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Sample records for brace treatment description

  1. A specific scoliosis classification correlating with brace treatment: description and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villagrasa Mónica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal classification systems for scoliosis which were developed to correlate with surgical treatment historically have been used in brace treatment as well. Previously, there had not been a scoliosis classification system developed specifically to correlate with brace design and treatment. The purpose of this study is to show the intra- and inter- observer reliability of a new scoliosis classification system correlating with brace treatment. Methods An original classification system ("Rigo Classification" was developed in order to define specific principles of correction required for efficacious brace design and fabrication. The classification includes radiological as well as clinical criteria. The radiological criteria are utilized to differentiate five basic types of curvatures including: (I imbalanced thoracic (or three curves pattern, (II true double (or four curve pattern, (III balanced thoracic and false double (non 3 non 4, (IV single lumbar and (V single thoracolumbar. In addition to the radiological criteria, the Rigo Classification incorporates the curve pattern according to SRS terminology, the balance/imbalance at the transitional point, and L4-5 counter-tilting. To test the intra-and inter-observer reliability of the Rigo Classification, three observers (1 MD, 1 PT and 1 CPO measured (and one of them, the MD, re-measured 51 AP radiographs including all curvature types. Results The intra-observer Kappa value was 0.87 (acceptance >0.70. The inter-observer Kappa values fluctuated from 0.61 to 0.81 with an average of 0.71 (acceptance > 0.70. Conclusions A specific scoliosis classification which correlates with brace treatment has been proposed with an acceptable intra-and inter-observer reliability.

  2. Ingrown toenails (unguis incarnatus): Nail braces/bracing treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chiriac, Anca; Solovan, Caius; Brzezinski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Nail bracing is a safe, simple, and inexpensive treatment option that avoids surgery, requires no anesthetic, requires no recovery period, allows wearing the existing shoes, offers immediate relief from pain, and allows the practice of daily activities. Braces can be used for prolonged periods of times. If recurrence occurs, reapplication of bracing is usually required.

  3. Soft braces in the treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS – Review of the literature and description of a new approach

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    Weiss Hans-Rudolf

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of soft braces to treat scoliosis has been described by Fischer as early as 1876. With the help of elastic straps, as the authors suggested, a corrective movement for individual curve patterns should be maintained in order to inhibit curve progression. Today this concept has been revived besides soft 3 point pressure systems. Some shortcomings have been revealed in literature in comparison with hard braces, however the concept of improving quality of life of a patient while under brace treatment should furtherly be considered as valuable. Purpose of this review is to gather the body of evidence existent for the use of soft braces and to present recent developments. Method A review of literature as available on Pub Med was performed using the key words ‘scoliosis’ and ‘soft brace’ at first. The search was expanded using ‘scoliosis’ and the known trademarks (1 ‘scoliosis’ and ‘SpineCor’, (2 ‘scoliosis’ and ‘TriaC’, (3 ‘scoliosis’ and ‘St. Etienne brace’, (4 ‘scoliosis’ and ‘Olympe’. The papers considered for inclusion were new technical descriptions, preliminary results, cohort studies and controlled studies. Results When searching for the terms ‘scoliosis’ and ‘SpineCor’: 20 papers have been found, most of them investigating a soft brace, for ‘scoliosis’ and ‘TriaC’: 7 papers displayed, for ‘scoliosis’ and ‘St. Etienne brace’: one paper displayed but not meeting the topic and for ‘scoliosis’ and ‘Olympe’: No paper displayed. Four papers found on the SpineCor™ were of prospective controlled or prospective randomized design. These papers partly presented contradictory results. Two papers were on soft Boston braces used in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis. Discussion There is a small but consistent body of evidence for the use of soft braces in the treatment of scoliosis. Contradictory results have been published for samples treated during

  4. "Brace technology" thematic series - the Gensingen brace™ in the treatment of scoliosis

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    Weiss Hans-Rudolf

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bracing concepts in use today for the treatment of scoliosis include symmetric and asymmetric hard braces usually made of polyethylene (PE and soft braces. A new asymmetric Chêneau style CAD/CAM derivate has been designed to overcome problems the author experienced with other Chêneau CAD/CAM systems over the recent years. Brace description This CAD/CAM Chêneau derivate has been called Gensingen brace™, a brace available to address all possible curve patterns. Once the patients' trunk is scanned with the help of a whole trunk optical 3D-scan and the patients' data from the clinical measurements are recorded, a model of the brace can be created by (1 modifying the trunk model of the patient 'on screen' to achieve a very individual brace model using the CAD/CAM tools provided or by (2 choosing a brace model from our library and re-size it to the patients' properties 'on screen'. Results End-result studies have been published on the Chêneau brace as early as 1985. Cohort studies on the Chêneau brace are available as is a prospective controlled study respecting the SRS criteria for bracing studies, demonstrating beneficial outcomes, when compared to the controls using a soft brace. Sufficient in-brace correction effects have been demonstrated to be achievable when the Chêneau principles of correction are used appropriately. As there is a positive correlation between in-brace correction and the final outcome, the Chêneau concept of bracing with sufficient in-brace corrections as published can be regarded as being efficient when applied well. Case reports with high in-brace corrections, as shown within this paper using the Gensingen brace™ promise beneficial outcomes when a good compliance can be achieved. Conclusions The use of the Gensingen brace™ leads to sufficient in-brace corrections, when compared to the correction effects achieved with other braces, as described in literature. According to the patients' reports

  5. Providence nighttime bracing, in treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simony, A.; Beuschau, Inge; Quisth, Lena;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Since 2008 the non-surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in the southern part of Denmark, went from full-time bracing with Boston brace, to Providence night-time bracing. Methods: Since 2008, skeletally immature patients diagnosed with AIS and a primary curve......, but it seems like patients treated with Providence braces are more likely to experience back pain than healthy adolescents and surgically treated scoliosis patients....

  6. Brace treatment for patients with Scheuermann's disease - a review of the literature and first experiences with a new brace design

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    Turnbull Deborah

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contemporary literature few have written in detail on the in-brace correction effects of braces used for the treatment of hyperkyphosis. Bradford et al. found their attempts effective, treating Scheuermann's kyphosis with Milwaukee braces, but their report did not specifically focus on in-brace corrections. White and Panjabi's research attempted to correct a curvature of > 50° with the help of distraction forces, but consequently led to a reduction in patient comfort in the application of the Milwaukee brace. In Germany they avoid this by utitlising braces to treat hyperkyphosis that use transverse correction forces instead of distraction forces. Further efforts to reduce brace material have resulted in a special bracing design called kyphologic™ brace. The aim of this review is to present appropriate research to collect and evaluate possible in-brace corrections which have been achieved with brace treatment for hyperkyphosis. This paper introduces new methods of bracing and compares the results of these with other successful bracing concepts. Materials and methods 56 adolescents with the diagnosis of thoracic Scheuermann's hyperkyphosis or a thoracic idiopathic hyperkyphosis (22 girls and 34 boys with an average age of 14 years (12-17 yrs. were treated with the kyphologic™ brace between May 2007 and December 2008. The average Stagnara angle was 55,6° (43-80. In-brace correction was recorded and compared to the initial angle using the t-test. Results The average Stagnara angle in the brace was 39°. The average in-brace correction was 16.5° (1-40°. The verage percentage of in-brace correction compared to the initial value was 36%. The differences were significant in the t-test (t = 5.31, p Discussion If we assume that outcome of brace treatment positively correlates with in-brace correction, the treatment should be initiated before the curvature angle exceeds 50 - 55° in a growing adolescent. In scoliosis bracing

  7. Patients' Preferences for Scoliosis Brace Treatment A Discrete Choice Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Bunge; E.W. de Bekker-Grob; F.C. van Biezen; M.L. Essink-Bot; H.J. de Koning

    2010-01-01

    Study Design. Discrete choice experiment. Objective. To investigate the reduction in the risk of surgery that scoliosis patients would require in order to consider brace treatment as acceptable, and to elicit the trade-offs individuals make between characteristics of brace treatment. Summary of Back

  8. "Brace Technology" Thematic Series - The Lyon approach to the conservative treatment of scoliosis

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    Lecante Cyril

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Lyon Brace, or adjustable multi-shell brace, has been used for more than 60 years. The use and function of the Lyon Brace includes: - The utilization of one or two corrective plaster casts, which enables a true lengthening of the concave ligaments. - An oriented CAD-CAM moulding in 3D auto correction after the removal of the plaster cast. - A blueprint adapted to Lenke's classification. - A specific physiotherapy program. Background Pierre Stagnara created the Lyon Brace in 1947. The brace has the following characteristics: - It adjusts to allow for a child's growth of up to seven centimetres and for an increase in weight of up to seven kilograms. - It is 'active' in that the rigidity of the PMM (polymetacrylate of methyl structure stimulates the user to auto-correct. The active axial auto-correction decreases the pressures of the brace on the trunk. - It is decompressive in that the effect of extension between the two pelvic and scapular girdles decreases the pressure on the intervertebral disc allowing for more effective pushes in the other planes. - It is symmetrical making it both more aesthetically pleasing and easier to build. - It is stable at both shoulders and pelvic girdle, facilitating the intermediate 3D corrections. - It is transparent. The pressure of the shells on the skin can be directly controlled so "pads" are usually not necessary. Brace description Two metal bars are fixed vertically, one anterior the other posterior and all shells are attached from the bottom to the top in this order: - Two pelvic shells ensure an optimal stability of the brace. - One lumbar shell T12-L4, which can be either independent or extending, at the abdominal chondrocostal level. - One thoracic shell at the level of the thoracic convexity. - One opposite thoracic shell used as a counter push. - One shoulder balance shell on the side of the thoracic convexity. Long term follow up results This is a retrospective study of 1,338 completed

  9. Fluorides for the prevention of early tooth decay (demineralised white lesions) during fixed brace treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, P.E.; Parkin, N.; Dyer, F.; Millett, D. T.; Furness, S.; P. Germain

    2013-01-01

    Demineralised white lesions (DWLs) can appear on teeth during fixed brace treatment because of early decay around the brackets that attach the braces to the teeth. Fluoride is effective in reducing decay in susceptible individuals in the general population. Individuals receiving orthodontic treatment may be prescribed various forms of fluoride treatment. This review compares the effects of various forms of fluoride used during orthodontic treatment on the development of DWLs. This is an updat...

  10. Predicting success or failure of brace treatment for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Eric; Westover, Lindsey; Jacob, Johith; Donauer, Andreas; Zhao, Vicky H; Parent, Eric C; Moreau, Marc J; Mahood, James K; Hedden, Douglas M; Lou, Edmond H M

    2015-10-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a three-dimensional spinal deformity. Brace treatment is a common non-surgical treatment, intended to prevent progression (worsening) of the condition during adolescence. Estimating a braced patient's risk of progression is an essential part of planning treatment, so method for predicting this risk would be a useful decision support tool for practitioners. This work attempts to discover whether failure of brace treatment (progression) can be predicted at the start of treatment. Records were obtained for 62 AIS patients who had completed brace treatment. Subjects were labeled as "progressive" if their condition had progressed despite brace treatment and "non-progressive" otherwise. Wrapper-based feature selection selected two useful predictor variables from a list of 14 clinical measurements taken from the records. A logistic regression model was trained to classify patients as "progressive" or "non-progressive" using these two variables. The logistic regression model's simplicity and interpretability should facilitate its clinical acceptance. The model was tested on data from an additional 28 patients and found to be 75 % accurate. This accuracy is sufficient to make the predictions clinically useful. It can be used online: http://www.ece.ualberta.ca/~dchalmer/SimpleBracePredictor.html . PMID:26002592

  11. The experience of brace treatment in children/adolescents with scoliosis

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    Zafiri Vassiliki

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic scoliosis is a chronic illness with several different braces used for its treatment. Brace treatment during childhood/adolescence can produce stress. There are studies supporting that it can decrease body-image perception while other studies support that it has no such effect. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of brace treatment in children/adolescents with scoliosis. The aim was to investigate which feelings are created by the bracing experience in children/adolescents with scoliosis and what are the children/adolescents' with scoliosis opinions of the support provided to them by health-care professionals and by their families. Methods We conducted interviews with the help of a semi-structured interview guide in order to address the topic of the experience of brace treatment. A convenient sample of twelve children and adolescents with scoliosis was selected from patients attending follow-up appointments at the Outpatient Scoliosis Clinics of two Greek hospitals. The data was analysed using the method of content analysis. Results Patients in the sample were 10–16 years old and they were mainly females (71%. Almost all of the participants reported having to deal with stress, denial, fear, anger, and shame. They were satisfied with the information they received regarding their condition and therapy. However, the information was not accompanied by support from the health care professionals. They reported that they were receiving support mainly from their families, friends, and classmates. Conclusion The present study is contributing to the development of a better understanding of significant issues related to the experience of bracing therapy. It is clear that scoliosis children/adolescents have to be provided with support during the long period of bracing. It is apparent that those children/adolescents have unmet needs for care and health professionals and policy makers should try to find a

  12. Health-related quality of life in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis after treatment: Short-term effects after brace or surgical treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Bunge (Eveline); R.E. Juttmann (Rikard); M. de Kleuver (Marinus); F.C. van Biezen (Frans); H.J. de Koning (Harry); H.D. Been (Henk); L.N.J.E.M. Coene (Luc); H. Creemers (Huub); A.J. de Gruijter; A.A.J.M. Hazebroek-Kampschreur (Alice); P.H.J. Klop (Patrick); H.J.A. Kruls; P.J.M. van Loon (Piet); L.C.F. Luttmer; F. de Nies (Frank); J.E.H. Pruijs; L.W. van Rhijn (Lodewijk); M.P. Teeuwen (Marcel); P.A. Wiegersma (Auke)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractFor treatment of teenagers with progressive adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in an early stage, two options are generally considered: treatment with a brace or observation followed by surgery if necessary. Many doctors and patients prefer conservative treatment (i.e. brace treatment) to s

  13. Treatment of chronic low back pain in patients with spinal deformities using a sagittal re-alignment brace

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    Weiss Hans-Rudolf

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For adult scoliosis patients with chronic low back pain bracing is initially indicated before spinal surgery is considered. Until recently there has been a lack of research into the effect upon pain reductions in the mid and long-term. Promising results have been documented in short-term studies for the application of a sagittal re-alignment brace in patients with spinal deformities and along with pain; however mid-term and long-term results are not yet available. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mid-term effects of this brace with respect to pain control. Materials and methods 67 patients (58 females and 9 males with chronic low back pain (> 24 months and the diagnosis of scoliosis or hyperkyphosis were treated with a sagittal re-alignment brace (physio-logic brace™ between January 2006 and July 2007. The indication for this kind of brace treatment was derived from a positive sagittal re-alignment test (SRT and the exclusion of successful conservative treatment during the last 24 months. The aim of this type of conservative intervention was to avoid surgery for chronic low back pain. Results The average pain intensity was measured on the Roland and Morris VRS (5 steps before treatment. This was 3.3 (t1, at the time of brace adjustment it was 2.7 (t2 and after at an average observation time of 18 months it was 2.0 (t3. The differences were highly significant in the Wilcoxon test. Discussion Short-term measurements showed that a significant pain reduction is possible in chronic postural low back pain using a sagittal re-alignment brace inducing lumbar re-lordosation. In a preliminary report at adjustment (t2, highly significant improvements of pain intensity have also been demonstrated. At 6 months of treatment however, no improvement was measured. The improvement of the mid-term effects (18 months found in this study compared to the preliminary report may be due to the changed approach to compliance: whilst

  14. The Differential Effects of Exercise,Brace and Combined Rehabilitation Treatment in Patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis%The Differential Effects of Exercise, Brace and Combined Rehabilitation Treatment in Patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Qing; ZHOU Xuan; LI Jianan; ZHAO Li; TAO Quan; CHEN Ting; CHEN Peijie

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To compare the effects of different conservative managements on patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).Method:One hundred and four AIS patients were recruited for this study.The patients were divided into 3groups:exercise (E group),brace (B group) and combined rehabilitation treatment (brace treatment combined with exercise,CR group).Radiological parameter were used to assess AIS patients before and after treatment.The Chinese version of scoliosis research society-22(SRS-22) patient questionnaires were filled out by patients after treatment.The SRS-22 scores were compared among management groups.Result:The maximal Cobb angles were smaller in E group than in B group or CR group both before and after treatment.The maximal Cobb angles were significantly smaller after treatment than before treatment in B group and CR group.Function/activity was better in E group than in B group or CR group.Self-image/appearance and satisfaction with management were better in E group and CR group than in B group.There was no significant difference among treatment groups in pain and mental health.Conclusion:Both brace and combined rehabilitation treatment can reduce the spinal curve of AIS patients.Both exercise and combined rehabilitation treatment have positive influence on self-image/appearance and satisfaction with management.We support preference of combined rehabilitation treatment above brace treatment.

  15. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

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    Steen Harald

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have evaluated long-term outcome after bracing using validated health related quality of life outcome measures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term outcome in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS 12 years or more after treatment with the Boston brace. Methods 109 (80% of 135 patients (7 men with AIS treated with the Boston brace at a mean of 19.2 (range 12–28 years previously responded to long-term follow-up examination. All patients (n = 109 answered a standardised questionnaire including demographics, work status, treatment, Global Back Disability Question, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI (100-worst possible, General Function Score (GFS (100 – worst possible, EuroQol (EQ-5D (1 – best possible, EQ-VAS (100 – best possible and Scoliosis Research Society -22 (SRS – 22 (5 – best possible. Clinical and radiological examination was obtained in 86 patients. Results The magnitude of the primary prebrace major curve was in average 33.4° (range 20 – 52. At weaning and at the last follow-up the corresponding values were 28.3° (9–56 and 34.2° (8 – 87, respectively. The mean age at follow-up was 35 (27 – 46 years. Work status was: full time (80%, on sick-leave (3%, on rehabilitation (4%, disability pension (4%, homemaker (7%, students (2%, 7% had changed their job because of back pain. 88% had had delivered a baby, 55% of them had pain in pregnancy. Global back status was excellent or good in 81%. The mean (standard deviation ODI was 6.4 (9.8, GFS 5.4 (10.5, EQ-5D 0.84 (0.2, SRS-22: pain 4.2 (0.8, mental health 4.2 (0.7, self-image 3.9 (0.7, function 4.1 (0.6, satisfaction with treatment 3.7 (1.0. 28% had taken physiotherapy for back pain the last year and 12% had visited a doctor. Conclusion Long-term results were satisfactory in most patients with AIS treated with the Boston brace.

  16. Outcome in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis after brace treatment and surgery assessed by means of the Scoliosis Research Society Instrument 24

    OpenAIRE

    Weigert, Karen Petra; Nygaard, Linda Marie; Christensen, Finn Bjarke; Hansen, Ebbe Stender; Bünger, Cody

    2005-01-01

    A retrospectively designed long-term follow-up study of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients who had completed treatment, of at least 2 years, by means of brace, surgery, or both brace and surgery. This study is to assess the outcome after treatment for AIS by means of the Scoliosis Research Society Outcome Instrument 24 (SRS 24). One hundred and eighteen AIS patients (99 females and 19 males), treated at the Aarhus University Hospital from January 1, 1987 to December 31, 1997, were...

  17. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in late-onset juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Johan Emil; Steen, Harald; Gunderson, Ragnhild; Brox, Jens Ivar

    2011-01-01

    Background It is recommended that research in patients with idiopathic scoliosis should focus on short- and long-term patient-centred outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate outcome in patients with late-onset juvenile or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis 16 years or more after Boston brace treatment. Methods 272 (78%) of 360 patients, 251 (92%) women, responded to follow-up examination at a mean of 24.7 (range 16 - 32) years after Boston brace treatment. Fifty-eight (21%) patient...

  18. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in late-onset juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gunderson Ragnhild; Steen Harald; Lange Johan; Brox Jens

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background It is recommended that research in patients with idiopathic scoliosis should focus on short- and long-term patient-centred outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate outcome in patients with late-onset juvenile or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis 16 years or more after Boston brace treatment. Methods 272 (78%) of 360 patients, 251 (92%) women, responded to follow-up examination at a mean of 24.7 (range 16 - 32) years after Boston brace treatment. Fifty-eight (21%...

  19. A new brace treatment similar for adolescent scoliosis and kyphosis based on restoration of thoracolumbar lordosis. Radiological and subjective clinical results after at least one year of treatment

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    van Loon Piet JM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study design A prospective treatment study with a new brace was conducted Objective. To evaluate radiological and subjective clinical results after one year conservative brace treatment with pressure onto lordosis at the thoracolumbar joint in children with scoliosis and kyphosis. Summary of background data Conservative brace treatment of adolescent scoliosis is not proven to be effective in terms of lasting correction. Conservative treatment in kyphotic deformities may lead to satisfactory correction. None of the brace or casting techniques is based on sagittal forces only applied at the thoracolumbar spine (TLI= thoracolumbar lordotic intervention. Previously we showed in patients with scoliosis after forced lordosis at the thoracolumbar spine a radiological instantaneous reduction in both coronal curves of double major scoliosis. Methods A consecutive series of 91 children with adolescent scoliosis and kyphosis were treated with a modified symmetric 30 degrees Boston brace to ensure only forced lordosis at the thoracolumbar spine. Scoliosis was defined with a Cobb angle of at least one of the curves [greater than or equal to] 25 degrees and kyphosis with or without a curve Results Before treatment start ‘in brace’ radiographs showed a strong reduction of the Cobb angles in different curves in kyphosis and scoliosis groups (sagittal n = 5 all p Conclusion Conservative treatment using thoracolumbar lordotic intervention in scoliotic and kyphotic deformities in adolescence demonstrates a marked improvement after one year also in clinical and postural criteria. An effect not obtained with current brace techniques.

  20. Low-Cost Alternative External Rotation Shoulder Brace and Review of Treatment in Acute Shoulder Dislocations

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    Lacy, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic dislocations of the shoulder commonly present to emergency departments (EDs. Immediate closed reduction of both anterior and posterior glenohumeral dislocations is recommended and is frequently performed in the ED. Recurrence of dislocation is common, as anteroinferior labral tears (Bankart lesions are present in many anterior shoulder dislocations.14,15,18,23 Immobilization of the shoulder following closed reduction is therefore recommended; previous studies support the use of immobilization with the shoulder in a position of external rotation, for both anterior and posterior shoulder dislocations.7-11,19 In this study, we present a technique for assembling a low-cost external rotation shoulder brace using materials found in most hospitals: cotton roll, stockinette, and shoulder immobilizers. This brace is particularly suited for the uninsured patient, who lacks the financial resources to pay for a pre-fabricated brace out of pocket. We also performed a cost analysis for our low-cost external rotation shoulder brace, and a cost comparison with pre-fabricated brand name braces. At our institution, the total materials cost for our brace was $19.15. The cost of a pre-fabricated shoulder brace at our institution is $150 with markup, which is reimbursed on average at $50.40 according to our hospital billing data. The low-cost external rotation shoulder brace is therefore a more affordable option for the uninsured patient presenting with acute shoulder dislocation. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:114–120.

  1. Brace technology thematic series: the progressive action short brace (PASB

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    Aulisa Angelo G

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Progressive Action Short Brace (PASB is a custom-made thoraco-lumbar-sacral orthosis (TLSO, devised in 1976 by Dr. Lorenzo Aulisa (Institute of Orthopedics at the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy. The PASB was designed to overcome the limits imposed by the trunk anatomy. Indeed, the particular geometry of the brace is able to generate internal forces that modify the elastic reaction of the spine. The PASB is indicated for the conservative treatment of lumbar and thoraco-lumbar scoliosis. The aim of this article is to explain the biomechanic principles of the PASB and the rationale underlying its design. Recently published studies reporting the results of PASB-based treatment of adolescent scoliotic patients are also discussed. Description and principles On the coronal plane, the upper margin of the PASB, at the side of the curve concavity, prevents the homolateral bending of the scoliotic curve. The opposite upper margin ends just beneath the apical vertebra. The principle underlying such configuration is that the deflection of the inferior tract of a curved elastic structure, fixed at the bottom end, causes straightening of its upper tract. Therefore, whenever the patient bends towards the convexity of the scoliotic curve, the spine is deflected. On the sagittal plane, the inferior margins of the PASB reach the pelvitrochanteric region, in order to stabilize the brace on the pelvis. The transverse section of the brace above the pelvic grip consists of asymmetrical ellipses. This allows the spine to rotate towards the concave side only, leading to the continuous generation of derotating moments. On the sagittal plane, the brace is contoured so as to reduce the lumbar lordosis. The PASB, by allowing only those movements counteracting the progression of the curve, is able to produce corrective forces that are not dissipated. Therefore, the brace is based on the principle that a constrained spine dynamics

  2. Treatment of the Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip with an Abduction Brace in Children up to 6 Months Old

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    Raphaël Wahlen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Use of Pavlik harness for the treatment of DDH can be complicated for parents. Any misuse or failure in the adjustments may lead to significant complications. An abduction brace was introduced in our institution, as it was thought to be easier to use. Aim. We assess the results for the treatment of DDH using our abduction brace in children of 0–6 months old and compare these results with data on treatments using the Pavlik harness. Method. Retrospective analysis of patients with DDH from 0 to 6 months old at diagnosis, performed from 2004 to 2009. Outcomes were rates of reduction of the hip and avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVN. Follow-up was at one year and up to 4 years old. Results. Hip reduction was successful in 28 of 33 patients (85%, with no AVN. Conclusion. Our results in terms of hip reduction rate and AVN rate are similar to those found in literature assessing Pavlik harness use, with a simpler and comfortable treatment procedure.

  3. Initial experience with the providence nighttime bracing in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quisth, Lena; Beuschau, Inge; Simony, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since 2008 the primary non-surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in the southern part of Denmark, went from full-time bracing with Boston brace, to Providence nighttime bracing. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of nighttime bracing, with the Providence brace, i...

  4. Effect of bracing and other conservative interventions in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents : A systematic review of clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenssinck, MLB; Frijlink, AC; Berger, MY; Bierma-Zeinstra, SMA; Verkerk, K; Verhagen, AP

    2005-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Many conservative treatments are available for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis, but the evidence for their accepted use is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of braces and other conservative treatments of idiopathic scoliosis in a

  5. A Systematic Review on the Treatment of Acute Ankle Sprain Brace versus Other Functional Treatment Types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Kemler; I. van de Port; F. Backx; C.N. van Dijk

    2011-01-01

    Ankle injuries, especially ankle sprains, are a common problem in sports and medical care. Ankle sprains result in pain and absenteeism from work and/or sports participation, and can lead to physical restrictions such as ankle instability. Nowadays, treatment of ankle injury basically consists of ta

  6. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in late-onset juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunderson Ragnhild

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is recommended that research in patients with idiopathic scoliosis should focus on short- and long-term patient-centred outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate outcome in patients with late-onset juvenile or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis 16 years or more after Boston brace treatment. Methods 272 (78% of 360 patients, 251 (92% women, responded to follow-up examination at a mean of 24.7 (range 16 - 32 years after Boston brace treatment. Fifty-eight (21% patients had late-onset juvenile and 214 had adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. All patients had clinical and radiological examination and answered a standardised questionnaire including work status, demographics, General Function Score (GFS (100 - worst possible and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI (100 - worst possible, EuroQol (EQ-5D (1 - best possible, EQ-VAS (100 - best possible, and Scoliosis Research Society - 22 (SRS - 22 (5 - best possible. Results The mean age at follow-up was 40.4 (31-48 years. The prebrace major curve was in average 33.2 (20 - 57°. At weaning and at the last follow-up the corresponding values were 28.3 (1 - 58° and 32.5 (7 - 80°, respectively. Curve development was similar in patients with late-onset juvenile and adolescent start. The prebrace curve increased > 5° in 31% and decreased > 5° in 26%. Twenty-five patients had surgery. Those who did not attend follow-up (n = 88 had a lower mean curve at weaning: 25.4 (6-53°. Work status was 76% full-time and 10% part-time. Eighty-seven percent had delivered a baby, 50% had pain in pregnancy. The mean (SD GFS was 7.4 (10.8, ODI 9.3 (11.0, EQ-5D 0.82 (0.2, EQ-VAS 77.6 (17.8, SRS-22: pain 4.1 (0.8, mental health 4.1 (0.6, self-image 3.7 (0.7, function 4.0 (0.6, satisfaction with treatment 3.7 (1.0. Surgical patients had significantly reduced scores for SRS-physical function and self-image, and patients with curves ≥ 45° had reduced self-image. Conclusion Long-term results were

  7. Brace technology thematic series: the dynamic derotation brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardakos Nikolaos V

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dynamic derotation brace (DDB was designed in Greece in 1982, as a modification of the Boston brace. It is a custom-made, underarm spinal orthosis featuring aluminium blades set to produce derotating and anti-rotating effects on the thorax and trunk of patients with scoliosis. It is indicated for the non-operative correction of most curves, barring the very high thoracic ones, (when the apex vertebra is T5 or above. The purpose of this article is to familiarize physicians with the DDB, analyze the rationale behind its design, and present the published results of its application. Description & Principles The key feature of the DDB is the addition of the aluminium-made derotating blades posteriorly. These function as a force couple, which is added to the side forces exerted by the brace itself. Corrective forces are also directed through pads. One or more of previously proposed pathomechanical models of scoliosis may underline the corrective function of the DDB: it may act directly on the apical intervertebral disc, effecting correction through the Heuter-Volkman principle; the blades may produce an anti-rotatory element against the deforming "spiral composite muscle trunk rotator"; or it may alter the neuro-motor response by constantly providing new somatosensory input to the patient. Results Based on measurements of the Cobb and Perdriolle angles, up to 82% of patients remained stable or improved with the use of the DDB. Results have varied, though, depending on the type/location of the deformity. The overall results showed that 35% of the curves improved, 46% remained stable and 18% became worse, as assessed by measuring the Cobb angle. The DDB has also been shown to improve cosmesis (except for right thoracic curves and leave several aspects of patient quality of life unaffected during use. Conclusion Conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis using the DDB has shown favorable results. Thoracic curves appear more

  8. Clinician Recommendations and Perceptions of Factors Associated With Ankle Brace Use

    OpenAIRE

    Denton, Jason M.; Waldhelm, Andrew; Hacke, Jonathon D.; Gross, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little information is available regarding the ankle braces orthopaedic sports medicine clinicians recommend or clinicians’ concerns that may influence their decisions to recommend use of an ankle brace. Hypotheses: (1) Clinicians most frequently recommend lace-up braces with straps. (2) Clinicians who are concerned about potential adverse side effects from ankle brace use are less likely to recommend an ankle brace to prevent ankle sprain injuries. Study Design: Descriptive survey...

  9. Treatment of thoraco-lumbar curves in adolescent females affected by idiopathic scoliosis with a progressive action short brace (PASB: assessment of results according to the SRS committee on bracing and nonoperative management standardization criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perisano Carlo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of conservative treatment of scoliosis is controversial. Some studies suggest that brace is effective in stopping curve progression, whilst others did not report such an effect. The purpose of the present study was to effectiveness of Progressive Action Short Brace (PASB in the correction of thoraco-lumbar curves, in agreement with the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS Committee on Bracing and Nonoperative Management Standardisation Criteria. Methods Fifty adolescent females (mean age 11.8 ± 0.5 years with thoraco-lumbar curve and a pre-treatment Risser score ranging from 0 to 2 have been enrolled. The minimum duration of follow-up was 24 months (mean: 55.4 ± 44.5 months. Antero-posterior radiographs were used to estimate the curve magnitude (CM and the torsion of the apical vertebra (TA at 5 time points: beginning of treatment (t1, one year after the beginning of treatment (t2, intermediate time between t1 and t4 (t3, end of weaning (t4, 2-year minimum follow-up from t4 (t5. Three situations were distinguished: curve correction, curve stabilisation and curve progression. The Kruskal Wallis and Spearman Rank Correlation tests have been used as statistical tests. Results CM mean value was 29,30 ± 5,16 SD at t1 and 14,67 ± 7,65 SD at t5. TA was 12.70 ± 6,14 SD at t1 and 8,95 ± 5,82 at t5. The variation between measures of Cobb and Perdriolle degrees at t1,2,3,4,5 and between CM t5-t1 and TA t5-t1 were significantly different. Curve correction was accomplished in 94% of patients, whereas a curve stabilisation was obtained in 6% of patients. Conclusion The PASB, due to its peculiar biomechanical action on vertebral modelling, is highly effective in correcting thoraco-lumbar curves.

  10. Valgus bracing in patients with medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee. A gait analysis study of a new brace.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaasbeek, R.D.A.; Groen, B.E.; Hampsink, B.; Heerwaarden, R.J. van; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2007-01-01

    A new valgus brace was evaluated in 15 patients with medial osteoarthritis of the knee and a varus leg axis. Significant improvement of pain and function were found after 6 weeks of brace treatment. Gait analysis showed that the brace had a tendency of lowering the peak varus moment about the knee.

  11. How to improve aesthetics in patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS: a SPoRT brace treatment according to SOSORT management criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Claudia

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aesthetics is a main goal of both conservative and surgical treatments in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. Previously, we developed and validated a clinical scale - the Aesthetic Index (AI--in order to measure aesthetic impairment and changes during treatment. Aim To verify the efficacy of bracing on aesthetics in AIS. Study Design Prospective Cohort Study. Population Thirty-four consecutive patients, age 13.2 ± 3.7, initial Cobb Angle 32 ± 12°, ATR 10 ± 4° Bunnel, 11 males. Methods Patients with AI scores of at least 5/6 were included. Each of them had a brace prescription (18 to 23 hours per day, according to the SPoRT concept. AI was measured again after six months and at the end of treatment, and then the pre- and post-treatment scores compared. The Wilcoxon test was performed. Results Twenty-nine patients out of the 34 included completed the treatment and had six-month and final results; four patients were lost during the treatment, and one was fused. At baseline, median AI was 6 (95% IC 5-6 but the score decreased to 3 (95% IC 0-5; p Conclusion Aesthetics can be improved in a clinically significant way when the brace treatment is performed according to the SPoRT concept and by following the SOSORT management criteria. This is a relevant result for patients and a major goal of scoliosis treatment, be it conservative or surgical. The use of a more sensitive tool like TRACE could more easily detect the clinical changes; nevertheless, AI proved sensible enough that its use in everyday clinical practice can be suggested.

  12. NTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION: WITH BRACE VS WITHOUT BRACE AFTER OPERATION A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL

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    KH.A NAZEM

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL ruputer specially in athletics induces knee instability results in pateint disability. Surgical treatment consist of ACL reconstruction and repair. In this study the efficacy of surgical management with brace after operation was compaired to surgical management without brace.
    Methods. One hundred ACL ruptured pateints had reconstructed with BPB graft in two randomzed gruops (50 with brace afetr operation and 50 without brace. Study durated 4 year (1997-2000 in alzahra hospital (affiliated to IUMSHS. Patients had followed for 12 months after operation.
    Results. Knee range of motion after 1, 3, 6, 12 months follow up were the same in both groups (P > 0.05. Degree and duration of returning to sport, complications, need to reoperation, stair climbing, specific ACL tests, patelofemoral pain, pain in squatting, running and cutting and quadriceps atrophy, after 12 months follow up were the same in both groups (P > 0.05. Patients without brace returned to their job more sooner than another group (P < 0.05.
    Discussion. There are no significant differnce in cilinical results in tow groups and ACL reconstruction with BPB dose not require to routine bracing. Faster return to job in non bracing group is due to removal of liminting effect of brace wearing. Lesser rate of pain in patients that return to sport due to quadriceps strengthening.

  13. Anisotropy and magnetostriction as corrections for the Heisenberg model at the example of the molecule {l_brace}Ni{sub 4}Mo{sub 12}{r_brace}; Anisotropie und Magnetostriktion als Korrekturen zum Heisenberg-Modell am Beispiel des Molekuels {l_brace}Ni{sub 4}Mo{sub 12}{r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueger, Mirko

    2008-07-15

    In the first part of this thesis the different effects of the molecular magnetism were extensively considered and the possibility of their occurence in {l_brace}Ni{sub 4}Mo{sub 12}{r_brace} checked. In the second part of this thesis different models for the description of experimental results were presented. thereby the results of ESR, SQUIO, and high-field pulse measurements on {l_brace}Ni{sub 4}Mo{sub 12}{r_brace} are described.

  14. On immediate functional bracing of Colles' fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledingham, W M; Wytch, R; Goring, C C; Mathieson, A B; Wardlaw, D

    1991-05-01

    A prospective randomized trial was carried out in 60 consecutive patients with Colles' fractures requiring manipulation. They were treated by either a standard Colles' plaster (control group) or in a functional plaster brace applied immediately after reduction of the fracture. The brace extended from the proximal radius and ulna to the level of the radial styloid and allowed a full range of movement at the radiocarpal joint. Both groups comprised 30 patients and were matched for age, sex and dominance of hand. There was no significant difference in initial severity of fracture or the quality of reduction. Radiological results on cast removal (35-42 days) were significantly better in the brace group compared with those treated with a below-elbow cast (P less than 0.05). Wrist function was also significantly better in the brace treated group at 12 weeks after fracture (P less than 0.05). This brace has a number of advantages over standard plaster treatment, but requires a degree of skill and experience in its application. A prefabricated brace has now been developed with a similar 'built in' three-point loading which will be easier for inexperienced staff to apply.

