, J.; Yoshida, K. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Otsuka, T.; Tarucha, S. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); RIKEN, Center for Emergent Matter Science, 3-1 Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2014-03-17

    We prepare a gate-defined quadruple quantum dot to study the gate-tunability of single to quadruple quantum dots with finite inter-dot tunnel couplings. The measured charging energies of various double dots suggest that the dot size is governed by the gate geometry. For the triple and quadruple dots, we study the gate-tunable inter-dot tunnel couplings. For the triple dot, we find that the effective tunnel coupling between side dots significantly depends on the alignment of the center dot potential. These results imply that the present quadruple dot has a gate performance relevant for implementing spin-based four-qubits with controllable exchange couplings.

  5. Proteolytic Activation of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab through a Belt-and-Braces Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lian; Pan, Zhi-Zhen; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Bo; Zhu, Yu-Jing; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2016-09-28

    Proteolytic processing of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal toxins by insect midgut proteases plays an essential role in their insecticidal toxicities against target insects. In the present study, proteolysis of Bt crystal toxin Cry2Ab by Plutella xylostella L. midgut proteases (PxMJ) was evaluated. Both trypsin and chymotrypsin were identified involving the proteolytic activation of Cry2Ab and cleaving Cry2Ab at Arg(139) and Leu(144), respectively. Three Cry2Ab mutants (R139A, L144A, and R139A-L144A) were constructed by replacing residues Arg(139), Leu(144), and Arg(139)-Leu(144) with alanine. Proteolysis assays revealed that mutants R139A and L144A but not R139A-L144A could be cleaved into 50 kDa activated toxins by PxMJ. Bioassays showed that mutants R139A and L144A were highly toxic against P. xylostella larvae, while mutant R139A-L144A was almost non-insecticidal. Those results demonstrated that proteolysis by PxMJ was associated with the toxicity of Cry2Ab against P. xylostella. It also revealed that either trypsin or chymotrypsin was enough to activate Cry2Ab protoxin. This characteristic was regarded as a belt-and-braces approach and might contribute to the control of resistance development in target insects. Our studies characterized the proteolytic processing of Cry2Ab and provided new insight into the activation of this Bt toxin. PMID:27598769

  6. Near-infrared quantum dots for HER2 localization and imaging of cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rizvi SB; Rouhi S; Taniguchi S; Yang SY; Green M; Keshtgar M; Seifalian AM

    2014-01-01

    Sarwat B Rizvi,1 Sepideh Rouhi,1 Shohei Taniguchi,2 Shi Yu Yang,1 Mark Green,2 Mo Keshtgar,1,3 Alexander M Seifalian1,3 1UCL Centre for Nanotechnology and Regenerative Medicine, University College London, 2Department of Physics, King's College London, 3Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust Hospital, London, UK Background: Quantum dots are fluorescent nanoparticles with unique photophysical properties that allow them to be used as diagnostic, therapeutic, and theranostic agents, part...

  7. InAs/GaAs submonolayer quantum dot superluminescent diode emitting around 970 nm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xin-Kun; Liang De-Chun; Jin Peng; An Qi; Wei Heng; Wu Jian; Wang Zhan-Guo

    2012-01-01

    According to the InAs/GaAs submonolayer quantum dot active region,we demonstrate a bent-waveguide superlnminescent diode emitting at a wavelength of around 970 nm.At a pulsed injection current of 0.5 A,the device exhibits an output power of 24 mW and an emission spectrum centred at 971 nm with a full width at half maximum of 16 nm.

  8. Engineering colloidal quantum dot solids within and beyond the mobility-invariant regime

    KAUST Repository

    Zhitomirsky, David

    2014-05-06

    © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Colloidal quantum dots are attractive materials for efficient, low-cost and facile implementation of solution-processed optoelectronic devices. Despite impressive mobilities (1-30 cm2V-1 s-1) reported for new classes of quantum dot solids, it is-surprisingly-the much lower-mobility (10-3-10-2 cm2V-1 s-1) solids that have produced the best photovoltaic performance. Here we show that it is not mobility, but instead the average spacing among recombination centres that governs the diffusion length of charges in today\\'s quantum dot solids. In this regime, colloidal quantum dot films do not benefit from further improvements in charge carrier mobility. We develop a device model that accurately predicts the thickness dependence and diffusion length dependence of devices. Direct diffusion length measurements suggest the solid-state ligand exchange procedure as a potential origin of the detrimental recombination centres. We then present a novel avenue for in-solution passivation with tightly bound chlorothiols that retain passivation from solution to film, achieving an 8.5% power conversion efficiency.

  9. ESTIMATION OF BEARING STRENGTH OF BRACES AND STRUTS OF FARMS OF COVERAGE OF 6D TYPE HOTHOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degtyarev G. V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The method of estimation of bearing strength of braces and struts of farms of coverage of hothouses is presented in the article. The deep analysis of the question of bearing strength appeared in the light of mass erection of hothouses, especially in the South Federal district, the construction of which had been bought in the countries of Near East. However, simple transfer of the constructions of hothouses made in foreign countries can not be considered as rational on the territory of the Russian Federation. The constructions of hothouses in most do not maintain exploitation even in one winter, when the considerable snow loadings are, and wind as well. The necessity of bringing of clarity for the folded situation became more obvious. Conducted successive static, dynamic and seismic analyses, executed upon the normative documents and due to the norms of supplier operating on the territory of the Russian Federation, in attachment to the real sections of bearings structural elements, allowed to expose the stated below percents of the use of the examined elements of constructions. Supporting braces of farms of coverage: on the norms of the Russian Federation, on the first maximum state percent of the use – 999 %; there is a percent of the use on the second maximum state – 999 %; on the norms of the Russian Federation taking into account loadings of supplier, on the first maximum state percent of the use – 999 %; there is a percent of the use on the second maximum state – 999 %; Stretched braces of farms of coverage: on the norms of the Russian Federation, on the first maximum state percent of the use – 64,2%; there is a percent of the use on the second maximum state – 721,8 %; on the norms of the Russian Federation taking into account loadings of supplier, on the first maximum state percent of the use – 25,8 %; there is a percent of the use on the second maximum state – 721,8%. Analysis presented allows establishing that at the load

  10. Numerical Model of a Hybrid Damping System Composed of a Buckling Restrained Brace with a Magneto Rheological Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip-Vacarescu Norin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the concept of a hybrid damper made from a combination of two dissipative devices. A passive hysteretic device like steel Buckling Restrained Brace (BRB can be combined with a magneto-rheological (MR Fluid Damper in order to obtain a hybrid dissipative system. This system can work either as a semi-active system, if the control unit is available, or as a passive system, tuned for working according to performance based seismic engineering (PBSE scale of reference parameters (i.e. interstory drift.

  11. SUPER-CAPACITOR APPLICATION IN ELECTRICAL POWER CABLE TESTING FACILITIES IN THERMAL ENDURANCE AND MECHANICAL BRACING TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Oleksyuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current-carrying cores of the electrical power cables should be resistant to effects of short-circuit currents whose values depend on the material of the core, its cross-sectional area, cable insulation properties, environment temperature, and the duration of the short-circuit current flow (1 and 3–4 sec. when tested for thermal endurance and mechanical bracing. The facilities for testing the 10 kV aluminum core cables with short-circuit current shall provide mechanical-bracing current 56,82 kA and thermal endurance current 11,16 kA. Although capacitors provide such values of the testing currents to the best advantage, utilizing conventional capacitor-units will involve large expenditures for erecting and  running a separate building. It is expedient to apply super-capacitors qua the electric power supply for testing facilities, as they are capacitors with double-electrical layer and involve the current values of tens of kilo-amperes.The insulation voltage during short-circuit current testing being not-standardized, it is not banned to apply voltages less than 10 kV when performing short-circuit thermal endurance and mechanical bracing tests for electrical power cables of 10 kV. The super-capacitor voltage variation-in-time graph consists of two regions: capacitive and resistive. The capacitive part corresponds to the voltage change consequent on the energy change in the super-capacitors. The resistive part shows the voltage variation due to the active resistance presence in the super-capacitor.The author offers the algorithm determining the number of super capacitors requisite for testing 10 kV-electrical power cables with short-circuit currents for thermal endurance and mechanical bracing. The paper shows that installation of super-capacitors in the facilities testing the cables with short-circuit currents reduces the area needed for the super-capacitors in comparison with conventional capacitors more than by one order of magnitude.

  12. Scheduling participants of Assessment Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jens; Løber, Janni

      Assessment Centres are used as a tool for psychologists and coaches to observe a number of dimensions in a person's behaviour and test his/her potential within a number of chosen focus areas. This is done in an intense course, with a number of different exercises which expose each participant......'s ability level in the chosen focus areas. The participants are observed by assessors with the purpose of gathering material for reaching a conclusion on each participant's personal profile. We consider the particular case that arises at the company Human Equity (www.humanequity.dk), where Assessment...

  13. Optical Fiber Sensing Using Quantum Dots

    OpenAIRE

    Faramarz Farahi; José Luís Santos; Tito Trindade; Manuel António Martins; Pedro Jorge

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in the application of semiconductor nanocrystals, or quantum dots, as biochemical sensors are reviewed. Quantum dots have unique optical properties that make them promising alternatives to traditional dyes in many luminescence based bioanalytical techniques. An overview of the more relevant progresses in the application of quantum dots as biochemical probes is addressed. Special focus will be given to configurations where the sensing dots are incorporated in sol...

  14. Aging effect in CaLaBa{l_brace}Cu{sub 1 - x}Fe{sub x}{r_brace}{sub 3}O{sub 7 - {delta}} with 0 {<=} x {<=} 0.07 studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, Angel, E-mail: angelbd1@gmail.com [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Laboratorio de Ceramicos y Nanomateriales, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas (Peru); Santos Valladares, Luis De Los, E-mail: ld301@cam.ac.uk [University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory (United Kingdom); Flores, Jesus [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Laboratorio de Ceramicos y Nanomateriales, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas (Peru); Barnes, Crispin H. W. [University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory (United Kingdom); Majima, Yutaka [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Materials and Structures Laboratory (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    In this work, we study the long-term aging effect caused by Fe atoms in the superconductor CaLaBa{l_brace}Cu{sub 1 - x}Fe{sub x}{r_brace}{sub 3}O{sub 7 - {delta}} with 0 {<=} x {<=} 0.07. XRD confirms that this system has a YBCO-like structure. The critical temperature (T{sub c}) is strongly affected by aging and depends on the amount of Fe in the structure. Room temperature Moessbauer spectroscopy reveals the presence of the typical species A, B-B Prime , C and new species E Prime and F. Interestingly; A, which corresponds to the Fe{sup 3 + } atom located in the Cu(1) of the chains with spin S{sub z} = 3/2, shows a drastic reduction which means migration to the species B, B Prime and C. Species B and B Prime correspond to the Fe{sup 3 + } in the Cu(2) site forming planar quasi-octahedral and planar square pyramidal, while the C specie is a square pyramidal with O(5) respectively (spin S{sub z} = 3/2 in all these cases). Aging causes loss of superconductivity in the samples with 5 and 7% of iron content.

  15. A colloidal quantum dot spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jie; Bawendi, Moungi G.

    2015-07-01

    Spectroscopy is carried out in almost every field of science, whenever light interacts with matter. Although sophisticated instruments with impressive performance characteristics are available, much effort continues to be invested in the development of miniaturized, cheap and easy-to-use systems. Current microspectrometer designs mostly use interference filters and interferometric optics that limit their photon efficiency, resolution and spectral range. Here we show that many of these limitations can be overcome by replacing interferometric optics with a two-dimensional absorptive filter array composed of colloidal quantum dots. Instead of measuring different bands of a spectrum individually after introducing temporal or spatial separations with gratings or interference-based narrowband filters, a colloidal quantum dot spectrometer measures a light spectrum based on the wavelength multiplexing principle: multiple spectral bands are encoded and detected simultaneously with one filter and one detector, respectively, with the array format allowing the process to be efficiently repeated many times using different filters with different encoding so that sufficient information is obtained to enable computational reconstruction of the target spectrum. We illustrate the performance of such a quantum dot microspectrometer, made from 195 different types of quantum dots with absorption features that cover a spectral range of 300 nanometres, by measuring shifts in spectral peak positions as small as one nanometre. Given this performance, demonstrable avenues for further improvement, the ease with which quantum dots can be processed and integrated, and their numerous finely tuneable bandgaps that cover a broad spectral range, we expect that quantum dot microspectrometers will be useful in applications where minimizing size, weight, cost and complexity of the spectrometer are critical.

  16. Core Competencies Of A Call Centre AgentCore Competencies Of A Call Centre Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Christine White; Vera Roos

    2005-01-01

    Call centre agents are becoming increasingly important in the call centre context. They act as a contact point between the customer and the company. Call centre agents should have certain competencies to perform their duties sufficiently. Identifying competencies, required to be effective agents, will ease the task of training and recruitment. Due to the interrelatedness of the call centre agent, the management of a call centre and customers, all relevant role players’ perceptions were taken ...

  17. Quantum-dot emitters in photonic nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Stobbe, Søren; Lodahl, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The spontaneous emission from self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots is strongly influenced by the environment in which they are placed. This can be used to determine fundamental optical properties of the quantum dots as well as to manipulate and control the quantum-dot emission itself....

  18. Beer's law in semiconductor quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Adamashvili, G T

    2010-01-01

    The propagation of a coherent optical linear wave in an ensemble of semiconductor quantum dots is considered. It is shown that a distribution of transition dipole moments of the quantum dots changes significantly the polarization and Beer's absorption length of the ensemble of quantum dots. Explicit analytical expressions for these quantities are presented.

  19. Perceptual centres in speech - an acoustic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Sophie Kerttu

    Perceptual centres, or P-centres, represent the perceptual moments of occurrence of acoustic signals - the 'beat' of a sound. P-centres underlie the perception and production of rhythm in perceptually regular speech sequences. P-centres have been modelled both in speech and non speech (music) domains. The three aims of this thesis were toatest out current P-centre models to determine which best accounted for the experimental data bto identify a candidate parameter to map P-centres onto (a local approach) as opposed to the previous global models which rely upon the whole signal to determine the P-centre the final aim was to develop a model of P-centre location which could be applied to speech and non speech signals. The first aim was investigated by a series of experiments in which a) speech from different speakers was investigated to determine whether different models could account for variation between speakers b) whether rendering the amplitude time plot of a speech signal affects the P-centre of the signal c) whether increasing the amplitude at the offset of a speech signal alters P-centres in the production and perception of speech. The second aim was carried out by a) manipulating the rise time of different speech signals to determine whether the P-centre was affected, and whether the type of speech sound ramped affected the P-centre shift b) manipulating the rise time and decay time of a synthetic vowel to determine whether the onset alteration was had more affect on P-centre than the offset manipulation c) and whether the duration of a vowel affected the P-centre, if other attributes (amplitude, spectral contents) were held constant. The third aim - modelling P-centres - was based on these results. The Frequency dependent Amplitude Increase Model of P-centre location (FAIM) was developed using a modelling protocol, the APU GammaTone Filterbank and the speech from different speakers. The P-centres of the stimuli corpus were highly predicted by attributes of

  20. The new AMS control centre

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    Construction work for the future AMS control room began in November 2010 and should be finished this June. The new building, which will have been completed in record time thanks to the professionalism of the project team, will soon be ready to receive the initial data from the AMS experiment.     Luigi Scibile and Michael Poehler, from the GS department, at the AMS control centre construction site.   The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is due to wing its way towards the International Space Station (ISS) on board the shuttle Discovery in April. Mainly intended for research on antimatter and dark matter, the data collected by AMS will be sent to Houston in the United States and then directly to CERN’s new Building 946. Construction work for the AMS control centre building on the Route Gentner at CERN’s Prévessin site started in November 2010 and must be completed in time to receive the first data from the spectrometer in June. “It normall...

  1. Effect of Kınesıotapıng and Knee Brace on Functıonal Performance in Recreatıonal Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Ulusoy, Burak; İldiz, Bülent; Tunay, Volga Bayrakçı

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Kinesiotaping is a popular taping method that is used for both therapeutic and performance enchancement purposes. Knee braces are widely used for prevention in sport injuries but their performance effectiveness is still controversial. The aim of this study was to determine whether kinesiotape or brace was more effective on functional performance. Methods: A total twenty male recreational football players (Mean±Standart Deviation (SD) age: 22.5±0.68 years, height: 175.15±3.37 cm, b...

  2. Nickel sensitization in adolescents and association with ear piercing, use of dental braces and hand eczema. The Odense Adolescence Cohort Study on Atopic Diseases and Dermatitis (TOACS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Lauritsen, Jens Martin; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten;

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of nickel allergy (sensitization) and the associations with ear piercing, use of dental braces and hand eczema were assessed in a cohort of 1,501 8th grade schoolchildren (aged 12-16 years) in Odense, Denmark. Nickel allergy was found in 8.6% and was clinically relevant in 69......% of cases. Nickel allergy was found most frequently in girls and the association with ear piercing was confirmed. Application of dental braces (oral nickel exposure) prior to ear piercing (cutaneous nickel exposure) was associated with a significantly reduced prevalence of nickel allergy. In adolescents...

  3. A user`s guide to LUGSAN 1.1: A computer program to calculate and archive lug and sway brace loads for aircraft-carried stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, W.N. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Experimental Structural Dynamics Dept.

    1994-07-01

    LUGSAN (LUG and Sway brace ANalysis) is a analysis and database computer program designed to calculate store lug and sway brace loads from aircraft captive carriage. LUGSAN combines the rigid body dynamics code, SWAY85 and the maneuver calculation code, MILGEN, with an INGRES database to function both as an analysis and archival system. This report describes the operation of the LUGSAN application program, including function description, layout examples, and sample sessions. This report is intended to be a user`s manual for version 1.1 of LUGSAN operating on the VAX/VMS system. The report is not intended to be a programmer or developer`s manual.

  4. Spin storage in quantum dot ensembles and single quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiss, Dominik

    2009-10-15

    This thesis deals with the investigation of spin relaxation of electrons and holes in small ensembles of self-assembled quantum dots using optical techniques. Furthermore, a method to detect the spin orientation in a single quantum dot was developed in the framework of this thesis. A spin storage device was used to optically generate oriented electron spins in small frequency selected quantum dot ensembles using circularly polarized optical excitation. The spin orientation can be determined by the polarization of the time delayed electroluminescence signal generated by the device after a continuously variable storage time. The degree of spin polarized initialization was found to be limited to 0.6 at high magnetic fields, where anisotropic effects are compensated. The spin relaxation was directly measured as a function of magnetic field, lattice temperature and s-shell transition energy of the quantum dot by varying the spin storage time up to 30 ms. Very long spin lifetimes are obtained with a lower limit of T{sub 1}=20 ms at B=4 T and T=1 K. A strong magnetic field dependence T{sub 1}{proportional_to}B{sup -5} has been observed for low temperatures of T=1 K which weakens as the temperature is increased. In addition, the temperature dependence has been determined with T{sub 1}{proportional_to}T{sup -1}. The characteristic dependencies on magnetic field and temperature lead to the identification of the spin relaxation mechanism, which is governed by spin-orbit coupling and mediated by single phonon scattering. This finding is qualitatively supported by the energy dependent measurements. The investigations were extended to a modified device design that enabled studying the spin relaxation dynamics of heavy holes in self-assembled quantum dots. The measurements show a polarization memory effect for holes with up to 0.1 degree of polarization. Furthermore, investigations of the time dynamics of the hole spin relaxation reveal surprisingly long lifetimes T{sub 1}{sup h

  5. Spin storage in quantum dot ensembles and single quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with the investigation of spin relaxation of electrons and holes in small ensembles of self-assembled quantum dots using optical techniques. Furthermore, a method to detect the spin orientation in a single quantum dot was developed in the framework of this thesis. A spin storage device was used to optically generate oriented electron spins in small frequency selected quantum dot ensembles using circularly polarized optical excitation. The spin orientation can be determined by the polarization of the time delayed electroluminescence signal generated by the device after a continuously variable storage time. The degree of spin polarized initialization was found to be limited to 0.6 at high magnetic fields, where anisotropic effects are compensated. The spin relaxation was directly measured as a function of magnetic field, lattice temperature and s-shell transition energy of the quantum dot by varying the spin storage time up to 30 ms. Very long spin lifetimes are obtained with a lower limit of T1=20 ms at B=4 T and T=1 K. A strong magnetic field dependence T1∝B-5 has been observed for low temperatures of T=1 K which weakens as the temperature is increased. In addition, the temperature dependence has been determined with T1∝T-1. The characteristic dependencies on magnetic field and temperature lead to the identification of the spin relaxation mechanism, which is governed by spin-orbit coupling and mediated by single phonon scattering. This finding is qualitatively supported by the energy dependent measurements. The investigations were extended to a modified device design that enabled studying the spin relaxation dynamics of heavy holes in self-assembled quantum dots. The measurements show a polarization memory effect for holes with up to 0.1 degree of polarization. Furthermore, investigations of the time dynamics of the hole spin relaxation reveal surprisingly long lifetimes T1h in the microsecond range, therefore, comparable with electron spin

  6. The interdigital brace and other grips for termite nest perforation by chimpanzees of the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnik, Julie J; Sanz, Crickette M; Morgan, David B

    2015-06-01

    Studies of chimpanzee termite foraging enlighten our understanding of early hominin tool use not only by modeling the cognitive ability of our ancestors but also by emphasizing the possible role of social insects in the hominin diet. The chimpanzees of the Goualougo Triangle are known to have one of the largest and most complex tool repertoires reported for wild chimpanzees. One tool set habitually used by this population includes a perforating tool to penetrate the hard outer crust of elevated termite nests before fishing for termite prey with an herbaceous stem. Here, we report the variation present in the grips used on the perforating tool. Our analysis of video recordings of chimpanzee visitation to termite nests over a 3-year period shows that these chimpanzees use a variety of grips to navigate the challenges encountered in opening a termite nest. For situations in which the soil is most hardened, perforating requires force and a power grip is often used. When the soil in the passageway is loose, precision grips are suitable for the task. One of the preferred grips reported here is an interdigital brace, which has previously been described in studies of how some people hold a pencil. In this study, for the first time, the interdigital brace has been thoroughly described for chimpanzees. The various strategies and grips used during perforation emphasize the importance of termites as a nutritional resource that should be considered more strongly as a food used by early hominins. PMID:25916822

  7. Analysis of Limit Cycle Oscillation Data from the Aeroelastic Test of the SUGAR Truss-Braced Wing Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Robert E.; Funk, Christie; Scott, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Research focus in recent years has been given to the design of aircraft that provide significant reductions in emissions, noise and fuel usage. Increases in fuel efficiency have also generally been attended by overall increased wing flexibility. The truss-braced wing (TBW) configuration has been forwarded as one that increases fuel efficiency. The Boeing company recently tested the Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) Truss-Braced Wing (TBW) wind-tunnel model in the NASA Langley Research Center Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). This test resulted in a wealth of accelerometer data. Other publications have presented details of the construction of that model, the test itself, and a few of the results of the test. This paper aims to provide a much more detailed look at what the accelerometer data says about the onset of aeroelastic instability, usually known as flutter onset. Every flight vehicle has a location in the flight envelope of flutter onset, and the TBW vehicle is not different. For the TBW model test, the flutter onset generally occurred at the conditions that the Boeing company analysis said it should. What was not known until the test is that, over a large area of the Mach number dynamic pressure map, the model displayed wing/engine nacelle aeroelastic limit cycle oscillation (LCO). This paper dissects that LCO data in order to provide additional insights into the aeroelastic behavior of the model.

