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Sample records for brace treatment description

  1. A specific scoliosis classification correlating with brace treatment: description and reliability

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    Villagrasa Mónica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal classification systems for scoliosis which were developed to correlate with surgical treatment historically have been used in brace treatment as well. Previously, there had not been a scoliosis classification system developed specifically to correlate with brace design and treatment. The purpose of this study is to show the intra- and inter- observer reliability of a new scoliosis classification system correlating with brace treatment. Methods An original classification system ("Rigo Classification" was developed in order to define specific principles of correction required for efficacious brace design and fabrication. The classification includes radiological as well as clinical criteria. The radiological criteria are utilized to differentiate five basic types of curvatures including: (I imbalanced thoracic (or three curves pattern, (II true double (or four curve pattern, (III balanced thoracic and false double (non 3 non 4, (IV single lumbar and (V single thoracolumbar. In addition to the radiological criteria, the Rigo Classification incorporates the curve pattern according to SRS terminology, the balance/imbalance at the transitional point, and L4-5 counter-tilting. To test the intra-and inter-observer reliability of the Rigo Classification, three observers (1 MD, 1 PT and 1 CPO measured (and one of them, the MD, re-measured 51 AP radiographs including all curvature types. Results The intra-observer Kappa value was 0.87 (acceptance >0.70. The inter-observer Kappa values fluctuated from 0.61 to 0.81 with an average of 0.71 (acceptance > 0.70. Conclusions A specific scoliosis classification which correlates with brace treatment has been proposed with an acceptable intra-and inter-observer reliability.

  2. Soft braces in the treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS – Review of the literature and description of a new approach

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    Weiss Hans-Rudolf

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of soft braces to treat scoliosis has been described by Fischer as early as 1876. With the help of elastic straps, as the authors suggested, a corrective movement for individual curve patterns should be maintained in order to inhibit curve progression. Today this concept has been revived besides soft 3 point pressure systems. Some shortcomings have been revealed in literature in comparison with hard braces, however the concept of improving quality of life of a patient while under brace treatment should furtherly be considered as valuable. Purpose of this review is to gather the body of evidence existent for the use of soft braces and to present recent developments. Method A review of literature as available on Pub Med was performed using the key words ‘scoliosis’ and ‘soft brace’ at first. The search was expanded using ‘scoliosis’ and the known trademarks (1 ‘scoliosis’ and ‘SpineCor’, (2 ‘scoliosis’ and ‘TriaC’, (3 ‘scoliosis’ and ‘St. Etienne brace’, (4 ‘scoliosis’ and ‘Olympe’. The papers considered for inclusion were new technical descriptions, preliminary results, cohort studies and controlled studies. Results When searching for the terms ‘scoliosis’ and ‘SpineCor’: 20 papers have been found, most of them investigating a soft brace, for ‘scoliosis’ and ‘TriaC’: 7 papers displayed, for ‘scoliosis’ and ‘St. Etienne brace’: one paper displayed but not meeting the topic and for ‘scoliosis’ and ‘Olympe’: No paper displayed. Four papers found on the SpineCor™ were of prospective controlled or prospective randomized design. These papers partly presented contradictory results. Two papers were on soft Boston braces used in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis. Discussion There is a small but consistent body of evidence for the use of soft braces in the treatment of scoliosis. Contradictory results have been published for samples treated during

  3. Providence nighttime bracing, in treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simony, A.; Beuschau, Inge; Quisth, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Since 2008 the non-surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in the southern part of Denmark, went from full-time bracing with Boston brace, to Providence night-time bracing. Methods: Since 2008, skeletally immature patients diagnosed with AIS and a primary curve......, but it seems like patients treated with Providence braces are more likely to experience back pain than healthy adolescents and surgically treated scoliosis patients....

  4. Brace treatment for patients with Scheuermann's disease - a review of the literature and first experiences with a new brace design

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    Turnbull Deborah

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contemporary literature few have written in detail on the in-brace correction effects of braces used for the treatment of hyperkyphosis. Bradford et al. found their attempts effective, treating Scheuermann's kyphosis with Milwaukee braces, but their report did not specifically focus on in-brace corrections. White and Panjabi's research attempted to correct a curvature of > 50° with the help of distraction forces, but consequently led to a reduction in patient comfort in the application of the Milwaukee brace. In Germany they avoid this by utitlising braces to treat hyperkyphosis that use transverse correction forces instead of distraction forces. Further efforts to reduce brace material have resulted in a special bracing design called kyphologic™ brace. The aim of this review is to present appropriate research to collect and evaluate possible in-brace corrections which have been achieved with brace treatment for hyperkyphosis. This paper introduces new methods of bracing and compares the results of these with other successful bracing concepts. Materials and methods 56 adolescents with the diagnosis of thoracic Scheuermann's hyperkyphosis or a thoracic idiopathic hyperkyphosis (22 girls and 34 boys with an average age of 14 years (12-17 yrs. were treated with the kyphologic™ brace between May 2007 and December 2008. The average Stagnara angle was 55,6° (43-80. In-brace correction was recorded and compared to the initial angle using the t-test. Results The average Stagnara angle in the brace was 39°. The average in-brace correction was 16.5° (1-40°. The verage percentage of in-brace correction compared to the initial value was 36%. The differences were significant in the t-test (t = 5.31, p Discussion If we assume that outcome of brace treatment positively correlates with in-brace correction, the treatment should be initiated before the curvature angle exceeds 50 - 55° in a growing adolescent. In scoliosis bracing

  5. 50 CFR Figure 15 to Part 223 - Weedless TED Brace Bar Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weedless TED Brace Bar Description 15 Figure 15 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND.... 223, Fig. 15 Figure 15 to Part 223—Weedless TED Brace Bar Description ER21FE03.003 [68 FR 8469, Feb...

  6. The classical and a modified Boston brace: description and results.

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    Grivas, Theodoros B; Kaspiris, Angelos

    2011-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is characterized by the lateral deviation of the spine and constitutes a three-dimensional distortion that leads to geometric and morphological lesions in the spine and thoracic cage. The most widespread method of conservative management is to use spinal orthoses or body braces. These are usually recommended in patients with skeletal immaturity with a Risser sign 2 or less and with curves ranging from 25° to 45°. Of these, perhaps one of the most popular in recent years is the Boston Brace. It was developed in the early 1970s, and its design is based on symmetry, consisting of extensions and pads, with each of them exerting corrective forces and has a specific role depending on the type of scoliosis. It is important that the treatment group, the patient, and the family environment should work as a team consistently and be well trained to achieve the best result. Various studies published in international literature have observed beneficial effects from the use of the Boston system. Nevertheless, there are still issues that need further investigation regarding its effectiveness depending on the type of curves, the duration of application, the gender, and BMI of patients to whom it is applied. However, without question, if all these factors are taken into account and with the compliance of the therapy group with the instructions, the main goal can be achieved, which is the stability of the spine, and the ultimate result of clinical-radiological and aesthetic improvement, which is directly linked to the psychological satisfaction of the patient.

  7. "Brace Technology" Thematic Series - The ScoliOlogiC® Chêneau light™ brace in the treatment of scoliosis.

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    Weiss, Hans-Rudolf; Werkmann, Mario

    2010-09-06

    Bracing concepts in use today for the treatment of scoliosis include symmetric and asymmetric hard braces usually made of polyethylene (PE) and soft braces. The plaster cast method worldwide seems to be the most practiced technique for the construction of hard braces at the moment. CAD (Computer Aided Design) systems are available which allow brace adjustments without plaster. Another possibility is the use of the ScoliOlogiC™ off the shelf system enabling the Certified Prosthetist and Orthotist (CPO) to construct a light brace for scoliosis correction from a variety of pattern specific shells to be connected to an anterior and a posterior upright. This Chêneau light™ brace, developed according to the Chêneau principles, promises a reduced impediment of quality of life in the brace. The correction effects of the first 81 patients (main diagnosis Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) [n = 64] or Early Onset Scoliosis (EOS) [n = 15]), treated according to the principles of the Chêneau light™ brace have shown a satisfactory in-brace correction exceeding 50% of the initial Cobb angle. The ScoliOlogiC® off the shelf bracing system enables the CPO to construct a light brace for scoliosis correction from a variety of pattern specific shells to be connected to an anterior and a posterior upright. This brace, when finally adjusted is called Chêneau light™ brace. The advantage of this new bracing system is that the brace is available immediately, is easily adjustable and that it can also be easily modified. This avoids construction periods of sometimes more than 6 weeks, where the curve may drastically increase during periods of fast growth. The disadvantage of this bracing system is that there is a wide variability of possibilities to arrange the different shells during adjustment. The Cobb angle in the whole group was reduced by an average of 16,4°, which corresponds to a correction effect of 51%. The differences were highly significant in the T-test (T = 17

  8. Ambulatory treatment of femoral shaft fractures with cast-brace.

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    Brown, P E; Preston, E T

    1975-10-01

    Our early results support use of the cast-brace, early ambulation treatment of both open and closed fractures of the femoral shaft in all adult age groups. We believe initial traction should be used to reduce the fracture and maintain reduction until the fracture is clinically "sticky" to avoid subsequent malalignment in the cast-brace. The method facilitates early rehabilitation of the fractured extremity and the patient with minimal residual disability such as non-union, malunion, chronic infection and joint stiffness, so often associated with other forms of long bone fracture treatment.

  9. "Brace Technology" Thematic Series - The Lyon approach to the conservative treatment of scoliosis

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    Lecante Cyril

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Lyon Brace, or adjustable multi-shell brace, has been used for more than 60 years. The use and function of the Lyon Brace includes: - The utilization of one or two corrective plaster casts, which enables a true lengthening of the concave ligaments. - An oriented CAD-CAM moulding in 3D auto correction after the removal of the plaster cast. - A blueprint adapted to Lenke's classification. - A specific physiotherapy program. Background Pierre Stagnara created the Lyon Brace in 1947. The brace has the following characteristics: - It adjusts to allow for a child's growth of up to seven centimetres and for an increase in weight of up to seven kilograms. - It is 'active' in that the rigidity of the PMM (polymetacrylate of methyl structure stimulates the user to auto-correct. The active axial auto-correction decreases the pressures of the brace on the trunk. - It is decompressive in that the effect of extension between the two pelvic and scapular girdles decreases the pressure on the intervertebral disc allowing for more effective pushes in the other planes. - It is symmetrical making it both more aesthetically pleasing and easier to build. - It is stable at both shoulders and pelvic girdle, facilitating the intermediate 3D corrections. - It is transparent. The pressure of the shells on the skin can be directly controlled so "pads" are usually not necessary. Brace description Two metal bars are fixed vertically, one anterior the other posterior and all shells are attached from the bottom to the top in this order: - Two pelvic shells ensure an optimal stability of the brace. - One lumbar shell T12-L4, which can be either independent or extending, at the abdominal chondrocostal level. - One thoracic shell at the level of the thoracic convexity. - One opposite thoracic shell used as a counter push. - One shoulder balance shell on the side of the thoracic convexity. Long term follow up results This is a retrospective study of 1,338 completed

  10. Evaluation of Brace Treatment for Infant Hip Dislocation in a Prospective Cohort: Defining the Success Rate and Variables Associated with Failure.

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    Upasani, Vidyadhar V; Bomar, James D; Matheney, Travis H; Sankar, Wudbhav N; Mulpuri, Kishore; Price, Charles T; Moseley, Colin F; Kelley, Simon P; Narayanan, Unni; Clarke, Nicholas M P; Wedge, John H; Castañeda, Pablo; Kasser, James R; Foster, Bruce K; Herrera-Soto, Jose A; Cundy, Peter J; Williams, Nicole; Mubarak, Scott J

    2016-07-20

    The use of a brace has been shown to be an effective treatment for hip dislocation in infants; however, previous studies of such treatment have been single-center or retrospective. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the success rate for brace use in the treatment of infant hip dislocation in an international, multicenter, prospective cohort, and to identify the variables associated with brace failure. All dislocations were verified with use of ultrasound or radiography prior to the initiation of treatment, and patients were followed prospectively for a minimum of 18 months. Successful treatment was defined as the use of a brace that resulted in a clinically and radiographically reduced hip, without surgical intervention. The Mann-Whitney test, chi-square analysis, and Fisher exact test were used to identify risk factors for brace failure. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine the probability of brace failure according to the risk factors identified. Brace treatment was successful in 162 (79%) of the 204 dislocated hips in this series. Six variables were found to be significant risk factors for failure: developing femoral nerve palsy during brace treatment (p = 0.001), treatment with a static brace (p failure, whereas hips with 4 or 5 risk factors had a 100% probability of failure. These data provide valuable information for patient families and their providers regarding the important variables that influence successful brace treatment for dislocated hips in infants. Prognostic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Copyright © 2016 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  11. Predictive factors of Osaka Medical College (OMC) brace treatment in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

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    Kuroki, Hiroshi; Inomata, Naoki; Hamanaka, Hideaki; Higa, Kiyoshi; Chosa, Etsuo; Tajima, Naoya

    2015-01-01

    Factors influencing clinical course of brace treatment apply to adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients remain unclear. By making clear them, we may select suitable patients for brace treatment and alleviate overtreatment. The purpose of this study was to explore predictive factors of Osaka Medical College (OMC) brace treatment for AIS patients in accordance with the modified standardized criteria proposed by the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) committee on bracing and non-operative management. From 1999 through 2010, 31 consecutive patients with AIS who were newly prescribed the OMC brace and met the modified SRS criteria were studied. The study included 2 boys and 29 girls with a mean age of 12 years and 0 month. We investigated the clinical course and evaluated the impacts of compliance, initial brace correction rate, curve flexibility, curve pattern, Cobb angle, chronological age, and Risser stage to clinical outcomes. The clinical course of the brace treatment was considered progression if ≥6° curvature increase occurred and improvement if ≥6° curvature decrease occurred according to SRS judgment criteria. The curve progressed in 10 cases, the curve improved in 6 cases, and the curve remained unchanged in 15 cases (success rate: 67.7%). The success rate was statistically higher in the patient group whose instruction adherence rate was greater than 50% as compared with in those 50% or less. Initial brace correction rate, curve flexibility, curve pattern, the magnitude of Cobb angle, chronological age, and Risser stage did not have any significant effect for clinical courses. However, success rate was insignificantly higher in the cases whose Cobb angle in brace was smaller than that in hanging position. OMC brace treatment could alter the natural history of AIS, however, that was significantly affected by compliance of brace wear.

  12. A systematic review on the treatment of acute ankle sprain: brace versus other functional treatment types.

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    Kemler, Ellen; van de Port, Ingrid; Backx, Frank; van Dijk, C Niek

    2011-03-01

    Ankle injuries, especially ankle sprains, are a common problem in sports and medical care. Ankle sprains result in pain and absenteeism from work and/or sports participation, and can lead to physical restrictions such as ankle instability. Nowadays, treatment of ankle injury basically consists of taping the ankle. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness of ankle braces as a treatment for acute ankle sprains compared with other types of functional treatments such as ankle tape and elastic bandages. A computerized literature search was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Clinical Trial Register. This review includes randomized controlled trials in English, German and Dutch, published between 1990 and April 2009 that compared ankle braces as a treatment for lateral ankle sprains with other functional treatments. The inclusion criteria for this systematic review were (i) individuals (sports participants as well as non-sports participants) with an acute injury of the ankle (acute ankle sprains); (ii) use of an ankle brace as primary treatment for acute ankle sprains; (iii) control interventions including any other type of functional treatment (e.g. Tubigrip™, elastic wrap or ankle tape); and (iv) one of the following reported outcome measures: re-injuries, symptoms (pain, swelling, instability), functional outcomes and/or time to resumption of sports, daily activities and/or work. Eight studies met all inclusion criteria. Differences in outcome measures, intervention types and patient characteristics precluded pooling of the results, so best evidence syntheses were conducted. A few individual studies reported positive outcomes after treatment with an ankle brace compared with other functional methods, but our best evidence syntheses only demonstrated a better treatment result in terms of functional outcome. Other studies have suggested that ankle brace treatment is a more cost-effective method, so the use of braces after acute

  13. Efficacy of the Osaka Medical College (OMC) brace in the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis following Scoliosis Research Society brace studies criteria.

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    Kuroki, Hiroshi; Inomata, Naoki; Hamanaka, Hideaki; Higa, Kiyoshi; Chosa, Etsuo; Tajima, Naoya

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of brace treatment for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) remains controversial. To make comparisons among studies more valid and reliable, the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) has standardized criteria for brace studies in patients with AIS. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Osaka Medical College (OMC) brace for AIS in accordance with the modified standardized criteria proposed by the SRS committee on bracing and non-operative management. From 1999 through 2010, 31 consecutive patients with AIS who were newly prescribed the OMC brace and met the modified SRS criteria were studied. The study included 2 boys and 29 girls with a mean age of 12 years and 0 month. Patients were instructed to wear the brace for a minimum of 20 hours per day at the beginning of brace treatment. The mean duration of brace treatment was 4 years and 8 months. We examined the initial brace correction rate and the clinical outcomes of main curves evaluated by curve progression and surgical rate, and the compliance evaluated by the instruction adherence rate for all cases. The clinical course of the brace treatment was considered progression if ≥6° curvature increase occurred and improvement if ≥6° curvature decrease occurred according to SRS judgment criteria. The average initial brace correction rate was 46.8%. In 10 cases the curve progressed, 6 cases the curve improved, and 15 cases the curve remained unchanged (success rate: 67.7%). The mean instruction adherence rate, that was defined the percentage of the visits that patients declared they mostly followed our instruction to total visits, was 53.7%. The success rate was statistically higher in the patient group whose instruction adherence rate was greater than 50% (88.2%) as compared with in those 50% or less (42.8%). OMC brace treatment for AIS patients could alter the natural history and significantly decreased the progression of curves to the threshold for surgical

  14. Discrepancy in clinical versus radiological parameters describing deformity due to brace treatment for moderate idiopathic scoliosis

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    Szulc Andrzej

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The shape of the torso in patients with idiopathic scoliosis is considered to reflect the shape of the vertebral column, however the direct correlation between parameters describing clinical deformity and those characterizing radiological curvature was reported to be weak. It is not clear if the management proposed for scoliosis (physiotherapy, brace, surgery affects equally the shape of the axial skeleton and the surface of the body. The aim of the study was to compare clinical deformity of (1 idiopathic scoliosis girls being under brace treatment for radiological curves of 25 to 40 degrees and (2 non treated scoliotic girls matched for age and Cobb angle. Methods Cross-sectional study of 24 girls wearing the brace versus 26 girls without brace treatment, matched for age and Cobb angle. Hypothesis: Patients wearing the brace for more than 6 months, when comparing to patients without brace, may present different external morphology of the trunk, in spite of having similar Cobb angle. Material. Inclusion criteria: girls, idiopathic scoliosis, growing age (10–16 years, Cobb angle minimum 25°, maximum 40°. The braced group consisted of girls wearing a TLSO brace (Cheneau for more than 6 months with minimum of 16 hours per day. The non-braced group consisted of girls first seen for their spinal deformity, previously not treated. The groups presented similar curve pattern. Methods. Scoliometer exam: angle of trunk rotation at three levels of the spine: upper thoracic, main thoracic, lumbar or thoracolumbar. The maximal angle was noted at each level and the sum of three levels was calculated. Posterior trunk symmetry index (POTSI and Hump Sum were measured using surface topography. Results Cobb angle was 34.9° ± 4.8° in braced and 32.7° ± 4.9° in un-braced patients (difference not significant. The age was 14.1 ± 1.6 years in braced patients and 13.1 ± 1.9 years in un-braced group (p = 0.046. The value of angle of trunk

  15. Chinese Adaptation of the Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire for Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Under Brace Treatment.

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    Xu, Ximing; Wang, Fei; Yang, Mingyuan; Huang, Qikai; Chang, Yifan; Wei, Xianzhao; Bai, Yushu; Li, Ming

    2015-08-01

    Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire (BSSQ)-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace are the most widely used instruments for evaluating stress levels in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients under brace treatment, and good reliability and validity have been demonstrated across different cultures. Great stress has been found among many adolescents, becoming a major concern for professionals. However, no previous research has addressed the cultural adaptations and psychometric testing of BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace in China or the stress levels in AIS patients. The purposes of our study were to evaluate the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace and to investigate stress levels in Chinese (AIS) patients under brace treatment.The original (German) versions of BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace were cross-culturally translated according to international guidelines. Psychometric properties such as reliability and construct validity were tested. Eighty-six AIS patients were included in our study, and 50 patients paid a second visit 3 to 7 days later to test reproducibility. Cronbach α and the intraclass coefficient were determined to assess internal consistency and reproducibility. Scoliosis Research Society patient questionnaire-22 (SRS-22) was applied to evaluate construct validity.The mean BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace scores were 15.3 and 13.4 points, respectively. Severe stress was observed in 12% of patients due to brace treatment. Item analysis demonstrated that each item was scored under a normal distribution with no redundancy. Psychometric analysis revealed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.85 and 0.80, respectively) and reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.85 and 0.90, respectively) for BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace. The correlation coefficients of BSSQ-Deformity, BSSQ-Brace and SRS-22 were 0.48 and 0.63, respectively.In conclusion, BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace have been successfully

  16. Brace treatment of lumber spondylolysis in growing age. Patient selection by RI scintigraphy and repair of spondylolysis

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    Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Hino, Hiroyuki; Sato, Shigeyoshi; Kaneda, Kiyoshi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-07-01

    From 1987 to 1994, brace treatment was prescribed to 29 patients with lumbar spondylolysis in growing age, ranging from nine to 18 years, in whom {sup 99m}Tc bone scintigraphy showed positive at the pars interarticularis. Single photon emission computed tomography was also conducted an recent cases. Spondylolysis was bilateral in 27 patients and unilateral in two. Polypropylene brace was applied for three to four months with restriction of sport activities. As a result, 46 out of 58 spondylolysis healed with a healing rate of 79%. Selection of patients using bone scintigraphy for brace treatment in lumbar spondylolysis in growing age would help to increase the union rate. (author)

  17. Brace treatment of lumber spondylolysis in growing age. Patient selection by RI scintigraphy and repair of spondylolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Hino, Hiroyuki; Sato, Shigeyoshi; Kaneda, Kiyoshi

    1996-01-01

    From 1987 to 1994, brace treatment was prescribed to 29 patients with lumbar spondylolysis in growing age, ranging from nine to 18 years, in whom 99m Tc bone scintigraphy showed positive at the pars interarticularis. Single photon emission computed tomography was also conducted an recent cases. Spondylolysis was bilateral in 27 patients and unilateral in two. Polypropylene brace was applied for three to four months with restriction of sport activities. As a result, 46 out of 58 spondylolysis healed with a healing rate of 79%. Selection of patients using bone scintigraphy for brace treatment in lumbar spondylolysis in growing age would help to increase the union rate. (author)

  18. Nickel-free vs conventional braces for patients allergic to nickel: Gingival and blood parameters during and after treatment.

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    Pazzini, Camila Alessandra; Pereira, Luciano José; Marques, Leandro Silva; Ramos-Jorge, Joana; Aparecida da Silva, Tarcília; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2016-12-01

    Allergic and inflammatory reactions have commonly been associated with the release of metal ions during orthodontic treatment. Our objective was to evaluate prospectively gingival and blood status in patients allergic to nickel. Allergy to nickel was diagnosed using a patch test. Two groups were established: conventional braces (n = 21) and nickel-free braces (n = 21). The gingival index was used to determine gingival status before treatment, periodically for 12 months (evaluations every 3 months), and 1 month after the removal of the braces. Blood status was evaluated with a complete blood count, including the quantification of nickel and immunoglobin E before treatment, during treatment, and 1 month after removal of the braces. The data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney, Student t, Wilcoxon, repeated measures analysis of variance, Friedman, and chi-square tests. Either the Pearson or the Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated, when appropriate. The number of basophils increased significantly among the evaluations in both groups (conventional, P = 0.002; nickel-free, P = 0.001), whereas the number of eosinophils and the immunoglobin E levels decreased significantly in the conventional group (P = 0.004). Plasma nickel levels were increased before and during treatment, and decreased 1 month after removing the braces in both groups, but the differences were significant only in the nickel-free group (P = 0.002). No correlations were found between the concentrations of nickel and immunoglobin E, basophils, or eosinophils, or between the gingival index and either bands or segmented neutrophils (P ≥ 0.05). Patients treated with nickel-free braces had better gingival health and smaller blood changes than did those treated with conventional braces. All abnormalities tended to be eliminated after the removal of the braces. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Functional treatment of tibial fractures with a custom made brace

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    W.M. Leeuwen

    1989-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of fracture treatment is rapid bone union with the preservation of perfect function, resulting in the patients' early return to normal daily activities with a minimum of complications. Many conservative and operative methods are used for the treatment of tibial fractures.

  20. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

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    Steen Harald

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have evaluated long-term outcome after bracing using validated health related quality of life outcome measures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term outcome in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS 12 years or more after treatment with the Boston brace. Methods 109 (80% of 135 patients (7 men with AIS treated with the Boston brace at a mean of 19.2 (range 12–28 years previously responded to long-term follow-up examination. All patients (n = 109 answered a standardised questionnaire including demographics, work status, treatment, Global Back Disability Question, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI (100-worst possible, General Function Score (GFS (100 – worst possible, EuroQol (EQ-5D (1 – best possible, EQ-VAS (100 – best possible and Scoliosis Research Society -22 (SRS – 22 (5 – best possible. Clinical and radiological examination was obtained in 86 patients. Results The magnitude of the primary prebrace major curve was in average 33.4° (range 20 – 52. At weaning and at the last follow-up the corresponding values were 28.3° (9–56 and 34.2° (8 – 87, respectively. The mean age at follow-up was 35 (27 – 46 years. Work status was: full time (80%, on sick-leave (3%, on rehabilitation (4%, disability pension (4%, homemaker (7%, students (2%, 7% had changed their job because of back pain. 88% had had delivered a baby, 55% of them had pain in pregnancy. Global back status was excellent or good in 81%. The mean (standard deviation ODI was 6.4 (9.8, GFS 5.4 (10.5, EQ-5D 0.84 (0.2, SRS-22: pain 4.2 (0.8, mental health 4.2 (0.7, self-image 3.9 (0.7, function 4.1 (0.6, satisfaction with treatment 3.7 (1.0. 28% had taken physiotherapy for back pain the last year and 12% had visited a doctor. Conclusion Long-term results were satisfactory in most patients with AIS treated with the Boston brace.

  1. Comparison of functional bracing and locked intramedullary nailing in the treatment of displaced tibial shaft fractures.

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    Alho, A; Benterud, J G; Høgevold, H E; Ekeland, A; Strømsøe, K

    1992-04-01

    Thirty-five displaced tibial shaft fractures, treated with functional bracing were compared with 43 similar fractures, treated with locked intramedullary nailing. There were 22 excellent/good results in the brace group and 38 in the nail group. There was one infection in the brace group and three in the nailed group. There were five delayed unions and two nonunions in the brace group and one delayed union in the nail group. The functional results in the nailed group were better than the braced group but locked intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fractures require special resources and training. Locked intramedullary nailing fullfils all the functional criteria for acceptable fracture care.

  2. Outcome in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis after brace treatment and surgery assessed by means of the Scoliosis Research Society Instrument 24

    OpenAIRE

    Weigert, Karen Petra; Nygaard, Linda Marie; Christensen, Finn Bjarke; Hansen, Ebbe Stender; Bünger, Cody

    2005-01-01

    A retrospectively designed long-term follow-up study of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients who had completed treatment, of at least 2 years, by means of brace, surgery, or both brace and surgery. This study is to assess the outcome after treatment for AIS by means of the Scoliosis Research Society Outcome Instrument 24 (SRS 24). One hundred and eighteen AIS patients (99 females and 19 males), treated at the Aarhus University Hospital from January 1, 1987 to December 31, 1997, were...

  3. Outcome in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis after brace treatment and surgery assessed by means of the Scoliosis Research Society Instrument 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigert, Karen Petra; Nygaard, Linda Marie; Christensen, Finn Bjarke; Hansen, Ebbe Stender; Bünger, Cody

    2006-07-01

    A retrospectively designed long-term follow-up study of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients who had completed treatment, of at least 2 years, by means of brace, surgery, or both brace and surgery. This study is to assess the outcome after treatment for AIS by means of the Scoliosis Research Society Outcome Instrument 24 (SRS 24). One hundred and eighteen AIS patients (99 females and 19 males), treated at the Aarhus University Hospital from January 1, 1987 to December 31, 1997, were investigated with at least 2 years follow-up at the time of receiving a posted self-administered questionnaire. Forty-four patients were treated with Boston brace (B) only, 41 patients had surgery (S), and 33 patients were treated both with brace and surgery (BS). The Cobb angles of the three treatment groups did not differ significantly after completed treatment. The outcome in terms of the total SRS 24 score was not significantly different among the three groups. B patients had a significantly better general (not treatment related) self-image and higher general activity level than the total group of surgically treated patients, while surgically treated patients scored significantly better in post-treatment self-image and satisfaction. Comparing B with BS we found a significantly higher general activity level in B patients, while the BS group had significantly higher satisfaction. There were no significant differences between BS and S patients in any of the domain scores. All treatment groups scored "fair or better" in all domain scores of the SRS 24 questionnaire, except in post-treatment function, where all groups scored worse than "fair". Improvement of appearance by means of surgical correction increases mean scores for post-treatment self-image and post-treatment satisfaction. Double-treatment by brace and surgery does not appear to jeopardize a good final outcome.

  4. Healing of the Acutely Injured Anterior Cruciate Ligament: Functional Treatment with the ACL-Jack, a Dynamic Posterior Drawer Brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Jacobi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The injured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL has a limited healing capacity leading to persisting instability. Hypothesis/Purpose. To study if the application of a brace, producing a dynamic posterior drawer force, after acute ACL injury reduces initial instability. Study Design. Cohort study. Methods. Patients treated with the ACL-Jack brace were compared to controls treated with primary ACL reconstruction und controls treated nonsurgically with functional rehabilitation. Measurements included anterior laxity (Rolimeter, clinical scores (Lysholm, Tegner, and IKDC, and MRI evaluation. Patients were followed up to 24 months. Results. Patients treated with the ACL-Jack brace showed a significant improvement of anterior knee laxity comparable to patients treated with ACL reconstruction, whereas laxity persisted after nonsurgical functional rehabilitation. The failure risk (secondary reconstruction necessary of the ACL-Jack group was however 21% (18 of 86 within 24 months. Clinical scores were similar in all treatment groups. Conclusion. Treatment of acute ACL tears with the ACL-Jack brace leads to improved anterior knee laxity compared to nonsurgical treatment with functional rehabilitation.

  5. Low-Cost Alternative External Rotation Shoulder Brace and Review of Treatment in Acute Shoulder Dislocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacy, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic dislocations of the shoulder commonly present to emergency departments (EDs. Immediate closed reduction of both anterior and posterior glenohumeral dislocations is recommended and is frequently performed in the ED. Recurrence of dislocation is common, as anteroinferior labral tears (Bankart lesions are present in many anterior shoulder dislocations.14,15,18,23 Immobilization of the shoulder following closed reduction is therefore recommended; previous studies support the use of immobilization with the shoulder in a position of external rotation, for both anterior and posterior shoulder dislocations.7-11,19 In this study, we present a technique for assembling a low-cost external rotation shoulder brace using materials found in most hospitals: cotton roll, stockinette, and shoulder immobilizers. This brace is particularly suited for the uninsured patient, who lacks the financial resources to pay for a pre-fabricated brace out of pocket. We also performed a cost analysis for our low-cost external rotation shoulder brace, and a cost comparison with pre-fabricated brand name braces. At our institution, the total materials cost for our brace was $19.15. The cost of a pre-fabricated shoulder brace at our institution is $150 with markup, which is reimbursed on average at $50.40 according to our hospital billing data. The low-cost external rotation shoulder brace is therefore a more affordable option for the uninsured patient presenting with acute shoulder dislocation. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:114–120.

  6. Brace technology thematic series: the progressive action short brace (PASB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulisa Angelo G

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Progressive Action Short Brace (PASB is a custom-made thoraco-lumbar-sacral orthosis (TLSO, devised in 1976 by Dr. Lorenzo Aulisa (Institute of Orthopedics at the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy. The PASB was designed to overcome the limits imposed by the trunk anatomy. Indeed, the particular geometry of the brace is able to generate internal forces that modify the elastic reaction of the spine. The PASB is indicated for the conservative treatment of lumbar and thoraco-lumbar scoliosis. The aim of this article is to explain the biomechanic principles of the PASB and the rationale underlying its design. Recently published studies reporting the results of PASB-based treatment of adolescent scoliotic patients are also discussed. Description and principles On the coronal plane, the upper margin of the PASB, at the side of the curve concavity, prevents the homolateral bending of the scoliotic curve. The opposite upper margin ends just beneath the apical vertebra. The principle underlying such configuration is that the deflection of the inferior tract of a curved elastic structure, fixed at the bottom end, causes straightening of its upper tract. Therefore, whenever the patient bends towards the convexity of the scoliotic curve, the spine is deflected. On the sagittal plane, the inferior margins of the PASB reach the pelvitrochanteric region, in order to stabilize the brace on the pelvis. The transverse section of the brace above the pelvic grip consists of asymmetrical ellipses. This allows the spine to rotate towards the concave side only, leading to the continuous generation of derotating moments. On the sagittal plane, the brace is contoured so as to reduce the lumbar lordosis. The PASB, by allowing only those movements counteracting the progression of the curve, is able to produce corrective forces that are not dissipated. Therefore, the brace is based on the principle that a constrained spine dynamics

  7. Effectiveness of braces designed using computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) and finite element simulation compared to CAD/CAM only for the conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobetto, N; Aubin, C E; Parent, S; Clin, J; Barchi, S; Turgeon, I; Labelle, Hubert

    2016-10-01

    Clinical assessment of immediate in-brace effect of braces designed using CAD/CAM and FEM vs. only CAD/CAM for conservative treatment of AIS, using a randomized blinded and controlled study design. Forty AIS patients were prospectively recruited and randomized into two groups. For 19 patients (control group), the brace was designed using a scan of patient's torso and a conventional CAD/CAM approach (CtrlBrace). For the 21 other patients (test group), the brace was additionally designed using finite element modeling (FEM) and 3D reconstructions of spine, rib cage and pelvis (NewBrace). The NewBrace design was simulated and iteratively optimized to maximize the correction and minimize the contact surface and material. Both groups had comparable age, sex, weight, height, curve type and severity. Scoliosis Research Society standardized criteria for bracing were followed. Average Cobb angle prior to bracing was 27° and 28° for main thoracic (MT) and lumbar (L) curves, respectively, for the control group, while it was 33° and 28° for the test group. CtrlBraces reduced MT and L curves by 8° (29 %) and 10° (40 %), respectively, compared to 14° (43 %) and 13° (46 %) for NewBraces, which were simulated with a difference inferior to 5°. NewBraces were 50 % thinner and had 20 % less covering surface than CtrlBraces. Braces designed with CAD/CAM and 3D FEM simulation were more efficient and lighter than standard CAD/CAM TLSO's at first immediate in-brace evaluation. These results suggest that long-term effect of bracing in AIS may be improved using this new platform for brace fabrication. NCT02285621.

  8. Fluorides for the prevention of early tooth decay (demineralised white lesions) during fixed brace treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Philip E; Parkin, Nicola; Dyer, Fiona; Millett, Declan T; Furness, Susan; Germain, Peter

    2013-12-12

    Demineralised white lesions (DWLs) can appear on teeth during fixed brace treatment because of early decay around the brackets that attach the braces to the teeth. Fluoride is effective in reducing decay in susceptible individuals in the general population. Individuals receiving orthodontic treatment may be prescribed various forms of fluoride treatment. This review compares the effects of various forms of fluoride used during orthodontic treatment on the development of DWLs. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2004. The primary objective of this review was to evaluate the effects of fluoride in reducing the incidence of DWLs on the teeth during orthodontic treatment.The secondary objectives were to examine the effectiveness of different modes of fluoride delivery in reducing the incidence of DWLs, as well as the size of lesions. Participant-assessed outcomes, such as perception of DWLs, and oral health-related quality of life data were to be included, as would reports of adverse effects. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 31 January 2013); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 12); MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 31 January 2013); and EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 31 January 2013). We included trials if they met the following criteria: (1) parallel-group randomised clinical trials comparing the use of a fluoride-containing product versus placebo, no treatment or a different type of fluoride treatment, in which (2) the outcome of enamel demineralisation was assessed at the start and at the end of orthodontic treatment. At least two review authors independently, in duplicate, conducted risk of bias assessments and extracted data. Authors of trials were contacted to obtain missing data or to ask for clarification of aspects of trial methodology. The Cochrane Collaboration's statistical guidelines were followed. For the 2013 update of this review, three changes were made

  9. The importance of trunk perception during brace treatment in moderate juvenile idiopathic scoliosis: What is the impact on self-image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolucci, Teresa; Piccinini, Giulia; Iosa, Marco; Piermattei, Cristina; De Angelis, Simona; Zangrando, Federico; Saraceni, Vincenzo Maria

    2017-01-01

    The perception of body image and the deformity of the trunk in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) are a silver lining that has yet to be discussed in the relevant literature during brace rehabilitation treatment. To determine whether and how the use of the brace changes perception of the trunk in patients with AIS by the drawing test. We observed 32 subjects with AIS from our Rehabilitation outpatient clinic and divided them into the brace treatment (BG-16 subjects) and the non-brace treatment (CG-16 subjects). Trunk perception and quality of life were evaluated using the Trunk Appearance Perception Scale and Scoliosis Research Society-22 questionnaire, and the perception of one's back was measured by the drawing test. Pain was lower in BG versus CG (p= 0.095). Satisfaction with the treatment was higher in BG than in CG (p= 0.002). Self-image did not differ significantly between the groups in terms of TAPS. Drawings of the most severe cases of scoliosis were made by the group without the brace. The use of the brace corrects the function of the trunk and has a positive influence on its perception.

  10. Back and neck pain and function in females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: A follow-up at least 23 years after conservative treatment with a Milwaukee brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misterska, Ewa; Głowacki, Jakub; Okręt, Adam; Laurentowska, Maria; Głowacki, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to explore the long-term outcomes of back and neck pain and functionality in adult females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), who had been treated with a Milwaukee brace, in a follow-up study a minimum of 23 years after the completion of the treatment, using radiological, clinical and socio-demographical data. Thirty AIS patients (scoliosis group-SG), were included in the study based on an extensive search of Pediatric Orthopedics and Traumatology Clinic charts. All treatments were successfully completed between 1974 and 1990. In all cases, scoliosis had not been detected before the age of 10 and was not combined with any major spinal deformities at the time when the brace treatment was implemented. In those patients, the Risser sign 4 and minimum two years post-menarche was defined as a maturity, after that time the brace treatment was completed. Patients were excluded from the study if they, at the time of the follow-up examinations, suffered from any other disease leading to trunk deformity. Forty patients met the criteria for inclusion, but due to change some personal details, not all of them were contacted. Finally, 30 women returned for a follow-up evaluation. Patients' follow-up period was mean 27.77 yrs. ± SD 3.30 (range 23-35). Curvature change from the end of the treatment until the present day was mean 9.1 degrees ± SD 7.64 (range 0-27). A control group of 42 healthy females (healthy controls group-HG) matching the age profile of the patient group was randomly selected for comparative purposes.Both SG and HG completed the Polish versions of the Revised Oswestry Lower Back Pain Disability Index (RODI), the Rolland-Morris Questionnaire (RMQ), the Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale (QDS), the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and the Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale (CNFDS). Descriptive statistics were calculated for demographics and baseline questionnaire scores. To determine if the investigated sample sizes are equivalent, the chi

  11. Back and neck pain and function in females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: A follow-up at least 23 years after conservative treatment with a Milwaukee brace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to explore the long-term outcomes of back and neck pain and functionality in adult females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), who had been treated with a Milwaukee brace, in a follow-up study a minimum of 23 years after the completion of the treatment, using radiological, clinical and socio-demographical data. Thirty AIS patients (scoliosis group–SG), were included in the study based on an extensive search of Pediatric Orthopedics and Traumatology Clinic charts. All treatments were successfully completed between 1974 and 1990. In all cases, scoliosis had not been detected before the age of 10 and was not combined with any major spinal deformities at the time when the brace treatment was implemented. In those patients, the Risser sign 4 and minimum two years post-menarche was defined as a maturity, after that time the brace treatment was completed. Patients were excluded from the study if they, at the time of the follow-up examinations, suffered from any other disease leading to trunk deformity. Forty patients met the criteria for inclusion, but due to change some personal details, not all of them were contacted. Finally, 30 women returned for a follow-up evaluation. Patients’ follow-up period was mean 27.77 yrs. ± SD 3.30 (range 23–35). Curvature change from the end of the treatment until the present day was mean 9.1 degrees ± SD 7.64 (range 0–27). A control group of 42 healthy females (healthy controls group—HG) matching the age profile of the patient group was randomly selected for comparative purposes.Both SG and HG completed the Polish versions of the Revised Oswestry Lower Back Pain Disability Index (RODI), the Rolland-Morris Questionnaire (RMQ), the Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale (QDS), the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and the Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale (CNFDS). Descriptive statistics were calculated for demographics and baseline questionnaire scores. To determine if the investigated sample sizes are equivalent

  12. Treatment of adolescent lumber spondylolysis with modified Boston brace. Selection of the patients with bone scintigraphy and repair of the part defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hino, Hiroyuki; Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Kaneda, Kiyoshi; Sato, Eishu [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-06-01

    Results of brace treatment of 29 spondylolysis patients were reported. Patients were those who were diagnosed by scout roentgenography and accumulated {sup 99m}Tc at spondylolytic site by bone scintigraphy or by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) which being found more convenient to see the accumulation than the scintigraphy. Coaptation after brace treatment was observed by flat and tomographic roentgenography. Under limited sports activity, the hard brace was used for about 4 months and then soft one, for 2 months. Coaptation and repair were observed for 46 (79%) of 58 part defects in the 29 patients. Since lumber spine spondylolysis is mostly caused by fatigue fracture and bone metabolism is activated at the lesional site, {sup 99m}Tc accumulation can be seen at the spondylolytic site by bone scintigraphy with high frequency. Therefore, the rate of repair can be increased when brace treatment was applied for patients with positive bone scintigraphy findings. The scintigraphy was thus useful far selecting patients suitable for brace treatment. (K.H.)

  13. Treatment of adolescent lumber spondylolysis with modified Boston brace. Selection of the patients with bone scintigraphy and repair of the part defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Hiroyuki; Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Kaneda, Kiyoshi; Sato, Eishu

    1996-01-01

    Results of brace treatment of 29 spondylolysis patients were reported. Patients were those who were diagnosed by scout roentgenography and accumulated 99m Tc at spondylolytic site by bone scintigraphy or by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) which being found more convenient to see the accumulation than the scintigraphy. Coaptation after brace treatment was observed by flat and tomographic roentgenography. Under limited sports activity, the hard brace was used for about 4 months and then soft one, for 2 months. Coaptation and repair were observed for 46 (79%) of 58 part defects in the 29 patients. Since lumber spine spondylolysis is mostly caused by fatigue fracture and bone metabolism is activated at the lesional site, 99m Tc accumulation can be seen at the spondylolytic site by bone scintigraphy with high frequency. Therefore, the rate of repair can be increased when brace treatment was applied for patients with positive bone scintigraphy findings. The scintigraphy was thus useful far selecting patients suitable for brace treatment. (K.H.)

  14. Treatment of the Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip with an Abduction Brace in Children up to 6 Months Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Wahlen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Use of Pavlik harness for the treatment of DDH can be complicated for parents. Any misuse or failure in the adjustments may lead to significant complications. An abduction brace was introduced in our institution, as it was thought to be easier to use. Aim. We assess the results for the treatment of DDH using our abduction brace in children of 0–6 months old and compare these results with data on treatments using the Pavlik harness. Method. Retrospective analysis of patients with DDH from 0 to 6 months old at diagnosis, performed from 2004 to 2009. Outcomes were rates of reduction of the hip and avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVN. Follow-up was at one year and up to 4 years old. Results. Hip reduction was successful in 28 of 33 patients (85%, with no AVN. Conclusion. Our results in terms of hip reduction rate and AVN rate are similar to those found in literature assessing Pavlik harness use, with a simpler and comfortable treatment procedure.

  15. Initial experience with the providence nighttime bracing in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quisth, Lena; Beuschau, Inge; Simony, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since 2008 the primary non-surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in the southern part of Denmark, went from full-time bracing with Boston brace, to Providence nighttime bracing. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of nighttime bracing, with the Providence brace...

  16. Treatment of the humeral shaft fractures--minimally invasive osteosynthesis with bridge plate versus conservative treatment with functional brace: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Fabio T; Tamaoki, Marcel J S; Matsumoto, Marcelo H; dos Santos, João B G; Faloppa, Flavio; Belloti, João C

    2013-08-07

    Humeral shaft fractures account for 1 to 3% of all fractures in adults and for 20% of all humeral fractures. Non-operative treatment is still the standard treatment of isolated humeral shaft fractures, although this method can present unsatisfactory results. Surgical treatment is reserved for specific conditions. Modern concepts of internal fixation of long bone shaft fractures advocate relative stabilisation techniques with no harm to fracture zone. Recently described, minimally invasive bridge plate osteosynthesis has been shown to be a secure technique with good results for treating humeral shaft fractures. There is no good quality evidence advocating which method is more effective. This randomised controlled trial will be performed to investigate the effectiveness of surgical treatment of humeral shaft fractures with bridge plating in comparison with conservative treatment with functional brace. This randomised clinical trial aims to include 110 patients with humeral shaft fractures who will be allocated after randomisation to one of the two groups: bridge plate or functional brace. Surgical treatment will be performed according to technique described by Livani and Belangero using a narrow DCP plate. Non-operative management will consist of a functional brace for 6 weeks or until fracture consolidation. All patients will be included in the same rehabilitation program and will be followed up for 1 year after intervention. The primary outcome will be the DASH score after 6 months of intervention. As secondary outcomes, we will assess SF-36 questionnaire, treatment complications, Constant score, pain (Visual Analogue Scale) and radiographs. According to current evidence shown in a recent systematic review, this study is one of the first randomised controlled trials designed to compare two methods to treat humeral shaft fractures (functional brace and bridge plate surgery).

  17. Evaluation of application of a carpal brace as a treatment for carpal ligament instability in dogs: 14 cases (2008-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Julia E; Manfredi, Jane M

    2014-02-15

    To determine whether carpal brace application is a viable treatment for dogs with unilateral carpal ligament instability. Retrospective case series. 14 client-owned athletic dogs. Medical records were reviewed to identify dogs treated with a brace for unilateral carpal valgus or varus instability between August 2008 and August 2011. Treatment included passive motion and isometric strengthening exercises during brace application. Of the 14 dogs, 11 were considered to have returned to normal function; 11 of 12 dogs returned to agility competition. Carpal measurements before treatment indicated the affected limb had significantly greater valgus measurements (median, 30°; range, 30° to 35°), significantly greater varus measurements (median, 15°; range, 15° to 25°), and significantly less flexion (median, 37.5°; range, 30° to 45°), compared with results for the contralateral carpus. Long-term monitoring revealed no differences in measurements between affected and contralateral limbs. Valgus measurements of the affected carpus at brace removal (median, 15°; range, 15° to 20°) and at the end of long-term monitoring (median, 15°; range, 15° to 20°) were significantly lower than measurements before treatment (median, 30°; range, 30° to 35°). Dogs had significantly lower lameness scores (assessed on a scale of 0 to 5) at brace removal (median, 0; range, 0) and at the end of monitoring (median, 0; range, 0 to 2), compared with scores before treatment (median, 3; range, 1 to 3). Application of a carpal brace resulted in improved stability and resolution or reduction in lameness in dogs with carpal ligament instability.

  18. Effect of bracing and other conservative interventions in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents : A systematic review of clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenssinck, MLB; Frijlink, AC; Berger, MY; Bierma-Zeinstra, SMA; Verkerk, K; Verhagen, AP

    2005-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Many conservative treatments are available for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis, but the evidence for their accepted use is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of braces and other conservative treatments of idiopathic scoliosis in

  19. A Systematic Review on the Treatment of Acute Ankle Sprain Brace versus Other Functional Treatment Types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemler, Ellen; van de Port, Ingrid; Backx, Frank; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2011-01-01

    Ankle injuries, especially ankle sprains, are a common problem in sports and medical care. Ankle sprains result in pain and absenteeism from work and/or sports participation, and can lead to physical restrictions such as ankle instability. Nowadays, treatment of ankle injury basically consists of

  20. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in late-onset juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunderson Ragnhild

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is recommended that research in patients with idiopathic scoliosis should focus on short- and long-term patient-centred outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate outcome in patients with late-onset juvenile or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis 16 years or more after Boston brace treatment. Methods 272 (78% of 360 patients, 251 (92% women, responded to follow-up examination at a mean of 24.7 (range 16 - 32 years after Boston brace treatment. Fifty-eight (21% patients had late-onset juvenile and 214 had adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. All patients had clinical and radiological examination and answered a standardised questionnaire including work status, demographics, General Function Score (GFS (100 - worst possible and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI (100 - worst possible, EuroQol (EQ-5D (1 - best possible, EQ-VAS (100 - best possible, and Scoliosis Research Society - 22 (SRS - 22 (5 - best possible. Results The mean age at follow-up was 40.4 (31-48 years. The prebrace major curve was in average 33.2 (20 - 57°. At weaning and at the last follow-up the corresponding values were 28.3 (1 - 58° and 32.5 (7 - 80°, respectively. Curve development was similar in patients with late-onset juvenile and adolescent start. The prebrace curve increased > 5° in 31% and decreased > 5° in 26%. Twenty-five patients had surgery. Those who did not attend follow-up (n = 88 had a lower mean curve at weaning: 25.4 (6-53°. Work status was 76% full-time and 10% part-time. Eighty-seven percent had delivered a baby, 50% had pain in pregnancy. The mean (SD GFS was 7.4 (10.8, ODI 9.3 (11.0, EQ-5D 0.82 (0.2, EQ-VAS 77.6 (17.8, SRS-22: pain 4.1 (0.8, mental health 4.1 (0.6, self-image 3.7 (0.7, function 4.0 (0.6, satisfaction with treatment 3.7 (1.0. Surgical patients had significantly reduced scores for SRS-physical function and self-image, and patients with curves ≥ 45° had reduced self-image. Conclusion Long-term results were

  1. Long-term effects of conservative treatment of Milwaukee brace on body image and mental health of patients with idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misterska, Ewa; Głowacki, Jakub; Głowacki, Maciej; Okręt, Adam

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to provide a complex assessment of adult females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) after a minimum of 23 years after completed Milwaukee brace treatment. In the present study, a comparison between healthy female and AIS patients' perception of trunk disfigurement, self-image, mental health, pain level and everyday activity was made. Thirty AIS patients with a mean of 27.77 yrs (SD 3.30) after the treatment were included in the study. The control group consisted of 42 females, matching the age profile of the patient group. Study participants from both groups were examined using the same protocol, except for the radiological evaluation. Patients and healthy controls completed the Polish versions of the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS-22) and Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ). Patients additionally filled the Bad Sobberheim Stress Questionnaire-Deformity (BSSQ-Deformity) and Bad Sobberheim Stress Questionnaire-Brace (BSSQ-Brace). The study group's SAQ results differ significantly in regard to the total score and all individual domains, indicating better functioning among healthy controls. Except for the General domain (p = 0.002), among the remaining subscales the study group's results differed significantly at pimage and emotional tension regarding the experiences of brace-wearing. Future patients can be reassured that scoliosis treated conservatively does not negatively affect everyday activity, pain level, childbearing and mental health. Subjects who declared to have psychological problems due to scoliosis had a bigger curve size after treatment and in this study than the other AIS patients.

  2. [Bracing in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yi-Fang; Huang, Yu-Chu

    2017-04-01

    Scoliosis is a common medical problem, with an incidence of between 0.47% and 5.2% in the general population globally. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) accounts for nearly 80% of all scoliosis. Young people with AIS often experience negative social consequences in association with their condition. Without proper and timely treatment, the potential resulting disabilities range from trunk deformity, pain, and neurological complications to compromised cardiopulmonary function, all of which may cause lifelong suffering. Scoliosis may be treated either conservatively or surgically, based on the severity of the disease. Bracing is the most widely adopted method of conservative treatment. However, the main goal of bracing is to inhibit the progression of the spinal curvature rather than to cure scoliosis. The clinical effectiveness of bracing in Taiwan has often been underutilized as a result of financial or other factors such as the availability of the treatment. The purpose of the present review is to clarify the effectiveness of bracing for AIS by elucidating the pathophysiology of scoliosis and examining the recent clinical evidence. The importance of preventative care and the unique contribution of nursing care to treatment has to date been under-recognized. The positive support that nurses provide to the families of the patients during the early phases of treatment as well as to the patients themselves, including helping them exercise appropriately and wear the brace correctly, is an essential component of effective treatment. Learning how to work with and to adapt to the brace being part of the body is an important part of the treatment as well as a way to avoid pain. Nurses are in an ideal position to facilitate this learning process and, overall, to provide health education.

  3. Back and neck pain and function in females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: A follow-up at least 23 years after conservative treatment with a Milwaukee brace.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Misterska

    Full Text Available We aimed to explore the long-term outcomes of back and neck pain and functionality in adult females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS, who had been treated with a Milwaukee brace, in a follow-up study a minimum of 23 years after the completion of the treatment, using radiological, clinical and socio-demographical data. Thirty AIS patients (scoliosis group-SG, were included in the study based on an extensive search of Pediatric Orthopedics and Traumatology Clinic charts. All treatments were successfully completed between 1974 and 1990. In all cases, scoliosis had not been detected before the age of 10 and was not combined with any major spinal deformities at the time when the brace treatment was implemented. In those patients, the Risser sign 4 and minimum two years post-menarche was defined as a maturity, after that time the brace treatment was completed. Patients were excluded from the study if they, at the time of the follow-up examinations, suffered from any other disease leading to trunk deformity. Forty patients met the criteria for inclusion, but due to change some personal details, not all of them were contacted. Finally, 30 women returned for a follow-up evaluation. Patients' follow-up period was mean 27.77 yrs. ± SD 3.30 (range 23-35. Curvature change from the end of the treatment until the present day was mean 9.1 degrees ± SD 7.64 (range 0-27. A control group of 42 healthy females (healthy controls group-HG matching the age profile of the patient group was randomly selected for comparative purposes.Both SG and HG completed the Polish versions of the Revised Oswestry Lower Back Pain Disability Index (RODI, the Rolland-Morris Questionnaire (RMQ, the Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale (QDS, the Neck Disability Index (NDI and the Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale (CNFDS. Descriptive statistics were calculated for demographics and baseline questionnaire scores. To determine if the investigated sample sizes are equivalent

  4. Conservative treatment for pediatric lumbar spondylolysis to achieve bone healing using a hard brace: what type and how long?: Clinical article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairyo, Koichi; Sakai, Toshinori; Yasui, Natsuo; Dezawa, Akira

    2012-06-01

    Various kinds of trunk braces have been used to achieve bone healing in cases of pediatric lumbar spondylolysis. However, the optimal brace for achieving bone healing is unclear. The purpose of the present study was to determine in what types of spondylolysis bone healing can be achieved and how long it takes. In this prospective study, 63 pars interarticularis defects (spondylolysis) among 37 patients who were younger than 18 years (mean 13.5 ± 2.7 years) were treated using a hard brace. The youngest patient was 8 years old. Based on the results of CT scanning, the lyses were classified into 3 categories: early, progressive, and terminal defects. Progressive defects were further divided into 2 types according to STIR MRI findings: those with high signal intensity at the adjacent pedicle and those with low signal intensity (that is, a normal appearance). A hard brace, such as a molded plastic thoracolumbosacral orthosis, was used to immobilize the trunk. Approximately every 3 months, CT scanning was performed to evaluate bone healing until approximately 6 months. The union rates were 94%, 64%, 27%, and 0% for the early, progressive with high signal intensity, progressive with low signal intensity, and terminal defects, respectively. It was noted that no terminal defect was healed using conservative treatment. The mean time to healing among the defects that showed bone healing was 3.2, 5.4, and 5.7 months for the early, progressive with high signal intensity, and progressive with low signal intensity groups, respectively. Patients with early-stage defects are the best candidates for conservative treatment with a hard brace because more than 90% of such cases can be healed in 3 months.

  5. A prospective randomized controlled trial of the natural history of idiopathic scoliosis versus treatment with the SpineCor brace. Sosort Award 2011 winner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coillard, C; Circo, A B; Rivard, C H

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the efficacy of the Dynamic SpineCor brace for early idiopathic scoliosis (15°-30°) compared to the natural evolution of the disease. 68 patients participated in this study (32 treated and 36 controls) with at least 5 years follow-up. The inclusion criteria were: 1) high risk of evolution: family history and/or proven progressive; 2) no significant pathological malformation of the spine; 3) initial Cobb angle between 15° and 30°; 4) risser 0, 1 or 2. Assessment of brace efficacy included the percentage of patients who have 5º or less curve progression and the percentage of patients who have 6º or more progression at skeletal maturity. At five-year follow-up a correction was achieved in 50% of treated patient and only in 9.5% of controls, stabilization in 42.3% treated and 47.7% in controls and progression in 26.9% for the treated group and 42.8% for controls. For the control patients we considered as a failure if the Cobb angle worsened by more then 5° from the original angle and the patient then received treatment. The results 5 years after the treatment suggested that the SpineCor brace reduced the probability of the progression of early idiopathic scoliosis comparing with its natural history. Moreover, the positive outcome appears to be maintained in the long term.

  6. How to improve aesthetics in patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS: a SPoRT brace treatment according to SOSORT management criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Claudia

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aesthetics is a main goal of both conservative and surgical treatments in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. Previously, we developed and validated a clinical scale - the Aesthetic Index (AI--in order to measure aesthetic impairment and changes during treatment. Aim To verify the efficacy of bracing on aesthetics in AIS. Study Design Prospective Cohort Study. Population Thirty-four consecutive patients, age 13.2 ± 3.7, initial Cobb Angle 32 ± 12°, ATR 10 ± 4° Bunnel, 11 males. Methods Patients with AI scores of at least 5/6 were included. Each of them had a brace prescription (18 to 23 hours per day, according to the SPoRT concept. AI was measured again after six months and at the end of treatment, and then the pre- and post-treatment scores compared. The Wilcoxon test was performed. Results Twenty-nine patients out of the 34 included completed the treatment and had six-month and final results; four patients were lost during the treatment, and one was fused. At baseline, median AI was 6 (95% IC 5-6 but the score decreased to 3 (95% IC 0-5; p Conclusion Aesthetics can be improved in a clinically significant way when the brace treatment is performed according to the SPoRT concept and by following the SOSORT management criteria. This is a relevant result for patients and a major goal of scoliosis treatment, be it conservative or surgical. The use of a more sensitive tool like TRACE could more easily detect the clinical changes; nevertheless, AI proved sensible enough that its use in everyday clinical practice can be suggested.

  7. NTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION: WITH BRACE VS WITHOUT BRACE AFTER OPERATION A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH.A NAZEM

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL ruputer specially in athletics induces knee instability results in pateint disability. Surgical treatment consist of ACL reconstruction and repair. In this study the efficacy of surgical management with brace after operation was compaired to surgical management without brace.
    Methods. One hundred ACL ruptured pateints had reconstructed with BPB graft in two randomzed gruops (50 with brace afetr operation and 50 without brace. Study durated 4 year (1997-2000 in alzahra hospital (affiliated to IUMSHS. Patients had followed for 12 months after operation.
    Results. Knee range of motion after 1, 3, 6, 12 months follow up were the same in both groups (P > 0.05. Degree and duration of returning to sport, complications, need to reoperation, stair climbing, specific ACL tests, patelofemoral pain, pain in squatting, running and cutting and quadriceps atrophy, after 12 months follow up were the same in both groups (P > 0.05. Patients without brace returned to their job more sooner than another group (P < 0.05.
    Discussion. There are no significant differnce in cilinical results in tow groups and ACL reconstruction with BPB dose not require to routine bracing. Faster return to job in non bracing group is due to removal of liminting effect of brace wearing. Lesser rate of pain in patients that return to sport due to quadriceps strengthening.

  8. Anisotropy and magnetostriction as corrections for the Heisenberg model at the example of the molecule {l_brace}Ni{sub 4}Mo{sub 12}{r_brace}; Anisotropie und Magnetostriktion als Korrekturen zum Heisenberg-Modell am Beispiel des Molekuels {l_brace}Ni{sub 4}Mo{sub 12}{r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueger, Mirko

    2008-07-15

    In the first part of this thesis the different effects of the molecular magnetism were extensively considered and the possibility of their occurence in {l_brace}Ni{sub 4}Mo{sub 12}{r_brace} checked. In the second part of this thesis different models for the description of experimental results were presented. thereby the results of ESR, SQUIO, and high-field pulse measurements on {l_brace}Ni{sub 4}Mo{sub 12}{r_brace} are described.

  9. Early weaning might reduce the psychological strain of Boston bracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Ø; Andersen, Gert Rahbek; Thomsen, Karsten

    2002-01-01

    From 1983 to 1990 a total of 136 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were treated with the Boston brace. With the aim of examining the social and psychological impact of the brace treatment all patients received a questionnaire at an average of 3.5 years after termination of the treatment...

  10. The Basics of Braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... orthodontic care contributes greatly to oral health. Straight, aligned teeth can make it easier to chew food, and can even help prevent snoring. But these benefits don't come cheap. Braces cost about $5, ...

  11. Clinician Recommendations and Perceptions of Factors Associated With Ankle Brace Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Jason M.; Waldhelm, Andrew; Hacke, Jonathon D.; Gross, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little information is available regarding the ankle braces orthopaedic sports medicine clinicians recommend or clinicians’ concerns that may influence their decisions to recommend use of an ankle brace. Hypotheses: (1) Clinicians most frequently recommend lace-up braces with straps. (2) Clinicians who are concerned about potential adverse side effects from ankle brace use are less likely to recommend an ankle brace to prevent ankle sprain injuries. Study Design: Descriptive survey study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Surveys were sent via e-mail to 1000 randomly selected members of the Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) and 1000 randomly selected members of the National Athletic Trainers’ Association (NATA). A total of 377 individuals responded to the survey. Results: Lace-up braces, specifically lace-up braces with straps, were the most frequently recommended type of ankle brace. Regression analyses indicated that the only perceived adverse side effect significantly related to frequency of ankle brace recommendation was a potential negative influence on ankle strength. Conclusion: Based on our sample, clinicians recommend lace-up ankle braces with straps most frequently to prevent ankle sprain injuries. Clinicians who are concerned about weakness of ankle musculature may be less likely to recommend use of an ankle brace. Clinical Relevance: Clinicians may effectively reduce the number of ankle sprain injuries by recommending an ankle brace use after an initial ankle sprain injury. PMID:26131306

  12. ORTHOPEDIC LEG BRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, William Neil (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Knee braces generally have been rigid in both the knee bending direction and in the knee straightening direction unless a manually operated release is incorporated in them to allow the knee to bend. Desirably a braced knee joint should effectively duplicate the compound, complex, actions of a normal knee. The key to knee braces is the knee joint housing. The housing herein carries a number of cam action pawls. with teeth adapted to engage the internal teeth of a ratchet ring mounted in the housing. Cam action return springs and the shape of the cam action pawl teeth allow rotation of the ratchet ring in a leg straightening direction while still supporting a load. The leg can then be extended during walking while at the same time being prevented by the cam action pawls from buckling in the knee bending direction.

  13. Spanish validation of Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire (BSSQ (brace).es) for adolescents with braces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agata, Elisabetta; Testor, Carles Pérez; Rigo, Manuel

    2010-07-15

    As a result of scientific and medical professionals gaining interest in Stress and Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL), the aim of our research is, thus, to validate into Spanish the German questionnaire Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire (BSSQ) (mit Korsett), for adolescents wearing braces. The methodology used adheres to literature on trans-cultural adaptation by doing a translation and a back translation; it involved 35 adolescents, ages ranging between 10 and 16, with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) and wearing the same kind of brace (Rigo System Chêneau Brace). The materials used were a socio-demographics data questionnaire, the SRS-22 and the Spanish version of BSSQ(brace).es. The statistical analysis calculated the reliability (test-retest reliability and internal consistency) and the validity (convergent and construct validity) of the BSSQ (brace).es. BSSQ(brace).es is reliable because of its satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.809, p < 0.001) and temporal stability (test-retest method with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.902 (p < 0.01)).It demonstrated convergent validity with SRS-22 since the Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.656 (p < 0.01). By undertaking an Exploratory Principal Components Analysis, a latent structure was found based on two Components which explicate the variance at 60.8%. BSSQ (brace).es is reliable and valid and can be used with Spanish adolescents to assess the stress level caused by the brace.

  14. Spanish validation of Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire (BSSQ (brace.es for adolescents with braces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigo Manuel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a result of scientific and medical professionals gaining interest in Stress and Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL, the aim of our research is, thus, to validate into Spanish the German questionnaire Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire (BSSQ (mit Korsett, for adolescents wearing braces. Methods The methodology used adheres to literature on trans-cultural adaptation by doing a translation and a back translation; it involved 35 adolescents, ages ranging between 10 and 16, with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS and wearing the same kind of brace (Rigo System Chêneau Brace. The materials used were a socio-demographics data questionnaire, the SRS-22 and the Spanish version of BSSQ(brace.es. The statistical analysis calculated the reliability (test-retest reliability and internal consistency and the validity (convergent and construct validity of the BSSQ (brace.es. Results BSSQ(brace.es is reliable because of its satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.809, p It demonstrated convergent validity with SRS-22 since the Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.656 (p Conclusions BSSQ (brace.es is reliable and valid and can be used with Spanish adolescents to assess the stress level caused by the brace.