  15. Early weaning might reduce the psychological strain of Boston bracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Ø; Andersen, Gert Rahbek; Thomsen, Karsten;

    2002-01-01

    From 1983 to 1990 a total of 136 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were treated with the Boston brace. With the aim of examining the social and psychological impact of the brace treatment all patients received a questionnaire at an average of 3.5 years after termination of the treatment...

  16. Physical exercises in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis at risk of brace treatment – SOSORT consensus paper 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grivas Theodoros B

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on a recognized need for research to examine the premise that nonsurgical approaches can be used effectively to treat signs and symptoms of scoliosis, a scientific society on scoliosis orthopaedic and rehabilitation treatment (SOSORT was established in Barcelona in 2004. SOSORT has a primary goal of implementing multidisciplinary research to develop quantitative, objective data to address the role of conservative therapies in the treatment of scoliosis. This international working group of clinicians and scientists specializing in treatment of scoliosis met in Milan, Italy in January 2005. Methods As a baseline for developing a consensus for language and goals for proposed multicenter clinical studies, we developed questionnaires to examine current beliefs, before and after the meeting, regarding (1 the aims of physical exercises; (2 standards of treatment; and (3 the impact of such treatment performed by specialists in the field. Results The responses to the questionnaires show that, in principle, specialists in scoliosis physiotherapy do not disagree and that several features can be regarded, currently, as standard features in the rehabilitation of scoliosis patients. These features include autocorrection in 3D, training in ADL, stabilizing the corrected posture, and patient education.

  17. Gait Using Pneumatic Brace for End-Stage Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Cherian, Jeffrey Jai; Starr, Roland; Chughtai, Morad; Mont, Michael A; Harwin, Steven F; Bhave, Anil

    2016-04-01

    More than 20 million individuals in the United States are affected by knee osteoarthritis (OA), which can lead to altered biomechanics and excessive joint loading. The use of an unloader pneumatic brace with extension assist has been proposed as a nonoperative treatment modality that may improve gait mechanics and correct knee malalignment. We assessed the following parameters in patients who have knee OA treated with and without a brace: (1) changes in temporospatial parameters in gait; (2) knee range of motion, knee extension at heel strike, and foot placement; (3) knee joint moments and impulse; and (4) changes in dynamic stiffness and rate of change of knee flexion during midstance to terminal stance. This 2:1 prospective, randomized, single-blinded trial evaluated 36 patients (24 brace and 12 matching). OA knee patients were randomized to receive either a pneumatic unloader brace or a standard nonoperative treatment regimen as the matching cohort for a 3-month period. They underwent evaluation of gait parameters using a three-dimensional gait analysis system at their initial appointment and at 3 months follow-up. All the testing, pre- and postbracing were performed without wearing the brace to examine for retained effects. Treatment with the brace led to significant improvements versus standard treatment in various gait parameters. Patients in the brace group had improvements in walking speed, knee extension at heel strike, total range of motion, knee joint forces, and rate of knee flexion from midstance to terminal stance when compared with the matching cohort. Knee OA patients who used a pneumatic unloader brace for 3 months for at least 3 hours per day had significant improvements various gait parameters when compared with a standard nonoperative therapy cohort. Braced patients demonstrated gait-modifying affects when not wearing the brace. These results are encouraging and suggest that this device represents a promising treatment modality for knee OA that

  18. 支具治疗青少年特发性脊柱侧凸的研究现状及新进展%The new advances and research situation of brace treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施新革; 张永刚

    2013-01-01

      青少年特发性脊柱侧凸是引起青少年脊柱畸形最常见的原因,进展型的青少年特发性脊柱侧凸预后不良,若不及时干预治疗,最终需要外科手术矫正治疗。支具治疗是唯一证明有确切疗效的非手术治疗方法。本文就支具治疗青少年特发性脊柱侧凸的研究现状及新进展作一综述,以促进临床医师更好的应用支具治疗青少年特发性脊柱侧凸。%Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the common cause resulting in the spinal deformity of adolescent. The progressing ad-olescent idiopathic scoliosis have the poor prognosis and the patient ultimately requires surgical treatment without intervention in time. The brace treatment is proved the only effective treatment in non-surgical treatment. We reviewed the new literature of brace treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in order to promote the clinicians to treat the patients of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with brace.

  19. 隐形矫治器和传统金属矫治器的疗效比较%Assessment of Invisalign Treatment Outcomes Compared with Braces by Using the ABO Model Grading System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林佳强; 周昱

    2014-01-01

    目的:应用美国ABO客观评分系统,对无托槽隐形矫治器和传统金属矫治器的矫治效果进行评价。方法选择120例成人轻中度错合畸形患者,分为无托槽隐形矫治器组和传统矫治器组各60例。用差异系数评价错合畸形严重程度, OGS评价治疗结果。结果无托槽隐形矫治器可以很好地矫治轻中度错合畸形,与传统金属托槽矫治器无统计学差异。结论无托槽隐形矫治器对轻中度错合畸形临床矫治效果可达到传统矫治器矫治的效果。%Objective The aim of this study is to assessment treatment -outcome of invisalign treatment compared with braces by ABO .Methods This retrospective study select 2 groups of 120 patients ( invisalign and braces groups including both 60 patients ) were evaluated by using methods from the American Board of Orthodontics .The discrepancy index was used to analyze pretreatment records to control for initial severity of malocclusion . The objective grading system ( OGS ) was used to systematically grade posttreatment records .Statistical analyses evaluated treatment outcome of invisalign compared with braces .Results The invisalign group significant improve results and was no difference between both groups .Conclusions According to the OGS , invisalign treat malocclusions as well as braces in this sample .

  20. Buckling restrained braces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan ÖZÇELİK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Buckling restrained braces (BRBs have high energy dissipation capacity and equal tension and compression axial load capacity. Therefore, the application of BRBs has gained popularity in seismic regions. The first studies on BRBs started in Japan in 1970 and since then more studies have been undertaken in other earthquake prone countries. Although the BRBs perform well in component and subassembly tests, they do not perform as well in frame tests because of the interaction between beam-column-gusset plate and BRB. In this study, the component and subassembly test of the BRBs and then BRB frame tests available in the literature are summarized.

  1. A new method of MR total spine imaging for showing the brace effect in scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, A.; Kandyba, J.; Koenig, R.; Jaeger, U.E.; Gieseke, J.; Schmitt, O. [Univ. of Bonn (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Bracing is a method of early, nonsurgical treatment for scoliosis, but a hypokyphotic effect on the thoracic spine is reported. We developed a magnetic resonance tomography (MR) procedure presenting an image of the whole spine in the coronal and sagittal planes (MR total spine imaging), and studied the brace effect, using this technique. We examined 26 female patients with idiopathic scoliosis treated with a Cheneau brace (mean age, 13.2 years; mean duration of brace treatment at the time of investigation, 1.5 years). The MR examinations were performed with the patient in the supine position with and without the brace in direct sequence. As measured on the coronal MR images, the thoracic curve was corrected, on average, from 29 deg to 22 deg (mean correction, 24%). There was a slight reduction in the sagittal Cobb angle measured between T4 and T12 (mean sagittal Cobb angle without brace, 14 deg ; with brace, 12 deg), which was still a significant change. MR total spine imaging could be a useful tool for studying the brace effect in scoliosis in two planes. Using this technique, we found reduced sagittal Cobb angles for the thoracic kyphosis with brace. Because there is no radiation exposure, the MR procedure has a potential use in the monitoring of brace treatment. (author)

  2. Brace technology thematic series - The Sforzesco and Sibilla braces, and the SPoRT (Symmetric, Patient oriented, Rigid, Three-dimensional, active concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchini Gianfranco

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bracing is an effective strategy for scoliosis treatment, but there is no consensus on the best type of brace, nor on the way in which it should act on the spine to achieve good correction. The aim of this paper is to present the family of SPoRT (Symmetric, Patient-oriented, Rigid, Three-dimensional, active braces: Sforzesco (the first introduced, Sibilla and Lapadula. Methods The Sforzesco brace was developed following specific principles of correction. Due to its overall symmetry, the brace provides space over pathological depressions and pushes over elevations. Correction is reached through construction of the envelope, pushes, escapes, stops, and drivers. The real novelty is the drivers, introduced for the first time with the Sforzesco brace; they allow to achieve the main action of the brace: a three-dimensional elongation pushing the spine in a down-up direction. Brace prescription is made plane by plane: frontal (on the "slopes", another novelty of this concept, i.e. the laterally flexed sections of the spine, horizontal, and sagittal. The brace is built modelling the trunk shape obtained either by a plaster cast mould or by CAD-CAM construction. Brace checking is essential, since SPoRT braces are adjustable and customisable according to each individual curve pattern. Treatment time and duration is individually tailored (18-23 hours per day until Risser 3, then gradual reduction. SEAS (Scientific Exercises Approach to Scoliosis exercises are a key factor to achieve success. Results The Sforzesco brace has shown to be more effective than the Lyon brace (matched case/control, equally effective as the Risser plaster cast (prospective cohort with retrospective controls, more effective than the Risser cast + Lyon brace in treating curves over 45 degrees Cobb (prospective cohort, and is able to improve aesthetic appearance (prospective cohort. Conclusions The SPoRT concept of bracing (three-dimensional elongation pushing in

  3. Formation of a near {l_brace}001{r_brace}<110> recrystallization texture in electrical steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, B. de; Wieting, J. [Inst. fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstoffforschung Dresden (Germany)

    1997-09-15

    By means of a continuous production process with two successive cold rolling steps it is possible to get electrical steel sheets with a recrystallization texture after the final annealing treatment exhibiting a strong maximum near the {l_brace}001{r_brace}<110> orientation. The production costs of such steel sheets are comparable to those of non-oriented electrical steels. For the formation of this texture, the recrystallization during the annealing between and after the cold rolling steps is of major importance because during the first annealing an orientation accumulation in the recrystallization texture arises near {l_brace}001{r_brace} <110> which becomes predominant during the final annealing while other components disappear. For this reason this work is dealing with the texture formation during the last production steps starting with the first cold rolling reduction.

  4. WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Habashi

    2000-06-22

    The Waste Treatment Building System provides the space, layout, structures, and embedded subsystems that support the processing of low-level liquid and solid radioactive waste generated within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The activities conducted in the Waste Treatment Building include sorting, volume reduction, and packaging of dry waste, and collecting, processing, solidification, and packaging of liquid waste. The Waste Treatment Building System is located on the surface within the protected area of the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System helps maintain a suitable environment for the waste processing and protects the systems within the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) from most of the natural and induced environments. The WTB also confines contaminants and provides radiological protection to personnel. In addition to the waste processing operations, the Waste Treatment Building System provides space and layout for staging of packaged waste for shipment, industrial and radiological safety systems, control and monitoring of operations, safeguards and security systems, and fire protection, ventilation and utilities systems. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides the required space and layout for maintenance activities, tool storage, and administrative facilities. The Waste Treatment Building System integrates waste processing systems within its protective structure to support the throughput rates established for the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides shielding, layout, and other design features to help limit personnel radiation exposures to levels which are as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, and with other MGR systems that support the waste processing operations. The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the General Site Transportation System, Site Communications System, Site Water System, MGR

  5. Razi's description and treatment of facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Mahmood; Kalantar Hormozi, Abdoljalil; Asadi, Mohsen

    2011-01-01

    In the modern medical era, facial paralysis is linked with the name of Charles Bell. This disease, which is usually unilateral and is a peripheral facial palsy, causes facial muscle weakness in the affected side. Bell gave a complete description of the disease; but historically other physicians had described it several hundred years prior although it had been ignored for different reasons, such as the difficulty of the original text language. The first and the most famous of these physicians who described this disease was Mohammad Ibn Zakaryya Razi (Rhazes). In this article, we discuss his opinion.

  6. Introduction to the "Scoliosis" Journal Brace Technology Thematic Series: increasing existing knowledge and promoting future developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grivas Theodoros B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bracing is the main non-surgical intervention in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis during growth, in hyperkyphosis (and Scheuermann disease and occasionally for spondylolisthesis; it can be used in adult scoliosis, in the elderly when pathological curves lead to a forward leaning posture or in adults after traumatic injuries. Bracing can be defined as the application of external corrective forces to the trunk; rigid supports or elastic bands can be used and braces can be custom-made or prefabricated. The state of research in the field of conservative treatment is insufficient and while it can be stated that there is some evidence to support bracing, we must also acknowledge that today we do not have a common and generally accepted knowledge base, and that instead, individual expertise still prevails, giving rise to different schools of thought on brace construction and principles of correction. The only way to improve the knowledge and understanding of brace type and brace function is to establish a single and comprehensive source of information about bracing. This is what the Scoliosis Journal is going to do through the "Brace Technology" Thematic Series, where technical papers coming from the different schools will be published.

  7. WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING VENTILATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.A. Kumar

    2000-06-22

    The Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System provides heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) for the contaminated, potentially contaminated, and uncontaminated areas of the Monitored Geologic Repository's (MGR) Waste Treatment Building (WTB). In the uncontaminated areas, the non-confinement area ventilation system maintains the proper environmental conditions for equipment operation and personnel comfort. In the contaminated and potentially contaminated areas, in addition to maintaining the proper environmental conditions for personnel comfort and equipment operation, the contamination confinement area ventilation system directs potentially contaminated air away from personnel in the WTB and confines the contamination within high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration units. The contamination confinement area ventilation system creates airflow paths and pressure zones to minimize the potential for spreading contamination with the building. The contamination confinement ventilation system also protects the environment and the public by limiting airborne releases of radioactive or other hazardous contaminants from the WTB. The Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System confines the radioactive and hazardous material within the building such that the release rates comply with regulatory limits, The system design, operations, and maintenance activities incorporate ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) principles to maintain personnel radiation doses to all occupational workers below regulatory limits and as low as is reasonably achievable. The system provides status of important system parameters and equipment operation, and provides audible and/or visual indication of off-normal conditions and equipment failures. The Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System interfaces with the Waste Treatment Building System by being located in the WTB, and by maintaining specific pressure, temperature, and humidity environments within the building

  8. Bracing Zonohedra With Special Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Gyula

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of simpler preliminary design gives useful input for more complicated three-dimensional building frame structure. A zonohedron, as a preliminary structure of design, is a convex polyhedron for which each face possesses central symmetry. We considered zonohedron as a special framework with the special assumption that the polygonal faces can be deformed in such a way that faces remain planar and centrally symmetric, moreover the length of all edges remains unchanged. Introducing some diagonal braces we got a new mechanism. This paper deals with the flexibility of this kind of mechanisms, and investigates the rigidity of the braced framework. The flexibility of the framework can be characterized by some vectors, which represent equivalence classes of the edges. A necessary and sufficient condition for the rigidity of the braced rhombic face zonohedra is posed. A real mechanical construction, based on two simple elements, provides a CAD prototype of these new mechanisms.

  9. Corrective Bracing for Severe Idiopathic Scoliosis in Adolescence: Influence of Brace on Trunk Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Kinel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the work was to study whether wearing a corrective brace by adolescent girls with severe idiopathic scoliosis can influence external shape of the trunk. Methods. Comparison of clinical deformity of two groups of girls matched for age and Cobb angle: group (1 of 23 girls, aged 14.9±1.3 years, Cobb angle 55.0°±6.8°, who refused surgical treatment and have been wearing Chêneau brace for more than 6 months, compared with group (2 of 22 girls, aged 14.1±1.8 years, Cobb angle 59.7°±14.6° never treated with corrective bracing. Clinical deformity was assessed with the Bunnell scoliometer (angle of trunk rotation ATR and surface topography (posterior trunk symmetry index POTSI and Hump Sum HS. Results. The ATR in the primary curvature was 11.9°±3.4° (5°–18° in group 1 versus 15.1°±5.6° (6°–25° in group 2 (P=0.027. The HS was 16.8°±3.8 versus 19.2°±4.6, respectively, P=0.07. The POTSI value did not differ between groups. Conclusion. Girls with Cobb angle above 45 degrees, who have been subjected to brace treatment, revealed smaller clinical deformity of their back comparing to nontreated girls having similar radiological curvatures.

  10. K Basin sludge treatment process description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westra, A.G.

    1998-08-28

    The K East (KE) and K West (KW) fuel storage basins at the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site contain sludge on the floor, in pits, and inside fuel storage canisters. The major sources of the sludge are corrosion of the fuel elements and steel structures in the basin, sand intrusion from outside the buildings, and degradation of the structural concrete that forms the basins. The decision has been made to dispose of this sludge separate from the fuel elements stored in the basins. The sludge will be treated so that it meets Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) acceptance criteria and can be sent to one of the double-shell waste tanks. The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office accepted a recommendation by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc., to chemically treat the sludge. Sludge treatment will be done by dissolving the fuel constituents in nitric acid, separating the insoluble material, adding neutron absorbers for criticality safety, and reacting the solution with caustic to co-precipitate the uranium and plutonium. A truck will transport the resulting slurry to an underground storage tank (most likely tank 241-AW-105). The undissolved solids will be treated to reduce the transuranic (TRU) and content, stabilized in grout, and transferred to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) for disposal. This document describes a process for dissolving the sludge to produce waste streams that meet the TWRS acceptance criteria for disposal to an underground waste tank and the ERDF acceptance criteria for disposal of solid waste. The process described is based on a series of engineering studies and laboratory tests outlined in the testing strategy document (Flament 1998).

  11. Vital capacity evolution in patients treated with the CMCR brace: statistical analysis of 90 scoliotic patients treated with the CMCR brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohn Céline

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary Objective To study the evolution of pulmonary capacity during orthopaedic treatment of scoliosis with the CMCR brace. Background Investigating the impact of moderate scoliosis on respiratory capacity and its evolution during CMCR brace treatment with mobile pads. Context Several studies demonstrate the impact of scoliosis on respiratory capacity but few of them focus on the impact of bracing treatment. We studied the evolution of the pulmonary capacity of a cohort of 90 scoliotic patients. Methods This retrospective study included 90 scoliotic patients treated since 1999 with a brace with mobile pads called CMCR (n = 90; mean age: 13 years; 10-16. These patients were diagnosed with an idiopathic scoliosis (mean angulation 20.6°. All patients underwent a radiographic and respiratory evaluation at the beginning, the middle and the end of treatment. Results Mean age at treatment start was 13. Before treatment, our patients did not have a normal pulmonary capacity: Forced Vital Capacity (FVC was only 75% of the theoretical value. All curvature types (thoracic, thoraco-lumbar and combined scoliosis involved this reduced pulmonary capacity, with moderate-angulated scoliosis having a negative impact. At the beginning of brace treatment, the loss of real vital capacity with brace (0.3 litres was 10% lower than without brace. At CMCR removal, the FVC had increased by 0.4 litre (21% +/- 4.2% compared to the initial value. The theoretical value had increased by 3%. This positive evolution was most important in girls at a low Risser stage (0,1,2, and before 11 years of age. Conclusion These results supported our approach of orthesis conception for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis which uses braces with mobile pads to preserve thorax and spine mobility.

  12. Treatment of the humeral shaft fractures - minimally invasive osteosynthesis with bridge plate versus conservative treatment with functional brace: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Matsunaga, Fabio T; Tamaoki, Marcel J S; Matsumoto, Marcelo H; dos Santos, João B G; Faloppa, Flavio; Belloti, João C

    2013-01-01

    Background Humeral shaft fractures account for 1 to 3% of all fractures in adults and for 20% of all humeral fractures. Non-operative treatment is still the standard treatment of isolated humeral shaft fractures, although this method can present unsatisfactory results. Surgical treatment is reserved for specific conditions. Modern concepts of internal fixation of long bone shaft fractures advocate relative stabilisation techniques with no harm to fracture zone. Recently described, minimally i...

  13. Can Bracing Affect Altered Gait Patterns in Femoroacetabular Impingement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Marc R.; Rylander, Jonathan; Shu, Beatrice; Andriacchi, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Altered gait patterns have been identified in patients with Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), a 2nd order reversal in mid stance, that has been shown to be corrected with arthroscopic FAI surgery. Currently, most feel there is no adequate conservative treatment for this malady. The goal of this study is to determine if the gait abnormalities seen with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) can be modified with bracing. Methods: Eight individuals (4 Male, 34.5 ± 12.8 y.o., 24.0±2.3 BMI) who were diagnosed with FAI after reporting to clinic with groin pain were enrolled in this study. The study was approved by the University Internal Review Board before participants were enrolled. History, clinical exam, and imaging including an AP pelvis and cross table lateral radiograph of the affected hip and MR-arthrogram of the affected hip were utilized to make the diagnosis. Participants who enrolled had primarily unilateral hip symptoms, had positive impingement and labral stress tests on the affected side and were free of other lower extremity, back, and spine disorders. Three dimensional lower limb kinematics were collected using a camera and forceplate system with the subjects wearing reflective markers on anatomical landmarks. Participants were tested prior to surgery. Hip kinematics were collected for the symptomatic limb while the patients walked at a self selected normal walking speed, slowly jogged, and ascended a two stair setup. Three trials for each activity were completed with and without wearing a brace that was designed to externally rotate the femur in the treatment of patellofemoral disorders for a total of 6 trials per activity. Peak hip flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal rotation, and external rotation were calculated over the stance phase for each trial. Averages were calculated over the 3 trials for each activity both with and without the brace. Intra-subject differences were compared between the braced and unbraced trials

  14. Scoliosis bracing and exercise for pain management in adults—a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Hans-Rudolf; Moramarco, Kathryn; Moramarco, Marc

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] For adult patients with late-onset idiopathic scoliosis, cosmetic concerns and pain are the main reasons for seeking treatment at a physician’s office. The purpose of this paper was to describe the mid-term effect of physical rehabilitation and part-time bracing on an adult scoliosis patient who had been suffering from chronic low back pain for fourteen years. [Subject and Methods] Case description: A 37-year-old female patient with late-onset idiopathic scoliosis presented in the office of the first author in January 2014. She reported having chronic pain (low back pain) since the age of 23 and reported daily pain at a level of 5–7 on average on a Visual Analogue Scale of 0 to 10. She received a short scoliosis-specific Schroth exercise program and was also fitted with a Gensingen brace for part-time wear. [Results] At a 16 month follow-up, the patient no longer suffered from daily low back pain (with heavy lifting only) and was fully active. Additionally, her lumbar Cobb angle and angle of trunk rotation improved. [Conclusion] Patients with late-onset idiopathic scoliosis and pain may benefit from a pattern-specific conservative treatment approach. In this population, surgical intervention should be regarded as the last resort, since there are many long-term unknowns with surgery. PMID:27630444

  15. Emergency PTCA and Brace Implantation in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhangquan; Guan Ruming; Zhang Ming

    2000-01-01

    Objective To further improve the rate of reperfusion of infarction related artery in AMI, remove the stricture, rescue ischemic myocardiurn, protect cardiac function and ameliorate the longterm prognosis. Method Among 73 patients with AMI, 50 underwent direct PTCA, 15 immediate PTCA,8 rescue PTCA and 20 braces were implanted. Result The proportion of recanalization is 94.5% (69/73) .The grade of blood flow (TIMI) improved to grade 3 in 20 patients with brace implantation, while 44 to grade 3 and 5 to grade 2 among 49 patients with simple PTCA. Residualstenosis in vessel was 1.8 ± 5.9(-10-10)% in patients with brace implantation versus 15.4 ± 11. (0 -30)% with simple PICA. The incidence of reperfusive cardiac arrythmia was 18.1%(10/62). There was mainly frequent ventricular premature beat and short paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia, if left anterior decending branch was reopened,while bradycardia and atrial ventricular block usually occurred after right coronary reperfused. Conclusion Emergency PTCA and brace implantation can apparently improve the proportion of reperfusioa of IRA in AMI. It is necessary to popularize and apply these treatment in medical units with available conditions.

  16. System design description, PFP low level waste treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide a system design description (SDD) and design basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Low Level Waste Treatment Facility (LLWTF) as described in the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. The chief objective of the SDD is to document the Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) that establish and maintain the facility Safety Envelope necessary for normal safe operation of the facility; as identified in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR), Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs), or Safety Assessment Document (SAD). The basis for operational, alarm response, maintenance, and surveillance procedures are also identified and justified in this document. This document and its appendices address the following elements of the PFP LLWTF: Safety Equipment and Safety Envelope Analysis; Design description; General safety features and analysis; and Operational, maintenance and surveillance procedures. The appendices contain additional data for informational purposes only. The actual data bases and/or supporting documents should be consulted for the most current data

  17. Dynamic extensor brace for lateral epicondylitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faes, M.; Akker, B. van den; Lint, J.A. de; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2006-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is a common, often disabling ailment. Based on the failure of current therapies, a new dynamic extensor brace has been developed. In this study, the effects of application of this brace for 3 months on the most important and disabling symptoms of patients with la

  18. Knee Braces to Prevent Injuries in Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Five physicians discuss the use of knee braces to prevent injuries in football players. Questions are raised regarding the strength and design of the braces, whether they prestress the knee in some cases, and whether they actually reduce injuries. More clinical and biomechanical research is called for. (MT)

  19. Prophylactic Ankle Taping and Bracing: A Numbers-Needed-to-Treat and Cost-Benefit Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmsted, Lauren C.; Vela, Luzita I.; Denegar, Craig R.; Hertel, Jay

    2004-03-01

    OBJECTIVE: Taping and bracing are thought to decrease the incidence of ankle sprains; however, few investigators have addressed the effect of preventive measures on the rate of ankle sprains. Our purpose was to examine the effectiveness of ankle taping and bracing in reducing ankle sprains by applying a numbers-needed-to-treat (NNT) analysis to previously published studies. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed, CINAHL, SPORT Discus, and PEDro for original research from 1966 to 2002 with key words ankle taping, ankle sprains, injury incidence, prevention, ankle bracing, ankle prophylaxis, andnumbers needed to treat. We eliminated articles that did not address the effects of ankle taping or bracing on ankle injury rates using an experimental design. DATA SYNTHESIS: The search produced 8 articles, of which 3 permitted calculation of NNT, which addresses the clinical usefulness of an intervention by providing estimates of the number of treatments needed to prevent 1 injury occurrence. In a study of collegiate intramural basketball players, the prevention of 1 ankle sprain required the taping of 26 athletes with a history of ankle sprain and 143 without a prior history. In a military academy intramural basketball program, prevention of 1 sprain required bracing of 18 athletes with a history of ankle sprain and 39 athletes with no history. A study of ankle bracing in competitive soccer players produced an NNT of 5 athletes with a history of previous sprain and 57 without a prior injury. A cost- benefit analysis of ankle taping versus bracing revealed taping to be approximately 3 times more expensive than bracing. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS: Greater benefit is achieved in applying prophylactic ankle taping or bracing to athletes with a history of ankle sprain, compared with those without previous sprains. The generalizability of these results to other physically active populations is unknown. PMID:15085217

  20. [Gout and its manifestations, description and treatment in ancient times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alušík, Tomáš; Alušík, Štefan

    2015-01-01

    Gout is a very old disease, which exists for thousands of years. The first descriptions interpreted as the symptoms of gout can be found already in the Egyptian medical papyri dating to the 3rd mill. BC. In the Ancient world, many physicians dealt with the causes, diagnostics and the treatments of gout, such as Hippocrates of Cos, Diocles of Carystus or Claudios Galenos. A personified gout (as the goddess Podagra) is also to be found in the Ancient mythology and culture. Several human remnants of the people suffering from gout are preserved from the Antiquity as well.

  1. [Gout and its manifestations, description and treatment in ancient times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alušík, Tomáš; Alušík, Štefan

    2015-01-01

    Gout is a very old disease, which exists for thousands of years. The first descriptions interpreted as the symptoms of gout can be found already in the Egyptian medical papyri dating to the 3rd mill. BC. In the Ancient world, many physicians dealt with the causes, diagnostics and the treatments of gout, such as Hippocrates of Cos, Diocles of Carystus or Claudios Galenos. A personified gout (as the goddess Podagra) is also to be found in the Ancient mythology and culture. Several human remnants of the people suffering from gout are preserved from the Antiquity as well. PMID:26357863

  2. Efficiency and comfort of knee braces: A parametric study based on computational modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Pierrat, Baptiste; Calmels, Paul; Navarro, Laurent; Avril, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Knee orthotic devices are widely proposed by physicians and medical practitioners for preventive or therapeutic objectives in relation with their effects, usually known as to stabilize joint or restrict ranges of motion. This study focuses on the understanding of force transfer mechanisms from the brace to the joint thanks to a Finite Element Model. A Design Of Experiments approach was used to characterize the stiffness and comfort of various braces in order to identify their mechanically influent characteristics. Results show conflicting behavior: influent parameters such as the brace size or textile stiffness improve performance in detriment of comfort. Thanks to this computational tool, novel brace designs can be tested and evaluated for an optimal mechanical efficiency of the devices and a better compliance of the patient to the treatment.

  3. Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 14: brace therapy as an adjunct to or substitute for lumbar fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Andrew T; Ghogawala, Zoher; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Watters, William C; Resnick, Daniel K; Sharan, Alok; Eck, Jason C; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Wang, Jeffrey C; Groff, Michael W; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

    2014-07-01

    The utilization of orthotic devices for lumbar degenerative disease has been justified from both a prognostic and therapeutic perspective. As a prognostic tool, bracing is applied prior to surgery to determine if immobilization of the spine leads to symptomatic relief and thus justify the performance of a fusion. Since bracing does not eliminate motion, the validity of this assumption is questionable. Only one low-level study has investigated the predictive value of bracing prior to surgery. No correlation between response to bracing and fusion outcome was observed; therefore a trial of preoperative bracing is not recommended. Based on low-level evidence, the use of bracing is not recommended for the prevention of low-back pain in a general working population, since the incidence of low-back pain and impact on productivity were not reduced. However, in laborers with a history of back pain, a positive impact on lost workdays was observed when bracing was applied. Bracing is recommended as an option for treatment of subacute low-back pain, as several higher-level studies have demonstrated an improvement in pain scores and function. The use of bracing following instrumented posterolateral fusion, however, is not recommended, since equivalent outcomes have been demonstrated with or without the application of a brace.

  4. Description of recommended non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Version 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains description of the technologies selected for inclusions in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Study. The purpose of these descriptions is to provide a more complete description of the INTS technologies. It supplements the summary descriptions of candidate nonthermal technologies that were considered for the INTS

  5. Description of recommended non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document contains description of the technologies selected for inclusions in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Study. The purpose of these descriptions is to provide a more complete description of the INTS technologies. It supplements the summary descriptions of candidate nonthermal technologies that were considered for the INTS.

  6. Two Cases of Eating Disorders in Adolescents with Dental Braces Fitted Prior to the Onset of Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Sung-Wan; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment typically occurs during early childhood and adolescence but the wearing of dental braces is often associated with sudden changes in eating patterns that prolong treatment into the teenage years. Despite these changes, psychological assessments related to eating disorders during the course of orthodontic treatment are often ignored. Based on the findings of the present case report, it is suggested that adolescent patients who wear braces and exhibit severe weight loss sho...

  7. Effects of soft bracing or taping on a lateral ankle sprain : a non-randomised controlled trial evaluating recurrence rates and residual symptoms at one year

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemler, Ellen; van de Port, Ingrid; Schmikli, Sandor; Huisstede, Bionka; Hoes, Arno; Backx, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background: After sustaining an ankle sprain, taping is often the standard treatment in primary care. Ankle braces are sometimes used as an alternative. This study aimed to compare the effects of four weeks of soft bracing or taping following acute lateral ankle ligamentous sprain (ALALS) on sprain

  8. Shape- and size-controlled synthesis of uniform anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocuboids enclosed by active {l_brace}100{r_brace} and {l_brace}001{r_brace} facets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiaowei; Jin, Wenzui; Cai, Jinguang; Ye, Jianfeng; Li, Zhenhu; Ma, Yurong; Xie, Jinglin; Qi, Limin [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species, College of Chemistry, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-09-23

    Uniform anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocuboids enclosed by active {l_brace}100{r_brace} and {l_brace}001{r_brace} facets over a wide size range (60-830 nm in length) with controllable aspect ratios were solvothermally synthesized through hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) using acetic acid (HAc) as the solvent and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF{sub 4}]) as the capping agent. The size and aspect ratio of the anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocuboids can be readily adjusted by changing the composition parameters including the contents of [bmim][BF{sub 4}], water, and HAc in the quaternary solution system. It was revealed that [bmim][BF{sub 4}] played an important role in stabilizing both the {l_brace}100{r_brace} and {l_brace}001{r_brace} facets of the anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocuboids. On the one hand, [bmim][BF{sub 4}] acted as a fluoride source to release F{sup -} ions for stabilizing the {l_brace}001{r_brace} facets; on the other hand, the [bmim]{sup +} ions acted as effective capping ions to preferentially stabilize the {l_brace}100{r_brace} facets. The obtained near-monodisperse anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocuboids exhibited an interesting self-assembly behavior during deposition. These single-crystalline anatase nanocuboids showed extremely high crystalline phase stability, retaining the pure phase of anatase as well as the morphology even after being calcined at 900 C. Moreover, the anatase nanocuboids exhibited considerably enhanced photocatalytic activity owing the wholly exposed active {l_brace}100{r_brace} and {l_brace}001{r_brace} facets. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Correction effects of the ScoliOlogiC® „Chêneau light" brace in patients with scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Carola

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different bracing concepts are used today for the treatment of scoliosis. The plaster cast method worldwide seems to be the most practiced technique at the moment. CAD (Computer Aided Design systems are on the market which allow brace adjustments without plaster. The latest development however, is the use of the ScoliOlogiC™ off the shelf system enabling the orthopaedic technician to construct a light brace for scoliosis correction from a variety of pattern specific shells to be connected to an anterior and a posterior upright. This „Chêneau light" brace, developed according to the Chêneau principle, promises a reduced impediment of quality of life in the brace. However, material reduction should not result in reduced effectiveness. Therefore the primary correction effect in the „Chêneau light" brace has been evaluated and compared with that of other braces used today. Methods The correction effects of the first 81 patients (main diagnosis Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS [n = 64] or Early Onset Scoliosis (EOS [n = 15], treated according to the principle of the „Chêneau light" brace were evaluated after an average treatment time of 6 weeks by a full-body X-ray made in the standing position whilst wearing the brace and compared with the last X-ray before bracing. The average curvature angle of the whole group was 35,6°, the average age was 12,9 years (SD 1,9, average Risser sign was 1,3 (SD 1,5, average Tanner rating 2,75 (SD 0,7. Results The Cobb angle in the whole group was reduced by an average of 16,4°, which corresponds to a correction effect of 51%. The differences were highly significant in the T-test (T = 17,4; p Conclusion The use of the „Chêneau light" brace leads to correction effects above average when compared to the correction effects of other braces described in literature. The reduction of material seems to affect the desired correction in a positive way.

  10. 49 CFR 195.208 - Welding of supports and braces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding of supports and braces. 195.208 Section 195.208 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.208 Welding of supports and braces. Supports or braces...

  11. The immediate effect of a Boston brace on lung volumes and pulmonary compliance in mild adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Katsaris, G.; Loukos, A.; Valavanis, J.; Vassiliou, M.; Behrakis, P. K.

    1999-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is known to result in lung volume and pulmonary compliance reduction. Boston brace treatment of IS is an additional factor causing restrictive respiratory syndrome due to external chest wall compression. Nevertheless, the immediate effect of Boston bracing on the pulmonary compliance of scoliotic patients has not been studied systematically. Spirometric and plethysmographic lung volumes, static lung compliance (CST(L)) and specific lung compliance (CST(L)/functional ...

  12. Can Bracing Affect Altered Gait Patterns in Femoroacetabular Impingement

    OpenAIRE

    Safran, Marc R.; Rylander, Jonathan; Shu, Beatrice; Andriacchi, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Altered gait patterns have been identified in patients with Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), a 2nd order reversal in mid stance, that has been shown to be corrected with arthroscopic FAI surgery. Currently, most feel there is no adequate conservative treatment for this malady. The goal of this study is to determine if the gait abnormalities seen with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) can be modified with bracing. Methods: Eight individuals (4 Male, 34.5 ± 12.8 y.o., 24.0±2.3 B...