  8. Treatment of the Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip with an Abduction Brace in Children up to 6 Months Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Wahlen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Use of Pavlik harness for the treatment of DDH can be complicated for parents. Any misuse or failure in the adjustments may lead to significant complications. An abduction brace was introduced in our institution, as it was thought to be easier to use. Aim. We assess the results for the treatment of DDH using our abduction brace in children of 0–6 months old and compare these results with data on treatments using the Pavlik harness. Method. Retrospective analysis of patients with DDH from 0 to 6 months old at diagnosis, performed from 2004 to 2009. Outcomes were rates of reduction of the hip and avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVN. Follow-up was at one year and up to 4 years old. Results. Hip reduction was successful in 28 of 33 patients (85%, with no AVN. Conclusion. Our results in terms of hip reduction rate and AVN rate are similar to those found in literature assessing Pavlik harness use, with a simpler and comfortable treatment procedure.

  9. Centre for nuclear engineering University of Toronto annual report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of the Centre for Nuclear Engineering, University of Toronto covers the following subjects: message from the Dean; Chairman's message; origins of the centre; formation of the centre; new nuclear appointments; and activities of the centre, 1984

  10. Luminescent Surface Quaternized Carbon Dots

    KAUST Repository

    Bourlinos, Athanasios B.

    2012-01-10

    Thermal oxidation of a salt precursor made from the acid base combination of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and betaine hydrochloride results in light-emitting surface quaternized carbon dots that are water-dispersible, display anion exchange properties, and exhibit uniform size/surface charge. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  11. On triaxial ellipsoidal quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voon, L C Lew Yan; Willatzen, M [Mads Clausen Institute, University of Southern Denmark, Grundtvigs Alle 150, DK-6400 Soenderborg (Denmark)

    2004-02-25

    The bound-state problem for triaxial ellipsoidal infinite-barrier quantum dots has been solved. It is exactly solvable in terms of ellipsoidal coordinates and the eigenmodes are written in terms of Lame wavefunctions. The need for all eight types of functions is shown. This presents a generalization over previous work on spheres and spheroids. Splitting of degeneracy and level crossing are obtained.

  12. DOT strategies versus orbiter strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Dutch Open Telescope is a high-resolution solar imager coming on-line at La Palma. The definition of the DOT science niche, strategies, and requirements resemble Solar Orbiter considerations and deliberations. I discuss the latter in the light of the former, and claim that multi-line observation

  13. Vertical asymmetric double quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roßbach, R.; Reischle, M.; Beirne, G. J.; Schweizer, H.; Jetter, M.; Michler, P.

    2007-01-01

    Two layers of differently sized self-assembled InP-quantum dots (QDs) separated by a GaInP spacer layer with varying thickness were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Photoluminescence measurements of the QD ensembles and of individual asymmetric double QDS show coupling due to the tunnelling of carriers.

  14. Powering the Future Data Centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    The extended run Uninterruptible Power Supply system (UPSs) which powered by fuel cells and supercapcitors, is a promising solution for future data centre to obtain environmentfriendly energy efficient and cost effective. There are many challenges in power electronic interface circuits, because......: • Optimized design method for dual active bridge (DAB) converter and its derived circuits; • A novel hybrid dc-dc converter and its corresponding optimal design method are proposed; • An improved dual input current-fed DC-DC converter with bidirectional power conversion ability is investigated; • Extend...... the circuit level decoupling modulation scheme into 3LNPC inverter. As to the DAB converter, through the power factor and harmonics analysis, the dominated loss factor is found in variable input voltage range. Optimized parameter choosing method is used to decide the ac inductance and switching frequency...

  15. Hyperdense dots mimicking microcalcifications : Mammographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nam Hyeon; Park, Jeong Mi; Goo, Hyun Woo; Bang, Sun Woo [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    To differentiate fine hyperdense dots mimicking microcalcifications from true microcalcifications on mammography. Mammograms showing hyperdense dots in ten patients (mean age, 59 years) were evaluated. Two radiologists were asked to differentiate with the naked eye the hyperdense dots seen on ten mammograms and proven microcalcifications seen on ten mammograms. Densitometry was also performed for all lesions and the contrast index was calculated. The shape and distribution of the hyperdense dots were evaluated and enquires were made regarding any history of breast disease and corresponding treatment. Biopsies were performed for two patients with hyperdense dots. Two radiologists made correct diagnoses in 19/20 cases(95%). The contrast index was 0.10-0.88 (mean 0.58) for hyperdense dots and 0.02-0.45 (mean 0.17) for true microcalcifications. The hyperdense dots were finer and homogeneously rounder than the microcalcifications. Distribution of the hyperdense dots was more superficial in subcutaneous fat (seven cases) and subareolar area (six cases). All ten patients with hyperdense dots had history of mastitis and abscesses and had been treated by open drainage (six cases) and/or folk remedy (four cases). In eight patients, herb patches had been attached. Biopsies of hyperdense dots did not show any microcalcification or evidence of malignancy. These hyperdense dots were seen mainly in older patients. Their characteristic density, shape, distribution and clinical history makes differential diagnosis from true microcalcifications easy and could reduce unnecessary diagnostic procedures such as surgical biopsy.

  16. Hyperdense dots mimicking microcalcifications : Mammographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To differentiate fine hyperdense dots mimicking microcalcifications from true microcalcifications on mammography. Mammograms showing hyperdense dots in ten patients (mean age, 59 years) were evaluated. Two radiologists were asked to differentiate with the naked eye the hyperdense dots seen on ten mammograms and proven microcalcifications seen on ten mammograms. Densitometry was also performed for all lesions and the contrast index was calculated. The shape and distribution of the hyperdense dots were evaluated and enquires were made regarding any history of breast disease and corresponding treatment. Biopsies were performed for two patients with hyperdense dots. Two radiologists made correct diagnoses in 19/20 cases(95%). The contrast index was 0.10-0.88 (mean 0.58) for hyperdense dots and 0.02-0.45 (mean 0.17) for true microcalcifications. The hyperdense dots were finer and homogeneously rounder than the microcalcifications. Distribution of the hyperdense dots was more superficial in subcutaneous fat (seven cases) and subareolar area (six cases). All ten patients with hyperdense dots had history of mastitis and abscesses and had been treated by open drainage (six cases) and/or folk remedy (four cases). In eight patients, herb patches had been attached. Biopsies of hyperdense dots did not show any microcalcification or evidence of malignancy. These hyperdense dots were seen mainly in older patients. Their characteristic density, shape, distribution and clinical history makes differential diagnosis from true microcalcifications easy and could reduce unnecessary diagnostic procedures such as surgical biopsy

  17. Systematic safety evaluation on photoluminescent carbon dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kan; Gao, Zhongcai; Gao, Guo; Wo, Yan; Wang, Yuxia; Shen, Guangxia; Cui, Daxiang

    2013-03-01

    Photoluminescent carbon dots (C-dots) were prepared using the improved nitric acid oxidation method. The C-dots were characterized by tapping-mode atomic force microscopy, and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The C-dots were subjected to systematic safety evaluation via acute toxicity, subacute toxicity, and genotoxicity experiments (including mouse bone marrow micronuclear test and Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity test). The results showed that the C-dots were successfully prepared with good stability, high dispersibility, and water solubility. At all studied C-dot dosages, no significant toxic effect, i.e., no abnormality or lesion, was observed in the organs of the animals. Therefore, the C-dots are non-toxic to mice under any dose and have potential use in fluorescence imaging in vivo, tumor cell tracking, and others.

  18. Spin transport through quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, A.T. da Cunha; Anda, Enrique V. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Full text: We investigate the spin polarized transport properties of a nanoscopic device constituted by a quantum dot connected to two leads. The electrical current circulates with a spin polarization that is modulated via a gate potential that controls the intensity of the spin-orbit coupling, the Rashba effect. We study a polarized field-effect transistor when one of its parts is constituted by a small quantum dot, which energies are controlled by another gate potential operating inside the confined region. The high confinement and correlation suffered by the charges inside the dot gives rise to novel phenomena. We show that through the manipulation of the gate potential applied to the dot it is possible to control, in a very efficient way, the intensity and polarization of the current that goes along the system. Other crucial parameters to be varied in order to understand the behavior of this system are the intensity of the external applied electric and magnetic field. The system is represented by the Anderson Impurity Hamiltonian summed to a spin-orbit interaction, which describes the Rashba effect. To obtain the current of this out-of-equilibrium system we use the Keldysh formalism.The solution of the Green function are compatible with the Coulomb blockade regime. We show that under the effect of a external magnetic field, if the dot is small enough the device operates as a complete spin filter that can be controlled by the gate potential. The behavior of this device when it is injected into it a polarized current and modulated by the Rashba effect is as well studied. (author)

  19. Smart work centres in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anne Birte

    This paper discusses the establishment of telework centres as an element in local development strategies in rural areas, with a particular view to two new telework centres in region North Denmark. The paper argues that telework centres do not represent an easy solution to problems of local...... development and environmental sustainability, and further, that technology may not even be the most important feature needed to make them function as such....

  20. Activities of Radiation Protection Centre in 2000

    CERN Document Server

    Radiat. Prot. Cent. Vilnius

    2001-01-01

    Description of the activities of Radiation Protection Centre in 2000 is presented. Radiation Protection Centre is responsible for radiation protection issues. Currently there are six departments at Radiation Protection Centre: two in Vilnius - Department of Radiation Protection Supervision and Control and Department of Programs and Expertise, and four in the districts. Brief information on subject controlled by each departments is provided focusing on main achievements and events.

  1. Elm Farm Organic Research Centre December 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Richard; Whiltley, Andrew; Haigh, Zoe; Clarke, Sarah; Hitchings, Roger; O'Brien, Josie

    2006-01-01

    The Organic Research Centre. Elm Farm Research Centre Bulletin with Technical Updates from The Organic Advisory Service is a regular publication from The Organic Research Centre. The current issue covers: Report from 2006 Cirencester Conference; Quest for more home produced organic food; in a world where bread matters; Improving wheat with plenty of parents; Unlocking the secrets of the ancient (cereal varieties); Brain food- a good read; Not to late to protect the future: The organic...

  2. Business plan – Tennis centre modernization

    OpenAIRE

    Moravec, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this master's thesis "Business plan -- Tennis centre modernization" - is creating and writing the business plan for the reconstruction of the existing tennis centre. The theoretical part describes characteristics of small and medium sized enterprises, their meaning. Describes the necessary parts of the business plan, its possible structure. The paper involves the knowledge gained into the concrete case of the tennis centre. Describes its nowadays conditions and possible solutions....

  3. Treatment of thoraco-lumbar curves in adolescent females affected by idiopathic scoliosis with a progressive action short brace (PASB: assessment of results according to the SRS committee on bracing and nonoperative management standardization criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perisano Carlo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of conservative treatment of scoliosis is controversial. Some studies suggest that brace is effective in stopping curve progression, whilst others did not report such an effect. The purpose of the present study was to effectiveness of Progressive Action Short Brace (PASB in the correction of thoraco-lumbar curves, in agreement with the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS Committee on Bracing and Nonoperative Management Standardisation Criteria. Methods Fifty adolescent females (mean age 11.8 ± 0.5 years with thoraco-lumbar curve and a pre-treatment Risser score ranging from 0 to 2 have been enrolled. The minimum duration of follow-up was 24 months (mean: 55.4 ± 44.5 months. Antero-posterior radiographs were used to estimate the curve magnitude (CM and the torsion of the apical vertebra (TA at 5 time points: beginning of treatment (t1, one year after the beginning of treatment (t2, intermediate time between t1 and t4 (t3, end of weaning (t4, 2-year minimum follow-up from t4 (t5. Three situations were distinguished: curve correction, curve stabilisation and curve progression. The Kruskal Wallis and Spearman Rank Correlation tests have been used as statistical tests. Results CM mean value was 29,30 ± 5,16 SD at t1 and 14,67 ± 7,65 SD at t5. TA was 12.70 ± 6,14 SD at t1 and 8,95 ± 5,82 at t5. The variation between measures of Cobb and Perdriolle degrees at t1,2,3,4,5 and between CM t5-t1 and TA t5-t1 were significantly different. Curve correction was accomplished in 94% of patients, whereas a curve stabilisation was obtained in 6% of patients. Conclusion The PASB, due to its peculiar biomechanical action on vertebral modelling, is highly effective in correcting thoraco-lumbar curves.

  4. Effect of bracing and other conservative interventions in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents : A systematic review of clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenssinck, MLB; Frijlink, AC; Berger, MY; Bierma-Zeinstra, SMA; Verkerk, K; Verhagen, AP

    2005-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Many conservative treatments are available for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis, but the evidence for their accepted use is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of braces and other conservative treatments of idiopathic scoliosis in a

  5. Simulation methods for hysteretic curve of steel braces%钢支撑滞回曲线的模拟方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆志; 赵作周; 陆新征; 钱稼茹

    2011-01-01

    Three simulation methods for hysteretic curve of steel braces,including phenomenological description method,finite element method and plastic-hinge method,were reviewed.A new brace model based on phenomenological description method was proposed.This model contains a series of governing variables to envelop the complicated hysteretic curve of steel braces and the governing variables can be calibrated by available test results.Simulation results of some available test data prove that this model is more accurate and proficient than those previous brace models based on phenomenological description method.Furthermore,in order to study a more generous brace model,a fiber brace model was demonstrated as well.In this model,certain geometric initial imperfection in the middle of a brace is required to simulate its buckling and post buckling hysteretic characters.The variables of the model are only geometry and material characters of the brace and can be easily determined.The analytical results show that the fiber brace model is precise enough to carry out integral structure analysis under multi-scale requirement.The proposed two models can be used in analysis and design of a structure system containing braces under earthquake excitation.%钢支撑滞回曲线主要有三种模拟方法:现象描述法、有限元法和塑性铰法。在分析了各模拟方法优劣的基础上,提出一种新型的基于现象描述法的支撑模型。该模型通过一系列控制参数来包络钢支撑复杂的滞回曲线,并根据已有的同类型支撑试验结果标定控制参数。研究表明,该模型具有较高的模拟精度及计算效率,解决了早期基于现象描述法支撑模型模拟结果较为粗糙的问题。此外,为研究通用性更高的支撑模型,还提出了一种纤维支撑模型。该模型在跨中引入初始几何缺陷以模拟钢支撑的屈曲及屈曲后滞回特性,模型参数仅涉及支撑的几何及材料特性而易于确定。分析

  6. The European NEO Coordination Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perozzi, E.; Borgia, B.; Micheli, M.

    An operational approach to NEO (Near-Earth Object) hazard monitoring has been developed at European level within the framework of the Space Situational Awareness Program (SSA) of the European Space Agency (ESA). Through federating European assets and profiting of the expertise developed in European Universities and Research Centers, it has been possible to start the deployment of the so-called SSA NEO Segment. This initiative aims to provide a significant contribution to the worldwide effort to the discovery, follow-up and characterization of the near-Earth object population. A major achievement has been the inauguration in May 2013 of the ESA NEO Coordination Centre located at ESRIN (Frascati, Italy). The goal of the NEOCC Precursor Service operations is twofold: to make available updated information on the NEO population and the associated hazard and to contribute to optimize the NEO observational efforts. This is done by maintaining and improving a Web Portal publicly available at http://neo.ssa.esa.int and by performing follow-up observations through a network of collaborating telescopes and facilities. An overview of the SSA-NEO System and a summary of the first two years of NEOCC operations is presented.

  7. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy: Single centre experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Farrell, N J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is an attractive alternative to the traditional open approach in the surgical excision of an adrenal gland. It has replaced open adrenalectomy in our institution and we review our experience to date. METHODS: All cases of laparoscopic adrenalectomies in our hospital over eight years (from 2001 to May 2009) were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographics, diagnosis, length of hospital stay, histology and all operative and post-operative details were evaluated. RESULTS: Fifty-five laparoscopic adrenalectomies (LA) were performed on 51 patients over eight years. The mean age was 48 years (Range 16-86 years) with the male: female ratio 1:2. Twenty-three cases had a right adrenalectomy, 24 had a left adrenalectomy and the remaining four patients had bilateral adrenalectomies. 91% were successfully completed laparoscopically with five converted to an open approach. Adenomas (functional and non functional) were the leading indication for LA, followed by phaeochromocytomas. Other indications for LA included Cushing\\'s disease, adrenal malignancies and rarer pathologies. There was one mortality from necrotising pancreatitis following a left adrenalectomy for severe Cushing\\'s disease, with subsequent death 10 days later. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is effective for the treatment of adrenal tumours, fulfilling the criteria for the ideal minimally invasive procedure. It has replaced the traditional open approach in our centre and is a safe and effective alternative. However, in the case of severe Cushing\\'s disease, laparoscopic adrenalectomy has the potential for significant adverse outcomes and mortality.

  8. Oil Trading Centre to Reopen in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Chinese oil companies will likely resume activities at the oil trading centre in Shanghai this year, a move to further liberalize the once tightly controlled oil market. The centre will trade forward contracts for refined oil products,including gasoline, diesel oil, kerosene and fuel oil, industrial sources said.

  9. Danish Anaesthesia Allergy Centre - preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garvey, L H; Roed-Petersen, J; Menné, T;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anaphylactoid reactions in anaesthesia are rare and should ideally be investigated in specialist centres. At Gentofte University Hospital, we established such a centre in 1998 as a joint venture between the Departments of Anaesthesiology and Dermatology. We present the methodology...

  10. Neighbourhood Centres – Organisation, Management and Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    From the late 1990s neighbourhood centres were brought to the fore of public urban regen-eration policy, because they were seen as a means to accelerate the formation of social capital in deprived urban neighbourhoods. A number of such local community centres were established with substantial pub...

  11. Constructions from Dots and Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Marko A

    2010-01-01

    A graph is a data structure composed of dots (i.e. vertices) and lines (i.e. edges). The dots and lines of a graph can be organized into intricate arrangements. The ability for a graph to denote objects and their relationships to one another allow for a surprisingly large number of things to be modeled as a graph. From the dependencies that link software packages to the wood beams that provide the framing to a house, most anything has a corresponding graph representation. However, just because it is possible to represent something as a graph does not necessarily mean that its graph representation will be useful. If a modeler can leverage the plethora of tools and algorithms that store and process graphs, then such a mapping is worthwhile. This article explores the world of graphs in computing and exposes situations in which graphical models are beneficial.

  12. SEISMIC RESPONSE AND PERFORMANCE OF BUCKLING-RESTRAINED BRACED FRAMES%偏心BRBFs的抗震性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王菲; 张勇

    2011-01-01

    In order to learn the seismic performance of eccentric buckling-restrained braced frames , two kinds of structures portal eccentric buckling-restrained braced frames and herringbone eccentric buckling-restrained brace frames, were designed with PKPM and numerically simulated based on finite element software ANSYS. The models' response sto- ry drifts, story shear forces under basic seismic intensity were measured. The deformation of the two structures present a shear-flexural type,and the low model has a great influention on the displacement of structure. Story drifts, story shear forces can both meet the seismic-resistent deflection demand, which indicates that the two kinds of structures both have good seismic performance. The components can be equivalent to the structure damping to be analyzed ,when they dissipate the energy through plastic deformation. The solution of calculating the equivalent damping ratio was presented. The seismic performance of the two strutures were evaluated furtherly through the investgation of toplevel displacement and story shear forces under 0.4g peak acceleration seismic ground motion , the result showed that the herringbone eccentric buckling-restrained brace frames performed better in earthquake-resistance.%为了解偏心屈曲约束支撑钢框架(BRBFs)的抗震性能,运用pkpm设计软件设计门架式偏心BRBFs和人字形偏心BRBFs两种结构,基于大型有限元软件ANSYS对两种结构进行有限元数值模拟,分析了两种结构在基本烈度作用下的各层位移反应及层间位移角,结果表明,两种结构变形受低阶振型影响较大,沿高度呈倒三角地形分布,结构变形为弯剪形,各层位移及层间位移角均满足规范要求,体现出良好的抗震性能。构件产生塑性变形而耗能时,可以将结构构件等效为结构阻尼进行分析,介绍了等效阻尼比的求解方法。通过对罕遇地震作用下的两种结

  13. The role of the sexual assault centre.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Eogan, Maeve

    2013-02-01

    Sexual Assault Centres provide multidisciplinary care for men and women who have experienced sexual crime. These centres enable provision of medical, forensic, psychological support and follow-up care, even if patients chose not to report the incident to the police service. Sexual Support Centres need to provide a ring-fenced, forensically clean environment. They need to be appropriately staffed and available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to allow prompt provision of medical and supportive care and collection of forensic evidence. Sexual Assault Centres work best within the context of a core agreed model of care, which includes defined multi-agency guidelines and care pathways, close links with forensic science and police services, and designated and sustainable funding arrangements. Additionally, Sexual Assault Centres also participate in patient, staff and community education and risk reduction. Furthermore, they contribute to the development, evaluation and implementation of national strategies on domestic, sexual and gender-based violence.