  15. Evaluation of Long Leg Braces in Regard to Biomechanical, Clinival and Technical Orthopedic\\'s Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Vahhab-Kashani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In some clients, for lower extremity, long leg brace, is prescribed. Then it will be fabricated bye orthotist and worn by patient. According to clinical principles, the brace should be as fit as possible with limb form. Also, an individual, walks and sits with his or her brace. Brace functions around joint motion axis. Quality and exact place of movement is define by biomechanical principles. Therefore, brace should be adapted with biochemical principles of the limb. Materials & Methods: A brace is made up several components which are assembled through acceptable technical orthopaedic methods and this procedure should be done without omission or neglect. If orthotist has enough scientific knowledge and observes all details, he or she will fabricate a perfect brace. We considered fabricated long leg brace according to this principle to meet study objectives while answering some question of study, we will disguss on the finding of our assessment. Also, we examine some possible deviations with accured by unsuitable fabrication, more over we suggest that some failur in designing procedure which leads to such deviation material and methods: In this descriptive analytic cross sectional study, long leg braces of 193 clients who were selected by random stratified sampling method, were evaluated by a previously designed questionare . Results: A. By assessment of 7 variables, it was revealed that 28.86% of manufactured braces, was not adapted with defined fundamentals, biomechanically. B. By evaluation of 9 variables, it was made known that 30 % of produced braces was not adapted with established fabricating fundamentals of lower limb braces clinically. C. By examination of 23 variables it was find out that 25.4% of fabricated braces, it was observed, which has some failures by attention to defined fabricating technical orthopaedic fundamentals. Conclusion: All the details, fabrication and design procedures should be carefully observed and

  16. Tridimensional trunk surface acquisition for brace manufacturing in idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raux, Sébastien; Kohler, Rémi; Garin, Christophe; Cunin, Vincent; Abelin-Genevois, Kariman

    2014-07-01

    Brace manufacturing for idiopathic scoliosis requires trunk surface acquisition. Two methods are currently available to design the trunk shape: craft made technique based on a plaster mold and computer-aided design with 3-D reconstruction of the trunk by optical scanning. The objective of the present review was to compare these two methods. We describe the different steps to design and manufacture braces used for spinal deformities. Our prospective evaluation showed good results in terms of the correction achieved and regarding patients' in-brace comfort. Optical scanning for computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD-CAM) of trunk orthoses have proven their effectiveness. These technologies may help in monitoring conservative treatment and may enhance the brace interaction with the spinal deformity when orthopedic treatment is indicated.

  17. Brace technology thematic series - The Sforzesco and Sibilla braces, and the SPoRT (Symmetric, Patient oriented, Rigid, Three-dimensional, active) concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, Stefano; Marchini, Gianfranco; Tessadri, Fabrizio

    2011-05-09

    Bracing is an effective strategy for scoliosis treatment, but there is no consensus on the best type of brace, nor on the way in which it should act on the spine to achieve good correction. The aim of this paper is to present the family of SPoRT (Symmetric, Patient-oriented, Rigid, Three-dimensional, active) braces: Sforzesco (the first introduced), Sibilla and Lapadula. The Sforzesco brace was developed following specific principles of correction. Due to its overall symmetry, the brace provides space over pathological depressions and pushes over elevations. Correction is reached through construction of the envelope, pushes, escapes, stops, and drivers. The real novelty is the drivers, introduced for the first time with the Sforzesco brace; they allow to achieve the main action of the brace: a three-dimensional elongation pushing the spine in a down-up direction.Brace prescription is made plane by plane: frontal (on the "slopes", another novelty of this concept, i.e. the laterally flexed sections of the spine), horizontal, and sagittal. The brace is built modelling the trunk shape obtained either by a plaster cast mould or by CAD-CAM construction. Brace checking is essential, since SPoRT braces are adjustable and customisable according to each individual curve pattern.Treatment time and duration is individually tailored (18-23 hours per day until Risser 3, then gradual reduction). SEAS (Scientific Exercises Approach to Scoliosis) exercises are a key factor to achieve success. The Sforzesco brace has shown to be more effective than the Lyon brace (matched case/control), equally effective as the Risser plaster cast (prospective cohort with retrospective controls), more effective than the Risser cast + Lyon brace in treating curves over 45 degrees Cobb (prospective cohort), and is able to improve aesthetic appearance (prospective cohort). The SPoRT concept of bracing (three-dimensional elongation pushing in a down-up direction) is different from the other corrective

  18. Brace technology thematic series - The Sforzesco and Sibilla braces, and the SPoRT (Symmetric, Patient oriented, Rigid, Three-dimensional, active concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchini Gianfranco

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bracing is an effective strategy for scoliosis treatment, but there is no consensus on the best type of brace, nor on the way in which it should act on the spine to achieve good correction. The aim of this paper is to present the family of SPoRT (Symmetric, Patient-oriented, Rigid, Three-dimensional, active braces: Sforzesco (the first introduced, Sibilla and Lapadula. Methods The Sforzesco brace was developed following specific principles of correction. Due to its overall symmetry, the brace provides space over pathological depressions and pushes over elevations. Correction is reached through construction of the envelope, pushes, escapes, stops, and drivers. The real novelty is the drivers, introduced for the first time with the Sforzesco brace; they allow to achieve the main action of the brace: a three-dimensional elongation pushing the spine in a down-up direction. Brace prescription is made plane by plane: frontal (on the "slopes", another novelty of this concept, i.e. the laterally flexed sections of the spine, horizontal, and sagittal. The brace is built modelling the trunk shape obtained either by a plaster cast mould or by CAD-CAM construction. Brace checking is essential, since SPoRT braces are adjustable and customisable according to each individual curve pattern. Treatment time and duration is individually tailored (18-23 hours per day until Risser 3, then gradual reduction. SEAS (Scientific Exercises Approach to Scoliosis exercises are a key factor to achieve success. Results The Sforzesco brace has shown to be more effective than the Lyon brace (matched case/control, equally effective as the Risser plaster cast (prospective cohort with retrospective controls, more effective than the Risser cast + Lyon brace in treating curves over 45 degrees Cobb (prospective cohort, and is able to improve aesthetic appearance (prospective cohort. Conclusions The SPoRT concept of bracing (three-dimensional elongation pushing in

  19. WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habashi, F.

    2000-01-01

    The Waste Treatment Building System provides the space, layout, structures, and embedded subsystems that support the processing of low-level liquid and solid radioactive waste generated within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The activities conducted in the Waste Treatment Building include sorting, volume reduction, and packaging of dry waste, and collecting, processing, solidification, and packaging of liquid waste. The Waste Treatment Building System is located on the surface within the protected area of the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System helps maintain a suitable environment for the waste processing and protects the systems within the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) from most of the natural and induced environments. The WTB also confines contaminants and provides radiological protection to personnel. In addition to the waste processing operations, the Waste Treatment Building System provides space and layout for staging of packaged waste for shipment, industrial and radiological safety systems, control and monitoring of operations, safeguards and security systems, and fire protection, ventilation and utilities systems. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides the required space and layout for maintenance activities, tool storage, and administrative facilities. The Waste Treatment Building System integrates waste processing systems within its protective structure to support the throughput rates established for the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides shielding, layout, and other design features to help limit personnel radiation exposures to levels which are as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, and with other MGR systems that support the waste processing operations. The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the General Site Transportation System, Site Communications System, Site Water System, MGR

  20. WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Habashi

    2000-06-22

    The Waste Treatment Building System provides the space, layout, structures, and embedded subsystems that support the processing of low-level liquid and solid radioactive waste generated within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The activities conducted in the Waste Treatment Building include sorting, volume reduction, and packaging of dry waste, and collecting, processing, solidification, and packaging of liquid waste. The Waste Treatment Building System is located on the surface within the protected area of the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System helps maintain a suitable environment for the waste processing and protects the systems within the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) from most of the natural and induced environments. The WTB also confines contaminants and provides radiological protection to personnel. In addition to the waste processing operations, the Waste Treatment Building System provides space and layout for staging of packaged waste for shipment, industrial and radiological safety systems, control and monitoring of operations, safeguards and security systems, and fire protection, ventilation and utilities systems. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides the required space and layout for maintenance activities, tool storage, and administrative facilities. The Waste Treatment Building System integrates waste processing systems within its protective structure to support the throughput rates established for the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides shielding, layout, and other design features to help limit personnel radiation exposures to levels which are as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, and with other MGR systems that support the waste processing operations. The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the General Site Transportation System, Site Communications System, Site Water System, MGR

  1. Automatic method of analysis of OCT images in the assessment of the tooth enamel surface after orthodontic treatment with fixed braces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprowski, Robert; Machoy, Monika; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Wróbel, Zygmunt

    2014-04-22

    after the whole treatment decreased by about 125 μm. This paper presents an automatic quantitative method for the assessment of tooth enamel thickness. This method has proven to be an effective diagnostic tool that allows evaluation of the surface and cross section of tooth enamel after orthodontic treatment with fixed thin-arched braces and proper selection of the methodology and course of treatment.

  2. Supine Lateral Bending Radiographs Predict the Initial In-brace Correction of the Providence Brace in Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohrt-Nissen, Søren; Hallager, Dennis Winge; Gehrchen, Poul Martin

    2016-01-01

    are used to assess curve flexibility in patients undergoing surgical treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). A low rate of in-brace correction (IBC) has been associated with a higher risk of curve progression, but to what extent SLBR can be used to predict IBC before initiating bracing...

  3. The Dynamic Compression Brace for Pectus Carinatum: Intermediate Results in 286 Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, Sjoerd A.; Gritter, Martin; de Jong, Justin R.; van Heurn, Ernst L. W.

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic brace compression is a novel treatment for patients with pectus carinatum. The dynamic compression system contains a device to measure the flexibility of the thoracic wall and regulate the pressure of the brace. Patients referred to our pediatric surgical center were screened for treatment

  4. Determinants of responsiveness to botulinum toxin, casting, and bracing in the treatment of spastic equinus in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Rita; Majnemer, Annette; Benaroch, Thierry; Cantin, Marie-Andree

    2010-02-01

    The objective was to determine whether specific intrinsic (age, pattern of cerebral palsy [CP], child's motivation) and extrinsic (number of treatments, parenting stress) characteristics were associated with responsiveness to botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) injections in children with CP 3 months after injection into the gastrocnemius muscle. Children with hemiplegia or diplegia recruited from a BoNT-A programme were evaluated before and 3 months following injection of BoNT-A into the gastrocnemius. Outcome measures included muscle tone, range of motion, gait pattern, level of ambulation, gross motor function, and functional independence. Determinants of responsiveness to BoNT-A considered were age, number of treatments, distribution of CP, parenting stress, and motivation. Thirty-one children were recruited (17 males, 14 females)--22 with hemiplegia and nine with diplegia. Twenty-eight were classified at Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level I and three at level III. The mean age was 6 years 4 months (SD 2y 11mo). Younger age (p=0.015) and fewer number (p=0.024) of BoNT-A treatments were associated with greater change in gross motor function. Child's motivation and parenting stress were significantly associated with improvements in muscle tone (p=0.006-0.017), passive range of motion (p=0.008-0.033), gait pattern (p=0.005-0.042), level of ambulation (p=0.001-0.043), and functional independence (p=0.004-0.027). The results indicate that child, family, and treatment characteristics influence the degree of responsiveness to BoNT-A treatment. The contribution of contextual factors (personal and environmental) on responsiveness may be underappreciated in children with CP.

  5. Scoliosis brace design: influence of visual aesthetics on user acceptance and compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Derry; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Yip, Joanne; Yick, Kit-Lun; Wong, Christina

    2017-06-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a common condition found in adolescents. A rigid brace is often prescribed as the treatment for this spinal deformity, which negatively affects user compliance due to the discomfort caused by the brace, and the psychological distress resulting from its appearance. However, the latter, which is the impact of visual aesthetics, has not been thoroughly studied for scoliosis braces. Therefore, a qualitative study with in-depth interviews has been carried out with 10 participants who have a Cobb angle of 20°-30° to determine the impact of visual aesthetics on user acceptance and compliance towards the brace. It is found that co-designing with patients on the aesthetic aspects of the surface design of the brace increases the level of user compliance and induces positive user perception. Therefore, aesthetic preferences need to be taken into consideration in the design process of braces. Practitioner Summary: The impact of visual aesthetics on user acceptance and compliance towards a rigid brace for scoliosis is investigated. The findings indicate that an aesthetically pleasing brace and the involvement of patients in the design process of the brace are important for increasing user compliance and addressing psychological issues during treatment.

  6. Introduction to the "Scoliosis" Journal Brace Technology Thematic Series: increasing existing knowledge and promoting future developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grivas Theodoros B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bracing is the main non-surgical intervention in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis during growth, in hyperkyphosis (and Scheuermann disease and occasionally for spondylolisthesis; it can be used in adult scoliosis, in the elderly when pathological curves lead to a forward leaning posture or in adults after traumatic injuries. Bracing can be defined as the application of external corrective forces to the trunk; rigid supports or elastic bands can be used and braces can be custom-made or prefabricated. The state of research in the field of conservative treatment is insufficient and while it can be stated that there is some evidence to support bracing, we must also acknowledge that today we do not have a common and generally accepted knowledge base, and that instead, individual expertise still prevails, giving rise to different schools of thought on brace construction and principles of correction. The only way to improve the knowledge and understanding of brace type and brace function is to establish a single and comprehensive source of information about bracing. This is what the Scoliosis Journal is going to do through the "Brace Technology" Thematic Series, where technical papers coming from the different schools will be published.

  7. Ultrasound-assisted brace casting for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, IRSSD Best research paper 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Edmond H; Chan, Amanda Cy; Donauer, Andreas; Tilburn, Melissa; Hill, Doug L

    2015-01-01

    Brace treatment is the most effective non-surgical treatment for AIS. High initial in-brace correction increases successful brace treatment outcomes. The objective of this study was to investigate if real-time ultrasound (US) can aid orthotists in selecting the pad pressure level and location resulting in optimal in-brace correction of the spine. Twenty six AIS subjects participated in this pilot study with 17 (2 M, 15 F) in the control group and 9 (2 M, 7 F) in the intervention group. For the control group, the standard method was used to design their braces. In addition to the standard of care, a medical 3D ultrasound (US) system, a custom pressure measurement system and in-house software were used to select pad placement and pressure levels for the intervention group. The orthotist used a custom standing Providence brace design system to apply pressures against the patient's torso. The applied pad pressures were recorded. A real-time US spinal image was displayed. Cobb angle measurements from the baseline and the assessment scan were performed. The orthotist then decided if an adjustment was needed in terms of altering the pad locations and pressure levels. The procedures may be repeated until the orthotist attained the best simulated in-brace correction configuration to cast the brace. In the control group, 8 of 17 (47%) subjects needed a total of 16 brace adjustments after initial fabrication requiring a total of 33 in-brace radiographs. For the intervention group, the orthotist tried additional configurations in 7 out of 9 cases (78%). Among these 7 revised cases, 5 showed better stimulated in-brace corrections and were subsequently used to cast the brace. As a result, only 1 subject required a minor adjustment after initial fabrication. The total number of in-brace radiographs in the intervention group was 10. The use of the 3D ultrasound system provided a radiation-free method to determine the optimum pressure level and location to obtain the best

  8. Acute effects of spinal bracing on scapular kinematics in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Gozde; Turgut, Elif; Ayhan, Cigdem; Baltaci, Gul; Yakut, Yavuz

    2017-08-01

    Bracing is the most common nonsurgical treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spinal braces affect glenohumeral and scapulothoracic motion because they restrict trunk movements. However, the potential spinal-bracing effects on scapular kinematics are unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the acute effects of spinal bracing on scapular kinematics in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Scapular kinematics, including scapular internal/external rotation, posterior/anterior tilting, and downward/upward rotation during scapular plane elevation, were evaluated in 27 in-brace and out-of-brace adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients with a three-dimensional electromagnetic tracking system. Data on the position and orientation of the scapula at 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120° humerothoracic elevation were used for statistical comparisons. The paired t-test was used to assess the differences between the mean values of in-brace and out-of-brace conditions. The in-brace condition showed significantly increased (Pscoliosis. Therefore, clinicians should include assessments of the glenohumeral and scapulothoracic joints when designing rehabilitation protocols for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. K Basin sludge treatment process description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westra, A.G.

    1998-08-28

    The K East (KE) and K West (KW) fuel storage basins at the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site contain sludge on the floor, in pits, and inside fuel storage canisters. The major sources of the sludge are corrosion of the fuel elements and steel structures in the basin, sand intrusion from outside the buildings, and degradation of the structural concrete that forms the basins. The decision has been made to dispose of this sludge separate from the fuel elements stored in the basins. The sludge will be treated so that it meets Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) acceptance criteria and can be sent to one of the double-shell waste tanks. The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office accepted a recommendation by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc., to chemically treat the sludge. Sludge treatment will be done by dissolving the fuel constituents in nitric acid, separating the insoluble material, adding neutron absorbers for criticality safety, and reacting the solution with caustic to co-precipitate the uranium and plutonium. A truck will transport the resulting slurry to an underground storage tank (most likely tank 241-AW-105). The undissolved solids will be treated to reduce the transuranic (TRU) and content, stabilized in grout, and transferred to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) for disposal. This document describes a process for dissolving the sludge to produce waste streams that meet the TWRS acceptance criteria for disposal to an underground waste tank and the ERDF acceptance criteria for disposal of solid waste. The process described is based on a series of engineering studies and laboratory tests outlined in the testing strategy document (Flament 1998).

  10. Bracing Zonohedra With Special Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Gyula

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of simpler preliminary design gives useful input for more complicated three-dimensional building frame structure. A zonohedron, as a preliminary structure of design, is a convex polyhedron for which each face possesses central symmetry. We considered zonohedron as a special framework with the special assumption that the polygonal faces can be deformed in such a way that faces remain planar and centrally symmetric, moreover the length of all edges remains unchanged. Introducing some diagonal braces we got a new mechanism. This paper deals with the flexibility of this kind of mechanisms, and investigates the rigidity of the braced framework. The flexibility of the framework can be characterized by some vectors, which represent equivalence classes of the edges. A necessary and sufficient condition for the rigidity of the braced rhombic face zonohedra is posed. A real mechanical construction, based on two simple elements, provides a CAD prototype of these new mechanisms.

  11. Locking mechanism for orthopedic braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, J. I.; Epps, C. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An orthopedic brace locking mechanism is described which under standing or walking conditions cannot be unlocked, however under sitting conditions the mechanism can be simply unlocked so as to permit bending of the patient's knee. Other features of the device include: (1) the mechanism is rendered operable, and inoperable, dependent upon the relative inclination of the brace with respect to the ground; (2) the mechanism is automatically locked under standing or walking conditions and is manually unlocked under sitting conditions; and (3) the mechanism is light in weight and is relatively small in size.

  12. Corrective Bracing for Severe Idiopathic Scoliosis in Adolescence: Influence of Brace on Trunk Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Kinel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the work was to study whether wearing a corrective brace by adolescent girls with severe idiopathic scoliosis can influence external shape of the trunk. Methods. Comparison of clinical deformity of two groups of girls matched for age and Cobb angle: group (1 of 23 girls, aged 14.9±1.3 years, Cobb angle 55.0°±6.8°, who refused surgical treatment and have been wearing Chêneau brace for more than 6 months, compared with group (2 of 22 girls, aged 14.1±1.8 years, Cobb angle 59.7°±14.6° never treated with corrective bracing. Clinical deformity was assessed with the Bunnell scoliometer (angle of trunk rotation ATR and surface topography (posterior trunk symmetry index POTSI and Hump Sum HS. Results. The ATR in the primary curvature was 11.9°±3.4° (5°–18° in group 1 versus 15.1°±5.6° (6°–25° in group 2 (P=0.027. The HS was 16.8°±3.8 versus 19.2°±4.6, respectively, P=0.07. The POTSI value did not differ between groups. Conclusion. Girls with Cobb angle above 45 degrees, who have been subjected to brace treatment, revealed smaller clinical deformity of their back comparing to nontreated girls having similar radiological curvatures.

  13. Vital capacity evolution in patients treated with the CMCR brace: statistical analysis of 90 scoliotic patients treated with the CMCR brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohn Céline

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary Objective To study the evolution of pulmonary capacity during orthopaedic treatment of scoliosis with the CMCR brace. Background Investigating the impact of moderate scoliosis on respiratory capacity and its evolution during CMCR brace treatment with mobile pads. Context Several studies demonstrate the impact of scoliosis on respiratory capacity but few of them focus on the impact of bracing treatment. We studied the evolution of the pulmonary capacity of a cohort of 90 scoliotic patients. Methods This retrospective study included 90 scoliotic patients treated since 1999 with a brace with mobile pads called CMCR (n = 90; mean age: 13 years; 10-16. These patients were diagnosed with an idiopathic scoliosis (mean angulation 20.6°. All patients underwent a radiographic and respiratory evaluation at the beginning, the middle and the end of treatment. Results Mean age at treatment start was 13. Before treatment, our patients did not have a normal pulmonary capacity: Forced Vital Capacity (FVC was only 75% of the theoretical value. All curvature types (thoracic, thoraco-lumbar and combined scoliosis involved this reduced pulmonary capacity, with moderate-angulated scoliosis having a negative impact. At the beginning of brace treatment, the loss of real vital capacity with brace (0.3 litres was 10% lower than without brace. At CMCR removal, the FVC had increased by 0.4 litre (21% +/- 4.2% compared to the initial value. The theoretical value had increased by 3%. This positive evolution was most important in girls at a low Risser stage (0,1,2, and before 11 years of age. Conclusion These results supported our approach of orthesis conception for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis which uses braces with mobile pads to preserve thorax and spine mobility.

  14. Outcome of humeral shaft fractures treated by functional cast brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Nath Pal

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Modified functional cast brace is one of the options in treatment for humeral shaft fractures as it can be applied on the 1 st day of the presentation in most of the situations. Simple objective scoring system was useful particularly in uneducated patients.

  15. Efficacy of nighttime brace in preventing progression of idiopathic scoliosis of less than 25°.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lateur, G; Grobost, P; Gerbelot, J; Eid, A; Griffet, J; Courvoisier, A

    2017-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess, at skeletal maturity, the efficacy of non-operative treatment by isolated nighttime brace in the prevention of progression of progressive idiopathic scoliosis of less than 25°. Isolated nighttime brace treatment is effective in the prevention of progression of mild progressive idiopathic scoliosis (Cobbscoliosis with Cobb anglescoliosis (scoliosis, ensuring a safe curve of around 20°. Level IV, retrospective study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. (Vapor + liquid) equilibrium for the binary systems {l_brace}water + glycerol{r_brace} and {l_brace}ethanol + glycerol, ethyl stearate, and ethyl palmitate{r_brace} at low pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Renata; Santos, Priscilla G. dos; Mafra, Marcos R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Parana, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Cardozo-Filho, Lucio [Department of Chemical Engineering, Maringa State University (UEM), Av. Colombo 5790, 87020-900 Maringa, PR (Brazil); Corazza, Marcos L., E-mail: corazza@ufpr.br [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Parana, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > We measured VLE for the binary system {l_brace}ethyl stearate and palmitate + ethanol{r_brace}. > The boiling temperatures were obtained using Othmer-type ebuliometer. > The experimental data were modeled using NRTL, UNIQUAC, and UNIFAC models. - Abstract: This work reports the experimental measurements {l_brace}(vapor + liquid) equilibrium{r_brace} for the systems {l_brace}water(1) + glycerol(2){r_brace}, {l_brace}ethanol(1) + glycerol(2){r_brace}, {l_brace}ethanol(1) + ethyl stearate(2){r_brace}, and {l_brace}ethanol(1) + ethyl palmitate(2){r_brace}. Boiling temperatures were measured using an Othmer-type ebulliometer over a pressure range of 14 kPa to 96 kPa. The experimental data were well correlated using the NRTL and UNIQUAC models. The performance of the UNIFAC-Dortmund model in relation to predicting the phase equilibrium of the systems was also studied.

  17. Thermodynamics of amalgam cells {l_brace}M-amalgam vertical bar MCl{sub 2} (m) vertical bar AgCl vertical bar Ag{r_brace} (M=Sr, Ba) and primary medium effects in {l_brace}methanol+water{r_brace} and {l_brace}ethanol+water{r_brace} solvent mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falciola, Luigi [Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, University of Milano, Via Golgi 19, I-20133 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: luigi.falciola@unimi.it; Mussini, Patrizia R. [Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, University of Milano, Via Golgi 19, I-20133 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: patrizia.mussini@unimi.it; Mussini, Torquato [Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, University of Milano, Via Golgi 19, I-20133 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: torquato.mussini@unimi.it; Vimercati, Alessandro [Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, University of Milano, Via Golgi 19, I-20133 Milan (Italy)

    2005-04-15

    For the amalgam cell {l_brace}M{sub x}Hg{sub 1-x} vertical bar MCl{sub 2} (m) vertical bar AgCl vertical bar Ag{r_brace} (with M=Sr, Ba) the potential difference E has been measured as a function of the mole fraction x{sub M} of the metal M in amalgams and of the molality m of MCl{sub 2} in {l_brace}methanol+water{r_brace} and {l_brace}ethanol+water{r_brace} solvent mixtures Z={l_brace}A+W{r_brace} with mass fractions of alcohol w{sub A}=<0.50 of alcohol, at temperature 298.15 K. The respective molal-scale standard potential differences Em-bar have been determined together with the relevant activity coefficients {gamma}{sub +}/- as functions of the MCl{sub 2} molality. The Em-bar dependence on the alcohol mole fraction in the solvent mixture within the ranges explored turns out to be linear for both of these two metals M in the amalgams studied. Of course, also the molal-scale standard Gibbs free energy change ({delta}GW->Z-bar )m=2F(WEm-bar-ZEm-bar), which constitutes the 'primary medium effect' upon transferring MCl{sub 2} from pure water to the (alcohol+water) mixture, is linear in x{sub A}. In the same context, following Feakins and French's treatment, which implies volume fraction statistics, the relevant primary medium effects upon MCl{sub 2} on the mol.dm{sup -3} scale have been analysed in terms of the expected linear relation of ({delta}GW->Z-bar)c=2F(WEc-bar -ZEc-bar) against the logarithm of water volume fraction, leading to primary hydration numbers for SrCl{sub 2} and BaCl{sub 2}, respectively, in acceptable agreement with Bockris' data based on different methods.

  18. Difficulties in maintenance of clubfoot abduction brace and solutions - maintenance of clubfoot abduction brace, locks and keys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Iftikhar; Bhatti, Anisuddin; Ali, Parvez; Mahmood, Kashif

    2014-12-01

    To determine the frequency of early relapse after achieving good initial correction in children who were on clubfoot abduction brace. The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, and included parents of children of either gender in the age range of 6 months to 3years with idiopathic clubfoot deformities who had undergone Ponseti treatment between September 2012 and June 2013, and who were on maintenance brace when the data was collected from December 2013 to March 2014. Parents of patients with follow-up duration in brace less than six months and those with syndromic clubfoot deformity were excluded. The interviews were taken through a purposive designed questionnaire. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis. The study included parents of 120 patients. Of them, 95(79.2%) behaved with good compliance on Denis Browne Splint, 10(8.3%) were fair and 15(12.5%)showed poor compliance. Major reason for poor and non-compliance was unaffordability of time and cost for regular follow-up. Besides, 20(16.67%) had inconsistent use due to delay inre-procurement of Foot Abduction Braceonce the child had outgrown the shoe. Only 4(3.33%) talked of cultural barriers and conflict of interest between the parents. Early relapse was observed in 23(19.16%) patients and 6(5%) of them responded to additional treatment and were put back on brace treatment; 13(10.83%) had minor relapse with forefoot varus, without functional disability, and the remaining 4(3.33%) had major relapse requiring extensive surgery. Overall success was recorded in 116(96.67%) cases. The positioning of shoes on abduction brace bar, comfort in shoes, affordability, initial and subsequent delay in procurement of new shoes once the child's feet overgrew the shoe, were the four containable factors on the part of Ponseti practitioner.

  19. Knee Braces to Prevent Injuries in Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Five physicians discuss the use of knee braces to prevent injuries in football players. Questions are raised regarding the strength and design of the braces, whether they prestress the knee in some cases, and whether they actually reduce injuries. More clinical and biomechanical research is called for. (MT)

  20. Automatic locking knee brace joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    This invention is an apparatus for controlling the pivotal movement of a knee brace comprising a tang-and-clevis joint that has been uniquely modified. Both the tang and the clevis have a set of teeth that, when engaged, can lock the tang and the clevis together. In addition, the tang is biased away from the clevis. Consequently, when there is no axial force (i.e., body weight) on the tang, the tang is free to pivot within the clevis. However, when an axial force is exerted on the tang, the tang is pushed into the clevis, both sets of teeth engage, and the tang and the clevis lock together.

  1. Evaluation of the efficiency of the Chêneau brace on scoliosis deformity : A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghi Karimi, Mohammad; Rabczuk, Timon; Kavyani, Mahsa

    2018-03-01

    Scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformity of the spine and rib cage. Depending on the severity of this disease, various kinds of treatment methods have been used and bracing is among the most common. One of the braces which has been used for subjects with scoliosis is the Chêneau brace. The aim of this review was to evaluate the efficiency of the Chêneau brace on the scoliosis curve progression and control based on the available literature. We conducted a Medline search via PubMed, Google Scholar, ISI Web of Sciences, Ebsco and Scopus. Keywords such as Chêneau brace, Chêneau light and CAD/CAM spinal brace were used in combination with scoliosis. The quality of the studies was evaluated by the Down and Black tool. Based on the aforementioned keywords, 55 papers were found. Finally based on the mentioned criteria 14 papers were selected for final analysis. The quality of the studies varied between scores of 13 and 25 using the Down and Black tool. The results of the selected studies confirmed that a good scoliotic curve correction can be achieved with the Chêneau brace. The Chêneau brace provides a 3-dimensional correction of the spinal deformity which not only influences the progression of scoliotic curve but also influences its natural history. It cannot be concluded that the Chêneau brace is superior to other available braces; however, it has been shown that this brace is effective to control the scoliotic curve progression especially in the lumbar and thoracolumbar regions.

  2. Outcome of intensive outpatient rehabilitation and bracing in an adult patient with Scheuermann’s disease evaluated by radiologic imaging—a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagit Berdishevsky

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No studies examine the efficacy of intensive specific physical therapy (PT exercises along with brace for the adult with Scheuermann’s kyphosis (SK. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of intensive PT based on the Barcelona Scoliosis Physical Therapy School (BSPTS and SpinoMed brace on a 76-year-old female with SK. Case Description A 76-year-old female, diagnosed with SK as an adolescent, presented in October 2014 with thoracic hyperkyphosis T1 to T12 Cobb angle of 85° and lumbar hyper lordosis L1 to L5 Cobb angle of 70°. Lumbar scoliosis T12-L5 with 21° Cobb and vertebral rotation 2. Trunk translation in the sagittal plan was 4.5 cm. Intermittent low back pain 6/10 at worst. Quality-of-life score was 3.8 (SRS 22 questionnaire. Method The PT regimen included one-hour Schroth exercise sessions three times per week for 6 months. In addition, a home exercise program (HEP was recommended. Patient also wore a SpinoMed brace for 2 h per day. All tests and measurements were recorded before and after treatment. Results After a six-month treatment period the kyphosis Cobb angle was reduced to 70° and the lordosis Cobb angle improved to 57°. A recent x-ray (October 2015 showed another improvement in the sagittal plane with thoracic kyphosis measuring 64° and lumbar lordosis 55°. Lumbar curvature decreased to 12° and vertebral rotation to 1. The quality-of-life score showed improvement with a score of 4.5 on the SRS 22. Pain score diminished to 2. Trunk deviation improved by 2.2 cm. Conclusion These findings suggest that intensive and specific PT and bracing were successful for the treatment of this adult patient with SK.

  3. Minimally Invasive Osteosynthesis with a Bridge Plate Versus a Functional Brace for Humeral Shaft Fractures: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Fabio Teruo; Tamaoki, Marcel Jun Sugawara; Matsumoto, Marcelo Hide; Netto, Nicola Archetti; Faloppa, Flavio; Belloti, Joao Carlos

    2017-04-05

    Nonoperative treatment has historically been considered the standard for fractures of the shaft of the humerus. Minimally invasive bridge-plate osteosynthesis for isolated humeral shaft fractures has been proven to be a safe technique, with good and reproducible results. This study was designed to compare clinical and radiographic outcomes between patients who had been treated with bridge plate osteosynthesis and those who had been managed nonoperatively with a functional brace. A prospective randomized trial was designed and included 110 patients allocated to 1 of 2 groups: surgery with a bridge plate or nonoperative treatment with a functional brace. The primary outcome was the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score at 6 months. The score on the Short Form-36 (SF-36) life-quality questionnaire, complications of treatment, Constant-Murley score for the shoulder, pain level, and radiographic results were assessed as secondary outcomes. Participants were assessed at 2 weeks; 1, 2, and 6 months; and 1 year after the interventions. The mean DASH score of the bridge plate group was statistically superior to that of the functional brace group (mean scores, 10.9 and 16.9, respectively; p = 0.046) only at 6 months. The bridge plate group also had a significantly more favorable nonunion rate (0% versus 15%) and less mean residual angular displacement seen on the anteroposterior radiograph (2.0° versus 10.5°) (both p bridge plate has a statistically significant advantage, of uncertain clinical benefit, with respect to self-reported outcome (DASH score) at 6 months, nonunion rate, and residual deformity in the coronal plane as seen on radiographs. Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  4. Description of recommended non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document contains description of the technologies selected for inclusions in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Study. The purpose of these descriptions is to provide a more complete description of the INTS technologies. It supplements the summary descriptions of candidate nonthermal technologies that were considered for the INTS.

  5. Description of recommended non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Version 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This document contains description of the technologies selected for inclusions in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Study. The purpose of these descriptions is to provide a more complete description of the INTS technologies. It supplements the summary descriptions of candidate nonthermal technologies that were considered for the INTS

  6. Braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... straighten your teeth and make your smile even better looking. Tooth Talk Lots of kids don't have perfect teeth, so don't worry if yours aren't straight. Take a look at most of your classmates. ...

  7. Bracing in adult with scoliosis: experience in diagnosis and classification from a 15 year prospective study of 739 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Claude de Mauroy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the frequency of adult scoliosis, very few publications concern the conservative orthopaedic treatments. The indications have not been defined to date. The experience of a department specialized in rigid bracing allows us to consolidate and clarify diagnosis and indications as well. Methods Individual observational prospective cohort study from a database started in 1998, with selection of all 739 adult scoliosis patients for which conservative orthopaedic treatment has been proposed to, even in case of drop-out. Scoliosis treated during adolescence and monitored in adulthood are included if a new brace is prescribed. A first descriptive study of the main parameters was performed: gender, age, Cobb angle. A tentative classification according to aetiology, age and angulation is proposed. Results 1 Descriptive Data: The Ratio Female/Male is 88 %, the mean age: 56.97 ± 15.82, the mean Cobb angle: 35.58 ± 17.35. The rate of non-adherent patients not wearing the brace is 17 % (but the plaster cast before bracing was routinely proposed at the time. 2 All patients can be grouped into five diagnoses, all statistically different, according to the age and the initial Cobb angle: Rotatory dislocation: 361 cases, age: 59.73 ± 13.52 (p = 0.05, (Cobb 39.08 ± 16.59 (p = 0.02* Instability and disc disease: 150 cases, age: 46.03 ± 15.49 (p = 0.00*, Cobb: 25.29 ± 12.29 (p = 0.00* Camptocormia: 68 cases, age: 69.78 ± 12.19 (p = 0.00*, Cobb: 38.09 ± 14.23 (p = 0.25 Kyphosis TL or T: 62 cases, age: 60.73 ± 15.51 (p = 0.07, Cobb: 43.34 ± (21.48 (p = 0.00* Disabling pain: 33 cases, age: 48.36 ± 13.73 (p = 0.02*, Cobb: 36.45 ± 25.21 (p = 0.78 Treatment after surgery and in the context of a lumbar stenosis and spondylolisthesis are independent groups. Despite the wide variety of etiologies, nearly 2/3 of patients have a discal pathology like

  8. Functional Brace in ACL Surgery: Force Quantification in an In Vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPrade, Robert F; Venderley, Melanie B; Dahl, Kimi D; Dornan, Grant J; Turnbull, Travis Lee

    2017-07-01

    A need exists for a functional anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) brace that dynamically supports the knee joint to match the angle-dependent forces of a native ACL, especially in the early postoperative period. The purpose of this study was to quantify the posteriorly directed external forces applied to the anterior proximal tibia by both a static and a dynamic force ACL brace. The proximal strap forces applied by the static force brace were hypothesized to remain relatively constant regardless of knee flexion angle compared with those of the dynamic force brace. Controlled laboratory study. Seven healthy adult males (mean age, 27.4 ± 3.4 years; mean height, 1.8 ± 0.1 m; mean body mass, 84.1 ± 11.3 kg) were fitted with both a static and a dynamic force ACL brace. Participants completed 3 functional activities: unloaded extension, sit-to-stand, and stair ascent. Kinematic data were collected using traditional motion-capture techniques while posteriorly directed forces applied to the anterior aspect of both the proximal and distal tibia were simultaneously collected using a customized pressure-mapping technique. The mean posteriorly directed forces applied to the proximal tibia at 30° of flexion by the dynamic force brace during unloaded extension (80.2 N), sit-to-stand (57.5 N), and stair ascent (56.3 N) activities were significantly larger, regardless of force setting, than those applied by the static force brace (10.1 N, 9.5 N, and 11.9 N, respectively; P force ACL brace, compared with the static force brace, applied significantly larger posteriorly directed forces to the anterior proximal tibia in extension, where the ACL is known to experience larger in vivo forces. Further studies are required to determine whether the physiological behavior of the brace will reduce anterior knee laxity and improve long-term patient outcomes. ACL braces that dynamically restrain the proximal tibia in a manner similar to physiological ACL function may improve pre- and

  9. Vertebral Body Stapling versus Bracing for Patients with High-Risk Moderate Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddihy, Laury; Danielsson, Aina J.; Cahill, Patrick J.; Samdani, Amer F.; Grewal, Harsh; Richmond, John M.; Mulcahey, M. J.; Gaughan, John P.; Antonacci, M. Darryl; Betz, Randal R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We report a comparison study of vertebral body stapling (VBS) versus a matched bracing cohort for immature patients with moderate (25 to 44°) idiopathic scoliosis (IS). Methods. 42 of 49 consecutive patients (86%) with IS were treated with VBS and followed for a minimum of 2 years. They were compared to 121 braced patients meeting identical inclusion criteria. 52 patients (66 curves) were matched according to age at start of treatment (10.6 years versus 11.1 years, resp. [P = 0.07]) and gender. Results. For thoracic curves 25–34°, VBS had a success rate (defined as curve progression <10°) of 81% versus 61% for bracing (P = 0.16). In thoracic curves 35–44°, VBS and bracing both had a poor success rate. For lumbar curves, success rates were similar in both groups for curves measuring 25–34°. Conclusion. In this comparison of two cohorts of patients with high-risk (Risser 0-1) moderate IS (25–44°), in smaller thoracic curves (25–34°) VBS provided better results as a clinical trend as compared to bracing. VBS was found not to be effective for thoracic curves ≥35°. For lumbar curves measuring 25–34°, results appear to be similar for both VBS and bracing, at 80% success. PMID:26618169

  10. Effects of protective knee bracing on speed and agility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, D L; Hamson, K R; Bay, R C; Bryce, C D

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of prophylactic knee braces on athlete speed and agility, as well as brace tendency to migrate. Thirty college football players in full gear ran a 40-yard dash and a four-cone agility drill wearing braces on both knees or no brace (control). Braces included the DonJoy Legend, Breg Tradition, OMNI-AKS 101W, McDavid Knee Guard, and models 1 and 2 of the Air Armor Knee and Thigh Protection System. Brace migration and subjective measures were recorded after each trial. In the 40-yard dash, times using Air Armor 1 and OMNI did not differ significantly from control. Times with other braces were significantly slower. In the four-cone drill, only the Breg times were significantly slower than control. The Air Armor 1 and McDavid braces showed significantly less superior/inferior migration in the 40-yard dash than other braces. In the four-cone drill, the Air Armor 1 and 2 showed significantly less superior/inferior migration than other braces. These findings indicate that selected knee braces do not significantly reduce speed or agility. Braces showed a variable tendency to migrate, which could affect their protective function and athlete performance. This information will help athletes and coaches decide about knee-brace use during sports; studies are needed regarding whether braces protect against knee injury. This study does not constitute an endorsement of knee-brace use or efficacy.

  11. A Survey of Parachute Ankle Brace Breakages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knapik, Joseph J; Spiess, Anita; Darakjy, Salima; Grier, Tyson; Manning, Fred; Livingston, Elaine; Swedler, David; Amoroso, Paul; Jones, Bruce H

    2008-01-01

    ...) of the Defense Safety Oversight Council (DSOC) to evaluate the parachute ankle brace (PAB). Information provided by the questionnaire identified potential injury risk factors and comments on the PAB...

  12. A Modern Historical Perspective of Schroth Scoliosis Rehabilitation and Corrective Bracing Techniques for Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moramarco, Kathryn; Borysov, Maksym

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of scoliosis has a long history dating back to Hippocrates and his luxation table. In recent history, conservative rehabilitation treatment methods have come and gone. Some have had more longevity than others and currently there are only a handful of these “schools” for rehabilitation in existence. What is important to note in this twenty-first century world is that any approach to bracing or scoliosis rehabilitation must strive for a correction effect and be as user-friendly as possible. Patients look to achieve some measure of success, whether it be halted Cobb angle, improved breathing function, decreased rotation, or postural improvement via trunk symmetry. Katharina Schroth created her method in 1921 as a result of self-analysis of her own imperfect scoliotic torso and the effect on it as she altered her breathing patterns. It was from these observations and self-experimentation that she devised her rotational angular breathing method. Subsequently, the Schroth method evolved under the leadership of her daughter, Christa Lehnert-Schroth P.T., and grandson, Dr. Hans-Rudolf Weiss. Collaboration with Dr. Jacques Chêneau led to a new Schroth method compatible scoliosis bracing approach. The most recent advancement of Chêneau bracing is the Gensingen Brace® (GBW). Gensingen braces have an asymmetric design and rely on Schroth principles of correction in a smaller, lighter, more wearer-friendly brace. Each brace is designed to be a complementary supportive orthosis. It may be used independently, or in conjunction with Schroth exercise protocols. PMID:29399223

  13. User Survey of 3 Ankle Braces in Soccer, Volleyball, and Running: Which Brace Fits Best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Kasper; Van Den Berg, Anjulie; Van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert

    2017-08-01

      Recurrence rates for ankle sprains are high. Therefore, preventive measures such as ankle bracing during sports are recommended.   To systematically evaluate the perceived ease of use, quality, comfort, stability, and hindrance of and the overall satisfaction with 3 contemporary brace types in 3 types of sports.   Randomized comparative user survey.   Recreational sports: soccer, volleyball, and running.   Young adult recreational athletes (29 soccer players, 26 volleyball players, and 31 runners).   Compression brace (CB), lace-up brace (LB), and semirigid brace (SB).   Rating of perceived ease of use, quality, comfort, stability, and hindrance of and overall satisfaction with the brace types during sports on a 5-point Likert scale. The secondary outcome measure was participants' willingness to buy the tested brace.   Overall, the 3 brace types received high mean scores for ease of use and quality. Soccer players preferred the CB over both alternatives, considering the higher scores for comfort (CB = 4.0, LB = 3.5, SB = 2.8), hindrance (CB = 3.7, LB = 2.9, SB = 2.8), overall satisfaction (CB = 3.6, LB = 3.0, SB = 2.5), and greatest willingness to buy this brace. Volleyball players preferred the LB over both alternatives, considering the higher scores for stability (LB = 4.2, CB = 3.2, SB = 3.3), overall satisfaction (LB = 3.8, CB = 3.0, SB = 3.0), and greatest willingness to buy this brace. Runners preferred the CB over both alternatives considering the better score for hindrance (CB = 3.6, LB = 2.8, SB = 2.9) and greatest willingness to buy this brace.   All 3 ankle-brace types scored high on perceived ease of use and quality. Regarding the brace types, soccer players, volleyball players, and runners differed in their assessments of subjective evaluation of comfort, stability, hindrance, overall satisfaction, and willingness to buy the brace. Soccer players and runners preferred the CB, whereas volleyball players preferred the LB.

  14. Tibial shaft fractures treated with functional braces. Experience with 780 fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, A; Gersten, L M; Sobol, P A; Shankwiler, J A; Vangsness, C T

    1989-08-01

    We have reviewed our recent results with functional bracing of tibial shaft fractures in adults in order to define its role in management. We also analysed several parameters of these fractures to discover those which influence healing. A total of 780 tibial fractures treated in prefabricated functional braces were followed to union; shortening of less than 10 mm and angulation of less than 5 degrees in any plane were our parameters for successful treatment. The average time before applying a brace was 3.8 weeks for closed fractures and 5.2 weeks for open ones. Closed fractures healed in an average of 17.4 weeks and open fractures in an average of 21.7 weeks, 90% of them with 10 mm of shortening or less. Varus angulation and posterior angulation were the most common deformities encountered at union. There were 20 nonunions (2.5%) and 46 braces were discontinued during treatment. We found no association between fracture healing and the patient's age, the mechanism of injury or the fracture location. The degree of soft tissue injury appeared to have most influence on the speed of fracture healing. Fracture comminution and initial displacement, the condition of the fibula and the time from injury to bracing also appeared to affect the speed of union.

  15. Development and preliminary validation of Brace Questionnaire (BrQ: a new instrument for measuring quality of life of brace treated scoliotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gkoltsiou Konstantina

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of life among children with idiopathic scoliosis during their adolescence has been reported to be affected by the brace itself. However, a controversy exists whether brace treated scoliotics experience a poor quality of life, thus there is a need for the development of a brace-oriented instrument, as the now-existing questionnaires that are commonly used, such as the SRS -22, take into consideration the effects of both the conservative and the surgical treatment on quality of life of scoliotic children. The aim of the present study is to assess the validity and reliability of Brace Questionnaire (BrQ, a new instrument for measuring quality of life of scoliotic adolescents who are treated conservatively with a brace. Material-method Methodology of development involved literature review, patient and health care professionals' in-depth interviews and content validity analysis on patients. A validation study was performed on 28 brace treated scoliotic children aged between 9 and 18 years old. BrQ was assessed for the following psychometric properties: item convergent validity, floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency reliability, clinical validity and responsiveness to change. Results BrQ is self administrated and developmentally appropriate for ages 9 to 18 years old and is consisted of 34 Likert-scale items associated with eight domains: general health perception, physical functioning, emotional functioning, self esteem and aesthetics, vitality, school activity, bodily pain and social functioning of scoliotic children treated conservatively with a brace. The subscales of these eight dimensions can be combined to produce a total score. Higher scores mean a better quality of life. An item convergent validity ≥ 0.40 was satisfied by all items in the present study. A satisfactory internal consistency reliability for the BrQ was recorded (Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.82. There were no floor or ceiling

  16. 49 CFR 195.208 - Welding of supports and braces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding of supports and braces. 195.208 Section 195.208 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.208 Welding of supports and braces. Supports or braces may...

  17. Treatment results in qualitative designs. Application of Descriptive Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Blas Lahitte

    2014-04-01

    It discusses two examples from the Ethology and Psychology, applying methodological strategy Descriptive Analysis. They show that the codification that allows this method takes into account on the one hand, the knowledge base and information relating to a particular disciplinary domain; and on the other hand, it allows to make evident the inferences followed in the reasoning and the rules of interpretation used in reaching new knowledge.

  18. Prospective evaluation of the use of Mitchell shoes and dynamic abduction brace for idiopathic clubfeet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, David Y; Finberg, Naomi S; Conklin, Michael J; Doyle, John Scott; Khoury, Joseph G; Gilbert, Shawn R

    2014-11-01

    Ponseti treatment for clubfoot has been successful, but recurrence continues to be an issue. After correction, patients are typically braced full time with a static abduction bar and shoes. Patient compliance with bracing is a modifiable risk factor for recurrence. We hypothesized that the use of Mitchell shoes and a dynamic abduction brace would increase compliance and thereby reduce the rate of recurrence. A prospective, randomized trial was carried out with consecutive patients treated for idiopathic clubfeet from 2008 to 2012. After casting and tenotomy, patients were randomized into either the dynamic or static abduction bar group. Both groups used Mitchell shoes. Patient demographics, satisfaction, and compliance were measured with self-reported questionnaires throughout follow-up. Thirty patients were followed up, with 15 in each group. Average follow-up was 18.7 months (range 3-40.7 months). Eight recurrences (26.7%) were found, with four in each group. Recurrences had a statistically significant higher number of casts and a longer follow-up time. Mean income, education level, patient-reported satisfaction and compliance, and age of caregiver tended to be lower in the recurrence group but were not statistically significant. No differences were found between the two brace types. Our study showed excellent patient satisfaction and reported compliance with Mitchell shoes and either the dynamic or static abduction bar. Close attention and careful education should be directed towards patients with known risk factors or difficult casting courses to maximize brace compliance, a modifiable risk factor for recurrence.

  19. Use of demonstrably effective therapies in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes: comparison between different Brazilian regions. Analysis of the Brazilian Registry on Acute Coronary Syndromes (BRACE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau, José Carlos; Franken, Marcelo; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos; Marin Neto, José Antonio; Lima, Felipe Gallego; Dutra, Oscar; Knobel, Elias; de Oliveira, Cesar Cardoso; Timerman, Sérgio; Stefanini, Edson

    2012-04-01

    Little is known in our country about regional differences in the treatment of acute coronary disease. To analyze the behavior regarding the use of demonstrably effective regional therapies in acute coronary disease. A total of 71 hospitals were randomly selected, respecting the proportionality of the country in relation to geographic location, among other criteria. In the overall population was regionally analyzed the use of aspirin, clopidogrel, ACE inhibitors / AT1 blocker, beta-blockers and statins, separately and grouped by individual score ranging from 0 (no drug used) to 100 (all drugs used). In myocardial infarction with ST elevation (STEMI) regional differences were analyzed regarding the use of therapeutic recanalization (fibrinolytics and primary angioplasty). In the overall population, within the first 24 hours of hospitalization, the mean score in the North-Northeast (70.5 ± 22.1) was lower (p Southeast (77.7 ± 29.5), Midwest (82 ± 22.1) and South (82.4 ± 21) regions. At hospital discharge, the score of the North-Northeast region (61.4 ± 32.9) was lower (p Southeast (69.2 ± 31.6), Midwest (65.3 ± 33.6) and South (73.7 ± 28.1) regions; additionally, the score of the Midwest was lower (p region. In STEMI, the use of recanalization therapies was highest in the Southeast (75.4%, p = 0.001 compared to the rest of the country), and lowest in the North-Northeast (52.5%, p regional differences.

  20. Longitudinal assessment of periodontal status in patients with nickel allergy treated with conventional and nickel-free braces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzini, Camila Alessandra; Marques, Leandro Silva; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Júnior, Gilberto Oliveira; Pereira, Luciano José; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2012-07-01

    To perform a longitudinal comparison of periodontal status in allergic individuals treated with conventional and nickel-free braces. Forty-two individuals allergic to nickel were randomly divided into two groups: those receiving conventional braces (n  =  21) and those receiving nickel-free braces (n  =  21). Periodontal status (gingival hyperplasia, change in color and bleeding) was assessed before treatment (T0) and at 3-month intervals for 12 months (T1, T2, T3, and T4), using the Löe Index. Evaluations were performed blindly by a single, calibrated examiner, followed by prophylaxis and orientations regarding oral hygiene. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test for comparisons of the gingival index between groups and Friedman's test for successive comparisons between sessions in the same group (P ≤ .05). Periodontal status did not differ between groups in the initial 9 months of treatment, whereas significant differences were found at T3 and T4 (.039 and .047, respectively). Individuals wearing conventional appliances had higher mean gingival index scores than those wearing nickel-free braces. Individuals with an allergy to nickel exhibit better periodontal health when treated with nickel-free braces than with conventional braces.

  1. Body Image and Quality-of-Life in Untreated Versus Brace-Treated Females With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieger, Traci; Campo, Shelly; Weinstein, Stuart L; Dolan, Lori A; Ashida, Sato; Steuber, Keli R

    2016-02-01

    The Bracing in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Trial (BrAIST) included skeletally immature high-risk patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) with moderate curve sizes (20°- 40°). BrAIST was a multicenter, controlled trial using both randomized and preference treatment arms into either an observation group or a brace treatment group. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare body image and quality-of-life (QOL) in female AIS patients who were observed or treated with a brace. Brace treatment is an effective means for controlling progressive scoliosis and preventing the need for surgery, but there is no consensus regarding the effect of brace treatment on body image or on QOL in adolescents with AIS. Data from female BrAIST patients in the randomized (n = 132) or preference (n = 187) arms and were observed (n = 120) or brace treated (n = 199) were analyzed. Patients completed the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ) and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQOL) 4.0 Generic Scales at baseline and 6 month follow-up visits up to 2 years. Items on the SAQ measured three body image constructs (self, ideal, and overall). The PedsQOL measured health, activities, feelings, social factors, and school. . In general, there were no significant differences within or between study arms or treatments regarding body image or QOL through 2 years of follow-up. Poorer body image was significantly correlated with poorer QOL during the first 2 years of follow-up regardless of study arm or treatment. Patients who crossed-over to a different treatment and patients with largest Cobb angles ≥ 40 degrees had significantly poorer body image, in particular self-body image, compared with those that did not. This study does not support findings from previous research indicating that wearing a brace has a negative impact on or is negatively impacted by body image or QOL. 2.

  2. Cu-capped surface alloys of Pt/Cu left brace 100 right brace

    CERN Document Server

    Alshamaileh, E; Wander, A

    2003-01-01

    The room-temperature deposition of 0.5 monolayer (ML) Pt on Cu left brace 100 right brace followed by annealing to 525 K results in a sharp c(2 x 2) low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) pattern. The structure of this surface alloy is investigated by means of symmetrized automated tensor low-energy electron diffraction (SATLEED) analysis and ab initio plane wave density functional calculations. The results are then compared with those for the similar system 0.5 ML Pd/Cu left brace 100 right brace. SATLEED results for the Pt/Cu left brace 100 right brace show that it consists of an ordered c(2 x 2) Cu-Pt second layer alloy capped with a pure Cu first layer. The first and second interlayer spacings are found to be expanded by +5.1 +- 1.7 and +3.5 +- 1.7% respectively (relative to the bulk Cu interlayer spacing of 1.807 A) due to the insertion of the 8% larger Pt atoms into the second layer. The ordered mixed layer is found to be rippled by 0.08 +- 0.06 A with Pt atoms rippled outwards towards the solid-vacuum ...

  3. A Survey of Parachute Ankle Brace Breakages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-10

    ankle stablizers in preventing ankle injuries . American Journal of Sports Medicine. 16: 228–233. 14...Schmidt MD, Sulsky SI, and Amoroso PJ (2005). Effectiveness of an external ankle brace in reducing parachute-related ankle injuries . Injury Prevention ...and Horodyski M (1994). The efficacy of a semirigid ankle stabilizer to reduce acute ankle injury in basketball . American Journal of Sports

  4. Combining valgus knee brace and lateral foot wedges reduces external forces and moments in osteoarthritis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jafarnezhadgero, Amir Ali; Oliveira, Anderson S.; Mousavi, Seyed Hamed; Madadi-Shad, Morteza

    Osteoarthritis progression can be related to the external knee adduction and flexion moments during walking. Lateral foot wedges and knee braces have been used as treatment for osteoarthritis, but little is known about their influence on knee joint moments generated in the sagittal and frontal

  5. The Effects of Counterforce Brace Size on the Wrist Range of Motility, Pain, Grip & Wrist Extension Sterngth in Normal Subjects and Patients with Tennis Elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Jameh-Bozorgi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Counter force brace is one of the most usefull treatments for lateral opicondylitis (Tennis elbow because it decreases grip pain and increases the power of grip, power of wrist extension and Wrist Range of Motility. The purpose of this quasi experimental (repeated measurementsstudy was to determine the effect of 3 counterforce brace sizes on the wrist R.O.M, grip and wrist extension strength and pain intensity in two groups of healthy subjects and patients with tennis elbow. Materials & Methods: 18 normal subjects & 18 patients with tennis elbow were selected simple conveniently and were tested with no brace and 3 size of counterforce (1,2 and 3 inches. The R.O.M , strength and pain intensity were measured by jamar goniometry and Nicholas MMT dynamometry & VAS, respectively. Results: 1 With all sizes there was a significant decrease of R.O.M on normal subjects but no significant difference in patients. 2 There was a significant decrease of grip strength with 1-inch brace in normal subjects but a significant increase of grip strength with 2 and 3-inch brace in patiens. 3 All sizes of brace caused significant decrease of extension strength in normal subjects but increase in patients. 4All size caused significant decrease of pain intensity that was more considerable in the case of 2 and 3 inch size. Conclusion: The results shows that the counterforce brace may be considered as an effective treatment for increasing strength and decreasing pain in patients with tennis elbow.

  6. Isobaric (vapour + liquid) equilibria data for the binary systems {l_brace}1,2-dichloroethane (1) + toluene (2){r_brace} and {l_brace}1,2-dichloroethane (1) + acetic acid (2){r_brace} at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasdemir, I. Metin [Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Department, Unit Operation and Thermodynamic Division, 34320, Istanbul (Turkey); Uslu, Hasan [Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Department, Unit Operation and Thermodynamic Division, 34320, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: hasanuslu@gmail.com

    2007-08-15

    In this study for two binary systems {l_brace}1,2-dichloroethane (1) + toluene (2){r_brace} and {l_brace}1,2- dichloroethane (1) + acetic acid (2){r_brace}, the isobaric (vapour + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) data have been measured at atmospheric pressure. An all-glass Fischer-Labodest type capable of handling pressures from (0.25 to 400) kPa and temperatures up to 523.15 K was used. Experimental uncertainties for pressure, temperature, and composition have been calculated for each binary system. The data were correlated by means of the NRTL, UNIQUAC, UNIFAC, and Wilson models with satisfactory results.

  7. Twitter analysis of the orthodontic patient experience with braces vs Invisalign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Daniel; Mahon, Brendan; Shroff, Bhavna; Carrico, Caroline; Lindauer, Steven J

    2017-05-01

    To examine the orthodontic patient experience having braces compared with Invisalign by means of a large-scale Twitter sentiment analysis. A custom data collection program was created that collected tweets containing the words "braces" or "Invisalign" for a period of 5 months. A hierarchal Naïve Bayes sentiment analysis classifier was developed to sort the tweets into five categories: positive, negative, neutral, advertisement, or not applicable. Each category was then analyzed for specific content. A total of 419,363 tweets applicable to orthodontics were collected. Users posted significantly more positive tweets (61%) than they did negative tweets (39%; P ≤ .0001). There was no significant difference in the distribution of positive and negative sentiment between braces and Invisalign tweets (P = .4189). Positive orthodontics-related tweets often highlighted gratitude for a great smile accompanied with selfies. Negative orthodontic tweets frequently focused on pain. Twitter users expressed more positive than negative sentiment about orthodontic treatment with no significant difference in sentiment between braces and Invisalign tweets.

  8. Lingual orthodontic appliances: invisible braces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, J C

    1991-04-01

    Lingual orthodontics is a relatively new method of delivering orthodontic treatment. These appliances may be used on any patient, but they have a special application for that small group of adult patients who need orthodontic treatment but refuse to accept the appearance of conventional appliances. The technique is difficult to manage and should be used only by experienced orthodontists. Although the patients may experience difficulties, these are usually adequately compensated for by the improved aesthetics.

  9. Effectiveness of the SpineCor brace based on the new standardized criteria proposed by the scoliosis research society for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coillard, Christine; Vachon, Valerie; Circo, Alin B; Beauséjour, Marie; Rivard, Charles H

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Dynamic SpineCor brace for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in accordance with the standardized criteria proposed by the Scoliosis Research Society Committee on Bracing and Nonoperative Management. They proposed these guidelines to make the comparison among studies more valid and reliable. From 1993 to 2006, 493 patients were treated using the SpineCor brace. Two hundred forty-nine patients met the criteria for inclusion, and 79 patients were still actively being treated. Overall, 170 patients have a definitive outcome. All girls were premenarchal or less than 1 year postmenarchal. Assessment of brace effectiveness included (1) percentage of patients who have 5 degrees or less curve progression, and percentage of patients who have 6 degrees or more progression; (2) percentage of patients who have been recommended/undergone surgery before skeletal maturity; (3) percentage of patients with curves exceeding 45 degrees at maturity (end of treatment); and (4) Two-year follow-up beyond maturity to determine the percentage of patients who subsequently underwent surgery. Successful treatment (correction, >5 degrees, or stabilization, +/-5 degrees) was achieved in 101 (59.4%) of the 170 patients from the time of the fitting of the SpineCor brace to the point in which it was discontinued. Thirty-nine immature patients (22.9%) required surgical fusion while receiving treatment. Two (1.2%) of 170 patients had curves exceeding 45 degrees at maturity. One mature patient (2.1%) required surgery within 2 years of follow-up beyond skeletal maturity. The conclusion drawn from these findings is that the SpineCor brace is effective for the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Moreover, positive outcomes are maintained after 2 years because 45 (95.7%) of 47 patients stabilized or corrected their end of bracing Cobb angle up to 2 years after bracing. Therapeutic study-investigating the

  10. Comfort and acceptability of various immobilization positions using a shoulder external rotation and abduction brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatta, Taku; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Sano, Hirotaka; Itoi, Eiji

    2017-03-01

    Immobilization with shoulder braces is used for conservative treatment of an initial shoulder dislocation. Various arm positions have been investigated to determine optimal position in terms of the anatomical reduction of the Bankart lesion. Recently, the effect of immobilization in shoulder abduction as well as in external rotation has been reported. However, there are few studies assessing subjects' acceptability of the brace in various arm positions. We hypothesized that a certain arm position regarding abduction or external rotation for immobilization would induce significant discomfort during activities of daily living. A dominant arm of 20 healthy participants was immobilized with a shoulder brace in 4 different positions; adduction and internal rotation (Add-IR), adduction and external rotation (Add-ER), 30° of abduction and 30° of external rotation (Abd-30ER), and 30° of abduction and 60° of external rotation (Abd-60ER). After completing immobilization for 24 h, subjects were asked to assess the discomfort of bracing for overall and individual activities, using a visual analogue scale. Data were compared among the four positions. For overall activities and several activities (eating, reading books, and removing and putting on pants), Abd-60ER was significantly more uncomfortable than adducted arm positions. Abd-30ER did not show any differences compared to the other arm positions. Immobilization in abduction and external rotation seems to be acceptable although the arm position in 30° of abduction and 60° of external rotation is less comfortable than the others. Our results might be useful in determining and developing the ideal shoulder brace which could keep patients' compliance and improve their outcomes. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical Outcomes of a Pneumatic Unloader Brace for Kellgren-Lawrence Grades 3 to 4 Osteoarthritis: A Minimum 1-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chughtai, Morad; Bhave, Anil; Khan, Sabahat Z; Khlopas, Anton; Ali, Osman; Harwin, Steven F; Mont, Michael A

    2016-11-01

    The use of a pneumatic unloader brace has been shown in pilot studies to decrease pain and increase muscle strength in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Therefore, we analyzed patients who had knee OA, and either received a pneumatic unloader brace and conventional treatment or conventional treatment alone. Specifically, we assessed: (1) use of pain relieving injections; (2) opioid consumption; and (3) the eventual need for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the above-mentioned cohort. We performed an analysis of a longitudinally maintained database of patients from a prospective, randomized, single center study. This study randomized patients who had Kellgren-Lawrence grades 3 to 4 to receive either a pneumatic unloader brace and conventional treatment or conventional treatment alone. The brace cohort comprised 11 patients with a mean age of 55 years (range, 37-70 years). The final matched cohort comprised 25 patients with a mean age of 63 years (range, 41-86 years). The minimum follow-up was 1 year. There was a lower proportion of patients who underwent an eventual TKA in the bracing cohort as compared with the nonbracing cohort (18 vs. 36%). The mean time to TKA was longer in the bracing cohort as compared with the nonbracing cohort (482 vs. 389 days). The proportion of patients who used opioids was similar in both groups (27 vs. 22%). There was a significantly lower number of patients who received injections in the bracing cohort as compared with the nonbracing cohort (46 vs. 83%, p  = 0.026). The bracing cohort had received a significantly lower number of injections and a lower rate of subsequent TKA as compared with the nonbracing cohort. The mean time to TKA was also longer among the bracing cohort. These results may demonstrate the potential of this brace to reduce the need for and prolonging the time to TKA. Performing larger prospective randomized studies, with built-in compliance monitors is warranted. This brace may be a valuable adjunct to the

  12. Comparison of in-and outpatients protocols for providence night time only bracing in AIS patients -- compliance and satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Aubaidi, Zaid Tj; Tropp, Hans; Pedersen, Niels W

    2013-01-01

    of this study is to compare compliance and satisfaction in hospitalization and out patient clinic protocols, at the initiation phase of brace treatment.Materials and methodsTwenty-four consecutive patients with AIS were initiated with the Providence night time only brace at our department between October 2008...... (9-14). Scoliosis Quality of Life Index (SQLI) was used together with the Odense Scoliosis questionnaire, which was developed for this study. Compliance was measured using the patients' own statements and the Landauer compliance scoring system.Findings/resultsThe two groups' matches regarding the age...

  13. Three dimensional analysis of brace biomechanical efficacy for patients with AIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebel, David E; Al-Aubaidi, Zaid; Shin, Eyun-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Corrective three dimensional (3D) effect of different braces is debatable. We evaluated differences in in-brace radiographic correction comparing a custom thoracic-lumbo-sacral-orthosis (TLSO) (T) brace to a Chêneau type TLSO (C) brace using 3D EOS reconstruction technology. Our primary research ...

  14. Overweight is not predictive of bracing failure in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: results from a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaina, Fabio; Donzelli, Sabrina; Negrini, Stefano

    2017-06-01

    Overweight was found to be a negative predictor of brace effectiveness for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), with a threefold higher risk of progression than in normal weight patients. The aim of this study is to investigate overweight, as a predictor of brace results in AIS patients. Design: retrospective cohort study. 351 AIS patients (306 females), mean age 12.9 ± 1.4, mean Cobb 35.6 ± 11.4°, mean ATR 11 ± 4.3°, BMI 19.7 ± 3, median Risser: 2. no previous treatment, full-time prescription of brace at first visit (18-23 h per day), scoliosis physiotherapeutic exercise according to the SEAS protocol associated. improved, progressed, and stable according to the 5° Cobb agreed threshold. a stepwise linear regression was used to look for the effect of BMI as a predictor of result. A Chi-square test and logistic regression were used for the overweight category (BMI ≥ 85th percentile). Control for possible confounders was applied. BMI is poorly correlated with final results. Confounders' adjustment did not change the correlation, and the predictive model explained about 10% of the result. Brace results were not statistically different in overweight and normal weight: 44 vs 52% improved, 52 vs 41% stable, and 3 vs 7% worsened, respectively. Brace results were similar in overweight and normal weight subjects. These findings subvert the previous results and disprove the role of overweight as a negative predictor. Treatment management, brace type and effectiveness may play a major role in reducing the risks of scoliosis progression.