  13. Development and preliminary validation of Brace Questionnaire (BrQ: a new instrument for measuring quality of life of brace treated scoliotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gkoltsiou Konstantina

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of life among children with idiopathic scoliosis during their adolescence has been reported to be affected by the brace itself. However, a controversy exists whether brace treated scoliotics experience a poor quality of life, thus there is a need for the development of a brace-oriented instrument, as the now-existing questionnaires that are commonly used, such as the SRS -22, take into consideration the effects of both the conservative and the surgical treatment on quality of life of scoliotic children. The aim of the present study is to assess the validity and reliability of Brace Questionnaire (BrQ, a new instrument for measuring quality of life of scoliotic adolescents who are treated conservatively with a brace. Material-method Methodology of development involved literature review, patient and health care professionals' in-depth interviews and content validity analysis on patients. A validation study was performed on 28 brace treated scoliotic children aged between 9 and 18 years old. BrQ was assessed for the following psychometric properties: item convergent validity, floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency reliability, clinical validity and responsiveness to change. Results BrQ is self administrated and developmentally appropriate for ages 9 to 18 years old and is consisted of 34 Likert-scale items associated with eight domains: general health perception, physical functioning, emotional functioning, self esteem and aesthetics, vitality, school activity, bodily pain and social functioning of scoliotic children treated conservatively with a brace. The subscales of these eight dimensions can be combined to produce a total score. Higher scores mean a better quality of life. An item convergent validity ≥ 0.40 was satisfied by all items in the present study. A satisfactory internal consistency reliability for the BrQ was recorded (Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.82. There were no floor or ceiling

  14. Application of FEM Analysis to Braced Excavation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mingfei; Atsushi Nakamura; CAI Fei; Keizo Ugai

    2008-01-01

    It is becoming possible to do detailed numerical analyses for the various mechanical behavior of braced excavation by researching and developing the numerical analysis technique such as the finite ele-ment method (FEM).However,the mechanical behavior of braced excavation has not been clanfied fully both in theory and in expedence.Therefore,improving the prediction accuracy during the prior design is very important for making the observational method of braced excavation more effective.In this paper,FEM analyses were performed for a model of braced excavation by using Geotechnical Finite Element Elasto-plastic Analysis Software,GeoFEAS (2D).As the constitutive law of ground,MC-DP model, and Dun-can-Chang model were applied.The results were compared and discussed with that of a site measurement,and the effects of the constitutive law of ground on the analyzed result were verified.For the difference be-tween the results,the reason was investigated by the analyses adjusting the elastic modulus of ground,and the appropriate application of the constitutive law was researched.

  15. The role of initial bone mineral status in predicting the early outcome of brace treatment in girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis%初诊骨密度对女性青少年特发性脊柱侧凸患者早期支具治疗效果的预测价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙旭; 朱泽章; 邱勇; 王斌; 李卫国; 朱锋; 俞杨; 钱邦平; 马薇薇

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether initial bone mineral status acts as a predictor factor in evaluating the early outcome of brace treatment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) girls. Methods Seventy-sevengirls with AIS, aged 10-15 years old, were included in this study. A standardized bracing protocol was performed in these girls, and the early outcomes of brace treatment were evaluated at over-1-year follow-up. Girls with a progressed scoliosis and those with a non-progressed scoliosis were identified.The associations between the outcome and the indices before bracing, including age, menstrual status,Risser grade, bone mineral density (BMD) status, curve magnitude and curve pattern were assessed using univariate analysis. A multiple Logistic stepwise regression was used to determine the risk factors in curve progression in AIS girls treated with brace treatment. Results There were 16 girls (21%) with a progressed scoliosis and 61 girls (79%) with a non-progressed scoliosis, respectively. In the girls with a progressed scoliosis, higher ratios of subjects were found with premenarchal status ( X2>= 9. 628, P =0. 004), lower Risser grade ( X2> = 4. 565, P = 0.037 ), main thoracic scoliosis ( X2> = 4. 009, P = 0. 045 ), a larger curve (X2> = 1. 685 ,P = 0.194), as well as osteopenia (X2>= 3. 828, P = 0. 050), as compared with those with a non- progressed scoliosis. During brace treatment, besides premenarchal status, a larger Cobb angle, and a main thoracic scoliosis, osteopenia ( OR = 5. 362, P = 0. 022) was identified as the risk factor in curve progression in AIS girls, as revealed by the multiple Logistic regression analysis. Conclusions Osteopenia might be an independent risk factor in the curve progression during brace treatment. The analysis of initial BMD status before bracing may help to predict the outcome of brace treatment.%目的 探讨青少年特发性脊柱侧凸女性患者初诊时骨密度对短期支具治疗期间侧凸畸

  16. Cu-capped surface alloys of Pt/Cu left brace 100 right brace

    CERN Document Server

    Alshamaileh, E; Wander, A

    2003-01-01

    The room-temperature deposition of 0.5 monolayer (ML) Pt on Cu left brace 100 right brace followed by annealing to 525 K results in a sharp c(2 x 2) low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) pattern. The structure of this surface alloy is investigated by means of symmetrized automated tensor low-energy electron diffraction (SATLEED) analysis and ab initio plane wave density functional calculations. The results are then compared with those for the similar system 0.5 ML Pd/Cu left brace 100 right brace. SATLEED results for the Pt/Cu left brace 100 right brace show that it consists of an ordered c(2 x 2) Cu-Pt second layer alloy capped with a pure Cu first layer. The first and second interlayer spacings are found to be expanded by +5.1 +- 1.7 and +3.5 +- 1.7% respectively (relative to the bulk Cu interlayer spacing of 1.807 A) due to the insertion of the 8% larger Pt atoms into the second layer. The ordered mixed layer is found to be rippled by 0.08 +- 0.06 A with Pt atoms rippled outwards towards the solid-vacuum ...

  17. Treatment results in qualitative designs. Application of Descriptive Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Blas Lahitte

    2014-04-01

    It discusses two examples from the Ethology and Psychology, applying methodological strategy Descriptive Analysis. They show that the codification that allows this method takes into account on the one hand, the knowledge base and information relating to a particular disciplinary domain; and on the other hand, it allows to make evident the inferences followed in the reasoning and the rules of interpretation used in reaching new knowledge.

  18. A Conceptual Design and Structural Analysis for ITER Mid-plane Brace Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ITER, International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, Tokamak machine is mainly composed of 9 vacuum vessel (VV)/toroidal field coils (TFCs)/vacuum vessel thermal shields (VVTS) 40 .deg. sectors. Each VV/TFCs/VVTS 40 .deg. sector is made up of one 40 .deg. VV, two 20 .deg. TFCs and associated VVTS segments. The ITER Tokamak assembly tools are purpose-built tools to assemble the ITER Tokamak machine which includes the cryostat and the components contained therein. Based on the design description document prepared by the IO (ITER international organization), Korea has carried out the conceptual design of assembly tools with IO cooperation. The 40 .deg. sector assemblies attached mid-plane brace tools sub-assembled at assembly hall are transferred to Tokamak hall using the lifting tool operated by Tokamak main cranes. The sector sub-assembly tools are composed of the upending tool, the sector sub-assembly tool, the sector lifting tool and the vacuum vessel support and mid-plane brace tools. The mid-plane brace tool is assembled to inner surface of VV and TFCs in phase of sector sub-assembly after completion of all sector components. VV, TFC and VVTS are separated fully before completion of 9 sectors at Tokamak in-pit. In this paper the mid-plane brace tools is introduced about function, structure and status of research and development are also described

  19. 夜用式脊柱侧凸矫形器治疗脊柱单侧弯的临床疗效观察%Effectiveness of night-time bending brace in the treatment of adolescent single-curve idiopathic scoliosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈东; 武继祥; 黄丹

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨分析夜用式脊柱侧凸矫形器对青少年特发性脊柱单侧弯的疗效。方法:脊柱单侧凸患者40例,分为观察组22例和对照组18例。观察组在睡觉时佩戴夜用式脊柱侧凸矫形器8~10h ,对照组佩戴传统色努式脊柱侧凸矫形器≥20h。观察2组患者治疗前后的Cobb角,顶椎偏离中线距离(AVT)、躯干位移(TS)和肺活量(VC)的改善。结果:治疗3个月后,2组患者的Cobb角度、AVT及TS距离均明显低于治疗前(P<0.01),且观察组更低于对照组(P<0.01);2组治疗后VC含量均明显高于治疗前,且观察组更高于对照组(P<0.01)。结论:夜用式脊柱侧凸矫形器适合青少年C型侧凸治疗,其矫正效果明显优于传统的脊柱侧凸矫形器,值得临床推广应用。%Objective :To analyze the effectiveness of night-time bending brace in the treatment of adolescent single-curve idiopathic scoliosis .Method:Forty patients with single-curve scoliosis were divided into observation group (n=22) and control group (n=18) .The patients in the observation group wore night-time bending brace for 8-10 h when sleeping ,and those in the control group wore traditional scoliosis brace for more than 20 h .The Cobb's angle , apex vertebral trunking distance from the center line (AVT) ,trunk swing (TS) ,spinal flexibility and vital capacity (VC) were comapred between two groups .Results :After treatment ,the cobb's angle ,AVT and TS in both two groups were significantly reduced as compared with those before treatment (P<0 .01) ,and those indexes were even significantly lower in the observation group than in the control group (P<0 .01) .After treatment ,VC in both two groups was increased as compared with that before treatment ,and the index was significantly higher in the observa-tion group than in the control group (P<0 .01) .Conclusion :Night-time bending brace is suitable for the treatment of adolescent

  20. [Clinical relevance of unloading in cartilage therapy of the knee--shoe insoles, knee braces or additional operative procedure?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, T M; Imhoff, A B; Ateschrang, A; Stöckle, U; Schröter, S

    2015-02-01

    Restoration of a neutral biomechanical environment and reduction of overload is an important factor contributing to the success of any cartilage repair procedure. Reduction of overload can by achieved by so called unloading procedures in order to reduce intraarticular pressure from the repair zone. Unloading can be achieved via loss of weight, wedged shoe insoles, knee braces or via operations such as osteotomies around the knee joint. The cartilage therapy and the concomitant unloading procedure should be adapted to the individual pathology and realistic aims of the patient. Wedged insoles and braces are the least invasive treatment methods. In comparison, however, beneficial effects of braces outline those of laterally wedged heels. Nevertheless long-term compliance with insoles and braces is poor. Concerning braces either because the positive effects of the braces are too small or because the adverse effects are too large. Unloading in the long run may only be achieved through operative procedures. When an osteotomy seems to be too invasive the arthroscopic release of the posterior oblique ligament might be an option. Patients with an intact contralateral chondral status, medium to slight malalignment who want to remain at high activity levels, remain good candidates for unloading osteotomies.

  1. Lateral Load Analysis of a Building with & Without Knee Bracing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin S. Kamble

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In last decades steel structures has played an important role in construction industry. Providing strength, stability and ductility are major purposes of seismic design. It is necessary to design a structure to perform well under seismic loads. Steel braced frame is one of the structural systems used to resist earthquake loads in structures. Steel bracing is economical, easy to erect, occupies less space and has flexibility to design for meeting the required strength and stiffness. Bracing can be used as retrofit as well. There are various types of steel bracings such as Diagonal, X, K, V, inverted V type or chevron and global type concentric bracings. In the present study, it was shown that modelling of the G+4 steel bare frame with various bracings (X, V, inverted V, and Knee bracing by computer software SAP2000 and pushover analysis results are obtained. Comparison between the seismic parameters such as base shear, roof displacement, time period, storey drift, performance point for steel bare frame with different bracing patterns are studied. It is found that the X type of steel bracings significantly contributes to the structural stiffness and reduces the maximum interstate drift of steel building than other bracing systems

  2. Vibration of x-braced portal frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. H.; Wang, P. Y.; Lin, Y. W.

    1987-09-01

    Both free and forced vibrations of elastic X-braced portal frames are investigated. Solutions of the Euler-Bernoulli equation for the transverse vibration coupled with the axial vibration are used. The first five natural frequencies, with the angle of inclination, α, of the bracing bars ranging from 15° to 75°, with different slenderness ratios, R, of the columns, and different stiffness of the floor beam and crossing bars, are presented along with two sets of the natural modes of the frames with α = 45°. For the forced vibration, the dynamic responses of the frames with a concentrated horizontal time dependent force acting at a top joint are studied. The responses of the frames with α = 45° are analyzed in detail.

  3. The Effectiveness of Prophylactic Knee Bracing in American Football

    OpenAIRE

    Salata, Michael J.; Gibbs, Aimee E.; Sekiya, Jon K.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Knee injuries, particularly of the medial collateral ligament (MCL), are the most common injury sustained in American football. In 1979, Anderson et al described a knee brace that could protect uninjured knees from MCL injuries resulting from lateral impact. Since then, a number of light and free-moving bracing devices have been developed. However, the efficacy of prophylactic knee bracing remains in question. Objective: A systematic review of the efficacy of prophylactic knee bracin...

  4. POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous

  5. POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. King

    2000-06-19

    The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous

  6. Two Cases of Eating Disorders in Adolescents with Dental Braces Fitted Prior to the Onset of Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment typically occurs during early childhood and adolescence but the wearing of dental braces is often associated with sudden changes in eating patterns that prolong treatment into the teenage years. Despite these changes, psychological assessments related to eating disorders during the course of orthodontic treatment are often ignored. Based on the findings of the present case report, it is suggested that adolescent patients who wear braces and exhibit severe weight loss should be carefully monitored for psychiatric problems, including eating disorders. PMID:26207138

  7. Two Cases of Eating Disorders in Adolescents with Dental Braces Fitted Prior to the Onset of Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Sung-Wan; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2015-07-01

    Orthodontic treatment typically occurs during early childhood and adolescence but the wearing of dental braces is often associated with sudden changes in eating patterns that prolong treatment into the teenage years. Despite these changes, psychological assessments related to eating disorders during the course of orthodontic treatment are often ignored. Based on the findings of the present case report, it is suggested that adolescent patients who wear braces and exhibit severe weight loss should be carefully monitored for psychiatric problems, including eating disorders. PMID:26207138

  8. Elastoplastic analysis of knee bracing frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zhen; LI Qing-song; CHEN Long-zhu

    2005-01-01

    The knee bracing steel frame (KBF) is a new kind of energy dissipating frame, which combines excellent ductility and lateral stiffness. As the structural fuse of the frame, the knee element will yield first during a severe earthquake so that no damage occurs to the major structural members and the rehabilitation is easy and economical. To help fully understand the relations between its seismic performance and the structural parameters, systematic elastoplastic analysis of the KBF structure with finite element method was conducted in this work. Finally, general design recommendations were made according to the results of the analysis.

  9. Behavior of concentrically loaded CFT braces connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha M. Hassan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Concrete filled tubes (CFTs composite columns have many economical and esthetic advantages, but the behavior of their connections is complicated. Through this study, it is aimed to investigate the performance and behavior of different connection configurations between concrete filled steel tube columns and bracing diagonals through an experimental program. The study included 12 connection subassemblies consisting of a fixed length steel tube and gusset plate connected to the tube end with different details tested under half cyclic loading. A notable effect was observed on the behavior of the connections due to its detailing changes with respect to capacity, failure mode, ductility, and stress distribution.

  10. Effectiveness of the SpineCor brace based on the new standardized criteria proposed by the scoliosis research society for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coillard, Christine; Vachon, Valerie; Circo, Alin B; Beauséjour, Marie; Rivard, Charles H

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Dynamic SpineCor brace for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in accordance with the standardized criteria proposed by the Scoliosis Research Society Committee on Bracing and Nonoperative Management. They proposed these guidelines to make the comparison among studies more valid and reliable. From 1993 to 2006, 493 patients were treated using the SpineCor brace. Two hundred forty-nine patients met the criteria for inclusion, and 79 patients were still actively being treated. Overall, 170 patients have a definitive outcome. All girls were premenarchal or less than 1 year postmenarchal. Assessment of brace effectiveness included (1) percentage of patients who have 5 degrees or less curve progression, and percentage of patients who have 6 degrees or more progression; (2) percentage of patients who have been recommended/undergone surgery before skeletal maturity; (3) percentage of patients with curves exceeding 45 degrees at maturity (end of treatment); and (4) Two-year follow-up beyond maturity to determine the percentage of patients who subsequently underwent surgery. Successful treatment (correction, >5 degrees, or stabilization, +/-5 degrees) was achieved in 101 (59.4%) of the 170 patients from the time of the fitting of the SpineCor brace to the point in which it was discontinued. Thirty-nine immature patients (22.9%) required surgical fusion while receiving treatment. Two (1.2%) of 170 patients had curves exceeding 45 degrees at maturity. One mature patient (2.1%) required surgery within 2 years of follow-up beyond skeletal maturity. The conclusion drawn from these findings is that the SpineCor brace is effective for the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Moreover, positive outcomes are maintained after 2 years because 45 (95.7%) of 47 patients stabilized or corrected their end of bracing Cobb angle up to 2 years after bracing. Therapeutic study-investigating the

  11. Lateral Knee Braces in Football: Do They Prevent Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulos, Lonnie E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The results of three recently presented clinical studies and a biomechanical study of the use of lateral knee braces to prevent knee injuries are reviewed. The results raise serious doubts about the efficacy of the preventive knee braces which are currently available. (Author/MT)

  12. The Sforzesco brace can replace cast in the correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: A controlled prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaina Fabio

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS has traditionally been divided into two phases–correction and stabilisation–and casts, even if less used today, can be considered the best standard in the correction phase. Till the present, however, no comparison between cast and brace efficacy has been proposed. Methods This is a prospective cohort study with a retrospective control group. The aim was to verify if it is possible to obtain with a specifically developed rigid brace results comparable to a cast. We considered fifty AIS patients who had refused surgery, aged 14.1 ± 1.5 years, with 46.7 ± 7.8° Cobb scoliosis. Thirty-two consecutive patients (with no drop-outs were prospectively followed up with the Sforzesco brace (SBG, and compared against a retrospective group of eighteen patients treated with the Risser cast (RCG. The treatment time (the total correction phase was 19 ± 3 months. Out-of-brace x-rays were compared, as well as clinical results. Results Compliance and hours of treatment were higher in the RCG while all the other parameters were not different. We observed a reduction of 6° Cobb and an important aesthetic gain in both groups (P Conclusion In the corrective phase of AIS treatment it is possible with a specific rigid brace (Sforzesco – SPoRT concept to obtain scoliosis correction similar to cast. Due to the human and social costs of casting, and worst sagittal profile results, Sforzesco brace should be the preferred method wherever possible.

  13. Effects of soft bracing or taping on a lateral ankle sprain: a non-randomised controlled trial evaluating recurrence rates and residual symptoms at one year

    OpenAIRE

    Kemler, Ellen; van de Port, Ingrid; Schmikli, Sandor; Huisstede, Bionka; Hoes, Arno; Backx, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background After sustaining an ankle sprain, taping is often the standard treatment in primary care. Ankle braces are sometimes used as an alternative. This study aimed to compare the effects of four weeks of soft bracing or taping following acute lateral ankle ligamentous sprain (ALALS) on sprain recurrence rates and residual symptoms at one year. Methods In this pragmatic, non-randomised controlled trial, 157 adult participants with an ALALS caused by an inversion trauma were alternately al...

  14. Effects of soft bracing or taping on a lateral ankle sprain : a non-randomised controlled trial evaluating recurrence rates and residual symptoms at one year

    OpenAIRE

    Kemler, Ellen; van de Port, Ingrid; Schmikli, Sandor; Huisstede, Bionka; Hoes, Arno; Backx, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background: After sustaining an ankle sprain, taping is often the standard treatment in primary care. Ankle braces are sometimes used as an alternative. This study aimed to compare the effects of four weeks of soft bracing or taping following acute lateral ankle ligamentous sprain (ALALS) on sprain recurrence rates and residual symptoms at one year. Methods: In this pragmatic, non-randomised controlled trial, 157 adult participants with an ALALS caused by an inversion trauma were alternately ...

  15. Effects of soft bracing or taping on a lateral ankle sprain : a non-randomised controlled trial evaluating recurrence rates and residual symptoms at one year

    OpenAIRE

    Kemler, Ellen; van de Port, Ingrid; Schmikli, Sandor; Huisstede, Bionka; Hoes, Arno; Backx, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background After sustaining an ankle sprain, taping is often the standard treatment in primary care. Ankle braces are sometimes used as an alternative. This study aimed to compare the effects of four weeks of soft bracing or taping following acute lateral ankle ligamentous sprain (ALALS) on sprain recurrence rates and residual symptoms at one year. Methods In this pragmatic, non-randomised controlled trial, 157 adult participants with an ALALS caused by an inversion trauma were alternately al...

  16. A Descriptive Analysis of Studies on Behavioural Treatment of Drooling (1970-2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Burg, Jan J. W.; Didden, Robert; Jongerius, Peter H.; Rotteveel, Jan J.

    2007-01-01

    A descriptive analysis was conducted on studies on the behavioural treatment of drooling (published between 1970 and 2005). The 17 articles that met the inclusion criteria described 53 participants (mean age 14y 7mo, [SD 4y 9mo]; range 6-28y). Sex of 87% of the participants was reported: 28 male, 18 female. For 60% of the participants the degree…

  17. A descriptive analysis of studies on behavioural treatment of drooling (1970-2005).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, J.J. van der; Didden, R.; Jongerius, P.H.; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    A descriptive analysis was conducted on studies on the behavioural treatment of drooling (published between 1970 and 2005). The 17 articles that met the inclusion criteria described 53 participants (mean age 14y 7mo, [SD 4y 9mo]; range 6-28y). Sex of 87% of the participants was reported: 28 male, 18

  18. Fixed airflow obstruction in asthma: a descriptive study of patient profiles and effect on treatment responses

    OpenAIRE

    Tashkin, Donald P.; Chipps, Bradley E.; Trudo, Frank; Zangrilli, James G

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of fixed airflow obstruction (FAO) in asthma is unclear. Objective: To assess the relationship between FAO and clinical features of asthma and the effect of FAO on treatment response. Methods: Post hoc descriptive analysis of data stratified by FAO category (screening post-albuterol FEV1/FVC

  19. Control of a flexible bracing manipulator: Integration of current research work to realize the bracing manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dong-Soo

    1991-01-01

    All research results about flexible manipulator control were integrated to show a control scenario of a bracing manipulator. First, dynamic analysis of a flexible manipulator was done for modeling. Second, from the dynamic model, the inverse dynamic equation was derived, and the time domain inverse dynamic method was proposed for the calculation of the feedforward torque and the desired flexible coordinate trajectories. Third, a tracking controller was designed by combining the inverse dynamic feedforward control with the joint feedback control. The control scheme was applied to the tip position control of a single link flexible manipulator for zero and non-zero initial condition cases. Finally, the contact control scheme was added to the position tracking control. A control scenario of a bracing manipulator is provided and evaluated through simulation and experiment on a single link flexible manipulator.

  20. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria of {l_brace}heptane + xylene + N-formylmorpholine{r_brace} ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Dongchu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, ChangSha 410083 (China)], E-mail: dcchen@hnust.edu.cn; Ye Hongqi; Hao Wu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, ChangSha 410083 (China)

    2007-12-15

    (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for ternary system {l_brace}heptane (1) + m-xylene (2) + N-formylmorpholine (3){r_brace} have been determined experimentally at temperatures ranging from 298.15 K to 353.15 K. Complete phase diagrams were obtained by determining solubility and tie-line data. Tie-line compositions were correlated by Othmer-Tobias and Bachman methods. The universal quasichemical activity coefficient (UNIQUAC) and The non-random two liquids equation (NRTL) were used to correlate the phase equilibrium in the system using the interaction parameters determined from experimental data. It is found that UNIQUAC and NRTL used for LLE could provide a good correlation. Distribution coefficients, separation factors, and selectivity were evaluated for the immiscibility region.

  1. The Chêneau concept of bracing--biomechanical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, Manuel; Weiss, Hans-Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Current concept of bracing must take in consideration both the three-dimensional (3D) nature of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) and its pathomechanism of progression. A modern brace should be able to correct in 3D in order to break the so called 'vicious cycle' model. Generally speaking, it is necessary to create detorsional forces to derotate in the transversal plane, to correct the lateral deviation in the frontal plane and to normalize the sagittal profile of the spine. Breathing mechanics can be used to fight against the thoracic structural flat back. The original Chêneau brace was introduced at the end of the 70's and its principles were based more in anatomical observations rather than in biomechanics. A further evolution , enunciating new principles, has allowed a higher standard, improving in brace corrections and trunk modelling. This biomechanical principles have been developed under the name of Rigo-Chêneau-System (RSC) and used later in latest brace models like the Chêneau light with reduced material, and similar in brace corrections. Experience is also important to improve the end results. The blueprints to built the brace according to the anatomorradiological pattern are very helpful.

  2. Biomechanical Analysis of the Effects of Bilateral Hinged Knee Bracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hangil; Ha, Dokyeong; Kang, Yeoun-Seung; Park, Hyung-Soon

    2016-01-01

    This research analyzed the effect of bilateral hinged knee braces on a healthy knee from a biomechanical frame in vivo. This was accomplished by fitting a knee brace with two customized wireless force/torque (F/T) sensors that could readily record force and torque during live motion, while the kinetics at the knee were computed using the inverse dynamics of the motion capture and force plate data. Four tasks to test the brace’s effects were drop vertical jumping, pivoting, stop vertical jumping, and cutting. The results showed that the hinges in the knee brace can absorb up to 18% of the force and 2.7% of the torque at the knee during various athletic motions. Thus, the hinges demonstrated minimal effect in reducing the mechanical load on the knee. There were limitations concerning the consistency of the motions performed by the subjects during the trials and the influence of the other portions of the brace to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the brace as a whole. Future works may incorporate a fatigue protocol and injured subjects to better determine the effects of the brace. There is still a need for more research on the biomechanical influence of knee braces to develop safer and more effective products. PMID:27379233

  3. A magnetorheological fluid based orthopedic active knee brace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zite, Jamaal L.; Ahmadkhanlou, Farzad; Neelakantan, Vijay A.; Washington, Gregory N.

    2006-03-01

    The disadvantage of current knee braces ranges from high cost for customization to a loss in physical mobility and limited rehabilitative value. One approach to solving this problem is to use a Magnetorheological (MR) device to make the knee brace have a controllable resistance. Our design solution is to replace the manufacturer's joint with an rotary MR fluid based shear damper. The device is designed based on a maximum yield stress, a corresponding magnetic field, a torque and the MR fluid viscosity. The analytical and experimental results show the advantages and the feasibility of using the proposed MR based controllable knee braces.

  4. Three dimensional analysis of brace biomechanical efficacy for patients with AIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebel, David E; Al-Aubaidi, Zaid; Shin, Eyun-Jung;

    2013-01-01

    Corrective three dimensional (3D) effect of different braces is debatable. We evaluated differences in in-brace radiographic correction comparing a custom thoracic-lumbo-sacral-orthosis (TLSO) (T) brace to a Chêneau type TLSO (C) brace using 3D EOS reconstruction technology. Our primary research ...... question was the 3D effect of brace on the spine and in particularly the apical vertebra rotation (AVR)....

  5. Body Image and Quality-of-Life in Untreated Versus Brace-Treated Females With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieger, Traci; Campo, Shelly; Weinstein, Stuart L.; Dolan, Lori A.; Ashida, Sato; Steuber, Keli R.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design. The Bracing in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Trial (BrAIST) included skeletally immature high-risk patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) with moderate curve sizes (20°– 40°). BrAIST was a multicenter, controlled trial using both randomized and preference treatment arms into either an observation group or a brace treatment group. Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare body image and quality-of-life (QOL) in female AIS patients who were observed or treated with a brace. Summary of Background Data. Brace treatment is an effective means for controlling progressive scoliosis and preventing the need for surgery, but there is no consensus regarding the effect of brace treatment on body image or on QOL in adolescents with AIS. Methods. Data from female BrAIST patients in the randomized (n = 132) or preference (n = 187) arms and were observed (n = 120) or brace treated (n = 199) were analyzed. Patients completed the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ) and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQOL) 4.0 Generic Scales at baseline and 6 month follow-up visits up to 2 years. Items on the SAQ measured three body image constructs (self, ideal, and overall). The PedsQOL measured health, activities, feelings, social factors, and school. Results. . In general, there were no significant differences within or between study arms or treatments regarding body image or QOL through 2 years of follow-up. Poorer body image was significantly correlated with poorer QOL during the first 2 years of follow-up regardless of study arm or treatment. Patients who crossed-over to a different treatment and patients with largest Cobb angles ≥ 40 degrees had significantly poorer body image, in particular self-body image, compared with those that did not. Conclusion. This study does not support findings from previous research indicating that wearing a brace has a negative impact on or is negatively impacted by body image or

  6. 'SOSORT consensus paper on brace action: TLSO biomechanics of correction (investigating the rationale for force vector selection'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruyama T

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of orthotic treatment continues to be controversial in international medical literature due to differences in the reported results and conclusions of various studies. Heterogeneity of the samples has been suggested as a reason for conflicting results. Besides the obvious theoretical differences between the brace concepts, the variability in the technical factors can also explain the contradictory results between same brace types. This paper will investigate the degree of variability among responses of scoliosis specialists from the Brace Study Ground of the International Society on Scoliosis Orthopedic and Rehabilitation Treatment SOSORT. Ultimately, this information could be a foundation for establishing a consensus and framework for future prospective controlled studies. Methods A preliminary questionnaire on the topic of 'brace action' relative to the theory of three-dimensional scoliosis correction and brace treatment was developed and circulated to specialists interested in the conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A particular case was presented (main thoracic curve with minor lumbar. Several key points emerged and were used to develop a second questionnaire which was discussed and full filed after the SOSORT consensus meeting (Milano, Italy, January 2005. Results Twenty-one questionnaires were completed. The Chêneau brace was the most frequently recommended. The importance of the three point system mechanism was stressed. Options about proper pad placement on the thoracic convexity were divided 50% for the pad reaching or involving the apical vertebra and 50% for the pad acting caudal to the apical vertebra. There was agreement about the direction of the vector force, 85% selecting a 'dorso lateral to ventro medial' direction but about the shape of the pad to produce such a force. Principles related to three-dimensional correction achieved high consensus (80%–85%, but suggested

  7. Team care to cure adolescents with braces (avoiding low quality of life, pain and bad compliance: a case–control retrospective study. 2011 SOSORT Award winner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavernaro Marta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bracing could be efficacious, given good compliance and quality of braces. Recently the SOSORT Brace Treatment Management Guidelines (SBTMG have highlighted the perceived importance of the professional teams surrounding braced patients. Purpose To verify the impact of a complete rehabilitation team in the adolescent patient with bracing. Materials and methods Design. Initial cross-sectional study, followed by a retrospective case–control study. Population: Thirty-eight patients (15.8 ± 1.6 years; 26 females; 10 hyperkyphosis, 28 scoliosis of 29.2 ± 7.9° Cobb extracted from a single orthotist database (between January 1, 2008 and September 1, 2009 and treated by the same physician; brace wearing at least 15 hours/day for a minimum of 6 months; age 10 or more. Treatment: Braces: Sforzesco, Sibilla, Lapadula or Maguelone. Exercises: SEAS. Methods: Two questionnaires filled in blindly by patients: SRS-22 and one especially developed and validated with 25 questions on adherence to treatment. Groups (main risk factor: TEAM (private institute: satisfied 44/44 SOSORT criteria; grade of teamwork, “excellent” included 13 patients and NOT 25 (National Health Service Rehabilitation Department: 35/44 SOSORT criteria respected; grade, “insufficient”. Results TEAM was more compliant to bracing than NOT (97 ± 6% vs. 80 ± 24% and performed nearly double the exercises (38 ± 12 vs. 20 ± 13 minutes/session. The self-reduction of bracing was significant in NOT (from 16.8 ± 3.7 to 14.8 ± 4.9 hours/day, , P Conclusions Provided the limits of this first study on the topic, the SBTMG seems to be important for brace treatment, influencing pain, QoL and compliance (and so, presumably, final results. Future studies on the topic are advisable.

  8. A magnetorheological fluid-based controllable active knee brace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadkhanlou, Farzad; Zite, Jamaal L.; Washington, Gregory N.

    2007-04-01

    High customization costs and reduction of natural mobility put current rehabilitative knee braces at a disadvantage. A resolution to this problem is to integrate a Magnetorheological (MR) fluid-based joint into the system. A MR joint will allow patients to apply and control a resistive torque to knee flexion and extension. The resistance torque can also be continuously adjusted as a function of extension angle and patient strength (or as a function of time), which is currently impossible with state of the art rehabilitative knee braces. A novel MR fluid-based controllable knee brace is designed and prototyped in this research. The device exhibits large resistive torque in the on-state and low resistance in the offstate. The controllable variable stiffness, compactness, and portability of the system make it a proper alternative to current rehabilitative knee braces.

  9. Inelastic behavior of eccentric braces in steel structure

    OpenAIRE

    Nourbakhs, Seyed Mehrdad

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The performance of eccentric braces is to some extent considered as a new subject amongst Civil Engineers. In general, braces are the members that resist against lateral forces in a steel structure while the structures are under seismic excitation. Although the height of a structure and the structural system are the two parameters which can affect the inelastic behavior and response of the structure but these parameters have not been taken into consideration in the current design co...

  10. A user`s guide to LUGSAN 1.1: A computer program to calculate and archive lug and sway brace loads for aircraft-carried stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, W.N. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Experimental Structural Dynamics Dept.

    1994-07-01

    LUGSAN (LUG and Sway brace ANalysis) is a analysis and database computer program designed to calculate store lug and sway brace loads from aircraft captive carriage. LUGSAN combines the rigid body dynamics code, SWAY85 and the maneuver calculation code, MILGEN, with an INGRES database to function both as an analysis and archival system. This report describes the operation of the LUGSAN application program, including function description, layout examples, and sample sessions. This report is intended to be a user`s manual for version 1.1 of LUGSAN operating on the VAX/VMS system. The report is not intended to be a programmer or developer`s manual.

  11. A comparison of the biomechanical effects of valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard K; Nester, Christopher J; Richards, Jim D; Kim, Winston Y; Johnson, David S; Jari, Sanjiv; Laxton, Philip; Tyson, Sarah F

    2013-03-01

    Increases in the external knee adduction moment (EKAM) have been associated with increased mechanical load at the knee and progression of knee osteoarthritis. Valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles are common approaches to reducing this loading; however no study has directly compared the biomechanical and clinical effects of these two treatments in patients with medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. A cross-over randomised design was used where each intervention was worn by 28 patients for a two week period. Pre- and post-intervention gait kinematic/kinetic data and clinical outcomes were collected to evaluate the biomechanical and clinical effects on the knee joint. The valgus knee brace and the lateral wedged insole significantly increased walking speed, reduced the early stance EKAM by 7% and 12%, and the knee adduction angular impulse by 8.6 and 16.1% respectively. The lateral wedged insole significantly reduced the early stance EKAM compared to the valgus knee brace (p=0.001). The valgus knee brace significantly reduced the knee varus angle compared to the baseline and lateral wedged insole. Improvements in pain and function subscales were comparable for the valgus knee brace and lateral wedged insole. There were no significant differences between the two treatments in any of the clinical outcomes; however the lateral wedged insoles demonstrated greater levels of acceptance by patients. This is the first study to biomechanically compare these two treatments, and demonstrates that given the potential role of knee loading in osteoarthritis progression, that both treatments reduce this but lateral wedge insoles appear to have a greater effect.

  12. A comparison of the biomechanical effects of valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard K; Nester, Christopher J; Richards, Jim D; Kim, Winston Y; Johnson, David S; Jari, Sanjiv; Laxton, Philip; Tyson, Sarah F

    2013-03-01

    Increases in the external knee adduction moment (EKAM) have been associated with increased mechanical load at the knee and progression of knee osteoarthritis. Valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles are common approaches to reducing this loading; however no study has directly compared the biomechanical and clinical effects of these two treatments in patients with medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. A cross-over randomised design was used where each intervention was worn by 28 patients for a two week period. Pre- and post-intervention gait kinematic/kinetic data and clinical outcomes were collected to evaluate the biomechanical and clinical effects on the knee joint. The valgus knee brace and the lateral wedged insole significantly increased walking speed, reduced the early stance EKAM by 7% and 12%, and the knee adduction angular impulse by 8.6 and 16.1% respectively. The lateral wedged insole significantly reduced the early stance EKAM compared to the valgus knee brace (p=0.001). The valgus knee brace significantly reduced the knee varus angle compared to the baseline and lateral wedged insole. Improvements in pain and function subscales were comparable for the valgus knee brace and lateral wedged insole. There were no significant differences between the two treatments in any of the clinical outcomes; however the lateral wedged insoles demonstrated greater levels of acceptance by patients. This is the first study to biomechanically compare these two treatments, and demonstrates that given the potential role of knee loading in osteoarthritis progression, that both treatments reduce this but lateral wedge insoles appear to have a greater effect. PMID:22920242

  13. The Treatment Engagement Rating scale (TER) for forensic outpatient treatment : Description, psychometric properties, and norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drieschner, Klaus Heinrich; Boomsma, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The Treatment Engagement Rating scale (TER) is a Dutch therapist rating instrument for treatment engagement (TE) of forensic outpatients. It yields scores for nine components of TE, which are aggregated in a total score. Following an analysis of the concept of TE, the TER is described, and various p

  14. One-Session Treatment of Specific Phobias: A Detailed Description and Review of Treatment Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlomke, Kimberly; Davis, Thompson E., III

    2008-01-01

    One-Session Treatment (OST) is a form of massed exposure therapy for the treatment of specific phobias. OST combines exposure, participant modeling, cognitive challenges, and reinforcement in a single session, maximized to three hours. Clients are gradually exposed to steps of their fear hierarchy using therapist-directed behavioral experiments.…

  15. The effects of functional knee braces on speed in collegiate basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, D L

    1995-12-01

    Knee braces are worn by many athletes following injury. The purpose of this study was to determine whether two functional knee braces (noncustom design) significantly affected straight line and successive turning trial running times in noninjured collegiate basketball players. Twenty-five coed basketball players completed 2 days of running trials. Subjects ran three full lengths of a basketball court and 10 lengths between the baseline and the foul line first without wearing a brace, then wearing either a DonJoy GoldPoint brace or an Omni OS-5 brace, and finally wearing the other brace. The results indicated no significant difference (p basketball players. PMID:8580953

  16. A descriptive model of patient readiness, motivators, and hepatitis C treatment uptake among Australian prisoners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Yap

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV has a significant global health burden with an estimated 2%-3% of the world's population infected, and more than 350,000 dying annually from HCV-related conditions including liver failure and liver cancer. Prisons potentially offer a relatively stable environment in which to commence treatment as they usually provide good access to health care providers, and are organised around routine and structure. Uptake of treatment of HCV, however, remains low in the community and in prisons. In this study, we explored factors affecting treatment uptake inside prisons and hypothesised that prisoners have unique issues influencing HCV treatment uptake as a consequence of their incarceration which are not experienced in other populations. METHOD AND FINDINGS: We undertook a qualitative study exploring prisoners' accounts of why they refused, deferred, delayed or discontinued HCV treatment in prison. Between 2010 and 2013, 116 Australian inmates were interviewed from prisons in New South Wales, Queensland, and Western Australia. Prisoners experienced many factors similar to those which influence treatment uptake of those living with HCV infection in the community. Incarceration, however, provides different circumstances of how these factors are experienced which need to be better understood if the number of prisoners receiving treatment is to be increased. We developed a descriptive model of patient readiness and motivators for HCV treatment inside prisons and discussed how we can improve treatment uptake among prisoners. CONCLUSION: This study identified a broad and unique range of challenges to treatment of HCV in prison. Some of these are likely to be diminished by improving treatment options and improved models of health care delivery. Other barriers relate to inmate understanding of their illness and stigmatisation by other inmates and custodial staff and generally appear less amenable to change although there

  17. Mechanical compression release device in steel bracing system for retrofitting RC frames

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Ghaffarzadeh; M.R. Maheri

    2006-01-01

    The development of an innovative structural system with satisfactory seismic performance of braced systems is an important and challenging area of interest in structural engineering. In this paper, a device that can release the compressive force in the bracing members is developed, and its performance is evaluated. For comparison, four steel braced RC frames were constructed and tested under reverse cyclic loads. Two of them had different amounts of bracing and the other two had the same amount of bracing but incorporated different type of device, called compression release device, which is developed and described in this paper. It can be concluded from the test results that the newly developed device can effectively be used in steel braced systems to prevent buckling failure of the bracing members. Therefore, the device enhances the ductility of brace-framed systems by allowing an adequate capacity for energy dissipation.