  14. Heterogeneity in the Histidine-brace Copper Coordination Sphere in Auxiliary Activity Family 10 (AA10) Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Amanda K; Wilson, Michael T; Hough, Michael A; Svistunenko, Dimitri A; Hemsworth, Glyn R; Walton, Paul H; Vijgenboom, Erik; Worrall, Jonathan A R

    2016-06-10

    Copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are enzymes that oxidatively deconstruct polysaccharides. The active site copper in LPMOs is coordinated by a histidine-brace. This utilizes the amino group and side chain of the N-terminal His residue with the side chain of a second His residue to create a T-shaped arrangement of nitrogen ligands. We report a structural, kinetic, and thermodynamic appraisal of copper binding to the histidine-brace in an auxiliary activity family 10 (AA10) LPMO from Streptomyces lividans (SliLPMO10E). Unexpectedly, we discovered the existence of two apo-SliLPMO10E species in solution that can each bind copper at a single site with distinct kinetic and thermodynamic (exothermic and endothermic) properties. The experimental EPR spectrum of copper-bound SliLPMO10E requires the simulation of two different line shapes, implying two different copper-bound species, indicative of three and two nitrogen ligands coordinating the copper. Amino group coordination was probed through the creation of an N-terminal extension variant (SliLPMO10E-Ext). The kinetics and thermodynamics of copper binding to SliLPMO10E-Ext are in accord with copper binding to one of the apo-forms in the wild-type protein, suggesting that amino group coordination is absent in the two-nitrogen coordinate form of SliLPMO10E. Copper binding to SliLPMO10B was also investigated, and again it revealed the presence of two apo-forms with kinetics and stoichiometry of copper binding identical to that of SliLPMO10E. Our findings highlight that heterogeneity exists in the active site copper coordination sphere of LPMOs that may have implications for the mechanism of loading copper in the cell. PMID:27129229

  15. Photoactivation of silicon quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockwood, R., E-mail: rossl@ualberta.c [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G7 (Canada); McFarlane, S. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G7 (Canada); Rodriguez Nunez, J.R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G2 (Canada); Wang, X.Y. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G7 (Canada); Veinot, J.G.C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G2 (Canada); Meldrum, A. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G7 (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    We show that free-standing silicon quantum dots (QDs) can be photoactivated by blue or UV optical irradiation. The luminescence intensity increases by an order of magnitude for irradiation times of several minutes under moderate optical power. The cut-off energy for photoactivation is between 2.1 and 2.4 eV, not very different from the activation energy for hydrogen dissociation from bulk silicon surfaces. We propose the mechanism for this effect is associated with silicon-hydride bond breaking and the subsequent oxidation of dangling bonds. This phenomenon could be used to 'write' luminescent quantum dots into pre-determined arrays. - Research highlights: {yields}Laser light causes increased photoluminescence intensity in silicon quantum dots. {yields} The photoactivation process is effective for wavelengths of 514 nm and shorter. {yields} Hydrogen bound to the Si-QDs is replaced by oxygen in a two-step process. {yields} Patterning is possible but limited by physical dispersion of Si-QDs.

  16. Few-electron quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review some electron transport experiments on few-electron, vertical quantum dot devices. The measurement of current versus source-drain voltage and gate voltage is used as a spectroscopic tool to investigate the energy characteristics of interacting electrons confined to a small region in a semiconducting material. Three energy scales are distinguished: the single-particle states, which are discrete due to the confinement involved; the direct Coulomb interaction between electron charges on the dot; and the exchange interaction between electrons with parallel spins. To disentangle these energies, a magnetic field is used to reorganize the occupation of electrons over the single-particle states and to induce changes in the spin states. We discuss the interactions between small numbers of electrons (between 1 and 20) using the simplest possible models. Nevertheless, these models consistently describe a large set of experiments. Some of the observations resemble similar phenomena in atomic physics, such as shell structure and periodic table characteristics, Hund's rule, and spin singlet and triplet states. The experimental control, however, is much larger than for atoms: with one device all the artificial elements can be studied by adding electrons to the quantum dot when changing the gate voltage. (author)

  17. Near-infrared quantum dots for HER2 localization and imaging of cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizvi SB

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sarwat B Rizvi,1 Sepideh Rouhi,1 Shohei Taniguchi,2 Shi Yu Yang,1 Mark Green,2 Mo Keshtgar,1,3 Alexander M Seifalian1,3 1UCL Centre for Nanotechnology and Regenerative Medicine, University College London, 2Department of Physics, King's College London, 3Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust Hospital, London, UK Background: Quantum dots are fluorescent nanoparticles with unique photophysical properties that allow them to be used as diagnostic, therapeutic, and theranostic agents, particularly in medical and surgical oncology. Near-infrared-emitting quantum dots can be visualized in deep tissues because the biological window is transparent to these wavelengths. Their small sizes and free surface reactive groups that can be conjugated to biomolecules make them ideal probes for in vivo cancer localization, targeted chemotherapy, and image-guided cancer surgery. The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 gene (HER2/neu is overexpressed in 25%–30% of breast cancers. The current methods of detection for HER2 status, including immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization, are used ex vivo and cannot be used in vivo. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of near-infrared-emitting quantum dots for HER2 localization in fixed and live cancer cells as a first step prior to their in vivo application. Methods: Near-infrared-emitting quantum dots were characterized and their in vitro toxicity was established using three cancer cell lines, ie, HepG2, SK-BR-3 (HER2-overexpressing, and MCF7 (HER2-underexpressing. Mouse antihuman anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody was conjugated to the near-infrared-emitting quantum dots. Results: In vitro toxicity studies showed biocompatibility of SK-BR-3 and MCF7 cell lines with near-infrared-emitting quantum dots at a concentration of 60 µg/mL after one hour and 24 hours of exposure. Near-infrared-emitting quantum dot antiHER2-antibody bioconjugates successfully localized HER2 receptors on SK-BR-3 cells

  18. Charge State Hysteresis in Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, C. H.; Rossi, A; Lai, N. S.; Leon, R.; Lim, W. H.; Dzurak, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots provide a two-dimensional analogy for real atoms and show promise for the implementation of scalable quantum computers. Here, we investigate the charge configurations in a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor double quantum dot tunnel coupled to a single reservoir of electrons. By operating the system in the few-electron regime, the stability diagram shows hysteretic tunnelling events that depend on the history of the dots charge occupancy. We present a model which acc...

  19. Resonant electron transfer between quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Openov, Leonid A.

    1999-01-01

    An interaction of electromagnetic field with a nanostructure composed of two quantum dots is studied theoretically. An effect of a resonant electron transfer between the localized low-lying states of quantum dots is predicted. A necessary condition for such an effect is the existence of an excited bound state whose energy lies close to the top of the barrier separating the quantum dots. This effect may be used to realize the reversible quantum logic gate NOT if the superposition of electron s...

  20. Optical Fiber Sensing Using Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Farahi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the application of semiconductor nanocrystals, or quantumdots, as biochemical sensors are reviewed. Quantum dots have unique optical properties thatmake them promising alternatives to traditional dyes in many luminescence basedbioanalytical techniques. An overview of the more relevant progresses in the application ofquantum dots as biochemical probes is addressed. Special focus will be given toconfigurations where the sensing dots are incorporated in solid membranes and immobilizedin optical fibers or planar waveguide platforms.

  1. Big Surveys, Big Data Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, D.

    2016-06-01

    Well-designed astronomical surveys are powerful and have consistently been keystones of scientific progress. The Byurakan Surveys using a Schmidt telescope with an objective prism produced a list of about 3000 UV-excess Markarian galaxies but these objects have stimulated an enormous amount of further study and appear in over 16,000 publications. The CFHT Legacy Surveys used a wide-field imager to cover thousands of square degrees and those surveys are mentioned in over 1100 publications since 2002. Both ground and space-based astronomy have been increasing their investments in survey work. Survey instrumentation strives toward fair samples and large sky coverage and therefore strives to produce massive datasets. Thus we are faced with the "big data" problem in astronomy. Survey datasets require specialized approaches to data management. Big data places additional challenging requirements for data management. If the term "big data" is defined as data collections that are too large to move then there are profound implications for the infrastructure that supports big data science. The current model of data centres is obsolete. In the era of big data the central problem is how to create architectures that effectively manage the relationship between data collections, networks, processing capabilities, and software, given the science requirements of the projects that need to be executed. A stand alone data silo cannot support big data science. I'll describe the current efforts of the Canadian community to deal with this situation and our successes and failures. I'll talk about how we are planning in the next decade to try to create a workable and adaptable solution to support big data science.

  2. The Canadian Astronomy Data Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Nicholas M.; Schade, D.; Astronomy Data Centre, Canadian

    2011-01-01

    The Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC) is the world's largest astronomical data center, holding over 0.5 Petabytes of information, and serving nearly 3000 astronomers worldwide. Its current data collections include BLAST, CFHT, CGPS, FUSE, Gemini, HST, JCMT, MACHO, MOST, and numerous other archives and services. It provides extensive data archiving, curation, and processing expertise, via projects such as MegaPipe, and enables substantial day-to-day collaboration between resident astronomers and computer specialists. It is a stable, powerful, persistent, and properly supported environment for the storage and processing of large volumes of data, a condition that is now absolutely vital for their science potential to be exploited by the community. Through initiatives such as the Common Archive Observation Model (CAOM), the Canadian Virtual Observatory (CVO), and the Canadian Advanced Network for Astronomical Research (CANFAR), the CADC is at the global forefront of advancing astronomical research through improved data services. The CAOM aims to provide homogeneous data access, and hence viable interoperability between a potentially unlimited number of different data collections, at many wavelengths. It is active in the definition of numerous emerging standards within the International Virtual Observatory, and several datasets are already available. The CANFAR project is an initiative to make cloud computing for storage and data-intensive processing available to the community. It does this via a Virtual Machine environment that is equivalent to managing a local desktop. Several groups are already processing science data. CADC is also at the forefront of advanced astronomical data analysis, driven by the science requirements of astronomers both locally and further afield. The emergence of 'Astroinformatics' promises to provide not only utility items like object classifications, but to directly enable new science by accessing previously undiscovered or intractable

  3. Application of Cubic Spline in the Implementation of Braces for the Case of a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmin Sham Rambely

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Orthodontic teeth movement is influenced by the characteristics of the applied force, including its magnitude and direction which normally based on the shape of ellipsoid, parabolic and U-shape that are symmetry. However, this will affect the movement of the whole set of tooth. Approach: This study intends to compare the form of general teeth with another method called cubic spline to get a minimum error in presenting the general form of teeth. Cubic spline method is applied in a mathematical model of a child’s teeth, which is produced through resignation of orthodontic wires. It is also meant to create a clear view towards the true nature of orthodontic wires. Results: Based on mathematical characteristics in the spline and the real data of a teeth’s model, cubic spline shows to be very useful in reflecting the shape of a curve because the dots chosen are not totally symmetry. Conclusion/Recommendation: Therefore, symmetrical curve can be produced in teeth’s shape which is basically asymmetry.

  4. Activation of silicon quantum dots for emission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Wei-Qi; Miao Xin-Jian; Huang Zhong-Mei; Liu Shi-Rong; Qin Chao-Jian

    2012-01-01

    The emission of silicon quantum dots is weak when their surface is passivated well. Oxygen or nitrogen on the surface of silicon quantum dots can break the passivation to form localized electronic states in the band gap to generate active centers where stronger emission occurs.From this point of view,we can build up radiative matter for emission.Emissions of various wavelengths can be obtained by controlling the surface bonds of silicon quantum dots.Our experimental results demonstrate that annealing is important in the treatment of the activation,and stimulated emissions at about 600 and 700 nm take place on active silicon quantum dots.

  5. Thermoelectric energy harvesting with quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sothmann, Björn; Sánchez, Rafael; Jordan, Andrew N

    2015-01-21

    We review recent theoretical work on thermoelectric energy harvesting in multi-terminal quantum-dot setups. We first discuss several examples of nanoscale heat engines based on Coulomb-coupled conductors. In particular, we focus on quantum dots in the Coulomb-blockade regime, chaotic cavities and resonant tunneling through quantum dots and wells. We then turn toward quantum-dot heat engines that are driven by bosonic degrees of freedom such as phonons, magnons and microwave photons. These systems provide interesting connections to spin caloritronics and circuit quantum electrodynamics.

  6. POLARON IN CYLINDRICAL AND SPHERICAL QUANTUM DOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.Fai

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Polaron states in cylindrical and spherical quantum dots with parabolic confinement potentials are investigated applying the Feynman variational principle. It is observed that for both kinds of quantum dots the polaron energy and mass increase with the increase of Frohlich electron-phonon coupling constant and confinement frequency. In the case of a spherical quantum dot, the polaron energy for the strong coupling is found to be greater than that of a cylindrical quantum dot. The energy and mass are found to be monotonically increasing functions of the coupling constant and the confinement frequency.

  7. Semiconductor quantum-dot lasers and amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Borri, Paola; Ledentsov, N. N.;

    2002-01-01

    -power surface emitting VCSELs. We investigated the ultrafast dynamics of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers. The dephasing time at room temperature of the ground-state transition in semiconductor quantum dots is around 250 fs in an unbiased amplifier, decreasing to below 50 fs when the amplifier...... is biased to positive net gain. We have further measured gain recovery times in quantum dot amplifiers that are significantly lower than in bulk and quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifiers. This is promising for future demonstration of quantum dot devices with high modulation bandwidth...

  8. Sensitisation of visible and NIR lanthanide emission by InPZnS quantum dots in bi-luminescent hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Jennifer K; Lincheneau, Christophe; Karimdjy, Maria Moula; Agnese, Fabio; Mattera, Lucia; Gateau, Christelle; Reiss, Peter; Imbert, Daniel; Mazzanti, Marinella

    2016-03-25

    The synthesis of stable hybrid nanoparticles combining InPZnS@ZnSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and grafted lanthanide complexes has been performed using two different approaches in organic and aqueous media. The final bi-luminescent hybrids exhibit Ln(III) (Ln = Eu and Yb) centred luminescence upon QD excitation, suggesting that an energy transfer occurs from the QD to the lanthanide. PMID:26941180

  9. Synthesis and application of luminescent single CdS quantum dot encapsulated silica nanoparticles directed for precision optical bioimaging

    OpenAIRE

    Veeranarayanan S; Poulose AC; Mohamed MS; Nagaoka Y; Iwai S.; Nakagame Y; Kashiwada S; Yoshida Y; Maekawa T; Kumar DS

    2012-01-01

    Srivani Veeranarayanan, Aby Cheruvathoor Poulose, M Sheikh Mohamed, Yutaka Nagaoka, Seiki Iwai, Yuya Nakagame, Shosaku Kashiwada, Yasuhiko Yoshida, Toru Maekawa, D Sakthi KumarBio Nano Electronics Research Centre, Graduate School of Interdisciplinary New Science, Toyo University, Kawagoe, JapanAbstract: This paper presents the synthesis of aqueous cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs) and silica-encapsulated CdS QDs by reverse microemulsion method and utilized as targeted bio-optical probe...

  10. From micro- to nanomagnetic dots: evolution of the eigenmode spectrum on reducing the lateral size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlotti, G.; Gubbiotti, G.; Madami, M.; Tacchi, S.; Hartmann, F.; Emmerling, M.; Kamp, M.; Worschech, L.

    2014-07-01

    Brillouin light scattering experiments and micromagnetic simulations have been exploited to investigate the spectrum of thermally excited magnetic eigenmodes in 10 nm-thick elliptical Permalloy dots, when the longer axis D is scaled down from about 1000 to 100 nm. It is shown that for D larger than about 200 nm the characteristics of the spin-wave eigenmodes are dominated by dipolar energy, while for D in the range of about 100 to 200 nm exchange energy effects cause qualitative and quantitative differences in the spin-wave spectrum. In this ‘mesoscopic’ regime, the usual classification scheme, involving one fundamental mode with large average magnetization and many other modes collected in families with specific symmetries, no longer holds. Rather, one finds the simultaneous presence of two modes with ‘fundamental’ character, i.e. with a significant and comparable value of the average dynamical magnetization: the former is at larger frequency and has its maximum amplitude at the dot's centre, while the latter occurs at lower frequency and is localized at the dot's edges. Interestingly, the maximum intensity swaps from the higher frequency mode to the lower frequency one, just when the dot size is reduced from about 200 to 100 nm. This is relevant in view of the exploitation of nanodots for the design of nanomagnetic devices with lateral dimensions in the above interval, such as memory cells, logic gates, reading heads and spin-torque oscillators.

  11. Review of CERN Data Centre Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Andrade, P; van Eldik, J; McCance, G; Panzer-Steindel, B; Coelho dos Santos, M; Traylen, S; Schwickerath, U

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Data Centre is reviewing strategies for optimizing the use of the existing infrastructure and expanding to a new data centre by studying how other large sites are being operated. Over the past six months, CERN has been investigating modern and widely-used tools and procedures used for virtualisation, clouds and fabric management in order to reduce operational effort, increase agility and support unattended remote data centres. This paper gives the details on the project’s motivations, current status and areas for future investigation.

  12. Review of CERN Data Centre Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, P.; Bell, T.; van Eldik, J.; McCance, G.; Panzer-Steindel, B.; Coelho dos Santos, M.; Traylen and, S.; Schwickerath, U.

    2012-12-01

    The CERN Data Centre is reviewing strategies for optimizing the use of the existing infrastructure and expanding to a new data centre by studying how other large sites are being operated. Over the past six months, CERN has been investigating modern and widely-used tools and procedures used for virtualisation, clouds and fabric management in order to reduce operational effort, increase agility and support unattended remote data centres. This paper gives the details on the project's motivations, current status and areas for future investigation.

  13. Ankles back in randomized controlled trial (ABrCt: braces versus neuromuscular exercises for the secondary prevention of ankle sprains. Design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhagen Evert ALM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankle sprains are the most common sports and physical activity related injury. There is extensive evidence that there is a twofold increased risk for injury recurrence for at least one year post injury. In up to 50% of all cases recurrences result in disability and lead to chronic pain or instability, requiring prolonged medical care. Therefore ankle sprain recurrence prevention in athletes is essential. This RCT evaluates the effect of the combined use of braces and neuromuscular training (e.g. proprioceptive training/sensorimotor training/balance training against the individual use of either braces or neuromuscular training alone on ankle sprain recurrences, when applied to individual athletes after usual care. Methods/Design This study was designed as three way randomized controlled trial with one year follow-up. Healthy individuals between 12 and 70 years of age, who were actively participating in sports and who had sustained a lateral ankle sprain in the two months prior to inclusion, were eligible for inclusion. After subjects had finished ankle sprain treatment by means of usual care, they were randomised to any of the three study groups. Subjects in group 1 received an eight week neuromuscular training program, subjects in group 2 received a sports brace to be worn during all sports activities for the duration of one year, and group 3 received a combination of the neuromuscular training program and a sports brace to be worn during all sports activities for the duration of eight weeks. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and every month for 12 months therafter. The primary outcome measure was incidence of ankle sprain recurrences. Secondary outcome measures included the direct and indirect costs of recurrent injury, the severity of recurrent injury, and the residual complaints during and after the intervention. Discussion The ABrCt is the first randomized controlled trial to directly compare the secondary preventive

  14. Quantum Dot Spectrum Converters for Enhanced High Efficiency Photovoltaics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research proposes to enhance solar cell efficiency, radiation resistance and affordability. The Quantum Dot Spectrum Converter (QDSC) disperses quantum dots...

  15. Towards Human-Centred Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannon, Liam J.

    The field of HCI has evolved and expanded dramatically since its origin in the early 1980’s. The HCI community embraces a large community of researchers and practitioners around the world, from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds in the human and social sciences, engineering and informatics, and more recently, the arts and design disciplines. This kaleidoscope of cultures and disciplines as seen at INTERACT Conferences provides a rich pool of resources for examining our field. Applications are increasingly exploring our full range of sensory modalities, and merging the digital and physical worlds. WiFi has opened up a huge design space for mobile applications. A focus on usability of products and services has been complemented by an emphasis on engagement, enjoyment and experience. With the advent of ubiquitous computing, and the emergence of “The Internet of Things”, new kinds of more open infrastructures make possible radically new kinds of applications. The sources of innovation have also broadened, to include human and social actors outside of the computing and design organizations. The question is to what extent is our mainstream thinking in the HCI field ready for the challenges of this Brave New World? Do the technological and social innovations that we see emerging require us to re-shape, or even, re-create, our field, or is it a case of a more gradual evolution and development of that which we already know? In this closing Keynote, I will provide a perspective on the evolution and development of the HCI field, looking backwards as well as forwards, in order to determine what are some of the changes of significance in the field. This “broad-brush” approach to what I term “ human-centred design” will be complemented by the examination of specific projects and applications, to help anchor some of the discussion. Areas such as user-centred design, participatory design, computer-supported cooperative work and learning, and interaction design, in

  16. Quantum Gates Between Two Spins in a Triple Dot System with an Empty Dot

    CERN Document Server

    Coello, Jose Garcia

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme for implementing quantum gates and entanglement between spin qubits in the outer dots of a triple-dot system with an empty central dot. The voltage applied to the central dot can be tuned to realize the gate. Our scheme exemplifies the possibility of quantum gates outside the regime where each dot has an electron, so that spin-spin exchange interaction is not the only relevant mechanism. Analytic treatment is possible by mapping the problem to a t-J model. The fidelity of the entangling quantum gate between the spins is analyzed in the presence of decoherence stemming from a bath of nuclear spins, as well as from charge fluctuations. Our scheme provides an avenue for extending the scope of two qubit gate experiments to triple-dots, while requiring minimal control, namely that of the potential of a single dot, and may enhance the qubit separation to ease differential addressability.