  15. Treatment of the mentally ill chemical abuser: description of the Hutchings Day Treatment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, K B

    1989-01-01

    Drug and alcohol abuse represents a major obstacle to the successful rehabilitation of psychiatrically-disabled persons. Prevalence estimates for current chemical abuse among individuals in psychiatric treatment range from 24% to 49%. Although specialized treatment programs for mentally ill chemical abusers (MICAs) have recently been developed, few of these innovative programs are described in the literature. This paper presents main features of the MICA Day Treatment Program at the Richard H. Hutchings Psychiatric Center, including staffing, schedule, maintenance of a drug-free treatment environment, and therapeutic programming. Recommendations are offered for treatment providers who are developing their own services for MICAs.

  16. The Treatment Engagement Rating scale (TER) for forensic outpatient treatment : Description, psychometric properties, and norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drieschner, Klaus Heinrich; Boomsma, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The Treatment Engagement Rating scale (TER) is a Dutch therapist rating instrument for treatment engagement (TE) of forensic outpatients. It yields scores for nine components of TE, which are aggregated in a total score. Following an analysis of the concept of TE, the TER is described, and various

  17. One-Session Treatment of Specific Phobias: A Detailed Description and Review of Treatment Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlomke, Kimberly; Davis, Thompson E., III

    2008-01-01

    One-Session Treatment (OST) is a form of massed exposure therapy for the treatment of specific phobias. OST combines exposure, participant modeling, cognitive challenges, and reinforcement in a single session, maximized to three hours. Clients are gradually exposed to steps of their fear hierarchy using therapist-directed behavioral experiments.…

  18. A user`s guide to LUGSAN II. A computer program to calculate and archive lug and sway brace loads for aircraft-carried stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, W.N. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Mechanical and Thermal Environments Dept.

    1998-03-01

    LUG and Sway brace ANalysis (LUGSAN) II is an analysis and database computer program that is designed to calculate store lug and sway brace loads for aircraft captive carriage. LUGSAN II combines the rigid body dynamics code, SWAY85, with a Macintosh Hypercard database to function both as an analysis and archival system. This report describes the LUGSAN II application program, which operates on the Macintosh System (Hypercard 2.2 or later) and includes function descriptions, layout examples, and sample sessions. Although this report is primarily a user`s manual, a brief overview of the LUGSAN II computer code is included with suggested resources for programmers.

  19. A user`s guide to LUGSAN 1.1: A computer program to calculate and archive lug and sway brace loads for aircraft-carried stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, W.N. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Experimental Structural Dynamics Dept.

    1994-07-01

    LUGSAN (LUG and Sway brace ANalysis) is a analysis and database computer program designed to calculate store lug and sway brace loads from aircraft captive carriage. LUGSAN combines the rigid body dynamics code, SWAY85 and the maneuver calculation code, MILGEN, with an INGRES database to function both as an analysis and archival system. This report describes the operation of the LUGSAN application program, including function description, layout examples, and sample sessions. This report is intended to be a user`s manual for version 1.1 of LUGSAN operating on the VAX/VMS system. The report is not intended to be a programmer or developer`s manual.

  20. Behaviour of Strengthened RC Frames with Eccentric Steel Braced Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamanli Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After devastating earthquakes in recent years, strengthening of reinforced concrete buildings became an important research topic. Reinforced concrete buildings can be strengthened by steel braced frames. These steel braced frames may be made of concentrically or eccentrically indicated in Turkish Earthquake Code 2007. In this study pushover analysis of the 1/3 scaled 1 reinforced concrete frame and 1/3 scaled 4 strengthened reinforced concrete frames with internal eccentric steel braced frames were conducted by SAP2000 program. According to the results of the analyses conducted, load-displacement curves of the specimens were compared and evaluated. Adding eccentric steel braces to the bare frame decreased the story drift, and significantly increased strength, stiffness and energy dissipation capacity. In this strengthening method lateral load carrying capacity, stiffness and dissipated energy of the structure can be increased.

  1. Behaviour of Strengthened RC Frames with Eccentric Steel Braced Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanli, Mehmet; Unal, Alptug

    2017-10-01

    After devastating earthquakes in recent years, strengthening of reinforced concrete buildings became an important research topic. Reinforced concrete buildings can be strengthened by steel braced frames. These steel braced frames may be made of concentrically or eccentrically indicated in Turkish Earthquake Code 2007. In this study pushover analysis of the 1/3 scaled 1 reinforced concrete frame and 1/3 scaled 4 strengthened reinforced concrete frames with internal eccentric steel braced frames were conducted by SAP2000 program. According to the results of the analyses conducted, load-displacement curves of the specimens were compared and evaluated. Adding eccentric steel braces to the bare frame decreased the story drift, and significantly increased strength, stiffness and energy dissipation capacity. In this strengthening method lateral load carrying capacity, stiffness and dissipated energy of the structure can be increased.

  2. Effect of uniaxial strain on adatom diffusion across {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}-faceted step

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Jianyu, E-mail: wuliyangjianyu@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Maths and Physics, Hunan Institute of Engineering, Donghu Street, Xiangtan 411104 (China); Hu Wangyu, E-mail: Wangyuhu2001@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Tang Jianfeng [Department of Applied Physics, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China)

    2011-02-01

    Diffusion of Pt adatom across the strained {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}-faceted step is studied by embedded atom method along with nudged elastic band method. For adatom on the flat (1 1 1) surface, the anisotropic diffusion behavior is found as the uniaxial strain is imposed. For the strained {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}-faceted step, our results show that the maximum energy barrier for adatom crossing step edge remains approximately constant as the strain varied from -1.0% to 1.0%, and there is a rise as the larger uniaxial strain is applied. The calculated energy barrier for adatom diffusion along the step edge increases with increasing tensile strain, and the slope of the straight line is small.

  3. A descriptive model of patient readiness, motivators, and hepatitis C treatment uptake among Australian prisoners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Yap

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV has a significant global health burden with an estimated 2%-3% of the world's population infected, and more than 350,000 dying annually from HCV-related conditions including liver failure and liver cancer. Prisons potentially offer a relatively stable environment in which to commence treatment as they usually provide good access to health care providers, and are organised around routine and structure. Uptake of treatment of HCV, however, remains low in the community and in prisons. In this study, we explored factors affecting treatment uptake inside prisons and hypothesised that prisoners have unique issues influencing HCV treatment uptake as a consequence of their incarceration which are not experienced in other populations. METHOD AND FINDINGS: We undertook a qualitative study exploring prisoners' accounts of why they refused, deferred, delayed or discontinued HCV treatment in prison. Between 2010 and 2013, 116 Australian inmates were interviewed from prisons in New South Wales, Queensland, and Western Australia. Prisoners experienced many factors similar to those which influence treatment uptake of those living with HCV infection in the community. Incarceration, however, provides different circumstances of how these factors are experienced which need to be better understood if the number of prisoners receiving treatment is to be increased. We developed a descriptive model of patient readiness and motivators for HCV treatment inside prisons and discussed how we can improve treatment uptake among prisoners. CONCLUSION: This study identified a broad and unique range of challenges to treatment of HCV in prison. Some of these are likely to be diminished by improving treatment options and improved models of health care delivery. Other barriers relate to inmate understanding of their illness and stigmatisation by other inmates and custodial staff and generally appear less amenable to change although there

  4. A Descriptive Model of Patient Readiness, Motivators, and Hepatitis C Treatment Uptake among Australian Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Lorraine; Carruthers, Susan; Thompson, Sandra; Cheng, Wendy; Jones, Jocelyn; Simpson, Paul; Richards, Alun; Thein, Hla-Hla; Haber, Paul; Lloyd, Andrew; Butler, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) has a significant global health burden with an estimated 2%–3% of the world's population infected, and more than 350,000 dying annually from HCV-related conditions including liver failure and liver cancer. Prisons potentially offer a relatively stable environment in which to commence treatment as they usually provide good access to health care providers, and are organised around routine and structure. Uptake of treatment of HCV, however, remains low in the community and in prisons. In this study, we explored factors affecting treatment uptake inside prisons and hypothesised that prisoners have unique issues influencing HCV treatment uptake as a consequence of their incarceration which are not experienced in other populations. Method and Findings We undertook a qualitative study exploring prisoners' accounts of why they refused, deferred, delayed or discontinued HCV treatment in prison. Between 2010 and 2013, 116 Australian inmates were interviewed from prisons in New South Wales, Queensland, and Western Australia. Prisoners experienced many factors similar to those which influence treatment uptake of those living with HCV infection in the community. Incarceration, however, provides different circumstances of how these factors are experienced which need to be better understood if the number of prisoners receiving treatment is to be increased. We developed a descriptive model of patient readiness and motivators for HCV treatment inside prisons and discussed how we can improve treatment uptake among prisoners. Conclusion This study identified a broad and unique range of challenges to treatment of HCV in prison. Some of these are likely to be diminished by improving treatment options and improved models of health care delivery. Other barriers relate to inmate understanding of their illness and stigmatisation by other inmates and custodial staff and generally appear less amenable to change although there is potential for

  5. Electronic problem-solving treatment: description and pilot study of an interactive media treatment for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartreine, James Albert; Locke, Steven E; Buckey, Jay C; Sandoval, Luis; Hegel, Mark T

    2012-09-25

    Computer-automated depression interventions rely heavily on users reading text to receive the intervention. However, text-delivered interventions place a burden on persons with depression and convey only verbal content. The primary aim of this project was to develop a computer-automated treatment for depression that is delivered via interactive media technology. By using branching video and audio, the program simulates the experience of being in therapy with a master clinician who provides six sessions of problem-solving therapy. A secondary objective was to conduct a pilot study of the program's usability, acceptability, and credibility, and to obtain an initial estimate of its efficacy. The program was produced in a professional multimedia production facility and incorporates video, audio, graphics, animation, and text. Failure analyses of patient data are conducted across sessions and across problems to identify ways to help the user improve his or her problem solving. A pilot study was conducted with persons who had minor depression. An experimental group (n = 7) used the program while a waitlist control group (n = 7) was provided with no treatment for 6 weeks. All of the experimental group participants completed the trial, whereas 1 from the control was lost to follow-up. Experimental group participants rated the program high on usability, acceptability, and credibility. The study was not powered to detect clinical improvement, although these pilot data are encouraging. Although the study was not powered to detect treatment effects, participants did find the program highly usable, acceptable, and credible. This suggests that the highly interactive and immersive nature of the program is beneficial. Further clinical trials are warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00906581; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00906581 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6A5Ni5HUp).

  6. Abduction bracing for residual acetabular dysplasia in infantile DDH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Itai; Flynn, John M; Sankar, Wudbhav N

    2013-01-01

    Abduction bracing is often used to treat residual acetabular dysplasia in infants whose acetabular indices (AI) exceed 30 degrees after 6 months of age. However, little data exist to support this practice. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of part-time abduction bracing in treating residual acetabular dysplasia by comparing a cohort of braced infants with a cohort of unbraced infants. We performed a retrospective review of a consecutive series of patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) treated at our institution over 4 years. Children with stable, treated DDH but residual acetabular dysplasia at 6 months of age were identified; those with available anteroposterior pelvic radiographs at 6 months and 1 year of age were included. Patients who required open surgical reduction and those with syndromic or neuromuscular diagnoses were excluded. On the basis of practice variations at our institution, some orthopaedists start bracing when the 6-month radiograph demonstrates an AI≥30 degrees, whereas others do not; we compared these 2 cohorts. Braced patients were instructed to wear an abduction orthosis during nights and naps until follow-up at 1 year of age. The AI at 6 months and 1 year of age for both cohorts were then measured by a single observer and the differences compared. Seventy-six hips in 52 patients were identified with residual dysplasia on the 6-month radiograph. Thirty-nine hips (27 patients) were unbraced, 31 hips (21 patients) were braced, and 6 hips (4 patients) were excluded for cross-over. Over a 6-month period, the braced cohort had significantly better improvement in the AI of 5.3 degrees (95% confidence interval, 4.3 to 6.3 degrees) compared to the unbraced cohort which had an improvement in the AI of only 1.1 degrees (95% confidence interval 0.6 to 1.6 degrees) (PDDH. Level III-retrospective comparative study.

  7. Resilience and unmet supportive care needs in patients with cancer during early treatment: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, C; De Maria, J; Hoeppli, C; Betticher, D C; Eicher, M

    2015-10-01

    The concept of resilience is gaining increasing importance as a key component of supportive care but to date has rarely been addressed in studies with adult cancer patients. The purpose of our study was to describe resilience and its potential predictors and supportive care needs in cancer patients during early treatment and to explore associations between both concepts. This descriptive study included adult cancer patients under treatment in ambulatory cancer services of a Swiss hospital. Subjects completed the 25-item Connor-Davidson-Resilience Scale and the 34-item Supportive Care Needs Survey. Descriptive, correlational and regression analysis were performed. 68 patients with cancer were included in the study. Compared to general population, resilience scores were significantly lower (74.4 ± 12.6 vs. 80.4 ± 12.8, p = .0002). Multiple regression analysis showed predictors ("age", "metastasis", "recurrence" and "living alone") of resilience (adjusted R2 = .19, p resilience scores were significantly and strongly associated with higher levels of unmet psychological needs (Rho = -.68, p resilience express fewer unmet needs. Further work is needed to elucidate the mechanism of the observed relationships and if interventions facilitating resilience have a positive effect on unmet needs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Polish adaptation of Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Brace and Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misterska, Ewa; Głowacki, Maciej; Harasymczuk, Jerzy

    2009-12-01

    Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Brace and Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Deformity are relatively new tools aimed at facilitating the evaluation of long-term results of therapy in persons with idiopathic scoliosis undergoing conservative treatment. To use these tools properly in Poland, they must be translated into Polish and adapted to the Polish cultural settings. The process of cultural adaptation of the questionnaires was compliant with the guidelines of International Quality of Life Assessment (IQOLA) Project. In the first stage, two independent translators converted the originals into Polish. Stage two, consisted of a comparison of the originals and two translated versions. During that stage, the team of two translators and authors of the project identified differences in those translations and created a combination of the two. In the third stage, two independent translators, who were native speakers of German, translated the adjusted version of the Polish translation into the language of the original document. At the last stage, a commission composed of: specialists in orthopedics, translators, a statistician and a psychologist reviewed all translations and drafted a pre-final version of the questionnaires. Thirty-five adolescent girls with idiopathic scoliosis who were treated with Cheneau brace were subjected to the questionnaire assessment. All patients were treated in an out-patient setting by a specialist in orthopedics at the Chair and Clinic of Orthopedics and Traumatology. Median age of patients was 14.8 SD 1.5, median value of the Cobb's angle was 27.8 degrees SD 7.4. 48.6% of patients had thoracic scoliosis, 31.4% had thoracolumbar scoliosis, and 20% patients had lumbar scoliosis. Median results obtained by means of the Polish version of BSSQ-Brace and BSSQ-Deformity questionnaires were 17.9 SD 5.0 and 11.3 SD 4.7, respectively. Internal consistency of BSSQ-Brace and BSSQ-Deformity was at the level of 0.80 and 0.87, whereas the value of

  9. Determination of brace forces caused by construction loads and wind loads during bridge construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The first objective of this study was to develop procedures for determining bracing forces during bridge construction. : Numerical finite element models and analysis techniques were developed for evaluating brace forces induced by construction loads ...

  10. "Custom-fit" versus "off-the-shelf" ACL functional braces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtys, E M; Huston, L J

    2001-01-01

    Many sports medicine practitioners believe "custom-fit" functional braces are superior in performance to "off-the-shelf" braces for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knees. However, this is not well substantiated. This study compares a Donjoy custom-fit ACL brace (CE 2000), Donjoy off-the-shelf brace (Goldpoint), and an athletic taping technique to determine their role in our clinical practice. Five patients (3 men and 2 women) with isolated, unilateral, chronic ACL tears with an average age of 27 years (range: 19-35 years) were used to evaluate these three restraint systems. Anterior tibial laxity, quadriceps and hamstrings strength, endurance, standing long jump, brace migration with exercise, and pattern of muscle response to forced anterior tibial displacement were studied. Each patient was tested without a brace and then in each of the three test conditions (custom brace, off-the-shelf brace, and tape), with the order of testing randomized. The Donjoy custom-fit ACL functional brace did not reduce anterior laxity or improve standing long jump, muscle strength, endurance, or muscle response times significantly more than the off-the-shelf ACL brace. Both braces improved anterior stability over knee taping when the knee muscles were contracted under the low forces used in this study. After 1 hour of exercise, brace migration was significantly greater (P=.03) for the CE-2000 custom brace (18.6 mm) than for the Goldpoint off-the-shelf brace (4.5 mm). There appears to be no advantage to the more expensive custom-fit knee brace over the off-the-shelf brace.

  11. Novel Control Effectors for Truss Braced Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Edward V.; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Joshi, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    At cruise flight conditions very high aspect ratio/low sweep truss braced wings (TBW) may be subject to design requirements that distinguish them from more highly swept cantilevered wings. High aspect ratio, short chord length and relative thinness of the airfoil sections all contribute to relatively low wing torsional stiffness. This may lead to aeroelastic issues such as aileron reversal and low flutter margins. In order to counteract these issues, high aspect ratio/low sweep wings may need to carry additional high speed control effectors to operate when outboard ailerons are in reversal and/or must carry additional structural weight to enhance torsional stiffness. The novel control effector evaluated in this study is a variable sweep raked wing tip with an aileron control surface. Forward sweep of the tip allows the aileron to align closely with the torsional axis of the wing and operate in a conventional fashion. Aft sweep of the tip creates a large moment arm from the aileron to the wing torsional axis greatly enhancing aileron reversal. The novelty comes from using this enhanced and controllable aileron reversal effect to provide roll control authority by acting as a servo tab and providing roll control through intentional twist of the wing. In this case the reduced torsional stiffness of the wing becomes an advantage to be exploited. The study results show that the novel control effector concept does provide roll control as described, but only for a restricted class of TBW aircraft configurations. For the configuration studied (long range, dual aisle, Mach 0.85 cruise) the novel control effector provides significant benefits including up to 12% reduction in fuel burn.

  12. Patient and family experiences with accessing telephone cancer treatment symptom support: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Dawn; Green, Esther; Ballantyne, Barbara; Skrutkowski, Myriam; Whynot, Angela; Tardif, Lucie; Tarasuk, Joy; Carley, Meg

    2016-02-01

    Assess patient and family member experiences with telephone cancer treatment symptom support. Descriptive study guided by the Knowledge-to-Action Framework. Patients and family members who received telephone support for a cancer treatment symptom within the last month at one of three ambulatory cancer programs (Nova Scotia, Ontario, Quebec) were eligible. An adapted Short Questionnaire for Out-of-hours Care instrument was analyzed with univariate statistics. Of 105 participants, 83 % telephoned about themselves and 17 % for a family member. Participants received advice over the telephone (90 %) and were advised to go to emergency (13 %) and/or the clinic (9 %). Two left a message and were not called back. Participants were "very satisfied" with the manner of nurse or doctor (58 %), explanation about problem (56 %), treatment/advice given (54 %), way call was handled (48 %), getting through (40 %), and wait time to speak to a nurse or doctor (38 %). The proportion "dissatisfied" or "very dissatisfied" for the above items was 4, 5, 9, 11, 10, and 14 %, respectively. Suggestions were shorter call back time, weekend access to telephone support, more knowledgeable advice on self-care strategies, more education at discharge, and shared documentation on calls to avoid repetition and improve continuity. Most patients and family members who responded to the survey were satisfied with telephone-based cancer treatment symptom support. Programs could improve telephone support services by providing an estimated time for callback, ensuring that nurses have access to and use previous call documentation, and enhancing patient education on self-care strategies for managing and triaging treatment-related symptoms.

  13. Electronic and structural characterizations of unreconstructed {l_brace}0001{r_brace} surfaces and the growth of graphene overlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emtsev, Konstantin

    2009-06-03

    The present work is focused on the characterization of the clean unreconstructed SiC{l_brace}0001{r_brace} surfaces and the growth of graphene overlayers thereon. Electronic properties of SiC surfaces and their interfaces with graphene and few layer graphene films were investigated by means of angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy electron diffraction. Structural characterizations of the epitaxial graphene films grown on SiC were carried out by atomic force microscopy and low energy electron microscopy. Supplementary data was obtained by scanning tunneling microscopy. (orig.)

  14. Aromatherapy as an adjuvant treatment in cancer care--a descriptive systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Katja; Büssing, Arndt; Ostermann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Claims of benefits of aromatherapy for cancer patients include reduced anxiety levels and relief of emotional stress, pain, muscular tension and fatigue. The objective of this paper is to provide an updated descriptive, systematic review of evidence from pre-clinical and clinical trials assessing the benefits and safety of aromatherapy for cancer patients. Literature databases such as Medline (via Ovid), the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, Cochrane Central were searched from their inception until October 2010. Only studies on cancer cells or cancer patients were included. There is no long lasting effect of aromatherapy massage, while short term improvements were reported for general well being, anxiety and depression up to 8 weeks after treatment. The reviewed studies indicate short-term effects of aromatherapy on depression, anxiety and overall wellbeing. Specifically, some clinical trials found an increase in patient-identified symptom relief, psychological wellbeing and improved sleep. Furthermore, some found a short-term improvement (up to 2 weeks after treatment) in anxiety and depression scores and better pain control. Although essential oils have generally shown minimal adverse effects, potential risks include ingesting large amounts (intentional misuse); local skin irritation, especially with prolonged skin contact; allergic contact dermatitis; and phototoxicity from reaction to sunlight (some oils). Repeated topical administration of lavender and tea tree oil was associated with reversible prepubertal gynecomastia.

  15. The effect of Prophylactic knee bracing on selected performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine if the wearing of a prophylactic knee brace by uninjured rugby players affected the following performance based parameters: speed, agility, strength, proprioception and economy of running. Thirty rugby players were subjected to a selected number of carefully monitored ...

  16. The effect of prophylactic knee bracing on proprioception ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    This has resulted in rugby becoming more professional especially at international level, in improved ... high school and college football injuries involve the knee. Well over 1 000 000 Americans participate in ... been devised because of the high incidence of injuries to this joint. Prophylactic knee braces are designed to ...

  17. Conceptual design of joints in braced steel frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, C.M.; Evers, H.G.A.; Gresnigt, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    To help practitioners to find the most economical design of braced frames, this paper proposes a classification of joints in `simple' (e.g. web cleated connections), 'moderate' (e.g. flush end plated connections) and 'complex' (e.g. stiffened extended end plate connections) with respect to the

  18. Assessment of behavior factor of eccentrically braced frame with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of behavior factor of eccentrically braced frame with vertical link in cyclic loading. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... In order to understand the behavior of these structures using non-linear static and dynamic analysis of building's behavior factor, eccentric and exocentric systems were calculated ...

  19. The effect of prophylactic knee bracing on proprioception ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects were placed on the balancing board and instructed to balance for 2 minutes. Subjects performed 6 trials. Two days elapsed between testing. Each testing day involved 2 trials, 1 trial with and 1 without the prophylactic knee brace. Settings. Testing took place at the biokinetics laboratory of the University of Zululand.

  20. The Phenomenology and Treatment Response in Catatonia: A Hospital Based Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Sarada Prasanna; Behura, Sushree Sangita; Dash, Manoj Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Literatures regarding clinical symptomatology and treatment response of catatonia are very few. Objective: To assess onset, clinical profile, diagnostic break up, treatment response and outcome in patients diagnosed as Catatonia, reported to a tertiary care hospital. Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in indoor of Mental Health Institute (Centre of Excellence), S.C.B. Medical College, between March 2015 to March 2016. A total of 34 patients were included in the study who reported at outdoor department of Mental Health Institute with catatonic symptoms. All patients admitted in inpatient department were routinely assessed through a detailed semi-structured interview. The diagnosis of catatonia was made if the patients present with three or more symptoms out of twelve symptoms fulfilling the criteria of DSM-5. All the patients were assessed through Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale. They were initially given parental lorazepam at the doses ranging from 4-12 mg per day as per requirement. Patients who did not respond to lorazepam trial were given ECT. Results: The patients were predominantly presented with retarded symptoms of catatonia such as staring, mutism, withdrawal, posturing and negativism. Schizophrenia and other psychotic spectrum disorders were more commonly presented as catatonia as compared to mood disorders. Younger age group patients were mainly responded to lorazepam only, whereas older age group patients responded to both ECT and lorazepam. Conclusion: This study has came out with very important insights in the age of incidence, phenomenology, clinical profile, source of referral, diagnostic break up and treatment response with lorazepam and ECT in catatonic patients following mental disorder. PMID:28615768

  1. The Phenomenology and Treatment Response in Catatonia: A Hospital Based Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Sarada Prasanna; Behura, Sushree Sangita; Dash, Manoj Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Literatures regarding clinical symptomatology and treatment response of catatonia are very few. To assess onset, clinical profile, diagnostic break up, treatment response and outcome in patients diagnosed as Catatonia, reported to a tertiary care hospital. The present study was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in indoor of Mental Health Institute (Centre of Excellence), S.C.B. Medical College, between March 2015 to March 2016. A total of 34 patients were included in the study who reported at outdoor department of Mental Health Institute with catatonic symptoms. All patients admitted in inpatient department were routinely assessed through a detailed semi-structured interview. The diagnosis of catatonia was made if the patients present with three or more symptoms out of twelve symptoms fulfilling the criteria of DSM-5. All the patients were assessed through Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale. They were initially given parental lorazepam at the doses ranging from 4-12 mg per day as per requirement. Patients who did not respond to lorazepam trial were given ECT. The patients were predominantly presented with retarded symptoms of catatonia such as staring, mutism, withdrawal, posturing and negativism. Schizophrenia and other psychotic spectrum disorders were more commonly presented as catatonia as compared to mood disorders. Younger age group patients were mainly responded to lorazepam only, whereas older age group patients responded to both ECT and lorazepam. This study has came out with very important insights in the age of incidence, phenomenology, clinical profile, source of referral, diagnostic break up and treatment response with lorazepam and ECT in catatonic patients following mental disorder.

  2. Pain control methods in use and perceived effectiveness by patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Karen; Caldwell, Karen; Forehand, Samantha; Davis, Keith

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the pain control methods in use by patients who have Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS), a group of connective tissue disorders, and their perceived effectiveness. This descriptive study involved 1179 adults diagnosed with EDS who completed an anonymous on-line survey. The survey consisted of demographics information, the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Pain-Behavior, PROMIS Pain-Interference, and Neuro QOL Satisfaction with Social Roles and Activities scales, as well as a modified version of the Pain Management Strategies Survey. Respondents reported having to seek out confirmation of their EDS diagnosis with multiple healthcare providers, which implies the difficulty many people with EDS face when trying to gain access to appropriate treatment. Patients with EDS experience higher levels of pain interference and lower satisfaction with social roles and activities compared to national norms. Among the treatment modalities in this study, those perceived as most helpful for acute pain control were opioids, surgical interventions, splints and braces, avoidance of potentially dangerous activities and heat therapy. Chronic pain treatments rated as most helpful were opioids, splints or braces and surgical interventions. For methods used for both acute and chronic pain, those perceived as most helpful were opioids, massage therapies, splints or braces, heat therapy and avoiding potentially dangerous activities. EDS is a complex, multi-systemic condition that can be difficult to diagnose and poses challenges for healthcare practitioners who engage with EDS patients in holistic care. Improved healthcare provider knowledge of EDS is needed, and additional research on the co-occurring diagnoses with EDS may assist in comprehensive pain management for EDS patients. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS) is a group of connective tissue disorders associated with defective production of collagen, which can dramatically

  3. Soft-plastic brace for lower limb fractures in patients with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, K; Akai, M; Kubo, T; Yamasaki, N; Okuma, Y; Tobimatsu, Y; Iwaya, T

    2013-04-01

    Retrospective study at a rehabilitation center. Patients with spinal cord injury, even if they are wheelchair users, sometimes suffer from fractures of the lower limb bones. As their bones are too weak to have surgery, and because a precise reduction is not required for restoration, such patients are often indicated for conservative treatment. This case series study investigated the use of a hinged, soft-plastic brace as a conservative approach to treating fractures of the lower extremities of patients with spinal cord injury. National Rehabilitation Center, Japan. Fifteen patients (male, n=10; female, n=5; average age, 52.7 years) with 19 fractures of the femur or the tibia who were treated with a newly-developed hinged, soft-plastic brace were studied. All of them used wheelchairs. We analyzed the time taken for fracture union and for wearing orthotics, degree of malalignment, femorotibial angle and side effects. The fractures in this series were caused by relatively low-energy impact. The average time taken for fracture union was 80.1 (37-189) days, and the average amount of time spent wearing orthotics was 77.9 (42-197) days. On final X-ray imaging, the average femorotibial angle was 176.9° (s.d. ±8.90), and 15° of misalignment in the sagittal plane occurred in one patient. A hinged, soft-plastic brace is a useful option as a conservative approach for treating fractures of the lower extremities in patients with spinal cord injury.

  4. Strength and Functional Improvement Using Pneumatic Brace with Extension Assist for End-Stage Knee Osteoarthritis: A Prospective, Randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Jeffrey J; Bhave, Anil; Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Starr, Roland; McElroy, Mark J; Mont, Michael A

    2015-05-01

    Pneumatic unloader bracing with extension assists have been proposed as a non-operative modality that may delay the need for knee surgery by reducing pain and improving function. This prospective, randomized trial evaluated 52 patients who had knee osteoarthritis for changes in: (1) muscle strength; (2) objective functional improvements; (3); subjective functional improvements; (4) pain; (5) quality of life; and (6) conversion to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) compared to standard of care. Patient outcomes were evaluated at a minimum 3 months. Braced patient's demonstrated significant improvements in muscle strength, several functional tests, and patient reported outcomes when compared to the matched cohort. These results are encouraging and suggest that this device may represent a promising alternative to standard treatment methods for knee osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A modified crash brace position for aircraft passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownson, P; Wallace, W A; Anton, D J

    1998-10-01

    In 1989, a Boeing 737-400 aircraft crashed at Kegworth, near Nottingham, England. The survivors suffered a large number of pelvic and lower limb injuries, and approximately one-third of the passengers died. Subsequent research has suggested that the "brace-for-impact" position that passengers are advised to adopt prior to a crash landing might be modified in order to reduce the incidence of such injuries. The aim of this research was to evaluate biomechanically such a modified crash brace position. A modified brace position would help to prevent injuries to some passengers in the event of an impact aircraft accident. Impact testing on forward-facing seats was performed at the Royal Air Force Institute of Aviation Medicine, Farnborough, England. Aircraft seats, mounted on a sled, were propelled down a track to impact at -16 Gx. A test dummy was used as the experimental model. Four dummy positions were investigated: a) upper torso braced forward and lower legs inclined slightly rearward of the vertical; b) upper torso braced forward and lower legs inclined forward; c) upper torso upright and lower legs inclined slightly rearward of the vertical; and d) upper torso upright and lower legs inclined forward. The impact pulses used were based on Federal Aviation Administration guidelines. Transducers located in the head, spine, and lower limbs of the dummy recorded the forces to which each body segment was exposed during the impact. These forces were compared for each brace position. Impact testing revealed that the risk of a head injury as defined by the head injury criterion was greater in the upright position than in the braced forward position. The risk of injury to the lower limbs was dependent in part on the flailing behavior of the limbs. Flailing did not occur when the dummy was placed in a braced, legs-back position. A modified brace position would involve passengers sitting with the upper torso inclined forward so that the passenger's head rested against the

  6. Prospective descriptive study of the toxicity of CAPOX plan in systemic treatment of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghazarian, M; Larranaga, J; Reyes, G; Heinzen, S; Ferrero, L; Lasalvia, E; Echague, P; Estevez, F; Citrin, E; Viola, A.

    2010-01-01

    increased the number of LDH. Two patients had hyperbilirubinaemia, one grade 2 and one grade 3 to predominance of bilirubin indirect. Five patients had to discontinue treatment due to toxicity of the plan: 2 gastrointestinal (diarrhea G3), 2 and liver function (elevated bilirubin level 2 and 3) 1 cardiovascular (CF II effort angina). Of these 5 cases, in 4 patients the dose was reduced in the first instance and then rotate to another chemotherapy regimen and only patient who presented effort angina permanently stopped treatment. Conclusions: This is the first prospective descriptive work in the INCA to describe the toxicity of treatment a prevalent disease such as CCR. The most frequent toxicities observed in our study similar to those described in the international literature. Most adverse events occurred were mild to moderate (grade 1 and 2) where the toxicities grade 3 and more frequent gastrointestinal and hepatic level 4. The number Low of patients included could be due to the recent introduction of new drugs in the treatment of Metastatic RCC not included in this study as well as the non-inclusion of capecitabine also mono drug often used in metastatic CRC in elderly patients

  7. Concerns About Ankle Injury Prophylaxis and Acceptance of the Parachute Ankle Brace Among Jumpmaster Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogle, Jeffrey D; Jannings, Aaron C; Gross, Michael T; Scheuring, Richard A; Crist, Joshua

    2018-02-06

    Several studies have shown that the parachute ankle brace (PAB) is safe, cost-effective, and reduces the rates of ankle injuries during military parachuting. However, the acceptability and usability of the PAB has not been well established in units that regularly do airborne exercises. Many anecdotal concerns in the past may be limiting common use. The purpose of the study is to ascertain the attitudes toward the PAB among experienced paratroopers. One hundred experienced paratroopers training to be jumpmasters at the Advanced Airborne School (Fort Bragg, NC) voluntarily responded to a 13-item, paper questionnaire to assess attitudes toward the PAB, its use, and concerns about future ankle injuries. The survey was offered to all 100 students enrolled in an Advanced Airborne School course. Results were input into an online database using Qualtrics and qualitative responses were evaluated for thematic content and categorized appropriately. Analysis was performed using Qualtrics and SPSS for descriptive statistics, two-sample t-tests, and chi-square tests. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to evaluate Likert-type responses. Of the 100 paratroopers who responded to the survey 32% had over 10 yr of military service, 58% had over 5 yr of service, and 32% had over 5 yr on active jump status. Results show that none of the respondents had ever used the PAB; 62% had never heard of the PAB, and 72% had never observed use of the PAB. A majority of respondents (87%) had never injured an ankle during a parachute landing fall (PLF), but 79% believed that an ankle injury could affect their career potential as a paratrooper. Almost one-half of the respondents (47%) had seen that ankle injuries affect another paratrooper's career. A third of the respondents (35%) said that they had concerns that would keep them from using the PAB, whereas 21% were uncertain, as they had never heard of it. Only 19% of the respondents were willing to use measures such as taping, lace-up bracing

  8. Effect of ankle braces on lower extremity joint energetics in single-leg landings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jacob K; McCaw, Steven T; Laudner, Kevin G; Smith, Peter J; Stafford, Lindsay N

    2012-06-01

    Ankle sprains are one of the most common injuries in competitive and recreational athletics. Studies have shown that the use of prophylactic ankle braces effectively reduces the frequency of ankle sprains in athletes. However, although it is generally accepted that the ankle braces are effective at reducing frontal plane motion, some researchers report that the design of the brace may also reduce ankle sagittal plane motion. The purpose of this study was to quantify lower extremity joint contributions to energy absorption during single-legged drop landings in three ankle brace conditions (no brace, boot brace, and hinged brace). Eleven physically active females experienced in landing and free of lower extremity injury (age = 22.3 ± 1.7 yr, height = 1.66 ± 0.04 m, mass = 58.43 ± 5.83 kg) performed 10 single-leg drop landings in three conditions (one unbraced, two braced) from a 0.33-m height. Measurements taken were hip, knee, and ankle joint impulse; hip, knee, ankle, and total work; and hip, knee, and ankle joint relative work. Total energy absorption remained consistent across the braced conditions (P = 0.057). Wearing the boot brace reduced relative ankle work (P = 0.04, Cohen d = 0.43) but did not change relative knee (P = 0.08, Cohen d = 0.32) or hip (P = 0.14, Cohen d = 0.20) work compared with the no-brace condition. In an ankle-braced condition, ankle, knee, and hip energetics may be altered depending on the design of the brace.

  9. Prophylactic ankle bracing vs. taping: effects on functional performance in female basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKean, L C; Bell, G; Burnham, R S

    1995-08-01

    Ankle support devices are commonly used for prevention and treatment of ankle injury, but the effect of these on sport performance has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different ankle support devices on four basketball-related performance tests. Eleven female basketball players underwent four performance tests (vertical jump, jump shot, sprint drill, and submaximal treadmill run) while wearing five different types of ankle support on both ankles (no support, tape, Swede-O-Universal, Active Ankle, and Aircast). Ankle support effect on overall performance was assessed using Friedman's analysis of variance (ANOVA) by ranks and on specific performance parameters using one-way ANOVA for repeated measures. Overall performance was impaired by ankle support. The Active Ankle brace impaired performance the least out of the support devices. Vertical jump was less with ankle tape as compared with no tape (p jump shot accuracy was better with tape as compared with the Swede-O-Universal (p < .05). Oxygen consumption (VO2) and energy expenditure were higher with the Aircast as compared with tape (p < .05). It was concluded that the use of ankle support by female basketball players does adversely affect basketball-related performance tests, and the prophylactic benefit of bracing needs to be weighed against performance impairment.

  10. Physical, chemical and antimicrobial evaluation of a composite material containing quaternary ammonium salt for braces cementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugii, Mari Miura; Ferreira, Fábio Augusto de Souza; Müller, Karina Cogo; Lima, Debora Alves Nunes Leite; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Imasato, Hidetake; Rodrigues-Filho, Ubirajara Pereira

    2017-01-01

    The antibiofilm effect of iodide quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silicate (IQAMS) in Transbond XT Light Cure Adhesive resin used for braces cementation was evaluated. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed IQAMS formation and Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled to Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) revealed that as coating, the quaternary ammonium groups from IQAMS were homogeneously dispersed throughout the surface. When incorporated, the composite material presented homogeneous dispersion throughout the resin. Assays with Streptococcus mutans demonstrated enhanced antibiofilm effect for the IQAMS coated resin, with much lower colony-forming units (CFU), in comparison to incorporated IQAMS. Such a difference was assigned to low availability of quaternary ammonium groups at the surface of resin when IQAMS was incorporated, hindering its antibiofilm effect. Additionally, the incorporation of IQAMS led to slight decrease in ultimate bond strength (UBS) and shear bond strength (SBS), in comparison to the neat commercial resin. Thus, the synthesized IQAMS displays great potential as antibiofilm coating or sealant to prevent oral infections in brackets during orthodontic treatment. - Highlights: • Synthesis of ORMOSIL-based material with antibiofilm activity is performed. • Antibiofilm activity of the ORMOSIL-based material on commercial available resin for braces cementation is evaluated. • Antibiofilm ORMOSIL-based coating with potential application as varnish or sealant in orthodontic appliances is presented.

  11. Personalized biomechanical simulations of orthotic treatment in idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périé, Delphine; Aubin, C E; Petit, Y; Labelle, H; Dansereau, J

    2004-02-01

    To analyse patient-specific bracing biomechanics in the treatment of scoliosis. Two complementary computer tools have been developed to quantify the brace action on scoliotic spine from pressure measurements, and to simulate its effect on patient-adapted finite element model. Brace pad forces and brace effect on spine deformities have been reported. However, the brace mechanisms still need to be better understood to obtain more effective treatments. The 3D geometry of the spine and rib cage of three scoliotic adolescents treated by the Boston brace was obtained using a multiview radiographic reconstruction technique. A personalized biomechanical model was constructed for each patient. Pressures generated by the brace on the thorax were measured using pressure sensors. For each zone with a threshold pressure higher than 30 mmHg, a total equivalent force was calculated and applied to the corresponding model nodes. The pressure were generally scattered on the overall torso, with the highest pressures measured on five distinct regions: right thoracic, left lumbar, abdominal, right and left sides of the pelvis. The equivalent forces were of 18-73 N. Differences between simulated deformed shapes and real in-brace geometry of the patients were less than 6 and 9.8 mm for the vertebral positions in the coronal and sagittal planes, and 7.7 degrees for the Cobb angles. The results supported the feasibility of such approach to analyse patient-specific bracing biomechanics, which may be useful in the design of more effective braces.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF SEVERITY, TREATMENT AND OUTCOME OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS POISONING: A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Indira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Organophophorous poisoning constitutes one of the most frequent poisoning in clinical practice all over the country and especially in this area where agriculture is the chief economic occupation. Acute organophophorous poisoning ranks foremost in the list of agents which causes acute pesticide poisoning in the developing countries. Acute poisoning, accidental or due to deliberate ingestion or inhalation of these organophosphate chemicals is an important and one of the most common medical emergencies. Hence the present stud y is undertaken to assess severity of poisoning, management and outcome of organophosphorous poisoning cases admitted in Government General Hospital, Kakinada, A. P. AIMS/OBJECTIVES: 1. Assessment of severity of Organophosphorous poisoning according to Dri esbach’s criteria 2. To study the morbidity and mortality in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: In this descriptive study fifty patients with organophosphorous insecticide poisoning were evaluated by clinical examination. They were investigated, treate d and their treatment outcome were analyzed. RESULTS: 1. Chlorpyriphos and monocrotophos(together 66% were the most commonly used pesticides. 2. 82% cases reached the hospital within 6 hours for commencement of treatment and were mostly of moderate to se vere degree of OP poisoning while mild cases of accidental poisoning reached after 12 hours. Hence the mortality is high in the former group only. 3. When the severity of poisoning was graded by applying Dreisbach's criteria at the time of admission 34% ha d severe degree of poisoning, 26% had moderate poisoning while 40% of cases presented with mild degree of poisoning. (Most of the cases were accidental inhalation and skin contact exposure. 4. Among the patients belonging to moderate to severe degree of p oisoning 30% of patients were put on assisted mechanical ventilation, indications being uncontrolled pulmonary secretions, continuing hypoxia, not

  13. External Rotation Brace Combined with a Physiotherapy Program for First Time Anterior Shoulder Dislocators; A 2 year Follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus P. Moxon

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThere are a multitude of international studies that haveconsidered the rates of redislocation and instability ofshoulders managed non-operatively vs. operatively afterfirst time anterior dislocation. Initial management hasincluded no treatment, internal rotation slingimmobiliser, external rotation brace and early or latestabilisation. The majority of those managed in internalrotation or with no support initially have had poor longterm results.There are several small trials of the use of the ExternalRotation Brace that have shown promising resultscomparable to acute surgical stabilisation.The use of the External Rotation brace for first timeanterior dislocators in the 15-40 years age group wasinitiated to attempt to reduce the rates of redislocationand instability without requiring surgical intervention.MethodConsecutive patients that fit the selection criteria wereselected and followed over time. A physiotherapyprogram was initiated early in the management andregular clinic reviews undertaken. 2 years post first timeanterior dislocation, patients were reviewed subjectivelyand a Quick DASH score performed. They wereasked to give an estimate of their recovery andreport any redislocations, instability or subluxation.ResultsThere was 1 redislocation (3% during this period inthe 32 patients. The majority were functioning atpredislocation levels at review and no surgicalintervention for instability was required. Quick-Dashresults were excellent, with a vast majority scoringless than 2/100 level of disability. Estimatedrecovery scores supported these findings with themajority of patients reporting 90-95% recoverycompared with the unaffected side.ConclusionThe external rotation brace has proven to be anexcellent alternative to early shoulder stabilisationfor first time anterior dislocators in the 15-40 yearsage group.

  14. Patients' and Parents' Perceptions of Appearance in Scoliosis Treated with a Brace: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misterska, Ewa; Glowacki, Maciej; Adamczyk, Katarzyna; Jankowski, Roman

    2014-01-01

    The perspective of trunk deformity is a matter of special concern for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. No research group has ever reported interviewing patients and their parents regarding differences in perception of body appearance in the course of Cheneau brace treatment. We aimed to investigate the level of agreement in the field of concerns and perceptions of spinal appearance in relation to brace- and scoliosis-related data between parents and female patients with AIS, treated with a Cheneau brace, by means of the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire-pl (SAQ-pl). In this cross-sectional study forty-one pairs of parents and female patients with AIS were asked to separately complete the Polish versions of the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire-pl patient form (SAQ-pl patient form) and the SAQ-pl parent form. Age of patients was 13.60 years SD 1.60 (range 10-17). Patients scored 2.70 ( SD 0.60) and parents scored 2.70 SD 0.60 in the total score of the SAQ-pl. The study groups do not differ significantly in regards to the SAQ-pl results. The percentage of consistent answers on SAQ-pl items ranges from 34.10 % (item 20) to 78 % (item 8). Height, age and brace-wearing time per day, were significantly related to the differences in the patient-parent General perception of body shape (r s  = -0.51, r s  = -0.34, r s  = 0.36, respectively). Parents and female patients with AIS have similar concerns and perceptions of spinal appearance. The discrepancies in General perception of spinal appearance between parents and AIS females decrease with age of patient. Parental emotional support may contribute to minimizing the risk factors of psychological impairment, especially in late adolescents with AIS.

  15. No difference in the long term final functional outcome after nailing or cast bracing of high energy displaced tibial shaft fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Batta, Vineet; Dwyer, Amitabh J; Gulati, Aashish; Prakash, Jeevan; Mam, Maharaj K; John, Bobby

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cast bracing (CB) has been a well established method of treating tibial shaft fractures. Majority of the recent literature on treatment of tibial shaft fractures have upheld intramedullary nailing (IMN) as the treatment of choice. Most of these studies are from the west, in public funded health set ups and in hospitals with very low rates of infection. This has lead to bewilderment in the minds of surgeons wishing to opt for conservative treatment in countries with scarcit...

  16. Thermal Behavior of Cylindrical Buckling Restrained Braces at Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Talebi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary focus of this investigation was to analyze sequentially coupled nonlinear thermal stress, using a three-dimensional model. It was meant to shed light on the behavior of Buckling Restraint Brace (BRB elements with circular cross section, at elevated temperature. Such bracing systems were comprised of a cylindrical steel core encased in a strong concrete-filled steel hollow casing. A debonding agent was rubbed on the core’s surface to avoid shear stress transition to the restraining system. The numerical model was verified by the analytical solutions developed by the other researchers. Performance of BRB system under seismic loading at ambient temperature has been well documented. However, its performance in case of fire has yet to be explored. This study showed that the failure of brace may be attributed to material strength reduction and high compressive forces, both due to temperature rise. Furthermore, limiting temperatures in the linear behavior of steel casing and concrete in BRB element for both numerical and analytical simulations were about 196°C and 225°C, respectively. Finally it is concluded that the performance of BRB at elevated temperatures was the same as that seen at room temperature; that is, the steel core yields prior to the restraining system.

  17. Evaluating the potential synergistic benefit of a realignment brace on patients receiving exercise therapy for patellofemoral pain syndrome: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Wolf; Ellermann, Andree; Rembitzki, Ingo Volker; Scheffler, Sven; Herbort, Mirco; Brüggemann, Gert Peter; Best, Raymond; Zantop, Thore; Liebau, Christian

    2016-07-01

    It has been previously shown that exercise programs for patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) can be supported by medially directed taping. Evidence supporting the use of patellar braces is limited because previous studies have been low quality. The aim of this study is to compare the outcomes of patients with PFPS after treatment with a medially directed patellar realignment brace and supervised exercise. In a prospective randomized multicenter trial, 156 patients with PFPS were included and randomly assigned to 6 weeks of supervised physiotherapy in combination with the patellar realignment brace, or supervised physiotherapy alone. Outcome measures were the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) subscales, numeric analog pain scores, and the Kujala score at baseline, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 1 year after the start of therapy. The patient's self-reported perception of recovery was also assessed at these points. Both treatment groups showed a significant improvement in all outcome measures over the study period. After 6 and 12 weeks of therapy, patients in the brace group had significantly higher KOOS sub-scale scores, a higher mean Kujala score, and less pain while climbing stairs or playing sports. After 54 weeks a group difference could be only detected for the KOOS ADL sub-scale. The use of a medially directed realignment brace leads to better outcomes in patients with PFPS than exercise alone after 6 and 12 weeks of treatment. After 1 year of follow-up this positive effect diminished.

  18. Seismic Behavior of Steel Off-Diagonal Bracing System (ODBS Utilized in Reinforced Concrete Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of an eccentricity in this system results in a geometric nonlinearity behavior. The midpoint of the diagonal member is connected to the corner joint using a brace member with a relatively low stiffness, thus forming a three-member bracing system in each braced panel. An iterative method of analysis has been developed to study the nonlinear load-deflection behavior of ODBS. The results indicate that the load-deflection behavior of this system follows a nonlinear stiffness-hardening pattern with two yielding points, which reflect the tensile failure of different bracings; the present study aims to investigate the efficiency of applying off-diagonal steel braces to reinforced concrete frames. To achieve this, three types of 2-story, 6-story, and 15-story structures without and with X-bracing and off-center bracing systems were modeled using SAP2000 software, and for micromodeling ANSYS software was used to achieve finite element results for an exact comparison between various retrofitting systems. The results showed that the structures strengthened by toggle bracing system revealed better behavior for low oscillation periods. Moreover, this type of bracing system is quite suitable for 10-story structures but not for higher ones. Its main problem, which requires special contrivances to solve, is the existence of a soft ground floor.

  19. Reforming the Belgian market for orthotic braces: what can we learn from the international experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven; De Coster, Sandra; Moldenaers, Ingrid; Guillaume, Paul; Depoorter, Antony; Van den Steen, Dirk; Van de Sande, Stefaan; Debruyne, Hans; Ramaekers, Dirk; Lona, Murielle

    2008-05-01

    This article aims to review regulation governing outpatient orthotic braces (neck, wrist and knee braces) in France, the Netherlands and Sweden with a view to reforming the Belgian market. Information about the regulatory framework was derived from an analysis of legal texts and a survey completed by national experts. Strategies to keep down prices include public procurement in Sweden, maximum prices in France, and exclusion of expensive braces from reimbursement in the Netherlands. Reimbursement is linked to a medical indication or a chronic condition in France, the Netherlands and Sweden. To gain reimbursement, the cost-effectiveness of orthotic braces needs to be demonstrated in France and the Netherlands. Orthotic braces tend to be initially prescribed by a specialist physician and distributed by orthotists, medical equipment shops and/or community pharmacies. Extensive government intervention exists in the outpatient orthotic brace market in the countries studied. Our recommendations to reform the Belgian market for prefabricated orthotic braces are to separate reimbursement for service provision from reimbursement for braces; to set prices by means of a tendering process or an international price comparison; and to make reimbursement conditional on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of braces.

  20. Seismic retrofitting of reinforced concrete frame structures using GFRP-tube-confined-concrete composite braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddasi B., Nasim S.; Zhang, Yunfeng; Hu, Xiaobin

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a new type of structural bracing intended for seismic retrofitting use in framed structures. This special composite brace, termed glass-fiber-reinforced-polymer (GFRP)-tube-confined-concrete composite brace, is comprised of concrete confined by a GFRP tube and an inner steel core for energy dissipation. Together with a contribution from the GFRP-tube confined concrete, the composite brace shows a substantially increased stiffness to control story drift, which is often a preferred feature in seismic retrofitting. An analysis model is established and implemented in a general finite element analysis program — OpenSees, for simulating the load-displacement behavior of the composite brace. Using this model, a parametric study of the hysteretic behavior (energy dissipation, stiffness, ductility and strength) of the composite brace was conducted under static cyclic loading and it was found that the area ratio of steel core to concrete has the greatest influence among all the parameters considered. To demonstrate the application of the composite brace in seismic retrofitting, a three-story nonductile reinforced concrete (RC) frame structure was retrofitted with the composite braces. Pushover analysis and nonlinear time-history analyses of the retrofitted RC frame structure was performed by employing a suite of 20 strong ground motion earthquake records. The analysis results show that the composite braces can effectively reduce the peak seismic responses of the RC frame structure without significantly increasing the base shear demand.

  1. Medial collateral ligament knee sprains in college football. Brace wear preferences and injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, J P; Powell, J W; Smith, W; Martindale, A; Crowley, E; Monroe, J; Miller, R; Connolly, J; Hill, B A; Miller, D

    1994-01-01

    In this prospective, multiinstitutional analysis of medial collateral ligament sprains in college football players, we categorized 987 previously uninjured study subjects according to frequency of wearing preventive knee braces, studied the patterns by which 47 of 100 injuries occurred to unbraced knees, and identified several extrinsic, sport-specific risk factors shared for both braced and unbraced knees. The attendance, brace wear choice, position, string, and session of each participant were recorded daily; medial collateral ligament sprains were reported whenever tissue damage was confirmed. Both the likelihood of wearing braces and risk of injury without them was highly dependent on session (games/practices), position group (line, linebacker/tight end, skill), and string group (players/nonplayers). Subjects wearing braces often faced a high injury risk to their unbraced knees, a finding compatible with the opinion that braces were a necessary evil, best worn when concern over danger of injury outweighed desire for speed and agility. It is concluded that to avoid misinterpretations due to the confounding influence of brace wear selection bias, accurate investigation of daily brace wear patterns is required. Then, before considing the impact of preventive knee braces, a repartitioning of the data base is essential to assure that only similar groups will be compared.

  2. Using Descriptive Assessment in the Treatment of Bite Acceptance and Food Refusal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Sean D.; Perrin, Christopher J.; Lesser, Aaron D.; Perrin, Stefanie H.; Casey, Cheryl L.; Reed, Gregory K.

    2009-01-01

    The feeding behaviors of two children who maintained failure to thrive diagnoses and displayed food refusal are assessed in their homes. Descriptive assessments are used to identify schedules of consequence provided by each child's care providers for bite acceptance and food refusal behaviors. Assessments reveal rich schedules of praise and access…

  3. The impact of botulinum toxin A and abduction bracing on long-term hip development in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Kate; Ang, Soon Ghee; Thomason, Pam; Graham, H Kerr

    2012-08-01

    To study the long-term impact of 3 years of botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) injections and abduction bracing on hip development in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP). We wanted to know if early treatment improved hip development and reduced the need for surgery. A long-term review of hip morphology and surgery requirements in children who participated in a multicentre, randomized controlled trial. The trial investigated short-term effects of BoNT-A injections combined with an abduction brace, compared with usual care, on hip displacement in children with bilateral spastic CP. Forty-six children with bilateral spastic CP (31 males, 15 females; 10 with diplegia, 36 with quadriplegia; mean age at enrolment of 3 y 2 mo, mean age at most recent clinical review 13 y 11 mo [range 10 y 6 mo-16 y 8 mo]; three children in Gross Motor Function Classification System level II, 11 in level III, 20 in level IV, 12 in level V) were followed for a mean of 10 years 10 months from recruitment to the trial. Mean migration percentage was 15.9% in the BoNT-A group and 15.2% in the comparison group (t = 0.26, p = 0.79). Eighty-nine percent of hips in the treatment group and 91% hips in the comparison group had satisfactory development, using a valid scale (Mann-Whitney U test = 867.50, z = -1.59, p = 0.11). Forty children had preventive surgery (21 treatment group, 19 comparison group) and 18 children had reconstructive surgery (10 treatment, 8 comparison). In children with bilateral spastic CP, early treatment with BoNT-A and hip abduction bracing does not reduce the need for surgery or improve hip development at skeletal maturity. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2012 Mac Keith Press.

  4. Protective Knee Braces and the Biomechanics of the Half-Squat Parachute Landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Zheng, Chao; Wu, Ji; Wang, Longfeng; Wei, Xiang; Wang, Lizheng

    2018-01-01

    Knee injuries are common among paratroopers and skydivers during landing maneuvers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dropping height and the use of protective knee braces on parachute landing biomechanics. The study cohort consisted of 30 male elite paratroopers with formal parachute landing training and more than 2 yr of parachute jumping experience. Each participant was instructed to jump off a platform at two different heights (40 and 80 cm, respectively) and land on force plates in a half-squat posture. All participants tested three different knee brace conditions (no-brace, elastic brace, and semi-rigid brace) at each height. With an increase in dropping height, peak vertical ground reaction forces (GRF), peak flexion angle, peak flexion angular displacement, peak abduction angle, peak abduction angular displacement, peak extorsion angle, and peak extorsion angular displacement of the knee joint all increased. As compared without the use of a brace, use of an elastic or semi-rigid knee brace significantly reduced peak flexion angle, peak flexion angular displacement, peak abduction angular displacement, and peak extorsion angle, while there were no significant differences in peak vertical GRF or peak extorsion angular displacement. The semi-rigid brace provided the greatest restriction against peak abduction angle (3-6°). The elastic and semi-rigid knee braces both effectively restricted motion stability of the knee joint in the sagittal and coronal planes. The semi-rigid brace had a more marked effect, although the comfort of this device should be improved.Wu D, Zheng C, Wu J, Wang L, Wei X, Wang L. Protective knee braces and the biomechanics of the half-squat parachute landing. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(1):26-31.

  5. System Description for the KW Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) (70.3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DERUSSEAU, R.R.

    2000-01-01

    This is a description of the system that collects and processes the sludge and radioactive ions released by the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) processing operations conducted in the 105 KW Basin. The system screens, settles, filters, and conditions the basin water for reuse. Sludge and most radioactive ions are removed before the water is distributed back to the basin pool. This system is part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP)

  6. The effect of taping versus semi-rigid bracing on patient outcome and satisfaction in ankle sprains: a prospective, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardenoye, Sacha; Theunissen, Ed; Cleffken, Berry; Brink, Peter Rg; de Bie, Rob A; Poeze, Martijn

    2012-05-28

    Functional treatment is a widely used and generally accepted treatment for ankle sprain. A meta-analysis comparing the different functional treatment options could not make definitive conclusions regarding the effectiveness, and until now, little was known about patient satisfaction in relation to the outcome. Patients with acute ankle sprain received rest, ice, compression and elevation with an compressive bandage at the emergency department. After 5-7 days, 100 patients with grade II and III sprains were randomized into two groups: one group was treated with tape and the other with a semi-rigid ankle brace, both for 4 weeks. Post-injury physical and proprioceptive training was standardized. As primary outcome parameter patient satisfaction and skin complications were evaluated using a predefined questionnaire and numeric rating scale. As secondary outcome parameter the ankle joint function was assessed using the Karlsson scoring scale and range of motion. Patient-reported comfort and satisfaction during treatment with a semi-rigid brace was significantly increased. The rate of skin complication in this group was significantly lower compared to the tape group (14.6% versus 59.1%, P ankle joint was similar between the two treatment groups, as well as reported pain. Treatment of acute ankle sprain with semi-rigid brace leads to significantly higher patient comfort and satisfaction, both with similar good outcome.

  7. Modified fracture brace for tibial fracture with varus angulation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, S F; Au, T L; Wong, A M; Lee, M Y

    1995-08-01

    Sarmiento introduced the functional fracture brace for the management of tibial shaft fracture in 1963. However, tibial angulation with varus deformity cannot be prevented or corrected by such a device. In this paper, a case of tibial shaft fracture with varus angulation treated with a modified below-knee fracture brace was reported.

  8. The effect of ankle brace type on braking response time-A randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammerer, Dietmar; Waidmann, Cornelia; Haid, Christian; Thaler, Martin; Krismer, Martin; Liebensteiner, Michael C

    2015-11-01

    The question whether or not a patient with an ankle brace should drive a car is of obvious importance because brake response time (BRT) is considered one of the most important factors for driving safety. Applying a crossover study design, 70 healthy participants (35 women, 35 men) participated in our study. BRT was assessed using a custom-made driving simulator. We assessed BRT under six conditions: without a brace (control) (1), with a typical postoperative ankle brace with adjustable ROM and the settings: unrestricted (2), fixed at 15° (3) plantar flexion, restricted with 15°/50° (4) (dorsal/plantar flexion), a brace for ligament instabilities (5) and an elastic ankle bandage (6). Participants were instructed to apply the brake pedal exclusively with the right foot as quickly as possible on receipt of a visual stimulus. The 70 participants showed significantly impaired BRT with the ankle brace for ROM restriction in the settings: unrestricted (p<0.001), fixed at 15° plantar flexion (p<0.001) and 15°/50° dorsal/plantar flexion (p<0.001) as compared to the control group. BRT was not impaired with the brace for ankle instabilities or the elastic ankle bandage. In conclusion, right-sided ROM restricting ankle braces involve significant impairment of BRT in healthy participants. No such prolonged BRT was found for an elastic ankle bandage or the ligament brace. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Forces exerted during exercises by patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis wearing fiberglass braces

    OpenAIRE

    Romano Michele; Carabalona Roberta; Petrilli Silvia; Sibilla Paolo; Negrini Stefano

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Objective To quantify and compare the forces exerted by scoliosis patients in fiberglass braces during exercises usually prescribed in departments where casts are made. The exercises are intended to increase corrective forces, activate muscles, stimulate ventilation and help the patient psychologically. Setting Outpatient care. Patients 17 consecutive adolescent patients wearing fiberglass brace for idiopathic scoliosis. Interventions Exercises (kyphotization, rotation, "escape from ...

  10. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion chamber... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230...

  11. Medial knee osteoarthritis treated by insoles or braces: a randomized trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. van Raaij (Tom); M. Reijman (Max); R.W. Brouwer (Reinoud); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: There is controversial evidence regarding whether foot orthoses or knee braces improve pain and function or correct malalignment in selected patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the medial knee compartment. However, insoles are safe and less costly than knee bracing if they

  12. Abdominal bracing during lifting alters trunk muscle activity and body kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, Pieter; Campbell, Amity; Kemp-Smith, Kevin; O'Sullivan, Peter; Straker, Leon

    2017-09-01

    We assessed whether participants are able to perform abdominal bracing during lifting, and described its effects on trunk muscle activity and body kinematics. Fourteen participants performed 10 lifts (symmetrical lifting of a 15 kg load from floor level), 5 with abdominal bracing and 5 without. Activity of the lumbar multifidus (LM) and internal oblique (IO) muscles, and trunk and lower body kinematics were obtained. During non-bracing lifting, IO activity did not increase beyond rested standing levels (with average muscle activity ranging between 8.2 and 9.1% maximum voluntary contraction; %MVC), while LM activity did (range: 8.5-21.0 %MVC). During bracing lifting, muscle activity was higher compared to non-bracing in IO and LM at the start of the lift (with average between condition differences up to 10.9 %MVC). Upper leg, pelvis and lumbar spine angles were smaller, but thorax flexion angles were larger while lifting with bracing compared to without (with average between condition differences ranging from 0.7° to 4.3°). Although participants do not typically brace their abdominal muscles while lifting, they can be trained to do so. There appears to be no clear advantage of abdominal bracing during lifting, leaving its value for low-back pain prevention unclear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. On the origin of higher braces and higher-order derivations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Markl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2015), s. 637-667 ISSN 2193-8407 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Koszul braces * Börjeseon braces * higher-order derivation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.600, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40062-014-0079-2

  14. The Parachute Ankle Brace: Entanglements and Injuries After Controlling for Extrinsic Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-10

    Preventive Medicine THE PARACHUTE ANKLE BRACE: ENTANGLEMENTS AND INJURIES AFTER CONTROLLING FOR EXTRINSIC RISK...Amoroso P.J. (2005). Effectiveness of an external ankle brace in reducing parachute-related ankle injuries . Injury Prevention . 11: 163- 168. 25...M. (1994). The efficacy of a semirigid ankle stabilizer to reduce acute ankle injury in basketball . American Journal of Sports Medicine. 22:

  15. Evaluation of seismic performance of X bracing systems equipped with flexural yielding dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussa Mahmoudi Sahebi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The X-bracing system is one of the lateral loads bearing system. In X-bracing system’s elements, axial plastic hinges (compressive or tensile will be formed instead of flexural hinges which are not capable to absorb high energy. Seismic performance can be improved by replacing these plastic hinges with the bending plastic joints. In this study, a new kind of X-bracing named X-bracing equipped with flexural yielding damper is introduced in which the plastic axial hinges is substituted by flexural plastic hinges. In this kind of bracing the failure mechanisms focuses on flexural hinges. The objective of this study is to evaluate the seismic performance of this kind of bracing. For this purpose, several X-bracing frames with various stories was selected and designed based on Iranian building codes. The seismic performance of these frames (stiffness capacity, strength capacity, and ductility capacity and force reduction factors were evaluated using static and time history nonlinear analysis. In dynamic time history analysis seven acceleration-time records was applied. The results show that the damper reduces stiffness and strength capacity inconsiderably, but increases the ductility capacity significantly. It also increases the force reduction factor of the frames significantly. The amount of force reduction factor for this system is the same as eccentrically braced frame one.

  16. The development of a new femoral brace hinge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, D J; Rowley, D I; Halstead, A; Robinson, P

    1987-08-01

    Mechanical and clinical trials have been performed on a new design of femoral fracture brace-the Protectair hinge system. The hinge, constructed from polythene, aluminium, stainless steel and nylon, incorporates some novel features; pre-bent hinge arms, detachable headplates and a unique knee joint mechanism. Mechanical tests under various stress states have shown the hinge to be of sufficient strength. Biomechanical tests on volunteer subjects have indicated that the unique combination of good knee flexion and prevention of knee hyperextension will be of clinical value. Copyright © 1987. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis: a rare case report and description of multimodal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Eric D; Henning, Grant; Uhlman, Matthew A; Gupta, Amit

    2016-12-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is an uncommon neoplasm that develops from serous surfaces, and rarely from the tunica vaginalis. Although atypical in any location, paratesticular presentation is exceedingly infrequent as only 0.3% to 1.4% of mesothelioma cases arise from the tunica vaginalis. Fewer than 300 cases have been reported with very few descriptions of long term follow up and multimodal therapy. Here we describe a patient with 2 years of follow up for metastatic mesothelioma treated with orchiectomy, chemotherapy and robot-assisted laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.

