WorldWideScience

Sample records for brace treatment description

  1. A specific scoliosis classification correlating with brace treatment: description and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villagrasa Mónica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal classification systems for scoliosis which were developed to correlate with surgical treatment historically have been used in brace treatment as well. Previously, there had not been a scoliosis classification system developed specifically to correlate with brace design and treatment. The purpose of this study is to show the intra- and inter- observer reliability of a new scoliosis classification system correlating with brace treatment. Methods An original classification system ("Rigo Classification" was developed in order to define specific principles of correction required for efficacious brace design and fabrication. The classification includes radiological as well as clinical criteria. The radiological criteria are utilized to differentiate five basic types of curvatures including: (I imbalanced thoracic (or three curves pattern, (II true double (or four curve pattern, (III balanced thoracic and false double (non 3 non 4, (IV single lumbar and (V single thoracolumbar. In addition to the radiological criteria, the Rigo Classification incorporates the curve pattern according to SRS terminology, the balance/imbalance at the transitional point, and L4-5 counter-tilting. To test the intra-and inter-observer reliability of the Rigo Classification, three observers (1 MD, 1 PT and 1 CPO measured (and one of them, the MD, re-measured 51 AP radiographs including all curvature types. Results The intra-observer Kappa value was 0.87 (acceptance >0.70. The inter-observer Kappa values fluctuated from 0.61 to 0.81 with an average of 0.71 (acceptance > 0.70. Conclusions A specific scoliosis classification which correlates with brace treatment has been proposed with an acceptable intra-and inter-observer reliability.

  2. Ingrown toenails (unguis incarnatus): Nail braces/bracing treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriac, Anca; Solovan, Caius

    2014-01-01

    Nail bracing is a safe, simple, and inexpensive treatment option that avoids surgery, requires no anesthetic, requires no recovery period, allows wearing the existing shoes, offers immediate relief from pain, and allows the practice of daily activities. Braces can be used for prolonged periods of times. If recurrence occurs, reapplication of bracing is usually required. PMID:24688206

  3. Soft braces in the treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS – Review of the literature and description of a new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Hans-Rudolf

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of soft braces to treat scoliosis has been described by Fischer as early as 1876. With the help of elastic straps, as the authors suggested, a corrective movement for individual curve patterns should be maintained in order to inhibit curve progression. Today this concept has been revived besides soft 3 point pressure systems. Some shortcomings have been revealed in literature in comparison with hard braces, however the concept of improving quality of life of a patient while under brace treatment should furtherly be considered as valuable. Purpose of this review is to gather the body of evidence existent for the use of soft braces and to present recent developments. Method A review of literature as available on Pub Med was performed using the key words ‘scoliosis’ and ‘soft brace’ at first. The search was expanded using ‘scoliosis’ and the known trademarks (1 ‘scoliosis’ and ‘SpineCor’, (2 ‘scoliosis’ and ‘TriaC’, (3 ‘scoliosis’ and ‘St. Etienne brace’, (4 ‘scoliosis’ and ‘Olympe’. The papers considered for inclusion were new technical descriptions, preliminary results, cohort studies and controlled studies. Results When searching for the terms ‘scoliosis’ and ‘SpineCor’: 20 papers have been found, most of them investigating a soft brace, for ‘scoliosis’ and ‘TriaC’: 7 papers displayed, for ‘scoliosis’ and ‘St. Etienne brace’: one paper displayed but not meeting the topic and for ‘scoliosis’ and ‘Olympe’: No paper displayed. Four papers found on the SpineCor™ were of prospective controlled or prospective randomized design. These papers partly presented contradictory results. Two papers were on soft Boston braces used in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis. Discussion There is a small but consistent body of evidence for the use of soft braces in the treatment of scoliosis. Contradictory results have been published for samples treated during

  4. "Brace Technology" Thematic Series - The ScoliOlogiC® Chêneau light™ brace in the treatment of scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Hans-Rudolf

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bracing concepts in use today for the treatment of scoliosis include symmetric and asymmetric hard braces usually made of polyethylene (PE and soft braces. The plaster cast method worldwide seems to be the most practiced technique for the construction of hard braces at the moment. CAD (Computer Aided Design systems are available which allow brace adjustments without plaster. Another possibility is the use of the ScoliOlogiC™ off the shelf system enabling the Certified Prosthetist and Orthotist (CPO to construct a light brace for scoliosis correction from a variety of pattern specific shells to be connected to an anterior and a posterior upright. This Chêneau light™ brace, developed according to the Chêneau principles, promises a reduced impediment of quality of life in the brace. The correction effects of the first 81 patients (main diagnosis Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS [n = 64] or Early Onset Scoliosis (EOS [n = 15], treated according to the principles of the Chêneau light™ brace have shown a satisfactory in-brace correction exceeding 50% of the initial Cobb angle. Brace description The ScoliOlogiC® off the shelf bracing system enables the CPO to construct a light brace for scoliosis correction from a variety of pattern specific shells to be connected to an anterior and a posterior upright. This brace, when finally adjusted is called Chêneau light™ brace. The advantage of this new bracing system is that the brace is available immediately, is easily adjustable and that it can also be easily modified. This avoids construction periods of sometimes more than 6 weeks, where the curve may drastically increase during periods of fast growth. The disadvantage of this bracing system is that there is a wide variability of possibilities to arrange the different shells during adjustment. Results The Cobb angle in the whole group was reduced by an average of 16,4°, which corresponds to a correction effect of 51

  5. Simulation of Scoliosis Treatment Using a Brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Čulík

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ivo Maoík M.D. has treated many child patients with scoliosis at the "Centre for Locomotor Defects", Olšanská 7, 130 00 Prague 3. The author has cooperated with him, and composed the computer program for the spine stress state under brace effects and for simulating scoliosis treatment. The program simulates the spinal curve remodelling in time for a specific child patients, and the algorithm for stress state calculation and treatment simulation is given.Orthopaedists in the Czech Republic use Cheneau-type or Cerny-type corrective braces. The brace exerts force effects on the skeleton of a child. The brace is made individually for each patient, in the following way: first, a negative plaster form of the child`s trunk is made, and then the positive plaster form is created. The orthopaedist determines the places where brace has to load the patient`s trunk, and the plaster form deepened in these places on the basis of his advice. The laminate brace made according to this plaster form constricts the child`s trunk (like a tight shoe.This paper shows how the stress state is determined in vertebrae and in inter-vertebral discs, and the solution of spinal curvature correction under brace force effects for a specific child patient. The project aims to find the dependence of the activation and velocity of spinal curvature correction in the spinal stress state for many patients. The paper shows the computing algorithms for spinal deformations and the stress state under brace force effects, and a simulation of spinal curvature correction.Spinal curvature is determined according to measured values on an X-ray of a patient before a brace is applied. The stress state in the spine and the spinal deformation are investigated by the finite element method as beam (spine in an elastic ground (soft tissue. Two algorithms are used. The first algorithm deals with the spine above and below the soft tissues, and it is loaded by given displacements of the trunk surface

  6. Brace Treatment in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sehirlioglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS, the most common pediatric spine problem, is a structural lateral and rotatory curvature of the spine arising in otherwise normal children during puberty. It occurs before skeletal maturity. Although there is still no cause for AIS, the natural history of AIS has been established in the literature very well. The aim of nonoperative treatment is mainly an attempt to prevent progression of the curve. Bracing and surgery have been used for large and or progressive curves currently. Many conservative treatments are available for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. Although there are numerous studies in literature that have tried to summarize the results of treatment, the evidence for their accepted use is still unclear. Many clinicians skeptical about the efficacy of conservative treatments. Because there is no consistency of both the inclusion criteria and the definitions of brace effectiveness. The definition of success or who should be included in the analysis have never been universally agreed upon. The Scoliosis Research Society established parameters for all future AIS bracing studies to be able to make comparison among studies more valid and reliable. These guidelines may standardize orthotic studies by recommending inclusion and assessment criteria and allow the promotion of the effectiveness of different braces and decrease the suspicion about their usefulness. Orthotic treatment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is used to control spinal curvatures while waiting for skeletal maturation.

  7. Brace treatment for patients with Scheuermann's disease - a review of the literature and first experiences with a new brace design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turnbull Deborah

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contemporary literature few have written in detail on the in-brace correction effects of braces used for the treatment of hyperkyphosis. Bradford et al. found their attempts effective, treating Scheuermann's kyphosis with Milwaukee braces, but their report did not specifically focus on in-brace corrections. White and Panjabi's research attempted to correct a curvature of > 50° with the help of distraction forces, but consequently led to a reduction in patient comfort in the application of the Milwaukee brace. In Germany they avoid this by utitlising braces to treat hyperkyphosis that use transverse correction forces instead of distraction forces. Further efforts to reduce brace material have resulted in a special bracing design called kyphologic™ brace. The aim of this review is to present appropriate research to collect and evaluate possible in-brace corrections which have been achieved with brace treatment for hyperkyphosis. This paper introduces new methods of bracing and compares the results of these with other successful bracing concepts. Materials and methods 56 adolescents with the diagnosis of thoracic Scheuermann's hyperkyphosis or a thoracic idiopathic hyperkyphosis (22 girls and 34 boys with an average age of 14 years (12-17 yrs. were treated with the kyphologic™ brace between May 2007 and December 2008. The average Stagnara angle was 55,6° (43-80. In-brace correction was recorded and compared to the initial angle using the t-test. Results The average Stagnara angle in the brace was 39°. The average in-brace correction was 16.5° (1-40°. The verage percentage of in-brace correction compared to the initial value was 36%. The differences were significant in the t-test (t = 5.31, p Discussion If we assume that outcome of brace treatment positively correlates with in-brace correction, the treatment should be initiated before the curvature angle exceeds 50 - 55° in a growing adolescent. In scoliosis bracing

  8. Providence nighttime bracing, in treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simony, A.; Beuschau, Inge; Quisth, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Since 2008 the non-surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in the southern part of Denmark, went from full-time bracing with Boston brace, to Providence night-time bracing. Methods: Since 2008, skeletally immature patients diagnosed with AIS and a primary curve...... with apex at T7 or below, were treated with the Providence night-time brace. The patients were evaluated every 6 months, with standing x-rays. Compliance with the treatment was recorded during the study. Bracing was continued up to two years post menarche or, for males upon reaching the expected adult......, and the follow up was 12 months (8-37m). The SRS22r Function score was 4, 32, Mental Health 3, 81, SRS22r total 3, 9 and satisfaction with management 3, 90. The Pain domain was 3, 8. Conclusion: This study shows a good curve control with the Providence Night time brace and an acceptable 20 % curve progression...

  9. "Brace Technology" Thematic Series - The Lyon approach to the conservative treatment of scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lecante Cyril

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Lyon Brace, or adjustable multi-shell brace, has been used for more than 60 years. The use and function of the Lyon Brace includes: - The utilization of one or two corrective plaster casts, which enables a true lengthening of the concave ligaments. - An oriented CAD-CAM moulding in 3D auto correction after the removal of the plaster cast. - A blueprint adapted to Lenke's classification. - A specific physiotherapy program. Background Pierre Stagnara created the Lyon Brace in 1947. The brace has the following characteristics: - It adjusts to allow for a child's growth of up to seven centimetres and for an increase in weight of up to seven kilograms. - It is 'active' in that the rigidity of the PMM (polymetacrylate of methyl structure stimulates the user to auto-correct. The active axial auto-correction decreases the pressures of the brace on the trunk. - It is decompressive in that the effect of extension between the two pelvic and scapular girdles decreases the pressure on the intervertebral disc allowing for more effective pushes in the other planes. - It is symmetrical making it both more aesthetically pleasing and easier to build. - It is stable at both shoulders and pelvic girdle, facilitating the intermediate 3D corrections. - It is transparent. The pressure of the shells on the skin can be directly controlled so "pads" are usually not necessary. Brace description Two metal bars are fixed vertically, one anterior the other posterior and all shells are attached from the bottom to the top in this order: - Two pelvic shells ensure an optimal stability of the brace. - One lumbar shell T12-L4, which can be either independent or extending, at the abdominal chondrocostal level. - One thoracic shell at the level of the thoracic convexity. - One opposite thoracic shell used as a counter push. - One shoulder balance shell on the side of the thoracic convexity. Long term follow up results This is a retrospective study of 1,338 completed

  10. Brace Treatment Can Improve Thoracic Kyphosis During Growth: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Rudolf Weiss

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. While in scoliosis bracing today there is evidence that during growth curvatures can be corrected significantly, there is no evidence that the standard of kyphosis bracing we use today may lead to final corrections after weaning off the brace. Case report: A 12-year-old kyphosis patient presented at the office of the author with a curve of 58° in summer 2009. Brace treatment with a modern kyphosis brace was started immediately with an in-brace correction of more than 30 degrees. After one year of treatment the patient had outgrown his first brace, but was still immature. Therefore a new brace was constructed. The curvature was 37° without and 25° in the new brace. This brace was worn for another two years for 16 h/day and weaned off in summer 2012. 6 months later—the patient meanwhile was nearly mature (Risser 4/voice change 2.6 years the final X-ray showed an angle of 38° (normal range of kyphosis angles with full flexibility of the spine. Conclusion: Bracing with small size orthosis in kyphosis patients during growth can lead to an improvement of the curvature angle after the end of growth. The functional limitations there are in severe kyphosis angles can be improved and normalized in some cases.

  11. Predicting success or failure of brace treatment for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Eric; Westover, Lindsey; Jacob, Johith; Donauer, Andreas; Zhao, Vicky H; Parent, Eric C; Moreau, Marc J; Mahood, James K; Hedden, Douglas M; Lou, Edmond H M

    2015-10-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a three-dimensional spinal deformity. Brace treatment is a common non-surgical treatment, intended to prevent progression (worsening) of the condition during adolescence. Estimating a braced patient's risk of progression is an essential part of planning treatment, so method for predicting this risk would be a useful decision support tool for practitioners. This work attempts to discover whether failure of brace treatment (progression) can be predicted at the start of treatment. Records were obtained for 62 AIS patients who had completed brace treatment. Subjects were labeled as "progressive" if their condition had progressed despite brace treatment and "non-progressive" otherwise. Wrapper-based feature selection selected two useful predictor variables from a list of 14 clinical measurements taken from the records. A logistic regression model was trained to classify patients as "progressive" or "non-progressive" using these two variables. The logistic regression model's simplicity and interpretability should facilitate its clinical acceptance. The model was tested on data from an additional 28 patients and found to be 75 % accurate. This accuracy is sufficient to make the predictions clinically useful. It can be used online: http://www.ece.ualberta.ca/~dchalmer/SimpleBracePredictor.html .

  12. Discrepancy in clinical versus radiological parameters describing deformity due to brace treatment for moderate idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szulc Andrzej

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The shape of the torso in patients with idiopathic scoliosis is considered to reflect the shape of the vertebral column, however the direct correlation between parameters describing clinical deformity and those characterizing radiological curvature was reported to be weak. It is not clear if the management proposed for scoliosis (physiotherapy, brace, surgery affects equally the shape of the axial skeleton and the surface of the body. The aim of the study was to compare clinical deformity of (1 idiopathic scoliosis girls being under brace treatment for radiological curves of 25 to 40 degrees and (2 non treated scoliotic girls matched for age and Cobb angle. Methods Cross-sectional study of 24 girls wearing the brace versus 26 girls without brace treatment, matched for age and Cobb angle. Hypothesis: Patients wearing the brace for more than 6 months, when comparing to patients without brace, may present different external morphology of the trunk, in spite of having similar Cobb angle. Material. Inclusion criteria: girls, idiopathic scoliosis, growing age (10–16 years, Cobb angle minimum 25°, maximum 40°. The braced group consisted of girls wearing a TLSO brace (Cheneau for more than 6 months with minimum of 16 hours per day. The non-braced group consisted of girls first seen for their spinal deformity, previously not treated. The groups presented similar curve pattern. Methods. Scoliometer exam: angle of trunk rotation at three levels of the spine: upper thoracic, main thoracic, lumbar or thoracolumbar. The maximal angle was noted at each level and the sum of three levels was calculated. Posterior trunk symmetry index (POTSI and Hump Sum were measured using surface topography. Results Cobb angle was 34.9° ± 4.8° in braced and 32.7° ± 4.9° in un-braced patients (difference not significant. The age was 14.1 ± 1.6 years in braced patients and 13.1 ± 1.9 years in un-braced group (p = 0.046. The value of angle of trunk

  13. Treatment of ingrown toenails using a new conservative method: a prospective study comparing brace treatment with Emmert's procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrer, Jörg; Schöffl, Volker; Hohenberger, Werner; Schneider, Ignaz

    2005-01-01

    Ingrown toenails cause incapacitation and pain for the patient and lost time from work. Many different conservative and surgical treatment methods have been described. European chiropodists and podologists have long treated ingrown toenails with orthonyxia, which consists of implantation of a small metal brace or plate onto the dorsum of the nail. To determine whether orthonyxia is an acceptable alternative to surgery, we compared the VHO-Osthold brace (VHO-Osthold-Spange GmbH, Deisenhofen, Germany), a new method of orthonyxia, with Emmert's procedure, a standard surgical method that is virtually identical to the Winograd-type procedure, in a prospective study of 41 patients (21 in the brace group and 20 in the Emmert procedure group). Pain due to treatment was significantly lower in the brace group than in the Emmert procedure group, and patients in the brace group could wear regular shoes again without appreciable pain much earlier than those in the Emmert procedure group. In the brace group, there were four recurrences, and one patient was still receiving treatment at the end of follow-up; in the Emmert procedure group, there were three recurrences. None of the patients in the brace group had to take time off from work, whereas in the Emmert procedure group, working patients were off from work for an average of 14.7 days. Brace treatment proved to be a good conservative alternative to operative procedures.

  14. The experience of brace treatment in children/adolescents with scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafiri Vassiliki

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic scoliosis is a chronic illness with several different braces used for its treatment. Brace treatment during childhood/adolescence can produce stress. There are studies supporting that it can decrease body-image perception while other studies support that it has no such effect. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of brace treatment in children/adolescents with scoliosis. The aim was to investigate which feelings are created by the bracing experience in children/adolescents with scoliosis and what are the children/adolescents' with scoliosis opinions of the support provided to them by health-care professionals and by their families. Methods We conducted interviews with the help of a semi-structured interview guide in order to address the topic of the experience of brace treatment. A convenient sample of twelve children and adolescents with scoliosis was selected from patients attending follow-up appointments at the Outpatient Scoliosis Clinics of two Greek hospitals. The data was analysed using the method of content analysis. Results Patients in the sample were 10–16 years old and they were mainly females (71%. Almost all of the participants reported having to deal with stress, denial, fear, anger, and shame. They were satisfied with the information they received regarding their condition and therapy. However, the information was not accompanied by support from the health care professionals. They reported that they were receiving support mainly from their families, friends, and classmates. Conclusion The present study is contributing to the development of a better understanding of significant issues related to the experience of bracing therapy. It is clear that scoliosis children/adolescents have to be provided with support during the long period of bracing. It is apparent that those children/adolescents have unmet needs for care and health professionals and policy makers should try to find a

  15. Bracing Patients with Idiopathic Scoliosis: Design of the Dutch Randomized Controlled Treatment Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Koning Harry J

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of bracing patients with IS has not yet been convincingly established due to a lack of RCTs. Some authors suggest that their results confirm that bracing is effective; others conclude that the effectiveness of bracing is doubtful or recommend a RCT. The aim of this study was to establish whether bracing patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS in an early stage will result in at least 5 degrees less mean progression of the curvature compared to the control group after two years of follow-up. Methods A randomized controlled trial was designed. Eligible patients are girls and boys in the age group 8–15 years whose diagnosis of IS has been established by an orthopedic surgeon, who have not yet been treated by bracing or surgery, and for whom further growth of physical height is still expected based on medical examination and maturation characteristics (Risser ≤ 2. The Cobb angle of the eligible patient should either be minimally 22 and maximally 29 degrees with established progression of more than 5 degrees, or should be minimally 30 and maximally 35 degrees; established progression for the latter is not necessary. A total of 100 patients will be included in this trial. The intervention group will be treated with full-time Boston brace wear; the control group will not be braced. Every four months, each patient will have a physical and an X-ray examination. The main outcomes will be the Cobb angle two years after inclusion and health-related quality of life. Discussion The results of this trial will be of great importance for the discussion on early treatment for scoliosis. Furthermore, the result will also be important for screening for scoliosis policies. Trial registration Nederlands Trialregister ISRCTN36964733

  16. Isolated ulnar shaft fractures. Comparison of treatment by a functional brace and long-arm cast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Hölmich, P; Orsnes, T;

    1992-01-01

    In a prospective study, we randomly allocated 39 patients with isolated fractures of the lower two-thirds of the ulnar shaft to treatment either by a prefabricated functional brace or a long-arm cast. Significantly better wrist function and a higher percentage of satisfied patients were found in ...

  17. Health-related quality of life in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis after treatment: Short-term effects after brace or surgical treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Bunge (Eveline); R.E. Juttmann (Rikard); M. de Kleuver (Marinus); F.C. van Biezen (Frans); H.J. de Koning (Harry); H.D. Been (Henk); L.N.J.E.M. Coene (Luc); H. Creemers (Huub); A.J. de Gruijter; A.A.J.M. Hazebroek-Kampschreur (Alice); P.H.J. Klop (Patrick); H.J.A. Kruls; P.J.M. van Loon (Piet); L.C.F. Luttmer; F. de Nies (Frank); J.E.H. Pruijs; L.W. van Rhijn (Lodewijk); M.P. Teeuwen (Marcel); P.A. Wiegersma (Auke)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractFor treatment of teenagers with progressive adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in an early stage, two options are generally considered: treatment with a brace or observation followed by surgery if necessary. Many doctors and patients prefer conservative treatment (i.e. brace treatment) to s

  18. Radiological evaluation of treatment with SpineCor brace in children with idiopathic spinal scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plewka, Barbara; Sibiński, Marcin; Synder, Marek; Witoński, Dariusz; Kołodziejczyk-Klimek, Katarzyna; Plewka, Michał

    2013-06-28

    INTRODUCTION. This paper reports on a radiological evaluation of the outcomes of treatment with the SpineCor brace in children with idiopathic spinal scoliosis vs. a control group who had only received 24 months of rehabilitation. The compliance of the SpineCor-treated patients with medical instructions was also assessed. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A prospective evaluation encompassed a group of forty (40) children, treated with a SpineCor brace for idiopathic scoliosis. A control group included forty (40) children who were followed up. The mean age of the children was 12.0 years and sixty-six (66) of the patients were girls. The study group and the control group were comparable in terms of demographic data and radiological parameters of scoliosis. The mean scoliosis angle was 25.3˚ and 26.1˚ in the thoracic and lumbar spine, respectively. RESULTS. In the (SpineCor-treated) study group, stabilisation or improvement of the scoliosis was obtained in 31 (78%) patients, while progression was noted in 9 (22%). In the control group, stabilisation was found in 21 (53%) patients and progression in 19 (47%), while none of the children met improvement criteria. In the brace-treated group, a smaller change in the thoracic curvature angle was observed (R=0.34, p=0.0001) than in the control group, while no such difference was identified at the lumbar spine level (R=0.15, p=0.18). Out of the 40 treated children, 38 used the brace regularly. Four of the children were active in sports above recreation level. CONCLUSIONS. The treatment of idiopathic spinal scoliosis in children by means of the SpineCor dynamic brace solution significantly more frequently led to stabilisation or correction of scoliosis as measured by Cobb's angle. A high compliance of the children and their parents was also observed.

  19. Chinese Adaptation of the Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire for Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Under Brace Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ximing; Wang, Fei; Yang, Mingyuan; Huang, Qikai; Chang, Yifan; Wei, Xianzhao; Bai, Yushu; Li, Ming

    2015-08-01

    Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire (BSSQ)-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace are the most widely used instruments for evaluating stress levels in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients under brace treatment, and good reliability and validity have been demonstrated across different cultures. Great stress has been found among many adolescents, becoming a major concern for professionals. However, no previous research has addressed the cultural adaptations and psychometric testing of BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace in China or the stress levels in AIS patients. The purposes of our study were to evaluate the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace and to investigate stress levels in Chinese (AIS) patients under brace treatment.The original (German) versions of BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace were cross-culturally translated according to international guidelines. Psychometric properties such as reliability and construct validity were tested. Eighty-six AIS patients were included in our study, and 50 patients paid a second visit 3 to 7 days later to test reproducibility. Cronbach α and the intraclass coefficient were determined to assess internal consistency and reproducibility. Scoliosis Research Society patient questionnaire-22 (SRS-22) was applied to evaluate construct validity.The mean BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace scores were 15.3 and 13.4 points, respectively. Severe stress was observed in 12% of patients due to brace treatment. Item analysis demonstrated that each item was scored under a normal distribution with no redundancy. Psychometric analysis revealed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.85 and 0.80, respectively) and reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.85 and 0.90, respectively) for BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace. The correlation coefficients of BSSQ-Deformity, BSSQ-Brace and SRS-22 were 0.48 and 0.63, respectively.In conclusion, BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace have been successfully

  20. Treatment of chronic low back pain in patients with spinal deformities using a sagittal re-alignment brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Hans-Rudolf

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For adult scoliosis patients with chronic low back pain bracing is initially indicated before spinal surgery is considered. Until recently there has been a lack of research into the effect upon pain reductions in the mid and long-term. Promising results have been documented in short-term studies for the application of a sagittal re-alignment brace in patients with spinal deformities and along with pain; however mid-term and long-term results are not yet available. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mid-term effects of this brace with respect to pain control. Materials and methods 67 patients (58 females and 9 males with chronic low back pain (> 24 months and the diagnosis of scoliosis or hyperkyphosis were treated with a sagittal re-alignment brace (physio-logic brace™ between January 2006 and July 2007. The indication for this kind of brace treatment was derived from a positive sagittal re-alignment test (SRT and the exclusion of successful conservative treatment during the last 24 months. The aim of this type of conservative intervention was to avoid surgery for chronic low back pain. Results The average pain intensity was measured on the Roland and Morris VRS (5 steps before treatment. This was 3.3 (t1, at the time of brace adjustment it was 2.7 (t2 and after at an average observation time of 18 months it was 2.0 (t3. The differences were highly significant in the Wilcoxon test. Discussion Short-term measurements showed that a significant pain reduction is possible in chronic postural low back pain using a sagittal re-alignment brace inducing lumbar re-lordosation. In a preliminary report at adjustment (t2, highly significant improvements of pain intensity have also been demonstrated. At 6 months of treatment however, no improvement was measured. The improvement of the mid-term effects (18 months found in this study compared to the preliminary report may be due to the changed approach to compliance: whilst

  1. The Differential Effects of Exercise,Brace and Combined Rehabilitation Treatment in Patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis%The Differential Effects of Exercise, Brace and Combined Rehabilitation Treatment in Patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Qing; ZHOU Xuan; LI Jianan; ZHAO Li; TAO Quan; CHEN Ting; CHEN Peijie

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To compare the effects of different conservative managements on patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).Method:One hundred and four AIS patients were recruited for this study.The patients were divided into 3groups:exercise (E group),brace (B group) and combined rehabilitation treatment (brace treatment combined with exercise,CR group).Radiological parameter were used to assess AIS patients before and after treatment.The Chinese version of scoliosis research society-22(SRS-22) patient questionnaires were filled out by patients after treatment.The SRS-22 scores were compared among management groups.Result:The maximal Cobb angles were smaller in E group than in B group or CR group both before and after treatment.The maximal Cobb angles were significantly smaller after treatment than before treatment in B group and CR group.Function/activity was better in E group than in B group or CR group.Self-image/appearance and satisfaction with management were better in E group and CR group than in B group.There was no significant difference among treatment groups in pain and mental health.Conclusion:Both brace and combined rehabilitation treatment can reduce the spinal curve of AIS patients.Both exercise and combined rehabilitation treatment have positive influence on self-image/appearance and satisfaction with management.We support preference of combined rehabilitation treatment above brace treatment.

  2. Bracing patients with idiopathic scoliosis: Design of the Dutch randomized controlled treatment trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Bunge (Eveline); H.J. de Koning (Harry); H.D. Been (Henk); F.C. van Biezen (Frans); B.J. de Gruijter (Bert); H.P.W. van Jonbergen; L.W.L. Klerk (Luuk); M. de Kleuver (Marinus); P.H.J. Klop (Patrick); F. de Nies (Frank); H.E.H. Pruijs (Hans); M.P. Teeuwen (Marcel); P.B.J. Tilman (Pieter)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground. The effectiveness of bracing patients with IS has not yet been convincingly established due to a lack of RCTs. Some authors suggest that their results confirm that bracing is effective; others conclude that the effectiveness of bracing is doubtful or recommend a RCT. The aim

  3. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Harald

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have evaluated long-term outcome after bracing using validated health related quality of life outcome measures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term outcome in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS 12 years or more after treatment with the Boston brace. Methods 109 (80% of 135 patients (7 men with AIS treated with the Boston brace at a mean of 19.2 (range 12–28 years previously responded to long-term follow-up examination. All patients (n = 109 answered a standardised questionnaire including demographics, work status, treatment, Global Back Disability Question, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI (100-worst possible, General Function Score (GFS (100 – worst possible, EuroQol (EQ-5D (1 – best possible, EQ-VAS (100 – best possible and Scoliosis Research Society -22 (SRS – 22 (5 – best possible. Clinical and radiological examination was obtained in 86 patients. Results The magnitude of the primary prebrace major curve was in average 33.4° (range 20 – 52. At weaning and at the last follow-up the corresponding values were 28.3° (9–56 and 34.2° (8 – 87, respectively. The mean age at follow-up was 35 (27 – 46 years. Work status was: full time (80%, on sick-leave (3%, on rehabilitation (4%, disability pension (4%, homemaker (7%, students (2%, 7% had changed their job because of back pain. 88% had had delivered a baby, 55% of them had pain in pregnancy. Global back status was excellent or good in 81%. The mean (standard deviation ODI was 6.4 (9.8, GFS 5.4 (10.5, EQ-5D 0.84 (0.2, SRS-22: pain 4.2 (0.8, mental health 4.2 (0.7, self-image 3.9 (0.7, function 4.1 (0.6, satisfaction with treatment 3.7 (1.0. 28% had taken physiotherapy for back pain the last year and 12% had visited a doctor. Conclusion Long-term results were satisfactory in most patients with AIS treated with the Boston brace.

  4. Effectiveness of Chêneau brace treatment for idiopathic scoliosis: prospective study in 79 patients followed to skeletal maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotwicki Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progressive idiopathic scoliosis can negatively influence the development and functioning of 2-3% of adolescents, with health consequences and economic costs, placing the disease in the centre of interest of the developmental medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Chêneau brace in the management of idiopathic scoliosis. Methods A prospective observational study according to SOSORT and SRS recommendations comprised 79 patients (58 girls and 21 boys with progressive idiopathic scoliosis, treated with Chêneau brace and physiotherapy, with initial Cobb angle between 20 and 45 degrees, no previous brace treatment, Risser 4 or more at the final evaluation and minimum one year follow-up after weaning the brace. Achieving 50° of Cobb angle was considered surgical recommendation. Results At follow-up 20 patients (25.3% improved, 18 patients (22.8% were stable, 31 patients (39.2% progressed below 50 degrees and 10 patients (12.7% progressed beyond 50 degrees (2 of these 10 patients progressed beyond 60 degrees. Progression concerned the younger and less skeletally mature patients. Conclusion Conservative treatment with Chêneau orthosis and physiotherapy was effective in halting scoliosis progression in 48.1% of patients. The results of this study suggest that bracing is effective in reducing the incidence of surgery in comparison with natural history.

  5. Outcome in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis after brace treatment and surgery assessed by means of the Scoliosis Research Society Instrument 24

    OpenAIRE

    Weigert, Karen Petra; Nygaard, Linda Marie; Christensen, Finn Bjarke; Hansen, Ebbe Stender; Bünger, Cody

    2005-01-01

    A retrospectively designed long-term follow-up study of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients who had completed treatment, of at least 2 years, by means of brace, surgery, or both brace and surgery. This study is to assess the outcome after treatment for AIS by means of the Scoliosis Research Society Outcome Instrument 24 (SRS 24). One hundred and eighteen AIS patients (99 females and 19 males), treated at the Aarhus University Hospital from January 1, 1987 to December 31, 1997, were...

  6. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in late-onset juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Johan Emil; Steen, Harald; Gunderson, Ragnhild; Brox, Jens Ivar

    2011-01-01

    Background It is recommended that research in patients with idiopathic scoliosis should focus on short- and long-term patient-centred outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate outcome in patients with late-onset juvenile or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis 16 years or more after Boston brace treatment. Methods 272 (78%) of 360 patients, 251 (92%) women, responded to follow-up examination at a mean of 24.7 (range 16 - 32) years after Boston brace treatment. Fifty-eight (21%) patient...

  7. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in late-onset juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gunderson Ragnhild; Steen Harald; Lange Johan; Brox Jens

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background It is recommended that research in patients with idiopathic scoliosis should focus on short- and long-term patient-centred outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate outcome in patients with late-onset juvenile or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis 16 years or more after Boston brace treatment. Methods 272 (78%) of 360 patients, 251 (92%) women, responded to follow-up examination at a mean of 24.7 (range 16 - 32) years after Boston brace treatment. Fifty-eight (21%...

  8. A new brace treatment similar for adolescent scoliosis and kyphosis based on restoration of thoracolumbar lordosis. Radiological and subjective clinical results after at least one year of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Loon Piet JM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study design A prospective treatment study with a new brace was conducted Objective. To evaluate radiological and subjective clinical results after one year conservative brace treatment with pressure onto lordosis at the thoracolumbar joint in children with scoliosis and kyphosis. Summary of background data Conservative brace treatment of adolescent scoliosis is not proven to be effective in terms of lasting correction. Conservative treatment in kyphotic deformities may lead to satisfactory correction. None of the brace or casting techniques is based on sagittal forces only applied at the thoracolumbar spine (TLI= thoracolumbar lordotic intervention. Previously we showed in patients with scoliosis after forced lordosis at the thoracolumbar spine a radiological instantaneous reduction in both coronal curves of double major scoliosis. Methods A consecutive series of 91 children with adolescent scoliosis and kyphosis were treated with a modified symmetric 30 degrees Boston brace to ensure only forced lordosis at the thoracolumbar spine. Scoliosis was defined with a Cobb angle of at least one of the curves [greater than or equal to] 25 degrees and kyphosis with or without a curve Results Before treatment start ‘in brace’ radiographs showed a strong reduction of the Cobb angles in different curves in kyphosis and scoliosis groups (sagittal n = 5 all p Conclusion Conservative treatment using thoracolumbar lordotic intervention in scoliotic and kyphotic deformities in adolescence demonstrates a marked improvement after one year also in clinical and postural criteria. An effect not obtained with current brace techniques.

  9. Lyon brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mauroy, Jean Claude; Fender, Paule; Tato, Biagio; Lusenti, Piera; Ferracane, Gioacchino

    2008-01-01

    For the last 60 years, the impressive progress of the scoliosis surgery has hidden the development of the conservative orthopedic treatment. The stabilization of the scoliosis, which implies the safeguarding of a spine as mobile as possible, remains a valid objective. The Lyon Brace management combines 3 techniques. A reduction of the scoliosis using a plaster cast fixed on an EDF (Elongation Derotation Flexion) Cotrel's frame. It carries through a flow of the musculoligamentar structure of the concavity. A contention by Lyon Brace. Orthesis without any cervical superstructure is adjustable, symmetric, see through and active. The elongation between the two scapular and pelvic girdle leads to a disc decompression which makes easier the 3D correction of the curves. The individual moulding (custom made) is actually electronic using a "full 3D imaging" system by Orten. To every 14 types of Lenke's classification matches a specific blue print. A specific physiotherapy combining the consciousness of the deformity, suppling up of the retracted elements of the concavity, compensatory suppling up of the girdles, improvement of the vital capacity based on exhalation, reharmonisation of the static, static strengthening in order to facilitate the ability to be still in a corrected position, kyphotisation proprioceptive exercises to stimulate the maturation of the postural system. We advise the scoliotics to practice sport during the treatment period. The long term follow up confirms a global effectiveness indication of 0,89 with the rib hump declining by half. When we treat scoliotics with Cobb angle less than 45 degrees, surgical treatment can be prevented in 98% of the patients.In France 60% of the families agree with this stringent treatment which becomes easier thanks to its ambulatory realization and the excellent formation of the partners, the physiotherapists and the orthesist.

  10. Nail Braces as an Alternative Treatment for Ingrown Toenails: Results From a Comparison With the Winograd Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Olcay; Tuna, Hamide; Mahirogullari, Mahir; Erdil, Mehmet; Mutlu, Serhat; Isyar, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Ingrown toenails are one of the most frequent nail disorders and can be treated with conservative or surgical approaches. Although discovered a long time ago, the available data are still very limited on the potential effectiveness of nail braces for ingrown toenail treatment. In the present retrospective study, we compared nail braces with surgical wedge excision using the Winograd technique with respect to the time to return to work, recurrence, interval to recurrence, and patient satisfaction. A total of 159 patients were divided into the nail brace (n = 74; mean age 29.51 ± 8.48 years) and Winograd technique (n = 85; mean age 26.95 ± 8.06 years) groups. In the nail brace group, the mean time to return to work (4.15 ± 1.07 days) was significantly shorter than that in the Winograd technique group (13.8 ± 2.26 days; p .05). A statistically significant difference was observed in the mean interval to recurrence (12.46 ± 1.60 versus 13.24 ± 2.48 months, respectively; p = .031). The progression-free follow-up periods for the nail brace and Winograd technique groups were 15.45 ± 0.22 months (95% confidence interval 15.02 to 15.88) and 17.18 ± 0.29 months (95% confidence interval 16.61 to 17.84), respectively. We have concluded that the use of nail braces is an appropriate alternative treatment of ingrown toenails with high patient satisfaction, fast recovery times, and a low recurrence rate.

  11. Healing of the Acutely Injured Anterior Cruciate Ligament: Functional Treatment with the ACL-Jack, a Dynamic Posterior Drawer Brace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reischl, Nikolaus; Rönn, Karolin; Magnusson, Robert A.; Gautier, Emanuel; Jakob, Roland P.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The injured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has a limited healing capacity leading to persisting instability. Hypothesis/Purpose. To study if the application of a brace, producing a dynamic posterior drawer force, after acute ACL injury reduces initial instability. Study Design. Cohort study. Methods. Patients treated with the ACL-Jack brace were compared to controls treated with primary ACL reconstruction und controls treated nonsurgically with functional rehabilitation. Measurements included anterior laxity (Rolimeter), clinical scores (Lysholm, Tegner, and IKDC), and MRI evaluation. Patients were followed up to 24 months. Results. Patients treated with the ACL-Jack brace showed a significant improvement of anterior knee laxity comparable to patients treated with ACL reconstruction, whereas laxity persisted after nonsurgical functional rehabilitation. The failure risk (secondary reconstruction necessary) of the ACL-Jack group was however 21% (18 of 86) within 24 months. Clinical scores were similar in all treatment groups. Conclusion. Treatment of acute ACL tears with the ACL-Jack brace leads to improved anterior knee laxity compared to nonsurgical treatment with functional rehabilitation. PMID:28053787

  12. Low-Cost Alternative External Rotation Shoulder Brace and Review of Treatment in Acute Shoulder Dislocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacy, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic dislocations of the shoulder commonly present to emergency departments (EDs. Immediate closed reduction of both anterior and posterior glenohumeral dislocations is recommended and is frequently performed in the ED. Recurrence of dislocation is common, as anteroinferior labral tears (Bankart lesions are present in many anterior shoulder dislocations.14,15,18,23 Immobilization of the shoulder following closed reduction is therefore recommended; previous studies support the use of immobilization with the shoulder in a position of external rotation, for both anterior and posterior shoulder dislocations.7-11,19 In this study, we present a technique for assembling a low-cost external rotation shoulder brace using materials found in most hospitals: cotton roll, stockinette, and shoulder immobilizers. This brace is particularly suited for the uninsured patient, who lacks the financial resources to pay for a pre-fabricated brace out of pocket. We also performed a cost analysis for our low-cost external rotation shoulder brace, and a cost comparison with pre-fabricated brand name braces. At our institution, the total materials cost for our brace was $19.15. The cost of a pre-fabricated shoulder brace at our institution is $150 with markup, which is reimbursed on average at $50.40 according to our hospital billing data. The low-cost external rotation shoulder brace is therefore a more affordable option for the uninsured patient presenting with acute shoulder dislocation. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:114–120.

  13. Brace technology thematic series: the progressive action short brace (PASB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulisa Angelo G

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Progressive Action Short Brace (PASB is a custom-made thoraco-lumbar-sacral orthosis (TLSO, devised in 1976 by Dr. Lorenzo Aulisa (Institute of Orthopedics at the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy. The PASB was designed to overcome the limits imposed by the trunk anatomy. Indeed, the particular geometry of the brace is able to generate internal forces that modify the elastic reaction of the spine. The PASB is indicated for the conservative treatment of lumbar and thoraco-lumbar scoliosis. The aim of this article is to explain the biomechanic principles of the PASB and the rationale underlying its design. Recently published studies reporting the results of PASB-based treatment of adolescent scoliotic patients are also discussed. Description and principles On the coronal plane, the upper margin of the PASB, at the side of the curve concavity, prevents the homolateral bending of the scoliotic curve. The opposite upper margin ends just beneath the apical vertebra. The principle underlying such configuration is that the deflection of the inferior tract of a curved elastic structure, fixed at the bottom end, causes straightening of its upper tract. Therefore, whenever the patient bends towards the convexity of the scoliotic curve, the spine is deflected. On the sagittal plane, the inferior margins of the PASB reach the pelvitrochanteric region, in order to stabilize the brace on the pelvis. The transverse section of the brace above the pelvic grip consists of asymmetrical ellipses. This allows the spine to rotate towards the concave side only, leading to the continuous generation of derotating moments. On the sagittal plane, the brace is contoured so as to reduce the lumbar lordosis. The PASB, by allowing only those movements counteracting the progression of the curve, is able to produce corrective forces that are not dissipated. Therefore, the brace is based on the principle that a constrained spine dynamics

  14. Retrospective analysis of idiopathic scoliosis medical records coming from one out-patient clinic for compatibility with Scoliosis Research Society criteria for brace treatment studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Korbel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background First author attempted to analyse medical records of patients with idiopathic scoliosis for compliance with the Scoliosis Research Society brace studies criteria. A retrospective analysis of medical records of 2705 girls treated from 1989 to 2002 was carried out. Methods Age, Cobb, Risser and menarchal status were analyzed for compliance with the Scoliosis Research Society brace studies criteria: a age ≥10 years, b Risser 0–2, c 25–40° Cobb angle, d no earlier treatment, e patients before first menses or not more than one year from first menses. Results It has been found that 183 girls out of 2705 were ≥10 years old and in the range 25–40° Cobb angle. One hundred two out of 2705 patients revealed eligible for brace effectiveness study according to SRS 2005 criteria. 120 out of 2705 patients revealed eligible for brace brace effectiveness study according to SRS-SOSORT 2014 criteria. Conclusion The excluded patients revealed too old or with too significant Cobb angles. This indicates the changing criteria for scoliosis brace treatment over the time. Direct comparison of current results of brace treatment with historical series of cases turns out to be very difficult.

  15. Effect of bracing and other conservative interventions in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents : A systematic review of clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenssinck, MLB; Frijlink, AC; Berger, MY; Bierma-Zeinstra, SMA; Verkerk, K; Verhagen, AP

    2005-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Many conservative treatments are available for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis, but the evidence for their accepted use is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of braces and other conservative treatments of idiopathic scoliosis in a

  16. Effectiveness of complete conservative treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (bracing and exercises based on SOSORT management criteria: results according to the SRS criteria for bracing studies - SOSORT Award 2009 Winner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Claudia

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SRS criteria give the methodological reference framework for the presentation of bracing results, while the SOSORT criteria give the clinical reference framework for an appropriate bracing treatment. The two have not been combined in a study until now. Our aim was to verify the efficacy of a complete, conservative treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AISaccording to the best methodological and management criteria defined in the literature. Methods Study Design. Retrospective study. Population. We included all AIS patients respecting the SRS inclusion criteria (age 10 years or older; Risser test 0-2; Cobb degrees 25-40°; no prior treatment; less than one year post-menarchal who had reached the end of treatment since our institute database start in 2003. Thus we had 44 females and four males, with an age of 12.8 ± 1.6 at the commencement of the study. Methods. According to individual needs, two patients have been treated with Risser casts followed by Lyon brace, 40 with Lyon or SPoRT braces (14 for 23 hours per day, 23 for 21 h/d, and seven for 18 h/d at start, and two with exercises only (1 male, 1 female: these were excluded from further analysis. Outcome criteria. SRS (unchanged; worsened 6° or more; over 45° at the end of treatment; surgically treated; two years' follow-up; clinical (ATR, Aesthetic Index, plumbline distances; radiographic (Cobb degrees; and ISICO (optimal; minimal. Statistics. Paired ANOVA and t-test, Tukey-Kramer and chi-square test. Results Median reported compliance during the 4.2 ± 1.4 treatment years was 90% (range 5-106%. No patient progressed beyond 45°, nor was any patient fused, and this remained true at the two-year follow-up for the 85% that reached it. Only two patients (4% worsened, both with single thoracic curve, 25-30° Cobb and Risser 0 at the start. We found statistically significant reductions of the scoliosis curvatures (-7.1°: thoracic (-7.3°, thoracolumbar (-8.4

  17. A Systematic Review on the Treatment of Acute Ankle Sprain Brace versus Other Functional Treatment Types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Kemler; I. van de Port; F. Backx; C.N. van Dijk

    2011-01-01

    Ankle injuries, especially ankle sprains, are a common problem in sports and medical care. Ankle sprains result in pain and absenteeism from work and/or sports participation, and can lead to physical restrictions such as ankle instability. Nowadays, treatment of ankle injury basically consists of ta

  18. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in late-onset juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunderson Ragnhild

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is recommended that research in patients with idiopathic scoliosis should focus on short- and long-term patient-centred outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate outcome in patients with late-onset juvenile or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis 16 years or more after Boston brace treatment. Methods 272 (78% of 360 patients, 251 (92% women, responded to follow-up examination at a mean of 24.7 (range 16 - 32 years after Boston brace treatment. Fifty-eight (21% patients had late-onset juvenile and 214 had adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. All patients had clinical and radiological examination and answered a standardised questionnaire including work status, demographics, General Function Score (GFS (100 - worst possible and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI (100 - worst possible, EuroQol (EQ-5D (1 - best possible, EQ-VAS (100 - best possible, and Scoliosis Research Society - 22 (SRS - 22 (5 - best possible. Results The mean age at follow-up was 40.4 (31-48 years. The prebrace major curve was in average 33.2 (20 - 57°. At weaning and at the last follow-up the corresponding values were 28.3 (1 - 58° and 32.5 (7 - 80°, respectively. Curve development was similar in patients with late-onset juvenile and adolescent start. The prebrace curve increased > 5° in 31% and decreased > 5° in 26%. Twenty-five patients had surgery. Those who did not attend follow-up (n = 88 had a lower mean curve at weaning: 25.4 (6-53°. Work status was 76% full-time and 10% part-time. Eighty-seven percent had delivered a baby, 50% had pain in pregnancy. The mean (SD GFS was 7.4 (10.8, ODI 9.3 (11.0, EQ-5D 0.82 (0.2, EQ-VAS 77.6 (17.8, SRS-22: pain 4.1 (0.8, mental health 4.1 (0.6, self-image 3.7 (0.7, function 4.0 (0.6, satisfaction with treatment 3.7 (1.0. Surgical patients had significantly reduced scores for SRS-physical function and self-image, and patients with curves ≥ 45° had reduced self-image. Conclusion Long-term results were

  19. Initial experience with the providence nighttime bracing in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quisth, Lena; Beuschau, Inge; Simony, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since 2008 the primary non-surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in the southern part of Denmark, went from full-time bracing with Boston brace, to Providence nighttime bracing. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of nighttime bracing, with the Providence brace......). The mean in-brace correction was 81% (24-100%). After the end of bracing, the mean Cobb angle was 29.1degree (7-50), an average of no progression. There were 11 (18%) brace failures, but only 5 (10%) patients had surgery. (Figure Presented) Discussion & Conclusion : This study shows a good curve control...

  20. [Conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis with effective braces: early response to trunk asymmetry may avoid curvature progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matussek, J; Dingeldey, E; Wagner, F; Rezai, G; Nahr, K

    2014-07-01

    Vertical posture of the growing child requires minute central nervous control mechanisms in order to maintain symmetry of the torso in its various activities. Scoliosis describes a constant deviation in the frontal, transverse and sagittal planes from the dynamic symmetry of the trunk. Early intervention with effective bracing, physiotherapy and sports can reverse curve progression during growth spurts, once these are identified in screening. Modern braces have a derotating and reducing effect (mirror effect) on asymmetric body volumes, thus influencing the growing torso and restoring lasting symmetry. Recent data support the use of braces to reverse progressing scoliosis.

  1. Valgus bracing in patients with medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee. A gait analysis study of a new brace.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaasbeek, R.D.A.; Groen, B.E.; Hampsink, B.; Heerwaarden, R.J. van; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2007-01-01

    A new valgus brace was evaluated in 15 patients with medial osteoarthritis of the knee and a varus leg axis. Significant improvement of pain and function were found after 6 weeks of brace treatment. Gait analysis showed that the brace had a tendency of lowering the peak varus moment about the knee.

  2. Treatment of thoraco-lumbar curves in adolescent females affected by idiopathic scoliosis with a progressive action short brace (PASB: assessment of results according to the SRS committee on bracing and nonoperative management standardization criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perisano Carlo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of conservative treatment of scoliosis is controversial. Some studies suggest that brace is effective in stopping curve progression, whilst others did not report such an effect. The purpose of the present study was to effectiveness of Progressive Action Short Brace (PASB in the correction of thoraco-lumbar curves, in agreement with the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS Committee on Bracing and Nonoperative Management Standardisation Criteria. Methods Fifty adolescent females (mean age 11.8 ± 0.5 years with thoraco-lumbar curve and a pre-treatment Risser score ranging from 0 to 2 have been enrolled. The minimum duration of follow-up was 24 months (mean: 55.4 ± 44.5 months. Antero-posterior radiographs were used to estimate the curve magnitude (CM and the torsion of the apical vertebra (TA at 5 time points: beginning of treatment (t1, one year after the beginning of treatment (t2, intermediate time between t1 and t4 (t3, end of weaning (t4, 2-year minimum follow-up from t4 (t5. Three situations were distinguished: curve correction, curve stabilisation and curve progression. The Kruskal Wallis and Spearman Rank Correlation tests have been used as statistical tests. Results CM mean value was 29,30 ± 5,16 SD at t1 and 14,67 ± 7,65 SD at t5. TA was 12.70 ± 6,14 SD at t1 and 8,95 ± 5,82 at t5. The variation between measures of Cobb and Perdriolle degrees at t1,2,3,4,5 and between CM t5-t1 and TA t5-t1 were significantly different. Curve correction was accomplished in 94% of patients, whereas a curve stabilisation was obtained in 6% of patients. Conclusion The PASB, due to its peculiar biomechanical action on vertebral modelling, is highly effective in correcting thoraco-lumbar curves.

  3. How to improve aesthetics in patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS: a SPoRT brace treatment according to SOSORT management criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Claudia

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aesthetics is a main goal of both conservative and surgical treatments in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. Previously, we developed and validated a clinical scale - the Aesthetic Index (AI--in order to measure aesthetic impairment and changes during treatment. Aim To verify the efficacy of bracing on aesthetics in AIS. Study Design Prospective Cohort Study. Population Thirty-four consecutive patients, age 13.2 ± 3.7, initial Cobb Angle 32 ± 12°, ATR 10 ± 4° Bunnel, 11 males. Methods Patients with AI scores of at least 5/6 were included. Each of them had a brace prescription (18 to 23 hours per day, according to the SPoRT concept. AI was measured again after six months and at the end of treatment, and then the pre- and post-treatment scores compared. The Wilcoxon test was performed. Results Twenty-nine patients out of the 34 included completed the treatment and had six-month and final results; four patients were lost during the treatment, and one was fused. At baseline, median AI was 6 (95% IC 5-6 but the score decreased to 3 (95% IC 0-5; p Conclusion Aesthetics can be improved in a clinically significant way when the brace treatment is performed according to the SPoRT concept and by following the SOSORT management criteria. This is a relevant result for patients and a major goal of scoliosis treatment, be it conservative or surgical. The use of a more sensitive tool like TRACE could more easily detect the clinical changes; nevertheless, AI proved sensible enough that its use in everyday clinical practice can be suggested.

  4. Prospective study of 158 adult scoliosis treated by a bivalve polyethylene overlapping brace and reviewed at least 5 years after brace fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Claude de Mauroy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conservative orthopaedic treatment of adult scoliosis is very disappointing. In a series of 144 patients; only 25 % (33 cases were monitored at 2 years of treatment. (Papadopoulos 2013. Thereby the literature typically focuses on a small number of patients, which limits the usefulness and relevance of its results. The brace effect on pain has been systematically described, but there is no publication on the effect of treatment on the Cobb angle and main clinical parameters. Methods From a prospective database started in 1998, we selected all 158 consecutive patients effectively treated conservatively with the Lyon management treatment and controlled five years after brace fitting. Lyon management includes a lordosing bivalve polyethylene overlapping brace in association with specific physiotherapy. The brace can either be short with anterior support under the chest or long with sterno-clavicular support when there is a high thoracic kyphosis. Results 1. For the rate of scoliosis controlled after 5 years, the follow-up was 24 % of the 661 patients accepting the treatment. Pain is almost the main reason for the medical consultation, generally correlating with an increase of the scoliotic angulation. 2. The descriptive data can be superimposed on general group with age (m=56 years, SD=13 but initial Cobb angulation is significantly higher (m=40°, SD=17. Ratio Female/Male=0.91. Generally, the scoliosis is stabilized at (m=39.74 °, SD=19.40, 8 years after the beginning of the treatment. 38 improvements of more than 5°= 24 %; 88 stable = 56 %; 32 worsening of more than 5° = 20 % The rib hump is improved of by 3 mm, (modelling effect of the brace. The occipital axis is improved by more than 6 mm. But the T1 plumb line distance is worsening by 7 mm (most braces are short without sterno-clavicular support. Conclusions For the first time, the number of records and follow up after 8 years allows to study the

  5. NTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION: WITH BRACE VS WITHOUT BRACE AFTER OPERATION A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH.A NAZEM

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL ruputer specially in athletics induces knee instability results in pateint disability. Surgical treatment consist of ACL reconstruction and repair. In this study the efficacy of surgical management with brace after operation was compaired to surgical management without brace.
    Methods. One hundred ACL ruptured pateints had reconstructed with BPB graft in two randomzed gruops (50 with brace afetr operation and 50 without brace. Study durated 4 year (1997-2000 in alzahra hospital (affiliated to IUMSHS. Patients had followed for 12 months after operation.
    Results. Knee range of motion after 1, 3, 6, 12 months follow up were the same in both groups (P > 0.05. Degree and duration of returning to sport, complications, need to reoperation, stair climbing, specific ACL tests, patelofemoral pain, pain in squatting, running and cutting and quadriceps atrophy, after 12 months follow up were the same in both groups (P > 0.05. Patients without brace returned to their job more sooner than another group (P < 0.05.
    Discussion. There are no significant differnce in cilinical results in tow groups and ACL reconstruction with BPB dose not require to routine bracing. Faster return to job in non bracing group is due to removal of liminting effect of brace wearing. Lesser rate of pain in patients that return to sport due to quadriceps strengthening.

  6. Effect of bracing on dynamic patellofemoral contact mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nicole A; Mazahery, B Tom; Koh, Jason L; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2010-01-01

    Decreases in patellofemoral pain have been demonstrated with bracing; however, the mechanisms of pain reduction remain unclear. Our purpose was to evaluate the hypothesis that patellofemoral bracing decreases peak pressure on the retropatellar surface through an increase in patellofemoral contact area. Nine cadaveric knees were tested during simulated free-speed walking with no brace, a knee sleeve, two different patellar stabilization sleeves, and a wrap-style patellar stabilization brace. Contact area and pressure were measured using a dynamic pressure sensor located in the patellofemoral joint. For the unbraced knee, contact area and peak pressure varied with knee flexion angle, ranging from 0.30 ± 0.3 cm(2) and 1.80 ± 1.7 MPa at full extension to 2.28 ± 0.5 cm(2) and 4.19 ± 1.7 MPa at peak knee flexion. All braces increased contact area, while the wrap-style brace decreased peak pressure (p < 0.001). Sleeve braces compress the quadriceps tendon causing the patella to engage the trochlear groove earlier during knee flexion. The wrap-style brace reduced peak pressure by shifting the location of highest pressure to a region with increased articular cartilage thickness. Sleeve braces may be useful for treatment of patellar subluxation disorders, while wrap-style braces may be effective for treatment of disorders associated with degenerative cartilage changes.

  7. Pneumatic osteoarthritis knee brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenović, Dimitrije; Kojić, Milos; Stojanović, Boban; Hunter, David

    2009-04-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is a chronic disease that necessitates long term therapeutic intervention. Biomechanical studies have demonstrated an improvement in the external adduction moment with application of a valgus knee brace. Despite being both efficacious and safe, due to their rigid frame and bulkiness, current designs of knee braces create discomfort and difficulties to patients during prolonged periods of application. Here we propose a novel design of a light osteoarthritis knee brace, which is made of soft conforming materials. Our design relies on a pneumatic leverage system, which, when pressurized, reduces the excessive loads predominantly affecting the medial compartment of the knee and eventually reverses the malalignment. Using a finite-element analysis, we show that with a moderate level of applied pressure, this pneumatic brace can, in theory, counterbalance a greater fraction of external adduction moment than the currently existing braces.

  8. On immediate functional bracing of Colles' fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledingham, W M; Wytch, R; Goring, C C; Mathieson, A B; Wardlaw, D

    1991-05-01

    A prospective randomized trial was carried out in 60 consecutive patients with Colles' fractures requiring manipulation. They were treated by either a standard Colles' plaster (control group) or in a functional plaster brace applied immediately after reduction of the fracture. The brace extended from the proximal radius and ulna to the level of the radial styloid and allowed a full range of movement at the radiocarpal joint. Both groups comprised 30 patients and were matched for age, sex and dominance of hand. There was no significant difference in initial severity of fracture or the quality of reduction. Radiological results on cast removal (35-42 days) were significantly better in the brace group compared with those treated with a below-elbow cast (P less than 0.05). Wrist function was also significantly better in the brace treated group at 12 weeks after fracture (P less than 0.05). This brace has a number of advantages over standard plaster treatment, but requires a degree of skill and experience in its application. A prefabricated brace has now been developed with a similar 'built in' three-point loading which will be easier for inexperienced staff to apply.

  9. Early weaning might reduce the psychological strain of Boston bracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Ø; Andersen, Gert Rahbek; Thomsen, Karsten

    2002-01-01

    From 1983 to 1990 a total of 136 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were treated with the Boston brace. With the aim of examining the social and psychological impact of the brace treatment all patients received a questionnaire at an average of 3.5 years after termination of the treatment...

  10. Effect of Reduced Brace Section on Behavior of SCBF Bracings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirghaderi, Rasoul; Ahlehagh, Sanaz

    2008-07-01

    Energy dissipation in concentrically braced frames is achieved by successive cycles of inelastic buckling in compression and yielding in tension and force controlled elements, such as beams, columns and connections should remain elastic to ensure the gravity load resistance of the frame. Braces are usually designed for compression which results section areas that are more than required by tension, while due to tension action of brace the connections and other members should be designed for tensile strength of brace element. In chevron braced frames, the beams in bracing frame should possess adequate strength to resist the unbalanced vertical forces due to unequal axial capacity of braces in tension and compression. This result in very big size beams, much stronger than would be required for other brace configurations. In this paper effect of Reduced Brace Section on behavior of displacement control braces, which intend to decrease the difference between tensile and post-buckling strength of braces, is described. Decreasing area of the steel section in a limited length and at a specific location will result in a reduction in tensile yielding capacity of the brace while it's buckling load and post buckling behavior is not affected significantly. Tensile yielding force is related to the reduced area of the brace while its post yielding tensile capacity is also related to the length of the reduced section. Minimum change in buckling and post buckling response was derived from the proposed arrangements of reduced sections. Linear and nonlinear response of the reduced section braces in tension and compression is studied by analytical methods under monotonic and cyclic loading. Braces with reduced section are considered as a type of balanced bracing which results smaller design forces for gusset plates and beams in chevron bracings.

  11. Physical exercises in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis at risk of brace treatment – SOSORT consensus paper 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grivas Theodoros B

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on a recognized need for research to examine the premise that nonsurgical approaches can be used effectively to treat signs and symptoms of scoliosis, a scientific society on scoliosis orthopaedic and rehabilitation treatment (SOSORT was established in Barcelona in 2004. SOSORT has a primary goal of implementing multidisciplinary research to develop quantitative, objective data to address the role of conservative therapies in the treatment of scoliosis. This international working group of clinicians and scientists specializing in treatment of scoliosis met in Milan, Italy in January 2005. Methods As a baseline for developing a consensus for language and goals for proposed multicenter clinical studies, we developed questionnaires to examine current beliefs, before and after the meeting, regarding (1 the aims of physical exercises; (2 standards of treatment; and (3 the impact of such treatment performed by specialists in the field. Results The responses to the questionnaires show that, in principle, specialists in scoliosis physiotherapy do not disagree and that several features can be regarded, currently, as standard features in the rehabilitation of scoliosis patients. These features include autocorrection in 3D, training in ADL, stabilizing the corrected posture, and patient education.

  12. ORTHOPEDIC LEG BRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, William Neil (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Knee braces generally have been rigid in both the knee bending direction and in the knee straightening direction unless a manually operated release is incorporated in them to allow the knee to bend. Desirably a braced knee joint should effectively duplicate the compound, complex, actions of a normal knee. The key to knee braces is the knee joint housing. The housing herein carries a number of cam action pawls. with teeth adapted to engage the internal teeth of a ratchet ring mounted in the housing. Cam action return springs and the shape of the cam action pawl teeth allow rotation of the ratchet ring in a leg straightening direction while still supporting a load. The leg can then be extended during walking while at the same time being prevented by the cam action pawls from buckling in the knee bending direction.

  13. Clinical effect of continuous corrective force delivery in the non-operative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis : a prospective cohort study of the triaC-brace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulthuis, Gerben J.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.; Nijenbanning, Gert

    2008-01-01

    A prospective cohort study of skeletally immature idiopathic scoliotic patients treated with the TriaC brace. To determine if the TriaC brace is effective in preventing curve progression in immature adolescent idiopathic scoliotic patients with a very high risk of curve progression based on reported

  14. Knee Bracing: What Works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... knee. Some people use them to prevent knee injuries during sports. Braces are made from combinations of metal, foam, ... checker Get Started Related ArticlesCommon Sports InjuriesRead Article >>Injury RehabilitationCommon Sports InjuriesCommon sports injuries sideline many people each year, ...

  15. 支具治疗指导表指导治疗青少年特发性脊柱侧凸的临床疗效%Clinical outcomes of brace treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using the form of guiding bracing treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王肖虎; 夏磊; 孟志强; 丁勇; 王凯

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立支具治疗指导表并评价其是否能够正确而有效地指导青少年特发性脊柱侧凸(adolescent idiopathic scoliosis,AIS)患者的支具治疗.方法 2008年3月至2010年6月,采用改良Cheneau支具治疗68例顶椎(apex vertebrae,AV)均在T6以下的AIS患者.根据是否使用支具治疗指导表分组:干预组51例,男16例,女35例;年龄10.6~17.2岁,平均13.6岁;Cobb角20°~38°,平均29.5°;Risser征2~4级;椎体旋转度0~2.对照组17例,男6例,女11例;年龄10.8~16.8岁,平均13.2岁;Cobb角20°~37°,平均28.7°;Risser征2~4级;椎体旋转度0~2.对照组患者在初诊或复查时,被告知规范化的治疗方案;而干预组患者将获得支具治疗指导表2份,嘱其必须按照表格的要求治疗.分析治疗前、治疗后6、12、18个月的Cobb角,评价两组患者的支具治疗效果.结果 对照组中1例和干预组中2例女性患者失访,余65例随访时间为18~27个月.支具治疗指导表的α系数及内部相关系数值均>0.60,内容效度良好,表格接受率为97.54%(199/204),合格率为100.00%(199/199).对照组Cobb角从28.71°降至25.76°,干预组从29.47°降至21.59°.在治疗18个月时,对照组有4例、干预组有34例患者的Cobb角减小值≥5°,两组Cobb角变化比较,差异有统计学意义.结论 支具治疗指导表具有良好的信度和效度,能够正确有效地指导AIS患者的支具治疗.%Objective To guide bracing treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Methods A total of 68 AIS patients with apex vertebrae (AV) under T6 had received the improved Cheneau bracing treatment between March 2008 and June 2010. All patients were divided into two groups. There were 16males and 35 females, with a mean age of 13.6 years (range, 10.6-17.2) in the intervention group. The mean Cobb angle was 29.5° (range, 20°-38°); Risser sign was 2-4; Vertebralrotation degree was 0-2 in the group;while there were 6 males and 11 females, with

  16. 支具治疗青少年特发性脊柱侧凸的研究现状及新进展%The new advances and research situation of brace treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施新革; 张永刚

    2013-01-01

      青少年特发性脊柱侧凸是引起青少年脊柱畸形最常见的原因,进展型的青少年特发性脊柱侧凸预后不良,若不及时干预治疗,最终需要外科手术矫正治疗。支具治疗是唯一证明有确切疗效的非手术治疗方法。本文就支具治疗青少年特发性脊柱侧凸的研究现状及新进展作一综述,以促进临床医师更好的应用支具治疗青少年特发性脊柱侧凸。%Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the common cause resulting in the spinal deformity of adolescent. The progressing ad-olescent idiopathic scoliosis have the poor prognosis and the patient ultimately requires surgical treatment without intervention in time. The brace treatment is proved the only effective treatment in non-surgical treatment. We reviewed the new literature of brace treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in order to promote the clinicians to treat the patients of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with brace.