  18. The Weight Efficiency of Steel Framed Buildings with Various Wind Bracing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Abbassi, Sanaz Khoddam

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This research is about the efficiency of using different types of wind bracing and with different steel profiles for bracing members for multi-storey steel frames. ETABS software was used to obtain the design of frames and bracing systems with the least weight and apropriate steel section selection for beams, columns and bracing members from the standard set of steel sections. The design loads are specified in BS 5950 (2000). The serviceability limit state included in the design...

  19. Atomic structures of symmetrical and asymmetrical facets in a near {sigma} = 9{l_brace}2 2 1{r_brace} tilt grain boundary in copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardouin Duparc, Olivier [LSI, CEA-X-CNRS, UMR 7642, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)]. E-mail: olivier.hardouinduparc@polytechnique.edu; Couzinie, Jean-Philippe [CECM, CNRS, UPR 2801, 15 rue Georges Urbain, 94407 Vitry Sur Seine (France); Thibault-Penisson, Jany [TECSEN, CNRS, UMR 6122, Universite Paul Cezanne Aix-Marseille III, 13397 Marseille Cedex (France); Lartigue-Korinek, Sylvie [CECM, CNRS, UPR 2801, 15 rue Georges Urbain, 94407 Vitry Sur Seine (France); Decamps, Brigitte [LCMTR, CNRS, UPR 209, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Priester, Louisette [CECM, CNRS, UPR 2801, 15 rue Georges Urbain, 94407 Vitry Sur Seine (France)

    2007-03-15

    Atomic structures in a {sigma} = 9{l_brace}2 2 1{r_brace} tilt grain boundary (GB) grown by Bridgman solidification of a tricrystal are determined through high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and numerical simulation. Atomic models are simulated via molecular dynamics annealing using an n-body potential fitted on copper properties including its stacking fault energy. Symmetrical and asymmetrical facets are thus identified. Mainly asymmetrical facets are observed, namely {sigma} = 9{l_brace}11, 11, 1{r_brace}||{l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} and also small parts of incommensurate {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}||{l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}. The symmetrical facets are described by a quasi-mirror plane atomic structure. A specific GB structural unit is recognized as a Lomer unit. Its GB Burgers vector depends on the GB structure itself. Further analyses of these models and of accommodating dislocations are successfully carried out at the atomic level within the framework of the continuous structural unit approach.

  20. [Use of pneumatic braces in the rehabilitation of motor handicaps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideau, Y; Brault, J F; Caillaud, J

    1975-01-01

    The authors describe the advantages of pneumatic orthesis which are: On a mechanical standpoint the comfort related to the lightness and elasticity of the bracing allowing better walking, specialty in paraplegies from thoracic level. The rigidity of the orthesis can be changed by modifying the air-pressure and this type of bracing can be used in various diseases such as cerebral palsy or myopathies. On a social standpoint this type of orthesis can be obtained more rapidly than conventional ones. It allows a shorter hospitalization and, therefore, a better rehabilitation.

  1. Electronic and structural characterizations of unreconstructed {l_brace}0001{r_brace} surfaces and the growth of graphene overlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emtsev, Konstantin

    2009-06-03

    The present work is focused on the characterization of the clean unreconstructed SiC{l_brace}0001{r_brace} surfaces and the growth of graphene overlayers thereon. Electronic properties of SiC surfaces and their interfaces with graphene and few layer graphene films were investigated by means of angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy electron diffraction. Structural characterizations of the epitaxial graphene films grown on SiC were carried out by atomic force microscopy and low energy electron microscopy. Supplementary data was obtained by scanning tunneling microscopy. (orig.)

  2. Anatase TiO{sub 2} hollow microspheres with exposed {l_brace}0 0 1{r_brace}facets: Facile synthesis and enhanced photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiaoliang, E-mail: wxlsr@yahoo.com.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, 066004 Qinhuangdao (China); He Huanlong; Chen Yan; Zhao Jinqiu; Zhang Xiangyi [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, 066004 Qinhuangdao (China)

    2012-05-15

    Anatase TiO{sub 2} hollow microspheres with a high percentage of exposed {l_brace}0 0 1{r_brace}facets have been successfully synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal strategy in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and hydrofluoric acid solution. It is found that both HF and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} play an essential role in the formation of TiO{sub 2} hollow polyhedron TiO{sub 2} microspheres with exposed {l_brace}0 0 1{r_brace}facets. A plausible mechanism for formation of the TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres with exposed {l_brace}0 0 1{r_brace}facets by dissolution-recrystallization and Ostwald ripening is proposed based on the experimental observations. The products exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activities for degradation of methylene blue dye present in aqueous solution under ultraviolet light irradiation at ambient temperature.

  3. Development and preliminary validation of Brace Questionnaire (BrQ): a new instrument for measuring quality of life of brace treated scoliotics

    OpenAIRE

    Gkoltsiou Konstantina; Grivas Theodoros B; Vasiliadis Elias

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The quality of life among children with idiopathic scoliosis during their adolescence has been reported to be affected by the brace itself. However, a controversy exists whether brace treated scoliotics experience a poor quality of life, thus there is a need for the development of a brace-oriented instrument, as the now-existing questionnaires that are commonly used, such as the SRS -22, take into consideration the effects of both the conservative and the surgical treatmen...

  4. Conceptual design of joints in braced steel frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, C.M.; Evers, H.G.A.; Gresnigt, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    To help practitioners to find the most economical design of braced frames, this paper proposes a classification of joints in `simple' (e.g. web cleated connections), 'moderate' (e.g. flush end plated connections) and 'complex' (e.g. stiffened extended end plate connections) with respect to the fabri

  5. An empirical description of phases of maintenance following treatment for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, S A; Hoffman, A L

    1993-01-01

    This article reports two longitudinal prospective studies conducted sequentially to describe participants' maintenance of abstinence experiences up to 36 months posttreatment. Study 1 reports responses of 102 subjects who maintained alcohol abstinence following treatment and who were assessed for duration and intensity of symptoms associated with postacute withdrawal at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. A decreasing linear trend of symptoms was found as time of alcohol abstinence increased. Study 2 obtained interview and survey data from 23 successful abstainers from Study 1 at 12, 18, and 36 months posttreatment to describe coping strategies, perceptions of relapse risk, extent and duration of "aftercare," and substitute addictions as these phenomena developed and changed over time. Multiple occasions of data collection supported the description of three phases of maintenance: symptom stabilization/management accompanied by a cognitive paradigm shift, distancing self from alcohol-dependent behavior, and normalization of life processes.

  6. Development of Semantic Description for Multiscale Models of Thermo-Mechanical Treatment of Metal Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macioł, Piotr; Regulski, Krzysztof

    2016-08-01

    We present a process of semantic meta-model development for data management in an adaptable multiscale modeling framework. The main problems in ontology design are discussed, and a solution achieved as a result of the research is presented. The main concepts concerning the application and data management background for multiscale modeling were derived from the AM3 approach—object-oriented Agile multiscale modeling methodology. The ontological description of multiscale models enables validation of semantic correctness of data interchange between submodels. We also present a possibility of using the ontological model as a supervisor in conjunction with a multiscale model controller and a knowledge base system. Multiscale modeling formal ontology (MMFO), designed for describing multiscale models' data and structures, is presented. A need for applying meta-ontology in the MMFO development process is discussed. Examples of MMFO application in describing thermo-mechanical treatment of metal alloys are discussed. Present and future applications of MMFO are described.

  7. Development of Semantic Description for Multiscale Models of Thermo-Mechanical Treatment of Metal Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macioł, Piotr; Regulski, Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    We present a process of semantic meta-model development for data management in an adaptable multiscale modeling framework. The main problems in ontology design are discussed, and a solution achieved as a result of the research is presented. The main concepts concerning the application and data management background for multiscale modeling were derived from the AM3 approach—object-oriented Agile multiscale modeling methodology. The ontological description of multiscale models enables validation of semantic correctness of data interchange between submodels. We also present a possibility of using the ontological model as a supervisor in conjunction with a multiscale model controller and a knowledge base system. Multiscale modeling formal ontology (MMFO), designed for describing multiscale models' data and structures, is presented. A need for applying meta-ontology in the MMFO development process is discussed. Examples of MMFO application in describing thermo-mechanical treatment of metal alloys are discussed. Present and future applications of MMFO are described.

  8. Simulation methods for hysteretic curve of steel braces%钢支撑滞回曲线的模拟方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆志; 赵作周; 陆新征; 钱稼茹

    2011-01-01

    Three simulation methods for hysteretic curve of steel braces,including phenomenological description method,finite element method and plastic-hinge method,were reviewed.A new brace model based on phenomenological description method was proposed.This model contains a series of governing variables to envelop the complicated hysteretic curve of steel braces and the governing variables can be calibrated by available test results.Simulation results of some available test data prove that this model is more accurate and proficient than those previous brace models based on phenomenological description method.Furthermore,in order to study a more generous brace model,a fiber brace model was demonstrated as well.In this model,certain geometric initial imperfection in the middle of a brace is required to simulate its buckling and post buckling hysteretic characters.The variables of the model are only geometry and material characters of the brace and can be easily determined.The analytical results show that the fiber brace model is precise enough to carry out integral structure analysis under multi-scale requirement.The proposed two models can be used in analysis and design of a structure system containing braces under earthquake excitation.%钢支撑滞回曲线主要有三种模拟方法:现象描述法、有限元法和塑性铰法。在分析了各模拟方法优劣的基础上,提出一种新型的基于现象描述法的支撑模型。该模型通过一系列控制参数来包络钢支撑复杂的滞回曲线,并根据已有的同类型支撑试验结果标定控制参数。研究表明,该模型具有较高的模拟精度及计算效率,解决了早期基于现象描述法支撑模型模拟结果较为粗糙的问题。此外,为研究通用性更高的支撑模型,还提出了一种纤维支撑模型。该模型在跨中引入初始几何缺陷以模拟钢支撑的屈曲及屈曲后滞回特性,模型参数仅涉及支撑的几何及材料特性而易于确定。分析

  9. Primary care incidence and treatment of four neuropathic pain conditions: A descriptive study, 2002–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll Dawn

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Between 1992 and 2001 the UK general practice incidence of post-herpetic neuralgia and trigeminal neuralgia declined, whilst the incidence of painful diabetic neuropathy increased. The most common first line treatments were compound analgesics. As therapeutic options have subsequently changed, this study presents updated data on incidence and prescribing patterns in neuropathic pain. Methods A descriptive analysis of the epidemiology and prescription treatment at diagnosis of incident post-herpetic neuralgia (n = 1,923; trigeminal neuralgia (1,862; phantom limb pain (57 and painful diabetic neuropathy (1,444 using computerised UK general practice records (THIN: May 2002 to July 2005. Results Primary care incidences per 100,000 person years observation of 28 (95% confidence interval (CI 27–30 for post-herpetic neuralgia, 27 (95%CI 26–29 for trigeminal neuralgia, 0.8 (95%CI 0.6–1.1 for phantom limb pain and 21 (95%CI 20–22 for painful diabetic neuropathy are reported. The most common initial treatments were tricyclic antidepressants (post-herpetic neuralgia or antiepileptics (trigeminal neuralgia and painful diabetic neuropathy and opioid analgesics (phantom limb pain. The mean number of changes before a stable drug regimen was 1.2 to 1.5 for trigeminal neuralgia, painful diabetic neuropathy and post-herpetic neuralgia, and 2.4 for phantom limb pain. Conclusion The incidence of phantom limb pain and post-herpetic neuralgia are decreasing whilst painful diabetic neuropathy plateaued and trigeminal neuralgia remained constant. Despite more frequent use of antidepressants and antiepileptics for first line treatment, as opposed to conventional non-opioid analgesics, changes to therapy are common before a stable regimen is reached.

  10. Arthrometric evaluation of stabilizing effect of knee functional bracing at different flexion angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed Mohseni, Saeedeh; Moss, Farzam; Karimi, Hossein; Kamali, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Previous in-vivo investigations on the stabilizing efficacy of knee bracing for ACL reconstructed patients have been often limited to 20-30 degrees of knee flexion. In this study, the effectiveness of a uniaxial hinged functional brace to improve the knee stability was assessed at 30, 60 and 90 degrees of knee flexion. Arthrometry tests were conducted on 15 healthy subjects before and following wearing the brace and the tibial displacements were measured at up to 150 N anterior forces. Results indicated that functional bracing has a significant stabilizing effect throughout the range of knee flexion examined (p polycentric joint a more significant improvement of the overall brace performance and efficacy might be obtained. Key pointsFunctional bracing improves the knee joint stability mostly in extension posture.Unlike the non-braced condition, the least knee joint stability appears in mid and deep flexion angles when using a hinged brace.Accurate sizing and fitting and attention to correct hinge placement relative to the femoral condyles can limit brace migration and improve its effectiveness in mid and deep knee flexion.The overall brace performance and efficacy might be improved significantly using adaptive limb fittings through flexible pads and/or polycentric joints. PMID:24149533

  11. Stabilizing effects of ankle bracing under a combination of inversion and axial compression loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohyama, Harukazu; Yasuda, Kazunori; Beynnon, Bruce D; Renstrom, Per A

    2006-04-01

    The combined effects of bracing, axial compression and inversion rotation on the ankle-subtalar complexes were evaluated. Ex vivo tests under the load-controlled condition were performed on six cadaver ankle specimens using a six degree-of-freedom fixture. Inversion rotation was measured while subjecting the ankle-subtalar complex to a 2.5 N-m inversion moment and a combination of the testing variables (brace type, no brace, 178 N axial compression load, no compression load, 0 degrees and 20 degrees of plantar flexion) for a total of 16 tests per specimen. Three commercially available braces (two semirigid types and one lace up type) were evaluated. An axial compression load significantly decreased ankle-subtalar motion in unbraced ankles for the tested inversion moment. The contribution of bracing to stabilization of the ankle was smaller in the axial loading condition than in the no axial loading condition. The semirigid braces had greater stabilizing effects in response to the inversion moment than the lace up brace. Stabilizing effects of bracing were significantly greater in 20 degrees of plantar flexion than in 0 degrees of plantar flexion. The most common mechanism for an ankle sprain injury is inversion rotation on a weight-bearing ankle. Therefore, we should not overestimate stabilizing effects of bracing from evaluations of bracing without axial compression loading. PMID:15959767

  12. Efficacy of b-lynch brace suture in postpartum haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massive uncontrolled haemorrhage after childbirth is the leading cause of maternal death in developing countries. Postpartum haemorrhage is traditionally defined as blood loss of more than 500 ml after vaginal delivery and more than 1000 ml after caesarean section, but intraoperative estimation of blood loss is inaccurate. Uterine atony alone accounts for 75 - 90% of PPH. To estimate the effectiveness and safety of B-Lynch brace Suture in the management of primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). (author)

  13. Evaluation of knee braces in Swedish ice hockey players.

    OpenAIRE

    Tegner, Y; Lorentzon, R

    1991-01-01

    In this retrospective investigation we have determined the rate and types of knee injuries among Swedish ice hockey players, and related these data to the use of knee braces. Thirty-seven of the originally selected 50 hockey teams (74%) of elite or first division calibre took part in the study, and 600 players answered a questionnaire. A total of 254 previous knee injuries sustained while playing hockey were reported by 243 players; tears of the medical collateral ligament (60%), meniscus (15...

  14. Modified Elastofiber Element for Steel Slender Column and Brace Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, Swaminathan

    2010-01-01

    An efficient beam element, the modified elastofiber (MEF) element, has been developed to capture the overall features of the elastic and inelastic responses of slender columns and braces under axial cyclic loading without unduly heavy discretization. It consists of three fiber segments, two at the member ends and one at midspan, with two elastic segments sandwiched in between. The segments are demarcated by two exterior nodes and four interior nodes. The fiber segments are divided into 20 fib...

  15. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of Si donors in GaAs {l_brace}110{r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teichmann, K.; Wenderoth, M.; Loth, S.; Ulbrich, R.G. [Universitaet Goettingen, IV. Physikalisches Institut (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Silicon donors in highly n-doped GaAs(6.5 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}) are investigated by Cross-Sectional Scanning Tunneling Microscopy in UHV at 8K. Donors near the surface of the {l_brace}110{r_brace} cleavage planes are studied by spatially resolved I(V)-spectroscopy. The dopant atoms are identified by their bias dependent topographic and spectroscopic properties. In addition to the known features at negative and small positive voltages, our measurements on single donors show an additional transport channel for larger positive bias voltages. The current distribution has a circular symmetric structure. The diameter is bias dependent, and can extend up to several nanometers around the donor. The minimal bias voltage of the current onset is localized above the donors. We discuss different scenarios - including tip induced band bending - that can lead to the observed ring-like shapes.

  16. Behavior of three-span braced columns with equal and unequal spans

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yu-Wen

    1993-01-01

    Columns with three spans separated by elastic braces are analyzed. The influences of translational and rotational resistance at the braces, various end conditions, and the bracing locations for the perfect columns with equal and unequal spans subjected to uniform and nonuniform axial load are investigated. For imperfect columns with equal or unequal spans subjected to uniform compression, the effects of various end conditions at the top and various initial deflections are studied. "Ide...

  17. Effect of bracing systems on the fire-induced progressive collapse of steel structures

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Jian; Li, Guo-qiang; Usmani, Asif

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of various bracing systems on the fire-induced progressive collapse resistance of steel-framed structures using OpenSees. Two types of bracing systems (vertical and hat bracing) and various fire scenarios (single and multi-compartment fires) are considered. Four collapse mechanisms of steel frames in fire are found through parametric studies. General collapse is characterized by the collapse of the heated bay followed by lateral drift of adjacent cool bays. ...

  18. Inelastic Performance and Economical Assessment of Concentrically Braced Steel Frames by Nonlinear Static (Pushover) Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Farzam, Arash

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Concentric bracing system is one of the most economical systems being used to provide lateral stability for steel structures during earthquake by inelastic behavior. Although inelastic response of structures is affected by their height and structural system, these issues are not considered for the design of concentrically braced frames (CBFs) in the current design codes. The previous research work on the economical comparison of steel bracing systems has compared their elastic r...

  19. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces....

  20. Seismic retrofitting of reinforced concrete frame structures using GFRP-tube-confined-concrete composite braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddasi B., Nasim S.; Zhang, Yunfeng; Hu, Xiaobin

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a new type of structural bracing intended for seismic retrofitting use in framed structures. This special composite brace, termed glass-fiber-reinforced-polymer (GFRP)-tube-confined-concrete composite brace, is comprised of concrete confined by a GFRP tube and an inner steel core for energy dissipation. Together with a contribution from the GFRP-tube confined concrete, the composite brace shows a substantially increased stiffness to control story drift, which is often a preferred feature in seismic retrofitting. An analysis model is established and implemented in a general finite element analysis program — OpenSees, for simulating the load-displacement behavior of the composite brace. Using this model, a parametric study of the hysteretic behavior (energy dissipation, stiffness, ductility and strength) of the composite brace was conducted under static cyclic loading and it was found that the area ratio of steel core to concrete has the greatest influence among all the parameters considered. To demonstrate the application of the composite brace in seismic retrofitting, a three-story nonductile reinforced concrete (RC) frame structure was retrofitted with the composite braces. Pushover analysis and nonlinear time-history analyses of the retrofitted RC frame structure was performed by employing a suite of 20 strong ground motion earthquake records. The analysis results show that the composite braces can effectively reduce the peak seismic responses of the RC frame structure without significantly increasing the base shear demand.

  1. Competition of the Peierls relief and structural defects in damping the domain walls in [Mn left brace (R/S)-pn right brace]2[Mn left brace(R/S)-pn right brace2(H2O)][Cr(CN)6]2 ferrimagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The [ [Mn left brace (R/S)-pn right brace]2[Mn left brace(R/S)-pn right brace2(H2O)][Cr(CN)6]2 molecular ferrimagnet exhibits an inverse sequence of changes in the domain wall motion regimes with increasing temperature in alternative magnetic field of 0.04-1400 Hz frequency. Initiation of the relaxation regime on the background of creep indicates that there are two different systems of the domain walls damping. The threshold amplitude of the alternative magnetic field corresponds to the Peierls relief contribution to the domain wall dynamics as well as the defect contribution usually considered.

  2. Prevalent Intravenous Abuse of Methylphenidate Among Treatment-Seeking Patients With Substance Abuse Disorders: A Descriptive Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bjarnadottir, Gudrun D.; Haraldsson, Haraldur M.; Rafnar, Bjarni O.; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Steingrimsson, Steinn; Johannsson, Magnus; Bragadottir, Helena; Magnusson, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Prescription rates of methylphenidate (MPH) are sharply rising in most Western countries. Although it has been reported that MPH has abuse potential, little is known about the prevalence of intravenous (IV) abuse of MPH. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of IV MPH abuse among treatment-seeking IV substance abusers in Iceland. Methods: This is a descriptive population-based study using a semistructured interview assessing sociodemographics, substance abuse hist...

  3. Immediate effect of valgus bracing on knee joint moments in meniscectomised patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Maria; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Roos, Ewa M;

    2016-01-01

    -dimensional analysis of gait, forward lunge and one-leg rise during two conditions: with and without a valgus unloader knee brace. Outcome measures included the peak and impulse of the knee adduction moment and the peak knee flexion moment. RESULTS: The peak knee flexion moment increased during brace condition...

  4. Medial knee osteoarthritis treated by insoles or braces: a randomized trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. van Raaij (Tom); M. Reijman (Max); R.W. Brouwer (Reinoud); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: There is controversial evidence regarding whether foot orthoses or knee braces improve pain and function or correct malalignment in selected patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the medial knee compartment. However, insoles are safe and less costly than knee bracing if they r

  5. Can a brace be used to control the frequencies of a plate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumond, Patrick; Baddour, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    Although many improvements in the manufacturing of guitars have been made recently, one aspect that has often been overlooked is that of the acoustical consistency of the final manufactured product. The aim of this paper is to create a better understanding of the effect of a brace on the frequencies of vibration of the brace-soundboard system. This paper seeks to shed light on why a luthier 'tunes' braces when a guitar soundboard is hand-manufactured. A simple analytical model of a rectangular brace and soundboard is derived from first principles using Kirchhoff plate theory in order to develop insight into the effect of the soundboard's stiffness and brace thickness on the frequencies of the combined system. Natural frequencies and modeshapes of the combined system are calculated via the assumed shape method. Results show that by adjusting the thickness of the brace in order to compensate for the stiffness of the plate, one of the natural frequencies of the combined system can be adjusted to meet a desired value. However, simultaneously adjusting several natural frequencies cannot be done with a rectangular brace. Therefore modifications to the shape of the brace are explored. PMID:24255852

  6. Analysis of multistoried braced steel space frame subjected to gravity and seismic loading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay.S.Pawar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Steel structures are generally more flexible than other types of structure and lower in weight. Earthquake loads are random in nature. It is difficult to predict them exactly. The action applied to a structure by an earthquake is a ground movement with horizontal and vertical components. The horizontal movement is the most specific feature of earthquake action because of its strength and because structures are generally better designed to resist gravity than horizontal forces. These forces produce large stresses, strains, deformation and displacement particularly in tall structures. To keep displacement within limit generally bracing is provided in steel structure. . Bracings are generally used to increase lateral-stiffness, lateral- strength as well as lateral stability of the frame. Variations in the column stiffness can influence the mode of failure and lateral stiffness of the bracing. In this study steel frame is modeled and analyzed three Parts viz., (i Model without Steel bracing (bare frame, (ii Model completely with fully braced steel frame („Cross‟ bracing, (iii Model completely with fully braced steel frame („Single diagonal‟ bracing.

  7. The effect of taping versus semi-rigid bracing on patient outcome and satisfaction in ankle sprains: a prospective, randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lardenoye Sacha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional treatment is a widely used and generally accepted treatment for ankle sprain. A meta-analysis comparing the different functional treatment options could not make definitive conclusions regarding the effectiveness, and until now, little was known about patient satisfaction in relation to the outcome. Methods Patients with acute ankle sprain received rest, ice, compression and elevation with an compressive bandage at the emergency department. After 5-7 days, 100 patients with grade II and III sprains were randomized into two groups: one group was treated with tape and the other with a semi-rigid ankle brace, both for 4 weeks. Post-injury physical and proprioceptive training was standardized. As primary outcome parameter patient satisfaction and skin complications were evaluated using a predefined questionnaire and numeric rating scale. As secondary outcome parameter the ankle joint function was assessed using the Karlsson scoring scale and range of motion. Results Patient-reported comfort and satisfaction during treatment with a semi-rigid brace was significantly increased. The rate of skin complication in this group was significantly lower compared to the tape group (14.6% versus 59.1%, P  Conclusion Treatment of acute ankle sprain with semi-rigid brace leads to significantly higher patient comfort and satisfaction, both with similar good outcome.

  8. Using Descriptive Assessment in the Treatment of Bite Acceptance and Food Refusal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Sean D.; Perrin, Christopher J.; Lesser, Aaron D.; Perrin, Stefanie H.; Casey, Cheryl L.; Reed, Gregory K.

    2009-01-01

    The feeding behaviors of two children who maintained failure to thrive diagnoses and displayed food refusal are assessed in their homes. Descriptive assessments are used to identify schedules of consequence provided by each child's care providers for bite acceptance and food refusal behaviors. Assessments reveal rich schedules of praise and access…

  9. Evidence for Conservative Treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis - Update 2015 (Mini-Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Ng; Bettany-Saltikov, Josette; Moramarco, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis predominantly afflicts adolescents. Adolescents with mild curvatures do not generally have any symptoms. However spinal fusion is indicated when the deformity exceeds 45°. Treatment is thus necessary to prevent and/or reduce the progression of curvatures to that below which surgery is indicated. Conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis includes observation, scoliosis-specific exercises (SSE) and bracing. There is increasing evidence suggesting that SSE and brace treatment can significantly limit the progression of spinal curvatures. In growing adolescents with curvatures more than 20°, bracing is indicated and should be used in conjunction with SSE. The effectiveness of bracing varies according to the type of brace applied to the patient. In general rigid braces are preferable to soft flexible braces, as the latter falls short of halting curvatures progression. Also, preliminary evidence suggests that asymmetric braces which enable over-correction provide more correction when compared with symmetrical braces. Recently it has also been reported that high quality bracing can also reduce curvatures exceeding 45° in over 70% of growing adolescents. This new knowledge might possibly increase the threshold of surgical indications to beyond 50° or above in the near future.

  10. Aromatherapy as an Adjuvant Treatment in Cancer Care — A Descriptive Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Boehm, Katja; Büssing, Arndt; Ostermann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Claims of benefits of aromatherapy for cancer patients include reduced anxiety levels and relief of emotional stress, pain, muscular tension and fatigue. The objective of this paper is to provide an updated descriptive, systematic review of evidence from pre-clinical and clinical trials assessing the benefits and safety of aromatherapy for cancer patients. Literature databases such as Medline (via Ovid), the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, Cochrane Central were searched from their in...

  11. System Description for the KW Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) (70.3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a description of the system that collects and processes the sludge and radioactive ions released by the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) processing operations conducted in the 105 KW Basin. The system screens, settles, filters, and conditions the basin water for reuse. Sludge and most radioactive ions are removed before the water is distributed back to the basin pool. This system is part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP)

  12. System Description for the KW Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) (70.3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DERUSSEAU, R.R.

    2000-04-18

    This is a description of the system that collects and processes the sludge and radioactive ions released by the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) processing operations conducted in the 105 KW Basin. The system screens, settles, filters, and conditions the basin water for reuse. Sludge and most radioactive ions are removed before the water is distributed back to the basin pool. This system is part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP).

  13. 40 CFR 141.82 - Description of corrosion control treatment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... corrosion control treatment for that system: (i) Alkalinity and pH adjustment; (ii) Calcium hardness... evaluating the corrosion control treatments listed above: (i) Lead; (ii) Copper; (iii) pH; (iv) Alkalinity... alkalinity is adjusted as part of optimal corrosion control treatment, a minimum concentration or a range...

  14. Description of station waste water treatment and study of reclaiming industry ceramic red

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So that the water meets potability standards required by the laws it passes through various treatment processes which generate waste called WTS (Water Treatment Sludge). This sludge is disposed of without any processing, however, environmental agencies and the public are demanding alternatives to this situation. Knowing this, this study aims to characterize the sludge from the Water Treatment Plant Botafogo and analyze its viability as a feedstock in the manufacture of red bricks. (author)

  15. Technology and task parameters relating to the effectiveness of the bracing strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Wayne J.; Wang, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    The bracing strategy has been proposed in various forms as a way to improve robot performance. One version of the strategy employs independent stages of motion. The first stage, referred to as the large or bracing arm, carries the second stage of motion. After the first stage has completed its motion it is braced to provide a more rigid base of motion with a more accurate relationship to the parts to be manipulated. The hypothesis is that more rapid completion of certain tasks is possible with lighter arms using the bracing strategy. While it is easy to make conceptual arguments why this should be so, it is less easy to specify even approximately when this will be true for some reasonably generic situation. There is no relevant experience base with bracing arms to be compared to non-bracing arms. Furthermore, if one were interested in obtaining such practical experience, there would be no methodical guidance on the selection of an interesting case, one in which the unproven approach, bracing, can show its superiority. If one such case exists, only the extent of applicability of the new approach is in question. One set of interesting cases is likely to be applications in which a large workspace must be covered, but where a series of small accurate moves will remain within a smaller region of the total workspace. A prototype application with these characteristics is set up and a skeleton design of arms using the competing strategies are compared.

  16. Cyclic Testing of Steel Chevron Braces with Vertically Slotted Beam Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozlyn K. Bubela

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental tests were performed to study the seismic behavior and performance of modified steel chevron braced frame systems, which incorporate a vertical slotted connection (VSC detail between the top of the braces and the floor beam above. The VSC detail is intended to prevent vertical load transfer to the beam and limit brace forces to the compressive resistance of the members. Full-scale quasi-static cyclic tests were performed on two specimens with hollow tube braces, with one specimen having the braces filled with concrete. Both frames exhibited stable, predictable behavior under cyclic loading. The VSC detail provided free vertical movement of the brace assembly during both tests. However, its flexibility created a moderate reduction in the overall lateral stiffness of the frame. The concrete-filled tube specimen sustained higher peak loads, demonstrated greater residual strength and dissipated more energy than the hollow tube specimen due to the partial inhibition of local buckling by the concrete core. It was found that the VSC chevron braced frame system is a suitable concept for use in buildings in high-risk seismic zones.

  17. The Application of Parallel Robotics to Investigate the Effect of Lumbar Bracing on Trunk Muscle Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory N. Kawchuk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar bracing is prescribed frequently for disability caused by low back pain; however, investigations into this practice demonstrate a range of patient outcomes. This inconsistency may arise from the practice of employing voluntary, single-axis trunk movements when investigating braces. Alternatively, this study employed a parallel robot to create a standardised, multi-axis testing environment. Surface electromyographic (sEMG data were collected from the trunk of 24 asymptomatic participants, who were seated on the robot, tilted to 15°, then circumducted while attempting to maintain an upright posture. Multiple trials were performed for three randomised conditions: non-braced, soft-material brace and stiff-material brace. As expected, the sEMG activity was significantly reduced in the majority of muscle responses (201/240. Unexpectedly, a paradoxical increase in the sEMG activity was observed in 39/240 responses. While lumbar bracing reduces the sEMG activity on average, these data suggest the existence of an infrequent paradoxical response that may provide a possible explanation for the discordant results observed in previous bracing investigations.

  18. Medial collateral ligament knee sprains in college football. Effectiveness of preventive braces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, J P; Powell, J W; Smith, W; Martindale, A; Crowley, E; Monroe, J; Miller, R; Connolly, J; Hill, B A; Miller, D

    1994-01-01

    This is the second of 2 articles on a 3-year investigation of medial collateral ligament sprains of the knee to assess the effectiveness of prophylactic knee braces in NCAA Division I college football players. Position, string, type of session, and daily brace wear were recorded. The injury rates for braced and unbraced knees were used to create an incidence density ratio. The data were stratified and simultaneously controlled for position, string, and session and evaluated for their statistical significance. The 987 Big Ten players generated 155,772 knee exposures over the study period (50% braced). Noticeable differences existed in the rates of injury for the braced and unbraced knees in almost every position during practices, depending on player or nonplayer status. When the influential factors of position, string, and session are considered, there is a consistent but not statistically significant tendency for the players wearing preventive knee braces to experience a lower injury rate than for their unbraced counterparts. For starters and substitutes in the line positions, as well as the linebackers and tight ends, there was a consistent trend toward a lower injury rate in both practices and games. The braced players in the skill positions (backs/kickers), at least during games, exhibited a higher injury rate.

  19. Overutilization of bracing in the management of penetrating spinal cord injury from gunshot wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhary, Nima; Nwosu, Kenneth; McCoy, Eric; Fukunaga, Dudley; Rolfe, Kevin

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Penetrating gunshot wounds (GSWs) to the spinal column are stable injuries and do not require spinal orthoses or bracing postinjury. Nonetheless, a high number of GSW-related spinal cord injury (SCI) patients are referred with a brace to national rehabilitation centers. Unnecessary bracing may encumber rehabilitation, create skin breakdown or pressure ulcers, and add excessive costs. The aim of this study was to confirm the stability of spinal column injuries from GSWs and quantify the overutilization rate of bracing based on long-term follow-up. METHODS This retrospective cohort study was performed at a nationally renowned rehabilitation center. In total, 487 GSW-related SCI patients were transferred for rehabilitation and identified over the last 14 years. Retrospective chart review and telephone interviews were conducted to identify patients who were braced at the initial treating institution and determine if late instability, deformity, or neurological deterioration resulted in secondary surgery or intervention. In addition, 396 unoperated patients were available for analysis after 91 patients were excluded for undergoing an initial destabilizing surgical dissection or laminectomy, thereby altering the natural history of the injury. All of these 396 patients who presented with a brace had bracing discontinued upon reaching the facility. RESULTS In total, 203 of 396 patients were transferred with a spinal brace, demonstrating an overutilization rate of 51%. No patients deteriorated neurologically or needed later surgery for spinal column deformity or instability attributable to the injury. All patients had stable injuries. The patterns of injury and severity of neurological injury did not vary between patients who were initially braced or unbraced. The average follow-up was 7.8 years (range 1-14 years) and the average age was 25 years (range 10-62 years). CONCLUSIONS The incidence of brace overutilization for penetrating GSW-related SCI was 51%. Long

  20. Stabilizing effects of ankle bracing under a combination of inversion and axial compression loading

    OpenAIRE

    Tohyama, Harukazu; Yasuda, Kazunori; Beynnon, Bruce D.; Renstrom, Per A.

    2006-01-01

    The combined effects of bracing, axial compression and inversion rotation on the ankle-subtalar complexes were evaluated. Ex vivo tests under the load-controlled condition were performed on six cadaver ankle specimens using a six degree-of-freedom fixture. Inversion rotation was measured while subjecting the ankle-subtalar complex to a 2.5 N-m inversion moment and a combination of the testing variables (brace type, no brace, 178 N axial compression load, no compression load, 0° and 20° of pla...