  18. The effect of taping versus semi-rigid bracing on patient outcome and satisfaction in ankle sprains: a prospective, randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lardenoye Sacha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional treatment is a widely used and generally accepted treatment for ankle sprain. A meta-analysis comparing the different functional treatment options could not make definitive conclusions regarding the effectiveness, and until now, little was known about patient satisfaction in relation to the outcome. Methods Patients with acute ankle sprain received rest, ice, compression and elevation with an compressive bandage at the emergency department. After 5-7 days, 100 patients with grade II and III sprains were randomized into two groups: one group was treated with tape and the other with a semi-rigid ankle brace, both for 4 weeks. Post-injury physical and proprioceptive training was standardized. As primary outcome parameter patient satisfaction and skin complications were evaluated using a predefined questionnaire and numeric rating scale. As secondary outcome parameter the ankle joint function was assessed using the Karlsson scoring scale and range of motion. Results Patient-reported comfort and satisfaction during treatment with a semi-rigid brace was significantly increased. The rate of skin complication in this group was significantly lower compared to the tape group (14.6% versus 59.1%, P  Conclusion Treatment of acute ankle sprain with semi-rigid brace leads to significantly higher patient comfort and satisfaction, both with similar good outcome.

  19. An experimental investigation on the ultimate strength of epoxy repaired braced partial infilled RC frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Shailendra Kumar Damodar; Kute, Sunil

    2014-09-01

    Due to earthquake, buildings are damaged partially or completely. Particularly structures with soft storey are mostly affected. In general, such damaged structures are repaired and reused. In this regard, an experimental investigation was planned and conducted on models of single-bay, single-storey of partial concrete infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frames up to collapse with corner, central and diagonal steel bracings. Such collapsed frames were repaired with epoxy resin and retested. The initiative was to identify the behaviour, extent of restored ultimate strength and deflection of epoxy-retrofitted frames in comparison to the braced RC frames. The performance of such frames has been considered only for lateral loads. In comparison to bare RC frames, epoxy repaired partial infilled frames have significant increase in the lateral load capacity. Central bracing is more effective than corner and diagonal bracing. For the same load, epoxy repaired frames have comparable deflection than similar braced frames.

  20. Description of station waste water treatment and study of reclaiming industry ceramic red

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadava, Y.P.; Rego, S.A.B.C.; Junior, B.S.; Bezerra, L.P.; Ferreira, R.A.S.

    2012-01-01

    So that the water meets potability standards required by the laws it passes through various treatment processes which generate waste called WTS (Water Treatment Sludge). This sludge is disposed of without any processing, however, environmental agencies and the public are demanding alternatives to this situation. Knowing this, this study aims to characterize the sludge from the Water Treatment Plant Botafogo and analyze its viability as a feedstock in the manufacture of red bricks. (author)

  1. Electromyographic and biomechanic analysis of anterior cruciate ligament deficiency and functional knee bracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Dan K; Wretenberg, Per F; Lamontagne, Mario; Németh, Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    Examine the neuromuscular response to functional knee bracing relative to anterior tibial translations in vivo. During randomised brace conditions, electromyographic data with simultaneous skeletal tibiofemoral kinematics were recorded from four anterior cruciate ligament deficient subjects to investigate the effect of the DonJoy Legend functional brace during activity. Knee braces do not increase knee stability but may influence afferent inputs from proprioception and therefore one might expect changes in muscle firing patterns, amplitude and timing. Hoffman bone pins affixed with markers were implanted into the tibia and femur for kinematic measurement. The EMG data from the rectus femoris, semitendinosus, biceps femoris, and lateral head of the gastrocnemius were integrated for each subject in three separate time periods: 250 ms preceding footstrike and two consecutive 125 ms time intervals following footstrike. With brace, semitendinosus activity significantly decreased 17% prior to footstrike whereas bicep femoris significantly decreased 44% during A2, (P<0.05). Rectus femoris activity significantly increased 21% in A2 (P<0.05). No consistent reductions in anterior translations were evident. Our preliminary findings, based on a limited number of subjects, indicate joint stability may result from proprioceptive feedback rather than the mechanical stabilising effect of the brace. Despite a significant increase in rectus femoris activity upon landing, only one subject demonstrated an increase in anterior tibial drawer. Studies have shown functional braces do not mechanically stabilise the anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee. Perhaps bracing alters proprioceptive feedback. It has been shown that bracing the anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee may affect hamstring and quadriceps activity. Our findings stresses the importance of functional knee bracing combined with proprioceptive and muscular coordination training in order to increase joint stability.

  2. Trunk muscle activities during abdominal bracing: comparison among muscles and exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeo, Sumiaki; Takahashi, Takumi; Takai, Yohei; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal bracing is often adopted in fitness and sports conditioning programs. However, there is little information on how muscular activities during the task differ among the muscle groups located in the trunk and from those during other trunk exercises. The present study aimed to quantify muscular activity levels during abdominal bracing with respect to muscle- and exercise-related differences. Ten healthy young adult men performed five static (abdominal bracing, abdominal hollowing, prone, side, and supine plank) and five dynamic (V- sits, curl-ups, sit-ups, and back extensions on the floor and on a bench) exercises. Surface electromyogram (EMG) activities of the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and erector spinae (ES) muscles were recorded in each of the exercises. The EMG data were normalized to those obtained during maximal voluntary contraction of each muscle (% EMGmax). The % EMGmax value during abdominal bracing was significantly higher in IO (60%) than in the other muscles (RA: 18%, EO: 27%, ES: 19%). The % EMGmax values for RA, EO, and ES were significantly lower in the abdominal bracing than in some of the other exercises such as V-sits and sit-ups for RA and EO and back extensions for ES muscle. However, the % EMGmax value for IO during the abdominal bracing was significantly higher than those in most of the other exercises including dynamic ones such as curl-ups and sit-ups. These results suggest that abdominal bracing is one of the most effective techniques for inducing a higher activation in deep abdominal muscles, such as IO muscle, even compared to dynamic exercises involving trunk flexion/extension movements. Key PointsTrunk muscle activities during abdominal bracing was examined with regard to muscle- and exercise-related differences.Abdominal bracing preferentially activates internal oblique muscles even compared to dynamic exercises involving trunk flexion/extension movements.Abdominal bracing should be

  3. Stuttering Treatment for a School-Age Child with Down Syndrome: A Descriptive Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasym, Jessica; Langevin, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little is known about optimal treatment approaches and stuttering treatment outcomes for children with Down syndrome. Aims and method: The purpose of this study was to investigate outcomes for a child with Down syndrome who received a combination of fluency shaping therapy and parent delivered contingencies for normally fluent speech,…

  4. 40 CFR 141.82 - Description of corrosion control treatment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sufficient to maintain an effective residual concentration in all test tap samples. (2) The water system... adversely affected other water treatment processes when used by another water system with comparable water... ineffective or adversely affects other water quality treatment processes. (5) The water system shall evaluate...

  5. Effect of Group Exercising and Adjusting the Brace at Shorter Intervals on Cobb Angle and Quality of Life of Patients with Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hedayati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Bracing along with exercising is the most effective protocol in patients with idiopathic scoliosis which have Cobb angles of 25 to 45 degrees. However, since the psychological aspects of scoliosis treatment may affect the quality of life, and the exact time for adjusting the pads of Milwaukee brace is unknown; Therefore the aim of this study was evaluating the effect of exercising in a group, with adjusting the brace in shorter intervals, in compare to routine protocol, in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. Matterials & Methods: Thirty-four patients with idiopathic scoliosis which had Cobb angles of 50 to 15 degrees were included in this study and were divided into experimental and control groups. The patients of two groups participated in an eleven-week treatment program, differ between the two groups. Quality of life scores of both groups were evaluated before and after intervention using SRS-22 questionnaire, as well as scoliosis angles before and after the intervention according to the primary and secondary radiographic X-rays. Results: Statistical analysis was performed using Paired T-Test in each group, and Independent T-Test between the two groups before and after treatment. The severity of scoliosis curvature and satisfaction domain of the experimental group was reduced significantly in compared with the control group, after intervention (P=0.04. Moreover in the case of  the quality of life in patients with Cobb angles less than 30 degrees, compared with patients with Cobb angles greater than 31 degrees, in the domains of self-image, satisfaction, and total score, the difference was significant (P<0.05. Conclusion: Adjusting the brace at shorter intervals along with exercising as a group, during the eleven weeks of treatment, has increased satisfaction and reduced the scoliosis Cobb angles of patients.

  6. [Need for youth welfare services following child and adolescent psychiatry treatment- a descriptive analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Norbert

    2015-11-01

    Cooperation between health and youth welfare services plays a prominent role in the psychosocial healthcare of children and adolescents with mental disorders. The need analysis presented here measured how many children and adolescents engaged youth welfare services before and after inpatient or daycare treatment. The number of completed treatments from 36 Bavarian daycare and inpatient child and adolescent psychiatric clinics were recorded over a period of 6 months. Besides sociodemographic and diagnostic data, information was collected about indicated and subsequently realized measures of youth welfare following clinical and day care treatment. 33 %of the clinically treated children and adolescents participated in a youth-welfare measure after psychiatric treatment. In the run-up to clinical treatment, 38 % of the treated children and adolescents had engaged services of youth welfare. Half of the children and adolescents contacted both youth welfare services as well as child and adolescent psychiatric services. The residential setting of youth care is of major importance to the cooperative treatment. The provision of both youth welfare services and child and adolescent psychiatry treatment is usually not a matter of going from one system to another, but rather consists of different constellations of complex processes of mutual assistance. The goal is to carry out a structured survey of the common clientele and to develop a crossover system and common care structures in order to improve the overall cooperation.

  7. Allergic reactions and nickel-free braces: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Alessandra Pazzini

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Nickel-free braces have gained popularity as a viable alternative for patients who are allergic to nickel. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine whether evidence exists to justify the use of nickel-free brackets in orthodontic patients who are allergic to nickel. An electronic search was performed using 7 databases (MEDLINE, BBO, LILACS, Web of Science, EMBASE, BIREME and Cochrane Library, without restriction regarding year or language, with supplemental manual searching of the references of retrieved articles. The search strategy produced 89 papers. The data extraction and quality score of each paper were evaluated independently by two reviewers, once each. After selection based on the eligibility criteria, four papers, including 2 controlled clinical trials and 2 clinical trials, qualified for the final analysis. Quality assessment of the included articles was also performed. Nickel-free braces (Ni content - 2% max. seem to represent a viable alternative for orthodontic patients who are allergic to nickel. However, further in vivo studies, considering the immunology characteristics of patients, are needed to determine the clinical implications of the findings of this study.

  8. Applied behavior analytic interventions for children with autism: a description and review of treatment research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granpeesheh, Doreen; Tarbox, Jonathan; Dixon, Dennis R

    2009-01-01

    Autism is a disorder characterized by pervasive delays in the development of language and socialization, and the presence of stereotyped, repetitive behaviors or nonfunctional interests. Although a multitude of treatments for autism exist, very few have been the subject of scientific research. The only treatment that has been supported by substantial empirical research is treatment based on applied behavior analysis (ABA). This article describes components of comprehensive ABA treatment programs, reviews research on effectiveness, and discusses issues related to collaboration between ABA and psychiatry. ABA has been supported by several hundred single case experiments and an increasing number of between-groups studies. Comprehensive ABA treatment programs are comprised of multiple intervention procedures, such as discrete trial instruction and natural environment training, and are founded on basic principles of learning and motivation, such as positive reinforcement, extinction, stimulus control, and generalization. Clinicians in the fields of ABA and psychiatry have similar goals regarding client outcome, and several ABA measurement and analysis procedures produce information that may be useful to psychiatrists. ABA treatment programs for individuals with autism are supported by a significant amount of scientific evidence and are therefore recommended for use. Patient care would likely benefit from a greater degree of collaboration between practitioners in the fields of ABA and psychiatry.

  9. Stuttering treatment for a school-age child with Down syndrome: a descriptive case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasym, Jessica; Langevin, Marilyn

    2012-12-01

    Little is known about optimal treatment approaches and stuttering treatment outcomes for children with Down syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate outcomes for a child with Down syndrome who received a combination of fluency shaping therapy and parent delivered contingencies for normally fluent speech, prolonged speech, and stuttered speech. In-clinic speech measures obtained at post-treatment and at 4 months follow-up reflected improvements in fluency of 89.0% and 98.6%, respectively. The participant's beyond-clinic follow-up sample reflected an improvement of 95.5%. Following treatment, the participant demonstrated improved self-confidence, self-esteem, and improved participation and functioning at school. Findings suggest that fluency shaping with parental contingencies may be a viable treatment approach to reduce stuttering in children with Down syndrome. Future research using an experimental research design is warranted. Readers will be able to describe (a) prevalence estimates of stuttering in individuals with Down syndrome, (b) the main components of a fluency shaping program for a child with Down syndrome who stutters and has co-occurring speech and language delays, and (c) speech and parent-, teacher-, and self-report treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Descriptive Analysis of a Community Clinic Providing Hepatitis C Treatment to Poor and Uninsured Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Omar T; Melton, Pamela A; Ji, Shaonin

    2018-03-06

    This study describes clinical characteristics of poor and uninsured patients living with hepatitis C virus (HCV) who received care from a multidisciplinary HCV clinic, reports treatment completion and cure rates, and estimates the cost of HCV medications provided at no cost to uninsured patients. A retrospective chart review was performed and identified 69 uninsured HCV patients who received medical care at Mercy Health Center, a small non-profit community clinic, between January 2008 and March 2015. Three-fourths of the patients were unemployed, a third had multiple HCV exposures, nearly half acquired HCV due to illicit drug use, and more than half had active psychiatric disorders. Of those who received HCV treatment, 81% completed treatment and 85% were achieved virological cure. The multidisciplinary community clinic provided > $1.4 million of HCV antivirals at no cost to uninsured patients. Findings suggest a multidisciplinary community clinic comprised of a social worker, pharmacist, gastroenterologist, nurse, nurse practitioner, psychologist, and dietitian can help patients achieve HCV treatment completion and cure rates comparable to traditional physician-led clinics, and successfully manage uninsured and underserved HCV patients-who are often regarded as "difficult-to-treat" patients. Public health social workers and other health professionals are encouraged to advocate for treatment and care of poor and uninsured patients living with HCV in health agencies and health systems, otherwise population-wide reductions in HCV morbidity and mortality will not be realized.

  11. General health workers' description of mental health problems and treatment approaches used in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koka, Betty E; Deane, Frank P; Lyons, Geoffrey Cb; Lambert, Gordon

    2014-11-01

    Papua New Guinea is a developing country with limited resources for specialist mental health services. Little is known about the mental health and treatment services of Papua New Guinea. The aim of this study was to clarify the presenting mental health problems encountered by Papua New Guinean health workers and the common treatment approaches used. A total of 203 Papua New Guinean health workers completed a retrospective quantitative survey about their three most recent mental health patients. The survey asked about presenting symptomatology, diagnoses (including culture-bound diagnoses) and treatment approaches. The major presenting mental health problems for males included schizophrenia, substance use disorder, sorcery and spirit possession. Depression was the most common diagnoses for women, followed by sorcery and somatisation. Over 65% of patients were prescribed psychotropic medication, over 50% received some form of psychological intervention and 28% were receiving traditional treatments. Somatic symptoms are common among both male and female Papua New Guineans; however, males may be more likely to present with psychotic symptoms and females with mood-related problems. Schizophrenia and depression are commonly identified with substance use disorder more problematic among males. Culture-specific explanations and treatment are commonly used. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Comparison of Initial Effect of Taping Techniqe and Counterforce Brace on Pain and Grip Strength of Patients with Lateral Epicondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Shamsoddini

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In patients with lateral epicondylitis present of pain and decrease of grip strength are essential problems. Use of splint have major rule in treatment these patients that causes relief of pain and increase of grip strength. Both taping technique and counterforce brace are two methods of treatments of lateral epicondylitis patients but we were not sure which method could be more useful and Answer of this question is magor aim of this study. Materials & Methods: This study is a Quasi experimental. We selected 30 patients between 30-55 years conveniently and divided them in two groups simple randomized.  Results: In grip strength test, the average difference between two methods was t = 1/92 which showed there is not significant. So, there isn't any difference between two methods on grip strength. In assessment of pain, we tested patients in two positions: first patient's hand was in comfort position, second in which when wrist of hand was in extension position. In both of position, that average difference between two methods (first t = 3/78 and secondary t = 3/2 found to be significant. Choose of method in such treatment is considered to be important. Conclusion: taping technique is more effective than counterforce brace to relief of pain of patients with lateral epicondylitis, but in grip strength no difference between two methods.

  13. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ``ideas``. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ``cradle-to-grave`` systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ``downselection`` of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW.

  14. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ''ideas''. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ''cradle-to-grave'' systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ''downselection'' of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW

  15. First-time admissions for opioid treatment: cross-sectional and descriptive study of new opioid users seeking treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez, Gerardo; López-Durán, Ana; Triñanes, Yolanda; Osorio, Jesús; Fraga, Jaime; Fernández, José Manuel; Becoña, Elisardo; Arrojo, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the profiles of the new treatment demands posed by opioid addicts between 2005 and 2010 at the addictive disorders assistance units in Galicia, Spain. Methods A cluster analysis was performed using data from 1,655 treatment entrants. Clusters were constructed using sociodemographic and medicolegal variables. A cluster analysis was also conducted according to age. Once clusters were defined, their association with the following variables was analyzed: age at first use of opioids, years of use, frequency of opioid use in the previous month, psychiatric treatment, cocaine use, existence of a drug-dependent partner, and source of referral. Results Four clusters were obtained in the main analysis. Cluster 1 (34.01%) consisted of young males, cluster 2 (16.19%) consisted of not-so-young males, cluster 3 (32.62%) consisted mainly of older males and a small group of females, and cluster 4 (17.18%) was made up entirely of women. With regard to age-related clusters, two clusters were obtained in those under the age of 30 years: cluster 1 (73%) without medicolegal complications and cluster 2 (27%) with medicolegal complications. For those over the age of 30 years, two clusters were obtained: cluster 1 (53.92%) with hardly any medicolegal complications and cluster 2 (46.08%) with medicolegal complications. Conclusion Cluster analysis suggests that there have been no substantial changes in variables indicating greater severity in this new group of patients. Women are likely to seek help earlier, which reduces their duration of opioid use. The younger the patient, the shorter the duration of opioid use and the greater the likelihood of cessation of intravenous use. Public health systems should use a two-pronged treatment strategy of short but intense cessation therapies for women and younger treatment entrants and longer maintenance and replacement therapies for older treatment entrants with more psychosocial

  16. Cyclic Testing of Steel Chevron Braces with Vertically Slotted Beam Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozlyn K. Bubela

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental tests were performed to study the seismic behavior and performance of modified steel chevron braced frame systems, which incorporate a vertical slotted connection (VSC detail between the top of the braces and the floor beam above. The VSC detail is intended to prevent vertical load transfer to the beam and limit brace forces to the compressive resistance of the members. Full-scale quasi-static cyclic tests were performed on two specimens with hollow tube braces, with one specimen having the braces filled with concrete. Both frames exhibited stable, predictable behavior under cyclic loading. The VSC detail provided free vertical movement of the brace assembly during both tests. However, its flexibility created a moderate reduction in the overall lateral stiffness of the frame. The concrete-filled tube specimen sustained higher peak loads, demonstrated greater residual strength and dissipated more energy than the hollow tube specimen due to the partial inhibition of local buckling by the concrete core. It was found that the VSC chevron braced frame system is a suitable concept for use in buildings in high-risk seismic zones.

  17. The effect of ankle bracing on knee kinetics and kinematics during volleyball-specific tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, T; Ng, L; Campbell, A

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ankle bracing on knee kinetics and kinematics during volleyball tasks. Fifteen healthy, elite, female volleyball players performed a series of straight-line and lateral volleyball tasks with no brace and when wearing an ankle brace. A 14-camera Vicon motion analysis system and AMTI force plate were used to capture the kinetic and kinematic data. Knee range of motion, peak knee anterior-posterior and medial-lateral shear forces, and peak ground reaction forces that occurred between initial contact with the force plate and toe off were compared using paired sample t-tests between the braced and non-braced conditions (P volleyball tasks. However, ankle bracing was demonstrated to reduce knee lateral shear forces during all of the lateral movement volleyball tasks. Wearing the Active Ankle T2 brace will not impact knee joint range of motion and may in fact reduce shear loading to the knee joint in volleyball players. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The Application of Parallel Robotics to Investigate the Effect of Lumbar Bracing on Trunk Muscle Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory N. Kawchuk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar bracing is prescribed frequently for disability caused by low back pain; however, investigations into this practice demonstrate a range of patient outcomes. This inconsistency may arise from the practice of employing voluntary, single-axis trunk movements when investigating braces. Alternatively, this study employed a parallel robot to create a standardised, multi-axis testing environment. Surface electromyographic (sEMG data were collected from the trunk of 24 asymptomatic participants, who were seated on the robot, tilted to 15°, then circumducted while attempting to maintain an upright posture. Multiple trials were performed for three randomised conditions: non-braced, soft-material brace and stiff-material brace. As expected, the sEMG activity was significantly reduced in the majority of muscle responses (201/240. Unexpectedly, a paradoxical increase in the sEMG activity was observed in 39/240 responses. While lumbar bracing reduces the sEMG activity on average, these data suggest the existence of an infrequent paradoxical response that may provide a possible explanation for the discordant results observed in previous bracing investigations.

  19. An augmented cognitive behavioural therapy for treating post-stroke depression: description of a treatment protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootker, J.A.; Rasquin, S.M.C.; Smits, P.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Heugten, C.M. van; Fasotti, L.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Currently, no evidence-based treatment is available for mood problems after stroke. We present a new psychological intervention designed to reduce depressive complaints after stroke. Method of protocol development This intervention was based on cognitive behavioural therapy principles and was

  20. An augmented cognitive behavioural therapy for treating post-stroke depression: description of a treatment protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootker, J.A.; Rasquin, S.M.; Smits, P; Geurts, A.C.H.; Heugten, C.M. van; Fasotti, L.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Currently, no evidence-based treatment is available for mood problems after stroke. We present a new psychological intervention designed to reduce depressive complaints after stroke. METHOD OF PROTOCOL DEVELOPMENT: This intervention was based on cognitive behavioural therapy principles and was

  1. Description of the surface water filtration and ozone treatment system at the Northeast Fishery Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    A water filtration and ozone disinfection system was installed at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Northeast Fishery Center in Lamar, Pennsylvania to treat a surface water supply that is used to culture sensitive and endangered fish. The treatment system first passes the surface water through dr...

  2. Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy during Methadone Dose Reduction: Rationale, Treatment Description, and a Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotts, Angela L.; Masuda, Akihiko; Wilson, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Many clients who undergo methadone maintenance (MM) treatment for heroin and other opiate dependence prefer abstinence from methadone. Attempts at methadone detoxification are often unsuccessful, however, due to distressing physical as well as psychological symptoms. Outcomes from an MM client who voluntarily participated in an Acceptance and…

  3. [Pharmacological treatment compliance and a description of its associated factors in patients with myasthenia gravis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idiaquez, J F; Gonzalez, S; Lasso-Penafiel, J; Barnett, C

    2018-01-01

    Medication adherence is a public health problem and this has not been previously studied in myasthenia gravis patients. To determine if patients with myasthenia gravis are adherent to treatment and to describe the clinical factors of patients who are non-adherent to treatment. Cross-sectional study of patients with myasthenia gravis followed at Padre Hurtado Hospital, Santiago de Chile, who received their medication through the hospital and therefore were on the pharmacy's list. Patients' participation was voluntary and anonymous. Medication adherence was assessed with the Morisky-Green-Levine survey (4 items). Patients were assessed for myasthenia gravis severity with the Manual Muscle Test, and myasthenia gravis-related quality of life with the MG-QOL15. Finally, patients were screened for depression with the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire. 26 patients were enrolled and 15 (57.7%) were women. Only 10 (38.5%) of patients were adherent to treatment. Patients who were not adherent to medication had more weakness (p = 0.06), worse quality of life (p = 0.008), were taking a greater number of myasthenia gravis drugs (p = 0.003) and had a higher risk of depression (p = 0.03). In this cohort of myasthenia gravis patients, three out of five patients were not adherent to treatment. These patients tended to have more weakness, worse quality of life and higher risk of depression. Medication adherence should be assessed routinely in patients with myasthenia gravis.

  4. First-time admissions for opioid treatment: cross-sectional and descriptive study of new opioid users seeking treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flórez G

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gerardo Flórez,1,2 Ana López-Durán,3 Yolanda Triñanes,4 Jesús Osorio,5 Jaime Fraga,5 José Manuel Fernández,5 Elisardo Becoña,3 Manuel Arrojo5 1Addictive Disorders Assistance Unit, Complejo Hospitalario, Ourense, Spain; 2Center for Biomedical Research in Mental Health (CIBERSAM, Oviedo, Spain; 3Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychobiology, University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 4Galician Agency for Health Technology Assessment, Directorate General for Innovation and Management of Public Health, Galicia, Spain; 5Directorate General of Health Assistance, Galician Health Service, Galicia, Spain Background: The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the profiles of the new treatment demands posed by opioid addicts between 2005 and 2010 at the addictive disorders assistance units in Galicia, Spain. Methods: A cluster analysis was performed using data from 1,655 treatment entrants. Clusters were constructed using sociodemographic and medicolegal variables. A cluster analysis was also conducted according to age. Once clusters were defined, their association with the following variables was analyzed: age at first use of opioids, years of use, frequency of opioid use in the previous month, psychiatric treatment, cocaine use, existence of a drug-dependent partner, and source of referral. Results: Four clusters were obtained in the main analysis. Cluster 1 (34.01% consisted of young males, cluster 2 (16.19% consisted of not-so-young males, cluster 3 (32.62% consisted mainly of older males and a small group of females, and cluster 4 (17.18% was made up entirely of women. With regard to age-related clusters, two clusters were obtained in those under the age of 30 years: cluster 1 (73% without medicolegal complications and cluster 2 (27% with medicolegal complications. For those over the age of 30 years, two clusters were obtained: cluster 1 (53.92% with hardly any medicolegal complications and cluster 2 (46.08% with

  5. Efficacy, safety, and economics of bracing after spine surgery: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mary P; Tetreault, Lindsay A; Sorefan-Mangou, Fatimah; Garwood, Philip; Wilson, Jefferson R

    2018-01-31

    Bracing is often used after spinal surgery to immobilize the spine, improve fusion, and relieve pain. However, controversy exists regarding the efficacy, necessity, and safety of various bracing techniques in the postsurgical setting. In this systematic review, we aimed to compare the effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of postoperative bracing versus no postoperative bracing after spinal surgery in patients with several common operative spinal pathologies. A systematic review was carried out to compare postoperative bracing and no postoperative bracing. A systematic search was conducted of MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Collaboration Library from 1970 to May 2017, supplemented by manual searching of the reference list of relevant studies and previously published reviews. Studies were included if they compared disability, quality of life, functional impairment, radiographic outcomes, cost-effectiveness, or complications between patients treated with postoperative bracing and patients not receiving any postoperative bracing. Each article was critically appraised independently by two reviewers, and the overall body of evidence was rated using guidelines outlined by the Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group. Of the 858 retrieved citations, 5 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review, consisting of 4 randomized controlled trials and 1 prospective cohort study. Low to moderate evidence suggests that there are no significant differences in most measures of disability, pain, quality of life, functional impairment, radiographic outcomes, and safety between groups. Isolated studies reported statistically significant and inconsistent differences between groups with respect to Neck Disability Index at 6 weeks postoperatively or Short Form-36 Physical Component Score at 1.5, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Based on limited evidence, postoperative bracing does not result in improved

  6. DESCRIPTION OF HISTOPATOLOGICAL FEMORAL FRACTURES HEALING WITH EXCESSIVE OF CALCIUM-CARBONATE TREATMENT IN MALE RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Sari Yudaniayanti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Fracture healing is a complex process that requires the ordered synthesis of matrix proteins and deposition of mineral. Complications such as delayed union or non-union may arise from excessive flexibility bone because low mineral content of bone or apposition of both fracture fragments is not complete yet. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of excessive calcium carbonate (CaCO3 on the healing femoral fracture in rat by examining histopathological change of femoral fracture. Twelve male Sprague Dawley rats, 12 weeks old were subjected to this investigation. The entire rats model at 13 weeks old were treated reposition of femoral dexter fractures with intramedullary pin fixation. The rats model were evenly randomly divided into three groups of four at 15 weeks old ; group I treated with normal diet, group II with normal diet + CaCO3 supplement 75 mg/day, group III with normal diet + CaCO3 supplement 225 mg/day per oral. At the end of the experiment (19 weeks old, the rats were killed, subsequently dexter femur were taken out for determining the histopathological examination. The results showed that excessive suplementation CaCO3 to description of histopathological fracture healing on group III had even better, callus was able to bridge the fracture fragment with completely. The proportion woven bone and trabeculae were higher, while group II were cartilage dominate in callus, and group I were higher fibrous tissue. From the results can be concluded that given CaCO3 225 mg/ day accelerate the healing process of femoral fractures.

  7. The Effect of Lace-up Ankle Braces on Injury Rates in High School Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuine, Timothy A.; Hetzel, Scott; Wilson, John; Brooks, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Background Although a nkle injuries occur frequently in high school football players no prospective studies have been performed to determine if wearing lace-up ankle braces will reduce the incidence and severity of ankle and other lower extremity injuries in these athletes. Purpose Determine if lace-up ankle braces reduce the incidence and severity of lower extremity injuries sustained by high school football players. Design Cluster randomized controlled trial. Methods 2081 players from 50 high schools were randomly-assigned to braced or control group. Braced group subjects wore lace-up ankle braces during the 2010 football season. Athletic trainers recorded brace compliance, athletic exposures and injuries. Cox Proportional Hazards models were utilized to compare injury rates between groups. Injury severity (days lost) was tested with Wilcoxon Rank Sum. Results The rate of acute ankle injury (per 1,000 exposures) was 0.48 in the braced group compared to 1.12 in the control group (Cox Hazard Ratio (HR)=0.39, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.24, 0.65, pinjuries was the same (5 days) in both groups (p=0.985). The rate of acute knee injury was 0.70 in the braced group compared to 0.69 in the control group, (HR=0.92 [0.57, 1.47], p=0.721). There was no difference (p=0.242) in the severity of knee injuries between the groups (controls 11.5 days, braced =17 days. The rate of other lower extremity injuries was 0.95 in the braced group and 1.32 in the control group, (HR=0.72 [0.48, 1.09], p=0.117) while the severity was similar in both groups (6 days versus 7 days, p=0.295). Conclusions Players who used lace-up ankle braces had a lower incidence of acute ankle injuries but no difference in the incidence of acute knee or other lower extremity injuries. Braces did not reduce the severity of ankle, knee or other lower extremity injuries. PMID:21926383

  8. The Role of Correction in the Conservative Treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shu-Yan; Nan, Xiao-Feng; Lee, Sang-Gil; Tournavitis, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Physiotherapeutic Scoliosis-Specific Exercises (PSSE) and bracing have been found to be effective in the stabilization of curves in patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS). Yet, the difference among the many PSSEs and braces has not been studied. The present review attempts to investigate the role of curve correction in the outcome of treatment for PSSEs and braces. A PubMed manual search has been conducted for studies on the role of correction in the effectiveness of PSSE and bracing. For the PSSEs, the key words used were "adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, correction, physiotherapy, physical therapy, exercise, and rehabilitation." For bracing, the key words used were "adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, correction and brace". Only papers that were published from 2001-2017 were included and reviewed, as there were very few relevant papers dating earlier than 2001. The search found no studies on the role of correction on the effectiveness of different PSSEs. The effectiveness of different PSSEs might or might not be related to the magnitude of curve correction during the exercises. However, many studies showed a relationship between the magnitude of in-brace correction and the outcome of the brace treatment. The role of correction on the effectiveness of PSSE has not been studied. In-brace correction, however, has been found to be associated with the outcome of brace treatment. An in-brace correction of 40-50% was associated with an increased rate of brace treatment success ( i.e . stabilization or improvement of curves). Thus, in the treatment of AIS, patients should be advised to use highly corrective braces, in conjunction with PSSE since exercises have been found to help stabilize the curves during weaning of the brace. Presently, no specific PSSE can be recommended. Braces of high in-brace correction should be used in conjunction with PSSEs in the treatment of AIS. No specific PSSE can be recommended as comparison studies of the effectiveness of

  9. Ankles back in randomized controlled trial (ABrCt): braces versus neuromuscular exercises for the secondary prevention of ankle sprains. Design of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Kasper W; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert Alm

    2011-09-27

    Ankle sprains are the most common sports and physical activity related injury. There is extensive evidence that there is a twofold increased risk for injury recurrence for at least one year post injury. In up to 50% of all cases recurrences result in disability and lead to chronic pain or instability, requiring prolonged medical care. Therefore ankle sprain recurrence prevention in athletes is essential. This RCT evaluates the effect of the combined use of braces and neuromuscular training (e.g. proprioceptive training/sensorimotor training/balance training) against the individual use of either braces or neuromuscular training alone on ankle sprain recurrences, when applied to individual athletes after usual care. This study was designed as three way randomized controlled trial with one year follow-up. Healthy individuals between 12 and 70 years of age, who were actively participating in sports and who had sustained a lateral ankle sprain in the two months prior to inclusion, were eligible for inclusion. After subjects had finished ankle sprain treatment by means of usual care, they were randomised to any of the three study groups. Subjects in group 1 received an eight week neuromuscular training program, subjects in group 2 received a sports brace to be worn during all sports activities for the duration of one year, and group 3 received a combination of the neuromuscular training program and a sports brace to be worn during all sports activities for the duration of eight weeks. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and every month for 12 months therafter. The primary outcome measure was incidence of ankle sprain recurrences. Secondary outcome measures included the direct and indirect costs of recurrent injury, the severity of recurrent injury, and the residual complaints during and after the intervention. The ABrCt is the first randomized controlled trial to directly compare the secondary preventive effect of the combined use of braces and neuromuscular training

  10. Ankles back in randomized controlled trial (ABrCt: braces versus neuromuscular exercises for the secondary prevention of ankle sprains. Design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhagen Evert ALM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankle sprains are the most common sports and physical activity related injury. There is extensive evidence that there is a twofold increased risk for injury recurrence for at least one year post injury. In up to 50% of all cases recurrences result in disability and lead to chronic pain or instability, requiring prolonged medical care. Therefore ankle sprain recurrence prevention in athletes is essential. This RCT evaluates the effect of the combined use of braces and neuromuscular training (e.g. proprioceptive training/sensorimotor training/balance training against the individual use of either braces or neuromuscular training alone on ankle sprain recurrences, when applied to individual athletes after usual care. Methods/Design This study was designed as three way randomized controlled trial with one year follow-up. Healthy individuals between 12 and 70 years of age, who were actively participating in sports and who had sustained a lateral ankle sprain in the two months prior to inclusion, were eligible for inclusion. After subjects had finished ankle sprain treatment by means of usual care, they were randomised to any of the three study groups. Subjects in group 1 received an eight week neuromuscular training program, subjects in group 2 received a sports brace to be worn during all sports activities for the duration of one year, and group 3 received a combination of the neuromuscular training program and a sports brace to be worn during all sports activities for the duration of eight weeks. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and every month for 12 months therafter. The primary outcome measure was incidence of ankle sprain recurrences. Secondary outcome measures included the direct and indirect costs of recurrent injury, the severity of recurrent injury, and the residual complaints during and after the intervention. Discussion The ABrCt is the first randomized controlled trial to directly compare the secondary preventive

  11. Reducing Stress Among Mothers in Drug Treatment: A Description of a Mindfulness Based Parenting Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Vanessa L; Gannon, Meghan; Weingarten, Wendy; Kaltenbach, Karol; LaNoue, Marianna; Abatemarco, Diane J

    2017-06-01

    Background Parenting women with substance use disorder could potentially benefit from interventions designed to decrease stress and improve overall psychosocial health. In this study we assessed whether a mindfulness based parenting (MBP) intervention could be successful in decreasing general and parenting stress in a population of women who are in treatment for substance use disorder and who have infants or young children. Methods MBP participants (N = 59) attended a two-hour session once a week for 12 weeks. Within-group differences on stress outcome measures administered prior to the beginning of the MBP intervention and following the intervention period were investigated using mixed-effects linear regression models accounting for correlations arising from the repeated-measures. Scales assessed for pre-post change included the Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS) and the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI). Results General stress, as measured by the PSS, decreased significantly from baseline to post-intervention. Women with the highest baseline general stress level experienced the greatest change in total stress score. A significant change also occurred across the Parental Distress PSI subscale. Conclusions Findings from this innovative interventional study suggest that the addition of MBP within treatment programs for parenting women with substance use disorder is an effective strategy for reducing stress within this at risk population.

  12. An augmented cognitive behavioural therapy for treating post-stroke depression: description of a treatment protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kootker, Joyce A; Rasquin, Sascha M C; Smits, Peter; Geurts, Alexander C; van Heugten, Caroline M; Fasotti, Luciano

    2015-09-01

    Currently, no evidence-based treatment is available for mood problems after stroke. We present a new psychological intervention designed to reduce depressive complaints after stroke. This intervention was based on cognitive behavioural therapy principles and was shown feasible in a pilot study. In order to meet the specific needs of stroke patients (concerning both sensori-motor, cognitive, and behavioural problems), we incorporated motivational interviewing, grief resolution, and psycho-education. We emphasised for each session to take into account the cognitive deficits of the patients (i.e. be concrete, accessible, structured, specific, and repeat information). Moreover, we augmented the psychologist-administered therapy with the contribution of an occupational or movement therapist aimed at facilitating patients' goal-setting and attainment. The intervention consisted of 12 one-hour sessions with a psychologist and three or four one-hour sessions with an occupational or movement therapist. Currently, the effectiveness of the intervention is evaluated in a randomised controlled trial. The proposed psychological treatment protocol is innovative, as it applies cognitive behavioural therapy in a stroke-specific manner; moreover, it supports goal attainment by incorporating occupational or movement therapy sessions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Treatment of Berkeley boilers in Studsvik. Project description and experiences - Berkeley Boilers Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saul, Dave; Davidson, Gavin; Wirendal, Bo

    2014-01-01

    In November 2011 Studsvik was awarded a contract to transport five decommissioned boilers from the Berkeley Nuclear Licensed Site in the UK to the Studsvik Nuclear Site in Sweden for metal treatment and recycling. A key objective of the project was to remove the boilers from the site by 31 March 2012 and this was successfully achieved with all boilers off site by 22 March and delivered to Studsvik on 6 April. In November 2012 Studsvik was awarded a further contract for the remaining ten Berkeley Boilers with the requirement to remove all boilers from the Berkeley site by 31 March 2013. Again this was successfully achieved ahead of programme with all boilers in Sweden by 1 April 2013. A total of nine boilers have now been processed and all remaining boilers will be completed by end of September 2014. The projects have had many challenges including a very tight timescale and both have been successfully delivered to cost and ahead of the baseline programme. This paper describes the project and the experience gained from treatment of the boilers to date. (authors)

  14. Oral health status and treatment needs in institutionalized psychiatric patients : One year descriptive cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Manish

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES : Psychiatric patients are one of the special groups requiring attention as they are often neglected. Oral health is an major determinant of general health for psychiatric patients and may have a low priority in the context of mental illness. The present study was conducted to assess the oral health status and treatment needs of institutionalized psychiatric patients of Davangere. METHODS : 220 psychiatric patients admitted in two general hospitals of Davangere during the period of one year were included in the study. The oral health status was evaluated with respect to caries, oral hygiene, and periodontal status. RESULTS : Of the 180 examined with the response rate of 81.8%. 58.3% were males, mean age was 36.7 years, 57.8% had < 1 year of mental illness with a mean of 2.2 years, and 90% were self-sufficient. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the mean DMFT (0.92 increased with age, duration of mental illness, and irregularity of oral hygiene habits (P<0.001. Mean OHI-S score was 3.3 and multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the mean OHI-S score increased with age (P<0.001. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the CPI score increased with age, duration of mental illness, and degree of helplessness (P<0.001. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION : The findings of this study demonstrates low caries prevalence, poor oral hygiene, and extensive unmet needs for dental treatment.

  15. Phenomenology and treatment of Catatonia: A descriptive study from north India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Alakananda; Grover, Sandeep; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit; Kumar, Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Studies on clinical features of catatonia in the Indian population are few in number. Aim: To study the phenomenology, clinical profile and treatment response of subjects admitted to the psychiatry inpatient with catatonia. Materials and Methods: Detailed treatment records of all the inpatients were scanned for the period January 2004 to December 2008. Patients with catatonia (diagnosed as two symptoms as per the Bush Francis Catatonia Rating scale) were included. Results: During the study period, 1056 subjects were admitted in the inpatient unit, of which 51 (4.8% of the total admissions) had catatonic features and had been rated on the Bush Francis Catatonia Rating scale. The mean age of the sample was 30.02 years (SD=14.6; range 13-69), with an almost equal gender ratio. Most of the patients presenting with catatonia were diagnosed as having psychotic disorders (40; 74.8%), of which the most common diagnosis was schizophrenia (27; 52.9%) of the catatonic subtype (20; 39.2%). Three subjects with primary diagnosis of a psychotic disorder had comorbid depression. Other diagnoses included mood disorders (7; 13.72%) and organic brain syndromes (04; 7.9%). According to the Bush Francis Rating scale, the common signs and symptoms exhibited by the subjects were mutism (94.1%), followed by immobility/stupor (78.5%), staring (78.4%), negativism (74.5%), rigidity (63%) and posturing/catalepsy (61.8%). All the patients were initially treated with lorazepam. Electroconvulsive therapy was required in most cases (42; 82.35%). Conclusion: The common symptoms of catatonia are mutism, immobility/stupor, staring, posturing, negativism and rigidity. The most common underlying psychiatric diagnosis was schizophrenia. PMID:21431006

  16. Randomized comparison of tape versus semi-rigid and versus lace-up ankle support in the treatment of acute lateral ankle ligament injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bekerom, M. P. J.; van Kimmenade, Robert; Sierevelt, I. N.; Eggink, Karin; Kerkhoffs, G. M. M. J.; van Dijk, C. N.; Raven, E. E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Functional treatment is the optimal non-surgical treatment for acute lateral ankle ligament injury (ALALI) in favour of immobilization treatment. There is no single most effective functional treatment (tape, semi-rigid brace or lace-up brace) based on currently available randomized trials. This

  17. Aromatherapy for the Treatment of Patients with Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia: A Descriptive Analysis of RCTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press-Sandler, Olga; Freud, Tamar; Volkov, Ilya; Peleg, Roni; Press, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are a common problem among patients with dementia. This problem is usually treated by drugs, but they have limited efficacy and often cause adverse effects. Aromatherapy is a nonpharmacologic treatment that is simple to use and devoid of significant adverse effects. To review the literature on the effectiveness of aromatherapy treatment in patients with BPSD. A descriptive analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) published in the English-language literature and cited in PubMed. Eleven articles on RCTs were found, of which 1 had fewer than 10 participants, 2 were mistakenly presented as RCTs, and another did not report treatment for BPSD. In all, 7 articles with 417 participants total (range, 15-114) were reviewed. The mean age in all studies was greater than 69 years (range, 69-85 years), and the percentage of women was 55% (range, 50%-57%). The intervention period ranged from 10 days to 12 weeks. Two studies used Melissa oil and 5 others used lavender oil. The studies described different methods of administration for the oils, including spraying and rubbing over various body organs. The duration of treatment differed among the studies. In 3 studies the investigators concluded that the treatment was not effective and in 3 that it was effective; in 1 study no clear conclusion could be drawn. The difference between positive and negative studies was not explained by differences in the study population, the type of oil, or the duration of treatment. The significant difference apparently stems from the method of administration. When the oil was applied close to the olfactory system the outcome was positive. A study should be designed to assess the effect of the site of application of aromatherapy.

  18. Depression Screening at a Community Health Fair: Descriptives and Treatment Linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opperman, Kiel J; Hanson, Devin M; Toro, Paul A

    2017-08-01

    Health fairs are a cost-efficient platform for dissemination of preventive services to vulnerable populations. Effectiveness of depression screenings and associated treatment linkage via community health fairs warrants investigation. This study offers the first examination of a depression screening at a community health fair in 261 adult men (18-87years). The PHQ-9 was administered via interview by graduate students and on-site psychiatric nurses were available for a brief consultation for those interested. Over a quarter of participants screened positive for at least moderate depressive symptomatology. Of those who screened positive, 35.8% met with an on-site psychiatric nurse for a consultation. At six-month follow-up, none of the participants given a referral made an appointment at the community mental health agency. This suggests the importance of providing on-site clinician consultations at health fairs and the need for a more coordinated system to schedule future appointments while at the event. Community health fairs reach vulnerable populations, such as those who are uninsured and who have not spoken with a professional about mental health concerns. By conducting depression screening and providing onsite access to a mental health consultation at community health fairs, participants are better able to identify their depressive symptoms and are introduced to ways to treat depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk Factors for Parachute Injuries and Airborne Student Observations on the Parachute Ankle Brace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knapik, Joseph J; Spiess, Anita; Darakjy, Salima; Grier, Tyson; Manning, Fred; Livingston, Elaine; Swedler, David; Amoroso, Paul; Jones, Bruce H

    2007-01-01

    ...) of the Defense Safety Oversight Council (DSOC) to evaluate the parachute ankle brace (PAB). Information provided by the questionnaire identified potential injury risk factors and comments on the PAB...

  20. Measurement and correlation of (vapor + liquid) equilibria for the {l_brace}2-propoxyethanol (C{sub 3}E{sub 1}) + n-hexane{r_brace} and the {l_brace}2-propoxyethanol (C{sub 3}E{sub 1}) + n-heptane{r_brace} systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Sunghyun; Shin, Moon Sam; Lee, Yongjin [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwayong [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hwayongk@snu.ac.kr

    2009-01-15

    2-Propoxyethanol (C{sub 3}E{sub 1}) is one of nonionic surfactants which are a particularly interesting class of substances due to both inter-molecular and intra-molecular association. Binary (vapor + liquid) equilibrium data were measured for {l_brace}2-propoxyethanol (C{sub 3}E{sub 1}) + n-hexane{r_brace} and {l_brace}2-propoxyethanol (C{sub 3}E{sub 1}) + n-heptane{r_brace} systems at temperatures ranging from (303.15 to 323.15) K. A static apparatus was used in this study. The experimental data were correlated well with a lattice fluid equation of state that combines the multi-fluid non-random lattice fluid model with Veytsman statistics for (intra + inter)-molecular association.

  1. Cardiovascular and metabolic monitoring of children and adolescents on antipsychotic treatment: A cross-sectional descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre Villalobos, Miquel; Martin-López, Luis Miguel; Fernández Sanmartín, María Isabel; Pujals Altes, Elena; Gasque Llopis, Silvia; Batlle Vila, Santiago; Pérez-Solá, Victor; Novo Navarro, Patricia; Gómez Simón, Isabel; Fresno González, Cristina; Camprodon Rosanas, Ester; Bulbena Vilarrasa, Antonio

    Cardiovascular and metabolic monitoring of patients on antipsychotic medication is essential. This becomes more important in those of paediatric age, as they are more vulnerable, and also because prescriptions of this kind of drugs are still increasing. To evaluate the monitoring of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in a group of children and young people on antipsychotic medication. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in which a group of 220 patients aged 8-17 years, diagnosed with a mental disorder and on antipsychotic treatment. They were compared to a control group of 199 asthmatic patients not exposed to antipsychotic drugs. Data was extracted from the computerised clinical history ECAP in 2013. The mean age of the children was 12 years (8-17). Risperidone (67%) was the most frequent treatment. The recording of Body Mass Index (BMI) and blood pressure (AP) was 50% in Mental Disorder (MD) patients. A higher number of cardiovascular monitoring physical parameters (weight, height, BMI and BP) were observed in the MD group compared to the control Asthma control group. Altogether, more physical parameters than biochemistry parameters were recorded. This study shows that the recording of cardiovascular parameters and metabolic studies needs to be improved in children and adolescents on treatment with antipsychotics. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. BK virus encephalitis: case report, review of the literature, and description of a novel treatment modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittick, Paul; Williamson, John C; Ohl, Christopher A

    2013-09-01

    To describe a case of BK virus encephalitis with attempted direct antiviral therapy, review the reported cases of BK virus in the central nervous system, and report the novel use of intravenous cimetidine in place of oral probenecid to minimize the toxicities of intravenous cidofovir. A 36-year-old male with acute myelomonocytic leukemia and subsequent myelodysplastic syndrome underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. His course was complicated by severe graft-versus-host disease involving his skin and gastrointestinal tract. Five weeks after transplantation, he developed fever and confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging was suggestive of limbic encephalitis and cerebrospinal fluid tested positive for BK virus. Therapy with intravenous cidofovir was thought to be indicated. Although probenecid is commonly used to minimize the toxicities of cidofovir, the patient's severe graft-versus-host disease raised concerns about absorption of oral medications. Based on animal models and pharmacokinetic data, intravenous cimetidine was used in place of oral probenecid. Despite these therapies, the patient's mental status did not improve. He developed progressive organ system failure, and care was ultimately withdrawn. BK virus is increasingly described as a cause of encephalitis. The majority of reported cases have occurred in immunocompromised patients and have generally had a poor outcome. This case describes attempted antiviral therapy using cidofovir, the antiviral agent used most frequently in other syndromes due to BK virus. Intravenous cimetidine is a novel modality used to minimize ocular and renal toxicities frequently seen with cidofovir, and we believe this warrants further investigation. BK virus may be a cause of encephalitis in immunocompromised hosts, and cidofovir represents a possible treatment option. Intravenous cimetidine can be considered to minimize toxicities associated with cidofovir use in patients unable to tolerate or absorb oral

  3. Integration of literacy into speech-language therapy: a descriptive analysis of treatment practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambyraja, Sherine R; Schmitt, Mary Beth; Justice, Laura M; Logan, Jessica A R; Schwarz, Sadie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was: (a) to examine the extent to which speech-language therapy provided to children with language disorders in the schools targets code-based literacy skills (e.g., alphabet knowledge and phonological awareness) during business-as-usual treatment sessions, and (b) to determine whether literacy-focused therapy time was associated with factors specific to children and/or speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Participants were 151 kindergarten and first-grade children and 40 SLPs. Video-recorded therapy sessions were coded to determine the amount of time that addressed literacy. Assessments of children's literacy skills were administered as well as questionnaires regarding characteristics of SLPs (e.g., service delivery, professional development). Results showed that time spent addressing code-related literacy across therapy sessions was variable. Significant predictors included SLP years of experience, therapy location, and therapy session duration, such that children receiving services from SLPs with more years of experience, and/or who utilized the classroom for therapy, received more literacy-focused time. Additionally, children in longer therapy sessions received more therapy time on literacy skills. There is considerable variability in the extent to which children received literacy-focused time in therapy; however, SLP-level factors predict time spent in literacy more than child-level factors. Further research is needed to understand the nature of literacy-focused therapy in the public schools. Readers will be able to: (a) define code-based literacy skills, (b) discuss the role that speech-language pathologists have in fostering children's literacy development, and (c) identify key factors that may currently influence the inclusion of literacy targets in school-based speech-language therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of ankle bracing on skill performance in recreational soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Alison R; Bandolin, Shakira N; Krabak, Brian J

    2012-08-01

    To determine the effect of ankle braces on kicking accuracy, speed, and agility in competitive, nonelite soccer players. We hypothesized that the use of ankle bracing would significantly decrease performance in soccer-specific drills immediately after use but not after acclimation to the brace. A prospective randomized controlled trial. University. Twenty healthy recreational adult soccer players (5 men and 15 women; mean age, 23 ± 4.8 years) without a history of lower extremity injury in the past 6 months. All the subjects completed the study. The subjects completed a set of performance measures (ie, accuracy shooting at a target, 40-yard dash, S180° run, and T test) with an McDavid 199 Lightweight ankle brace (test subjects) and without an ankle brace (control subjects) during 2 testing sessions spaced 7-10 days apart. Between the 2 testing sessions, the subjects wore the ankle brace on at least 4 occasions while participating in athletic activities to ensure that a learning effect occurred. Outcomes included kicking accuracy (accuracy shooting at a target) and speed and agility (time to complete a 40-yard dash, S180° run, and T test). No significant difference in performance was found for the accuracy in shooting at a target, 40-yard dash, S180° run, and T test (P > .05) with and without an ankle brace during a session and between sessions. Ankle braces did not significantly affect performance in speed, agility, or kicking accuracy in healthy, competitive, recreational soccer athletes. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Knee Medial Collateral Ligament and Posteromedial Corner Anatomic Repair With Internal Bracing

    OpenAIRE

    Lubowitz, James H.; MacKay, Gordon; Gilmer, Brian

    2014-01-01

    An internal brace is a ligament repair bridging concept using braided ultrahigh–molecular-weight polyethylene/polyester suture tape and knotless bone anchors to reinforce ligament strength as a secondary stabilizer after repair and return to sports, which may help resist injury recurrence. An internal brace may provide augmentation during knee medial and posteromedial corner anatomic repair. In patients with combined, chronic, symptomatic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)–posteromedial corner ...

  6. A piezoelectric brace for passive suppression of structural vibration and energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuang-Sheng Walter; Lai, Yong-An; Kim, Jin-Yeon

    2017-08-01

    Power outage after an earthquake would cause an additional chaos to the existing aftermath, greatly aggravating the situation if the outage lasts for an extended period. This research aims at developing an innovative piezoelectric brace, which provides both passive energy-dissipating and energy-harvesting capabilities—a passive suppression of structural vibrations and conversion of vibration energy into reusable electricity. The piezoelectric brace has compression modules that exert compressive loads on the piezoelectric material regardless if the brace is in compression or in tension. The compression module consists of a piezoelectric stack and rubber pads. The rubber pads are used to limit the maximum strain in the piezoelectric material below the allowable operational strain. The electro-mechanical equations of motion are derived for a 1-story and a 3-story frame model with the piezoelectric braces. To evaluate the structural behavior and the energy harvesting performance, numerical simulations are executed for the two model buildings (in downtown Los Angeles) that are equipped with the piezoelectric braces. The effects of design parameters including the geometry of the piezoelectric stack and rubber pads and the electric resistance in the electro-mechanical conversion circuit on the performance are investigated. The numerical results indicate that the piezoelectric braces passively dissipate energy through inclined oval-shaped hysteretic loops. The harvested energy is up to approximately 40% of the input energy. The structural displacements are significantly reduced, as compared to the original frames without the piezoelectric braces. Finally, a design procedure for a frame with the proposed passive piezoelectric braces is also presented.

  7. [Treatment and personality development with art therapy. A description of the method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antalfai, Márta

    2007-01-01

    Composition as a creative form of self-expression plays an important role not only in maintaining health, but also in gaining insight into the healthy personality and in the definition of this category. It seems nowadays that psychology has collected more information on the pathological personality than on the healthy one. Therefore, different workshops of art therapy are also scenes of a "spiritual alchemy" because they can give a deeper insight into the personality in addition to the primary aim of treatment. The method of the thematic art psychotherapy based on catharsis-experience is based on analytical psychology and on analytically oriented group-therapy. The aim is to generate artificial catharsis-experiences employing the impressive forces of poems, music compositions in order to raise the unconscious or the partly experienced partner-conflicts to the surface, which could manifest themselves in the process of the creative work and could be elaborated in group-activity. The creative process (specially adapted art techniques) provides good opportunities for patients to depict their traumas and complexes and also to resolve them involving the whole personality and not only at a cognitive level. The method, tuned to the workings of nature, helps the personality to develop the emotional and volitional segments, the sensitive and empathetic capabilities, as well as the recognition skills of consciousness. In the therapeutic process, the work of art that is created holds a mirror to the creator, offering to him or her the opportunity to face the real complex at the background the actual conflict. The method aims to achieve a reconstruction of psychic dynamics in two ways. The first is an emotional resonance to the changes of nature, of the year and of the feasts, in which the psychic process starts from inside to the direction of the outside world (psychic enrichment and accomodation). The second way leads from the outer world to the inner one and this psychic

  8. Tridimensional morphology and kinetics of etch pit on the {l_brace}0 0 0 1{r_brace} plane of sapphire crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lunyong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Sun Jianfei, E-mail: jfsun_hit@263.net [Center for Composite Materials, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zuo Hongbo; Yuan Zhiyong [Center for Composite Materials, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhou Ji; Xing Dawei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Han Jiecai [Center for Composite Materials, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2012-08-15

    The tridimensional morphology and etching kinetics of the etch pit on the C-{l_brace}0 0 0 1{r_brace} plane of sapphire crystal ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in molten KOH were studied experimentally. It was shown that the etch pit takes on tridimensional morphologies with triangular symmetry same as the symmetric property of the sapphire crystal. Pits like centric and eccentric triangular pyramid as well as hexagonal pyramid were observed, but the latter is less in density. In-depth analyses show the side walls of the etch pits belong to the {l_brace}1 1{sup Macron} 0 2{sup Macron }{r_brace} family, and the triangular pit contains edges full composed by Al{sup 3+} ions on the etching surface so it is more stable than the hexagonal pit since its edges on the etching surface contains Al{sup 2+} ions. The etch pits developed in a manner of kinematic wave by the step moving with constant speed, which is controlled by the chemical reaction with activation energy of 96.6 kJ/mol between Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and KOH. - Graphical abstract: Schematic showing the atomic configuration of the predicted side walls of regular triangular pyramid shaped etch pit on the C-{l_brace}0 0 0 1{r_brace} plane of sapphire crystal. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Observed the tridimensional morphology of etch pits. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Figured out the atomic configuration origin of the etch pits. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantitatively determined the etch rates of the etch pits.

  9. How do ankle braces affect braking performance? An experimental driving simulation study with healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Ulf Krister; Thumm, Stefan; Jordan, Maurice; Mittag, Falk; Rondak, Ina-Christine; Ipach, Ingmar

    2015-11-01

    Fitness to drive a car has been investigated increasingly over recent years. However, most research has focussed on perioperative driving performance, and few data are available on how orthoses influence the ability to perform an emergency stop. This study investigated the effect of 4 common ankle braces (Kallassy, CaligaLoc, Air-Stirrup, ASO) on reaction time, foot transfer time (together: brake response time) and brake force. The hypothesis was that wearing these braces on the right ankle impairs braking performance, specifically by increasing foot transfer time, but also by altering brake force. A car cabin was set up with measurement equipment to register reaction time, foot transfer time, brake response time and brake force under realistic spatial constraints. A crossover repeated measures design was used to test 30 healthy volunteers with and without each of the braces. All 4 braces resulted in statistically significantly increased foot transfer time (p Brake force was not statistically significantly impaired. This study demonstrates that ankle braces lead to impaired braking performance. Depending on the type of brace, a stopping distance increase of more than 1 m at 100 km/h can be expected.

  10. ARTHROMETRIC EVALUATION OF STABILIZING EFFECT OF KNEE FUNCTIONAL BRACING AT DIFFERENT FLEXION ANGLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeedeh Seyed Mohseni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous in-vivo investigations on the stabilizing efficacy of knee bracing for ACL reconstructed patients have been often limited to 20-30 degrees of knee flexion. In this study, the effectiveness of a uniaxial hinged functional brace to improve the knee stability was assessed at 30, 60 and 90 degrees of knee flexion. Arthrometry tests were conducted on 15 healthy subjects before and following wearing the brace and the tibial displacements were measured at up to 150 N anterior forces. Results indicated that functional bracing has a significant stabilizing effect throughout the range of knee flexion examined (p < 0.05. The rate of effectiveness, however, was not consistent across the flexion range, e.g., 50% at 30 degrees and only 4% at 90 degrees. It was suggested that accurate sizing and fitting as well as attention to correct hinge placement relative to the femoral condyles can limit brace migration and improve its effectiveness in mid and deep knee flexion. With using adaptive limb fittings, through flexible pads, and a polycentric joint a more significant improvement of the overall brace performance and efficacy might be obtained

  11. The effect of a knee brace on gait parameters of hypertonic hemiplegic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Modisane

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the useof a knee brace on 15 subjects with hypertonic hemiparesis. The middlecerebral artery was involved in all subjects. The Ashworth scale was usedto screen for the presence of spasticity in the quadriceps muscles.Measurements of gait speed, step and stride length were taken in the middle 10 metres of a 15 metre paper walkway. A comparison of these gait parameters without and with the use of a knee brace was made. A ques-tionnaire was also used to evaluate how subjects responded to the use of aknee brace.The results showed that the mean speed for all 15 subjects increased withthe use of a brace, (p = 0.05. Step and stride length without and with the use of a brace showed no statistical differences.It was therefore concluded that the FECK brace appears to have an effect on the walking speed of subjects withhypertonic  hemiparesis

  12. An innovative seismic bracing system based on a superelastic shape memory alloy ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Nan; Jeon, Jong-Su; DesRoches, Reginald; Hodgson, Darel E

    2016-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have great potential in seismic applications because of their remarkable superelasticity. Seismic bracing systems based on SMAs can mitigate the damage caused by earthquakes. The current study investigates a bracing system based on an SMA ring which is capable of both re-centering and energy dissipation. This lateral force resisting system is a cross-braced system consisting of an SMA ring and four tension-only cable assemblies, which can be applied to both new construction and seismic retrofit. The performance of this bracing system is examined through a quasi-static cyclic loading test and finite element (FE) analysis. This paper describes the experimental design in detail, discusses the experimental results, compares the performance with other bracing systems based on SMAs, and presents an Abaqus FE model calibrated on the basis of experimental results to simulate the superelastic behavior of the SMA ring. The experimental results indicate that the seismic performance of this system is promising in terms of damping and re-centering. The FE model can be used in the simulation of building structures using the proposed bracing system. (paper)

  13. The role of ankle bracing for prevention of ankle sprain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael T; Liu, Hsin-Yi

    2003-10-01

    Lateral ankle sprains are one of the most common injuries incurred in recreational and competitive athletics. These injuries have a significant impact in terms of cost, athletic participation, and activities of daily living. Prophylactic ankle braces are often used to reduce the risk of injury recurrence when individuals return to athletic participation. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to review the literature and provide our own experience relative to the use of prophylactic ankle bracing. Relatively high incidence rates of ankle sprain injury have been reported for basketball and soccer athletes, military trainees, and individuals with a previous history of ankle sprain injury. Semirigid and laced ankle braces have significantly reduced the incidence of initial and recurrent ankle sprain injuries in athletic and military samples. With few exceptions, these braces do not appear to affect functional performance adversely. The prophylactic use of semirigid ankle braces appears warranted to reduce the incidence of initial and, in particular, recurrent ankle sprain injuries for individuals who participate in activities that have the highest risk for these injuries. Additional research is needed to evaluate the many new braces that are available and in use and their influence on the incidence of ankle sprain injury and functional performance.

  14. SEISMIC FRAGILITY ANALYSIS OF IMPROVED RC FRAMES USING DIFFERENT TYPES OF BRACING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMED HAMIDI JAMNANI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Application of bracings to increase the lateral stiffness of building structures is a technique of seismic improvement that engineers frequently have recourse to. Accordingly, investigating the role of bracings in concrete structures along with the development of seismic fragility curves are of overriding concern to civil engineers. In this research, an ordinary RC building, designed according to the 1st edition of Iranian seismic code, was selected for examination. According to FEMA 356 code, this building is considered to be vulnerable. To improve the seismic performance of this building, 3 different types of bracings, which are Concentrically Braced Frames, Eccentrically Braced Frames and Buckling Restrained Frames were employed, and each bracing element was distributed in 3 different locations in the building. The researchers developed fragility curves and utilized 30 earthquake records on the Peak Ground Acceleration seismic intensity scale to carry out a time history analysis. Tow damage scale, including Inter-Story Drifts and Plastic Axial Deformation were also used. The numerical results obtained from this investigation confirm that Plastic Axial Deformation is more reliable than conventional approaches in developing fragility curves for retrofitted frames. In lieu of what is proposed, the researchers selected the suitable damage scale and developed and compared log-normal distribution of fragility curves first for the original and then for the retrofitted building.

  15. Descriptive comparison of drug treatment-persistent, -nonpersistent, and nondrug treatment patients with newly diagnosed attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Sebastian; Russo, Leo; Zeidler, Jan; Linder, Roland; Hodgkins, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous behavioral disorder commonly found in children, with serious lifetime health and social consequences for both children and their parents. Public awareness of ADHD in Germany has increased in the past decade, but little is known about the costs of treating newly diagnosed patients in clinical practice. This study aimed to describe the resource utilization and treatment costs of patients aged 6 to 17 years with newly diagnosed ADHD, using patient data from a German sickness fund, and to quantify resource utilization by drug treatment and treatment persistence. To identify patients with newly diagnosed ADHD, the second largest German sickness fund was utilized. Complete claims data of all de-identified patients meeting eligibility criteria for 2007 and 2008 were extracted. Patients were divided into 1 of 3 treatment groups: drug treatment-persistent, drug treatment-nonpersistent, and nondrug treatment. The differences in costs and resource utilization are reported in a descriptive manner, with paired and unpaired 2-sample Wilcoxon tests used. Of 3407 newly diagnosed patients with ADHD, 1105 (32%) received an ADHD-specific drug following diagnosis; the remaining 2302 comprised the nondrug treatment group. Of the total number of drug-treated patients, 1-year observational data were available for only 786 methylphenidate users (71%). Of these, 503 patients (64%) comprised the drug treatment-persistent group (those having at least 1 prescription every 3 months during the 12 months following their first ADHD prescription) and 283 (36%) comprised the drug treatment-nonpersistent group. After excluding those patients with <12 months of follow-up, 1779 patients (52%) were included in the nondrug-treatment group. Outpatient visits and the number of drug prescriptions and associated costs were highest in the drug treatment-persistent group (P = 0.05); however, the number of hospital admissions and days spent in

  16. [Effectivity and satisfaction with the treatment for dyslipidemia with pitavastatin. Multicentric, descriptive, post authorised and observational study (REINA study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Arroyo, Luis Alberto; Díaz Rodríguez, Angel; Pintó Sala, Xavier; Coca Payeras, Antonio; Rius Tarruella, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the therapeutical adherence as well as the patient' satisfaction with the treatment should be considered to optimize lipidic control. The REINA Study evaluates the grade of satisfaction in dyslipidemic patients treated with pitavastatin. The current study was observational, descriptive, transversal and multi-centric with patients from our country only. The following data were collected in each case: Morisky-Green test and TSQM-9 for patients older than 18 years old, with dyslipidemia treated with pitavastatin in the last 12 weeks. We studied 6,489 patients (60.0% males) from Primary Health (52.7%) and Specialised Health (47.3%), with age (mean) = 60.9 ± 11.2 years by aleatory sampling. 72.3% of patients achieved an adequate control with 2mg/day of pitavastatin. General satisfaction with the treatment was 73.20 points (95% CI: 58.17-87.23). Patients who followed the treatment (65%) showed better data of satisfaction with the drug (77.70 [95% CI: 65.20-90.20]), of global satisfaction (75.00 [95% CI: 61.50-88.50]) and their satisfaction with the drug efficiency was higher (72.50 [95% CI: 57.70-87.30]) than in the patients who did not finish the treatment (72.70 [95% CI: 59.30-85.74]; 68.5 [95% CI: 53.20-83.80] and 67.80 [95% CI: 53.70-81.90], respectively), P < .0001, without any difference between the two primary care systems. The validation of the satisfaction is a crucial indicator in the evaluation of the services offered in health. Patients with the highest grade of satisfaction present better therapeutical adherence, and such a relation is bidirectional. The individuals who are satisfied and who followed the treatment obtained better clinical results. Pitavastatin is an effective therapeutic alternative for patients with dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Cloud-point measurements of the {l_brace}H{sub 2}O + poly(ethylene glycol) + NaNO{sub 3}{r_brace} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Yecid P.; Taboada, Maria E. [CICITEM, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Antofagasta (Chile); Galleguillos, Hector R., E-mail: hgalleguillos@uantof.cl [CICITEM, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Antofagasta (Chile)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > CP temperatures of the {l_brace}H{sub 2}O + PEG + NaNO{sub 3}{r_brace} system were measured by the turbidimetry method. > CP temperatures at constant NaNO{sub 3} concentration and different concentrations of PEG were measured. > For a constant NaNO{sub 3} concentration, CP temperature decreases as the PEG concentration increases. > For a constant PEG concentration, CP temperature decreases as the NaNO{sub 3} concentration increases. > The phase diagram was correlated by the Flory-Huggins model. - Abstract: The cloud-point (CP) temperatures and phase separation of {l_brace}H{sub 2}O + poly(ethylene glycol) + NaNO{sub 3}{r_brace} ternary system is studied by the turbidimetry method using a reaction calorimeter. The phase separation was also observed by visual inspection. Differences between the CP measured using the turbidimetry method and visual inspection, was up {+-}0.5 K. The Flory-Huggins model with a temperature and concentration-dependent interaction parameter was employed to correlate the phase diagram of the system. As a result of the correlation an average absolute deviation of 0.002 is obtained.