  17. The three dimensional analysis of the Sforzesco brace correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Donzelli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scoliosis is a three dimensional deformity, and brace correction should be 3D too. There is a lack of knowledge of the effect of braces, particularly in the sagittal and transverse plane. The aim of this study is to analyse the Sforzesco Brace correction, through all the parameters provided by Eos 3D imaging system. Method Design: This is a cross sectional study from a prospective database started in March 2003. Participants: 16 AIS girls (mean age 14.01 in Sforzesco brace treatment, with EOS x-rays, at start, in brace after 1 month and out of brace after the first 4 months of treatment. Outcome measures: All the parameters and the Torsio-Index obtained from 3D Eos System, in and out of brace, in the three planes. Statistical analysis: the variability of the parameters and the mean differences were analyzed and compared using paired T test. ANOVA was used for multiple comparisons. Critical P value was set at 0.05. Results In the comparison of in-brace vs start of treatment, the mean Cobb angle changed significantly from 36.44 +/− 4 to 28.99 + −3.9° (p = 0.01. Significant changes in all the sagittal parameters were found (p = 0.02. In the axial plane, the Torsio Index changed significantly in-brace for thoracolumbar and lumbar curves (P < 0.05. The analysis of the single vertebral tilt demonstrated that the effect of the brace is mostly concentrated at specific segments: T4-T5, T10-T12, L1 and L5 in the axial plane and T3-T6 and T10-L1 in the frontal plane. Conclusion The Sforzesco brace mostly modifies the middle of the spine and preserves the sagittal balance. The single vertebral orientation in each plane should be considered together with the typically used values to assess brace effect.

  18. 隐形矫治器和传统金属矫治器的疗效比较%Assessment of Invisalign Treatment Outcomes Compared with Braces by Using the ABO Model Grading System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林佳强; 周昱

    2014-01-01

    目的:应用美国ABO客观评分系统,对无托槽隐形矫治器和传统金属矫治器的矫治效果进行评价。方法选择120例成人轻中度错合畸形患者,分为无托槽隐形矫治器组和传统矫治器组各60例。用差异系数评价错合畸形严重程度, OGS评价治疗结果。结果无托槽隐形矫治器可以很好地矫治轻中度错合畸形,与传统金属托槽矫治器无统计学差异。结论无托槽隐形矫治器对轻中度错合畸形临床矫治效果可达到传统矫治器矫治的效果。%Objective The aim of this study is to assessment treatment -outcome of invisalign treatment compared with braces by ABO .Methods This retrospective study select 2 groups of 120 patients ( invisalign and braces groups including both 60 patients ) were evaluated by using methods from the American Board of Orthodontics .The discrepancy index was used to analyze pretreatment records to control for initial severity of malocclusion . The objective grading system ( OGS ) was used to systematically grade posttreatment records .Statistical analyses evaluated treatment outcome of invisalign compared with braces .Results The invisalign group significant improve results and was no difference between both groups .Conclusions According to the OGS , invisalign treat malocclusions as well as braces in this sample .

  19. A new method of MR total spine imaging for showing the brace effect in scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, A.; Kandyba, J.; Koenig, R.; Jaeger, U.E.; Gieseke, J.; Schmitt, O. [Univ. of Bonn (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Bracing is a method of early, nonsurgical treatment for scoliosis, but a hypokyphotic effect on the thoracic spine is reported. We developed a magnetic resonance tomography (MR) procedure presenting an image of the whole spine in the coronal and sagittal planes (MR total spine imaging), and studied the brace effect, using this technique. We examined 26 female patients with idiopathic scoliosis treated with a Cheneau brace (mean age, 13.2 years; mean duration of brace treatment at the time of investigation, 1.5 years). The MR examinations were performed with the patient in the supine position with and without the brace in direct sequence. As measured on the coronal MR images, the thoracic curve was corrected, on average, from 29 deg to 22 deg (mean correction, 24%). There was a slight reduction in the sagittal Cobb angle measured between T4 and T12 (mean sagittal Cobb angle without brace, 14 deg ; with brace, 12 deg), which was still a significant change. MR total spine imaging could be a useful tool for studying the brace effect in scoliosis in two planes. Using this technique, we found reduced sagittal Cobb angles for the thoracic kyphosis with brace. Because there is no radiation exposure, the MR procedure has a potential use in the monitoring of brace treatment. (author)

  20. Brace technology thematic series - The Sforzesco and Sibilla braces, and the SPoRT (Symmetric, Patient oriented, Rigid, Three-dimensional, active concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchini Gianfranco

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bracing is an effective strategy for scoliosis treatment, but there is no consensus on the best type of brace, nor on the way in which it should act on the spine to achieve good correction. The aim of this paper is to present the family of SPoRT (Symmetric, Patient-oriented, Rigid, Three-dimensional, active braces: Sforzesco (the first introduced, Sibilla and Lapadula. Methods The Sforzesco brace was developed following specific principles of correction. Due to its overall symmetry, the brace provides space over pathological depressions and pushes over elevations. Correction is reached through construction of the envelope, pushes, escapes, stops, and drivers. The real novelty is the drivers, introduced for the first time with the Sforzesco brace; they allow to achieve the main action of the brace: a three-dimensional elongation pushing the spine in a down-up direction. Brace prescription is made plane by plane: frontal (on the "slopes", another novelty of this concept, i.e. the laterally flexed sections of the spine, horizontal, and sagittal. The brace is built modelling the trunk shape obtained either by a plaster cast mould or by CAD-CAM construction. Brace checking is essential, since SPoRT braces are adjustable and customisable according to each individual curve pattern. Treatment time and duration is individually tailored (18-23 hours per day until Risser 3, then gradual reduction. SEAS (Scientific Exercises Approach to Scoliosis exercises are a key factor to achieve success. Results The Sforzesco brace has shown to be more effective than the Lyon brace (matched case/control, equally effective as the Risser plaster cast (prospective cohort with retrospective controls, more effective than the Risser cast + Lyon brace in treating curves over 45 degrees Cobb (prospective cohort, and is able to improve aesthetic appearance (prospective cohort. Conclusions The SPoRT concept of bracing (three-dimensional elongation pushing in

  1. 女性青少年特发性脊柱侧凸支具治疗效果和影响因素评估%Bracing treatment for girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: clinical outcomes and predictive factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙旭; 毛赛虎; 王斌; 邱勇; 朱泽章; 朱锋; 俞杨; 钱邦平; 马薇薇; 刘臻

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the outcomes of bracing treatment for girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), and to investigate the predictive factors of the protocol. Methods This study included 142 girls with AIS who finished standardized bracing treatment from July 2003 to July 2009. These patients had a mean age of 13.1±1.5 years, a mean main curve of 29.6°±5.4°, and a mean Risser grade of 2.0±1.5 before bracing treatment. Curve progression was defined that Cobb angle was greater than 6° compared to bracing initiation or was aggravated to more than 45° (indicative for surgery). The outcomes of bracing treatment were assessed based on the ratio of curves of progression or indicative for surgery. Chi-square and Logistic regression Analyses were performed to investigate the predictive factors of bracing treatment. Results The duration of bracing treatment averaged 2.5±1.0 years. Twenty-seven girls with curve progression (19%)and 115 girls (81%) with non-progression were found. Final curve which was greater than 45° was found in 18 girls (13%) who need a correction surgery, the remaining 124 girls (87%) had completed bracing treatment and avoided surgery. Chi-square analyses revealed that curve progression were more common in younger girls with lower Risser grade, with initial larger Cobb angle and with a main thoracic curve pattern.Logistic regression analyses found that premenarchal status and a main thoracic curve pattern were the independent risk factors of curve progression despite bracing. While initial Cobb angle which was greater than 30° was the additional independent risk factor of progression requiring surgery. Conclusion Bracing treatment could effectively prevent curve progression in most girls with AIS. The degree of growth maturity, the pattern and grade of curve are the influencing factor for bracing treatment.%目的 评估女性青少年特发性脊柱侧凸(adolescent idiopathic scoliosis,AIS)患者支具治

  2. Razi's description and treatment of facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Mahmood; Kalantar Hormozi, Abdoljalil; Asadi, Mohsen

    2011-01-01

    In the modern medical era, facial paralysis is linked with the name of Charles Bell. This disease, which is usually unilateral and is a peripheral facial palsy, causes facial muscle weakness in the affected side. Bell gave a complete description of the disease; but historically other physicians had described it several hundred years prior although it had been ignored for different reasons, such as the difficulty of the original text language. The first and the most famous of these physicians who described this disease was Mohammad Ibn Zakaryya Razi (Rhazes). In this article, we discuss his opinion.

  3. WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Habashi

    2000-06-22

    The Waste Treatment Building System provides the space, layout, structures, and embedded subsystems that support the processing of low-level liquid and solid radioactive waste generated within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The activities conducted in the Waste Treatment Building include sorting, volume reduction, and packaging of dry waste, and collecting, processing, solidification, and packaging of liquid waste. The Waste Treatment Building System is located on the surface within the protected area of the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System helps maintain a suitable environment for the waste processing and protects the systems within the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) from most of the natural and induced environments. The WTB also confines contaminants and provides radiological protection to personnel. In addition to the waste processing operations, the Waste Treatment Building System provides space and layout for staging of packaged waste for shipment, industrial and radiological safety systems, control and monitoring of operations, safeguards and security systems, and fire protection, ventilation and utilities systems. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides the required space and layout for maintenance activities, tool storage, and administrative facilities. The Waste Treatment Building System integrates waste processing systems within its protective structure to support the throughput rates established for the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides shielding, layout, and other design features to help limit personnel radiation exposures to levels which are as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, and with other MGR systems that support the waste processing operations. The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the General Site Transportation System, Site Communications System, Site Water System, MGR

  4. Brace-Frame Interaction in Tension Braced MRFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfollahi, Mehrdad; Mofid, Massood; Alinia, Mohammad Mehdi

    2008-09-01

    This study investigates the possibility of sequential failure analysis of Tension Braced Moment Resisting Frames (TBMRFs) by examining its performance in the linear and nonlinear stages under idealized seismic loading conditions. The results obtained from rigorous analyses by means of numerical methods are utilized to set up and calibrate an analytical model which would appropriately differentiate the contribution shares of the frame and the bracing elements. The paper provides information on key response parameters, including interaction value between frame and brace elements, as well as tensile strength capacity and ductility capability of such systems.

  5. Introduction to the "Scoliosis" Journal Brace Technology Thematic Series: increasing existing knowledge and promoting future developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grivas Theodoros B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bracing is the main non-surgical intervention in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis during growth, in hyperkyphosis (and Scheuermann disease and occasionally for spondylolisthesis; it can be used in adult scoliosis, in the elderly when pathological curves lead to a forward leaning posture or in adults after traumatic injuries. Bracing can be defined as the application of external corrective forces to the trunk; rigid supports or elastic bands can be used and braces can be custom-made or prefabricated. The state of research in the field of conservative treatment is insufficient and while it can be stated that there is some evidence to support bracing, we must also acknowledge that today we do not have a common and generally accepted knowledge base, and that instead, individual expertise still prevails, giving rise to different schools of thought on brace construction and principles of correction. The only way to improve the knowledge and understanding of brace type and brace function is to establish a single and comprehensive source of information about bracing. This is what the Scoliosis Journal is going to do through the "Brace Technology" Thematic Series, where technical papers coming from the different schools will be published.

  6. Scoliosis brace design: influence of visual aesthetics on user acceptance and compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Derry; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Yip, Joanne; Yick, Kit-Lun; Wong, Christina

    2016-09-06

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a common condition found in adolescents. A rigid brace is often prescribed as the treatment for this spinal deformity, which negatively affects user compliance due to the discomfort caused by the brace, and the psychological distress resulting from its appearance. However, the latter, which is the impact of visual aesthetics, has not been thoroughly studied for scoliosis braces. Therefore, a qualitative study with in-depth interviews has been carried out with 10 participants who have a Cobb angle of 20°-30° to determine the impact of visual aesthetics on user acceptance and compliance towards the brace. It is found that co-designing with patients on the aesthetic aspects of the surface design of the brace increases the level of user compliance and induces positive user perception. Therefore, aesthetic preferences need to be taken into consideration in the design process of braces. Practitioner Summary: The impact of visual aesthetics on user acceptance and compliance towards a rigid brace for scoliosis is investigated. The findings indicate that an aesthetically pleasing brace and the involvement of patients in the design process of the brace are important for increasing user compliance and addressing psychological issues during treatment.

  7. K Basin sludge treatment process description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westra, A.G.

    1998-08-28

    The K East (KE) and K West (KW) fuel storage basins at the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site contain sludge on the floor, in pits, and inside fuel storage canisters. The major sources of the sludge are corrosion of the fuel elements and steel structures in the basin, sand intrusion from outside the buildings, and degradation of the structural concrete that forms the basins. The decision has been made to dispose of this sludge separate from the fuel elements stored in the basins. The sludge will be treated so that it meets Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) acceptance criteria and can be sent to one of the double-shell waste tanks. The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office accepted a recommendation by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc., to chemically treat the sludge. Sludge treatment will be done by dissolving the fuel constituents in nitric acid, separating the insoluble material, adding neutron absorbers for criticality safety, and reacting the solution with caustic to co-precipitate the uranium and plutonium. A truck will transport the resulting slurry to an underground storage tank (most likely tank 241-AW-105). The undissolved solids will be treated to reduce the transuranic (TRU) and content, stabilized in grout, and transferred to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) for disposal. This document describes a process for dissolving the sludge to produce waste streams that meet the TWRS acceptance criteria for disposal to an underground waste tank and the ERDF acceptance criteria for disposal of solid waste. The process described is based on a series of engineering studies and laboratory tests outlined in the testing strategy document (Flament 1998).

  8. Stability of the Scoliotic Spine: Effect of Scoliosis Braces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havey, Robert M; Gavin, Thomas M; Patwardhan, Avinash G

    2016-04-01

    Orthotic treatment (braces) for scoliosis is best understood in light of the natural history of idiopathic scoliosis and the mechanics of spine stability. Idiopathic scoliosis is a spinal deformity confronted often by spine surgeons. With prompt recognition, treatment can be effective.

  9. Bracing for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS and Scheuermann Kyphosis: the issue of overtreatment in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos S. Karavidas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most recent publications have provided evidence for brace treatment in spinal deformities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of overtreatment for AIS and Kyphosis in Greece, according to the Society on Scoliosis Orthopedic Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORT and the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS guidelines for brace treatment. To date, this is the first study to investigate overtreatment percentage in a group of patients with spinal deformities. Methods Cross-sectional study design and data analysis were performed in a group of patients that received treatment in a private clinic, in 2014. Of 289 patients treated with a brace, 167 young adolescents (126 females - 41 males, mean age 15, 7 years were eligible for inclusion criteria (age 9–18 years, brace wearing. Overtreatment was defined as the unnecessary use of brace according to the international indications for brace treatment. Overtreatment was assessed by a BSPTS - Schroth certified physiotherapist. The brace prescription was made by 34 medical doctors from different geographical areas of Greece. Results The data analysis revealed that 71 out of 167 subjects (42,5 % had received some kind of overtreatment. A further analysis showed that in the AIS subgroup, 20 subjects (16,9 % had Cobb angles < 20°, 7 subjects (5,9 % had Cobb angles 20 – 25° but good prognosis, 12 subjects (10,2 % started bracing after Risser 4, and 12 subjects (10,2 % had delayed brace weaning. It is noticeable that 8 subjects (6,8 % were at Risser 5 with Cobb angle < 20° and were prescribed a brace. In the Kyphosis subgroup, 11 subjects (22,5 % showed no signs of Scheuermann’s disease, 3 subjects (6,1 % started bracing after Risser 4 or 5, and 6 subjects (12,2 % had delayed brace weaning. Conclusions An extremely high rate of overtreatment (42, 5 % was identified in a random group of adolescents treated with a brace for AIS and Kyphosis. Overtreating a child

  10. Bracing Zonohedra With Special Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Gyula

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of simpler preliminary design gives useful input for more complicated three-dimensional building frame structure. A zonohedron, as a preliminary structure of design, is a convex polyhedron for which each face possesses central symmetry. We considered zonohedron as a special framework with the special assumption that the polygonal faces can be deformed in such a way that faces remain planar and centrally symmetric, moreover the length of all edges remains unchanged. Introducing some diagonal braces we got a new mechanism. This paper deals with the flexibility of this kind of mechanisms, and investigates the rigidity of the braced framework. The flexibility of the framework can be characterized by some vectors, which represent equivalence classes of the edges. A necessary and sufficient condition for the rigidity of the braced rhombic face zonohedra is posed. A real mechanical construction, based on two simple elements, provides a CAD prototype of these new mechanisms.

  11. Locking mechanism for orthopedic braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, J. I.; Epps, C. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An orthopedic brace locking mechanism is described which under standing or walking conditions cannot be unlocked, however under sitting conditions the mechanism can be simply unlocked so as to permit bending of the patient's knee. Other features of the device include: (1) the mechanism is rendered operable, and inoperable, dependent upon the relative inclination of the brace with respect to the ground; (2) the mechanism is automatically locked under standing or walking conditions and is manually unlocked under sitting conditions; and (3) the mechanism is light in weight and is relatively small in size.

  12. Corrective Bracing for Severe Idiopathic Scoliosis in Adolescence: Influence of Brace on Trunk Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Kinel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the work was to study whether wearing a corrective brace by adolescent girls with severe idiopathic scoliosis can influence external shape of the trunk. Methods. Comparison of clinical deformity of two groups of girls matched for age and Cobb angle: group (1 of 23 girls, aged 14.9±1.3 years, Cobb angle 55.0°±6.8°, who refused surgical treatment and have been wearing Chêneau brace for more than 6 months, compared with group (2 of 22 girls, aged 14.1±1.8 years, Cobb angle 59.7°±14.6° never treated with corrective bracing. Clinical deformity was assessed with the Bunnell scoliometer (angle of trunk rotation ATR and surface topography (posterior trunk symmetry index POTSI and Hump Sum HS. Results. The ATR in the primary curvature was 11.9°±3.4° (5°–18° in group 1 versus 15.1°±5.6° (6°–25° in group 2 (P=0.027. The HS was 16.8°±3.8 versus 19.2°±4.6, respectively, P=0.07. The POTSI value did not differ between groups. Conclusion. Girls with Cobb angle above 45 degrees, who have been subjected to brace treatment, revealed smaller clinical deformity of their back comparing to nontreated girls having similar radiological curvatures.

  13. Vital capacity evolution in patients treated with the CMCR brace: statistical analysis of 90 scoliotic patients treated with the CMCR brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohn Céline

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary Objective To study the evolution of pulmonary capacity during orthopaedic treatment of scoliosis with the CMCR brace. Background Investigating the impact of moderate scoliosis on respiratory capacity and its evolution during CMCR brace treatment with mobile pads. Context Several studies demonstrate the impact of scoliosis on respiratory capacity but few of them focus on the impact of bracing treatment. We studied the evolution of the pulmonary capacity of a cohort of 90 scoliotic patients. Methods This retrospective study included 90 scoliotic patients treated since 1999 with a brace with mobile pads called CMCR (n = 90; mean age: 13 years; 10-16. These patients were diagnosed with an idiopathic scoliosis (mean angulation 20.6°. All patients underwent a radiographic and respiratory evaluation at the beginning, the middle and the end of treatment. Results Mean age at treatment start was 13. Before treatment, our patients did not have a normal pulmonary capacity: Forced Vital Capacity (FVC was only 75% of the theoretical value. All curvature types (thoracic, thoraco-lumbar and combined scoliosis involved this reduced pulmonary capacity, with moderate-angulated scoliosis having a negative impact. At the beginning of brace treatment, the loss of real vital capacity with brace (0.3 litres was 10% lower than without brace. At CMCR removal, the FVC had increased by 0.4 litre (21% +/- 4.2% compared to the initial value. The theoretical value had increased by 3%. This positive evolution was most important in girls at a low Risser stage (0,1,2, and before 11 years of age. Conclusion These results supported our approach of orthesis conception for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis which uses braces with mobile pads to preserve thorax and spine mobility.

  14. Outcome of humeral shaft fractures treated by functional cast brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Nath Pal

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Modified functional cast brace is one of the options in treatment for humeral shaft fractures as it can be applied on the 1 st day of the presentation in most of the situations. Simple objective scoring system was useful particularly in uneducated patients.

  15. 支具治疗对青少年特发性脊柱侧凸近期肺功能的影响%Recent influence of brace - treatment on lung function with adolescence idiopathic scoliosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶有平; 吴继功; 马华松; 邹德威; 陈志明; 谭荣; 张乐乐; 白克文; 姬勇

    2011-01-01

    [目的]比较青少年特发性脊柱侧凸患者支具治疗前与末次随访肺功能的变化,探讨支具治疗对患者近期肺功能的影响.[方法]对2009年2月~2010年10月在本院接受规范支具治疗的40例青少年特发性脊柱侧凸患者;其中男性4人,女性36人;初诊时年龄10 ~14岁,平均12.2岁,骨骼发育Risser征0~Ⅱ度,平均1.1度;观察支具治疗前、末次随访时主侧凸冠状Cobb角以及肺功能等指标的变化.[结果]随访时间为6~17个月,平均8个月;支具治疗前主侧凸冠状Cobb角(28.41±6.45)°,末次随访时主侧凸冠状Cobb角(16.21±10.22)°,平均矫正率为43.56%,两者差异有显著性意义(P<0.05);支具治疗前、末次随访时肺功能指标VC(肺活量)、FEV1(第1 s时间肺活量)、MVV(最大通气量)实测值及占预计值百分率进行比较,结果有显著性差异(P<0.05).随访期间患者脊柱侧凸的进展均得到有效控制,患者无明显呼吸困难及活动功能障碍等并发症.[结论]支具治疗对青少年特发性脊柱侧凸有矫正效果;但是对患者近期肺功能可能有消极影响,患者在佩戴支具期间需要加强对肺功能的锻炼.%[Objective] To evaluate the lung function changes during brace -treatment with adolescent idiopathic scolio-sis, and to analyze the recent influence of brace - treatment on lung function with adolescence idiopathic scoliosis. [Methods] Forty cases with adolescence idiopathic scoliosis were treated with brace from Feb 2009 to Oct 2010. Four were male and 36 were female with mean age of 12. 2 years (from 10 to 14) . The Risser grade were 0-2 degree, average 1.1. The clinical and radiological date including Cobbs angle of major curve, average preliminary corrective rate and lung function measurements were recorded. [Results] Follow-up period ranged from 6 to 17 months (mean 8 months) . The brace could obviously prevent the curve progression. The Cobb angle of major curve reduced

  16. Scoliosis bracing and exercise for pain management in adults—a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Hans-Rudolf; Moramarco, Kathryn; Moramarco, Marc

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] For adult patients with late-onset idiopathic scoliosis, cosmetic concerns and pain are the main reasons for seeking treatment at a physician’s office. The purpose of this paper was to describe the mid-term effect of physical rehabilitation and part-time bracing on an adult scoliosis patient who had been suffering from chronic low back pain for fourteen years. [Subject and Methods] Case description: A 37-year-old female patient with late-onset idiopathic scoliosis presented in the office of the first author in January 2014. She reported having chronic pain (low back pain) since the age of 23 and reported daily pain at a level of 5–7 on average on a Visual Analogue Scale of 0 to 10. She received a short scoliosis-specific Schroth exercise program and was also fitted with a Gensingen brace for part-time wear. [Results] At a 16 month follow-up, the patient no longer suffered from daily low back pain (with heavy lifting only) and was fully active. Additionally, her lumbar Cobb angle and angle of trunk rotation improved. [Conclusion] Patients with late-onset idiopathic scoliosis and pain may benefit from a pattern-specific conservative treatment approach. In this population, surgical intervention should be regarded as the last resort, since there are many long-term unknowns with surgery. PMID:27630444

  17. Comparison of in-and outpatients protocols for providence night time only bracing in AIS patients -- compliance and satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Aubaidi, Zaid Tj; Tropp, Hans; Pedersen, Niels W

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skeletally immature patients diagnosed with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and a Cobb angle above 25degrees is usually treated with a brace. Standard protocols in many centers include hospitalisation for a few days for the purpose of brace adaptation and fitting. The aim...... of this study is to compare compliance and satisfaction in hospitalization and out patient clinic protocols, at the initiation phase of brace treatment.Materials and methodsTwenty-four consecutive patients with AIS were initiated with the Providence night time only brace at our department between October 2008...

  18. Can Bracing Affect Altered Gait Patterns in Femoroacetabular Impingement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Marc R.; Rylander, Jonathan; Shu, Beatrice; Andriacchi, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Altered gait patterns have been identified in patients with Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), a 2nd order reversal in mid stance, that has been shown to be corrected with arthroscopic FAI surgery. Currently, most feel there is no adequate conservative treatment for this malady. The goal of this study is to determine if the gait abnormalities seen with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) can be modified with bracing. Methods: Eight individuals (4 Male, 34.5 ± 12.8 y.o., 24.0±2.3 BMI) who were diagnosed with FAI after reporting to clinic with groin pain were enrolled in this study. The study was approved by the University Internal Review Board before participants were enrolled. History, clinical exam, and imaging including an AP pelvis and cross table lateral radiograph of the affected hip and MR-arthrogram of the affected hip were utilized to make the diagnosis. Participants who enrolled had primarily unilateral hip symptoms, had positive impingement and labral stress tests on the affected side and were free of other lower extremity, back, and spine disorders. Three dimensional lower limb kinematics were collected using a camera and forceplate system with the subjects wearing reflective markers on anatomical landmarks. Participants were tested prior to surgery. Hip kinematics were collected for the symptomatic limb while the patients walked at a self selected normal walking speed, slowly jogged, and ascended a two stair setup. Three trials for each activity were completed with and without wearing a brace that was designed to externally rotate the femur in the treatment of patellofemoral disorders for a total of 6 trials per activity. Peak hip flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal rotation, and external rotation were calculated over the stance phase for each trial. Averages were calculated over the 3 trials for each activity both with and without the brace. Intra-subject differences were compared between the braced and unbraced trials

  19. [Gout and its manifestations, description and treatment in ancient times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alušík, Tomáš; Alušík, Štefan

    2015-01-01

    Gout is a very old disease, which exists for thousands of years. The first descriptions interpreted as the symptoms of gout can be found already in the Egyptian medical papyri dating to the 3rd mill. BC. In the Ancient world, many physicians dealt with the causes, diagnostics and the treatments of gout, such as Hippocrates of Cos, Diocles of Carystus or Claudios Galenos. A personified gout (as the goddess Podagra) is also to be found in the Ancient mythology and culture. Several human remnants of the people suffering from gout are preserved from the Antiquity as well.

  20. (Vapour + liquid) equilibria of the {l_brace}trifluoromethane (HFC-23) + propane{r_brace} and {l_brace}trifluoromethane (HFC-23) + n-butane{r_brace} systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Mincheol; Yun, Yongju [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Moon Sam [Department of Cosmetic Science, Chungwoon University, Chungnam 350-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwayong [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hwayongk@snu.ac.kr

    2009-12-15

    Isothermal (vapour + liquid) equilibrium data were measured for the two systems, {l_brace}trifluoromethane (HFC-23) + propane{r_brace} and {l_brace}trifluoromethane (HFC-23) + n-butane{r_brace}, at temperatures ranging from 283.15 K to 313.15 K at 10 K intervals. These experiments were performed with a circulating-type apparatus and on-line gas chromatography. Experimental data were well correlated by the Peng-Robinson equation of state using the Wong-Sandler mixing rules and the NRTL model.

  1. Emergency PTCA and Brace Implantation in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhangquan; Guan Ruming; Zhang Ming

    2000-01-01

    Objective To further improve the rate of reperfusion of infarction related artery in AMI, remove the stricture, rescue ischemic myocardiurn, protect cardiac function and ameliorate the longterm prognosis. Method Among 73 patients with AMI, 50 underwent direct PTCA, 15 immediate PTCA,8 rescue PTCA and 20 braces were implanted. Result The proportion of recanalization is 94.5% (69/73) .The grade of blood flow (TIMI) improved to grade 3 in 20 patients with brace implantation, while 44 to grade 3 and 5 to grade 2 among 49 patients with simple PTCA. Residualstenosis in vessel was 1.8 ± 5.9(-10-10)% in patients with brace implantation versus 15.4 ± 11. (0 -30)% with simple PICA. The incidence of reperfusive cardiac arrythmia was 18.1%(10/62). There was mainly frequent ventricular premature beat and short paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia, if left anterior decending branch was reopened,while bradycardia and atrial ventricular block usually occurred after right coronary reperfused. Conclusion Emergency PTCA and brace implantation can apparently improve the proportion of reperfusioa of IRA in AMI. It is necessary to popularize and apply these treatment in medical units with available conditions.

  2. Description of recommended non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document contains description of the technologies selected for inclusions in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Study. The purpose of these descriptions is to provide a more complete description of the INTS technologies. It supplements the summary descriptions of candidate nonthermal technologies that were considered for the INTS.

  3. Dynamic extensor brace for lateral epicondylitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faes, M.; Akker, B. van den; Lint, J.A. de; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2006-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is a common, often disabling ailment. Based on the failure of current therapies, a new dynamic extensor brace has been developed. In this study, the effects of application of this brace for 3 months on the most important and disabling symptoms of patients with la

  4. Outcome of intensive outpatient rehabilitation and bracing in an adult patient with Scheuermann’s disease evaluated by radiologic imaging—a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagit Berdishevsky

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No studies examine the efficacy of intensive specific physical therapy (PT exercises along with brace for the adult with Scheuermann’s kyphosis (SK. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of intensive PT based on the Barcelona Scoliosis Physical Therapy School (BSPTS and SpinoMed brace on a 76-year-old female with SK. Case Description A 76-year-old female, diagnosed with SK as an adolescent, presented in October 2014 with thoracic hyperkyphosis T1 to T12 Cobb angle of 85° and lumbar hyper lordosis L1 to L5 Cobb angle of 70°. Lumbar scoliosis T12-L5 with 21° Cobb and vertebral rotation 2. Trunk translation in the sagittal plan was 4.5 cm. Intermittent low back pain 6/10 at worst. Quality-of-life score was 3.8 (SRS 22 questionnaire. Method The PT regimen included one-hour Schroth exercise sessions three times per week for 6 months. In addition, a home exercise program (HEP was recommended. Patient also wore a SpinoMed brace for 2 h per day. All tests and measurements were recorded before and after treatment. Results After a six-month treatment period the kyphosis Cobb angle was reduced to 70° and the lordosis Cobb angle improved to 57°. A recent x-ray (October 2015 showed another improvement in the sagittal plane with thoracic kyphosis measuring 64° and lumbar lordosis 55°. Lumbar curvature decreased to 12° and vertebral rotation to 1. The quality-of-life score showed improvement with a score of 4.5 on the SRS 22. Pain score diminished to 2. Trunk deviation improved by 2.2 cm. Conclusion These findings suggest that intensive and specific PT and bracing were successful for the treatment of this adult patient with SK.

  5. Efficiency and comfort of knee braces: A parametric study based on computational modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Pierrat, Baptiste; Calmels, Paul; Navarro, Laurent; Avril, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Knee orthotic devices are widely proposed by physicians and medical practitioners for preventive or therapeutic objectives in relation with their effects, usually known as to stabilize joint or restrict ranges of motion. This study focuses on the understanding of force transfer mechanisms from the brace to the joint thanks to a Finite Element Model. A Design Of Experiments approach was used to characterize the stiffness and comfort of various braces in order to identify their mechanically influent characteristics. Results show conflicting behavior: influent parameters such as the brace size or textile stiffness improve performance in detriment of comfort. Thanks to this computational tool, novel brace designs can be tested and evaluated for an optimal mechanical efficiency of the devices and a better compliance of the patient to the treatment.

  6. Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 14: brace therapy as an adjunct to or substitute for lumbar fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Andrew T; Ghogawala, Zoher; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Watters, William C; Resnick, Daniel K; Sharan, Alok; Eck, Jason C; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Wang, Jeffrey C; Groff, Michael W; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

    2014-07-01

    The utilization of orthotic devices for lumbar degenerative disease has been justified from both a prognostic and therapeutic perspective. As a prognostic tool, bracing is applied prior to surgery to determine if immobilization of the spine leads to symptomatic relief and thus justify the performance of a fusion. Since bracing does not eliminate motion, the validity of this assumption is questionable. Only one low-level study has investigated the predictive value of bracing prior to surgery. No correlation between response to bracing and fusion outcome was observed; therefore a trial of preoperative bracing is not recommended. Based on low-level evidence, the use of bracing is not recommended for the prevention of low-back pain in a general working population, since the incidence of low-back pain and impact on productivity were not reduced. However, in laborers with a history of back pain, a positive impact on lost workdays was observed when bracing was applied. Bracing is recommended as an option for treatment of subacute low-back pain, as several higher-level studies have demonstrated an improvement in pain scores and function. The use of bracing following instrumented posterolateral fusion, however, is not recommended, since equivalent outcomes have been demonstrated with or without the application of a brace.

  7. Deployable M-braced truss structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulas, M. M., Jr. (Inventor); Rhodes, M. D. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A deployable M-braced truss structure, efficiently packaged into a compact stowed position and expandable to an operative position at the use site is described. The M-braced configuration effectively separates tension compression and shear in the structure and permits efficient structural design. Both diagonals and longerons telescope from an M-braced base unit and deploy either pneumatically, mechanically by springs or cables, or by powered reciprocating mechanisms. Upon full deployment, the diagonals and longerons lock into place with a simple latch mechanism.

  8. Two Cases of Eating Disorders in Adolescents with Dental Braces Fitted Prior to the Onset of Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Sung-Wan; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2015-07-01

    Orthodontic treatment typically occurs during early childhood and adolescence but the wearing of dental braces is often associated with sudden changes in eating patterns that prolong treatment into the teenage years. Despite these changes, psychological assessments related to eating disorders during the course of orthodontic treatment are often ignored. Based on the findings of the present case report, it is suggested that adolescent patients who wear braces and exhibit severe weight loss should be carefully monitored for psychiatric problems, including eating disorders.

  9. Effects of soft bracing or taping on a lateral ankle sprain : a non-randomised controlled trial evaluating recurrence rates and residual symptoms at one year

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemler, Ellen; van de Port, Ingrid; Schmikli, Sandor; Huisstede, Bionka; Hoes, Arno; Backx, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background: After sustaining an ankle sprain, taping is often the standard treatment in primary care. Ankle braces are sometimes used as an alternative. This study aimed to compare the effects of four weeks of soft bracing or taping following acute lateral ankle ligamentous sprain (ALALS) on sprain

  10. Correction effects of the ScoliOlogiC® „Chêneau light" brace in patients with scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Carola

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different bracing concepts are used today for the treatment of scoliosis. The plaster cast method worldwide seems to be the most practiced technique at the moment. CAD (Computer Aided Design systems are on the market which allow brace adjustments without plaster. The latest development however, is the use of the ScoliOlogiC™ off the shelf system enabling the orthopaedic technician to construct a light brace for scoliosis correction from a variety of pattern specific shells to be connected to an anterior and a posterior upright. This „Chêneau light" brace, developed according to the Chêneau principle, promises a reduced impediment of quality of life in the brace. However, material reduction should not result in reduced effectiveness. Therefore the primary correction effect in the „Chêneau light" brace has been evaluated and compared with that of other braces used today. Methods The correction effects of the first 81 patients (main diagnosis Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS [n = 64] or Early Onset Scoliosis (EOS [n = 15], treated according to the principle of the „Chêneau light" brace were evaluated after an average treatment time of 6 weeks by a full-body X-ray made in the standing position whilst wearing the brace and compared with the last X-ray before bracing. The average curvature angle of the whole group was 35,6°, the average age was 12,9 years (SD 1,9, average Risser sign was 1,3 (SD 1,5, average Tanner rating 2,75 (SD 0,7. Results The Cobb angle in the whole group was reduced by an average of 16,4°, which corresponds to a correction effect of 51%. The differences were highly significant in the T-test (T = 17,4; p Conclusion The use of the „Chêneau light" brace leads to correction effects above average when compared to the correction effects of other braces described in literature. The reduction of material seems to affect the desired correction in a positive way.

  11. 21 CFR 882.4325 - Cranial drill handpiece (brace).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4325 Cranial drill handpiece (brace). (a) Identification. A cranial drill handpiece (brace) is a hand holder, which is...

  12. Development and preliminary validation of Brace Questionnaire (BrQ: a new instrument for measuring quality of life of brace treated scoliotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gkoltsiou Konstantina

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of life among children with idiopathic scoliosis during their adolescence has been reported to be affected by the brace itself. However, a controversy exists whether brace treated scoliotics experience a poor quality of life, thus there is a need for the development of a brace-oriented instrument, as the now-existing questionnaires that are commonly used, such as the SRS -22, take into consideration the effects of both the conservative and the surgical treatment on quality of life of scoliotic children. The aim of the present study is to assess the validity and reliability of Brace Questionnaire (BrQ, a new instrument for measuring quality of life of scoliotic adolescents who are treated conservatively with a brace. Material-method Methodology of development involved literature review, patient and health care professionals' in-depth interviews and content validity analysis on patients. A validation study was performed on 28 brace treated scoliotic children aged between 9 and 18 years old. BrQ was assessed for the following psychometric properties: item convergent validity, floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency reliability, clinical validity and responsiveness to change. Results BrQ is self administrated and developmentally appropriate for ages 9 to 18 years old and is consisted of 34 Likert-scale items associated with eight domains: general health perception, physical functioning, emotional functioning, self esteem and aesthetics, vitality, school activity, bodily pain and social functioning of scoliotic children treated conservatively with a brace. The subscales of these eight dimensions can be combined to produce a total score. Higher scores mean a better quality of life. An item convergent validity ≥ 0.40 was satisfied by all items in the present study. A satisfactory internal consistency reliability for the BrQ was recorded (Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.82. There were no floor or ceiling

  13. The role of initial bone mineral status in predicting the early outcome of brace treatment in girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis%初诊骨密度对女性青少年特发性脊柱侧凸患者早期支具治疗效果的预测价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙旭; 朱泽章; 邱勇; 王斌; 李卫国; 朱锋; 俞杨; 钱邦平; 马薇薇

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether initial bone mineral status acts as a predictor factor in evaluating the early outcome of brace treatment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) girls. Methods Seventy-sevengirls with AIS, aged 10-15 years old, were included in this study. A standardized bracing protocol was performed in these girls, and the early outcomes of brace treatment were evaluated at over-1-year follow-up. Girls with a progressed scoliosis and those with a non-progressed scoliosis were identified.The associations between the outcome and the indices before bracing, including age, menstrual status,Risser grade, bone mineral density (BMD) status, curve magnitude and curve pattern were assessed using univariate analysis. A multiple Logistic stepwise regression was used to determine the risk factors in curve progression in AIS girls treated with brace treatment. Results There were 16 girls (21%) with a progressed scoliosis and 61 girls (79%) with a non-progressed scoliosis, respectively. In the girls with a progressed scoliosis, higher ratios of subjects were found with premenarchal status ( X2>= 9. 628, P =0. 004), lower Risser grade ( X2> = 4. 565, P = 0.037 ), main thoracic scoliosis ( X2> = 4. 009, P = 0. 045 ), a larger curve (X2> = 1. 685 ,P = 0.194), as well as osteopenia (X2>= 3. 828, P = 0. 050), as compared with those with a non- progressed scoliosis. During brace treatment, besides premenarchal status, a larger Cobb angle, and a main thoracic scoliosis, osteopenia ( OR = 5. 362, P = 0. 022) was identified as the risk factor in curve progression in AIS girls, as revealed by the multiple Logistic regression analysis. Conclusions Osteopenia might be an independent risk factor in the curve progression during brace treatment. The analysis of initial BMD status before bracing may help to predict the outcome of brace treatment.%目的 探讨青少年特发性脊柱侧凸女性患者初诊时骨密度对短期支具治疗期间侧凸畸

  14. Application of FEM Analysis to Braced Excavation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mingfei; Atsushi Nakamura; CAI Fei; Keizo Ugai

    2008-01-01

    It is becoming possible to do detailed numerical analyses for the various mechanical behavior of braced excavation by researching and developing the numerical analysis technique such as the finite ele-ment method (FEM).However,the mechanical behavior of braced excavation has not been clanfied fully both in theory and in expedence.Therefore,improving the prediction accuracy during the prior design is very important for making the observational method of braced excavation more effective.In this paper,FEM analyses were performed for a model of braced excavation by using Geotechnical Finite Element Elasto-plastic Analysis Software,GeoFEAS (2D).As the constitutive law of ground,MC-DP model, and Dun-can-Chang model were applied.The results were compared and discussed with that of a site measurement,and the effects of the constitutive law of ground on the analyzed result were verified.For the difference be-tween the results,the reason was investigated by the analyses adjusting the elastic modulus of ground,and the appropriate application of the constitutive law was researched.

  15. Cu-capped surface alloys of Pt/Cu left brace 100 right brace

    CERN Document Server

    Alshamaileh, E; Wander, A

    2003-01-01

    The room-temperature deposition of 0.5 monolayer (ML) Pt on Cu left brace 100 right brace followed by annealing to 525 K results in a sharp c(2 x 2) low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) pattern. The structure of this surface alloy is investigated by means of symmetrized automated tensor low-energy electron diffraction (SATLEED) analysis and ab initio plane wave density functional calculations. The results are then compared with those for the similar system 0.5 ML Pd/Cu left brace 100 right brace. SATLEED results for the Pt/Cu left brace 100 right brace show that it consists of an ordered c(2 x 2) Cu-Pt second layer alloy capped with a pure Cu first layer. The first and second interlayer spacings are found to be expanded by +5.1 +- 1.7 and +3.5 +- 1.7% respectively (relative to the bulk Cu interlayer spacing of 1.807 A) due to the insertion of the 8% larger Pt atoms into the second layer. The ordered mixed layer is found to be rippled by 0.08 +- 0.06 A with Pt atoms rippled outwards towards the solid-vacuum ...

  16. Study of Buckling Restrained Braces in Steel Frame Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Y. D. Kumbhar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Conventional braces have limited deformation ductility capacity, and exhibit unsymmetrical hysteretic cycles, with marked strength deterioration when loaded in compression. To overcome the above mentioned problems, a new type of brace was developed in Japan called as buckling restrained braces, designated as BRB’s. These braces are designed such that buckling is inhibited to occur, exhibiting adequate behavior and symmetrical hysteretic curves under the action of both tensile and compressive cycles, produced by the action of seismic and wind forces. This paper presents experimental results concerning the lateral load carrying capacity of steel frame model by use of buckling restrained brace. This paper also includes the comparative study of lateral load carrying capacity of frame model for bare frame, frame with Conventional brace and frame with buckling restrained brace.

  17. POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. King

    2000-06-19

    The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous

  18. Seismic Performance Evaluation of Concentrically Braced Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Po-Chien

    Concentrically braced frames (CBFs) are broadly used as lateral-load resisting systems in buildings throughout the US. In high seismic regions, special concentrically braced frames (SCBFs) where ductility under seismic loading is necessary. Their large elastic stiffness and strength efficiently sustains the seismic demands during smaller, more frequent earthquakes. During large, infrequent earthquakes, SCBFs exhibit highly nonlinear behavior due to brace buckling and yielding and the inelastic behavior induced by secondary deformation of the framing system. These response modes reduce the system demands relative to an elastic system without supplemental damping. In design the re reduced demands are estimated using a response modification coefficient, commonly termed the R factor. The R factor values are important to the seismic performance of a building. Procedures put forth in FEMAP695 developed to R factors through a formalized procedure with the objective of consistent level of collapse potential for all building types. The primary objective of the research was to evaluate the seismic performance of SCBFs. To achieve this goal, an improved model including a proposed gusset plate connection model for SCBFs that permits accurate simulation of inelastic deformations of the brace, gusset plate connections, beams and columns and brace fracture was developed and validated using a large number of experiments. Response history analyses were conducted using the validated model. A series of different story-height SCBF buildings were designed and evaluated. The FEMAP695 method and an alternate procedure were applied to SCBFs and NCBFs. NCBFs are designed without ductile detailing. The evaluation using P695 method shows contrary results to the alternate evaluation procedure and the current knowledge in which short-story SCBF structures are more venerable than taller counterparts and NCBFs are more vulnerable than SCBFs.

  19. [Clinical relevance of unloading in cartilage therapy of the knee--shoe insoles, knee braces or additional operative procedure?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, T M; Imhoff, A B; Ateschrang, A; Stöckle, U; Schröter, S

    2015-02-01

    Restoration of a neutral biomechanical environment and reduction of overload is an important factor contributing to the success of any cartilage repair procedure. Reduction of overload can by achieved by so called unloading procedures in order to reduce intraarticular pressure from the repair zone. Unloading can be achieved via loss of weight, wedged shoe insoles, knee braces or via operations such as osteotomies around the knee joint. The cartilage therapy and the concomitant unloading procedure should be adapted to the individual pathology and realistic aims of the patient. Wedged insoles and braces are the least invasive treatment methods. In comparison, however, beneficial effects of braces outline those of laterally wedged heels. Nevertheless long-term compliance with insoles and braces is poor. Concerning braces either because the positive effects of the braces are too small or because the adverse effects are too large. Unloading in the long run may only be achieved through operative procedures. When an osteotomy seems to be too invasive the arthroscopic release of the posterior oblique ligament might be an option. Patients with an intact contralateral chondral status, medium to slight malalignment who want to remain at high activity levels, remain good candidates for unloading osteotomies.

  20. Lateral Load Analysis of a Building with & Without Knee Bracing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin S. Kamble

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In last decades steel structures has played an important role in construction industry. Providing strength, stability and ductility are major purposes of seismic design. It is necessary to design a structure to perform well under seismic loads. Steel braced frame is one of the structural systems used to resist earthquake loads in structures. Steel bracing is economical, easy to erect, occupies less space and has flexibility to design for meeting the required strength and stiffness. Bracing can be used as retrofit as well. There are various types of steel bracings such as Diagonal, X, K, V, inverted V type or chevron and global type concentric bracings. In the present study, it was shown that modelling of the G+4 steel bare frame with various bracings (X, V, inverted V, and Knee bracing by computer software SAP2000 and pushover analysis results are obtained. Comparison between the seismic parameters such as base shear, roof displacement, time period, storey drift, performance point for steel bare frame with different bracing patterns are studied. It is found that the X type of steel bracings significantly contributes to the structural stiffness and reduces the maximum interstate drift of steel building than other bracing systems

  1. Results of Milwaukee and Boston Braces with or without Metal Marker Around Pads in Patients with Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saleh Ganjavian

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBracing is the non-operative treatment of choice for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS and careful application of pads on apical segment of curve is very important for correction. Control of pads` appropriate site in brace is not easy by clinical evaluation. Therefore, we decided to compare results of braces which for better control of pads by radiographs, metal marker inserted around pads with those without metal marker. We evaluated 215 consecutive cases (182 female, 33 male of AIS with 342 major curves from 1993 to 2003. Mean initial age was,13.2 ± 1.8 years (9-16 and mean duration of follow-up was, 16.1±16.4 months (0-114 that treated by 4 type of brace; 89 with type 1(Milwaukee with metal pads, 87 with type 2 (Milwaukee with simple pads, 17 with type 3 (Boston with metal pads and 22 with type 4(Boston with simple pads. Cobb angle recorded at 5 stages (initial, best, wean, stop and final follow-up. Mean initial Cobb was 36.2 ̊, at stop stage, 35.2̊ and reached 38̊ at final follow-up. Overall, 21.3% improved, 42.2% were the same and 36.5% failed. Failure for braces type 1 to 4 were, 40.5%, 34%, 38% and 24% at final follow-up. A total of 59 patients (27.4% underwent spinal fusion that for brace type 1 to 4 , was, 33, 21, 2 and 3 patients respectively. From 16 cases with initial Cobb of 50̊, at follow-up, 12 were ≥50̊ or had spinal fusion. Correction of lumbar (P=0.008 and main thoracic curves (P=0.002 was better by Boston than Milwaukee, however, In general difference between 4 types of braces was not significant and metal marker had no significant effect on results. Two important predictors of brace failure were, initial curve magnitude and brace type, but using metal marker around pads had no effect in results. It seems that bracing did not alter the natural history of scoliosis in early Risser stages with large magnitude of initial curves. Insertion of metal marker around pads is easy and cheap way that facilitate control of

  2. Dynamic Response of a Chevron Concentrically Braced Frame

    OpenAIRE

    Okazaki, Taichiro; Lignos, Dimitrios G.; Hikino, Tsuyoshi; Kajiwara, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale shake table tests were conducted at E-Defense, Japan, to examine the dynamic response of a steel concentrically braced frame. The specimen was a single-bay, single-story frame with a pair of square hollow structural section braces placed in a chevron arrangement. The gusset plates connecting the brace to the framing elements were provided with an elliptic fold line to accommodate out-of-plane rotation of the brace in compression. The specimen was subjected repeatedly to a unidirec...

  3. (Vapour + liquid) equilibria of the {l_brace}carbon dioxide + pentafluoroethane (HFC-125){r_brace} system and the {l_brace}carbon dioxide + dodecafluoro-2-methylpentan-3-one (NOVEC{sup TM}1230){r_brace} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Keesin [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Jihoon [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sukyung [Department of Safety Engineering, Seoul National University of Technology, Gongneung2-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-743 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwayong [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: hwayongk@snu.ac.kr

    2007-04-15

    Binary (vapour + liquid) equilibrium data were measured for the {l_brace}carbon dioxide + pentafluoroethane (HFC-125){r_brace} system at temperatures from 313.15 K to 333.15 K and the {l_brace}carbon dioxide + dodecafluoro-2-methylpentan-3-one (NOVEC{sup TM}1230){r_brace} system at temperatures from 313.15 K to 343.15 K. These experiments were carried out with a circulating-type apparatus with on-line gas chromatography. The experimental data were correlated well by the Peng-Robinson equation of state using the Wong-Sandler mixing rules.

  4. Vertebral Body Stapling versus Bracing for Patients with High-Risk Moderate Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddihy, Laury; Danielsson, Aina J.; Cahill, Patrick J.; Samdani, Amer F.; Grewal, Harsh; Richmond, John M.; Mulcahey, M. J.; Gaughan, John P.; Antonacci, M. Darryl; Betz, Randal R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We report a comparison study of vertebral body stapling (VBS) versus a matched bracing cohort for immature patients with moderate (25 to 44°) idiopathic scoliosis (IS). Methods. 42 of 49 consecutive patients (86%) with IS were treated with VBS and followed for a minimum of 2 years. They were compared to 121 braced patients meeting identical inclusion criteria. 52 patients (66 curves) were matched according to age at start of treatment (10.6 years versus 11.1 years, resp. [P = 0.07]) and gender. Results. For thoracic curves 25–34°, VBS had a success rate (defined as curve progression Risser 0-1) moderate IS (25–44°), in smaller thoracic curves (25–34°) VBS provided better results as a clinical trend as compared to bracing. VBS was found not to be effective for thoracic curves ≥35°. For lumbar curves measuring 25–34°, results appear to be similar for both VBS and bracing, at 80% success. PMID:26618169

  5. Fixed airflow obstruction in asthma: a descriptive study of patient profiles and effect on treatment responses

    OpenAIRE

    Tashkin, Donald P.; Chipps, Bradley E.; Trudo,Frank; Zangrilli, James G

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of fixed airflow obstruction (FAO) in asthma is unclear. Objective: To assess the relationship between FAO and clinical features of asthma and the effect of FAO on treatment response. Methods: Post hoc descriptive analysis of data stratified by FAO category (screening post-albuterol FEV1/FVC

  6. A descriptive analysis of studies on behavioural treatment of drooling (1970-2005).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, J.J. van der; Didden, R.; Jongerius, P.H.; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    A descriptive analysis was conducted on studies on the behavioural treatment of drooling (published between 1970 and 2005). The 17 articles that met the inclusion criteria described 53 participants (mean age 14y 7mo, [SD 4y 9mo]; range 6-28y). Sex of 87% of the participants was reported: 28 male, 18

  7. The Sforzesco brace can replace cast in the correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: A controlled prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaina Fabio

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS has traditionally been divided into two phases–correction and stabilisation–and casts, even if less used today, can be considered the best standard in the correction phase. Till the present, however, no comparison between cast and brace efficacy has been proposed. Methods This is a prospective cohort study with a retrospective control group. The aim was to verify if it is possible to obtain with a specifically developed rigid brace results comparable to a cast. We considered fifty AIS patients who had refused surgery, aged 14.1 ± 1.5 years, with 46.7 ± 7.8° Cobb scoliosis. Thirty-two consecutive patients (with no drop-outs were prospectively followed up with the Sforzesco brace (SBG, and compared against a retrospective group of eighteen patients treated with the Risser cast (RCG. The treatment time (the total correction phase was 19 ± 3 months. Out-of-brace x-rays were compared, as well as clinical results. Results Compliance and hours of treatment were higher in the RCG while all the other parameters were not different. We observed a reduction of 6° Cobb and an important aesthetic gain in both groups (P Conclusion In the corrective phase of AIS treatment it is possible with a specific rigid brace (Sforzesco – SPoRT concept to obtain scoliosis correction similar to cast. Due to the human and social costs of casting, and worst sagittal profile results, Sforzesco brace should be the preferred method wherever possible.

  8. Biomechanical Analysis of the Effects of Bilateral Hinged Knee Bracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hangil; Ha, Dokyeong; Kang, Yeoun-Seung; Park, Hyung-Soon

    2016-01-01

    This research analyzed the effect of bilateral hinged knee braces on a healthy knee from a biomechanical frame in vivo. This was accomplished by fitting a knee brace with two customized wireless force/torque (F/T) sensors that could readily record force and torque during live motion, while the kinetics at the knee were computed using the inverse dynamics of the motion capture and force plate data. Four tasks to test the brace's effects were drop vertical jumping, pivoting, stop vertical jumping, and cutting. The results showed that the hinges in the knee brace can absorb up to 18% of the force and 2.7% of the torque at the knee during various athletic motions. Thus, the hinges demonstrated minimal effect in reducing the mechanical load on the knee. There were limitations concerning the consistency of the motions performed by the subjects during the trials and the influence of the other portions of the brace to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the brace as a whole. Future works may incorporate a fatigue protocol and injured subjects to better determine the effects of the brace. There is still a need for more research on the biomechanical influence of knee braces to develop safer and more effective products.

  9. Elastoplastic analysis of knee bracing frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zhen; LI Qing-song; CHEN Long-zhu

    2005-01-01

    The knee bracing steel frame (KBF) is a new kind of energy dissipating frame, which combines excellent ductility and lateral stiffness. As the structural fuse of the frame, the knee element will yield first during a severe earthquake so that no damage occurs to the major structural members and the rehabilitation is easy and economical. To help fully understand the relations between its seismic performance and the structural parameters, systematic elastoplastic analysis of the KBF structure with finite element method was conducted in this work. Finally, general design recommendations were made according to the results of the analysis.

  10. Behavior of concentrically loaded CFT braces connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha M. Hassan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Concrete filled tubes (CFTs composite columns have many economical and esthetic advantages, but the behavior of their connections is complicated. Through this study, it is aimed to investigate the performance and behavior of different connection configurations between concrete filled steel tube columns and bracing diagonals through an experimental program. The study included 12 connection subassemblies consisting of a fixed length steel tube and gusset plate connected to the tube end with different details tested under half cyclic loading. A notable effect was observed on the behavior of the connections due to its detailing changes with respect to capacity, failure mode, ductility, and stress distribution.

  11. Behavior of concentrically loaded CFT braces connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Maha M; Ramadan, Hazem M; Abdel-Mooty, Mohammed N; Mourad, Sherif A

    2014-03-01

    Concrete filled tubes (CFTs) composite columns have many economical and esthetic advantages, but the behavior of their connections is complicated. Through this study, it is aimed to investigate the performance and behavior of different connection configurations between concrete filled steel tube columns and bracing diagonals through an experimental program. The study included 12 connection subassemblies consisting of a fixed length steel tube and gusset plate connected to the tube end with different details tested under half cyclic loading. A notable effect was observed on the behavior of the connections due to its detailing changes with respect to capacity, failure mode, ductility, and stress distribution.

  12. A Survey of Parachute Ankle Brace Breakages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-10

    reduced since it was subject to abrasion from the concrete in the harness shed, asphalt on the loading ramp, and dirt on the drop zone. b. DJ...strap was also directly under the heel and subject to abrasion from concrete in the harness shed, asphalt on the loading ramp, and dirt on the drop...airborne injuries), airborne students who did not wear the brace were 1.90 times more likely to experience an ankle sprain, 1.47 times more likely to

  13. Orthopedic Management of Scoliosis by Garches Brace and Spinal Fusion in SMA Type 2 Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catteruccia, Michela; Vuillerot, Carole; Vaugier, Isabelle; Leclair, Danielle; Azzi, Viviane; Viollet, Louis; Estournet, Brigitte; Bertini, Enrico; Quijano-Roy, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Scoliosis is the most debilitating issue in SMA type 2 patients. No evidence confirms the efficacy of Garches braces (GB) to delay definitive spinal fusion. Objective: Compare orthopedic and pulmonary outcomes in children with SMA type 2 function to management. Method: We carried out a monocentric retrospective study on 29 SMA type 2 children who had spinal fusion between 1999 and 2009. Patients were divided in 3 groups: group 1-French patients (12 children) with a preventive use of GB; group 2-French patients (10 children) with use of GB after the beginning of the scoliosis curve; and group 3-Italian patients (7 children) with use of GB after the beginning of the scoliosis curve referred to our centre to perform orthopedic preoperative management. Results: Mean preoperative and postoperative Cobb angle were significantly lower in the group 1 of proactively braced than in group 2 or 3 (Anova p = 0.03; Kruskal Wallis test p = 0.05). Better surgical results were observed in patients with a minor preoperative Cobb angle (r = 0.92 p <  0.0001). Fewer patients in the group 1 proactively braced required trunk casts and/or halo traction and an additional anterior fusion in comparison with patients in the group 2 and 3. Moreover, major complications tend to be less in the group 1 proactively braced. No significant differences were found between groups in pulmonary outcome measures. Conclusions: A proactive orthotic management may improve orthopedic outcome in SMA type 2. Further prospective studies comparing SMA management are needed to confirm these results. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions to Authors on jbjs.org for a complete description of levels of evidence (Retrospective comparative study). PMID:27858747

  14. Three dimensional analysis of brace biomechanical efficacy for patients with AIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebel, David E; Al-Aubaidi, Zaid; Shin, Eyun-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Corrective three dimensional (3D) effect of different braces is debatable. We evaluated differences in in-brace radiographic correction comparing a custom thoracic-lumbo-sacral-orthosis (TLSO) (T) brace to a Chêneau type TLSO (C) brace using 3D EOS reconstruction technology. Our primary research ...

  15. The Chêneau concept of bracing--biomechanical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, Manuel; Weiss, Hans-Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Current concept of bracing must take in consideration both the three-dimensional (3D) nature of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) and its pathomechanism of progression. A modern brace should be able to correct in 3D in order to break the so called 'vicious cycle' model. Generally speaking, it is necessary to create detorsional forces to derotate in the transversal plane, to correct the lateral deviation in the frontal plane and to normalize the sagittal profile of the spine. Breathing mechanics can be used to fight against the thoracic structural flat back. The original Chêneau brace was introduced at the end of the 70's and its principles were based more in anatomical observations rather than in biomechanics. A further evolution , enunciating new principles, has allowed a higher standard, improving in brace corrections and trunk modelling. This biomechanical principles have been developed under the name of Rigo-Chêneau-System (RSC) and used later in latest brace models like the Chêneau light with reduced material, and similar in brace corrections. Experience is also important to improve the end results. The blueprints to built the brace according to the anatomorradiological pattern are very helpful.

  16. Biomechanical Analysis of the Effects of Bilateral Hinged Knee Bracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hangil; Ha, Dokyeong; Kang, Yeoun-Seung; Park, Hyung-Soon

    2016-01-01

    This research analyzed the effect of bilateral hinged knee braces on a healthy knee from a biomechanical frame in vivo. This was accomplished by fitting a knee brace with two customized wireless force/torque (F/T) sensors that could readily record force and torque during live motion, while the kinetics at the knee were computed using the inverse dynamics of the motion capture and force plate data. Four tasks to test the brace’s effects were drop vertical jumping, pivoting, stop vertical jumping, and cutting. The results showed that the hinges in the knee brace can absorb up to 18% of the force and 2.7% of the torque at the knee during various athletic motions. Thus, the hinges demonstrated minimal effect in reducing the mechanical load on the knee. There were limitations concerning the consistency of the motions performed by the subjects during the trials and the influence of the other portions of the brace to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the brace as a whole. Future works may incorporate a fatigue protocol and injured subjects to better determine the effects of the brace. There is still a need for more research on the biomechanical influence of knee braces to develop safer and more effective products. PMID:27379233

  17. Excess properties and vapour pressure of left brace3-diethylaminopropylamine + cyclohexaneright brace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khimeche, Kamel, E-mail: kamel.khimeche@yahoo.f [Ecole Militaire Polytechnique EMP, BP 17 Bordj-El-Bahri, Alger (Algeria); Dahmani, Abdallah [Laboratoire de thermodynamique et modelisation moleculaire, Faculte de chimie, USTHB, BP 32 El-Alia, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Mokbel, Ilham [Laboratoire de chimie analytique I, Universite Claude Bernard (Lyon I), 43, bd du 11 Novembre 1918 69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2010-07-15

    The vapour pressures of liquid left brace3-diethylaminopropylamine (3-DEPA) + cyclohexaneright brace were measured by a static method between T = (273.15 and 363.15) K at 10 K intervals. The excess molar volumes V{sup E} at 298.15 K and excess molar enthalpies H{sup E} at 303.15 K were also measured. The molar excess Gibbs free energies G{sup E} were obtained with Barker's method and fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation. The Wilson equation was also used. Deviations between experimental and predicted G{sup E} and H{sup E}, by using DISQUAC model, were evaluated

  18. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria of {l_brace}heptane + xylene + N-formylmorpholine{r_brace} ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Dongchu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, ChangSha 410083 (China)], E-mail: dcchen@hnust.edu.cn; Ye Hongqi; Hao Wu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, ChangSha 410083 (China)

    2007-12-15

    (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for ternary system {l_brace}heptane (1) + m-xylene (2) + N-formylmorpholine (3){r_brace} have been determined experimentally at temperatures ranging from 298.15 K to 353.15 K. Complete phase diagrams were obtained by determining solubility and tie-line data. Tie-line compositions were correlated by Othmer-Tobias and Bachman methods. The universal quasichemical activity coefficient (UNIQUAC) and The non-random two liquids equation (NRTL) were used to correlate the phase equilibrium in the system using the interaction parameters determined from experimental data. It is found that UNIQUAC and NRTL used for LLE could provide a good correlation. Distribution coefficients, separation factors, and selectivity were evaluated for the immiscibility region.

  19. A magnetorheological fluid based orthopedic active knee brace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zite, Jamaal L.; Ahmadkhanlou, Farzad; Neelakantan, Vijay A.; Washington, Gregory N.

    2006-03-01

    The disadvantage of current knee braces ranges from high cost for customization to a loss in physical mobility and limited rehabilitative value. One approach to solving this problem is to use a Magnetorheological (MR) device to make the knee brace have a controllable resistance. Our design solution is to replace the manufacturer's joint with an rotary MR fluid based shear damper. The device is designed based on a maximum yield stress, a corresponding magnetic field, a torque and the MR fluid viscosity. The analytical and experimental results show the advantages and the feasibility of using the proposed MR based controllable knee braces.

  20. One-Session Treatment of Specific Phobias: A Detailed Description and Review of Treatment Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlomke, Kimberly; Davis, Thompson E., III

    2008-01-01

    One-Session Treatment (OST) is a form of massed exposure therapy for the treatment of specific phobias. OST combines exposure, participant modeling, cognitive challenges, and reinforcement in a single session, maximized to three hours. Clients are gradually exposed to steps of their fear hierarchy using therapist-directed behavioral experiments.…

  1. The Treatment Engagement Rating scale (TER) for forensic outpatient treatment : Description, psychometric properties, and norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drieschner, Klaus Heinrich; Boomsma, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The Treatment Engagement Rating scale (TER) is a Dutch therapist rating instrument for treatment engagement (TE) of forensic outpatients. It yields scores for nine components of TE, which are aggregated in a total score. Following an analysis of the concept of TE, the TER is described, and various p

  2. Team care to cure adolescents with braces (avoiding low quality of life, pain and bad compliance: a case–control retrospective study. 2011 SOSORT Award winner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavernaro Marta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bracing could be efficacious, given good compliance and quality of braces. Recently the SOSORT Brace Treatment Management Guidelines (SBTMG have highlighted the perceived importance of the professional teams surrounding braced patients. Purpose To verify the impact of a complete rehabilitation team in the adolescent patient with bracing. Materials and methods Design. Initial cross-sectional study, followed by a retrospective case–control study. Population: Thirty-eight patients (15.8 ± 1.6 years; 26 females; 10 hyperkyphosis, 28 scoliosis of 29.2 ± 7.9° Cobb extracted from a single orthotist database (between January 1, 2008 and September 1, 2009 and treated by the same physician; brace wearing at least 15 hours/day for a minimum of 6 months; age 10 or more. Treatment: Braces: Sforzesco, Sibilla, Lapadula or Maguelone. Exercises: SEAS. Methods: Two questionnaires filled in blindly by patients: SRS-22 and one especially developed and validated with 25 questions on adherence to treatment. Groups (main risk factor: TEAM (private institute: satisfied 44/44 SOSORT criteria; grade of teamwork, “excellent” included 13 patients and NOT 25 (National Health Service Rehabilitation Department: 35/44 SOSORT criteria respected; grade, “insufficient”. Results TEAM was more compliant to bracing than NOT (97 ± 6% vs. 80 ± 24% and performed nearly double the exercises (38 ± 12 vs. 20 ± 13 minutes/session. The self-reduction of bracing was significant in NOT (from 16.8 ± 3.7 to 14.8 ± 4.9 hours/day, , P Conclusions Provided the limits of this first study on the topic, the SBTMG seems to be important for brace treatment, influencing pain, QoL and compliance (and so, presumably, final results. Future studies on the topic are advisable.

  3. A user`s guide to LUGSAN 1.1: A computer program to calculate and archive lug and sway brace loads for aircraft-carried stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, W.N. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Experimental Structural Dynamics Dept.