  1. ABDOMINAL EXERCISE WITH BRACING, A THERAPEUTIC EFFICACY IN REDUCING DIASTASIS-RECTI AMONG POSTPARTAL FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Acharry

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Diastasis recti abdominis (DRA has been defined as an impairment characterized by the separation of the two rectus abdominis muscles along the linea alba , Diastasis of the rectus abdominis muscle (DRAM is common during and after pregnancy, and has been related to lumbo-pelvic instability and pelvic floor weakness. Women with DRAM are commonly referred to physiotherapists for non surgical management, but very few found to be effective. Objectives To determine if the effectiveness of Abdominal exercise with bracing in reducing the diastasis recti among postpartum females. Methodology: IP&OPD patients of Godavari hospital, Jalgaon for a period of 4 weeks. For this descriptive study a cross-sectional study design was incorporated. A number of (n=30 female patients within 1 month after delivery with Diastasis recti were selected. Each patient was screened, initially by using simple selection proforma relevant to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: A total (n=30 subjects were included in the study, these 30 subjects all are Females and one month and more after child birth. The subjects included in this study with an age from minimal 23 years to 34 years old. Number of off springs which is another variable used, was listed as 1(Minimum and 4(Maximum children’s. In this study a 26.6% of female are primiparous and 56.7% of them are multiparous. The collected information (data was tabulated and analyzed by using appropriate statistical analysis tools. 30 Female subjects having mean age 28.8(SD=3.23 in which both primiparous and multiparous women having diastasis recti within 1 month postpartum. Diastasis recti pretest was found to be 3.5(SD= 0.5085 Diastasis recti posttest was found to be 2.5(SD=0.5074 t value=29.00 and P value found to be less than 0.001 which is highly significant. Conclusion: Based on the available evidence and quality of this evidence, after the exercise regimen and bracing the Diastasis recti muscle

  2. Adherence to acne treatment guidelines in the military environment - a descriptive, serial cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Fleischmann, Chen; Cohen, Lior; Adams, Elimelech; Hartal, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Acne vulgaris, a common skin disease, affects up to 80 % of the population. Moderate to severe acne requires treatment with a combination of topical and oral drugs such as antibiotics, hormones and retinoids. Retinoids have many contraindications and adverse effects requiring close monitoring. The study’s objectives were to describe prescribing trends in acne medication over time in a military setting, and assess physician adherence to guidelines for acne treatment, including drug ...

  3. Mindfulness deficits in a sample of substance abuse treatment seeking adults: a descriptive investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Brasfield, Hope; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2013-01-01

    Mindfulness is increasingly being recognized as an important correlate of mental health, and is inversely corelated with substance use. To date, preliminary research suggests that mindfulness-based interventions may be effective for the treatment of substance use disorders. However, there is a notable lack of research on deficits in mindfulness among individuals who seek residential substance abuse treatment, including whether they report lower levels of mindfulness relative to healthy contro...

  4. Ankles back in randomized controlled trial (ABrCt: braces versus neuromuscular exercises for the secondary prevention of ankle sprains. Design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhagen Evert ALM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankle sprains are the most common sports and physical activity related injury. There is extensive evidence that there is a twofold increased risk for injury recurrence for at least one year post injury. In up to 50% of all cases recurrences result in disability and lead to chronic pain or instability, requiring prolonged medical care. Therefore ankle sprain recurrence prevention in athletes is essential. This RCT evaluates the effect of the combined use of braces and neuromuscular training (e.g. proprioceptive training/sensorimotor training/balance training against the individual use of either braces or neuromuscular training alone on ankle sprain recurrences, when applied to individual athletes after usual care. Methods/Design This study was designed as three way randomized controlled trial with one year follow-up. Healthy individuals between 12 and 70 years of age, who were actively participating in sports and who had sustained a lateral ankle sprain in the two months prior to inclusion, were eligible for inclusion. After subjects had finished ankle sprain treatment by means of usual care, they were randomised to any of the three study groups. Subjects in group 1 received an eight week neuromuscular training program, subjects in group 2 received a sports brace to be worn during all sports activities for the duration of one year, and group 3 received a combination of the neuromuscular training program and a sports brace to be worn during all sports activities for the duration of eight weeks. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and every month for 12 months therafter. The primary outcome measure was incidence of ankle sprain recurrences. Secondary outcome measures included the direct and indirect costs of recurrent injury, the severity of recurrent injury, and the residual complaints during and after the intervention. Discussion The ABrCt is the first randomized controlled trial to directly compare the secondary preventive

  5. Nitric oxide as an activation agent for nucleophilic attack in trans-[Ru(NO)(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}{l_brace}P(OEt){sub 3}{r_brace}](PF{sub 6}){sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzker, Gustavo; Cardoso, Daniel R.; Franco, Douglas W., E-mail: douglas@iqsc.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Toledo Junior, Jose C. [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Lima, Francisco C.A. [Universidade Estadual do Piaui, Teresina, PI (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Natureza. Inst. de Quimica; Magalhaes, Alvicler [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The complex trans-[Ru(NO)(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}{l_brace}P(OEt){sub 3}{r_brace}](PF{sub 6}){sub 3} undergoes nucleophilic attack on the phosphorus ester ligand in the solid state yielding trans-[Ru(NO)(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}{l_brace}P(OH)(OEt){sub 2}{r_brace}](PF{sub 6}){sub 3}. The reaction was monitored and the products analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 31}P{l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace} CP-MAS NMR and {sup 31}P{l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace} NMR), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), cyclic voltammetry (CV), electronic spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and elemental analysis. According to experimental data and quantum mechanical calculations (DFT), the reaction proceeds in the solid state by the nucleophilic attack on the phosphorus ligand, promoted by the strong polarization along the P{sup III}-Ru{sup II}-NO{sup +} axis induced by the nitrosyl ligand, and takes place following the Michaelis-Arbusov type mechanism for phosphorus ester hydrolysis. In solution, the nucleophilic attack occurs simultaneously at the nitrosyl and trimethylphosphite ligands, yielding trans-[Ru(H{sub 2}O)(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}{l_brace}P(OEt){sub 3}{r_brace}]{sup 2+} and trans-[Ru(NO)(H{sub 2}O)(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}]{sup 3+} in comparable amounts. (author)

  6. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ''ideas''. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ''cradle-to-grave'' systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ''downselection'' of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW

  7. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ``ideas``. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ``cradle-to-grave`` systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ``downselection`` of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW.

  8. Effectiveness of an outside-the-boot ankle brace in reducing parachuting related ankle injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, M.; Sulsky, S; Amoroso, P.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the efficacy of an outside-the-boot parachute ankle brace (PAB) in reducing risk of ankle injury to army paratrooper trainees and to identify inadvertent risks associated with PAB use.

  9. Semi-rigid brace and taping decrease variability of the ankle joint position sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Barbanera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of taping and the semi-rigid ankle brace on ankle joint position sense. Sixteen healthy women (20.8 ± 2.3 years old actively placed the ankle in a target position. The experimental conditions were: 1 wearing no orthosis device, 2 using semi-rigid brace, and 3 wearing ankle taping. Absolute error (AE and variable error (VE were calculated to obtain the joint position sense. We found an interaction effect between condition and target angle at 15o of plantar flexion for the variable VE, which showed smaller errors during the use of taping and semi-rigid brace. In conclusion, the use of ankle joint orthoses, whether taping or semi-rigid brace, decrease the variability of the position sense at 15o of plantar flexion, potentially decreasing ankle sprains occurrence.

  10. First-time admissions for opioid treatment: cross-sectional and descriptive study of new opioid users seeking treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flórez G

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gerardo Flórez,1,2 Ana López-Durán,3 Yolanda Triñanes,4 Jesús Osorio,5 Jaime Fraga,5 José Manuel Fernández,5 Elisardo Becoña,3 Manuel Arrojo5 1Addictive Disorders Assistance Unit, Complejo Hospitalario, Ourense, Spain; 2Center for Biomedical Research in Mental Health (CIBERSAM, Oviedo, Spain; 3Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychobiology, University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 4Galician Agency for Health Technology Assessment, Directorate General for Innovation and Management of Public Health, Galicia, Spain; 5Directorate General of Health Assistance, Galician Health Service, Galicia, Spain Background: The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the profiles of the new treatment demands posed by opioid addicts between 2005 and 2010 at the addictive disorders assistance units in Galicia, Spain. Methods: A cluster analysis was performed using data from 1,655 treatment entrants. Clusters were constructed using sociodemographic and medicolegal variables. A cluster analysis was also conducted according to age. Once clusters were defined, their association with the following variables was analyzed: age at first use of opioids, years of use, frequency of opioid use in the previous month, psychiatric treatment, cocaine use, existence of a drug-dependent partner, and source of referral. Results: Four clusters were obtained in the main analysis. Cluster 1 (34.01% consisted of young males, cluster 2 (16.19% consisted of not-so-young males, cluster 3 (32.62% consisted mainly of older males and a small group of females, and cluster 4 (17.18% was made up entirely of women. With regard to age-related clusters, two clusters were obtained in those under the age of 30 years: cluster 1 (73% without medicolegal complications and cluster 2 (27% with medicolegal complications. For those over the age of 30 years, two clusters were obtained: cluster 1 (53.92% with hardly any medicolegal complications and cluster 2 (46.08% with

  11. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Behavioral Activation for the Treatment of Depression: Description and Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Jonathan W.; Baruch, David E.; Gaynor, Scott T.

    2006-01-01

    The field of clinical behavior analysis is growing rapidly and has the potential to affect and transform mainstream cognitive behavior therapy. To have such an impact, the field must provide a formulation of and intervention strategies for clinical depression, the "common cold" of outpatient populations. Two treatments for depression have emerged:…

  12. Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy during Methadone Dose Reduction: Rationale, Treatment Description, and a Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotts, Angela L.; Masuda, Akihiko; Wilson, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Many clients who undergo methadone maintenance (MM) treatment for heroin and other opiate dependence prefer abstinence from methadone. Attempts at methadone detoxification are often unsuccessful, however, due to distressing physical as well as psychological symptoms. Outcomes from an MM client who voluntarily participated in an Acceptance and…

  13. An augmented cognitive behavioural therapy for treating post-stroke depression: description of a treatment protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootker, J.A.; Rasquin, S.M.; Smits, P; Geurts, A.C.H.; Heugten, C.M. van; Fasotti, L.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Currently, no evidence-based treatment is available for mood problems after stroke. We present a new psychological intervention designed to reduce depressive complaints after stroke. METHOD OF PROTOCOL DEVELOPMENT: This intervention was based on cognitive behavioural therapy principles and was

  14. An augmented cognitive behavioural therapy for treating post-stroke depression: Description of a treatment protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootker, J.A.; Rasquin, S.M.C.; Smits, P.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Heugten, C.M. van; Fasotti, L.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Currently, no evidence-based treatment is available for mood problems after stroke. We present a new psychological intervention designed to reduce depressive complaints after stroke. Method of protocol development This intervention was based on cognitive behavioural therapy principles and was sh

  15. Oriented attachment growth of BiOCl nanosheets with exposed {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} facets and photocatalytic activity of the hierarchical nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Zhankui, E-mail: zkcui@foxmail.com [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China); Mi, Liwei [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China); Zeng, Dawen [State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die and Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-02-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Growth of BiOCl nanosheets in EG medium was experimentally revealed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oriented attachment mechanism governed formation of single crystalline BiOCl. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The exposed facets of BiOCl nanosheets were {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} planes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples could efficiently degrade MO irradiated either by UV or by Vis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high efficiency was associated with the exposed {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} facets of BiOCl. - Abstract: The formation mechanism of nanosheet assembled BiOCl nanostructures in non-aqueous solvothermal system was investigated through time series experiments. The products obtained at different reaction times were characterized by XRD, SEM and (HR)TEM techniques. The photocatalytic property of the samples was measured by decomposing the organic dye of methyl orange. The ability to generate hydroxyl radicals for the samples was also measured by photoluminescence method using coumarin as fluorescence probe molecules. It was revealed that oriented attachment was responsible for the slow transformation of BiOCl from polycrystalline nanoparticles to single crystalline nanosheets. The role of the solvent ethylene glycol and the interaction with the other species during the oriented attachment growth of the BiOCl nanosheets was discussed. The photocatalytic activity tests demonstrated that the BiOCl nanostructures could efficiently decompose methyl orange under either UV light irradiation or visible light irradiation. The high photodegradation efficiency was associated with the atomic arrangement of exposed {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} facets.

  16. Intercultural misunderstandings about health care. Recall of descriptions of illness and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffensen, M S; Colker, L

    1982-01-01

    Noncompliance with medical instructions is a major problem in health care. In areas of the world where traditional and Western systems co-exist, failure to follow medical directives has been attributed to the conscious rejection of Western medical beliefs and values by the indigenous population. This study provides evidence that the absence of shared concepts between practitioners and patients may impede even willing compliance. When patients do not possess the background knowledge, or schemata, undergirding the Western practitioners' conclusions and proposed treatment, they are unable to fully understand what is communicated because they lack the conceptual framework for integrating and holding the information presented. Matched groups of Australian Aboriginal and American women heard and recalled two stories incorporating Aboriginal and Western conceptions of illness and treatment. Analysis of the recall protocols reveals the effect of culture-based schemata on comprehension of the two stories. Implications for health care delivery are discussed. PMID:7157028

  17. The effect of a knee brace on gait parameters of hypertonic hemiplegic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Modisane

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the useof a knee brace on 15 subjects with hypertonic hemiparesis. The middlecerebral artery was involved in all subjects. The Ashworth scale was usedto screen for the presence of spasticity in the quadriceps muscles.Measurements of gait speed, step and stride length were taken in the middle 10 metres of a 15 metre paper walkway. A comparison of these gait parameters without and with the use of a knee brace was made. A ques-tionnaire was also used to evaluate how subjects responded to the use of aknee brace.The results showed that the mean speed for all 15 subjects increased withthe use of a brace, (p = 0.05. Step and stride length without and with the use of a brace showed no statistical differences.It was therefore concluded that the FECK brace appears to have an effect on the walking speed of subjects withhypertonic  hemiparesis

  18. An innovative seismic bracing system based on a superelastic shape memory alloy ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nan; Jeon, Jong-Su; Hodgson, Darel E.; DesRoches, Reginald

    2016-05-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have great potential in seismic applications because of their remarkable superelasticity. Seismic bracing systems based on SMAs can mitigate the damage caused by earthquakes. The current study investigates a bracing system based on an SMA ring which is capable of both re-centering and energy dissipation. This lateral force resisting system is a cross-braced system consisting of an SMA ring and four tension-only cable assemblies, which can be applied to both new construction and seismic retrofit. The performance of this bracing system is examined through a quasi-static cyclic loading test and finite element (FE) analysis. This paper describes the experimental design in detail, discusses the experimental results, compares the performance with other bracing systems based on SMAs, and presents an Abaqus FE model calibrated on the basis of experimental results to simulate the superelastic behavior of the SMA ring. The experimental results indicate that the seismic performance of this system is promising in terms of damping and re-centering. The FE model can be used in the simulation of building structures using the proposed bracing system.

  19. Bracing the trunk and neck in young adults leads to a more aged-like gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Daniel M; Kelleran, Kyle J; Morrison, Steven

    2016-09-01

    Older individuals typically walk at slower speeds, with shorter step lengths, greater step widths and spend a larger proportion of the gait cycle in double stance. Changes in neck and trunk mobility may underlie some of the changes in walking seen with increasing age. Consequently, this study was designed to assess whether externally increasing trunk/neck stiffness in young adults leads to similar changes in gait pattern observed with aging. Twelve young adults (20-29 years), sixteen old adults (60-69 years) and fifteen older adults (70-79 years) walked across a 20' pressure sensitive GAITRite© instrumented walkway at their preferred speed. The young adults also walked under three bracing conditions: (1) Neck braced, (2) Trunk braced, and (3) Neck and Trunk braced. The results revealed that the old and older age groups walked significantly slower, with a shorter step length and with a narrower base of support (p'syoung adults. In young adults, combined neck and trunk bracing led to reduced walking speed, shorter step length, wider base of support and a larger proportion of the gait cycle spent in double stance (p'sadults remained less than fully braced young adults (p'syoung individuals leads to systematic gait changes similar to aging. Consequently, age-related changes in mobility of the neck and torso may in part contribute to the decrements in walking seen for older adults.

  20. The role of ankle bracing for prevention of ankle sprain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael T; Liu, Hsin-Yi

    2003-10-01

    Lateral ankle sprains are one of the most common injuries incurred in recreational and competitive athletics. These injuries have a significant impact in terms of cost, athletic participation, and activities of daily living. Prophylactic ankle braces are often used to reduce the risk of injury recurrence when individuals return to athletic participation. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to review the literature and provide our own experience relative to the use of prophylactic ankle bracing. Relatively high incidence rates of ankle sprain injury have been reported for basketball and soccer athletes, military trainees, and individuals with a previous history of ankle sprain injury. Semirigid and laced ankle braces have significantly reduced the incidence of initial and recurrent ankle sprain injuries in athletic and military samples. With few exceptions, these braces do not appear to affect functional performance adversely. The prophylactic use of semirigid ankle braces appears warranted to reduce the incidence of initial and, in particular, recurrent ankle sprain injuries for individuals who participate in activities that have the highest risk for these injuries. Additional research is needed to evaluate the many new braces that are available and in use and their influence on the incidence of ankle sprain injury and functional performance. PMID:14620786

  1. Experimental and analytical studies on the seismic behavior of conventional and hybrid braced frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jiun-Wei

    This dissertation summarizes both experimental and analytical studies on the seismic response of conventional steel concentrically braced frame systems of the type widely used in North America, and preliminary studies of an innovative hybrid braced frame system: the Strong-Back System. The research work is part of NEES small group project entitled "International Hybrid Simulation of Tomorrow's Braced Frames." In the experimental phase, a total of four full-scale, one-bay, two-story conventional braced frame specimens with different bracing member section shapes and gusset plate-to-beam connection details were designed and tested at the NEES Berkeley Laboratory. Three braced frame specimens were tested quasi-statically using the same predefined loading protocol to investigate the inelastic cyclic behavior of code-compliant braced frames at both the global and local level. The last braced frame specimen was nearly identical to one of those tested quasi-statically. However, it was tested using hybrid simulation techniques to examine the sensitivity of inelastic behavior on loading sequence and to relate the behavior observed to different levels of seismic hazard. Computer models of the test specimens were developed using two different computer software programs. In the software framework OpenSees fiber-based line elements were used to simulate global buckling of members and yielding and low-cycle fatigue failure at sections. The LS-DYNA analysis program was also used to model individual struts and the test specimens using shell elements with adaptive meshing and element erosion features. This program provided enhanced ability to simulate section local buckling, strain concentrations and crack development. The numerical results were compared with test results to assess and refine and the ability of the models to predict braced frame behavior. A series of OpenSees numerical cyclic component simulations were then conducted using the validated modeling approach. Two

  2. Seismic Response of R C Building With Different Arrangement of Steel Bracing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaraj R. Chavan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In general the most suitable choices in improvement of reinforcement concrete frame against lateral loading is used steel bracing system. The use of steel bracing has potential advantage over other scheme like higher strength and stiffness, economical, occupies less space, adds much less weight to existing structure. In this study, the seismic analysis of reinforced concrete (RC buildings with different types of bracing (Diagonal, V type, inverted V type, X type is studied. The bracing is provided for peripheral columns. A seven-storey (G+6 building is situated at seismic zone III. The building models are analyze by equivalent static analysis as per IS 1893:2002 using Staad Pro V8i software. The main parameters consider in this paper to compare the seismic analysis of buildings are lateral displacement, storey drift, axial force, base shear. It is found that the X type of steel bracing significantly contributes to the structural stiffness and reduces the maximum interstorey drift of R.C.C building than other bracing system.

  3. Growth morphology of {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} faces of manganese mercury thiocyanate crystals investigated by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Y.L. [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: ylgeng@icm.sdu.edu.cn; Xu, D. [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: xdoffice@sdu.edu.cn; Wang, X.Q. [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Du, W. [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Liu, H.Y. [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhang, G.H. [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2006-04-10

    Atomic force microscopy is employed to investigate the surface morphology of the {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} faces of MMTC crystals grown at 40 deg. C at a supersaturation of {sigma} = 0.5. Growth hillocks generated by dislocation sources often appear in groups, which leads to faster growth of the local area and forming layers with large height difference up to 30 nm. Growth centers operate nearly equally during the growth process. Serried and sparse monolayer steps dominate alternately on the surface, which is thought to be distinct phenomenon of the two-metal-centered complex compounds family.

  4. Cost description of chemotherapy regimens for the treatment of metastatic pancreas cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Daniel A; Krishna, Kavya; Flowers, Christopher R; El-Rayes, Bassel F; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios; Noonan, Anne M

    2016-05-01

    Multiple chemotherapy regimens are available for the treatment of metastatic pancreas cancer (mPCA). Choice of regimen is based on the patient's performance status and toxicity profile of the regimen. The objective of this study was to analyze the costs of first-line regimens to further aid in decision-making and develop a platform upon which to assess value. We calculated the monthly cost for individual standard regimens (gemcitabine, gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel, gemcitabine/erlotinib and FOLFIRINOX) and the overall treatment cost for a course of therapy based on the median progression-free survival achieved in published studies. In addition to cost of drugs, we included administration costs and costs of toxicities (including growth factor support, blood product transfusion and hospitalization for toxicities). Costs for administration and management of adverse events were based on Medicare reimbursement rates for hospital and physician services. Drug costs were based on Medicare average sale prices (all 2014 US$). The monthly costs for gemcitabine, FOLFIRINOX, gemcitabine/erlotinib and gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel were $1363, $7234, $8007 and $12,221, respectively. The overall treatment costs for a course of the same regimens based on median PFS were $5043, $46,298, $51,004 and $67,216, respectively. The choice of chemotherapy regimen for mPCA should be based on tolerability and efficacy of the regimen individualized to patient's performance status. Healthcare systems have finite resources; thus, there is increasing emphasis on metrics to define value in health care when outcomes of therapy are similar or produce marked differences in value. These data provide useful financial information to incorporate into the decision-making process. PMID:27067436

  5. Coronary Artery Disease: A Descriptive Analysis of Risk Factors: Before and After Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dinkar, Suresh Rao, M Vakamudi, R Saldanha, KR Balakrishnan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing life span of man, the number of ageing people is also increasing, and along with that the number of diseases affecting them is also increasing. Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease is one of them. Coronary revascularization was started in 1960s through the pioneering efforts of David Sabiston and Kolessov. This is a retrospective descriptive study. A total number of 1050 Patients were operated on beating heart surgery from 1998 to Nov. 2002 out of which 852 patients were analysed to know the results and prognostic outcomes. Mean age was 57.8 years (range 31 - 80years with M:F ratio of 7:1. The pre-operative parameters studied were DM, HTN, hyperlipidemia, family history of CAD, smoking and past history of MI. other parameters included pulmonary disease, chronic renal failure, CVA, APD, PVD etc. 55.75% patients were diabetic, 53.99% were hypertensive and 24.4% had history of hyperlipidemia. Family history was positive in 12.9% of the patients, 25% were smokers and 44% had history of previous MI. average number of diseased vessels was 2.34 with triple vessel disease being most common. 6.6% had history of pulmonary diseases, 7.4% had pre-operative renal failure and 2% had past history of CV stroke. Overall in-hospital mortality was 1.4%. relative risk for mortality, morbidity, new onset of renal failure, CVA, arrhythmias, CCF were calculated. Mean hospital stay was 9.83days (range 6 - 41years, mean ICU stay was 74.3 hours (range 73 - 700years. Usage of blood and blood products was significantly less. Freedom from complications was 93%. LVEF<40%, age >70 years, high diastolic PA pressure> 15mm Hg were found to be significant risk factors for mortality. Females were found to be 2.6 times more at risk for mortality and development of complications as compared to males. Patients with previous history of MI were found to be more at risk of developing complications increasing their hospital and ICU stay.

  6. [Treatment of osteomyelitis with oral bactericidal antibiotics-- description of 9 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, S; Chuard, C; Regamey, C

    1996-01-27

    The efficacy of oral bactericidal antibiotics in the treatment of osteomyelitis is analyzed retrospectively by a review of 9 cases histories. The first patient was treated in 1982. Clinical and laboratory controls were reviewed up to 1.1.1995. In 6 patients S. aureus was isolated, while in 3 patients the organism could not be cultured but gram + cocci were almost likely. 5 cases of osteomyelitis were acute, 4 were chronic and in one case there was an infection of an artificial knee prothesis. The isolated S. aureus were sensitive to the antibiotics prescribed. 8 patients received a combination of flucloxacillin (2-4 g/day) and rifampicin (600 mg/day); one patient was treated with the combination amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (1500/425 mg/day) followed by ofloxacin (400 mg/day) and finally co-trimoxazole (320/1600 mg/day). 3 patients received all antibiotics orally; in 6 patients oral administration followed a short intravenous course of the antibiotic combination. The duration of treatment varied between 6 and 23 weeks. Follow-up extended over 9 months (n = 1), 14 months (n = 3), 4-7 years (n = 3), and 10-12 years (n = 2). In 8 cases the osteomyelitis was cured (89%). In our view, a combination of bactericidal oral antibiotics with good penetration into bone tissue can be prescribed in selected cases of osteomyelitis to shorten or even avoid the standard intravenous therapy of acute or chronic diseases.

  7. Oral health status and treatment needs in institutionalized psychiatric patients : One year descriptive cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Manish

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES : Psychiatric patients are one of the special groups requiring attention as they are often neglected. Oral health is an major determinant of general health for psychiatric patients and may have a low priority in the context of mental illness. The present study was conducted to assess the oral health status and treatment needs of institutionalized psychiatric patients of Davangere. METHODS : 220 psychiatric patients admitted in two general hospitals of Davangere during the period of one year were included in the study. The oral health status was evaluated with respect to caries, oral hygiene, and periodontal status. RESULTS : Of the 180 examined with the response rate of 81.8%. 58.3% were males, mean age was 36.7 years, 57.8% had < 1 year of mental illness with a mean of 2.2 years, and 90% were self-sufficient. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the mean DMFT (0.92 increased with age, duration of mental illness, and irregularity of oral hygiene habits (P<0.001. Mean OHI-S score was 3.3 and multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the mean OHI-S score increased with age (P<0.001. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the CPI score increased with age, duration of mental illness, and degree of helplessness (P<0.001. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION : The findings of this study demonstrates low caries prevalence, poor oral hygiene, and extensive unmet needs for dental treatment.

  8. On the Modeling of Elastic and Inelastic, Critical- and Post-Buckling Behavior of Slender Columns and Bracing Members

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, Swaminathan

    2009-01-01

    Analyzing tall braced frame buildings with thousands of degrees of freedom in three dimensions subject to strong earthquake ground motion requires an efficient brace element that can capture the overall features of its elastic and inelastic response under axial cyclic loading without unduly heavy discretization. This report details the theory of a modified elastofiber (MEF) element developed to model braces and buckling-sensitive slender columns in such structures. The MEF element...

  9. Exploration of paclitaxel (Taxol) as a treatment for malignant tumors in cats: a descriptive case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jennifer; Doerr, Mary; Kitchell, Barbara E

    2015-02-01

    Paclitaxel, an effective chemotherapeutic agent in human oncology, has received little evaluation in feline patients. The diluent used to solubilize paclitaxel, polyoxyethylated castor oil (Cremophor EL), causes anaphylactoid reactions in human and dogs, which limits enthusiasm for use of this agent in veterinary oncology. Nine feline patients with measurable malignant tumors were treated with paclitaxel at a dosage of 80 mg/m(2) intravenously every 21 days for up to two doses. Adverse effects, including evidence of toxicity and anaphylactoid reactions, were assessed. Tumor response, progression and patient time to progression (TTP) were also recorded. Adverse effects included grade III and IV thrombocytopenia, grade III gastrointestinal signs (vomiting and constipation) and hypersensitivity reactions, seen in a total of five patients. Anaphylactoid reactions resolved with appropriate management. Stable disease and partial response were observed in 56% of feline patients. Median TTP was 28 days (range 15-45 days). Intravenous paclitaxel is a safe treatment option for feline malignant tumor patients. Future investigation is warranted to explore the effectiveness and appropriate application of this agent for specific tumor types.

  10. Exploration of paclitaxel (Taxol) as a treatment for malignant tumors in cats: a descriptive case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jennifer; Doerr, Mary; Kitchell, Barbara E

    2015-02-01

    Paclitaxel, an effective chemotherapeutic agent in human oncology, has received little evaluation in feline patients. The diluent used to solubilize paclitaxel, polyoxyethylated castor oil (Cremophor EL), causes anaphylactoid reactions in human and dogs, which limits enthusiasm for use of this agent in veterinary oncology. Nine feline patients with measurable malignant tumors were treated with paclitaxel at a dosage of 80 mg/m(2) intravenously every 21 days for up to two doses. Adverse effects, including evidence of toxicity and anaphylactoid reactions, were assessed. Tumor response, progression and patient time to progression (TTP) were also recorded. Adverse effects included grade III and IV thrombocytopenia, grade III gastrointestinal signs (vomiting and constipation) and hypersensitivity reactions, seen in a total of five patients. Anaphylactoid reactions resolved with appropriate management. Stable disease and partial response were observed in 56% of feline patients. Median TTP was 28 days (range 15-45 days). Intravenous paclitaxel is a safe treatment option for feline malignant tumor patients. Future investigation is warranted to explore the effectiveness and appropriate application of this agent for specific tumor types. PMID:24820996

  11. Accurate and efficient TCAD model for the formation and dissolution of small interstitial clusters and {l_brace}3 1 1{r_brace} defects in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zechner, Christoph [Synopsys Switzerland LLC., Affolternstr. 52, CH-8050 Zurich-Oerlikon (Switzerland)]. E-mail: zechner@synopsys.com; Zographos, Nikolas [Synopsys Switzerland LLC., Affolternstr. 52, CH-8050 Zurich-Oerlikon (Switzerland); Matveev, Dmitri [Synopsys Switzerland LLC., Affolternstr. 52, CH-8050 Zurich-Oerlikon (Switzerland); Erlebach, Axel [Synopsys Switzerland LLC., Affolternstr. 52, CH-8050 Zurich-Oerlikon (Switzerland)

    2005-12-05

    In recent years, physics-based models have been developed for the time evolution of defects formed by Si self-interstitials in ion-implanted Si. The accuracy of these models is crucial for a predictive process simulation of deep sub micron devices. However, the most complete models are usually not considered in applied process simulation, because they use too many equations. In this work, a new model is presented in which the essential physics behind the formation and dissolution of small interstitial clusters and {l_brace}3 1 1{r_brace} defects is described by a minimum set of five reaction equations. Three equations describe the kinetics of small interstitial clusters which governs the initial phase of implantation damage annealing. Two equations describe the formation and Ostwald ripening of {l_brace}3 1 1{r_brace} defects. The model is capable to reproduce experimental data over a wide range of implantation energies, doses and anneal temperatures. It allows predictive simulations of interstitial cluster kinetics at a minimum computational cost.

  12. Isopiestic studies on the saturated systems {l_brace}H{sub 2}O + BaCl{sub 2}(sat) + NaCl + NH{sub 4}Cl{r_brace} and {l_brace}H{sub 2}O + BaCl{sub 2}(sat) + mannitol(sat) + NaCl + NH{sub 4}Cl{r_brace} at the temperature 298.15 K: Comparison with the ideal-like solution model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Mei [Institute of Metallurgical Resources and Environmental Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China)]. E-mail: wmei1010@tom.com; Zhang, Hui [School of Resources and Civil Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Wang Jun [Department of Chemistry, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Wang Zhichang [Department of Chemistry, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China)

    2007-02-15

    Isopiestic measurements have been carried out at the temperature 298.15 K for two saturated aqueous solutions: {l_brace}H{sub 2}O + BaCl{sub 2}(sat) + NaCl + NH{sub 4}Cl{r_brace} saturated with barium chloride and {l_brace}H{sub 2}O + BaCl{sub 2}(sat) + mannitol(sat) + NaCl + NH{sub 4}Cl{r_brace} saturated with barium chloride and mannitol. Taking sodium chloride (aq) as reference solutions, osmotic coefficients of the aqueous solutions were determined. The experimental results are well represented by the ideal-like solution model.

  13. [Treatment and personality development with art therapy. A description of the method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antalfai, Márta

    2007-01-01

    Composition as a creative form of self-expression plays an important role not only in maintaining health, but also in gaining insight into the healthy personality and in the definition of this category. It seems nowadays that psychology has collected more information on the pathological personality than on the healthy one. Therefore, different workshops of art therapy are also scenes of a "spiritual alchemy" because they can give a deeper insight into the personality in addition to the primary aim of treatment. The method of the thematic art psychotherapy based on catharsis-experience is based on analytical psychology and on analytically oriented group-therapy. The aim is to generate artificial catharsis-experiences employing the impressive forces of poems, music compositions in order to raise the unconscious or the partly experienced partner-conflicts to the surface, which could manifest themselves in the process of the creative work and could be elaborated in group-activity. The creative process (specially adapted art techniques) provides good opportunities for patients to depict their traumas and complexes and also to resolve them involving the whole personality and not only at a cognitive level. The method, tuned to the workings of nature, helps the personality to develop the emotional and volitional segments, the sensitive and empathetic capabilities, as well as the recognition skills of consciousness. In the therapeutic process, the work of art that is created holds a mirror to the creator, offering to him or her the opportunity to face the real complex at the background the actual conflict. The method aims to achieve a reconstruction of psychic dynamics in two ways. The first is an emotional resonance to the changes of nature, of the year and of the feasts, in which the psychic process starts from inside to the direction of the outside world (psychic enrichment and accomodation). The second way leads from the outer world to the inner one and this psychic

  14. Description Of Minimally Invasive Methods Of Treatment Of Walled-Off Pancreatic Necrosis (WOPN- The Use Of „Step-Up Approach” In Patient With Pancreatic Necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagielski Mateusz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study presents description of treatment of patients with walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN. The strategy of treatment was to extend access to necrotic areas (“step-up approach”. Applied endoscopic transmural access (transgastric and percutaneous access (transperitoneal. The endoscopic necrosectomy under fluoroscopic guidance was repeated four times during active transluminal drainage. Endoscopic treatment with percutaneous drainage gave very beneficial clinical effects.

  15. An Experimental Study on Non-Compression X-Bracing Systems Using Carbon Fiber Composite Cable for Seismic Strengthening of RC Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Seok Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-bracing (X-bracing is one of the most popular methods of seismic retrofitting, and has been shown to significantly increase the structural stiffness and strength of buildings. Conventional steel X-bracing methods typically exhibit brittle failure at the connection between the brace and the building, or buckling failure of the braces. This study investigated the structural properties of a new type of non-compression X-bracing system using carbon fiber composite cable (CFCC. This non-compression X-bracing system uses CFCC bracing and bolt connections between structural members and the terminal fixer of the CFCC, instead of conventional steel bracing. The aim is to overcome the brittle and buckling failures that can occur at the connection and bracings with conventional steel X-bracing methods. We carried out cyclic loading tests, and the maximum load carrying capacity and deformation were investigated, as well as hysteresis in the lateral load–drift relations. The test results revealed that the CFCC X-bracing system installed in reinforced concrete frames enhanced the strength markedly, and buckling failure of the bracing was not observed.

  16. Characterization of {gamma}{prime}-Fe{sub 4}N precipitates in a compound layer formed by austenitic nitrocarburizing treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Rong, Y.; Chen, X.; Hu, G. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Materials Science

    1995-04-01

    The precipitation of {gamma}{prime}-Fe{sub 4}N phase from the {var_epsilon}-matrix in a quenched and aged compound layer of 0.2% C steel formed by austenitic nitrocarburizing treatment has been investigated through transmission electron microscopy. The orientation relationships between the {gamma}{prime} phase and the {var_epsilon} matrix is determined to be {l_brace}0001{r_brace}{sub {var_epsilon}}//{l_brace}111{r_brace}{sub {gamma}{prime}} and <1{bar 2}10>{sub {var_epsilon}}//<011>{sub {gamma}{prime}}. The {gamma}{prime} precipitates appearing in thin plates in the {l_brace}0001{r_brace} planes of {var_epsilon} matrix are sometimes observed to be 180{degree} related to each other. The mechanism of age-hardening in the compound layer is also discussed.

  17. Investigation of the nonlinear seismic behavior of knee braced frames using the incremental dynamic analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheidaii, Mohammad Reza; TahamouliRoudsari, Mehrzad; Gordini, Mehrdad

    2016-06-01

    In knee braced frames, the braces are attached to the knee element rather than the intersection of beams and columns. This bracing system is widely used and preferred over the other commonly used systems for reasons such as having lateral stiffness while having adequate ductility, damage concentration on the second degree convenience of repairing and replacing of these elements after Earthquake. The lateral stiffness of this system is supplied by the bracing member and the ductility of the frame attached to the knee length is supplied through the bending or shear yield of the knee member. In this paper, the nonlinear seismic behavior of knee braced frame systems has been investigated using incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) and the effects of the number of stories in a building, length and the moment of inertia of the knee member on the seismic behavior, elastic stiffness, ductility and the probability of failure of these systems has been determined. In the incremental dynamic analysis, after plotting the IDA diagrams of the accelerograms, the collapse diagrams in the limit states are determined. These diagrams yield that for a constant knee length with reduced moment of inertia, the probability of collapse in limit states heightens and also for a constant knee moment of inertia with increasing length, the probability of collapse in limit states increases.