  18. Effect of hip braces on brake response time: Repeated measures designed study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammerer, Dietmar; Waidmann, Cornelia; Huber, Dennis G; Krismer, Martin; Haid, Christian; Liebensteiner, Michael C

    2017-08-01

    The question whether or not a patient with a hip brace should drive a car is of obvious importance because the advice given to patients to resume driving is often anecdotal as few scientific data are available on this specific subject. To assess driving ability (brake response time) with commonly used hip braces. Repeated measures design. Brake response time was assessed under six conditions: (1) without a brace (control), (2) with a typical postoperative hip brace with adjustable range of motion and the settings: unrestricted, (3) flexion limited to 70°, (4) extension blocked at 20° hip flexion, (5) both flexion and extension limited (20°/70°) and (6) an elastic hip bandage. Brake response time was assessed using a custom-made driving simulator as used in previous studies. The participants were a convenience sample of able-bodied participants. A total of 70 participants (35 women and 35 men) participated in our study. Mean age was 31.1 (standard deviation: 10.6; range: 21.7-66.4) years. A significant within-subject effect for brake response time was found ( p = 0.009), but subsequent post hoc analyses revealed no significant differences between control and the other settings. Based on our findings, it does not seem mandatory to recommend driving abstinence for patients wearing a hip orthosis. We suggest that our results be interpreted with caution, because (1) an underlying pathological hip condition needs to be considered, (2) the ability to drive a car safely is multifactorial and brake response time is only one component thereof and (3) brake response time measurements were performed only with healthy participants. Clinical relevance Hip braces are used in the context of joint-preserving and prosthetic surgery of the hip. Therefore, clinicians are confronted with the question whether to allow driving a car with the respective hip brace or not. Our data suggest that hip braces do not impair brake response time.

  19. Prophylactic knee bracing alters lower-limb muscle forces during a double-leg drop landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Katie A; Fernandez, Justin W; Begg, Rezaul K; Galea, Mary P; Lee, Peter V S

    2016-10-03

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury can be a painful, debilitating and costly consequence of participating in sporting activities. Prophylactic knee bracing aims to reduce the number and severity of ACL injury, which commonly occurs during landing maneuvers and is more prevalent in female athletes, but a consensus on the effectiveness of prophylactic knee braces has not been established. The lower-limb muscles are believed to play an important role in stabilizing the knee joint. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in lower-limb muscle function with prophylactic knee bracing in male and female athletes during landing. Fifteen recreational athletes performed double-leg drop landing tasks from 0.30m and 0.60m with and without a prophylactic knee brace. Motion analysis data were used to create subject-specific musculoskeletal models in OpenSim. Static optimization was performed to calculate the lower-limb muscle forces. A linear mixed model determined that the hamstrings and vasti muscles produced significantly greater flexion and extension torques, respectively, and greater peak muscle forces with bracing. No differences in the timings of peak muscle forces were observed. These findings suggest that prophylactic knee bracing may help to provide stability to the knee joint by increasing the active stiffness of the hamstrings and vasti muscles later in the landing phase rather than by altering the timing of muscle forces. Further studies are necessary to quantify whether prophylactic knee bracing can reduce the load placed on the ACL during intense dynamic movements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. TRUNK MUSCLE ACTIVITIES DURING ABDOMINAL BRACING: COMPARISON AMONG MUSCLES AND EXERCISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumiaki Maeo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal bracing is often adopted in fitness and sports conditioning programs. However, there is little information on how muscular activities during the task differ among the muscle groups located in the trunk and from those during other trunk exercises. The present study aimed to quantify muscular activity levels during abdominal bracing with respect to muscle- and exercise-related differences. Ten healthy young adult men performed five static (abdominal bracing, abdominal hollowing, prone, side, and supine plank and five dynamic (V- sits, curl-ups, sit-ups, and back extensions on the floor and on a bench exercises. Surface electromyogram (EMG activities of the rectus abdominis (RA, external oblique (EO, internal oblique (IO, and erector spinae (ES muscles were recorded in each of the exercises. The EMG data were normalized to those obtained during maximal voluntary contraction of each muscle (% EMGmax. The % EMGmax value during abdominal bracing was significantly higher in IO (60% than in the other muscles (RA: 18%, EO: 27%, ES: 19%. The % EMGmax values for RA, EO, and ES were significantly lower in the abdominal bracing than in some of the other exercises such as V-sits and sit-ups for RA and EO and back extensions for ES muscle. However, the % EMGmax value for IO during the abdominal bracing was significantly higher than those in most of the other exercises including dynamic ones such as curl-ups and sit-ups. These results suggest that abdominal bracing is one of the most effective techniques for inducing a higher activation in deep abdominal muscles, such as IO muscle, even compared to dynamic exercises involving trunk flexion/extension movements

  1. An Experimental Study on Non-Compression X-Bracing Systems Using Carbon Fiber Composite Cable for Seismic Strengthening of RC Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Seok Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-bracing (X-bracing is one of the most popular methods of seismic retrofitting, and has been shown to significantly increase the structural stiffness and strength of buildings. Conventional steel X-bracing methods typically exhibit brittle failure at the connection between the brace and the building, or buckling failure of the braces. This study investigated the structural properties of a new type of non-compression X-bracing system using carbon fiber composite cable (CFCC. This non-compression X-bracing system uses CFCC bracing and bolt connections between structural members and the terminal fixer of the CFCC, instead of conventional steel bracing. The aim is to overcome the brittle and buckling failures that can occur at the connection and bracings with conventional steel X-bracing methods. We carried out cyclic loading tests, and the maximum load carrying capacity and deformation were investigated, as well as hysteresis in the lateral load–drift relations. The test results revealed that the CFCC X-bracing system installed in reinforced concrete frames enhanced the strength markedly, and buckling failure of the bracing was not observed.

  2. Upgrading the seismic capacity of existing RC buildings using buckling restrained braces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy Abou-Elfath

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many existing RC buildings do not meet the lateral strength requirements of current seismic codes and are vulnerable to significant damage or collapse in the event of future earthquakes. In the past few decades, buckling-restrained braces have become increasingly popular as a lateral force resisting system because of their capability of improving the strength, the stiffness and the energy absorbing capacity of structures. This study evaluates the seismic upgrading of a 6-story RC-building using single diagonal buckling restrained braces. Seismic evaluation in this study has been carried out by static pushover analysis and time history earthquake analysis. Ten ground motions with different PGA levels are used in the analysis. The mean plus one standard deviation values of the roof-drift ratio, the maximum story drift ratio, the brace ductility factors and the member strain responses are used as the basis for the seismic performance evaluations. The results obtained in this study indicate that strengthening of RC buildings with buckling restrained braces is an efficient technique as it significantly increases the PGA capacity of the RC buildings. The results also indicate the increase in the PGA capacity of the RC building with the increase in the amount of the braces.

  3. The Application of Buckling Reinforced Bracing and Shear Wall in Retrofitting of Existing Concrete Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Izadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerable buildings and their rehabilitation are important problems for earthquake regions. In recent decades the goal of building rehabilitation and strengthening has gained different rehabilitation systems. However, most of these strengthening techniques disturb the occupants, who must vacate the building during renovation. Several retrofitting techniques such as addition masonry infill wall, application of buckling restrained braces and local modification of components has been studied in order to improve the overall seismic performance of such buildings. In response to many of the practical issues and economic considerations, engineers use often convergent unbuckling steel bracing frames as the lateral load resisting system during an earthquake.This kind of bracings increases the hardness and strength of concrete structures.The aim of the present study is the evaluation and comparison of seismic performance and retrofitting of an existing 7-storeys concrete structure with buckling restrained bracings and shear walls by nonlinear static procedure (NSP and accordance with cod-361. The results show that the buckling restrained bracing, decreased drift to acceptable levels and Structure behaves on the life safety of performance level.

  4. A Review of Influence of Various Types of Structural Bracing to the Structural Performance of Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, S. M.; Kong, T. C.; Zainol, N. Z.; Adnan, A.; Azimi, M.

    2018-03-01

    Excessive lateral drift can contribute significantly towards crack formation, leading to structural damage. The structural damage will in turn reduce the capacity of the structure and weaken it from the intended design capacity. Generally, lateral drift is more pronounced in higher and longer structure, such as high rise buildings and bridges. A typical method employed to control lateral drift is structural bracing, which works by increasing stiffness and stability of structure. This paper reviews the influence of various types of structural bracing to structural performance of buildings. The history of structural bracing is visited and the differences between numerous structural bracing in term of suitability to different types of buildings and loading, mechanisms, technical details, advantages and limitations, and the overall effect on the structural behaviour and performance are dissected. Proper and efficient structural bracing is pertinent for each high rise building as this will lead towards safer, sustainable and more economical buildings, which are cheaper to maintain throughout the life of the buildings in the future.

  5. Experimental Tests of a Real Building Seismically Retrofitted by Special Buckling-Restrained Braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aniello, Mario; Corte, Gaetano Della; Mazzolani, Federico M.

    2008-07-01

    Buckling Restrained Braces (BRBs), differently from conventional braces, do not exhibit appreciable difference between the tensile and compression capacity and no strength degradation of brace capacity under compressive and cyclic loading. Since lateral and local buckling behaviour modes are restrained, large inelastic capacities are attainable. Hence, BRBs may represent an efficient and reliable solution for reducing the seismic vulnerability of buildings. Results of experimental tests on the response of a real two-story reinforced concrete (RC) building equipped with BRBs are presented and discussed. The considered BRBs are a special `only-steel' version of the more common `unbonded braces'. In particular, two different BRBs have been tested. Both of them are detachable "only-steel" devices, consisting in a rectangular steel plate and a restraining steel sleeve. The latter is composed by two omega shapes which are bolted together. The main characteristic of the braces consists in the possibility to hide them within the space between the facing and the backing of masonry infill walls commonly used for RC buildings.

  6. A facile and improved synthesis of 17[alpha]-[l brace]2-(E)-[[sup 125]I]-iodovinyl[r brace]-19-nortestosterone, a no-carrier-added ligand for progesterone receptor analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damodaran, K.M. (Pittsburgh Cancer Inst., PA (United States)); Epperly, M.W.; Pillai, K.M.R.; Bloomer, W.D. (Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology Pittsburgh Cancer Inst., PA (United States))

    1994-01-01

    We have synthesized the no-carrier-added progesterone receptor ligand 17[alpha]-[l brace]2-(E)-[[sup 125]I]-iodovinyl[r brace]-19-nortestosterone (E-[sup 125]IVNNT) by a simple and high yielding method, and determined its uptake and specific progesterone receptor binding in vitro using T47D human breast carcinoma cells. (Author).

  7. Prevalence of adherence to treatment in homebound elderly people in primary health care: a descriptive, cross-sectional, multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Valladolid, Juan; Martín-Madrazo, Carmen; Salinero-Fort, Miguel A; Carrillo de-Santa Pau, Enrique; Abánades-Herranz, Juan C; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen

    2010-08-01

    Adherence to the therapeutic plan is one of the most important health issues in terms of treatment efficacy, healthcare costs and patient safety. Unfortunately, homebound elderly patients are especially vulnerable to nonadherence because they have higher morbidity rates combined with cognitive and social problems that hinder their correct use of drugs. The level of therapeutic adherence in homebound elderly people has not been adequately studied. To estimate the prevalence of therapeutic adherence, using the Morisky-Green test, in homebound elderly patients taking polypharmacy (defined as use of four or more drugs), and to study the factors associated with adherence. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional, multicentre study. A total of 327 patients were selected by random start systematic sampling from the total number of homebound patients taking four or more drugs in Healthcare Area 4 of the Madrid Autonomous Region, Spain. Through an in-home survey of patients and their caregivers, information was gathered on sociodemographic data, co-morbidities, number of hospital admissions, responsibility for purchasing and preparation of the medication, level of cognitive impairment (Pfeiffer questionnaire), functional dependence in activities of daily living (Katz Index), knowledge of the disease (Batalla test), adherence to treatment (Morisky-Green test), visual and auditory perception, and caregiver burden (Zarit interview). Of the homebound patients, 65.7% (95% CI 60.6, 70.9) had good adherence to treatment. The variables most negatively associated with therapeutic adherence, after adjustment for age, sex, number of drugs, knowledge of the disease, and cognitive function, were a large caregiver burden (odds ratio [OR] 3.09; 95% CI 1.75, 5.48) and impaired hearing (OR 2.00; 95% CI 1.17, 3.40). There was also a trend toward a positive association between nonadherence and patients aged <85 years (OR 1.57; 95% CI 0.93, 2.65) and patients who had nine or more drug

  8. Properties, microstructure and texture evolution of cold rolled Cu strips under electropulsing treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, R.F.; Liu, J.N. [Advanced Materials Institute, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials of Ministry of Education, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Tang, G.Y., E-mail: tanggy@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Advanced Materials Institute, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials of Ministry of Education, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shi, S.Q.; Fu, M.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electropulsing treatment affects the properties and microstructures of Cu strips. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The frequency of twin reaches the maximum at 400 Hz. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electropulsing treatment strengthens P{l_brace}0 1 1{r_brace}<1 2 2{sup Macron }> orientation. - Abstract: The effect of electropulsing treatment (EPT) on properties, microstructures and texture of the cold-rolled Cu strips is investigated by electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD). The results show that the elongation of Cu strips increases while the Vickers hardness and electrical resistivity drop with the increase of the frequency of electropulsing excluding 600 Hz. The grain size increased with increasing the frequency of electropulsing. The frequency of coincident site lattice (CSL) and twin reach the maximum using the EPT of 400 Hz. In addition, the change of microstructure induced by EPT strengthens P{l_brace}0 1 1{r_brace}<1 2 2{sup Macron }> orientation and weakens S{l_brace}1 2 3{r_brace}<6 3 4{sup Macron }> and Bs{l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}<1 1{sup Macron} 2> texture component content. The twin formation and crystallization mechanism of the cold deformed Cu under electropulsing are proposed.

  9. Immediate effect of valgus bracing on knee joint moments in meniscectomised patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Maria; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Roos, Ewa M

    2016-01-01

    knee brace on knee joint moments in patients following medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy. DESIGN: Within-participant design. METHODS: Twenty-two patients (age 35-55 years) who had undergone medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy within the previous 8-15 months completed three......OBJECTIVES: Patients undergoing medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy are at increased risk of developing and/or progressing knee osteoarthritis, with increased medial compartment load being a potential contributor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of a valgus unloader......-dimensional analysis of gait, forward lunge and one-leg rise during two conditions: with and without a valgus unloader knee brace. Outcome measures included the peak and impulse of the knee adduction moment and the peak knee flexion moment. RESULTS: The peak knee flexion moment increased during brace condition...

  10. Design and control of multifunctional magnetorheological actuators for assistive knee braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H. T.; Liao, W. H.

    2010-04-01

    This paper is aimed at developing a novel multifunctional actuator utilizing magnetorheological (MR) fluids. As a key component for assistive knee braces, the actuator can work with multiple functions as motor, clutch and brake in order to meet the requirement of normal human walking. In this paper, design considerations including configurations, materials selection, mechanical and electromagnetic designs are illustrated. Prototype of the multifunctional actuator is fabricated, and each of its functions is investigated. Control strategies for mimicking normal human walking using the multifunctional actuator are illustrated. Adaptive control algorithm is adopted. Experiments on torque and speed tracking are conducted. The results show that the developed multifunctional actuator is promising for assistive knee braces.

  11. Densities and vapor pressures of mixed-solvent desiccant systems containing {l_brace}glycol (diethylene, or triethylene, or tetraethylene glycol) + salt (magnesium chloride) + water{r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Shangyi [R and D Center for Membrane Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Soriano, Allan N. [R and D Center for Membrane Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan (China); School of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Mapua Institute of Technology, Manila 1002 (Philippines); Li Menghui, E-mail: mhli@cycu.edu.t [R and D Center for Membrane Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan (China)

    2010-09-15

    In this present work, new experimental data for density and vapor pressure of the mixed-solvent desiccant systems containing {l_brace}(40.0 wt%) glycol + salt + water{r_brace} were reported for temperatures up to 343.15 K at normal atmospheric condition. The considered glycols were diethylene, triethylene, and tetraethylene glycol; and the salt is magnesium chloride (wt% = 4.0, 9.0, and 16.0). The density and vapor pressure were presented as functions of temperature and compositions. An empirical equation was used to correlate the temperature and compositional dependence of the present density data and a model based on the mean spherical approximation for aqueous electrolyte solutions incorporating the pseudo-solvent approach was used to represent the measured vapor pressure as functions of temperature and composition. Satisfactory results were obtained for both density and vapor pressure calculations.

  12. [Internet addiction: a descriptive clinical study of people asking for help in rehabilitation treatment center in Quebec: exploratory study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Magali; Nadeau, Louise; Gagnon, Sylvie R

    2014-01-01

    To date, there is no consensus on the diagnostic criteria for Internet addiction (Hinic, 2011; Tonioni & coll., 2012; Weinstein & Lejoyeux, 2010). Nonetheless, some people consider themselves cyberdependent and request treatment services in the addiction rehabilitation centers (ARC) of the province of Quebec. These admissions have led the Health and Social Services Agency of Montreal to ask for the realization of a descriptive study on Internet addiction. 1) Describe the socio-demographical characteristics of cyberdependent individuals receiving treatment in the ARC; 2) Document their associated problems, such as problems related to alcohol and drug abuse, gambling, self-esteem, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. The study was conducted in eight ARC's of the province of Quebec. A convenience sample of 57 people was recruited over a period of 24 months, from 2010 to 2012. To participate in this study, individuals had to be 18 years or older, identify themselves as cyberdependent, and request help for an Internet addiction problem in a public ARC. The Internet Addiction Test (Young, 1998), in its validated French version (Khazaal & coll., 2008), was used to assess the severity of Internet use habits. The associated problems were assessed using the following questionnaires: the Beck Anxiety Inventory (Beck, Epstein, Brown & Steer, 1988); the Beck Depression Inventory, in its validated French version (Bourque & Beaudette, 1982); the DÉBA-Alcool/Drogues/Jeu (Dépistage-évaluation du besoin d'aide), an instrument used to screen and assess the need for help in problems related to alcohol, drugs, and gambling (Tremblay & Blanchette-Martin, 2009), and the Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965). Fifty-seven people agreed to participate in the study. A large majority of these cyberdependent individuals were male (88%), the mean age was 30 years old, had low incomes and were living with their parents. They consulted following the pressure of their entourage and

  13. Initial arch wires for alignment of crooked teeth with fixed orthodontic braces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Jian, Fan; Lai, Wenli; Zhao, Zhihe; Yang, Zhi; Liao, Zhengyu; Shi, Zongdao; Wu, Taixiang; Millett, Declan T; McIntyre, Grant T; Hickman, Joy

    2010-04-14

    The initial arch wire is the first arch wire to be inserted into the fixed appliance at the beginning of orthodontic treatment and is used mainly for correcting crowding and rotations of teeth. With a number of orthodontic arch wires available for initial tooth alignment, it is important to understand which wire is most efficient, as well as which wires cause the least amount of root resorption and pain during the initial aligning stage of treatment. To identify and assess the evidence for the effects of initial arch wires for alignment of teeth with fixed orthodontic braces in relation to alignment speed, root resorption and pain intensity. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (30th November 2009), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1950 to 30th November 2009) and EMBASE (1980 to 30th November 2009). Reference lists of articles were also searched. There was no restriction with regard to publication status or language of publication. We contacted all authors of included studies to identify additional studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of initial arch wires to align crooked teeth with fixed orthodontic braces were selected. Only studies involving patients with upper and/or lower full arch fixed orthodontic appliances were included. Two review authors were responsible for study selection, validity assessment and data extraction. All disagreements were resolved by discussion amongst the review team. Corresponding authors of included studies were contacted to obtain missing information. Seven RCTs, with 517 participants, provided data for this review. Among them, five trials investigated the speed of initial tooth alignment comparing: 0.016 inch ion-implanted A-NiTi wire versus 0.016 inch A-NiTi versus 0.0175 multistrand stainless steel wire; 0.016x0.022 inch medium force active M-NiTi wire versus 0.016x0.022 inch graded force active M-NiTi wire versus 0.0155 inch multistrand

  14. Thermophysical properties of binary mixtures of {l_brace}ionic liquid 2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate + (water, methanol, or ethanol){r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Victor H. [School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), P.O. Box 6066, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Chemical Engineering Department, ETSE, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), P.O. Box 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Mattedi, Silvana [Chemical Engineering Department, Polytechnic School, Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), 40210-630 Salvador-BA (Brazil); Martin-Pastor, Manuel [Unidade de Resonancia Magnetica, RIAIDT, edif. CACTUS, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), P.O. Box 15706, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Aznar, Martin [School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), P.O. Box 6066, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Iglesias, Miguel, E-mail: miguel.iglesias@usc.es [Chemical Engineering Department, ETSE, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), P.O. Box 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Research highlights: > This paper reports the density and speed of sound data of binary mixtures {l_brace}2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate + (water, or methanol, or ethanol){r_brace} measured between the temperatures (298.15 and 313.15) K at atmospheric pressure. > The aggregation, dynamic behavior, and hydrogen-bond network were studied using thermo-acoustic, X-ray, and NMR techniques. > The Peng-Robinson equation of state, coupled with the Wong-Sandler mixing rule using the COSMO-SAC model predicted the density of the solutions with relative mean deviations below than 3.0%. - Abstract: In this work, density and speed of sound data of binary mixtures of an ionic liquid consisting of {l_brace}2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate (2-HEAA) + (water, methanol, or ethanol){r_brace} have been measured throughout the entire concentration range, from the temperature of (288.15 to 323.15) K at atmospheric pressure. The excess molar volumes, variations of the isentropic compressibility, the apparent molar volume, isentropic apparent molar compressibility, and thermal expansion coefficient were calculated from the experimental data. The excess molar volumes were negative throughout the whole composition range. Compressibility data in combination with low angle X-ray scattering and NMR measurements proved that the presence of micelles formed due to ion pair interaction above a critical concentration of the ionic liquid in the mixtures. The Peng-Robinson equation of state coupled with the Wong-Sandler mixing rule and COSMO-SAC model was used to predict densities and the calculated deviations were lower than 3%, for binary mixtures in all composition range.

  15. Correlating Stiffness and Shear Lag Behavior with Brace Configuration of Tall Truss Tube Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Gaur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As the height of buildings increases, effect of shear lag also becomes considerable in the design of high rise buildings. In this paper, shear lag effect in tall buildings of heights, i.e., 120, 96, 72, 48 and 36 stories of which aspect ratio ranges from 3 to 10 is studied. Tube in tube structural system with façade bracing is used for designing the building of height 120 story. It is found that bracing system considerably reduces the shear lag effect and hence increases the building stiffness to withstand lateral loads. Different geometric patterns of the bracing system are considered. The best effective geometric configuration of a bracing system is concluded in this study. Lateral force, as wind load, is applied on the buildings as it is the most dominant lateral force for such heights. Wind load is set as per Indian standard code of Practice IS 875 Part 3. For analysis purposes, the SAP2000 software program is used.

  16. An Experimental Investigation on the Ultimate Strength of Partially Infilled: Braced Steel Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Shailendra Kumar Damodar; Kute, Sunil Y.

    2017-12-01

    Infilled walls are usually, considered as non-structural elements. However, these walls are effective in carrying lateral loads. In this regard, an experimental investigation was planned and conducted to study the effect of braced and partially infilled steel frames with cement mortar and concrete in comparison to the bare frames. All these frames were tested up to collapse and subjected only to horizontal loads to obtain an effective and possible solution for soft storey which are generally not infilled. In comparison to bare steel frames, partially infilled frames have an increase of lateral load capacity by 45-60%. Central bracing is more effective than that of the corner bracing. For the same load partially infilled frames have significantly less deflection than that of the bare frames. A reduced load factor is suggested for the design of soft storey columns with the partial infills. A mathematical model has been proposed to calculate the theoretical ultimate load for the braced, cement mortar and concrete partial infilled frames.

  17. Comparison of the effect of semi-rigid ankle bracing on performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the comparative proprioceptive performance of injured v. non-injured adolescent female hockey players wearing an ankle brace. Methods. Data were collected from 100 high school players who belonged to the Highway Secondary School Hockey League, KwaZulu- Natal, via voluntary parental ...

  18. Lateral Bearing Capacity of Single Connectors in Parallel Loaded Battens used for Truss Bracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob

    In order to analyse the stiffness and the strength of joints used for battens in bracing of trusses 70 tests have been made. The joint was made by a single nail or screw located perpendicular to or at an angle to the grain direction. The single fastener joints did not fulfil the requirements for ...

  19. Cumulative Ductility and Hysteretic Behavior of Small Buckling-Restrained Braces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidajat Sugihardjo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative ductility is defined as a ratio of total energy to elastic energy which is dissipated by an element of the structural system during cyclic loading. An element of the structural system is categorized hysteretic if the cumulative ductility factor fulfills certain criteria. This study investigated both analytically and experimentally Small Buckling-Restrained Braces (SBRBs. The core of bracings was modeled using Menegotto-Pinto and bilinear functions. The restrained bracing members were in the shape of square hollow steel section. They were made of the assembly of two L-shaped steel sections. From the experimental study on four SBRB specimens, it was proven that the proposed SBRBs have performed relatively stable hysteretic curves up to two percent of strain and the cumulative ductility factor of 199–450. This value is sufficient for the Buckling-Restrained Brace (BRB elements as elastoplastic structural components. The comparisons of the hysteretic behaviors resulted by SBRB specimens using the Menegotto-Pinto functions and experiments exhibited good agreements, while the amount of energy dissipated by the SBRB specimens using the bilinear model agreed well with the experimental results. Based on the behavior of the experimental hysteretic, implementing the proposed SBRBs as components in ductile truss system is recommended.

  20. An Experimental Study on Hybrid Noncompression CF Bracing and GF Sheet Wrapping Reinforcement Method to Restore Damaged RC Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Seok Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel technique for restoration of reinforced concrete (RC structures that have sustained damage during an earthquake. The reinforcement scheme described here is a hybrid seismic retrofitting technique that combines noncompression X-bracing using CF with externally bonded GF sheets to strengthen RC structures that have sustained damage following an earthquake. The GF sheet is used to improve the ductility of columns, and the noncompression CF X-bracing system, which consists of CF bracing and anchors to replace the conventional steel bracing and bolt connections, is used to increase the lateral strength of the framing system. We report seismic restoration capacity, which enables reuse of the damaged RC frames via the hybrid CF X-bracing and GF sheet wrapping system. Cyclic loading tests were carried out to investigate hysteresis of the lateral load-drift relations, as well as the ductility. The GF sheet significantly improved the ductility of columns, resulting in a change in failure mode. The strengthening effect of conventional CF sheets used in columns is not sufficient with respect to lateral strength and stiffness. However, this study results in a significant increase in the strength of the structure due to the use of CF X-bracing and inhibited buckling failure of the bracing. This result can be exploited to develop guidelines for the application of the reinforcement system to restore damaged RC structures.

  1. The Effects of Elbow Bracing on Medial Elbow Joint Space Gapping Associated With Repetitive Throwing in High School Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Hiroshi; Akasaka, Kiyokazu; Otsudo, Takahiro; Takei, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Mitsuru

    2017-04-01

    Throwing athletes risk medial elbow injury from extreme valgus stress generated across the medial elbow during throwing. Braces have been developed to protect the elbow joint; however, no previous study has investigated the effects of elbow bracing on medial elbow joint space gapping associated with repetitive throwing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of elbow bracing on medial elbow joint space gapping during repetitive throwing. Our hypothesis was that an elbow brace may reduce mechanical stress on the elbow by reducing medial elbow joint space gapping. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty-five high school baseball players participated in this study. Each subject pitched 100 times under 2 conditions: control (without elbow brace) and elbow brace. The ulnohumeral joint space was measured ultrasonically before pitching and after every block of 20 pitches. Measurement of the ulnohumeral joint space was carried out using ultrasound with the forearm hanging by the side. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and post hoc tests were used to compare ulnohumeral joint space with repeated pitching and between the elbow brace and control conditions. In the control condition, ulnohumeral joint space after 60 pitches was significantly greater than that before pitching ( P space was not significantly different after repeated pitching. When comparing these 2 conditions, ulnohumeral joint space in the control condition was significantly greater than that in the elbow brace condition after 60 pitches ( P space gapping with repeated throwing when determined ultrasonically by measuring the ulnohumeral joint space under gravity load. An elbow brace worn during baseball pitching practice may help reduce mechanical stress on the elbow by reducing medial elbow joint space gapping.

  2. Profiling of translational and rotational head accelerations in youth BMX with and without neck brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Howard T; Rylands, Lee; Atkins, Stephen; Enright, Kevin; Roberts, Simon J

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the influence of BMX helmets and neck braces on translational and rotational accelerations in youth riders. Mixed model, repeated measure and correlation. Twenty three competitive youth BMX riders classified by age group (6-9 years, 10-13 years and 14-18 years) completed 6 laps of an indoor BMX track at race pace, 3 laps without a neck brace (NB) and 3 without brace (WB). A triaxial accelerometer with gyroscope was placed behind the right ear to determine the mean number of accelerations, translational and rotational, of the head between conditions and by age group. Significant reductions by condition (p=0.02) and by age (p=0.04) were found for the number of accelerations, though no interactions (condition×age) were revealed. Significant increases by age (p=0.01) were revealed for translational accelerations, whilst significant increases by condition (p=0.02) were found for rotational accelerations. In addition, significant correlations were revealed between relative helmet mass and age (r=0.83; p=0.001) and relative helmet mass and number of accelerations (r=0.46; p=0.03). Accelerations at the head decreased with increased age, possibly due to the influence of greater stabilising musculature. Additionally, neck braces also significantly reduced the number of accelerations. However, the magnitude of accelerations may be influenced by riding dynamics. Therefore, the use of neck braces combined with strength work to develop neck strength, could aid in the reduction of head accelerations in youth BMX riders. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ankle brace attenuates the medial-lateral ground reaction force during basketball rebound jump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Castro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The jump landing is the leading cause for ankle injuries in basketball. It has been shown that the use of ankle brace is effective to prevent these injuries by increasing the mechanical stability of the ankle at the initial contact of the foot with the ground. Objective: To investigate the effects of ankle brace on the ground reaction force (GRF during the simulation of a basketball rebound jump. Method: Eleven young male basketball players randomly carried out a simulated basketball rebound jump under two conditions, with and without ankle brace (lace-up. Dynamic parameters of vertical GRF (take-off and landing vertical peaks, time to take-off and landing vertical peaks, take-off impulse peak, impulse at 50 milliseconds of landing, and jump height and medial-lateral (take-off and landing medial-lateral peaks, and time to reach medial-lateral peaks at take-off and landing were recorded by force platform during rebound jumps in each tested condition. The comparisons between the tested conditions were performed by paired t test (P0.05. Conclusion: The use of ankle brace during basketball rebound jumps attenuates the magnitude of medial-lateral GRF on the landing phase, without changing the vertical GRF. This finding indicates that the use of brace increases the medial-lateral mechanical protection by decreasing the shear force exerted on the athlete’s body without change the application of propulsive forces in the take-off and the impact absorption quality in the landing during the basketball rebound jump.

  4. [Influence of Ankle Braces on the Prevalence of Ankle Inversion Injuries in the Swiss Volleyball National League A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, J; Kneubühler, S; Rogan, S

    2016-06-01

    Ankle inversion is a common injury among volleyball players. The injury rate during a game is 2.1 times higher than during training. As a result, the preventive use of ankle braces is frequently observed in Swiss volleyball leagues. Studies have shown that ankle braces have a preventive effect on the prevalence of ankle inversion. In Switzerland there has been no investigation into the preventive use of braces and their influence on prevalence. For this reason, the goals of this study are 1) to determine when, why and by whom ankle braces are worn and 2) to evaluate the injury rate of users and non-users of ankle braces. A modified questionnaire was sent to 18 men's and women's teams of the Swiss National League A. The questionnaire included questions about injury rates and the circumstances of ankle inversion injuries. The data were statistically analysed with Microsoft Excel 2012 and SPSS Version 20. The overall response rate was 61 %, allowing data from 181 players to be analysed. 33 % (59 of 181) of the players used an ankle brace. There was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of ankle inversion between users (12 injured) and non-users (8 injured) (p = 0.006). Wearing an ankle brace during training or during a game made no difference in the prevention of injuries (p = 0.356). More athletes were injured during training (n = 13) than during a game (n = 7). The results of the present study indicate that volleyball players preferably wear ankle braces to prevent injury. More than one third of the players in the study wore an ankle brace, 60 % for primary prevention and 40 % for secondary prevention due to a previous injury. The study shows that significantly more users than non-users of ankle braces were injured. This is contrary to literature. Furthermore it was shown that more injuries occur during training than during a game. This finding results from the fact that ankle braces were rarely worn during training. It is

  5. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal preparations in restless legs syndrome (RLS) treatment: a review and probable first description of RLS in 1529.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xue; Wang, Wei-Dong; Walters, Arthur S; Wang, Qi; Liu, Yan-Jiao; Chu, Fu-Yong

    2012-12-01

    Occidental medicine has a given definition for restless legs syndrome (RLS) and knowledge of RLS pathophysiology has led to the development of its therapeutic management. RLS has no cure. Many methods have been used for its treatment, among which traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been considered as a new approach. However, description and management of the disease symptoms can be found in Chinese ancient medical systems. The first mention of RLS may have been as early as the third century BC described as "leg uncomfortable". Nonetheless, the lack of a complete description encompassing all four modern cardinal features of RLS makes this uncertain. On the other hand, the first description of RLS encompassing three of the four major modern criteria occurs in the ancient book of Neike Zhaiyao (Internal summary), 1529 AD just about a century and a half prior to the description of RLS by Sir Thomas Willis in England. Here, we introduce the philosophical concepts of traditional Chinese medicine and the description, classification and understanding of RLS symptoms in traditional Chinese medicine. We have conducted an in-depth review of the literature reporting one part of TCM, Chinese herbal treatment efficacy for RLS, through both English and Chinese search engines. Eighty-five studies were included in the review and more than 40 formulas (including 176 different ingredients) were found in the literature. According to the literature, Chinese herbs have been demonstrated to be safe and hold great potential to be an effective treatment modality for RLS, but the evidence is limited by the quality of these studies. Of the eighty-five studies, only nine were clinical trials with a control group and only three of them were randomized. In cases where herbal preparations were compared to Western medications for RLS, the herbal preparations appear to be superior. However, uncertainty as to whether the diagnosis of RLS was made in accord with Western norms and the use of

  6. Descriptive Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Anthony Lewis

    2003-01-01

    Descriptive research is described by Lathom-Radocy and Radocy (1995) to include Survey research, ex post facto research, case studies and developmental studies. Descriptive research also includes a review of the literature in order to provide both quantitative and qualitative evidence of the effect...... starts will allow effect size calculations to be made in order to evaluate effect over time. Given the difficulties in undertaking controlled experimental studies in the creative arts therapies, descriptive research methods offer a way of quantifying effect through descriptive statistical analysis...

  7. Effects of an unloader knee brace on knee-related symptoms and function in people with post-traumatic knee osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Harvi F; Crossley, Kay M; Ackland, David C; Cowan, Sallie M; Collins, Natalie J

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the immediate and four-week effects of an unloader knee brace on knee-related symptoms and performance-based function in people with knee osteoarthritis (OA) after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Individuals with knee OA, five to 20years post-ACLR, were recruited for two within-subject randomized studies: immediate effects (n=18) and four-week effects (n=11). Patient-reported knee-related symptoms (knee pain, perceived task difficulty, confidence, stability) were assessed during hop for distance and step-down tests, while performance-based function was assessed with hopping distance under three conditions: i) no brace; ii) unadjusted brace (sagittal plane support); and iii) adjusted brace (sagittal plane support with varus/valgus readjustment). Participants in the four-week brace effect study were randomized to wear the unadjusted or adjusted brace for four weeks after baseline (no brace) testing, and repeated tests in their allocated brace at four-week follow-up. Friedman tests evaluated differences between the three brace conditions for each variable for the immediate brace effect study (pknee confidence during hop for distance, and knee pain during step-down. Following the four-week brace intervention, the allocated brace improved knee confidence, perceived task difficulty and stability during hop for distance; and knee pain, perceived task difficulty, confidence, and stability during step-down. The unloader knee brace, adjusted or unadjusted, has the potential to improve knee-related symptoms associated with knee OA after ACLR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Structures and photoluminescence of another crown-typed polyoxotungstoeuropate [H{sub 2}O-bar {l_brace}Eu(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}{r_brace}{sub 2}{l_brace}Eu(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(AsW{sub 9}O{sub 33}){r_brace}{sub 4}]{sup x-} in the presence of Na{sup +} or Ca{sup 2+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukaya, Keisuke [Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST), 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi 332-3312 (Japan); Yamase, Toshihiro [Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan) and Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST), 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi 332-3312 (Japan)]. E-mail: tyamase@res.titech.ac.jp

    2006-02-09

    Two novel polyoxotungstoeuropates [H{sub 2}O-bar {l_brace}Eu{sub n}Na{sub 1-n}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}{r_brace}{sub 2}{l_brace}Eu(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(AsW{sub 9}O{sub 33}){r_brace}{sub 4}]{sup 21-} (n=1/4) 1a and [H{sub 2}O-bar {l_brace}Eu{sub n}Ca{sub 1-n}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}{r_brace}{sub 2}{l_brace}Eu{sub n}Ca{sub 1-n}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(AsW{sub 9}O{sub 33}){r_brace}{sub 4}]{sup 20-} (n=2/3) 2a were formed by the reaction of {alpha}-B-[AsW{sub 9}O{sub 33}]{sup 9-} and Eu{sup 3+} with Na{sup +} or Ca{sup 2+} as the counter cation. Na{sub 18}H{sub 3}[H{sub 2}O-bar {l_brace}Eu{sub n}Na{sub 1-n}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}{r_brace}{sub 2}{l_brace}Eu(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(AsW{sub 9}O{sub 33}){r_brace}{sub 4}].48H{sub 2}O (n=1/4) 1 crystallized in the tetragonal space group P4/ncc, with a=28.82(2)A, c=26.45(2)A, V=21974(23)A{sup 3} and Z=4, while Ca{sub 9}Na{sub 2}[H{sub 2}O-bar {l_brace}Eu{sub n}Ca{sub 1-n}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}{r_brace}{sub 2}{l_brace}Eu{sub n}Ca{sub 1-n}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(AsW{sub 9}O{sub 33}){r_brace}{sub 4}].63H{sub 2}O (n=2/3) 2 crystallized in the triclinic space group P1-bar , with a=14.27(1)A, b=20.26(2)A, c=20.54(2)A, {alpha}=81.69(3){sup o}, {beta}=86.10(3){sup o}, {gamma}=72.93(3){sup o}, V=5613(7)A{sup 3} and Z=1. These anion structures consisted of tetramer of L-shaped units [Eu(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(AsW{sub 9}O{sub 33})]{sup 6-} with water molecules encapsulated in the center. Interestingly, these tetramers also contained an apical attachment of two square-antiprismatic Eu{sup 3+} centers each of which is coordinated by one bridging O atom for each [AsW{sub 9}O{sub 33}]{sup 9-} ligand and four aqua molecules. These apical Eu atoms had different coordination environments from Eu atom in L-shaped unit, and were disordered together with Na atoms with a quarter occupancy of Eu for 1, while all the Eu atoms together with Ca atoms with a 2/3 occupancy of Eu for 2. The photoluminescence spectra, excitation spectra and lifetimes for these two complexes were discussed based on

  9. Development and description of measurement properties of an instrument to assess treatment burden among patients with multiple chronic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Viet-Thi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients experience an increasing treatment burden related to everything they do to take care of their health: visits to the doctor, medical tests, treatment management and lifestyle changes. This treatment burden could affect treatment adherence, quality of life and outcomes. We aimed to develop and validate an instrument for measuring treatment burden for patients with multiple chronic conditions. Methods Items were derived from a literature review and qualitative semistructured interviews with patients. The instrument was then validated in a sample of patients with chronic conditions recruited in hospitals and general practitioner clinics in France. Factor analysis was used to examine the questionnaire structure. Construct validity was studied by the relationships between the instrument's global score, the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM scores and the complexity of treatment as assessed by patients and physicians. Agreement between patients and physicians was appraised. Reliability was determined by a test-retest method. Results A sample of 502 patients completed the Treatment Burden Questionnaire (TBQ, which consisted of 7 items (2 of which had 4 subitems defined after 22 interviews with patients. The questionnaire showed a unidimensional structure. The Cronbach's α was 0.89. The instrument's global score was negatively correlated with TSQM scores (rs = -0.41 to -0.53 and positively correlated with the complexity of treatment (rs = 0.16 to 0.40. Agreement between patients and physicians (n = 396 was weak (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.38 (95% confidence interval 0.29 to 0.47. Reliability of the retest (n = 211 patients was 0.76 (0.67 to 0.83. Conclusions This study provides the first valid and reliable instrument assessing the treatment burden for patients across any disease or treatment context. This instrument could help in the development of treatment strategies that are both

  10. Positioning and spinal bracing for pain relief in metastatic spinal cord compression in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siew Hwa; Grant, Robin; Kennedy, Catriona; Kilbride, Lynn

    2015-09-24

    This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 3 (Lee 2012) on patient positioning (mobilisation) and bracing for pain relief and spinal stability in adults with metastatic spinal cord compression.Many patients with metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) have spinal instability, but their clinician has determined that due to their advanced disease they are unsuitable for surgical internal fixation. Mobilising may be hazardous in the presence of spinal instability as further vertebral collapse can occur. Current guidance on positioning (whether a patient should be managed with bed rest or allowed to mobilise) and whether spinal bracing is helpful, is contradictory. To investigate the correct positioning and examine the effects of spinal bracing to relieve pain or to prevent further vertebral collapse in patients with MSCC. For this update, we searched for relevant studies from February 2012 to 31 March 2015. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and MEDLINE In Process, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, TRIP, SIGN, NICE, UK Clinical Research Network, National Guideline Clearinghouse and PEDro database. We also searched the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT), ClinicalTrials.gov, UK Clinical Trials Gateway (UKCTG), WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR).For the original version, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CANCERLIT, NICE, SIGN, AMED, TRIP, National Guideline Clearinghouse, and PEDro database, in February 2012. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of adults with MSCC of interventions on positioning (mobilisation) and bracing. Two review authors independently assessed each possible study for inclusion and quality. For the original version of the review, we screened 1611 potentially relevant studies. No studies met the inclusion criteria

  11. Influence of functional knee bracing on the isokinetic and functional tests of anterior cruciate ligament deficient patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyousha Mortaza

    Full Text Available Use of functional knee braces has been suggested to provide protection and to improve kinetic performance of the knee in Anterior cruciate ligament(ACL-injured patients. However, many athletes might refrain from wearing the braces because of the fear of performance hindrance in the playing field. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of three functional knee brace/sleeves upon the isokinetic and functional performance of ACL-deficient and healthy subjects. Six anterior cruciate ligament deficient (29.0 ± 5.3 yrs., 175.2 ± 5.4 cm, and 73.0 ± 10.0 kg and six healthy male subjects (27.2 ± 3.7 yrs., 176.4 ± 6.4 cm, and 70.3 ± 6.9 kg were selected. The effect of a custom-made functional knee brace, and two neoprene knee sleeves, one with four metal supports and one without support were examined via the use of isokinetic and functional tests in four sets (non-braced,wearing functional knee brace,and wearing the sleeves. Cross-over hop and single leg vertical jump test were performed and jump height, and hop distance were recorded. Peak torque to body weight ratio and average power in two isokinetic velocities(60°.s(-1,180°.s(-1 were recorded and the brace/sleeves effect was calculated as the changes in peak torque measured in the brace/sleeves conditions, expressed as a percentage of peak torque measured in non-braced condition. Frequency content of the isokinetic torque-time curves was also analyzed. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the measured values in four test conditions within each control and ACL-deficient group,and Mann-Whitney U test was used for the comparison between the two groups. No significant differences in peak torque, average power, torque-time curve frequency content, vertical-jump and hop measurements were found within the experimental and the non-braced conditions (p>0.05. Although the examined functional knee brace/sleeves had no significant effect on the knee muscle performance, there have been

  12. Mechanical stability of the subtalar joint after lateral ligament sectioning and ankle brace application: a biomechanical experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Tomoaki; Kura, Hideji; Suzuki, Daisuke; Uchiyama, Eiichi; Fujimiya, Mineko; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2009-12-01

    The roles of each ligament supporting the subtalar joint have not been clarified despite several biomechanical studies. The effects of ankle braces on subtalar instability have not been shown. The ankle brace has a partial effect on restricting excessive motion of the subtalar joint. Controlled laboratory study. Ten normal fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens were used. The angular motions of the talus were measured via a magnetic tracking system. The specimens were tested while inversion and eversion forces, as well as internal and external rotation torques, were applied. The calcaneofibular ligament, cervical ligament, and interosseous talocalcaneal ligament were sectioned sequentially, and the roles of each ligament, as well as the stabilizing effects of the ankle brace, were examined. Complete sectioning of the ligaments increased the angle between the talus and calcaneus in the frontal plane to 51.7 degrees + or - 11.8 degrees compared with 35.7 degrees + or - 6.0 degrees in the intact state when inversion force was applied. There was a statistically significant difference in the angles between complete sectioning of the ligaments and after application of the brace (34.1 degrees + or - 7.3 degrees ) when inversion force was applied. On the other hand, significant differences in subtalar rotation were not found between complete sectioning of the ligaments and application of the brace when internal and external rotational torques were applied. The ankle brace limited inversion of the subtalar joint, but it did not restrict motion after application of internal or external rotational torques. In cases of severe ankle sprains involving the calcaneofibular ligament, cervical ligament, and interosseous talocalcaneal ligament injuries, application of an ankle brace might be less effective in limiting internal-external rotational instabilities than in cases of inversion instabilities in the subtalar joint. An improvement in the design of the brace is needed to restore

  13. Seismic Response and Evaluation of SDOF Self-Centering Friction Damping Braces Subjected to Several Earthquake Ground Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Wan Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly deals with seismic response and performance for self-centering friction damping braces (SFDBs subjected to several maximum- or design-leveled earthquake ground motions. The self-centering friction damping brace members consist of core recentering components fabricated with superelastic shape memory alloy wires and energy dissipation devices achieved through shear friction mechanism. As compared to the conventional brace members for use in the steel concentrically braced frame structure, these self-centering friction damping brace members make the best use of their representative characteristics to minimize residual deformations and to withstand earthquake loads without member replacement. The configuration and response mechanism of self-centering friction damping brace systems are firstly described in this study, and then parametric investigations are conducted through nonlinear time-history analyses performed on numerical single degree-of-freedom spring models. After observing analysis results, adequate design methodologies that optimally account for recentering capability and energy dissipation according to their comparative parameters are intended to be suggested in order to take advantage of energy capacity and to minimize residual deformation simultaneously.

  14. The effect of a dynamic PCL brace on patellofemoral compartment pressures in PCL-and PCL/PLC-deficient knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Tyler; Keller, Thomas; Maldonado, Ruben; Metzger, Melodie; Mohr, Karen; Kvitne, Ronald

    2017-12-01

    The natural history of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) deficiency includes the development of arthrosis in the patellofemoral joint (PFJ). The purpose of this biomechanical study was to evaluate the hypothesis that dynamic bracing reduces PFJ pressures in PCL- and combined PCL/posterolateral corner (PLC)-deficient knees. Controlled Laboratory Study. Eight fresh frozen cadaveric knees with intact cruciate and collateral ligaments were included. PFJ pressures and force were measured using a pressure mapping system via a lateral arthrotomy at knee flexion angles of 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120° in intact, PCL-deficient, and PCL/PLC-deficient knees under a combined quadriceps/hamstrings load of 400 N/200 N. Testing was then repeated in PCL- and PCL/PLC-deficient knees after application of a dynamic PCL brace. Application of a dynamic PCL brace led to a reduction in peak PFJ pressures in PCL-deficient knees. In addition, the brace led to a significant reduction in peak pressures in PCL/PLC-deficient knees at 60°, 90°, and 120° of flexion. Application of the dynamic brace also led to a reduction in total PFJ force across all flexion angles for both PCL- and PCL/PLC-deficient knees. Dynamic bracing reduces PFJ pressures in PCL- and combined PCL/PLC-deficient knees, particularly at high degrees of knee flexion.

  15. The Study of Prophylactic Knee Braces Efficacy on Strain Reduction on the Medial Collateral Ligament in Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Yavarikia

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The most frequent site of injury in football is the knee. In this study the value of prophylactic knee braces in reduction of MCL injuries was evaluated.Materials & Methods: In this prospective cohort study we evaluated 11480 athlete-exposure that lasted 30 minutes. After the explanation of study method to coaches and athlete we gave them two kind of study questionnaires. After data collection we analyzed data with SPSS 10.Results: In this study 149 injuries happened out of which. 28 were knee injuries (21 in unbraced athletes and 7 in braced athletes (P=0.21 and 23 were knee ligamentous injuries (16 in unbraced athletes and 7 in braced athletes (P=0.662. There were 16 MCL injuries (11 in unbraced athletes and 5 in braced athletes. The relative risk in this study was 0.454. We evaluated the severity of ligamnetous injury and there was no significant difference between the two groups (P=0.5.Conclusion: In conclusion in this study we found that the prophylactic knee braces had no positive effect in prevention of knee injuries. Some epidemiological studies with large samples and longer period should be designed to discover the real effect of these braces in knee injuries prevention.

  16. Resistance and elastic stiffness of RHS "T" joints: part I - axial brace loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M.M.P. de Matos

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a study on the behaviour of welded "T" joints between RHS sections under brace axial loading. A finite element model was developed to investigate the influence of some geometrical variables on the joint's response. The brace load (always in tension was incremented up to joint failure, while the chord was kept unloaded. In the companion paper (part II a complementary study including chord axial loading is presented. The force-displacement curves corresponding to the different geometries are analyzed and compared, focusing on the failure loads and elastic stiffness. Different failure criteria are discussed and applied to the present curves and a comparison of the numerical results with the Eurocode 3 provisions is presented and discussed.

  17. Nickel sensitization in adolescents and association with ear piercing, use of dental braces and hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Lauritsen, Jens Martin; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of nickel allergy (sensitization) and the associations with ear piercing, use of dental braces and hand eczema were assessed in a cohort of 1,501 8th grade schoolchildren (aged 12-16 years) in Odense, Denmark. Nickel allergy was found in 8.6% and was clinically relevant in 69......% of cases. Nickel allergy was found most frequently in girls and the association with ear piercing was confirmed. Application of dental braces (oral nickel exposure) prior to ear piercing (cutaneous nickel exposure) was associated with a significantly reduced prevalence of nickel allergy. In adolescents...... a significant association was found between hand eczema and nickel allergy. A follow-up study of this population is planned in order to assess the course and development of contact dermatitis, hand eczema and atopic diseases in adulthood and after choice of occupation....

  18. Outcome assessment of Invisalign and traditional orthodontic treatment compared with the American Board of Orthodontics objective grading system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djeu, Garret; Shelton, Clarence; Maganzini, Anthony

    2005-09-01

    This treatment-outcome assessment objectively compares Invisalign (Align Technology, Santa Clara, Calif) treatment with braces. This study, a retrospective cohort analysis, was conducted in New York, NY, in 2004. Records from 2 groups of 48 patients (Invisalign and braces groups) were evaluated by using methods from the American Board of Orthodontics Phase III examination. The discrepancy index was used to analyze pretreatment records to control for initial severity of malocclusion. The objective grading system (OGS) was used to systematically grade posttreatment records. Statistical analyses evaluated treatment outcome, duration, and strengths and weaknesses of Invisalign compared with braces. The Invisalign group lost 13 OGS points more than the braces group on average, and the OGS passing rate for Invisalign was 27% lower than that for braces. Invisalign scores were consistently lower than braces scores for buccolingual inclination, occlusal contacts, occlusal relationships, and overjet. Invisalign's OGS scores were negatively correlated to initial overjet, occlusion, and buccal posterior crossibite. Invisalign patients finished 4 months sooner than those with fixed appliances on average. P Invisalign did not treat malocclusions as well as braces in this sample. Invisalign was especially deficient in its ability to correct large anteroposterior discrepancies and occlusal contacts. The strengths of Invisalign were its ability to close spaces and correct anterior rotations and marginal ridge heights. This study might help clinicians to determine which patients are best suited for Invisalign treatment.

  19. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: Indications and efficacy of nonoperative treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Canavese

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The strategy for the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis depends essentially upon the magnitude and pattern of the deformity, and its potential for progression. Treatment options include observation, bracing and/or surgery. During the past decade, several studies have demonstrated that the natural history of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis can be positively affected by nonoperative treatment, especially bracing. Other forms of conservative treatment, such as chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation, acupuncture, exercise or other manual treatments, or diet and nutrition, have not yet been proven to be effective in controlling spinal deformity progression, and those with a natural history that is favorable at the completion of growth. Observation is appropriate treatment for small curves, curves that are at low risk of progression, and those with a natural history that is favorable at the completion of growth. Indications for brace treatment are a growing child presenting with a curve of 25°-40° or a curve less than 25° with documented progression. Curves of 20°-25° in patients with pronounced skeletal immaturity should also be treated. The purpose of this review is to provide information about conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Indications for conservative treatment, hours daily wear and complications of brace treatment as well as brace types are discussed.

  20. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: Indications and efficacy of nonoperative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavese, Federico; Kaelin, André

    2011-01-01

    The strategy for the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis depends essentially upon the magnitude and pattern of the deformity, and its potential for progression. Treatment options include observation, bracing and/or surgery. During the past decade, several studies have demonstrated that the natural history of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis can be positively affected by nonoperative treatment, especially bracing. Other forms of conservative treatment, such as chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation, acupuncture, exercise or other manual treatments, or diet and nutrition, have not yet been proven to be effective in controlling spinal deformity progression, and those with a natural history that is favorable at the completion of growth. Observation is appropriate treatment for small curves, curves that are at low risk of progression, and those with a natural history that is favorable at the completion of growth. Indications for brace treatment are a growing child presenting with a curve of 25°-40° or a curve less than 25° with documented progression. Curves of 20°-25° in patients with pronounced skeletal immaturity should also be treated. The purpose of this review is to provide information about conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Indications for conservative treatment, hours daily wear and complications of brace treatment as well as brace types are discussed.

  1. Boundary condition effect on response modification factor of X-braced steel frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid A. Attia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Design of the structures to resist seismic force depends on the theory of dissipation in elastic energy that already exists in response modification factor “R-factor”. The main problem in codes gives a constant value for R-factor, since change in boundary conditions of building change in behavior of braced steel frame structures and that effects on R-factor. This study is an attempt to assess overstrength, ductility and response modification factor of X-braced steel frame under change in boundary conditions, as change in the direction of strong axis of column and connection support type of column besides variation in storey and bays numbers to be 21 frames and each frame has 8 different boundary conditions as sum of 168 cases for analysis. These frames were analyzed by using nonlinear static “pushover” analysis. As results of this study change in support type and direction of strong axis of column give large change in value of R-factor; the minimum value was 4.37 and maximum value 10.97. Minimum value is close to code value that’s mean the code is more conservative in suggesting of R-factor and gives a large factor of safety. Change in the location of bracing gives change in value of R-factor for all boundary conditions. Change in direction of strong axis of columns and support type didn’t give change in value of fundamental period, all boundary conditions. Keywords: Response modification factor, Ductility reduction factor, Overstrength factor, Boundary conditions, Brace frame, Nonlinear static analysis “Pushover”

  2. Effect of abdominal bracing training on strength and power of trunk and lower limb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayashiki, Kota; Maeo, Sumiaki; Usui, Seiji; Miyamoto, Naokazu; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2016-09-01

    It is unknown whether maximal voluntary co-contraction of abdominal muscles, called abdominal bracing, can be a training maneuver for improving strength and power of trunk and lower limb muscles. The present study aimed to elucidate this. Twenty young adult men (23.3 ± 1.8 years) were allocated to training (TG, n = 11) or control (CG, n = 9) group. TG conducted an 8-week training program (3 days/week) consisting of 2-s maximal abdominal bracing followed by 2-s muscle relaxation (5 × 10 repetitions/day). Maximal voluntary isometric strength during trunk flexion and extension, hip extension, and knee extension, maximal lifting power from sitting position, and the thicknesses of abdominal muscles were measured before and after the intervention. In addition, surface electromyograms from trunk and lower limb muscles and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) during the maximal abdominal bracing and maximal lifting tasks were also determined. After the intervention, TG showed significant increases in isometric trunk extension (+14.4 %) and hip extension (+34.7 %) strength and maximal lifting power (+15.6 %), while CG did not show any changes in strength and power variables. Furthermore, TG had significant gains in the muscle thickness of the oblique internal (+22.4 %), maximal IAP during abdominal bracing (+36.8 %), and the rate of IAP rise during lifting task (+58.8 %), without corresponding changes in CG. The current study indicates that a training style with maximal voluntary co-contraction of abdominal muscles can be an effective maneuver for increasing strength and power during movements involving trunk and hip extensions, without using external load.

  3. Results from large scale ultimate strength tests of K-braced jacket frame structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolt, H.M.

    1995-12-01

    Phase 2 of the JIP Frames Project included four large scale collapse tests of K-braced frames in which both gap and overlap K joints were the critical components. The results are presented in this paper. The local failure modes differed from typical isolated component tests, yet were representative of structural damage observed following Hurricane Andrew. The frame test results therefore provide important insight to the ultimate response of offshore jacket structures.

  4. Effects of Bracing of High-Rise Buildings upon their Static and Dynamic Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivánková Oľga

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes effects of bracing of high-rise buildings upon their static and dynamic behaviour. In static and dynamic analyses, values of displacement for 4 different variants of stiffening elements distribution were calculated. The calculations were made for building both fixed into the ground and rested on elastic supports. The building was modelled as a 3D variant using Finite Element Method (FEM in program Scia Engineer.

  5. Design method of redundancy of brace-anchor sharing supporting based on cooperative deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-yan; Li, Bing; Liu, Yan; Cai, Shan-bing

    2017-11-01

    Because of the complicated environment requirement, the support form of foundation pit is diversified, and the brace-anchor sharing support is widely used. However, the research on the force deformation characteristics and the related aspects of the cooperative response of the brace-anchor sharing support is insufficient. The application of redundancy theory in structural engineering has been more mature, but there is little theoretical research on redundancy theory in underground engineering. Based on the idea of collaborative deformation, the paper calculates the ratio of the redundancy degree of the cooperative deformation by using the local reinforcement design method and the structural component redundancy parameter calculation formula based on Frangopol. Combined with the engineering case, through the calculation of the ratio of cooperative deformation redundancy in the joint of brace-anchor sharing support. This paper explores the optimal anchor distribution form under the condition of cooperative deformation, and through the analysis and research of displacement field and stress field, the results of the collaborative deformation are validated by comparing the field monitoring data. It provides theoretical basis for the design of this kind of foundation pit in the future.

  6. Light Steel-Timber Frame with Composite and Plaster Bracing Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Scotta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The proposed light-frame structure comprises steel columns for vertical loads and an innovative bracing system to efficiently resist seismic actions. This seismic force resisting system consists of a light timber frame braced with an Oriented Strand Board (OSB sheet and an external technoprene plaster-infilled slab. Steel brackets are used as foundation and floor connections. Experimental cyclic-loading tests were conduced to study the seismic response of two shear-wall specimens. A numerical model was calibrated on experimental results and the dynamic non-linear behavior of a case-study building was assessed. Numerical results were then used to estimate the proper behavior factor value, according to European seismic codes. Obtained results demonstrate that this innovative system is suitable for the use in seismic-prone areas thanks to the high ductility and dissipative capacity achieved by the bracing system. This favorable behavior is mainly due to the fasteners and materials used and to the correct application of the capacity design approach.

  7. Understanding academic clinicians' varying attitudes toward the treatment of childhood obesity in Canada: a descriptive qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Karen; Pemberton, Julia; Frankfurter, Claudia

    2013-05-01

    This qualitative study aims to understand academic physicians' attitudes towards the treatment of pediatric obesity in Canada. A stratified sample of 24 participants (surgeons, pediatricians, family practitioners) were recruited from 4 Canadian regions. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and transcribed. A codebook was developed through iterative data reduction and conceptual saturation ensured. Validity was ensured through triangulation, audit trail, and member-checking. This study revealed 45 themes with regional, specialty, and experiential differences. Quebec and Ontario emphasized education of physicians and parents to improve treatment and favored surgical intervention. Half of surgeons felt surgery was the only successful treatment option, while non-surgeons favored behavioral interventions. Experienced physicians in Western Canada desired more evidence to improve patient care, while inexperienced physicians focused on early detection and home environments. Across Canada participants advocated for program development and system change. Respondents expressed family involvement as integral to treatment success and shifting away from blame and moving towards a healthy lifestyles approach. Canadian regional differences in physicians' attitudes towards pediatric obesity treatment exist, influenced by experience and specialty. We will understand how themes identified in this study influence real life clinical decision making by applying these results to create a discrete choice-based conjoint survey. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A displacement-based approach for determining non-linear effects on pre-tensioned-cable cross-braced structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaccu, Gian Felice; Caracoglia, Luca

    2017-04-01

    Pre-tensioned-cable bracing systems are widely employed in structural engineering to limit lateral deflections and stabilize structures. A suitable configuration of the pre-tensioned-cable bracing systems in a structure is an important issue since the internal force distribution, emerging from the interaction with the existing structure, significantly affects the structural dynamic behavior. The design, however, is often based on the intuition and the previous experience of the engineer. In recent years, the authors have been investigating the non-linear dynamic response of cable systems, installed on cable-stayed bridges, and in particular the so-called "cable-cross-tie systems" forming a cable network. The bracing cables (cross-ties) can exhibit slackening or snapping. Therefore, a non-linear unilateral model, combined with the taut-cable theory, is required to simulate the incipient slackening conditions in the stays. Capitalizing from this work on non-linear cable dynamics, this paper proposes a new approach to analyze, in laterally- braced truss structures, the unilateral effects and dynamic response accounting for the loss in the pre-tensioning force imparted to the bracing cables. This effect leads to non-linear vibration of the structure. In this preliminary study, the free vibrations of the structure are investigated by using the "Equivalent Linearization Method". A performance coefficient, a real positive number between 0.5 and 1.0, is defined and employed to monitor the relative reduction in the apparent stiffness of the braces during structural vibration, "mode by mode". It is shown that the system can exhibit alternate unilateral behavior of the cross-braces. A reduction of the performance coefficient close to fifty percent is observed in the braces when the initial pre-tensioning force is small. On the other hand the performance coefficient tends to one in the case of a high level of pre-stress. It is concluded that the performance coefficient may

  9. The experience of patients with cancer during diagnosis and treatment planning: a descriptive study of Canadian survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, A C; Tran, K; Chadder, J; Niu, J; Fung, S; Louzado, C; Rahal, R

    2017-10-01

    Communication with health care providers during diagnosis and treatment planning is of special importance because it can influence a patient's emotional state, attitude, and decisions about their care. Qualitative evidence suggests that some patients experience poor communication with health care providers and have negative experiences when receiving their cancer diagnosis. Here, we use survey data from 8 provinces to present findings about the experiences of Canadian patients, specifically with respect to patient-provider communication, during the diagnosis and treatment planning phases of their cancer care. Data from the Ambulatory Oncology Patient Satisfaction Survey, representing 17,809 survey respondents, were obtained for the study. Most respondents (92%) felt that their care provider told them of their cancer diagnosis in a sensitive manner. Most respondents (95%) also felt that they were provided with enough information about their planned cancer treatment. In contrast, more than half the respondents who had emotional concerns upon diagnosis (56%) were not referred to services that could help with their anxieties and fears. Also, 18% of respondents reported that they were not given the opportunity to discuss treatment options with a care provider, and 17% reported that their care providers did not consider their travel concerns while planning for treatment. Measuring the patient experience allows for an understanding of how well the cancer control system is addressing the physical, emotional, and practical needs of patients during diagnosis and treatment planning. Although results suggest high levels of patient satisfaction with some aspects of care, quality improvement efforts are still needed to provide person-centred care.