    1994-07-01

    LUGSAN (LUG and Sway brace ANalysis) is a analysis and database computer program designed to calculate store lug and sway brace loads from aircraft captive carriage. LUGSAN combines the rigid body dynamics code, SWAY85 and the maneuver calculation code, MILGEN, with an INGRES database to function both as an analysis and archival system. This report describes the operation of the LUGSAN application program, including function description, layout examples, and sample sessions. This report is intended to be a user`s manual for version 1.1 of LUGSAN operating on the VAX/VMS system. The report is not intended to be a programmer or developer`s manual.

  4. A user`s guide to LUGSAN II. A computer program to calculate and archive lug and sway brace loads for aircraft-carried stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, W.N. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Mechanical and Thermal Environments Dept.

    1998-03-01

    LUG and Sway brace ANalysis (LUGSAN) II is an analysis and database computer program that is designed to calculate store lug and sway brace loads for aircraft captive carriage. LUGSAN II combines the rigid body dynamics code, SWAY85, with a Macintosh Hypercard database to function both as an analysis and archival system. This report describes the LUGSAN II application program, which operates on the Macintosh System (Hypercard 2.2 or later) and includes function descriptions, layout examples, and sample sessions. Although this report is primarily a user`s manual, a brief overview of the LUGSAN II computer code is included with suggested resources for programmers.

  5. The influence of elastic orthotic belt on sagittal profile in adolescent idiopathic thoracic scoliosis: a comparative radiographic study with Milwaukee brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Bangping

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of bracing on preventing curve progression in coronal plane for mild and moderate adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS patients has been confirmed by previous radiographic researches. However, a hypokyphotic effect on the sagittal plane has been reported by a few studies. A relatively increasing number of AIS patients were noticed to wear a new kind of elastic orthotic belt for the treatments of scoliosis without doctors' instructions. We postulate the correcting mechanism of this new appliance may cause flattening of the spine. To our knowledge, no study has investigated the effects of this new orthosis on the sagittal profile of AIS patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of elastic orthotic belt and Milwaukee brace on the sagittal alignment in AIS patients. Methods Twenty-eight female AIS patients with mild or moderate thoracic curves were included in this study. Standing full-length lateral radiographs were obtained in three conditions: natural standing posture without any treatment, with elastic orthotic belt and with Milwaukee brace. Thoracic kyphosis (TK, lumber lordosis (LL and pelvic incidence (PI were measured and compared between the above three conditions. Results Both elastic orthotic belt and Milwaukee brace can lead to significant decrease of TK, however, the decrease of TK after wearing elastic orthotic belt is significantly larger than that after wearing Milwaukee brace. Compared with no treatment, LL was found to be significantly smaller after wearing Milwaukee brace, however, such significant decrease was not noted after wearing elastic orthotic belt. No significant changes were observed for the PI between 3 conditions. Conclusions The elastic orthotic belt could lead to more severe thoracic hypokyphosis when compared with Milwaukee brace. This belt may not be a suitable conservative method for the treatment of mild and moderate AIS patients.

  6. A magnetorheological fluid-based controllable active knee brace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadkhanlou, Farzad; Zite, Jamaal L.; Washington, Gregory N.

    2007-04-01

    High customization costs and reduction of natural mobility put current rehabilitative knee braces at a disadvantage. A resolution to this problem is to integrate a Magnetorheological (MR) fluid-based joint into the system. A MR joint will allow patients to apply and control a resistive torque to knee flexion and extension. The resistance torque can also be continuously adjusted as a function of extension angle and patient strength (or as a function of time), which is currently impossible with state of the art rehabilitative knee braces. A novel MR fluid-based controllable knee brace is designed and prototyped in this research. The device exhibits large resistive torque in the on-state and low resistance in the offstate. The controllable variable stiffness, compactness, and portability of the system make it a proper alternative to current rehabilitative knee braces.

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis to thiourea in a neoprene knee brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Shinichiro; Cahill, Jennifer; Nixon, Rosemary

    2006-02-01

    SUMMARY An elderly woman developed an itchy, weeping, erythematous, papular eruption, confined to the skin under her neoprene knee brace. Allergic contact dermatitis to diethylthiourea and to her neoprene knee brace were diagnosed by positive patch test reactions. Allergic contact dermatitis from thioureas may be underdiagnosed, as they are not tested as part of the standard patch test series. Clinicians are encouraged to consider this diagnosis in patients with reactions to synthetic rubber, especially neoprene.

  8. SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF STEEL RIGID FRAME WITH IMPERFECT BRACE MEMBERS

    OpenAIRE

    AFZALI, Hamid; Yamao, Toshitaka; アフザリ, ハミッド; 山尾, 敏孝

    2015-01-01

    Model of a steel rigid frame made of thin-walled box section with existence of I-section brace member with initial overall and local imperfection adopted to investigate buckling effects on steel structural behavior as it was subjected to earthquake excitation. In order to take into account of the influence of local deflections on structural response, shell elements were employed to model brace member as well as base columns. Cross sections components with relatively high amplitude of buckling...

  9. A comparison of the biomechanical effects of valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard K; Nester, Christopher J; Richards, Jim D; Kim, Winston Y; Johnson, David S; Jari, Sanjiv; Laxton, Philip; Tyson, Sarah F

    2013-03-01

    Increases in the external knee adduction moment (EKAM) have been associated with increased mechanical load at the knee and progression of knee osteoarthritis. Valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles are common approaches to reducing this loading; however no study has directly compared the biomechanical and clinical effects of these two treatments in patients with medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. A cross-over randomised design was used where each intervention was worn by 28 patients for a two week period. Pre- and post-intervention gait kinematic/kinetic data and clinical outcomes were collected to evaluate the biomechanical and clinical effects on the knee joint. The valgus knee brace and the lateral wedged insole significantly increased walking speed, reduced the early stance EKAM by 7% and 12%, and the knee adduction angular impulse by 8.6 and 16.1% respectively. The lateral wedged insole significantly reduced the early stance EKAM compared to the valgus knee brace (p=0.001). The valgus knee brace significantly reduced the knee varus angle compared to the baseline and lateral wedged insole. Improvements in pain and function subscales were comparable for the valgus knee brace and lateral wedged insole. There were no significant differences between the two treatments in any of the clinical outcomes; however the lateral wedged insoles demonstrated greater levels of acceptance by patients. This is the first study to biomechanically compare these two treatments, and demonstrates that given the potential role of knee loading in osteoarthritis progression, that both treatments reduce this but lateral wedge insoles appear to have a greater effect.

  10. Evaluating the displacement amplification factors of concentrically braced steel frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Mussa; Zaree, Mahdi

    2013-12-01

    According to seismic design codes, nonlinear performance of structures is considered during strong earthquakes. Seismic design provisions estimate the maximum roof and story drifts occurring during major earthquakes by amplifying the drifts computed from elastic analysis at the prescribed seismic force level with a displacement amplification factor. The present study tries to evaluate the displacement amplification factors of conventional concentric braced frames (CBFs) and buckling restrained braced frames (BRBFs). As such, static nonlinear (pushover) analysis and nonlinear dynamic time history analysis have been performed on the model buildings with single and double bracing bays, and different stories and brace configurations (chevron V, invert V, and X bracing). It is observed that the displacement amplification factors for BRBFs are higher than that of CBFs. Also, the number of bracing bays and height of buildings have a profound effect on the displacement amplification factors. The evaluated ratios between displacement amplification factors and response modification factors are from 1 to 1.12 for CBFs and from 1 to 1.4 for BRBFs.

  11. Effect of uniaxial strain on adatom diffusion across {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}-faceted step

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Jianyu, E-mail: wuliyangjianyu@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Maths and Physics, Hunan Institute of Engineering, Donghu Street, Xiangtan 411104 (China); Hu Wangyu, E-mail: Wangyuhu2001@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Tang Jianfeng [Department of Applied Physics, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China)

    2011-02-01

    Diffusion of Pt adatom across the strained {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}-faceted step is studied by embedded atom method along with nudged elastic band method. For adatom on the flat (1 1 1) surface, the anisotropic diffusion behavior is found as the uniaxial strain is imposed. For the strained {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}-faceted step, our results show that the maximum energy barrier for adatom crossing step edge remains approximately constant as the strain varied from -1.0% to 1.0%, and there is a rise as the larger uniaxial strain is applied. The calculated energy barrier for adatom diffusion along the step edge increases with increasing tensile strain, and the slope of the straight line is small.

  12. (Vapour + liquid) equilibria of the {l_brace}pentafluoroethane (HFC-125) + dimethyl ether (DME){r_brace} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Jihoon [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gangwon [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jongcheon [LG Chem, Ltd. Research Park, Yuseong-gu, Science Town, Daejeon 305-380 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwayong [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: hwayongk@snu.ac.kr

    2006-12-15

    Binary (vapour + liquid) equilibrium data were measured for the {l_brace}pentafluoroethane (HFC-125) + dimethyl ether (DME){r_brace} system at temperatures from (313.15 to 363.15) K. These experiments were carried out with a circulating-type apparatus with on-line gas chromatography. The experimental data were correlated well by the Peng-Robinson Stryjek-Vera equation of state using the Wong-Sandler mixing rules.

  13. Specific exercises performed in the period of brace weaning can avoid loss of correction in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS patients: Winner of SOSORT's 2008 Award for Best Clinical Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Claudia

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercises are frequently performed in order to improve the efficacy of bracing and avoid its collateral effects. Very frequently there is a loss of correction during brace weaning in AIS treatment. Aim To verify the efficacy of exercises in reducing correction loss during brace weaning. Study Design Retrospective controlled study. Population Sixty-eight consecutive patients (eight males, age 15 ± 1 and Cobb angle 22 ± 8° at start of brace weaning. Methods The start of brace weaning was defined as the first visit in which the wearing of brace for less than 18/24 hours was prescribed (according to our protocol, at Risser 3. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether or not exercises were performed: (1 EX (exercises, included 39 patients and was further divided into two sub-groups: SEAS (who performed exercises according to our institute's protocol, 14 patients and OTH (other exercises, 25 patients and (2 CON (controls, 29 patients that was divided into two other sub-groups: DIS (discontinuous exercises, 19 patients and NO (no exercises, 10 patients. Complete brace weaning was defined as the first visit in which the brace was no longer prescribed (ringapophysis closure or Risser 5, according to our protocol. ANOVA and Chi Square tests were performed. Results There was no difference between groups at baseline. However, at the end of treatment, 2.7 years after the start of the weaning process, Cobb angle increased significantly in both the DIS and NO groups (3.9° and 3.1° Cobb, respectively. The SEAS and OTH groups did not change. Comparing single groups, OTH (with respect to DIS had a significant difference (P Conclusion Exercises can help reduce the correction loss in brace weaning for AIS.

  14. A SURVEY OF BRACING FORMS IN BRACED FRAME STRUCTURE%支撑框架结构中支撑形式综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵作周; 刘庆志; 康洪震; 钱稼茹

    2011-01-01

    对国内外支撑框架结构中的支撑形式进行回顾和比较,主要介绍7类支撑(中心支撑、偏心支撑、斜隅支撑、防屈曲支撑、附设耗能器支撑、自复位支撑和索系支撑)的基本原理、研究现状和存在的问题,在总结的基础上提出各类支撑的相互关系和应用范围。%Seven bracing forms in braced frame structures are reviewed and compared,including concentrical brace,eccentric brace,knee brace,buckling restrained brace,extra damper brace,self-centering brace and cable brace.Fundamental principle,state-of-the-art of study and existing problems of each kind of the braces are introduced.Mutual relationship and range of application of the braces are summarized.

  15. Development of Semantic Description for Multiscale Models of Thermo-Mechanical Treatment of Metal Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macioł, Piotr; Regulski, Krzysztof

    2016-08-01

    We present a process of semantic meta-model development for data management in an adaptable multiscale modeling framework. The main problems in ontology design are discussed, and a solution achieved as a result of the research is presented. The main concepts concerning the application and data management background for multiscale modeling were derived from the AM3 approach—object-oriented Agile multiscale modeling methodology. The ontological description of multiscale models enables validation of semantic correctness of data interchange between submodels. We also present a possibility of using the ontological model as a supervisor in conjunction with a multiscale model controller and a knowledge base system. Multiscale modeling formal ontology (MMFO), designed for describing multiscale models' data and structures, is presented. A need for applying meta-ontology in the MMFO development process is discussed. Examples of MMFO application in describing thermo-mechanical treatment of metal alloys are discussed. Present and future applications of MMFO are described.

  16. An empirical description of phases of maintenance following treatment for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, S A; Hoffman, A L

    1993-01-01

    This article reports two longitudinal prospective studies conducted sequentially to describe participants' maintenance of abstinence experiences up to 36 months posttreatment. Study 1 reports responses of 102 subjects who maintained alcohol abstinence following treatment and who were assessed for duration and intensity of symptoms associated with postacute withdrawal at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. A decreasing linear trend of symptoms was found as time of alcohol abstinence increased. Study 2 obtained interview and survey data from 23 successful abstainers from Study 1 at 12, 18, and 36 months posttreatment to describe coping strategies, perceptions of relapse risk, extent and duration of "aftercare," and substitute addictions as these phenomena developed and changed over time. Multiple occasions of data collection supported the description of three phases of maintenance: symptom stabilization/management accompanied by a cognitive paradigm shift, distancing self from alcohol-dependent behavior, and normalization of life processes.

  17. Mechanical compression release device in steel bracing system for retrofitting RC frames

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Ghaffarzadeh; M.R. Maheri

    2006-01-01

    The development of an innovative structural system with satisfactory seismic performance of braced systems is an important and challenging area of interest in structural engineering. In this paper, a device that can release the compressive force in the bracing members is developed, and its performance is evaluated. For comparison, four steel braced RC frames were constructed and tested under reverse cyclic loads. Two of them had different amounts of bracing and the other two had the same amount of bracing but incorporated different type of device, called compression release device, which is developed and described in this paper. It can be concluded from the test results that the newly developed device can effectively be used in steel braced systems to prevent buckling failure of the bracing members. Therefore, the device enhances the ductility of brace-framed systems by allowing an adequate capacity for energy dissipation.

  18. A study on numerical analysis of single story Z-type non-compression braced frame

    OpenAIRE

    高松,隆夫; 山西,央朗

    2012-01-01

    The non-compression brace has been investigated and developed as a new earthquake-resistant structural member by the authors. The Z-type brace shows one-side seismic responses of the structure controlled by the function of the wedge-device. In this paper, an anti-symmetric Z-type braced frame subjected to seismic loadings shows torsional vibration. The braced frame in one-directional ground motions can absorb the plastic energy by twisting deformation.

  19. Analysis of Brace Stiffness Influence on Stability of the Truss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajewski M.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the numerical and experimental research of stability of a truss with side elastic supports at the top chord. The structure is a model of a real roof truss scaled by factor ¼. The linear buckling analysis and non-linear static analysis were carried out. The buckling length factor for the compressed top chord was calculated and the limit load for the imperfect truss shell model with respect to brace stiffness was obtained. The relation between brace normal force and loading of the truss is presented. The threshold stiffness of braces necessary to obtain the maximum buckling load was found. The truss load bearing capacity obtained from numerical analysis was compared with Eurocode 3 requirements.

  20. Aromatherapy as an adjuvant treatment in cancer care--a descriptive systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Katja; Büssing, Arndt; Ostermann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Claims of benefits of aromatherapy for cancer patients include reduced anxiety levels and relief of emotional stress, pain, muscular tension and fatigue. The objective of this paper is to provide an updated descriptive, systematic review of evidence from pre-clinical and clinical trials assessing the benefits and safety of aromatherapy for cancer patients. Literature databases such as Medline (via Ovid), the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, Cochrane Central were searched from their inception until October 2010. Only studies on cancer cells or cancer patients were included. There is no long lasting effect of aromatherapy massage, while short term improvements were reported for general well being, anxiety and depression up to 8 weeks after treatment. The reviewed studies indicate short-term effects of aromatherapy on depression, anxiety and overall wellbeing. Specifically, some clinical trials found an increase in patient-identified symptom relief, psychological wellbeing and improved sleep. Furthermore, some found a short-term improvement (up to 2 weeks after treatment) in anxiety and depression scores and better pain control. Although essential oils have generally shown minimal adverse effects, potential risks include ingesting large amounts (intentional misuse); local skin irritation, especially with prolonged skin contact; allergic contact dermatitis; and phototoxicity from reaction to sunlight (some oils). Repeated topical administration of lavender and tea tree oil was associated with reversible prepubertal gynecomastia.

  1. Electronic and structural characterizations of unreconstructed {l_brace}0001{r_brace} surfaces and the growth of graphene overlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emtsev, Konstantin

    2009-06-03

    The present work is focused on the characterization of the clean unreconstructed SiC{l_brace}0001{r_brace} surfaces and the growth of graphene overlayers thereon. Electronic properties of SiC surfaces and their interfaces with graphene and few layer graphene films were investigated by means of angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy electron diffraction. Structural characterizations of the epitaxial graphene films grown on SiC were carried out by atomic force microscopy and low energy electron microscopy. Supplementary data was obtained by scanning tunneling microscopy. (orig.)

  2. Development of an internally braced prosthesis for total talus replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regauer, Markus; Lange, Mirjam; Soldan, Kevin; Peyerl, Steffen; Baumbach, Sebastian; Böcker, Wolfgang; Polzer, Hans

    2017-03-18

    Total loss of talus due to trauma or avascular necrosis, for example, still remains to be a major challenge in foot and ankle surgery with severely limited treatment options. Implantation of a custom made total talar prosthesis has shown promising results so far. Most important factors for long time success are degree of congruence of articular surfaces and ligamentous stability of the ankle. Therefore, our aim was to develop an optimized custom made prosthesis for total talus replacement providing a high level of primary stability. A custom made hemiprosthesis was developed using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging data of the affected and contralateral talus considering the principles and technology for the development of the S.T.A.R. prosthesis (Stryker). Additionally, four eyelets for fixation of artificial ligaments were added at the correspondent footprints of the most important ligaments. Two modifications can be provided according to the clinical requirements: A tri-articular hemiprosthesis or a bi-articular hemiprosthesis combined with the tibial component of the S.T.A.R. total ankle replacement system. A feasibility study was performed using a fresh frozen human cadaver. Maximum range of motion of the ankle was measured and ligamentous stability was evaluated by use of standard X-rays after application of varus, valgus or sagittal stress with 150 N. Correct implantation of the prosthesis was technically possible via an anterior approach to the ankle and using standard instruments. Malleolar osteotomies were not required. Maximum ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion were measured as 22-0-28 degrees. Maximum anterior displacement of the talus was 6 mm, maximum varus tilt 3 degrees and maximum valgus tilt 2 degrees. Application of an internally braced prosthesis for total talus replacement in humans is technically feasible and might be a reasonable procedure in carefully selected cases with no better alternatives left.

  3. Simulation methods for hysteretic curve of steel braces%钢支撑滞回曲线的模拟方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆志; 赵作周; 陆新征; 钱稼茹

    2011-01-01

    Three simulation methods for hysteretic curve of steel braces,including phenomenological description method,finite element method and plastic-hinge method,were reviewed.A new brace model based on phenomenological description method was proposed.This model contains a series of governing variables to envelop the complicated hysteretic curve of steel braces and the governing variables can be calibrated by available test results.Simulation results of some available test data prove that this model is more accurate and proficient than those previous brace models based on phenomenological description method.Furthermore,in order to study a more generous brace model,a fiber brace model was demonstrated as well.In this model,certain geometric initial imperfection in the middle of a brace is required to simulate its buckling and post buckling hysteretic characters.The variables of the model are only geometry and material characters of the brace and can be easily determined.The analytical results show that the fiber brace model is precise enough to carry out integral structure analysis under multi-scale requirement.The proposed two models can be used in analysis and design of a structure system containing braces under earthquake excitation.%钢支撑滞回曲线主要有三种模拟方法:现象描述法、有限元法和塑性铰法。在分析了各模拟方法优劣的基础上,提出一种新型的基于现象描述法的支撑模型。该模型通过一系列控制参数来包络钢支撑复杂的滞回曲线,并根据已有的同类型支撑试验结果标定控制参数。研究表明,该模型具有较高的模拟精度及计算效率,解决了早期基于现象描述法支撑模型模拟结果较为粗糙的问题。此外,为研究通用性更高的支撑模型,还提出了一种纤维支撑模型。该模型在跨中引入初始几何缺陷以模拟钢支撑的屈曲及屈曲后滞回特性,模型参数仅涉及支撑的几何及材料特性而易于确定。分析

  4. Conceptual design of joints in braced steel frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, C.M.; Evers, H.G.A.; Gresnigt, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    To help practitioners to find the most economical design of braced frames, this paper proposes a classification of joints in `simple' (e.g. web cleated connections), 'moderate' (e.g. flush end plated connections) and 'complex' (e.g. stiffened extended end plate connections) with respect to the fabri

  5. ASSESSMENT OF SEVERITY, TREATMENT AND OUTCOME OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS POISONING: A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Indira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Organophophorous poisoning constitutes one of the most frequent poisoning in clinical practice all over the country and especially in this area where agriculture is the chief economic occupation. Acute organophophorous poisoning ranks foremost in the list of agents which causes acute pesticide poisoning in the developing countries. Acute poisoning, accidental or due to deliberate ingestion or inhalation of these organophosphate chemicals is an important and one of the most common medical emergencies. Hence the present stud y is undertaken to assess severity of poisoning, management and outcome of organophosphorous poisoning cases admitted in Government General Hospital, Kakinada, A. P. AIMS/OBJECTIVES: 1. Assessment of severity of Organophosphorous poisoning according to Dri esbach’s criteria 2. To study the morbidity and mortality in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: In this descriptive study fifty patients with organophosphorous insecticide poisoning were evaluated by clinical examination. They were investigated, treate d and their treatment outcome were analyzed. RESULTS: 1. Chlorpyriphos and monocrotophos(together 66% were the most commonly used pesticides. 2. 82% cases reached the hospital within 6 hours for commencement of treatment and were mostly of moderate to se vere degree of OP poisoning while mild cases of accidental poisoning reached after 12 hours. Hence the mortality is high in the former group only. 3. When the severity of poisoning was graded by applying Dreisbach's criteria at the time of admission 34% ha d severe degree of poisoning, 26% had moderate poisoning while 40% of cases presented with mild degree of poisoning. (Most of the cases were accidental inhalation and skin contact exposure. 4. Among the patients belonging to moderate to severe degree of p oisoning 30% of patients were put on assisted mechanical ventilation, indications being uncontrolled pulmonary secretions, continuing hypoxia, not

  6. 自锁托槽在非拔牙矫治正畸治疗中的应用体会%Experience of application about self-ligating braces in non-extraction orthodontic treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛宇; 汪世超

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨自锁托槽在非拔牙正畸治疗中的应用体会.方法 选择错颌畸形患者60例,30例患者采用自锁托槽作为试验组,30例患者采用传统直丝弓矫治器作为对照组,均进行非拔牙矫治.结果 试验组治疗成功率为96.67%,对照组成功率为66.67%,对照组无效的10例患者有可能进行拔牙矫正才能排齐牙列.试验组成功率明显优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 自锁托槽降低了弓丝与托槽的摩擦力,同时具有扩弓作用,在非拔牙矫治中占有明显优势,值得在临床推广.%Objective To investigate the application of self-ligating brackets in non-extraction orthodontic treatment .Methods Six-ty patients with malocclusion were selected .30 patients treated with self-ligating brackets were recruited as experimental group and 30 patients treated by traditional straight wire appliance as control group .Both groups received non-extraction treatment .Results The effective rate of experimental group was 96.67%,while that of the control group was 66.67%,and invalid 10 patients of control group may receive extraction treatment to align dentition .The success rate of experimental group was significantly higher than that of control group ,and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion Self-ligating bracket reduces the friction between archwire and bracket ,and also with arch-expansion effect ,which has obvious advantages in non-extraction treatment ,thus it is worth clinical promotion .

  7. Study of the pressures applied by a Chêneau brace for correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, V M; Houilliez, A; Schill, A; Carpentier, A; Herbaux, B; Thevenon, A

    2008-09-01

    We performed a study on 32 idiopathic scoliotic patients (30 females, 2 males) treated with a Chêneau brace. Eighteen patients had a single right thoracic curve and 14 had a single right thoracolumbar curve. We used the TekScan system (ClinSeat Type 5315 Sensor, TekScan, Boston MA, USA) to measure pressures at the skin-brace interface, assess the effect of strap tension and analyze the variation of these pressures with position and activity. The TekScan device enabled identification of the pressure areas corresponding to the brace's three loading points. The pressure under the main pad had a greater mean value than the pressure under the two counter-pads. Tightening the straps led to a significant increase in the pressures, whatever the position studied or the curve pattern. Compared with the standing (reference) position, we observed significantly higher pressures during maximal inspiration (p TekScan system does not provide direct information on the correction of spinal curvature, it appears to be a useful tool in the treatment of scoliotic patients. Strap adjustment clearly influences the applied pressures - particularly those on the rib cage. During activity, there is a natural tendency to decrease the pressure; this justifies efforts to maintain strap tensions in general and during day wear in particular.

  8. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of Si donors in GaAs {l_brace}110{r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teichmann, K.; Wenderoth, M.; Loth, S.; Ulbrich, R.G. [Universitaet Goettingen, IV. Physikalisches Institut (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Silicon donors in highly n-doped GaAs(6.5 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}) are investigated by Cross-Sectional Scanning Tunneling Microscopy in UHV at 8K. Donors near the surface of the {l_brace}110{r_brace} cleavage planes are studied by spatially resolved I(V)-spectroscopy. The dopant atoms are identified by their bias dependent topographic and spectroscopic properties. In addition to the known features at negative and small positive voltages, our measurements on single donors show an additional transport channel for larger positive bias voltages. The current distribution has a circular symmetric structure. The diameter is bias dependent, and can extend up to several nanometers around the donor. The minimal bias voltage of the current onset is localized above the donors. We discuss different scenarios - including tip induced band bending - that can lead to the observed ring-like shapes.

  9. Analysis of multistoried braced frame subjected to seismic and gravity loading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay. S. Pawar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure in high seismic areas may be susceptible to the severe damage. Along with gravity load structure has to withstand to lateral load which can develop high stresses. Now-a-days, shear wall in R.C. structure and steel bracings in steel structure are most popular system to resist lateral load due to earthquake, wind, blast etc. bracing is a highly efficient and economical method of resisting horizontal forces in a frame structure. Bracing is efficient because the diagonals work in axial stress and therefore call for minimum member sizes in providing stiffness and strength against horizontal shear. Through the addition of the bracing system, load could be transferred out of the frame and into the braces, by passing the weak columns while increasing strength. In this study Steel Frame is modeled and analyzed three Parts viz., (i Model without Steel bracing (bare frame, (ii Model completely Steel braced (fully braced frame, (iii Model with partially Steel bay wise braced frames. The computer aided analysis is done by using STAAD-PRO to find out the effective lateral load system during earthquake in high seismic areas.

  10. Seismic Behavior of Steel Off-Diagonal Bracing System (ODBS Utilized in Reinforced Concrete Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of an eccentricity in this system results in a geometric nonlinearity behavior. The midpoint of the diagonal member is connected to the corner joint using a brace member with a relatively low stiffness, thus forming a three-member bracing system in each braced panel. An iterative method of analysis has been developed to study the nonlinear load-deflection behavior of ODBS. The results indicate that the load-deflection behavior of this system follows a nonlinear stiffness-hardening pattern with two yielding points, which reflect the tensile failure of different bracings; the present study aims to investigate the efficiency of applying off-diagonal steel braces to reinforced concrete frames. To achieve this, three types of 2-story, 6-story, and 15-story structures without and with X-bracing and off-center bracing systems were modeled using SAP2000 software, and for micromodeling ANSYS software was used to achieve finite element results for an exact comparison between various retrofitting systems. The results showed that the structures strengthened by toggle bracing system revealed better behavior for low oscillation periods. Moreover, this type of bracing system is quite suitable for 10-story structures but not for higher ones. Its main problem, which requires special contrivances to solve, is the existence of a soft ground floor.

  11. Optimization of the place of the plastic hinges by steel braces at RC buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatami, Farzad; Ragheb, Mohammad; Namazi, Meysam

    2012-12-01

    Usage of steel braces has become a solution not only for retrofitting of RC structures but as a method in designing of concrete frames in recent years. Although X-braced RC frames have been number of successful studies, but eccentric braced RC frames have not been studied seriously. Maybe it's because of the non ductile behaviour of concrete beams. In this article, a numerical study was conducted to evaluate performance of concrete frames, braced with eccentric steel brace with a vertical steel shear link. Vertical steel shear link eliminated shortcomings of non ductile concrete beam. Therefore 4, 8 and 12 storey concrete frames were designed and subjected to a push over analysis. Life safety level was chose to evaluate the frames and hinges performance. Results were compared with the same frames designed with X braces and moment resisting frame. Results indicated that steel braces shift the place of plastic hinges to be formed on the bracing members instead of columns and beams. Furthermore steel braces delayed the process of formation of first plastic hinge and column failure mechanism.

  12. A new dual bracing system for improving the seismic behavior of steel structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, A.; Ghassemieh, M.; Abolmaali, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    Shape memory alloy braces and buckling restrained braces have been shown to exhibit favorable energy dissipating characteristics in steel structures. However, buckling restrained braces are unable to recover their original shape after unloading and consequently experience large residual inter-story drifts after the earthquake, which leads to large permanent deformations in the structure. On the other hand, shape memory braces possess the recentering feature which enables them to recover their original shape. Nevertheless, compared to buckling restrained braced frames, the shape memory bracing frame usually experiences larger maximum inter-story drifts during the earthquake. This paper presents the results of a numerical study conducted to investigate the benefit of using the combination of buckling restrained braces and shape memory braces (dual bracing) in one structure, for the new design as well as retrofitting purposes. The superelastic model of shape memory alloy and plasticity model of steel are incorporated into the nonlinear finite element program particularly developed for this research. Results revealed that, with the proper configuration, both aims, namely minimizing both residual and maximum inter-story drifts, can be attained.

  13. Seismic retrofitting of reinforced concrete frame structures using GFRP-tube-confined-concrete composite braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddasi B., Nasim S.; Zhang, Yunfeng; Hu, Xiaobin

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a new type of structural bracing intended for seismic retrofitting use in framed structures. This special composite brace, termed glass-fiber-reinforced-polymer (GFRP)-tube-confined-concrete composite brace, is comprised of concrete confined by a GFRP tube and an inner steel core for energy dissipation. Together with a contribution from the GFRP-tube confined concrete, the composite brace shows a substantially increased stiffness to control story drift, which is often a preferred feature in seismic retrofitting. An analysis model is established and implemented in a general finite element analysis program — OpenSees, for simulating the load-displacement behavior of the composite brace. Using this model, a parametric study of the hysteretic behavior (energy dissipation, stiffness, ductility and strength) of the composite brace was conducted under static cyclic loading and it was found that the area ratio of steel core to concrete has the greatest influence among all the parameters considered. To demonstrate the application of the composite brace in seismic retrofitting, a three-story nonductile reinforced concrete (RC) frame structure was retrofitted with the composite braces. Pushover analysis and nonlinear time-history analyses of the retrofitted RC frame structure was performed by employing a suite of 20 strong ground motion earthquake records. The analysis results show that the composite braces can effectively reduce the peak seismic responses of the RC frame structure without significantly increasing the base shear demand.

  14. A (vapor + liquid) equilibria of the {l_brace}carbon dioxide + isopropoxyethanol (iC{sub 3}E{sub 1}){r_brace} and the {l_brace}carbon dioxide + isobutoxyethanol (iC{sub 4}E{sub 1}){r_brace} systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Moon Sam [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Yeo, Jong-Kee [LG Chem.Ltd., 20 Ye-dong, Yeouido-dong, Yeongdeungpo-Gu, Seoul 150-875 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwayong [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hwayongk@snu.ac.kr

    2008-01-15

    Binary (vapor + liquid) equilibrium data were measured for the {l_brace}carbon dioxide + isopropoxyethanol (iC{sub 3}E{sub 1}){r_brace} and the {l_brace}carbon dioxide + isobutoxyethanol (iC{sub 4}E{sub 1}){r_brace} systems at temperatures ranging from (313.15 to 333.15) K. These experiments were performed with a circulating-type apparatus with on-line gas chromatography. The experimental data correlated well with the Peng-Robinson equation of state using the Wong-Sandler mixing rules.

  15. Aromatherapy as an Adjuvant Treatment in Cancer Care — A Descriptive Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Boehm, Katja; Büssing, Arndt; Ostermann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Claims of benefits of aromatherapy for cancer patients include reduced anxiety levels and relief of emotional stress, pain, muscular tension and fatigue. The objective of this paper is to provide an updated descriptive, systematic review of evidence from pre-clinical and clinical trials assessing the benefits and safety of aromatherapy for cancer patients. Literature databases such as Medline (via Ovid), the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, Cochrane Central were searched from their in...

  16. System Description for the KW Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) (70.3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DERUSSEAU, R.R.

    2000-04-18

    This is a description of the system that collects and processes the sludge and radioactive ions released by the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) processing operations conducted in the 105 KW Basin. The system screens, settles, filters, and conditions the basin water for reuse. Sludge and most radioactive ions are removed before the water is distributed back to the basin pool. This system is part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP).

  17. 40 CFR 141.82 - Description of corrosion control treatment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... corrosion control treatment for that system: (i) Alkalinity and pH adjustment; (ii) Calcium hardness... evaluating the corrosion control treatments listed above: (i) Lead; (ii) Copper; (iii) pH; (iv) Alkalinity... alkalinity is adjusted as part of optimal corrosion control treatment, a minimum concentration or a range...

  18. Evidence for Conservative Treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis - Update 2015 (Mini-Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Ng; Bettany-Saltikov, Josette; Moramarco, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis predominantly afflicts adolescents. Adolescents with mild curvatures do not generally have any symptoms. However spinal fusion is indicated when the deformity exceeds 45°. Treatment is thus necessary to prevent and/or reduce the progression of curvatures to that below which surgery is indicated. Conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis includes observation, scoliosis-specific exercises (SSE) and bracing. There is increasing evidence suggesting that SSE and brace treatment can significantly limit the progression of spinal curvatures. In growing adolescents with curvatures more than 20°, bracing is indicated and should be used in conjunction with SSE. The effectiveness of bracing varies according to the type of brace applied to the patient. In general rigid braces are preferable to soft flexible braces, as the latter falls short of halting curvatures progression. Also, preliminary evidence suggests that asymmetric braces which enable over-correction provide more correction when compared with symmetrical braces. Recently it has also been reported that high quality bracing can also reduce curvatures exceeding 45° in over 70% of growing adolescents. This new knowledge might possibly increase the threshold of surgical indications to beyond 50° or above in the near future.

  19. Seismic Response and Evaluation of SDOF Self-Centering Friction Damping Braces Subjected to Several Earthquake Ground Motions

    OpenAIRE

    Jong Wan Hu; Myung-Hyun Noh

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly deals with seismic response and performance for self-centering friction damping braces (SFDBs) subjected to several maximum- or design-leveled earthquake ground motions. The self-centering friction damping brace members consist of core recentering components fabricated with superelastic shape memory alloy wires and energy dissipation devices achieved through shear friction mechanism. As compared to the conventional brace members for use in the steel concentrically braced fra...

  20. Medial knee osteoarthritis treated by insoles or braces: a randomized trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. van Raaij (Tom); M. Reijman (Max); R.W. Brouwer (Reinoud); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: There is controversial evidence regarding whether foot orthoses or knee braces improve pain and function or correct malalignment in selected patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the medial knee compartment. However, insoles are safe and less costly than knee bracing if they r

  1. Immediate effect of valgus bracing on knee joint moments in meniscectomised patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Maria; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Roos, Ewa M;

    2016-01-01

    -dimensional analysis of gait, forward lunge and one-leg rise during two conditions: with and without a valgus unloader knee brace. Outcome measures included the peak and impulse of the knee adduction moment and the peak knee flexion moment. RESULTS: The peak knee flexion moment increased during brace condition...

  2. Analysis of multistoried braced steel space frame subjected to gravity and seismic loading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay.S.Pawar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Steel structures are generally more flexible than other types of structure and lower in weight. Earthquake loads are random in nature. It is difficult to predict them exactly. The action applied to a structure by an earthquake is a ground movement with horizontal and vertical components. The horizontal movement is the most specific feature of earthquake action because of its strength and because structures are generally better designed to resist gravity than horizontal forces. These forces produce large stresses, strains, deformation and displacement particularly in tall structures. To keep displacement within limit generally bracing is provided in steel structure. . Bracings are generally used to increase lateral-stiffness, lateral- strength as well as lateral stability of the frame. Variations in the column stiffness can influence the mode of failure and lateral stiffness of the bracing. In this study steel frame is modeled and analyzed three Parts viz., (i Model without Steel bracing (bare frame, (ii Model completely with fully braced steel frame („Cross‟ bracing, (iii Model completely with fully braced steel frame („Single diagonal‟ bracing.

  3. Stuttering Treatment for a School-Age Child with Down Syndrome: A Descriptive Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasym, Jessica; Langevin, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little is known about optimal treatment approaches and stuttering treatment outcomes for children with Down syndrome. Aims and method: The purpose of this study was to investigate outcomes for a child with Down syndrome who received a combination of fluency shaping therapy and parent delivered contingencies for normally fluent speech,…

  4. Abating Earthquake Effects on Buildings by Active Slip Brace Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekai Akbay

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid control system for reducing building vibration under a spectrum of earthquake load amplitudes is presented. The hybrid control is accomplished by an energy dissipation device called the active slip brace device (ASBD. The hybrid control system uses the ASBD to regulate the energy dissipation characteristics of the building during its response to earthquakes by utilizing active control principles. The ASBD consists of a Coulomb friction interface with a clamping mechanism on the interface. The clamping force on the friction interface is altered at short time intervals during building vibration. Computer simulations of building response with and without ASBD are compared.

  5. A Validated Finite Element Procedure for Buckling Simulation of Diagonally Braced Moment Resisting Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfollahi, Mehrdad; Mehdi Alinia, Mohammad; Taciroglu, Ertugrul

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents a validated, high fidelity finite element modeling procedure for Diagonally Braced Moment-Resisting Frames (DBMRFs). The model can accurately capture the DBMRF response prior to and through the brace-buckling regime. The model was calibrated through parametric sensitivity studies, which were performed to ascertain the effects of mesh refinement, initial brace imperfection shapes and amplitudes, and the effects of beam-column connection types on the developed analytical model. The validated analytical model can be used for further investigations on the buckling characteristics of the gusset brace system, and for predicting the yield mechanisms, failure modes, and deformation capacities of multistory DBMRFs. The model can also be used for determining frame ductilities, as well as regions of concentration of plastic strains within the frame members and the gusset brace system.

  6. An experimental investigation on the ultimate strength of epoxy repaired braced partial infilled RC frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Shailendra Kumar Damodar; Kute, Sunil

    2014-09-01

    Due to earthquake, buildings are damaged partially or completely. Particularly structures with soft storey are mostly affected. In general, such damaged structures are repaired and reused. In this regard, an experimental investigation was planned and conducted on models of single-bay, single-storey of partial concrete infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frames up to collapse with corner, central and diagonal steel bracings. Such collapsed frames were repaired with epoxy resin and retested. The initiative was to identify the behaviour, extent of restored ultimate strength and deflection of epoxy-retrofitted frames in comparison to the braced RC frames. The performance of such frames has been considered only for lateral loads. In comparison to bare RC frames, epoxy repaired partial infilled frames have significant increase in the lateral load capacity. Central bracing is more effective than corner and diagonal bracing. For the same load, epoxy repaired frames have comparable deflection than similar braced frames.

  7. Lower Extremity Kinematics and Ground Reaction Forces After Prophylactic Lace-Up Ankle Bracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Lindsay J; Padua, Darin A; Brown, Cathleen N; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2008-01-01

    Context: Long-term effects of ankle bracing on lower extremity kinematics and kinetics are unknown. Ankle motion restriction may negatively affect the body's ability to attenuate ground reaction forces (GRFs). Objective: To evaluate the immediate and long-term effects of ankle bracing on lower extremity kinematics and GRFs during a jump landing. Design: Experimental mixed model (2 [group] × 2 [brace] × 2 [time]) with repeated measures. Setting: Sports medicine research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 37 healthy subjects were assigned randomly to either the intervention (n  =  11 men, 8 women; age  =  19.63 ± 0.72 years, height  =  176.05 ± 10.58 cm, mass  =  71.50 ± 13.15 kg) or control group (n  =  11 men, 7 women; age  =  19.94 ± 1.44 years, height  =  179.15 ± 8.81 cm, mass  =  74.10 ± 10.33 kg). Intervention(s): The intervention group wore braces on both ankles and the control group did not wear braces during all recreational activities for an 8-week period. Main Outcome Measure(s): Initial ground contact angles, maximum joint angles, time to reach maximum joint angles, and joint range of motion for sagittal-plane knee and ankle motion were measured during a jump-landing task. Peak vertical GRF and the time to reach peak vertical GRF were assessed also. Results: While participants were wearing the brace, ankle plantar flexion at initial ground contact (brace  =  35° ± 13°, no brace  =  38° ± 15°, P  =  .024), maximum dorsiflexion (brace  =  21° ± 7°, no brace  =  22° ± 6°, P  =  .04), dorsiflexion range of motion (brace  =  56° ± 14°, no brace  =  59° ± 16°, P  =  .001), and knee flexion range of motion (brace  =  79° ± 16°, no brace  =  82° ± 16°, P  =  .036) decreased, whereas knee flexion at initial ground contact increased (brace  =  12° ± 9°, no brace  =  9° ± 9°, P  =  .0001). Wearing the brace for 8

  8. (Vapor + liquid) equilibria for the {l_brace}water + poly(ethylene glycol diacetyl ether) (PEGDAE) and methanol + PEGDAE{r_brace} systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Doo-hwan [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, SAN 56-1, Shilim-Dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joonwoo [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, SAN 56-1, Shilim-Dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Jihoon [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, SAN 56-1, Shilim-Dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwayong [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, SAN 56-1, Shilim-Dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: hwayongk@snu.ac.kr

    2007-03-15

    We measured binary (vapor + liquid) equilibrium data for the {l_brace}water + poly(ethylene glycol diacetyl ether) (PEGDAE) and methanol + PEGDAE{r_brace} systems at pressures up to 400 kPa and temperatures from 333 K to 393 K. A static apparatus was used in this study. The measured data were correlated by the Peng-Robinson equation of state using the Wong-Sandler mixing rules with NRTL as the excess Gibbs free energy model.

  9. (Vapour + liquid) equilibria of the {l_brace}1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HFC-143a) + isobutene{r_brace} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Yongju; Im, Jihoon [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwayong [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hwayongk@snu.ac.kr

    2008-05-15

    Isothermal (vapour + liquid) equilibrium data were measured for the {l_brace}1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HFC-143a) + isobutene{r_brace} as an alternative refrigerant in the temperature range from (273.15 to 348.15) K at 15 K intervals. A circulating-type apparatus with on-line gas chromatography was used in these experiments. The experimental data were correlated well by Peng-Robinson equation of state using the Wong-Sandler mixing rules.

  10. Physical properties of {l_brace}anisole + n-alkanes{r_brace} at temperatures between (293.15 and 303.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jimaz, Adel S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Technological Studies, P.O. Box 42325, Shuwaik 70654 (Kuwait)]. E-mail: a_jimaz@yahoo.com; Al-Kandary, Jasem A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Technological Studies, P.O. Box 42325, Shuwaik 70654 (Kuwait); Abdul-latif, Abdul-Haq M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Technological Studies, P.O. Box 42325, Shuwaik 70654 (Kuwait); Al-Zanki, Adnan M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Technological Studies, P.O. Box 42325, Shuwaik 70654 (Kuwait)

    2005-07-15

    Density {rho}, viscosity {eta}, and refractive index n {sub D}, values of {l_brace}anisole + hexane, or heptane, or octane, or nonane, or decane, or dodecane{r_brace} binary mixtures over the entire range of mole fraction at temperatures (293.15, 298.15, and 303.15) K, have been investigated at atmospheric pressure. The excess molar volume V {sup E}, has been calculated from the experimental measurements. These results were fitted to Redlich and Kister polynomial equation to estimate the binary interaction parameters. The viscosity data were correlated with equations of Grunberg and Nissan, and McAllister. The refractive indices data were used to calculate the specific refractivity R {sub 12}, and also correlated with Lorentz-Lorenz equation. While the excess molar volumes of {l_brace}anisole + hexane{r_brace} are negative, and {l_brace}anisole + heptane{r_brace} are sigmoidal S-shaped, the remaining binary mixtures are positive. The effects of n-alkanes chain length as well as the temperature on the excess molar volume have been studied. The calculated values have been qualitatively used to explain the intermolecular interaction between the mixing components.

  11. Trunk muscle activities during abdominal bracing: comparison among muscles and exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeo, Sumiaki; Takahashi, Takumi; Takai, Yohei; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal bracing is often adopted in fitness and sports conditioning programs. However, there is little information on how muscular activities during the task differ among the muscle groups located in the trunk and from those during other trunk exercises. The present study aimed to quantify muscular activity levels during abdominal bracing with respect to muscle- and exercise-related differences. Ten healthy young adult men performed five static (abdominal bracing, abdominal hollowing, prone, side, and supine plank) and five dynamic (V- sits, curl-ups, sit-ups, and back extensions on the floor and on a bench) exercises. Surface electromyogram (EMG) activities of the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and erector spinae (ES) muscles were recorded in each of the exercises. The EMG data were normalized to those obtained during maximal voluntary contraction of each muscle (% EMGmax). The % EMGmax value during abdominal bracing was significantly higher in IO (60%) than in the other muscles (RA: 18%, EO: 27%, ES: 19%). The % EMGmax values for RA, EO, and ES were significantly lower in the abdominal bracing than in some of the other exercises such as V-sits and sit-ups for RA and EO and back extensions for ES muscle. However, the % EMGmax value for IO during the abdominal bracing was significantly higher than those in most of the other exercises including dynamic ones such as curl-ups and sit-ups. These results suggest that abdominal bracing is one of the most effective techniques for inducing a higher activation in deep abdominal muscles, such as IO muscle, even compared to dynamic exercises involving trunk flexion/extension movements. Key PointsTrunk muscle activities during abdominal bracing was examined with regard to muscle- and exercise-related differences.Abdominal bracing preferentially activates internal oblique muscles even compared to dynamic exercises involving trunk flexion/extension movements.Abdominal bracing should be

  12. Sexual fantasies of adolescent male sex offenders in residential treatment: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylwin, A Scott; Reddon, John R; Burke, Andrew R

    2005-04-01

    An attenuating sample of 87 male adolescent sexual offenders logged sexual fantasies during their entire time in therapy. These patients were attending residential treatment and kept a log recording all normal and deviant sexual fantasies which they experienced. Patients recorded which fantasies were interrupted and which fantasies were accompanied by masturbation. Typically, at the beginning of treatment, the reported rate of normal fantasies was maximal, the occurrence of deviant fantasies was minimal, and there was little effort to interrupt the deviant fantasies. The reported frequency of deviant fantasies increased substantially (about 380%) during the first 5 months of treatment and then steadily declined (approximately 47%) over the remaining months in therapy. Following an initial decline in the early months of treatment, an increase in the rates of normal fantasies was reported. Additionally, over the course of treatment, the frequency of deviant fantasies decreased relative to all fantasies. While deviant fantasies remained predominant to normal sexual fantasies and were more frequently paired with masturbation, patients reported substantial changes in the proportion of deviant fantasies that were interrupted (from about 20% to 70%). Implications of the results for juvenile sex offender treatment are discussed.

  13. Full scale tests of all-steel buckling restrained braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Wu, Bin; Li, Hui; Ou, Jinping; Yang, Weibiao

    2009-03-01

    Buckling-restrained braces (BRBs) are widely used seismic response-controlling members with excellent energy dissipation capacity without buckling at design deformation. However, the property of all-steel BRBs with cruciform cross section encased in a square steel tube remains insufficiently studied. In this paper, the properties of this kind of BRBs, which were used in two office buildings in Beijing, were examined by full-scale test. First, initial design was done according to the client's requirement. Then, two full-scale specimens were tested under uniaxial quasi-static cyclic loading. The test results indicate that there should be no welding in yielding portion of the core. Finally, the full-scale subassemblage test was done with an improved BRB and gusset plates installed in a frame. The result shows that the brace exhibited high energy dissipation capacity and stable hysteretic characteristic. According to the results from above tests, some important issues are summarized to provide advices for practical applications.

  14. Seismic response control of frame structure braced with SMA tendons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shi; Song, Gangbing; Huo, Linsheng; Gu, Haichang

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents studies of seismic response control of a frame structure braced with SMA (Shape Memory Alloy) tendons through both numerical and experimental approaches. Based on the Brinson one-dimensional constitutive law for SMAs, a two-story frame structure braced diagonally with SMA tendons is used as an example to simulate numerically the vibration control process. By considering the temperature, different initial states and thermal properties of the SMA tendon, and the variable intensity and frequency of earthquake input, the parameters of the system were analyzed during the numerically simulation. The time histories of the displacement and hysteretic loops of the SMA tendons were simulated under earthquake ground motion by using finite element method (FEM). To validate the efficiency of the simulation, a shaking table test for the frame structure was conducted. Both numerical simulation and experimental results show that the actively controlled martensite SMA tendons can effectively suppress the vibration of the multi-story frame structure during an earthquake.

  15. Spring tube braces for seismic isolation of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayel, V.; Yuksel, Ercan; Gokce, T.; Sahin, F.

    2017-01-01

    A new low-cost seismic isolation system based on spring tube bracings has been proposed and studied at the Structural and Earthquake Engineering Laboratory of Istanbul Technical University. Multiple compression-type springs are positioned in a special cylindrical tube to obtain a symmetrical response in tension and compression-type axial loading. An isolation floor, which consists of pin-ended steel columns and spring tube bracings, is constructed at the foundation level or any intermediate level of the building. An experimental campaign with three stages was completed to evaluate the capability of the system. First, the behavior of the spring tubes subjected to axial displacement reversals with varying frequencies was determined. In the second phase, the isolation floor was assessed in the quasi-static tests. Finally, a ¼ scaled 3D steel frame was tested on the shake table using actual acceleration records. The transmitted acceleration to the floor levels is greatly diminished because of the isolation story, which effects longer period and higher damping. There are no stability and self-centering problems in the isolation floor.

  16. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ``ideas``. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ``cradle-to-grave`` systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ``downselection`` of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW.

  17. The matrix model of outpatient stimulant abuse treatment: history and description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obert, J L; McCann, M J; Marinelli-Casey, P; Weiner, A; Minsky, S; Brethen, P; Rawson, R

    2000-01-01

    The Matrix model was originally developed in response to the cocaine epidemic of the 1980s. The program consists of relapse prevention groups, education groups, social support groups, individual counseling, and urine and breath testing delivered in a structured manner over a 16-week period. The treatment is a directive, nonconfrontational approach which focuses on current issues and behavior change. Several evaluations of the model have supported its usefulness and efficacy with methamphetamine (MA) users. Methamphetamine users appear to respond to treatment similarly to cocaine users and many continue to show improvements at follow-up.

  18. First-time admissions for opioid treatment: cross-sectional and descriptive study of new opioid users seeking treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez, Gerardo; López-Durán, Ana; Triñanes, Yolanda; Osorio, Jesús; Fraga, Jaime; Fernández, José Manuel; Becoña, Elisardo; Arrojo, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the profiles of the new treatment demands posed by opioid addicts between 2005 and 2010 at the addictive disorders assistance units in Galicia, Spain. Methods A cluster analysis was performed using data from 1,655 treatment entrants. Clusters were constructed using sociodemographic and medicolegal variables. A cluster analysis was also conducted according to age. Once clusters were defined, their association with the following variables was analyzed: age at first use of opioids, years of use, frequency of opioid use in the previous month, psychiatric treatment, cocaine use, existence of a drug-dependent partner, and source of referral. Results Four clusters were obtained in the main analysis. Cluster 1 (34.01%) consisted of young males, cluster 2 (16.19%) consisted of not-so-young males, cluster 3 (32.62%) consisted mainly of older males and a small group of females, and cluster 4 (17.18%) was made up entirely of women. With regard to age-related clusters, two clusters were obtained in those under the age of 30 years: cluster 1 (73%) without medicolegal complications and cluster 2 (27%) with medicolegal complications. For those over the age of 30 years, two clusters were obtained: cluster 1 (53.92%) with hardly any medicolegal complications and cluster 2 (46.08%) with medicolegal complications. Conclusion Cluster analysis suggests that there have been no substantial changes in variables indicating greater severity in this new group of patients. Women are likely to seek help earlier, which reduces their duration of opioid use. The younger the patient, the shorter the duration of opioid use and the greater the likelihood of cessation of intravenous use. Public health systems should use a two-pronged treatment strategy of short but intense cessation therapies for women and younger treatment entrants and longer maintenance and replacement therapies for older treatment entrants with more psychosocial

  19. Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy during Methadone Dose Reduction: Rationale, Treatment Description, and a Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotts, Angela L.; Masuda, Akihiko; Wilson, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Many clients who undergo methadone maintenance (MM) treatment for heroin and other opiate dependence prefer abstinence from methadone. Attempts at methadone detoxification are often unsuccessful, however, due to distressing physical as well as psychological symptoms. Outcomes from an MM client who voluntarily participated in an Acceptance and…

  20. An augmented cognitive behavioural therapy for treating post-stroke depression: description of a treatment protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootker, J.A.; Rasquin, S.M.; Smits, P; Geurts, A.C.H.; Heugten, C.M. van; Fasotti, L.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Currently, no evidence-based treatment is available for mood problems after stroke. We present a new psychological intervention designed to reduce depressive complaints after stroke. METHOD OF PROTOCOL DEVELOPMENT: This intervention was based on cognitive behavioural therapy principles and was

  1. An augmented cognitive behavioural therapy for treating post-stroke depression: Description of a treatment protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootker, J.A.; Rasquin, S.M.C.; Smits, P.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Heugten, C.M. van; Fasotti, L.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Currently, no evidence-based treatment is available for mood problems after stroke. We present a new psychological intervention designed to reduce depressive complaints after stroke. Method of protocol development This intervention was based on cognitive behavioural therapy principles and was sh

  2. Description of the surface water filtration and ozone treatment system at the Northeast Fishery Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    A water filtration and ozone disinfection system was installed at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Northeast Fishery Center in Lamar, Pennsylvania to treat a surface water supply that is used to culture sensitive and endangered fish. The treatment system first passes the surface water through dr...

  3. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Behavioral Activation for the Treatment of Depression: Description and Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Jonathan W.; Baruch, David E.; Gaynor, Scott T.

    2006-01-01

    The field of clinical behavior analysis is growing rapidly and has the potential to affect and transform mainstream cognitive behavior therapy. To have such an impact, the field must provide a formulation of and intervention strategies for clinical depression, the "common cold" of outpatient populations. Two treatments for depression have emerged:…

  4. Significance of hanging total spine x-ray to estimate the indicative correction angle by brace wearing in idiopathic scoliosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuroki Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although most idiopathic scoliosis patients subject to conservative treatment in daily clinical practice, there have been no ideal methods to evaluate the spinal flexibility for the patients who are scheduled the brace treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of hanging total spine x-ray to estimate the indicative correction angle by brace wearing in idiopathic scoliosis patients. Methods One hundred seventy-six consecutive patients with idiopathic scoliosis who were newly prescribed the Osaka Medical College (OMC brace were studied. The study included 14 boys and 162 girls with a mean age of 13 years and 1 month. The type of curves consisted of 62 thoracic, 23 thoracolumbar, 22 lumbar, 42 double major, 14 double thoracic, and 13 triple curve pattern. We compared the Cobb angles on initial brace wearing (BA and in hanging position (HA. Of those, 108 patients who had main thoracic curves were selected and evaluated the corrective ability of OMC brace. These subjects were divided into three groups according to the relation between BA and HA (BA HA group, and then, maturity was compared among them. Results The average Cobb angle in upright position (UA of all cases was 31.0 ± 7.8°. The average BA and HA of all cases were 20.3 ± 9.5° and 21.1 ± 8.4°, respectively. The average chronological age was lowest in BA Conclusions The use of hanging total spine x-ray served as a useful tool to estimate the degree of correction possible curve within the OMC brace for main thoracic curve in idiopathic scoliosis. Maturity had some influence on the correlation between HA and BA. Namely, in immature patients, HA tended to be larger than BA. In contrast, in mature patients, HA had a tendency to be smaller than BA. With consideration for spinal flexibility based on maturity, in mature patients, larger BA than HA may be allowed. However, in immature patients, smaller BA than HA should be aimed.

  5. First-time admissions for opioid treatment: cross-sectional and descriptive study of new opioid users seeking treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flórez G

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gerardo Flórez,1,2 Ana López-Durán,3 Yolanda Triñanes,4 Jesús Osorio,5 Jaime Fraga,5 José Manuel Fernández,5 Elisardo Becoña,3 Manuel Arrojo5 1Addictive Disorders Assistance Unit, Complejo Hospitalario, Ourense, Spain; 2Center for Biomedical Research in Mental Health (CIBERSAM, Oviedo, Spain; 3Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychobiology, University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 4Galician Agency for Health Technology Assessment, Directorate General for Innovation and Management of Public Health, Galicia, Spain; 5Directorate General of Health Assistance, Galician Health Service, Galicia, Spain Background: The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the profiles of the new treatment demands posed by opioid addicts between 2005 and 2010 at the addictive disorders assistance units in Galicia, Spain. Methods: A cluster analysis was performed using data from 1,655 treatment entrants. Clusters were constructed using sociodemographic and medicolegal variables. A cluster analysis was also conducted according to age. Once clusters were defined, their association with the following variables was analyzed: age at first use of opioids, years of use, frequency of opioid use in the previous month, psychiatric treatment, cocaine use, existence of a drug-dependent partner, and source of referral. Results: Four clusters were obtained in the main analysis. Cluster 1 (34.01% consisted of young males, cluster 2 (16.19% consisted of not-so-young males, cluster 3 (32.62% consisted mainly of older males and a small group of females, and cluster 4 (17.18% was made up entirely of women. With regard to age-related clusters, two clusters were obtained in those under the age of 30 years: cluster 1 (73% without medicolegal complications and cluster 2 (27% with medicolegal complications. For those over the age of 30 years, two clusters were obtained: cluster 1 (53.92% with hardly any medicolegal complications and cluster 2 (46.08% with

  6. The traditional diagnosis and treatment of respiratory diseases: a description from Avicenna's Canon of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyyed Mehdi; Raza, Mohsin

    2009-12-01

    This article presents selected text on respiratory medicine from the famous book of medicine, Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb (the Canon of Medicine) by Avicenna (981-1037 AD), which was taught for 600 years as a standard text of medicine across medieval Europe. The authentic manuscript of the Canon of Medicine is located in the Central Library of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences, and the section on respiratory diseases was studied for the most relevant information - information that would be informative and interesting for present day physicians and pulmonologists. The results of the analysis are presented in the article. Respiratory diseases are discussed in depth in volume 3 of the Canon of Medicine. Avicenna discusses in detail the functional anatomy and physiopathology of the pulmonary diseases that were known in his time. He also describes the signs and symptoms of various respiratory diseases and conditions in the five chapters of volume 3 (breathing, voice, cough and hemoptysis, internal wounds and inflammations and principles of treatments) that are remarkably similar to those of modern pulmonary medicine. In addition, the herbal and nonherbal treatment of respiratory diseases and their signs and symptoms, mentioned in volume 2 of the Canon of Medicine, is also presented. In the time of Avicenna, the presentation of respiratory diseases, their treatment and their prognosis was much different than in modern times. There was more reliance on history, physical examination (which was mostly based on visual observation), individual variation, environmental factors, diet, and so on, for diagnosis and treatment. Nevertheless, going through a popular historic text such as the Canon of Medicine adds to our knowledge of the developments in the area of respiratory medicine at the time of Avicenna.

  7. Conceptual study of X-braced frames with different steel grades using cyclic half-scale tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Parviz; Sabouri-Ghomi, Saeid

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, an experimental and analytical study of two half-scale steel X-braced frames with equal nominal shear strength under cyclic loading is described. In these tests, all members except the braces are similar. The braces are made of various steel grades to monitor the effects of seismic excitation. Internal stiffeners are employed to limit the local buckling and increase the fracture life of the steel bracing. A heavy central core is introduced at the intersection of the braces to decrease their effective length. Recent seismic specifications are considered in the design of the X-braced frame members to verify their efficiency. The failure modes of the X-braced frames are also illustrated. It is observed that the energy dissipation capacity, ultimate load capacity and ductility of the system increase considerably by using lower grade steel and proposed detailing. Analytical modeling of the specimens using nonlinear finite element software supports the experimental findings.

  8. The Application of Parallel Robotics to Investigate the Effect of Lumbar Bracing on Trunk Muscle Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory N. Kawchuk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar bracing is prescribed frequently for disability caused by low back pain; however, investigations into this practice demonstrate a range of patient outcomes. This inconsistency may arise from the practice of employing voluntary, single-axis trunk movements when investigating braces. Alternatively, this study employed a parallel robot to create a standardised, multi-axis testing environment. Surface electromyographic (sEMG data were collected from the trunk of 24 asymptomatic participants, who were seated on the robot, tilted to 15°, then circumducted while attempting to maintain an upright posture. Multiple trials were performed for three randomised conditions: non-braced, soft-material brace and stiff-material brace. As expected, the sEMG activity was significantly reduced in the majority of muscle responses (201/240. Unexpectedly, a paradoxical increase in the sEMG activity was observed in 39/240 responses. While lumbar bracing reduces the sEMG activity on average, these data suggest the existence of an infrequent paradoxical response that may provide a possible explanation for the discordant results observed in previous bracing investigations.

  9. Technology and task parameters relating to the effectiveness of the bracing strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Wayne J.; Wang, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    The bracing strategy has been proposed in various forms as a way to improve robot performance. One version of the strategy employs independent stages of motion. The first stage, referred to as the large or bracing arm, carries the second stage of motion. After the first stage has completed its motion it is braced to provide a more rigid base of motion with a more accurate relationship to the parts to be manipulated. The hypothesis is that more rapid completion of certain tasks is possible with lighter arms using the bracing strategy. While it is easy to make conceptual arguments why this should be so, it is less easy to specify even approximately when this will be true for some reasonably generic situation. There is no relevant experience base with bracing arms to be compared to non-bracing arms. Furthermore, if one were interested in obtaining such practical experience, there would be no methodical guidance on the selection of an interesting case, one in which the unproven approach, bracing, can show its superiority. If one such case exists, only the extent of applicability of the new approach is in question. One set of interesting cases is likely to be applications in which a large workspace must be covered, but where a series of small accurate moves will remain within a smaller region of the total workspace. A prototype application with these characteristics is set up and a skeleton design of arms using the competing strategies are compared.

  10. The effect of ankle bracing on knee kinetics and kinematics during volleyball-specific tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, T; Ng, L; Campbell, A

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ankle bracing on knee kinetics and kinematics during volleyball tasks. Fifteen healthy, elite, female volleyball players performed a series of straight-line and lateral volleyball tasks with no brace and when wearing an ankle brace. A 14-camera Vicon motion analysis system and AMTI force plate were used to capture the kinetic and kinematic data. Knee range of motion, peak knee anterior-posterior and medial-lateral shear forces, and peak ground reaction forces that occurred between initial contact with the force plate and toe off were compared using paired sample t-tests between the braced and non-braced conditions (P volleyball tasks. However, ankle bracing was demonstrated to reduce knee lateral shear forces during all of the lateral movement volleyball tasks. Wearing the Active Ankle T2 brace will not impact knee joint range of motion and may in fact reduce shear loading to the knee joint in volleyball players.

  11. Medial collateral ligament knee sprains in college football. Effectiveness of preventive braces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, J P; Powell, J W; Smith, W; Martindale, A; Crowley, E; Monroe, J; Miller, R; Connolly, J; Hill, B A; Miller, D

    1994-01-01

    This is the second of 2 articles on a 3-year investigation of medial collateral ligament sprains of the knee to assess the effectiveness of prophylactic knee braces in NCAA Division I college football players. Position, string, type of session, and daily brace wear were recorded. The injury rates for braced and unbraced knees were used to create an incidence density ratio. The data were stratified and simultaneously controlled for position, string, and session and evaluated for their statistical significance. The 987 Big Ten players generated 155,772 knee exposures over the study period (50% braced). Noticeable differences existed in the rates of injury for the braced and unbraced knees in almost every position during practices, depending on player or nonplayer status. When the influential factors of position, string, and session are considered, there is a consistent but not statistically significant tendency for the players wearing preventive knee braces to experience a lower injury rate than for their unbraced counterparts. For starters and substitutes in the line positions, as well as the linebackers and tight ends, there was a consistent trend toward a lower injury rate in both practices and games. The braced players in the skill positions (backs/kickers), at least during games, exhibited a higher injury rate.

  12. Cyclic Testing of Steel Chevron Braces with Vertically Slotted Beam Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozlyn K. Bubela

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental tests were performed to study the seismic behavior and performance of modified steel chevron braced frame systems, which incorporate a vertical slotted connection (VSC detail between the top of the braces and the floor beam above. The VSC detail is intended to prevent vertical load transfer to the beam and limit brace forces to the compressive resistance of the members. Full-scale quasi-static cyclic tests were performed on two specimens with hollow tube braces, with one specimen having the braces filled with concrete. Both frames exhibited stable, predictable behavior under cyclic loading. The VSC detail provided free vertical movement of the brace assembly during both tests. However, its flexibility created a moderate reduction in the overall lateral stiffness of the frame. The concrete-filled tube specimen sustained higher peak loads, demonstrated greater residual strength and dissipated more energy than the hollow tube specimen due to the partial inhibition of local buckling by the concrete core. It was found that the VSC chevron braced frame system is a suitable concept for use in buildings in high-risk seismic zones.