  17. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Dots for "green" Quantum Dot Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Sun, Pengfei; Cong, Shan; Wu, Jiang; Gao, Lijun; Wang, Yun; Dai, Xiao; Yi, Qinghua; Zou, Guifu

    2016-12-01

    Considering the environment protection, "green" materials are increasingly explored for photovoltaics. Here, we developed a kind of quantum dots solar cell based on nitrogen-doped carbon dots. The nitrogen-doped carbon dots were prepared by direct pyrolysis of citric acid and ammonia. The nitrogen-doped carbon dots' excitonic absorption depends on the N-doping content in the carbon dots. The N-doping can be readily modified by the mass ratio of reactants. The constructed "green" nitrogen-doped carbon dots solar cell achieves the best power conversion efficiency of 0.79 % under AM 1.5 G one full sun illumination, which is the highest efficiency for carbon dot-based solar cells. PMID:26781285

  18. Symmetric centres of braided monoidal categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of‘symmetric centres' of braided monoidal categories. Let H be a Hopf algebra with bijective antipode over a field k. We address the symmetric centre of the Yetter-Drinfel'd module category HH(yD) and show that a left Yetter-Drinfel'd module M belongs to the symmetric centre of HH(yD) if and only if M is trivial. We also study the symmetric centres of categories of representations of quasitriangular Hopf algebras and give a sufficient and necessary condition for the braid of H(M) to induce the braid of (H(H)(A),(○)A,A,φ,l,r), or equivalently, the braid of (A#H(H),(○)A,A,φ,l,r), where A is a quantum commutative H-module algebra.

  19. Photoinduced electron transfers with carbon dots

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xin; Cao, Li; Lu, Fushen; Meziani, Mohammed J.; Li, Heting; Qi, Gang; Zhou, Bing; Harruff, Barbara A.; Kermarrec, Fabien; Sun, Ya-Ping

    2009-01-01

    The photoluminescence in carbon dots (surface-passivated small carbon nanoparticles) could be quenched efficiently by electron acceptor or donor molecules in solution, namely that photo-excited carbon dots are both excellent electron donors and excellent electron acceptors, thus offering new opportunities for their potential uses in light energy conversion and related applications.

  20. Thick-shell nanocrystal quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Chen, Yongfen; Klimov, Victor I.; Htoon, Han; Vela, Javier

    2011-05-03

    Colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots comprising an inner core having an average diameter of at least 1.5 nm and an outer shell, where said outer shell comprises multiple monolayers, wherein at least 30% of the quantum dots have an on-time fraction of 0.80 or greater under continuous excitation conditions for a period of time of at least 10 minutes.

  1. Optical Properties of Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perinetti, U.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents different optical experiments performed on semiconductor quantum dots. These structures allow to confine a small number of electrons and holes to a tiny region of space, some nm across. The aim of this work was to study the basic properties of different types of quantum dots mad

  2. Detecting the chirality for coupled quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Huijuan [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Hu Lian [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)], E-mail: huliancaohj@yahoo.com

    2008-04-21

    We propose a scheme to detect the chirality for a system consisting of three coupled quantum dots. The chirality is found to be determined by the frequency of the transition between chiral states under the chiral symmetry broken perturbation. The results are important to construct quantum gates and to demonstrate chiral entangle states in the triangle spin dots.

  3. Double Acceptor Interaction in Semimagnetic Quantum Dot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Merwyn Jasper D. Reuben

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of geometry of the semimagnetic Quantum Dot on the Interaction energy of a double acceptor is computed in the effective mass approximation using the variational principle. A peak is observed at the lower dot sizes as a magnetic field is increased which is attributed to the reduction in confinement.

  4. The relativistic two-centre continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is presented to define unique continuum states for the two-centre Dirac Hamiltonian. In the spherical limit these states become the familiar angular momentum eigenstates of the radial Coulomb potential. The different states for a fixed total energy vertical strokeEvertical stroke > m may be distinguished by considering the asymptotic spin-angular distribution of states with unique scattering-phases. First numerical solutions of the two-centre Dirac equation for continuum states are presented. (orig.)

  5. INFOTERM – Information Disseminating Centre for Terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Albina Auksoriūtė

    2014-01-01

    International Information Centre for Terminology (INFOTERM) was founded in 1971 by contract with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the Austrian Standards Institute (ASI). In 1996, INFOTERM was reorganized and established as an independent non-profit organization. INFOTERM promotes and supports the cooperation of existing and the establishment of new terminology centres and networks with the general aim to improve domain communication, knowledge ...

  6. Two centre problems in relativistic atomic physics

    OpenAIRE

    McConnell, Sean R.

    2012-01-01

    The work contained within this thesis is concerned with the explanation and usage of a set of theoretical procedures for the study of static and dynamic two–centre problems in the relativistic framework of Dirac’s equation. Two distinctly different theories for handling time–dependent atomic interactions are reviewed, namely semi–classical perturbation theory and a non–perturbative numerical technique based on the coupled channel equation to directly solve the time–dependent, two–centre Dirac...

  7. Joint Research Centre. Ispra establishment-Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive review of the work carried out during 1974 and 1975 in the Ispra establishment of the Joint Research Centre is presented. A description of the activity carried out within the context of the running programmes is given. Some of the most relevant scientific and technical achievement are described from the viewpoints of the Scientific Departments of the Centre. The technical and administrative support activities are also presented. A list of publications issued by the Ispra Scientific staff is given

  8. Social innovation for People-Centred Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars; P.K., Shajahan

    2013-01-01

    Social innovation is closely related to the people-centred development (PCD) framework of knowledge production. The discussion of PCD in this chapter particularly expands on the feature of empowerment and socio-political mobilization of people in social innovation......Social innovation is closely related to the people-centred development (PCD) framework of knowledge production. The discussion of PCD in this chapter particularly expands on the feature of empowerment and socio-political mobilization of people in social innovation...

  9. Perspectives on recycling centres and future developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engkvist, I-L; Eklund, J; Krook, J; Björkman, M; Sundin, E

    2016-11-01

    The overall aim of this paper is to draw combined, all-embracing conclusions based on a long-term multidisciplinary research programme on recycling centres in Sweden, focussing on working conditions, environment and system performance. A second aim is to give recommendations for their development of new and existing recycling centres and to discuss implications for the future design and organisation. Several opportunities for improvement of recycling centres were identified, such as design, layout, ease with which users could sort their waste, the work environment, conflicting needs and goals within the industry, and industrialisation. Combining all results from the research, which consisted of different disciplinary aspects, made it possible to analyse and elucidate their interrelations. Waste sorting quality was recognized as the most prominent improvement field in the recycling centre system. The research identified the importance of involving stakeholders with different perspectives when planning a recycling centre in order to get functionality and high performance. Practical proposals of how to plan and build recycling centres are given in a detailed checklist. PMID:26826952

  10. Medication errors: pharmacovigilance centres in detection and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Bencheikh, Rachida Soulaymani; Benabdallah, Ghita

    2009-01-01

    Detecting medication errors needs collaboration between various organizations, such as patient safety institutions, pharmacovigilance centres, and poison control centres. In order to evaluate the input of pharmacovigilance centres and poison control centres in detecting and evaluating medication errors a pilot project was initiated by the World Alliance for Patient Safety in collaboration with the Uppsala Monitoring Centre; the Moroccan pharmacovigilance centre acted as project coordinator. A...

  11. Model-based clustered-dot screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Ho

    2006-01-01

    I propose a halftone screen design method based on a human visual system model and the characteristics of the electro-photographic (EP) printer engine. Generally, screen design methods based on human visual models produce dispersed-dot type screens while design methods considering EP printer characteristics generate clustered-dot type screens. In this paper, I propose a cost function balancing the conflicting characteristics of the human visual system and the printer. By minimizing the obtained cost function, I design a model-based clustered-dot screen using a modified direct binary search algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate the superior quality of the model-based clustered-dot screen compared to a conventional clustered-dot screen.

  12. Substitutional impurity in the graphene quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierański, K.; Szatkowski, J.

    2015-09-01

    The process of formation of the localized defect states due to substitutional impurity in sp2-bonded graphene quantum dot is considered using a simple tight-binding-type calculation. We took into account the interaction of the quantum dot atoms surrounding the substitutional impurity from the second row of elements. To saturate the external dangling sp2 orbitals of the carbon additionally 18 hydrogen atoms were introduced. The chemical formula of the quantum dot is H18C51X, where X is the symbol of substitutional atom. The position of the localized levels is determined relative to the host-atoms (C) εp energies. We focused on the effect of substitutional doping by the B, N and O on the eigenstate energies and on the total energy change of the graphene dots including for O the effect of lattice distorsion. We conclude that B, N, and O can form stable substitutional defects in graphene quantum dot.

  13. Electron transport in quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    When I was contacted by Kluwer Academic Publishers in the Fall of 200 I, inviting me to edit a volume of papers on the issue of electron transport in quantum dots, I was excited by what I saw as an ideal opportunity to provide an overview of a field of research that has made significant contributions in recent years, both to our understanding of fundamental physics, and to the development of novel nanoelectronic technologies. The need for such a volume seemed to be made more pressing by the fact that few comprehensive reviews of this topic have appeared in the literature, in spite of the vast activity in this area over the course of the last decade or so. With this motivation, I set out to try to compile a volume that would fairly reflect the wide range of opinions that has emerged in the study of electron transport in quantum dots. Indeed, there has been no effort on my part to ensure any consistency between the different chapters, since I would prefer that this volume instead serve as a useful forum for the...

  14. The glycine brace: a component of Rab, Rho, and Ran GTPases associated with hinge regions of guanine- and phosphate-binding loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuwald Andrew F

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ras-like GTPases function as on-off switches in intracellular signalling pathways and include the Rab, Rho/Rac, Ran, Ras, Arf, Sar and Gα families. How these families have evolutionarily diverged from each other at the sequence level provides clues to underlying mechanisms associated with their functional specialization. Results Bayesian analysis of divergent patterns within a multiple alignment of Ras-like GTPase sequences identifies a structural component, termed here the glycine brace, as the feature that most distinguishes Rab, Rho/Rac, Ran and (to some degree Ras family GTPases from other Ras-like GTPases. The glycine brace consists of four residues: An aromatic residue that forms a stabilizing CH-π interaction with a conserved glycine at the start of the guanine-binding loop; a second aromatic residue, which is nearly always a tryptophan, that likewise forms stabilizing CH-π and NH-π interactions with a glycine at the start of the phosphate-binding P-loop; and two other residues (typically an aspartate and a serine or threonine that, together with a conserved buried water molecule, form a network of interactions connecting the two aromatic residues. Conclusion It is proposed that the two glycine residues function as hinges and that the glycine brace influences guanine nucleotide binding and release by interacting with these hinges.

  15. The effect of taping versus semi-rigid bracing on patient outcome and satisfaction in ankle sprains: a prospective, randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lardenoye Sacha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional treatment is a widely used and generally accepted treatment for ankle sprain. A meta-analysis comparing the different functional treatment options could not make definitive conclusions regarding the effectiveness, and until now, little was known about patient satisfaction in relation to the outcome. Methods Patients with acute ankle sprain received rest, ice, compression and elevation with an compressive bandage at the emergency department. After 5-7 days, 100 patients with grade II and III sprains were randomized into two groups: one group was treated with tape and the other with a semi-rigid ankle brace, both for 4 weeks. Post-injury physical and proprioceptive training was standardized. As primary outcome parameter patient satisfaction and skin complications were evaluated using a predefined questionnaire and numeric rating scale. As secondary outcome parameter the ankle joint function was assessed using the Karlsson scoring scale and range of motion. Results Patient-reported comfort and satisfaction during treatment with a semi-rigid brace was significantly increased. The rate of skin complication in this group was significantly lower compared to the tape group (14.6% versus 59.1%, P  Conclusion Treatment of acute ankle sprain with semi-rigid brace leads to significantly higher patient comfort and satisfaction, both with similar good outcome.

  16. Transmission of HIV in dialysis centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velandia, M; Fridkin, S K; Cárdenas, V; Boshell, J; Ramirez, G; Bland, L; Iglesias, A; Jarvis, W

    1995-06-01

    In August, 1993, 13 dialysis patients at one dialysis centre in Colombia, South America, were found to be HIV positive, and this prompted an epidemiological investigation. We carried out a cohort study of all dialysis centre patients during January, 1992 to December, 1993 (epidemic period) to determine risk factors for HIV seroconversion. Haemodialysis and medical records were reviewed, dialysis centre staff and surviving patients were interviewed, and dialysis practices were observed. Stored sera from all dialysis centre patients were tested for HIV antibody. 12 (52%) of 23 patients tested positive for HIV antibody by enzyme immunoassay and western blot during the epidemic period. Of the 23 tested, 9 (39%) converted from HIV antibody negative to positive (seroconverters) and 10 (44%) remained HIV negative (seronegatives). The HIV seroconversion rate was higher among patients dialysed at the centre while a new patient, who was HIV seropositive, was dialysed there (90% vs 0%; p dialysis centre reprocessed access needles, dialysers, and bloodlines (60% vs 0%). While 2 of 9 HIV seroconverters had had sex with prostitutes, none had received unscreened blood products or had other HIV risk factors. No surgical or dental procedures were associated with HIV seroconversion. Dialysers were reprocessed separately with 5% formaldehyde and were labelled for use on the same patient. Access needles were reprocessed by soaking them in a common container with a low-level disinfectant, benzalkonium chloride; 4 pairs of needles were placed in one pan creating the potential for cross-contamination or use of one patient's needles on another patient. HIV transmission at the dialysis centre was confirmed. Improperly reprocessed patient-care equipment, most probably access needles, is the likely mechanism of transmission. This outbreak was discovered by accident and similar transmission may be occurring in many other countries where low-level disinfectants are used to sterilise critical

  17. Scavenger hunt in the CERN Computing Centre

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    Hidden among the racks of servers and disks in the CERN Computing Centre, you’ll find Hawaiian dancers, space aliens, gorillas… all LEGO® figurines! These characters were placed about the Centre for the arrival of Google’s Street View team for the world to discover.   PLEASE NOTE THAT THE COMPETITION IS OVER. ONLY FOR REFERENCE, HERE IS THE ORIGINAL ARTICLE. We’re pleased to announce our first global scavenger hunt! Spot three LEGO® figurines using Google’s Street View and you’ll be entered to win a gift of your choice from our CERN Gift Guide. A LEGO® figurine in the CERN Computing Centre, as seen on Google Street View. Here are the details: Find at least three LEGO® figurines hidden around the CERN Computing Centre using Google Street View.   Take screencaps of the figurines and e-mail the pictures to TreasureHunt-ComputingCentre@cern.ch. This email is no longer active.   The...

  18. Visits to Tier-1 Computing Centres

    CERN Multimedia

    Dario Barberis

    At the beginning of 2007 it became clear that an enhanced level of communication is needed between the ATLAS computing organisation and the Tier-1 centres. Most usual meetings are ATLAS-centric and cannot address the issues of each Tier-1; therefore we decided to organise a series of visits to the Tier-1 centres and focus on site issues. For us, ATLAS computing management, it is most useful to realize how each Tier-1 centre is organised, and its relation to the associated Tier-2s; indeed their presence at these visits is also very useful. We hope it is also useful for sites... at least, we are told so! The usual participation includes, from the ATLAS side: computing management, operations, data placement, resources, accounting and database deployment coordinators; and from the Tier-1 side: computer centre management, system managers, Grid infrastructure people, network, storage and database experts, local ATLAS liaison people and representatives of the associated Tier-2s. Visiting Tier-1 centres (1-4). ...

  19. The Aube centre. 1997 statement; Le centre de l`Aube. Bilan 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Since January 1992 the Aube centre ensures the storage of 90% of the short life radioactive wastes produced in France. This educational booklet describes the organization of the activities in the centre from the storage of wastes to the radioactivity surveillance of the environment (air, surface and ground waters, river sediments, plants and milk). (J.S.)

  20. Quantum Dots Investigated for Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Castro, Stephanie L.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been investigating the synthesis of quantum dots of CdSe and CuInS2 for use in intermediate-bandgap solar cells. Using quantum dots in a solar cell to create an intermediate band will allow the harvesting of a much larger portion of the available solar spectrum. Theoretical studies predict a potential efficiency of 63.2 percent, which is approximately a factor of 2 better than any state-of-the-art devices available today. This technology is also applicable to thin-film devices--where it offers a potential four-fold increase in power-to-weight ratio over the state of the art. Intermediate-bandgap solar cells require that quantum dots be sandwiched in an intrinsic region between the photovoltaic solar cell's ordinary p- and n-type regions (see the preceding figure). The quantum dots form the intermediate band of discrete states that allow sub-bandgap energies to be absorbed. However, when the current is extracted, it is limited by the bandgap, not the individual photon energies. The energy states of the quantum dot can be controlled by controlling the size of the dot. Ironically, the ground-state energy levels are inversely proportional to the size of the quantum dots. We have prepared a variety of quantum dots using the typical organometallic synthesis routes pioneered by Ba Wendi et al., in the early 1990's. The most studied quantum dots prepared by this method have been of CdSe. To produce these dots, researchers inject a syringe of the desired organometallic precursors into heated triocytlphosphine oxide (TOPO) that has been vigorously stirred under an inert atmosphere (see the following figure). The solution immediately begins to change from colorless to yellow, then orange and red/brown, as the quantum dots increase in size. When the desired size is reached, the heat is removed from the flask. Quantum dots of different sizes can be identified by placing them under a "black light" and observing the various color differences in

  1. Fluorescent Quantum Dots for Biological Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Gene; Nadeau, Jay; Nealson, Kenneth; Storrie-Lomardi, Michael; Bhartia, Rohit

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescent semiconductor quantum dots that can serve as "on/off" labels for bacteria and other living cells are undergoing development. The "on/off" characterization of these quantum dots refers to the fact that, when properly designed and manufactured, they do not fluoresce until and unless they come into contact with viable cells of biological species that one seeks to detect. In comparison with prior fluorescence-based means of detecting biological species, fluorescent quantum dots show promise for greater speed, less complexity, greater sensitivity, and greater selectivity for species of interest. There are numerous potential applications in medicine, environmental monitoring, and detection of bioterrorism.

  2. Time-bin Entanglement from Quantum Dots

    CERN Document Server

    Weihs, Gregor; Predojević, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The desire to have a source of single entangled photon pairs can be satisfied using single quantum dots as emitters. However, we are not bound to pursue only polarization entanglement, but can also exploit other degrees of freedom. In this chapter we focus on the time degree of freedom, to achieve so-called time-bin entanglement. This requires that we prepare the quantum dot coherently into the biexciton state and also build special interferometers for analysis. Finally this technique can be extended to achieve time-bin and polarization hyper-entanglement from a suitable quantum dot.

  3. Learning Styles of Independent Learning Centre Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Uzun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Learning style research has been a significant field within language teaching and learning. There have been very few attempts, however, to seek possible links between independent learning and learning style preferences. This paper aims to identify the learning styles of students who use the Independent Learning Centre (ILC on a regular basis at a state university in Turkey (n=102. The findings of the learning style analysis revealed that, contrary to expectations, most of the regular users of the centre were synoptic learners, which implies that these learners might not necessarily have conscious control over their own learning processes. An in-depth analysis of learning styles and recommendations to improve the services offered in the centre are also included in the paper.

  4. Occupational deprivation in an asylum centre:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a study of three asylum-seeking men from Iran and Afghanistan. It aimed to explore how and if they experienced occupations as occupations in a Danish asylum centre and how their life experience shaped their choice and value of current occupations. In-depth narrative interviews...... explored the participants’ occupational history and its influence on their occupations in the asylum centre. A thematic analysis showed that the participants had been subjected to occupational disruption and deprivation by politically oppressive systems even before their flight. Their occupations...... in Denmark were to a certain extent influenced by their earlier occupations and the current occupational deprivation they all experienced was due to limited possibilities in the centre. Although they tried their best to fill their days and create structure, there was a loss of valued occupations...

  5. A day in the CERN Control Centre

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Control Centre (CCC) is the nerve centre of the CERN beam systems. From this room, the experts prepare, monitor, adjust, and control the particle beams that circulate throughout the accelerator complex while ensuring that the services and the technical infrastructure work flawlessly. Buttons, screens, telephones, lights (but no sound): in the CCC, everything is ready to make it possible for the LHC to reach the unprecedented energies expected at Run 2.   Seen from above, the CERN Control Centre resembles the shape of a quadrupole magnet. The consoles are distributed in four circles, called “islands”, dedicated to the LHC, the SPS, the PS Complex and the Technical Infrastructure (TI) respectively. Spread between TI and LHC are the Cryogenics consoles. Being in the same room allows the 24h-manned islands to be constantly in touch with one another, thus ensuring the best performance of the machines. At the LHC island, operators are currently busy training the magnet...