  10. [Improving shared decision-making for hospital patients: Description and evaluation of a treatment intensity assessment tool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amblàs-Novellas, Jordi; Casas, Sílvia; Catalán, Rosa María; Oriol-Ruscalleda, Margarita; Lucchetti, Gianni Enrico; Quer-Vall, Francesc Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Shared decision-making between patients and healthcare professionals is crucial to guarantee adequate coherence between patient values and preferences, caring aims and treatment intensity, which is key for the provision of patient-centred healthcare. The assessment of such interventions are essential for caring continuity purposes. To do this, reliable and easy-to-use assessment systems are required. This study describes the results of the implementation of a hospital treatment intensity assessment tool. The pre-implementation and post-implementation results were compared between two cohorts of patients assessed for one month. Some record of care was registered in 6.1% of patients in the pre-implementation group (n=673) compared to 31.6% of patients in the post-implementation group (n=832) (P<.01), with differences between services. Hospital mortality in both cohorts is 1.9%; in the pre-implementation group, 93.75% of deceased patients had treatment intensity assessment. In hospital settings, the availability of a specific tool seems to encourage very significantly shared decision-making processes between patients and healthcare professionals -multiplying by more than 5 times the treatment intensity assessment. Moreover, such tools help in the caring continuity processes between different teams and the personalisation of caring interventions to be monitored. More research is needed to continue improving shared decision-making for hospital patients. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. METASTASIS OF RENAL CARCINOMA TO THE THYROID, SPECIFIC FEATURES OF DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT (DESCRIPTION OF A CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Yakovleva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a case of metastatic involvement of the thyroid by renal carcinoma. The specific features of this observation are diagnostic difficulties in assessing the pattern and extent of a process and in choosing surgical treatment tactics.

  12. Endoluminal brachytherapy in the treatment of oesophageal cancer: technique description, case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Castilla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Endoesophageal brachytherapy is a useful technique for the palliative treatment of dysphagia in advanced oesophageal cancer. This technique offers good results on dysphagia control and quality of life. We report the case of a patient treated with this technique presenting complete response to the dysphagia. We describe endoesophageal brachyterapy technique and we comment on the literature.

  13. Treatment Failure After Image-Guided Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) of Renal Tumors - A Systematic Review with Description of Type, Frequency, Risk Factors and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollherbst, Dominik; Bertheau, Robert; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Radeleff, Boris Alexis; Pereira, Philippe L; Sommer, Christof-Matthias

    2017-03-01

    Background  Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an established treatment for small renal tumors. The objective of this review is to systematically assess the type, frequency, risk factors and management of treatment failure after image-guided percutaneous RFA of renal tumors. Method  10 studies (967 patients, 1033 tumors) with a mean/median follow-up of ≥ 30 months were systematically identified and analyzed. Results and Conclusion  Image-guided percutaneous RFA of localized renal tumors is very effective. The most common type of treatment failure is residual unablated tumor (5.9 %), followed by local tumor progression (4.7 %). De novo tumors in the kidneys occur in 1.3 % of cases and extra-renal metastases in 2.0 %. Local tumor progression, de novo tumors in the kidneys and extra-renal metastases occur predominantly later than 12 months after initial RFA. Tumor size > 3 cm and central tumor location are the major risk factors for treatment failure. In the case of treatment failure, repeated RFA shows high success rates (86.3 % for residual unablated tumors and 87.5 % for local tumor progression). Key Points: · Treatment failure can be subdivided into residual unablated tumor and local tumor progression.. · Residual unablated tumor occurs in 5.9 % of cases.. · Local tumor progression occurs in 4.7 % of cases.. · Tumor size and location are the major risk factors for treatment failure.. · Repeated RFA is effective and commonly used for management.. Citation Format · Vollherbst D, Bertheau R, Kauczor H et al. Treatment Failure After Image-Guided Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) of Renal Tumors - A Systematic Review with Description of Type, Frequency, Risk Factors and Management. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2017; 189: 219 - 227. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Ankle Bracing, Fatigue, and Time to Stabilization in Collegiate Volleyball Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Megan Y; Gribble, Phillip A; Frye, Jamie L

    2008-01-01

    Context: Fatigue has been shown to disrupt dynamic stability in healthy volunteers. It is not known if wearing prophylactic ankle supports can improve dynamic stability in fatigued athletes. Objective: To determine the type of ankle brace that may be more effective at providing dynamic stability after a jump-landing task during normal and fatigued conditions. Design: Two separate repeated-measures analyses of variance with 2 within-subjects factors (condition and time) were performed for each dependent variable. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Ten healthy female collegiate volleyball athletes participated (age  =  19.5 ± 1.27 years, height  =  179.07 ± 7.6 cm, mass  =  69.86 ± 5.42 kg). Intervention(s): Athletes participated in 3 separate testing sessions, applying a different bracing condition at each session: no brace (NB), Swede-O Universal lace-up ankle brace (AB), and Active Ankle brace (AA). Three trials of a jump-landing task were performed under each condition before and after induced functional fatigue. The jump-landing task consisted of a single-leg landing onto a force plate from a height equivalent to 50% of each participant's maximal jump height and from a starting position 70 cm from the center of the force plate. Main Outcome Measure(s): Time to stabilization in the anterior-posterior (APTTS) and medial-lateral (MLTTS) directions. Results: For APTTS, a condition-by-time interaction existed (F2,18  =  5.55, P  =  .013). For the AA condition, Tukey post hoc testing revealed faster pretest (2.734 ± 0.331 seconds) APTTS than posttest (3.817 ± 0.263 seconds). Post hoc testing also revealed that the AB condition provided faster APTTS (2.492 ± 0.271 seconds) than AA (3.817 ± 0.263 seconds) and NB (3.341 ± 0.339 seconds) conditions during posttesting. No statistically significant findings were associated with MLTTS. Conclusions: Fatigue increased APTTS for the AA condition. Because the

  15. Changes in the Oral Environment after Placement of Fixed Orthodontic Appliance for the Treatment of Malocclusion - a Descriptive Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanishree, T; Panchmal, Ganesh Shenoy; Shenoy, Rekha; Jodalli, Praveen; Sonde, Laxminarayan; Kundapur, Nagaraj

    The aim of this study was to determine the changes of salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, total antioxidant capacity and changes in streptococci and lactobacilli counts at baseline, 1 month and 6 months of fixed orthodontic treatment. An unstimulated salivary sample was collected from 30 out of 43 patients who were in need of fixed orthodontic treatment (mean age 17.8 ± 5.01 years). Salivary samples were collected from the patients before the placement of fixed orthodontic appliance (Gemini MBT 0223M) at 1 month and 6 months following start of the treatment. Samples were tested for significant changes in flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, total antioxidant capacity and streptococci and lactobacilli counts. Results were compared using ANOVA. The study results showed that orthodontic appliances significantly changed the unstimulated salivary flow rate (p orthodontic appliance resulted in a significant increase in unstimulated salivary flow rate and lactobacilli counts, whereas buffering capacity decreased significantly during the study period.

  16. The predictive value of extensor grip test for the effectiveness of treatment for tennis elbow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehtab, Mohammad J.; Mirghasemi, A.; Majlesara, A.; Siavashi, B.; Tajik, P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to compare the effectiveness of 5 different modalities and determine the usefulness of recently proposed extensor grip test (EGT) in predicting the response to treatment. In a randomized controlled clinical trial, 92 of 98 tennis elbow patients in Sina Hospital Tehran, Iran between 2006 and 2007 fulfilled the trial entry criteria. Among these patients 56 (60.9%) had positive EGT results, were randomly allocated to 5 treatment groups: brace, physiotherapy, brace plus physiotherapy, injection and injection plus physiotherapy. Patients with a positive EGT result had better response to treatments. Among them, injection plus physiotherapy was the most successful, then brace plus physiotherapy was the worst treatment modality. Response to treatment was comparable in all groups between EGT positive and negative patients except bracing, in which positive EGT was correlated with dramatic response to treatment. In all patients, injection plus physiotherapy and the brace plus physiotherapy is recommended, but in EGT negatives, bracing seems to be of no use. Injection alone is not recommended in either group. (author)

  17. Randomized comparison of tape versus semi-rigid and versus lace-up ankle support in the treatment of acute lateral ankle ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bekerom, M P J; van Kimmenade, Robert; Sierevelt, I N; Eggink, Karin; Kerkhoffs, G M M J; van Dijk, C N; Raven, E E J

    2016-04-01

    Functional treatment is the optimal non-surgical treatment for acute lateral ankle ligament injury (ALALI) in favour of immobilization treatment. There is no single most effective functional treatment (tape, semi-rigid brace or lace-up brace) based on currently available randomized trials. This study is designed as a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the difference in functional outcome after treatment with tape versus semi-rigid versus lace-up ankle support (brace) for grades II and III ALALIs. The Karlsson score and the FAOS were evaluated at 6-month follow-up. One hundred and ninety-three patients (52% males) were randomized, 66 patients were treated with tape, 58 patients with a semi-rigid brace and 62 patients with a lace-up brace. There were no significant differences in any baseline characteristics between the three groups. Mean age of the patients was 37.3 years (35.1-39.5; SD 15.3). Ninety-five males (49%) were included. One hundred and sixty-one (59 + 50 + 52) patients completed the study through final follow-up; 32% lost at follow-up. In two patients treated with tape support, the treatment was changed to a semi-rigid brace because of dermatomal blisters. Except for the difference in Foot and Ankle Outcome Score sport between the lace-up and the semi-rigid brace, there are no differences in any of the outcomes after 6-month follow-up. The most important finding of current study was that there is no difference in outcome 6 months after treatment with tape, semi-rigid brace and a lace-up brace. I.

  18. Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis with eight fractures in the vertebral column treated with kyphoplasty and bracing: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacker, J; Janousek, M; Kröber, M

    2014-02-01

    Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis is a rare condition, which imposes multiple symptoms in the musculoskeletal system. Common complaints announced by patients are severe pain in the lower back, hips and the joints of the lower extremities with a reduced and less mobility status in general. Most of the patients' problems occur in the last trimester of pregnancy or postpartum and are often not diagnosed as side effects of osteoporosis but as problems associated with pregnancy. Although vertebral fractures are rare complications of pregnancy-associated osteoporosis, they should be always considered in women presenting with an acute pain syndrome in peripregnancy period. This case presents a 40-year-old primagravid woman who developed pain in hips and severe pain in the lower back causing an immobilization diagnosed with a pregnancy-associated osteoporosis with eight compression fractures in the thoracic and lumbar spine. Because of sagittal imbalance of the spine, she was treated with kyphoplasty at the four lumbar fractures and with bracing for the upper, thoracic ones, additional to the conservative anti-osteoporotic therapy. The authors discuss pregnancy-associated osteoporosis and its clinical presentation, as well as the indications of kyphoplasty, spinal alignment and the risk of single conservative treatment.

  19. Analytical description of the effects of melting practice and heat treatment on the creep properties of a 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, M.K.

    1977-01-01

    2 1 / 4 Cr-1 Mo steel is used worldwide as an elevated-temperature structural material, particularly in steam generation systems. Since this material is often used at service temperatures up to 600 0 C, successful design requires a consideration of its creep properties. Unfortunately, the development of an analytical description of the creep behavior of 2 1 / 4 Cr-1 Mo steel is complicated by two phenomena. First, the creep strength of this material is quite sensitive to heat treatment. Second, this material tends to exhibit nonclassical creep under some conditions. In addition, especially in nuclear applications, the material used may be air-melted, vacuum-arc remelted (VAR), or electroslag remelted (ESR). Available creep data from air-melted, VAR, and ESR material have been analyzed. Heat treatments included both annealed and isothermally annealed, with and without a subsequent ''postweld'' heat treatment. It has been found that the elevated-temperature ultimate tensile strength (UTS) is a useful indicator of creep strength for a given heat of material regardless of melting practice or heat treatment. Meanwhile, the nonclassical creep behavior has been attributed to a change in creep mechanism which has been mathematically modeled

  20. Characteristics and treatment outcomes of tuberculosis patients who “transfer-in” to health facilities in Harare City, Zimbabwe: a descriptive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takarinda Kudakwashe C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zimbabwe is among the 22 Tuberculosis (TB high burden countries worldwide and runs a well-established, standardized recording and reporting system on case finding and treatment outcomes. During TB treatment, patients transfer-out and transfer-in to different health facilities, but there are few data from any national TB programmes about whether this process happens and if so to what extent. The aim of this study therefore was to describe the characteristics and outcomes of TB patients that transferred into Harare City health department clinics under the national TB programme. Specific objectives were to determine i the proportion of a cohort of TB patients registered as transfer-in, ii the characteristics and treatment outcomes of these transfer-in patients and iii whether their treatment outcomes had been communicated back to their respective referral districts after completion of TB treatment. Methods Data were abstracted from patient files and district TB registers for all transfer-in TB patients registered from January to December 2010 within Harare City. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Results Of the 7,742 registered TB patients in 2010, 263 (3.5% had transferred-in: 148 (56% were males and overall median age was 33 years (IQR, 26–40. Most transfer-in patients (74% came during the intensive phase of TB treatment, and 58% were from rural health-facilities. Of 176 patients with complete data on the time period between transfer-in and transfer-out, only 85 (48% arrived for registration in Harare from referral districts within 1 week of being transferred-out. Transfer-in patients had 69% treatment success, but in 21% treatment outcome status was not evaluated. Overall, 3/212 (1.4% transfer-in TB patients had their TB treatment outcomes reported back to their referral districts. Conclusion There is need to devise better strategies of following up TB patients to their referral Directly Observed Treatment (DOT centres

  1. Characteristics and treatment outcomes of tuberculosis patients who "transfer-in" to health facilities in Harare City, Zimbabwe: a descriptive cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarinda, Kudakwashe C; Harries, Anthony D; Mutasa-Apollo, Tsitsi; Sandy, Charles; Mugurungi, Owen

    2012-11-15

    Zimbabwe is among the 22 Tuberculosis (TB) high burden countries worldwide and runs a well-established, standardized recording and reporting system on case finding and treatment outcomes. During TB treatment, patients transfer-out and transfer-in to different health facilities, but there are few data from any national TB programmes about whether this process happens and if so to what extent. The aim of this study therefore was to describe the characteristics and outcomes of TB patients that transferred into Harare City health department clinics under the national TB programme. Specific objectives were to determine i) the proportion of a cohort of TB patients registered as transfer-in, ii) the characteristics and treatment outcomes of these transfer-in patients and iii) whether their treatment outcomes had been communicated back to their respective referral districts after completion of TB treatment. Data were abstracted from patient files and district TB registers for all transfer-in TB patients registered from January to December 2010 within Harare City. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Of the 7,742 registered TB patients in 2010, 263 (3.5%) had transferred-in: 148 (56%) were males and overall median age was 33 years (IQR, 26-40). Most transfer-in patients (74%) came during the intensive phase of TB treatment, and 58% were from rural health-facilities. Of 176 patients with complete data on the time period between transfer-in and transfer-out, only 85 (48%) arrived for registration in Harare from referral districts within 1 week of being transferred-out. Transfer-in patients had 69% treatment success, but in 21% treatment outcome status was not evaluated. Overall, 3/212 (1.4%) transfer-in TB patients had their TB treatment outcomes reported back to their referral districts. There is need to devise better strategies of following up TB patients to their referral Directly Observed Treatment (DOT) centres from TB diagnosing centres to ensure that they arrive

  2. Fluoroscopic Analysis of Tibial Translation in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injured Knees With and Without Bracing During Forward Lunge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Maryam; Farahmand, Farzam; Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad Ebrahim; Golestanha, Seyed Ali; Rezaeian, Tahmineh; Shirvani Broujeni, Shahram; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Esfandiarpour, Fateme

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite several studies with different methods, the effect of functional knee braces on knee joint kinematics is not clear. Direct visualization of joint components through medical imaging modalities may provide the clinicians with more useful information. Objectives: In this study, for the first time in the literature, video fluoroscopy was used to investigate the effect of knee bracing on the sagittal plane kinematics of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injured patients. Patients and Methods: For twelve male unilateral ACL deficient subjects, the anterior tibial translation was measured during lunge exercise in non-braced and braced conditions. Fluoroscopic images were acquired from the subjects using a digital fluoroscopy system with a rate of 10 fps. The image of each frame was scaled using a calibration coin and analyzed in AutoCAD environment. The angle between the two lines, tangent to the posterior cortexes of the femoral and tibial shafts was measured as the flexion angle. For the fluoroscopic images associated with 0°, 15°, 30°, 45° and 60° knee flexion angles, the relative anterior-posterior configuration of the tibiofemoral joint was assessed by measuring the position of landmarks on the tibia and femur. Results: Results indicated that the overall anterior translations of the tibia during the eccentric (down) and concentric (up) phases of lunge exercise were 10.4 ± 1.7 mm and 9.0 ± 2.2 mm for non-braced, and 10.1 ± 3.4 mm and 7.4 ± 2.5 mm, for braced conditions, respectively. The difference of the tibial anterior-posterior translation behaviors of the braced and non-braced knees was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Fluoroscopic imaging provides an effective tool to measure the dynamic behavior of the knee joint in the sagittal plane and within the limitations of this study, the pure mechanical stabilizing effect of functional knee bracing is not sufficient to control the anterior tibial translation of the ACL deficient

  3. Effects of Prophylactic Knee Bracing on Lower Limb Kinematics, Kinetics, and Energetics During Double-Leg Drop Landing at 2 Heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Katie A; Begg, Rezaul K; Galea, Mary P; Lee, Peter V S

    2016-07-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries commonly occur during landing maneuvers. Prophylactic knee braces were introduced to reduce the risk of ACL injuries, but their effectiveness is debated. We hypothesized that bracing would improve biomechanical factors previously related to the risk of ACL injuries, such as increased hip and knee flexion angles at initial contact and at peak vertical ground-reaction force (GRF), increased ankle plantar flexion angles at initial contact, decreased peak GRFs, and decreased peak knee extension moment. We also hypothesized that bracing would increase the negative power and work of the hip joint and would decrease the negative power and work of the knee and ankle joints. Controlled laboratory study. Three-dimensional motion and force plate data were collected from 8 female and 7 male recreational athletes performing double-leg drop landings from 0.30 m and 0.60 m with and without a prophylactic knee brace. GRFs, joint angles, moments, power, and work were calculated for each athlete with and without a knee brace. Prophylactic knee bracing increased the hip flexion angle at peak GRF by 5.56° (P knee flexion angle at peak GRF by 4.75° (P = .001), and peak hip extension moment by 0.44 N·m/kg (P knee and ankle. No differences in peak GRFs and peak knee extension moment were observed with bracing. The application of a prophylactic knee brace resulted in improvements in important biomechanical factors associated with the risk of ACL injuries. Prophylactic knee braces may help reduce the risk of noncontact knee injuries in recreational and professional athletes while playing sports. Further studies should investigate different types of prophylactic knee braces in conjunction with existing training interventions so that the sports medicine community can better assess the effectiveness of prophylactic knee bracing. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Effect of ankle taping and bracing on vertical ground reaction forces during drop landings before and after treadmill jogging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, Bryan L; Schmitz, Randy J; Gale, Michael; McCaw, Steven T

    2002-12-01

    Single-group repeated-measures experimental design. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of prophylactic ankle stabilization on vertical ground reaction forces before and after treadmill jogging. Previous research has demonstrated acute effects of ankle taping and bracing on ankle joint kinematics and vertical ground reaction forces during drop landings. Based on the number of investigations demonstrating increased range of motion of the braced or taped ankle following exercise, it may be plausible that the aforementioned landing alterations may return to normal following an exercise bout. Fourteen healthy recreational participants performed stiff and soft drop landings before and after a 20-minute treadmill exercise bout under 3 different ankle stabilizer conditions (no stabilizer, ankle brace, and ankle tape). A forceplate was used to collect ground reaction force data under the dominant foot. The first and second peak impact force, as well as the time to each of the 2 peak forces, were determined for each trial and used as dependent variables. The time to reach peak forces were significantly less under the ankle brace and tape conditions in comparison to the control (no-stabilizer) condition. It appears that ankle taping and bracing decrease the time to reach peak impact forces. These alterations indicate that during dynamic activity the musculoskeletal structures of the body may be subjected to loads within shorter time periods. Whether these effects are detrimental over time remains speculative at this point and requires further research.

  5. Assessment of buckling-restrained braced frame reliability using an experimental limit-state model and stochastic dynamic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Blake M.; Song, Junho; Fahnestock, Larry A.

    2009-09-01

    Buckling-restrained braces (BRBs) have recently become popular in the United States for use as primary members of seismic lateral-force-resisting systems. A BRB is a steel brace that does not buckle in compression but instead yields in both tension and compression. Although design guidelines for BRB applications have been developed, systematic procedures for assessing performance and quantifying reliability are still needed. This paper presents an analytical framework for assessing buckling-restrained braced frame (BRBF) reliability when subjected to seismic loads. This framework efficiently quantifies the risk of BRB failure due to low-cycle fatigue fracture of the BRB core. The procedure includes a series of components that: (1) quantify BRB demand in terms of BRB core deformation histories generated through stochastic dynamic analyses; (2) quantify the limit-state of a BRB in terms of its remaining cumulative plastic ductility capacity based on an experimental database; and (3) evaluate the probability of BRB failure, given the quantified demand and capacity, through structural reliability analyses. Parametric studies were conducted to investigate the effects of the seismic load, and characteristics of the BRB and BRBF on the probability of brace failure. In addition, fragility curves (i.e., conditional probabilities of brace failure given ground shaking intensity parameters) were created by the proposed framework. While the framework presented in this paper is applied to the assessment of BRBFs, the modular nature of the framework components allows for application to other structural components and systems.

  6. Optimal Conventional and Semi-Natural Treatments for the Upper Yakima Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Treatment Definitions and Descriptions and Biological Specifications for Facility Design, 1995-1999 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hager, Robert C. (Hatchery Operations Consulting); Costello, Ronald J. (Mobrand Biometrics, Inc., Vashon Island, WA)

    1999-10-01

    This report describes the Yakima Fisheries Project facilities (Cle Elum Hatchery and acclimation satellites) which provide the mechanism to conduct state-of-the-art research for addressing questions about spring chinook supplementation strategies. The definition, descriptions, and specifications for the Yakima spring chinook supplementation program permit evaluation of alternative fish culture techniques that should yield improved methods and procedures to produce wild-like fish with higher survival that can be used to rebuild depleted spring chinook stocks of the Columbia River Basin. The definition and description of three experimental treatments, Optimal Conventional (OCT), Semi-Natural (SNT), Limited Semi-Natural (LSNT), and the biological specifications for facilities have been completed for the upper Yakima spring chinook salmon stock of the Yakima Fisheries Project. The task was performed by the Biological Specifications Work Group (BSWG) represented by Yakama Indian Nation, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, National Marine Fisheries Service, and Bonneville Power Administration. The control and experimental variables of the experimental treatments (OCT, SNT, and LSNT) are described in sufficient detail to assure that the fish culture facilities will be designed and operated as a production scale laboratory to produce and test supplemented upper Yakima spring chinook salmon. Product specifications of the treatment groups are proposed to serve as the generic templates for developing greater specificity for measurements of product attributes. These product specifications will be used to monitor and evaluate treatment effects, with respect to the biological response variables (post release survival, long-term fitness, reproductive success and ecological interactions).

  7. Optimal Conventional and Semi-Natural Treatments for the Upper Yakima Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project, Treatment Definitions and Descriptions, and Biological Specifications for Facility Design, Final Report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hager, Robert C.; Costello, Ronald J.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Yakima Fisheries Project facilities (Cle Elum Hatchery and acclimation satellites) which provide the mechanism to conduct state-of-the-art research for addressing questions about spring chinook supplementation strategies. The definition, descriptions, and specifications for the Yakima spring chinook supplementation program permit evaluation of alternative fish culture techniques that should yield improved methods and procedures to produce wild-like fish with higher survival that can be used to rebuild depleted spring chinook stocks of the Columbia River Basin. The definition and description of three experimental treatments, Optimal Conventional (OCT), Semi-Natural (SNT), Limited Semi-Natural (LSNT), and the biological specifications for facilities have been completed for the upper Yakima spring chinook salmon stock of the Yakima Fisheries Project. The task was performed by the Biological Specifications Work Group (BSWG) represented by Yakama Indian Nation, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, National Marine Fisheries Service, and Bonneville Power Administration. The control and experimental variables of the experimental treatments (OCT, SNT, and LSNT) are described in sufficient detail to assure that the fish culture facilities will be designed and operated as a production scale laboratory to produce and test supplemented upper Yakima spring chinook salmon. Product specifications of the treatment groups are proposed to serve as the generic templates for developing greater specificity for measurements of product attributes. These product specifications will be used to monitor and evaluate treatment effects, with respect to the biological response variables (post release survival, long-term fitness, reproductive success and ecological interactions)

  8. Thermophysical properties of {l_brace}({+-})-linalool + propan-1-ol{r_brace}: A first stage towards the development of a green process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Abarrio, Sandra M.; Torcal, Marcos; Haya, M. Luisa; Urieta, Jose S. [Group of Applied Thermodynamics and Surfaces (GATHERS), Aragon Institute for Engineering Research (I3A), Universidad de Zaragoza, Facultad de Ciencias, Zaragoza 50009 (Spain); Mainar, Ana M., E-mail: ammainar@unizar.e [Group of Applied Thermodynamics and Surfaces (GATHERS), Aragon Institute for Engineering Research (I3A), Universidad de Zaragoza, Facultad de Ciencias, Zaragoza 50009 (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: Optimization of supercritical processes needs adequate methods to reproduce the phase behavior. {rho}, u, n{sub D} and related properties of the system linalool+propan-1-ol were studied. Collision Factor (u), Lorentz-Lorenz and Gladstone -Dale (n{sub D}) give the best results. Peng-Robinson, Patel-Teja, SAFT and PC-SAFT were tested as predictive P{rho}T models. PC-SAFT provides the best P{rho}T prediction (20-40 MPa) with an AAD% of 0.83. - Abstract: In this paper, densities, speeds of sound and refractive indexes of binary mixture of {l_brace}({+-})-linalool (1) + propan-1-ol (2){r_brace} at four temperatures (283.15, 298.15, 313.15, and 328.15) K and 0.1 MPa are reported over the whole composition range. These data were used to calculate excess molar volume, speed of sound deviation, excess isentropic compressibility, refractive index deviation, molar refraction, and molar refraction deviation at the four work temperatures. All magnitudes were fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation. Subsequently prediction of speed of sound and refractive index was carried out using several theoretical models or equations. On the other hand, the density of the same mixture was determined in the same temperature range at pressures from 20 MPa to 40 MPa. Four equation of state (Peng-Robinson, Patel-Teja, SAFT, PC-SAFT) were tested as predictive models of the P{rho}T behavior. The best results were obtained by PC-SAFT, with an average absolute deviation of 0.83%.

  9. Emotion-focused therapy for the treatment of social anxiety: an overview of the model and a case description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Emotion-focused therapy (EFT) is an integrative and experiential treatment approach that views emotions as fundamentally adaptive and privileges attention to, and exploration of, emotional experiences. EFT has been demonstrated to be efficacious with depression, interpersonal trauma and marital discord, but application to anxiety disorders is in its initial stages. The purpose of this paper is to present the main principles of using EFT with socially anxious patients and to make the case that EFT is particularly well suited for working with this patient group. The primary change processes in EFT for social anxiety include improving emotion awareness, reducing experiential avoidance and the activation and transformation of shame that underlies the symptomatic anxiety. Such processes lead to less self-criticism, to more self-compassion and self-soothing and to a more favourable perception of the self. A case example is used to illustrate how these principles were applied with a socially anxious patient. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Bacillary angiomatosis: description of 13 cases reported in five reference centers for AIDS treatment in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAZINEO Jorge L. D.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this case series was to describe the clinical, laboratory and epidemiological characteristics and the presentation of bacillary angiomatosis cases (and/or parenchymal bacillary peliosis that were identified in five public hospitals of Rio de Janeiro state between 1990 and 1997; these cases were compared with those previously described in the medical literature. Thirteen case-patients were enrolled in the study; the median age was 39 years and all patients were male. All patients were human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infected and they had previous or concomitant HIV-associated opportunistic infections or malignancies diagnosed at the time bacillary angiomatosis was diagnosed. Median T4 helper lymphocyte counts of patients was 96 cells per mm³. Cutaneous involvement was the most common clinical manifestation of bacillary angiomatosis in this study. Clinical remission following appropriate treatment was more common in our case series than that reported in the medical literature, while the incidence of relapse was similar. The frequency of bacillary angiomatosis in HIV patients calculated from two of the hospitals included in our study was 1.42 cases per 1000 patients, similar to the frequencies reported in the medical literature. Bacillary angiomatosis is an unusual opportunistic pathogen in our setting.

  11. 500 kHZ intracavitary hyperthermia in the treatment of patients with cervical and endometrial cancer - preliminary results and treatment description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrowicz, N.; Lyczek, J.; Zielinski, J.; Debicki, P.

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of elevated temperature (hyperthermia) in cancer treatment is a well-known issue. However, due to technical problems with generating hyperthermia within the tumour and, at the same time, sparing the healthy tissues, in practice this modality is not widely used. Local hyperthermia was induced by a computer-controlled generator (500 kHz) with three amplifiers transmitting energy to the lesion via a modified uterine brachytherapy applicator. Temperature was measured with 3 thermocouples.Total treatment time was 60-90 minutes. 10 patients with cervical and endometrial cancer were enrolled into this study and 11 procedures were performed. Prior to hyperthermia all patients were treated with external field irradiation to the pelvis to the dose of 45-46 Gy. Intracavitary LDR/HDR brachytherapy (dose of 45 Gy/point Ai n two fractions) with colpostat used for the hyperthermia procedure was than performed. In all cases, except one, caused by equipment failure, biologically stable temperature was observed. No severe side effects of treatment were observed. There was no need to terminate treatment due to high temperature intolerance. (author)

  12. Pharmacogenetic study of second-generation antipsychotic long-term treatment metabolic side effects (the SLiM Study): rationale, objectives, design and sample description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina-Camacho, Laura; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M; Saiz, Pilar A; Bobes, Julio; Corripio, Iluminada; Grasa, Eva; Rodriguez-Jimenez, Roberto; Fernández, Miryam; Sanjuán, Julio; García-López, Aurelio; Tapia-Casellas, Cecilia; Álvarez-Blázquez, María; Fraguas, David; Mitjans, Marina; Arias, Bárbara; Arango, Celso

    2014-01-01

    Weight gain is an important and common side effect of second generation antipsychotics (SGAs). Furthermore, these drugs can induce other side effects associated with higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, such as insulin resistance, diabetes or metabolic syndrome. Preliminary studies show that inter-individual genetic differences produce varying degrees of vulnerability to the different SGA-induced side effects. The Second-generation antipsychotic Long-term treatment Metabolic side effects (SLiM) study aims to identify clinical, environmental and genetic factors that explain inter-individual differences in weight gain and metabolic changes in drug-naïve patients after six months of treatment with SGAs. The SLIM study is a multicenter, observational, six-month pharmacogenetic study where a cohort of 307 drug-naïve paediatric and adult patients (age range 8.8-90.1 years) and a cohort of 150 age- and sex- matched healthy controls (7.8-73.2 years) were recruited. This paper describes the rationale, objectives and design of the study and provides a description of the sample at baseline. Results from the SLiM study will provide a better understanding of the clinical, environmental, and genetic factors involved in weight gain and metabolic disturbances associated with SGA treatment. Copyright © 2014 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Improving Indigenous access to cancer screening and treatment services: descriptive findings and a preliminary report on the Midwest Indigenous Women’s Cancer Support Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisabeth D Finn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHigher cancer morbidity and mortality rates for the Indigenous population comparedto the overall Australian population has underlined the critical need to improve accessfor Aboriginal people to cancer treatment services. This paper describes anIndigenous Women’s Cancer Support Group (IWCSG established to supportIndigenous people with cancer and their carers/relatives and to facilitate Aboriginalaccess to cancer screening and treatment. Preliminary findings from an evaluation ofthe group are presented.MethodsThe study employed qualitative research methods to describe IWCSG operations andinvestigate the group’s effectiveness. It included one-on-one interviews with 11Geraldton-based health service providers, the IWCSG coordinator, and 10 womenwho have been linked to IWCSG support, as well as observation of group meetings.ResultsDescriptive outcomes relate to group operations, group effectiveness, group benefitsand future development of the group. A cultural strength of IWCSG is its ability tooperate confidentially behind the scenes, providing emotional support and practicalhelp directly to Indigenous people concerned about privacy and shame issues. Theimportant cultural role IWCSG plays in overcoming communication and othercultural barriers to accessing cancer treatment was unanimously recognised by healthservice providers. Aboriginal women supported by IWCSG spoke about an increasedsense of safety, trust and support in accessing and navigating mainstream cancerservices. A critical issue emerging from the research is the need for further development of effective collaborative working relationships between IWCSGmembers and health service providers.ConclusionsThe IWCSG has the potential to inform an effective model for facilitating Indigenousaccess both to cancer treatment and to mainstream treatment for a variety of healthproblems. Future research is required to explore the applicability of Indigenoussupport groups and to focus on the

  14. Navigating communication with families during withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment in intensive care: a qualitative descriptive study in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Melissa J; Endacott, Ruth; Ranse, Kristen; Coombs, Maureen A

    2017-03-01

    To explore how nurses navigate communication with families during withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment in intensive care. Death in the intensive care unit is seldom unexpected and often happens following the withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment. A family-centred approach to care relies on the development of a therapeutic relationship and understanding of what is happening to the patient. Whilst previous research has focused on the transition from cure to palliation and the nurse's role in supporting families, less is known about how nurses navigate communication with families during treatment withdrawal. A qualitative descriptive approach was used. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted with adult critical care nurses from four intensive care units, two in Australia and two in New Zealand. Twenty-one nurses participated in the study. Inductive content analysis revealed five key themes relating to how nurses navigate family communication: (1) establishing the WHO; (2) working out HOW; (3) judging WHEN; (4) assessing the WHAT; and (5) WHERE these skills were learnt. Navigating an approach to family communication during treatment withdrawal is a complex and multifaceted nursing activity that is known to contribute to family satisfaction with care. There is need for support and ongoing education opportunities that develop the art of communication in this frequently encountered aspect of end-of-life care. How nurses navigate communication with families during treatment withdrawal is just as important as what is communicated. Nurses need access to supports and education opportunities in order to be able to perform this vital role. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. "Why do you want your child to have braces?" Investigating the motivations of Hispanic/Latino and white parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Blake B; Bayirli, Burcu; Ramsay, Douglas S; Turpin, David L; Paige, Andrew; Riedy, Christine A

    2015-11-01

    Many psychological, social, and cultural factors influence parents' motivation to seek orthodontic care for their children. In this study, we used Q methodology to identify and categorize shared motives and determine whether cultural differences exist between Hispanic/Latino (H/L) and non-Hispanic/Latino, white (W) parents. The fundamental question posed to the parents was "Why do you want your child to have braces?" Q methodology involves 3 stages. (1) Interviews of H/L (n = 5) and W (n = 5) parents generated 35 statements that represented different motives to seek orthodontic care. (2) In the Q sort, 70 new parents (22 H/L, 48 W) ranked statements in order of relative importance using a forced distribution grid. (3) Factor analysis was performed separately for the H/L and W groups to uncover cultural differences. Four motivational profiles were described for both the H/L and W parents based on the significant factors identified in each group. More H/L parents (18 of 22 parents) than W parents (22 of 48 parents) were characterized by 1 of their group's 4 profiles. Comparisons of the motivational profiles across the groups showed 4 global themes: well-timed treatment that prevents future dental problems, parental responsibility, perceived benefits, and perceived need instilled by the dentist. Four global themes captured the motives of most parents seeking orthodontic treatment for their children. Understanding these global themes can help clinicians frame their treatment discussions with parents. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A new concept for the non-invasive treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: the Corrective Movement principle integrated in the SpineCor System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coillard, Christine; Circo, Alin; Rivard, Charles H

    2008-05-01

    To evaluate the change in spinal curvature and posture of Idiopathic Scoliosis patients when a curve specific 'Corrective Movement Principle' (CMP) is applied. This prospective interventional study was carried out on a group of 639 patients (92.3% females) having idiopathic scoliosis treated with the SpineCor brace. All girls were premenarchal or less than 1 year postmenarchal. Assessment of brace effectiveness followed the SRS outcome criteria for bracing. The clinical, radiological and postural evaluations assisted to define the patient classification, which guided the unique application of the CMP to each type of curvature. A total of 583 patients met the outcome criteria. Overall, 349 patients have a definitive outcome. Successful treatment was achieved in 259 (74.2%) of the 349 patients from the fitting to the weaning of the brace. Some 51 immature patients (14.6%) required surgical fusion while receiving treatment. Eight mature patients out of 298 (2.7%) required surgery within 2 years of follow-up beyond skeletal maturity. The SpineCor brace is effective for the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Moreover, positive outcomes are maintained after 2 years because 151 (93.2%) of 162 patients stabilized or corrected their end of bracing Cobb angle up to 2 years after bracing.

  17. Influence of the Soil-Structure Interaction on the Design of Steel-Braced Building Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarbakht, Alireza; Ashtiany, Mohsen Ghafory

    2008-01-01

    The modeling and analysis of the superstructure and the foundation for the seismic lateral loads are traditionally done separately. This assumption is an important issue in the design/rehabilitate procedures especially for the short period structures, i.e. steel braced or shear wall systems, which may result to a conservative design. By using more advance procedures, i.e. nonlinear static method, and the incorporation of the soil-structure interaction (SSI), the seismic demand in the lateral resisting system decreases and the design will become more economic. This paper includes an investigation about the influence of the SSI effect on the design of the steel-braced building foundation. The presented example is a three-bay three-storey steel braced frame. Three design methods based on the FEMA 356 guideline and the UBC 97 code are taken in to consideration. The three methods are: (1) linear static analysis based on the UBC 97 code assuming the fixed based condition; (2) linear static analysis based on the FEMA 356 guideline assuming the fixed based condition; and (3) nonlinear static analysis assuming both fixed and flexible based assumptions. The results show that the influence of the SSI on the input demand of the short period building foundations is significant and the foundation design based on the linear static method with the fixed base assumption is so conservative. A simple method is proposed to take the SSI effect in to consideration in the linear static procedure with the fixed base assumption, which is a common method for the engineers. The advantage of this proposed method is the simplicity and the applicability for the engineering purposes

  18. The effect of different skin-ankle brace application pressures on quiet single-limb balance and electromyographic activation onset of lower limb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Emmanuel S; Nikolopoulos, Christos; Badekas, Athanasios; Vagenas, George; Papadakis, Stamatios A; Athanasopoulos, Spyros

    2007-09-12

    Several studies have been carried out in order to investigate the effect of ankle bracing on ankle joint function and performance. However, no study so far has examined the role of skin-brace interface pressure in neuromuscular control. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different skin-ankle brace interface pressures on quiet single limb balance and the electromyographic (EMG) activation sequence of four lower limb muscles. Thirty three male physical education students who volunteered to take part in the study were measured under three ankle brace conditions: i) without brace, ii) with brace and 30 kPa application pressure and iii) with brace and 60 kPa application pressure. Single limb balance (anteroposterior and mediolateral parameter) was assessed on the dominant lower limb, with open and closed eyes, on a force platform, simultaneously with the EMG recording of four lower lower limb muscles' (gastrocnemius, peroneus longus, rectus femoris and biceps femoris) activation onset. The results showed that overall balance (total stability parameter) was not significantly affected in any of the three ankle brace conditions. However, the anteroposterior centre of pressure excursion and centre of pressure excursion velocity were significantly increased with the application of ankle brace, both with 30 and 60 kPa application pressures. Furthermore, it was found that single limb balance was significantly worse with closed eyes compared to open eyes. EMG measurements showed that the sequence of lower limb activation onset was not affected in any of the three ankle brace application conditions. The results of this study showed that the application of an ankle brace with two different skin-brace interface pressures had no effect on overall single limb balance and the sequence of lower limb muscle activation. These findings suggest that peripheral joint receptors are either not adequately stimulated by the brace application and therefore are not able to

  19. The effect of different skin-ankle brace application pressures on quiet single-limb balance and electromyographic activation onset of lower limb muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadakis Stamatios A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have been carried out in order to investigate the effect of ankle bracing on ankle joint function and performance. However, no study so far has examined the role of skin-brace interface pressure in neuromuscular control. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different skin-ankle brace interface pressures on quiet single limb balance and the electromyographic (EMG activation sequence of four lower limb muscles. Methods Thirty three male physical education students who volunteered to take part in the study were measured under three ankle brace conditions: i without brace, ii with brace and 30 kPa application pressure and iii with brace and 60 kPa application pressure. Single limb balance (anteroposterior and mediolateral parameter was assessed on the dominant lower limb, with open and closed eyes, on a force platform, simultaneously with the EMG recording of four lower lower limb muscles' (gastrocnemius, peroneus longus, rectus femoris and biceps femoris activation onset. Results The results showed that overall balance (total stability parameter was not significantly affected in any of the three ankle brace conditions. However, the anteroposterior centre of pressure excursion and centre of pressure excursion velocity were significantly increased with the application of ankle brace, both with 30 and 60 kPa application pressures. Furthermore, it was found that single limb balance was significantly worse with closed eyes compared to open eyes. EMG measurements showed that the sequence of lower limb activation onset was not affected in any of the three ankle brace application conditions. The results of this study showed that the application of an ankle brace with two different skin-brace interface pressures had no effect on overall single limb balance and the sequence of lower limb muscle activation. Conclusion These findings suggest that peripheral joint receptors are either not adequately

  20. Do Knee Bracing and Delayed Weight Bearing Affect Mid-Term Functional Outcome after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Miceli, Riccardo; Marambio, Carlotta Bustos; Zati, Alessandro; Monesi, Roberta; Benedetti, Maria Grazia

    2017-12-01

    Purpose  The aim of this study was to assess the effect of knee bracing and timing of full weight bearing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) on functional outcomes at mid-term follow-up. Methods  We performed a retrospective study on 41 patients with ACLR. Patients were divided in two groups: ACLR group, who received isolated ACL reconstruction and ACLR-OI group who received ACL reconstruction and adjunctive surgery. Information about age at surgery, bracing, full or progressive weight bearing permission after surgery were collected for the two groups. Subjective IKDC score was obtained at follow-up. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the two groups for IKDC score. Subgroup analysis was performed to assess the effect of postoperative regimen (knee bracing and weight bearing) on functional outcomes. Results  The mean age of patients was 30.8 ± 10.6 years. Mean IKDC score was 87.4 ± 13.9. The mean follow-up was 3.5 ± 1.8 years. Twenty-two (53.7%) patients underwent ACLR only, while 19 (46.3%) also received other interventions, such as meniscal repair and/or collateral ligament suture. Analysis of overall data showed no differences between the groups for IKDC score. Patients in the ACLR group exhibited a significantly better IKDC score when no brace and full weight bearing after 4 weeks from surgery was prescribed in comparison with patients who worn a brace and had delayed full weight bearing. No differences were found with respect to the use of brace and postoperative weight bearing regimen in the ACLR-OI group. Conclusion  Brace and delayed weight bearing after ACLR have a negative influence on long-term functional outcomes. Further research is required to explore possible differences in the patients operated on ACLR and other intervention with respect to the use of a brace and the timing of full weight bearing to identify optimal recovery strategies. Level of Evidence  Level III, retrospective observational

  1. Methods and Descriptive Epidemiology of Services Provided by Athletic Trainers in High Schools: The National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Dompier, Thomas P.; Dalton, Sara L.; Miller, Sayers John; Hayden, Ross; Marshall, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Context Research is limited on the extent and nature of the care provided by athletic trainers (ATs) to student-athletes in the high school setting. Objective To describe the methods of the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION) project and provide the descriptive epidemiology of AT services for injury care in 27 high school sports. Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting Athletic training room (ATR) visits and AT services data collected in 147 high schools from 26 states. Patients or Other Participants High school student-athletes participating in 13 boys' sports and 14 girls' sports during the 2011−2012 through 2013−2014 academic years. Main Outcome Measure(s) The number of ATR visits and individual AT services, as well as the mean number of ATR visits (per injury) and AT services (per injury and ATR visit) were calculated by sport and for time-loss (TL) and non–time-loss (NTL) injuries. Results Over the 3-year period, 210 773 ATR visits and 557 381 AT services were reported for 50 604 injuries. Most ATR visits (70%) were for NTL injuries. Common AT services were therapeutic activities or exercise (45.4%), modalities (18.6%), and AT evaluation and reevaluation (15.9%), with an average of 4.17 ± 6.52 ATR visits and 11.01 ± 22.86 AT services per injury. Compared with NTL injuries, patients with TL injuries accrued more ATR visits (7.76 versus 3.47; P athletes and demonstrate that patients with NTL injuries require substantial amounts of AT services. PMID:26678290

  2. A study of function and residual joint stiffness after functional bracing of tibial shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, W K; Chow, S P; Fang, D; Ip, F K; Leong, J C; Ng, C

    1991-06-01

    Ninety-eight diaphyseal tibial fractures were treated with custom made functional braces in 97 patients older than 14 years of age. The average follow-up period was 1.86 years, and 53 patients had more than two years' evaluation (average, 2.83 years). The majority of the patients did not have full range of movement in the ankle and subtalar joints when the brace was removed after fracture healing. Although the stiffness decreased with time, a significant number of patients were left with residual joint stiffness. At an average follow-up period of 1.86 years, 68.4% of the patients had normal ankle motion and 60% had normal inversion and eversion of the hindfoot. In patients with more than two years' evaluation, 75.5% had normal ankle movement and 71.1% had normal inversion and eversion of the foot. In the knee joint, the incidence of residual joint stiffness was small and the amount of stiffness was clinically insignificant. Patients with an abnormal walking pattern after fracture healing had a high incidence of ankle and subtalar joint stiffness.

  3. Seismic Retrofit of Reinforced Concrete Frame Buildings with Hysteretic Bracing Systems: Design Procedure and Behaviour Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Di Cesare

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design procedure to evaluate the mechanical characteristics of hysteretic Energy Dissipation Bracing (EDB systems for seismic retrofitting of existing reinforced concrete framed buildings. The proposed procedure, aiming at controlling the maximum interstorey drifts, imposes a maximum top displacement as function of the seismic demand and, if needed, regularizes the stiffness and strength of the building along its elevation. In order to explain the application of the proposed procedure and its capacity to involve most of the devices in the energy dissipation with similar level of ductility demand, a simple benchmark structure has been studied and nonlinear dynamic analyses have been performed. A further goal of this work is to propose a simplified approach for designing dissipating systems based on linear analysis with the application of a suitable behaviour factor, in order to achieve a widespread adoption of the passive control techniques. At this goal, the increasing of the structural performances due to the addition of an EDB system designed with the above-mentioned procedure has been estimated considering one thousand case studies designed with different combinations of the main design parameters. An analytical formulation of the behaviour factor for braced buildings has been proposed.

  4. Development and testing of a magnetorheological actuator for an assistive knee brace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinzhou; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2008-03-01

    This paper proposes an assistive knee brace that is aimed to provide assistance to old or disabled people. A magnetorheological (MR) actuator is developed to be used in assistive knee braces to provide controllable torque. The MR actuator consists of a DC motor and an MR brake/clutch. When active torque is needed, the DC motor works and the MR actuator functions as a clutch to transfer the torque generated by the motor to the leg; when passive torque is desired, the DC motor is turned off and the MR actuator functions as a brake to provide controllable passive torque. The prototype of this MR actuator is fabricated and experiments are carried out to investigate the characteristics of the MR actuator. The results show that the MR actuator is able to provide sufficient torque needed for normal human activities. Adaptive control is proposed for controlling the MR actuator. Experiments of the MR actuator under control are performed to study the torque tracking ability of the system.

  5. Design, testing and control of a magnetorheological actuator for assistive knee braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. Z.; Liao, W. H.

    2010-03-01

    This paper is aimed at developing a smart actuator for assistive knee braces to provide assistance to disabled or elderly people with mobility problems. A magnetorheological (MR) actuator is developed to be used in assistive knee braces to provide controllable torque. The MR actuator can work as a brake or a clutch. When active torque is needed, the DC motor works and the MR actuator functions as a clutch to transfer the torque generated by the motor to the leg; when passive torque is desired, the DC motor is turned off and the MR actuator functions as a brake to provide controllable passive torque. The prototype of the developed MR actuator is fabricated and experiments are carried out to investigate the characteristics of the MR actuator. The results show that the MR actuator is able to provide sufficient torque needed for normal human activities. Adaptive control is proposed for controlling the MR actuator. Anti-windup strategy is used to achieve better control performance. Experiments on the MR actuator under control are also performed to study the torque tracking ability of the system.

  6. Design, testing and control of a magnetorheological actuator for assistive knee braces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J Z; Liao, W H

    2010-01-01

    This paper is aimed at developing a smart actuator for assistive knee braces to provide assistance to disabled or elderly people with mobility problems. A magnetorheological (MR) actuator is developed to be used in assistive knee braces to provide controllable torque. The MR actuator can work as a brake or a clutch. When active torque is needed, the DC motor works and the MR actuator functions as a clutch to transfer the torque generated by the motor to the leg; when passive torque is desired, the DC motor is turned off and the MR actuator functions as a brake to provide controllable passive torque. The prototype of the developed MR actuator is fabricated and experiments are carried out to investigate the characteristics of the MR actuator. The results show that the MR actuator is able to provide sufficient torque needed for normal human activities. Adaptive control is proposed for controlling the MR actuator. Anti-windup strategy is used to achieve better control performance. Experiments on the MR actuator under control are also performed to study the torque tracking ability of the system

  7. Designing Serious Games for Safety Education: "Learn to Brace" versus Traditional Pictorials for Aircraft Passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittaro, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Serious games for safety education (SGSE) are a novel tool for preparing people to prevent and\\or handle risky situations. Although several SGSE have been developed, design and evaluation methods for SGSE need to be better grounded in and guided by safety-relevant psychological theories. In particular, this paper focuses on threat appeals and the assessment of variables, such as safety locus of control, that influence human behavior in real risky situations. It illustrates how we took into account such models in the design and evaluation of "Learn to Brace", a first-of-its-kind serious game that deals with a major problem in aviation safety, i.e. the scarce effectiveness of the safety cards used by airlines. The study considered a sample of 48 users: half of them received instructions about the brace position through the serious game, the other half through a traditional safety card pictorial. Results showed that the serious game was much more effective than the traditional instructions both in terms of learning and of changing safety-relevant perceptions, especially safety locus of control and recommendation perception.

  8. Ductility demands on buckling-restrained braced frames under earthquake loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahnestock, Larry A.; Sause, Richard; Ricles, James M.; Lu, Le-Wu

    2003-12-01

    Accurate estimates of ductility demands on buckling-restrained braced frames (BRBFs) are crucial to performance-based design of BRBFs. An analytical study on the seismic behavior of BRBFs has been conducted at the ATLSS Center, Lehigh University to prepare for an upcoming experimental program. The analysis program DRAIN-2DX was used to model a one-bay, four-story prototype BRBF including material and geometric nonlinearities. The buckling-restrained brace (BRB) model incorporates both isotropic and kinematic hardening. Nonlinear static pushover and time-history analyses were performed on the prototype BRBF. Performance objectives for the BRBs were defined and used to evaluate the time-history analysis results. Particular emphasis was placed on global ductility demands and ductility demands on the BRBs. These demands were compared with anticipated ductility capacities. The analysis results, along with results from similar previous studies, are used to evaluate the BRBF design provisions that have been recommended for codification in the United States. The results show that BRB maximum ductility demands can be as high as 20 to 25. These demands significantly exceed those anticipated by the BRBF recommended provisions. Results from the static pushover and time-history analyses are used to demonstrate why the ductility demands exceed those anticipated by the recommended provisions. The BRB qualification testing protocol contained in the BRBF recommended provisions is shown to be inadequate because it requires only a maximum ductility demand of at most 7.5. Modifications to the testing protocol are recommended.

  9. Resistance and Elastic Stiffness of RHS "T" Joints: Part II - Combined Axial Brace and Chord Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M.M.P. de Matos

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper deals with the behaviour of welded "T" joints between RHS sections submitted to tension brace loading combined with chord axial loading. In the companion paper (part I a finite element model and a study without axial load in the chord, focusing on the joint behaviour as a function of the significant geometrical variables, were presented. In this part II paper, tension loading on the brace is incremented up to the joint failure, but is combined with different chord load levels in tension or compression, that are kept constant for each case. The same geometries and geometric variables as in the companion paper are used, and therefore the influence of these features together with the chord load level (in tension or compression on the connection's response is evaluated. The force-displacement curves from the different geometries and chord load levels are analysed and compared, with a special attention on the influence of the chord load on the joint resistance and stiffness. Finally, a comparison of the numerical results with the (Eurocode 3, 2005 and the newer (ISO 14346, 2013 provisions is presented and discussed.

  10. Improving the seismic performance of eccentrically braced frames by using a ductile element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Naghipour

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Stability of structures against earthquake is much important to prevent total or partial failure of structures and loss of financial and human investments of people and country. Eccentrically braced frames, as one of the most commonly used earthquake resistant systems, with good ductility and toughness, have different arrangements; one of them is Link beam-to-column connection. This type of connection was considered as bending form before the North Ridge earthquake (1994. But conducted research after the North Ridge Earthquake showed that the link beam-to-column connections were subjected to brittle failure, similar to connections which were located in Moment frames. So, after the North Ridge Earthquake, researchers began looking for ways to improve these types of connections, which indicates necessity of research in this field more than before. In this study, a new type of Energy absorption was introduced.  This absorption consists of a ring which increases the ductility and energy absorption of earthquake and a box to increase the bearing capacity which is connected to the ring through connection plates. for evaluating the performance of the proposed elements in steel frames with eccentrically braces, under nonlinear time history analysis, the OpenSees software has been used. The obtained Hysteresis curves suggest that introduced element can act as an energy absorbing member and a fuse to Reducing damage to structures with reduced rotation of link-beam, Cutting base and Relative story displacement in addition to providing the necessary ductility.

  11. Experimental Investigation on the Behavior of Bracing Damper Systems by Utilizing Metallic Yielding and Recentering Material Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Wan Hu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of effectively reducing the structural damage caused by earthquake events, bracing systems equipped with retrofitting damper devices, which take advantage of the energy dissipation and impact absorption, have been widely used in practical construction sites. These bracing dampers, however, have been recognized as expendable supplies for easily replacing the damaged ones after a strong earthquake because they are commonly designed to undergo concentrated force and deformation for the purpose of protecting the main structural members such as the columns and beams. In this paper, the use of new superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA dampers that can partially recover their original configuration is proposed to decrease the repair cost. In addition, the conventional steel dampers used for improving the energy dissipation arising due to metallic yielding are additionally integrated into the bracing member. The behaviors of such bracing systems with the damper devices were reproduced in experimental tests with the cyclic loading history, and then their strength capacity and recentering capability were estimated based on the experiment results. Finally, additional experimental tests were performed by imposing cyclic loading histories with different loading speeds on the superelastic SMA and steel plate damper specimens.

  12. Post-traumatic bone mineral loss in tibial shaft fractures treated with a weight-bearing brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, S M; Nilsson, B E

    1979-12-01

    The bone mineral content in the upper ends of the tibia and the fibula was measured in 27 patients with tibial shaft fracture. The loss of bone mineral associated with the fracture did not differ between patients who were allowed weight-bearing in a functional below-knee brace and patients treated with a long leg plaster cast without weight-bearing.

  13. The Mechanical Functionality of the EXO-L Ankle Brace: Assessment With a 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography Stress Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleipool, Roeland P.; Natenstedt, Jerry J.; Streekstra, Geert J.; Dobbe, Johannes G. G.; Gerards, Rogier M.; Blankevoort, Leendert; Tuijthof, Gabriëlle J. M.

    2016-01-01

    A new type of ankle brace (EXO-L) has recently been introduced. It is designed to limit the motion of most sprains without limiting other motions and to overcome problems such as skin irritation associated with taping or poor fit in the sports shoe. To evaluate the claimed functionality of the new

  14. The Effects of Functional Knee Brace on Postural Control in Patients Who Underwent Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salehi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The current study aimed to evaluate the postural control in patients underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction pre and post wearing functional knee brace. Methods Eighteen athletes undergone unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction included in the study. They had unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction at least six months before session test. Postural control was assessed pre and post wearing custom-fit functional knee brace using a posturographic platform prokin 254. The balance tests included: 1 standing on prokin platform with eyes open/closed on anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction limb, 2 standing on prokin platform with eyes open/closed on both limbs. The standard deviation (SD of body sway along the anteroposterior (AP and mediolateral (ML axis, mean velocity of center of pressure (COP along AP/ ML axis and the area ellipse (measured in 2 mm were calculated. Results Results of the paired T-test revealed a significant effect on selected postural control variables for the brace conditions especially in low challengeable conditions (double leg, eyes open test situations (P < 0.05. But in high challengeable conditions this effect was not significant. Conclusions Functional knee brace improved postural control in the simple balancing task in the subjects with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. But this improvement in more difficult balancing task was limited.

  15. Effects of Different Types of Contraction in Abdominal Bracing on the Asymmetry of Left and Right Abdominal Muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sung-Hyun; Song, Min-Young; Park, Hyeon-Ji; Park, Ji-Hyun; Bae, Hyun-Young; Lim, Da-Som

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effective strength levels of abdominal muscle contraction using the bracing contraction method. [Subjects] The experiment was conducted with 31 healthy male (M=15) and female (F=16) adults attending D University in Busan; all participants had less than obesity level BMI (BMI

  16. Effect of Prophylactic Ankle-Brace Use During a High School Competitive Basketball Season on Dynamic Postural Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Nathan J; Sandrey, Michelle A

    2015-08-01

    Few studies have evaluated the long-term effects of prophylactic ankle-brace use during a sport season. To determine the effects of prophylactic ankle-brace use during a high school basketball season on dynamic postural control and functional tests. Prospective repeated-measures design. High school athletic facility. 21 healthy high school basketball athletes (13 girls, 8 boys). The order of testing was randomized using the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) for posteromedial (PM), medial (M), and anteromedial (AM) directions and 3 functional tests (FT) consisting of the single-leg crossover hop, single-leg vertical jump, and the single-leg 6-m hop for time at pre-, mid-, and postseason. After pretesting, the ankle brace was worn on both limbs during the entire 16-wk competitive basketball season. SEBT for PM, M, and AM and 3 single-leg FTs. Dynamic postural control using the SEBT and the 3 FTs improved over time, notably from pretest to posttest. The left limb was different from the right limb during the single-leg vertical jump. Effect sizes were large for pretest to posttest for the 3 SEBT directions and 2 of the 3 FTs. The 16-wk basketball prophylactic ankle-brace intervention significantly improved dynamic postural control and single-limb FTs over time.

  17. Immediate effect of a wrist and thumb brace on bimanual activities in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwers, Annoek; Meester-Delver, Anke; Folmer, Katinka; Nollet, Frans; Beelen, Anita

    2011-01-01

    AIM The aim of this study was to determine the immediate effect of wearing a wrist and thumb brace on the performance of bimanual activities in children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy. METHOD In a pre- and post-test cohort study of 25 children (age range 4-11y; mean age 8y 4mo [SD 2y 2mo];

  18. Single (sub)species then and now: An examination of the nonracial perspective of C. Loring Brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shelley L

    2018-01-01

    C. Loring Brace's writings on the concept of race have been among the most influential within anthropology. A review of the development of Brace's perspective on race shows that his philosophical approaches to fossil and modern human variation are consistent and integrated. Brace's views on race are compared with those of Ashley Montagu and Frank Livingstone, who also proposed eliminating "race" from anthropology, and with those of Stanley Garn and Alice Brues, who accepted "racial" subdivisions of humans. Carleton Coon's writings are more divergent; the aftermath of the publication of his Origin of Races highlights significant political tensions of the 1960s that intersected with scientific changes in anthropology emanating from the Evolutionary Synthesis. Recent forensic and "no race" positions are compared to explore their differences and the possibility of reconciliation, and the role of Brace and others in combating proposals of intellectual differences among human groups is discussed. While a spectrum of anthropological opinion regarding race exists, the commonalities are sufficient to allow valuable, united commentary emphasizing the complexity of modern human cultural and biological variation. © 2018 American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

  19. A Prospective, Descriptive Study to Assess the Clinical Benefits of Using Calendula officinalis Hydroglycolic Extract for the Topical Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzi, Marcelo; de Freitas, Franciele; Winter, Marcos

    2016-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) have a significant impact on patient quality of life. A prospective, descriptive pilot study was conducted between May 2012 and December 2013 through the dermatology outpatient unit in a Brazilian hospital to evaluate the clinical benefits of using Calendula officinalis hydroglycolic extract in the treatment of DFUs. Patients diagnosed with a stable neuropathic ulcer of >3 months' duration; ranging in size from 0.5-40 cm(2); without osteomyelitis, gangrene, bone exposure, cancer, or deep tissue infection; ages 18-90 years; with adequate glycemic control and no history of an allergy to C. officinalis were enrolled. Patients provided demographic and diabetes-related information and were evaluated biweekly for 30 weeks or until healing (ie, full epithelialization with no wound drainage). DFUs were measured and clinically examined for microbiological flora and presence of odor, tissue type (eg, granulation, fibrin sloth, necrosis), exudate, and retraction rate using planimetry images. Patients' blood tests and neuropathic pain assessment (the latter by clinician-directed questionnaire) were performed at baseline and the end of treatment; pain also was assessed during dressing changes using a 10-point rating scale. Patients' ulcers were treated twice daily with C. officinalis hydroglycolic extract spray solution and covered with saline-moistened, sterile, nonadherent gauze and bandages followed by foot offloading with adequate protective footwear. Patients received their first treatment in the clinic then performed care at home. From a potential population of 109 patients, 25 did not meet the inclusion criteria. Of the remaining 84 participants enrolled, 43 withdrew before study completion; cited reasons included lost to follow-up (16), medical judgment (2), failure to attend >3 scheduled visits (17), protocol violation (5), and death (3). Forty-one (41) - 17 women, average age 62 years (range 44-82 years), average glycemic level 153 mg

  20. Functional knee brace use effect on peak vertical ground reaction forces during drop jump landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishiraj, Neetu; Taunton, Jack E; Lloyd-Smith, Robert; Regan, William; Niven, Brian; Woollard, Robert

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the landing strategies used by non-injured athletes while wearing functional knee braces (FKB, BR condition) during a drop jump task compared with non-injured, non-braced (NBR condition) subjects and also to ascertain whether accommodation to a FKB was possible by non-injured BR subjects. Twenty-three healthy male provincial and national basketball and field hockey athletes (age, 19.4 ± 3.0 years) were tested. Each subject was provided with a custom-fitted FKB. Five NBR testing sessions were performed over 3 days followed by five BR testing sessions also over 3 days, for a total of 17.5 h of testing per condition. Each subject performed eight trials of the drop jump task during each testing session per condition. Single-leg peak vertical ground reaction forces (PVGRF) and the time to PVGRF were recorded for each NBR and BR trail. The BR group mean PVGRF at landing was significantly lower (1,628 ± 405 N, 2.1 ± 0.5 BW versus 1,715 ± 403 N, 2.2 ± 0.5 BW, F (1,22) = 6.83, P = 0.01) compared with NBR subjects, respectively. The group mean time to PVGRF was not statistically longer during the BR condition (F (1,22) = 0.967, P = 0.3). Further, an accommodation trend was noted as percent performance difference decreased with continued FKB use. The significantly lower group mean PVGRF while using a FKB could keep traumatic forces from reaching the ACL until the active neuromuscular restraints are activated to provide protection to the knee joint ligaments. Also, accommodation to FKB is possible after approximately 14.0 h of brace use. The results of this paper will assist clinicians in providing information to their patients regarding a FKB ability to offer protection to an ACL-deficient knee or to address concerns about early muscle fatigue, energy expenditure, heart rate, and decrease in performance level. Prospective study, Level I.

  1. Severe psychogenic tremor of both wrists in a 13-year-old girl treated successfully with a customized wrist brace: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schafflhuber Caroline

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Psychogenic movement disorders in childhood have been little researched. As there are few courses of treatment which have been evaluated, further examination and case studies about the treatment and clinical course of this rare occurrence of severe psychogenic tremor in childhood and adolescence are much needed. Case presentation A 13-year-old Caucasian girl with tremor in both wrists, severe enough to prevent her from attending school, was sent to our hospital. After a complete neurological and psychiatric examination, in-patient child-psychotherapeutic treatment was started, with careful consideration given to both chronic and acute stress factors which constitute her performance and exam anxiety in school as well as the girl's parents' conflicted relationship. With the aid of a customized wrist brace our patient was able to go to school and write despite the presence of a marked tremor, which in turn reduced her avoidance behavior and exam anxiety. By the end of her in-patient treatment, the tremor was still noticeable, but markedly reduced in severity (reduction 80%. Two weeks after she was discharged from hospital, the tremor had completely disappeared. Conclusion After careful clinical diagnostics, this kind of dissociative disorder should be treated appropriately with age-adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy to achieve positive and lasting benefits.

  2. Elastic-plastic analyses for seismic reserve capacity in power plant braced frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, T.A.; Murray, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory was asked by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to investigate the inelastic behavior of a representative noncategory I structure and determine the amount of reserve seismic capacity that is available beyond elastic design levels. Elastic and elastic-plastic seismic analyses were conducted on a braced steel frame using eight time-history records. In addition, two spectra were ultimate capacity, the reserve strength of the frame was determined. In order to ensure operability, a frame model incorporating a piping system was subjected to the above seismic loadings using elastic analyses. It was found that the piping system components controlled the seismic capacity of the combined structure. The average results show a reserve capacity of 2.6 times the seismic design level

  3. Elastic-plastic analyses for seismic reserve capacity in power plant braced frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, T.A.; Murray, R.C.

    1978-10-04

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory was asked by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to investigate the inelastic behavior of a representative noncategory I structure and determine the amount of reserve seismic capacity that is available beyond elastic design levels. Elastic and elastic-plastic seismic analyses were conducted on a braced steel frame using eight time-history records. In addition, two spectra were ultimate capacity, the reserve strength of the frame was determined. In order to ensure operability, a frame model incorporating a piping system was subjected to the above seismic loadings using elastic analyses. It was found that the piping system components controlled the seismic capacity of the combined structure. The average results show a reserve capacity of 2.6 times the seismic design level.