  13. Coronary Artery Disease: A Descriptive Analysis of Risk Factors: Before and After Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dinkar, Suresh Rao, M Vakamudi, R Saldanha, KR Balakrishnan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing life span of man, the number of ageing people is also increasing, and along with that the number of diseases affecting them is also increasing. Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease is one of them. Coronary revascularization was started in 1960s through the pioneering efforts of David Sabiston and Kolessov. This is a retrospective descriptive study. A total number of 1050 Patients were operated on beating heart surgery from 1998 to Nov. 2002 out of which 852 patients were analysed to know the results and prognostic outcomes. Mean age was 57.8 years (range 31 - 80years with M:F ratio of 7:1. The pre-operative parameters studied were DM, HTN, hyperlipidemia, family history of CAD, smoking and past history of MI. other parameters included pulmonary disease, chronic renal failure, CVA, APD, PVD etc. 55.75% patients were diabetic, 53.99% were hypertensive and 24.4% had history of hyperlipidemia. Family history was positive in 12.9% of the patients, 25% were smokers and 44% had history of previous MI. average number of diseased vessels was 2.34 with triple vessel disease being most common. 6.6% had history of pulmonary diseases, 7.4% had pre-operative renal failure and 2% had past history of CV stroke. Overall in-hospital mortality was 1.4%. relative risk for mortality, morbidity, new onset of renal failure, CVA, arrhythmias, CCF were calculated. Mean hospital stay was 9.83days (range 6 - 41years, mean ICU stay was 74.3 hours (range 73 - 700years. Usage of blood and blood products was significantly less. Freedom from complications was 93%. LVEF<40%, age >70 years, high diastolic PA pressure> 15mm Hg were found to be significant risk factors for mortality. Females were found to be 2.6 times more at risk for mortality and development of complications as compared to males. Patients with previous history of MI were found to be more at risk of developing complications increasing their hospital and ICU stay.

  14. Effects of ankle braces upon agility course performance in high school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beriau, M R; Cox, W B; Manning, J

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of wearing the Aircast(TM) Sports Stirrup, Aircast(TM) Training brace, Swede-O(TM) brace, and DonJoy(TM) Ankle Ligament Protector while running an agility course. Eighty-five high school athletes with no history of ankle injury and no experience in wearing any ankle support served as subjects. Each subject participated in four separate testing sessions. During sessions 1 and 4, subjects ran the agility course under the control (unbraced) conditions. Sessions 2 and 3 consisted of randomly wearing the ankle braces while running the agility course. A questionnaire concerning support, comfort, and restriction was completed by each subject after wearing each of the braces. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures revealed that a significant difference existed between the agility times. Tukey's post hoc test indicated that a significant difference existed between each ankle brace and the control 2 agility times as well as a control 1 and control 2 time difference. The control time difference was attributed to a learning effect. An ANOVA with repeated measures of only the four braces revealed that a significant difference existed between the agility times. Tukey's post hoc test showed the only difference was between the DonJoy Ankle Ligament Protector and the Aircast Training brace. We concluded: 1) there is limited practical performance effect upon agility while wearing an ankle brace; and 2) an athlete's perceived comfort, support, and performance restriction are contributing factors that may directly influence the effectiveness of ankle bracing.

  15. Cost description of chemotherapy regimens for the treatment of metastatic pancreas cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Daniel A; Krishna, Kavya; Flowers, Christopher R; El-Rayes, Bassel F; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios; Noonan, Anne M

    2016-05-01

    Multiple chemotherapy regimens are available for the treatment of metastatic pancreas cancer (mPCA). Choice of regimen is based on the patient's performance status and toxicity profile of the regimen. The objective of this study was to analyze the costs of first-line regimens to further aid in decision-making and develop a platform upon which to assess value. We calculated the monthly cost for individual standard regimens (gemcitabine, gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel, gemcitabine/erlotinib and FOLFIRINOX) and the overall treatment cost for a course of therapy based on the median progression-free survival achieved in published studies. In addition to cost of drugs, we included administration costs and costs of toxicities (including growth factor support, blood product transfusion and hospitalization for toxicities). Costs for administration and management of adverse events were based on Medicare reimbursement rates for hospital and physician services. Drug costs were based on Medicare average sale prices (all 2014 US$). The monthly costs for gemcitabine, FOLFIRINOX, gemcitabine/erlotinib and gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel were $1363, $7234, $8007 and $12,221, respectively. The overall treatment costs for a course of the same regimens based on median PFS were $5043, $46,298, $51,004 and $67,216, respectively. The choice of chemotherapy regimen for mPCA should be based on tolerability and efficacy of the regimen individualized to patient's performance status. Healthcare systems have finite resources; thus, there is increasing emphasis on metrics to define value in health care when outcomes of therapy are similar or produce marked differences in value. These data provide useful financial information to incorporate into the decision-making process.

  16. Oral health status and treatment needs in institutionalized psychiatric patients : One year descriptive cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Manish

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES : Psychiatric patients are one of the special groups requiring attention as they are often neglected. Oral health is an major determinant of general health for psychiatric patients and may have a low priority in the context of mental illness. The present study was conducted to assess the oral health status and treatment needs of institutionalized psychiatric patients of Davangere. METHODS : 220 psychiatric patients admitted in two general hospitals of Davangere during the period of one year were included in the study. The oral health status was evaluated with respect to caries, oral hygiene, and periodontal status. RESULTS : Of the 180 examined with the response rate of 81.8%. 58.3% were males, mean age was 36.7 years, 57.8% had < 1 year of mental illness with a mean of 2.2 years, and 90% were self-sufficient. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the mean DMFT (0.92 increased with age, duration of mental illness, and irregularity of oral hygiene habits (P<0.001. Mean OHI-S score was 3.3 and multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the mean OHI-S score increased with age (P<0.001. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the CPI score increased with age, duration of mental illness, and degree of helplessness (P<0.001. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION : The findings of this study demonstrates low caries prevalence, poor oral hygiene, and extensive unmet needs for dental treatment.

  17. [Treatment of osteomyelitis with oral bactericidal antibiotics-- description of 9 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, S; Chuard, C; Regamey, C

    1996-01-27

    The efficacy of oral bactericidal antibiotics in the treatment of osteomyelitis is analyzed retrospectively by a review of 9 cases histories. The first patient was treated in 1982. Clinical and laboratory controls were reviewed up to 1.1.1995. In 6 patients S. aureus was isolated, while in 3 patients the organism could not be cultured but gram + cocci were almost likely. 5 cases of osteomyelitis were acute, 4 were chronic and in one case there was an infection of an artificial knee prothesis. The isolated S. aureus were sensitive to the antibiotics prescribed. 8 patients received a combination of flucloxacillin (2-4 g/day) and rifampicin (600 mg/day); one patient was treated with the combination amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (1500/425 mg/day) followed by ofloxacin (400 mg/day) and finally co-trimoxazole (320/1600 mg/day). 3 patients received all antibiotics orally; in 6 patients oral administration followed a short intravenous course of the antibiotic combination. The duration of treatment varied between 6 and 23 weeks. Follow-up extended over 9 months (n = 1), 14 months (n = 3), 4-7 years (n = 3), and 10-12 years (n = 2). In 8 cases the osteomyelitis was cured (89%). In our view, a combination of bactericidal oral antibiotics with good penetration into bone tissue can be prescribed in selected cases of osteomyelitis to shorten or even avoid the standard intravenous therapy of acute or chronic diseases.

  18. Overutilization of bracing in the management of penetrating spinal cord injury from gunshot wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhary, Nima; Nwosu, Kenneth; McCoy, Eric; Fukunaga, Dudley; Rolfe, Kevin

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Penetrating gunshot wounds (GSWs) to the spinal column are stable injuries and do not require spinal orthoses or bracing postinjury. Nonetheless, a high number of GSW-related spinal cord injury (SCI) patients are referred with a brace to national rehabilitation centers. Unnecessary bracing may encumber rehabilitation, create skin breakdown or pressure ulcers, and add excessive costs. The aim of this study was to confirm the stability of spinal column injuries from GSWs and quantify the overutilization rate of bracing based on long-term follow-up. METHODS This retrospective cohort study was performed at a nationally renowned rehabilitation center. In total, 487 GSW-related SCI patients were transferred for rehabilitation and identified over the last 14 years. Retrospective chart review and telephone interviews were conducted to identify patients who were braced at the initial treating institution and determine if late instability, deformity, or neurological deterioration resulted in secondary surgery or intervention. In addition, 396 unoperated patients were available for analysis after 91 patients were excluded for undergoing an initial destabilizing surgical dissection or laminectomy, thereby altering the natural history of the injury. All of these 396 patients who presented with a brace had bracing discontinued upon reaching the facility. RESULTS In total, 203 of 396 patients were transferred with a spinal brace, demonstrating an overutilization rate of 51%. No patients deteriorated neurologically or needed later surgery for spinal column deformity or instability attributable to the injury. All patients had stable injuries. The patterns of injury and severity of neurological injury did not vary between patients who were initially braced or unbraced. The average follow-up was 7.8 years (range 1-14 years) and the average age was 25 years (range 10-62 years). CONCLUSIONS The incidence of brace overutilization for penetrating GSW-related SCI was 51%. Long

  19. ABDOMINAL EXERCISE WITH BRACING, A THERAPEUTIC EFFICACY IN REDUCING DIASTASIS-RECTI AMONG POSTPARTAL FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Acharry

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Diastasis recti abdominis (DRA has been defined as an impairment characterized by the separation of the two rectus abdominis muscles along the linea alba , Diastasis of the rectus abdominis muscle (DRAM is common during and after pregnancy, and has been related to lumbo-pelvic instability and pelvic floor weakness. Women with DRAM are commonly referred to physiotherapists for non surgical management, but very few found to be effective. Objectives To determine if the effectiveness of Abdominal exercise with bracing in reducing the diastasis recti among postpartum females. Methodology: IP&OPD patients of Godavari hospital, Jalgaon for a period of 4 weeks. For this descriptive study a cross-sectional study design was incorporated. A number of (n=30 female patients within 1 month after delivery with Diastasis recti were selected. Each patient was screened, initially by using simple selection proforma relevant to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: A total (n=30 subjects were included in the study, these 30 subjects all are Females and one month and more after child birth. The subjects included in this study with an age from minimal 23 years to 34 years old. Number of off springs which is another variable used, was listed as 1(Minimum and 4(Maximum children’s. In this study a 26.6% of female are primiparous and 56.7% of them are multiparous. The collected information (data was tabulated and analyzed by using appropriate statistical analysis tools. 30 Female subjects having mean age 28.8(SD=3.23 in which both primiparous and multiparous women having diastasis recti within 1 month postpartum. Diastasis recti pretest was found to be 3.5(SD= 0.5085 Diastasis recti posttest was found to be 2.5(SD=0.5074 t value=29.00 and P value found to be less than 0.001 which is highly significant. Conclusion: Based on the available evidence and quality of this evidence, after the exercise regimen and bracing the Diastasis recti muscle

  20. Ankles back in randomized controlled trial (ABrCt: braces versus neuromuscular exercises for the secondary prevention of ankle sprains. Design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhagen Evert ALM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankle sprains are the most common sports and physical activity related injury. There is extensive evidence that there is a twofold increased risk for injury recurrence for at least one year post injury. In up to 50% of all cases recurrences result in disability and lead to chronic pain or instability, requiring prolonged medical care. Therefore ankle sprain recurrence prevention in athletes is essential. This RCT evaluates the effect of the combined use of braces and neuromuscular training (e.g. proprioceptive training/sensorimotor training/balance training against the individual use of either braces or neuromuscular training alone on ankle sprain recurrences, when applied to individual athletes after usual care. Methods/Design This study was designed as three way randomized controlled trial with one year follow-up. Healthy individuals between 12 and 70 years of age, who were actively participating in sports and who had sustained a lateral ankle sprain in the two months prior to inclusion, were eligible for inclusion. After subjects had finished ankle sprain treatment by means of usual care, they were randomised to any of the three study groups. Subjects in group 1 received an eight week neuromuscular training program, subjects in group 2 received a sports brace to be worn during all sports activities for the duration of one year, and group 3 received a combination of the neuromuscular training program and a sports brace to be worn during all sports activities for the duration of eight weeks. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and every month for 12 months therafter. The primary outcome measure was incidence of ankle sprain recurrences. Secondary outcome measures included the direct and indirect costs of recurrent injury, the severity of recurrent injury, and the residual complaints during and after the intervention. Discussion The ABrCt is the first randomized controlled trial to directly compare the secondary preventive

  1. Exploration of paclitaxel (Taxol) as a treatment for malignant tumors in cats: a descriptive case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jennifer; Doerr, Mary; Kitchell, Barbara E

    2015-02-01

    Paclitaxel, an effective chemotherapeutic agent in human oncology, has received little evaluation in feline patients. The diluent used to solubilize paclitaxel, polyoxyethylated castor oil (Cremophor EL), causes anaphylactoid reactions in human and dogs, which limits enthusiasm for use of this agent in veterinary oncology. Nine feline patients with measurable malignant tumors were treated with paclitaxel at a dosage of 80 mg/m(2) intravenously every 21 days for up to two doses. Adverse effects, including evidence of toxicity and anaphylactoid reactions, were assessed. Tumor response, progression and patient time to progression (TTP) were also recorded. Adverse effects included grade III and IV thrombocytopenia, grade III gastrointestinal signs (vomiting and constipation) and hypersensitivity reactions, seen in a total of five patients. Anaphylactoid reactions resolved with appropriate management. Stable disease and partial response were observed in 56% of feline patients. Median TTP was 28 days (range 15-45 days). Intravenous paclitaxel is a safe treatment option for feline malignant tumor patients. Future investigation is warranted to explore the effectiveness and appropriate application of this agent for specific tumor types.

  2. [Treatment and personality development with art therapy. A description of the method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antalfai, Márta

    2007-01-01

    Composition as a creative form of self-expression plays an important role not only in maintaining health, but also in gaining insight into the healthy personality and in the definition of this category. It seems nowadays that psychology has collected more information on the pathological personality than on the healthy one. Therefore, different workshops of art therapy are also scenes of a "spiritual alchemy" because they can give a deeper insight into the personality in addition to the primary aim of treatment. The method of the thematic art psychotherapy based on catharsis-experience is based on analytical psychology and on analytically oriented group-therapy. The aim is to generate artificial catharsis-experiences employing the impressive forces of poems, music compositions in order to raise the unconscious or the partly experienced partner-conflicts to the surface, which could manifest themselves in the process of the creative work and could be elaborated in group-activity. The creative process (specially adapted art techniques) provides good opportunities for patients to depict their traumas and complexes and also to resolve them involving the whole personality and not only at a cognitive level. The method, tuned to the workings of nature, helps the personality to develop the emotional and volitional segments, the sensitive and empathetic capabilities, as well as the recognition skills of consciousness. In the therapeutic process, the work of art that is created holds a mirror to the creator, offering to him or her the opportunity to face the real complex at the background the actual conflict. The method aims to achieve a reconstruction of psychic dynamics in two ways. The first is an emotional resonance to the changes of nature, of the year and of the feasts, in which the psychic process starts from inside to the direction of the outside world (psychic enrichment and accomodation). The second way leads from the outer world to the inner one and this psychic

  3. Semi-rigid brace and taping decrease variability of the ankle joint position sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Barbanera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of taping and the semi-rigid ankle brace on ankle joint position sense. Sixteen healthy women (20.8 ± 2.3 years old actively placed the ankle in a target position. The experimental conditions were: 1 wearing no orthosis device, 2 using semi-rigid brace, and 3 wearing ankle taping. Absolute error (AE and variable error (VE were calculated to obtain the joint position sense. We found an interaction effect between condition and target angle at 15o of plantar flexion for the variable VE, which showed smaller errors during the use of taping and semi-rigid brace. In conclusion, the use of ankle joint orthoses, whether taping or semi-rigid brace, decrease the variability of the position sense at 15o of plantar flexion, potentially decreasing ankle sprains occurrence.

  4. Sub structure on-line tests on braced frames with self-returning joint mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-hyouk; Ohi, Kenichi

    2006-03-01

    A Ni-Ti-Co alloy exhibits shape memory effect, pseudo-elasticity, and these transition properties depending on the temperature when used. This paper examined a first-step application of such an alloy to an earthquake resistant structural system by making and testing a pseudo-elastic bracing system. Substructure pseudo-dynamic tests were performed to examine the behavior of pseudo-elastic bracing system during an earthquake when combined with fictitious hysteretic dampers. A pseudo-elastic bracing system is better to be used with other hysteretic elements such as a hysteretic damper. A damper provides energy dissipation within small displacement levels, and a pseudo-elastic bracing system works in turn as a back-up/fail-safe system when an accidental failure of damper or damper interface occurs, and also it helps to pull back the structure to the original position by uninstalling the damper after earthquake.

  5. Vertebral Body Stapling versus Bracing for Patients with High-Risk Moderate Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laury Cuddihy

    2015-01-01

    =0.07] and gender. Results. For thoracic curves 25–34°, VBS had a success rate (defined as curve progression <10° of 81% versus 61% for bracing (P=0.16. In thoracic curves 35–44°, VBS and bracing both had a poor success rate. For lumbar curves, success rates were similar in both groups for curves measuring 25–34°. Conclusion. In this comparison of two cohorts of patients with high-risk (Risser 0-1 moderate IS (25–44°, in smaller thoracic curves (25–34° VBS provided better results as a clinical trend as compared to bracing. VBS was found not to be effective for thoracic curves ≥35°. For lumbar curves measuring 25–34°, results appear to be similar for both VBS and bracing, at 80% success.

  6. Peculiarity of component interaction in {l_brace}Y, Dy{r_brace}-Mn-Sn ternary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaka, V.V. [Department of Materials Engineering and Applied Physics, Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ustyyanovycha Str. 5, 79013 Lviv (Ukraine); Konyk, M. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya Str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Romaka, L., E-mail: romakal@franko.lviv.ua [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya Str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Pavlyuk, V. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya Str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Jan Dlugosz University, Institute of Chemistry, Environmental Protection and Biotechnology, al. Armii Krajowej 13/15, 42200 Czestochowa (Poland); Ehrenberg, H. [Institute for Complex Materials, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Tkachuk, A. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya Str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine)

    2011-07-14

    Highlights: > {l_brace}Y, Dy{r_brace}-Mn-Sn ternary systems at 770 K are characterized by formation of stannides with general compositions RMn{sub 6}Sn{sub 6} and R{sub 4}Mn{sub 4}Sn{sub 7}. > The crystal structure of YMn{sub 6}Sn{sub 6} was determined by single crystal and powder diffraction methods. > Structural analysis showed that Dy{sub 4}Mn{sub 4}Sn{sub 7} compound is disordered. > Isostructural R{sub 4}Mn{sub 4}Sn{sub 7} compounds were also found with Gd, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm(confirmed), Yb, and Lu. - Abstract: The phase equilibria in the Y-Mn-Sn and Dy-Mn-Sn ternary systems were studied at 770 K by means of X-ray and metallographic analyses in the whole concentration range. Both Y-Mn-Sn and Dy-Mn-Sn systems are characterized by formation of two ternary compounds RMn{sub 6}Sn{sub 6} (MgFe{sub 6}Ge{sub 6}-type, space group P6/mmm) and R{sub 4}Mn{sub 4}Sn{sub 7} (Zr{sub 4}Co{sub 4}Ge{sub 7}-type, space group I4/mmm). The disorder in Dy{sub 4}Mn{sub 4}Sn{sub 7} compound was found by single crystal method. Compounds with the same type of structure were also found with Gd, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm (confirmed), Yb, and Lu and their lattice parameters were determined.

  7. Performance-Based Seismic Demand Assessment of Concentrically Braced Steel Frame Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chui-Hsin

    2010-01-01

    The special concentrically steel braced frame (SCBF) system is one of the most effective struc-tural systems to resist lateral forces. Because of its effectiveness and straightforward design, many SCBFs are incorporated in structures throughout the world. However, the highly nonlin-ear behavior associated with buckling and non-ductile fracture of braces reduces the ability of the system to dissipate energy resulting in undesirable modes of behavior. While many studies have investigated the...

  8. The Effect of Analysis Methods on the Response of Steel-Braced Frame Buildings for Seismic Retrofitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodrati Amiri, G.; Hamidi Jamnani, H.; Mohebi, B.

    In this study, steel-braced frame buildings which are designed according to 2800 Standard of Iran (3rd revision), will be evaluated by four main types of structural analysis (Linear Static, Linear Dynamic, Nonlinear Static and Nonlinear Dynamic Analyses) with regard to Seismic Rehabilitation Code for Existing Buildings in Iran (based on FEMA 273). The discrepancy of the results derived from these four types of analysis and also seismic performance of the buildings in both linear and nonlinear treatments will be analyzed. At first, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) for 2 hazard levels has been carried out at center of Tehran, then three 3D models including 3 common buildings (5, 10 and 15-story) have been selected and designed subjected to earthquake according to 2800 Standard. Following this, these three 3D models have been analyzed and controlled based on Seismic Rehabilitation Code for Existing Buildings. The selected rehabilitation goal for this research is Fair (Controlling Life Safety in Hazard Level 1 + Collapse Prevention in Hazard Level 2). According to the results of this research, the accuracy of linear analysis for evaluating bracing elements is very low, in evaluating columns the results of linear static analysis is much more acceptable than linear dynamic and nonlinear static analysis. Also, by increasing the number of stories the accuracy of nonlinear static analysis decreases.

  9. Oriented attachment growth of BiOCl nanosheets with exposed {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} facets and photocatalytic activity of the hierarchical nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Zhankui, E-mail: zkcui@foxmail.com [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China); Mi, Liwei [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China); Zeng, Dawen [State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die and Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-02-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Growth of BiOCl nanosheets in EG medium was experimentally revealed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oriented attachment mechanism governed formation of single crystalline BiOCl. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The exposed facets of BiOCl nanosheets were {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} planes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples could efficiently degrade MO irradiated either by UV or by Vis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high efficiency was associated with the exposed {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} facets of BiOCl. - Abstract: The formation mechanism of nanosheet assembled BiOCl nanostructures in non-aqueous solvothermal system was investigated through time series experiments. The products obtained at different reaction times were characterized by XRD, SEM and (HR)TEM techniques. The photocatalytic property of the samples was measured by decomposing the organic dye of methyl orange. The ability to generate hydroxyl radicals for the samples was also measured by photoluminescence method using coumarin as fluorescence probe molecules. It was revealed that oriented attachment was responsible for the slow transformation of BiOCl from polycrystalline nanoparticles to single crystalline nanosheets. The role of the solvent ethylene glycol and the interaction with the other species during the oriented attachment growth of the BiOCl nanosheets was discussed. The photocatalytic activity tests demonstrated that the BiOCl nanostructures could efficiently decompose methyl orange under either UV light irradiation or visible light irradiation. The high photodegradation efficiency was associated with the atomic arrangement of exposed {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} facets.

  10. Bracing the trunk and neck in young adults leads to a more aged-like gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Daniel M; Kelleran, Kyle J; Morrison, Steven

    2016-09-01

    Older individuals typically walk at slower speeds, with shorter step lengths, greater step widths and spend a larger proportion of the gait cycle in double stance. Changes in neck and trunk mobility may underlie some of the changes in walking seen with increasing age. Consequently, this study was designed to assess whether externally increasing trunk/neck stiffness in young adults leads to similar changes in gait pattern observed with aging. Twelve young adults (20-29 years), sixteen old adults (60-69 years) and fifteen older adults (70-79 years) walked across a 20' pressure sensitive GAITRite© instrumented walkway at their preferred speed. The young adults also walked under three bracing conditions: (1) Neck braced, (2) Trunk braced, and (3) Neck and Trunk braced. The results revealed that the old and older age groups walked significantly slower, with a shorter step length and with a narrower base of support (p'syoung adults. In young adults, combined neck and trunk bracing led to reduced walking speed, shorter step length, wider base of support and a larger proportion of the gait cycle spent in double stance (p'sadults remained less than fully braced young adults (p'syoung individuals leads to systematic gait changes similar to aging. Consequently, age-related changes in mobility of the neck and torso may in part contribute to the decrements in walking seen for older adults.

  11. Development of [l brace]100[r brace] texture in silicon steel sheets by isothermal austenite[yields]ferrite transformations and its mechanism. Keiso kohan ni okeru toon [gamma][yields][alpha] hentai ni yoru [l brace]100[r brace] shugo soshiki no keisei to sono kiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomida, T. (Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan). Advanced Technology Research Lab.); Tanaka, T. (Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan). Iron and Steel Research Lab.)

    1993-12-01

    The texture in silicon steel sheets has been studied during this half of century and the methods for forming the textures suitable as the soft-magnetic materials of [l brace]110[r brace][l angle]001[r angle] as well as [l brace]100[r brace][l angle]001[r angle] have been found. However, few researches has been carried out on the silicon steel using positively the innate properties of the steel such as the transformation between the austenite ([gamma]) and [alpha]-ferrite and the recrystallization in the coexisting area of [alpha]/[gamma] duplex. In this study, the isothermal [alpha][yields][gamma] transformation during the process of vacuum-annealing and decarburizing-annealing of 2% silicon steel containing carbon and Mn and the texture formation accompanied therewith are examined. The conclusions are as follows. The isothermal [alpha][yields][gamma] transformation occurs in the layer just below the surface and the structure of the surface becomes the single phase of [alpha]-ferrite in the vacuum of 10[sup -3]Pa and the temperature is kept constant within the range of [alpha]/[gamma] duplex temperature or [gamma]-phase temperature as from 850 to 1050 centigrade. This surface structure develops to the strong [l brace]100[r brace] texture. 12 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. An innovative seismic bracing system based on a superelastic shape memory alloy ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nan; Jeon, Jong-Su; Hodgson, Darel E.; DesRoches, Reginald

    2016-05-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have great potential in seismic applications because of their remarkable superelasticity. Seismic bracing systems based on SMAs can mitigate the damage caused by earthquakes. The current study investigates a bracing system based on an SMA ring which is capable of both re-centering and energy dissipation. This lateral force resisting system is a cross-braced system consisting of an SMA ring and four tension-only cable assemblies, which can be applied to both new construction and seismic retrofit. The performance of this bracing system is examined through a quasi-static cyclic loading test and finite element (FE) analysis. This paper describes the experimental design in detail, discusses the experimental results, compares the performance with other bracing systems based on SMAs, and presents an Abaqus FE model calibrated on the basis of experimental results to simulate the superelastic behavior of the SMA ring. The experimental results indicate that the seismic performance of this system is promising in terms of damping and re-centering. The FE model can be used in the simulation of building structures using the proposed bracing system.

  13. Experimental and analytical studies on the seismic behavior of conventional and hybrid braced frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jiun-Wei

    This dissertation summarizes both experimental and analytical studies on the seismic response of conventional steel concentrically braced frame systems of the type widely used in North America, and preliminary studies of an innovative hybrid braced frame system: the Strong-Back System. The research work is part of NEES small group project entitled "International Hybrid Simulation of Tomorrow's Braced Frames." In the experimental phase, a total of four full-scale, one-bay, two-story conventional braced frame specimens with different bracing member section shapes and gusset plate-to-beam connection details were designed and tested at the NEES Berkeley Laboratory. Three braced frame specimens were tested quasi-statically using the same predefined loading protocol to investigate the inelastic cyclic behavior of code-compliant braced frames at both the global and local level. The last braced frame specimen was nearly identical to one of those tested quasi-statically. However, it was tested using hybrid simulation techniques to examine the sensitivity of inelastic behavior on loading sequence and to relate the behavior observed to different levels of seismic hazard. Computer models of the test specimens were developed using two different computer software programs. In the software framework OpenSees fiber-based line elements were used to simulate global buckling of members and yielding and low-cycle fatigue failure at sections. The LS-DYNA analysis program was also used to model individual struts and the test specimens using shell elements with adaptive meshing and element erosion features. This program provided enhanced ability to simulate section local buckling, strain concentrations and crack development. The numerical results were compared with test results to assess and refine and the ability of the models to predict braced frame behavior. A series of OpenSees numerical cyclic component simulations were then conducted using the validated modeling approach. Two

  14. The effect of a knee brace on gait parameters of hypertonic hemiplegic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Modisane

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the useof a knee brace on 15 subjects with hypertonic hemiparesis. The middlecerebral artery was involved in all subjects. The Ashworth scale was usedto screen for the presence of spasticity in the quadriceps muscles.Measurements of gait speed, step and stride length were taken in the middle 10 metres of a 15 metre paper walkway. A comparison of these gait parameters without and with the use of a knee brace was made. A ques-tionnaire was also used to evaluate how subjects responded to the use of aknee brace.The results showed that the mean speed for all 15 subjects increased withthe use of a brace, (p = 0.05. Step and stride length without and with the use of a brace showed no statistical differences.It was therefore concluded that the FECK brace appears to have an effect on the walking speed of subjects withhypertonic  hemiparesis

  15. (Vapour + liquid) equilibria of the {l_brace}1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a) + n-butane (HC-600){r_brace} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Jihoon [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gangwon [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong-Jin [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwayong [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of) ]. E-mail: hwayongk@snu.ac.kr

    2007-08-15

    Binary (vapour + liquid) equilibrium data were obtained for the {l_brace}1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a) + n-butane (HC-600){r_brace} system at temperatures from 313.15 K to 363.15 K. These experiments were carried out with a circulating-type apparatus with on-line gas chromatography. The experimental data were correlated well by Peng-Robinson equation of state using the Wong-Sandler mixing rules. This system shows positive azeotropic phase behaviour.

  16. Characterization of {gamma}{prime}-Fe{sub 4}N precipitates in a compound layer formed by austenitic nitrocarburizing treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Rong, Y.; Chen, X.; Hu, G. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Materials Science

    1995-04-01

    The precipitation of {gamma}{prime}-Fe{sub 4}N phase from the {var_epsilon}-matrix in a quenched and aged compound layer of 0.2% C steel formed by austenitic nitrocarburizing treatment has been investigated through transmission electron microscopy. The orientation relationships between the {gamma}{prime} phase and the {var_epsilon} matrix is determined to be {l_brace}0001{r_brace}{sub {var_epsilon}}//{l_brace}111{r_brace}{sub {gamma}{prime}} and <1{bar 2}10>{sub {var_epsilon}}//<011>{sub {gamma}{prime}}. The {gamma}{prime} precipitates appearing in thin plates in the {l_brace}0001{r_brace} planes of {var_epsilon} matrix are sometimes observed to be 180{degree} related to each other. The mechanism of age-hardening in the compound layer is also discussed.

  17. A descriptive cross-sectional international study to explore current practices in the assessment, prevention and treatment of skin tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Kimberly; Baranoski, Sharon; Holloway, Samantha; Langemo, Diane; Regan, Mary

    2014-08-01

    This study presents the results of a descriptive, cross-sectional, online international survey in order to explore current practices in the assessment, prediction, prevention and treatment of skin tears (STs). A total of 1127 health care providers (HCP) from 16 countries completed the survey. The majority of the respondents (69·6%, n = 695) reported problems with the current methods for the assessment and documentation of STs with an overwhelming majority (89·5%, n = 891) favouring the development of a simplified method of assessment. Respondents ranked equipment injury during patient transfer and falls as the main causes of STs. The majority of the samples indicated that they used non-adhesive dressings (35·89%, n = 322) to treat a ST, with the use of protective clothing being the most common method of prevention. The results of this study led to the establishment of a consensus document, classification system and a tool kit for use by practitioners. The authors believe that this survey was an important first step in raising the global awareness of STs and to stimulate discussion and research of these complex acute wounds.

  18. Cloud-point measurements of the {l_brace}H{sub 2}O + poly(ethylene glycol) + NaNO{sub 3}{r_brace} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Yecid P.; Taboada, Maria E. [CICITEM, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Antofagasta (Chile); Galleguillos, Hector R., E-mail: hgalleguillos@uantof.cl [CICITEM, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Antofagasta (Chile)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > CP temperatures of the {l_brace}H{sub 2}O + PEG + NaNO{sub 3}{r_brace} system were measured by the turbidimetry method. > CP temperatures at constant NaNO{sub 3} concentration and different concentrations of PEG were measured. > For a constant NaNO{sub 3} concentration, CP temperature decreases as the PEG concentration increases. > For a constant PEG concentration, CP temperature decreases as the NaNO{sub 3} concentration increases. > The phase diagram was correlated by the Flory-Huggins model. - Abstract: The cloud-point (CP) temperatures and phase separation of {l_brace}H{sub 2}O + poly(ethylene glycol) + NaNO{sub 3}{r_brace} ternary system is studied by the turbidimetry method using a reaction calorimeter. The phase separation was also observed by visual inspection. Differences between the CP measured using the turbidimetry method and visual inspection, was up {+-}0.5 K. The Flory-Huggins model with a temperature and concentration-dependent interaction parameter was employed to correlate the phase diagram of the system. As a result of the correlation an average absolute deviation of 0.002 is obtained.

  19. TRUNK MUSCLE ACTIVITIES DURING ABDOMINAL BRACING: COMPARISON AMONG MUSCLES AND EXERCISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumiaki Maeo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal bracing is often adopted in fitness and sports conditioning programs. However, there is little information on how muscular activities during the task differ among the muscle groups located in the trunk and from those during other trunk exercises. The present study aimed to quantify muscular activity levels during abdominal bracing with respect to muscle- and exercise-related differences. Ten healthy young adult men performed five static (abdominal bracing, abdominal hollowing, prone, side, and supine plank and five dynamic (V- sits, curl-ups, sit-ups, and back extensions on the floor and on a bench exercises. Surface electromyogram (EMG activities of the rectus abdominis (RA, external oblique (EO, internal oblique (IO, and erector spinae (ES muscles were recorded in each of the exercises. The EMG data were normalized to those obtained during maximal voluntary contraction of each muscle (% EMGmax. The % EMGmax value during abdominal bracing was significantly higher in IO (60% than in the other muscles (RA: 18%, EO: 27%, ES: 19%. The % EMGmax values for RA, EO, and ES were significantly lower in the abdominal bracing than in some of the other exercises such as V-sits and sit-ups for RA and EO and back extensions for ES muscle. However, the % EMGmax value for IO during the abdominal bracing was significantly higher than those in most of the other exercises including dynamic ones such as curl-ups and sit-ups. These results suggest that abdominal bracing is one of the most effective techniques for inducing a higher activation in deep abdominal muscles, such as IO muscle, even compared to dynamic exercises involving trunk flexion/extension movements

  20. Shaking Table Tests on R.C. Frame with Dissipative Bracings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Maria Gabriella; Balducci, Francesco; Antonucci, Rodolfo

    2008-07-01

    The use of dissipative bracings in R. C. frames is of particular interest in seismic-prone European and Mediterranean countries for retrofit of existing buildings designed according to non-seismic specifications or old seismic codes, without a capacity design approach and therefore lacking ductility. The supplemental damping offered by the dissipative bracings allows the reduction of the ductility demands in R. C. structural members and thus can significantly reduce their damage. However, most of the experimental research carried out in recent years concerns the use of dissipative bracings in steel structures. This paper describes shaking table tests carried out on a one-bay, two-storey, full-scale spatial R. C. frame equipped with two different types of dissipative braces: fluid viscous dampers atop chevron braces, or buckling restrained braces along the diagonal. Tests were also conducted on the same frame without supplemental damping devices. Scope of these tests was the experimental verification of the effectiveness of dissipative braces in the retrofit of existing R. C.-framed buildings. Shaking table tests were conducted at increasing PGA levels. Various measurements were taken to monitor both overall as well as localized structure behaviour. Results demonstrate that the introduction of these devices could lead to the dissipation of up to 95% of input energy, thereby considerably reducing the ductility requirement of R. C. elements. A reduction of inter-storey drift of at least 50% was observed with all the dampers, in comparison with the bare frame. For example, in one case, the maximum interstorey drift in the test at PGA = 0.23 g was 0.29%, well below the limit of 0.5% usually given by the standards as the SLS limit to avoid damage to masonry infills.

  1. Seismic Energy Demand of Buckling-Restrained Braced Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyunhoon; Kim, Jinkoo

    2008-07-01

    In this study seismic analyses of steel structures were carried out to examine the effect of ground motion characteristics and structural properties on energy demands using 60 earthquake ground motions recorded in different soil conditions, and the results were compared with those of previous works. Analysis results show that ductility ratios and the site conditions have significant influence on input energy. The ratio of hysteretic to input energy is considerably influenced by the ductility ratio and the strong motion duration. It is also observed that as the predominant periods of the input energy spectra are significantly larger than those of acceleration response spectra used in the strength design, the strength demand on a structure designed based on energy should be checked especially in short period structures. For that reason framed structures with buckling-restrained-braces (BRBs) were designed in such a way that all the input energy was dissipated by the hysteretic energy of the BRBs, and the results were compared with those designed by conventional strength-based design procedure.

  2. An Experimental Study on Non-Compression X-Bracing Systems Using Carbon Fiber Composite Cable for Seismic Strengthening of RC Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Seok Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-bracing (X-bracing is one of the most popular methods of seismic retrofitting, and has been shown to significantly increase the structural stiffness and strength of buildings. Conventional steel X-bracing methods typically exhibit brittle failure at the connection between the brace and the building, or buckling failure of the braces. This study investigated the structural properties of a new type of non-compression X-bracing system using carbon fiber composite cable (CFCC. This non-compression X-bracing system uses CFCC bracing and bolt connections between structural members and the terminal fixer of the CFCC, instead of conventional steel bracing. The aim is to overcome the brittle and buckling failures that can occur at the connection and bracings with conventional steel X-bracing methods. We carried out cyclic loading tests, and the maximum load carrying capacity and deformation were investigated, as well as hysteresis in the lateral load–drift relations. The test results revealed that the CFCC X-bracing system installed in reinforced concrete frames enhanced the strength markedly, and buckling failure of the bracing was not observed.

  3. Analysis and Calculation of Axial Stiffness of Tubular X-joints under Compression on Braces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Guo-zhi; ZHAO Jin-cheng

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the influence factors of axial stiffness of tubular X-joints. The analysis model of tubular joints using plate and shell finite element method is also made. Systematic single-parameter analysis of tubular X-joints is performed using Ansys program. The influences of those factors, including ratio of brace diameter to chord diameter (β), ratio of chord diameter to twice chord thickness (γ), ratio of brace wall thickness to that of chord (τ), brace-to-chord intersection angle (θ), and chord stress ratio, ratio of another brace diameter to chord diameter, in-plane and out-of-plane moment of braces, etc., on stiffness of tubular X-joints are analyzed.Two non-dimensional parameters-joint axial stiffness factor ηN and axial force capacity factor ωN are proposed,and the relationship curve of the two factors is determined. Computational formulas of tubular X-joint axial stiffness are obtained by multi-element regression technology. The formulas can be used in design and analysis of steel tubular structures.

  4. Inelastic behavior of cold-formed braced walls under monotonic and cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerami, Mohsen; Lotfi, Mohsen; Nejat, Roya

    2015-06-01

    The ever-increasing need for housing generated the search for new and innovative building methods to increase speed and efficiency and enhance quality. One method is the use of light thin steel profiles as load-bearing elements having different solutions for interior and exterior cladding. Due to the increase in CFS construction in low-rise residential structures in the modern construction industry, there is an increased demand for performance inelastic analysis of CFS walls. In this study, the nonlinear behavior of cold-formed steel frames with various bracing arrangements including cross, chevron and k-shape straps was evaluated under cyclic and monotonic loading and using nonlinear finite element analysis methods. In total, 68 frames with different bracing arrangements and different ratios of dimensions were studied. Also, seismic parameters including resistance reduction factor, ductility and force reduction factor due to ductility were evaluated for all samples. On the other hand, the seismic response modification factor was calculated for these systems. It was concluded that the highest response modification factor would be obtained for walls with bilateral cross bracing systems with a value of 3.14. In all samples, on increasing the distance of straps from each other, shear strength increased and shear strength of the wall with bilateral bracing system was 60 % greater than that with lateral bracing system.

  5. Enhancement of Seismic Performance Using Shear Link Braces in a Building Designed Only for Gravity Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniyar, S. U.; Paul, D. K.

    2012-02-01

    The present work attempts to study the behaviour of building designed for gravity loads only under the effect of lateral seismic load. Such a building is generally deficient against lateral forces and need to be retrofitted against lateral earthquake forces. A retrofitting scheme by providing aluminium shear link with chevron braces is suggested to improve its performance. Past earthquakes have shown a great deal of damages to the deficient RC frame buildings designed without any consideration to the lateral earthquake forces. Chevron braces with the aluminium shear link can be implemented as an effective retrofit measure. A comparison of the performance of building initially designed for gravity load only with the retrofitted building using chevron braces with the aluminium shear link is presented in this paper. The behaviour of building is worked out by performing nonlinear static pushover analysis and nonlinear time history analyses. A parametric study has also been carried out to study the effect of shear link and braces on the retrofitted building. The performance of RC building designed for gravity loads only as evaluated from the nonlinear static pushover analysis lies in life safety and collapse prevention range for DBE and MCE level of earthquakes respectively. The same building when retrofitted by using chevron braces with aluminium shear link show improved performance. This device is very simple, economic, effective and can be placed in a building very easily. The dissipation of damaging energy/damage is localised in shear link which can be replaced after a major earthquake.

  6. Investigation of the nonlinear seismic behavior of knee braced frames using the incremental dynamic analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheidaii, Mohammad Reza; TahamouliRoudsari, Mehrzad; Gordini, Mehrdad

    2016-06-01

    In knee braced frames, the braces are attached to the knee element rather than the intersection of beams and columns. This bracing system is widely used and preferred over the other commonly used systems for reasons such as having lateral stiffness while having adequate ductility, damage concentration on the second degree convenience of repairing and replacing of these elements after Earthquake. The lateral stiffness of this system is supplied by the bracing member and the ductility of the frame attached to the knee length is supplied through the bending or shear yield of the knee member. In this paper, the nonlinear seismic behavior of knee braced frame systems has been investigated using incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) and the effects of the number of stories in a building, length and the moment of inertia of the knee member on the seismic behavior, elastic stiffness, ductility and the probability of failure of these systems has been determined. In the incremental dynamic analysis, after plotting the IDA diagrams of the accelerograms, the collapse diagrams in the limit states are determined. These diagrams yield that for a constant knee length with reduced moment of inertia, the probability of collapse in limit states heightens and also for a constant knee moment of inertia with increasing length, the probability of collapse in limit states increases.

  7. Influence of patellofemoral bracing on pain, knee extensor torque, and gait function in females with patellofemoral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Christopher M; Doubleday, Kathryn L; Escudero, Carina

    2008-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of a patellofemoral brace on pain response, knee extensor torque production, and gait function in females with patellofemoral pain (PFP). Sixteen females between the ages of 14 and 46 with diagnosis of PFP participated. Knee extensor torque was measured by using a LIDO isokinetic dynamometer. Pain levels were documented by using the Visual Analog Pain Scale. Stride characteristics during the conditions of free walk, fast walk, ascend stairs, descend stairs, ascend ramp, and descend ramp were obtained with a stride analyzer unit. EMG activity of the vasti musculature was recorded by using indwelling, bipolar, wire electrodes. Knee joint motion was assessed by using a VICON motion analysis system. All testing was performed with and without the Bauerfeind Genutrain P3 patellofemoral brace. There were no significant differences in torque production, pain levels, and stride characteristics between braced and non-braced trials. In addition, there were no significant differences in mean vasti EMG between braced and non-braced trials. When averaged across all conditions, a small but statistically significant increase in knee flexion was found during the braced trials. Although the current study did not find significant improvements in the clinical measures evaluated, 8 of the 16 subjects did experience a decrease in knee pain. This finding suggests that certain patients with PFP may respond favorably to bracing, and criteria must be established to determine which patients would best benefit from such an intervention.

  8. Modal parameters of two incomplete and complete guitars differing in the bracing pattern of the soundboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrodzka, Ewa; Łapa, Andrzej; Linde, Bogumił B J; Rosenfeld, Eike

    2011-10-01

    Similarities and differences in vibrational behavior of two guitars having a symmetric Torres bracing pattern and an asymmetric pattern forming a lattice on a soundboard are investigated by means of the modal analysis technique and laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) measurements. Instruments are investigated before and after a bridge and strings assembling (i.e., they are incomplete or complete). The bracing pattern and the absence/presence of the bridge and strings have some effect on modal frequencies and mode shapes. The bracing pattern does not affect the sequence of at least first three low frequency mode shapes of incomplete/complete instruments but affects their modal frequencies. Depending on frequency, the bridge behaves either as a rigid or a flexible structure.

  9. The Seismic Performance Evaluation of An Eccentrically Braced Steel Frame by Non-Linear Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Durgun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to investigate the non-linear response and to assess the seismic performance of a six story eccentrically braced steel frame (EBF. For this, split-K-braced EBF with high ductility level designed according to the Turkish Earthquake Code-2007 (TEC-07 is analyzed under seven selected earthquake records. The performance of the EBF is assessed considering drift, story and base shear demands, brace and column axial forces and bending moment demands, link beam shear force and rotation demands. Mean values of the demands are used in the performance assessment. The provisions based on capacity design approach specified in TEC-07 for EBFs with high ductility level are discussed by employing the findings.

  10. Use of an abduction brace for developmental dysplasia of the hip after failure of Pavlik harness use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedequist, Daniel; Kasser, James; Emans, John

    2003-01-01

    The authors reviewed the records of 15 infants who were treated with an abduction brace after Pavlik harness use for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) failed. Failure was defined as persistent dislocation or instability of the hip. Thirteen of these 15 patients had resolution of DDH with the use of an abduction brace. The median time spent in the brace before stabilization of examination findings was 24 days; the median time in the brace before normalization of ultrasound parameters was 46 days. There were no complications with regard to use of the abduction orthosis. At final follow-up of an average of 3 years and 7 months, no patient had undergone surgery and no patient had residual dysplasia or avascular necrosis of the hip. The two patients in whom both the Pavlik harness and abduction brace failed went on to successful closed reduction and spica cast application.

  11. Effects of Ankle Braces Upon Agility Course Performance in High School Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Beriau, Mark R.; Cox, William B.; Manning, James

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of wearing the AircastTM Sports Stirrup, AircastTM Training brace, Swede-OTM brace, and DonJoyTM Ankle Ligament Protector while running an agility course. Eighty-five high school athletes with no history of ankle injury and no experience in wearing any ankle support served as subjects. Each subject participated in four separate testing sessions. During sessions 1 and 4, subjects ran the agility course under the control (unbraced) conditions...

  12. Design and control of multifunctional magnetorheological actuators for assistive knee braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H. T.; Liao, W. H.

    2010-04-01

    This paper is aimed at developing a novel multifunctional actuator utilizing magnetorheological (MR) fluids. As a key component for assistive knee braces, the actuator can work with multiple functions as motor, clutch and brake in order to meet the requirement of normal human walking. In this paper, design considerations including configurations, materials selection, mechanical and electromagnetic designs are illustrated. Prototype of the multifunctional actuator is fabricated, and each of its functions is investigated. Control strategies for mimicking normal human walking using the multifunctional actuator are illustrated. Adaptive control algorithm is adopted. Experiments on torque and speed tracking are conducted. The results show that the developed multifunctional actuator is promising for assistive knee braces.

  13. Application Of Steel Bar Bracings In Renovation And Modernization Of Historic Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuchta Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of steel bracings is possible in all four stages of engineering activities in the renovation and modernization of historic buildings, i. e.: protecting, repairing, strengthening and rebuilding. Steel bracings are auxiliary structural systems, which, due to their relatively small cross-section dimensions and low weight, provide an efficient way to achieve the required resistance and stability of the original historic building structural systems. The steel structure in most cases is the tissue that differs in style and material of genuine tissue which is present in a renewed historic building, but is also often a rational solution acceptable to the conservation and structural point of view.

  14. Different coordination modes for disulfoxides towards diorganotin(IV) dichlorides. X-ray crystal structures of 1,2-cis-bis-(phenylsulfinyl)ethene (rac-,cis-cbpse) and adducts [{l_brace}Ph{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}(meso-bpse){r_brace}{sub n}] and [{l_brace}n-Bu{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}(pdtd){r_brace}{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Gerimario F. de [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], e-mail: gfreitas@unb.br; Ellena, Javier [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Malta, Valeria R.S. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica e Biotecnologia; Ardisson, Jose D. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Fisica Aplicada

    2009-07-01

    The reactions of meso-1,2-bis(phenylsulfinyl)ethane (meso-bpse) with Ph{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}, 2-phenyl-1,3-dithiane trans-1-trans-3-dioxide (pdtd) with n-Bu{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2} and 1,2-cis-bis-(phenylsulfinyl) ethene (rac-,cis-cbpse) with Ph{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}, in 1:1 molar ratio, yielded [{l_brace}Ph{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}(meso-bpse){r_brace}{sub n}], [{l_brace}n-Bu{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}(pdtd){r_brace}{sub 2}] and [{l_brace}Ph{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}(rac,cis-cbpse){r_brace}x] (x = 2 or n), respectively. All adducts were studied by IR, Moessbauer and {sup 119}Sn NMR spectroscopic methods, elemental analysis and single crystal X-ray diffractometry. The X-ray crystal structure of [{l_brace}Ph{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}(meso-bpse){r_brace}{sub n}] revealed the occurrence of infinite chains in which the tin(IV) atoms appear in a distorted octahedral geometry with Cl atoms in cis and Ph groups in trans positions. The X-ray crystal structure of [{l_brace}n-Bu{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}(pdtd){r_brace}{sub 2}] revealed discrete centrosymmetric dimeric species in which the tin(IV) atoms possess a distorted octahedral geometry with bridging disulfoxides in cis and n-butyl moieties in trans positions. The spectroscopic data indicated that the adduct containing the rac,cis-cbpse ligand can be dimeric or polymeric. The X-ray structural analysis of the free rac-,cis-cbpse sulfoxide revealed that the crystals belong to the C2/c space group. (author)

  15. Thermophysical properties of binary mixtures of {l_brace}ionic liquid 2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate + (water, methanol, or ethanol){r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Victor H. [School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), P.O. Box 6066, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Chemical Engineering Department, ETSE, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), P.O. Box 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Mattedi, Silvana [Chemical Engineering Department, Polytechnic School, Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), 40210-630 Salvador-BA (Brazil); Martin-Pastor, Manuel [Unidade de Resonancia Magnetica, RIAIDT, edif. CACTUS, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), P.O. Box 15706, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Aznar, Martin [School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), P.O. Box 6066, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Iglesias, Miguel, E-mail: miguel.iglesias@usc.es [Chemical Engineering Department, ETSE, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), P.O. Box 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Research highlights: > This paper reports the density and speed of sound data of binary mixtures {l_brace}2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate + (water, or methanol, or ethanol){r_brace} measured between the temperatures (298.15 and 313.15) K at atmospheric pressure. > The aggregation, dynamic behavior, and hydrogen-bond network were studied using thermo-acoustic, X-ray, and NMR techniques. > The Peng-Robinson equation of state, coupled with the Wong-Sandler mixing rule using the COSMO-SAC model predicted the density of the solutions with relative mean deviations below than 3.0%. - Abstract: In this work, density and speed of sound data of binary mixtures of an ionic liquid consisting of {l_brace}2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate (2-HEAA) + (water, methanol, or ethanol){r_brace} have been measured throughout the entire concentration range, from the temperature of (288.15 to 323.15) K at atmospheric pressure. The excess molar volumes, variations of the isentropic compressibility, the apparent molar volume, isentropic apparent molar compressibility, and thermal expansion coefficient were calculated from the experimental data. The excess molar volumes were negative throughout the whole composition range. Compressibility data in combination with low angle X-ray scattering and NMR measurements proved that the presence of micelles formed due to ion pair interaction above a critical concentration of the ionic liquid in the mixtures. The Peng-Robinson equation of state coupled with the Wong-Sandler mixing rule and COSMO-SAC model was used to predict densities and the calculated deviations were lower than 3%, for binary mixtures in all composition range.

  16. The Use of Descriptive Analysis to Identify and Manipulate Schedules of Reinforcement in the Treatment of Food Refusal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Sean D.; Cooper-Brown, Linda J.; Wacker, David P.; Rankin, Barbara E.

    2006-01-01

    The feeding behaviors of a child diagnosed with failure to thrive were assessed using descriptive analysis methodology to identify the schedules of reinforcement provided by the child's parents. This analysis revealed that the child's appropriate feeding behaviors (i.e., bite acceptance, self-feeding) were on a lean schedule of positive…

  17. In favour of the definition "adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis": juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis braced after ten years of age, do not show different end results. SOSORT award winner 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Donzelli, Sabrina; Zaina, Fabio; Lusini, Monia; Minnella, Salvatore; Negrini, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Background The most important factor discriminating juvenile (JIS) from adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the risk of deformity progression. Brace treatment can change natural history, even when risk of progression is high. The aim of this study was to compare the end of growth results of JIS subjects, treated after 10 years of age, with final results of AIS. Methods Design: prospective observational controlled cohort study nested in a prospective database. Setting: outpatient tertiary...

  18. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal preparations in restless legs syndrome (RLS) treatment: a review and probable first description of RLS in 1529.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xue; Wang, Wei-Dong; Walters, Arthur S; Wang, Qi; Liu, Yan-Jiao; Chu, Fu-Yong

    2012-12-01

    Occidental medicine has a given definition for restless legs syndrome (RLS) and knowledge of RLS pathophysiology has led to the development of its therapeutic management. RLS has no cure. Many methods have been used for its treatment, among which traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been considered as a new approach. However, description and management of the disease symptoms can be found in Chinese ancient medical systems. The first mention of RLS may have been as early as the third century BC described as "leg uncomfortable". Nonetheless, the lack of a complete description encompassing all four modern cardinal features of RLS makes this uncertain. On the other hand, the first description of RLS encompassing three of the four major modern criteria occurs in the ancient book of Neike Zhaiyao (Internal summary), 1529 AD just about a century and a half prior to the description of RLS by Sir Thomas Willis in England. Here, we introduce the philosophical concepts of traditional Chinese medicine and the description, classification and understanding of RLS symptoms in traditional Chinese medicine. We have conducted an in-depth review of the literature reporting one part of TCM, Chinese herbal treatment efficacy for RLS, through both English and Chinese search engines. Eighty-five studies were included in the review and more than 40 formulas (including 176 different ingredients) were found in the literature. According to the literature, Chinese herbs have been demonstrated to be safe and hold great potential to be an effective treatment modality for RLS, but the evidence is limited by the quality of these studies. Of the eighty-five studies, only nine were clinical trials with a control group and only three of them were randomized. In cases where herbal preparations were compared to Western medications for RLS, the herbal preparations appear to be superior. However, uncertainty as to whether the diagnosis of RLS was made in accord with Western norms and the use of

  19. Hysteretic Behavior of Tubular Steel Braces Having Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Reinforcement Around End Net Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Haydaroğlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an experimental investigation into the seismic retrofit of tubular steel braces using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP members. CFRP retrofitting of net sections for compact tubes are proposed for delaying potential local net section failure. A total of almost full-scale three (TB-1, TB-2, and TB-3 compact steel tubular specimens were designed per AISC specifications, constructed, and cyclically tested to fracture. Retrofitted braces, when compared to the reference specimen, developed fuller hysteretic curves. Increase in cumulative hysteretic energy dissipation and the elongation in fracture life in the specimen retrofitted with CFRP plates and CFRP sheet wraps at net sections are observed during testing. This resulted in a maximum of 82.5% more dissipated energy for compact tube specimens. Also, this retrofit provided a longer experimental fracture life (maximum 59% more. Due to fracture initiation during the last cycles, significant reductions in strength and stiffness have been obtained. No significant change (maximum 10% in the brace stiffness was observed, which could be desirable in seismic retrofit applications. Pushover analysis per FEMA 356 for the bare specimen shows that FEMA does not represent actual brace behavior in the compression side although pushover and experimental results are in good agreement in the tension side.

  20. Displacement-Based Seismic Design Procedure for Framed Buildings with Dissipative Braces Part II: Numerical Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Fabio; Vulcano, Alfonso

    2008-07-01

    For a widespread application of dissipative braces to protect framed buildings against seismic loads, practical and reliable design procedures are needed. In this paper a design procedure based on the Direct Displacement-Based Design approach is adopted, assuming the elastic lateral storey-stiffness of the damped braces proportional to that of the unbraced frame. To check the effectiveness of the design procedure, presented in an associate paper, a six-storey reinforced concrete plane frame, representative of a medium-rise symmetric framed building, is considered as primary test structure; this structure, designed in a medium-risk region, is supposed to be retrofitted as in a high-risk region, by insertion of diagonal braces equipped with hysteretic dampers. A numerical investigation is carried out to study the nonlinear static and dynamic responses of the primary and the damped braced test structures, using step-by-step procedures described in the associate paper mentioned above; the behaviour of frame members and hysteretic dampers is idealized by bilinear models. Real and artificial accelerograms, matching EC8 response spectrum for a medium soil class, are considered for dynamic analyses.

  1. Lateral Bearing Capacity of Single Connectors in Parallel Loaded Battens used for Truss Bracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob

    In order to analyse the stiffness and the strength of joints used for battens in bracing of trusses 70 tests have been made. The joint was made by a single nail or screw located perpendicular to or at an angle to the grain direction. The single fastener joints did not fulfil the requirements for ...

  2. Descriptive Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Anthony Lewis

    2003-01-01

    starts will allow effect size calculations to be made in order to evaluate effect over time. Given the difficulties in undertaking controlled experimental studies in the creative arts therapies, descriptive research methods offer a way of quantifying effect through descriptive statistical analysis......Descriptive research is described by Lathom-Radocy and Radocy (1995) to include Survey research, ex post facto research, case studies and developmental studies. Descriptive research also includes a review of the literature in order to provide both quantitative and qualitative evidence of the effect...

  3. An Experimental Study on Hybrid Noncompression CF Bracing and GF Sheet Wrapping Reinforcement Method to Restore Damaged RC Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Seok Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel technique for restoration of reinforced concrete (RC structures that have sustained damage during an earthquake. The reinforcement scheme described here is a hybrid seismic retrofitting technique that combines noncompression X-bracing using CF with externally bonded GF sheets to strengthen RC structures that have sustained damage following an earthquake. The GF sheet is used to improve the ductility of columns, and the noncompression CF X-bracing system, which consists of CF bracing and anchors to replace the conventional steel bracing and bolt connections, is used to increase the lateral strength of the framing system. We report seismic restoration capacity, which enables reuse of the damaged RC frames via the hybrid CF X-bracing and GF sheet wrapping system. Cyclic loading tests were carried out to investigate hysteresis of the lateral load-drift relations, as well as the ductility. The GF sheet significantly improved the ductility of columns, resulting in a change in failure mode. The strengthening effect of conventional CF sheets used in columns is not sufficient with respect to lateral strength and stiffness. However, this study results in a significant increase in the strength of the structure due to the use of CF X-bracing and inhibited buckling failure of the bracing. This result can be exploited to develop guidelines for the application of the reinforcement system to restore damaged RC structures.

  4. Development and description of measurement properties of an instrument to assess treatment burden among patients with multiple chronic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Viet-Thi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients experience an increasing treatment burden related to everything they do to take care of their health: visits to the doctor, medical tests, treatment management and lifestyle changes. This treatment burden could affect treatment adherence, quality of life and outcomes. We aimed to develop and validate an instrument for measuring treatment burden for patients with multiple chronic conditions. Methods Items were derived from a literature review and qualitative semistructured interviews with patients. The instrument was then validated in a sample of patients with chronic conditions recruited in hospitals and general practitioner clinics in France. Factor analysis was used to examine the questionnaire structure. Construct validity was studied by the relationships between the instrument's global score, the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM scores and the complexity of treatment as assessed by patients and physicians. Agreement between patients and physicians was appraised. Reliability was determined by a test-retest method. Results A sample of 502 patients completed the Treatment Burden Questionnaire (TBQ, which consisted of 7 items (2 of which had 4 subitems defined after 22 interviews with patients. The questionnaire showed a unidimensional structure. The Cronbach's α was 0.89. The instrument's global score was negatively correlated with TSQM scores (rs = -0.41 to -0.53 and positively correlated with the complexity of treatment (rs = 0.16 to 0.40. Agreement between patients and physicians (n = 396 was weak (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.38 (95% confidence interval 0.29 to 0.47. Reliability of the retest (n = 211 patients was 0.76 (0.67 to 0.83. Conclusions This study provides the first valid and reliable instrument assessing the treatment burden for patients across any disease or treatment context. This instrument could help in the development of treatment strategies that are both

  5. Structures of dissociated <1 1-bar 0 0> dislocations and {l_brace}1 1-bar 0 0{r_brace} stacking faults of alumina ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tochigi, E. [Institute of Engineering Innovation, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Shibata, N. [Institute of Engineering Innovation, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)] [PRESTO, JST, 4-1-8, Honcho Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0021 (Japan); Nakamura, A. [Department of Intelligent Materials Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138, Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Mizoguchi, T. [Institute of Engineering Innovation, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [Institute of Engineering Innovation, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)] [Nanostructures Research Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1, Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 456-8587 (Japan); Ikuhara, Y., E-mail: ikuhara@sigma.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute of Engineering Innovation, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)] [Nanostructures Research Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1, Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 456-8587 (Japan)] [WPI-AIMR Research Center, Tohoku University, 2-1-1, Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    An alumina ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) bicrystal with a {l_brace}1 1-bar 0 0{r_brace}/<1 1 2-bar 0> 2{sup o} low-angle grain boundary was fabricated by diffusion bonding, and the grain boundary was observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). It was found that 1/3<1 1-bar 0 0> partial-dislocation triplets were periodically arrayed along the boundary. The atomic structure within the {l_brace}1 1-bar 0 0{r_brace} stacking faults in between the partial-dislocation triplets was determined by HRTEM combined with first-principles calculations. We discuss the stacking fault structures and their excess energies in detail.

  6. An intrinsic effect of hydrogen on cyclic slip deformation around a {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} fatigue crack in Fe-3.2 wt.% Si alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Y., E-mail: yoshim.takahashi@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Tanaka, M.; Higashida, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Yamaguchi, K.; Noguchi, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    The effect of gaseous hydrogen on cyclic slip behavior around a fatigue crack tip introduced along the {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} plane in a Fe-3.2 wt.% Si alloy is precisely investigated by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and fractography. The results clearly suggest that the fatigue crack growth rate is promoted by hydrogen, whereas the number of dislocations emitted per load cycle is reduced. In addition, dislocation distribution is localized around the crack, causing quasi-brittle crack morphology. A sustained load test confirms that no subcritical crack growth caused by cleavage or micro-void coalescence exists along the {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} plane, which indicates that the observed increase in the fatigue crack growth rate is correlated solely to the intrinsic effect of hydrogen on the cyclic slip-off process around the crack tip.

  7. Single-Participant Assessment of Treatment Mediators: Strategy Description and Examples from a Behavioral Activation Intervention for Depressed Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, Scott T.; Harris, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Determining the means by which effective psychotherapy works is critical. A generally recommended strategy for identifying the potential causal variables is to conduct group-level statistical tests of treatment mediators. Herein the case is made for also assessing mediators of treatment outcome at the level of the individual participant.…

  8. Comparative Analysis of Steel Braces Frames and Buckling Restrained Braces Frames in Tall Buildings%高层钢结构支撑方案抗震性能对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强国平

    2012-01-01

    高层钢结构中框架—支撑结构是一种常用的结构形式,文中介绍了支撑结构体系的发展情况.以某实际工程为例,说明了普通钢支撑和屈曲约束支撑两种不同支撑对结构弹性性能的影响,通过静力弹塑性推覆分析对比研究了两种方案的弹塑性性能,并对屈曲约束支撑采用偏心布置形式对框架梁的影响进行了探讨.%Braced steel frame is a normal structural system in high-rise steel buildings. The development of the braced steel frame is introduced. Based on a practical project, the influences of steel braces and bucking restrained braces on the elastic and elasto-plastic behavior are analyzed. By pushover analysis, the seismic behaviors of two frames are studied. And the buckling restrained braces used in eccentrically braces steel frames are analyzed.