  6. Enhancing person-centred communication in NICU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weis, Janne; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Egerod, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Aims of this article were (a) to explore how parents of premature infants experience guided family-centred care (GFCC), and (b) to compare how parents receiving GFCC versus standard care (SC) describe nurse-parent communication in the neonatal intensive care unit.......Aims of this article were (a) to explore how parents of premature infants experience guided family-centred care (GFCC), and (b) to compare how parents receiving GFCC versus standard care (SC) describe nurse-parent communication in the neonatal intensive care unit....

  7. Imperial College Reactor Centre annual report. 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following new equipment is noted; for atomic absorption spectrometry to supplement the neutron activation analysis, and an additional nuclear data analysis system to improve the quality and speed of the service to users of the Centre's facilities. Users include undergraduates from the University of London, outside bodies such as the British Musueum, as well as departments of Colleges of the University of London. The reactor lost only three days through failures or faults. Two replacement fuel elements were put into the reactor during the year. The report contains brief accounts of 34 research programmes at the Centre. (U.K.)

  8. A study on socio-demographic profile and feasibility of DOTS provider registered under RNTCP in Varanasi district Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Afzalul Haque

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberculosis is a major chronic disorder affecting the larger population more than any other disease in the country. DOTS was introduced in India in 1993 as part of the Revised National Tuberculosis Programme (RNTCP following a review of India’s National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP a year earlier (1 .Patient satisfaction is an important parameter for assessing the quality of patient care services. There is need to assess the health care provider regarding the consumer satisfaction as often as possible, this paper summarizes our experience about role of DOTS provider in the management of TB patient in rural population of Varanasi districts Utter Pradesh. Objective: (1 To assess the perception of registered tuberculosis patients regarding DOTS provider for the treatment of tuberculosis. (2 To assess the accessibility, acceptability & availability of community DOTS provider. Design: A longitudinal study. Setting: Three microscopic centre of Cholapur Tuberculosis unit of Varanasi districts. Methods: Registered patients were interviewed twice: once in the beginning and another at the completion of the treatment or after the permanent discontinuation of the treatment. Patients were interviewed for their socio-demographic profiles, opinion about DOTS and its providers. Side effects experienced and action taken etc. Data was collected on a semi-structured, pre-tested questionnaire. DOTS providers were interviewed and treatment cards analyzed for any interruption of treatment and action taken. Data was collected from 1st June 2004 to 31th June 2005 till the completion of the regimen. Results: Majority of DOTS providers were young males (82.7% of 26 years to 40 years, while the representation of females was only 5 (17.3%. Almost more than 80% of the patients started their treatment within 1-10 days. For majority of cases (83% the distance of DOTS provider from patient’s house was within 1 km. Mean time spent to go to DOTS provider was 27

  9. An evaluation of the dot-ELISA procedure as a diagnostic test in an area with a high prevalence of human Toxocara canis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María V Bojanich

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate a dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA using excretory-secretory antigens from the larval stages of Toxocara canis for the diagnosis of toxocariasis. A secondary aim was to establish the optimal conditions for its use in an area with a high prevalence of human T. canis infection. The dot-ELISA test was standardised using different concentrations of the antigen fixed on nitrocellulose paper strips and increasing dilutions of the serum and conjugate. Both the dot-ELISA and standard ELISA methods were tested in parallel with the same batch of sera from controls and from individuals living in the problem area. The best results were obtained with 1.33 µg/mL of antigen, dilutions of 1/80 for the samples and controls and a dilution of 1/5,000 for the anti-human IgG-peroxidase conjugate. All steps of the procedure were performed at room temperature. The coincidence between ELISA and dot-ELISA was 85% and the kappa index was 0.72. The dot-ELISA test described here is rapid, easy to perform and does not require expensive equipment. Thus, this test is suitable for the serological diagnosis of human T. canis infection in field surveys and in the primary health care centres of endemic regions.

  10. Large quantum dots with small oscillator strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stobbe, Søren; Schlereth, T.W.; Höfling, S.;

    2010-01-01

    We have measured the oscillator strength and quantum efficiency of excitons confined in large InGaAs quantum dots by recording the spontaneous emission decay rate while systematically varying the distance between the quantum dots and a semiconductor-air interface. The size of the quantum dots...... is measured by in-plane transmission electron microscopy and we find average in-plane diameters of 40 nm. We have calculated the oscillator strength of excitons of that size assuming a quantum-dot confinement given by a parabolic in-plane potential and a hard-wall vertical potential and predict a very large...... oscillator strength due to Coulomb effects. This is in stark contrast to the measured oscillator strength, which turns out to be so small that it can be described by excitons in the strong confinement regime. We attribute these findings to exciton localization in local potential minima arising from alloy...

  11. Ge Quantum Dot Infrared Imaging Camera Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations Incorporated proposes to develop a high performance Ge quantum dots-based infrared (IR) imaging camera on Si substrate. The high sensitivity, large...

  12. Spin current in double quantum dot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Hua; Zhang Guo-Feng; Yin Wen; Liang Jiu-Qing

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the dynamical behaviours of two electrons confined in a double quantum dot driven by rotating magnetic fields in terms of the theory of Lewis-Riesenfeld Hermitian invariants for the explicitly time-dependent Hamiltonian. The coherent spin oscillations in the dot provide a generation source for spin current. Exact solutions obtained allow us to investigate the dynamical properties of the spin localization for various initial localized states.

  13. Magnetic quantum dots and magnetic edge states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting with defining the magnetic edge state in a magnetic quantum dot, which becomes quite popular nowadays conjunction with a possible candidate for a high density memory device or spintronic materials, various magnetic nano-quantum structures are reviewed in detail. We study the magnetic edge states of the two dimensional electron gas in strong perpendicular magnetic fields. We find that magnetic edge states are formed along the boundary of the magnetic dot, which is formed by a nonuniform distribution of magnetic fields. These magnetic edge states circulate either clockwise or counterclockwise, depending on the number of missing flux quanta, and exhibit quite different properties, as compared to the conventional ones which are induced by electrostatic confinements in the quantum Hall system. We also find that a close relation between the quantum mechanical eigenstates and the classical trajectories in the magnetic dot. When a magnetic dot is located inside a quantum wire, the edge-channel scattering mechanism by the magnetic quantum dot is very different from that by electrostatic dots. Here, the magnetic dot is formed by two different magnetic fields inside and outside the dot. We study the ballistic edge-channel transport and magnetic edge states in this situation. When the inner field is parallel to the outer one, the two-terminal conductance is quantized and shows the features of a transmission barrier and a resonator. On the other hand, when the inner field is reversed, the conductance is not quantized and all channels can be completely reflected in some energy ranges. The difference between the above two cases results from the distinct magnetic confinements. We also describe successfully the edge states of magnetic quantum rings and others in detail

  14. Coherent scattering in a small quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballistic transport in an open small (100 nm) three-terminal quantum dot based on the high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas of the AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction has been analyzed. It has been shown that the gate oscillations of resistance of such a dot arise due to the coherent scattering of electrons on its quasidiscrete levels being suppressed by a weak magnetic field

  15. Exploring Extragalactic Emission: The Hα Dot Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampalli, Rayna; Salzer, John Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The Hα Dot Survey was established as a result of finding point sources of strong line emission in the data obtained for the ALFALFA Hα Survey (Van Sistine et al. 2015). In the latter survey, broad-band R and narrow-band Hα filters were used to examine target galaxies from the ALFALFA blind HI survey (Giovanelli et al. 2005, Haynes et al. 2011). In the process of reducing the ALFALFA Hα Survey data the "Hα Dots" were discovered (Kellar et al. 2008, 2012). Using specialized image analysis tools, a large population of dots has already been detected in the more than 1500 ALFALFA Hα narrow-band images taken with the 0.9m WIYN and 2.1m KPNO telescopes. Follow-up spectra of over 200 Hα Dots discovered from the 0.9m images reveal that these objects are a mix of nearby low-luminosity star-forming galaxies, compact starbursts and Seyfert 2 galaxies at intermediate redshifts, and high-redshift QSOs. Here we present the first list of Hα Dots detected using 2.1m telescope data. The 2.1m images yield a sample of Dots that average almost two magnitudes fainter than those detected with the 0.9m. The current REU project is designed to characterize the set of Hα Dots detected in the deeper 2.1m telescope images, while the broad goals of the Hα Dot Survey include the desire to understand better the chemical evolution of galaxies over cosmic time. This project was supported in part by the NSF REU grant 1358980, by the Maria Mitchell Association (Nantucket, MA), and by the Massachusetts Space Grant Consortium.

  16. [The coordination of care in health centres].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribardière, Olivia

    2016-06-01

    Health centres are structurally designed to facilitate the coordination of care. However, evolutions in society have resulted in forms of consumption of health care which are not necessarily compatible with efficient care coordination. On a local level, teams are nevertheless organising and structuring themselves to offer the right form of care, to the right patient and at the right time. PMID:27338687

  17. Renovation of the CERN Computer Centre

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The Computer Centre at CERN is seen after half of the equipment is the large ground floor room has been removed. A large-scale spring-cleaning operation took place before renovation work for the new CERN Grid system began. Fifteen kilometres of cables that were no longer needed were removed from the cavity floor for recycling.

  18. The Australian Centre for Minesite Rehabilitation Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Centre for Minesite Rehabilitation Research (ACMRR) is a joint venture between the Australian mining industry through the Australian Mineral Industries Research Association Ltd. (AMIRA) and three of the organizations working most actively in this area in Australia: CSIRO Minesite Rehabilitation Research Program; University of Queensland Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation; and Curtin University Mulga Research Centre. The ACMRR was established in July 1993 to provide a national framework to conduct Strategic Research into minesite rehabilitation. It is an industry led and funded initiative. The Goals of the Centre include: to conduct strategic research into minesite rehabilitation to provide sustainable environmental solutions which are acceptable to industry, government and the community; to be recognized as a center of excellence undertaking commissioned research on minesite rehabilitation in an independent and thorough manner; to provide scientific and technological foundations to facilitate industry and government in setting acceptable standards; to act as networking and communications focus; and to enhance education and training in minesite rehabilitation. Strategic Research Programs in: Water Systems--downstream surface and groundwater quality; Land--the long-term behavior and stability of constructed landforms; Ecosystems--the long-term sustainability of constructed landforms; Waste--the long-term treatment and disposal of waste products; will allow the ACMRR to achieve these goals through specific research projects in these areas, developed with industry sponsors. This paper will discuss their progress to date, research projects underway, and plans for the future

  19. Interorganisatorisk styring i Shared Service Centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harritz, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    I den offentlige sektor er der en stigende udbredelse af Shared Service Centre (SSC). Men der er endnu meget lidt viden om de interorganisatoriske styringsproblemstillinger, der opstår når et SSC oprettes. I denne artikel præsenteres, ud fra et interorganisatorisk perspektiv, en styringsramme der...

  20. [The coordination of care in health centres].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribardière, Olivia

    2016-06-01

    Health centres are structurally designed to facilitate the coordination of care. However, evolutions in society have resulted in forms of consumption of health care which are not necessarily compatible with efficient care coordination. On a local level, teams are nevertheless organising and structuring themselves to offer the right form of care, to the right patient and at the right time.

  1. In the Field: The Canadian Ecology Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Clare

    2000-01-01

    The Canadian Ecology Centre (Ontario) offers year-round residential and day programs in outdoor and environmental education for secondary students, field placement and internship opportunities for college students, and ecotourism programs, while providing employment and tax revenues to the local community. Dubbed consensus environmentalism, the…

  2. Centring the Subject in Order to Educate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, R. Scott

    2007-01-01

    It is important for educators to recognise that the various calls to decentre the subject--or self--should not be interpreted as necessarily requiring the removal of the subject altogether. Through the individualism of the Enlightenment the self was centred. This highly individualistic notion of the sovereign self has now been decentred especially…

  3. The fragility of human-centred design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.G.D.

    2008-01-01

    In human-centred design (HCD), researchers and designers develop products in cooperation with the potential users of these products. They attempt to give users a voice or a role in their projects, with the intention of developing products that match users' needs and preferences. This approach is esp

  4. Student-Centred Learning: A Humanist Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangney, Sue

    2014-01-01

    The notion of student-centred learning is often not defined; within the pedagogic literature it is generally associated with constructivism or principles associated with a constructivist environment such as building on prior knowledge, purposeful active learning and sense-making. An informal enquiry into conceptions of university staff prior to…

  5. The young centre of the Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uggerhøj, Ulrik Ingerslev; Mikkelsen, Rune E.; Faye, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We treat, as an illustrative example of gravitational time dilation in relativity, the observation that the centre of the Earth is younger than the surface by an appreciable amount. Richard Feynman first made this insightful point and presented an estimate of the size of the effect in a talk...

  6. Quantum-dot-in-perovskite solids

    KAUST Repository

    Ning, Zhijun

    2015-07-15

    © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Heteroepitaxy - atomically aligned growth of a crystalline film atop a different crystalline substrate - is the basis of electrically driven lasers, multijunction solar cells, and blue-light-emitting diodes. Crystalline coherence is preserved even when atomic identity is modulated, a fact that is the critical enabler of quantum wells, wires, and dots. The interfacial quality achieved as a result of heteroepitaxial growth allows new combinations of materials with complementary properties, which enables the design and realization of functionalities that are not available in the single-phase constituents. Here we show that organohalide perovskites and preformed colloidal quantum dots, combined in the solution phase, produce epitaxially aligned \\'dots-in-a-matrix\\' crystals. Using transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, we reveal heterocrystals as large as about 60 nanometres and containing at least 20 mutually aligned dots that inherit the crystalline orientation of the perovskite matrix. The heterocrystals exhibit remarkable optoelectronic properties that are traceable to their atom-scale crystalline coherence: photoelectrons and holes generated in the larger-bandgap perovskites are transferred with 80% efficiency to become excitons in the quantum dot nanocrystals, which exploit the excellent photocarrier diffusion of perovskites to produce bright-light emission from infrared-bandgap quantum-tuned materials. By combining the electrical transport properties of the perovskite matrix with the high radiative efficiency of the quantum dots, we engineer a new platform to advance solution-processed infrared optoelectronics.

  7. Coherent transport through interacting quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiltscher, Bastian

    2012-10-05

    The present thesis is composed of four different works. All deal with coherent transport through interacting quantum dots, which are tunnel-coupled to external leads. There a two main motivations for the use of quantum dots. First, they are an ideal device to study the influence of strong Coulomb repulsion, and second, their discrete energy levels can easily be tuned by external gate electrodes to create different transport regimes. The expression of coherence includes a very wide range of physical correlations and, therefore, the four works are basically independent of each other. Before motivating and introducing the different works in more detail, we remark that in all works a diagrammatic real-time perturbation theory is used. The fermionic degrees of freedom of the leads are traced out and the elements of the resulting reduced density matrix can be treated explicitly by means of a generalized master equation. How this equation is solved, depends on the details of the problem under consideration. In the first of the four works adiabatic pumping through an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with a quantum dot embedded in each of the two arms is studied. In adiabatic pumping transport is generated by varying two system parameters periodically in time. We consider the two dot levels to be these two pumping parameters. Since they are located in different arms of the interferometer, pumping is a quantum mechanical effect purely relying on coherent superpositions of the dot states. It is very challenging to identify a quantum pumping mechanism in experiments, because a capacitive coupling of the gate electrodes to the leads may yield an undesired AC bias voltage, which is rectified by a time dependent conductance. Therefore, distinguishing features of these two transport mechanisms are required. We find that the dependence on the magnetic field is the key feature. While the pumped charge is an odd function of the magnetic flux, the rectified current is even, at least in

  8. Treatment Outcomes of Patients Placed on Treatment Under Directly Observed Therapy Short-Course (Dots)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Goel, N.K.; Kumar, Dinesh; Janmeja, A.K.; Swami, H.M.; Kalia, Meenu

    2008-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis continues to be a pressing health problem in India. The Revised National Tuberculosis Programme (RNTCP), an application of Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) in India, launched in 1997 needs continuous evaluation. Objective: To study the outcomes of treatment among the patients put on DOTS under RNTCP in Chandigarh, UT. Material & Methods: A Longitudinal study was conducted during 2004-2005 in 13 Microscopic centres (MC's) spread over 2 Tuberculosis Units (TU's) under District Tuberculosis Centre (DTC) in Union Territory (UT), Chandigarh. A sample of 265 respondents, selected by two-stage stratified random sampling technique, was recruited in the study cohort. Data analysis was done using SPSS-10 statistical software package. Results: For Category I and Category II patients, the Success rate was 98.6% and 90.4% respectively. The overall default rate was 1.1% and failure rate was 2.6%. For re-treatment cases, failure rate was higher i.e. 5.8%. The sputum conversion rate among the new smear positive cases was 93.8% at 3 months of treatment. For the re-treatment cases, spu-tum conversion rate at 3 months was 94.1%. Conclusion: The study concludes that RNTCP is running successfully in UT Chandigarh, having high success rate and low default rate. The reasons for high failure rate should be explored in depth. PMID:20165654

  9. Treatment outcomes of patients placed on treatment under directly observed therapy short-course (DOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Gurpreet

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Tuberculosis continues to be a pressing health problem in India. The Revised National Tuberculosis Programme (RNTCP, an application of Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS in India, launched in 1997 needs contin-uous evaluation. Objective : To study the outcomes of treatment among the patients put on DOTS under RNTCP in Chandigarh, UT. Material & Methods : A Longitudi-nal study was conducted during 2004-2005 in 13 Microscopic centres (MC′s spread over 2 Tuberculosis Units (TU′s under District Tuberculosis Centre (DTC in Union Territory (UT, Chandigarh. A sample of 265 respondents, selected by two-stage stratified random sampling technique, was recruited in the study cohort. Data analysis was done using SPSS-10 statistical software package. Results : For Category I and Category II patients, the Success rate was 98.6% and 90.4% respectively. The overall default rate was 1.1% and failure rate was 2.6%. For re-treatment cases, failure rate was higher i.e. 5.8%. The sputum conversion rate among the new smear positive cases was 93.8% at 3 months of treatment. For the re-treatment cases, spu-tum conversion rate at 3 months was 94.1%. Conclusion : The study concludes that RNTCP is running successfully in UT Chandigarh, having high success rate and low default rate. The reasons for high failure rate should be explored in depth.

  10. Dot-dye-immunoassay for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Teles Rabello

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available A new serological assay dot-dye-immunoassay (dot-DIA was evaluated for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni. This method consist of four steps: (a biding of antigens to a nitrocellulose membrane (NC; (b blocking of free sites of the NC; (c incubation in specific primary antibody; (d detection of primary antibody reactivity by color development using second antibody coupled to textile dyes. Sera from 82 individuals, 61 with Schistosoma mansoni eggs in the stool and 21 stool negative were tested by ELISA, dot-ELISA, and dotDIA. A high level of agreement between the methods tested was observed for all sera tested: ELISA x dot-ELISA: 95.1%, ELISA x dot-DIA: 92.7% and dot-ELISA x dot-DIA: 97.6%. In this study, dot-DIA proved to be a feasible, sensitive, rapid and practical test for the diagnosis of shcistosomiasis.

  11. Person-centred care in nursing documentation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Broderick, Margaret C

    2012-12-07

    BACKGROUND: Documentation is an essential part of nursing. It provides evidence that care has been carried out and contains important information to enhance the quality and continuity of care. Person-centred care (PCC) is an approach to care that is underpinned by mutual respect and the development of a therapeutic relationship between the patient and nurse. It is a core principle in standards for residential care settings for older people and is beneficial for both patients and staff (International Practice Development in Nursing and Healthcare, Chichester, Blackwell, 2008 and The Implementation of a Model of Person-Centred Practice in Older Person Settings, Dublin, Health Service Executive, 2010a). However, the literature suggests a lack of person-centredness within nursing documentation (International Journal of Older People Nursing 2, 2007, 263 and The Implementation of a Model of Person-Centred Practice in Older Person Settings, Dublin, Health Service Executive, 2010a). AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore nursing documentation in long-term care, to determine whether it reflected a person-centred approach to care and to describe aspects of PCC as they appeared in nursing records. METHOD: A qualitative descriptive study using the PCN framework (Person-centred Nursing; Theory and Practice, Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010) as the context through which nursing assessments and care plans were explored. RESULTS: Findings indicated that many nursing records were incomplete, and information regarding psychosocial aspects of care was infrequent. There was evidence that nurses engaged with residents and worked with their beliefs and values. However, nursing documentation was not completed in consultation with the patient, and there was little to suggest that patients were involved in decisions relating to their care. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The structure of nursing documentation can be a major obstacle to the recording of PCC and appropriate care planning. Documentation

  12. Nuclear Electric Visitor Centres - Innovation and inspiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This eight minute video demonstrates the approach taken by Nuclear Electric to exhibitions that are open to the public. The information is given both visually - with excerpts from some of the attractions on display at the centres - and in comments from interviews with visitors, the centre guides and the man responsible for many of the exhibits featured in the video. on one side are the schoolchildren who are visiting the exhibition and are seen both playing and learning as they press buttons, watch videos, 'meet' Michael Faraday, and learn about radiation - its disposal and its safe transportation. The headmaster of the school is interviewed and explains that the exhibition is helping his children understand the importance of electricity to their world. on the other side is Jackie Lucas, the visitor centre manager, explaining what the public make of the exhibition. We see her staff greeting the children and helping them to understand the show. The designer of the exhibition, Len Upton explains how you go about making an exhibition such as this both informative and fun. Also interviewed is the man behind many of the exhibitions featured at Nuclear Electric's visitor centres up and down the country, Nicholas Mullane. He explains the purpose of the exhibition and what messages it imparts. The video is presented in split-screen or composite format, whereby the interviewee and children are often presented together. Excerpts from the various videos on display are presented as both how they are seen from the floor, as well as the full screen effect of the various programmes. The video gives much of the feeling of fun to be gained at the exhibition, as well as showing the educational benefits to be gained from a couple of hours at one of Nuclear Electric's visitor centres. Copies of the video can be obtained from Bob Fenton at Nuclear Electric. (Fax: ++44 1 452 652 443). (author)

  13. A new structure to increase the photostability of CdTe quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a new cell structure is introduced to reduce the rate of CdTe corrosion in quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) using I-/I3- electrolyte. In this cell, one electrode is a titania nanorod that was sensitized with CdTe quantum dots as the working electrode. A thin gold layer is sputtered on the electrode to act as a protective layer against the I-/I3- corrosive electrolyte and to passivate the CdTe surface traps which are the main recombination centres in a QDSSC. In addition, a Schottky barrier formed at the interface of Au and CdTe prevents direct electron recombination from the CdTe conduction band with I3- ions. The mechanism of charge transfer and quantum dot regeneration in the presence of gold layer is discussed and our results show that the solar cells made of TiO2/CdTe/Au photoanode have more photostability and a higher fill factor relative to the TiO2/CdTe photoanodes.