  18. Inelastic behavior of cold-formed braced walls under monotonic and cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerami, Mohsen; Lotfi, Mohsen; Nejat, Roya

    2015-06-01

    The ever-increasing need for housing generated the search for new and innovative building methods to increase speed and efficiency and enhance quality. One method is the use of light thin steel profiles as load-bearing elements having different solutions for interior and exterior cladding. Due to the increase in CFS construction in low-rise residential structures in the modern construction industry, there is an increased demand for performance inelastic analysis of CFS walls. In this study, the nonlinear behavior of cold-formed steel frames with various bracing arrangements including cross, chevron and k-shape straps was evaluated under cyclic and monotonic loading and using nonlinear finite element analysis methods. In total, 68 frames with different bracing arrangements and different ratios of dimensions were studied. Also, seismic parameters including resistance reduction factor, ductility and force reduction factor due to ductility were evaluated for all samples. On the other hand, the seismic response modification factor was calculated for these systems. It was concluded that the highest response modification factor would be obtained for walls with bilateral cross bracing systems with a value of 3.14. In all samples, on increasing the distance of straps from each other, shear strength increased and shear strength of the wall with bilateral bracing system was 60 % greater than that with lateral bracing system.

  19. Modal parameters of two incomplete and complete guitars differing in the bracing pattern of the soundboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrodzka, Ewa; Łapa, Andrzej; Linde, Bogumił B J; Rosenfeld, Eike

    2011-10-01

    Similarities and differences in vibrational behavior of two guitars having a symmetric Torres bracing pattern and an asymmetric pattern forming a lattice on a soundboard are investigated by means of the modal analysis technique and laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) measurements. Instruments are investigated before and after a bridge and strings assembling (i.e., they are incomplete or complete). The bracing pattern and the absence/presence of the bridge and strings have some effect on modal frequencies and mode shapes. The bracing pattern does not affect the sequence of at least first three low frequency mode shapes of incomplete/complete instruments but affects their modal frequencies. Depending on frequency, the bridge behaves either as a rigid or a flexible structure.

  20. Modal parameters of two incomplete and complete guitars differing in the bracing pattern of the soundboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrodzka, Ewa; Łapa, Andrzej; Linde, Bogumił B J; Rosenfeld, Eike

    2011-10-01

    Similarities and differences in vibrational behavior of two guitars having a symmetric Torres bracing pattern and an asymmetric pattern forming a lattice on a soundboard are investigated by means of the modal analysis technique and laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) measurements. Instruments are investigated before and after a bridge and strings assembling (i.e., they are incomplete or complete). The bracing pattern and the absence/presence of the bridge and strings have some effect on modal frequencies and mode shapes. The bracing pattern does not affect the sequence of at least first three low frequency mode shapes of incomplete/complete instruments but affects their modal frequencies. Depending on frequency, the bridge behaves either as a rigid or a flexible structure. PMID:21973373

  1. A descriptive cross-sectional international study to explore current practices in the assessment, prevention and treatment of skin tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Kimberly; Baranoski, Sharon; Holloway, Samantha; Langemo, Diane; Regan, Mary

    2014-08-01

    This study presents the results of a descriptive, cross-sectional, online international survey in order to explore current practices in the assessment, prediction, prevention and treatment of skin tears (STs). A total of 1127 health care providers (HCP) from 16 countries completed the survey. The majority of the respondents (69·6%, n = 695) reported problems with the current methods for the assessment and documentation of STs with an overwhelming majority (89·5%, n = 891) favouring the development of a simplified method of assessment. Respondents ranked equipment injury during patient transfer and falls as the main causes of STs. The majority of the samples indicated that they used non-adhesive dressings (35·89%, n = 322) to treat a ST, with the use of protective clothing being the most common method of prevention. The results of this study led to the establishment of a consensus document, classification system and a tool kit for use by practitioners. The authors believe that this survey was an important first step in raising the global awareness of STs and to stimulate discussion and research of these complex acute wounds.

  2. Influence of patellofemoral bracing on pain, knee extensor torque, and gait function in females with patellofemoral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Christopher M; Doubleday, Kathryn L; Escudero, Carina

    2008-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of a patellofemoral brace on pain response, knee extensor torque production, and gait function in females with patellofemoral pain (PFP). Sixteen females between the ages of 14 and 46 with diagnosis of PFP participated. Knee extensor torque was measured by using a LIDO isokinetic dynamometer. Pain levels were documented by using the Visual Analog Pain Scale. Stride characteristics during the conditions of free walk, fast walk, ascend stairs, descend stairs, ascend ramp, and descend ramp were obtained with a stride analyzer unit. EMG activity of the vasti musculature was recorded by using indwelling, bipolar, wire electrodes. Knee joint motion was assessed by using a VICON motion analysis system. All testing was performed with and without the Bauerfeind Genutrain P3 patellofemoral brace. There were no significant differences in torque production, pain levels, and stride characteristics between braced and non-braced trials. In addition, there were no significant differences in mean vasti EMG between braced and non-braced trials. When averaged across all conditions, a small but statistically significant increase in knee flexion was found during the braced trials. Although the current study did not find significant improvements in the clinical measures evaluated, 8 of the 16 subjects did experience a decrease in knee pain. This finding suggests that certain patients with PFP may respond favorably to bracing, and criteria must be established to determine which patients would best benefit from such an intervention.

  3. Design and control of multifunctional magnetorheological actuators for assistive knee braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H. T.; Liao, W. H.

    2010-04-01

    This paper is aimed at developing a novel multifunctional actuator utilizing magnetorheological (MR) fluids. As a key component for assistive knee braces, the actuator can work with multiple functions as motor, clutch and brake in order to meet the requirement of normal human walking. In this paper, design considerations including configurations, materials selection, mechanical and electromagnetic designs are illustrated. Prototype of the multifunctional actuator is fabricated, and each of its functions is investigated. Control strategies for mimicking normal human walking using the multifunctional actuator are illustrated. Adaptive control algorithm is adopted. Experiments on torque and speed tracking are conducted. The results show that the developed multifunctional actuator is promising for assistive knee braces.

  4. Application Of Steel Bar Bracings In Renovation And Modernization Of Historic Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchta, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    The use of steel bracings is possible in all four stages of engineering activities in the renovation and modernization of historic buildings, i. e.: protecting, repairing, strengthening and rebuilding. Steel bracings are auxiliary structural systems, which, due to their relatively small cross-section dimensions and low weight, provide an efficient way to achieve the required resistance and stability of the original historic building structural systems. The steel structure in most cases is the tissue that differs in style and material of genuine tissue which is present in a renewed historic building, but is also often a rational solution acceptable to the conservation and structural point of view.

  5. Application Of Steel Bar Bracings In Renovation And Modernization Of Historic Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuchta Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of steel bracings is possible in all four stages of engineering activities in the renovation and modernization of historic buildings, i. e.: protecting, repairing, strengthening and rebuilding. Steel bracings are auxiliary structural systems, which, due to their relatively small cross-section dimensions and low weight, provide an efficient way to achieve the required resistance and stability of the original historic building structural systems. The steel structure in most cases is the tissue that differs in style and material of genuine tissue which is present in a renewed historic building, but is also often a rational solution acceptable to the conservation and structural point of view.

  6. Atomic force microscopy studies on growth mechanisms and defect formations on {l_brace}110{r_brace} faces of cadmium mercury thiocyanate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, X.N.; Xu, D.; Yuan, D.R.; Sun, D.L.; Lu, M.K.; Zhang, G.H.; Guo, S.Y. [Shandong Univ., Jinan, SD (China). Inst. of Crystal Materials

    2001-07-01

    Growth mechanisms and defect formations on {l_brace}110{r_brace} faces of cadmium mercury thiocyanate crystals grown at 30 C ({sigma} = 0.24) were investigated by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that, under this condition, spiral dislocation controlled mechanism and 2D nucleation mechanism operates simultaneously and equally during growth, which is completely different from the traditional 2D nucleation and dislocation source controlled mechanisms. A number of 2D nucleus are formed at the large step terraces generated by dislocation sources, leading to the unequal growth rates of the elementary steps and thereby ''step bunches'' are caused. Various defects are formed under this growth condition, which is assumed to result from the incongruence between the steps generated by different sources. A new kind of 2D defect, corresponding to one growth layer in height, was observed for the first time. (orig.)

  7. Microband evolution during large plastic strains of stable {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}<1 1 2> Al and Al-Mn crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albou, A.; Driver, J.H. [Ecole des Mines de St Etienne, Centre SMS, CNRS UMR 5146, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint Etienne (France); Maurice, C., E-mail: driver@emse.fr [Ecole des Mines de St Etienne, Centre SMS, CNRS UMR 5146, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint Etienne (France)

    2010-05-15

    The deformation microstructures of Al and Al-Mn {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}<1 1 2> single crystals have been characterized after room temperature channel-die compression up to true strains of 2.1. The evolution of local misorientations and microband structures were quantified by high-resolution electron backscatter diffraction in a field emission gun scanning electron microscope and their alignments compared with the traces of active slip planes and macroscopic shear stress planes. During plane-strain compression these 'Brass' oriented crystals remain stable in terms of the final, average, orientation, with a small orientation spread. However, the microband alignment varies with strain and also with solute content. There is a general tendency for the microbands to be both crystallographic and non-crystallographic at low strains, then crystallographic, and finally mixed again at high strains (with some lamellar banding).

  8. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium for ternary mixtures of {l_brace}heptane + aromatic compounds + [EMpy][ESO{sub 4}]{r_brace} at T = 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirkhani, S.A. [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vossoughi, M., E-mail: vosoughi@sharif.edu [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pazuki, G.R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Safekordi, A.A. [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Heydari, A.; Akbari, J. [Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yavari, M. [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: > This paper reports the LLE data of ternary systems {l_brace}heptane (1) + aromatic compounds (2) + [EMpy][ESO{sub 4}] (3){r_brace}. > The distribution coefficient and the selectivity were obtained from the experimental data. > The consistency of LLE data was successfully correlated with Othmer-Tobias and Hand equation. - Abstract: (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for the ternary systems (heptane + toluene + 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium ethylsulfate) and (heptane + benzene + 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium ethylsulfate) were measured at T = 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. The selectivity and aromatic distribution coefficients, calculated from the equilibrium data, were used to determine if this ionic liquid can be used as a potential extracting solvent for the separation of aromatic compounds from heptane. The consistency of tie-line data was ascertained by applying the Othmer-Tobias and Hand equations.

  9. Different coordination modes for disulfoxides towards diorganotin(IV) dichlorides. X-ray crystal structures of 1,2-cis-bis-(phenylsulfinyl)ethene (rac-,cis-cbpse) and adducts [{l_brace}Ph{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}(meso-bpse){r_brace}{sub n}] and [{l_brace}n-Bu{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}(pdtd){r_brace}{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Gerimario F. de [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], e-mail: gfreitas@unb.br; Ellena, Javier [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Malta, Valeria R.S. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica e Biotecnologia; Ardisson, Jose D. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Fisica Aplicada

    2009-07-01

    The reactions of meso-1,2-bis(phenylsulfinyl)ethane (meso-bpse) with Ph{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}, 2-phenyl-1,3-dithiane trans-1-trans-3-dioxide (pdtd) with n-Bu{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2} and 1,2-cis-bis-(phenylsulfinyl) ethene (rac-,cis-cbpse) with Ph{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}, in 1:1 molar ratio, yielded [{l_brace}Ph{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}(meso-bpse){r_brace}{sub n}], [{l_brace}n-Bu{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}(pdtd){r_brace}{sub 2}] and [{l_brace}Ph{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}(rac,cis-cbpse){r_brace}x] (x = 2 or n), respectively. All adducts were studied by IR, Moessbauer and {sup 119}Sn NMR spectroscopic methods, elemental analysis and single crystal X-ray diffractometry. The X-ray crystal structure of [{l_brace}Ph{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}(meso-bpse){r_brace}{sub n}] revealed the occurrence of infinite chains in which the tin(IV) atoms appear in a distorted octahedral geometry with Cl atoms in cis and Ph groups in trans positions. The X-ray crystal structure of [{l_brace}n-Bu{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}(pdtd){r_brace}{sub 2}] revealed discrete centrosymmetric dimeric species in which the tin(IV) atoms possess a distorted octahedral geometry with bridging disulfoxides in cis and n-butyl moieties in trans positions. The spectroscopic data indicated that the adduct containing the rac,cis-cbpse ligand can be dimeric or polymeric. The X-ray structural analysis of the free rac-,cis-cbpse sulfoxide revealed that the crystals belong to the C2/c space group. (author)

  10. Thermophysical properties of binary mixtures of {l_brace}ionic liquid 2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate + (water, methanol, or ethanol){r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Victor H. [School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), P.O. Box 6066, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Chemical Engineering Department, ETSE, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), P.O. Box 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Mattedi, Silvana [Chemical Engineering Department, Polytechnic School, Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), 40210-630 Salvador-BA (Brazil); Martin-Pastor, Manuel [Unidade de Resonancia Magnetica, RIAIDT, edif. CACTUS, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), P.O. Box 15706, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Aznar, Martin [School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), P.O. Box 6066, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Iglesias, Miguel, E-mail: miguel.iglesias@usc.es [Chemical Engineering Department, ETSE, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), P.O. Box 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Research highlights: > This paper reports the density and speed of sound data of binary mixtures {l_brace}2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate + (water, or methanol, or ethanol){r_brace} measured between the temperatures (298.15 and 313.15) K at atmospheric pressure. > The aggregation, dynamic behavior, and hydrogen-bond network were studied using thermo-acoustic, X-ray, and NMR techniques. > The Peng-Robinson equation of state, coupled with the Wong-Sandler mixing rule using the COSMO-SAC model predicted the density of the solutions with relative mean deviations below than 3.0%. - Abstract: In this work, density and speed of sound data of binary mixtures of an ionic liquid consisting of {l_brace}2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate (2-HEAA) + (water, methanol, or ethanol){r_brace} have been measured throughout the entire concentration range, from the temperature of (288.15 to 323.15) K at atmospheric pressure. The excess molar volumes, variations of the isentropic compressibility, the apparent molar volume, isentropic apparent molar compressibility, and thermal expansion coefficient were calculated from the experimental data. The excess molar volumes were negative throughout the whole composition range. Compressibility data in combination with low angle X-ray scattering and NMR measurements proved that the presence of micelles formed due to ion pair interaction above a critical concentration of the ionic liquid in the mixtures. The Peng-Robinson equation of state coupled with the Wong-Sandler mixing rule and COSMO-SAC model was used to predict densities and the calculated deviations were lower than 3%, for binary mixtures in all composition range.

  11. Detailed analysis of the segregation driving forces for Ni(Ag) and Ag(Ni) in the {sigma}=11 {l_brace}1 1 3{r_brace} and {sigma}=11 {l_brace}3 3 2{r_brace} grain boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezzar, B.; Khalfallah, O.; Larere, A.; Paidar, V.; Hardouin Duparc, O

    2004-05-17

    The behaviour with respect to segregation is studied for two qualitatively different symmetrical tilt grain boundaries (GBs): a low energy boundary with mirror-symmetric structure on the {l_brace}1 1 3{r_brace} plane and the high energy {l_brace}3 3 2{r_brace} GB with a 'zigzag' structural pattern. These two structures have been confirmed by high resolution transmission electronic microscopy observations in nickel. Intergranular segregation is studied in the limit of infinitely diluted solution for Ni(Ag) and Ag(Ni) systems modelled with Finnis-Sinclair like potentials. The atomic sites are characterized by a geometrical parameter defined by their exact Voronoy volumes and the pressure locally exerted. The segregation energies and driving forces are compared with these parameters in order to characterize a segregation 'susceptibility' of intergranular atomic sites. The size effect calculated by the method of virtual impurity represents the main segregation driving force for the considered systems.

  12. Ankle Bracing, Plantar-Flexion Angle, and Ankle Muscle Latencies During Inversion Stress in Healthy Participants

    OpenAIRE

    Kernozek, Thomas; Durall, Christopher J; Friske, Allison; Mussallem, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Context: Ankle braces may enhance ankle joint proprioception, which in turn may affect reflexive ankle muscle activity during a perturbation. Despite the common occurrence of plantar-flexion inversion ankle injuries, authors of previous studies of ankle muscle latencies have focused on inversion stresses only.

  13. Hysteretic Behavior of Tubular Steel Braces Having Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Reinforcement Around End Net Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Haydaroğlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an experimental investigation into the seismic retrofit of tubular steel braces using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP members. CFRP retrofitting of net sections for compact tubes are proposed for delaying potential local net section failure. A total of almost full-scale three (TB-1, TB-2, and TB-3 compact steel tubular specimens were designed per AISC specifications, constructed, and cyclically tested to fracture. Retrofitted braces, when compared to the reference specimen, developed fuller hysteretic curves. Increase in cumulative hysteretic energy dissipation and the elongation in fracture life in the specimen retrofitted with CFRP plates and CFRP sheet wraps at net sections are observed during testing. This resulted in a maximum of 82.5% more dissipated energy for compact tube specimens. Also, this retrofit provided a longer experimental fracture life (maximum 59% more. Due to fracture initiation during the last cycles, significant reductions in strength and stiffness have been obtained. No significant change (maximum 10% in the brace stiffness was observed, which could be desirable in seismic retrofit applications. Pushover analysis per FEMA 356 for the bare specimen shows that FEMA does not represent actual brace behavior in the compression side although pushover and experimental results are in good agreement in the tension side.

  14. Clinical use of a neck brace to improve hands-free speech in laryngectomized patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirven, R.; Kooijman, P.G.C.; Wouters, Y.; Marres, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Time of adherence of adhesive baseplate housings to the neck of a laryngectomized patient is one of the main problems that account for the low number of laryngectomy patients who benefit from hands-free speech. An external neck brace (ENB 1.0) was introduced to support peristo

  15. Lateral Bearing Capacity of Single Connectors in Parallel Loaded Battens used for Truss Bracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob

    In order to analyse the stiffness and the strength of joints used for battens in bracing of trusses 70 tests have been made. The joint was made by a single nail or screw located perpendicular to or at an angle to the grain direction. The single fastener joints did not fulfil the requirements for ...

  16. 2 MeV e-irradiation UHVEM study on the impact of O and Ge doping on {l_brace}113{r_brace}-defect formation in Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhellemont, J. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); On leave from Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Yasuda, H. [Research Center for Ultra-High Voltage Electron Microscopy, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Tokumoto, Y.; Ohno, Y.; Suezawa, M.; Yonenaga, I. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    First results are presented of a study on the impact of O and Ge doping on {l_brace}113{r_brace}-defect formation in Si using in situ 2 MeV e-irradiation in a high voltage electron microscope. Comparison with undoped Si, reveals a suppression of {l_brace}113{r_brace}-defect formation due to O and Ge. The observations are discussed in the frame of a theoretical model assuming quasi-chemical reactions to describe the intrinsic point defect behaviour during irradiation as a function of irradiation temperature and specimen thickness. It is shown that for irradiations at high temperatures, intrinsic point defect diffusivity values derived from crystal growth and metal diffusion experiments can be used to explain the observations semi-quantitatively. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. An intrinsic effect of hydrogen on cyclic slip deformation around a {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} fatigue crack in Fe-3.2 wt.% Si alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Y., E-mail: yoshim.takahashi@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Tanaka, M.; Higashida, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Yamaguchi, K.; Noguchi, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    The effect of gaseous hydrogen on cyclic slip behavior around a fatigue crack tip introduced along the {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} plane in a Fe-3.2 wt.% Si alloy is precisely investigated by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and fractography. The results clearly suggest that the fatigue crack growth rate is promoted by hydrogen, whereas the number of dislocations emitted per load cycle is reduced. In addition, dislocation distribution is localized around the crack, causing quasi-brittle crack morphology. A sustained load test confirms that no subcritical crack growth caused by cleavage or micro-void coalescence exists along the {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} plane, which indicates that the observed increase in the fatigue crack growth rate is correlated solely to the intrinsic effect of hydrogen on the cyclic slip-off process around the crack tip.

  18. Using Twitter to investigate opinions about multiple sclerosis treatments: a descriptive, exploratory study [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4bu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeram Ramagopalan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a common complex disorder, with new treatment options emerging each year. Social media is being increasingly used to investigate opinions about drugs, diseases and procedures. In this descriptive exploratory study, we sought to investigate opinions about currently available MS treatments. Methods: The Twitter resource Topsy was searched for tweets mentioning the following MS treatments: Aubagio, Avonex, Betaferon or Betaseron, Copaxone, Extavia, Gilenya, Lemtrada, Novantrone, Rebif, Tysabri and Tecfidera between 1 Jan 2006 to 31 Jul 2014. Tweets were normalised and sentiment analysis performed. Results: In total, there were 60037 unique tweets mentioning an MS treatment. About half of the tweets contained non-neutral sentiment. Mean sentiment scores were different for treatments ranging from -0.191to 0.282 when investigating all tweets. These differences in sentiment scores between treatments were statistically significant (P<0.001. Sentiment scores tended to be higher for oral MS treatments than injectable treatments. Conclusions: Many tweets about MS treatments have a non-neutral sentiment. The analysis of social media appears to be a potential avenue for exploring patient opinion about MS treatments.

  19. Environmental description

    OpenAIRE

    Lahtinen, Riitta; Palmer, Russ

    2012-01-01

    Environmental description is the description of general, physical, personal and social space and action, where visual, auditory and other sensory information is shared with the receiver in spoken, written or sign language, either vocally, i.e. producing sounds or in another form (pointing, touching, drawing). It can be divided into the expression of basic characteristics, basic description, precise and extended description, and it can be carried out physically on the spot (clos...

  20. The Use of Descriptive Analysis to Identify and Manipulate Schedules of Reinforcement in the Treatment of Food Refusal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Sean D.; Cooper-Brown, Linda J.; Wacker, David P.; Rankin, Barbara E.

    2006-01-01

    The feeding behaviors of a child diagnosed with failure to thrive were assessed using descriptive analysis methodology to identify the schedules of reinforcement provided by the child's parents. This analysis revealed that the child's appropriate feeding behaviors (i.e., bite acceptance, self-feeding) were on a lean schedule of positive…

  1. Treatment of clitoral hypertrophy containing an os clitoris and urethra in a young greyhound dog: A detailed surgical description

    OpenAIRE

    Smeak, Daniel D.; Turner, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a detailed description and images of a clitorectomy with a urethral transposition. As described, the clitorectomy is a straight-forward procedure, creating more normal female-like anatomy, and it resolves the clinical signs resulting from the exposed clitoris.

  2. Treatment of clitoral hypertrophy containing an os clitoris and urethra in a young greyhound dog: a detailed surgical description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeak, Daniel D; Turner, Hannah

    2014-09-01

    This report provides a detailed description and images of a clitorectomy with a urethral transposition. As described, the clitorectomy is a straight-forward procedure, creating more normal female-like anatomy, and it resolves the clinical signs resulting from the exposed clitoris. PMID:25183889

  3. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal preparations in restless legs syndrome (RLS) treatment: a review and probable first description of RLS in 1529.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xue; Wang, Wei-Dong; Walters, Arthur S; Wang, Qi; Liu, Yan-Jiao; Chu, Fu-Yong

    2012-12-01

    Occidental medicine has a given definition for restless legs syndrome (RLS) and knowledge of RLS pathophysiology has led to the development of its therapeutic management. RLS has no cure. Many methods have been used for its treatment, among which traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been considered as a new approach. However, description and management of the disease symptoms can be found in Chinese ancient medical systems. The first mention of RLS may have been as early as the third century BC described as "leg uncomfortable". Nonetheless, the lack of a complete description encompassing all four modern cardinal features of RLS makes this uncertain. On the other hand, the first description of RLS encompassing three of the four major modern criteria occurs in the ancient book of Neike Zhaiyao (Internal summary), 1529 AD just about a century and a half prior to the description of RLS by Sir Thomas Willis in England. Here, we introduce the philosophical concepts of traditional Chinese medicine and the description, classification and understanding of RLS symptoms in traditional Chinese medicine. We have conducted an in-depth review of the literature reporting one part of TCM, Chinese herbal treatment efficacy for RLS, through both English and Chinese search engines. Eighty-five studies were included in the review and more than 40 formulas (including 176 different ingredients) were found in the literature. According to the literature, Chinese herbs have been demonstrated to be safe and hold great potential to be an effective treatment modality for RLS, but the evidence is limited by the quality of these studies. Of the eighty-five studies, only nine were clinical trials with a control group and only three of them were randomized. In cases where herbal preparations were compared to Western medications for RLS, the herbal preparations appear to be superior. However, uncertainty as to whether the diagnosis of RLS was made in accord with Western norms and the use of

  4. Application of orientation imaging to the study of substructural development in cold deformed Al-0.3%Mn single crystal of {l_brace}110{r_brace}<112> orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, H; Miszczyk, M [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, ul. Reymonta 25, PL-30059 Krakow (Poland); Maurice, C; Driver, J H, E-mail: nmpaul@imim-pan.krakow.pl [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint Etienne, Centre SMS, 158 Cours Fauriel, FR-42023 Saint Etienne (France)

    2010-02-15

    A systematic study of the deformation microstructures over 3 perpendicular surfaces was carried out in the present work in order to correlate better the substructure with slip patterns, initial and final crystal orientation, and the macroscopic coordinate system. The microstructure and texture evolution of high purity Al-0.3 wt% Mn alloy of initial near brass {l_brace}110{r_brace}<112> (or Bs) orientation, channel-die compressed to the strain level of 1.5, were studied by TEM (including TEM orientation mapping) and high-resolution FEG-SEM/EBSD techniques to observe crystal subdivision deformation patterns at the microscopic scale. The grain orientation dependent structures were analyzed in terms of active slip systems focussing on the crystallography of extended planar boundaries. It was concluded that the type of dislocation structure (one or two sets of microbands) in {l_brace}110{r_brace}<112> oriented crystallites, at moderate strains (< 1.5) depended strongly on the crystallographic grain orientation. In this non-ideal initial crystal orientation the applied deformation mode activates a double slip, of which one system predominates and leads to further rotation away from Bs. A general rotation combined with a wide orientation spread is observed after a strain up to 1.5. The microband boundary alignment corresponds very well to the traces of crystallographic {l_brace}111{r_brace} planes, on which most of the slip occurs.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Steel Braces Frames and Buckling Restrained Braces Frames in Tall Buildings%高层钢结构支撑方案抗震性能对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强国平

    2012-01-01

    高层钢结构中框架—支撑结构是一种常用的结构形式,文中介绍了支撑结构体系的发展情况.以某实际工程为例,说明了普通钢支撑和屈曲约束支撑两种不同支撑对结构弹性性能的影响,通过静力弹塑性推覆分析对比研究了两种方案的弹塑性性能,并对屈曲约束支撑采用偏心布置形式对框架梁的影响进行了探讨.%Braced steel frame is a normal structural system in high-rise steel buildings. The development of the braced steel frame is introduced. Based on a practical project, the influences of steel braces and bucking restrained braces on the elastic and elasto-plastic behavior are analyzed. By pushover analysis, the seismic behaviors of two frames are studied. And the buckling restrained braces used in eccentrically braces steel frames are analyzed.

  6. Seismic Response and Evaluation of SDOF Self-Centering Friction Damping Braces Subjected to Several Earthquake Ground Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Wan Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly deals with seismic response and performance for self-centering friction damping braces (SFDBs subjected to several maximum- or design-leveled earthquake ground motions. The self-centering friction damping brace members consist of core recentering components fabricated with superelastic shape memory alloy wires and energy dissipation devices achieved through shear friction mechanism. As compared to the conventional brace members for use in the steel concentrically braced frame structure, these self-centering friction damping brace members make the best use of their representative characteristics to minimize residual deformations and to withstand earthquake loads without member replacement. The configuration and response mechanism of self-centering friction damping brace systems are firstly described in this study, and then parametric investigations are conducted through nonlinear time-history analyses performed on numerical single degree-of-freedom spring models. After observing analysis results, adequate design methodologies that optimally account for recentering capability and energy dissipation according to their comparative parameters are intended to be suggested in order to take advantage of energy capacity and to minimize residual deformation simultaneously.

  7. Structural Optimization and Design of a Strut-Braced Wing Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Naghshineh-Pour, Amir H.

    1998-01-01

    A significant improvement can be achieved in the performance of transonic transport aircraft using Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) by implementing truss-braced wing concepts in combination with other advanced technologies and novel design innovations. A considerable reduction in drag can be obtained by using a high aspect ratio wing with thin airfoil sections and tip-mounted engines. However, such wing structures could suffer from a significant weight penalty. Thus, the use of an ...

  8. Effects of Bracing of High-Rise Buildings upon their Static and Dynamic Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivánková Oľga

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes effects of bracing of high-rise buildings upon their static and dynamic behaviour. In static and dynamic analyses, values of displacement for 4 different variants of stiffening elements distribution were calculated. The calculations were made for building both fixed into the ground and rested on elastic supports. The building was modelled as a 3D variant using Finite Element Method (FEM in program Scia Engineer.

  9. Non-slender RC Columns Limits for Braced, End-loaded Members

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Structural frame systems may be analyzed and designed based on forces from conventional first order theory when second order effects of axial forces on displacements in the compression members of the system are negligible. This is often the case. Extensive nonlinear analysis results are presented to document slenderness limits below which this is so for braced, end moment loaded compression members with various end restraints. Major factors that affect lower slenderness limit predictions of s...

  10. Joint investigation of the local material rotation and lattice spin in a cube {l_brace}100{r_brace} <001> oriented single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darrieulat, M; Fillit, R Y; Mondon, M; Sao-Joao, S, E-mail: darrieulat@emse.f [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, SMS Centre, UMR CNRS n0 5146, 158 cours Fauriel 42023 Saint-Etienne, cedex 2 (France)

    2010-07-01

    Cube {l_brace}100{r_brace} <001> oriented single crystals of Al 1% Mn were compressed in channel-die. Their lateral faces were covered with transferable carbon grids with a step of 100mm . At a deformation of about 0.3, the vertical bars of the grids show undulations whose characteristic length is of the order of the millimetre and which become sharper and smaller as the deformation proceeds. Fiducial golden grids with a step of 20 mm remain largely unaffected. This shows that the investigated heterogeneity is typical of the mesoscopic scale and has no directly related patterns at the macroscopic and microscopic level. Microfocussed X-rays were used to measure the crystallographic rotations during the process. The investigated spot was a few 0.1 mm{sup 2}. At a deformation of 0.6, the lateral faces of the crystal undergo a split into two Cube orientations each rotated of about 15{sup 0} around the transverse axis. This is put in relation with the undulations of the bars. At 0.9 an additional rotation around the longitudinal axis appears. The local material rotation and the lattice spin at the mesoscopic scale are interpreted in accordance with previous analyses of the evolution of the Cube texture based on EBSD and the observation of the traces of slip systems.

  11. 1,2-Bis-(1-{l_brace}3-pyridyl-{r_brace}3-methyltriazen-3-yl)ethane: synthesis and x-ray crystal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, K.; Turner, E.; Jenkins, H. [Saint Mary' s Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)]. E-mail: keith.vaughan@smu.ca

    2004-03-01

    3-Aminopyridine is diazotized in the conventional manner and the diazonium salt coupled with N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine to afford the title compound (1), which is a potential antitumour agent. The compound has been characterized by spectroscopic methods. The {sup 1}H NMR spectrum shows evidence of rotational conformerism, from the observation of broadening of the N-methyl signals in the room-temperature spectrum. Low-temperature NMR spectra (down to 223 K) show the presence of three distinct rotamers. The crystal structure of 1,2-bis-(1-{l_brace}3-pyridyl-{r_brace}3-methyltriazen-3-yl)ethane (1) has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The bis-triazene (1) exists as the 'staggered' conformation in the solid state, with an 'anti-anti' configuration around the N-N bond of the triazene units. The crystal structure of 1 is compared with the closely related bis-triazene 2 and also compared with the simple mono-triazene 3. Crystal data for 1, C{sub 14}H{sub 18}N{sub 8}: orthorhombic, space group Pbca, a=11.2550(8) ANGSTROM, b=8.8507(6) ANGSTROM, c=15.0069(10) ANGSTROM, {beta}=90{sup o} and V=1494.91(18) ANGSTROM{sup 3}, for Z=4. (author)

  12. Aeroelasticity of Axially Loaded Aerodynamic Structures for Truss-Braced Wing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Ting, Eric; Lebofsky, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an aeroelastic finite-element formulation for axially loaded aerodynamic structures. The presence of axial loading causes the bending and torsional sitffnesses to change. For aircraft with axially loaded structures such as the truss-braced wing aircraft, the aeroelastic behaviors of such structures are nonlinear and depend on the aerodynamic loading exerted on these structures. Under axial strain, a tensile force is created which can influence the stiffness of the overall aircraft structure. This tension stiffening is a geometric nonlinear effect that needs to be captured in aeroelastic analyses to better understand the behaviors of these types of aircraft structures. A frequency analysis of a rotating blade structure is performed to demonstrate the analytical method. A flutter analysis of a truss-braced wing aircraft is performed to analyze the effect of geometric nonlinear effect of tension stiffening on the flutter speed. The results show that the geometric nonlinear tension stiffening effect can have a significant impact on the flutter speed prediction. In general, increased wing loading results in an increase in the flutter speed. The study illustrates the importance of accounting for the geometric nonlinear tension stiffening effect in analyzing the truss-braced wing aircraft.

  13. Descriptive Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Anthony Lewis

    2003-01-01

    Descriptive research is described by Lathom-Radocy and Radocy (1995) to include Survey research, ex post facto research, case studies and developmental studies. Descriptive research also includes a review of the literature in order to provide both quantitative and qualitative evidence of the effect...... starts will allow effect size calculations to be made in order to evaluate effect over time. Given the difficulties in undertaking controlled experimental studies in the creative arts therapies, descriptive research methods offer a way of quantifying effect through descriptive statistical analysis...

  14. Development and description of measurement properties of an instrument to assess treatment burden among patients with multiple chronic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Viet-Thi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients experience an increasing treatment burden related to everything they do to take care of their health: visits to the doctor, medical tests, treatment management and lifestyle changes. This treatment burden could affect treatment adherence, quality of life and outcomes. We aimed to develop and validate an instrument for measuring treatment burden for patients with multiple chronic conditions. Methods Items were derived from a literature review and qualitative semistructured interviews with patients. The instrument was then validated in a sample of patients with chronic conditions recruited in hospitals and general practitioner clinics in France. Factor analysis was used to examine the questionnaire structure. Construct validity was studied by the relationships between the instrument's global score, the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM scores and the complexity of treatment as assessed by patients and physicians. Agreement between patients and physicians was appraised. Reliability was determined by a test-retest method. Results A sample of 502 patients completed the Treatment Burden Questionnaire (TBQ, which consisted of 7 items (2 of which had 4 subitems defined after 22 interviews with patients. The questionnaire showed a unidimensional structure. The Cronbach's α was 0.89. The instrument's global score was negatively correlated with TSQM scores (rs = -0.41 to -0.53 and positively correlated with the complexity of treatment (rs = 0.16 to 0.40. Agreement between patients and physicians (n = 396 was weak (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.38 (95% confidence interval 0.29 to 0.47. Reliability of the retest (n = 211 patients was 0.76 (0.67 to 0.83. Conclusions This study provides the first valid and reliable instrument assessing the treatment burden for patients across any disease or treatment context. This instrument could help in the development of treatment strategies that are both

  15. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: Indications and efficacy of nonoperative treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Canavese

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The strategy for the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis depends essentially upon the magnitude and pattern of the deformity, and its potential for progression. Treatment options include observation, bracing and/or surgery. During the past decade, several studies have demonstrated that the natural history of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis can be positively affected by nonoperative treatment, especially bracing. Other forms of conservative treatment, such as chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation, acupuncture, exercise or other manual treatments, or diet and nutrition, have not yet been proven to be effective in controlling spinal deformity progression, and those with a natural history that is favorable at the completion of growth. Observation is appropriate treatment for small curves, curves that are at low risk of progression, and those with a natural history that is favorable at the completion of growth. Indications for brace treatment are a growing child presenting with a curve of 25°-40° or a curve less than 25° with documented progression. Curves of 20°-25° in patients with pronounced skeletal immaturity should also be treated. The purpose of this review is to provide information about conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Indications for conservative treatment, hours daily wear and complications of brace treatment as well as brace types are discussed.

  16. Bracing superior to neuromuscular training for the prevention of self-reported recurrent ankle sprains: a three-arm randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Kasper W.; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert A L M

    2014-01-01

    Background Ankle sprain is the most common sports-related injury with a high rate of recurrence and associated costs. Recent studies have emphasised the effectiveness of both neuromuscular training and bracing for the secondary prevention of ankle sprains. Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of combined bracing and neuromuscular training, or bracing alone, against the use of neuromuscular training on recurrences of ankle sprain after usual care. Methods 384 athletes, aged 18–70, who had sustain...

  17. The Description of Polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Mweene, Habatwa V.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we extend to polarization the method we have recently employed to treat spin. We are led to a generalization of its treatment. Thus, we are able to connect its matrix treatment to first principles, and we obtain the most generalized probability amplitudes and operators for its description.