  9. Influence of functional knee bracing on the isokinetic and functional tests of anterior cruciate ligament deficient patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyousha Mortaza

    Full Text Available Use of functional knee braces has been suggested to provide protection and to improve kinetic performance of the knee in Anterior cruciate ligament(ACL-injured patients. However, many athletes might refrain from wearing the braces because of the fear of performance hindrance in the playing field. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of three functional knee brace/sleeves upon the isokinetic and functional performance of ACL-deficient and healthy subjects. Six anterior cruciate ligament deficient (29.0 ± 5.3 yrs., 175.2 ± 5.4 cm, and 73.0 ± 10.0 kg and six healthy male subjects (27.2 ± 3.7 yrs., 176.4 ± 6.4 cm, and 70.3 ± 6.9 kg were selected. The effect of a custom-made functional knee brace, and two neoprene knee sleeves, one with four metal supports and one without support were examined via the use of isokinetic and functional tests in four sets (non-braced,wearing functional knee brace,and wearing the sleeves. Cross-over hop and single leg vertical jump test were performed and jump height, and hop distance were recorded. Peak torque to body weight ratio and average power in two isokinetic velocities(60°.s(-1,180°.s(-1 were recorded and the brace/sleeves effect was calculated as the changes in peak torque measured in the brace/sleeves conditions, expressed as a percentage of peak torque measured in non-braced condition. Frequency content of the isokinetic torque-time curves was also analyzed. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the measured values in four test conditions within each control and ACL-deficient group,and Mann-Whitney U test was used for the comparison between the two groups. No significant differences in peak torque, average power, torque-time curve frequency content, vertical-jump and hop measurements were found within the experimental and the non-braced conditions (p>0.05. Although the examined functional knee brace/sleeves had no significant effect on the knee muscle performance, there have been

  10. Thermophysical properties and phase equilibria study of the binary systems {l_brace}N-hexylquinolinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide + aromatic hydrocarbons, or an alcohol{r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanska, Urszula, E-mail: ula@ch.pw.edu.p [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland); Thermodynamic Research Unit, School of Chemical Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, King George V Avenue, Durban 4001 (South Africa); Zawadzki, Maciej [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland); Zwolinska, Magdalena [Department of Ergonomics, Laboratory of Thermal Loads, Central Institute for Labour Protection-National Research Institute, Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: We synthesized new ionic liquid, [HQuin][NTf{sub 2}] with low viscosity, and low density. We found high heat capacity, high enthalpy of melting and low melting temperature. HQuin][NTf{sub 2}] is proposed for possible use in the phase change materials (PCM). We examine phase equilibrium changes, SLE and LLE with hydrocarbons and alcohols. [HQuin][NTf{sub 2}] may be proposed as entrainer for the separation proceses. - Abstract: The new quinolinium ionic liquid has been synthesised as a continuation of our work with quinolinium-based ionic liquids (ILs). The work includes specific basic characterisation of synthesized compounds: N-hexylquinolinium bromide, [HQuin][Br] and N-hexylquinolinium bis{l_brace}(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl{r_brace}imide [HQuin][NTf{sub 2}] by NMR spectra, elementary analysis and water content. The basic thermal properties of the pure [HQuin][NTf{sub 2}] i.e. melting and glass-transition temperatures, the enthalpy of fusion as well as heat capacity have been measured using a differential scanning microcalorimetry technique (DSC) and thermal analysis instrument (TA). Densities and viscosities were determined as a function of temperature. Phase equilibria for the binary systems: {l_brace}[HQuin][NTf{sub 2}]) + aromatic hydrocarbon (benzene, or toluene, or ethylbenzene, or n-propylbenzene), or an alcohol (1-butanol, or 1-hexanol, or 1-octanol, or 1-decanol){r_brace} have been determined at ambient pressure. A dynamic method was used over a broad range of mole fractions and temperatures from (270 to 320) K. For all the binary systems with benzene and alkylbenzenes, the eutectic diagrams were observed with immiscibility gap in the liquid phase beginning from (0.13 to 0.28) mole fraction of the IL with very high an upper critical solution temperature (UCST). For mixtures with alcohols, the complete miscibility was observed for 1-butanol and immiscibility with UCST in the liquid phase for the remaining alcohols. The typical

  11. Application of different measures of skeletal maturity in initiating weaning from a brace for scoliosis: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivett LouAnn

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Various measures of skeletal maturity are used to initiate weaning from a brace in patients suffering from idiopathic scoliosis, resulting in different outcomes. We present two cases with double major curves, treated with the Rigo System Cheneau brace, and weaned using different criteria. Case presentation Case 1 was a South African, Caucasian girl who was initially treated with a brace at 14.75 years and who began weaning at 16.25 years on the basis of the Greulich and Pyle Index. She was out of her brace in 6 months, at least 11 months before reaching skeletal maturity as shown by the Risser Sign. Case 2 was a South African, Caucasian girl, initially treated with a brace at 14.25 years and who began the weaning process at 17.67 years on the basis of skeletal maturity according to the Risser Sign and static height for a period of 6 months. She was out of the brace 12 months later. In Case 1, the thoracic Cobb angle progressed during weaning and scoliometer readings deteriorated. The iliac apophysis fused 11 months after the wrist. In Case 2, the therapeutic gains made during the period of bracing were maintained during weaning, that is the improvement in the lumbar Cobb angle was maintained until the brace was removed, and scoliometer readings improved. The iliac apophysis fused 8.5 months after the wrist. Conclusions In patients with idiopathic scoliosis, it would seem to be more appropriate to base the timing of weaning on the Risser Sign and static height measurements rather than on traditional methods such as the Greulich and Pyle Index.

  12. Prevalence, Impact and Attitudes Toward Lower Gastrointestinal Dysmotility and Sensory Symptoms, and Their Treatment in Canada: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard H Hunt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of lower gastrointestinal (GI symptoms in the general Canadian population, and to explore patient satisfaction with traditional therapies and the level of patient interest in new treatments.

  13. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: Indications and efficacy of nonoperative treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Canavese

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The strategy for the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis depends essentially upon the magnitude and pattern of the deformity, and its potential for progression. Treatment options include observation, bracing and/or surgery. During the past decade, several studies have demonstrated that the natural history of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis can be positively affected by nonoperative treatment, especially bracing. Other forms of conservative treatment, such as chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation, acupuncture, exercise or other manual treatments, or diet and nutrition, have not yet been proven to be effective in controlling spinal deformity progression, and those with a natural history that is favorable at the completion of growth. Observation is appropriate treatment for small curves, curves that are at low risk of progression, and those with a natural history that is favorable at the completion of growth. Indications for brace treatment are a growing child presenting with a curve of 25°-40° or a curve less than 25° with documented progression. Curves of 20°-25° in patients with pronounced skeletal immaturity should also be treated. The purpose of this review is to provide information about conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Indications for conservative treatment, hours daily wear and complications of brace treatment as well as brace types are discussed.

  14. Seismic Response and Evaluation of SDOF Self-Centering Friction Damping Braces Subjected to Several Earthquake Ground Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Wan Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly deals with seismic response and performance for self-centering friction damping braces (SFDBs subjected to several maximum- or design-leveled earthquake ground motions. The self-centering friction damping brace members consist of core recentering components fabricated with superelastic shape memory alloy wires and energy dissipation devices achieved through shear friction mechanism. As compared to the conventional brace members for use in the steel concentrically braced frame structure, these self-centering friction damping brace members make the best use of their representative characteristics to minimize residual deformations and to withstand earthquake loads without member replacement. The configuration and response mechanism of self-centering friction damping brace systems are firstly described in this study, and then parametric investigations are conducted through nonlinear time-history analyses performed on numerical single degree-of-freedom spring models. After observing analysis results, adequate design methodologies that optimally account for recentering capability and energy dissipation according to their comparative parameters are intended to be suggested in order to take advantage of energy capacity and to minimize residual deformation simultaneously.

  15. Treatment Failure After Image-Guided Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) of Renal Tumors - A Systematic Review with Description of Type, Frequency, Risk Factors and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollherbst, Dominik; Bertheau, Robert; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Radeleff, Boris Alexis; Pereira, Philippe L; Sommer, Christof-Matthias

    2017-03-01

    Background Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an established treatment for small renal tumors. The objective of this review is to systematically assess the type, frequency, risk factors and management of treatment failure after image-guided percutaneous RFA of renal tumors. Method 10 studies (967 patients, 1033 tumors) with a mean/median follow-up of ≥ 30 months were systematically identified and analyzed. Results and Conclusion Image-guided percutaneous RFA of localized renal tumors is very effective. The most common type of treatment failure is residual unablated tumor (5.9 %), followed by local tumor progression (4.7 %). De novo tumors in the kidneys occur in 1.3 % of cases and extra-renal metastases in 2.0 %. Local tumor progression, de novo tumors in the kidneys and extra-renal metastases occur predominantly later than 12 months after initial RFA. Tumor size > 3 cm and central tumor location are the major risk factors for treatment failure. In the case of treatment failure, repeated RFA shows high success rates (86.3 % for residual unablated tumors and 87.5 % for local tumor progression). Key Points: · Treatment failure can be subdivided into residual unablated tumor and local tumor progression.. · Residual unablated tumor occurs in 5.9 % of cases.. · Local tumor progression occurs in 4.7 % of cases.. · Tumor size and location are the major risk factors for treatment failure.. · Repeated RFA is effective and commonly used for management.. Citation Format · Vollherbst D, Bertheau R, Kauczor H et al. Treatment Failure After Image-Guided Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) of Renal Tumors - A Systematic Review with Description of Type, Frequency, Risk Factors and Management. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2017; 189: 219 - 227.

  16. Performance-based plastic design method for steel concentric braced frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihashemi, M. R.; Mirzagoltabar, A. R.; Tavakoli, H. R.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a performance-based plastic design (PBPD) methodology for the design of steel concentric braced frames. The design base shear is obtained based on energy-work balance equation using pre-selected target drift and yield mechanism. To achieve the intended yield mechanism and behavior, plastic design is applied to detail the frame members. For validity, three baseline frames (3, 6, 9-story) are designed according to AISC (Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings, American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, 2005) seismic provisions (baseline frames). Then, the frames are redesigned based on the PBPD method. These frames are subjected to extensive nonlinear dynamic time-history analyses. The results show that the PBPD frames meet all the intended performance objectives in terms of yield mechanisms and target drifts, whereas the baseline frames show very poor response due to premature brace fractures leading to unacceptably large drifts and instability.

  17. Seismic design of steel structures with lead-extrusion dampers as knee braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    monir, Habib Saeed; Naser, Ali

    2008-07-01

    One of the effective methods in decreasing the seismic response of structure against dynamic loads due to earthquake is using energy dissipating systems. Lead-extrusion dampers (LED)are one of these systems that dissipate energy in to one lead sleeve because of steel rod movement. Hysteresis loops of these dampers are approximately rectangular and acts independent from velocity in frequencies that are in the seismic frequency rang. In this paper lead dampers are considered as knee brace in steel frames and are studied in an economical view. Considering that lead dampers don't clog structural panels, so this characteristic can solve brace problems from architectural view. The behavior of these dampers is compared with the other kind of dampers such as XADAS and TADAS. The results indicate that lead dampers act properly in absorbing the induced energy due to earthquake and good function in controlling seismic movements of multi-story structures

  18. Proposed Configurations for the Use of Smart Dampers with Bracings in Tall Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Aly Sayed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents wind-induced response reduction in a very slender building using smart dampers with proposed bracings-lever mechanism system. The building presents a case study of an engineered design that is instructive. The paper shows that shear response and flexural response of tall buildings present two very different cases for vibration suppression. Smart dampers are implemented optimally in the building to reduce its response in the lateral directions for both structural safety and occupant comfort concerns. New bracings-lever mechanism configurations are proposed for the dampers to improve their performance. The study shows how the proposed configurations can enable application to flexural response and scenarios where the interstory drift is not enough for dampers to work effectively. In addition, a decentralized bang-bang controller improved the performance of the smart dampers.

  19. Effects of Bracing of High-Rise Buildings upon their Static and Dynamic Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivánková Oľga

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes effects of bracing of high-rise buildings upon their static and dynamic behaviour. In static and dynamic analyses, values of displacement for 4 different variants of stiffening elements distribution were calculated. The calculations were made for building both fixed into the ground and rested on elastic supports. The building was modelled as a 3D variant using Finite Element Method (FEM in program Scia Engineer.

  20. Seismic Performance and Ice-Induced Vibration Control of Offshore Platform Structures Based on the ISO-PFD-SMA Brace System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigang Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pall-typed frictional damper (PFD has higher capacity of energy dissipation, whereas shape memory alloy (SMA has excellent superelastic performance. Therefore, combining PFD and SMA together as a brace system has a great prospect in vibration control of structures. This paper investigates the performance of offshore platform with three structural configurations including the SMA brace system, the ISO-SMA (where ISO stands for isolation brace system, and the ISO-PFD-SMA brace system, which are subjected to seismic and ice-induced excitations. In this study, PFD-SMA brace system is installed on the isolation layer of jacket platform, which is under earthquake excitations and ice loading. Then, the reduction of vibration is evaluated by using ANSYS program. The results show that the PFD-SMA brace system is useful in reducing the seismic response and ice-induced response of offshore platform structures; meanwhile, it also demonstrates excellent energy dissipation and hysteretic behavior.

  1. Endoluminal brachytherapy in the treatment of oesophageal cancer: technique description, case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Castilla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Endoesophageal brachytherapy is a useful technique for the palliative treatment of dysphagia in advanced oesophageal cancer. This technique offers good results on dysphagia control and quality of life. We report the case of a patient treated with this technique presenting complete response to the dysphagia. We describe endoesophageal brachyterapy technique and we comment on the literature.

  2. Bleeding complications related to warfarin treatment: a descriptive register study from the anticoagulation clinic at Helsingborg Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navgren, Monica; Forsblad, Johan; Wieloch, Mattias

    2014-07-01

    The most common indication for treatment with warfarin is the prevention of ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. Time in therapeutic range (TTR) is an important tool to evaluate the quality of anticoagulation treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of treatment and the incidence of bleeding complications in patients on warfarin treatment treated by the anticoagulation clinic in Helsingborg. This is the first study that has specifically focused on the spontaneous reporting of bleeding complications in a real-world population. A total of 4,400 patients with a total of 8,394 patient years were registered, in the database Journalia AVK, during the time period November 1, 2007 to November 1, 2010. The mean age was 72 years. TTR was 73.3 % for the whole population. 421 patients suffered from haemorrhagic events. The frequency of major and fatal bleedings and intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) were 1.6, 0.2 and 0.5% per patient-year, respectively. A correlation between age and severe bleeding (major, fatal and ICH) (p = 0.003) was seen, but no correlation between gender and severe bleeding (p = 0.27). In 60 out of 455 bleeding events the complication had been reported to the anticoagulation clinic. At the anticoagulation clinic in Helsingborg the quality of warfarin treatment is good compared to previous results described in the literature, with regards to bleeding complications and efficacy. However, in our study, we confirm that the spontaneous reporting of bleeding complications related to warfarin is inadequate, and that review of patient records is needed to assure proper follow-up.

  3. Study of static permittivity and density of the systems {l_brace}(n-nonane + monoglyme or diglyme){r_brace} at various temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lago, A. [Departamento de Tecnologia Electronica E.T.S. Ingenieria Industrial, Universidad de Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Rivas, M.A.; Legido, J. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Vigo, 36200 Vigo (Spain); Iglesias, T.P. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Vigo, 36200 Vigo (Spain)], E-mail: tpigles@uvigo.es

    2009-02-15

    Relative permittivity and density on mixing at atmospheric pressure and temperatures from (288.15 to 328.15) K have been measured over the whole composition range for {l_brace}CH{sub 3}O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2} O){sub m}CH{sub 3}m = 1, 2 (also called monoglyme and diglyme) + n-nonane{r_brace}. Excess permittivity and molar volume on mixing for the above systems have been calculated. The Redlich-Kister equation has been used to estimate the binary fitting parameters and standard deviations from the regression lines were calculated. The density and excess molar volume were fitted to a polynomial equation as a function of the mole fraction and temperature. The temperature dependences of derived magnitudes, (({partial_derivative}V{sub m}{sup E})/({partial_derivative}T) ){sub P,x} and (({partial_derivative}H{sub m}{sup E})/({partial_derivative}P) ){sub T,x}, were computed, due to its importance in the study of specific molecular interactions. Different mixing rules have been applied to predict the permittivity of these mixtures and the results indicate that the predictions are better when the volume change on mixing is incorporated in calculations. In order to determine the dipolar moment of the glymes using Debye's model at infinite dilution, their refraction index was measured. The values obtained agree with those in the literature for infinite dilution in hexane.

  4. Birefringence dynamics of poly{l_brace}1-[4-(3-carboxy-4-hydroxyphenylazo)benzenesulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt{r_brace} cast films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madruga, Carla [Centro de Fisica e Investigacao Tecnologica CEFITEC, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Filho, Paulo Alliprandini [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, 38400902, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil); Andrade, Marta M. [REQUIMTE, CQFB, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Goncalves, Manuel [Institute of Experimental Physics, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Raposo, Maria [Centro de Fisica e Investigacao Tecnologica CEFITEC, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Ribeiro, Paulo A., E-mail: pfr@fct.unl.pt [Centro de Fisica e Investigacao Tecnologica CEFITEC, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2011-09-01

    Photoinduced birefringence creation/decay dynamics in poly{l_brace}1-[4-(3-carboxy-4-hydroxyphenylazo)benzenesulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt{r_brace}cast films, has been characterized in the 5 to 100 mW writing laser power range at the wavelength of 514 nm. The maximum birefringence magnitude increased with laser beam power, being the largest value of 0.03, measured at 632.8 nm. Birefringence creation kinetics followed a biexponential behavior, where a slow process and a fast process could be clearly distinguished. The fast process accounted for more than 60% of birefringence. The time constants for both fast and slow processes decreased with increasing power of writing beam. Birefringence relaxation after removal of writing laser beam revealed to be independent of beam power and, was found to be ruled by two processes, described by a biexponential curve plus a constant term accounting for residual birefringence. A high residual birefringence signal of 85 {+-} 3% was attained, with the fast process contributing to 67% of decay from maximum value. The large values obtained for time constants for both birefringence creation and relaxation processes are believed to arise from stabilization of azo-group either by the formation of an ionic network, or by local short range interactions that are coming through as a result polyelectrolyte coiling due to its high degree of ionization.

  5. 1,2-Bis-(1-{l_brace}3-pyridyl-{r_brace}3-methyltriazen-3-yl)ethane: synthesis and x-ray crystal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, K.; Turner, E.; Jenkins, H. [Saint Mary' s Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)]. E-mail: keith.vaughan@smu.ca

    2004-03-01

    3-Aminopyridine is diazotized in the conventional manner and the diazonium salt coupled with N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine to afford the title compound (1), which is a potential antitumour agent. The compound has been characterized by spectroscopic methods. The {sup 1}H NMR spectrum shows evidence of rotational conformerism, from the observation of broadening of the N-methyl signals in the room-temperature spectrum. Low-temperature NMR spectra (down to 223 K) show the presence of three distinct rotamers. The crystal structure of 1,2-bis-(1-{l_brace}3-pyridyl-{r_brace}3-methyltriazen-3-yl)ethane (1) has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The bis-triazene (1) exists as the 'staggered' conformation in the solid state, with an 'anti-anti' configuration around the N-N bond of the triazene units. The crystal structure of 1 is compared with the closely related bis-triazene 2 and also compared with the simple mono-triazene 3. Crystal data for 1, C{sub 14}H{sub 18}N{sub 8}: orthorhombic, space group Pbca, a=11.2550(8) ANGSTROM, b=8.8507(6) ANGSTROM, c=15.0069(10) ANGSTROM, {beta}=90{sup o} and V=1494.91(18) ANGSTROM{sup 3}, for Z=4. (author)

  6. Aeroelasticity of Axially Loaded Aerodynamic Structures for Truss-Braced Wing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Ting, Eric; Lebofsky, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an aeroelastic finite-element formulation for axially loaded aerodynamic structures. The presence of axial loading causes the bending and torsional sitffnesses to change. For aircraft with axially loaded structures such as the truss-braced wing aircraft, the aeroelastic behaviors of such structures are nonlinear and depend on the aerodynamic loading exerted on these structures. Under axial strain, a tensile force is created which can influence the stiffness of the overall aircraft structure. This tension stiffening is a geometric nonlinear effect that needs to be captured in aeroelastic analyses to better understand the behaviors of these types of aircraft structures. A frequency analysis of a rotating blade structure is performed to demonstrate the analytical method. A flutter analysis of a truss-braced wing aircraft is performed to analyze the effect of geometric nonlinear effect of tension stiffening on the flutter speed. The results show that the geometric nonlinear tension stiffening effect can have a significant impact on the flutter speed prediction. In general, increased wing loading results in an increase in the flutter speed. The study illustrates the importance of accounting for the geometric nonlinear tension stiffening effect in analyzing the truss-braced wing aircraft.

  7. Developing an Accurate CFD Based Gust Model for the Truss Braced Wing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The increased flexibility of long endurance aircraft having high aspect ratio wings necessitates attention to gust response and perhaps the incorporation of gust load alleviation. The design of civil transport aircraft with a strut or truss-braced high aspect ratio wing furthermore requires gust response analysis in the transonic cruise range. This requirement motivates the use of high fidelity nonlinear computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for gust response analysis. This paper presents the development of a CFD based gust model for the truss braced wing aircraft. A sharp-edged gust provides the gust system identification. The result of the system identification is several thousand time steps of instantaneous pressure coefficients over the entire vehicle. This data is filtered and downsampled to provide the snapshot data set from which a reduced order model is developed. A stochastic singular value decomposition algorithm is used to obtain a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The POD model is combined with a convolution integral to predict the time varying pressure coefficient distribution due to a novel gust profile. Finally the unsteady surface pressure response of the truss braced wing vehicle to a one-minus-cosine gust, simulated using the reduced order model, is compared with the full CFD.

  8. Light Steel-Timber Frame with Composite and Plaster Bracing Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Scotta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The proposed light-frame structure comprises steel columns for vertical loads and an innovative bracing system to efficiently resist seismic actions. This seismic force resisting system consists of a light timber frame braced with an Oriented Strand Board (OSB sheet and an external technoprene plaster-infilled slab. Steel brackets are used as foundation and floor connections. Experimental cyclic-loading tests were conduced to study the seismic response of two shear-wall specimens. A numerical model was calibrated on experimental results and the dynamic non-linear behavior of a case-study building was assessed. Numerical results were then used to estimate the proper behavior factor value, according to European seismic codes. Obtained results demonstrate that this innovative system is suitable for the use in seismic-prone areas thanks to the high ductility and dissipative capacity achieved by the bracing system. This favorable behavior is mainly due to the fasteners and materials used and to the correct application of the capacity design approach.

  9. Displacement-Based Seismic Design Procedure for Framed Buildings with Dissipative Braces Part I: Theoretical formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Fabio; Vulcano, Alfonso

    2008-07-01

    The insertion of steel braces equipped with dissipative devices proves to be very effective in order to enhance the performance of a framed building under horizontal seismic loads. Multi-level design criteria were proposed according to the Performance-Based Design, in order to get, for a specific level of the seismic intensity, a designated performance objective of the building (e.g., an assigned damage level of either the framed structure or non-structural elements). In this paper a design procedure aiming to proportion braces with hysteretic dampers in order to attain, for a specific level of the seismic intensity, a designated performance level of the building is proposed. Exactly, a proportional stiffness criterion, which assumes the elastic lateral storey-stiffness due to the braces proportional to that of the unbraced frame, is combined with the Direct Displacement-Based Design, in which the design starts from target deformations. A computer code has been prepared for the nonlinear static and dynamic analyses, using a step-by-step procedure. Frame members and hysteretic dampers are idealized by bilinear models.

  10. Effect of compressive force on aeroelastic stability of a strut-braced wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaeman, Erwin

    2002-01-01

    Recent investigations of a strut-braced wing (SBW) aircraft show that, at high positive load factors, a large tensile force in the strut leads to a considerable compressive axial force in the inner wing, resulting in a reduced bending stiffness and even buckling of the wing. Studying the influence of this compressive force on the structural response of SBW is thus of paramount importance in the early stage of SBW design. The purpose of the this research is to investigate the effect of compressive force on aeroelastic stability of the SBW using efficient structural finite element and aerodynamic lifting surface methods. A procedure is developed to generate wing stiffness distribution for detailed and simplified wing models and to include the compressive force effect in the SBW aeroelastic analysis. A sensitivity study is performed to generate response surface equations for the wing flutter speed as functions of several design variables. These aeroelastic procedures and response surface equations provide a valuable tool and trend data to study the unconventional nature of SBW. In order to estimate the effect of the compressive force, the inner part of the wing structure is modeled as a beam-column. A structural finite element method is developed based on an analytical stiffness matrix formulation of a non-uniform beam element with arbitrary polynomial variations in the cross section. By using this formulation, the number of elements to model the wing structure can be reduced without degrading the accuracy. The unsteady aerodynamic prediction is based on a discrete element lifting surface method. The present formulation improves the accuracy of existing lifting surface methods by implementing a more rigorous treatment on the aerodynamic kernel integration. The singularity of the kernel function is isolated by implementing an exact expansion series to solve an incomplete cylindrical function problem. A hybrid doublet lattice/doublet point scheme is devised to reduce

  11. Characteristics and treatment outcomes of tuberculosis patients who “transfer-in” to health facilities in Harare City, Zimbabwe: a descriptive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takarinda Kudakwashe C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zimbabwe is among the 22 Tuberculosis (TB high burden countries worldwide and runs a well-established, standardized recording and reporting system on case finding and treatment outcomes. During TB treatment, patients transfer-out and transfer-in to different health facilities, but there are few data from any national TB programmes about whether this process happens and if so to what extent. The aim of this study therefore was to describe the characteristics and outcomes of TB patients that transferred into Harare City health department clinics under the national TB programme. Specific objectives were to determine i the proportion of a cohort of TB patients registered as transfer-in, ii the characteristics and treatment outcomes of these transfer-in patients and iii whether their treatment outcomes had been communicated back to their respective referral districts after completion of TB treatment. Methods Data were abstracted from patient files and district TB registers for all transfer-in TB patients registered from January to December 2010 within Harare City. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Results Of the 7,742 registered TB patients in 2010, 263 (3.5% had transferred-in: 148 (56% were males and overall median age was 33 years (IQR, 26–40. Most transfer-in patients (74% came during the intensive phase of TB treatment, and 58% were from rural health-facilities. Of 176 patients with complete data on the time period between transfer-in and transfer-out, only 85 (48% arrived for registration in Harare from referral districts within 1 week of being transferred-out. Transfer-in patients had 69% treatment success, but in 21% treatment outcome status was not evaluated. Overall, 3/212 (1.4% transfer-in TB patients had their TB treatment outcomes reported back to their referral districts. Conclusion There is need to devise better strategies of following up TB patients to their referral Directly Observed Treatment (DOT centres

  12. Descriptive Aspects of Injection Drug Users in Iran’s National Harm Reduction Program by Methadone Maintenance Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharareh Eskandarieh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education of Iran has recently announced an estimated figure of 200,000 injecting drug users (IDUs. The aim of this study was to pilot a national program using demographics, types of drug abuse and prevalence of blood-borne infections among IDUs.Methods: In order to elicit data on demographics, types of drug abuse and prevalence of blood-borne infections among IDUs, a questionnaire was designed in the Bureau of Mental-Social Health and Addiction in collaboration with Iran’s Drug Control Headquarters of the Police Department. Therapeutical alliance of addiction in Shafagh Center was based on Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT.Results: Among 402 reported IDUs most of them were male, single and in age range of 20 to 39 years old with 72.7% history of imprisonment. Most of them had elementary and high school education and a history of addiction treatment. The majority were current users of opioid, heroin and crack. The prevalence of blood-borne infections was 65.9% and 18.8% for HCV and HIV/AIDS infections, respectively.Conclusion: Prevention programs about harm reduction, treatment and counseling should include young IDUs as a core focus of their intervention structure

  13. Optimal Conventional and Semi-Natural Treatments for the Upper Yakima Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Treatment Definitions and Descriptions and Biological Specifications for Facility Design, 1995-1999 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hager, Robert C. (Hatchery Operations Consulting); Costello, Ronald J. (Mobrand Biometrics, Inc., Vashon Island, WA)

    1999-10-01

    This report describes the Yakima Fisheries Project facilities (Cle Elum Hatchery and acclimation satellites) which provide the mechanism to conduct state-of-the-art research for addressing questions about spring chinook supplementation strategies. The definition, descriptions, and specifications for the Yakima spring chinook supplementation program permit evaluation of alternative fish culture techniques that should yield improved methods and procedures to produce wild-like fish with higher survival that can be used to rebuild depleted spring chinook stocks of the Columbia River Basin. The definition and description of three experimental treatments, Optimal Conventional (OCT), Semi-Natural (SNT), Limited Semi-Natural (LSNT), and the biological specifications for facilities have been completed for the upper Yakima spring chinook salmon stock of the Yakima Fisheries Project. The task was performed by the Biological Specifications Work Group (BSWG) represented by Yakama Indian Nation, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, National Marine Fisheries Service, and Bonneville Power Administration. The control and experimental variables of the experimental treatments (OCT, SNT, and LSNT) are described in sufficient detail to assure that the fish culture facilities will be designed and operated as a production scale laboratory to produce and test supplemented upper Yakima spring chinook salmon. Product specifications of the treatment groups are proposed to serve as the generic templates for developing greater specificity for measurements of product attributes. These product specifications will be used to monitor and evaluate treatment effects, with respect to the biological response variables (post release survival, long-term fitness, reproductive success and ecological interactions).

  14. Successful treatment of refractory systemic lupus erythematosus using proteasome inhibitor bortezomib followed by belimumab: description of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöwall, C; Hjorth, M; Eriksson, P

    2017-01-01

    Although the putative therapeutic options for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are steadily increasing, refractory disease is indeed a major challenge to many clinicians and patients. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib - approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma since the beginning of this century - was recently reported successful in twelve cases of refractory SLE by German colleagues. Herein, we describe two Swedish SLE cases with refractory renal and pulmonary manifestations that were rescued by bortezomib as induction of remission followed by monthly doses of belimumab. The patients were carefully monitored with regard to disease activity and renal function. Anti-dsDNA and anti-C1q antibodies, complement proteins and lymphocyte subsets were analysed in consecutive samples. In December 2016, the patients had been in clinical remission post bortezomib administration for a period of 28 and 22 months, respectively. Potential benefits of using belimumab as maintenance therapy to prevent regeneration of autoreactive B cell clones are discussed.

  15. Emotion-focused therapy for the treatment of social anxiety: an overview of the model and a case description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Emotion-focused therapy (EFT) is an integrative and experiential treatment approach that views emotions as fundamentally adaptive and privileges attention to, and exploration of, emotional experiences. EFT has been demonstrated to be efficacious with depression, interpersonal trauma and marital discord, but application to anxiety disorders is in its initial stages. The purpose of this paper is to present the main principles of using EFT with socially anxious patients and to make the case that EFT is particularly well suited for working with this patient group. The primary change processes in EFT for social anxiety include improving emotion awareness, reducing experiential avoidance and the activation and transformation of shame that underlies the symptomatic anxiety. Such processes lead to less self-criticism, to more self-compassion and self-soothing and to a more favourable perception of the self. A case example is used to illustrate how these principles were applied with a socially anxious patient.

  16. Perisciatic Ultrasound-Guided Infiltration for Treatment of Deep Gluteal Syndrome: Description of Technique and Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Julio; García, Nicolás; Rafols, Claudio; Pérez, Marcelo; Verdugo, Marco A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to describe a perisciatic ultrasound-guided infiltration technique for treatment of deep gluteal syndrome and to report its preliminary clinical results. A mixture of saline (20 mL), a local anesthetic (4 mL), and a corticosteroid solution (1 mL) was infiltrated in the perisciatic region between the gluteus maximus and pelvitrochanteric muscles. Relative pain relief was achieved in 73.7% of the patients, with average preprocedural and postprocedural visual analog scale scores of 8.3 and 2.8, respectively. Fifty percent of patients reported recurrence of discomfort, and the average duration of the therapeutic effect in these patients was 5.3 weeks.

  17. Optimal Numbers of Braces in Braced-frame Structures under Earthquake Action%多层框架-支撑结构在水平地震作用下的支撑合理数量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程小燕; 薛彦涛

    2012-01-01

    With the development of the energy dissipation brace, this technology is more and more used in the new structures and the old structures' reinforcement and reconstruction design. In this paper, a series of formulas for determining, optimal numbers of braces under earthquake action are presented, based on the cooperation work principle of brace and frame in braced-frame structure and the code for seismic design of buildings. This method is accurate and convenient enough for use when the braced-frame structure are designed during the preliminary stage of design and the renovated and strengthened of existing frame structure.%随着耗能支撑的发展,支撑越来越多地应用于新建结构和旧有建筑的加固改造中.本文依据框架-支撑结构的协同工作原理,按照我国现行抗震设计规范对混凝土框架-支撑结构侧移变形的限值,推导出了满足层间位移角限值的支撑数量的计算公式,从而为框架-支撑结构的初步设计以及原有框架结构的改造加固提供参考.

  18. Improving Indigenous access to cancer screening and treatment services: descriptive findings and a preliminary report on the Midwest Indigenous Women’s Cancer Support Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisabeth D Finn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHigher cancer morbidity and mortality rates for the Indigenous population comparedto the overall Australian population has underlined the critical need to improve accessfor Aboriginal people to cancer treatment services. This paper describes anIndigenous Women’s Cancer Support Group (IWCSG established to supportIndigenous people with cancer and their carers/relatives and to facilitate Aboriginalaccess to cancer screening and treatment. Preliminary findings from an evaluation ofthe group are presented.MethodsThe study employed qualitative research methods to describe IWCSG operations andinvestigate the group’s effectiveness. It included one-on-one interviews with 11Geraldton-based health service providers, the IWCSG coordinator, and 10 womenwho have been linked to IWCSG support, as well as observation of group meetings.ResultsDescriptive outcomes relate to group operations, group effectiveness, group benefitsand future development of the group. A cultural strength of IWCSG is its ability tooperate confidentially behind the scenes, providing emotional support and practicalhelp directly to Indigenous people concerned about privacy and shame issues. Theimportant cultural role IWCSG plays in overcoming communication and othercultural barriers to accessing cancer treatment was unanimously recognised by healthservice providers. Aboriginal women supported by IWCSG spoke about an increasedsense of safety, trust and support in accessing and navigating mainstream cancerservices. A critical issue emerging from the research is the need for further development of effective collaborative working relationships between IWCSGmembers and health service providers.ConclusionsThe IWCSG has the potential to inform an effective model for facilitating Indigenousaccess both to cancer treatment and to mainstream treatment for a variety of healthproblems. Future research is required to explore the applicability of Indigenoussupport groups and to focus on the

  19. Effect of Semi-Rigid and Soft Ankle Braces on Static and Dynamic Postural Stability in Young Male Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Noriaki; Urabe, Yukio; Tsutsumi, Shogo; Numano, Shuhei; Morita, Miho; Takeuchi, Takuya; Iwata, Shou; Kobayashi, Toshiki

    2016-01-01

    Ankle braces have been suggested to protect ankle joints from a sprain by restricting inversion and improving proprioception. However, the difference in effects between a semi-rigid brace and a soft brace regarding dynamic postural control after landing is not known. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of soft (SB) and semi-rigid (SRB) ankle braces on static and dynamic postural stability in healthy young men. Altogether, 21 male adults (mean age 24.0 ± 1.5 years) were assessed for one leg while wearing non-brace (NB), SB or SRB. Balance in single-limb stance on a single-force platform with open eyes and closed eyes were assessed for the non-dominant leg under SB, SRB, and NB conditions. Locus length/second (mm/s) and the enveloped area (mm·s-2) surrounded by the circumference of the wave pattern during postural sway were calculated. For assessing dynamic postural stability, the participant jumped and landed on one leg on a force platform, and the Dynamic Postural Stability Index (DPSI) and the maximum vertical ground reaction force (vGRFmax) were measured. The data were compared among the three conditions with repeated-measures analysis of variance. The correlations between locus length/second, enveloped area, DPSI values (DPSI, Anterior-Posterior Stability Index, Medial-Lateral Stability Index, and Vertical Stability Index), and vGRFmax were then calculated. The results indicated that locus length/second and enveloped area with open eyes and closed eyes were not significantly different for each condition. However, a significant lower in the DPSI and Vertical Stability Index were observed with the SRB in comparison to the SB and NB. A significant improvement in vGRFmax was also observed with the SRB in comparison to NB. SRB demonstrated a positive effect on dynamic postural stability after landing on a single leg and may improve balance by increasing dynamic postural stability. Key points This study examined the effect of ankle braces on

  20. Fluoroscopic Analysis of Tibial Translation in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injured Knees With and Without Bracing During Forward Lunge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite several studies with different methods, the effect of functional knee braces on knee joint kinematics is not clear. Direct visualization of joint components through medical imaging modalities may provide the clinicians with more useful information. Objectives In this study, for the first time in the literature, video fluoroscopy was used to investigate the effect of knee bracing on the sagittal plane kinematics of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injured patients. Patients and Methods For twelve male unilateral ACL deficient subjects, the anterior tibial translation was measured during lunge exercise in non-braced and braced conditions. Fluoroscopic images were acquired from the subjects using a digital fluoroscopy system with a rate of 10 fps. The image of each frame was scaled using a calibration coin and analyzed in AutoCAD environment. The angle between the two lines, tangent to the posterior cortexes of the femoral and tibial shafts was measured as the flexion angle. For the fluoroscopic images associated with 0°, 15°, 30°, 45° and 60° knee flexion angles, the relative anterior-posterior configuration of the tibiofemoral joint was assessed by measuring the position of landmarks on the tibia and femur. Results Results indicated that the overall anterior translations of the tibia during the eccentric (down and concentric (up phases of lunge exercise were 10.4 ± 1.7 mm and 9.0 ± 2.2 mm for non-braced, and 10.1 ± 3.4 mm and 7.4 ± 2.5 mm, for braced conditions, respectively. The difference of the tibial anterior-posterior translation behaviors of the braced and non-braced knees was not statistically significant. Conclusion Fluoroscopic imaging provides an effective tool to measure the dynamic behavior of the knee joint in the sagittal plane and within the limitations of this study, the pure mechanical stabilizing effect of functional knee bracing is not sufficient to control the anterior tibial translation of the ACL

  1. Assessment of buckling-restrained braced frame reliability using an experimental limit-state model and stochastic dynamic analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Blake M. Andrews; Junho Song; Larry A. Fahnestock

    2009-01-01

    Buckling-restrained braces (BRBs) have recently become popular in the United :States for use as primary members of seismic lateral-force-resisting systems. A BRB is a steel brace that does not buckle in compression but instead yields in both tension and compression. Although design guidelines for BRB applications have been developed, systematic procedures for assessing performance and quantifying reliability are still needed. This paper presents an analytical framework for assessing buckling-restrained braced frame (BRBF) reliability when subjected to seismic loads. This framework efficiently quantifies the risk of BRB failure due to low-cycle fatigue fracture of the BRB core. The procedure includes a series of components that: (1) quantify BRB demand in terms of BRB core deformation histories generated through stochastic dynamic analyses; (2) quantify the limit-state of a BRB in terms of its remaining cumulative plastic ductility capacity based on an experimental database; and (3) evaluate the probability of BRB failure, given the quantified demand and capacity, through structural reliability analyses. Parametric studies were conducted to investigate the effects of the seismic load, and characteristics of the BRB and BRBF on the probability of brace failure. In addition, fragility curves (i.e., conditional probabilities of brace failure given ground shaking intensity parameters) were created by the proposed framework. While the framework presented in this paper is applied to the assessment of BRBFs, the modular nature of the framework components allows for application to other structural components and systems.

  2. Assessment of buckling-restrained braced frame reliability using an experimental limit-state model and stochastic dynamic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Blake M.; Song, Junho; Fahnestock, Larry A.

    2009-09-01

    Buckling-restrained braces (BRBs) have recently become popular in the United States for use as primary members of seismic lateral-force-resisting systems. A BRB is a steel brace that does not buckle in compression but instead yields in both tension and compression. Although design guidelines for BRB applications have been developed, systematic procedures for assessing performance and quantifying reliability are still needed. This paper presents an analytical framework for assessing buckling-restrained braced frame (BRBF) reliability when subjected to seismic loads. This framework efficiently quantifies the risk of BRB failure due to low-cycle fatigue fracture of the BRB core. The procedure includes a series of components that: (1) quantify BRB demand in terms of BRB core deformation histories generated through stochastic dynamic analyses; (2) quantify the limit-state of a BRB in terms of its remaining cumulative plastic ductility capacity based on an experimental database; and (3) evaluate the probability of BRB failure, given the quantified demand and capacity, through structural reliability analyses. Parametric studies were conducted to investigate the effects of the seismic load, and characteristics of the BRB and BRBF on the probability of brace failure. In addition, fragility curves (i.e., conditional probabilities of brace failure given ground shaking intensity parameters) were created by the proposed framework. While the framework presented in this paper is applied to the assessment of BRBFs, the modular nature of the framework components allows for application to other structural components and systems.

  3. Thermophysical properties of {l_brace}({+-})-linalool + propan-1-ol{r_brace}: A first stage towards the development of a green process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Abarrio, Sandra M.; Torcal, Marcos; Haya, M. Luisa; Urieta, Jose S. [Group of Applied Thermodynamics and Surfaces (GATHERS), Aragon Institute for Engineering Research (I3A), Universidad de Zaragoza, Facultad de Ciencias, Zaragoza 50009 (Spain); Mainar, Ana M., E-mail: ammainar@unizar.e [Group of Applied Thermodynamics and Surfaces (GATHERS), Aragon Institute for Engineering Research (I3A), Universidad de Zaragoza, Facultad de Ciencias, Zaragoza 50009 (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: Optimization of supercritical processes needs adequate methods to reproduce the phase behavior. {rho}, u, n{sub D} and related properties of the system linalool+propan-1-ol were studied. Collision Factor (u), Lorentz-Lorenz and Gladstone -Dale (n{sub D}) give the best results. Peng-Robinson, Patel-Teja, SAFT and PC-SAFT were tested as predictive P{rho}T models. PC-SAFT provides the best P{rho}T prediction (20-40 MPa) with an AAD% of 0.83. - Abstract: In this paper, densities, speeds of sound and refractive indexes of binary mixture of {l_brace}({+-})-linalool (1) + propan-1-ol (2){r_brace} at four temperatures (283.15, 298.15, 313.15, and 328.15) K and 0.1 MPa are reported over the whole composition range. These data were used to calculate excess molar volume, speed of sound deviation, excess isentropic compressibility, refractive index deviation, molar refraction, and molar refraction deviation at the four work temperatures. All magnitudes were fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation. Subsequently prediction of speed of sound and refractive index was carried out using several theoretical models or equations. On the other hand, the density of the same mixture was determined in the same temperature range at pressures from 20 MPa to 40 MPa. Four equation of state (Peng-Robinson, Patel-Teja, SAFT, PC-SAFT) were tested as predictive models of the P{rho}T behavior. The best results were obtained by PC-SAFT, with an average absolute deviation of 0.83%.

  4. Morphology and intermolecular dynamics of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis{l_brace}(trifluoromethane)sulfonyl{r_brace}amide ionic liquids: structural and dynamic evidence of nanoscale segregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russina, Olga; Triolo, Alessandro [Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici-CNR, Salita Sperone, Contrada Papardo, 98158 Faro Superiore, Messina (Italy); Gontrani, Lorenzo; Caminiti, Ruggero [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Roma ' Sapienza' , Piazzale A Moro, 00185 Roma (Italy); Xiao Dong; Hines, Larry G Jr; Bartsch, Richard A; Quitevis, Edward L [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409-1061 (United States); Plechkova, Natalia; Seddon, Kenneth R, E-mail: triolo@me.cnr.i, E-mail: edward.quitevis@ttu.ed [QUILL Centre, The Queen' s University of Belfast, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AG (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-21

    Here we report on the structural and dynamical properties of a series of room temperature ionic liquids, namely 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis{l_brace}(trifluoromethane)sulfonyl{r_brace}amide ([C{sub n}mim][NTf{sub 2}]), with varying alkyl chain lengths (1<=n<=10) at ambient temperature, where all the salts are stable liquids. Using small-wide angle x-ray scattering (SWAXS), three major diffraction peaks are found: two high- Q peaks that show little dependence on the alkyl chain length (n) and a low-Q peak that strongly depends both in amplitude and position on n. This low-Q peak is the signature of the occurrence of nanoscale structural heterogeneities whose sizes depend on the length of the alkyl chain and are related to chain segregation into nano-domains. Using optical heterodyne-detected Raman-induced Kerr effect spectroscopy, we access intermolecular dynamic features that suggest that chain aggregation only occurs for n>=3, in agreement with the SWAXS data. Moreover, the increase in the frequency and width of the main band of the optical Kerr effect spectra in going from n = 2 to 3 is consistent with stiffening of the intermolecular potential due to chain segregation. Multicomponent line shape analysis suggests that there are least three modes that underlie the main band in the 0-200 cm{sup -1} region of the optical Kerr effect spectra of these ionic liquids. Given the similarity of ionic liquids to other complex fluid systems, we assign the low-frequency component to a fast beta-relaxation mode and the intermediate- and high-frequency components to librational modes.

  5. Influence of the Soil-Structure Interaction on the Design of Steel-Braced Building Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarbakht, Alireza; Ashtiany, Mohsen Ghafory

    2008-07-01

    The modeling and analysis of the superstructure and the foundation for the seismic lateral loads are traditionally done separately. This assumption is an important issue in the design/rehabilitate procedures especially for the short period structures, i.e. steel braced or shear wall systems, which may result to a conservative design. By using more advance procedures, i.e. nonlinear static method, and the incorporation of the soil-structure interaction (SSI), the seismic demand in the lateral resisting system decreases and the design will become more economic. This paper includes an investigation about the influence of the SSI effect on the design of the steel-braced building foundation. The presented example is a three-bay three-storey steel braced frame. Three design methods based on the FEMA 356 guideline and the UBC 97 code are taken in to consideration. The three methods are: (1) linear static analysis based on the UBC 97 code assuming the fixed based condition; (2) linear static analysis based on the FEMA 356 guideline assuming the fixed based condition; and (3) nonlinear static analysis assuming both fixed and flexible based assumptions. The results show that the influence of the SSI on the input demand of the short period building foundations is significant and the foundation design based on the linear static method with the fixed base assumption is so conservative. A simple method is proposed to take the SSI effect in to consideration in the linear static procedure with the fixed base assumption, which is a common method for the engineers. The advantage of this proposed method is the simplicity and the applicability for the engineering purposes.

  6. Comparison of the Aseismic Behaviors of R.C. Frame with Bracings and the Shear Wall with Hidden Bracings%钢筋混凝土带支撑框架

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹万林; 董宏英; 刘春燕; 张建伟; 施一雷

    2001-01-01

    比较了钢筋混凝土带支撑框架与带暗支撑剪力墙的抗震性能,给出了它们抗震承载力的计算公式,提出了供抗震设计参考的建议.%The aseismic behaviors of R.C. frame with bracings and the shearwall with hidden bracings are made in comparison, and the formula used to calculate their aseismatic capacity are given.Some proposal is put forward foe reference to their aseismic design.

  7. Functional bracing for comminuted extra-articular fractures of the distal third of the humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, A; Horowitch, A; Aboulafia, A; Vangsness, C T

    1990-03-01

    From 1982 to 1987 we treated 85 extra-articular comminuted distal third humeral fractures in adults with prefabricated plastic braces. Of these, 15% were open fractures and 18% had initial peripheral nerve injury. On average, the sleeve was applied 12 days after injury and used for 10 weeks. There was 96% union, with no infections. All nerve injuries resolved or were improving at the latest examination. At union there was varus deformity averaging 9 degrees in 81% of patients, but loss of range of movement was minimal and functional results were good.

  8. The effect of different skin-ankle brace application pressures on quiet single-limb balance and electromyographic activation onset of lower limb muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadakis Stamatios A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have been carried out in order to investigate the effect of ankle bracing on ankle joint function and performance. However, no study so far has examined the role of skin-brace interface pressure in neuromuscular control. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different skin-ankle brace interface pressures on quiet single limb balance and the electromyographic (EMG activation sequence of four lower limb muscles. Methods Thirty three male physical education students who volunteered to take part in the study were measured under three ankle brace conditions: i without brace, ii with brace and 30 kPa application pressure and iii with brace and 60 kPa application pressure. Single limb balance (anteroposterior and mediolateral parameter was assessed on the dominant lower limb, with open and closed eyes, on a force platform, simultaneously with the EMG recording of four lower lower limb muscles' (gastrocnemius, peroneus longus, rectus femoris and biceps femoris activation onset. Results The results showed that overall balance (total stability parameter was not significantly affected in any of the three ankle brace conditions. However, the anteroposterior centre of pressure excursion and centre of pressure excursion velocity were significantly increased with the application of ankle brace, both with 30 and 60 kPa application pressures. Furthermore, it was found that single limb balance was significantly worse with closed eyes compared to open eyes. EMG measurements showed that the sequence of lower limb activation onset was not affected in any of the three ankle brace application conditions. The results of this study showed that the application of an ankle brace with two different skin-brace interface pressures had no effect on overall single limb balance and the sequence of lower limb muscle activation. Conclusion These findings suggest that peripheral joint receptors are either not adequately

  9. 双支架Nuss手术治疗青少年漏斗胸%Nuss procedure for the correction of pectus excavatum by using double braces in adolescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘全; 王建军; 赵峰; 翟伟; 严会智

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the indication, feasibility and technique of minimally invasive nuss procedure with thoracoscope by using double braces in the treatment of wide-scope pectus excavatum repairing in adolescence. Methods 31 patients including 24 boys and 7 girls, suffered from pectus excavtum were corrected by nuss procedure under thoracoscope.The average age was (15.32 ± 3.89)years (ranged, 14 years and 18 years). All cases were moderate to severe degree according to Hallar index with depression scope of 4 ribs or more. A couple of braces of two-point or multipoint fixation for thoracoscopic-assisted nuss procedure were used. Results The procedure was successfully completed under thoracoscopy in all patients. Double braces were utilized in 27 cases, double are bars were required in 4 cases, and multipoint fixations were in 6 patients. The postoperative hospital stay was 5-11 days [average, ( 7.48 ± 1.95 ) days]. The duration of following up was one month to three years. The perioperative complications included intraoperative hemorrhage in 2 patients, bar invertion with displacement in 1, and interrupted pain for two months in 1. All patients recovered after expectant treatment. Conclusion Nuss procedure with double braces for the correction of a large area of asymmetric pectus excavatum under thoracoscopy is safe and effective technique for adolescence.%目的 探讨使用双支架治疗青少年大范围漏斗胸微创Nuss手术的适应证、可行性和手术方法及效果.方法 31例中男24例,女7例;年龄14~18岁,平均(15.32±3.12)岁.根据Hallar指数均评价为中到重度,凹陷范围为4个肋间以上.选择胸腔镜辅助Nuss手术两点或者多点双支架支撑固定法手术.结果 均采用双支架在胸腔镜辅助下顺利完成Nuss手术.术后住院5~10天,平均(7.48±1.95)天;随访4个月到5年.术中发生出血2例,支架滑动移位和间断疼痛2个月各1例,均治愈.结论 胸腔镜辅助双支架矫正大面

  10. Effect of Kınesıotapıng and Knee Brace on Functıonal Performance in Recreatıonal Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Burak; İldiz, Bülent; Tunay, Volga Bayrakçı

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Kinesiotaping is a popular taping method that is used for both therapeutic and performance enchancement purposes. Knee braces are widely used for prevention in sport injuries but their performance effectiveness is still controversial. The aim of this study was to determine whether kinesiotape or brace was more effective on functional performance. Methods: A total twenty male recreational football players (Mean±Standart Deviation (SD) age: 22.5±0.68 years, height: 175.15±3.37 cm, body weight: 74.52±12.41 kg), voluntarily participated in this study. Participants were tested with kinesiotape, with brace and without kinesiotape and brace. Tests were applied one day after patellar kinesiotaping (correction technique). Balance property measured with Modified Y balance Test (dynamic test), agility measured by T test, muscle strength and anaerobic power assessed by vertical jump and triple hop tests. Wilcoxon signed rank test was employed for determining the statistical significance of tests with kinesiotape, with brace and without kinesiotape and brace. Results: In analysis; There were statistically significant differences found in Triple hop test with kinesiotaping and without kinesiotaping and brace, in T test with bracing and kinesiotaping, in vertical jump with kinesiotaping and without kinesiotaping and brace (pkinesiotaping in all tests) No statistically significant difference was found in modified Y balance test all groups (p> 0.05). Conclusion: Consequently, kinesiotaping had positive effects on agility and muscle strength but had no effects on balance in football players. On the other hand, brace had no effects on functional performance tests.

  11. Mathematical modeling and full-scale shaking table tests for multi-curve buckling restrained braces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. S. Tsai; Yungchang Lin; Wenshin Chen; H. C. Su

    2009-01-01

    Buckling restrained braces (BRBs) have been widely applied in seismic mitigation since they were introduced in the 1970s. However, traditional BRBs have several disadvantages caused by using a steel tube to envelope the mortar to prevent the core plate from buckling, such as: complex interfaces between the materials used, uncertain precision, and time consumption during the manufacturing processes. In this study, a new device called the multi-curve buckling restrained brace (MC-BRB) is proposed to overcome these disadvantages. The new device consists of a core plate with multiple neck portions assembled to form multiple energy dissipation segments, and the enlarged segment, lateral support elements and constraining elements to prevent the BRB from buckling. The enlarged segment located in the middle of the core plate can be welded to the lateral support and constraining elements to increase buckling resistance and to prevent them from sliding during earthquakes. Component tests and a series of shaking table tests on a full-scale steel structure equipped with MC-BRBs were carried out to investigate the behavior and capability of this new BRB design for seismic mitigation. The experimental results illustrate that the MC-BRB possesses a stable mechanical behavior under cyclic loadings and provides good protection to structures during earthquakes. Also, a mathematical model has been developed to simulate the mechanical characteristics of BRBs.

  12. Design and analysis of eccentrically braced steel frames with vertical links using shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massah, Saeed Reza; Dorvar, Hosein

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, the philosophy behind traditional methods by which structures were designed to withstand natural disasters has gone through major changes. Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are characterized by their superelastic behavior, which enables them to recover their original shape after experiencing large deformations. This characteristic provides an ideal reversibility capacity that can be used in the passive control of buildings exposed to earthquakes. This article has attempted to identify the effects of changing the hysteretic characteristics of SMA materials when they are used as passive control systems in eccentric bracing frames. By evaluating the numerical analysis results obtained from the modeling of an experimental sample and the modeling of the proposed EBF system, the accuracy of the above-stated notion was confirmed. Moreover, the results that pertain to the nonlinear pushover analysis, time-history dynamic analysis and seismic damage analysis of eccentric steel bracing frames of 4-, 9- and 14-story structures indicate that the use of SMA superelastic materials, in addition to effectively improving their ductility, stiffness and lateral strength, provides an excellent reversibility capacity, which considerably reduces both the maximum relative displacement and the residual deformation in the structure.

  13. Designing Serious Games for Safety Education: "Learn to Brace" versus Traditional Pictorials for Aircraft Passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittaro, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Serious games for safety education (SGSE) are a novel tool for preparing people to prevent and\\or handle risky situations. Although several SGSE have been developed, design and evaluation methods for SGSE need to be better grounded in and guided by safety-relevant psychological theories. In particular, this paper focuses on threat appeals and the assessment of variables, such as safety locus of control, that influence human behavior in real risky situations. It illustrates how we took into account such models in the design and evaluation of "Learn to Brace", a first-of-its-kind serious game that deals with a major problem in aviation safety, i.e. the scarce effectiveness of the safety cards used by airlines. The study considered a sample of 48 users: half of them received instructions about the brace position through the serious game, the other half through a traditional safety card pictorial. Results showed that the serious game was much more effective than the traditional instructions both in terms of learning and of changing safety-relevant perceptions, especially safety locus of control and recommendation perception.

  14. Numerical analysis of effect of friction between diaphragm wall and soil on braced excavation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁钰; 郑刚

    2008-01-01

    A plane strain finite element model was established to investigate the effect of friction between diaphragm wall and soil on braced excavation. The behavior of interface between diaphragm wall and soil was simulated with the interface model of ABAQUS. Parametric studies were conducted with different diaphragm wall external friction angles δ. The results show that deflection of diaphragm wall and ground surface settlement decrease with the decrease of δ. However, the reduction effect on diaphragm wall deflection is the most significant at the depth where the maximum wall deflection occurs and can be neglected at the wall base. The ratio between wall deep inward component and wall cantilever component reaches its peak value 2.7 when δ=5°. The ratio of the maximum ground surface settlement to the maximum wall lateral deflection decreases at a reduced rate with the increase of δ. For excavation with braced diaphragm wall, the effect of friction between diaphragm and soil on the deflection of diaphragm wall and ground settlement, especially the distribution of ground surface settlement behind diaphragm, should be taken into account.

  15. Design, testing and control of a magnetorheological actuator for assistive knee braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. Z.; Liao, W. H.

    2010-03-01

    This paper is aimed at developing a smart actuator for assistive knee braces to provide assistance to disabled or elderly people with mobility problems. A magnetorheological (MR) actuator is developed to be used in assistive knee braces to provide controllable torque. The MR actuator can work as a brake or a clutch. When active torque is needed, the DC motor works and the MR actuator functions as a clutch to transfer the torque generated by the motor to the leg; when passive torque is desired, the DC motor is turned off and the MR actuator functions as a brake to provide controllable passive torque. The prototype of the developed MR actuator is fabricated and experiments are carried out to investigate the characteristics of the MR actuator. The results show that the MR actuator is able to provide sufficient torque needed for normal human activities. Adaptive control is proposed for controlling the MR actuator. Anti-windup strategy is used to achieve better control performance. Experiments on the MR actuator under control are also performed to study the torque tracking ability of the system.

  16. Development and testing of a magnetorheological actuator for an assistive knee brace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinzhou; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2008-03-01

    This paper proposes an assistive knee brace that is aimed to provide assistance to old or disabled people. A magnetorheological (MR) actuator is developed to be used in assistive knee braces to provide controllable torque. The MR actuator consists of a DC motor and an MR brake/clutch. When active torque is needed, the DC motor works and the MR actuator functions as a clutch to transfer the torque generated by the motor to the leg; when passive torque is desired, the DC motor is turned off and the MR actuator functions as a brake to provide controllable passive torque. The prototype of this MR actuator is fabricated and experiments are carried out to investigate the characteristics of the MR actuator. The results show that the MR actuator is able to provide sufficient torque needed for normal human activities. Adaptive control is proposed for controlling the MR actuator. Experiments of the MR actuator under control are performed to study the torque tracking ability of the system.

  17. Experimental study on the seismic response of braced reinforced concrete frame with irregular columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianzhuang; Li, Jie; Chen, Jun

    2011-12-01

    A 15-storey K-braced reinforced concrete model frame with irregular columns, i.e., T-shaped, L-shaped, as well as +-shaped columns, was constructed and tested on the six-degree-of-freedom shaking table at the State Key Laboratory for Disaster Reduction in Civil Engineering in Tongji, China. Two types of earthquake records, El-Centro wave (south-north direction) and Shanghai artifi cial wave (SHAW) with various peak accelerations and principal-secondary sequences, were input and experimentally studied. Based on the shaking table tests and theoretical analysis, several observations can be made. The failure sequence of the model structure is brace→beam→column→joints, so that the design philosophy for several lines of defense has been achieved. Earthquake waves with different spectrums not only infl uence the magnitude and distribution of the earthquake force and the storey shear force, but also obviously affect the magnitude of the displacement response. The aftershock seismic response of previously damaged reinforced concrete braced frames with irregular columns possesses the equivalent elastic performance characteristic. Generally speaking, from the aspects of failure features and drift ratio, this type of reinforced concrete structure provides adequate earthquake resistance and can be promoted for use in China.

  18. Ductility demands on buckling-restrained braced frames under earthquake loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Larry A. Fahnestock; Richard Sause; James M. Ricles; Le-Wu Lu

    2003-01-01

    Accurate estimates of ductility demands on buckling-restrained braced frames (BRBFs) are crucial to performance-based design of BRBFs. An analytical study on the seismic behavior of BRBFs has been conducted at the ATLSS Center, Lehigh University to prepare for an upcoming experimental program. The analysis program DRAIN-2DX was used to model a one-bay, four-story prototype BRBF including material and geometric nonlinearities. The bucklingrestrained brace (BRB) model incorporates both isotropic and kinematic hardening. Nonlinear static pushover and timehistory analyses were performed on the prototype BRBF. Performance objectives for the BRBs were defined and uscd to evaluate thc time-history analysis results. Particular emphasis was placed on global ductility demands and ductility demands oa the BRBs. These demands were compared with anticipated ductility capacities. The analysis results, along with results from similar previous studics, are used to evaluate the BRBF design provisions that have been recommended for codification in the United States. Thc results show that BRB maximum ductility demands can be as high as 20 to 25. These demands significantly exceed those anticipated by the BRBF recommended provisions. Results from the static pushover and timehistory analyses are used to demonstrate why the ductility demands exceed those anticipated by the recommended provisions.The BRB qualification testing protocol contained in the BRBF recommended provisions is shown to be inadequate because it requires only a maximum ductility demand of at most 7.5. Modifications to the testing protocol are recommended.

  19. Ductility demands on buckling-restrained braced frames under earthquake loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahnestock, Larry A.; Sause, Richard; Ricles, James M.; Lu, Le-Wu

    2003-12-01

    Accurate estimates of ductility demands on buckling-restrained braced frames (BRBFs) are crucial to performance-based design of BRBFs. An analytical study on the seismic behavior of BRBFs has been conducted at the ATLSS Center, Lehigh University to prepare for an upcoming experimental program. The analysis program DRAIN-2DX was used to model a one-bay, four-story prototype BRBF including material and geometric nonlinearities. The buckling-restrained brace (BRB) model incorporates both isotropic and kinematic hardening. Nonlinear static pushover and time-history analyses were performed on the prototype BRBF. Performance objectives for the BRBs were defined and used to evaluate the time-history analysis results. Particular emphasis was placed on global ductility demands and ductility demands on the BRBs. These demands were compared with anticipated ductility capacities. The analysis results, along with results from similar previous studies, are used to evaluate the BRBF design provisions that have been recommended for codification in the United States. The results show that BRB maximum ductility demands can be as high as 20 to 25. These demands significantly exceed those anticipated by the BRBF recommended provisions. Results from the static pushover and time-history analyses are used to demonstrate why the ductility demands exceed those anticipated by the recommended provisions. The BRB qualification testing protocol contained in the BRBF recommended provisions is shown to be inadequate because it requires only a maximum ductility demand of at most 7.5. Modifications to the testing protocol are recommended.

  20. A Prospective, Descriptive Study to Assess the Clinical Benefits of Using Calendula officinalis Hydroglycolic Extract for the Topical Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzi, Marcelo; de Freitas, Franciele; Winter, Marcos

    2016-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) have a significant impact on patient quality of life. A prospective, descriptive pilot study was conducted between May 2012 and December 2013 through the dermatology outpatient unit in a Brazilian hospital to evaluate the clinical benefits of using Calendula officinalis hydroglycolic extract in the treatment of DFUs. Patients diagnosed with a stable neuropathic ulcer of >3 months' duration; ranging in size from 0.5-40 cm(2); without osteomyelitis, gangrene, bone exposure, cancer, or deep tissue infection; ages 18-90 years; with adequate glycemic control and no history of an allergy to C. officinalis were enrolled. Patients provided demographic and diabetes-related information and were evaluated biweekly for 30 weeks or until healing (ie, full epithelialization with no wound drainage). DFUs were measured and clinically examined for microbiological flora and presence of odor, tissue type (eg, granulation, fibrin sloth, necrosis), exudate, and retraction rate using planimetry images. Patients' blood tests and neuropathic pain assessment (the latter by clinician-directed questionnaire) were performed at baseline and the end of treatment; pain also was assessed during dressing changes using a 10-point rating scale. Patients' ulcers were treated twice daily with C. officinalis hydroglycolic extract spray solution and covered with saline-moistened, sterile, nonadherent gauze and bandages followed by foot offloading with adequate protective footwear. Patients received their first treatment in the clinic then performed care at home. From a potential population of 109 patients, 25 did not meet the inclusion criteria. Of the remaining 84 participants enrolled, 43 withdrew before study completion; cited reasons included lost to follow-up (16), medical judgment (2), failure to attend >3 scheduled visits (17), protocol violation (5), and death (3). Forty-one (41) - 17 women, average age 62 years (range 44-82 years), average glycemic level 153 mg

  1. Crystal structure of [NBu{sub 4}]{sub 2}[Pd{sub 2}{l_brace}C{sub 4}(COOMe){sub 4}{r_brace}{sub 2}({mu}-OH){sub 2}] determined ab initio by charge flipping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Angel L. [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Energetica y de los Materiales, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)], E-mail: alortiz@unex.es; Cumbrera, Francisco L. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Perez, Jose [Departamento de Ingenieria Minera, Geologica y Cartografica, Area de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Cartagena (Murcia) (Spain); Melendez-Martinez, Juan J. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Palatinus, Lukas [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Laboratoire de Cristallographie, BSP, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-01-07

    The crystal structure of bis(tetra-n-butylammonium)bis({mu}{sub 2}-hydroxo)-bis(1,2,3,4-tetrakis (methoxycarbonyl)-1,3-butadiene-1,4-diyl)-di-palladium, [NBu{sub 4}]{sub 2}[Pd{sub 2}{l_brace}C{sub 4}(COOMe){sub 4}{r_brace}{sub 2} ({mu}-OH){sub 2}], was determined ab initio by X-ray single-crystal diffractometry using the charge flipping method. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system with P2{sub 1}/c as space group and the following cell parameters: a = 12.8481(6) A, b = 63.744(3) A, c = 16.6102(8) A, {beta} = 111.943(10). The asymmetric unit is formed by two molecules, and the unit cell contains eight molecules (Z = 8) giving a density of 1.369 g cm{sup -3}. The coordination around the Pd(II) atoms is approximately planar, the methoxycarbonyl groups at the {alpha} and {beta} positions relative to Pd are perpendicular and parallel to the palladacycle ring, respectively, and the {l_brace}Pd({mu}-O){r_brace}{sub 2} core has a bent conformation. The structure closely resembles the features reported previously for other palladacyclopentadiene complexes.

  2. Evaluation of the Stress Level of Children with Idiopathic Scoliosis in relation to the Method of Treatment and Parameters of the Deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Leszczewska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress level due to existing body deformity as well as to the treatment with a corrective brace is one of factors influencing the quality of life of children with idiopathic scoliosis undergoing non-surgical management. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the stress level among children suffering from idiopathic scoliosis in relation to the method of treatment and the parameters of the deformity. Seventy-three patients with idiopathic scoliosis participated in the study. Fifty-two children were treated by means of physiotherapy, while 21 patients were treated with both Cheneau corrective brace and physiotherapy. To assess the stress level related to the deformity itself and to the method of treatment with corrective brace, the two Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaires (BSSQs were applied, the BSSQ Deformity and the BSSQ Brace, respectively.