  14. Realistic model of a vertical pillar quantum dot: Analysis of individual dot data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maksym, P.A.; Nishi, Y.; Austing, D.G.; Hatano, T.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.; Aoki, H.; Tarucha, S.

    2009-01-01

    An accurate model of a vertical pillar quantum dot is described. The full three-dimensional structure of the device containing the dot is taken into account and this leads to an effective two-dimensional model in which electrons move in the two lateral dimensions, the confinement is parabolic, and t

  15. Synthesis, crystal structure and characterization of a 1D polyoxometalate-based compound: {l_brace}[Pr(H{sub 2}O){sub 7}][CrMo{sub 6}H{sub 6}O{sub 24}]{r_brace} . 4H{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Lijie; Shen Shuchang; Yu Haiming [Qiqihar Univ., HL (China). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2008-07-15

    A novel polyoxometalated-based compound, {l_brace}[Pr(H{sub 2}O){sub 7}][CrMo{sub 6}H{sub 6}O{sub 24}]{r_brace} . 4H{sub 2}O, was prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy, TG measurement and single crystal X-ray diffraction. A chain-like coordination polymer is formed from a heteropolyanion [CrMo{sub 6}H{sub 6}O{sub 24}]{sup 3} as a building unit and [Pr(H{sub 2}O){sub 7}]{sup 3+} cations as linker. The chains are linked into an extensive three-dimensional supramolecular network through hydrogen bonding. The synthesis of 1 is accomplished only from pre-synthesized Anderson clusters, but not from simple starting materials. (orig.)

  16. 少钢支撑RC框架结构的概念%THE CONCEPTION OF RC FRAME STRUCTURES WITH A FEW STEEL BRACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨馨; 贺小岗; 赵作周; 钱稼茹

    2015-01-01

    震害表明,在钢筋混凝土(RC)框架结构中增设少量支撑,可以解决纯框架结构抗震防线单一、缺乏足够冗余度的问题,通过多重抗震防线,保护主体结构构件、减小建筑震害、增加结构的安全储备和防倒塌能力.我国现行规范对含有少量剪力墙的框架结构已经有了明确定义和相应的设计方法,而对于含有少量支撑的框架结构没有定义.该文以一个典型RC框架结构及三个带不同钢支撑的RC框架结构为例,基于弹性分析和弹塑性Pushover分析,借鉴少墙框架的定义方法,提出了以底层框架倾覆力矩分担率为控制指标的少钢支撑RC框架结构的定义,并通过基于IDA的结构抗倒塌易损性分析验证了少钢支撑RC框架结构相比纯框架结构的抗倒塌能力提高.%The seismic damage of reinforced concrete (RC) frame structures during earthquakes has indicated that the widely used RC frame structures are lack of sufficient redundancy under earthquake actions.The damage of RC columns in a RC frame leads to its serious damage even collapses during a strong earthquake.If few steel braces are installed,the RC frame will become multi-fortification with steel braces as its first yielding structure elements and RC frame structure elements will be protected and its damage will be delayed.As a result,its safety margin and collapse-resisting capacity will be improved.According to a RC frame structure with few shear walls,this paper proposed the new conception of a RC frame structure with few braces.A typical RC frame structure and 3 RC frame structures with different braces are studied to achieve the definition of a RC frame structure with few braces based on the overturning moment carried by a frame part.With few steel braces,the collapse-resistant capacities of a RC frame structure is proved through a collapse fragility analysis based on an incremental dynamic analysis (IDA).

  17. Submonolayer Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Chang, Yia-Chang

    2010-01-01

    A method has been developed for inserting submonolayer (SML) quantum dots (QDs) or SML QD stacks, instead of conventional Stranski-Krastanov (S-K) QDs, into the active region of intersubband photodetectors. A typical configuration would be InAs SML QDs embedded in thin layers of GaAs, surrounded by AlGaAs barriers. Here, the GaAs and the AlGaAs have nearly the same lattice constant, while InAs has a larger lattice constant. In QD infrared photodetector, the important quantization directions are in the plane perpendicular to the normal incidence radiation. In-plane quantization is what enables the absorption of normal incidence radiation. The height of the S-K QD controls the positions of the quantized energy levels, but is not critically important to the desired normal incidence absorption properties. The SML QD or SML QD stack configurations give more control of the structure grown, retains normal incidence absorption properties, and decreases the strain build-up to allow thicker active layers for higher quantum efficiency.

  18. Corrosion studies of thermally sensitised AGR fuel element brace in pH7 and pH9.2 borate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brace and cladding of AGR fuel elements sensitised in reactor are susceptible to intergranular and crevice corrosion, which may initiate in the pH7 borate pond storage environment of CEGB/SSEB stations. This report considers the benefit in corrosion control that is provided by raising the pond solution pH to 9.2, whilst maintaining the boron level at 1250 gm-3. The greater corrosion protection provided by pH9.2 solution compared to the pH7 borate solution is demonstrated by a series of tests with non-active laboratory sensitised brace samples exposed to solutions dosed with chloride or sulphate in order to promote localised corrosion. The corrosion tests undertaken consisted of 5000 hour immersions at 320C and shorter term electrochemically monitored experiments (rest potential, impedance, anodic current) generally conducted at 220C. The pH9.2 solution effectively inhibited the initiation of crevice and intergranular corrosion in the presence of low levels of chloride and sulphate, whereas the pH7 solution did not always do so. However, the pH9.2 solution, dosed with 40 gm-3 chloride, failed to suppress fully crevice corrosion initiated in unborated 40 gm-3 chloride solution at 220C. Fluoride is not deleterious at low levels ∼ 10 gm-3 in the borate solutions. The significant improvement in corrosion control demonstrated for the change from pH7 to pH9.2 borate solution on laboratory sensitised brace samples should ideally be confirmed using complete irradiated AGR fuel elements. (U.K.)

  19. How to improve aesthetics in patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS: a SPoRT brace treatment according to SOSORT management criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Claudia

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aesthetics is a main goal of both conservative and surgical treatments in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. Previously, we developed and validated a clinical scale - the Aesthetic Index (AI--in order to measure aesthetic impairment and changes during treatment. Aim To verify the efficacy of bracing on aesthetics in AIS. Study Design Prospective Cohort Study. Population Thirty-four consecutive patients, age 13.2 ± 3.7, initial Cobb Angle 32 ± 12°, ATR 10 ± 4° Bunnel, 11 males. Methods Patients with AI scores of at least 5/6 were included. Each of them had a brace prescription (18 to 23 hours per day, according to the SPoRT concept. AI was measured again after six months and at the end of treatment, and then the pre- and post-treatment scores compared. The Wilcoxon test was performed. Results Twenty-nine patients out of the 34 included completed the treatment and had six-month and final results; four patients were lost during the treatment, and one was fused. At baseline, median AI was 6 (95% IC 5-6 but the score decreased to 3 (95% IC 0-5; p Conclusion Aesthetics can be improved in a clinically significant way when the brace treatment is performed according to the SPoRT concept and by following the SOSORT management criteria. This is a relevant result for patients and a major goal of scoliosis treatment, be it conservative or surgical. The use of a more sensitive tool like TRACE could more easily detect the clinical changes; nevertheless, AI proved sensible enough that its use in everyday clinical practice can be suggested.

  20. Measurement of Eccentricity of the Centre of Mass from the Geometric Centre of a Sphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭俊起; 胡忠坤; 顾邦明; 罗俊

    2004-01-01

    The eccentricity of the centre of mass from the geometric centre of a spherical attracting mass in determining the Newtonian gravitational constant G is tested by means of an electronic balance. The experimental result shows that the eccentricity of the sample is about 0.31 μm with uncertainty of 0.05 μm. Two density distribution models are discussed to estimate the uncertainty to G by the eccentricities of the attracting masses.

  1. Understanding electronic systems in semiconductor quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftja, Orion

    2013-11-01

    Systems of confined electrons are found everywhere in nature in the form of atoms where the orbiting electrons are confined by the Coulomb attraction of the nucleus. Advancement of nanotechnology has, however, provided us with an alternative way to confine electrons by using artificial confining potentials. A typical structure of this nature is the quantum dot, a nanoscale system which consists of few confined electrons. There are many types of quantum dots ranging from self-assembled to miniaturized semiconductor quantum dots. In this work we are interested in electrostatically confined semiconductor quantum dot systems where the electrostatic confining potential that traps the electrons is generated by external electrodes, doping, strain or other factors. A large number of semiconductor quantum dots of this type are fabricated by applying lithographically patterned gate electrodes or by etching on two-dimensional electron gases in semiconductor heterostructures. Because of this, the whole structure can be treated as a confined two-dimensional electron system. Quantum confinement profoundly affects the way in which electrons interact with each other, and external parameters such as a magnetic field. Since a magnetic field affects both the orbital and the spin motion of the electrons, the interplay between quantum confinement, electron-electron correlation effects and the magnetic field gives rise to very interesting physical phenomena. Thus, confined systems of electrons in a semiconductor quantum dot represent a unique opportunity to study fundamental quantum theories in a controllable atomic-like setup. In this work, we describe some common theoretical models which are used to study confined systems of electrons in a two-dimensional semiconductor quantum dot. The main emphasis of the work is to draw attention to important physical phenomena that arise in confined two-dimensional electron systems under various quantum regimes.

  2. Effects of unstratified and centre-stratified randomization in multi-centre clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, Vladimir V

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of randomization effects in multi-centre clinical trials. The two randomization schemes most often used in clinical trials are considered: unstratified and centre-stratified block-permuted randomization. The prediction of the number of patients randomized to different treatment arms in different regions during the recruitment period accounting for the stochastic nature of the recruitment and effects of multiple centres is investigated. A new analytic approach using a Poisson-gamma patient recruitment model (patients arrive at different centres according to Poisson processes with rates sampled from a gamma distributed population) and its further extensions is proposed. Closed-form expressions for corresponding distributions of the predicted number of the patients randomized in different regions are derived. In the case of two treatments, the properties of the total imbalance in the number of patients on treatment arms caused by using centre-stratified randomization are investigated and for a large number of centres a normal approximation of imbalance is proved. The impact of imbalance on the power of the study is considered. It is shown that the loss of statistical power is practically negligible and can be compensated by a minor increase in sample size. The influence of patient dropout is also investigated. The impact of randomization on predicted drug supply overage is discussed.

  3. Analysison the improvement of bracing system of European 6.25 m stamp-charging coke oven%欧洲6。25 m捣固焦炉护炉铁件改进分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨泽然; 郑亚杰

    2015-01-01

    叙述了欧洲6.25m捣固焦炉护炉装置的使用情况,并详细介绍了优化设计后焦炉护炉装置的结构及其特点。对护炉装置进行了技术改进,有效改善了焦炉的密封性。%The condition of bracing system of European 6. 25m stamp-charging coke oven is intro-duced. The structure and features of optimized bracing system of coke oven is described in detail. After modification of the bracing system,the tightness of coke oven is remarkably improved.

  4. It's all change at the Computer Centre

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    The IT and EN Departments are modernising the infrastructure of the Computer Centre to improve the conditions in which the equipment has to operate and to increase capacity. The construction work has already begun and is due to be completed in October 2012.   Every year CERN experiences around ten power cuts lasting from less than a second to several hours. In most cases the two protection systems - the UPS* and the diesel generators – are able to ensure that the operation of the Computer Centre is not affected. As Vincent Doré, the project leader for the IT Department, and Paul Pepinster, the EN Department's technical coordinator in charge of modernising the infrastructure, explains: "Building 513 has two types of computing facilities – the "non-critical" ones, such as the servers for "off-line" computing, which have UPS systems ensuring that they can operate for 10 minutes after a power cut, and the "critical&...

  5. JOB CENTRE FOR DOMESTIC STAFF IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service; http://www.cern.ch/relations/

    2001-01-01

    The Permanent mission of Switzerland to the International Organisations in Geneva has informed CERN that the Geneva Welcome Centre has set up an employment registration desk for the domestic staff of international civil servants. The aim of this pilot project is, on the one hand, to help international civil servants find domestic staff and, on the other hand, to help domestic staff holding an 'F'-type carte de légitimation find employment within 30 days after the expiry of a contract. For more information, please contact the Geneva Welcome Centre, La Pastorale, 106, route de Ferney, Case postale 103, 1211 Genève 20, tel. (+41.22) 918 02 70, fax (+41.22) 918 02 79), http://geneva-international.org/Welcome.E.html.

  6. Frequency selectivity at very low centre frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orellana, Carlos Andrés Jurado; Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Marquardt, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    A significant factor in the decrease of sensitivity to low-frequency sound is the helicotrema shunt effect. In humans, it causes a slope increase of the middle-ear transfer function (METF) from 6 dB/oct to 12 dB/oct below approximately 50 Hz [Marquardt et al., J.Acoust. Soc. Am. 121, 3628...... measurements based on OAE suppression techniques and notched-noise masking data psychophysically measured for centre frequencies in the range 50-125 Hz, this study examines how individual differences in frequency selectivity, as well as in masking, may occur at very low CFs due to individual differences......-3638 (2007)]. Recent experiments showed that the exact frequency varies from individual to individual. Besides, the helicotrema region in the METF has been found to highly influence frequency selectivity for centre frequencies (CFs) below 80 Hz (Jurado and Moore in prep). By using individual METF...

  7. Patient-centred Prevention among PAD Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pii, Kathrine Hoffmann

    2014-01-01

    that will improve their health condition. The patient-centred approach (and related concepts: patient participation, involvement, and empowerment) is being promoted both in healthcare politics and by healthcare professionals as a way to achieve more active self-managing and self-caring patients. Patient......-centredness is thus promoted as a way to organize health more effectively (in terms of cost and treatment outcomes) and as a way to ensure patients’ autonomy and fundamental right to make their own decisions regarding their treatment. Critical voices within social and nursing theory have however argued...... that the patient-centred approach does not ensure patient autonomy, but continues to be organized according to biomedical regimes and thereby carry on a paternalistic approach. In this paper, I present findings from a PhD project, which investigates how the ideal of patient-centredness is practiced in the case...

  8. Danish Polymer Centre annual report 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, O.; Hvilsted, S.; Mortensen, Kell

    The centre is a collaboration between the Risø National Laboratory and the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). At the DTU the Department of Chemical Engineering and the Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management participate in the centre.From 2001 the Polymer Department at Risø...... coordinates the activities at Risø From the outset it was considered important with common laboratories to obtain the full effect of the collaboration between the two departments at the DTU and Risø NationalLaboratory. In 2001 new laboratories for polymer research and education were established at the DTU...... campus in Lyngby as shown in the pictures on this page. In addition to well equipped laboratories at Risø which will be expanded in 2002 and 2003, thesefacilities provide a common ground for polymer chemists, polymer physicists, chemical engineers and mechanical engineers from the two institutions...

  9. Display-centred applications in ubiquitous computing

    OpenAIRE

    José, Rui; Pinto, Helder

    2006-01-01

    Public displays can play an important enabling role in ubiquitous computing environments. This paper describes an on-going work for a multipurpose, multi-display infrastructure, designed to address the requirements of display-centred applications in ubiquitous computing environments. The system provides an infrastructure in which situated displays can act as portals to the physical space, allowing ubicomp applications to support their association with the physical world by providing them with...

  10. The Researcher : The Refugee Documentation Centre Newsletter

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Elisabeth; Goggins, David

    2014-01-01

    Contents: Subsidiary Protection – a distinct and autonomous form of complementary protection / Enda O’Neill, Jennifer Higgins, UNHCR Ireland; Recent Changes at the Refugee Appeals Tribunal / Barry Magee, Refugee Appeals Tribunal; The Use of Decision Templates for Refugee Status Determination / Seán O’Connell, Refugee Appeals Tribunal; Forced Marriage in Afghanistan / David Goggins, Refugee Documentation Centre; Houses of the Holy: Iraq and the last days of the Mandeans / Patrick Dowling, R...

  11. Structure and Responsibilities of Radiation Protection Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constitution of Radiation Protection Centre (RPC) in Lithuania is presented. RPC was established in 1997, in 1999 the Government granted the status of the regulatory authority of Lithuania on radiation protection issues. Currently there are two departments at RPC: two in Vilnius - Department of Radiation Protection Supervision and Control and Department of Programs and Expertise, and four in the districts. Main tasks of RPC are listed

  12. Imperial College Reactor Centre annual report. 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is reported that the reactor operated reliably during the year with less than half a day of operating time lost by faults or failures. Brief accounts of the 34 research projects at the Centre are given, and a list of teaching experiments or visits is included. These include undergraduate and post-graduate teaching. Commercial requests for irradiations and neutron activation analysis are reported as increasing. (U.K.)

  13. CMS Centres Worldwide - a New Collaborative Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Lucas

    2011-01-01

    Webcasts, and generic Web tools such as CMS-TV for broadcasting live monitoring and outreach information. Being Web-based and experiment-independent, these systems could easily be extended to other organizations. We describe the experiences of using CMS Centres Worldwide in the CMS data-taking operations as well as for major media events with several hundred TV channels, radio stations, and many more press journalists simultaneously around the world.

  14. Learning Styles of Independent Learning Centre Users

    OpenAIRE

    Tarik Uzun

    2014-01-01

    Learning style research has been a significant field within language teaching and learning. There have been very few attempts, however, to seek possible links between independent learning and learning style preferences. This paper aims to identify the learning styles of students who use the Independent Learning Centre (ILC) on a regular basis at a state university in Turkey (n=102). The findings of the learning style analysis revealed that, contrary to expectations, most of the regular users ...

  15. LSE centre for economic performance: bankers’ bonuses

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Brian

    2010-01-01

    A new series of Election Analyses is now available from the LSE’s Centre for Economic Performance (CEP). The series will discuss the research evidence on some of the key policy battlegrounds of the 2010 General Election, including macroeconomic policy, immigration, health, education, crime, poverty and inequality, labour market policy, regional policy, energy and the environment, financial regulation and bankers’ bonuses, and foreign aid. The latest CEP Election Analysis, by Brian Bell, g...

  16. Enhancing Safety at Airline Operations Control Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Řasa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a new term of Safety Management System (SMS has been introduced into aviation legislation. This system is being adopted by airline operators. One of the groundbased actors of everyday operations is Operations Control Centre (OCC. The goal of this article has been to identify and assess risks and dangers which occur at OCC and create a template for OCC implementation into SMS.

  17. The LifeWatch Service Centre Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Parr, Terry; Spinelli, Oliviero; Mauri, Maria Paola; Billisari, Livia; Hardisty, Alex; Ludlow, David; Khan, Zaheer; Roberts, Dave; Sleep, Chris; Sier, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This report summarises the construction plan for the Lifewatch Service Centre. The main purpose of LifeWatch is to serve the biodiversity and ecosystem research community in its work on the understanding and rational management of our ecosystems for use by policy makers, resource managers, the private sector and the general public. To do this the LifeWatch infrastructure will provide capabilities to analyse, model and simulate with integrated biodiversity and ecosystem data from many dive...

  18. User-Centred Design Using Gamestorming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    User-centered design (UX) is becoming a standard in software engineering and has tremendous potential in healthcare. The purpose of this tutorial will be to demonstrate and provide participants with practice in user-centred design methods that involve 'Gamestorming', a form of brainstorming where 'the rules of life are temporarily suspended'. Participants will learn and apply gamestorming methods including persona development via empathy mapping and methods to translate artefacts derived from participatory design sessions into functional and design requirements.

  19. Training science centre Explainers. The Techniquest experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Johnson

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Techniquest was established in 1986, and in 1995 moved to its current premises at Cardiff Bay, South Wales. This was the first purpose-built science centre in the UK. It receives around 200,000 visitors every year to its exhibition, and to its programmes for schools and public audiences in the theatre, laboratory, discovery room and planetarium. The author joined the Techniquest project in 1985, became a staff member in 1990 and was the Chief Executive from 1997 until his retirement in 2004. Techniquest has three “out-stations” in Wales, and is responsible for the supply and maintenance of exhibits to the Look Out Discovery Centre in Bracknell, England. There is a Techniquest gallery at the Lisbon Pavilhão do Conhecimento - Ciência Viva, and a traveling exhibition, SciQuest, in South Africa which was also supplied by Techniquest. All these centres rely on the effective intervention of “Explainers” (at Techniquest we call them “Helpers” to provide the best possible experience for visitors. At its most demanding, the tasks of an Explainer are varied and intensive, yet there may be times when the duties are mundane or even dull. When you rely on people to act as both hosts and housekeepers, to provide both support and stimulus, and to be both welcoming and watchful, you are asking a great deal. This article raises some of the issues concerned with the recruitment and retention of Explainers, their training and management, and the way in which their role is recognized and valued by the science centre as a whole.