  4. Seismic performance assessment of knee bracing equipped with shape memory alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussa Mahmoudi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available According to current seismic design codes, the serviceability of the building is not necessary after the sever earthquakes but the life safety is important. It is caused to reduce the cost of construction. In recent years, the researchers have proposed the new methods and materials to improve the purposes of seismic design and to reduce the cost of construction. For example, the use of materials such as shape memory alloys (SMA with high elastic property and low residual strain was suggested. In this study the use of these alloys is evaluated for steel knee bracing. The result showed that the structures with SMA remain survival during the sever earthquakes with low retrofitting.

  5. Fastener Demands for Sheathing-Braced Cold-Formed Steel Stud Gravity Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos M. Vieira Junior

    Full Text Available Abstract We explore, in this paper, the demands and behavior on fasteners supplying sheathing-based bracing of gravity loaded cold-formed studs and wall assemblies. The studies are carried out by shell finite element (FE models, which are compared to analytical solutions and previously completed laboratory tests conducted by the authors. The connection between the sheathing and the stud should be able to develop enough resistance to restrain global buckling of the studs; therefore, special attention has to be given to the demands on these connections for design. Local buckling and stress concentrations may damage some connections and redistribution of forces should be ensured. Classical practice for determining fastener demand - i.e., the 2% rule - may be deficient. An analytical method developed for determining fastener demand is compared to the FE models presented in this paper; the analytical method results in a reasonable prediction of the fastener forces in wall studs.

  6. Flexural-Torsional Flutter and Buckling of Braced Foil Beams under a Follower Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ferretti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The flutter and buckling behavior of a cantilever foil beam, loaded at the tip by a follower force, are addressed in this paper. The beam is internally and externally damped and braced at the tip by a linear spring-damper device, which is located in an eccentric position with respect to beam axis, thus coupling the flexural and torsional behaviors. An exact linear stability analysis is carried out, and the linear stability diagram of the trivial rectilinear configuration is built up in the space of the follower load and spring’s stiffness parameters. The effects of the flexural-torsional coupling, as well as of the damping, on the flutter and buckling critical loads are discussed.

  7. Effectiveness of damped braces to mitigate seismic torsional response of unsymmetric-plan buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Fabio; Pedace, Emilia; Favero, Francesco Del

    2017-02-01

    The seismic retrofitting of unsymmetric-plan reinforced concrete (r.c.) framed buildings can be carried out by the incorporation of damped braces (DBs). Yet most of the proposals to mitigate the seismic response of asymmetric framed buildings by DBs rest on the hypothesis of elastic (linear) structural response. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the effectiveness and reliability of a Displacement-Based Design procedure of hysteretic damped braces (HYDBs) based on the nonlinear behavior of the frame members, which adopts the extended N2 method considered by Eurocode 8 to evaluate the higher mode torsional effects. The Town Hall of Spilinga (Italy), a framed structure with an L-shaped plan built at the beginning of the 1960s, is supposed to be retrofitted with HYDBs to attain performance levels imposed by the Italian seismic code (NTC08) in a high-risk zone. Ten structural solutions are compared by considering two in-plan distributions of the HYDBs, to eliminate (elastic) torsional effects, and different design values of the frame ductility combined with a constant design value of the damper ductility. A computer code for the nonlinear dynamic analysis of r.c. spatial framed structures is adopted to evaluate the critical incident angle of bidirectional earthquakes. Beams and columns are simulated with a lumped plasticity model, including flat surface modeling of the axial load-biaxial bending moment elastic domain at the end sections, while a bilinear law is used to idealize the behavior of the HYDBs. Damage index domains are adopted to estimate the directions of least seismic capacity, considering artificial earthquakes whose response spectra match those adopted by NTC08 at serviceability and ultimate limit states.

  8. The effect of scapular posterior tilt exercise, pectoralis minor stretching, and shoulder brace on scapular alignment and muscles activity in subjects with round-shoulder posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-hyun; Cynn, Heon-seock; Yoon, Tae-lim; Ko, Chang-hee; Choi, Woo-jeong; Choi, Sil-ah; Choi, Bong-sam

    2015-02-01

    There are various methods for rehabilitating round-shoulder posture (RSP), including strengthening exercises, stretching, and using a shoulder brace or taping to correct the altered posture. However, no study has determined which intervention is the most effective of the three methods to decrease RSP (intervention #1: scapular posterior tilting exercise alone [hereafter, SPT], intervention #2: the scapular posterior tilting exercise after PM stretching [PM stretch+SPT], and intervention #3: the scapular posterior tilting exercise with use of a shoulder brace [SPT+brace]). The purpose of this study was to compare the SPT, PM stretch+SPT, and SPT+brace on RSP, PM index (PMI), and lower trapezius (LT) and serratus anterior (SA) activity in subjects with RSP. In total, fifteen young men with RSP, participated in the study (21.46 ± 2.30 years old). RSP was confirmed using a caliper measure. Surface electromyography (SEMG) data for LT and SA activity were collected during the three interventions, and the SEMG data are expressed as a percentage of the maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC). RSP was significantly less in the PM stretch+SPT and SPT+brace than in the SPT (Pstretch+SPT and SPT+brace than in the SPT (Pstretch+SPT than in the SPT or SPT+brace in subjects with RSP (Pstretching exercise and application of a shoulder brace may help correct RSP and restore the length of the PM. The posterior tilting exercise after PM stretching was the most effective method for eliciting greater LT muscle activation among the interventions tested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Molar excess enthalpy (H{sub m}{sup E}) for various {l_brace}alkanolamine (1) + water (2){r_brace} systems at T = (298.15, 313.15, and 323.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundhwa, Mayur [International Test Centre for Carbon Dioxide Capture (ITC), Faculty of Engineering, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2 (Canada); Henni, Amr [International Test Centre for Carbon Dioxide Capture (ITC), Faculty of Engineering, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2 (Canada)], E-mail: amr.henni@uregina.ca

    2007-11-15

    The molar excess enthalpies (H{sub m}{sup E}) for 2-{l_brace}(2 aminoethyl)amino{r_brace}ethanol (AEEA), 3-amino-1-propanol (AP), 2-(methylamino)ethanol (MAE), 1-amino-2-propanol (MIPA), and N-N-dimethylethanolamine (DMEA) in water are reported at three different T (298.15, 313.15, and 323.15) K and over the entire range of mole fractions. The experimentally measured H{sub m}{sup E} values are correlated as a function of mole fractions using the Redlich-Kister (RK) equation. The molar enthalpies of alkanolamines and water at infinite dilutions are determined from the RK coefficients. The experimentally measured H{sub m}{sup E} values are modeled using the following solution theory models: NRTL (non-random two liquid), UNIQUAC (UNIversal QUAsi Chemical), and the modified UNIFAC (UNIversal Functional groups Activity Coefficient, (Dortmund)) model.

  10. Adsorption and corrosion-inhibiting effect of 2-(2-{l_brace}[2-(4-Pyridylcarbonyl)hydrazono]methyl{r_brace}phenoxy)acetic acid on mild steel surface in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Baoyu, E-mail: liubaoyu084@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China); Xi Hongxia, E-mail: cehxxi@scut.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China); Li Zhong; Xia Qibin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China)

    2012-06-15

    The corrosion inhibition property of a Hydrazone derivative, namely 2-(2-{l_brace}[2-(4-Pyridylcabonyl)hydrazono]methyl{r_brace}phenoxy)acetic acid (PMA) for mild steel surface corrosion in synthetic seawater medium was analyzed by weight loss, electrochemical techniques (potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance), the experimental results suggest that PMA is a good corrosion inhibitor and the inhibition efficiency increased with the increase of PMA concentration, while the adsorption followed the Langmuir isotherm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, theoretical calculation of electronic density, molecular electrostatic potential and molecular dynamics were carried out to establish mechanism of corrosion inhibition for mild steel with PMA in synthetic seawater medium. The inhibition action of the compound was assumed to occur via adsorption on the steel surface through the active centres in the molecule. The results indicated that the corrosion inhibition is due to the formation of a chemisorbed film on the steel surface.

  11. Factors influencing the choice of going to a dental quack practice for orthodontic treatment among the citizen of Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhyar Dyni Zakyah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Braces is the treatment of choice for malocclusion. However, in recent years malocclusion no longer serves as the reason behind the orthodontic treatment. Many people use it for the fashion purposes and some of them got it from a dental quack. The purpose of this study was to understand factors that influenced citizen of Bandung to go to dental quack practice for orthodontics treatment. Methods: Cross-sectional study with purposive sampling technique consisting of 30 samples. Inclusion criteria were subject wearing metal braces from dental quack, live within area of Bandung, and willing to participate in the study. Exclusion criteria was subjects that refused to participate in the study. Results: The study showed that 73% of the subjects use the treatment for aligning teeth over getting along with the trend or the perception of beauty from using colorful bracket rubber. 63% chose a dental quack because of the suggestions from friends who had done it before them. Low income combined with the need for orthodontics treatment and inadequate information about dental braces influencing subjects choice to go to a dental quack. The study showed that socioeconomic environment highly influenced the decision to wear braces from a dental quack. Conclusion: The low price factor was the main reason for dental quack braces highly demanded. Common people need to be educated to get proper treatment for malocclusion and to go for improper provider of dental treatment.

  12. Performance Based Plastic Design of Concentrically Braced Frame attuned with Indian Standard code and its Seismic Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejal Purvang Dalal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Performance Based Plastic design method, the failure is predetermined; making it famous throughout the world. But due to lack of proper guidelines and simple stepwise methodology, it is not quite popular in India. In this paper, stepwise design procedure of Performance Based Plastic Design of Concentrically Braced frame attuned with the Indian Standard code has been presented. The comparative seismic performance evaluation of a six storey concentrically braced frame designed using the displacement based Performance Based Plastic Design (PBPD method and currently used force based Limit State Design (LSD method has also been carried out by nonlinear static pushover analysis and time history analysis under three different ground motions. Results show that Performance Based Plastic Design method is superior to the current design in terms of displacement and acceleration response. Also total collapse of the frame is prevented in the PBPD frame.

  13. Physiotherapy for patients with shoulder pain in primary care: a descriptive study of diagnostic- and therapeutic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, Y H J M; Scholten-Peeters, G G M; Thoomes-de Graaf, M; Duijn, E; van Broekhoven, J B; Koes, B W; Verhagen, A P

    2017-12-01

    Shoulder pain is one of the three main musculoskeletal complaints and more than 50% of the patients have symptoms longer than 6 months. Until now, limited data exist about the content of physiotherapy for patients with shoulder pain in primary care. Describe current physiotherapeutic diagnostic- and therapeutic management, including the use of diagnostic ultrasound, in patients with shoulder pain in primary care. A prospective cohort study in primary care physiotherapy with a 12 week follow-up. Descriptive data from physiotherapists was collected, such as: the diagnostic hypotheses after patient history and physical examination, the use of specific tests and diagnostic ultrasound, the interventions used and possible changes in treatment plan. Subacromial impingement syndrome was the most common hypothesis after patient history (48%) as well as physical examination (39%). Diagnostic ultrasound was used in 31% and of these patients the clinical diagnosis changed in 29%. Various interventions were used in all clinical diagnoses. After 12 weeks 41% of patients still received physiotherapy treatment. Patients with shoulder pain in physiotherapy practice frequently show signs of subacromial impingement syndrome. The interventions used by the physiotherapists were generally in line with the guideline for subacromial impingement syndrome however a small proportion of physiotherapists used massage and tape/bracing techniques. A large proportion of patients were still receiving treatment after 12 weeks when no improvement was observed. If treatment for patients with subacromial impingement shows no benefit patients should be referred back to the general practitioner or orthopedic surgeon. Conclusions from this study might be slightly biased because of the selection of physiotherapists. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Expecting ankle tilts and wearing an ankle brace influence joint control in an imitated ankle sprain mechanism during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Dominic; Wissler, Sabrina; Lohrer, Heinz; Nauck, Tanja; Gollhofer, Albert

    2014-03-01

    A thorough understanding of the functional aspects of ankle joint control is essential to developing effective injury prevention. It is of special interest to understand how neuromuscular control mechanisms and mechanical constraints stabilize the ankle joint. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine how expecting ankle tilts and the application of an ankle brace influence ankle joint control when imitating the ankle sprain mechanism during walking. Ankle kinematics and muscle activity were assessed in 17 healthy men. During gait rapid perturbations were applied using a trapdoor (tilting with 24° inversion and 15° plantarflexion). The subjects either knew that a perturbation would definitely occur (expected tilts) or there was only the possibility that a perturbation would occur (potential tilts). Both conditions were conducted with and without a semi-rigid ankle brace. Expecting perturbations led to an increased ankle eversion at foot contact, which was mediated by an altered muscle preactivation pattern. Moreover, the maximal inversion angle (-7%) and velocity (-4%), as well as the reactive muscle response were significantly reduced when the perturbation was expected. While wearing an ankle brace did not influence muscle preactivation nor the ankle kinematics before ground contact, it significantly reduced the maximal ankle inversion angle (-14%) and velocity (-11%) as well as reactive neuromuscular responses. The present findings reveal that expecting ankle inversion modifies neuromuscular joint control prior to landing. Although such motor control strategies are weaker in their magnitude compared with braces, they seem to assist ankle joint stabilization in a close-to-injury situation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Confiment structures, bracing and truss in land factories, brought to a simulation in software of finite elements.

    OpenAIRE

    Galarza, José Luis; Hernández, Francisco; Mercader-Moyano, Pilar (Coordinador)

    2017-01-01

    Study and assessment of containment structures, bracing and lattices used in factories earth, adobe type stabilized by the use of finite element software (Abaqus student version). The structures correspond to common types used in Spain for Europe and Ecuador, Perú, Paraguay and Bolivia in Latin America, and have been modified in manufacturing process, dosages and morphology of the material to improved rigidity, stability and energy dissipation of loads to walls of houses on ...

  16. Design Optimization of Long-Span Cold-Formed Steel Portal Frames Accounting for Effect of Knee Brace Joint Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Duoc Phan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of cold-formed steel channel sections for portal frames becomes more popular for industrial and residential purposes. Experimental tests showed that such structures with long-span up to 20 m can be achieved when knee brace joints are included. In this paper, the influence of knee brace configuration on the optimum design of long-span cold-formed steel portal frames is investigated. The cold-formed steel portal frames are designed using Eurocode 3 under ultimate limit states. A novel method in handling design constraints integrated with genetic algorithm is proposed for searching the optimum design of cold-formed steel portal frames. The result showed that the proposed routine for design optimization effectively searched the near global optimum solution with the computational time is approximate 50% faster than methods being popularly used in literature. The optimum configuration for knee brace joint can reduce the section size of rafter and so the lighter frame could be obtained especially for long-span portal frame. The minimum weight of main frame obtained from optimization process is approximate 19.72% lighter than a Benchmark Frame used in the full-scale experimental test.

  17. Is There a Role for Internal Bracing and Repair of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament? A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eck, Carola F; Limpisvasti, Orr; ElAttrache, Neal S

    2017-08-01

    Renewed interest has arisen in arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair techniques. ACL repair with or without some form of internal bracing could lead to good outcomes in a carefully selected subset of patients. Systematic review. An electronic database search was performed to identify 89 papers describing preclinical and clinical studies on the outcome of ACL repair. Proximal ACL tear patterns showed a better healing potential with primary repair than distal or midsubstance tears. Some form of internal bracing increased the success rate of ACL repair. Improvement in the biological characteristics of the repair was obtained by bone marrow access by drilling tunnels or microfracture. Augmentation with platelet-rich plasma was beneficial only in combination with a structural scaffold. Skeletally immature patients had the best outcomes. Acute repair offered improved outcomes with regard to load, stiffness, laxity, and rerupture. ACL repair may be a viable option in young patients with acute, proximal ACL tears. The use of internal bracing, biological augmentation, and scaffold tissue may increase the success rate of repair.

  18. Effect of Semi-Rigid and Soft Ankle Braces on Static and Dynamic Postural Stability in Young Male Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Maeda, Yukio Urabe, Shogo Tsutsumi, Shuhei Numano, Miho Morita, Takuya Takeuchi, Shou Iwata, Toshiki Kobayashi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ankle braces have been suggested to protect ankle joints from a sprain by restricting inversion and improving proprioception. However, the difference in effects between a semi-rigid brace and a soft brace regarding dynamic postural control after landing is not known. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of soft (SB and semi-rigid (SRB ankle braces on static and dynamic postural stability in healthy young men. Altogether, 21 male adults (mean age 24.0 ± 1.5 years were assessed for one leg while wearing non-brace (NB, SB or SRB. Balance in single-limb stance on a single-force platform with open eyes and closed eyes were assessed for the non-dominant leg under SB, SRB, and NB conditions. Locus length/second (mm/s and the enveloped area (mm·s-2 surrounded by the circumference of the wave pattern during postural sway were calculated. For assessing dynamic postural stability, the participant jumped and landed on one leg on a force platform, and the Dynamic Postural Stability Index (DPSI and the maximum vertical ground reaction force (vGRFmax were measured. The data were compared among the three conditions with repeated-measures analysis of variance. The correlations between locus length/second, enveloped area, DPSI values (DPSI, Anterior-Posterior Stability Index, Medial-Lateral Stability Index, and Vertical Stability Index, and vGRFmax were then calculated. The results indicated that locus length/second and enveloped area with open eyes and closed eyes were not significantly different for each condition. However, a significant lower in the DPSI and Vertical Stability Index were observed with the SRB in comparison to the SB and NB. A significant improvement in vGRFmax was also observed with the SRB in comparison to NB. SRB demonstrated a positive effect on dynamic postural stability after landing on a single leg and may improve balance by increasing dynamic postural stability.

  19. Combined effects of a valgus knee brace and lateral wedge foot orthotic on the external knee adduction moment in patients with varus gonarthrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Rebecca F; Birmingham, Trevor B; Dombroski, Colin E; Walsh, Robert F; Leitch, Kristyn M; Jenkyn, Thomas R; Giffin, J Robert

    2013-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that a custom-fit valgus knee brace and custom-made lateral wedge foot orthotic will have greatest effects on decreasing the external knee adduction moment during gait when used concurrently. Proof-of-concept, single test session, crossover trial. Biomechanics laboratory within a tertiary care center. Patients (n=16) with varus alignment and knee osteoarthritis (OA) primarily affecting the medial compartment of the tibiofemoral joint (varus gonarthrosis). Custom-fit valgus knee brace and custom-made full-length lateral wedge foot orthotic. Amounts of valgus angulation and wedge height were tailored to each patient to ensure comfort. The external knee adduction moment (% body weight [BW]*height [Ht]), frontal plane lever arm (cm), and ground reaction force (N/kg), determined from 3-dimensional gait analysis completed under 4 randomized conditions: (1) control (no knee brace, no foot orthotic), (2) knee brace, (3) foot orthotic, and (4) knee brace and foot orthotic. The reduction in knee adduction moment was greatest when concurrently using the knee brace and foot orthotic (effect sizes ranged from 0.3 to 0.4). The mean decrease in first peak knee adduction moment compared with control was .36% BW*Ht (95% confidence interval [CI], -.66 to -.07). This was accompanied by a mean decrease in frontal plane lever arm of .59cm (95% CI, -.94 to -.25). These findings suggest that using a custom-fit knee brace and custom-made foot orthotic concurrently can produce a greater overall reduction in the knee adduction moment, through combined effects in decreasing the frontal plane lever arm. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. No difference in the long term final functional outcome after nailing or cast bracing of high energy displaced tibial shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batta, Vineet; Dwyer, Amitabh J; Gulati, Aashish; Prakash, Jeevan; Mam, Maharaj K; John, Bobby

    2012-06-13

    Cast bracing (CB) has been a well established method of treating tibial shaft fractures. Majority of the recent literature on treatment of tibial shaft fractures have upheld intramedullary nailing (IMN) as the treatment of choice. Most of these studies are from the west, in public funded health set ups and in hospitals with very low rates of infection. This has lead to bewilderment in the minds of surgeons wishing to opt for conservative treatment in countries with scarcity of health resources. We therefore undertook this study to compare the two modalities in the scenario of the developing world. Sixty-eight consecutive patients were treated alternately with CB and IMN for high energy, displaced, closed and Gustilo Grade 1 open fractures of the tibial shaft, between 1995 and 2001. An average follow up at 4.3 years revealed no statistical difference in the final functional outcome as per Johner and Wruhs' criteria with modification to Indian lifestyle. IMN group had a) slightly shorter time to fracture union (mean 21.3 weeks versus 23.1 weeks for CB, p > 0.05), (b) lesser time off work (mean 17.6 weeks versus 25.6 weeks for CB, p treatment of CB group was less than half incurred by the IMN group (average USD 831 versus USD 2071 for nailed group, p tibial shaft fracture either with IMN or CB provided equally gratifying results with no statistical difference in final functional outcome. The economic cost to the patient in Indian conditions is significantly less with CB and therefore stands as an equally reliable treatment option, especially in countries with fewer resources.

  1. Redundancy Factors for the Seismic Design of Ductile Reinforced Concrete Chevron Braced Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eber Alberto Godínez-Domínguez

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper the authors summarize the results of a study devoted to assess, using nonlinear static analyses, the impact of increasing the structural redundancy in ductile moment-resisting reinforced concrete concentric braced frames structures (RC-MRCBFs. Among the studied variables were the number of stories and the number of bays. Results obtained were compared with the currently proposed values in the Manual of Civil Structures (MOC-08, a model code of Mexico. The studied frames have 4, 8, 12 and 16-story with a story height h=3.5 m. and a fixed length L=12 m., where 1, 2, 3 or 4 bays have to be located. RC-MRCBFs were assumed to be located in soft soil conditions in Mexico City and were designed using a capacity design methodology adapted to general requirements of the seismic, reinforced concrete and steel guidelines of Mexican Codes. From the results obtained in this study it is possible to conclude that a different effect is observed in overstrength redundancy factors respect to ductility redundancy factors due to an increase of the bay number considered. Also, the structural redundancy factors obtained for this particular structural system varies respect to the currently proposed in MOC-08.

  2. Numerical study on the modification of long links in eccentrically braced frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musbar, Budiono, Bambang; Kusumastuti, Dyah; Setio, Herlien D.

    2017-11-01

    In anticipating damages to buildings caused by earthquakes, many types of building constructions have been developed and studied. One of these is eccentrically braced frames that uses the link element as part of the structural element that serves to absorb seismic energy. When tested for its ductility, strength, rigidity and energy absorption, the long link performed more poorly compared to short ones. However, advantages of using long links includes space for architectural design and the ease of meeting building requirements. The focus of this study is to provide information on using supplemental double stiffeners on both sides of the web at the ends of long links. The behavior of long links is maintained by positioning the flange failures at the end of the link. The supplemental double stiffeners can improve performance of the long link due to the extension of the inelastic zone and the slowing of failure in the flange at both ends of the link. A numerical study was carried out on several specimens of the long link consisting of a standard specimen and specimens modified by the addition of supplemental double stiffeners. Long link specimens were modified by varying the thickness and hole width on the supplemental double stiffeners. The results showed that the addition of double stiffeners can improve the performance of long links compared to the standard link according to the requirements of AISC 341-10.

  3. Analysis of the steel braced frames equipped with ADAS devices under the far field records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Bayat

    Full Text Available The usefulness of supplementary energy dissipation devices is now quite well-known in earthquake structural engineering for reducing the earthquake-induced response of structural systems. The seismic behavior of structures with supplemental ADAS devices is concerned in this study. In this paper, the ratio of the hysteretic energy to input energy is compared in different structural systems. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the behavior of structures equipped with yielding dampers (ADAS, located in far fields based on energy concepts. In order to optimize their seismic behavior, the codes and solutions are also presented. Three cases including five, ten and fifteen-story three-bay Concentric Braced Frames (CBF with and without ADAS were selected. The PERFORM 3D.V4 software along with three earthquake records (Northridge, Imperial Valley and Tabas is used for nonlinear time history analysis and the conclusions are drawn upon energy criterion. The effect of PGA variation and height of the frames are also considered in the study. Finally, to increase the energy damping ability and reduce the destructive effects in structures on an earthquake event, so that a great amount of induced energy is damped and destruction of the structure is prevented as much as possible by using ADAS dampers.

  4. Conceptualizing community resilience to natural hazards – the emBRACE framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kruse

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of community is considered to be vital for building disaster resilience. Yet, community resilience as a scientific concept often remains vaguely defined and lacks the guiding characteristics necessary for analysing and enhancing resilience on the ground. The emBRACE framework of community resilience presented in this paper provides a heuristic analytical tool for understanding, explaining and measuring community resilience to natural hazards. It was developed in an iterative process building on existing scholarly debates, on empirical case study work in five countries and on participatory consultation with community stakeholders where the framework was applied and ground-tested in different contexts and for different hazard types. The framework conceptualizes resilience across three core domains: (i resources and capacities, (ii actions and (iii learning. These three domains are conceptualized as intrinsically conjoined within a whole. Community resilience is influenced by these integral elements as well as by extra-community forces comprising disaster risk governance and thus laws, policies and responsibilities on the one hand and on the other, the general societal context, natural and human-made disturbances and system change over time. The framework is a graphically rendered heuristic, which through application can assist in guiding the assessment of community resilience in a systematic way and identifying key drivers and barriers of resilience that affect any particular hazard-exposed community.

  5. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research. Phase II - Volume I; Truss Braced Wing Design Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.; Allen, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the Truss Braced Wing (TBW) work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, consisting of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, Georgia Tech, Virginia Tech, NextGen Aeronautics, and Microcraft. A multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) environment defined the geometry that was further refined for the updated SUGAR High TBW configuration. Airfoil shapes were tested in the NASA TCT facility, and an aeroelastic model was tested in the NASA TDT facility. Flutter suppression was successfully demonstrated using control laws derived from test system ID data and analysis models. Aeroelastic impacts for the TBW design are manageable and smaller than assumed in Phase I. Flutter analysis of TBW designs need to include pre-load and large displacement non-linear effects to obtain a reasonable match to test data. With the updated performance and sizing, fuel burn and energy use is reduced by 54% compared to the SUGAR Free current technology Baseline (Goal 60%). Use of the unducted fan version of the engine reduces fuel burn and energy by 56% compared to the Baseline. Technology development roadmaps were updated, and an airport compatibility analysis established feasibility of a folding wing aircraft at existing airports.

  6. Optimal placement of active braces by using PSO algorithm in near- and far-field earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastali, M.; Kheyroddin, A.; Samali, B.; Vahdani, R.

    2016-03-01

    One of the most important issues in tall buildings is lateral resistance of the load-bearing systems against applied loads such as earthquake, wind and blast. Dual systems comprising core wall systems (single or multi-cell core) and moment-resisting frames are used as resistance systems in tall buildings. In addition to adequate stiffness provided by the dual system, most tall buildings may have to rely on various control systems to reduce the level of unwanted motions stemming from severe dynamic loads. One of the main challenges to effectively control the motion of a structure is limitation in distributing the required control along the structure height optimally. In this paper, concrete shear walls are used as secondary resistance system at three different heights as well as actuators installed in the braces. The optimal actuator positions are found by using optimized PSO algorithm as well as arbitrarily. The control performance of buildings that are equipped and controlled using the PSO algorithm method placement is assessed and compared with arbitrary placement of controllers using both near- and far-field ground motions of Kobe and Chi-Chi earthquakes.

  7. Conceptualizing community resilience to natural hazards - the emBRACE framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Sylvia; Abeling, Thomas; Deeming, Hugh; Fordham, Maureen; Forrester, John; Jülich, Sebastian; Nuray Karanci, A.; Kuhlicke, Christian; Pelling, Mark; Pedoth, Lydia; Schneiderbauer, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    The level of community is considered to be vital for building disaster resilience. Yet, community resilience as a scientific concept often remains vaguely defined and lacks the guiding characteristics necessary for analysing and enhancing resilience on the ground. The emBRACE framework of community resilience presented in this paper provides a heuristic analytical tool for understanding, explaining and measuring community resilience to natural hazards. It was developed in an iterative process building on existing scholarly debates, on empirical case study work in five countries and on participatory consultation with community stakeholders where the framework was applied and ground-tested in different contexts and for different hazard types. The framework conceptualizes resilience across three core domains: (i) resources and capacities, (ii) actions and (iii) learning. These three domains are conceptualized as intrinsically conjoined within a whole. Community resilience is influenced by these integral elements as well as by extra-community forces comprising disaster risk governance and thus laws, policies and responsibilities on the one hand and on the other, the general societal context, natural and human-made disturbances and system change over time. The framework is a graphically rendered heuristic, which through application can assist in guiding the assessment of community resilience in a systematic way and identifying key drivers and barriers of resilience that affect any particular hazard-exposed community.

  8. The effects of temperature and use of vibrating wire strain gauges for braced excavations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boone, S. J. [Golder Associates, Irvine, CA (United States); Crawford, A. M. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2000-09-01

    Strut loads in bracer excavations are routinely monitored with strain gauges which range in complexity from simple mechanical measurements to vibrating wire transducers. While in soft soils the effect of temperature changes in strut loads may not be significant, these effects may be very signifciant for stiff and dense soils and rock thermal loading, where inadequate appreciation of the role played by thermal laods may lead to misinterpretations and faulty design that is not representative of potential field loading. This paper interprets the theoretical and practical implications of temperature change on strut loads and discusses the relative merits of using a vibrating wire strain gauge to measure and evaluate the effects of temperature and earth loads. It is shown that by comparing the incremental changes of strut load and temperature from vibrating wire strain gauge data, the temperature-dependent loads, the relative fixity of the strut end, and the earth loads, and mobilized ground stiffness can be deduced. The approach proposed provides a transparent and strut-specific means of evaluating the effects of temperature on struts with braced excavations and is supported by both empirical data and practical application of elastic theory. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Clinician Descriptions of Communication Strategies to Improve Treatment Engagement by Racial/Ethnic Minorities in Mental Health Services: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan; Pieh, Matthew C.; Dixon, Lisa; Guarnaccia, Peter; Alegría, Margarita; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe studies on clinician communication and the engagement of racial/ethnic minority patients in mental health treatment. Methods Authors conducted electronic searches of published and grey literature databases from inception to November 2014, forward citation analyses, and backward bibliographic sampling of included articles. Included studies reported original data on clinician communication strategies to improve minority treatment engagement, defined as initiating, participating, and continuing services. Results Twenty-three studies met inclusion criteria. Low treatment initiation and high treatment discontinuation were related to patient views that the mental health system did not address their understandings of illness, care or stigma. Treatment participation was based more on clinician language use, communication style, and discussions of patient-clinician differences. Conclusion Clinicians may improve treatment initiation and continuation by incorporating patient views of illness into treatment and targeting stigma. Clinicians may improve treatment participation by using simple language, tailoring communication to patient preferences, discussing differences, and demonstrating positive affect. Practice implications Lack of knowledge about the mental health system and somatic symptoms may delay treatment initiation. Discussions of clinician backgrounds, power, and communication style may improve treatment participation. Treatment continuation may improve if clinicians tailor communication and treatment plans congruent with patient expectations. PMID:26365436

  10. Clinician descriptions of communication strategies to improve treatment engagement by racial/ethnic minorities in mental health services: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan; Pieh, Matthew C; Dixon, Lisa; Guarnaccia, Peter; Alegría, Margarita; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    To describe studies on clinician communication and the engagement of racial/ethnic minority patients in mental health treatment. Authors conducted electronic searches of published and grey literature databases from inception to November 2014, forward citation analyses, and backward bibliographic sampling of included articles. Included studies reported original data on clinician communication strategies to improve minority treatment engagement, defined as initiating, participating, and continuing services. Twenty-three studies met inclusion criteria. Low treatment initiation and high treatment discontinuation were related to patient views that the mental health system did not address their understandings of illness, care or stigma. Treatment participation was based more on clinician language use, communication style, and discussions of patient-clinician differences. Clinicians may improve treatment initiation and continuation by incorporating patient views of illness into treatment and targeting stigma. Clinicians may improve treatment participation by using simple language, tailoring communication to patient preferences, discussing differences, and demonstrating positive affect. Lack of knowledge about the mental health system and somatic symptoms may delay treatment initiation. Discussions of clinician backgrounds, power, and communication style may improve treatment participation. Treatment continuation may improve if clinicians tailor communication and treatment plans congruent with patient expectations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimum Design of Braced Steel Space Frames including Soil-Structure Interaction via Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization and Harmony Search Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse T. Daloglu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimum design of braced steel space frames including soil-structure interaction is studied by using harmony search (HS and teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO algorithms. A three-parameter elastic foundation model is used to incorporate the soil-structure interaction effect. A 10-storey braced steel space frame example taken from literature is investigated according to four different bracing types for the cases with/without soil-structure interaction. X, V, Z, and eccentric V-shaped bracing types are considered in the study. Optimum solutions of examples are carried out by a computer program coded in MATLAB interacting with SAP2000-OAPI for two-way data exchange. The stress constraints according to AISC-ASD (American Institute of Steel Construction-Allowable Stress Design, maximum lateral displacement constraints, interstorey drift constraints, and beam-to-column connection constraints are taken into consideration in the optimum design process. The parameters of the foundation model are calculated depending on soil surface displacements by using an iterative approach. The results obtained in the study show that bracing types and soil-structure interaction play very important roles in the optimum design of steel space frames. Finally, the techniques used in the optimum design seem to be quite suitable for practical applications.

  12. A calorimetric and equilibrium investigation of the reaction {l_brace}methyl ferulate(aq) + H{sub 2}O(l) = methanol(aq) + ferulic acid(aq){r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Robert N., E-mail: robert.goldberg@nist.go [Biochemical Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20876 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Lang, Brian E., E-mail: brian.lang@nist.go [Biochemical Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20876 (United States); Selig, Michael J., E-mail: michael.selig@nrel.go [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Biosciences Center, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Decker, Stephen R., E-mail: steve.decker@nrel.go [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Biosciences Center, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Microcalorimetry and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) have been used to conduct a thermodynamic investigation of the reaction: {l_brace}methyl ferulate(aq) + H{sub 2}O(l) = methanol(aq) + ferulic acid(aq){r_brace}, as catalyzed by feruloyl esterase. Values of the apparent equilibrium constant K' = (29.6 {+-} 0.7) (T = 298.15 K, citrate buffer at pH 4.98, ionic strength I = 0.39 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}) and of the calorimetrically determined enthalpy of reaction {Delta}{sub r}H(cal) = (4.0 {+-} 0.9) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} (T = 298.15 K and citrate buffer at pH 4.81, I = 0.36 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}) were measured. A chemical equilibrium model, together with pKs and standard enthalpies of reaction {Delta}{sub r}H{sup 0} for the H{sup +}(aq) binding reactions of the reactants and products, was then used to calculate the values K = (1.89 {+-} 0.06) . 10{sup -4}, {Delta}{sub r}H{sup o} = (7.3 {+-} 1.7) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, {Delta}{sub r}G{sup o} = (21.25 {+-} 0.07) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, and {Delta}{sub r}S{sup o} = - (46.8 {+-} 5.7) J {center_dot} K{sup -1} {center_dot} mol{sup -1} for the chemical reference reaction {l_brace}methyl ferulate(aq) + H{sub 2}O(l) = methanol(aq) + ferulic acid{sup -}(aq) + H{sup +}(aq){r_brace}. These values of K and {Delta}{sub r}H{sup o} are similar in magnitude to the corresponding values reported for the reaction {l_brace}propyl gallate(aq) + H{sub 2}O(l) = 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid{sup -}(aq) + 1-propanol(aq) + H{sup +}(aq){r_brace}. The results obtained in this study can be used in a chemical equilibrium model to calculate how K' and other standard transformed properties such as the standard transformed enthalpy {Delta}{sub r}H'{sup o}, standard transformed Gibbs free energy {Delta}{sub r}G'{sup o}, and the change in binding of H{sup +}(aq), {Delta}{sub r}N(H{sup +}), vary with the independent variables T, pH, and I.

  13. Implementing a Description Grammar Interpreter : A Notation for Descriptions and Description Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouffs, R.M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Description grammars represent a formalism for generating verbal descriptions of designs, used in conjunction with shape grammars. A description grammar constitutes a set of description rules that define a language of descriptions. A description grammar interpreter implements the mechanisms to

  14. REVISIÓN PARAMÉTRICA DEL COMPORTAMIENTO SISMO-RESISTENTE DE EDIFICIOS DE ACERO DE GRAN ALTURA CON DIFERENTES CONFIGURACIONES DE RIGIDIZADORES LATERALES | PARAMETRIC REVIEW OF SEISMIC RESPONSE OF HIGH RISE STEEL BUILDINGS WITH TWO TYPES OF BRACING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald David Ugel Garrido

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study performed the review and comparison of the seismic response of two high-rise steel structural models with different bracing systems projected according to Venezuelan seismic code COVENIN 1756:01 (2001 “Seismic resistant buildings”. Model VI utilized concentrically V-braced steel frames and Model SA used diagonal X-bracing concentrically braces frames. The seismic action was managed in terms of response spectra and buildings were evaluated in terms of demand-capacity. Seismic action used hybrid accelerograms with spectral signals similar to the design spectrum characteristic of the Barquisimeto-Cabudare metropolitan zone in Lara State. The capacity curves were normalized according to the weight of the buildings in order to unify the comparative criteria. The reserve of resistance was compared with an alternative approach based on bilinear representation of capacity and for its evaluation the inelastic static analysis Adaptive Pushover was used. Damage evaluation included probabilistic approach and procedures were applied from the Incremental Dynamic Analysis and the Parametric Capacity Model. Some non-braced frames showed high probability of severe damage or collapse, suffering significant stiffness degradation and lateral deformations beyond normative limits, evidencing that relative displacements and stiffness degradation are fundamental indicators for structural damage. It can be concluded that V-braced model presented a better overall performance than X-braced model, but in both cases non-braced frames showed much greater damage due to dynamic actions.

  15. Results from the BRACE 1.5 study: Climate change impacts of 1.5 C and 2 C warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, B. C.; Anderson, B.; Monaghan, A. J.; Ren, X.; Sanderson, B.; Tebaldi, C.

    2017-12-01

    In 2015, 195 countries negotiated the Paris Agreement on climate change, which set long-term goals of limiting global mean warming to well below 2 C and possibly 1.5 C. This event stimulated substantial scientific interest in climate outcomes and impacts on society associated with those levels of warming. Recently, the first set of global climate model simulations explicitly designed to meet those targets were undertaken with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) for use by the research community (Sanderson et al, accepted). The BRACE 1.5 project models societal impacts from these climate outcomes, combined with assumptions about future socioeconomic conditions according to the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways. These analyses build on a recently completed study of the Benefits of Reduced Anthropogenic Climate changE (BRACE), published as a set of 20 papers in Climatic Change, which examined the difference in impacts between two higher scenarios resulting in about 2.5 C and 3.7 C warming by late this century. BRACE 1.5 consists of a set of six papers to be submitted to a special collection in Environmental Research Letters that takes a similar approach but focuses on impacts at 1.5 and 2 C warming. We ask whether impacts differ substantially between the two climate scenarios, accounting for uncertainty in climate outcomes through the use of initial condition ensembles of CESM simulations, and in societal conditions by using alternative SSP-based development pathways. Impact assessment focuses on the health and agricultural sectors; modeling approaches include the use of a global mutli-region CGE model for economic analysis, both a process-based and an empirical crop model, a model of spatial population change, a model of climatic suitability for the aedes aegypti mosquito, and an epidemiological model of heat-related mortality. A methodological analysis also evaluates the use of climate model emulation techniques for providing climate information sufficient to

  16. Investigating the Effect of the Number of End-Panel Studs on the Seismic Properties of Cold-Formed Light-Steel Shear-Panel Braces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafti Mohammad Reza Javaheri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detailed investigation of the effect of the number of end-panel studs on the seismic properties of light-steel shear-panel braces in cold-formed steel frames and in particular the associated response modification coefficients (R factor, are presented in this paper. A total of 6 full-scale 1200×2400 mm specimens are considered, and the responses investigated under a standard cyclic loading regime. Of particular interest are the specimens’ maximum lateral load capacity and deformation behavior as well as a rational estimation of the seismic response modification factor. The study also looks at the failure modes of the system and investigates the main factors contributing to the ductile response of the tested shear-panel braces in order to suggest improvements so that braces respond plastically with a significant drift and without any risk of brittle failure, such as connection failure or stud buckling.

  17. SUPER-CAPACITOR APPLICATION IN ELECTRICAL POWER CABLE TESTING FACILITIES IN THERMAL ENDURANCE AND MECHANICAL BRACING TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Oleksyuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current-carrying cores of the electrical power cables should be resistant to effects of short-circuit currents whose values depend on the material of the core, its cross-sectional area, cable insulation properties, environment temperature, and the duration of the short-circuit current flow (1 and 3–4 sec. when tested for thermal endurance and mechanical bracing. The facilities for testing the 10 kV aluminum core cables with short-circuit current shall provide mechanical-bracing current 56,82 kA and thermal endurance current 11,16 kA. Although capacitors provide such values of the testing currents to the best advantage, utilizing conventional capacitor-units will involve large expenditures for erecting and  running a separate building. It is expedient to apply super-capacitors qua the electric power supply for testing facilities, as they are capacitors with double-electrical layer and involve the current values of tens of kilo-amperes.The insulation voltage during short-circuit current testing being not-standardized, it is not banned to apply voltages less than 10 kV when performing short-circuit thermal endurance and mechanical bracing tests for electrical power cables of 10 kV. The super-capacitor voltage variation-in-time graph consists of two regions: capacitive and resistive. The capacitive part corresponds to the voltage change consequent on the energy change in the super-capacitors. The resistive part shows the voltage variation due to the active resistance presence in the super-capacitor.The author offers the algorithm determining the number of super capacitors requisite for testing 10 kV-electrical power cables with short-circuit currents for thermal endurance and mechanical bracing. The paper shows that installation of super-capacitors in the facilities testing the cables with short-circuit currents reduces the area needed for the super-capacitors in comparison with conventional capacitors more than by one order of magnitude.

  18. Numerical Model of a Hybrid Damping System Composed of a Buckling Restrained Brace with a Magneto Rheological Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip-Vacarescu Norin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the concept of a hybrid damper made from a combination of two dissipative devices. A passive hysteretic device like steel Buckling Restrained Brace (BRB can be combined with a magneto-rheological (MR Fluid Damper in order to obtain a hybrid dissipative system. This system can work either as a semi-active system, if the control unit is available, or as a passive system, tuned for working according to performance based seismic engineering (PBSE scale of reference parameters (i.e. interstory drift.

  19. Investigating effects of boundary conditions on the evaluation of R-factor of un-braced steel frames

    OpenAIRE

    Irheem, Masood M.M.; Attia, Walid A.

    2015-01-01

    Design of Structures to resist seismic load depends on the theory of dissipation in elastic of energy that already exists in response modification factor “R-factor”. The main problem in codes gives a constant value for R-factor, since change in boundary conditions of building change in behavior of steel frame structures and that effect on R-factor. This study is an attempt to assess overstrength, ductility and response modification factor of un-braced steel frames under change in boundary con...

  20. Respirometric techniques description and its utilisation in wastewater treatment plants; Descripcion e implementacion de las tecnicas respirometricas en el tratamiento de las aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guisasola, A.; Baeza, J. A.; Carrera, J.

    2002-07-01

    The utilisation of respirometric techniques at laboratory level to characterise microbial aerobic consumption has grown considerably in the last decades because relevant information can be simply, sensitively and toughly obtained. Nowadays, the implementation of on-line respirometers as a part of the wastewater treatment control systems has become very important. This work takes in a revision of respirometric techniques from its biochemical principles to its industrial applications in wastewater treatment systems. (Author) 18 refs.

  1. Aging effect in CaLaBa{l_brace}Cu{sub 1 - x}Fe{sub x}{r_brace}{sub 3}O{sub 7 - {delta}} with 0 {<=} x {<=} 0.07 studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, Angel, E-mail: angelbd1@gmail.com [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Laboratorio de Ceramicos y Nanomateriales, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas (Peru); Santos Valladares, Luis De Los, E-mail: ld301@cam.ac.uk [University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory (United Kingdom); Flores, Jesus [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Laboratorio de Ceramicos y Nanomateriales, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas (Peru); Barnes, Crispin H. W. [University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory (United Kingdom); Majima, Yutaka [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Materials and Structures Laboratory (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    In this work, we study the long-term aging effect caused by Fe atoms in the superconductor CaLaBa{l_brace}Cu{sub 1 - x}Fe{sub x}{r_brace}{sub 3}O{sub 7 - {delta}} with 0 {<=} x {<=} 0.07. XRD confirms that this system has a YBCO-like structure. The critical temperature (T{sub c}) is strongly affected by aging and depends on the amount of Fe in the structure. Room temperature Moessbauer spectroscopy reveals the presence of the typical species A, B-B Prime , C and new species E Prime and F. Interestingly; A, which corresponds to the Fe{sup 3 + } atom located in the Cu(1) of the chains with spin S{sub z} = 3/2, shows a drastic reduction which means migration to the species B, B Prime and C. Species B and B Prime correspond to the Fe{sup 3 + } in the Cu(2) site forming planar quasi-octahedral and planar square pyramidal, while the C specie is a square pyramidal with O(5) respectively (spin S{sub z} = 3/2 in all these cases). Aging causes loss of superconductivity in the samples with 5 and 7% of iron content.

  2. Influence of temperature on the (liquid + liquid) equilibria of {l_brace}3-methyl pentane + cyclopentane + methanol{r_brace} ternary system at T = (293.15, 297.15, and 299.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramajo de Doz, Monica B. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Avenida Independencia 1800, 4000 Tucuman (Argentina)], E-mail: mgramajo@herrera.unt.edu.ar; Cases, Alicia M.; Bonatti, Carlos M.; Solimo, Horacio N. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Avenida Independencia 1800, 4000 Tucuman (Argentina)

    2009-11-15

    In order to show the influence of temperature on the (liquid + liquid) equilibria (LLE) of the {l_brace}3-methyl pentane (1) + cyclopentane (2) + methanol (3){r_brace} ternary system, equilibrium results at T = (293.15, 297.15, and 299.15) K are reported. The effect of the temperature on the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium is determined and discussed. Experimental results show that this ternary system is completely homogeneous beyond T = 300 K. All chemicals were quantified by gas chromatography using a thermal conductivity detector. The tie line results were satisfactorily correlated by the Othmer and Tobias method, and the plait point coordinates for the three temperatures were estimated. Experimental values for the ternary system are compared with values calculated by the NRTL and UNIQUAC equations, and predicted by means of the UNIFAC group contribution method. It is found that the UNIQUAC and NRTL models provide similar good correlations of the solubility curve at these three temperatures. Finally, the UNIFAC model predicts binodal band type curves in the range of temperatures studied here, similar to those observed for systems classified by Treybal as type 2, instead of type 1 as experimentally observed. Distribution coefficients were also analysed through distribution curves.

  3. Volumetric and viscometric properties of binary mixtures of {l_brace}methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) + alcohol{r_brace} at several temperatures and p = 0.1 MPa: Experimental results and application of the ERAS model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoga, H.E. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Centro Universitario da FEI, Avenida Humberto de Alencar, Castelo Branco 3972, 09850-901 Sao Bernardo do Campo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Torres, R.B., E-mail: belchior@fei.edu.br [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Centro Universitario da FEI, Avenida Humberto de Alencar, Castelo Branco 3972, 09850-901 Sao Bernardo do Campo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Binary mixtures of MTBE + alcohol have been studied. > Volumetric and viscometric properties have been determined at several temperatures. > Excess molar volumes have been used to test the applicability of the ERAS model. > The results are discussed in terms of chemical and structural effects. - Abstract: Densities and viscosities of binary mixtures of {l_brace}methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) + methanol, or +ethanol, or +1-propanol, or +2-propanol, or +1-butanol, or +1-pentanol, or +1-hexanol{r_brace} have been determined as a function of composition at several temperatures and atmospheric pressure. The temperatures studied were (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, and 308.15) K. The experimental results have been used to calculate the excess molar volume (V{sub m}{sup E}) and viscosity deviation ({Delta}{eta}). Both V{sub m}{sup E} and {Delta}{eta} values were negative over the entire range of mole fraction for all temperatures and systems studied. Moreover, the V{sub m}{sup E} values have been used to test the applicability of the Extended Real Associated Solution (ERAS) model.

  4. The effect of different skin-ankle brace application pressures with and without shoes on single-limb balance, electromyographic activation onset and peroneal reaction time of lower limb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, E S; Nikolopoulos, C S; Athanasopoulos, S

    2008-12-01

    Several studies have been carried out in order to investigate the effect of ankle bracing on ankle joint function and performance. However, no study so far has examined the role of skin-brace interface pressure in neuromuscular control. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different skin-ankle brace interface pressures, with and without shoes, on quiet single-limb balance and the electromyographic (EMG) activation sequence of four lower limb muscles. Twelve male physical education students who volunteered to take part in the study were measured with and without shoes under three ankle brace conditions: (i) without brace, (ii) with brace and 30 kilopascals (kPa) application pressure and (iii) with brace and 60 kPa application pressure. Single-limb balance (anteroposterior and mediolateral parameter) was assessed on the dominant lower limb, with open and closed eyes, on a force platform, simultaneously with the EMG recording of four lower lower limb muscles' (gastrocnemius, peroneus longus, rectus femoris and biceps femoris) activation onset. Peroneus longus reaction time was also measured by provoking a sudden subtalar inversion stress test using a trap-door. The results showed that the application of athletic footwear resulted in a significant difference between the condition with shoes and without shoes, with a significantly increased anteroposterior sway and sway velocity, in all three ankle brace application conditions with shoes (F=50.9, d.f.=1, plower limb muscles. Lastly, ankle brace application with 30 and 60 kPa application pressures, with and without athletic footwear, led to a significant delay in the peroneus longus reaction time (F=9.71, d.f.=2, plimb balance, and peroneal reaction time. The application of athletic footwear, further adversely affects these parameters significantly. Further research is needed in this area with more dynamic and functional measurements, before the safe use of ankle bracing can be widely recommended.

  5. A descriptive review of the peer and non-peer reviewed literature on the treatment and prevention of foot lameness in cattle published between 2000 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potterton, S L; Bell, N J; Whay, H R; Berry, E A; Atkinson, O C D; Dean, R S; Main, D C J; Huxley, J N

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to collate and review the peer and non-peer reviewed English language literature on the treatment and prevention of foot lameness in cattle published since January 2000. The study aimed to identify deficits in knowledge and areas of disparity between what is recommended in the field by veterinarians, foot trimmers and advisors and what has been substantiated experimentally. Peer reviewed literature containing original work was gathered by searching three databases. Papers were categorised and reviewed if they contained material on treatment or prevention. Non-peer reviewed clinical materials were collated from a range of sources. The materials were reviewed and categorised based on whether they recommended a range of possible treatment and prevention strategies. The peer reviewed data base contained 591 papers, of which 286 contained information on treatment or prevention. The vast majority of papers (258) concerned prevention; only a small number covered treatment (31) and of these only three contained information on the treatment of sole ulcers or white line disease. The number of intervention studies and trials was low; most papers on prevention were observational. Generally, lesion specific outcomes were not described making the findings of these papers difficult to use clinically. The non-peer reviewed material contained 46 sources; they varied significantly in regard to the treatments they advocated with some texts directly contradicting each other. Some aspects of prevention recommended in these sources seemed poorly supported by findings from the research literature. Well designed intervention studies are required to address these deficits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A retrospective review of acupuncture use for the treatment of pain in sickle cell disease patients: Descriptive analysis from a single institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kit; Cheng, M. Jennifer; Ge, Xiaoying; Berger, Ann; Xu, Dihua; Kato, Gregory J.; Minniti, Caterina P

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This retrospective study describes the use of acupuncture for adult sickle cell patients in a single institution. Methods We identified 47 sickle cell disease (SCD) patients referred for acupuncture at the National Institutes of Health between January, 2005 and September, 2011. All patients were enrolled in a Study of the Natural History of SCD and signed consent. We reviewed patient demographics, location of acupuncture treatment sessions (inpatient versus outpatient), number of sessions received, sites of pain, patient pain reporting, and the use of other complementary therapies. Results Of the 47 patients (60% women, median age 36 years) referred for acupuncture, 42 had homozygous SS disease (89%) and 5 had SC disease (11%). Over half of the patients (51%) reported more than 3 sites of pain. Only 24 patients (51%) underwent acupuncture treatment. Of those who elected not to receive acupuncture, a majority (87%) accepted some other forms of complementary therapies. Nine patients underwent only inpatient acupuncture for acute vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC). Eleven patients received only outpatient acupuncture treatment for chronic pain, and four patients received both inpatient and outpatient treatments. For the patients who received inpatient acupuncture treatment for acute VOC, there was a significant reduction of reported pain score immediately after acupuncture treatment with an average pain reduction of 2.1 points on the numeric pain scale (ppain as improved compared to prior session. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the largest retrospective review of acupuncture use in the sickle cell population. This analysis describes the use of acupuncture and raises the possibility of its use as an adjuvant for pain management in this population. Future clinical trials are needed to evaluate acupuncture’s efficacy and effectiveness for pain management in different treatment settings and for various types of pain etiologies among the sickle cell population

  7. Asymmetric pelvic bracing and altered kinematics in patients with posterior pelvic pain who present with postural muscle delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, Melanie D; Milosavljevic, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the muscle activity and hip-spine kinematics in a group of individuals diagnosed with posterior pelvic girdle pain and confirmed postural muscle delay during a repeated fast hip flexion task. Twenty-four (12 pain and 12 control) age and sex matched participants performed a repeated fast hip flexion task to auditory signal. Surface EMG activity in the external and internal oblique, the multifidus, the gluteus maximus and biceps femoris in the stance-limb was examined for onset timing and EMG integral. Sagittal plane hip (swing limb) and spine kinematics were examined for group and side differences over the repeated trials. While the pain group lacked significant feedforward muscle activity they displayed higher muscle activity at movement onset in the biceps femoris bilaterally (ppelvic control during lumbo-pelvic rotation. Further, there appears to be a symptom led strategy for bracing the innominate through opposing tension in the biceps and external oblique during movement of the painful side. Such asymmetrical pelvic girdle bracing may be a strategy to increase the stability of the pelvis in light of the failed load transfer mechanism. Putatively, this strategy may increase the mechanical stress on the sacroiliac joint exacerbating pain complaints. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. On the effect of the near field records on the steel braced frames equipped with energy dissipating devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Bayat

    Full Text Available The behavior of braced steel frame structures is of special importance due to its extensive use. Also the application of active and semi-active control systems, regarding to their benefits in obtaining better seismic performance has increased significantly. The majority of the works on steel structures and steel connections has been done under far field records, and the behavior of steel frame structures equipped with yielding dampers under these circumstances has not yet been fully analyzed. The main purpose of this paper is to determine the behavior of structures equipped with yielding dampers, located in near field based on energy concepts. In order to optimize their seismic behavior, the codes and solutions are also presented.The selected system is a braced steel frame system which is equipped with yielding dampers and the analysis is performed using the "Perform 3D V.4" software and the conclusions are drawn upon energy criterion. The effect of PGA variation and height of the frames are also considered in the study .Finally, using the above mentioned results, a proper solution is presented for typical systems in order to increase the energy damping ability and reduce the destructive effects in structures on an earthquake event, so that a great amount of induced energy is damped and destruction of the structure is prevented as much as possible.

  9. Pengaruh Kinesio Taping dan Abduction Brace Terhadap Panjang Otot Adduktor Hip pada Anak Palsi Serebral Tipe Spastik Diplegi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvi Natsir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang. Anak palsi serebral tipe spastik diplegi mengalami peningkatan tonus pada beberapa otot, salah satunya adalah otot adduktor hip, akibatnya tungkai mengalami kekakuan yang akan berdampak pada perkembangan anak. Tujuan. Menilai pengaruh kinesio taping dan abduction brace dalam mengubah tonus otot dan meningkatkan panjang otot adduktor. Metode. Desain penelitian yang digunakan adalah pra-eksperimental dengan responden terdiri dari 15 anak palsi serebral tipe spastik diplegi yang berusia 2-13 tahun. Data yang dikumpulkan meliputi nilai tonus otot dan panjang otot adduktor yang dievaluasi menggunakan skala Ashworth dan manual goniometer sebelum dan sesudah 6 kali intervensi. Hasil. Terdapat perbedaan sebelum dan setelah intervensi dinilai dengan skala Asworth mengalami penurunan (p=0,002, sedangkan panjang otot adduktor mengalami peningkatan (p=0,000. Hasil korelasi negatif yang signifikan juga diperoleh antara tingkat spastisitas dengan panjang otot adduktor (r=0,866; p=0,000. Kesimpulan. Kombinasi kinesio taping dan abduction brace dapat meningkatkan panjang otot adduktor hip melalui penurunan tonus otot pada anak palsi serebral tipe spastik diplegi.

  10. Analysis of Limit Cycle Oscillation Data from the Aeroelastic Test of the SUGAR Truss-Braced Wing Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Robert E.; Funk, Christie; Scott, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Research focus in recent years has been given to the design of aircraft that provide significant reductions in emissions, noise and fuel usage. Increases in fuel efficiency have also generally been attended by overall increased wing flexibility. The truss-braced wing (TBW) configuration has been forwarded as one that increases fuel efficiency. The Boeing company recently tested the Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) Truss-Braced Wing (TBW) wind-tunnel model in the NASA Langley Research Center Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). This test resulted in a wealth of accelerometer data. Other publications have presented details of the construction of that model, the test itself, and a few of the results of the test. This paper aims to provide a much more detailed look at what the accelerometer data says about the onset of aeroelastic instability, usually known as flutter onset. Every flight vehicle has a location in the flight envelope of flutter onset, and the TBW vehicle is not different. For the TBW model test, the flutter onset generally occurred at the conditions that the Boeing company analysis said it should. What was not known until the test is that, over a large area of the Mach number dynamic pressure map, the model displayed wing/engine nacelle aeroelastic limit cycle oscillation (LCO). This paper dissects that LCO data in order to provide additional insights into the aeroelastic behavior of the model.

  11. Evaluating the efficacy of an active compression brace on orthostatic cardiovascular responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Moein

    Full Text Available Orthostatic intolerance, one of the principle causes of syncope, can occur secondary to concomitant venous pooling and enhanced capillary filtration. We aimed to evaluate a prototype portable calf active compression brace (ACB designed to improve orthostatic haemodynamic control. Fourteen healthy volunteers participated in a randomized, placebo controlled, cross-over, double-blind study. Testing consisted of head-upright tilting and walking on a treadmill conducted on two consecutive days with a pair of ACBs wrapped around both calves. The ACB was actuated on one test day, but not on the other (placebo. Wearability, comfort, and ambulatory use of the ACB were assessed using questionnaires. The average calf pressure exerted by the ACB was 46.3±2.2 mmHg and the actuation pressure was 20.7±1.7 mmHg. When considering the differences between ACB actuation and placebo during tilt after supine rest there were trends for a larger stroke volume (+5.20±2.34%, p = 0.05 and lower heart rate (-5.12±2.41%, p = 0.06 with ACB actuation, with no effect on systolic arterial pressure (+4.86±3.41%, p = 0.18. The decrease in stroke volume after ten minutes of tilting was positively correlated with the height:calf circumference (r = 0.464; p = 0.029; n = 22; both conditions combined. The increase in heart rate after ten minutes of tilting was negatively correlated with the height:calf circumference (r = -0.485; p = 0.022; n = 22; both conditions combined and was positively correlated with the average calf circumference (r = 0.539; p = 0.009; n = 22; both conditions combined. Participants reported good ACB wearability and comfort during ambulatory use. These data verify that the ACB increased stroke volume during tilting in healthy controls. Active calf compression garments may be a viable option for the management of orthostatic intolerance.

  12. Health-related quality of life and emotional problems in children surviving brain tumor treatment : A descriptive study of 2 cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dessens, Arianne B.; van Herwerden, Michael C.; Aarsen, Femke K.; Birnie, Erwin; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene E.

    2016-01-01

    The survival of childhood brain tumors has improved in the past 30years, but acquired brain injury due to damage caused by tumor invasion and side effects of different treatment modalities frequently occurs. This study focused on residual impairments, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and

  13. The Use of Manual Vacuum Aspiration in the Treatment of Incomplete Abortions: A Descriptive Study from Three Public Hospitals in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odland, Maria Lisa; Membe-Gadama, Gladys; Kafulafula, Ursula; Jacobsen, Geir W; Kumwenda, James; Darj, Elisabeth

    2018-02-21

    Malawi has a high maternal mortality rate, of which unsafe abortion is a major cause. About 140,000 induced abortions are estimated every year, despite there being a restrictive abortion law in place. This leads to complications, such as incomplete abortions, which need to be treated to avoid further harm. Although manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) is a safe and cheap method of evacuating the uterus, the most commonly used method in Malawi is curettage. Medical treatment is used sparingly in the country, and the Ministry of Health has been trying to increase the use of MVA. The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment of incomplete abortions in three public hospitals in Southern Malawi during a three-year period. All medical files from the female/gynecological wards from 2013 to 2015 were reviewed. In total, information on obstetric history, demographics, and treatment were collected from 7270 women who had been treated for incomplete abortions. The overall use of MVA at the three hospitals during the study period was 11.4% (95% CI, 10.7-12.1). However, there was a major increase in MVA application at one District Hospital. Why there was only one successful hospital in this study is unclear, but may be due to more training and dedicated leadership at this particular hospital. Either way, the use of MVA in the treatment of incomplete abortions continues to be low in Malawi, despite recommendations from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Malawi Ministry of Health.

  14. Health-related quality-of-life in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients 25 years after treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simony, Ane; Hansen, Emil Jesper; Carreon, Leah Y

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since 1962 to the mid eighties the Harrington Rod instrumentation was the Golden standard for surgical treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS). The Boston braces were introduced in the 1970´s and are still used as a conservative treatment, for curves less than 40°. Very few....... The SF36 PCS and MCS scores in both AIS cohorts were similar to the scores for the general population. CONCLUSION: HRQOLs, as measured by the SRS22R and SF-36, of adult AIS patients treated with Boston brace or PSF during adolescence were similar to the general population. No clinical progression...

  15. SU-F-T-647: Linac-Based Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) in the Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia: Detailed Description of SRS Procedural Technique and Reported Clinical Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokhrel, D; Sood, S; Badkul, R; Jiang, H; Stepp, T; Camarata, P; Wang, F [University of Kansas Hospital, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: SRS is an effective non-invasive alternative treatment modality with minimal-toxicity used to treat patients with medically/surgically refractory trigeminal neuralgia root(TNR) or those who may not tolerate surgical intervention. We present our linac-based SRS procedure for TNR treatment and simultaneously report our clinical outcomes. Methods: Twenty-eight TNR-patients treated with frame-based SRS at our institution (2009–2015) with a single-fraction point-dose of 60-80Gy to TNR were included in this IRB-approved study. Experienced neurosurgeon and radiation oncologist delineated the TNR on 1.0mm thin 3D-FIESTA-MRI that was co-registered with 0.7mm thin planning-CT. Treatment plans were generated in iPlan (BrainLAB) with a 4-mm diameter cone using 79 arcs with differential-weighting for Novalis-TX 6MV-SRS(1000MU/min) beam and optimized to minimize brainstem dose. Winston-Lutz test was performed before each treatment delivery with sub-millimeter isocenter accuracy. Quality assurance of frame placement was maintained by helmet-bobble-measurement before simulation-CT and before patient setup at treatment couch. OBI-CBCT scan was performed for patient setup verification without applying shifts. On clinical follow up, treatment response was assessed using Barrow Neurological Institute Pain Intensity Score(BNI-score:I–V). Results: 26/28 TNR-patients (16-males/10-females) who were treated with following single-fraction point-dose to isocenter: 80Gy(n=22),75Gy(n=1),70Gy(n=2) and 60Gy(n=1, re-treatment) were followed up. Median follow-up interval was 8.5-months (ranged:1–48.5months). Median age was 70-yr (ranged:43–93-yr). Right/left TNR ratio was 15/11. Delivered total # of average MUs was 19034±1204. Average beam-on-time: 19.0±1.3min. Brainstem max-dose and dose to 0.5cc were 13.3±2.4Gy (ranged:8.1–16.5Gy) and 3.6±0.4Gy (ranged:3.0–4.9Gy). On average, max-dose to optic-apparatus was ≤1.2Gy. Mean value of max-dose to eyes/lens was 0.26Gy/0.11Gy

  16. A novel minimally invasive percutaneous facet augmentation device for the treatment of lumbar radiculopathy and axial back pain: technical description, surgical technique and case presentations

    OpenAIRE

    Khoo, Larry T.; Chen, Nan Fu; Armin, Sean; Stiner, Eric; Dipp, Juan; Flores, Ricardo; Palmer, Sylvain

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to describe a new posterior minimally invasive method of facet stabilization for treatment of the degenerating lumbar motion segment. The biomechanics of this Percudyn (Interventional Spine; Irvine, CA) system are distinct from that of other interspinous dynamic stabilization systems as it acts bilaterally directly within the middle column of the spine. Based on biomechanical evalution, the paired prosthesis supports, cushions, and reinforces the facet complexes by limiting both ex...

  17. Description of Causes and Treatment Types Made in Teeth with Biological Space Invasion and/or in Need of Pre-Prosthetic Surgery: Case series

    OpenAIRE

    Machón, Lourdes; Universidad Evangélica de El Salvador; Hernández, Morena; Universidad Evangélica de El Salvador; Espinoza, Manuel Antonio; Universidad Evangélica de El Salvador; Hidalgo de Andrade, Laura Elena; Universidad Evangélica de El Salvador; Andrade Acevedo, Roberto Antonio; Universidad Evangélica de El Salvador

    2010-01-01

    Background: The decision to rehabilitate or extract a tooth is determined by the knowledge of the causes of dental destruction affecting treatment plan and prognosis. Aim: Describe indications, surgical periodontal therapy prior to dental restoration, most affected teeth and age of the patients with invasion of biological space (IBS) and/or pre-prosthetic surgery. Methods: This is a case series report of 162 patients, male and female, who were treated at the predoctoral dental program of Univ...