  3. Methods and Descriptive Epidemiology of Services Provided by Athletic Trainers in High Schools: The National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Dompier, Thomas P.; Dalton, Sara L.; Miller, Sayers John; Hayden, Ross; Marshall, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Context Research is limited on the extent and nature of the care provided by athletic trainers (ATs) to student-athletes in the high school setting. Objective To describe the methods of the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION) project and provide the descriptive epidemiology of AT services for injury care in 27 high school sports. Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting Athletic training room (ATR) visits and AT services data collected in 147 high schools from 26 states. Patients or Other Participants High school student-athletes participating in 13 boys' sports and 14 girls' sports during the 2011−2012 through 2013−2014 academic years. Main Outcome Measure(s) The number of ATR visits and individual AT services, as well as the mean number of ATR visits (per injury) and AT services (per injury and ATR visit) were calculated by sport and for time-loss (TL) and non–time-loss (NTL) injuries. Results Over the 3-year period, 210 773 ATR visits and 557 381 AT services were reported for 50 604 injuries. Most ATR visits (70%) were for NTL injuries. Common AT services were therapeutic activities or exercise (45.4%), modalities (18.6%), and AT evaluation and reevaluation (15.9%), with an average of 4.17 ± 6.52 ATR visits and 11.01 ± 22.86 AT services per injury. Compared with NTL injuries, patients with TL injuries accrued more ATR visits (7.76 versus 3.47; P < .001) and AT services (18.60 versus 9.56; P < .001) per injury. An average of 2.24 ± 1.33 AT services were reported per ATR visit. Compared with TL injuries, NTL injuries had a larger average number of AT services per ATR visit (2.28 versus 2.05; P < .001). Conclusions These findings highlight the broad spectrum of care provided by ATs to high school student-athletes and demonstrate that patients with NTL injuries require substantial amounts of AT services. PMID:26678290

  4. Orthodontic treatment: Introducing finite element analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, W.D. van; Leeuwen, E.J. van

    1998-01-01

    The aim of orthodontic treatment is the displacement of teeth by means ofspecial appliances, like braces and brackets. Through these appliances the orthodontist can apply a set of forces to the teeth which wilt result in its displacement through the jawbone. Finite Element analysis of this process e

  5. Accounting for multiple sources of uncertainty in impact assessments: The example of the BRACE study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing climate change impacts often requires the use of multiple scenarios, types of models, and data sources, leading to a large number of potential sources of uncertainty. For example, a single study might require a choice of a forcing scenario, climate model, bias correction and/or downscaling method, societal development scenario, model (typically several) for quantifying elements of societal development such as economic and population growth, biophysical model (such as for crop yields or hydrology), and societal impact model (e.g. economic or health model). Some sources of uncertainty are reduced or eliminated by the framing of the question. For example, it may be useful to ask what an impact outcome would be conditional on a given societal development pathway, forcing scenario, or policy. However many sources of uncertainty remain, and it is rare for all or even most of these sources to be accounted for. I use the example of a recent integrated project on the Benefits of Reduced Anthropogenic Climate changE (BRACE) to explore useful approaches to uncertainty across multiple components of an impact assessment. BRACE comprises 23 papers that assess the differences in impacts between two alternative climate futures: those associated with Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5. It quantifies difference in impacts in terms of extreme events, health, agriculture, tropical cyclones, and sea level rise. Methodologically, it includes climate modeling, statistical analysis, integrated assessment modeling, and sector-specific impact modeling. It employs alternative scenarios of both radiative forcing and societal development, but generally uses a single climate model (CESM), partially accounting for climate uncertainty by drawing heavily on large initial condition ensembles. Strengths and weaknesses of the approach to uncertainty in BRACE are assessed. Options under consideration for improving the approach include the use of perturbed physics

  6. Bracing System of Large Attack Angle in Low Speed Wind Tunnel%低速风洞大攻角张线式支撑系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨恩霞; 刁彦飞; 庞永刚

    2001-01-01

    Based on traditional bracing system of wind tunnel testing, a system of hanging brace of large angle of attack was designed, which can reduce frame interference. The contradiction between bracing rigidity and aerodynamic interference can be resolved by this system.%基于传统的风洞试验支撑系统,设计了能减小支架干扰的大攻角张线式支撑系统。该系统能解决支架的支撑刚度与气动干扰之间的矛盾。

  7. Research review of low-cycle fatigue behavior of steel brace%钢支撑低周疲劳性能研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海丰; 张学辉; 李其廉

    2011-01-01

    总结了国际上有关钢支撑低周疲劳性能试验及有限元研究方面的现状,指出了钢支撑低周疲劳性能研究的方向。%Low-cycle fatigue behavior research of the steel brace is prerequisite to the understanding of the seismic performance of concentrically braced frame with moment resisting frame dual systems. In this paper, the current test and finite element research in the low-cycle fatigue behavior of the steel brace is reviewed and the further research direction is pointed out.

  8. 7th SOSORT consensus paper: conservative treatment of idiopathic & Scheuermann's kyphosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Loon PJM

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thoracic hyperkyphosis is a frequent problem and can impact greatly on patient's quality of life during adolescence. This condition can be idiopathic or secondary to Scheuermann disease, a disease disturbing vertebral growth. To date, there is no sound scientific data available on the management of this condition. Some studies discuss the effects of bracing, however no guidelines, protocols or indication's of treatment for this condition were found. The aim of this paper was to develop and verify the consensus on managing thoracic hyperkyphosis patients treated with braces and/or physiotherapy. Methods The Delphi process was utilised in four steps gradually modified according to the results of a set of recommendations: we involved the SOSORT Board twice, then all SOSORT members twice, with a Pre-Meeting Questionnaire (PMQ, and during a Consensus Session at the SOSORT Lyon Meeting with a Meeting Questionnaire (MQ. Results There was an unanimous agreement on the general efficacy of bracing and physiotherapy for this condition. Most experts suggested the use of 4-5 point bracing systems, however there was some controversy with regards to physiotherapeutic aims and modalities. Conclusion The SOSORT panel of experts suggest the use of rigid braces and physiotherapy to correct thoracic hyperkyphosis during adolescence. The evaluation of specific braces and physiotherapy techniques has been recommended.

  9. Fatigue of hollow section T-joints of circular braces and square chords

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, S. [Norwegian Inst. of Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Gandhi, P. [Structural Engineering Research Centre, Madras (India); Lereim, J. [Saga Petroleum A.S., Forus (Norway)

    1995-12-31

    Hollow sections are generally either circular-to-circular (CCHS) or rectangular-to-rectangular (RRHS). Structures with circular braces and rectangular chords (CRHS) may have advantages in certain applications, combining a simple joint geometry for fabrication and relatively small stress concentration factors. Seven different CRHS joints were fatigue tested in constant amplitude axial loading. Stress concentration factors (SCF) were measured experimentally and compared with various parametric formulae. The SCF values for CRHS joints were found to be between those of CCHS and RRHS joints. On the basis of measured SCF values for CRHS joints, the fatigue strength was in good correspondence with current fatigue design codes. Parametric formulae for RRHS joints were in all the cases found to give conservative predictions of SCF. In lack of more rational prediction methods, these formulae in combination with the T curve for tubular joints may be used in fatigue design of CRHS joints.

  10. Design and testing of a regenerative magnetorheological actuator for assistive knee braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hao; Chen, Bing; Qin, Ling; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a multifunctional magneto-rheological actuator with power regeneration capability, named regenerative magnetorheological actuator (RMRA), is designed for gait assistance in the knee joint. RMRA has motor and magnetorheological (MR) brake parts working in parallel that can harvest energy through regenerative braking. This novel design provides multiple functions with good energy efficiency. The configuration and basic design of the RMRA are first introduced. Then geometrical optimization of the MR brake is conducted based on a parameterized model, and multiple factors are considered in the design objectives: braking torque, weight, and power consumption. After the optimal design is obtained, an RMRA prototype is fabricated and associated driver circuits are designed. Finally, multiple functions of the RMRA, especially three different braking modes, are modeled and tested. Experimental results of RMRA output performances in all working modes match the modeling and simulation. Assistive knee braces with the developed RMRA are promising for future applications in gait assistance and rehabilitation.

  11. Effectiveness of damped braces to mitigate seismic torsional response of unsymmetric-plan buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Fabio; Pedace, Emilia; Favero, Francesco Del

    2017-02-01

    The seismic retrofitting of unsymmetric-plan reinforced concrete (r.c.) framed buildings can be carried out by the incorporation of damped braces (DBs). Yet most of the proposals to mitigate the seismic response of asymmetric framed buildings by DBs rest on the hypothesis of elastic (linear) structural response. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the effectiveness and reliability of a Displacement-Based Design procedure of hysteretic damped braces (HYDBs) based on the nonlinear behavior of the frame members, which adopts the extended N2 method considered by Eurocode 8 to evaluate the higher mode torsional effects. The Town Hall of Spilinga (Italy), a framed structure with an L-shaped plan built at the beginning of the 1960s, is supposed to be retrofitted with HYDBs to attain performance levels imposed by the Italian seismic code (NTC08) in a high-risk zone. Ten structural solutions are compared by considering two in-plan distributions of the HYDBs, to eliminate (elastic) torsional effects, and different design values of the frame ductility combined with a constant design value of the damper ductility. A computer code for the nonlinear dynamic analysis of r.c. spatial framed structures is adopted to evaluate the critical incident angle of bidirectional earthquakes. Beams and columns are simulated with a lumped plasticity model, including flat surface modeling of the axial load-biaxial bending moment elastic domain at the end sections, while a bilinear law is used to idealize the behavior of the HYDBs. Damage index domains are adopted to estimate the directions of least seismic capacity, considering artificial earthquakes whose response spectra match those adopted by NTC08 at serviceability and ultimate limit states.

  12. Pitzer ion-interaction parameters for Fe(II) and Fe(III) in the quinary {l_brace}Na + K + Mg + Cl + SO{sub 4} + H{sub 2}O{r_brace} system at T=298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christov, Christomir E-mail: hhristov@chem.ucsd.edu

    2004-03-01

    This paper describes a chemical model that calculates (solid + liquid) equilibria in the {l_brace}m{sub 1}FeCl{sub 2} + m{sub 2}FeCl{sub 3}{r_brace}(aq), {l_brace}m{sub 1}FeSO{sub 4} + m{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}{r_brace}(aq), {l_brace}m{sub 1}NaCl + m{sub 2}FeCl{sub 3}{r_brace}(aq), {l_brace}m{sub 1}Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + m{sub 2}FeSO{sub 4}{r_brace}(aq), {l_brace}m{sub 1}NaCl + m{sub 2}FeCl{sub 2}{r_brace}(aq), {l_brace}m{sub 1}KCl + m{sub 2}FeCl{sub 3}{r_brace}(aq), {l_brace}m{sub 1}K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + m{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}{r_brace}(aq), {l_brace}m{sub 1}KCl + m{sub 2}FeCl{sub 2}{r_brace}(aq), {l_brace}m{sub 1}K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + m{sub 2}FeSO{sub 4}{r_brace}(aq), and {l_brace}m{sub 1}MgCl{sub 2} + m{sub 2}FeCl{sub 2}{r_brace}(aq) systems, where m denotes molality at T=298.15 K. The Pitzer ion-interaction model has been used for thermodynamic analysis of the experimental activity data in binary FeCl{sub 2}(aq) and FeCl{sub 3}(aq) solutions, and ternary solubility data, presented in the literature. The thermodynamic functions needed (binary and ternary parameters of ionic interaction, thermodynamic solubility products) have been calculated and the theoretical solubility isotherms have been plotted. The mixed solution model parameters {l_brace}{theta}(MN) and {psi}(MNX){r_brace} have been chosen on the basis of the compositions of saturated ternary solutions and data on the pure water solubility of the K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} {center_dot} FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O double salt. The standard chemical potentials of four ferrous {l_brace}FeCl{sub 2} {center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} {center_dot} FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} {center_dot} FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O, and MgCl{sub 2} {center_dot} FeCl{sub 2} {center_dot} 8H{sub 2}O{r_brace} and three ferric {l_brace}FeCl{sub 3} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O, 2KCl {center_dot} FeCl{sub 3} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O, and 2K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} {center_dot} Fe{sub 2}(SO

  13. Reinforced Concrete Frame Structure with Haunch Braces%钢筋混凝土带腋撑框架结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡健; 周飞; 钟国坤; 杨春

    2009-01-01

    提出了一种设置带腋撑的新型钢筋混凝土(含预应力混凝土)框架结构.该结构由常规的钢筋混凝土框架结构以及设置在节点区的腋撑组成.腋撑的上、下端分别和框架梁、框架柱刚接.腋撑的设置,改变了框架梁端、框架柱端的设计控制截面的位置,大幅度减少了框架梁端、框架柱端的设计控制截面的弯矩值、剪力值,并且大幅度减少了框架梁跨中的挠度.试验结果表明,该新型结构具有良好的性能.该新型钢筋混凝土带腋撑框架结构适用于单层或多层大跨度的混凝土结构房屋建筑以及土木工程构筑物,有广泛的应用前景.%A new kind of reinforced (prestressed) concrete (RC) frame structure,the RC frame structure with haunch braces,is proposed,which is composed of conventional RC frame structure and haunch braces.The haunch braces are connected rigidly with structural beams and columns.By adding the haunch braces the designing controlling cross sections located at the ends of beams and columns for RC frame structure are changed to the joints connecting the haunch braces with beams and columns.The moments at the designing controlling cross sections and the midspan deflections of the structural beams are significantly decreased.Experimental results show that the new developed RC frame structure with haunch braces exhibits good mechanical behaviors.It can be extensively applied to one or multilayer large span concrete buildings and other civil engineering constructions.

  14. COMPARE THE BEHAVIOR FACTOR OF THE ULTIMATE RESISTANCE OF MOMENT FRAME, PLAIN AND PERFORATED STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALLS AND BUCKLING RESTRAINED BRACE AS YIELDING METAL DAMPER

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Reza Ashrafi; Peyman Beiranvand; Kasra Shahbazian; Shaahin Bidmeshki; Somaye Yaghooti

    2016-01-01

    Steel moment frame systems, steel plate shear walls and also buckling restrained brace (BRB) are considered as the most widely used seismic resistant systems of the world. Firstly, in this research, in order to validate the finite element models, the tested sample of steel plate shear walls of 4 floors at the University of Alberta, Canada, and the tested sample of buckling restrained brace at the University of Berkeley California, with the software ABAQUS 6.10-1 were used. Then, the obtained ...

  15. Dynamic response of reinforced concrete frame eccentrically braced with steel%带偏心钢支承钢筋砼框架动力反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石建光

    2001-01-01

    用动力分析软件对带偏心钢支撑钢筋砼二层框架结构进行了分析,单元模型建立时考虑了材料非线性和轴力与弯矩的相互作用.钢筋砼模型为三折线,钢支撑用非对称双线性模型.从地震动作用下的地震反应知,X-型支撑和K-型支撑有较小的位移、速度和柱剪力.偏心支撑框架有2个途径传递地震反应:柱和支撑与梁.%Two-story frame structures,which are braced with eccentric steel brace,are analyzed with dynamic program.The element models are created depending on the nonlinear behavior of the material and the interaction between the axial force and the moment.The reinforced concrete model is a tri-linear curve and the steel brace is a non-symmetry bi-linear model.From the dynamic response under ground motion wave it is known that the X-type or K-type braced frame has smaller displacement,velocity and column shear.The eccentrically braced frame has two approaches to transfer the seismic action:column and brace with beam.

  16. A study of high-altitude manned research aircraft employing strut-braced wings of high-aspect-ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. M.; Deyoung, J.; Lovell, W. A.; Price, J. E.; Washburn, G. F.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of increased wing aspect ratio of subsonic aircraft on configurations with and without strut bracing. Results indicate that an optimum cantilever configuration, with a wing aspect ratio of approximately 26, has a 19% improvement in cruise range when compared to a baseline concept with a wing aspect ratio of approximately 10. An optimum strut braced configuration, with a wing aspect ratio of approximately 28, has a 31% improvment in cruise range when compared to the same baseline concept. This improvement is mainly due to the estimated reduction in wing weight resulting from use of lifting struts. All configurations assume the same mission payload and fuel. The drag characteristics of the wings are enhanced with the use of laminar flow airfoils. A method for determining the extent of attainable natural laminar flow, and methods for preliminary structural design and for aerodynamic analysis of wings lifting struts are presented.

  17. Damping characteristics of friction damped braced frame and its effectiveness in the mega-sub controlled structure system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yeda; Zhang, Xunan; Sheldon, Cherry

    2007-06-01

    Based on energy dissipation and structural control principle, a new structural configuration, called the mega-sub controlled structure (MSCS) with friction damped braces (FDBs), is first presented. Meanwhile, to calculate the damping coefficient in the slipping state a new analytical method is proposed. The damping characteristics of one-storey friction damped braced frame (FDBF) are investigated, and the influence of the structural parameters on the energy dissipation and the practical engineering design are discussed. The nonlinear dynamic equations and the analytical model of the MSCS with FDBs are established. Three building structures with different structural configurations, which were designed with reference to the conventional mega-sub structures such as used in Tokyo City Hall, are comparatively investigated. The results illustrate that the structure presented in the paper has excellent dynamic properties and satisfactory control effectiveness.

  18. Damping characteristics of friction damped braced frame and its effectiveness in the mega-sub controlled structure system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian Yeda; Zhang Xunan; Sheldon Cherry

    2007-01-01

    Based on energy dissipation and structural control principle, a new structural configuration, called the megasub controlled structure (MSCS) with friction damped braces (FDBs), is first presented. Meanwhile, to calculate the damping coefficient in the slipping state a new analytical method is proposed. The damping characteristics of one-storey friction damped braced frame (FDBF) are investigated, and the influence of the structural parameters on the energy dissipation and the practical engineering design are discussed. The nonlinear dynamic equations and the analytical model of the MSCS with FDBs are established. Three building structures with different structural configurations, which were designed with reference to the conventional mega-sub structures such as used in Tokyo City Hall, are comparatively investigated. The results illustrate that the structure presented in the paper has excellent dynamic properties and satisfactory control effectiveness.

  19. Requirements of Purline Stiffness for Angle Brace%隅撑对檩条的刚度要求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯辉; 许乐欢

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the requirements of purlin stiffness for angle brace in portal frame structure, this paper established the sloped beam-purlin angle brace finite element model in the portal frame system by the finite element software ANSYS. Specific buckling analysis was carried on and the buckling mode of sloped beam system with different spans is discussed. Preliminary analysis shows that, in the sloped beam of large span system, the purlin will precede the oblique beam buckling and fail to provide stable support for the angle brace and the sloped beam, which means that in the large span portal frame, the angle brace requires higher stiffness of the purlin.%为了研究门式刚架结构中隅撑对檩条的刚度要求,本文采用ANSYS有限元软件建立了门式刚架结构中斜梁-檩条-隅撑体系的有限元模型,进行了体系的屈曲分析,分别探讨了不同跨度的斜梁体系的屈曲模态。初步分析表明,在较大跨度斜梁体系中,檩条会先于斜梁发生失稳,不能为隅撑和斜梁提供有效的稳定支承。从而说明在大跨度门式刚架中,隅撑会对檩条产生更高的刚度要求。

  20. Hyperbaric treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on hyperbaric treatment are presented. Topics covered include: hyperbaric treatment - purpose; decompression sickness; sources of decompression sickness; physical description; forms of decompression sickness; hyperbaric treatment of decompression sickness; and duration of treatment.

  1. Lower Cross-Braced Truck and Swing Motion Truck Have Different Effect on Freight Car Dynamics Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two major types of trucks for freight car in Chinese railroad. One is the lower cross-braced truck; the other is the swing motion truck. To evaluate the different performance, diamond resistant rigidity of the lower cross-braced truck and the lateral stiffness of the swing motion truck are analyzed. To simulate the dynamics performance of the swing motion truck, an equivalent lateral stiffness is calculated. Then it is modeled as a lateral spring between side frames and bolstered to simulate the swing. After that, two typical freight cars’ models which use the two types of trucks are built in SIMPACK. The L/V Ratio and Wheel Load Reduction Ratio are chosen for evaluating running safety of the freight car. The simulation results are compared and they prove that the impact force between wheel and rail when the car passing curve can be reduced effectively as the swing motion truck has a better lateral flexible. Therefore, it has a lower L/V ratio under the same running and loading condition. However, the swing leads a larger lateral displacement of the car-body, so the gravity center of loaded car has a larger lateral displacement than the car with lower cross-braced truck; which results to a larger Wheel Load Reduction Ratio.  

  2. Quantifying Earthquake Collapse Risk of Tall Steel Braced Frame Buildings Using Rupture-to-Rafters Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourhatch, Ramses

    This thesis examines collapse risk of tall steel braced frame buildings using rupture-to-rafters simulations due to suite of San Andreas earthquakes. Two key advancements in this work are the development of (i) a rational methodology for assigning scenario earthquake probabilities and (ii) an artificial correction-free approach to broadband ground motion simulation. The work can be divided into the following sections: earthquake source modeling, earthquake probability calculations, ground motion simulations, building response, and performance analysis. As a first step the kinematic source inversions of past earthquakes in the magnitude range of 6-8 are used to simulate 60 scenario earthquakes on the San Andreas fault. For each scenario earthquake a 30-year occurrence probability is calculated and we present a rational method to redistribute the forecast earthquake probabilities from UCERF to the simulated scenario earthquake. We illustrate the inner workings of the method through an example involving earthquakes on the San Andreas fault in southern California. Next, three-component broadband ground motion histories are computed at 636 sites in the greater Los Angeles metropolitan area by superposing short-period (0.2s-2.0s) empirical Green's function synthetics on top of long-period (> 2.0s) spectral element synthetics. We superimpose these seismograms on low-frequency seismograms, computed from kinematic source models using the spectral element method, to produce broadband seismograms. Using the ground motions at 636 sites for the 60 scenario earthquakes, 3-D nonlinear analysis of several variants of an 18-story steel braced frame building, designed for three soil types using the 1994 and 1997 Uniform Building Code provisions and subjected to these ground motions, are conducted. Model performance is classified into one of five performance levels: Immediate Occupancy, Life Safety, Collapse Prevention, Red-Tagged, and Model Collapse. The results are combined with

  3. Evaluation of the Clinical Effect on Braces Traction in Children Jaw Fracture%儿童颌骨骨折托槽牵引临床疗效的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段咏华; 宋方庆; 汪春梅; 程凤云

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical effect of braces traction in children with jaw fracture.Method:The clinical data of 31 children with jaw fracture in our hospital from July 2012 to July 2014 were retrospectively analyzed.All patients were given the treatment of braces traction.Result:The total effective rate was 90.32%.The scores of plaque index, debris index and gingival index after treatment were higher than those before treatment,the differences were statistically significant(P<0.05).All patients had no infection and occlusal disorder.During the follow-up there were no patients with growth restriction and secondary deformity.Conclusion:Braces traction in children with jaw fracture can obtain good effect.%目的:探讨儿童颌骨骨折托槽牵引治疗的临床疗效。方法:回顾性分析本院2012年7月-2014年7月收治的31例儿童颌骨骨折患者的临床资料,所有患者均实施托槽牵引治疗。结果:治疗总有效率为90.32%,治疗后患者的菌斑指数、软垢指数、牙龈指数评分均高于治疗前,比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。所有患者均未出现感染和咬合错乱等,经随访患者均未出现明显的发育受限和继发畸形等现象。结论:对儿童颌骨骨折患者予以托槽牵引治疗可以获得良好的效果。

  4. Prescribing patterns, adherence and LDL-cholesterol response of type 2 diabetes patients initiating statin on low-dose versus standard-dose treatment : a descriptive study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, F M; Voorham, J; Hak, E; Denig, P

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to describe and compare treatment modifications and discontinuation, adherence levels and response to treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes initiating on low-dose vs. standard-dose statin treatment. METHODS: A 2-year follow-up cohort study was performed using dat

  5. The effects of a prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves on the performance of healthy athletes: a crossover randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortaza, Niyousha; Ebrahimi, Ismail; Jamshidi, Ali Ashraf; Abdollah, Vahid; Kamali, Mohammad; Abas, Wan Abu Bakar Wan; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu

    2012-01-01

    Knee injury is one of the major problems in sports medicine, and the use of prophylactic knee braces is an attempt to reduce the occurrence and/or severity of injuries to the knee joint ligament(s) without inhibiting knee mobility. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of one recently designed prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves upon performance of healthy athletes. Thirty-one healthy male athletes (age = 21.2 ± 1.5) volunteered as participants to examine the effect of prophylactic knee brace/sleeves on performance using isokinetic and functional tests. All subjects were tested in four conditions in a random order: 1. nonbraced (control) 2. using a neoprene knee sleeve 3. using a knee sleeve with four bilateral metal supports and 4. using a prophylactic knee brace. The study design was a crossover, randomized, controlled trial. Subjects completed single leg vertical jump, cross-over hop, and the isokinetic knee flexion and extension (at 60, 180, 300°/sec). Data were collected from the above tests and analyzed for jump height, cross-over hop distance, peak torque to body weight ratio and average power, respectively. Comparisons of these variables in the four testing conditions revealed no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). The selected prophylactic brace/sleeves did not significantly inhibit athletic performance which might verify that their structure and design have caused no complication in the normal function of the knee joint. Moreover, it could be speculated that, if the brace or the sleeves had any limiting effect, our young healthy athletic subjects were well able to generate a mean peak torque large enough to overcome this possible restriction. Further studies are suggested to investigate the long term effect of these prophylactic knee brace and sleeves as well as their possible effect on the adjacent joints to the knee.

  6. The effects of a prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves on the performance of healthy athletes: a crossover randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyousha Mortaza

    Full Text Available Knee injury is one of the major problems in sports medicine, and the use of prophylactic knee braces is an attempt to reduce the occurrence and/or severity of injuries to the knee joint ligament(s without inhibiting knee mobility. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of one recently designed prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves upon performance of healthy athletes. Thirty-one healthy male athletes (age = 21.2 ± 1.5 volunteered as participants to examine the effect of prophylactic knee brace/sleeves on performance using isokinetic and functional tests. All subjects were tested in four conditions in a random order: 1. nonbraced (control 2. using a neoprene knee sleeve 3. using a knee sleeve with four bilateral metal supports and 4. using a prophylactic knee brace. The study design was a crossover, randomized, controlled trial. Subjects completed single leg vertical jump, cross-over hop, and the isokinetic knee flexion and extension (at 60, 180, 300°/sec. Data were collected from the above tests and analyzed for jump height, cross-over hop distance, peak torque to body weight ratio and average power, respectively. Comparisons of these variables in the four testing conditions revealed no statistically significant difference (p>0.05. The selected prophylactic brace/sleeves did not significantly inhibit athletic performance which might verify that their structure and design have caused no complication in the normal function of the knee joint. Moreover, it could be speculated that, if the brace or the sleeves had any limiting effect, our young healthy athletic subjects were well able to generate a mean peak torque large enough to overcome this possible restriction. Further studies are suggested to investigate the long term effect of these prophylactic knee brace and sleeves as well as their possible effect on the adjacent joints to the knee.

  7. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research. Phase II - Volume I; Truss Braced Wing Design Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.; Allen, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the Truss Braced Wing (TBW) work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, consisting of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, Georgia Tech, Virginia Tech, NextGen Aeronautics, and Microcraft. A multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) environment defined the geometry that was further refined for the updated SUGAR High TBW configuration. Airfoil shapes were tested in the NASA TCT facility, and an aeroelastic model was tested in the NASA TDT facility. Flutter suppression was successfully demonstrated using control laws derived from test system ID data and analysis models. Aeroelastic impacts for the TBW design are manageable and smaller than assumed in Phase I. Flutter analysis of TBW designs need to include pre-load and large displacement non-linear effects to obtain a reasonable match to test data. With the updated performance and sizing, fuel burn and energy use is reduced by 54% compared to the SUGAR Free current technology Baseline (Goal 60%). Use of the unducted fan version of the engine reduces fuel burn and energy by 56% compared to the Baseline. Technology development roadmaps were updated, and an airport compatibility analysis established feasibility of a folding wing aircraft at existing airports.

  8. Proteolytic Activation of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab through a Belt-and-Braces Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lian; Pan, Zhi-Zhen; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Bo; Zhu, Yu-Jing; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2016-09-28

    Proteolytic processing of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal toxins by insect midgut proteases plays an essential role in their insecticidal toxicities against target insects. In the present study, proteolysis of Bt crystal toxin Cry2Ab by Plutella xylostella L. midgut proteases (PxMJ) was evaluated. Both trypsin and chymotrypsin were identified involving the proteolytic activation of Cry2Ab and cleaving Cry2Ab at Arg(139) and Leu(144), respectively. Three Cry2Ab mutants (R139A, L144A, and R139A-L144A) were constructed by replacing residues Arg(139), Leu(144), and Arg(139)-Leu(144) with alanine. Proteolysis assays revealed that mutants R139A and L144A but not R139A-L144A could be cleaved into 50 kDa activated toxins by PxMJ. Bioassays showed that mutants R139A and L144A were highly toxic against P. xylostella larvae, while mutant R139A-L144A was almost non-insecticidal. Those results demonstrated that proteolysis by PxMJ was associated with the toxicity of Cry2Ab against P. xylostella. It also revealed that either trypsin or chymotrypsin was enough to activate Cry2Ab protoxin. This characteristic was regarded as a belt-and-braces approach and might contribute to the control of resistance development in target insects. Our studies characterized the proteolytic processing of Cry2Ab and provided new insight into the activation of this Bt toxin.

  9. Neoprene wrist brace for correction of radial club hand in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, S M

    1996-01-01

    Thermoplastic wrist orthoses have been used for some time for serial correction before surgery for radial dysplasia to realign the hand on the forearm bone. However, problems have been experienced with pressure areas, especially at the distal and proximal radial edges. Inserting padding with such a small orthosis (if made for a baby) distorts the fit. A neoprene brace has been developed that can be applied to an infant as young as 3 weeks old. Thermoplastic ulnar and radial reinforcers are used to maintain the correction. The method of construction and positioning are described. The reinforcers can be serially adjusted to achieve a neutral position at the wrist. In babies, passive correction may be easier to obtain, but in older children with soft-tissue shortening, acceptable realignment can be achieved serially and maintained until surgery is appropriate. Using neoprene avoids serious pressure problems. Neoprene is durable, washable, and accepted by this client group and their parents. It has been demonstrated that correcting the alignment of the hand improves hand function, especially in bilateral activities, and allows the child to swim and play in water while wearing it, thus enhancing the quality of life.

  10. Design and Model Test of a Modularized Prefabricated Steel Frame Structure with Inclined Braces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuechun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modularized prefabricated steel structures have become the preferred design in the industrialization of steel structures due to their advantages of fast construction speed, high degree of industrialization, low labour intensity, and more. Prefabricated steel structures have some engineering applications, but all are low-rise structures with few applications in the field of high-rise buildings. Using finite element analysis with line and solid elements, full-scale experiments were conducted to study the single-span frame, which is the core load-bearing part of a modularized prefabricated high-rise steel frame structure with inclined braces. The mechanical mechanisms, computation methods, and design formulas of truss girders were obtained by comparing the finite element and model experiments and building a theoretical and experimental basis for the compilation of design codes. The mechanical characteristics under design load, the deformation and stress state, the elastic-plastic law of development, and the yield failure mode and mechanism under horizontal ultimate load were also obtained. Based on theoretical analysis, finite element analysis, and experiments, the design method of this frame was summarized and incorporated into the design code.

  11. Height Effect on Response Modification Factor of Open Chevron Eccentrically Braced Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Abdollahzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of making buildings taller and height of new buildings is now one of the major problems in building design and codes of interest is located. With height, the need for further ductility and the capability of energy dissipation can be a significant role in the proper and safe design of structures to play. It seems that changes the height of buildings can be treated directly on the response modification factor of structures and thus the seismic performance of structures under severe earthquake to be effective. This research is an attempt to evaluate the ductility, over-strength and response modification factors of the Open Chevron Eccentrically Braced Frames (EBFs with 5, 10, 15 and 20 stories under Tabas, Naghan, Bam and El-Centro strong ground motions. These frames were analyzed by using static pushover analysis, linear dynamic and incremental nonlinear dynamic analysis, and the values of these factors for different models have been determined separately and it is resulted that with increasing the height of buildings, the ductility reduction factor and the response modification factor of EBFs, decrease, but this variation hasn’t any influence on the over strength reduction factor.

  12. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research: Phase II- Volume III-Truss Braced Wing Aeroelastic Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Allen, Timothy J.; Droney, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This Test Report summarizes the Truss Braced Wing (TBW) Aeroelastic Test (Task 3.1) work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, which includes the time period of February 2012 through June 2014. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Virginia Tech, and NextGen Aeronautics. The model was fabricated by NextGen Aeronautics and designed to meet dynamically scaled requirements from the sized full scale TBW FEM. The test of the dynamically scaled SUGAR TBW half model was broken up into open loop testing in December 2013 and closed loop testing from January 2014 to April 2014. Results showed the flutter mechanism to primarily be a coalescence of 2nd bending mode and 1st torsion mode around 10 Hz, as predicted by analysis. Results also showed significant change in flutter speed as angle of attack was varied. This nonlinear behavior can be explained by including preload and large displacement changes to the structural stiffness and mass matrices in the flutter analysis. Control laws derived from both test system ID and FEM19 state space models were successful in suppressing flutter. The control laws were robust and suppressed flutter for a variety of Mach, dynamic pressures, and angle of attacks investigated.

  13. Aerodynamic Analysis of the Truss-Braced Wing Aircraft Using Vortex-Lattice Superposition Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Eric Bi-Wen; Reynolds, Kevin Wayne; Nguyen, Nhan T.; Totah, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    The SUGAR Truss-BracedWing (TBW) aircraft concept is a Boeing-developed N+3 aircraft configuration funded by NASA ARMD FixedWing Project. This future generation transport aircraft concept is designed to be aerodynamically efficient by employing a high aspect ratio wing design. The aspect ratio of the TBW is on the order of 14 which is significantly greater than those of current generation transport aircraft. This paper presents a recent aerodynamic analysis of the TBW aircraft using a conceptual vortex-lattice aerodynamic tool VORLAX and an aerodynamic superposition approach. Based on the underlying linear potential flow theory, the principle of aerodynamic superposition is leveraged to deal with the complex aerodynamic configuration of the TBW. By decomposing the full configuration of the TBW into individual aerodynamic lifting components, the total aerodynamic characteristics of the full configuration can be estimated from the contributions of the individual components. The aerodynamic superposition approach shows excellent agreement with CFD results computed by FUN3D, USM3D, and STAR-CCM+. XXXXX Demand for green aviation is expected to increase with the need for reduced environmental impact. Most large transports today operate within the best cruise L/D range of 18-20 using the conventional tube-and-wing design. This configuration has led to marginal improvements in aerodynamic efficiency over this past century, as aerodynamic improvements tend to be incremental. A big opportunity has been shown in recent years to significantly reduce structural weight or trim drag, hence improved energy efficiency, with the use of lightweight materials such as composites. The Boeing 787 transport is an example of a modern airframe design that employs lightweight structures. High aspect ratio wing design can provide another opportunity for further improvements in energy efficiency. Historically, the study of high aspect ratio wings has been intimately tied to the study of

  14. LATERAL RESISTANCE OF CHEVRON-BRACED FRAMES WITH WEAK BEAMS%横梁未加强型人字撑框架体系的抗侧性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童根树; 罗桂发; 张磊

    2011-01-01

    对7组横梁未加强的人字支撑框架进行弹塑性分析,支撑几何长细比从43变化至132,支撑又分承担和不承担竖向重力两种。研究表明重力荷载使支撑提前屈曲,降低了支撑抗侧力峰值,抗震设防烈度越低,其影响越大。通过对整体、支撑和框架的侧力.侧移曲线的分析,解释了设计人字撑横梁时不应考虑跨中支撑点作用的原因,对欧美日等将中等长细比的支撑框架列为抗震性能最差的框架支撑体系提供了解释。揭示了支撑与框架的极限抗侧力不同时出现的重要现象,提出了设计对策;提出了塑性破坏机构,推导了横梁跨中挠度和支撑出平面外位移与层侧移角的关系。%The elastic-plastic analysis was performed for seven chevron-braced frames with weak beams, with the brace slenderness varying from 43 to 132. The braces are of two types: carrying and free of gravity load. The effect of gravitational axial force in braces on the lateral resistance of the braced frames was studied. The results showed that the gravity load caused the braces buckle (or yield) earlier; it weakened the peak strength of the chevron braces and the overall braced frames; and those effects were greater for slender braces used in regions of smaller seismic fortification intensity. Based on the overall, the brace's and the frame's lateral force-drift curves, the paper explained why the beam should be designed as if no bracing point at midspan, why the United States and Japan treated the braces of moderate slenderness as the structure having the worst seismic behaviour. It was also found that the braces reached its ultimate state at a much smaller drift than the frame, implying that the current design method of linear combination is not fully justified, and an improved design method is proposed. A plastic mechanism was proposed to evaluate the relations between the midspan-deflection of the beams, the out

  15. A calorimetric and equilibrium investigation of the reaction {l_brace}methyl ferulate(aq) + H{sub 2}O(l) = methanol(aq) + ferulic acid(aq){r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Robert N., E-mail: robert.goldberg@nist.go [Biochemical Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20876 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Lang, Brian E., E-mail: brian.lang@nist.go [Biochemical Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20876 (United States); Selig, Michael J., E-mail: michael.selig@nrel.go [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Biosciences Center, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Decker, Stephen R., E-mail: steve.decker@nrel.go [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Biosciences Center, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Microcalorimetry and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) have been used to conduct a thermodynamic investigation of the reaction: {l_brace}methyl ferulate(aq) + H{sub 2}O(l) = methanol(aq) + ferulic acid(aq){r_brace}, as catalyzed by feruloyl esterase. Values of the apparent equilibrium constant K' = (29.6 {+-} 0.7) (T = 298.15 K, citrate buffer at pH 4.98, ionic strength I = 0.39 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}) and of the calorimetrically determined enthalpy of reaction {Delta}{sub r}H(cal) = (4.0 {+-} 0.9) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} (T = 298.15 K and citrate buffer at pH 4.81, I = 0.36 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}) were measured. A chemical equilibrium model, together with pKs and standard enthalpies of reaction {Delta}{sub r}H{sup 0} for the H{sup +}(aq) binding reactions of the reactants and products, was then used to calculate the values K = (1.89 {+-} 0.06) . 10{sup -4}, {Delta}{sub r}H{sup o} = (7.3 {+-} 1.7) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, {Delta}{sub r}G{sup o} = (21.25 {+-} 0.07) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, and {Delta}{sub r}S{sup o} = - (46.8 {+-} 5.7) J {center_dot} K{sup -1} {center_dot} mol{sup -1} for the chemical reference reaction {l_brace}methyl ferulate(aq) + H{sub 2}O(l) = methanol(aq) + ferulic acid{sup -}(aq) + H{sup +}(aq){r_brace}. These values of K and {Delta}{sub r}H{sup o} are similar in magnitude to the corresponding values reported for the reaction {l_brace}propyl gallate(aq) + H{sub 2}O(l) = 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid{sup -}(aq) + 1-propanol(aq) + H{sup +}(aq){r_brace}. The results obtained in this study can be used in a chemical equilibrium model to calculate how K' and other standard transformed properties such as the standard transformed enthalpy {Delta}{sub r}H'{sup o}, standard transformed Gibbs free energy {Delta}{sub r}G'{sup o}, and the change in binding of H{sup +}(aq), {Delta}{sub r}N(H{sup +}), vary with the independent variables T, pH, and I.

  16. Guidelines for Description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Links, P.; Horsman, Peter; Kühnel, Karsten; Priddy, M.; Reijnhoudt, Linda; Merenmies, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Guidelines follow the conceptual metadata model (deliverable 17.2). They include guidelines for description of collection-holding institutions, document collections, organisations, personalities, events, camps and ghettos. As much as possible the guidelines comply with the descriptive standards

  17. Seismic response and performance of buckling-restrained braced frames%BRBFs的抗震性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠宽堂; 黄斌

    2012-01-01

    BRBFs and conventional braced frames were numerically simulated using finite element software ANSYS. The comparison of drift of each story, storey displacement and acceleration of top story under frequent earthquake and rare earthquake were conducted, which showed that the two kinds of strutures performe well under frequent earthquake, but the out-plane buckling of the braces of conventional braced frames resulted in degradation of lateral stiffness of the whole struture. While, BRBFs were able to control the displacement of the structure effectively and reduced the seismic response.%应用ANSYS软件对屈曲约束支撑钢框架(BRBFs)和普通支撑钢框架的抗震性能进行有限元数值模拟,分析了两种结构在基本烈度地震作用下和罕遇地震作用下的层位移、顶层加速度及层间相对位移等结构响应,结果表明,在小震作用下两种结构抗震性能均表现良好,但在罕遇地震作用下普通支撑钢框架由于支撑的平面外失稳,导致整个结构刚度退化,而屈曲约束支撑钢框架则能更加有效地控制结构的侧移,降低结构的地震响应.

  18. 门式刚架蒙皮抗剪支撑作用的研究%Study on shear bracing behavior of stressed diaphragm for steel gabled frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜喜林

    2011-01-01

    通过分析受力蒙皮单元抗剪支撑作用,利用刚度等效原理把受力蒙皮单元等效成支撑,从而建立考虑蒙皮效应的门式刚架轻钢结构计算模型,提出蒙皮抗剪支撑作用的实用计算方法.%It is also study on shear bracing behavior of stressed diaphragm. Upon the principle of equivalent stiffness, the stressed-skin ofroofs and walls is simplified to the bracing bars, with which the model of building systems can be established in a convenience way. Thecalculate method of the shear bracing behavior of stressed diaphragm is suggested.

  19. COMPARE THE BEHAVIOR FACTOR OF THE ULTIMATE RESISTANCE OF MOMENT FRAME, PLAIN AND PERFORATED STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALLS AND BUCKLING RESTRAINED BRACE AS YIELDING METAL DAMPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Ashrafi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Steel moment frame systems, steel plate shear walls and also buckling restrained brace (BRB are considered as the most widely used seismic resistant systems of the world. Firstly, in this research, in order to validate the finite element models, the tested sample of steel plate shear walls of 4 floors at the University of Alberta, Canada, and the tested sample of buckling restrained brace at the University of Berkeley California, with the software ABAQUS 6.10-1 were used. Then, the obtained results of the test and analysis have been compared. The confirmed models have been used for the analysis of two-dimensional frame of plain and perforated steel plate shear walls with a regular pattern of positing holes in the screen, buckling restrained brace and moment frame of 4 floors.

  20. Numerical Model of a Hybrid Damping System Composed of a Buckling Restrained Brace with a Magneto Rheological Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip-Vacarescu Norin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the concept of a hybrid damper made from a combination of two dissipative devices. A passive hysteretic device like steel Buckling Restrained Brace (BRB can be combined with a magneto-rheological (MR Fluid Damper in order to obtain a hybrid dissipative system. This system can work either as a semi-active system, if the control unit is available, or as a passive system, tuned for working according to performance based seismic engineering (PBSE scale of reference parameters (i.e. interstory drift.

  1. SUPER-CAPACITOR APPLICATION IN ELECTRICAL POWER CABLE TESTING FACILITIES IN THERMAL ENDURANCE AND MECHANICAL BRACING TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Oleksyuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current-carrying cores of the electrical power cables should be resistant to effects of short-circuit currents whose values depend on the material of the core, its cross-sectional area, cable insulation properties, environment temperature, and the duration of the short-circuit current flow (1 and 3–4 sec. when tested for thermal endurance and mechanical bracing. The facilities for testing the 10 kV aluminum core cables with short-circuit current shall provide mechanical-bracing current 56,82 kA and thermal endurance current 11,16 kA. Although capacitors provide such values of the testing currents to the best advantage, utilizing conventional capacitor-units will involve large expenditures for erecting and  running a separate building. It is expedient to apply super-capacitors qua the electric power supply for testing facilities, as they are capacitors with double-electrical layer and involve the current values of tens of kilo-amperes.The insulation voltage during short-circuit current testing being not-standardized, it is not banned to apply voltages less than 10 kV when performing short-circuit thermal endurance and mechanical bracing tests for electrical power cables of 10 kV. The super-capacitor voltage variation-in-time graph consists of two regions: capacitive and resistive. The capacitive part corresponds to the voltage change consequent on the energy change in the super-capacitors. The resistive part shows the voltage variation due to the active resistance presence in the super-capacitor.The author offers the algorithm determining the number of super capacitors requisite for testing 10 kV-electrical power cables with short-circuit currents for thermal endurance and mechanical bracing. The paper shows that installation of super-capacitors in the facilities testing the cables with short-circuit currents reduces the area needed for the super-capacitors in comparison with conventional capacitors more than by one order of magnitude.

  2. ESTIMATION OF BEARING STRENGTH OF BRACES AND STRUTS OF FARMS OF COVERAGE OF 6D TYPE HOTHOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degtyarev G. V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The method of estimation of bearing strength of braces and struts of farms of coverage of hothouses is presented in the article. The deep analysis of the question of bearing strength appeared in the light of mass erection of hothouses, especially in the South Federal district, the construction of which had been bought in the countries of Near East. However, simple transfer of the constructions of hothouses made in foreign countries can not be considered as rational on the territory of the Russian Federation. The constructions of hothouses in most do not maintain exploitation even in one winter, when the considerable snow loadings are, and wind as well. The necessity of bringing of clarity for the folded situation became more obvious. Conducted successive static, dynamic and seismic analyses, executed upon the normative documents and due to the norms of supplier operating on the territory of the Russian Federation, in attachment to the real sections of bearings structural elements, allowed to expose the stated below percents of the use of the examined elements of constructions. Supporting braces of farms of coverage: on the norms of the Russian Federation, on the first maximum state percent of the use – 999 %; there is a percent of the use on the second maximum state – 999 %; on the norms of the Russian Federation taking into account loadings of supplier, on the first maximum state percent of the use – 999 %; there is a percent of the use on the second maximum state – 999 %; Stretched braces of farms of coverage: on the norms of the Russian Federation, on the first maximum state percent of the use – 64,2%; there is a percent of the use on the second maximum state – 721,8 %; on the norms of the Russian Federation taking into account loadings of supplier, on the first maximum state percent of the use – 25,8 %; there is a percent of the use on the second maximum state – 721,8%. Analysis presented allows establishing that at the load

  3. 女性青少年特发性胸椎侧弯的胸椎矢状面形态对支具治疗效果的影响%The effect of thoracic sagittal profile on bracing effectiveness in girls with thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕峰; 邱勇; 邱旭升; 王斌; 孙旭; 张兴; 丁旗; 季明亮

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of thoracic sagittal profile on bracing effectiveness in girls with thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS),and its clinical diagnostic sigfinicances.Methods The clinical data from 70 cases of female patients with AIS girls treated with a standardized bracing protocol was retrospectively reviewed.Cobb angle of the thoracic curve was recorded before the bracing initiation and at the end of follow-up; furthermore,the age,menstrual status,Risser sign,and thoracic kyphosis were recorded before bracing initiation.Bracing failure was identified and confirmed once the primary curve increased more than 5 compared with the initial recorded data or surgical intervention was necessary.Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were employed to statistic the predictive factors of bracing treatment.Results The average age was 12.6 years in patients undertaking bracing initiation with a mean Cobb angle of 30.2 ± 5.5.After an average duration of 2.7 years follow up,the mean Cobb angle was changed to 29.6 ± 8.0.The procedure failed in 19 patients of all (27.1 %) and 51 cases (72.9%) had a successful outcome.Chi-square analyses revealed that the population in failure group is those with sign of higher ratios of premenarchal status,lower Risser grade,and lower age before bracing initiation in contrast to successful group.The logistic regression revealed that premenarchal status was an independent risk factor for curve progression during brace treatment,while thoracic kyphosis was not associated with the curve progression.Conclusions Most of the curve progression can be controlled by early stage of standard bracing treatment in thoracic AIS patients.The individual state of growth and development will have effect on therapeutic outcome,while the initial thoracic sagittal profile is not correlated with the treatment.%目的 探讨女性青少年特发性胸椎侧弯患儿初诊时胸椎矢状面形态对支具治疗期间侧

  4. Effect of Kınesıotapıng and Knee Brace on Functıonal Performance in Recreatıonal Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Ulusoy, Burak; İldiz, Bülent; Tunay, Volga Bayrakçı

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Kinesiotaping is a popular taping method that is used for both therapeutic and performance enchancement purposes. Knee braces are widely used for prevention in sport injuries but their performance effectiveness is still controversial. The aim of this study was to determine whether kinesiotape or brace was more effective on functional performance. Methods: A total twenty male recreational football players (Mean±Standart Deviation (SD) age: 22.5±0.68 years, height: 175.15±3.37 cm, b...

  5. Research on Seismic of Steel Structure with Buckling Restrained Brace%防屈曲支撑钢框架的抗震性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 李大鹏; 王光云

    2012-01-01

    本文采用ANSYS抗震性能软件,建立了防屈曲支撑钢框架有限元计算模型,通过建模计算验证了防屈曲支撑框架体系优越的结构性能.%This paper uses the ANSYS finite element analysis software,established the buckling-restrained braced frame model,and through the modeling result of buckling restrained braced frame system superior structural performance.

  6. Aging effect in CaLaBa{l_brace}Cu{sub 1 - x}Fe{sub x}{r_brace}{sub 3}O{sub 7 - {delta}} with 0 {<=} x {<=} 0.07 studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, Angel, E-mail: angelbd1@gmail.com [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Laboratorio de Ceramicos y Nanomateriales, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas (Peru); Santos Valladares, Luis De Los, E-mail: ld301@cam.ac.uk [University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory (United Kingdom); Flores, Jesus [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Laboratorio de Ceramicos y Nanomateriales, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas (Peru); Barnes, Crispin H. W. [University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory (United Kingdom); Majima, Yutaka [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Materials and Structures Laboratory (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    In this work, we study the long-term aging effect caused by Fe atoms in the superconductor CaLaBa{l_brace}Cu{sub 1 - x}Fe{sub x}{r_brace}{sub 3}O{sub 7 - {delta}} with 0 {<=} x {<=} 0.07. XRD confirms that this system has a YBCO-like structure. The critical temperature (T{sub c}) is strongly affected by aging and depends on the amount of Fe in the structure. Room temperature Moessbauer spectroscopy reveals the presence of the typical species A, B-B Prime , C and new species E Prime and F. Interestingly; A, which corresponds to the Fe{sup 3 + } atom located in the Cu(1) of the chains with spin S{sub z} = 3/2, shows a drastic reduction which means migration to the species B, B Prime and C. Species B and B Prime correspond to the Fe{sup 3 + } in the Cu(2) site forming planar quasi-octahedral and planar square pyramidal, while the C specie is a square pyramidal with O(5) respectively (spin S{sub z} = 3/2 in all these cases). Aging causes loss of superconductivity in the samples with 5 and 7% of iron content.

  7. The Nonanuclear [Mo(IV){l_brace}(CN)Fe(III)(3-ethoxy-saldptn){r_brace}{sub 8}]Cl{sub 4} Complex Compound Exhibits Multiple Spin Transitions Observed by Moessbauer Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renz, F., E-mail: Franz.Renz@uni-mainz.de; Kerep, P. [Johannes Gutenberg-University, Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie (Germany)

    2004-12-15

    The pentadentate ligand 3-EO-{sup 5}LH{sub 2}= 3-ethoxy-saldptn N,N'-bis(3-ethoxy-1-hydroxy-2-benzyliden)-1,7-diamino-4-azaheptane has been prepared by a Schiff base condensation between 1,7-diamino-4-azaheptane and the corresponding 3-ethoxy-salicyaldehyde. 3-EO-{sup 5}LH{sub 2} is a sterical extention to {sup 5}LH{sub 2}. Its complexation with Fe(III) gave the high-spin (S=5/2) complex of [Fe(III)(3-EO-{sup 5}L)Cl]. This precursor was combined with [Mo(CN){sub 8}]{sup 4-} and a blue nonanuclear cluster [Mo(IV){l_brace}(CN)Fe(III)(3-EO-{sup 5}L){r_brace}{sub 8}]Cl{sub 4} resulted. This starshaped nonanuclear compound is a high-spin system at room temperature. On cooling to 10 K some of the eight iron(III) centers switched to the low-spin state as proven by Moessbauer spectra, i.e. multiple electronic transitions.

  8. 隅撑支撑钢框架结构拟静力试验分析%EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS ON KNEE BRACING BRACING STEEL FRAME STRUCTURE QUASI-STATIC TEST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玉生; 徐超; 段珂

    2013-01-01

    Knee bracing steel frame structure model of quasi-static tests was experimentally investigated.By analysis of the test results,the seismic performance of knee bracing steel frame structure system was studied.Ansys and PKPM was used to determine the test load program,Pul-200 type hydraulic servo actuator and DH3820 strain measurement was used for loading and data acquisition.Draw graphics of hysteresis curve,skeleton curve and stiffness degradation curve to measure energy dissipation capacity,finally,summarize and analyze.%对隅撑支撑钢框架结构模型进行拟静力试验[1],通过对试验结果分析进而对隅撑支撑钢框架结构体系的抗震性能进行研究[2],运用Ansys软件以及PKPM软件的辅助来确定本次试验的加载方案,Pul-200型液压伺服作动器以及DH3820应变测试分析系统进行加载和数据的采集,通过数据来绘制滞回曲线、骨架曲线和刚度退化曲线等衡量耗能能力的图形,最后加以总结分析.

  9. Ab initio based atomic scattering amplitudes and {l_brace}002{r_brace} electron structure factors of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As/GaAs quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titantah, J T; Lamoen, D [EMAT, Universiteit Antwerpen, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Schowalter, M; Rosenauer, A, E-mail: john.titantah@ua.ac.b [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Bremen, D 28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2010-02-01

    The atomic scattering amplitudes of the various atoms of the systems Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}As, GaAs{sub 1-x}N{sub x} and InAs{sub 1-x}N{sub x} are calculated using the density functional theory (DFT) approach. The scattering amplitudes of N, Ga, As and In in the model systems are compared with the frequently used Doyle and Turner values. Deviation from the latter values is found for small scattering vectors (s<0.3A{sup -1}) and for these scattering vectors dependence on the orientation of the scattering vector and the chemical environment is reported. We suggest a parametrization of these modified scattering amplitudes (MASAs) for small scattering vectors (s<1.0A{sup -1}). The MASAs are exploited within zero pressure classical Metropolis Monte Carlo (MC), finite temperature calculations to investigate the effect of quantum well size on the electron {l_brace}002{r_brace} structure factor (SF) of Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}As quantum wells.

  10. A prospective study comparing attempted weight bearing in fiberglass below-knee casts and prefabricated pneumatic braces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lyndon W; Dodds, Alex

    2010-04-01

    Partial weight bearing is commonly advised after fracture of the lower extremity. Research has determined this to be inaccurate both in its instruction and its reproducibility. Many trauma departments are commonly using alternatives to plaster in the splintage of fractures, such as fiberglass and the prefabricated pneumatic braces. This study's null hypothesis is that there is no difference between partial weight bearing through a fiberglass cast as compared with a pneumatic walker. A prospective study was conducted in our department including all patients who had metatarsal or ankle fractures and could partially weight bear. Patients were excluded if they were not allowed to bear weight, had received operative fixation of their fracture, or were younger than age 16 years. The patients' total weight was measured first, and then they were trained to place 50% of their weight through the splinted limb. Three measurements were taken of their attempted weight bearing at 50%, and they were blinded to the results. Over a 16-month period, 117 patients were enrolled for this study: 72 in the pneumatic walker group and 45 in the fiberglass group. There was no significant difference in sex, age, or fracture type. There was a significant difference in percentage of weight placed through the splinted limb, with the pneumatic brace group placing much greater force than the fiberglass group. This may have been caused by altered proprioception from the walker. It is important to realize this when prescribing partial weight bearing in a particular splint as this may result in avoidable complications.

  11. Description of Causes and Treatment Types Made in Teeth with Biological Space Invasion and/or in Need of Pre-Prosthetic Surgery: Case series

    OpenAIRE

    Machón, Lourdes; Universidad Evangélica de El Salvador; Hernández, Morena; Universidad Evangélica de El Salvador; Espinoza, Manuel Antonio; Universidad Evangélica de El Salvador; Hidalgo de Andrade, Laura Elena; Universidad Evangélica de El Salvador; Andrade Acevedo, Roberto Antonio; Universidad Evangélica de El Salvador

    2010-01-01

    Background: The decision to rehabilitate or extract a tooth is determined by the knowledge of the causes of dental destruction affecting treatment plan and prognosis. Aim: Describe indications, surgical periodontal therapy prior to dental restoration, most affected teeth and age of the patients with invasion of biological space (IBS) and/or pre-prosthetic surgery. Methods: This is a case series report of 162 patients, male and female, who were treated at the predoctoral dental program of Univ...

  12. The Impact of Gender on the Quality of Life in Patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (A IS) Treated with Brace%不同性别对青少年特发性脊柱侧凸患者支具治疗生存质量评价的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周惠清; 张建新; 林思舜; 柳明忠; 林松庆

    2012-01-01

    目的:检测男女性别不同对青少年特发性脊柱侧凸(AIS)患者支具治疗生存质量评价的影响.方法:将87例支具治疗AIS患者分为2组,男性41例,女性46例,平均随访时间2.5年.2组患者在年龄、随访时间、支具治疗类型、主弯所在节段、以及支具治疗前、治疗后cobb角和Risser征等比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),87例患者均填写脊柱侧凸研究会患者问卷-22(SRS-22)量表,比较2组间量表单个维度和单个条目得分的差别.结果:女性治疗满意度维度得分高于男性(P<0.05),女性自我形象/外观维度得分也高于男性(P<0.05);其中自我形象/外观维度的条目4、6、10,以及治疗满意度维度的条目22的得分比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);但2组功能/活动度、疼痛和精神健康维度的得分比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:性别不同会影响AIS患者支具治疗生存质量的评测结果,评测患者生存质量时需考虑此因素影响.%Objective: To observe the impact of gender on the quality of life in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) treated with brace. Methods:87 patients (male 41 cases, female 46) with AIS treated with brace were divided into two groups. The mean follow-up time was 2. 5 years. There was no significant difference (P>0. 05) in age, follow-up time, the type of brace treatment, the main curved located segments, and the Cobb's angle before and after brace treatment and Risser sign in two groups. The questionnaires -22 (SRS-22) scales were filled in for all 87 patients, the scores of dimensions and single items were compared between the two groups. Results: The scores of therapeutic satisfaction in women were higher than that in men (P0. 05) in self-image / appearance of the dimension entries 4,6,10 and the score of therapeutic satisfaction in 22 entries (P0. 05) in function, activity, pain and scores of mental health dimensions in the two group. Conclusions

  13. Based on ANSYS buckling-restrained brace frame structure analysis%基于ANSYS约束屈曲支撑框架结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费建伟

    2011-01-01

    传统的耗能支撑框架结构具有较好的经济性,但是,在中震和强震时,支撑会发生受压屈曲.利用ANSYS模拟约束屈曲支撑框架在地震作用下的结构响应,采用理想弹塑性模型模拟屈曲约束支撑的滞回性能,分别在中震烈度和大震烈度下,对一般框架结构和约束屈曲支撑框架结构进行非线性时程分析,得到结构响应.分析结果表明,约束屈曲支撑结构减震效果良好.%The traditional energy support frame structure with good efficiency, but in moderate earthquakes and strong earthquake support will occur pressure buckling. Using ANSYS simulation buckling-restrained brace framework response of the structure in earthquake. Using the ideal elastic-plastic model describe buckling-restrained brace hysteretic performance, in moderate earthquakes and strong earthquake, general framework and buckling-restrained brace framework for nonlinear time-history analysis, solving structural response. Analysis results show that buckling-restrained brace structure damping effect is good.

  14. Treatment of hand ischemia following angioaccess surgery using the distal revascularization interval-ligation technique with preservation of vascular access: description of an 18-case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Carmine; Riehl, Gregory; Porcu, Paolo; Pichot, Olivier; Palacin, Pedro; Maghlaoua, Mohamed; Magne, Jean-Luc

    2004-11-01

    Hand ischemia is a rare complication of angioaccess surgery for hemodialysis. Management usually requires ligation of the arteriovenous fistula (AVF). The purpose of this report is to describe our experience with the use of the distal revascularization interval-ligation (DRIL) technique for treatment of ischemia without ligation of the AVF. From January 1999 to September 2002, the DRIL technique was used to treat 18 patients (10 men, 8 women, 10 diabetic patients) with severe paresthesia of the hand (n = 9) and finger necrosis (n = 10). The AVF was located at the elbow in 16 patients and at the wrist in 2 patients. Mean flow distal to the AVF was less than 10 mL in 5 patients, less than 5 mL in 10, and unmeasurable in 3. The conduit used for all DRIL arterial bypasses, including 15 brachiobrachial bypasses, 1 axillobrachial bypass, 1 brachioradial bypass, and 1 radioradial bypass, was the great saphenous vein graft. Trophic manifestations required finger amputation in five patients, pulpar necrosis resection in four, and transmetacarpal amputation of the index finger in one patient. Symptoms disappeared in 13 patients (73%) and improved in 5 (27%). The time required for healing of finger amputations and trophic manifestations ranged from 15 days to 2 months. Mean arterial flow through the DRIL bypass was 50 mL/min (range, 20-90 mL/min). With a mean follow-up interval of 16 months (range, 5-48 months), primary patency of the DRIL artery bypass and AVF was 94% and the limb salvage rate was 100%. The DRIL technique is the most effective procedure for treatment of angioaccess-induced hand ischemia. This technique can be used to achieve persistent relief of symptoms with continued access patency. The DRIL artery bypass improves vacularization of the hand, and ligature of the artery stops the vascular steal without affecting hemodialysis access. The DRIL technique should be proposed as first-line treatment for hand ischemia due to AVF for hemodialysis.

  15. A descriptive study of clinical, hematological, and biochemical parameters of inhalant users seeking treatment at a tertiary care center in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwana Quraishi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inhalant (or solvent abuse is the purposeful inhalation of vapors or gases, intended to produce pleasurable psychoactive effects. There is a dearth of Indian studies on inhalant users. Aim: The present study aimed to describe the socio-demographic, clinical, and psychosocial characteristics of inhalant users visiting a Tertiary Care Center in North India. Materials and Methods: The study was a retrospective chart review for 50 inhalant users who sought treatment for the first time from the center over a period of 2 years. All patients seeking treatment for inhalant use at the center were evaluated by a psychiatrist. Results: Mean age of the sample was 17.16±4.09 years and majority comprised of children and adolescents (72.2%. There were only three girls (6%. Majority comprised of school drop-outs (82%, from lower socio-economic status (80%. Mean age of initiation of first substance was 14.13±4.27 years and inhalants were first drugs for 38%. Duration of inhalant use ranged between 1 month and 7.5 years. Use was mostly uninterrupted, and 88% were dependent users. Correction fluid was the commonest product, used by huffing or sniffing. A large majority (86% had used at least one other substance besides inhalants, and 8% reported involvement in high-risk sexual behaviors. Comorbid psychiatric disorder was seen in 8% of sample. Positive family history was observed in 30% of the sample. The mean hemoglobin of the sample was 11.88±0.60, with low hemoglobin in 25% of users. Neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and monocytes were elevated beyond normal in 10.8%, 6.5%, 15.2%, and 7.5%, respectively. There was no evidence of leucopenia. Bilirubin and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase was elevated in 6.6% and 13% of inhalant users, respectively. Conclusion: The study adds to the limited date available on the treatment-seeking inhalant users from Indian settings. There is a need to examine the pattern of inhalant use in larger samples

  16. Descriptive set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Moschovakis, YN

    1987-01-01

    Now available in paperback, this monograph is a self-contained exposition of the main results and methods of descriptive set theory. It develops all the necessary background material from logic and recursion theory, and treats both classical descriptive set theory and the effective theory developed by logicians.

  17. Job descriptions made easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry

    2014-01-01

    The act of writing a job description can be a daunting and difficult task for many managers. This article focuses on the key concepts of What, How, and Measureable Results as they relate to an employee's job duties. When the answers to these three elements are articulated, they define the core responsibilities of any job that form the basis for an effective job description.

  18. [Dextrocardia with situ solitus, ventricular loop, double outlet hypoplastic right ventricle and L-malposition of the great arteries. Description and surgical treatment of a rare and complex cardiopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraisse, A; Ghez, O; Ligi, I; Laporte-Giugliano, V; Chetaille, P; Bonnet, J L; Aubert, F; Metras, D

    2002-05-01

    Despite the cardiac surgery improvements allowing the correction of the majority of congenital heart diseases with ventricle-great vessels discontinuity, some abnormalities increase the risk of bi-ventricular reparation. We herein report the case of a patient presenting a rare form of double outlet right ventricle with a ventricular loop, with moderate right ventricle hypoplasia. L-malposition of great vessels and pulmonary artery stenosis, and for whom we opted for a palliative surgical treatment including a systemic-pulmonary anastomosis followed by a upper right bi-directional cavo-pulmonary derivation. The last surgery was followed by recurrent right pleural effusions disappearing after the embolization of the systemic-pulmonary anastomosis by catheterism as it probably obstructed the draining of the cavo-pulmonary anastomosis. The relevance of this clinical case reported is, firstly the description of this ventricle loop resulted from a marked ventricular malposition which is a rare heart disease, and secondly the discussion about the surgical treatment, especially about the choice between palliative and curative surgery. Only comparative studies on long term morbidity and mortality between the bi-ventricular reparation and mono-ventricular palliation will allow the selection of the most appropriate surgical treatment.

  19. LATERAL RESISTANCE OF CHEVRON-BRACED FRAMES WITH STRONG BEAMS%横梁加强型人字形支撑的抗侧力性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童根树; 罗桂发; 张磊

    2012-01-01

    The elastic-plastic analysis was made for chevron-braced frames with strong beams, the slenderness and inclination of a brace are varied and the beams are strengthened with four different levels. The results showed that strong beams can delay the degradation of the compressed brace's strength and allow the tensile brace yield, leading to the chevron braces' peak strength over the buckling strength. Formulas for the peak strength and the overstrength factor of chevron braces are proposed. It is found that the braces with moderate slenderness experience a sharp drop in the lateral load immediately after the peak strength is reached, showing the worst seismic behavior. Formulas for predicting the drift at buckling of braces in compress and yielding of braces in tension are suggested. Equations for predicting the degradation of the braces' compressive capacity and the unbalanced force supported by beams with a drift ratio are also proposed. All proposed equations are compared with FEM results, showing excellent agreement.%对人字形支撑进行弹塑性分析,变化支撑长细比和支撑倾斜角度,考虑四种不同的横梁加强程度。研究表明加强横梁可以延缓受压支撑屈曲后承载力的退化和作为受拉支撑的支点让其受拉屈服,使支撑架的极限承载力高于屈曲承载力。拟合了抗侧极限承载力和超强系数公式;分析发现,成对的中等长细比的人字支撑在达到抗侧极限承载力后有明显退化,因而抗震性能较差;提出了受压支撑屈曲后剩余承载力随层侧移角变化的公式,推导了受压支撑屈曲和受拉支撑屈服时的层侧移角公式,分析了横梁跨中承受的竖向不平衡力随层侧移角和支撑长细比的变化规律,提出了计算公式。

  20. A Study of the Effect of Infilled Brick Walls on Behavior of Eccentrically Braced Frames Using Explicit Finite Elements Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir S. Daryan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Eccentrically Braced Frames (EBFs are usually infilled by masonry walls, but in common design, the stiffness and lateral resistance of these walls is ignored. Considering the results of carried out tests and studies, it seems that infilled masonry walls have a significant influence on the stiffness and the strength of EBFs. Since experimental test of total frame with infilled brick wall is a very expensive and time consuming process, proper numerical models which can precisely simulate the behavior of EBFs considering the effects of infilled brick wall are necessary. Approach: In this study, a proper model is made using explicit finite elements method to study the behavior of EBFs with infilled masonry wall. Because of complicated mechanical and geometrical properties of masonry walls and also because of the interaction between steel frame and masonry wall, this model is not easy to obtain. To ensure the ability of the model to precisely simulate the behavior of an EBF with infilled brick wall, initial models were made and the problems were solved comparing the results of experimental test and the results of these initial models. Firstly, material models and some basic principles of explicit finite element algorithm are used and three initial models were made: a model of a brick wall without eccentrically braced steel frame, a model of an EBF without infilled brick wall and finally a model of an EBF with infilled brick wall. Results: Using these three initial models, constitutive model for masonry and steel material and also the proper elements for modeling the behavior of mortar is obtained. Studies showed that good prediction of the behavior of a system consisting of EBF and masonry wall is possible, by minimizing the kinematical energy and using a special time scaling of explicit finite element model. Conclusion: After verifying the finite element models, the influence of masonry infilled wall on the behavior of

  1. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour of kidney with thrombosis of the inferior vena cava and good responsive to surgical and medical treatment: description of a case and revision of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giliberto, Giovanni L; Di Franco, Carmelo A; Rovereto, Bruno

    2017-03-15

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) of kidney is a rare cancer typical of young adults with few cases described in the literature. We report a case of renal PNET in a 31-year-old man who presented to our department with a computed tomographic (CT)-scan revealing a large renal mass of 20 cm, massive thrombosis of the inferior vena cava (IVC). The patient underwent radical nephrectomy with contextual retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy and resection of IVC needing Dacron prosthesis substitution. Definitive histopathological examination showed PNET of kidney infiltrating ipsilateral adrenal gland, massive cava thrombosis with infiltration of vena cava wall and one lymph nodal metastasis. Postoperative PET-scan showed metastatic lesions in bilateral adrenal glands and pancreas. The patient received chemotherapy, and currently, he is in follow-up after 26 months from first diagnosis without any sign of recurrence of disease. Kidney PNET usually is associated with poor prognosis, so, it needs an early identification and differentiation from other similar small cells tumours in order to obtain a good response to the treatments.