  20. INFOTERM – Information Disseminating Centre for Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Auksoriūtė

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available International Information Centre for Terminology (INFOTERM was founded in 1971 by contract with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO and the Austrian Standards Institute (ASI. In 1996, INFOTERM was reorganized and established as an independent non-profit organization. INFOTERM promotes and supports the cooperation of existing and the establishment of new terminology centres and networks with the general aim to improve domain communication, knowledge transfer and provision of content with view to facilitating the participation of all in the global multilingual knowledge society. The article presents not only a history of the foundation of INFOTERM, the tasks and activities of INFOTERM and its members, which are international, regional or national terminology institutions, organizations and networks, as well as specialized public or semi-public or other non-profit institutions engaged in terminological activities, but also analyses “Guidelines for terminology policies”, preparied by INFOTERM, and cooperation between INFOTERM and the Institute of the Lithuanian Language.In conclusion, the experience and sharing expertise of INFOTERM regarding harmonized methods and guidelines for terminology management and policies, the management of terminology centres, terminology standardization, the use of terminological data, methods and tools in all applications etc are very important for all countries and language communities especially for countries and language communities with less mature terminologies. The Institute of the Lithuanian Language as a member of INFOTERM has a possibility to get information on terminology research and training, terminology publications, terminological events and activities all over the world.

  1. Upcoming opening of CERN's new Mobility Centre

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    On 29 February, CERN’s brand new Mobility Centre opened in the Globe car park. The Centre has been created to cater to the transport needs of everyone at CERN, to simplify procedures and to centralise all the transport services on offer: the rental of CERN bikes and cars, the CERN car-sharing scheme and SIXT car rental.   From 29 February onwards, the Mobility Centre in the Globe car park will be the place to go for all your duty travel needs: rental of CERN cars (with or without the CERN logo), SIXT car rental, CERN bike rental, distribution of cards allowing the use of CERN’s self-service bike- and car-sharing schemes. That same day, the premises currently housing the Car Pool in Building 130 will become the CERN garage, responsible for: upkeep and repairs on CERN bikes, minor maintenance work on CERN vehicles (e.g. replacing windscreen wipers, bulbs and fuses, refilling windscreen washer fluid, pumping up tyres, etc.), arranging and following up the repair and maintenan...

  2. A new visitor centre for CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    At the inauguration of the new CMS visitor centre. The CMS experiment inaugurated a new visitor centre at its Cessy site on 14 June. This will allow the thousands of people who come to CERN each year to follow the construction of one the Laboratory's flagship experiments first-hand. CERN receives over 20,000 visitors each year. Until recently, many of them were taken on a guided tour of one of the LEP experiments. With the closure of LEP, however, trips underground are no longer possible, and the Visits' Service has put in place a number of other itineraries (Bulletin 46/2000). Since the CMS detector will be almost entirely constructed in a surface hall, it is now taking a big share of the limelight. The CMS visitor centre has been built on a platform overlooking CMS construction. It contains a set of clear descriptive posters describing the experiment, along with a video projection showing animations and movies about CMS construction. In the coming weeks, a display of CMS detector elements will be added, as...

  3. Gamma Rays frim the Galactic Centre

    CERN Document Server

    Erlykin, A D

    2007-01-01

    Recent results from the HESS gamma ray telescope have shown the presence of both a diffuse, extended, flux of gamma rays above ~0.4 TeV and discrete sources in and near the Galactic Centre. Here, we put forward a possible explanation in terms of the diffusion of cosmic ray protons from a succession of supernova remnants (SNR) in the SgrA* region of the Galaxy plus a contribution from SNR in the rest of the Galactic Centre Region, to be called the Galactic Centre Ridge (GCR). Protons are favoured over electrons because the mG magnetic fields in the Region will attenuate energetic electrons severely. Prominent features are the need for 'anomalous diffusion' of the protons in the whole region and the adoption of low efficiency for SNR acceleration in the high density regions. The latter is related by us to the well-known low 'cosmic ray gradient' in the Galaxy. A corroborating feature is the close correlation of inferred cosmic ray intensity with the smoothed intensity of 5 GHZ radio radiation. We attribute this...

  4. Colloidal Quantum dot photovoltaics: Tuning optoelectronic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Colloidal quantum dots combine processing from the solution phase with tunability of the bandgap. Via the size-effect the optical properties can be matched to the solar spectrum for a wide-range photon harvesting. To engineer photovoltaic devices, quantum dots are compressed from their colloidal form into a close-packed nanocrystal matrix, while undergoing a systematic layer-by-layer process. The resulting quantum dot solid is treated as semiconductor medium - one having electron-hole mobilites, free carrier densities and a dielectric constant. While the size-effect determined the band-gap before, it is now the nature of ligand and the treatment route, that influences mentioned electronic parameters. We took the view on the processing steps and found a concept for analysing trap states, moblility and device performance in real quantum dot solids. Our findings emphasize the interplay of mobility and trap-distribution with routes that take special care on the nanocrystal surface and hence conserve optoelectronic qualities of quantum dots for efficient photovoltaic cells. (author)

  5. Photoluminescence of carbon dots from mesoporous silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D. K.; Razbirin, B. S.; Starukhin, A. N.; Eurov, D. A.; Kurdyukov, D. A.; Stovpiaga, E. Yu; Golubev, V. G.

    2016-09-01

    Photophysical properties of carbon dots were investigated under various excitation conditions and over a wide temperature region - from room to liquid helium temperatures. The carbon dots (CDs) were synthesized using mesoporous silica particles as a reactor and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) as a precursor. The photoluminescence spectra of CDs exhibit a strong dependence on the excitation wavelength and demonstrate a significant inhomogeneous broadening. Lowering sample temperature reveals the doublet structure of the spectra, which is associated with the vibronic structure of radiative transitions. The vibration energy ∼1200 cm-1 is close to the energy of Csbnd O stretching vibration. Long-lived phosphorescence of carbon dots with its decay time ∼0.2 s at T = 80 K was observed. The fluorescence and phosphorescence spectra are shown to be spectrally separated. The long-lived component of the emission was ascribed to optically forbidden triplet-singlet transitions. The value of the singlet-triplet splitting was found to be about 0.3 eV. Photo-induced polarization of the luminescence of carbon dots was revealed. The degree of the linear polarization is dependent on the wavelengths of both excitation and emitted light. The effect indicates a hidden anisotropy of optical dipole transitions in the dots and demonstrates the loss of the dipole orientation during the electron energy relaxation.

  6. Inorganic passivation and doping control in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Hoogland, Sjoerd H.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss strategies to reduce midgap trap state densities in colloidal quantum dot films and requirements to control doping type and magnitude. We demonstrate that these improvements result in colloidal quantum dot solar cells with certified 7.0% efficiency.

  7. Nanosized Carbon Dots from Organic Matter and Biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yuanyuan; CHEN Tong; MA Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanoparticles (C-dots) were prepared by relfuxing the combustion soots of candles and corn stalk in nitric acid. The synthesized C-dots were characterized. The results showed a sharp increase in oxygen content and a sharp decrease in carbon content after oxidation. The C-dots had -OH and -CO2H groups introduced which made them hydrophilic. However, their difference was also obvious. The C-dots from candle soot had a 10-45 nm broad particle size distribution, and those from corn stalk soot had a 6-18 nm relatively small and narrow size distribution. The C-dots were mainly ofsp2 andsp3 carbon structure different from the C-dots of diamond-like structure from candle soot. Interestingly, two kinds of C-dots all exhibited unique photoluminescent properties. The obtained C-dots have potential applications in a broad range of areas.

  8. Origins and optimization of entanglement in plasmonically coupled quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Matthew; Larson, Jeffrey; Min, Misun; Wild, Stefan M.; Pelton, Matthew; Gray, Stephen K.

    2016-08-01

    A system of two or more quantum dots interacting with a dissipative plasmonic nanostructure is investigated in detail by using a cavity quantum electrodynamics approach with a model Hamiltonian. We focus on determining and understanding system configurations that generate multiple bipartite quantum entanglements between the occupation states of the quantum dots. These configurations include allowing for the quantum dots to be asymmetrically coupled to the plasmonic system. Analytical solution of a simplified limit for an arbitrary number of quantum dots and numerical simulations and optimization for the two- and three-dot cases are used to develop guidelines for maximizing the bipartite entanglements. For any number of quantum dots, we show that through simple starting states and parameter guidelines, one quantum dot can be made to share a strong amount of bipartite entanglement with all other quantum dots in the system, while entangling all other pairs to a lesser degree.

  9. Filtering algorithm for dotted interferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterloh, K., E-mail: kurt.osterloh@bam.de [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Division VIII.3, Radiological Methods, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Buecherl, T.; Lierse von Gostomski, Ch. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer Radiochemie, Walther-Meissner-Str. 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Zscherpel, U.; Ewert, U. [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Division VIII.3, Radiological Methods, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Bock, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer Radiochemie, Walther-Meissner-Str. 3, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-09-21

    An algorithm has been developed to remove reliably dotted interferences impairing the perceptibility of objects within a radiographic image. This particularly is a major challenge encountered with neutron radiographs collected at the NECTAR facility, Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II): the resulting images are dominated by features resembling a snow flurry. These artefacts are caused by scattered neutrons, gamma radiation, cosmic radiation, etc. all hitting the detector CCD directly in spite of a sophisticated shielding. This makes such images rather useless for further direct evaluations. One approach to resolve this problem of these random effects would be to collect a vast number of single images, to combine them appropriately and to process them with common image filtering procedures. However, it has been shown that, e.g. median filtering, depending on the kernel size in the plane and/or the number of single shots to be combined, is either insufficient or tends to blur sharp lined structures. This inevitably makes a visually controlled processing image by image unavoidable. Particularly in tomographic studies, it would be by far too tedious to treat each single projection by this way. Alternatively, it would be not only more comfortable but also in many cases the only reasonable approach to filter a stack of images in a batch procedure to get rid of the disturbing interferences. The algorithm presented here meets all these requirements. It reliably frees the images from the snowy pattern described above without the loss of fine structures and without a general blurring of the image. It consists of an iterative, within a batch procedure parameter free filtering algorithm aiming to eliminate the often complex interfering artefacts while leaving the original information untouched as far as possible.

  10. Analysis of Seismic Performance of RC Frame Structure with X-bracings%带X型支撑钢筋混凝土框架结构抗震性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊海涛; 王志鑫; 赵黄娟; 孙爱伏

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the seismic performance of reinforced concrete (RC) frame structure under strong earthquake,the influences of rational arranging bracings on the seismic performances were investigated.Analysis models of 8-story RC frame without bracing,with steel tube X-bracings and with concrete-filled steel tube X-bracings were built,and Pushover analysis of mechanical behavior under strong earthquake of these models was carried out.The results show that the rational arranging bracings in RC frame structure can efficiently increase the structural lateral stiffness,energy dissipation capacity and seismic performance,and significantly decrease the top displacement and the story drift of the RC frame structure.The seismic effects for different material bracings are not the same,and to analysis models in the paper,the concretefilled steel tube bracings can provide more seismic effect than the steel tube bracings for the RC frame.%为了提高钢筋混凝土框架结构抵抗超设防烈度地震的能力,研究了在框架中合理设置支撑对结构抗震性能的影响.以某8层框架工程为背景,对3种不同的结构方案——无支撑钢筋混凝土框架、带X型钢管支撑钢筋混凝土框架和带X型钢管混凝土支撑钢筋混凝土框架结构在强震作用下的受力性能进行了Pushover分析.结果表明:在钢筋混凝土框架结构中合理设置支撑可以有效提高结构抗侧刚度,增大结构耗能能力和抗震能力,减小结构顶点侧移和层间侧移;不同材料的支撑起到的抗震效果也不相同,对于本文分析模型,合理设置钢管混凝土支撑起到的抗震效果比设置钢管支撑更加明显.

  11. Addressing the challenges of patient-centred design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen LaBat

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Patient-centred design is a relatively new term, but a longstanding concept in clinical practice. This discussion looks at patient-centred design and explores the relationships of patient-centred design to universal design, user-centred design and the newer human-centred design. It also explores why interdisciplinary approaches are needed for patient-centred design and how interdisciplinary collaboration works to address the challenges of patient centred design. Successful patient-centred solutions can grow from collaborations which include shared visions, understanding of both the nature and degree of variation in the patient,materials, and the designed solution, clear regular communication among all parties with careful definition of terms, and respect for the inherent cultures of all disciplines involved.

  12. Coherence and dephasing in self-assembled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Leosson, K.; Birkedal, Dan

    2003-01-01

    We measured dephasing times in InGaAl/As self-assembled quantum dots at low temperature using degenerate four-wave mixing. At 0K, the coherence time of the quantum dots is lifetime limited, whereas at finite temperatures pure dephasing by exciton-phonon interactions governs the quantum dot...... coherence. The inferred homogeneous line widths are significantly smaller than the line widths usually observed in the photoluminescence from single quantum dots indicating an additional inhomogeneours broadening mechanism in the latter....

  13. Short-wave infrared colloidal quantum dot photodetectors on silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Chen; Gassenq, Alban; Justo, Yolanda; Yakunin, Sergii; Heiss, Wolfgang; Hens, Zeger; Roelkens, Gunther

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, two kinds of colloidal quantum dots, PbS and HgTe, are explored for SWIR photodetectors application. The colloidal dots are prepared by hot injection chemical synthesis, with organic ligands around the dots keeping them stable in solution. For the purpose of achieving efficient carrier transport between the dots in a film, these long organic ligands are replaced by shorter, inorganic ligands. We report uniform, ultra-smooth colloidal QD films without cracks realized by dip-coat...

  14. Quantum Dots in Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sollner, Immo Nathanael

    This Thesis is focused on the study of quantum electrodynamics in photonic crystal waveguides. We investigate the interplay between a single quantum dot and the fundamental mode of the photonic crystal waveguide. We demonstrate experimental coupling eciencies for the spontaneous emission...... into the mode exceeding 98% for emitters spectrally close to the band-edge of the waveguide mode. In addition we illustrate the broadband nature of the underlying eects, by obtaining coupling eciencies above 90% for quantum dots detuned from the band edge by as far as 20nm. These values are in good agreement...... quantum-dot-waveguide coupling. Such a structure is ideally suited for a number of applications in quantum information processing and among others we propose an on-chip spin-photon interface, a single photon transistor, and a deterministic cNOT gate....

  15. Charged-Exciton Complexes in Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-Fang

    2001-01-01

    It is known experimentally that stable charged-exciton complexes can exist in low-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures. Much less is known about the properties of such charged-exciton complexes since three-body problems are very difficult to be solved, even numerically. Here we introduce the correlated hyperspherical harmonics as basis functions to solve the hyperangular equation for negatively and positively charged excitons (trions) in a harmonic quantum dot. By using this method, we have calculated the energy spectra of the low-lying states of a charged exciton as a function of the radius of quantum dot. Based on symmetry analysis, the level crossover as the dot radius increases can be fully explained as the results of symmetry constraint.``

  16. Barrier Li Quantum Dots in Magnetic Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUYi-Min; LIXiao-Zhu; YANWen-Hong; BAOCheng-Guang

    2003-01-01

    The methods for the few-body system are introduced to investigate the states of the barrier Li quantum dots (QDs) in an arbitrary strength of magnetic field. The configuration, which consists of a positive ion located on the z-axis at a distaneed from the two-dimensional QD plane (the x-y plane) and three electrons in the dot plane bound by the positive ion, is called a barrier Li center. The system, which consists of three electrons in the dot plane bound by the ion,is called a barrier Li QD. The dependence of energy of the state of the barrier Li QD on an external magnetic field B and the distance d is obtained. The angular momentum L of the ground states is found to jump not only with the variation orB but also with d.

  17. Branch management into micropipeline joint dot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Tyanev

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers problems related to hardware implementation of computational process with conditional jumps. Hardware refers to asynchronous pipeline organization at microoperational level. Exploration is dedicated to one of the tasks presented in (Tyanev, D., 2009 concerning to micropipeline controller design to control micropipeline stage into joint dot of branch algorithm. Joint dot is the point at which few preceding branches are combined. It appears inevitably into conditional jump structures and this is the reason for the actuality of its problem. Analysis of this new task is presented and request arbitration functioning principles are formulated for the incoming to joint dot requests. The arbiter is responsible for the fair choice on which depends steady peformance of separate pipeline brances. Paper also describes pipeline controller synthesis and analysis of its operation in two variants: about 2-phase and 4-phase data transfer protocol. The synthesized asynchronous arbiter scheme is invariant to the type of pipeline protocol.

  18. Epidemiological features of skeletal tuberculosis at an urban district tuberculosis centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Rajat; Bhatt, Rama; Biswas, S K; Bhalla, R

    2016-04-01

    Skeletal tuberculosis is an important component of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. It can lead to substantial morbidity and poses serious occupational and economic problem. We conducted a study in an urban District Tuberculosis Centre (DTC) to assess the burden and distribution of skeletal tuberculosis in the community. Our centre was catering to a population of 6-7 lakhs between 2007 and 2012. During this period, we treated 11,274 cases of tuberculosis. Out of these, 3086 (27.3%) were cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis and 219 (1.94%) were cases of skeletal tuberculosis. Skeletal TB predominantly affects the young Indian population with incidence peaking in the second and third decades of life. 172 patients (78.5%) in our study were new cases. There were no drugs resistant (DRTB) skeletal TB cases till we concluded our study. Tuberculosis commonly involves joints more than long bones. The spinal column was the most commonly involved skeletal site affecting 62.6% of all cases. The rate of spinal TB in our study is much higher than that reported in literature. The high number of patients calls for close co-ordination between managing orthopaedic surgeons, treating physicians and DOT providers to ensure adequate patient care. PMID:27451817

  19. Behavior of Shear Link of WF Section with Diagonal Web Stiffener of Eccentrically Braced Frame (EBF of Steel Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurisman

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of numerical and experimental study of shear link behavior, utilizing diagonal stiffener on web of steel profile to increase shear link performance in an eccentric braced frame (EBF of a steel structure system. The specimen is to examine the behavior of shear link by using diagonal stiffener on web part under static monotonic and cyclic load. The cyclic loading pattern conducted in the experiment is adjusted according to AISC loading standards 2005. Analysis was carried out using non-linear finite element method using MSC/NASTRAN software. Link was modeled as CQUAD shell element. Along the boundary of the loading area the nodal are constraint to produce only one direction loading. The length of the link in this analysis is 400mm of the steel profile of WF 200.100. Important parameters considered to effect significantly to the performance of shear link have been analyzed, namely flange and web thicknesses, , thickness and length of web stiffener, thickness of diagonal stiffener and geometric of diagonal stiffener. The behavior of shear link with diagonal web stiffener was compared with the behavior of standard link designed based on AISC 2005 criteria. Analysis results show that diagonal web stiffener is capable to increase shear link performance in terms of stiffness, strength and energy dissipation in supporting lateral load. However, differences in displacement ductility’s between shear links with diagonal stiffener and shear links based on AISC standards have not shown to be significant. Analysis results also show thickness of diagonal stiffener and geometric model of stiffener to have a significant influence on the performance of shear links. To perform validation of the numerical study, the research is followed by experimental work conducted in Structural Mechanic Laboratory Center for Industrial Engineering ITB. The Structures and Mechanics Lab rotary PAU-ITB. The experiments were carried out using three test

  20. Optical properties of charged semiconductor quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Praket P.

    The effect of n-type doping on the luminescence properties of II-VI quantum dots is studied. The addition of two shells of CdS on CdSe quantum dots prevents the creation of surface traps and makes the system stable under reducing environment. The injection of electrons into films of quantum dots leads to lower photoluminescence (PL) efficiency, with the extent of quenching dependent on both the number and the quantum states of the spectator charges in the nanocrystal. It is found that a 1Pe electron is an eightfold better PL quencher than the 1Se electron. Reduced threshold for stimulated emission is also observed in doped CdSe/CdS films. Time resolved photoluminescence measurements are used to extract the recombination rates of a charged exciton, called trion. It is observed that the negative trion has a radiative rate ˜2.2 +/- 0.4x faster than a neutral exciton, while its non-radiative recombination rate is slower than the biexciton non-radiative recombination rate by a factor of 7.5 +/- 1.7. The knowledge of the recombination rates of the trion enables us to calculate the quantum yield of a negative trion to be ˜10% for the nanocrystals investigated in our work. This is larger than the off state quantum yield from a single quantum dot photoluminescence trajectory and eliminates the formation of negative trion as the possible reason for the PL blinking of single quantum dots. Single quantum dot electrochemistry has also been achieved. It is shown that by varying the Fermi level of the system electrons can be reversibly injected into and extracted out of single CdSe/CdS and CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles to modulate the photoluminescence.

  1. Tele-centres as a way of achieving universal access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Anyimadu, Amos

    2003-01-01

    The success of tele-centres in Ghana is discussed. The tele-centres offer a low cost opportunity to empower local communities in developed and developing countries to meet the challenges of the information society. The tele-centres can also contribute more directly to the supply of non-commercial...

  2. Canadian Educational Development Centre Websites: More Ebb than Flow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines information portrayed on Canadian educational development (ED) centre websites and, in particular, whether information that corresponds to questions compiled from a literature search of ED centre practices is readily available from centre websites. This study phase is part of a larger national study of Canadian educational…

  3. Control of motion of tibial fractures with use of a functional brace or an external fixator. A study of cadavera with use of a magnetic motion sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellop, H; Hoffmann, R; Sarmiento, A; Ebramzadeh, E

    1993-07-01

    A computer-linked magnetic motion transducer was used to monitor and record the six components of motion of the bone fragments in eight cadaveric tibiae in which a simulated, oblique fracture of the middle of the shaft had been stabilized with a functional brace. The limbs were mounted in a servo-hydraulic testing frame, and a cyclic load of 150 newtons was applied along the axis of the tibia. Motion sensors, attached to each side of the fracture, measured and displayed the values of the three translations (axial, anterior-posterior, and medial-lateral), the axial rotation, and the two angulations (anterior-posterior and varus-valgus) as they occurred. Although only an axial load was applied, the off-axis motions were comparable in magnitude with the motion along the axis. The elastic (recoverable) translations of the fragments ranged from 0.5 to 1.9 millimeters, about four to ten times larger than the corresponding motions that were recorded in an earlier study of such fractures that had been stabilized with two types of external fixators. The recoverable rotation and angulations of the fragments of the limbs in the functional brace ranged from 0.7 to 1.2 degrees, about ten times those recorded when the external fixators were used.