  18. Do ankle braces provide similar effects on ankle biomechanical variables in subjects with and without chronic ankle instability during landing?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Songning; Zhang; Michael; Wortley; Julia; Freedman; Silvernail; Daniel; Carson; Maxime; R.Paquette

    2012-01-01

    <正>Purpose:The purpose of this study was to examine effects of a sport version of a semi-rigid ankle brace(ElementTM) and a soft ankle brace (ASO) on ankle biomechanics and ground reaction forces(GRFs) during a drop landing activity in subjects with chronic ankle instability(CAD compared to healthy subjects with no history of CAI. Methods:Ten healthy subjects and 10 subjects who had multiple ankle sprains participated in the study as the control and unstable subjects, respectively.The CAI subjects were age,body mass index and gender matched with the control subjects.The arch index and ankle functions of the subjects were measured in a subject screening session.During the biomechanical test session,participants performed five trials of drop landing from 0.6 m,wearing no brace(NB).Element? brace and ASO brace.Simultaneous recording of three-dimensional kinematic(240 Hz) and GRF(1200 Hz) data were performed. Results:The CAI subjects had lower ankle functional survey scores.The arch index and deformity results showed greater arch deformity of ElementTM against a static load than in NB and ASO due to greater initial arch position held by the brace.CAI participants had greater eversion velocity than healthy controls.The ASO brace reduced the first peak vertical GRF whereas ElementTM increased 2nd peak vertical GRF. ElementTMbrace reduced eversion range of motion(ROM) and peak eversion velocity compared to NB and ASO.In addition,ElementTM reduced dorsiflexion ROM and increased peak plantarflexion moment compared to NB and ASO. Conclusion:Results of static arch measurements and dynamic ankle motion suggest that the restrictions offered by both braces are in part due to more dorsiflexed ankle positions at contact,and higher initial arch position and stiffer ankle for ElementTM.

  19. Fluoroscopic Analysis of Tibial Translation in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injured Knees With and Without Bracing During Forward Lunge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite several studies with different methods, the effect of functional knee braces on knee joint kinematics is not clear. Direct visualization of joint components through medical imaging modalities may provide the clinicians with more useful information. Objectives In this study, for the first time in the literature, video fluoroscopy was used to investigate the effect of knee bracing on the sagittal plane kinematics of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injured patients. Patients and Methods For twelve male unilateral ACL deficient subjects, the anterior tibial translation was measured during lunge exercise in non-braced and braced conditions. Fluoroscopic images were acquired from the subjects using a digital fluoroscopy system with a rate of 10 fps. The image of each frame was scaled using a calibration coin and analyzed in AutoCAD environment. The angle between the two lines, tangent to the posterior cortexes of the femoral and tibial shafts was measured as the flexion angle. For the fluoroscopic images associated with 0°, 15°, 30°, 45° and 60° knee flexion angles, the relative anterior-posterior configuration of the tibiofemoral joint was assessed by measuring the position of landmarks on the tibia and femur. Results Results indicated that the overall anterior translations of the tibia during the eccentric (down and concentric (up phases of lunge exercise were 10.4 ± 1.7 mm and 9.0 ± 2.2 mm for non-braced, and 10.1 ± 3.4 mm and 7.4 ± 2.5 mm, for braced conditions, respectively. The difference of the tibial anterior-posterior translation behaviors of the braced and non-braced knees was not statistically significant. Conclusion Fluoroscopic imaging provides an effective tool to measure the dynamic behavior of the knee joint in the sagittal plane and within the limitations of this study, the pure mechanical stabilizing effect of functional knee bracing is not sufficient to control the anterior tibial translation of the ACL

  20. Effect of Semi-Rigid and Soft Ankle Braces on Static and Dynamic Postural Stability in Young Male Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Noriaki; Urabe, Yukio; Tsutsumi, Shogo; Numano, Shuhei; Morita, Miho; Takeuchi, Takuya; Iwata, Shou; Kobayashi, Toshiki

    2016-06-01

    Ankle braces have been suggested to protect ankle joints from a sprain by restricting inversion and improving proprioception. However, the difference in effects between a semi-rigid brace and a soft brace regarding dynamic postural control after landing is not known. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of soft (SB) and semi-rigid (SRB) ankle braces on static and dynamic postural stability in healthy young men. Altogether, 21 male adults (mean age 24.0 ± 1.5 years) were assessed for one leg while wearing non-brace (NB), SB or SRB. Balance in single-limb stance on a single-force platform with open eyes and closed eyes were assessed for the non-dominant leg under SB, SRB, and NB conditions. Locus length/second (mm/s) and the enveloped area (mm·s(-2)) surrounded by the circumference of the wave pattern during postural sway were calculated. For assessing dynamic postural stability, the participant jumped and landed on one leg on a force platform, and the Dynamic Postural Stability Index (DPSI) and the maximum vertical ground reaction force (vGRFmax) were measured. The data were compared among the three conditions with repeated-measures analysis of variance. The correlations between locus length/second, enveloped area, DPSI values (DPSI, Anterior-Posterior Stability Index, Medial-Lateral Stability Index, and Vertical Stability Index), and vGRFmax were then calculated. The results indicated that locus length/second and enveloped area with open eyes and closed eyes were not significantly different for each condition. However, a significant lower in the DPSI and Vertical Stability Index were observed with the SRB in comparison to the SB and NB. A significant improvement in vGRFmax was also observed with the SRB in comparison to NB. SRB demonstrated a positive effect on dynamic postural stability after landing on a single leg and may improve balance by increasing dynamic postural stability. Key pointsThis study examined the effect of ankle braces on

  1. Thermophysical properties of {l_brace}({+-})-linalool + propan-1-ol{r_brace}: A first stage towards the development of a green process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Abarrio, Sandra M.; Torcal, Marcos; Haya, M. Luisa; Urieta, Jose S. [Group of Applied Thermodynamics and Surfaces (GATHERS), Aragon Institute for Engineering Research (I3A), Universidad de Zaragoza, Facultad de Ciencias, Zaragoza 50009 (Spain); Mainar, Ana M., E-mail: ammainar@unizar.e [Group of Applied Thermodynamics and Surfaces (GATHERS), Aragon Institute for Engineering Research (I3A), Universidad de Zaragoza, Facultad de Ciencias, Zaragoza 50009 (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: Optimization of supercritical processes needs adequate methods to reproduce the phase behavior. {rho}, u, n{sub D} and related properties of the system linalool+propan-1-ol were studied. Collision Factor (u), Lorentz-Lorenz and Gladstone -Dale (n{sub D}) give the best results. Peng-Robinson, Patel-Teja, SAFT and PC-SAFT were tested as predictive P{rho}T models. PC-SAFT provides the best P{rho}T prediction (20-40 MPa) with an AAD% of 0.83. - Abstract: In this paper, densities, speeds of sound and refractive indexes of binary mixture of {l_brace}({+-})-linalool (1) + propan-1-ol (2){r_brace} at four temperatures (283.15, 298.15, 313.15, and 328.15) K and 0.1 MPa are reported over the whole composition range. These data were used to calculate excess molar volume, speed of sound deviation, excess isentropic compressibility, refractive index deviation, molar refraction, and molar refraction deviation at the four work temperatures. All magnitudes were fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation. Subsequently prediction of speed of sound and refractive index was carried out using several theoretical models or equations. On the other hand, the density of the same mixture was determined in the same temperature range at pressures from 20 MPa to 40 MPa. Four equation of state (Peng-Robinson, Patel-Teja, SAFT, PC-SAFT) were tested as predictive models of the P{rho}T behavior. The best results were obtained by PC-SAFT, with an average absolute deviation of 0.83%.

  2. Assessment of buckling-restrained braced frame reliability using an experimental limit-state model and stochastic dynamic analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Blake M. Andrews; Junho Song; Larry A. Fahnestock

    2009-01-01

    Buckling-restrained braces (BRBs) have recently become popular in the United :States for use as primary members of seismic lateral-force-resisting systems. A BRB is a steel brace that does not buckle in compression but instead yields in both tension and compression. Although design guidelines for BRB applications have been developed, systematic procedures for assessing performance and quantifying reliability are still needed. This paper presents an analytical framework for assessing buckling-restrained braced frame (BRBF) reliability when subjected to seismic loads. This framework efficiently quantifies the risk of BRB failure due to low-cycle fatigue fracture of the BRB core. The procedure includes a series of components that: (1) quantify BRB demand in terms of BRB core deformation histories generated through stochastic dynamic analyses; (2) quantify the limit-state of a BRB in terms of its remaining cumulative plastic ductility capacity based on an experimental database; and (3) evaluate the probability of BRB failure, given the quantified demand and capacity, through structural reliability analyses. Parametric studies were conducted to investigate the effects of the seismic load, and characteristics of the BRB and BRBF on the probability of brace failure. In addition, fragility curves (i.e., conditional probabilities of brace failure given ground shaking intensity parameters) were created by the proposed framework. While the framework presented in this paper is applied to the assessment of BRBFs, the modular nature of the framework components allows for application to other structural components and systems.

  3. Endoluminal brachytherapy in the treatment of oesophageal cancer: technique description, case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Castilla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Endoesophageal brachytherapy is a useful technique for the palliative treatment of dysphagia in advanced oesophageal cancer. This technique offers good results on dysphagia control and quality of life. We report the case of a patient treated with this technique presenting complete response to the dysphagia. We describe endoesophageal brachyterapy technique and we comment on the literature.

  4. Bleeding complications related to warfarin treatment: a descriptive register study from the anticoagulation clinic at Helsingborg Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navgren, Monica; Forsblad, Johan; Wieloch, Mattias

    2014-07-01

    The most common indication for treatment with warfarin is the prevention of ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. Time in therapeutic range (TTR) is an important tool to evaluate the quality of anticoagulation treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of treatment and the incidence of bleeding complications in patients on warfarin treatment treated by the anticoagulation clinic in Helsingborg. This is the first study that has specifically focused on the spontaneous reporting of bleeding complications in a real-world population. A total of 4,400 patients with a total of 8,394 patient years were registered, in the database Journalia AVK, during the time period November 1, 2007 to November 1, 2010. The mean age was 72 years. TTR was 73.3 % for the whole population. 421 patients suffered from haemorrhagic events. The frequency of major and fatal bleedings and intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) were 1.6, 0.2 and 0.5% per patient-year, respectively. A correlation between age and severe bleeding (major, fatal and ICH) (p = 0.003) was seen, but no correlation between gender and severe bleeding (p = 0.27). In 60 out of 455 bleeding events the complication had been reported to the anticoagulation clinic. At the anticoagulation clinic in Helsingborg the quality of warfarin treatment is good compared to previous results described in the literature, with regards to bleeding complications and efficacy. However, in our study, we confirm that the spontaneous reporting of bleeding complications related to warfarin is inadequate, and that review of patient records is needed to assure proper follow-up.

  5. Analytical description of the effects of melting practice and heat treatment on the creep properties of a 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    21/4 Cr-1 Mo steel is used worldwide as an elevated-temperature structural material, particularly in steam generation systems. Since this material is often used at service temperatures up to 6000C, successful design requires a consideration of its creep properties. Unfortunately, the development of an analytical description of the creep behavior of 21/4 Cr-1 Mo steel is complicated by two phenomena. First, the creep strength of this material is quite sensitive to heat treatment. Second, this material tends to exhibit nonclassical creep under some conditions. In addition, especially in nuclear applications, the material used may be air-melted, vacuum-arc remelted (VAR), or electroslag remelted (ESR). Available creep data from air-melted, VAR, and ESR material have been analyzed. Heat treatments included both annealed and isothermally annealed, with and without a subsequent ''postweld'' heat treatment. It has been found that the elevated-temperature ultimate tensile strength (UTS) is a useful indicator of creep strength for a given heat of material regardless of melting practice or heat treatment. Meanwhile, the nonclassical creep behavior has been attributed to a change in creep mechanism which has been mathematically modeled

  6. Characteristics and treatment outcomes of tuberculosis patients who “transfer-in” to health facilities in Harare City, Zimbabwe: a descriptive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takarinda Kudakwashe C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zimbabwe is among the 22 Tuberculosis (TB high burden countries worldwide and runs a well-established, standardized recording and reporting system on case finding and treatment outcomes. During TB treatment, patients transfer-out and transfer-in to different health facilities, but there are few data from any national TB programmes about whether this process happens and if so to what extent. The aim of this study therefore was to describe the characteristics and outcomes of TB patients that transferred into Harare City health department clinics under the national TB programme. Specific objectives were to determine i the proportion of a cohort of TB patients registered as transfer-in, ii the characteristics and treatment outcomes of these transfer-in patients and iii whether their treatment outcomes had been communicated back to their respective referral districts after completion of TB treatment. Methods Data were abstracted from patient files and district TB registers for all transfer-in TB patients registered from January to December 2010 within Harare City. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Results Of the 7,742 registered TB patients in 2010, 263 (3.5% had transferred-in: 148 (56% were males and overall median age was 33 years (IQR, 26–40. Most transfer-in patients (74% came during the intensive phase of TB treatment, and 58% were from rural health-facilities. Of 176 patients with complete data on the time period between transfer-in and transfer-out, only 85 (48% arrived for registration in Harare from referral districts within 1 week of being transferred-out. Transfer-in patients had 69% treatment success, but in 21% treatment outcome status was not evaluated. Overall, 3/212 (1.4% transfer-in TB patients had their TB treatment outcomes reported back to their referral districts. Conclusion There is need to devise better strategies of following up TB patients to their referral Directly Observed Treatment (DOT centres

  7. Effect of Compressive Force on Aeroelastic Stability of a Strut-Braced Wing

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaeman, Erwin

    2001-01-01

    Recent investigations of a strut-braced wing (SBW) aircraft show that, at high positive load factors, a large tensile force in the strut leads to a considerable compressive axial force in the inner wing, resulting in a reduced bending stiffness and even buckling of the wing. Studying the influence of this compressive force on the structural response of SBW is thus of paramount importance in the early stage of SBW design. The purpose of the this research is to investigate the effect of co...

  8. Functional bracing for comminuted extra-articular fractures of the distal third of the humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, A; Horowitch, A; Aboulafia, A; Vangsness, C T

    1990-03-01

    From 1982 to 1987 we treated 85 extra-articular comminuted distal third humeral fractures in adults with prefabricated plastic braces. Of these, 15% were open fractures and 18% had initial peripheral nerve injury. On average, the sleeve was applied 12 days after injury and used for 10 weeks. There was 96% union, with no infections. All nerve injuries resolved or were improving at the latest examination. At union there was varus deformity averaging 9 degrees in 81% of patients, but loss of range of movement was minimal and functional results were good.

  9. Analysis of Anchors and Bracing Configurations for Personal Fall Arrest Systems in Residential Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Justin Collins

    2013-01-01

    AbstractAnalysis of Anchors and Bracing Configurations with Personal Fall Arrest Systems in Residential ConstructionJustin Collins Morris    Falls continue to be a major problem in the residential construction industry and account for a large number of injuries and fatalities each year (US Department of Labor, 2012).  The effects of a fall are catastrophic to the workers and their families as well as the construction company and surrounding community.  Prevention of these incidents has been t...

  10. Optimal Conventional and Semi-Natural Treatments for the Upper Yakima Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Treatment Definitions and Descriptions and Biological Specifications for Facility Design, 1995-1999 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hager, Robert C. (Hatchery Operations Consulting); Costello, Ronald J. (Mobrand Biometrics, Inc., Vashon Island, WA)

    1999-10-01

    This report describes the Yakima Fisheries Project facilities (Cle Elum Hatchery and acclimation satellites) which provide the mechanism to conduct state-of-the-art research for addressing questions about spring chinook supplementation strategies. The definition, descriptions, and specifications for the Yakima spring chinook supplementation program permit evaluation of alternative fish culture techniques that should yield improved methods and procedures to produce wild-like fish with higher survival that can be used to rebuild depleted spring chinook stocks of the Columbia River Basin. The definition and description of three experimental treatments, Optimal Conventional (OCT), Semi-Natural (SNT), Limited Semi-Natural (LSNT), and the biological specifications for facilities have been completed for the upper Yakima spring chinook salmon stock of the Yakima Fisheries Project. The task was performed by the Biological Specifications Work Group (BSWG) represented by Yakama Indian Nation, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, National Marine Fisheries Service, and Bonneville Power Administration. The control and experimental variables of the experimental treatments (OCT, SNT, and LSNT) are described in sufficient detail to assure that the fish culture facilities will be designed and operated as a production scale laboratory to produce and test supplemented upper Yakima spring chinook salmon. Product specifications of the treatment groups are proposed to serve as the generic templates for developing greater specificity for measurements of product attributes. These product specifications will be used to monitor and evaluate treatment effects, with respect to the biological response variables (post release survival, long-term fitness, reproductive success and ecological interactions).

  11. Optimal Conventional and Semi-Natural Treatments for the Upper Yakima Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project, Treatment Definitions and Descriptions, and Biological Specifications for Facility Design, Final Report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the Yakima Fisheries Project facilities (Cle Elum Hatchery and acclimation satellites) which provide the mechanism to conduct state-of-the-art research for addressing questions about spring chinook supplementation strategies. The definition, descriptions, and specifications for the Yakima spring chinook supplementation program permit evaluation of alternative fish culture techniques that should yield improved methods and procedures to produce wild-like fish with higher survival that can be used to rebuild depleted spring chinook stocks of the Columbia River Basin. The definition and description of three experimental treatments, Optimal Conventional (OCT), Semi-Natural (SNT), Limited Semi-Natural (LSNT), and the biological specifications for facilities have been completed for the upper Yakima spring chinook salmon stock of the Yakima Fisheries Project. The task was performed by the Biological Specifications Work Group (BSWG) represented by Yakama Indian Nation, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, National Marine Fisheries Service, and Bonneville Power Administration. The control and experimental variables of the experimental treatments (OCT, SNT, and LSNT) are described in sufficient detail to assure that the fish culture facilities will be designed and operated as a production scale laboratory to produce and test supplemented upper Yakima spring chinook salmon. Product specifications of the treatment groups are proposed to serve as the generic templates for developing greater specificity for measurements of product attributes. These product specifications will be used to monitor and evaluate treatment effects, with respect to the biological response variables (post release survival, long-term fitness, reproductive success and ecological interactions)

  12. Effect of hot and cold deformation on the P {l_brace}0 1 1{r_brace}<4 5 5> recrystallization texture in a continuous cast Al-Mn-Mg aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.C. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, 177 Anderson Hall, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)]. E-mail: wcliu@engr.uky.edu; Morris, J.G. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, 177 Anderson Hall, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    The effect of different relative amounts of hot and cold deformation on the P {l_brace}0 1 1{r_brace}<4 5 5> recrystallization texture in a continuous cast Al-Mn-Mg aluminum alloy was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The results show that at a given total rolling strain the sheet with a high hot rolling strain exhibits a significantly stronger P texture than sheet with a low hot rolling strain. Hot deformation strongly promotes the formation of the P texture during recrystallization annealing.

  13. The B-Lynch uterine brace suture, and a bit of this and a bit of that...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoshi, Mahantesh

    2010-03-01

    The widespread application of the B-Lynch brace suture to control postpartum hemorrhage has sparked interest in a variety of adjunctive methods, used alone or in combination, to control uterine bleeding. Although the B-Lynch brace suture has been used with good results throughout the world, failures can and do occur in rare instances, especially when the suture is incorrectly placed for use for an inappropriate indication. Four reports of additional methods to control postpartum hemorrhage are published in this issue of IJGO. Three use the B-Lynch brace suture combined with other techniques. The need for additional techniques reminds the reader of the importance of proper suture application for proper indication. Potential reasons for failure of the B-Lynch suture are provided. PMID:20070962

  14. Comparison of in-and outpatients protocols for providence night time only bracing in AIS patients -- compliance and satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Aubaidi, Zaid Tj; Tropp, Hans; Pedersen, Niels W;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skeletally immature patients diagnosed with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and a Cobb angle above 25degrees is usually treated with a brace. Standard protocols in many centers include hospitalisation for a few days for the purpose of brace adaptation and fitting. The aim...... (9-14). Scoliosis Quality of Life Index (SQLI) was used together with the Odense Scoliosis questionnaire, which was developed for this study. Compliance was measured using the patients' own statements and the Landauer compliance scoring system.Findings/resultsThe two groups' matches regarding the age......, Risser grad, Cobb angle and primary correction. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding the SQLI and the Odense Scoliosis questionnaire. The compliance was higher in the ambulatory group. CONCLUSION: Outpatient initiation of bracing in scoliosis seems to give...

  15. SUPER-CAPACITOR APPLICATION IN ELECTRICAL POWER CABLE TESTING FACILITIES IN THERMAL ENDURANCE AND MECHANICAL BRACING TESTS

    OpenAIRE

    I. V. Oleksyuk

    2015-01-01

    The current-carrying cores of the electrical power cables should be resistant to effects of short-circuit currents whose values depend on the material of the core, its cross-sectional area, cable insulation properties, environment temperature, and the duration of the short-circuit current flow (1 and 3–4 sec. when tested for thermal endurance and mechanical bracing). The facilities for testing the 10 kV aluminum core cables with short-circuit current shall provide mechanical-bracing current 5...

  16. Improving Indigenous access to cancer screening and treatment services: descriptive findings and a preliminary report on the Midwest Indigenous Women’s Cancer Support Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisabeth D Finn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHigher cancer morbidity and mortality rates for the Indigenous population comparedto the overall Australian population has underlined the critical need to improve accessfor Aboriginal people to cancer treatment services. This paper describes anIndigenous Women’s Cancer Support Group (IWCSG established to supportIndigenous people with cancer and their carers/relatives and to facilitate Aboriginalaccess to cancer screening and treatment. Preliminary findings from an evaluation ofthe group are presented.MethodsThe study employed qualitative research methods to describe IWCSG operations andinvestigate the group’s effectiveness. It included one-on-one interviews with 11Geraldton-based health service providers, the IWCSG coordinator, and 10 womenwho have been linked to IWCSG support, as well as observation of group meetings.ResultsDescriptive outcomes relate to group operations, group effectiveness, group benefitsand future development of the group. A cultural strength of IWCSG is its ability tooperate confidentially behind the scenes, providing emotional support and practicalhelp directly to Indigenous people concerned about privacy and shame issues. Theimportant cultural role IWCSG plays in overcoming communication and othercultural barriers to accessing cancer treatment was unanimously recognised by healthservice providers. Aboriginal women supported by IWCSG spoke about an increasedsense of safety, trust and support in accessing and navigating mainstream cancerservices. A critical issue emerging from the research is the need for further development of effective collaborative working relationships between IWCSGmembers and health service providers.ConclusionsThe IWCSG has the potential to inform an effective model for facilitating Indigenousaccess both to cancer treatment and to mainstream treatment for a variety of healthproblems. Future research is required to explore the applicability of Indigenoussupport groups and to focus on the

  17. Effect of Kınesıotapıng and Knee Brace on Functıonal Performance in Recreatıonal Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Burak; İldiz, Bülent; Tunay, Volga Bayrakçı

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Kinesiotaping is a popular taping method that is used for both therapeutic and performance enchancement purposes. Knee braces are widely used for prevention in sport injuries but their performance effectiveness is still controversial. The aim of this study was to determine whether kinesiotape or brace was more effective on functional performance. Methods: A total twenty male recreational football players (Mean±Standart Deviation (SD) age: 22.5±0.68 years, height: 175.15±3.37 cm, body weight: 74.52±12.41 kg), voluntarily participated in this study. Participants were tested with kinesiotape, with brace and without kinesiotape and brace. Tests were applied one day after patellar kinesiotaping (correction technique). Balance property measured with Modified Y balance Test (dynamic test), agility measured by T test, muscle strength and anaerobic power assessed by vertical jump and triple hop tests. Wilcoxon signed rank test was employed for determining the statistical significance of tests with kinesiotape, with brace and without kinesiotape and brace. Results: In analysis; There were statistically significant differences found in Triple hop test with kinesiotaping and without kinesiotaping and brace, in T test with bracing and kinesiotaping, in vertical jump with kinesiotaping and without kinesiotaping and brace (pkinesiotaping in all tests) No statistically significant difference was found in modified Y balance test all groups (p> 0.05). Conclusion: Consequently, kinesiotaping had positive effects on agility and muscle strength but had no effects on balance in football players. On the other hand, brace had no effects on functional performance tests.

  18. Mathematical modeling and full-scale shaking table tests for multi-curve buckling restrained braces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. S. Tsai; Yungchang Lin; Wenshin Chen; H. C. Su

    2009-01-01

    Buckling restrained braces (BRBs) have been widely applied in seismic mitigation since they were introduced in the 1970s. However, traditional BRBs have several disadvantages caused by using a steel tube to envelope the mortar to prevent the core plate from buckling, such as: complex interfaces between the materials used, uncertain precision, and time consumption during the manufacturing processes. In this study, a new device called the multi-curve buckling restrained brace (MC-BRB) is proposed to overcome these disadvantages. The new device consists of a core plate with multiple neck portions assembled to form multiple energy dissipation segments, and the enlarged segment, lateral support elements and constraining elements to prevent the BRB from buckling. The enlarged segment located in the middle of the core plate can be welded to the lateral support and constraining elements to increase buckling resistance and to prevent them from sliding during earthquakes. Component tests and a series of shaking table tests on a full-scale steel structure equipped with MC-BRBs were carried out to investigate the behavior and capability of this new BRB design for seismic mitigation. The experimental results illustrate that the MC-BRB possesses a stable mechanical behavior under cyclic loadings and provides good protection to structures during earthquakes. Also, a mathematical model has been developed to simulate the mechanical characteristics of BRBs.

  19. Design, testing and control of a magnetorheological actuator for assistive knee braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. Z.; Liao, W. H.

    2010-03-01

    This paper is aimed at developing a smart actuator for assistive knee braces to provide assistance to disabled or elderly people with mobility problems. A magnetorheological (MR) actuator is developed to be used in assistive knee braces to provide controllable torque. The MR actuator can work as a brake or a clutch. When active torque is needed, the DC motor works and the MR actuator functions as a clutch to transfer the torque generated by the motor to the leg; when passive torque is desired, the DC motor is turned off and the MR actuator functions as a brake to provide controllable passive torque. The prototype of the developed MR actuator is fabricated and experiments are carried out to investigate the characteristics of the MR actuator. The results show that the MR actuator is able to provide sufficient torque needed for normal human activities. Adaptive control is proposed for controlling the MR actuator. Anti-windup strategy is used to achieve better control performance. Experiments on the MR actuator under control are also performed to study the torque tracking ability of the system.

  20. Development and testing of a magnetorheological actuator for an assistive knee brace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinzhou; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2008-03-01

    This paper proposes an assistive knee brace that is aimed to provide assistance to old or disabled people. A magnetorheological (MR) actuator is developed to be used in assistive knee braces to provide controllable torque. The MR actuator consists of a DC motor and an MR brake/clutch. When active torque is needed, the DC motor works and the MR actuator functions as a clutch to transfer the torque generated by the motor to the leg; when passive torque is desired, the DC motor is turned off and the MR actuator functions as a brake to provide controllable passive torque. The prototype of this MR actuator is fabricated and experiments are carried out to investigate the characteristics of the MR actuator. The results show that the MR actuator is able to provide sufficient torque needed for normal human activities. Adaptive control is proposed for controlling the MR actuator. Experiments of the MR actuator under control are performed to study the torque tracking ability of the system.

  1. Ductility demands on buckling-restrained braced frames under earthquake loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Larry A. Fahnestock; Richard Sause; James M. Ricles; Le-Wu Lu

    2003-01-01

    Accurate estimates of ductility demands on buckling-restrained braced frames (BRBFs) are crucial to performance-based design of BRBFs. An analytical study on the seismic behavior of BRBFs has been conducted at the ATLSS Center, Lehigh University to prepare for an upcoming experimental program. The analysis program DRAIN-2DX was used to model a one-bay, four-story prototype BRBF including material and geometric nonlinearities. The bucklingrestrained brace (BRB) model incorporates both isotropic and kinematic hardening. Nonlinear static pushover and timehistory analyses were performed on the prototype BRBF. Performance objectives for the BRBs were defined and uscd to evaluate thc time-history analysis results. Particular emphasis was placed on global ductility demands and ductility demands oa the BRBs. These demands were compared with anticipated ductility capacities. The analysis results, along with results from similar previous studics, are used to evaluate the BRBF design provisions that have been recommended for codification in the United States. Thc results show that BRB maximum ductility demands can be as high as 20 to 25. These demands significantly exceed those anticipated by the BRBF recommended provisions. Results from the static pushover and timehistory analyses are used to demonstrate why the ductility demands exceed those anticipated by the recommended provisions.The BRB qualification testing protocol contained in the BRBF recommended provisions is shown to be inadequate because it requires only a maximum ductility demand of at most 7.5. Modifications to the testing protocol are recommended.

  2. Numerical analysis of effect of friction between diaphragm wall and soil on braced excavation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁钰; 郑刚

    2008-01-01

    A plane strain finite element model was established to investigate the effect of friction between diaphragm wall and soil on braced excavation. The behavior of interface between diaphragm wall and soil was simulated with the interface model of ABAQUS. Parametric studies were conducted with different diaphragm wall external friction angles δ. The results show that deflection of diaphragm wall and ground surface settlement decrease with the decrease of δ. However, the reduction effect on diaphragm wall deflection is the most significant at the depth where the maximum wall deflection occurs and can be neglected at the wall base. The ratio between wall deep inward component and wall cantilever component reaches its peak value 2.7 when δ=5°. The ratio of the maximum ground surface settlement to the maximum wall lateral deflection decreases at a reduced rate with the increase of δ. For excavation with braced diaphragm wall, the effect of friction between diaphragm and soil on the deflection of diaphragm wall and ground settlement, especially the distribution of ground surface settlement behind diaphragm, should be taken into account.

  3. Design, testing and control of a magnetorheological actuator for assistive knee braces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is aimed at developing a smart actuator for assistive knee braces to provide assistance to disabled or elderly people with mobility problems. A magnetorheological (MR) actuator is developed to be used in assistive knee braces to provide controllable torque. The MR actuator can work as a brake or a clutch. When active torque is needed, the DC motor works and the MR actuator functions as a clutch to transfer the torque generated by the motor to the leg; when passive torque is desired, the DC motor is turned off and the MR actuator functions as a brake to provide controllable passive torque. The prototype of the developed MR actuator is fabricated and experiments are carried out to investigate the characteristics of the MR actuator. The results show that the MR actuator is able to provide sufficient torque needed for normal human activities. Adaptive control is proposed for controlling the MR actuator. Anti-windup strategy is used to achieve better control performance. Experiments on the MR actuator under control are also performed to study the torque tracking ability of the system

  4. Designing Serious Games for Safety Education: "Learn to Brace" versus Traditional Pictorials for Aircraft Passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittaro, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Serious games for safety education (SGSE) are a novel tool for preparing people to prevent and\\or handle risky situations. Although several SGSE have been developed, design and evaluation methods for SGSE need to be better grounded in and guided by safety-relevant psychological theories. In particular, this paper focuses on threat appeals and the assessment of variables, such as safety locus of control, that influence human behavior in real risky situations. It illustrates how we took into account such models in the design and evaluation of "Learn to Brace", a first-of-its-kind serious game that deals with a major problem in aviation safety, i.e. the scarce effectiveness of the safety cards used by airlines. The study considered a sample of 48 users: half of them received instructions about the brace position through the serious game, the other half through a traditional safety card pictorial. Results showed that the serious game was much more effective than the traditional instructions both in terms of learning and of changing safety-relevant perceptions, especially safety locus of control and recommendation perception.

  5. Experimental study on the seismic response of braced reinforced concrete frame with irregular columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianzhuang; Li, Jie; Chen, Jun

    2011-12-01

    A 15-storey K-braced reinforced concrete model frame with irregular columns, i.e., T-shaped, L-shaped, as well as +-shaped columns, was constructed and tested on the six-degree-of-freedom shaking table at the State Key Laboratory for Disaster Reduction in Civil Engineering in Tongji, China. Two types of earthquake records, El-Centro wave (south-north direction) and Shanghai artifi cial wave (SHAW) with various peak accelerations and principal-secondary sequences, were input and experimentally studied. Based on the shaking table tests and theoretical analysis, several observations can be made. The failure sequence of the model structure is brace→beam→column→joints, so that the design philosophy for several lines of defense has been achieved. Earthquake waves with different spectrums not only infl uence the magnitude and distribution of the earthquake force and the storey shear force, but also obviously affect the magnitude of the displacement response. The aftershock seismic response of previously damaged reinforced concrete braced frames with irregular columns possesses the equivalent elastic performance characteristic. Generally speaking, from the aspects of failure features and drift ratio, this type of reinforced concrete structure provides adequate earthquake resistance and can be promoted for use in China.

  6. Anaphoric Descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, Charley

    2013-01-01

    The study of definite descriptions has been a central part of research in linguistics and philosophy of language since Russell's seminal work "On Denoting" (Russell 1905). In that work Russell quickly dispatches analyses of denoting expressions with forms like "no man," "some man," "a man," and "every…

  7. Crystal structure of [NBu{sub 4}]{sub 2}[Pd{sub 2}{l_brace}C{sub 4}(COOMe){sub 4}{r_brace}{sub 2}({mu}-OH){sub 2}] determined ab initio by charge flipping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Angel L. [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Energetica y de los Materiales, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)], E-mail: alortiz@unex.es; Cumbrera, Francisco L. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Perez, Jose [Departamento de Ingenieria Minera, Geologica y Cartografica, Area de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Cartagena (Murcia) (Spain); Melendez-Martinez, Juan J. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Palatinus, Lukas [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Laboratoire de Cristallographie, BSP, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-01-07

    The crystal structure of bis(tetra-n-butylammonium)bis({mu}{sub 2}-hydroxo)-bis(1,2,3,4-tetrakis (methoxycarbonyl)-1,3-butadiene-1,4-diyl)-di-palladium, [NBu{sub 4}]{sub 2}[Pd{sub 2}{l_brace}C{sub 4}(COOMe){sub 4}{r_brace}{sub 2} ({mu}-OH){sub 2}], was determined ab initio by X-ray single-crystal diffractometry using the charge flipping method. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system with P2{sub 1}/c as space group and the following cell parameters: a = 12.8481(6) A, b = 63.744(3) A, c = 16.6102(8) A, {beta} = 111.943(10). The asymmetric unit is formed by two molecules, and the unit cell contains eight molecules (Z = 8) giving a density of 1.369 g cm{sup -3}. The coordination around the Pd(II) atoms is approximately planar, the methoxycarbonyl groups at the {alpha} and {beta} positions relative to Pd are perpendicular and parallel to the palladacycle ring, respectively, and the {l_brace}Pd({mu}-O){r_brace}{sub 2} core has a bent conformation. The structure closely resembles the features reported previously for other palladacyclopentadiene complexes.

  8. The rotary dual technique for total skin irradiation in the treatment of mycosis fungoides - a description of the applied method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The aim of total skin electron irradiation in the therapy of mycosis fungoides is to obtain total or partial remission of the disease while concurrently lowering the toxicity level. Total skin electron radiotherapy should fulfill the EORTC requirements from the year 2002. Aim: The aim of this work is to present the rotary dual method for total skin electron irradiation used in the Great Poland Cancer Centre including its specific c technical and physical aspects. These aspects include the parameters and conditions for the treatment (geometrical conditions of the technique, homogeneity of the dose, patients positioning, additional fields and the method of dose fractionation), the absolute dosimetry (parameters and functions characterizing the electron irradiation beam used in the rotary dual method of the rotary dual method of the total skin electron irradiation) and in-vivo dosimetry conducted during the therapy with rotary dual fields, which allowed to control the dose distribution and to indicate additional skin areas, which should be irradiated with local fields. Materials/Methods: The rotary dual method of the Total Skin Electron Irradiation proposed by the author, is based on the combination of the two most frequently used methods: 1) six dual fields method and 2) rotary method. The original, calculation algorithm elaborated by the author was based on the two dimensional algorithm proposed by Podgorsak et al. Results: The new algorithm, proposed by the author takes into the changes in doses along the vertical and horizontal axis of the object. Moreover the elliptical; shape of the object proposed by the author, is more approximated to the shape of the patient than the cylindrical object proposed by Podgorsak et al. Discussion: Parameters used by authors: nominal energy - 6 MeV, mean energy at the skin surface - 2.8 MeV, values of the PDD (at the skin surface - 100 %, at the 4 mm - 83.6 % and at the 20 mm - 1.8 %), SSD - 300 cm, field size equal to

  9. Description Logics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baader, Franz

    Description Logics (DLs) are a well-investigated family of logic-based knowledge representation formalisms, which can be used to represent the conceptual knowledge of an application domain in a structured and formally well-understood way. They are employed in various application domains, such as natural language processing, configuration, and databases, but their most notable success so far is the adoption of the DL-based language OWL as standard ontology language for the semantic web.

  10. Low-Cost Alternative External Rotation Shoulder Brace and Review of Treatment in Acute Shoulder Dislocations

    OpenAIRE

    Lacy, Kyle; Cooke, Chris; Cooke, Pat; Schupbach, Justin; Vaidya, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic dislocations of the shoulder commonly present to emergency departments (EDs). Immediate closed reduction of both anterior and posterior glenohumeral dislocations is recommended and is frequently performed in the ED. Recurrence of dislocation is common, as anteroinferior labral tears (Bankart lesions) are present in many anterior shoulder dislocations.14,15,18,23 Immobilization of the shoulder following closed reduction is therefore recommended; previous studies support the use of im...