  2. Heat capacity and magnetic phase transition of two-dimensional metal-assembled complex, K[{l_brace}Mn{sup III}(3-MeOsalen){r_brace}{sub 2}Fe{sup III}(China){sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Yuji [Research Center for Molecular Thermodynamics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)]. E-mail: miyazaki@chem.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp; Wang, Qi [Research Center for Molecular Thermodynamics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yu, Qing-sen [Research Center for Molecular Thermodynamics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Matsumoto, Tetsuya [Research Center for Molecular Thermodynamics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Miyasaka, Hitoshi [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-ohsawa 1-1, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Matsumoto, Naohide [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Sorai, Michio [Research Center for Molecular Thermodynamics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

    2005-06-15

    Heat capacities of the two-dimensional metal-assembled complex, K[{l_brace}Mn{sup III}(3-MeOsalen){r_brace}{sub 2}Fe{sup III}(China){sub 6}] [3-MeOsalen N,N'-ethylenebis(3-methoxysalicylideneaminato) dianion], were measured at the temperatures from 0.5 to 300 K by adiabatic calorimetry. An antiferromagnetic phase transition was observed at T {sub N} = 8.29 K. Above T {sub N}, a heat capacity tail arising from the short-range-order effect of the spins was found, which is characteristic of two-dimensional magnets. The magnetic enthalpy and entropy were evaluated to be {delta}H = 373 J mol{sup -1} and {delta}S = 31.3 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1}, respectively. The experimental magnetic entropy is in good agreement with {delta}S = R ln (5 x 5 x 2) (=32.5 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1}; R being the gas constant), which is expected for the metal complex with two Mn(III) ions in high spin state (spin quantum number S = 2) and one Fe(III) ion in low spin state (S = 1/2). The spin wave analysis suggests that the complex shows three-dimensional antiferromagnetic order below T {sub N}. The heat capacity tail above T {sub N} was decreased by grinding and pressurizing the crystal. This mechanochemical effect would originate in the increase of lattice defects and imperfections in the crystal lattice, leading to decrease of the magnetic heat capacity and hence the magnetic enthalpy and entropy.

  3. Diagnostic and treatment characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome: descriptive measurements of patient perception and awareness from 657 confidential self-reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genton Marc

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This investigation was undertaken to describe patient perception and awareness of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, the most common cause of anovulation/oligoovulation among women of reproductive age. Methods Fifteen parameters were evaluated by a computer-based research instrument accessed by a large, unscreened population. Incomplete questionnaires were not entered, and responses were electronically tabulated to block duplicate submissions. Results From 657 participants, the majority (63% were between 26–34 years old; mean BMI was 30.4 kg/m2. 343 of 657 had at least one pregnancy and 61% of the study group had taken fertility medicine (any type at least once. Physicians were the most common provider of PCOS information for all study participants, irrespective of age. Patient emotions associated with the diagnosis of PCOS included "frustration" (67%, "anxiety" (16%, "sadness" (10%, and "indifference" (2%. Self-reported patient aptitude regarding PCOS was scored as high or "very aware" in >60% of women. Respondents were also asked: "If your PCOS could be safely and effectively helped by something else besides fertility drugs or birth control pills, would that interest you?" Interest in alternative PCOS treatments was expressed by 99% of the sample (n = 648. Conclusions In our study population, most women associated negative emotions with PCOS although the self-reported knowledge level for the disorder was high. While these women regarded their obstetrician-gynecologist as integral to their PCOS education, traditional PCOS therapies based on oral contraceptives or ovulation induction agents were regarded as unsatisfactory by most women.

  4. The street children of Manila are affected by early-in-life periodontal infection: description of a treatment modality: sea salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, J F; Michel, M G; Nadan, J; Nowzari, H

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of street children of Manila are affected by early-in-life oral infection. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of a sea-salt mouthrinse solution in street children of Manila affected by mild to severe forms of periodontal disease. These children were all in need of special protection: abandoned, abused, exploited, neglected, orphaned, poor. During 3 oral-health missions in 2003, 2004 and 2005, 617 abandoned children (5 to 13 year-old), received oral examination at a non-sectarian child-caring institution in Metro Manila (Virlanie Foundation) by calibrated examiners. A treatment based on what could be done was proposed: 1. Teaching of a precise tooth brushing technique with sea-salt, controlled and reinforced every two days for one week by calibrated health educators, 2. The application of sea-salt water mouthrinse (2.5 gram in 20 ml). Periodontal measurements were repeated at the end of each mission. All children returned to child-caring institution for the followup examinations. In 2003, 10 male and 11 female (n=21) were diagnosed with aggressive periodontitis. In 2009 and 2010, none was affected by aggressive periodontitis. For all patients, the gingival index decreased from 1.08 at the first mission to 1.04 at the end of the second mission and 0.98 at the end of the third mission. The periodontal index decreased from 1.33 at the first mission to 0.98 at the second mission and 0.92 at the last mission. The present investigation confirms that prevention and early diagnosis can result in success with minimum cost. The provided oral health program empowered street children in the most desperate circumstances to be educated and become self-reliant, independent, and responsible. We propose here an antimicrobial approach which has a high degree of efficacy and tolerability, and can be implemented in virtually all parts of the world using low-cost resources.

  5. 高大模板支撑架体施工技术%Construction technology of high formwork bracing frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马姗姗

    2012-01-01

    Combining with the architectural structure styles of the engineering gate and auxiliary project,in light of relevant contents of construction technology of high formwork bracing frame,the paper mainly introduces and analyzes the formwork design calculation,structural method,process acceptance and quality control and so on.Practice proves that meets the norms.Thus,it is worth promoting.%结合某工程大门楼及附属工程的建筑结构形式,针对高支模架施工技术的相关内容,重点对模架设计计算、构造做法、过程验收、质量控制等方面做了介绍和分析,经过实例验证均符合规范要求,值得推广使用。

  6. Densities, viscosities, and refractive indexes for {l_brace}C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CO{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}CH{sub 3}+C{sub 6}H{sub 13}OH+C{sub 6}H{sub 6}{r_brace} at T=308.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casas, Herminio; Garcia-Garabal, Sandra; Segade, Luisa; Cabeza, Oscar. E-mail: oscabe@udc.es; Franjo, Carlos; Jimenez, Eulogio

    2003-07-01

    In this work we present densities, kinematic viscosities, and refractive indexes of the ternary system {l_brace}C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CO{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}CH{sub 3}+C{sub 6}H{sub 13}OH+C{sub 6}H{sub 6}{r_brace} and the corresponding binary mixtures {l_brace}C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CO{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}CH{sub 3}+C{sub 6}H{sub 6}{r_brace}, {l_brace}C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CO{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}CH{sub 3}+C{sub 6}H{sub 13}OH{r_brace}, and {l_brace}C{sub 6}H{sub 13}OH+C{sub 6}H{sub 6}{r_brace}. All data have been measured at T=308.15 K and atmospheric pressure over the whole composition range. The excess molar volumes, dynamic viscosity deviations, and changes of the refractive index on mixing were calculated from experimental measurements. The results for binary mixtures were fitted to a polynomial relationship to estimate the coefficients and standard deviations. The Cibulka equation has been used to correlate the experimental values of ternary mixtures. Also, the experimental values obtained for the ternary mixture were used to test the empirical methods of Kohler, Jacob and Fitzner, Colinet, Tsao and Smith, Toop, Scatchard et al., and Hillert. These methods predict excess properties of the ternary mixtures from those of the involved binary mixtures. The results obtained for dynamic viscosities of the binary mixtures were used to test the semi-empirical relations of Grunberg-Nissan, McAllister, Auslaender, and Teja-Rice. Finally, the experimental refractive indexes were compared with the predicted results for the Lorentz-Lorenz, Gladstone-Dale, Wiener, Heller, and Arago-Biot equations. In all cases, we give the standard deviation between the experimental data and that calculated with the above named relations.

  7. Description of vegetation types

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides descriptions of five vegetation types found in Iowa- oak savannah, mature hardwoods, floodplain woods, scrub woods, and riparian woods. Oak...

  8. Experimental Analysis on Seismic Performance of Steel Bracing Bound-Column Component%钢支撑束柱抗震性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆烨; 刘青; 李国强; 刘玉姝

    2014-01-01

    通过试验和有限元理论对比研究了钢支撑束柱的抗震性能和破坏特性。试验模型采用2层钢支撑束柱构件,其中钢支撑为长肢相并的双角钢支撑。试验共分为3组,1组为单调加载试验,另外2组为滞回性能试验。另对钢支撑束柱的抗震性能进行了有限元理论分析,经试验结果验证,得到了钢支撑束柱试件的抗侧承载力、刚度及滞回性能。研究表明,钢支撑束柱的承载力、刚度主要来自钢支撑,而束柱外框架部分的贡献很小。钢支撑束柱的破坏只发生在钢支撑中,外框架部分没有任何损坏。%The seismic resistant performance and failure mechanism of the steel bracing Bound-Column were analyzed with tests and the finite element method .Two-story steel bracing Bound-Column test specimen was selected .The braces adopt long leg back-back double angle .Tests were divided into three groups , including one monotonic loading test and two cyclic tests . Lateral load-bearing capacity , stiffness and hysteretic behavior of the steel bracing Bound-Column were obtained by the comparison of test results and the finite element method .Results show that the steel brace of Bound-Column contributes a lot to its load capacity and stiffness ,while the external frame provides little lateral rigidity and capacity .Bound-Column failure occurs only in the steel braces ,while the external frame is with no damage .

  9. ANALYSIS ON DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS AND SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF CENTRICALLY BRACED STEEL FRAME%轻型钢框架支撑体系振动特性与抗震性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹昀; 张振炫; 李凯文; 王城泉

    2011-01-01

    In order to analyze dynamic characteristics of steel frames with different pattern of braces, three structures with X braces, V braces and inverted V braces were designed utilizing PKPM software. Finite element analyses on these structures were carried out by using ANSYS and SAP2000 to investigate the effects of brace pattern on structural stiffness. Then, time history analysis using El-Centro wave and SHW2 wave were performed. Results show that V braces and inverted V braces are close in improving dynamic characteristics of structures and more effective man X braces.%为了分析不同支撑形式对钢框架结构体系振动特性的影响,利用PKPM软件设计了X型、V型和人字型3种不同支撑形式的12层钢框架支撑结构,提供了主要构件的尺寸和结构的振动特性,再利用有限元软件ANSYS和SAP2000对3种不同支撑的自振特性分别进行了分析,探明了不同支撑形式对该结构体系的动力特性的影响;利用ANSYS软件进行了El-Centro波和上海人工二波输入下的多遇和罕遇地震的弹塑性时程分析,探讨了不同支撑形式的结构地震响应.分析结果表明,V型和人字型对结构刚度的提高比X型的支撑明显,前二种支撑效果非常接近,分析结果可供工程设计人员在结构选型时参考.

  10. Treatment of lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Greg W; Cadwallader, Kara; Scheffel, Scot B; Epperly, Ted D

    2007-09-15

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common overuse syndrome of the extensor tendons of the forearm. It is sometimes called tennis elbow, although it can occur with many activities. The condition affects men and women equally and is more common in persons 40 years or older. Despite the prevalence of lateral epicondylitis and the numerous treatment strategies available, relatively few high-quality clinical trials support many of these treatment options; watchful waiting is a reasonable option. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroid injections, ultrasonography, and iontophoresis with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs appear to provide short-term benefits. Use of an inelastic, nonarticular, proximal forearm strap (tennis elbow brace) may improve function during daily activities. Progressive resistance exercises may confer modest intermediate-term results. Evidence is mixed on oral nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, mobilization, and acupuncture. Patients with refractory symptoms may benefit from surgical intervention. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy, laser treatment, and electromagnetic field therapy do not appear to be effective.

  11. Treatment & Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supportive family Maintenance of normal activities, including exercise, dance training, and athletics, with elective time out of ... a brace after surgery? Will I need physical therapy? How soon after surgery can I shower or ...

  12. Career Path Descriptions

    CERN Document Server

    Charkiewicz, A

    2000-01-01

    Before the Career Path system, jobs were classified according to grades with general statutory definitions, guided by the "Job Catalogue" which defined 6 evaluation criteria with example illustrations in the form of "typical" job descriptions. Career Paths were given concise statutory definitions necessitating a method of description and evaluation adapted to their new wider-band salary concept. Evaluations were derived from the same 6 criteria but the typical descriptions became unusable. In 1999, a sub-group of the Standing Concertation Committee proposed a new guide for describing Career Paths, adapted to their wider career concept by expanding the 6 evaluation criteria into 9. For each criterion several levels were established tracing the expected evolution of job level profiles and personal competencies over their longer salary ranges. While providing more transparency to supervisors and staff, the Guide's official use would be by services responsible for vacancy notices, Career Path evaluations and rela...

  13. Olkiluoto site description 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    This fourth version of the Olkiluoto Site Report, produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), updates the Olkiluoto Site Report 2008 with the data and knowledge obtained up to December 2010. A descriptive model of the site (the Site Descriptive Model, SDM), i.e. a model describing the geological and hydrogeological structure of the site, properties of the bedrock and the groundwater and its flow, and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms. The SDM is divided into six parts: surface system, geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and transport properties.

  14. CRAC2 model description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, L.T.; Alpert, D.J.; Burke, R.P.; Johnson, J.D.; Ostmeyer, R.M.; Aldrich, D.C.; Blond, R.M.

    1984-03-01

    The CRAC2 computer code is a revised version of CRAC (Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences) which was developed for the Reactor Safety Study. This document provides an overview of the CRAC2 code and a description of each of the models used. Significant improvements incorporated into CRAC2 include an improved weather sequence sampling technique, a new evacuation model, and new output capabilities. In addition, refinements have been made to the atmospheric transport and deposition model. Details of the modeling differences between CRAC2 and CRAC are emphasized in the model descriptions.

  15. Shaking table test and numerical analysis of a 1:12 scale model of a special concentrically braced steel frame with pinned connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haifeng; Zhang, Wenyuan; Zhang, Yaochun; Sun, Yusong

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes shaking table tests of a 1:12 scale model of a special concentrically braced steel frame with pinned connections, which was fabricated according to a one-bay braced frame selected from a typical main factory building of a large thermal power plant. In order to investigate the seismic performance of this type of structure, several ground motion accelerations with different levels for seismic intensity VIII, based on the Chinese Code for Seismic Design of Buildings, were selected to excite the model. The results show that the design methods of the members and the connections are adequate and that the structural system will perform well in regions of high seismicity. In addition to the tests, numerical simulations were also conducted and the results showed good agreement with the test results. Thus, the numerical model is shown to be accurate and the beam element can be used to model this structural system.

  16. Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment Planning Model as Applied to Supplementation : Model Description, User Guide, and Theoretical Documentation for the Model Introduced in the Summary Report Series on Supplementation in the Columbia Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestelle, Lawrence C.; Lichatowich, James A.; Mobrand, Lars E.; Cullinan, Valerie I.

    1994-03-01

    This document describes the formulation and operation of a model designed to assist in planning supplementation projects. It also has application in examining a broader array of questions related to natural fish production and stock restoration. The model is referred to as the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) Model because of its utility in helping to diagnose and identify possible treatments to be applied to natural production problems for salmonids. It was developed through the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP), which was an initiative to help coordinate supplementation planning in the Columbia Basin. The model is operated within the spreadsheet environment of Quattro Pro using a system of customized menus. No experience with spreadsheet macros is required to operate it. As currently configured, the model should only be applied to spring chinook; modifications are required to apply it to fall chinook and other species. The purpose of the model is to enable managers to consider possible outcomes of supplementation under different sets of assumptions about the natural production system and the integration of supplementation fish into that system. It was designed to help assess uncertainty and the relative risks and benefits of alternative supplementation strategies. The model is a tool to facilitate both planning and learning; it is not a predictive model. This document consists of three principal parts. Part I provides a description of the model. Part II is a guide to running the model. Part III provides theoretical documentation. In addition, a sensitivity analysis of many of the model's parameters is provided in the appendix. This analysis was used to test whether the model produces consistent and reasonable results and to assess the relative effects of specific parameter inputs on outcome.

  17. 错列支撑框架结构弹性抗震性能分析%Elastic seismic analysis of staggered bracing frame structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李坤; 侯春娇; 田兴运; 苏雷; 卢雪清

    2012-01-01

    在分析钢筋混凝土斜撑框架结构和错列框架剪力墙结构的抗震性能的基础上,提出错列支撑框架结构.为研究错列支撑框架结构抗震性能,分别对5种不同类型的结构采用ANSYS软件进行结构动力特性、地震反应谱位移响应、地震时程位移响应求解.通过比较分析,得出错列支撑框架结构具有良好的抗震性能及广阔的应用前景.还比较了按反应谱分析的结果和按振幅折减典型El Centro波进行时程分析的结果,得出进行地震时程分析时选用地震波的原则.%Based on the analysis of seismic performance of bracing reinforced concrete frame structure and the staggered frame shear-wall structure, propose the staggered bracing frame structure. In order to study on seismic performance of staggered bracing frame structure, choose 5 different structural types and used ANSYS to analysis the dynamic characteristics, displacement response using spectrum method, displacement response using seismic time history solution. Through analysis and comparison, we can see the staggered bracing frame structure has good seismic performance, broad application prospects. Also compared the response spectrum analysis and amplitude reduced by a typical El Centro wave time history analysis, obtained some note for seismic time-history analysis.

  18. Human experts' and a fuzzy model's predictions of outcomes of scoliosis treatment: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Eric; Pedrycz, Witold; Lou, Edmond

    2015-03-01

    Brace treatment is the most commonly used nonsurgical treatment for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. However, brace treatment is not always successful and the factors influencing its success are not completely clear. This makes treatment outcome difficult to predict. A computer model which can accurately predict treatment outcomes could potentially provide valuable treatment recommendations. This paper describes a fuzzy system that includes a prediction model and a decision support engine. The model was constructed using conditional fuzzy c-means clustering to discover patterns in retrospective patient data. The model's ability to predict treatment outcome was compared to the ability of eight Scoliosis experts. The model and experts each predicted treatment outcome retrospectively for 28 braced patients, and these predictions were compared to the actual outcomes. The model outperformed all but one expert individually and performed similarly to the experts as a group. These results suggest that the fuzzy model is capable of providing meaningful treatment recommendations. This study offers the first model for this application whose performance has been shown to be at or above the human expert level.

  19. The glycine brace: a component of Rab, Rho, and Ran GTPases associated with hinge regions of guanine- and phosphate-binding loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuwald Andrew F

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ras-like GTPases function as on-off switches in intracellular signalling pathways and include the Rab, Rho/Rac, Ran, Ras, Arf, Sar and Gα families. How these families have evolutionarily diverged from each other at the sequence level provides clues to underlying mechanisms associated with their functional specialization. Results Bayesian analysis of divergent patterns within a multiple alignment of Ras-like GTPase sequences identifies a structural component, termed here the glycine brace, as the feature that most distinguishes Rab, Rho/Rac, Ran and (to some degree Ras family GTPases from other Ras-like GTPases. The glycine brace consists of four residues: An aromatic residue that forms a stabilizing CH-π interaction with a conserved glycine at the start of the guanine-binding loop; a second aromatic residue, which is nearly always a tryptophan, that likewise forms stabilizing CH-π and NH-π interactions with a glycine at the start of the phosphate-binding P-loop; and two other residues (typically an aspartate and a serine or threonine that, together with a conserved buried water molecule, form a network of interactions connecting the two aromatic residues. Conclusion It is proposed that the two glycine residues function as hinges and that the glycine brace influences guanine nucleotide binding and release by interacting with these hinges.

  20. A Description Logic Primer

    CERN Document Server

    Krötzsch, Markus; Horrocks, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a self-contained first introduction to description logics (DLs). The main concepts and features are explained with examples before syntax and semantics of the DL SROIQ are defined in detail. Additional sections review light-weight DL languages, discuss the relationship to the Web Ontology Language OWL and give pointers to further reading.

  1. Generalizing: The descriptive struggle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D.; Hon Ph.D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The literature is not kind to the use of descriptive generalizations. Authors struggle and struggle to find and rationalize a way to use them and then fail in spite of trying a myriad of work-arounds. And then we have Lincoln and Guba’s famous statement: “The only generalization is: there is no generalization” in referring to qualitative research. (op cit, p. 110 They are referring to routine QDA yielding extensive descriptions, but which tacitly include conceptual generalizations without any real thought of knowledge about them. In this chapter I wish to explore this struggle for the purpose of explaining that the various contra arguments to using descriptive generalizations DO NOT apply to the ease of using conceptual generalizations yielded in SGT and especially FGT. I will not argue for the use of descriptive generalization. I agree with Lincoln and Guba with respect to QDA, “the only generalization is: there is no generalization.” It is up to the QDA methodologists, of whom there are many; to continue the struggle and I wish them well.

  2. Initial arch wires for alignment of crooked teeth with fixed orthodontic braces.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wang, Yan

    2010-01-01

    The initial arch wire is the first arch wire to be inserted into the fixed appliance at the beginning of orthodontic treatment and is used mainly for correcting crowding and rotations of teeth. With a number of orthodontic arch wires available for initial tooth alignment, it is important to understand which wire is most efficient, as well as which wires cause the least amount of root resorption and pain during the initial aligning stage of treatment.

  3. Seismic Fragility Analysis of Transfer Beam Structure with Haunch Brace%带腋撑梁式转换结构地震易损性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡健; 梁伟盛; 何铭基

    2012-01-01

    To improve the poor seismic performances of the reinforced concrete(RC) transfer beam structure with problem of vertical stiffness irregularity, RC haunch brace was proposed to be installed at the transfer story to change the vertical stiffness irregularity of RC transfer beam structure. The incremental dynamic analysis of RC transfer frame structure with and without haunch brace was carried out and the seismic fragility curve equations were established. The influences of haunch brace on failure mechanism of RC transfer frame structure were investigated. The results show that the seismic responses of the transfer frame structure can be effectively alleviated by RC haunch brace. The probability of exceedance of the transfer frame structure corresponding to different damage states can be significantly decreased. The lateral drift mechanism in the first and transfer story of the structure can be avoided effectively by haunch brace under the strong ground motions. The global and local collapse of the RC transfer frame structure can be prevented.%针对钢筋混凝土梁式转换结构存在竖向刚度突变不利于抗震的问题,在转换层处设置了钢筋混凝土腋撑,以降低转换结构竖向刚度突变程度,改善其抗震性能.通过对普通与带腋撑钢筋混凝土转换框架结构进行增量动力分析,建立其地震易损性曲线方程,并且研究了腋撑对钢筋混凝土转换框架结构破坏机制的影响.分析结果表明,钢筋混凝土腋撑能有效地减缓转换框架结构地震反应,显著地降低转换框架结构在各个破坏状态下的超越慨率.在强烈地震作用下,钢筋混凝土腋撑能有效地避免结构在首层与转换层处形成“层侧移机构”的破坏机制,防止钢筋混凝土转换框架结构发生整体或局部倒塌破坏.

  4. Multidimensional nonlinear descriptive analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nishisato, Shizuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Quantification of categorical, or non-numerical, data is a problem that scientists face across a wide range of disciplines. Exploring data analysis in various areas of research, such as the social sciences and biology, Multidimensional Nonlinear Descriptive Analysis presents methods for analyzing categorical data that are not necessarily sampled randomly from a normal population and often involve nonlinear relations. This reference not only provides an overview of multidimensional nonlinear descriptive analysis (MUNDA) of discrete data, it also offers new results in a variety of fields. The first part of the book covers conceptual and technical preliminaries needed to understand the data analysis in subsequent chapters. The next two parts contain applications of MUNDA to diverse data types, with each chapter devoted to one type of categorical data, a brief historical comment, and basic skills peculiar to the data types. The final part examines several problems and then concludes with suggestions for futu...

  5. RETRIEVAL EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Steinhoff

    1997-08-25

    The objective and the scope of this document are to list and briefly describe the major mobile equipment necessary for waste package (WP) retrieval from the proposed subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Primary performance characteristics and some specialized design features of the equipment are explained and summarized in the individual subsections of this document. There are no quality assurance requirements or QA controls in this document. Retrieval under normal conditions is accomplished with the same fleet of equipment as is used for emplacement. Descriptions of equipment used for retrieval under normal conditions is found in Emplacement Equipment Descriptions, DI: BCAF00000-01717-5705-00002 (a document in progress). Equipment used for retrieval under abnormal conditions is addressed in this document and consists of the following: (1) Inclined Plane Hauler; (2) Bottom Lift Transporter; (3) Load Haul Dump (LHD) Loader; (4) Heavy Duty Forklift for Emplacement Drifts; (5) Covered Shuttle Car; (6) Multipurpose Vehicle; and (7) Scaler.

  6. PARAMETRIC STUDY OF OUTER-BRACE SCFS IN RIGHTANGLE TWO-PLANAR TUBULAR DKT-JOINTS OF OFFSHORE JACKET STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. AHMADI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, a set of parametric FE stress analyses is carried out for two-planar welded tubular DKT-joints under two different axial load cases. Analysis results are used to present general remarks on the effect of geometrical parameters on the stress concentration factors (SCFs at the inner saddle, outer saddle, crown toe, and crown heel positions on the main (outer brace. Based on the results of finite element analyses which are verified against the experimental data, a complete set of SCF database is constructed. Then a new set of SCF parametric equations is developed through nonlinear regression analysis for the fatigue design of two-planar DKT-joints under axial loads. An assessment study of these equations is conducted against the experimental data and the satisfaction of criteria regarding the acceptance of parametric equations is checked. Significant effort has been devoted by researchers to the study of SCFs in various uni-planar tubular connections. Nevertheless, for multi-planar joints covering the majority of practical applications, very few investigations have been reported due to the complexity and high cost involved.

  7. Controversies in the treatment of ingrown nails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneke, Eckart

    2012-01-01

    Ingrown toenails are one of the most frequent nail disorders of young persons. They may negatively influence daily activities, cause discomfort and pain. Since more than 1000 years, many different treatments have been proposed. Today, conservative and surgical methods are available, which, when carried out with expertise, are able to cure the disease. Packing, taping, gutter treatment, and nail braces are options for relatively mild cases whereas surgery is exclusively done by physicians. Phenolisation of the lateral matrix horn is now the safest, simplest, and most commonly performed method with the lowest recurrence rate. Wedge excisions can no longer be recommended.

  8. COMPLEX TREATMENT OF PATIENT WITH MULTIPLE FRACTURES OF THE VERTEBRAE IN THE THORACIC SPINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Vissarionov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors presented an example of a complex treatment of pediatric patient with multiple fractures of the vertebrae in the thoracic spine. The child was operated on the burst fracture of a Th5 vertebra. Due to the presence of vertebral compression fractures Th8 a course of conservative treatment by the orthosis in hyperextension brace. Follow-up was 15 months.

  9. Experimental study on seismic behavior of latticed system columns with RC bracing structure%带RC支撑格构化体系柱的抗震性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄靓; 王鹏; 易楚军; 易宏伟

    2013-01-01

    In order to explore the "strong column weak beam" seismic design principles of reinforced concrete frames, two lattice system columns with V-braces and X-braces and a test specimen without brace were designed for cyclic tests. Based on the test results, the cracking load, ultimate bearing capacity and failure modes were obtained. Hysteretic curves, skeleton curves, deformation and Ductility coefficient ability of seismic performance of the latticed system columns with RC braces were analyzed and compared with the specimens without braces. Experimental results indicate that good seismic performance can be obtained for the Latticed System Columns with RC braces, and its resistant lateral stiffness increases obviously. For lattice system columns with RC braces,the plastic hinges of braces and beams unusually appeare in advance, which makes the structure easy to realize the target of seismic design of " strong column weak beam" , however, the lattice system columns without the RC braces do not show such trend.%为探索实现钢筋混凝土框架中的“强柱弱梁”的抗震设计原则,该文设计两个支撑形式分别为人字形、交叉形的格构化体系柱和一个无支撑的格构化体系柱试件,并对其进行低周期反复荷载试验.得出格构化体系柱的开裂荷载、极限承载力和破坏形态,分析带RC支撑的格构化体系柱的滞回曲线、骨架曲线、变形能力、延性等抗震性能,并和无支撑的格构化体系柱进行对比分析.分析结果表明:带RC支撑的格构化体系柱的极限承载力、抗侧刚度等抗震性能较无支撑格构化体系柱有明显的提高.在带RC支撑的格构化体系柱中,支撑和梁往往先于柱子出现塑性铰,使结构容易实现“强柱弱梁”的抗震设计目标,而不带RC支撑的格构化体系柱却很难实现.

  10. Study on the Effect of Crossed Steel Bracing on RC Frames%后加交叉钢支撑对RC框架结构的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴永河; 李胜强; 习会峰; 穆建春

    2011-01-01

    In order to discover the law of effect of crossed steel bracing on RC frames, three affecting factors such as structural layers, bracing cross-section dimension and connection method of bracing and frames were taken into account,and ETABS was used to establish structure models so as to conduct quantitative analysis of period,stiffness,foundation reaction and internal forces of beams & columns in RC frames provided with steel bracing. The result shows that, the effect laws of crossed steel bracing on RC frames of different structural layers are basically the same, the effect of bracing cross-section dimension on internal forces of members of structural units where bracing are located is great,and the calculation results of rigid or hinged connection of bracing and frames are basically the same. In addition, the steel bracing provided later bears most of the horizontal shearing force,and greatly affects foundation reactions due to gravity load or earthquake,column axial forces and beam bending moments and shearing forces due to earthquake, and beam axial forces due to gravity load.%为揭示后加交叉钢支撑对RC框架结构的影响规律,考虑结构层数、支撑截面尺寸及支撑与框架结构的连接方式三种影响因素,采用ETABS建立结构模型,对加钢支撑后RC框架结构的周期、刚度及基础反力及梁柱内力进行了定量分析.结果表明,后加交叉钢支撑对不同结构层数的RC框架的影响规律基本相同,支撑截面尺寸对支撑所在的结构单元的构件内力有较大影响,支撑与框架结构刚接或铰接连接的计算结果基本相同.此外,后加钢支撑承担了大部分的水平剪力,钢支撑对重力荷载或地震作用下的基础反力、地震作用下的柱轴力、梁弯矩及剪力,以及重力荷载作用下的梁轴力均有较大的影响.

  11. 新型抗震体系隅撑支撑框架结构研究%The research of new earthquake-resistant system:knee-braced frames

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄金桥; 余金华; 尹卫群; 田相合; 李新

    2011-01-01

    新型抗震隅撑支撑框架(knee-braced frame,KBF)是在梁柱连接的附近设一起耗能作用的隅撑,主支撑连接在此隅撑上构成的抗震结构体系.与偏心支撑体系EBF抗震结构体系对比,具有大震时框架结构不易损坏、维修方便的优点.采用有限元考察了不同的隅撑形式、不同高宽比下KBF结构的性能.在分析总结的基础上,系统地提出了KBF框架的抗震设计要求和有关的计算公式.%A new earthquake-resistant system (knee-braced frame,KBF) was investigated,in which an energy dissipation knee brace near the beam-column joint,and the main brace is connected to the knee brace.Compared with EBF,the beams and columns in KBF will sustain limited plastic deformation in strong earthquake,and repair work in KBF after earthquake is very convenient.The elastic and elastic-plastic behavior of the KBF is parametrically investigated.Based on those researches, design requirements and corresponding formulas were suggested.

  12. From description to prescription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQuaid, Sara Dybris

    From Description to Prescription: Politics of Recognition, Consociational Theory and the Conflict in Northern Ireland. Within academic discourses on Northern Ireland the politics of recognition and particularly the theory of consociational democracy has made a profound impact. First introduced...... politico-cultural antagonisms in Northern Ireland. However, the terms ‘consociationalism’ or ‘consociational democracy’ are wholly absent from political discourses: they are never used in any of the governmental and constitutional documents between 1969 and 2006. As such, juxtaposing academic literature...... to integration, eventually converged in authoritative academic and political discourses....

  13. Distributed multiple description coding

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Huihui; Zhao, Yao

    2011-01-01

    This book examines distributed video coding (DVC) and multiple description coding (MDC), two novel techniques designed to address the problems of conventional image and video compression coding. Covering all fundamental concepts and core technologies, the chapters can also be read as independent and self-sufficient, describing each methodology in sufficient detail to enable readers to repeat the corresponding experiments easily. Topics and features: provides a broad overview of DVC and MDC, from the basic principles to the latest research; covers sub-sampling based MDC, quantization based MDC,

  14. Description logic rules

    CERN Document Server

    Krötzsch, M

    2010-01-01

    Ontological modelling today is applied in many areas of science and technology,including the Semantic Web. The W3C standard OWL defines one of the most important ontology languages based on the semantics of description logics. An alternative is to use rule languages in knowledge modelling, as proposed in the W3C's RIF standard. So far, it has often been unclear how to combine both technologies without sacrificing essential computational properties. This book explains this problem and presents new solutions that have recently been proposed. Extensive introductory chapters provide the necessary

  15. Computed and Experimental Flutter/LCO Onset for the Boeing Truss-Braced Wing Wind-Tunnel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Robert E.; Scott, Robert C.; Funk, Christie J.; Allen, Timothy J.; Sexton, Bradley W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents high fidelity Navier-Stokes simulations of the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research truss-braced wing wind-tunnel model and compares the results to linear MSC. Nastran flutter analysis and preliminary data from a recent wind-tunnel test of that model at the NASA Langley Research Center Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The simulated conditions under consideration are zero angle of attack, so that structural nonlinearity can be neglected. It is found that, for Mach number greater than 0.78, the linear flutter analysis predicts flutter onset dynamic pressure below the wind-tunnel test and that predicted by the Navier-Stokes analysis. Furthermore, the wind-tunnel test revealed that the majority of the high structural dynamics cases were wing limit cycle oscillation (LCO) rather than flutter. Most Navier-Stokes simulated cases were also LCO rather than hard flutter. There is dip in the wind-tunnel test flutter/LCO onset in the Mach 0.76-0.80 range. Conditions tested above that Mach number exhibited no aeroelastic instability at the dynamic pressures reached in the tunnel. The linear flutter analyses do not show a flutter/LCO dip. The Navier-Stokes simulations also do not reveal a dip; however, the flutter/LCO onset is at a significantly higher dynamic pressure at Mach 0.90 than at lower Mach numbers. The Navier-Stokes simulations indicate a mild LCO onset at Mach 0.82, then a more rapidly growing instability at Mach 0.86 and 0.90. Finally, the modeling issues and their solution related to the use of a beam and pod finite element model to generate the Navier-Stokes structure mode shapes are discussed.

  16. 少钢支撑RC框架结构的概念%THE CONCEPTION OF RC FRAME STRUCTURES WITH A FEW STEEL BRACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨馨; 贺小岗; 赵作周; 钱稼茹

    2015-01-01

    震害表明,在钢筋混凝土(RC)框架结构中增设少量支撑,可以解决纯框架结构抗震防线单一、缺乏足够冗余度的问题,通过多重抗震防线,保护主体结构构件、减小建筑震害、增加结构的安全储备和防倒塌能力.我国现行规范对含有少量剪力墙的框架结构已经有了明确定义和相应的设计方法,而对于含有少量支撑的框架结构没有定义.该文以一个典型RC框架结构及三个带不同钢支撑的RC框架结构为例,基于弹性分析和弹塑性Pushover分析,借鉴少墙框架的定义方法,提出了以底层框架倾覆力矩分担率为控制指标的少钢支撑RC框架结构的定义,并通过基于IDA的结构抗倒塌易损性分析验证了少钢支撑RC框架结构相比纯框架结构的抗倒塌能力提高.%The seismic damage of reinforced concrete (RC) frame structures during earthquakes has indicated that the widely used RC frame structures are lack of sufficient redundancy under earthquake actions.The damage of RC columns in a RC frame leads to its serious damage even collapses during a strong earthquake.If few steel braces are installed,the RC frame will become multi-fortification with steel braces as its first yielding structure elements and RC frame structure elements will be protected and its damage will be delayed.As a result,its safety margin and collapse-resisting capacity will be improved.According to a RC frame structure with few shear walls,this paper proposed the new conception of a RC frame structure with few braces.A typical RC frame structure and 3 RC frame structures with different braces are studied to achieve the definition of a RC frame structure with few braces based on the overturning moment carried by a frame part.With few steel braces,the collapse-resistant capacities of a RC frame structure is proved through a collapse fragility analysis based on an incremental dynamic analysis (IDA).

  17. Nickel sensitization in adolescents and association with ear piercing, use of dental braces and hand eczema. The Odense Adolescence Cohort Study on Atopic Diseases and Dermatitis (TOACS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Lauritsen, Jens Martin; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten;

    2002-01-01

    % of cases. Nickel allergy was found most frequently in girls and the association with ear piercing was confirmed. Application of dental braces (oral nickel exposure) prior to ear piercing (cutaneous nickel exposure) was associated with a significantly reduced prevalence of nickel allergy. In adolescents...... a significant association was found between hand eczema and nickel allergy. A follow-up study of this population is planned in order to assess the course and development of contact dermatitis, hand eczema and atopic diseases in adulthood and after choice of occupation....

  18. Direction and Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Menahem, Yemima

    This paper deals with the dependence of directionality in the course of events-or our claims concerning such directionality-on the modes of description we use in speaking of the events in question. I argue that criteria of similarity and individuation play a crucial role in assessments of directionality. This is an extension of Davidson's claim regarding the difference between causal and explanatory contexts. The argument is based on a characterisation of notions of necessity and contingency that differ from their modal logic counterparts on the one hand, and from causality and chance on the other. I show that some types of directionality are perfectly compatible with both determinism and indeterminism at the microscopic level, and that there is no likelihood of, or advantage to, reducing such directionality to other laws or causal processes.

  19. Symmetrical gait descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunajewski, Adam; Dusza, Jacek J.; Rosado Muñoz, Alfredo

    2014-11-01

    The article presents a proposal for the description of human gait as a periodic and symmetric process. Firstly, the data for researches was obtained in the Laboratory of Group SATI in the School of Engineering of University of Valencia. Then, the periodical model - Mean Double Step (MDS) was made. Finally, on the basis of MDS, the symmetrical models - Left Mean Double Step and Right Mean Double Step (LMDS and RMDS) could be created. The method of various functional extensions was used. Symmetrical gait models can be used to calculate the coefficients of asymmetry at any time or phase of the gait. In this way it is possible to create asymmetry, function which better describes human gait dysfunction. The paper also describes an algorithm for calculating symmetric models, and shows exemplary results based on the experimental data.

  20. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  1. Analysis of Seismic Performance of RC Frame Structure with X-bracings%带X型支撑钢筋混凝土框架结构抗震性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊海涛; 王志鑫; 赵黄娟; 孙爱伏

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the seismic performance of reinforced concrete (RC) frame structure under strong earthquake,the influences of rational arranging bracings on the seismic performances were investigated.Analysis models of 8-story RC frame without bracing,with steel tube X-bracings and with concrete-filled steel tube X-bracings were built,and Pushover analysis of mechanical behavior under strong earthquake of these models was carried out.The results show that the rational arranging bracings in RC frame structure can efficiently increase the structural lateral stiffness,energy dissipation capacity and seismic performance,and significantly decrease the top displacement and the story drift of the RC frame structure.The seismic effects for different material bracings are not the same,and to analysis models in the paper,the concretefilled steel tube bracings can provide more seismic effect than the steel tube bracings for the RC frame.%为了提高钢筋混凝土框架结构抵抗超设防烈度地震的能力,研究了在框架中合理设置支撑对结构抗震性能的影响.以某8层框架工程为背景,对3种不同的结构方案——无支撑钢筋混凝土框架、带X型钢管支撑钢筋混凝土框架和带X型钢管混凝土支撑钢筋混凝土框架结构在强震作用下的受力性能进行了Pushover分析.结果表明:在钢筋混凝土框架结构中合理设置支撑可以有效提高结构抗侧刚度,增大结构耗能能力和抗震能力,减小结构顶点侧移和层间侧移;不同材料的支撑起到的抗震效果也不相同,对于本文分析模型,合理设置钢管混凝土支撑起到的抗震效果比设置钢管支撑更加明显.

  2. 巨型型钢混凝土框撑-核心筒结构性能分析%Analysis on performance of mega SRC braced frame-core wall structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈麟; 杨航; 周云

    2012-01-01

    Mega SRC braced frame-core wall structure is a new type of structural system for super high-rise buildings,consisting of mega SRC frame,mega braces,RC core wall,and outrigger trusses.Analysis was carried out on the performance of the structures with X type of mega braces and inverted V type of mega braces,and with mega braces but the common columns under mega beams were moved away.The results indicate that the integrated stiffness can be improved more effectively by using X type of mega braces than inverted V type of mega braces,but the mutation of internal forces of some members induced by using inverted V type of mega braces is relatively small.Moving away the common columns under mega beams will induce sudden changes of internal forces of several members,but make the load transfer path more clear between main structure and substructure,and higher material utilization of mega members is obtained.In addition,architectural requirement for open space can be satisfied.%巨型型钢混凝土框撑-核心筒结构是由巨型型钢混凝土框架、巨型支撑、混凝土核心筒和伸臂桁架组成的一种具有多道抗震防线的新型超高层结构体系。对设置X形和倒V形巨型支撑以及设置巨型支撑的同时去除巨型梁下层次柱的结构体系进行了分析。结果表明:设置X形巨型支撑可以使结构的整体刚度明显增大,提高了框架作为第二道抗震防线的承载力;倒V形巨型支撑对结构刚度的贡献相对较小,但引起的局部构件内力突变也较小;设置巨型支撑的同时去除次柱会造成局部构件的内力突变,但可以使巨型框架的主、次结构受力更明确,提高主结构的效率,同时满足建筑大开间的要求。

  3. Assessment of efficiency of material based on paste and gel in the treatment of oral mucosa changes

    OpenAIRE

    Kenić-Marinković, Dragana M.; Ajduković, Zorica R.; Petrović, Nenad D.; Đorđević, Nadica S.

    2013-01-01

    Materials used in treatment of oral mucosa lesions are the most common issues in patients who wear removable dental braces. Mouth cavity is covered with mucosa which, during its function, is exposed to various negative factors. At a time when the protective mechanisms of the mouth can no longer resist the influence of harmful agents, pathological changes in the oral mucosa appear, as an independent disease, or as part of a systemic disease. After prosthetic treatment and rehabilitation of rem...

  4. 框架-横梁未充分加强型人字撑架的抗侧性能%Lateral resistance of moment resisting-chevron braced frames with weak beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童根树; 罗桂发; 张磊

    2012-01-01

    The elastic-plastic analyses were carried out for 50 moment resisting-chevron braced frames with weak beams for braced frame,in which the brace of out-of-plane slenderness between 30 and 150 and the moment-resisting frames with lateral resistance being respectively 25% and 50% of the total base shear are adopted.The results showed that the relative lateral force resisting capacity of the moment-resisting frames and the strength of beam of braced frame are the two key factors for behaviour of the dual lateral force resisting system.The analyses also indicated that the value of overstrength was larger for a dual system with stronger moment-resisting frame and the beam of braced frame.The solutions for the drift ratio of braced frames corresponding to the buckling of the brace in compression and the formations of plastic hinge in the beams of the braced frame and the moment-resisting frames were also derived.The results of these solutions are verified with those using finite element analyses.The study of this paper also shows that the contribution of the moment-resisting frame to the lateral force resistance of the system is limited when the buckling of the compressive brace always occurs;the tensile brace cannot reach its yielding load in the braced frame with weak beam.%为了充分了解框架-人字撑架(横梁未充分加强型)的抗侧性能,对50个算例进行静力推覆分析,其中框架分别承担基底总剪力的25%和50%.研究表明:框架分担基底剪力的比例大小和支撑架横梁的强弱是影响这种双重抗侧力体系抗侧性能的最关键因素;框架抗侧承载力占基底剪力的比例越大,支撑架横梁越强,结构体系超强系数就越大.推导了框架-支撑体系中关键点受压支撑屈曲、支撑架横梁和框架形成塑性铰时对应的层侧移角公式.分析表明在这些点中,受压支撑屈曲总是最先发生,此时框架的抗侧承载力发挥很小.此外,由于支撑架横梁没有充

  5. 钢筋混凝土框架-斜撑结构的震害预测%Earthquake Damage Prediction for R. C. Frame-braced Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成浩; 严士超

    2001-01-01

    An earthquake damage precdiction method for R. C. frame-bracedstructure is presented based on the storey ductility factor. The relationship between storey ductility factor and damage degree is established on the basis of 480 elastic-plastic responses of 6 typical R. C. frame-braced structures,as well as some related experimental data. At last,a calculating example for earthquake damage predication of a 8-storey R. C. frame-braced structure by using the presented method is given. It is proved that the presented method is reasonable.%通过对钢筋混凝土框架-斜撑结构6个典型工程的480余例结构弹塑性地震反应分析,并结合有关试验结果,确定了框架-斜撑结构由层间延伸率大小决定的破坏程度,建立了一个以层间延伸率为判据的钢筋混凝土框架-斜撑结构房屋的震害预测方法。最后,通过对一栋8层框架-斜撑结构试验工程的弹塑性时程分析,验证了方法的正确合理性。

  6. 柔性连接的弱支撑框架结构的稳定性%Stability of Partially Braced Frames with Flexible Connections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔晓强; 童根树

    2001-01-01

    Considering the flexible connection of joints, the stability of frames with braces has been studied in this paper. Meanwhile, the formulas for the brace threshold stiffness and the effective length factor under these conditions are also given. According to these results, the sway frames and frames without sway can be distinguished more rationally. In comparison with the condition of rigid connection, the influence of flexible connection has been analyzed quantitatively.%本文对于设置了支撑的框架结构,并且节点是柔性连接时的稳定性问题进行了研究。同时给出了在此种条件下的阅值刚度和柱子的计算长度系数的表达形式。这样可以更加合理地区分有侧移和无侧移框架。通过与刚性连接情况的比较,定量地分析了柔性连接的影响。

  7. Control of motion of tibial fractures with use of a functional brace or an external fixator. A study of cadavera with use of a magnetic motion sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellop, H; Hoffmann, R; Sarmiento, A; Ebramzadeh, E

    1993-07-01

    A computer-linked magnetic motion transducer was used to monitor and record the six components of motion of the bone fragments in eight cadaveric tibiae in which a simulated, oblique fracture of the middle of the shaft had been stabilized with a functional brace. The limbs were mounted in a servo-hydraulic testing frame, and a cyclic load of 150 newtons was applied along the axis of the tibia. Motion sensors, attached to each side of the fracture, measured and displayed the values of the three translations (axial, anterior-posterior, and medial-lateral), the axial rotation, and the two angulations (anterior-posterior and varus-valgus) as they occurred. Although only an axial load was applied, the off-axis motions were comparable in magnitude with the motion along the axis. The elastic (recoverable) translations of the fragments ranged from 0.5 to 1.9 millimeters, about four to ten times larger than the corresponding motions that were recorded in an earlier study of such fractures that had been stabilized with two types of external fixators. The recoverable rotation and angulations of the fragments of the limbs in the functional brace ranged from 0.7 to 1.2 degrees, about ten times those recorded when the external fixators were used.

  8. Behavior of Shear Link of WF Section with Diagonal Web Stiffener of Eccentrically Braced Frame (EBF of Steel Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurisman

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of numerical and experimental study of shear link behavior, utilizing diagonal stiffener on web of steel profile to increase shear link performance in an eccentric braced frame (EBF of a steel structure system. The specimen is to examine the behavior of shear link by using diagonal stiffener on web part under static monotonic and cyclic load. The cyclic loading pattern conducted in the experiment is adjusted according to AISC loading standards 2005. Analysis was carried out using non-linear finite element method using MSC/NASTRAN software. Link was modeled as CQUAD shell element. Along the boundary of the loading area the nodal are constraint to produce only one direction loading. The length of the link in this analysis is 400mm of the steel profile of WF 200.100. Important parameters considered to effect significantly to the performance of shear link have been analyzed, namely flange and web thicknesses, , thickness and length of web stiffener, thickness of diagonal stiffener and geometric of diagonal stiffener. The behavior of shear link with diagonal web stiffener was compared with the behavior of standard link designed based on AISC 2005 criteria. Analysis results show that diagonal web stiffener is capable to increase shear link performance in terms of stiffness, strength and energy dissipation in supporting lateral load. However, differences in displacement ductility’s between shear links with diagonal stiffener and shear links based on AISC standards have not shown to be significant. Analysis results also show thickness of diagonal stiffener and geometric model of stiffener to have a significant influence on the performance of shear links. To perform validation of the numerical study, the research is followed by experimental work conducted in Structural Mechanic Laboratory Center for Industrial Engineering ITB. The Structures and Mechanics Lab rotary PAU-ITB. The experiments were carried out using three test

  9. Trusting Description: Authenticity, Accountability, and Archival Description Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Heather

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that one of the purposes of archival description is to establish grounds for presuming the authenticity of the records being described. The article examines the implications of this statement by examining the relationship between and among authenticity, archival description, and archival accountability, assessing how this…

  10. Comparison of the application effects of different material dental braces in dental orthodontics%口腔牙齿矫正中不同材料矫正器的应用效果对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚远

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application effect of different material dental braces on dental orthodontics. Methods A total of 180 patients whose teeth were corrected by dental braces from July 2014 to July 2015 were selected and were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in the observation group were treated by stainless steel ligature wire for fixation while patients in the control group were treated by elastic ligature ring for fixation,and then the clinical effects between the two groups were compared. Results The total efficiency in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group,there was significant difference(P < 0. 05). In the observation group,the ligation time was(294. 2 ± 4. 2)s and the re-moval time was(53. 5 ± 4. 5)s;while in the control group,the ligation time was(188. 5 ± 4. 1)s and the removal time was (39. 6 ± 5. 0)s. The clinical effect in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group(P < 0. 05). Conclusion The use of stainless steel ligature wire for orthodontic treatment needs a longer time,but the clinical effect is per-fect. So in clinical practice,it is necessary to consider the choice of suitable materials for treatment.%目的:比较口腔牙齿矫正中不同材料矫正器的应用效果。方法选择2014年7月至2015年7月采用牙齿矫正器行口腔牙齿矫正的180例患者,将其随机分为两组。观察组采用不锈钢结扎丝行固定治疗,对照组采用弹力结扎圈行固定治疗,比较两组疗效。结果观察组中总有效率显著高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05);观察组结扎时间为(294.2±4.2)s,拆除时间为(53.5±4.5)s;对照组结扎时间为(188.5±4.1)s,拆除时间为(39.6±5.0)s,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论采用不锈钢结扎丝矫正器进行口腔牙齿矫正,所需时间较长,疗效确切,在临床实际应用时需要综合考

  11. Multiple Descriptions Using Sparse Decompositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Østergaard, Jan; Dahl, Joachim;

    2010-01-01

    and furthermore are able to refine each other. In this paper, we form descriptions using convex optimization with l1-norm minimization and Euclidean distortion constraints on the reconstructions and show that with this method we can obtain non-trivial descriptions. We give an algorithm based on recently developed...

  12. Combine harvester : threshing process description

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carton, Denis Manuel

    1999-01-01

    The harvest consists of two mains opertions : cutting the crop and extracting the grain.This report is a general description of a model for this mechanism.......The harvest consists of two mains opertions : cutting the crop and extracting the grain.This report is a general description of a model for this mechanism....

  13. Software Architecture Description and UML

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Guelfi, Nicolas; Medvidovic, Nenad

    2005-01-01

    The description of software architectures has always been concerned with the definition of the appropriate languages for designing the various architectural artifacts. Over the past ten years, formal or less formal Architecture Description Languages (ADLs) and supporting methods and tools have been

  14. 支撑布置对多层钢结构抗侧刚度的影响%Effects of the Bracing on Lateral Stiffness of Multistorey Steel Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦国涛; 张宏兵

    2012-01-01

    从框架支撑等效刚度和层间位移基本原理出发,以鹤壁某煤矿六层钢框架办公楼工程实例为背景工程,通过改变支撑在结构平面内的布置位置和增加支撑数量等,对结构层间位移、层间位移角进行计算对比分析.研究支撑布置对钢框架结构抗侧移性能的影响,探讨支撑布置的影响规律,为多层钢框架结构的设计提供理论参考.%Support from the basic principle of the framework of equivalent stiffness and the layer displacement instance of a Hebi coal mine six-story steel frame office building project, the displacement on the structural layer, and the layer displacement angle are calculated and comparative analysisod and then studied the influence of bracing kinds on the lateral stiffness of the multi-storey steelframes to explore the influence of the layouts of bracing by changing the layout of the bracing and increase the number of bracing. A reference for the design of multi-storey steel frame structure is provided.

  15. 基于ANSYS的支撑框架结构地震反应谱分析%Seismic response spectrum analysis of braced RC moment frame structure based on ANSYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李坤; 田兴运; 苏雷; 侯春娇

    2012-01-01

    Use the large-scale structural analysis software ANSYS to make finite element model for a braced frame structure ,analyse the braced frame structure dynamic properties and the elastic response of structures under seismic load. Do structure modal analysis,find the top 5 steps of frequencies and mode shapes,coming to the dynamic characteristics of the braced frame structure. Conduct seismic response spectrum analysis and study the mechanical characteristics of each component under seismic load, offerting some suggestions about the braced frame design.%利用ANSYS对一斜支撑框架结构建立有限元模型并分析该结构的动力特性和地震荷载作用下的弹性响应.对该结构进行模态分析,求出前5阶的频率和模态振型,分析得出支撑框架结构的动力特性.进行结构地震反应谱分析考察地震作用下各个构件受力特点.为斜撑框架结构设计提出一些建议和结论.

  16. Knee braces - unloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most people talk about the arthritis in their knees, they are referring to a type of arthritis ... is caused by wear and tear inside your knee joints. Cartilage, the firm, rubbery tissue that cushions ...

  17. 自恢复耗能支撑框架结构滞回特性模拟分析%Simulation of Hysteretic Behavior of Self-Centering Energy Dissipation Braced Frame Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐龙河; 代长顺; 逯登成; 樊晓伟

    2016-01-01

    The hysteretic behavior of a new type of pre-pressed spring self-centering energy dissipation(PS-SCED)brace under the low cyclic reversed loading is described,and,taking a single-story single-span frame struc-ture as a numerical example,comparisons of the seismic performances between structure with PS-SCED bracesand structure with common braces are conducted.Results indicate that the PS-SCED braced frame structure exhibitsstable flag-shaped hysteretic performances with good energy dissipation capacity and self-centering behavior under dynamic load.The load-bearing capacity has increased by 44%,,the accumulated energy dissipation capacity has increased by 20%, and the residual drift ratio has dropped by 64%, as compared with the common braced structure.The overall seismic performance of structure has been improved effectively by PS-SCED braces.%介绍了新型预压弹簧自恢复耗能(PS-SCED)支撑在低周反复荷载作用下的滞回特性,并对采用新型PS-SCED支撑与普通支撑的单层单榀框架结构的抗震性能进行了对比分析.结果表明,PS-SCED支撑框架结构在动力荷载作用下可展现出稳定的旗形滞回曲线,具备良好的耗能能力及自恢复性能.与普通支撑框架结构相比,PS-SCED支撑框架结构承载能力至少提高44%,,累积滞回耗能能力提高20%,,残余变形角减小64%,,故PS-SCED支撑可有效提高结构的整体抗震性能.

  18. 钢筋混凝土框架屈曲约束支撑试验研究%Experimental study on buckling-restrained brace of reinforced concrete frame structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛彦涛; 金林飞; 韩雪; 程小燕; 佟道林

    2013-01-01

    When buckling-restrained brace(BRB) is applied into structure system, it can strengthen lateral stiffness and shear strength of the structure, thus cut down the layer displacement and overall displacement of the structure. After brace is applied into the frame structure, its hysteretic curve has an essential change comparing with the traditional structure. For the influence of brace, the shape is full of energy. Furthermore, the capacity of energy consumption is improved to a large degree. The declined part of skeleton line of brace structure will not decline dramatically due to the increase of displacement like the common structure. Instead, the pace of decline slows down. The data show that it can be considered in design to adopt brace instead of shear wall in concrete structure system.%将屈曲约束支撑用于结构体系,增强了整体结构的抗侧刚度和抗剪强度,有利于减小结构的层间位移和总体位移.将支撑应用到框架中后,结构的滞回曲线较传统的框架形状更加饱满,说明结构耗能能力得到了大幅度提高.支撑框架的骨架线的下降段也不像普通框架那样随着位移的增加加速下降,而是有下降减缓的趋势.本文试图通过试验数据说明可以考虑用支撑代替混凝土剪力墙应用于混凝土结构体系中.

  19. Description of station waste water treatment and study of reclaiming industry ceramic red; Caracterizacao de residuos de estacao de tratamento de agua e estudo de reaproveitamento na industria de ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadava, Y.P.; Rego, S.A.B.C.; Junior, B.S.; Bezerra, L.P.; Ferreira, R.A.S., E-mail: yadava@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), PE (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    So that the water meets potability standards required by the laws it passes through various treatment processes which generate waste called WTS (Water Treatment Sludge). This sludge is disposed of without any processing, however, environmental agencies and the public are demanding alternatives to this situation. Knowing this, this study aims to characterize the sludge from the Water Treatment Plant Botafogo and analyze its viability as a feedstock in the manufacture of red bricks. (author)

  20. Matrilin-1基因多态性与青少年特发性脊柱侧凸支具疗效的相关性%Association between matrilin-1 gene polymorphism and bracing effectiveness in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis girls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞杨; 陈志军; 邱勇; 张俊杰; 刘文军

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between matrilin-1 gene polymorphism and bracing effectiveness in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis girls.Methods In a prospective study,AIS girls treated with standard bracing from January 2005 to December 2008 were included and followed up.All subjects of the study met the following criteria:female; skeletally immature (Risser sign grade 0-3); before menarche or 2 years.Subjects met one of the following conditions was excluded:the final follow-up time0.05).Patients with double major curve were found to have the lowest bracing failure rate (19.4%),but there was no significant difference compared with other curve patterns.Bracing failure rate was marked higher in individual with genotype GG (66.7%) than that with genotype AA or AG.Conclusions Progression of most mild or moderate AIS can be managed by early standardized bracing treatment.It is shown that large initial Cobb angle and genotype GG of matrilin-1 gene are indicative of less bracing effectiveness.%目的 探讨matrilin-1基因多态性与青少年特发性脊柱侧凸(AIS)患者支具治疗效果的相关性.方法 自2005年1月至2008年12月,对门诊行规范化支具治疗的AIS患者进行前瞻性研究.入选对象要求:女性患者;骨骼发育为未成熟状态(Risser征0~3级);月经初潮未至或来潮1.5年以内;标准站立位全脊柱X线片上侧凸Cobb角为20°~40°;排除了先天性和神经肌源性以及其他原因引起的侧凸;无已知的可影响骨塑型和钙代谢的病史和药物使用史;初诊前无支具治疗史;接受支具治疗(Boston支具或Milwaukee支具)期间每3个月复诊1次,随访时间超过2年.符合下述条件之一者,则予以剔除:最终随访不足2年;支具治疗过程中依从性(每日实际佩戴时间与建议佩戴时间的比值)较差(5°.选取matrilin-1基因启动子区域位点rs1149048进行PCR-RFLP基因分型.按支具疗效分为治疗失败和治疗成功两组,比较两组之间

  1. [Exercise therapy in the treatment of idiopathic adolescent scoliosis: Is it useful?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porte, M; Patte, K; Dupeyron, A; Cottalorda, J

    2016-06-01

    Many practitioners, pediatricians, and general practitioners prescribe physical therapy when tracking scoliosis. However, has physical therapy alone proved its efficacy in the care of the scoliosis to slow down progression? Our purpose is to report the results of a literature review on the effectiveness of rehabilitation in idiopathic scoliosis. No current study presents sufficient scientific proof to validate the efficacy of isolated exercise therapy in scoliosis. Learned societies recognize, however, the efficacy of combining conservative therapy (brace+physiotherapy) in idiopathic scoliosis. Should we then still prescribe rehabilitation without brace treatment? Although physical therapy alone does not seem effective in treating scoliosis, it can limit potential painful phenomena and be beneficial for respiratory function. The physical therapist can also teach the teenager the classic principles of hygiene of the back. It may therefore be appropriate to prescribe physical therapy, but the principles and objectives must be explained to the patient and family in light of current evidence-based medicine.

  2. Quantum mechanical description of waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhi-Yong; Xiong Cai-Dong; He Bing

    2008-01-01

    Applying the spinor representation of the electromagnetic field,this paper present a quantum-mechanical description of waveguides.As an example of application,a potential qubit generated by photon tunnelling is discussed.

  3. Description of dose response curve

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Samarai, Firas

    2011-01-01

    The book included several methods to estimate LD50, in addition to explain how to use several programs to estimate LD50. Moreover the book illustrate the description of the dose response curves. Firas Al-Samarai

  4. Back Bay Wilderness area description

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a description of the lands located within the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Within these lands, it designates which area is suitable for...

  5. Detector Description Framework in LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Ponce, Sébastien

    2003-01-01

    The Gaudi architecture and framework are designed to provide a common infrastructure and environment for simulation, filtering, reconstruction and analysis applications. In this context, a Detector Description Service was developed in LHCb in order to also provide easy and coherent access to the description of the experimental apparatus. This service centralizes every information about the detector, including geometry, materials, alignment, calibration, structure and controls. From the proof of concept given by the first functional implementation of this service late 2000, the Detector Description Service has grown and has become one of the major components of the LHCb software, shared among all applications, including simulation, reconstruction, analysis and visualization. We describe here the full and functional implementation of the service. We stress the easiness of customization and extension of the detector description by the user, on the seamless integration with condition databases in order to handle ...

  6. The Fundamental Scale of Descriptions

    CERN Document Server

    Febres, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of a system description is a function of the entropy of its symbolic description. Prior to computing the entropy of the system description, an observation scale has to be assumed. In natural language texts, typical scales are binary, characters, and words. However, considering languages as structures built around certain preconceived set of symbols, like words or characters, is only a presumption. This study depicts the notion of the Description Fundamental Scale as a set of symbols which serves to analyze the essence a language structure. The concept of Fundamental Scale is tested using English and MIDI music texts by means of an algorithm developed to search for a set of symbols, which minimizes the system observed entropy, and therefore best expresses the fundamental scale of the language employed. Test results show that it is possible to find the Fundamental Scale of some languages. The concept of Fundamental Scale, and the method for its determination, emerges as an interesting tool to fac...

  7. [Is it too late to start orthopedic treatment for idiopathic scoliosis with Risser scores of 4?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellanet, M; González Viejo, M-A; Sáenz, A; Hijós, M-E

    2006-12-01

    Orthopaedic treatment for idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence is indicated with a curve of > or =20 degrees and a Risser scoreRisser scores >4. We present the case of a young man with a left lumbar idiopathic scoliosis (T12-L4) with a curve of 10 degrees, which was stable from 13 years (Risser 0) to 16 years old (Risser 4). The scoliosis progressed quickly after a Risser score of 4 was achieved. The man had been wearing a lift on the left foot since he was 13, because of a leg length discrepancy, and had been under clinical and radiological monitoring. When the boy reached 17 years, the scoliosis rapidly progressed, to a curve of 22 degrees and a Risser score of >4. The scoliosis was effectively treated with a Boston brace. At 20 years, the Risser score was 5, and the left lumbar curve was 13 degrees after discontinuing the use of the brace. To our knowledge, no scientific reference indicates a time limit to orthopaedic treatment for idiopathic adolescent scoliosis. Despite the experts' recommendations, a brace might be indicated with a Risser score > or =4 to stop the progression of the curve.

  8. Lagrangian description of nonlinear chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Heng; LIU Xiaolong

    2004-01-01

    Under the framework of non-equilibrium thermodynamic separation theory (NTST), Local Lagrangian approach (LLA) was proposed to deal with the essential issues of the convection and diffusion (shock waves) phenomena in nonlinear chromatography with recursion equations based on the three basic theorems, Lagrangian description, continuity axiom and local equilibrium assumption (LEA). This approach remarkably distinguished from the system of contemporary chromatographic theories (Eulerian description-partial differential equations), and can felicitously match modern cybernetics.

  9. Aeroelastic Analysis of SUGAR Truss-Braced Wing Wind-Tunnel Model Using FUN3D and a Nonlinear Structural Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Robert E.; Scott, Robert C.; Allen, Timothy J.; Sexton, Bradley W.