  4. Photoluminescence studies of single InGaAs quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan; Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1999-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are considered a promising material system for future optical devices and quantum computers. We have studied the low-temperature photoluminescence properties of single InGaAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs. The high spatial resolution required for resolving single dots...

  5. Imaging vasculature and lymphatic flow in mice using quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballou, Byron; Ernst, Lauren A.; Andreko, Susan;

    2009-01-01

    Quantum dots are ideal probes for fluorescent imaging of vascular and lymphatic tissues. On injection into appropriate sites, red- and near-infrared-emitting quantum dots provide excellent definition of vasculature, lymphoid organs, and lymph nodes draining both normal tissues and tumors. We detail...... methods for use with commercially available quantum dots and discuss common difficulties....

  6. AHE measurements of very thin films and nanosized dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikuchi, N.; Murillo, R.; Lodder, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present anomalous Hall effect analysis from very thin Co (0.5 nm) film, Co/Pt multilayers and large areas of nanosized dots as well as from a few magnetic dots having a diameter of 120 nm. The dot arrayis prepared from Co/Pt multilayer by using laser interference lithography (LIL) w

  7. Bright infrared LEDs based on colloidal quantum-dots

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Liangfeng

    2013-01-01

    Record-brightness infrared LEDs based on colloidal quantum-dots have been achieved through control of the spacing between adjacent quantum-dots. By tuning the size of quantum-dots, the emission wavelengths can be tuned between 900nm and 1650nm. © 2013 Materials Research Society.

  8. Engineered Quantum Dot Single Photon Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, Sonia; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Fast, high efficiency, and low error single photon sources are required for implementation of a number of quantum information processing applications. The fastest triggered single photon sources to date have been demonstrated using epitaxially grown semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), which can be conveniently integrated with optical microcavities. Recent advances in QD technology, including demonstrations of high temperature and telecommunications wavelength single photon emission, have made QD single photon sources more practical. Here we discuss the applications of single photon sources and their various requirements, before reviewing the progress made on a quantum dot platform in meeting these requirements.

  9. Optical studies of capped quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Wuister, S.F.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes the synthesis and spectroscopy of CdSe and CdTe semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). The first chapter gives an introduction into the unique size dependent properties of semiconductor quantum dots. Highly luminescent QDs of CdSe and CdTe were prepared via a high temperature method in a glovebox. These QDs are soluble in organics but can be transferred into water or ethanol after exchange of the surfactants by various thiols (HS-R). For CdTe the exchange with thiols has a be...

  10. Cadmium telluride quantum dots advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Donegan, John

    2013-01-01

    Optical Properties of Bulk and Nanocrystalline Cadmium Telluride, Núñez Fernández and M.I. VasilevskiyAqueous Synthesis of Colloidal CdTe Nanocrystals, V. Lesnyak, N. Gaponik, and A. EychmüllerAssemblies of Thiol-Capped CdTe Nanocrystals, N. GaponikFörster Resonant Energy Transfer in CdTe Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Structures, M. Lunz and A.L. BradleyEmission of CdTe Nanocrystals Coupled to Microcavities, Y.P. Rakovich and J.F. DoneganBiological Applications of Cadmium Telluride Semiconductor Quantum Dots, A. Le Cign

  11. Resonant tunneling in graphene pseudomagnetic quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zenan; Bahamon, D A; Pereira, Vitor M; Park, Harold S; Campbell, D K; Neto, A H Castro

    2013-06-12

    Realistic relaxed configurations of triaxially strained graphene quantum dots are obtained from unbiased atomistic mechanical simulations. The local electronic structure and quantum transport characteristics of y-junctions based on such dots are studied, revealing that the quasi-uniform pseudomagnetic field induced by strain restricts transport to Landau level- and edge state-assisted resonant tunneling. Valley degeneracy is broken in the presence of an external field, allowing the selective filtering of the valley and chirality of the states assisting in the resonant tunneling. Asymmetric strain conditions can be explored to select the exit channel of the y-junction.

  12. Mitigation of quantum dot cytotoxicity by microencapsulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Romoser

    Full Text Available When CdSe/ZnS-polyethyleneimine (PEI quantum dots (QDs are microencapsulated in polymeric microcapsules, human fibroblasts are protected from acute cytotoxic effects. Differences in cellular morphology, uptake, and viability were assessed after treatment with either microencapsulated or unencapsulated dots. Specifically, QDs contained in microcapsules terminated with polyethylene glycol (PEG mitigate contact with and uptake by cells, thus providing a tool to retain particle luminescence for applications such as extracellular sensing and imaging. The microcapsule serves as the "first line of defense" for containing the QDs. This enables the individual QD coating to be designed primarily to enhance the function of the biosensor.

  13. The "Magic" of Tutorial Centres in Hong Kong: An Analysis of Media Marketing and Pedagogy in a Tutorial Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Why do more than three-quarters of Hong Kong's senior secondary students flock to tutorial centres like moths to light? What is the "magic" that is driving the popularity of the tutorial centre enterprise? Indeed, looking at the ongoing boom of tutorial centres in Hong Kong (there are almost 1,000 of them), it is difficult not to ask…

  14. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre: annual report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research and development (R and D) work carried out in the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Bombay during 1988 is summarised and presented in the sections entitled Physical Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Materials and Materials Science, Radioisotopes, Reactors, Fuel cycle, Radiological Safety and Protection, Electronics and Instrumentation, Engineering Services, Life Sciences and General. At the end of each section a list of publications is also given. The R and D work of the outstation units of BARC, namely, Nuclear Research Laboratory, Srinagar; High Altitute Research Laboratory, Gulmarg and Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta are also described in this report. Some of the highlights of the work during the year are: (1) Medium Energy Heavy Ion Accelerator (MEHIA) facility set up jointly by BARC and the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) at TIFR premises became fully operational in September 1988. A number of new compositions of high temperature supconducting materials were synthesized. The highest transition temperature achieved was 125 K. Research work to improve the quality of sintered uranium oxide pellets achieved the purpose. Nuclear fuels were fabricated by using sol-gel process. R and D work for 235 MWe and 500 MWe PHWR type reactors is continuing. Conceptual design of the fuel handling system for the prototype fast breeder reactor was finalised. 233U+Al alloy fuel for Kamini reactor was fabricated. Progress has been made in industrial applications of enzymes. Various applications of radioisotopes are being continued. Certain technologies and processes developed in the Centre were transferred to commercial agencies for large scale exploitation. (M.G.B.)

  15. Human-centred approaches in slipperiness measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönqvist, Raoul; Abeysekera, John; Gard, Gunvor; Hsiang, Simon M.; Leamon, Tom B.; Newman, Dava J.; Gielo-Perczak, Krystyna; Lockhart, Thurmon E.; Pai, Clive Y.-C.

    2010-01-01

    A number of human-centred methodologies—subjective, objective, and combined—are used for slipperiness measurement. They comprise a variety of approaches from biomechanically-oriented experiments to psychophysical tests and subjective evaluations. The objective of this paper is to review some of the research done in the field, including such topics as awareness and perception of slipperiness, postural and balance control, rating scales for balance, adaptation to slippery conditions, measurement of unexpected movements, kinematics of slipping, and protective movements during falling. The role of human factors in slips and falls will be discussed. Strengths and weaknesses of human-centred approaches in relation to mechanical slip test methodologies are considered. Current friction-based criteria and thresholds for walking without slipping are reviewed for a number of work tasks. These include activities such as walking on a level or an inclined surface, running, stopping and jumping, as well as stair ascent and descent, manual exertion (pushing and pulling, load carrying, lifting) and particular concerns of the elderly and mobility disabled persons. Some future directions for slipperiness measurement and research in the field of slips and falls are outlined. Human-centred approaches for slipperiness measurement do have many applications. First, they are utilized to develop research hypotheses and models to predict workplace risks caused by slipping. Second, they are important alternatives to apparatus-based friction measurements and are used to validate such methodologies. Third, they are used as practical tools for evaluating and monitoring slip resistance properties of foot wear, anti-skid devices and floor surfaces. PMID:11794763

  16. Biological Inspiration in Human Centred Robotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUHuo-sheng; LIUJin-dong; CalderonCarlosA

    2004-01-01

    Human centred robotics (HCR) concerns with the development of various kinds of intelligent systems and robots that will be used in environments coexisting with humans. These systems and robots will be interactive and useful assistants/companions for people in different ages, situations, activities and environments in order to improve the quality of life. This paper presents the autors' current research work toward the development of advanced theory and technologies for HCR applications, based on inspiration from biological systems. More specifically, both bio-mimetic system modelling and robot learning by imitation are discussed respectively, and some preliminary results are demonstrated.

  17. The INTEGRAL science data centre (ISDC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courvoisier, T.J.L.; Walter, Rasmus; Beckmann, V.;

    2003-01-01

    The INTEGRAL Science Data Centre (ISDC) provides the INTEGRAL data and means to analyse them to the scientific community. The ISDC runs a gamma ray burst alert system that provides the position of gamma ray bursts on the sky within seconds to the community. It operates a quick-look analysis...... of the data within few hours that detects new and unexpected sources as well as it monitors the instruments. The ISDC processes the data through a standard analysis the results of which are provided to the observers together with their data....

  18. Hunting for hardware changes in data centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With many servers and server parts the environment of warehouse sized data centres is increasingly complex. Server life-cycle management and hardware failures are responsible for frequent changes that need to be managed. To manage these changes better a project codenamed “hardware hound” focusing on hardware failure trending and hardware inventory has been started at CERN. By creating and using a hardware oriented data set - the inventory - with detailed information on servers and their parts as well as tracking changes to this inventory, the project aims at, for example, being able to discover trends in hardware failure rates.

  19. A study of the lunisolar secular resonance $2dot{omega}+dot{Omega}=0$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eCelletti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of small bodies around the Earth has gained a renewed interest,since the awareness of the problems that space debris can cause in thenearby future. A relevant role in space debris is played by lunisolarsecular resonances, which might contribute to an increase of the orbitalelements, typically of the eccentricity. We concentrate our attention onthe lunisolar secular resonance described by the relation$2dot{omega}+dot{Omega}=0$, where $omega$ and $Omega$ denotethe argument of perigee and the longitude of the ascending node of the space debris.We introduce three different models with increasing complexity. We show that the growth in eccentricity, as observed in space debris located in the MEO region at the inclination about equal to $56^circ$, can be explained as a natural effect of the secular resonance $2dot{omega}+dot{Omega}=0$, while the chaotic variations of the orbital parameters are the result of interaction and overlapping of nearby resonances.

  20. A study of the lunisolar secular resonance 2dot{ω}+dot{Ω}=0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celletti, Alessandra; Gales, Catalin

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of small bodies around the Earth has gained a renewed interest, since the awareness of the problems that space debris can cause in the nearby future. A relevant role in space debris is played by lunisolar secular resonances, which might contribute to an increase of the orbital elements, typically of the eccentricity. We concentrate our attention on the lunisolar secular resonance described by the relation 2dot{ω}+dot{Ω}=0, where ω and Ω denote the argument of perigee and the longitude of the ascending node of the space debris. We introduce three different models with increasing complexity. We show that the growth in eccentricity, as observed in space debris located in the MEO region at the inclination about equal to 56°, can be explained as a natural effect of the secular resonance 2dot{ω}+dot{Ω}=0, while the chaotic variations of the orbital parameters are the result of interaction and overlapping of nearby resonances.

  1. A study of the lunisolar secular resonance $2\\dot{\\omega}+\\dot{\\Omega}=0$

    CERN Document Server

    Celletti, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of small bodies around the Earth has gained a renewed interest, since the awareness of the problems that space debris can cause in the nearby future. A relevant role in space debris is played by lunisolar secular resonances, which might contribute to an increase of the orbital elements, typically of the eccentricity. We concentrate our attention on the lunisolar secular resonance described by the relation $2\\dot{\\omega}+\\dot{\\Omega}=0$, where $\\omega$ and $\\Omega$ denote the argument of perigee and the longitude of the ascending node of the space debris. We introduce three different models with increasing complexity. We show that the growth in eccentricity, as observed in space debris located in the MEO region at the inclination about equal to $56^\\circ$, can be explained as a natural effect of the secular resonance $2\\dot{\\omega}+\\dot{\\Omega}=0$, while the chaotic variations of the orbital parameters are the result of interaction and overlapping of nearby resonances.

  2. The Basics of Braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that your kids will, too. Often, your child's dentist will be the first to notice problems during ... and recommend that you see an orthodontist (a dentist who specializes in correcting jaw and/or teeth ...

  3. Knee braces - unloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most people talk about the arthritis in their knees, they are referring to a type of arthritis ... is caused by wear and tear inside your knee joints. Cartilage, the firm, rubbery tissue that cushions ...

  4. Electrically addressing a single self-assembled quantum dot

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, D J P; Atkinson, P; Ritchie, D A; Shields, A J

    2006-01-01

    We report on the use of an aperture in an aluminum oxide layer to restrict current injection into a single self-assembled InAs quantum dot, from an ensemble of such dots within a large mesa. The insulating aperture is formed through the wet-oxidation of a layer of AlAs. Under photoluminescence we observe that only one quantum dot in the ensemble exhibits a Stark shift, and that the same single dot is visible under electroluminescence. Autocorrelation measurements performed on the electroluminescence confirm that we are observing emission from a single quantum dot.

  5. The Influence of Formulating a Damping Solution on Dot Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Povilas Mikalainis

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Difference in dot gain using various additives to the damping solution was investigated on two offset web presses. Dot gain was measured using a densitometer and calculated considering CIE L*a*b* coordinates. It was found that while using a non alcohol additive instead of the alcohol one, dot gain became smaller and printing stability was lower. Changes in dot gain depend on the ink that may vary in colours. The influence of changes in dot gain on the colour was determined. Besides, it was found that differences in colour were unacceptable in many cases.Article in Lithuanian

  6. Synthesis of CdSe quantum dots for quantum dot sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Neetu, E-mail: singh.neetu1985@gmail.com; Kapoor, Avinashi [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi-110 021 (India); Kumar, Vinod [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, ZA9300 (South Africa); Mehra, R. M. [School of Engineering and Technology, Sharda University, Greater Noida-201 306, U.P. (India)

    2014-04-24

    CdSe Quantum Dots (QDs) of size 0.85 nm were synthesized using chemical route. ZnO based Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cell (QDSSC) was fabricated using CdSe QDs as sensitizer. The Pre-synthesized QDs were found to be successfully adsorbed on front ZnO electrode and had potential to replace organic dyes in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs). The efficiency of QDSSC was obtained to be 2.06 % at AM 1.5.

  7. Synthesis of CdSe quantum dots for quantum dot sensitized solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CdSe Quantum Dots (QDs) of size 0.85 nm were synthesized using chemical route. ZnO based Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cell (QDSSC) was fabricated using CdSe QDs as sensitizer. The Pre-synthesized QDs were found to be successfully adsorbed on front ZnO electrode and had potential to replace organic dyes in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs). The efficiency of QDSSC was obtained to be 2.06 % at AM 1.5

  8. The Australian centre for RF bioeffects research (ACRBR) - an NHMRC centre of research excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Australian Centre for Radiofrequency Bioeffects Research (ACRBR) is a newly established multi-institutional research centre which seeks to research questions pertaining to possible health effects of exposure to radiofrequency devices, such as mobile phones and which is funded under the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Centres of Research Excellence funding program. The Centre of Research Excellence in Electromagnetic Energy is combining the efforts of engineers, epidemiologists, physicists, psychophysiologists and veterinary pathologists from RMIT University, the Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science in South Australia (IMVS), Monash University, Swinburne University of Technology and Telstra Research Laboratories (TRL). The centre is funded at $2.5 M over five years and will undertake a program of research to address the issue of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) devices and health. It will also train new scientists, keep the community informed of ongoing developments and help the development of government policies in this area of considerable public concern. The 5-year program has the following components: Neurobiology: One important area where there is a perceived research gap is in the area of potential neurological effects, which will hence be a major focus of this Centre. The proposed studies range from in vitro and in vivo research studies of RF effects on neuron and neural system functioning in rodents, to that of RF effects on simple neural function, cognition and subjective report in humans. The latter series of studies have been developed to account for the consensus view that more emphasis needs to be placed on possible differences in RF population sensitivity (e.g. youth versus aged, and ' electromagnetic hypersensitives'). Epidemiological studies are an important tool in studying the impact on public health from exposure of whole populations to modern radio technologies. Cancer outcomes in this area of

  9. Ostwald's ripening of nanostructures with quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Vengrenovich, R D; Yarema, S V

    2001-01-01

    The scenario of quantum dots shaping during ripening three-dimensional islands obtained by heteroepitaxy in a Stranski-Krastanow mode, is offered. It is shown that throughout the growth of dislocations with their subsequent separation from the island bottom, the size distribution function becomes narrower with noticeable diminishing the dispersion. The possible reasons for signal attenuation of Ostwald's ripening islands are analyzed

  10. Ostwald's ripening of nanostructures with quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scenario of quantum dots shaping during ripening three-dimensional islands obtained by heteroepitaxy in a Stranski-Krastanow mode, is offered. It is shown that throughout the growth of dislocations with their subsequent separation from the island bottom, the size distribution function becomes narrower with noticeable diminishing the dispersion. The possible reasons for signal attenuation of Ostwald's ripening islands are analyzed

  11. Saturating optical resonances in quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Selvakumar V.; Rustagi, K. C.

    Optical bistability in quantum dots, recently proposed by Chemla and Miller, is studied in a two-resonance model. We show that for such classical electromagnetic resonances the applicability of a two-resonance model is far more restrictive than for those in atoms.

  12. Quantum dot devices for optical communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are often described as "artificial atoms": They are small nanometre-sized structures in which electrons only are allowed to exist at certain discrete levels due to size quantization, thus allowing the engineering of fundamental properties such as the coupling to light. ...

  13. Single Molecule Applications of Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Elmelund; Jauffred, Liselotte; Brewer, Jonathan R.;

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent nanocrystals composed of semiconductor materials were first introduced for biological applications in the late 1990s. The focus of this review is to give a brief survey of biological applications of quantum dots (QDs) at the single QD sensitivity level. These are described as follows: 1...

  14. Optical anisotropy in vertically coupled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ping; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Leosson, Kristjan;

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the polarization of surface and edge-emitted photoluminescence (PL) from structures with vertically coupled In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum dots (QD's) grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The PL polarization is found to be strongly dependent on the number of stacked layers. While single...

  15. Decoherence in Nearly-Isolated Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folk, J.; M. Marcus, C.; Harris jr, J.

    2000-01-01

    Decoherence in nearly-isolated GaAs quantum dots is investigated using the change in average Coulomb blockade peak height upon breaking time-reversal symmetry. The normalized change in average peak height approaches the predicted universal value of 1/4 at temperatures well below the single...

  16. Producing Quantum Dots by Spray Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banger, Kulbinder; Jin, Michael H.; Hepp, Aloysius

    2006-01-01

    An improved process for making nanocrystallites, commonly denoted quantum dots (QDs), is based on spray pyrolysis. Unlike the process used heretofore, the improved process is amenable to mass production of either passivated or non-passivated QDs, with computer control to ensure near uniformity of size.

  17. System and method for making quantum dots

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman M.

    2015-05-28

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of making quantum dots (QDs) (passivated or unpassivated) using a continuous flow process, systems for making QDs using a continuous flow process, and the like. In one or more embodiments, the QDs produced using embodiments of the present disclosure can be used in solar photovoltaic cells, bio-imaging, IR emitters, or LEDs.

  18. Amphoteric CdSe nanocrystalline quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad A

    2008-06-25

    The nanocrystal quantum dot (NQD) charge states strongly influence their electrical transport properties in photovoltaic and electroluminescent devices, optical gains in NQD lasers, and the stability of the dots in thin films. We report a unique electrostatic nature of CdSe NQDs, studied by electrophoretic methods. When we submerged a pair of metal electrodes, in a parallel plate capacitor configuration, into a dilute solution of CdSe NQDs in hexane, and applied a DC voltage across the pair, thin films of CdSe NQDs were deposited on both the positive and the negative electrodes. Extensive characterizations including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman studies revealed that the films on both the positive and the negative electrodes were identical in every respect, clearly indicating that: (1) a fraction (<1%) of the CdSe NQDs in free form in hexane solution are charged and, more importantly, (2) there are equal numbers of positive and negative CdSe NQDs in the hexane solution. Experiments also show that the number of deposited dots is at least an order of magnitude higher than the number of initially charged dots, indicating regeneration. We used simple thermodynamics to explain such amphoteric nature and the charging/regeneration of the CdSe NQDs.

  19. Quantum Dot Devices for Optical Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui

    with other semiconductor materials. The understanding of such properties is important in order to improve the performance of existing devices and to trigger the development of new semiconductor devices for dierent optical signal processing functionalities in the future. We present a detailed quantum dot...

  20. Competing interactions in semiconductor quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van den Berg; G.P. Brandino; O. El Araby; R.M. Konik; V. Gritsev; J.S. Caux

    2014-01-01

    We introduce an integrability-based method enabling the study of semiconductor quantum dot models incorporating both the full hyperfine interaction as well as a mean-field treatment of dipole-dipole interactions in the nuclear spin bath. By performing free-induction decay and spin-echo simulations w