  18. Bracing superior to neuromuscular training for the prevention of self-reported recurrent ankle sprains: a three-arm randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, K.W.; van Mechelen, W.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Ankle sprain is the most common sportsrelated injury with a high rate of recurrence and associated costs. Recent studies have emphasised the effectiveness of both neuromuscular training and bracing for the secondary prevention of ankle sprains. Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of

  19. Computerized cognitive training in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder as add-on treatment to stimulants: feasibility study and protocol description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia de Oliveira Rosa

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive training has received increasing attention as a non-pharmacological approach for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children and adolescents. Few studies have assessed cognitive training as add-on treatment to medication in randomized placebo controlled trials. The purpose of this preliminary study was to explore the feasibility of implementing a computerized cognitive training program for ADHD in our environment, describe its main characteristics and potential efficacy in a small pilot study. Methods Six ADHD patients aged 10-12-years old receiving stimulants and presenting residual symptoms were enrolled in a randomized clinical trial to either a standard cognitive training program or a controlled placebo condition for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was core ADHD symptoms measured using the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham Questionnaire (SNAP-IV scale. Results We faced higher resistance than expected to patient enrollment due to logistic issues to attend face-to-face sessions in the hospital and to fill the requirement of medication status and absence of some comorbidities. Both groups showed decrease in parent reported ADHD symptoms without statistical difference between them. In addition, improvements on neuropsychological tests were observed in both groups – mainly on trained tasks. Conclusions This protocol revealed the need for new strategies to better assess the effectiveness of cognitive training such as the need to implement the intervention in a school environment to have an assessment with more external validity. Given the small sample size of this pilot study, definitive conclusions on the effects of cognitive training as add-on treatment to stimulants would be premature.

  20. The effectiveness of braces and orthoses for patients with knee osteoarthritis: A systematic review of Japanese-language randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mine, Koya; Nakayama, Takashi; Milanese, Steve; Grimmer, Karen

    2017-04-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is common. The evidence regarding the effectiveness of braces and orthoses for patients with knee osteoarthritis is inconclusive according to English-language literature. English-language reviews to date have not included Japanese-language studies. This study aimed to collect and synthesise Japanese-language randomised controlled trials investigating the effectiveness of braces and orthoses for patients with knee osteoarthritis. Systematic review. Eight databases were systematically searched from inception to 29 July 2015. Only Japanese-language randomised controlled trials were included. Risk of bias was assessed using Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. A meta-analysis was not appropriate due to the heterogeneity in the included studies. Seven randomised controlled trials with low to high risks of bias were included. Six of seven included studies were conducted by the same author group. Limited evidence supported the positive effects of short-lever elastic knee braces to improve pain and functional disability in specific outcomes. No evidence was found to support the use of foot orthoses, such as laterally wedged insoles, medial arch support and metatarsal arch pad. Our systematic review found no conclusive evidence about the effectiveness of any braces and orthoses for patients with medial knee osteoarthritis. Future Japanese-language studies should address methodological flaws exposed in this review and strengthen the international evidence base. Clinical relevance This is the first systematic review of Japanese-language randomised controlled trials investigating orthoses for patients with knee osteoarthritis. Clinicians can consider the use of short-lever elastic knee braces to improve specifically pain on squat or walking. Evidence found in this review does not support the use of foot orthoses.

  1. Benefit-Risk Assessment, Communication, and Evaluation (BRACE) throughout the life cycle of therapeutic products: overall perspective and role of the pharmacoepidemiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radawski, Christine; Morrato, Elaine; Hornbuckle, Kenneth; Bahri, Priya; Smith, Meredith; Juhaeri, Juhaeri; Mol, Peter; Levitan, Bennett; Huang, Han-Yao; Coplan, Paul; Li, Hu

    2015-12-01

    Optimizing a therapeutic product's benefit-risk profile is an on-going process throughout the product's life cycle. Different, yet related, benefit-risk assessment strategies and frameworks are being developed by various regulatory agencies, industry groups, and stakeholders. This paper summarizes current best practices and discusses the role of the pharmacoepidemiologist in these activities, taking a life-cycle approach to integrated Benefit-Risk Assessment, Communication, and Evaluation (BRACE). A review of the medical and regulatory literature was performed for the following steps involved in therapeutic benefit-risk optimization: benefit-risk evidence generation; data integration and analysis; decision making; regulatory and policy decision making; benefit-risk communication and risk minimization; and evaluation. Feedback from International Society for Pharmacoepidemiology members was solicited on the role of the pharmacoepidemiologist. The case example of natalizumab is provided to illustrate the cyclic nature of the benefit-risk optimization process. No single, globally adopted benefit-risk assessment process exists. The BRACE heuristic offers a way to clarify research needs and to promote best practices in a cyclic and integrated manner and highlight the critical importance of cross-disciplinary input. Its approach focuses on the integration of BRACE activities for risk minimization and optimization of the benefit-risk profile. The activities defined in the BRACE heuristic contribute to the optimization of the benefit-risk profile of therapeutic products in the clinical world at both the patient and population health level. With interdisciplinary collaboration, pharmacoepidemiologists are well suited for bringing in methodology expertise, relevant research, and public health perspectives into the BRACE process. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Treatment of hand ischemia following angioaccess surgery using the distal revascularization interval-ligation technique with preservation of vascular access: description of an 18-case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Carmine; Riehl, Gregory; Porcu, Paolo; Pichot, Olivier; Palacin, Pedro; Maghlaoua, Mohamed; Magne, Jean-Luc

    2004-11-01

    Hand ischemia is a rare complication of angioaccess surgery for hemodialysis. Management usually requires ligation of the arteriovenous fistula (AVF). The purpose of this report is to describe our experience with the use of the distal revascularization interval-ligation (DRIL) technique for treatment of ischemia without ligation of the AVF. From January 1999 to September 2002, the DRIL technique was used to treat 18 patients (10 men, 8 women, 10 diabetic patients) with severe paresthesia of the hand (n = 9) and finger necrosis (n = 10). The AVF was located at the elbow in 16 patients and at the wrist in 2 patients. Mean flow distal to the AVF was less than 10 mL in 5 patients, less than 5 mL in 10, and unmeasurable in 3. The conduit used for all DRIL arterial bypasses, including 15 brachiobrachial bypasses, 1 axillobrachial bypass, 1 brachioradial bypass, and 1 radioradial bypass, was the great saphenous vein graft. Trophic manifestations required finger amputation in five patients, pulpar necrosis resection in four, and transmetacarpal amputation of the index finger in one patient. Symptoms disappeared in 13 patients (73%) and improved in 5 (27%). The time required for healing of finger amputations and trophic manifestations ranged from 15 days to 2 months. Mean arterial flow through the DRIL bypass was 50 mL/min (range, 20-90 mL/min). With a mean follow-up interval of 16 months (range, 5-48 months), primary patency of the DRIL artery bypass and AVF was 94% and the limb salvage rate was 100%. The DRIL technique is the most effective procedure for treatment of angioaccess-induced hand ischemia. This technique can be used to achieve persistent relief of symptoms with continued access patency. The DRIL artery bypass improves vacularization of the hand, and ligature of the artery stops the vascular steal without affecting hemodialysis access. The DRIL technique should be proposed as first-line treatment for hand ischemia due to AVF for hemodialysis.

  3. Treatment Patterns Among Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis Treated with a Biologic in the United States: Descriptive Analyses from an Administrative Claims Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jessica A; Adejoro, Oluwakayode; Chastek, Benjamin; Palmer, Jacqueline B; Hur, Peter

    2018-03-20

    In patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA), limited data exist regarding patterns of biologic therapy use. To examine treatment patterns and therapy modifications in U.S. patients with PsA receiving a tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) or an anti-interleukin (IL)-12/23 inhibitor. Adults with PsA who newly initiated a biologic therapy (index biologic) between January 1, 2013, and January 31, 2015, were included from the Optum Research Database. Biologic therapies comprised those that were approved by the FDA for the treatment of PsA at the time of the study initiation (adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, golimumab, infliximab, or ustekinumab). Outcomes included adherence, persistence, and discontinuation of the index biologic; initiation of adjunctive medications (nonbiologics, including those commonly used for pain and/or inflammation); and dose escalation of the index biologic during the 12-month follow-up period. Of the 1,235 patients included, 52.5% were female, and mean (SD) age was 50.3 (12.1) years. The mean (SD) duration of persistence with a newly initiated index biologic (etanercept [48.1%], adalimumab [24.0%], infliximab [10.4%], golimumab [8.3%], ustekinumab [7.2%], or certolizumab pegol [2.0%]) was 246 (128) days; 44.5% of patients persisted with the index biologic for ≥ 12 months. During the 12-month follow-up period, 22.9% of patients switched to a different biologic, 26.8% discontinued without switching or restarting, and 5.8% discontinued and restarted the index biologic. Of the 1,010 patients who persisted with the index biologic for > 90 days, 45.6% received ≥ 1 adjunctive medication during the period from 90 days after the index date to the end of persistence or 12 months. The most commonly initiated adjunctive medications were corticosteroids (22.0%), opioids (17.1%), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (12.9%). Overall, 9.6% of patients had a dose escalation of the index biologic in the immediate 12-month post-index period

  4. Effectiveness of two intensive treatment methods for smoking cessation and relapse prevention in patients with coronary heart disease: study protocol and baseline description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Nadine; Bolman, Catherine; Lechner, Lilian; Mudde, Aart; Verheugt, Freek W A; de Vries, Hein

    2012-05-15

    There is no more effective intervention for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease than smoking cessation. Yet, evidence about the (cost-)effectiveness of smoking cessation treatment methods for cardiac inpatients that also suit nursing practice is scarce. This protocol describes the design of a study on the (cost-)effectiveness of two intensive smoking cessation interventions for hospitalised cardiac patients as well as first results on the inclusion rates and the characteristics of the study population. An experimental study design is used in eight cardiac wards of hospitals throughout the Netherlands to assess the (cost-)effectiveness of two intensive smoking cessation counselling methods both combined with nicotine replacement therapy. Randomization is conducted at the ward level (cross-over). Baseline and follow-up measurements after six and 12 months are obtained. Upon admission to the cardiac ward, nurses assess patients' smoking behaviour, ensure a quit advice and subsequently refer patients for either telephone counselling or face-to-face counselling. The counselling interventions have a comparable structure and content but differ in provider and delivery method, and in duration. Both counselling interventions are compared with a control group receiving no additional treatment beyond the usual care. Between December 2009 and June 2011, 245 cardiac patients who smoked prior to hospitalisation were included in the usual care group, 223 in the telephone counselling group and 157 in the face-to-face counselling group. Patients are predominantly male and have a mean age of 57 years. Acute coronary syndrome is the most frequently reported admission diagnosis. The ultimate goal of the study is to assess the effects of the interventions on smoking abstinence and their cost-effectiveness. Telephone counselling is expected to be more (cost-)effective in highly motivated patients and patients with high SES, whereas face-to-face counselling is expected to be

  5. Description logics of context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klarman, S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Description Logics of Context (DLCs) - an extension of Description Logics (DLs) for context-based reasoning. Our approach descends from J. McCarthy's tradition of treating contexts as formal objects over which one can quantify...

  6. Physics 3204. Course Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newfoundland and Labrador Dept. of Education.

    A description of the physics 3204 course in Newfoundland and Labrador is provided. The description includes: (1) statement of purpose, including general objectives of science education; (2) a list of six course objectives; (3) course content for units on sound, light, optical instruments, electrostatics, current electricity, Michael Faraday and…

  7. Descriptive set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Moschovakis, YN

    1987-01-01

    Now available in paperback, this monograph is a self-contained exposition of the main results and methods of descriptive set theory. It develops all the necessary background material from logic and recursion theory, and treats both classical descriptive set theory and the effective theory developed by logicians.

  8. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour of kidney with thrombosis of the inferior vena cava and good responsive to surgical and medical treatment: description of a case and revision of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giliberto, Giovanni L; Di Franco, Carmelo A; Rovereto, Bruno

    2017-03-15

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) of kidney is a rare cancer typical of young adults with few cases described in the literature. We report a case of renal PNET in a 31-year-old man who presented to our department with a computed tomographic (CT)-scan revealing a large renal mass of 20 cm, massive thrombosis of the inferior vena cava (IVC). The patient underwent radical nephrectomy with contextual retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy and resection of IVC needing Dacron prosthesis substitution. Definitive histopathological examination showed PNET of kidney infiltrating ipsilateral adrenal gland, massive cava thrombosis with infiltration of vena cava wall and one lymph nodal metastasis. Postoperative PET-scan showed metastatic lesions in bilateral adrenal glands and pancreas. The patient received chemotherapy, and currently, he is in follow-up after 26 months from first diagnosis without any sign of recurrence of disease. Kidney PNET usually is associated with poor prognosis, so, it needs an early identification and differentiation from other similar small cells tumours in order to obtain a good response to the treatments.

  9. Differences between craving and health-related quality of life in patients with alcohol dependence with or without dual pathology in outpatient treatment: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Martínez, María; García-Carretero, Miguel Ángel; Gibert, Juan; Palma-Álvarez, Raúl Felipe; Abad, Alfonso Carlos; Sorribes, Marta; Roncero, Carlos

    2018-01-23

    Dual diagnosis is the coexistence of an addictive disorder and another mental disorder. The objective is to estimate cravings and self-reported quality of life in a sample of patients with alcoholic dependence, with or without dual pathology, who attend an outpatient treatment centre. A cross-sectional study of 112 patients (56 dual and 56 non-dual), diagnosed with alcohol dependence according to DSM-IV-TR. The presence of cravings is determined by the Multidimensional Alcohol Craving Scale and quality of life through the SF-36 Health Questionnaire. There are no statistically significant differences in cravings in either subgroup; the latter tend to refer to lower alcohol cravings than non-dual patients. The dual patients have a worse quality of life in all categories evaluated, highlighting a worse quality of life in the categories: social function, emotional role, vitality and general health. Females present a lower quality of life emphasising those of social function and emotional role. No differences were detected in relation to cravings between the 2 groups. In order to perform a correct clinical and therapeutic approach for patients with alcohol dependence, we should consider focusing on the evaluation of cravings and quality of life. In order to perform a correct clinical and therapeutic approach for patients with alcohol dependence, it is necessary to consider cravings and quality of life, since these parameters are important for the evaluation of patients with alcohol dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of spine motion and trunk muscle activity between abdominal hollowing and abdominal bracing maneuvers during prone hip extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suehiro, Tadanobu; Mizutani, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Susumu; Ishida, Hiroshi; Kobara, Kenichi; Osaka, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of lumbopelvic stabilization maneuvers on spine motion and trunk muscle activity during prone hip extension (PHE). In this study, 14 healthy male volunteers (mean age, 21.2 ± 2.6 years) were instructed to perform PHE without any maneuvers (control), with abdominal hollowing (AH), and with abdominal bracing (AB). Surface electromyography data were collected from the trunk muscles and the lumbopelvic motion was measured. Lumbar extension and anterior pelvic tilt degree were significantly lower in the AH and AB than in the control condition during PHE (p 0.05). Global muscle group activity such as external obliques was lower in the AH than in the AB. These findings suggest that PHE with AH effectively minimizes unwanted lumbopelvic motion which does not result in global muscle activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The street children of Manila are affected by early-in-life periodontal infection: description of a treatment modality: sea salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, J F; Michel, M G; Nadan, J; Nowzari, H

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of street children of Manila are affected by early-in-life oral infection. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of a sea-salt mouthrinse solution in street children of Manila affected by mild to severe forms of periodontal disease. These children were all in need of special protection: abandoned, abused, exploited, neglected, orphaned, poor. During 3 oral-health missions in 2003, 2004 and 2005, 617 abandoned children (5 to 13 year-old), received oral examination at a non-sectarian child-caring institution in Metro Manila (Virlanie Foundation) by calibrated examiners. A treatment based on what could be done was proposed: 1. Teaching of a precise tooth brushing technique with sea-salt, controlled and reinforced every two days for one week by calibrated health educators, 2. The application of sea-salt water mouthrinse (2.5 gram in 20 ml). Periodontal measurements were repeated at the end of each mission. All children returned to child-caring institution for the followup examinations. In 2003, 10 male and 11 female (n=21) were diagnosed with aggressive periodontitis. In 2009 and 2010, none was affected by aggressive periodontitis. For all patients, the gingival index decreased from 1.08 at the first mission to 1.04 at the end of the second mission and 0.98 at the end of the third mission. The periodontal index decreased from 1.33 at the first mission to 0.98 at the second mission and 0.92 at the last mission. The present investigation confirms that prevention and early diagnosis can result in success with minimum cost. The provided oral health program empowered street children in the most desperate circumstances to be educated and become self-reliant, independent, and responsible. We propose here an antimicrobial approach which has a high degree of efficacy and tolerability, and can be implemented in virtually all parts of the world using low-cost resources.

  12. On Meanings and Descriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Bal

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Although descriptive passages would appear to be of marginal importance in narrative texts, they are, in fact, of both logical and semantic necessity. Narratology, therefore, must take these segments into account. In this article, I shall survey the present situation in this field and compare rival points of view. I shall also offer several suggestions for analyzing descriptions. The following topics will be discussed: the nature of description as a specific type of discourse which makes it recognizable as such; the internal structure of description; the place and function of descriptions in the text as a whole. In the latter section, the semantic impact of descriptions in the overall meaning of narrative texts will be accounted for. This article is intended as a contribution to the theory of description as a part of narratology. It also has a didactic purpose, since it proposes a model for the analysis of texts which can be used for systematic text-study, both in a historical and a comparative perspective.

  13. Manual Therapy in the Treatment of Idiopathic Scoliosis. Analysis of Current Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaprowski, Dariusz

    2016-10-28

    Apart from the recommended specific physiotherapy, the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) also incorporates non-specific manual therapy (NMT). The aim of this paper is to assess the efficacy of NMT (manual therapy, chiropractic, osteopathy) used in the treatment of children and adolescents with IS. The study analysed systematic reviews (Analysis 1) and other recent scientific publications (Analysis 2). Analysis 1 encompassed papers on the use of NMT in patients with IS. Works concerning specific physiotherapy (SP) or bracing (B) and other types of scoliosis were excluded from the analysis. Inclusion criteria for Analysis 2 were: treatment with NMT; subjects aged 10-18 years with IS. The following types of papers were excluded: works analysing NMT combined with SP or B, reports concerning adult pa tients, analyses of single cases and publications included in Analysis 1. Analysis 1: six systematic reviews contained 6 papers on the efficacy of NMT in the treatment of IS. The results of these studies are contradictory, ranging from Cobb angle reduction to no treatment effects whatsoever. The papers analysed are characterised by poor methodological quality: small group sizes, incomplete descriptions of the study groups, no follow-up and no control groups. Analysis 2: in total, 217 papers were found. None of them met the criteria set for the analysis. 1. Few papers verifying the efficacy of manual therapy, chiropractic and osteopathy in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis have been published to date. 2. The majority are experimental studies with poor methodology or observational case studies. 3. At present, the efficacy of non-specific manual therapy in the treatment of patients with idiopathic scoliosis cannot be reliably evaluated. 4. It is necessary to conduct further research based on appropriate methods (prospective, rando mi s ed, controlled studies) in order to reliably assess the usefulness of non-specific manual therapy in the treatment of idiopathic

  14. Museum audio description

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Cláudia Susana Nunes

    2011-01-01

    Audio description for the blind and visually impaired has been around since people have described what is seen. Throughout time, it has evolved and developed within different media, starting with reality and daily life, moving into the cinema and television, then across other performing arts, museums and art galleries, and public places. Thus, academics and entertainment providers have developed a growing interest for audio description, especially in what concerns the best methods and strateg...

  15. 1995 Baseline solid waste management system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, G.S.; Konynenbelt, H.S.

    1995-09-01

    This provides a detailed solid waste system description that documents the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) strategy for managing Hanford's solid low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, transuranic and transuranic mixed waste, and greater-than-Class III waste. This system description is intended for use by managers of the solid waste program, facility and system planners, as well as system modelers. The system description identifies the TSD facilities that constitute the solid waste system and defines these facilities' interfaces, schedules, and capacities. It also provides the strategy for treating each of the waste streams generated or received by the Hanford Site from generation or receipt through final destination

  16. Thermodynamics of the amalgam cells {l_brace}M-Amalgam|MCl or MCl{sub 2} (m)|AgCl|Ag{r_brace} (M=Rb, Cs, Sr, Ba) and primary medium effects in (acetonitrile + water)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falciola, Luigi E-mail: luigi.falciola@unimi.it; Mussini, Patrizia R. E-mail: patrizia.mussini@unimi.it; Mussini, Torquato E-mail: torquato.mussini@unimi.it; Vimercati, Alessandro

    2004-06-01

    The potential difference E of the amalgam cell {l_brace}M{sub x}Hg{sub 1-x}|MCl or MCl{sub 2} (m)| AgCl |Ag{r_brace} (M=Rb, Cs, Sr, Ba) has been measured as a function of the mole fraction x{sub M} of M metal in amalgams and of the molality m of MCl (or MCl{sub 2}) in (acetonitrile [A] + water [W]) solvent mixtures containing up to acetonitrile mass fraction w{sub A}=0.50, at T=298.15 K. The respective molal-scale standard potential differences E{sup 0}{sub m} have been determined together with the relevant activity coefficients {gamma}{sub {+-}} functions of the MCl (or MCl{sub 2}) molality. The E{sup 0}{sub m} dependence on the mole fraction x{sub A} of acetonitrile in the solvent mixture within the range explored turns out to be linear for all the four metals M in the amalgams considered. Of course, also the difference ([E{sup 0}{sub m}]{sub W}-[E{sup 0}{sub m}]{sub A}), which is a measure of the primary medium effect upon transferring MCl (or MCl{sub 2}) from pure water [W] to the acetonitrile [A] mixture, is linear in x{sub A}. In this context, following Feakins and French's scheme, which implies volume fraction statistics, analysis of the relevant mol {center_dot} dm{sup -3} scale primary medium effects, i.e., ([E{sup 0}{sub c}]{sub W}-[E{sup 0}{sub c}]{sub A}), upon MCl (or MCl{sub 2}), as a linear function of the logarithm of water volume fraction, would lead to primary hydration numbers of 4.2 for RbCl, 4.0 for CsCl, 10.7 for SrCl{sub 2}, and 10.3 for BaCl{sub 2}, respectively, in acceptable agreement with literature data by Bockris based on different methods.

  17. The effect of knee brace and knee sleeve on the proprioception of the knee in young non-professional healthy sportsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoni, G; Herten, A; Kofler, P; Hasler, M; Nachbauer, W

    2013-12-01

    Proprioception has been defined as the capacity to feel the position of a joint in space as sensed by the central nervous system. Prophylactic knee braces are supposed to help in knee injury prevention not just with a mechanical support of the joint but also improving proprioception. The main aim of this study was to determine the effects of a knee brace and a knee sleeve on knee proprioception. The secondary aim was to determine if different starting angles of the knee and different movement directions influence knee proprioception. We tested a group of twenty healthy male sport students without knee injuries. They were tested with the brace, with the sleeve and without support. The threshold of detection of passive knee movement with a starting knee angle of 30° and 60°, both in flexion and extension was determined. We did not find any statistically significant change in the threshold of detection of passive knee movement wearing the brace or the sleeve compared to the unsupported condition (p=0.462, α=0.05). We found a significantly lower proprioceptive sensitivity starting at the more flexed knee angle (p=0.005, α=0.05) and moving in extension than in the other test situations (p=0.001, α=0.05). Movement direction and starting position appear to influence the threshold of detection of passive knee movement. The results of this study also suggest that knee supports do not influence either positively or negatively knee proprioception of uninjured active subjects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Reliability of semiology description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Seo-Young; Cho, Jinwhan; Lee, Sang-Kun; Nam, Hyunwoo

    2008-01-01

    Seizure semiology is important for classifying patients' epilepsy. Physicians usually get most of the seizure information from observers though there have been few reports on the reliability of the observers' description. This study aims at determining the reliability of observers' description of the semiology. We included 92 patients who had their habitual seizures recorded during video-EEG monitoring. We compared the semiology described by the observers with that recorded on the videotape, and reviewed which characteristics of the observers affected the reliability of their reported data. The classification of seizures and the individual components of the semiology based only on the observer-description was somewhat discordant compared with the findings from the videotape (correct classification, 85%). The descriptions of some ictal behaviors such as oroalimentary automatism, tonic/dystonic limb posturing, and head versions were relatively accurate, but those of motionless staring and hand automatism were less accurate. The specified directions by the observers were relatively correct. The accuracy of the description was related to the educational level of the observers. Much of the information described by well-educated observers is reliable. However, every physician should keep in mind the limitations of this information and use this information cautiously.

  19. Comparison of functional electrical stimulation to long leg braces for upright mobility for children with complete thoracic level spinal injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaroti, D; Akers, J M; Smith, B T; Mulcahey, M J; Betz, R R

    1999-09-01

    To prospectively compare functional electrical stimulation (FES) to long leg braces (LLB) as a means of upright mobility for children with motor-complete thoracic level spinal cord injuries (SCIs). Intrasubject group comparison of two interventions. Nonprofit pediatric orthopedic rehabilitation facility specializing in SCI. Convenience sample of five children between 9 and 18 years old with motor-complete thoracic level SCI. The hip and knee extensors were excitable by electrical stimulation. The FES system consisted of percutaneous intramuscular electrodes implanted to the hip and knee extensors and a push-button activated stimulator worn about the waist. Standing was accomplished by simultaneous stimulation of all implanted muscles. For foot and ankle stability, either ankle-foot orthoses (AFO) or supramalleolar orthoses were used. The LLB system consisted of a custom knee-ankle foot orthosis (KAFO) for four subjects and a custom reciprocating gait orthosis (RGO) for one subject who required bracing at the hip. For both interventions, either a front-wheeled walker or Lofstrand crutches were used as assistive devices. Each subject was trained in the use of both FES and LLB in seven standardized upright mobility activities: stand and reach, high transfer, toilet transfer, floor to stand, 6-meter walk, stair ascent, and stair descent. For each mobility activity, five repeated measures of level of independence, using the 7-point Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scale, and time to completion were recorded for each intervention. Subjects were also asked which intervention they preferred. For 94% of comparisons, subjects required equal (70%) or less (24%) assistance using FES as compared with LLB. Six of the seven mobility activities required less time to complete using FES, two activities at significant levels. The FES system was preferred in 62% of the cases, LLB were desired 27% of the time, and there was no preference in 11% of the cases. The FES system

  20. Olkiluoto site description 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    This fourth version of the Olkiluoto Site Report, produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), updates the Olkiluoto Site Report 2008 with the data and knowledge obtained up to December 2010. A descriptive model of the site (the Site Descriptive Model, SDM), i.e. a model describing the geological and hydrogeological structure of the site, properties of the bedrock and the groundwater and its flow, and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms. The SDM is divided into six parts: surface system, geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and transport properties

  1. CRAC2 model description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, L.T.; Alpert, D.J.; Burke, R.P.; Johnson, J.D.; Ostmeyer, R.M.; Aldrich, D.C.; Blond, R.M.

    1984-03-01

    The CRAC2 computer code is a revised version of CRAC (Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences) which was developed for the Reactor Safety Study. This document provides an overview of the CRAC2 code and a description of each of the models used. Significant improvements incorporated into CRAC2 include an improved weather sequence sampling technique, a new evacuation model, and new output capabilities. In addition, refinements have been made to the atmospheric transport and deposition model. Details of the modeling differences between CRAC2 and CRAC are emphasized in the model descriptions

  2. Olkiluoto site description 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    This fourth version of the Olkiluoto Site Report, produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), updates the Olkiluoto Site Report 2008 with the data and knowledge obtained up to December 2010. A descriptive model of the site (the Site Descriptive Model, SDM), i.e. a model describing the geological and hydrogeological structure of the site, properties of the bedrock and the groundwater and its flow, and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms. The SDM is divided into six parts: surface system, geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and transport properties.

  3. Expert opinion and controversies in sports and musculoskeletal medicine: the diagnosis and treatment of spondylolysis in adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standaert, Christopher J; Herring, Stanley A

    2007-04-01

    Although spondylolysis is relatively common in adolescent athletes, there are substantial disagreements in the literature concerning the best methods for diagnosing and treating the condition. Controversy particularly arises regarding the optimal use of available imaging modalities in the diagnosis of athletes with suspected pars defects and the extent of activity restriction or brace use required for appropriate treatment. Because there have been no controlled trials on the treatment of spondylolysis and only a very limited number of studies addressing potential imaging strategies, it is difficult to develop true evidence-based guidelines for this condition. Given the current state of the literature, it is our impression that nuclear imaging with single photon emission computed tomography followed by computed tomography, with a limited role for plain radiography, remains the standard for appropriately diagnosing a symptomatic pars lesion. Treatment hinges on activity restriction for an amount of time adequate to allow for symptom resolution and, when possible, potential bony healing followed by a progressive sport-specific rehabilitation program. The biomechanic effects of brace use in this population are not well understood, but there may be some detrimental effects to the use of a brace and there currently is no evidence that the routine use of a rigid brace results in any significant improvement in radiographic or functional outcome.

  4. Generalizing: The descriptive struggle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D.; Hon Ph.D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The literature is not kind to the use of descriptive generalizations. Authors struggle and struggle to find and rationalize a way to use them and then fail in spite of trying a myriad of work-arounds. And then we have Lincoln and Guba’s famous statement: “The only generalization is: there is no generalization” in referring to qualitative research. (op cit, p. 110 They are referring to routine QDA yielding extensive descriptions, but which tacitly include conceptual generalizations without any real thought of knowledge about them. In this chapter I wish to explore this struggle for the purpose of explaining that the various contra arguments to using descriptive generalizations DO NOT apply to the ease of using conceptual generalizations yielded in SGT and especially FGT. I will not argue for the use of descriptive generalization. I agree with Lincoln and Guba with respect to QDA, “the only generalization is: there is no generalization.” It is up to the QDA methodologists, of whom there are many; to continue the struggle and I wish them well.

  5. Tore Supra: technical description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report is aimed, after a brief recall of physics and technologic perspectives of Tore Supra, at giving a detailed description of the basic machine; details of each component are defined. Volume 1 is specifically concerned with the general aspects of Tore Supra and the toroidal field system [fr

  6. Systematic Description of Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regtien, Paulus P.L.; Sydenham, Peter H.; Thorn, Richard

    A sensor performs the exchange of information (thus energy) from one domain to another and therefore it operates on the interface between different physical domains. Several frameworks have been developed for a systematic description of sensors. Basically, they are based on either of two different

  7. Fractal description of fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung, C.W.

    1991-06-01

    Recent studies on the fractal description of fractures are reviewed. Some problems on this subject are discussed. It seems hopeful to use the fractal dimension as a parameter for quantitative fractography and to apply fractal structures to the development of high toughness materials. (author). 28 refs, 7 figs

  8. MCFire model technical description

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Conklin; James M. Lenihan; Dominique Bachelet; Ronald P. Neilson; John B. Kim

    2016-01-01

    MCFire is a computer program that simulates the occurrence and effects of wildfire on natural vegetation, as a submodel within the MC1 dynamic global vegetation model. This report is a technical description of the algorithms and parameter values used in MCFire, intended to encapsulate its design and features a higher level that is more conceptual than the level...

  9. Dry Cleaning, Course Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Albert J.; Anderson, Floyd L.

    This course description was developed by educators for use at the Work Opportunity Center which was established to teach high school dropouts and/or hard-core unemployed youth. The ultimate objectives of this course are to prepare students for employment in dry cleaning occupations and to assist them in completing their high school graduation…

  10. Business Education, Course Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Robert; Anderson, Floyd L.

    This course description was developed by educators for use at the Work Opportunity Center in teaching high school dropouts and hard-core unemployed youth. The ultimate objectives of the business education curriculum at the Center are to prepare students for employment in clerical occupations and to assist them in completing their high school…

  11. Communications, Course Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickstrom, Sandra E.; Anderson, Floyd L.

    This course description was developed by educators for use at the Work Opportunity Center which was established to teach high school dropouts and/or hardcore unemployed youth. The ultimate objectives of this curriculum are to develop communicative skills necessary for social interaction and to help the student complete high school graduation…

  12. Reading, Course Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, George; Anderson, Floyd L.

    This course description was developed by educators for use at the Work Opportunity Center which was established to teach high school dropouts and hard-core unemployed youth. The objectives of this reading curriculum are to develop skills of retarded readers, further develop skills of adequate readers, and develop an appreciation for reading.…

  13. Updating action domain descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiter, Thomas; Erdem, Esra; Fink, Michael; Senko, Ján

    2010-10-01

    Incorporating new information into a knowledge base is an important problem which has been widely investigated. In this paper, we study this problem in a formal framework for reasoning about actions and change. In this framework, action domains are described in an action language whose semantics is based on the notion of causality. Unlike the formalisms considered in the related work, this language allows straightforward representation of non-deterministic effects and indirect effects of (possibly concurrent) actions, as well as state constraints; therefore, the updates can be more general than elementary statements. The expressivity of this formalism allows us to study the update of an action domain description with a more general approach compared to related work. First of all, we consider the update of an action description with respect to further criteria, for instance, by ensuring that the updated description entails some observations, assertions, or general domain properties that constitute further constraints that are not expressible in an action description in general. Moreover, our framework allows us to discriminate amongst alternative updates of action domain descriptions and to single out a most preferable one, based on a given preference relation possibly dependent on the specified criteria. We study semantic and computational aspects of the update problem, and establish basic properties of updates as well as a decomposition theorem that gives rise to a divide and conquer approach to updating action descriptions under certain conditions. Furthermore, we study the computational complexity of decision problems around computing solutions, both for the generic setting and for two particular preference relations, viz. set-inclusion and weight-based preference. While deciding the existence of solutions and recognizing solutions are PSPACE-complete problems in general, the problems fall back into the polynomial hierarchy under restrictions on the additional

  14. Initial arch wires for alignment of crooked teeth with fixed orthodontic braces.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wang, Yan

    2010-01-01

    The initial arch wire is the first arch wire to be inserted into the fixed appliance at the beginning of orthodontic treatment and is used mainly for correcting crowding and rotations of teeth. With a number of orthodontic arch wires available for initial tooth alignment, it is important to understand which wire is most efficient, as well as which wires cause the least amount of root resorption and pain during the initial aligning stage of treatment.

  15. The effect of proprioceptive knee bracing on knee stability during three different sport related movement tasks in healthy subjects and the implications to the management of Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzlíková, I; Richards, J; Tomsa, M; Chohan, A; May, K; Smékal, D; Selfe, J

    2016-07-01

    Proprioceptive knee braces have been shown to improve knee mechanics, however much of the work to date has focused on tasks such as slow step down tasks rather than more dynamic sporting tasks. This study aimed to explore if such improvements in stability may be seen during faster sports specific tasks as well as slower tasks. Twelve subjects performed a slow step down, single leg drop jump and pivot turn jump with and without a silicone web brace. 3D kinematics of the knee were collected using a ten camera Qualisys motion analysis system. Reflective markers were placed on the foot, shank, thigh and pelvis using the Calibrated Anatomical Systems Technique. A two way ANOVA with repeated measures was performed with post-hoc pairwise comparison to explore the differences between the two conditions and three tasks. Significant differences were seen in the knee joint angles and angular velocities in the sagittal, coronal and transverse planes between the tasks. The brace showed a reduction in knee valgum and internal rotation across all tasks, with the most notable effect during the single leg drop jump and pivot turn jump. The transverse plane also showed a significant reduction in the external rotation knee angular velocity when wearing the brace. The brace influenced the knee joint kinematics in coronal and transverse planes which confirms that such braces can have a significant effect on knee control during dynamic tasks. Further studies are required exploring the efficacy of proprioceptive braces in athletic patient cohort. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigating effects of boundary conditions on the evaluation of R-factor of un-braced steel frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood M.M. Irheem

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Design of Structures to resist seismic load depends on the theory of dissipation in elastic of energy that already exists in response modification factor “R-factor”. The main problem in codes gives a constant value for R-factor, since change in boundary conditions of building change in behavior of steel frame structures and that effect on R-factor. This study is an attempt to assess overstrength, ductility and response modification factor of un-braced steel frames under change in boundary conditions as change in the direction of strong axis of column and support type beside to variation in story and bay number to be 9 frame and each frame has 8 different boundary conditions as sum of 72 case for analysis. These frames were analyzed by using nonlinear static “pushover” analysis using SAP2000 program. As a result of this study R-factor does not has a constant value, when change in boundary conditions R-factor directly changes, minimum value of 8 boundary conditions is close to the code value that is mean the code is more conservative and give a large factor of safety. Ductility reduction factor increases with increasing number of story for all boundary conditions, but overstrength has different rule. Response modification factor, overstrength factor and ductility reduction factor decrease when fundamentals period increasing for the studied frames.

  17. Multidimensional nonlinear descriptive analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nishisato, Shizuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Quantification of categorical, or non-numerical, data is a problem that scientists face across a wide range of disciplines. Exploring data analysis in various areas of research, such as the social sciences and biology, Multidimensional Nonlinear Descriptive Analysis presents methods for analyzing categorical data that are not necessarily sampled randomly from a normal population and often involve nonlinear relations. This reference not only provides an overview of multidimensional nonlinear descriptive analysis (MUNDA) of discrete data, it also offers new results in a variety of fields. The first part of the book covers conceptual and technical preliminaries needed to understand the data analysis in subsequent chapters. The next two parts contain applications of MUNDA to diverse data types, with each chapter devoted to one type of categorical data, a brief historical comment, and basic skills peculiar to the data types. The final part examines several problems and then concludes with suggestions for futu...

  18. Descriptive sensory evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian

    in projective mapping frame geometry and restrictions on the reported semantics. Two rapid descriptive evaluation techniques were proposed to represent a consensus evaluation. One of the approaches, ‘consensus attribute rating’ (CAR), allows a group of assessors to rate products on a list of pre......-selected attributes. The other approach, ‘consensus Napping’, allows a group of assessors to project products according to an agreed consensus placement on a paper sheet. Evaluations were performed either by groups of experienced sensory assessors or by product experts. Compared with conventional profiling techniques......, the evaluations showed significant correlations between some product configurations, but no consistent and systematic similarities. On average, product expert groups had less in common with the reference profiles than the trained panellist groups and the semantic descriptions of products varied to a large degree...

  19. Descriptive sensory evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian

    A recent trend in descriptive sensory evaluation methodology has been the application of rapid evaluation techniques. The ease in use makes the techniques extremely easy to implement by industry and university environments. Thus, one might not consider validity in the choice of method. The overall...... in projective mapping frame geometry and restrictions on the reported semantics. Two rapid descriptive evaluation techniques were proposed to represent a consensus evaluation. One of the approaches, ‘consensus attribute rating’ (CAR), allows a group of assessors to rate products on a list of pre...... for all groups. Hence, consensus profiling with untrained assessors should not be used for the purpose of considering consistency between panels, while assessors trained in the product may perform more reliably. As for projective mapping variations of frame geometry, evaluations in a rectangular...

  20. Resource Description Framework (RDF)

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbins, Nicholas; Shadbolt, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is the standard knowledge representation language for the Semantic Web, an evolution of the World Wide Web that aims to provide a well-founded infrastructure for publishing, sharing and querying structured data. This article provides an introduction to RDF and its related vocabulary definition language RDF Schema, and explains its relationship with the OWL Web Ontology Language. Finally, it provides an overview of the historical development of RDF and ...

  1. TMACS system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaief, C.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides a description of the Tank Monitor and Control System (TMACS). It is intended as an introduction for those persons unfamiliar with the system as well as a reference document for the users, maintenance personnel, and system designers. In addition to describing the system, the document outlines the associated drawing documentation, provides maintenance and spare parts information, and discusses other TMACS documents that provide additional detail

  2. XML Diagnostics Description Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, A.; Fernandes, H.; Varandas, C.; Lister, J.; Yonekawa, I.

    2006-01-01

    A standard for the self-description of fusion plasma diagnostics will be presented, based on the Extensible Markup Language (XML). The motivation is to maintain and organise the information on all the components of a laboratory experiment, from the hardware to the access security, to save time and money when problems arises. Since there is no existing standard to organise this kind of information, every Association stores and organises each experiment in different ways. This can lead to severe problems when the organisation schema is poorly documented or written in national languages. The exchange of scientists, researchers and engineers between laboratories is a common practice nowadays. Sometimes they have to install new diagnostics or to update existing ones and frequently they lose a great deal of time trying to understand the currently installed system. The most common problems are: no documentation available; the person who understands it has left; documentation written in the national language. Standardisation is the key to solving all the problems mentioned. From the commercial information on the diagnostic (component supplier; component price) to the hardware description (component specifications; drawings) to the operation of the equipment (finite state machines) through change control (who changed what and when) and internationalisation (information at least in the native language and in English), a common XML schema will be proposed. This paper will also discuss an extension of these ideas to the self-description of ITER plant systems, since the problems will be identical. (author)

  3. Computed and Experimental Flutter/LCO Onset for the Boeing Truss-Braced Wing Wind-Tunnel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Robert E.; Scott, Robert C.; Funk, Christie J.; Allen, Timothy J.; Sexton, Bradley W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents high fidelity Navier-Stokes simulations of the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research truss-braced wing wind-tunnel model and compares the results to linear MSC. Nastran flutter analysis and preliminary data from a recent wind-tunnel test of that model at the NASA Langley Research Center Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The simulated conditions under consideration are zero angle of attack, so that structural nonlinearity can be neglected. It is found that, for Mach number greater than 0.78, the linear flutter analysis predicts flutter onset dynamic pressure below the wind-tunnel test and that predicted by the Navier-Stokes analysis. Furthermore, the wind-tunnel test revealed that the majority of the high structural dynamics cases were wing limit cycle oscillation (LCO) rather than flutter. Most Navier-Stokes simulated cases were also LCO rather than hard flutter. There is dip in the wind-tunnel test flutter/LCO onset in the Mach 0.76-0.80 range. Conditions tested above that Mach number exhibited no aeroelastic instability at the dynamic pressures reached in the tunnel. The linear flutter analyses do not show a flutter/LCO dip. The Navier-Stokes simulations also do not reveal a dip; however, the flutter/LCO onset is at a significantly higher dynamic pressure at Mach 0.90 than at lower Mach numbers. The Navier-Stokes simulations indicate a mild LCO onset at Mach 0.82, then a more rapidly growing instability at Mach 0.86 and 0.90. Finally, the modeling issues and their solution related to the use of a beam and pod finite element model to generate the Navier-Stokes structure mode shapes are discussed.

  4. MCO Monitoring activity description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEXTON, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Spent Nuclear Fuel remaining from Hanford's N-Reactor operations in the 1970s has been stored under water in the K-Reactor Basins. This fuel will be repackaged, dried and stored in a new facility in the 200E Area. The safety basis for this process of retrieval, drying, and interim storage of the spent fuel has been established. The monitoring of MCOS in dry storage is a currently identified issue in the SNF Project. This plan outlines the key elements of the proposed monitoring activity. Other fuel stored in the K-Reactor Basins, including SPR fuel, will have other monitoring considerations and is not addressed by this activity description

  5. Description logic rules

    CERN Document Server

    Krötzsch, M

    2010-01-01

    Ontological modelling today is applied in many areas of science and technology,including the Semantic Web. The W3C standard OWL defines one of the most important ontology languages based on the semantics of description logics. An alternative is to use rule languages in knowledge modelling, as proposed in the W3C's RIF standard. So far, it has often been unclear how to combine both technologies without sacrificing essential computational properties. This book explains this problem and presents new solutions that have recently been proposed. Extensive introductory chapters provide the necessary

  6. Intramedullary nailing and functional bracing of tibial shaft fractures: 167 cases followed for minimum 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santos de la Fuente, F J; López Arévalo, R; Tena Carrillo, C; Ramos Salguero, J C; Fernández Medina, J M

    1998-10-01

    We treated 167 diaphyseal tibial fractures without reaming and with intramedullary fixation, using an unlocked Küntscher nail. The patients were followed for a minimum of 2 years. The mean time to union was 16 weeks. There were no serious complications, but 1 case of nonunion, 1 case of deep infection and 2 cases of clinically relevant malalignment. Migration of the nail was observed in 11 cases. We conclude that this treatment is simple and gives satisfactory results in diaphyseal fractures after low- or mid-energy trauma.

  7. Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa M. Raghab

    2013-08-01

    The main goal of this study is to utilize a natural low cost material “as an accelerator additive to enhance the chemical treatment process using Alum coagulant and the accelerator substances were Perlite and Bentonite. The performance of the chemical treatment was enhanced using the accelerator substances with 90 mg/l Alum as a constant dose. Perlite gave better performance than the Bentonite effluent. The removal ratio for conductivity, turbidity, BOD and COD for Perlite was 86.7%, 87.4%, 89.9% and 92.8% respectively, and for Bentonite was 83.5%, 85.0%, 86.5% and 85.0% respectively at the same concentration of 40 mg/l for each.

  8. Multiple Descriptions Using Sparse Decompositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Østergaard, Jan; Dahl, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the design of multiple descriptions (MDs) using sparse decompositions. In a description erasure channel only a subset of the transmitted descriptions is received. The MD problem concerns the design of the descriptions such that they individually approximate the source...... first-order method to the proposed convex problem such that we can solve large-scale instances for image sequences....

  9. Evalutive Descriptions of Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Lah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the fact that, throughout history, certain artworks have been considered as “worth of watching” (according to the Greek etymon ἀξιοϑέατος / aksioteatos, preservation, or theorizing, while others were not, one is led to investigate the various types of evaluative descriptions. Those artworks that are more valuable than others, or simply valuable in themselves on the basis of rather specific features, have always represented the paradigmatic model for the evaluator, thus revealing the identitary nature of value as different from one epoch to another. Our aim has been to discern, with regard to this starting point, the way in which the process of evaluating artworks fits the general matrix of the universal theory of value, with its clearly distinguished levels of evaluation, beginning with value descriptions, continuing through the features of evaluation or abstract qualities of values extracted from these descriptions, and ending with value norms or systems of accepted generalizations in evaluation. Value standpoints in such an evaluation matrix represent dispositions or preferences in procedures, which reflect the norms or signifying concepts of the time. Corresponding procedures, or applications of the hierarchicized signification of artworks, are manifested in all known forms of artwork assessment: attribution, institutionalization, and setting of priorities in terms of exhibition, conservation, acquisition, restoration, and so on. Research in the history of European art-historical ideas has corroborated the hypothesis that, prior to the late 18th century, clear normative patterns were applied when it came to the evaluation of artworks. However, with the emergence of early Romanticism, this could no longer be done in the traditional way. Before the period in question, visual art was created (regardless of some stylistic discrepancies between individual authors and classified according to well-defined thematic

  10. Polemic and Descriptive Negations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horslund, Camilla Søballe

    2011-01-01

    as such may be more or less central to the meaning of the utterance. The present paper investigates the role of morphosyntactic and prosodic prominence as well as register and social setting on the interpretation of negations. It seems plausible to expect that if the negation as such is central to the meaning...... of the utterance (as in polemic negations), the negation will be articulated prominently in order to emphasise this importance. Likewise, if the negation is not central to the meaning of the utterance, it should not be articulated prominently. Moreover, it is plausible to expect descriptive negations to be more...... common in certain social context or genres, while polemic negations are more likely to come up in other genres and social settings. Previous studies have shown a relation between articulatory prominence and register, which may further inform the analysis. Hence, the paper investigates how articulatory...

  11. Task Description Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Reid; Apfelbaum, David

    2005-01-01

    Task Description Language (TDL) is an extension of the C++ programming language that enables programmers to quickly and easily write complex, concurrent computer programs for controlling real-time autonomous systems, including robots and spacecraft. TDL is based on earlier work (circa 1984 through 1989) on the Task Control Architecture (TCA). TDL provides syntactic support for hierarchical task-level control functions, including task decomposition, synchronization, execution monitoring, and exception handling. A Java-language-based compiler transforms TDL programs into pure C++ code that includes calls to a platform-independent task-control-management (TCM) library. TDL has been used to control and coordinate multiple heterogeneous robots in projects sponsored by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It has also been used in Brazil to control an autonomous airship and in Canada to control a robotic manipulator.

  12. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  13. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel

  14. Olkiluoto site description 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-05-01

    This Olkiluoto Site Description 2004 is a description of the Olkiluoto site, in which the various disciplines have been integrated to produce a coherent picture, and is based on the data available prior to the start of the underground excavation of the ONKALO facility. This report is the first version of such a Site Report and supplements the site syntheses that have already been published. Further Site Reports will be produced on a regular basis and it is planned that the Site Report should form the geoscientific basis of the Safety Case in a future licence application. The report updates the Baseline report published in 2003 and is designed to produce an integrated site model, by focusing on interdisciplinary interactions, and also by including new data obtained during 2003 and 2004. The report has been produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), which covers the areas of geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry. In addition to discussing the input from these four disciplines, the Site Report also includes a description of the surface conditions. Formally, the surface conditions are not within the remit of the OMTF, which is concentrating on modelling the bedrock around the ONKALO and the future repository. The influence of the surface conditions to the overall system and to the conditions at depth is recognised, however, and thus a summary of climate, ecosystems and overburden properties is also included in this report. Chapter 1 sets out the methodology to be used in the modelling, describes the various discipline-specific models which are developed and the modelled areas which are used, and also describes two important processes - the prediction/outcome studies and the uncertainty and confidence assessment. The difference between the estimate (the prediction) and the result (the outcome) indicates the level of knowledge and the prevailing uncertainties in the models. Chapter 2 presents the applied investigation data, which are

  15. Alternative methods of conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycka, Maja; Rozek, Karina; Zarzycki, Michał

    2009-01-01

    Scoliosis is a deformity of the spine known since Hippocrates times. The value of certain methods of conservative treatment remains controversial. Some of them have only a psychological value both for the physician and his or her caregivers. Based on current literature and the Scoliosis Research Society Report of Alternative Methods of Treatment of Idiopathic Scoliosis, we describe the effectiveness of various alternative methods, such as exercise, Dobosiewicz technique, Karski method, SEAS 02, acupuncture, Alexander technique, aromatherapy, ayurveda, ASCO treatment, biofeedback, chiropractic, Yoga, Feldenkrais method, Pilates method, massage therapy, rolfing, magnet therapy, surface electrical stimulation, PNF, Copes system, and bracing.

  16. Control of motion of tibial fractures with use of a functional brace or an external fixator. A study of cadavera with use of a magnetic motion sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellop, H; Hoffmann, R; Sarmiento, A; Ebramzadeh, E

    1993-07-01

    A computer-linked magnetic motion transducer was used to monitor and record the six components of motion of the bone fragments in eight cadaveric tibiae in which a simulated, oblique fracture of the middle of the shaft had been stabilized with a functional brace. The limbs were mounted in a servo-hydraulic testing frame, and a cyclic load of 150 newtons was applied along the axis of the tibia. Motion sensors, attached to each side of the fracture, measured and displayed the values of the three translations (axial, anterior-posterior, and medial-lateral), the axial rotation, and the two angulations (anterior-posterior and varus-valgus) as they occurred. Although only an axial load was applied, the off-axis motions were comparable in magnitude with the motion along the axis. The elastic (recoverable) translations of the fragments ranged from 0.5 to 1.9 millimeters, about four to ten times larger than the corresponding motions that were recorded in an earlier study of such fractures that had been stabilized with two types of external fixators. The recoverable rotation and angulations of the fragments of the limbs in the functional brace ranged from 0.7 to 1.2 degrees, about ten times those recorded when the external fixators were used.

  17. Oral health: orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martonffy, Andrea Ildiko

    2015-01-01

    Improper tooth alignment due to crowding, malocclusion, and missing teeth can cause difficulties with eating and speech, and premature wear. It is estimated that more than 20% of children would benefit from orthodontic treatment to correct these conditions, many of which will persist into adulthood if not corrected. Orthodontic care is gaining popularity among adults for similar concerns, as well as for correction of cosmetic issues. The psychological effects of malocclusion should not be ignored. The American Association of Orthodontists recommends that all children undergo evaluation at the first recognition of an orthodontic condition and no later than age 7 years. Some children will need early treatment to help eliminate developing conditions and improve the foundations of the bite, which can ease later treatment in adolescence. For others, treatment in adolescence without early treatment is recommended. Standard cemented braces or clear, removable aligners may be used, depending on the patient's corrective needs. Average treatment time is approximately 2 years; this may be shortened by the use of accelerative techniques. Routine preventive dental care should be continued during the treatment period. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  18. Treatment for spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonidou, Andreas; Lepetsos, Panagiotis; Pagkalos, Joseph; Antonis, Konstantinos; Flieger, Ioannis; Tsiridis, Eleftherios; Leonidou, Omiros

    2015-12-01

    To review outcome of 44 children who underwent conservative or surgical treatment for spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis. Records of 25 male and 19 female children aged 5 to 14 (mean, 10.2) years who underwent conservative (n=39) or surgical (n=5) treatment for spondylolysis (n=19) or spondylolisthesis (n=25) were reviewed. Conservative treatment involved application of a thoracolumbosacral orthotic brace for all day except bedtime until symptoms resolved and then physiotherapy including exercises to strengthen the abdominal and back muscles and stretching exercises of the hamstrings and hip flexors. Surgery (instrumented posterolateral fusion [n=4] or Wiltse posterolateral fusion [n=1]) with allografts was indicated in patients with refractory pain (n=2) or nerve root irritation (n=1) and in patients with iatrogenic spondylolisthesis (n=2), followed by application of the brace for 3 months and then physiotherapy. Outcome was assessed using the Seitsalo scoring system. The mean follow-up period was 6.5 (range, 3-10) years. No patient developed any postoperative complication. Outcome was excellent in 35 patients, good in 8, and fair in one. All 5 patients who underwent posterolateral fusion for refractory spondylolisthesis achieved good outcome. In 11 patients with spondylolysis, the pars defect healed. None of the spondylolysis progressed to spondylolisthesis. All displacements remained stable, without any progression. Conservative treatment is effective for most patients with spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis. Instrumented posterolateral fusion is indicated in patients with persistent symptoms and for iatrogenic cases.

  19. Behavior of Shear Link of WF Section with Diagonal Web Stiffener of Eccentrically Braced Frame (EBF of Steel Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurisman

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of numerical and experimental study of shear link behavior, utilizing diagonal stiffener on web of steel profile to increase shear link performance in an eccentric braced frame (EBF of a steel structure system. The specimen is to examine the behavior of shear link by using diagonal stiffener on web part under static monotonic and cyclic load. The cyclic loading pattern conducted in the experiment is adjusted according to AISC loading standards 2005. Analysis was carried out using non-linear finite element method using MSC/NASTRAN software. Link was modeled as CQUAD shell element. Along the boundary of the loading area the nodal are constraint to produce only one direction loading. The length of the link in this analysis is 400mm of the steel profile of WF 200.100. Important parameters considered to effect significantly to the performance of shear link have been analyzed, namely flange and web thicknesses, , thickness and length of web stiffener, thickness of diagonal stiffener and geometric of diagonal stiffener. The behavior of shear link with diagonal web stiffener was compared with the behavior of standard link designed based on AISC 2005 criteria. Analysis results show that diagonal web stiffener is capable to increase shear link performance in terms of stiffness, strength and energy dissipation in supporting lateral load. However, differences in displacement ductility’s between shear links with diagonal stiffener and shear links based on AISC standards have not shown to be significant. Analysis results also show thickness of diagonal stiffener and geometric model of stiffener to have a significant influence on the performance of shear links. To perform validation of the numerical study, the research is followed by experimental work conducted in Structural Mechanic Laboratory Center for Industrial Engineering ITB. The Structures and Mechanics Lab rotary PAU-ITB. The experiments were carried out using three test

  20. Descriptive assessment for physical education

    OpenAIRE

    Pirih Tavčar, Ksenija

    2016-01-01

    Descriptive grading is a type of grading in which opinions about children’s knowledge or products are expressed in sentences. This opinion highlights what individual children know or have mastered, what they have not mastered, and what they should do to improve. In descriptive grading, the pupil’s work is assessed in terms of learning objectives. In their descriptive grades, physical education (PE) teachers write down everything that they have taught and reviewed with their pupils during t...

  1. Olkiluoto biosphere description 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, R.; Aro, L.; Ilvesniemi, H.; Kareinen, T.; Kirkkala, T.; Mykrae, S.; Turkki, H.; Lahdenperae, A.-M.; Ikonen, A.T.K.

    2007-02-01

    This report summarises the current knowledge of the biosphere of Olkiluoto, and it is the first Biosphere Description Report. The elements considered were climate, topography, land use, overburden, terrestrial vegetation and fauna and sea flora, fauna and water. The principal aim was to present a synthesis of the present state (now to 2020) and the main features of past evolution of the biosphere at the site using currently available data. The lack of site specific parameters and their importance was discussed. Conceptual ecosystem models are presented for land and sea. Currently available data made it possible to calculate the biomass of the terrestrial vegetation and further convert it to carbon. In the case of terrestrial animals, preliminary figures are given for moose alone due to lack of sitespecific data. For the same reason, the sea ecosystem model was not quantified within this work. The ecosystems on Olkiluoto do not deviate from the surrounding areas. Since mires are few on Olkiluoto, forests are the most important land ecosystem. However, coastal areas are the transition zones between land and sea, and also potential sites for deep groundwater discharge. The major interest concerning aquatic ecosystems was laid on four future lakes potentially developing from the sea due to the land up-lift. Current sea sediments near Olkiluoto are future land areas, and thus very important. Spatially, the forest ecosystems of Olkiluoto are now most comprehensively covered, while the temporal coverage is highest in sea ecosystems. Lack of data is greatest in terrestrial fauna and sea sediments. During this work, the system boundaries were crossed and the use of data over disciplines was started. The data were mostly in agreement, but some discrepancies were detected. To solve these, and to supplement the existing data, some recommendations were given. (orig.)

  2. Trusting Description: Authenticity, Accountability, and Archival Description Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Heather

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that one of the purposes of archival description is to establish grounds for presuming the authenticity of the records being described. The article examines the implications of this statement by examining the relationship between and among authenticity, archival description, and archival accountability, assessing how this…

  3. Knee braces - unloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most people talk about the arthritis in their knees, they are referring to a type of arthritis ... is caused by wear and tear inside your knee joints. Cartilage, the firm, rubbery tissue that cushions ...

  4. Knee Bracing: What Works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness, Exercise Basics, First Aid and Injury Prevention, Injury Rehabilitation, Prevention and Wellness, Sports SafetyTags: Knee Pain, Pain Management September 1, 2005 Copyright © American ...

  5. The preventive effect of a soccer-specific ankle brace on acute lateral ankle sprains in girls amateur soccer players: study protocol of a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijs, Karin; Huisstede, Bionka; Goedhart, Edwin; Backx, Frank

    2017-07-27

    Acute lateral ankle sprains are the single most often diagnosed injury in female soccer players and often result in an inability to play. This highlights the need for effective prevention strategies. Proprioceptive training and/or the use of an external support to decrease inversion of the ankle joint can prevent or reduce the number of acute lateral ankle sprains. The effectiveness of a soccer-specific ankle brace in reducing first-time and recurrent acute lateral ankle sprains has never been investigated in girl soccer players. If effective, ankle braces could be introduced into soccer. Cluster-randomised controlled trial. Girl amateur soccer players (aged 14-18 years) will be allocated to an intervention or control group. The intervention group will be instructed to wear soccer-specific ankle braces on both ankles during soccer training and matches; the control group will continue playing soccer as usual. Primary outcomes are the incidence and severity of acute lateral ankle sprains. Secondary outcomes are the prognostic value of generalised joint hypermobility and functional stability on the risk of acute lateral ankle sprains and compliance with the intervention. The findings from this study may provide evidence to support the use of a soccer-specific ankle brace to prevent lateral ankle sprains during soccer. We hypothesise that this brace will reduce the incidence of ankle sprains among young amateur girl soccer players by 50%. The prevention of such injuries will be beneficial to players, clubs and society. The Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR6045; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. In-Office Bleaching During Orthodontic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Mauricio Neves; Dutra, Hélio; Morais, Alexandre; Sgura, Ricardo; Devito-Moraes, André Guaraci

    2017-04-01

    To demonstrate that it is possible to pursue teeth whitening treatment protocols during orthodontic treatment with no esthetic loss. Many patients undergoing orthodontic treatment desire to have a straight and well aligned dentition, but also whiter teeth. For many years, it was believed that carrying out a whitening treatment with positioned orthodontic brackets in place would result in localized spots on the enamel labial surfaces of teeth. However, a deeper understanding of the bleaching process suggests that the oxidation caused by products, which results from hydrogen peroxide decomposition, are able to diffuse peripherally into the tooth structure and reach even that under the cemented brackets. Two in-office-bleaching treatments were performed in patients using orthodontic fixed braces in two or three 40-minute sessions using a 35% hydrogen peroxide. In-office bleaching is possible and effective, even with orthodontic brackets in position. The teeth were successfully bleached despite the presence of brackets. All biological criteria have been fulfilled satisfying patients' expectations of aligned and whitened teeth in less time than if treatments had been performed separately, with satisfactory results and no esthetic loss. The whitening of teeth is possible during orthodontic treatment with fixed braces without any esthetic loss. The in-office bleaching treatment with brackets in position also may act as a motivation factor, preventing patient withdrawal or treatment interruption. Therefore, at the end of the orthodontic treatment, the patient is able to display an aligned, functional and whitened smile. (J Esthet Restor Dent 29:83-92, 2017). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The TVT Glass Pavilion: Theoretical Study on a Highly Transparent Building Made with Long-Spanned TVT Portals Braced with Hybrid Glass-Steel Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Froli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary buildings, the architectural demand for a complete dematerialisation of load bearing structures can be satisfied only in limited cases with the exclusive structural use of glass. Otherwise, for challenging applications such as long spanned or high-rise structures, the use of hybrid glass-steel systems is mandatory. Glass, fragile but highly compressive resistant, is associated with steel, ductile and tensile resistant. The present research shows the feasibility study for a fully glazed pavilion made of six TVT (Travi Vitree Tensegrity portal frames longitudinally braced by pre-stressed hybrid glass panels. The frames are about 20 m in span and 8 m in height. Appropriate multiscalar FEM numerical analyses, calibrated on the collapse tests performed on previous TVT large-scale prototypes, stated that the structural performance would be able to withstand heavy static and dynamic loads and stated the observance of the Fail-Safe Design principles.

  8. Safety and walking ability of KAFO users with the C-Brace®Orthotronic Mobility System, a new microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pröbsting, Eva; Kannenberg, Andreas; Zacharias, Britta

    2017-02-01

    There are clear indications for benefits of stance control orthoses compared to locked knee ankle foot orthoses. However, stance control orthoses still have limited function compared with a sound human leg. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential benefits of a microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis compared to stance control orthoses and locked knee ankle foot orthoses in activities of daily living. Survey of lower limb orthosis users before and after fitting of a microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis. Thirteen patients with various lower limb pareses completed a baseline survey for their current orthotic device (locked knee ankle foot orthosis or stance control orthosis) and a follow-up for the microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis with the Orthosis Evaluation Questionnaire, a new self-reported outcome measure devised by modifying the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire for use in lower limb orthotics and the Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire. The Orthosis Evaluation Questionnaire results demonstrated significant improvements by microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis use in the total score and the domains of ambulation ( p = .001), paretic limb health ( p = .04), sounds ( p = .02), and well-being ( p = .01). Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire results showed significant improvements with the microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis with regard to perceived safety and difficulty of activities of daily living. The microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis may facilitate an easier, more physiological, and safer execution of many activities of daily living compared to traditional leg orthosis technologies. Clinical relevance This study compared patient-reported outcomes of a microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis (C-Brace) to those with traditional knee ankle foot orthosis and stance control orthosis devices. The C-Brace offers new functions including controlled

  9. Aeroelastic Analysis of SUGAR Truss-Braced Wing Wind-Tunnel Model Using FUN3D and a Nonlinear Structural Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Robert E.; Scott, Robert C.; Allen, Timothy J.; Sexton, Bradley W.

    2015-01-01

    Considerable attention has been given in recent years to the design of highly flexible aircraft. The results of numerous studies demonstrate the significant performance benefits of strut-braced wing (SBW) and trussbraced wing (TBW) configurations. Critical aspects of the TBW configuration are its larger aspect ratio, wing span and thinner wings. These aspects increase the importance of considering fluid/structure and control system coupling. This paper presents high-fidelity Navier-Stokes simulations of the dynamic response of the flexible Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) truss-braced wing wind-tunnel model. The latest version of the SUGAR TBW finite element model (FEM), v.20, is used in the present simulations. Limit cycle oscillations (LCOs) of the TBW wing/strut/nacelle are simulated at angle-of-attack (AoA) values of -1, 0 and +1 degree. The modal data derived from nonlinear static aeroelastic MSC.Nastran solutions are used at AoAs of -1 and +1 degrees. The LCO amplitude is observed to be dependent on AoA. LCO amplitudes at -1 degree are larger than those at +1 degree. The LCO amplitude at zero degrees is larger than either -1 or +1 degrees. These results correlate well with both wind-tunnel data and the behavior observed in previous studies using linear aerodynamics. The LCO onset at zero degrees AoA has also been computed using unloaded v.20 FEM modes. While the v.20 model increases the dynamic pressure at which LCO onset is observed, it is found that the LCO onset at and above Mach 0.82 is much different than that produced by an earlier version of the FEM, v. 19.

  10. Modelling object typicality in description logics - [Workshop on Description Logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors presents a semantic model of typicality of concept members in description logics that accords well with a binary, globalist cognitive model of class membership and typicality. The authors define a general preferential semantic framework...

  11. Detector Description Framework in LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Ponce, Sébastien

    2003-01-01

    The Gaudi architecture and framework are designed to provide a common infrastructure and environment for simulation, filtering, reconstruction and analysis applications. In this context, a Detector Description Service was developed in LHCb in order to also provide easy and coherent access to the description of the experimental apparatus. This service centralizes every information about the detector, including geometry, materials, alignment, calibration, structure and controls. From the proof of concept given by the first functional implementation of this service late 2000, the Detector Description Service has grown and has become one of the major components of the LHCb software, shared among all applications, including simulation, reconstruction, analysis and visualization. We describe here the full and functional implementation of the service. We stress the easiness of customization and extension of the detector description by the user, on the seamless integration with condition databases in order to handle ...

  12. Thermodynamics of the amalgam cells {l_brace}Cs-amalgam|CsX (m)|AgX|Ag{r_brace} (X=Cl, Br, I) and primary medium effects in (methanol+water) (acetonitrile+water), and (1,4-dioxane+water) solvent mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falciola, Luigi [Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, University of Milan, Via Golgi 19, I-20133 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: luigi.falciola@unimi.it; Longoni, Giorgio [Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, University of Milan, Via Golgi 19, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Mussini, Patrizia R. [Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, University of Milan, Via Golgi 19, I-20133 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: patrizia.mussini@unimi.it; Mussini, Torquato [Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, University of Mi