    2015-01-01

    Considerable attention has been given in recent years to the design of highly flexible aircraft. The results of numerous studies demonstrate the significant performance benefits of strut-braced wing (SBW) and trussbraced wing (TBW) configurations. Critical aspects of the TBW configuration are its larger aspect ratio, wing span and thinner wings. These aspects increase the importance of considering fluid/structure and control system coupling. This paper presents high-fidelity Navier-Stokes simulations of the dynamic response of the flexible Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) truss-braced wing wind-tunnel model. The latest version of the SUGAR TBW finite element model (FEM), v.20, is used in the present simulations. Limit cycle oscillations (LCOs) of the TBW wing/strut/nacelle are simulated at angle-of-attack (AoA) values of -1, 0 and +1 degree. The modal data derived from nonlinear static aeroelastic MSC.Nastran solutions are used at AoAs of -1 and +1 degrees. The LCO amplitude is observed to be dependent on AoA. LCO amplitudes at -1 degree are larger than those at +1 degree. The LCO amplitude at zero degrees is larger than either -1 or +1 degrees. These results correlate well with both wind-tunnel data and the behavior observed in previous studies using linear aerodynamics. The LCO onset at zero degrees AoA has also been computed using unloaded v.20 FEM modes. While the v.20 model increases the dynamic pressure at which LCO onset is observed, it is found that the LCO onset at and above Mach 0.82 is much different than that produced by an earlier version of the FEM, v. 19.

  10. Treatment of Ulnar Collateral Ligament Tears of the Elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Brandon J.; Bach, Bernard R.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) tears have become common, and UCL reconstruction (UCLR) is currently the preferred surgical treatment method for treating UCL tears. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to review the literature surrounding UCL repair and determine the viability of new repair techniques for treatment of UCL tears. We hypothesized that UCL repair techniques will provide comparable results to UCLR for treatment of UCL tears. Study Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A systematic review was registered with PROSPERO and performed with PRISMA guidelines using 3 publicly available free databases. Biomechanical and clinical outcome investigations reporting on UCL repair with levels of evidence 1 through 4 were eligible for inclusion. Descriptive statistics were calculated for each study and parameter/variable analyzed. Results: Of the 46 studies eligible, 4 studies (3 clinical and 1 biomechanical) were included. There were 92 patients (n = 92 elbows; 61 males [62.3%]; mean age, 21.9 ± 4.7 years) included in the clinical studies, with a mean follow-up of 49 ± 14.4 months. Eighty-six percent of repairs performed were on the dominant elbow, and 38% were in college athletes. Most UCL repairs (66.3%) were performed via suture anchors. After UCL repair, 87.0% of patients were able to return to sport. Overall, 94.9% of patients scored excellent/good on the Andrews-Carson score. Patients who were able to return to sport after UCL repair did so within 6 months after surgery. Biomechanically, when UCL repair was compared with the modified Jobe technique, the repair group showed significantly less gap formation than the reconstruction group. Conclusion: In patients for whom repair is properly indicated, UCL repair provides similar return-to-sport rates and clinical outcomes with shorter return-to-sport timing after repair compared with UCL reconstruction. Future outcome studies evaluating UCL repair

  11. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: natural history and long term treatment effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asher Marc A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a lifetime, probably systemic condition of unknown cause, resulting in a spinal curve or curves of ten degrees or more in about 2.5% of most populations. However, in only about 0.25% does the curve progress to the point that treatment is warranted. Untreated, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis does not increase mortality rate, even though on rare occasions it can progress to the >100° range and cause premature death. The rate of shortness of breath is not increased, although patients with 50° curves at maturity or 80° curves during adulthood are at increased risk of developing shortness of breath. Compared to non-scoliotic controls, most patients with untreated adolescent idiopathic scoliosis function at or near normal levels. They do have increased pain prevalence and may or may not have increased pain severity. Self-image is often decreased. Mental health is usually not affected. Social function, including marriage and childbearing may be affected, but only at the threshold of relatively larger curves. Non-operative treatment consists of bracing for curves of 25° to 35° or 40° in patients with one to two years or more of growth remaining. Curve progression of ≥ 6° is 20 to 40% more likely with observation than with bracing. Operative treatment consists of instrumentation and arthrodesis to realign and stabilize the most affected portion of the spine. Lasting curve improvement of approximately 40% is usually achieved. In the most completely studied series to date, at 20 to 28 years follow-up both braced and operated patients had similar, significant, and clinically meaningful reduced function and increased pain compared to non-scoliotic controls. However, their function and pain scores were much closer to normal than patient groups with other, more serious conditions. Risks associated with treatment include temporary decrease in self-image in braced patients. Operated patients face the usual

  12. Determination of gadolinium(III) ions in soil and sediment samples by a novel gadolinium membrane sensor based on 6-methyl-4-{l_brace}[1-(2-thienyl)methylidene]amino{r_brace}3-thioxo-3,4-dihydro-1,2,4 -triazin-5-(2H)-one

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, Hassan Ali [Department of Chemistry, Quchan branch, Islamic Azad University, Quchan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: haszamani@yahoo.com; Rajabzadeh, Ghadir [Khorasan Science and Technology Park, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Norouzi, Parviz [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    Highly selective and sensitive poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane electrodes based on 6-methyl-4-{l_brace}[1-(2-thienyl)methylidene]amino{r_brace}3-thioxo-3,4-dihydro-1,2,4 -triazin-5-(2H)-one (MATDTO) as new carriers for gadolinium ion-selective electrode was reported. The membrane solutions containing PVC, o-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE) as plasticizer, sodium tetraphenyl borate (NaTPB) as lipophilic ionic additive, and MATDTO, displays a calibration response for Gd{sup 3+} ions over a wide concentration range of 1.0 x 10{sup -6}-1.0 x 10{sup -1} M with Nernstian slopes of 19.8 {+-} 0.2 mV per decade and a detection limit as 5.8 x 10{sup -7} M. The sensor has a relatively fast response time of <10 s and can be used in the pH range 3.2-8.7 for at least 2 months without any significant divergence in potentials. The selectivity coefficients for mono-, di-, and trivalent cations indicate good selectivity for Gd(III) ions over a large number of interfering cations. The membrane sensor was used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Gd(III) ions with EDTA. The proposed electrode was also applied to the determination of concentration of Gd(III) ions in soil and sediment samples and validation with CRMs.

  13. Crystal structure of {l_brace}NH{sub 2}C(NHC{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}{r_brace}{sub 3}[UO{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}(NCS)] . 1.25H{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serezhkina, L. B., E-mail: lserezh@ssu.samara.ru [Samara State University (Russian Federation); Peresypkina, E. V.; Virovets, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Neklyudova, N. A.; Pushkin, D. V. [Samara State University (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-15

    Synthesis and X-ray diffraction study of {l_brace}NH{sub 2}C(NHC{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}{r_brace}{sub 3}[UO{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}(NCS)] . 1.25H{sub 2}O single crystals have been performed. This compound is crystallized in the orthorhombic system, with the unit-cell parameters a = 45.2646(8) A, b = 57.7359(11) A, c = 7.9244(3) A, sp. gr. Fdd2, Z = 16, V = 20 709.6(10) A{sup 3}, and R = 0.0477. The uranium-containing structural units of the crystals are one-core groups of the [UO{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}(NCS)]{sup 3-} composition, belonging to the crystallochemical group AB{sub 2}{sup 01}M{sup 1} (A = UO{sub 2}{sup +2}, B{sup 01} = C{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2-}, M{sup 1} = NCS{sup -}) of uranyl complexes. The uranium-containing complexes are connected into a three-dimensional framework owing to the electrostatic interactions with the outer-sphere cations and a system of hydrogen bonds.

  14. Speeds of sound in {l_brace}(1 - x)CH{sub 4} + xN{sub 2}{r_brace} with x = (0.10001, 0.19999, and 0.5422) at temperatures between 170 K and 400 K and pressures up to 30 MPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estela-Uribe, J.F. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Javeriana-Cali, Calle 18, 118-250 Cali (Colombia); Trusler, J.P.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: m.trusler@imperial.ac.uk; Chamorro, C.R. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Segovia, J.J. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Martin, M.C. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Villamanan, M.A. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain)

    2006-07-15

    The speed of sound in {l_brace}(1 - x)CH{sub 4} + xN{sub 2}{r_brace} has been measured with a spherical acoustic resonator. Two mixtures with x = (0.10001 and 0.19999) were studied along isotherms at temperatures between 220 K and 400 K with pressures up to 20 MPa; a few additional measurements at p = (25 and 30) MPa are also reported. A third mixture with x = 0.5422 was studied along pseudo-isochores at amount-of-substance densities between 0.2 mol . dm{sup -3} and 5 mol . dm{sup -3}. Corrections for molecular vibrational relaxation are discussed in detail and relaxation times are reported. The overall uncertainty of the measured speeds of sound is estimated to be not worse than {+-}0.02%, except for those measurements in the mixture with x = 0.5422 that lie along the pseduo-isochore at the highest amount-of-substance density. The results have been compared with the predictions of several equations of state used for natural gas systems.

  15. Çelik Çapraz Elemanlarla Güçlendirilen Betonarme Yapıların Deprem Davranışlarının İncelenmesi = Earthquake Behavior Evaluation of R/C Structures Strengthened with Steel Bracings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasım Armağan KORKMAZ

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the seismic behavior of reinforced concrete (R/C frame structures strengthened with eccentric steel bracing is examined. In this aim, a R/C frame structure is designed and then strengthened with different eccentric steel bracings. The existing and the strengthened structures are analyzed using nonlinear static pushover analysis. Their structural behavior under earthquake effect is compared with each other. In the analyses, 10- story R/C frame structure is designed and this structure is strengthened with different types of strengthening bracings. Thus, the earthquake behavior is defined for the strengthened and existing structures. It is also aimed to determine the best strengthening way with steel bracings.

  16. Application of the buckling restrained brace in high-rise steel structure residences%屈曲约束支撑在高层钢结构住宅中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯铭; 杨聪武; 曹志丹; 谭咏梅

    2013-01-01

    某高层钢结构住宅楼高48.6m,结构体系采用钢框架-支撑结构,主要抗侧力构件采用屈曲约束支撑.通过多种结构形式的对比分析阐述了框架-屈曲约束支撑结构体系地震作用效应小、塑性耗能能力优等结构特征.阐述了屈曲约束支撑设计控制内力的确定和支撑杆件与框架梁、柱连接节点设计等关键技术.通过多遇地震作用下结构整体计算分析、中震弹性分析和不考虑屈曲约束支撑作用的纯框架结构抗震验算,得出框架-屈曲约束支撑结构体系抗震性能优越、技术经济指标合理的结论.%A high-rise steel structure residence is 48. 6 meters high, structural system of the residence is the steel braced frame structure, and its main anti-lateral force components are buckling restrained braces. Through analysis of a variety of structural forms, structural features of the framework-buckling restrained brace structure system were elaborated, such as small seismic action effect and superior plastic energy dissipation capacity. Key technologies were introduced, including determination of design control internal force for the buckling restrained brace and design of connection nodes among the support rods, frame beams, and columns. Through the overall structure calculation under frequent earthquake, structural seismic elastic analysis under fortification intensity, and pure frame structure seismic calculation without regarding the effect of buckling restrained braces, it is concluded that seismic performance of the framework-buckling restrained brace structure is good and its technical and economic indicators are reasonable.

  17. Study on Links Length Effect on Y-Eccentrically Braced Frames Seismic Performance%Y形偏心支撑耗能段长度对结构抗震性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宝成; 于安林; 沈淼; 李仁达

    2012-01-01

    In order to research stiffs, strength and energy-dissipation of Y-eccentrically braced frames in changing length of links,the one-bay two-story test specimen was carried out under low reversed cyclic loading. Process and method of test was introduced. Load capacity, displacement ductility, hysteretic behavior, ductility, energy-dissipation and plastic mechanism of Y-eccentrically braced frames were analyzed. Experimental studies and analysis show that changing lengths of links have effect on strength, stiffness and energy-dissipation capacity of Y-eccentrically braced frames. The length of links is shorter, the Y-eccentrically braced frames strength and stiffness are bigger. The links entering the plasticity to form the plastic mechanism dissipate structure seismic energy. Failure of connection between links and braces causes the structure expiration. Specimens have good displacement capacity and the displacement ductility ratios is between 3. 62 ~4. 44. The length of links was designed reasonably,and then Y-eccentrically braced steel frames provide high stiffness and well resistant-seismic.%目的 研究Y形偏心支撑耗能段长度对结构的刚度、承载能力以及滞回性能的影响.方法 对2榀改变耗能段长度的Y形偏心支撑框架进行循环加荷试验.介绍了试验方案和试验过程,对比分析了试件的承载能力、位移延性、耗能能力以及Y形偏心支撑框架塑性机构.结果 耗能段长度对Y形偏心支撑框架强度、刚度以及耗能能力影响较大;耗能段长度越短,Y形偏心支撑框架强度和刚度越大;结构主要由耗能段进入塑性形成塑性机构耗散地震能量;耗能段与支撑之间的连接破坏导致结构失效;试件的位移延性系数为3.62 ~4.44,结构的位移延性较好.结论 Y形偏心支撑耗能段长度选取合理,结构抗侧刚度高、抗震性能好.

  18. Carpal tunnel syndrome - Part II (treatment,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Chammas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The treatments for non-deficit forms of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS are corticoid infiltration and/or a nighttime immobilization brace. Surgical treatment, which includes sectioning the retinaculum of the flexors (retinaculotomy, is indicated in cases of resistance to conservative treatment in deficit forms or, more frequently, in acute forms. In minimally invasive techniques (endoscopy and mini-open, and even though the learning curve is longer, it seems that functional recovery occurs earlier than in the classical surgery, but with identical long-term results. The choice depends on the surgeon, patient, severity, etiology and availability of material. The results are satisfactory in close to 90% of the cases. Recovery of strength requires four to six months after regression of the pain of pillar pain type. This surgery has the reputation of being benign and has a complication rate of 0.2–0.5%.

  19. Auteur Description: From the Director's Creative Vision to Audio Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarkowska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    In this report, the author follows the suggestion that a film director's creative vision should be incorporated into Audio description (AD), a major technique for making films, theater performances, operas, and other events accessible to people who are blind or have low vision. The author presents a new type of AD for auteur and artistic films:…

  20. Memory materials: a unifying description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Di Ventra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There are so many materials properties leading to memory that a unifying description seems impossible. However, it is easy to show that the majority of two-terminal electronic devices based on memory materials and systems, when subject to time-dependent perturbations, behave simply as, or as a combination of, memristors, memcapacitors, and meminductors; namely non-linear circuit elements with memory. This unifying description opens up new venues for digital and analog applications ranging from information storage to biologically-inspired circuits. In this review, interesting research opportunities that emerge from this new perspective will be outlined.

  1. [Scoliosis: review of types, aetiology, diagnostics, and treatment 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baat, P; van Biezen, E C; de Baat, C

    2012-10-01

    A scoliosis is a flexible or rigid deformity of the spine in the frontal plane. There are several types of scoliosis, each with specific characteristics. The most prevalent types are idiopathic, congenital, and neuromuscular scoliosis and scoliosis in adults. The aetiology is varied and largely undetermined. Essential components of diagnostics are patient history, physical examination, and radiographs. Treatment options are a conservative approach involving observation and follow-up, a conservative approach involving non-surgical treatment, and surgical treatment. Usually, idiopathic scoliosis causes no or only few complaints at a young age. Up to 35% of patients have a certain degree of back pain. The choice of a certain treatment is determined by the likelihood of progression of the spine deformity. The objective of brace treatment is preventing progression of the deformity. Important objectives of surgical treatment are preventing progression of the deformity and correcting the deformity with correction or preservation of physical equilibrium.

  2. CdS thin films obtained by thermal treatment of cadmium(II) complex precursor deposited by MAPLE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotaru, Andrei [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PPAM - Lasers Department, 409 Atomistilor Bvd., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Mietlarek-Kropidlowska, Anna [Gdansk University of Technology, Chemistry Faculty, 11/12 G. Narutowicza Str., PL-90-233 Gdansk (Poland); Constantinescu, Catalin, E-mail: catalin.constantinescu@inflpr.ro [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PPAM - Lasers Department, 409 Atomistilor Bvd., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Scarisoreanu, Nicu; Dumitru, Marius [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PPAM - Lasers Department, 409 Atomistilor Bvd., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Strankowski, Michal [Gdansk University of Technology, Chemistry Faculty, 11/12 G. Narutowicza Str., PL-90-233 Gdansk (Poland); Rotaru, Petre [University of Craiova, Faculty of Physics, 13 A.I. Cuza St., Craiova RO-200585, Dolj (Romania); Ion, Valentin [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PPAM - Lasers Department, 409 Atomistilor Bvd., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Vasiliu, Cristina [INOE 2000 - National Institute for Optoelectronics, 1 Atomistilor Bvd., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Becker, Barbara [Gdansk University of Technology, Chemistry Faculty, 11/12 G. Narutowicza Str., PL-90-233 Gdansk (Poland); Dinescu, Maria [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PPAM - Lasers Department, 409 Atomistilor Bvd., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania)

    2009-05-15

    Thin films of [Cd{l_brace}SSi(O-Bu{sup t}){sub 3}{r_brace}(S{sub 2}CNEt{sub 2})]{sub 2}, precursor for semiconducting CdS layers, were deposited on silicon substrates by Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. Structural analysis of the obtained films by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the viability of the procedure. After the deposition of the coordination complex, the layers are manufactured by appropriate thermal treatment of the system (thin film and substrate), according to the thermal analysis of the compound. Surface morphology of the thin films was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectroscopic-ellipsometry (SE) measurements.

  3. Seismic Performance of Concrete Frame Structures with Buckling-restrained Braces%运用防屈曲支撑的混凝土框架结构的抗震性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵杰; 孙晓艳; 霍林生

    2015-01-01

    This article briefly introduces the seismic safety community and the composition and performance parameters of buckling-restrained braces.The seismic safety community is the com-munity that experiences small destructive earthquakes.Specifically,these communities have car-ried out effective seismic fortification of all buildings in compliance with seismic hazard regula-tions.In the seismic safety community,improving the seismic performance of buildings is the pri-mary goal.Local seismic fortifications meet the minimum seismic requirements,and the level of fortification of buildings is increased using certain technical measures.The traditional method of seismic fortification is to increase the size of major structural components,such as beams,col-umns,and shear walls,and to improve the ratio of reinforcements to buildings.However,increas-ing the amount of material increases cost and reduces the usable area of buildings.The new meth-od calls for change to the seismic characteristics of the structure itself and improvements to its ca-pacity for energy dissipation through the use of isolation and dissipation technologies.In the struc-tural system,the seismic sections generally remain the same,and cost increases are small.Buck-ling-restrained braces have gained widespread application as measures for energy dissipation and earthquake resistance.They also overcome the disadvantages of traditional energy dissipation braces.The component’s full section will yield during compression,effectively minimizing local buckling failure and overall buckling failure.Therefore,the energy dissipation capacity of the com-ponents is maximized and the seismic response of the structure is reduced.The Dalian Aonan Mingxiu manor project described in the paper is a pilot project undertaken in the Dalian earth-quake safety community.The project addresses building security and earthquake safety at the de-sign stage.By installing buckling-restrained braces,the seismic characteristics of the

  4. Study on Corner Effect of Underground Diaphragm Wall with Interior Bracing%内撑式地下连续墙基坑直角角部效应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋修志; 刘训臣

    2015-01-01

    The layout of interior bracing has a great effect on the displacement and force of underground diaphragm wall, and the building envelopes have obvious corner effect. The force and displacement of four design schemes were analyzed by using finite element method, the result shows that the space of bracing should not be too large.%内撑式地下连续墙具有明显的角部效应,内支撑布置方式会对围护结构的受力性状产生很大影响。通过有限元方法分析了四种支撑方案下连续墙的位移和受力情况,得出支撑的平面间距不宜过大,为内撑式地下连续墙的设计提供理论支持。

  5. 佩带膝外翻支具膝骨关节炎患者膝关节的生物力学变化%Biomechanical changes of the knee with the valgus bracing in people with medial knee osteoarthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旻; 江澜

    2011-01-01

    背景:佩带膝关节外翻矫形器已被证明是一种可以有效减轻内侧间室膝骨关节炎患者疼痛的方法,但是佩带矫形器后的膝关节所产生的运动学以及动力学变化至今尚不明确.目的:观察内侧间室膝骨关节炎患者佩带膝关节矫形器前后的膝关节运动学以及动力学参数变化,便于为将来设计新型膝关节矫形器提供依据.方法:纳入20例内侧间室膝骨关节炎患者,分别通过三维步态分析系统和测力板对其在佩带膝外翻矫形器及不佩带膝外翻矫形器两种情况步行中的运动学及动力学参数进行采集,并进行对比.结果与结论:相比未佩带膝关节外翻支具,佩带膝关节外翻支具后患者在步行过程中膝关节内收力矩明显减小,与此同时膝关节内翻角度明显减小,外翻角度明显增加(P均< 0.05),膝关节在步行过程中的最大屈曲角度以及时间空间参数差异无显著性意义.提示膝关节外翻矫形器可有效地通过增加内侧间室膝骨关节炎患者膝关节在步行过程中的外翻角度减小内翻角度从而降低膝内侧间室所承受的压力,与此同时纠正膝关节非正常对线.%BACKGROUND: Unloading valgus knee brace has been proved to be a very effective method which can help patients in medial knee osteoarthritis, but the kinematic and kinetic changes at knee joint after taking knee brace was not clear.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the kinematics and kinetics changes of the medial knee osteoarthritis at knee during walking with and without unloading valgus knee brace which is benefit for designing new type of knee brace in the future.METHODS: Totally 20 patients with medial knee osteoarthritis were included in this test kinematics changes were conducted with three dimensional gait analysis system and the kinetics changes were collected by the force platforms for medial knee osteoarthritis subjects with or without valgus knee brace.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION

  6. Finite element analysis of structural ductility for diagrid tube structure with buckling restrained braces%设置屈曲约束支撑的斜交网筒结构延性有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丰; 张崇厚

    2013-01-01

    斜交网筒结构具有较大的抗侧刚度,但其延性较差,通过设置屈曲约束支撑可改善斜交网筒结构延性.以30层的斜交网筒结构模型为研究对象,分别对普通斜交网筒结构和设置屈曲约束支撑斜交网筒结构进行静力弹塑性推覆(Pushover)分析.结果表明:屈曲约束支撑可有效改善斜交网筒结构延性.此外,对立面中部、立面角部、底部楼层、上部楼层共4种局部区域布置屈曲约束支撑的方案进行了结构延性分析.局部设置屈曲约束支撑斜交网筒结构的设计应确保斜柱处于弹性工作状态,屈曲约束支撑率先进入塑性耗能状态.建议采用立面中部布置屈曲约束支撑的方案,可实现在保证结构受剪承载力的前提下,较好地改善斜交网筒结构的延性,避免结构发生脆性破坏.%Diagrid tube structures have excellent lateral force resistance but poor structural ductility,which can be improved through buckling restrained brace.With respect to 30-story diagrid tube structures,nonlinear static analysis,i.e.pushover analysis was conducted respectively for the conventional diagrid tube structure and those with buckling restrained brace.The results show that the structural ductility is improved by utilizing buckling restrained brace.Furthermore,four schemes of diagrid tube structures partially with buckling restrained brace in different parts of the facades,including the corner and the middle,the bottom and the upper,were investigated for structural ductility.Diagrid tube structures partially with buckling restrained brace should be designed so that conventional brace remain in elastic state,while buckling restrained brace turn into plastic state in advance for energy dissipation.Diagrid tube structure with buckling restrained brace in the middle part of facade is recommended,which could effectively improve structural ductility to avoid brittle failure without decreasing shear load-bearing capacity.

  7. Exclusion Statistics: a Generalized Description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bao-Quan; WANG Yu-Peng

    2005-01-01

    @@ By constructing the fused-particle representation of the free boson gas, we propose a description of the exclusion statistics which allows us to connect the Bose-Einstein statistics and the Fermi-Dirac statistics smoothly.With an proper choice of the exclusion factors γl, Hadane-Wu's fractional statistics is retrieved in this representation.

  8. Task descriptions versus use cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauesen, Søren; Kuhail, Mohammad Amin

    2011-01-01

    project: Acquire a new system to support a hotline. Among the 15 replies, eight used traditional use cases that specified a dialog between user and system. Seven used a related technique, task description, which specified the customer’s needs without specifying a dialog. It also allowed the analyst...

  9. Use cases versus task descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauesen, Søren; Kuhail, Mohammad Amin

    2011-01-01

    to specify require-ments for the same project: Acquire a new system to support a hotline. [Princi-pal ideas/results] Among the 15 replies, eight used traditional use cases that specified a dialog between users and system. Seven used a related technique, task description, which specified the customer's needs...

  10. The Geometry Description Markup Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RadovanChytracek

    2001-01-01

    Currently,a lot of effort is being put on designing complex detectors.A number of simulation and reconstruction frameworks and applications have been developed with the aim to make this job easier.A very important role in this activity is played by the geometry description of the detector apparatus layout and its working environment.However,no real common approach to represent geometry data is available and such data can be found in various forms starting from custom semi-structured text files,source code (C/C++/FORTRAN),to XML and database solutions.The XML(Extensible Markup Language)has proven to provide an interesting approach for describing detector geometries,with several different but incompatible XML-based solutions existing.Therefore,interoperability and geometry data exchange among different frameworks is not possible at present.This article introduces a markup language for geometry descriptions.Its aim is to define a common approach for sharing and exchanging of geometry description data.Its requirements and design have been driven by experience and user feedback from existing projects which have their geometry description in XML.

  11. Turbulent Dissipation Challenge -- Problem Description

    CERN Document Server

    Parashar, Tulasi N; Wicks, Robert; Karimabadi, Homa; Chandran, S Peter Gary Benjamin; Matthaeus, William H

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this document is to present a detailed description of the goals, simulation setup and diagnostics for the Turbulent Dissipation Challenge $($http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.0204$)$ as discussed in the Solar Heliospheric and INterplanetary Environment $($SHINE$)$ 2013 workshop, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting 2013 and the accompanying antenna meeting in Berkeley.

  12. Epsilon. A System Description Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten

    This paper discusses the use of Petri nets as a semantic tool in the design of languages and in the construction and analysis of system descriptions. The topics treated are: -- Languages based on nets. -- The problem of time in nets. -- Nets and related models. -- Nets and formal semantics. -- Pa...

  13. Treatment of Scoliosis-Evidence and Management (Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Context Scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformity of the spine and trunk which includes lateral deviation, rotation, and a disturbance of the sagittal profile. Treatment is indicated for scoliosis because it may lead to negative consequences with regard to the quality of life and other health issues for some patients. The purpose of this review was to gather current, up-to-date information, and to search the recent articles on scoliosis for evidence of the different modes of treatment. Evidence Acquisition A PubMed search for review articles, prospective controlled trials (PCT, and randomized controlled trials (RCT was performed. The search terms were: 1 scoliosis, treatment (12,045 items found; 2 scoliosis, physiotherapy (776 items found; 3 scoliosis, brace treatment (1,447 items found; and 4 scoliosis, surgery (10,485 items found. Results When looking at the current literature, high quality evidence (level I was found to support physical rehabilitation and brace treatments, while no evidence was found to support spinal fusion surgery. The numerous long-term complications that patients may face post-operation, and the lack of evidence for spinal fusion surgery indicate that there is no clear medical indication for this kind of treatment. Conclusions There is a high level of evidence for the conservative treatment of scoliosis, but there are varying levels of success in the different approaches. The better the correction of the curve, the better the end result and outcome for the patient. This is supported by the current evidence reviewed in this paper. Physiotherapy and bracing should be used and, specifically, those approaches using high corrective methods. Spinal fusion surgery is not supported by the current evidence. According to the literature, the long-term complications of surgery for scoliosis far outweigh the consequences of untreated scoliosis.

  14. Force Analysis of Frame Core-tube Structure Added RC Fraction Energy Dissipation Braced%钢筋混凝土摩擦耗能支撑框架-核心筒结构内力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婧; 周立超; 潘文; 徐卫宾

    2012-01-01

    The energy dissipation braces are added in two different parts of a frame-tube structure in this paper, the internal forces of the RC fraction energy dissipation braced frame-tube structure are calculated by ETABS, and the effect of energy dissipation under earthquake is analyzed. The results show that dampers couldn' t start under the action of earthquake, and could start-up under the action of severe earthquake. The RC fraction energy dissipation braced frame-tube structure can better improve the seismic performance.%对某框架-核心筒结构实际工程在两个不同的部位加设耗能支撑,采用ETABS软件,计算钢筋混凝土摩擦耗能支撑框架-核心筒结构在地震作用下的内力,分析了耗能器在地震作用下能否启动耗能和其耗能效果.结果表明,在多遇地震下耗能器不启动,在罕遇地震下耗能器启动耗能,能够较好的改善结构的抗震性能.

  15. Reasonable seismic force research on the steel braced frames%设计地震作用取值对中心支撑钢框架抗震性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹丹丹; 于海丰

    2012-01-01

    对基于抗震规范GB 50011和通则CECS 160抗震反应谱的中心支撑钢框架结构的设计地震作用进行了对比,在设计应力比基本一致的前提下,设计了4,10,20层中心支撑钢框架算例并进行了多遇、罕遇地震下的动力响应分析.根据用钢量、层间侧移角、支撑损伤等指标,给出了中心支撑钢框架结构设计地震作用取值的建议.%In this paper, the seismic force of the steel braced frames calculated by the design spectrum of the GB50011 code is compared to that of the CECS 160:2004 code. With similar design-stress ratios of 4, 10 and 20-storey structure examples are designed and analyzed under frequent and rare earthquakes situntion. At last, according to the index of steel usage, inter-story drift, and brace damage so on, the suggestion about the seismic force value of the braced steel frames is given.

  16. APPLICATION OF BUCKLING RESTRAINED BRACE IN THE ADDING STORIES AND REINFORCEMENT OF BUILDING%防屈曲耗能支撑在房屋加层加固中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈道政; 何池和; 罗志远; 王伟强

    2015-01-01

    The buckling restrained braces were erected on the integral frame consisted of six stories reinforced concrete frame and one story steel frame added at the top.The design of buckling restrained brace was discussed.The performance under frequent earthquake and rare earthquake of the integral structure was calculated and comparatively analyzed by finite element software.The analysis showed that the working performance and the frame torsion were improved, interstory displacement of frame was controled effectively by using the buckling restrained brace.%将1层钢框架增设于原6层钢筋混凝土框架之上,并在形成的整体框架中布设支撑。讨论防屈曲耗能支撑的设计方法,利用有限元分析软件计算在多遇地震和罕遇地震作用下的整体结构性能并进行比较分析。分析结果显示:采用支撑后,可以改善整体框架的工作状态,改善框架的扭转情况,有效控制框架的层间位移。

  17. Simpevarp - site descriptive model version 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-01

    SICADA and SKB GIS, and an inventory and assessment of relevant data in other databases; a systematic overview of data needs and availability for developing a site descriptive model for the surface ecosystems (biosphere) in the Simpevarp regional model area; a more detailed treatment of the present data base for the geosphere in the Simpevarp regional model area, and its transformation into the format of a site descriptive model. V. 0 modelling is based on data available before the start of site investigations, mostly collected for reasons not directly related to the deep disposal of spent nuclear fuel. An important component of the present work, therefore, is a data inventory, in which the location and scope of all potential sources of data is detailed and evaluated with respect to prospective usefulness for future site descriptive modelling for deep disposal. This includes a general description of existing geographical data, of which most are stored in SKB GIS, a survey of data already stored in the SICADA database, and an inventory of other data sources, whose information content has not yet been evaluated and/or inserted in SICADA or SKB GIS. Data sources relevant to the Simpevarp regional model area which still, to some degree, need to be evaluated/converted/inserted include the siting and construction of spent fuel interim storage facility, CLAB, and the siting, pre-investigation, predictive modelling and construction of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The present report describes the current level of knowledge of the surface ecosystems in the Simpevarp regional model area, in a highly condensed form. It refers to, and draws its examples from, a series of SKB background reports which have been produced since the completion of the Oskarshamn feasibility study, and a number of other sources of information which are gathered here for the first time. The data sources are outlined with reference to a series of functional ecosystem types: drainage areas, forest, wetland

  18. Do Laterally Wedged Insoles or Valgus Braces Unload the Medial Compartment of the Knee in Patients With Osteoarthritis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Duivenvoorden (Tijs); T.M. van Raaij (Tom); H.L.D. Horemans (Herwin); R.W. Brouwer (Reinoud); P.K. Bos (Koen); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); M. Reijman (Max)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The results of conservative treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA) are generally evaluated in epidemiological studies with clinical outcome measures as primary outcomes. Biomechanical evaluation of orthoses shows that there are potentially beneficial biomechanical changes to j

  19. GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAQUETTE,D.E.; BENNETT,D.B.; DORSCH,W.R.; GOODE,G.A.; LEE,R.J.; KLAUS,K.; HOWE,R.F.; GEIGER,K.

    2002-05-31

    THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ORDER 5400.1, GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION PROGRAM, REQUIRES THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A GROUNDWATER PROTECTION PROGRAM. THE BNL GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION PROVIDES AN OVERVIEW OF HOW THE LABORATORY ENSURES THAT PLANS FOR GROUNDWATER PROTECTION, MONITORING, AND RESTORATION ARE FULLY DEFINED, INTEGRATED, AND MANAGED IN A COST EFFECTIVE MANNER THAT IS CONSISTENT WITH FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL REGULATIONS.

  20. Personality: Description, Classification and Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Taymur; M. Hakan TURKCAPAR

    2012-01-01

    Many descriptions and classifications of personality have been made to understand and acknowledge human being through out the history. During the developmental process of psychiatry, almost every school defined and assessed personality regarding to their own perspective. As DSM (Diagnostical and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) and ICD (International Classification of Diseases) being available to common usage, scientists conducted studies to set a common terminology for personality. Ca...

  1. Influence of buckling-restrained brace on seismic performance of steel frame structure%防屈曲支撑对钢框架结构抗震性能影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云勇; 郑七振; 安亚琳

    2016-01-01

    防屈曲支撑通过在杆件外围设置约束元件抑制受压时的屈曲,具有更好的耗能效果.为深入研究防屈曲支撑对钢框架结构抗震性能的影响,运用SAP2000有限元结构软件,对某钢框架在防屈曲支撑、普通中心支撑以及无支撑3种形式下的整体模型进行模态和时程分析.结果显示:采用防屈曲支撑钢框架的周期、层间位移角较纯框架均得到降低;在罕遇地震作用下,防屈曲支撑钢框架的顶层最大位移值、顶层加速度较普通支撑钢框架均有很大幅度的减小.表明采用防屈曲支撑可以明显提高钢框架结构的刚度,同时大幅度提高钢框架结构的抗震性能,耗能减震效应明显.%Through setting the constraints on the fringes of the bar element inhibition of compression buckling under pressure ,buckling-restrained support can achieve better effect of energy consumption. In order to further study the effect of anti buckling brace on the seismic behavior of steel frame structure, the paper used SAP2000 finite element software to analyze the mode and time of a steel frame of whole model under the condition of buckling brace, general center support and the forms of non support. The results showed that the period of buckling restrained brace steel frame and the displacement angle of the layer are all reduced compared with that that of the pure frame. In the case of rare earthquake, the top-maximum displacement value and the top acceleration of the steel frame are more significantly reduced than that of ordinary braced steel frame. The result indicated that the stiffness of steel frame can be obvi-ously improved by using the anti buckling brace, and the seismic performance of the steel frame structure is greatly improved, and the energy dissipation effect is obvious.

  2. Performance analysis for giant steel braced frame-RC core wall structure%巨型钢框撑—混凝土核心筒结构的性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈麟; 胡晓; 张春梅; 周云

    2011-01-01

    巨型钢框撑—钢筋混凝土核心筒结构是由巨型钢框架、巨型支撑、钢筋混凝土核心筒和伸臂桁架组成的一种具有多道抗震防线的新型超高层结构体系.为了研究这种新型结构体系的性能,首先建立了巨型钢框架—钢筋混凝土核心筒结构模型,在此基础上分析了不同形式的巨型支撑以及去除巨型梁下层次柱对结构模态、侧移及内力的影响.结果表明:设置巨型支撑可以有效提高结构抗侧刚度,减小楼层侧移与层间位移角,增加外框架所承担的竖向荷载、剪力和弯矩,X型支撑形式优于倒V型支撑.移除巨型梁下层次柱后,结构整体刚度下降,侧移增大,但对结构底部剪力和弯矩的分配影响不大.%The giant steel braced frame-RC(Reinforced Concrete) core wall structure is a new type of structural system for super high-rise buildings, consisting of a giant steel frame, some mega braces, RC core walls, and outrigger trusses. A regular giant steel braced frame-RC core wall model was constructed and the influence of mega braces and the absence of the subordinate columns under the mega beams on the mode, displacement and internal forces of the structure were analyzed. The results indicate that setting mega braces on the giant frame can improve the lateral stiffness, reduce the story drift and increase the bearing capacity of the frame. Removing the subordinate columns under the mega beams will decrease the integrated stiffness, but has little influence on the distribution of shearing force and bending moment between the giant frame and core wall.

  3. Personality: Description, Classification and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Taymur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many descriptions and classifications of personality have been made to understand and acknowledge human being through out the history. During the developmental process of psychiatry, almost every school defined and assessed personality regarding to their own perspective. As DSM (Diagnostical and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and ICD (International Classification of Diseases being available to common usage, scientists conducted studies to set a common terminology for personality. Categorical and dimensional approaches are the most fundamentally different assessment strategies in the research and clinical aspects about personality. While categorical approach views the personality as dichotomies which consists of different groups, dimensional approach aims to describe the personality on the basis of dimensions, thus suggests that the personality is a structure formed by definite dimensions. Several advantages and disadvantages can be noticed when descriptions of personality and tools for the evaluation of personality are reviewed. When the section making suggestions about personality disorder in DSM-5 is evaluated, it is seen that it aims to restructure the personality disorder diagnostic group according to new findings and critiques. In this article, the description of personality throughout the history, dimensional, categorical and cognitive approaches to personality, the features of the tools that are used to assess and measure the personality are reviewed.

  4. Calorimetric investigation of phase transitions in the layered antiferromagnetic molecule-based material {l_brace}N(n-C{sub 5}H{sub 11}){sub 4}[Mn{sup II}Fe{sup III}(ox){sub 3}]{r_brace}{sub {infinity}}(ox=oxalato)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, A. E-mail: ashis62@rediffmail.com; Miyazaki, Y.; Sorai, M

    2004-09-01

    Heat capacity studies of the layered molecule-based magnetic material {l_brace}N(n-C{sub 5}H{sub 11}){sub 4}[Mn{sup II}Fe{sup III}(ox){sub 3}]{r_brace}{sub {infinity}} (ox=oxalato) have been made in the 2-280 K range. Two distinct heat capacity anomalies were detected at 27.1 K (T{sub N}) and 226 K corresponding to magnetic and structural phase transitions, respectively, along with a hump around 23 K. The magnetic heat capacities above T{sub N} can be well represented by S=5/2 two-dimensional antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model of a honeycomb lattice with intralayer exchange interaction J/k{sub B}=-3.3 K. Application of spin-wave theory indicated the existence of a very weak interlayer magnetic interaction below T{sub N}. The anomaly at 27.1 K is due to the antiferromagnetic transition, in conformity with the magnetic results reported earlier. The hump around 23 K might be associated with the existing uncompensated magnetic moments. The estimated magnetic entropy (33.22 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1}) is close to the expected magnetic entropy (R ln (6x6)=29.80 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1}) for the spin multiplicity of high spin Mn{sup II} and Fe{sup III} ions. The heat capacity anomaly at 226 K may be assigned to a structural phase transition of order-disorder type due to increasing conformational change of the n-C{sub 5}H{sub 11} chains in the organic cation.

  5. Boundary Liouville Theory: Hamiltonian Description and Quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Dorn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the Hamiltonian treatment of classical and quantum properties of Liouville field theory on a timelike strip in 2d Minkowski space. We give a complete description of classical solutions regular in the interior of the strip and obeying constant conformally invariant conditions on both boundaries. Depending on the values of the two boundary parameters these solutions may have different monodromy properties and are related to bound or scattering states. By Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization we find the quasiclassical discrete energy spectrum for the bound states in agreement with the corresponding limit of spectral data obtained previously by conformal bootstrap methods in Euclidean space. The full quantum version of the special vertex operator $e^varphi$ in terms of free field exponentials is constructed in the hyperbolic sector.

  6. State of design method of Eccentrically Braced Frames%偏心支撑框架的设计方法概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2015-01-01

    The practical design method of EBFs is discussed with reference to the AISC 341—05 and GB 50010—2010 Code for Seismic Design of Buildings. This design method is focused on the design of links,stiffeners distribution type,columns,braces and beams outside of the links. It is expected to provide the theoretical bases and practical design method for the designers. It can also provide design reference for structural system with the same kind.%参考美国抗震规范AISC 341—05和GB 50010—2010建筑抗震设计规范,对偏心支撑框架的设计方法进行探讨,重点介绍了消能梁段、加劲肋的布置、柱、支撑以及消能梁段以外梁段的设计,预期可增强设计人员对该种结构体系设计方法的了解,为同类结构体系的设计提供参考。

  7. Comparison of Deep Drill Braced Monument (DDBM) and Borehole Strainmeter (BSM) Wellhead GPS antenna mounts: a Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) case study from Dinsmore, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T. B.; Austin, K. E.; Borsa, A. A.; Feaux, K.; Jackson, M. E.; Johnson, W.; Mencin, D.

    2010-12-01

    With the 2009 installation of GPS station P793 in Dinsmore, CA, the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) created a unique opportunity to directly compare a traditional deep drill braced GPS monument (DDBM) with a borehole strainmeter (BSM) wellhead GPS monument. PBO installed a GPS antenna to the wellhead of BSM B935 to perform a direct comparison to DDBM P327 in an attempt to determine stability and long-term behavior of both. The two adjacent stations share power and communications and are roughly 20 meters apart. The steel BSM casing is cemented ~520ft in meta-sandstone & shale, while the DDBM is anchored ~30ft deep in alluvial river gravels. Both stations are located inside a rural auto wrecking yard, which has potential sources of fixed noise in the form of multipath reflections off large metal objects. Preliminary analysis indicates consistent measurements in the North-South component, and a ~3.3 mm difference in the East-West component that has been detected between the two stations over a 450-day period (~2.7 mm/yr). The analysis utilizes standard PBO data products and differences time series data from each station in the SNARF 1.0 and IGS 2005 reference frames. We estimate the time dependent seasonal variations observed at each station and compare with available temperature and precipitation data to attempt to identify the cause of differential movement between the monuments.

  8. Assement of the Seismic Behavior of Eccentrically Braced frame with Vertical and Horizontal Link Made of Easy-Going Steel and Constructional Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Mozaffary Jouybary

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study discussed about Assement of the seismic behavior of eccentrically braced frame. The variety of social networks and virtual communities has created problematic for users of different ages and preferences; in addition, since the true nature of groups is not clearly outlined, users are uncertain about joining various virtual groups and usually face the trouble of joining the undesired ones. As a solution, in this paper, we introduced the hybrid community recommender system which offers customized recommendations based on user preferences. Although techniques such as content based filtering and collaborative filtering methods are available, these techniques are not enough efficient and in some cases make problems and bring limitations to users. Our method is based on a combination of content based filtering and collaborative filtering methods. It is created by selecting related features of users based on supervised entropy as well as using association rules and classification method. Supposing users in each community or group share similar characteristics, by hierarchical clustering, heterogeneous members are identified and removed. Unlike other methods, this is also applicable for users who have just joined the social network where they do not have any connections or group memberships. In such situations, this method could still offer recommendations.

  9. 竖向框排架厂房柱间支撑设计%On support design for column bracing at workshops of vertical frame-bent structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹航; 张矿三

    2015-01-01

    Taking the vertical frame-bent structure of compressor in some project of Xinjiang as the example,the paper analyzes the modeling cal-culation of the workshop,and explores the column bracing design principle and calculation methods for the vertical frame-bent structure at high earthquake intensity areas by combining with the national regulations and rules,so as to provide some reference for related engineering design.%以新疆某工程中压缩机厂房竖向框排架结构设计为例,通过对此厂房的建模计算分析,结合国家规范条文,探讨了在高地震烈度地区竖向框排架结构的柱间支撑设计原则与计算方法,为相关工程设计提供参考。

  10. Multiple descriptions based wavelet image coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海林; 杨宇航

    2004-01-01

    We present a simple and efficient scheme that combines multiple descriptions coding with wavelet transform under JPEG2000 image coding architecture. To reduce packet losses, controlled amounts of redundancy are added to the wavelet transform coefficients to produce multiple descriptions of wavelet coefficients during the compression process to produce multiple descriptions bit-stream of a compressed image. Even if areceiver gets only parts of descriptions (other descriptions being lost), it can still reconstruct image with acceptable quality. Specifically, the scheme uses not only high-performance wavelet transform to improve compression efficiency, but also multiple descriptions technique to enhance the robustness of the compressed image that is transmitted through unreliable network channels.

  11. Conformal radiotherapy of prostate carcinoma: Procedure description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erak Marko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Today, three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy is a standard way in the radical treatment of localized prostate cancer, and it is an alternative to the radical prostatectomy. This method of radiotherapy treatment is widely accepted in the treatment of prostate cancer patients, and provides irradiation of targeted volume (prostate, seminal vesicles with dose escalation sparing the surrounding healthy tissues (rectum, bladder at the same time. That is not possible with the conventional twodimension technique. Procedure description. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy is a volumetric, visual simulation according to the computed tomography slices; it defines the tumour and organ at risk individually in each patient. Results of several studies have shown that there is a significant decrease in the development of acute toxicity when prostate cancer patients are treated with conformal radiotherapy. High dose irradiation gives excellent results in treatment of localized prostate carcinoma and improves treatment results in the patients with locally advanced carcinoma of prostate. Discussion. Prostate carcinoma irradiation techniques have been changed dramatically during recent years. Data obtained by computed tomography are important since the size and shapes of the prostate as well as its anatomic relations towards the rectum and bladder are considerably different in individual patients. The three-dimension plan of irradiation can be designed for each patient individually by performing computed tomography technique when planning radiotherapy. Conclusion. The advanced planning systems for conformal radiotherapy can reconstruct the anatomic structures of pelvis in three-dimension technique on the basis of computed tomography scans, which provides better conformality between the irradiation beam and geometrical shape of the tumour with minimal irradiation of the surrounding healthy tissue.

  12. Cheneau支具治疗青少年特发性脊柱侧凸%The Cheneau Brace Treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖建德; 熊建义; 范佳进; 梁鸿

    2001-01-01

    目的:探讨Cheneau支具治疗青少年特发性脊柱侧凸的临床效果.方法:我们分析了1998年5月~2000年12月共38例特发性脊柱侧凸患者,均给予了Cheneau支具治疗.结果:经平均15个月随访(5~30个月),除1例因中止治疗使角度加大而改行手术外,其余患者均得到不同程度的改善,平均矫正12°(-6~24°),无明显并发症.结论:我们认为对于Risser征为0,侧凸角度>20°的特发性侧凸患者应尽早行支具治疗.

  13. Transfer of lumbosacral load to iliac bones and legs Part 1: Biomechanics of self-bracing of the sacroiliac joints and its significance for treatment and exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Snijders (Chris); A. Vleeming (Andry); R. Stoeckart (Rob)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThis study deals primarily with the stability of the base of the spine. The sacroiliac joints are vulnerable to shear loading on account of their predominantly flat surfaces. This raises the question of what mechanisms are brought into action to prevent dislocation of the sacroiliac join

  14. 40 CFR 466.20 - Applicability; description of the cast iron basis material subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Cast Iron Basis Material Subcategory § 466.20 Applicability; description of the cast iron basis... of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works from porcelain enameling of cast iron basis... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the...

  15. Archival Descriptions from the National Archives Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — Archival Descriptions from the National Archives Catalog data set provides archival descriptions of the permanent holdings of the federal government in the custody...

  16. ELECTRICAL SUPPORT SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Roy

    2004-06-24

    The purpose of this revision of the System Design Description (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the electrical support system and their bases to allow the design effort to proceed to License Application. This SDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures over time. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design as they exist at this time, with emphasis on those attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD has been developed to be an engineering tool for design control. Accordingly, the primary audience/users are design engineers. This type of SDD both ''leads'' and ''trails'' the design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The SDD trails the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD is a reflection of the results of the design process to date. Functional and operational requirements applicable to electrical support systems are obtained from the ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Siddoway 2003). Other requirements to support the design process have been taken from higher-level requirements documents such as the ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (Doraswamy 2004), and fire hazards analyses. The above-mentioned low-level documents address ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canon and Leitner 2003) requirements. This SDD contains several appendices that include supporting information. Appendix B lists key system charts, diagrams, drawings, and lists, and Appendix C includes a list of system procedures.

  17. College Readiness -- A Simple Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Dancis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To survive academically the first year of college, students basically need the three Rs, Reading, wRiting and aRithmetic, albeit all on high school levels. No Statistics needed.Reading means reading with understanding the expository and descriptive text in science and social studies textbooks, not literature. This includes following written directions. Writing means writing a coherent summary of each chapter in the science and social studies textbooks, and relating the chapter to material previously studied. Arithmetic means Arithmetic, including fractions, decimals, percents, measurement and multi-step Arithmetic word problems, along with “generalized” Arithmetic, better known as Algebra.

  18. Inflationary universe in fluid description

    CERN Document Server

    Bamba, Kazuharu

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a fluid description of inflationary cosmology. It is shown that the three observables of the inflationary universe: the spectral index of the curvature perturbations, the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the density perturbations, and the running of the spectral index, can be compatible with the Planck analysis. In addition, we reconstruct the equation of state (EoS) for a fluid from the spectral index of the curvature perturbations consistent with the Planck results. We explicitly demonstrate that the universe can gracefully exit from inflation in the reconstructed fluid models. Furthermore, we explore the singular inflation for a fluid model.

  19. IUE/IRA system description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, J.

    1977-01-01

    The IUE/IRA rate sensor system designed to meet the requirements of the International Ultraviolet Explorer spacecraft mission is described. The system consists of the sensor unit containing six rate sensor modules and the electronic control unit containing the rate sensor support electronics and the command/control circuitry. The inertial reference assembly formed by the combined units will provide spacecraft rate information for use in the stabilization and control system. The system is described in terms of functional description, operation redundancy performance, mechanical interface, and electrical interface. Test data obtained from the flight unit are summarized.

  20. 40 CFR 123.22 - Program description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employees. The State need not submit complete job descriptions for every employee carrying out the State... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program description. 123.22 Section... PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS State Program Submissions § 123.22 Program description. Any State that seeks...

  1. Model Experiment on Rule of Cables' Initial Prestress in Prestressed Mega Brace and Steel Frame Structure%预应力巨型支撑—钢框架结构拉索预拉力取值准则的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾盛; 裴波; 沈超明

    2012-01-01

    基于纯钢框架结构及钢框架-支撑结构的受力特点,提出新的结构形式——预应力巨型支撑-钢框架结构体系.制作缩尺模型,以试验研究该新型体系中拉索预拉力取值准则及结构侧移模式.试验表明:预应力巨型支撑-钢框架结构中,拉索预拉力以“受压最大的拉索在外部荷载作用下剩余拉力接近于零”为确定准则;预应力巨型支撑-钢框架结构侧移模式具有弓形特征.%Based on steel frame structure and frame-brace structure, the prestressed mega brace and steel frame structure is presented. The rule of initial prestress of mega brace and the structural displacement mode are studied with model experiment. The result of experiment indicates that initial prestress value should comply with the rule that the residual tension in compression brace is near to zero under exterior loads, and the displacement mode of the prestressed mega braced and steel frame structure shows bow shape.

  2. 预应力巨型支撑-钢框架结构拉索预拉力取值准则试验研究%Model Experiment on Rule of Cables' Initial Pre-stress in Pre-stressed Mega Brace and Steel Frame Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾盛; 裴波; 沈超明

    2012-01-01

    Based on steel frame structure and frame-brace structure, pre-stressed mega brace and steel frame structure was presented. The rule of initial pre-stress of mega brace and the structural displacement mode were studied with model experiment. The result of experiment indicated that initial pre-stress value should comply no the rule that residual tension in compression brace is near to zero under exterior loads, and the displacement mode of pre-stressed mega braced and steel frame structure shows bow shape.%基于纯钢框架结构及钢框架-支撑结构的受力特点,提出新的结构形式—预应力巨型支撑-钢框架结构体系.制作缩尺模型,以试验研究该新型体系中拉索预拉力取值准则及结构侧移模式.试验表明:预应力巨型支撑-钢框架结构中,拉索预拉力以“受压最大的拉索在外部荷载作用下剩余拉力接近于零”为确定准则;预应力巨型支撑-钢框架结构侧移模式具有弓形特征.

  3. Addressing the Language Description Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ali Bolgiin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Well-described language features are key to successful teaching and learning, especially for achieving advanced levels of proficiency. Other measures, such as simply increasing the number of reading and listening passages in a language program alone are not enough to bring the student to a higher level in a given skill. In fact, even being present in the target culture does not suffice. Angelelli and Degueldre (2002 argue that at advanced levels, even spending time in a country where the language is spoken is not necessarily sufficient for learners: "They do not need just exposure; they need answers to questions and explanations that they can rarely get by simply being immersed in a language/ culture." Less commonly taught languages (LCTLs lack descriptions that have such answers and explanations (cf. Fotos, 2002. It is argued in this paper that corpuslinguistic analyses help to provide actual usage-based, rather than intuition-based, descriptions and explanations of language features. Such approach is illustrated through English and Turkish examples.

  4. Model Experiments and Model Descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Weisenstein, Debra; Scott, Courtney J.; Shia, Run-Lie; Rodriguez, Jose; Sze, N. D.; Vohralik, Peter; Randeniya, Lakshman; Plumb, Ian

    1999-01-01

    The Second Workshop on Stratospheric Models and Measurements Workshop (M&M II) is the continuation of the effort previously started in the first Workshop (M&M I, Prather and Remsberg [1993]) held in 1992. As originally stated, the aim of M&M is to provide a foundation for establishing the credibility of stratospheric models used in environmental assessments of the ozone response to chlorofluorocarbons, aircraft emissions, and other climate-chemistry interactions. To accomplish this, a set of measurements of the present day atmosphere was selected. The intent was that successful simulations of the set of measurements should become the prerequisite for the acceptance of these models as having a reliable prediction for future ozone behavior. This section is divided into two: model experiment and model descriptions. In the model experiment, participant were given the charge to design a number of experiments that would use observations to test whether models are using the correct mechanisms to simulate the distributions of ozone and other trace gases in the atmosphere. The purpose is closely tied to the needs to reduce the uncertainties in the model predicted responses of stratospheric ozone to perturbations. The specifications for the experiments were sent out to the modeling community in June 1997. Twenty eight modeling groups responded to the requests for input. The first part of this section discusses the different modeling group, along with the experiments performed. Part two of this section, gives brief descriptions of each model as provided by the individual modeling groups.

  5. LARYNGEAL MALIGNANCY: A RETROSPECTIVE DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Laryngeal cancer is the second most common head and neck cancer in India. The onset, rate of progression and duration of symptoms are variable for supraglottic, glottic and subglottic cancer. Smoking and alcohol are also most important risk factors for laryngeal cancer. Data regarding cases of laryngeal cancer in relation to age, sex, symptoms and signs, aetiological factors with special reference to smoking and alcohol, histopathological types, tumour staging, treatment and outcomes are important to assess changing trends in laryngeal cancer treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study is about retrospective descriptive analysis of diagnosed and treated cases of laryngeal cancer in the Department of ENT from 2005 to 2008. Total fifty patients with laryngeal malignancy were seen from May 2005 to May 2008 with average 1 year of follow-up. Data regarding cases of laryngeal cancer in relation to age, sex, symptoms and signs, aetiological factors with special reference to smoking and alcohol, histopathological types, tumour staging, treatment and outcomes were analysed using SPSS software. All patients who were diagnosed to have laryngeal cancer and treated were included in the study. RESULTS In this descriptive analysis, 62% patients are between 51-70 years. Most of the patients had been symptomatic for 3-5 months; 58% patients presented with voice change followed by other complaints like throat pain, foreign body sensation, otalgia, breathing difficulty. Voice change was distinctly the most common symptom regardless of tumour site. It was more prevalent in glottis cases, but it was also the leading symptom in supraglottic tumours. Glottis tumours were more often found at an early stage and patients with a supraglottic tumour presented more often with neck node metastasis. CONCLUSION Laryngeal malignancy is one of the head and neck malignancies, which are more common in males. Tobacco is an important risk factor in causation of the

  6. Seismic parameters of single-layer buckling-restrained braced frame%单层屈曲约束支撑框架的抗震参数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯玉龙; 吴京; 孟少平; 付康

    2015-01-01

    To provide the design reference for the frame structure with buckling-restrained brace ( BRB) , the seismic parameters of the single-layer buckling-restrained braced frame ( BRBF) struc-ture are studied.By lateral displacement analysis, three key parameters characterizing the structural force and deformation, the BRB-to-frame stiffness ratio, the BRB-to-frame yield strength ratio and the beam-to-column line stiffness ratio, are derived.By taking the maximum displacement and the residual displacement under the specific ground motion as the evaluation indexes, parametric analyses are carried out.The analysis results show that when the BRB-to-frame stiffness ratio and the beam-to-column line stiffness ratio are small, both kinds of displacements decrease with the increase of the ratios.The BRB-to-frame yield strength ratio influences greatly on the structural yield displacement and mechanism.The reasonable values of the BRB-to-frame stiffness ratio, the BRB-to-frame yield strength ratio and the beam-to-column line stiffness ratio are 2, 0.7 and 0.45~5.00, respectively. Base on these reasonable values, two examples are designed and the corresponding seismic perform-ance is analyzed.The results show that the BRB-beam-column yield mechanism is formed in the structures.After the BRB yields, the ratio of the shear forces of the frame increases gradually.The layout principle of BRB has almost no obvious influence on the roof displacement response, but af-fects significantly the axial force of the adjacent columns.%为了给屈曲约束支撑框架设计提供参考,对单层屈曲约束支撑框架的抗震参数进行了研究.通过结构侧移分析,推导出表征该结构体系受力和变形特性的3个关键参数:支撑框架刚度比、支撑框架屈服强度比和梁柱线刚度比.以特定地震动下结构最大位移和残余位移作为评价指标,对结构进行了参数化分析.分析结果表明:当支撑框架刚度比和梁柱线刚

  7. Simpevarp - site descriptive model version 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-01

    SICADA and SKB GIS, and an inventory and assessment of relevant data in other databases; a systematic overview of data needs and availability for developing a site descriptive model for the surface ecosystems (biosphere) in the Simpevarp regional model area; a more detailed treatment of the present data base for the geosphere in the Simpevarp regional model area, and its transformation into the format of a site descriptive model. V. 0 modelling is based on data available before the start of site investigations, mostly collected for reasons not directly related to the deep disposal of spent nuclear fuel. An important component of the present work, therefore, is a data inventory, in which the location and scope of all potential sources of data is detailed and evaluated with respect to prospective usefulness for future site descriptive modelling for deep disposal. This includes a general description of existing geographical data, of which most are stored in SKB GIS, a survey of data already stored in the SICADA database, and an inventory of other data sources, whose information content has not yet been evaluated and/or inserted in SICADA or SKB GIS. Data sources relevant to the Simpevarp regional model area which still, to some degree, need to be evaluated/converted/inserted include the siting and construction of spent fuel interim storage facility, CLAB, and the siting, pre-investigation, predictive modelling and construction of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The present report describes the current level of knowledge of the surface ecosystems in the Simpevarp regional model area, in a highly condensed form. It refers to, and draws its examples from, a series of SKB background reports which have been produced since the completion of the Oskarshamn feasibility study, and a number of other sources of information which are gathered here for the first time. The data sources are outlined with reference to a series of functional ecosystem types: drainage areas, forest, wetland

  8. Stress Concentration Factors at Saddle and Crown Positions on the Central Brace of Two-Planar Welded CHS DKT-connections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Ahmadi; Mohammad Ali Lotfollahi-Yaghin; Mohammad H. Aminfar

    2012-01-01

    A set of parametric stress analyses was carried out for two-planar tubular DKT-joints under different axial loading conditions.The analysis results were used to present general remarks on the effects of the geometrical parameters on stress concentration factors (SCFs) at the inner saddle,outer saddle,and crown positions on the central brace.Based on results of finite element (FE) analysis and through nonlinear regression analysis,a new set of SCF parametric equations was established for fatigue design purposes.An assessment study of equations was conducted against the experimental data and original SCF database.The satisfaction of acceptance criteria proposed by the UK Department of Energy (UK DoE) was also checked.Results of parametric study showed that highly remarkable differences exist between the SCF values in a multi-planar DKT-joint and the corresponding SCFs in an equivalent uni-planar KT-joint having the same geometrical properties.It can be clearly concluded from this observation that using the equations proposed for uni-planar KT-connections to compute the SCFs in multi-planar DKT-joints will lead to either considerably under-predicting or over-predicting results.Hence,it is necessary to develop SCF formulae specially designed for multi-planar DKT-joints.Good results of equation assessment according to UK DoE acceptance criteria,high values of correlation coefficients,and the satisfactory agreement between the predictions of the proposed equations and the experimental data guarantee the accuracy of the equations.Therefore,the developed equations can be reliably used for fatigue design of offshore structures.

  9. Calculation Method of Foundation Ditch Enclosure Structure Considered the Erection Time of Bracings%考虑支撑架设时机的基坑围护结构计算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成禹; 徐代宏

    2013-01-01

    研究目的:本文针对弹性地基梁全量法计算基坑围护结构内力和位移时,内支撑是预加的、计算条件与施工实际不符的不足,提出一种考虑支撑架设时机的围护结构位移和内力计算方法,以提高计算的准确性。  研究结论:(1)采用弹性地基梁杆系有限元全量法计算围护结构内力和位移时,将内支撑定义为具有初始间隙的仅受压的杆单元,并将支撑架设时围护桩(或围护墙)在该道支撑处已发生的水平位移设置为初始间隙宽度,就可较好地模拟支撑架立时机,使围护结构内力和位移的计算结果更加符合工程实际;(2)弹性地基梁全量法计算基坑围护结构内力和位移时,不考虑支撑架设时机会使围护桩(或围护墙)的侧向位移和弯矩计算值偏小,这是不安全的;(3)本文的研究成果对基坑围护结构的设计和施工有指导意义。%Research purposes:As using the complete analysis method for beam on elastic foundation calculate the internal force as well as the displacement of the deep foundation ditch enclosure structure,the internal bracings was applied in advanced and the calculation condition was inconsistent with the actual of the construction,a method that considered the erection time of the inner bracings was proposed in this paper in order to improve the calculation accuracy. Research conclusions:(1 )As the bar -system FEM complete analysis method for beam on elastic foundation was adopted to calculate the internal force and the displacement of the foundation ditch enclosure structure,the inner bracing was defined as compression -only bar unit with initial gap,and the width of the initial gap was equal to the lateral displacement of fender piles (or enclosure wall)on the point which the inner bracings were applied at the erection time.With that the erection time of the bracings were considered in the model,which makes the internal

  10. Normal hips and the hips covered with protective brace A finite-element comparative analysis%正常髋部与佩戴保护支具髋部的有限元对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何剑颖; 董谢平

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Finite element method has become an important means for biomechanical study against sideways falls because of its unlimited sample size, small experimental error and good repeatability.OBJECTIVE: To establish three-dimensional normal pelvis and brace-covered pelvis models and then to analyze the stress, strain and displacement distribution during sideways fall and to verify the effectiveness of hip brace.METHODS: Digital human Abaqus 6.51 software was used to build three-dimensional normal pelvis and brace-covered pelvis models. The rigid constraint surface was fixed. The whole pelvic model was loaded with 2 m/s loading. The stress, strain and displacement variation with time and contours were detected prior to and after wearing the hip brace. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the normal model, the contact force between the pelvis and the ground, the maximal compression strain of the cancellous bone when the maximal contact force between the pelvis and the ground generated, the maximal strain of the greater trochanter and femoral neck, the maximal von-Mises stress of the greater trochanter and femoral neck, and the mean stress of the greater trochanter and femoral neck were significantly reduced in the brace-covered pelvis model during sideways falls. These findings indicate that the hip brace can play a protective role in the greater trochanter, and effectively reduce the incidence of intertrochanteric fractures during sideways fall.%背景:有限元法因其具有不受样本量限制,实验误差小,重复性好等优点而成为防滑倒生物力学研究的重要手段.目的:建立正常骨盆以及佩戴护具骨盆的三维有限元模型,分析滑倒过程中骨盆各部位的应力、应变和位移分布,验证护具的有效性.方法:以中国数字人原始资料应用Abaqus 6.51软件构建正常骨盆以及佩戴护具骨盆的三维有限元模型,固定约束地面刚体,对整个骨盆模型加载2 m/s的速度载荷,程序运算

  11. 多高层预应力钢结构索支撑-框架静力性能研究%RESEARCH ON STATIC PERFORMANCE OF CABLE-BRACED FRAME FOR PRESTRESSED MULTIPLE AND HIGH-RISE STEEL STRUCTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学春; 林娜; 张爱林; 赵亮; 王艺蒙

    2015-01-01

    将预应力索支撑引入多高层钢结构,提出耗能预应力索支撑-框架结构,该结构体系能有效提高框架结构的抗侧能力和侧移延性,减小柱子计算长度,降低结构用钢量。利用有限元分析方法,分别对预应力索支撑-刚接框架、预应力索支撑-半刚接框架以及纯刚接框架进行静力性能分析,研究轴压比对三者的弹塑性发展、极限承载力、破坏机理、侧移刚度和侧移延性等方面的影响规律。研究表明,设置索支撑除增大框架抗侧刚度和提高极限承载力外,更重要的是提高侧移延性,改善破坏模式,且当外荷载去除或减小时使框架全部或者部分回到原始平衡位置,实现自复位。另外,随着轴压比的增大,三者抗侧承载力均降低,纯框架侧移延性降低,但索支撑-框架延性基本不受轴压比影响。%A new type of prestressed cable-braced energy-