  11. Accounting for multiple sources of uncertainty in impact assessments: The example of the BRACE study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing climate change impacts often requires the use of multiple scenarios, types of models, and data sources, leading to a large number of potential sources of uncertainty. For example, a single study might require a choice of a forcing scenario, climate model, bias correction and/or downscaling method, societal development scenario, model (typically several) for quantifying elements of societal development such as economic and population growth, biophysical model (such as for crop yields or hydrology), and societal impact model (e.g. economic or health model). Some sources of uncertainty are reduced or eliminated by the framing of the question. For example, it may be useful to ask what an impact outcome would be conditional on a given societal development pathway, forcing scenario, or policy. However many sources of uncertainty remain, and it is rare for all or even most of these sources to be accounted for. I use the example of a recent integrated project on the Benefits of Reduced Anthropogenic Climate changE (BRACE) to explore useful approaches to uncertainty across multiple components of an impact assessment. BRACE comprises 23 papers that assess the differences in impacts between two alternative climate futures: those associated with Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5. It quantifies difference in impacts in terms of extreme events, health, agriculture, tropical cyclones, and sea level rise. Methodologically, it includes climate modeling, statistical analysis, integrated assessment modeling, and sector-specific impact modeling. It employs alternative scenarios of both radiative forcing and societal development, but generally uses a single climate model (CESM), partially accounting for climate uncertainty by drawing heavily on large initial condition ensembles. Strengths and weaknesses of the approach to uncertainty in BRACE are assessed. Options under consideration for improving the approach include the use of perturbed physics

  12. Aerodynamic Analysis of the Truss-Braced Wing Aircraft Using Vortex-Lattice Superposition Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Eric Bi-Wen; Reynolds, Kevin Wayne; Nguyen, Nhan T.; Totah, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    The SUGAR Truss-BracedWing (TBW) aircraft concept is a Boeing-developed N+3 aircraft configuration funded by NASA ARMD FixedWing Project. This future generation transport aircraft concept is designed to be aerodynamically efficient by employing a high aspect ratio wing design. The aspect ratio of the TBW is on the order of 14 which is significantly greater than those of current generation transport aircraft. This paper presents a recent aerodynamic analysis of the TBW aircraft using a conceptual vortex-lattice aerodynamic tool VORLAX and an aerodynamic superposition approach. Based on the underlying linear potential flow theory, the principle of aerodynamic superposition is leveraged to deal with the complex aerodynamic configuration of the TBW. By decomposing the full configuration of the TBW into individual aerodynamic lifting components, the total aerodynamic characteristics of the full configuration can be estimated from the contributions of the individual components. The aerodynamic superposition approach shows excellent agreement with CFD results computed by FUN3D, USM3D, and STAR-CCM+. XXXXX Demand for green aviation is expected to increase with the need for reduced environmental impact. Most large transports today operate within the best cruise L/D range of 18-20 using the conventional tube-and-wing design. This configuration has led to marginal improvements in aerodynamic efficiency over this past century, as aerodynamic improvements tend to be incremental. A big opportunity has been shown in recent years to significantly reduce structural weight or trim drag, hence improved energy efficiency, with the use of lightweight materials such as composites. The Boeing 787 transport is an example of a modern airframe design that employs lightweight structures. High aspect ratio wing design can provide another opportunity for further improvements in energy efficiency. Historically, the study of high aspect ratio wings has been intimately tied to the study of

  13. Aircraft Observations of the Tampa Urban Plume during BRACE: Transport, Photochemical, and Depositional Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, W.; Arnold, J.; Watson, T.; Gunter, L.; Wellman, D.; Dasgupta, P.; Li, J.; Riemer, D.

    2003-12-01

    Staff from NOAA's Air Resources Laboratory conducted airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosols in the Bay Region Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) using the NOAA Twin Otter. The Twin Otter flew more than 90 hours in 21 flights in and around the Tampa metropolitan region in May, 2002, at altitudes of 60-3000 m MSL. Flights were conducted over rural and suburban areas, over the centers of Tampa and St. Petersburg, and over Tampa Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. The overall objective of the aircraft measurements in BRACE was to study the emission, transport, and photochemical transformations of nitrogen and other ozone precursors in the Tampa area. Continuous instrumentation was used to measure NO, NOX, NOY, HNO3, CO, SO2, O3, CH2O, and H2O2. A semi-continuous GC technique with luminol detection was used to measure PAN. Filter packs were used to make integrated measurements of nitric acid and inorganic aerosols in both fine and bulk aerosol size fractions. Stainless steel grab cans were filled during flight for post-flight analysis of NMHCs by GC/FID/MS. The urban plume was sampled under a variety of meteorological regimes, as it was advected by the prevailing winds over the Florida peninsula (with continuing input of natural and anthropogenic precursors along the advection path) and, in other cases, over the Gulf of Mexico, where additional chemical inputs were negligible and the plume was relatively unaffected by turbulent deposition processes. Case studies will be used to compare and contrast the photochemical processes in the plume under these different regimes. The observed relationships and variations of trace gas concentrations will be used to determine the efficiency of ozone production, as well as instances of NOX or VOC limitation. Sampling the plume at varying downwind distances, over both land and water, allows the determination of overall rates of photochemical ozone production, NOX and SOX oxidation, and estimates of depositional losses of

  14. A Prospective, Descriptive Study to Assess the Clinical Benefits of Using Calendula officinalis Hydroglycolic Extract for the Topical Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzi, Marcelo; de Freitas, Franciele; Winter, Marcos

    2016-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) have a significant impact on patient quality of life. A prospective, descriptive pilot study was conducted between May 2012 and December 2013 through the dermatology outpatient unit in a Brazilian hospital to evaluate the clinical benefits of using Calendula officinalis hydroglycolic extract in the treatment of DFUs. Patients diagnosed with a stable neuropathic ulcer of >3 months' duration; ranging in size from 0.5-40 cm(2); without osteomyelitis, gangrene, bone exposure, cancer, or deep tissue infection; ages 18-90 years; with adequate glycemic control and no history of an allergy to C. officinalis were enrolled. Patients provided demographic and diabetes-related information and were evaluated biweekly for 30 weeks or until healing (ie, full epithelialization with no wound drainage). DFUs were measured and clinically examined for microbiological flora and presence of odor, tissue type (eg, granulation, fibrin sloth, necrosis), exudate, and retraction rate using planimetry images. Patients' blood tests and neuropathic pain assessment (the latter by clinician-directed questionnaire) were performed at baseline and the end of treatment; pain also was assessed during dressing changes using a 10-point rating scale. Patients' ulcers were treated twice daily with C. officinalis hydroglycolic extract spray solution and covered with saline-moistened, sterile, nonadherent gauze and bandages followed by foot offloading with adequate protective footwear. Patients received their first treatment in the clinic then performed care at home. From a potential population of 109 patients, 25 did not meet the inclusion criteria. Of the remaining 84 participants enrolled, 43 withdrew before study completion; cited reasons included lost to follow-up (16), medical judgment (2), failure to attend >3 scheduled visits (17), protocol violation (5), and death (3). Forty-one (41) - 17 women, average age 62 years (range 44-82 years), average glycemic level 153 mg

  15. A Prospective, Descriptive Study to Assess the Clinical Benefits of Using Calendula officinalis Hydroglycolic Extract for the Topical Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzi, Marcelo; de Freitas, Franciele; Winter, Marcos

    2016-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) have a significant impact on patient quality of life. A prospective, descriptive pilot study was conducted between May 2012 and December 2013 through the dermatology outpatient unit in a Brazilian hospital to evaluate the clinical benefits of using Calendula officinalis hydroglycolic extract in the treatment of DFUs. Patients diagnosed with a stable neuropathic ulcer of >3 months' duration; ranging in size from 0.5-40 cm(2); without osteomyelitis, gangrene, bone exposure, cancer, or deep tissue infection; ages 18-90 years; with adequate glycemic control and no history of an allergy to C. officinalis were enrolled. Patients provided demographic and diabetes-related information and were evaluated biweekly for 30 weeks or until healing (ie, full epithelialization with no wound drainage). DFUs were measured and clinically examined for microbiological flora and presence of odor, tissue type (eg, granulation, fibrin sloth, necrosis), exudate, and retraction rate using planimetry images. Patients' blood tests and neuropathic pain assessment (the latter by clinician-directed questionnaire) were performed at baseline and the end of treatment; pain also was assessed during dressing changes using a 10-point rating scale. Patients' ulcers were treated twice daily with C. officinalis hydroglycolic extract spray solution and covered with saline-moistened, sterile, nonadherent gauze and bandages followed by foot offloading with adequate protective footwear. Patients received their first treatment in the clinic then performed care at home. From a potential population of 109 patients, 25 did not meet the inclusion criteria. Of the remaining 84 participants enrolled, 43 withdrew before study completion; cited reasons included lost to follow-up (16), medical judgment (2), failure to attend >3 scheduled visits (17), protocol violation (5), and death (3). Forty-one (41) - 17 women, average age 62 years (range 44-82 years), average glycemic level 153 mg

  16. Orthodontic treatment: Introducing finite element analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, W.D. van; Leeuwen, E.J. van

    1998-01-01

    The aim of orthodontic treatment is the displacement of teeth by means ofspecial appliances, like braces and brackets. Through these appliances the orthodontist can apply a set of forces to the teeth which wilt result in its displacement through the jawbone. Finite Element analysis of this process e

  17. Densities, excess molar volumes, speeds of sound and isothermal compressibilities for {l_brace}2-(2-hexyloxyethoxy)ethanol + n-alkanol{r_brace} systems at temperatures between (288.15 and 308.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Amalendu [Department of Chemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119 (India)], E-mail: palchem@sify.com; Gaba, Rekha [Department of Chemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119 (India)

    2008-05-15

    The densities, {rho} and the speeds of sound, u, for {l_brace}2-(2-hexyloxyethoxy)ethanol (C{sub 6}E{sub 2}) + methanol, +1-propanol, +1-pentanol, and +1-heptanol{r_brace} have been measured as a function of composition using an Anton-Paar DSA 5000 densimeter at temperatures (288.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, and 308.15) K and atmospheric pressure over the whole concentration range. The {rho} and u values were used to calculate excess molar volumes, V{sup E}, and excess molar isentropic compressibility, K{sub S,m}{sup E}, respectively. Also, thermal expansivity, {alpha}, partial molar volume, V-bar{sub i}, and partial molar volume of the components at infinite dilution, V-bar{sub i}{sup 0}, have been calculated. The variation of these properties with composition and temperature of the mixtures are discussed in terms of molecular interactions.

  18. Damping characteristics of friction damped braced frame and its effectiveness in the mega-sub controlled structure system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian Yeda; Zhang Xunan; Sheldon Cherry

    2007-01-01

    Based on energy dissipation and structural control principle, a new structural configuration, called the megasub controlled structure (MSCS) with friction damped braces (FDBs), is first presented. Meanwhile, to calculate the damping coefficient in the slipping state a new analytical method is proposed. The damping characteristics of one-storey friction damped braced frame (FDBF) are investigated, and the influence of the structural parameters on the energy dissipation and the practical engineering design are discussed. The nonlinear dynamic equations and the analytical model of the MSCS with FDBs are established. Three building structures with different structural configurations, which were designed with reference to the conventional mega-sub structures such as used in Tokyo City Hall, are comparatively investigated. The results illustrate that the structure presented in the paper has excellent dynamic properties and satisfactory control effectiveness.

  19. Numerical Model of a Hybrid Damping System Composed of a Buckling Restrained Brace with a Magneto Rheological Damper

    OpenAIRE

    Filip-Vacarescu Norin; Vulcu Cristian; Dubina Dan

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of a hybrid damper made from a combination of two dissipative devices. A passive hysteretic device like steel Buckling Restrained Brace (BRB) can be combined with a magneto-rheological (MR) Fluid Damper in order to obtain a hybrid dissipative system. This system can work either as a semi-active system, if the control unit is available, or as a passive system, tuned for working according to performance based seismic engineering (PBSE) scale of reference paramet...

  20. Expecting ankle tilts and wearing an ankle brace influence joint control in an imitated ankle sprain mechanism during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Dominic; Wissler, Sabrina; Lohrer, Heinz; Nauck, Tanja; Gollhofer, Albert

    2014-03-01

    A thorough understanding of the functional aspects of ankle joint control is essential to developing effective injury prevention. It is of special interest to understand how neuromuscular control mechanisms and mechanical constraints stabilize the ankle joint. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine how expecting ankle tilts and the application of an ankle brace influence ankle joint control when imitating the ankle sprain mechanism during walking. Ankle kinematics and muscle activity were assessed in 17 healthy men. During gait rapid perturbations were applied using a trapdoor (tilting with 24° inversion and 15° plantarflexion). The subjects either knew that a perturbation would definitely occur (expected tilts) or there was only the possibility that a perturbation would occur (potential tilts). Both conditions were conducted with and without a semi-rigid ankle brace. Expecting perturbations led to an increased ankle eversion at foot contact, which was mediated by an altered muscle preactivation pattern. Moreover, the maximal inversion angle (-7%) and velocity (-4%), as well as the reactive muscle response were significantly reduced when the perturbation was expected. While wearing an ankle brace did not influence muscle preactivation nor the ankle kinematics before ground contact, it significantly reduced the maximal ankle inversion angle (-14%) and velocity (-11%) as well as reactive neuromuscular responses. The present findings reveal that expecting ankle inversion modifies neuromuscular joint control prior to landing. Although such motor control strategies are weaker in their magnitude compared with braces, they seem to assist ankle joint stabilization in a close-to-injury situation. PMID:24365326

  1. Effect of Semi-Rigid and Soft Ankle Braces on Static and Dynamic Postural Stability in Young Male Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Maeda, Yukio Urabe, Shogo Tsutsumi, Shuhei Numano, Miho Morita, Takuya Takeuchi, Shou Iwata, Toshiki Kobayashi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ankle braces have been suggested to protect ankle joints from a sprain by restricting inversion and improving proprioception. However, the difference in effects between a semi-rigid brace and a soft brace regarding dynamic postural control after landing is not known. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of soft (SB and semi-rigid (SRB ankle braces on static and dynamic postural stability in healthy young men. Altogether, 21 male adults (mean age 24.0 ± 1.5 years were assessed for one leg while wearing non-brace (NB, SB or SRB. Balance in single-limb stance on a single-force platform with open eyes and closed eyes were assessed for the non-dominant leg under SB, SRB, and NB conditions. Locus length/second (mm/s and the enveloped area (mm·s-2 surrounded by the circumference of the wave pattern during postural sway were calculated. For assessing dynamic postural stability, the participant jumped and landed on one leg on a force platform, and the Dynamic Postural Stability Index (DPSI and the maximum vertical ground reaction force (vGRFmax were measured. The data were compared among the three conditions with repeated-measures analysis of variance. The correlations between locus length/second, enveloped area, DPSI values (DPSI, Anterior-Posterior Stability Index, Medial-Lateral Stability Index, and Vertical Stability Index, and vGRFmax were then calculated. The results indicated that locus length/second and enveloped area with open eyes and closed eyes were not significantly different for each condition. However, a significant lower in the DPSI and Vertical Stability Index were observed with the SRB in comparison to the SB and NB. A significant improvement in vGRFmax was also observed with the SRB in comparison to NB. SRB demonstrated a positive effect on dynamic postural stability after landing on a single leg and may improve balance by increasing dynamic postural stability.

  2. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research. Phase II - Volume I; Truss Braced Wing Design Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.; Allen, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the Truss Braced Wing (TBW) work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, consisting of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, Georgia Tech, Virginia Tech, NextGen Aeronautics, and Microcraft. A multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) environment defined the geometry that was further refined for the updated SUGAR High TBW configuration. Airfoil shapes were tested in the NASA TCT facility, and an aeroelastic model was tested in the NASA TDT facility. Flutter suppression was successfully demonstrated using control laws derived from test system ID data and analysis models. Aeroelastic impacts for the TBW design are manageable and smaller than assumed in Phase I. Flutter analysis of TBW designs need to include pre-load and large displacement non-linear effects to obtain a reasonable match to test data. With the updated performance and sizing, fuel burn and energy use is reduced by 54% compared to the SUGAR Free current technology Baseline (Goal 60%). Use of the unducted fan version of the engine reduces fuel burn and energy by 56% compared to the Baseline. Technology development roadmaps were updated, and an airport compatibility analysis established feasibility of a folding wing aircraft at existing airports.

  3. Design and Model Test of a Modularized Prefabricated Steel Frame Structure with Inclined Braces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuechun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modularized prefabricated steel structures have become the preferred design in the industrialization of steel structures due to their advantages of fast construction speed, high degree of industrialization, low labour intensity, and more. Prefabricated steel structures have some engineering applications, but all are low-rise structures with few applications in the field of high-rise buildings. Using finite element analysis with line and solid elements, full-scale experiments were conducted to study the single-span frame, which is the core load-bearing part of a modularized prefabricated high-rise steel frame structure with inclined braces. The mechanical mechanisms, computation methods, and design formulas of truss girders were obtained by comparing the finite element and model experiments and building a theoretical and experimental basis for the compilation of design codes. The mechanical characteristics under design load, the deformation and stress state, the elastic-plastic law of development, and the yield failure mode and mechanism under horizontal ultimate load were also obtained. Based on theoretical analysis, finite element analysis, and experiments, the design method of this frame was summarized and incorporated into the design code.

  4. Proteolytic Activation of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab through a Belt-and-Braces Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lian; Pan, Zhi-Zhen; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Bo; Zhu, Yu-Jing; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2016-09-28

    Proteolytic processing of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal toxins by insect midgut proteases plays an essential role in their insecticidal toxicities against target insects. In the present study, proteolysis of Bt crystal toxin Cry2Ab by Plutella xylostella L. midgut proteases (PxMJ) was evaluated. Both trypsin and chymotrypsin were identified involving the proteolytic activation of Cry2Ab and cleaving Cry2Ab at Arg(139) and Leu(144), respectively. Three Cry2Ab mutants (R139A, L144A, and R139A-L144A) were constructed by replacing residues Arg(139), Leu(144), and Arg(139)-Leu(144) with alanine. Proteolysis assays revealed that mutants R139A and L144A but not R139A-L144A could be cleaved into 50 kDa activated toxins by PxMJ. Bioassays showed that mutants R139A and L144A were highly toxic against P. xylostella larvae, while mutant R139A-L144A was almost non-insecticidal. Those results demonstrated that proteolysis by PxMJ was associated with the toxicity of Cry2Ab against P. xylostella. It also revealed that either trypsin or chymotrypsin was enough to activate Cry2Ab protoxin. This characteristic was regarded as a belt-and-braces approach and might contribute to the control of resistance development in target insects. Our studies characterized the proteolytic processing of Cry2Ab and provided new insight into the activation of this Bt toxin.

  5. Height Effect on Response Modification Factor of Open Chevron Eccentrically Braced Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Abdollahzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of making buildings taller and height of new buildings is now one of the major problems in building design and codes of interest is located. With height, the need for further ductility and the capability of energy dissipation can be a significant role in the proper and safe design of structures to play. It seems that changes the height of buildings can be treated directly on the response modification factor of structures and thus the seismic performance of structures under severe earthquake to be effective. This research is an attempt to evaluate the ductility, over-strength and response modification factors of the Open Chevron Eccentrically Braced Frames (EBFs with 5, 10, 15 and 20 stories under Tabas, Naghan, Bam and El-Centro strong ground motions. These frames were analyzed by using static pushover analysis, linear dynamic and incremental nonlinear dynamic analysis, and the values of these factors for different models have been determined separately and it is resulted that with increasing the height of buildings, the ductility reduction factor and the response modification factor of EBFs, decrease, but this variation hasn’t any influence on the over strength reduction factor.

  6. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research: Phase II- Volume III-Truss Braced Wing Aeroelastic Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Allen, Timothy J.; Droney, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This Test Report summarizes the Truss Braced Wing (TBW) Aeroelastic Test (Task 3.1) work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, which includes the time period of February 2012 through June 2014. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Virginia Tech, and NextGen Aeronautics. The model was fabricated by NextGen Aeronautics and designed to meet dynamically scaled requirements from the sized full scale TBW FEM. The test of the dynamically scaled SUGAR TBW half model was broken up into open loop testing in December 2013 and closed loop testing from January 2014 to April 2014. Results showed the flutter mechanism to primarily be a coalescence of 2nd bending mode and 1st torsion mode around 10 Hz, as predicted by analysis. Results also showed significant change in flutter speed as angle of attack was varied. This nonlinear behavior can be explained by including preload and large displacement changes to the structural stiffness and mass matrices in the flutter analysis. Control laws derived from both test system ID and FEM19 state space models were successful in suppressing flutter. The control laws were robust and suppressed flutter for a variety of Mach, dynamic pressures, and angle of attacks investigated.

  7. The effects of a prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves on the performance of healthy athletes: a crossover randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortaza, Niyousha; Ebrahimi, Ismail; Jamshidi, Ali Ashraf; Abdollah, Vahid; Kamali, Mohammad; Abas, Wan Abu Bakar Wan; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu

    2012-01-01

    Knee injury is one of the major problems in sports medicine, and the use of prophylactic knee braces is an attempt to reduce the occurrence and/or severity of injuries to the knee joint ligament(s) without inhibiting knee mobility. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of one recently designed prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves upon performance of healthy athletes. Thirty-one healthy male athletes (age = 21.2 ± 1.5) volunteered as participants to examine the effect of prophylactic knee brace/sleeves on performance using isokinetic and functional tests. All subjects were tested in four conditions in a random order: 1. nonbraced (control) 2. using a neoprene knee sleeve 3. using a knee sleeve with four bilateral metal supports and 4. using a prophylactic knee brace. The study design was a crossover, randomized, controlled trial. Subjects completed single leg vertical jump, cross-over hop, and the isokinetic knee flexion and extension (at 60, 180, 300°/sec). Data were collected from the above tests and analyzed for jump height, cross-over hop distance, peak torque to body weight ratio and average power, respectively. Comparisons of these variables in the four testing conditions revealed no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). The selected prophylactic brace/sleeves did not significantly inhibit athletic performance which might verify that their structure and design have caused no complication in the normal function of the knee joint. Moreover, it could be speculated that, if the brace or the sleeves had any limiting effect, our young healthy athletic subjects were well able to generate a mean peak torque large enough to overcome this possible restriction. Further studies are suggested to investigate the long term effect of these prophylactic knee brace and sleeves as well as their possible effect on the adjacent joints to the knee.

  8. The effects of a prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves on the performance of healthy athletes: a crossover randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyousha Mortaza

    Full Text Available Knee injury is one of the major problems in sports medicine, and the use of prophylactic knee braces is an attempt to reduce the occurrence and/or severity of injuries to the knee joint ligament(s without inhibiting knee mobility. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of one recently designed prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves upon performance of healthy athletes. Thirty-one healthy male athletes (age = 21.2 ± 1.5 volunteered as participants to examine the effect of prophylactic knee brace/sleeves on performance using isokinetic and functional tests. All subjects were tested in four conditions in a random order: 1. nonbraced (control 2. using a neoprene knee sleeve 3. using a knee sleeve with four bilateral metal supports and 4. using a prophylactic knee brace. The study design was a crossover, randomized, controlled trial. Subjects completed single leg vertical jump, cross-over hop, and the isokinetic knee flexion and extension (at 60, 180, 300°/sec. Data were collected from the above tests and analyzed for jump height, cross-over hop distance, peak torque to body weight ratio and average power, respectively. Comparisons of these variables in the four testing conditions revealed no statistically significant difference (p>0.05. The selected prophylactic brace/sleeves did not significantly inhibit athletic performance which might verify that their structure and design have caused no complication in the normal function of the knee joint. Moreover, it could be speculated that, if the brace or the sleeves had any limiting effect, our young healthy athletic subjects were well able to generate a mean peak torque large enough to overcome this possible restriction. Further studies are suggested to investigate the long term effect of these prophylactic knee brace and sleeves as well as their possible effect on the adjacent joints to the knee.

  9. A calorimetric and equilibrium investigation of the reaction {l_brace}methyl ferulate(aq) + H{sub 2}O(l) = methanol(aq) + ferulic acid(aq){r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Robert N., E-mail: robert.goldberg@nist.go [Biochemical Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20876 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Lang, Brian E., E-mail: brian.lang@nist.go [Biochemical Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20876 (United States); Selig, Michael J., E-mail: michael.selig@nrel.go [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Biosciences Center, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Decker, Stephen R., E-mail: steve.decker@nrel.go [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Biosciences Center, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Microcalorimetry and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) have been used to conduct a thermodynamic investigation of the reaction: {l_brace}methyl ferulate(aq) + H{sub 2}O(l) = methanol(aq) + ferulic acid(aq){r_brace}, as catalyzed by feruloyl esterase. Values of the apparent equilibrium constant K' = (29.6 {+-} 0.7) (T = 298.15 K, citrate buffer at pH 4.98, ionic strength I = 0.39 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}) and of the calorimetrically determined enthalpy of reaction {Delta}{sub r}H(cal) = (4.0 {+-} 0.9) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} (T = 298.15 K and citrate buffer at pH 4.81, I = 0.36 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}) were measured. A chemical equilibrium model, together with pKs and standard enthalpies of reaction {Delta}{sub r}H{sup 0} for the H{sup +}(aq) binding reactions of the reactants and products, was then used to calculate the values K = (1.89 {+-} 0.06) . 10{sup -4}, {Delta}{sub r}H{sup o} = (7.3 {+-} 1.7) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, {Delta}{sub r}G{sup o} = (21.25 {+-} 0.07) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, and {Delta}{sub r}S{sup o} = - (46.8 {+-} 5.7) J {center_dot} K{sup -1} {center_dot} mol{sup -1} for the chemical reference reaction {l_brace}methyl ferulate(aq) + H{sub 2}O(l) = methanol(aq) + ferulic acid{sup -}(aq) + H{sup +}(aq){r_brace}. These values of K and {Delta}{sub r}H{sup o} are similar in magnitude to the corresponding values reported for the reaction {l_brace}propyl gallate(aq) + H{sub 2}O(l) = 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid{sup -}(aq) + 1-propanol(aq) + H{sup +}(aq){r_brace}. The results obtained in this study can be used in a chemical equilibrium model to calculate how K' and other standard transformed properties such as the standard transformed enthalpy {Delta}{sub r}H'{sup o}, standard transformed Gibbs free energy {Delta}{sub r}G'{sup o}, and the change in binding of H{sup +}(aq), {Delta}{sub r}N(H{sup +}), vary with the independent variables T, pH, and I.

  10. LATERAL RESISTANCE OF CHEVRON-BRACED FRAMES WITH WEAK BEAMS%横梁未加强型人字撑框架体系的抗侧性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童根树; 罗桂发; 张磊

    2011-01-01

    对7组横梁未加强的人字支撑框架进行弹塑性分析,支撑几何长细比从43变化至132,支撑又分承担和不承担竖向重力两种。研究表明重力荷载使支撑提前屈曲,降低了支撑抗侧力峰值,抗震设防烈度越低,其影响越大。通过对整体、支撑和框架的侧力.侧移曲线的分析,解释了设计人字撑横梁时不应考虑跨中支撑点作用的原因,对欧美日等将中等长细比的支撑框架列为抗震性能最差的框架支撑体系提供了解释。揭示了支撑与框架的极限抗侧力不同时出现的重要现象,提出了设计对策;提出了塑性破坏机构,推导了横梁跨中挠度和支撑出平面外位移与层侧移角的关系。%The elastic-plastic analysis was performed for seven chevron-braced frames with weak beams, with the brace slenderness varying from 43 to 132. The braces are of two types: carrying and free of gravity load. The effect of gravitational axial force in braces on the lateral resistance of the braced frames was studied. The results showed that the gravity load caused the braces buckle (or yield) earlier; it weakened the peak strength of the chevron braces and the overall braced frames; and those effects were greater for slender braces used in regions of smaller seismic fortification intensity. Based on the overall, the brace's and the frame's lateral force-drift curves, the paper explained why the beam should be designed as if no bracing point at midspan, why the United States and Japan treated the braces of moderate slenderness as the structure having the worst seismic behaviour. It was also found that the braces reached its ultimate state at a much smaller drift than the frame, implying that the current design method of linear combination is not fully justified, and an improved design method is proposed. A plastic mechanism was proposed to evaluate the relations between the midspan-deflection of the beams, the out

  11. Design method for Pall-BRB frictional damping brace system%新型Pall-BRB摩擦阻尼支撑体系设计方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张纪刚; 欧进萍

    2011-01-01

    Based on the geometry nonlinearity,the hysteretic behavior of a new-typed Pall-BRB frictional damping brace system,whose braces are buckling restrained braces(BRB) instead of conventional common Pall-typed frictional damper(PFD) braces,is analyzed using ANSYS finite element software.The hysteretic behavior of Pall-BRB frictional damping brace system is compared with the common PFD brace system.The analytical results show that the buckling restrained braces can reach tension and compression,and the ultimate compression and tension strengths are almost the same,and the energy dissipation is very good.At the same time,the influence of BRB′s stiffness,slip force of the Pall-typed damper,the size of damper and the elevation angle of BRB on hysteretic of system and tension force is analyzed.The results show that the Pall-BRB brace system has better energy dissipation than original Pall brace system,the tension force of the BRBs can keep constant;the maximum tension force of BRBs has relationship with slip force of damper,and the greater the slip force of damper is,the greater the energy dissipation is,and the BRBs can act fully.Finally,a simple design method of Pall-BRB frictional damping brace system is proposed.%考虑几何非线性采用ANSYS有限元软件对一种新型Pall-BRB摩擦阻尼支撑体系(采用防屈曲支撑(BRB)代替Pall型摩擦阻尼器(PFD)的普通支撑)的滞回特性进行分析.首先进行了Pall型普通支撑体系和Pall-BRB摩擦阻尼支撑体系的滞回性能对比分析,结果表明,防屈曲支撑在拉压循环荷载作用下均能达到屈服,拉压承载力基本一致,耗能能力优于普通支撑.然后分析了防屈曲支撑刚度、Pall型阻尼器起滑摩擦力、阻尼器的大小以及防屈曲支撑与水平方向的倾角等因素对体系滞回特性以及支撑内力的影响.结果表明,Pall-

  12. Proteolytic Activation of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab through a Belt-and-Braces Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lian; Pan, Zhi-Zhen; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Bo; Zhu, Yu-Jing; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2016-09-28

    Proteolytic processing of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal toxins by insect midgut proteases plays an essential role in their insecticidal toxicities against target insects. In the present study, proteolysis of Bt crystal toxin Cry2Ab by Plutella xylostella L. midgut proteases (PxMJ) was evaluated. Both trypsin and chymotrypsin were identified involving the proteolytic activation of Cry2Ab and cleaving Cry2Ab at Arg(139) and Leu(144), respectively. Three Cry2Ab mutants (R139A, L144A, and R139A-L144A) were constructed by replacing residues Arg(139), Leu(144), and Arg(139)-Leu(144) with alanine. Proteolysis assays revealed that mutants R139A and L144A but not R139A-L144A could be cleaved into 50 kDa activated toxins by PxMJ. Bioassays showed that mutants R139A and L144A were highly toxic against P. xylostella larvae, while mutant R139A-L144A was almost non-insecticidal. Those results demonstrated that proteolysis by PxMJ was associated with the toxicity of Cry2Ab against P. xylostella. It also revealed that either trypsin or chymotrypsin was enough to activate Cry2Ab protoxin. This characteristic was regarded as a belt-and-braces approach and might contribute to the control of resistance development in target insects. Our studies characterized the proteolytic processing of Cry2Ab and provided new insight into the activation of this Bt toxin. PMID:27598769

  13. ESTIMATION OF BEARING STRENGTH OF BRACES AND STRUTS OF FARMS OF COVERAGE OF 6D TYPE HOTHOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degtyarev G. V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The method of estimation of bearing strength of braces and struts of farms of coverage of hothouses is presented in the article. The deep analysis of the question of bearing strength appeared in the light of mass erection of hothouses, especially in the South Federal district, the construction of which had been bought in the countries of Near East. However, simple transfer of the constructions of hothouses made in foreign countries can not be considered as rational on the territory of the Russian Federation. The constructions of hothouses in most do not maintain exploitation even in one winter, when the considerable snow loadings are, and wind as well. The necessity of bringing of clarity for the folded situation became more obvious. Conducted successive static, dynamic and seismic analyses, executed upon the normative documents and due to the norms of supplier operating on the territory of the Russian Federation, in attachment to the real sections of bearings structural elements, allowed to expose the stated below percents of the use of the examined elements of constructions. Supporting braces of farms of coverage: on the norms of the Russian Federation, on the first maximum state percent of the use – 999 %; there is a percent of the use on the second maximum state – 999 %; on the norms of the Russian Federation taking into account loadings of supplier, on the first maximum state percent of the use – 999 %; there is a percent of the use on the second maximum state – 999 %; Stretched braces of farms of coverage: on the norms of the Russian Federation, on the first maximum state percent of the use – 64,2%; there is a percent of the use on the second maximum state – 721,8 %; on the norms of the Russian Federation taking into account loadings of supplier, on the first maximum state percent of the use – 25,8 %; there is a percent of the use on the second maximum state – 721,8%. Analysis presented allows establishing that at the load

  14. Numerical Model of a Hybrid Damping System Composed of a Buckling Restrained Brace with a Magneto Rheological Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip-Vacarescu Norin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the concept of a hybrid damper made from a combination of two dissipative devices. A passive hysteretic device like steel Buckling Restrained Brace (BRB can be combined with a magneto-rheological (MR Fluid Damper in order to obtain a hybrid dissipative system. This system can work either as a semi-active system, if the control unit is available, or as a passive system, tuned for working according to performance based seismic engineering (PBSE scale of reference parameters (i.e. interstory drift.

  15. SUPER-CAPACITOR APPLICATION IN ELECTRICAL POWER CABLE TESTING FACILITIES IN THERMAL ENDURANCE AND MECHANICAL BRACING TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Oleksyuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current-carrying cores of the electrical power cables should be resistant to effects of short-circuit currents whose values depend on the material of the core, its cross-sectional area, cable insulation properties, environment temperature, and the duration of the short-circuit current flow (1 and 3–4 sec. when tested for thermal endurance and mechanical bracing. The facilities for testing the 10 kV aluminum core cables with short-circuit current shall provide mechanical-bracing current 56,82 kA and thermal endurance current 11,16 kA. Although capacitors provide such values of the testing currents to the best advantage, utilizing conventional capacitor-units will involve large expenditures for erecting and  running a separate building. It is expedient to apply super-capacitors qua the electric power supply for testing facilities, as they are capacitors with double-electrical layer and involve the current values of tens of kilo-amperes.The insulation voltage during short-circuit current testing being not-standardized, it is not banned to apply voltages less than 10 kV when performing short-circuit thermal endurance and mechanical bracing tests for electrical power cables of 10 kV. The super-capacitor voltage variation-in-time graph consists of two regions: capacitive and resistive. The capacitive part corresponds to the voltage change consequent on the energy change in the super-capacitors. The resistive part shows the voltage variation due to the active resistance presence in the super-capacitor.The author offers the algorithm determining the number of super capacitors requisite for testing 10 kV-electrical power cables with short-circuit currents for thermal endurance and mechanical bracing. The paper shows that installation of super-capacitors in the facilities testing the cables with short-circuit currents reduces the area needed for the super-capacitors in comparison with conventional capacitors more than by one order of magnitude.

  16. Aging effect in CaLaBa{l_brace}Cu{sub 1 - x}Fe{sub x}{r_brace}{sub 3}O{sub 7 - {delta}} with 0 {<=} x {<=} 0.07 studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, Angel, E-mail: angelbd1@gmail.com [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Laboratorio de Ceramicos y Nanomateriales, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas (Peru); Santos Valladares, Luis De Los, E-mail: ld301@cam.ac.uk [University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory (United Kingdom); Flores, Jesus [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Laboratorio de Ceramicos y Nanomateriales, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas (Peru); Barnes, Crispin H. W. [University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory (United Kingdom); Majima, Yutaka [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Materials and Structures Laboratory (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    In this work, we study the long-term aging effect caused by Fe atoms in the superconductor CaLaBa{l_brace}Cu{sub 1 - x}Fe{sub x}{r_brace}{sub 3}O{sub 7 - {delta}} with 0 {<=} x {<=} 0.07. XRD confirms that this system has a YBCO-like structure. The critical temperature (T{sub c}) is strongly affected by aging and depends on the amount of Fe in the structure. Room temperature Moessbauer spectroscopy reveals the presence of the typical species A, B-B Prime , C and new species E Prime and F. Interestingly; A, which corresponds to the Fe{sup 3 + } atom located in the Cu(1) of the chains with spin S{sub z} = 3/2, shows a drastic reduction which means migration to the species B, B Prime and C. Species B and B Prime correspond to the Fe{sup 3 + } in the Cu(2) site forming planar quasi-octahedral and planar square pyramidal, while the C specie is a square pyramidal with O(5) respectively (spin S{sub z} = 3/2 in all these cases). Aging causes loss of superconductivity in the samples with 5 and 7% of iron content.

  17. Effect of Kınesıotapıng and Knee Brace on Functıonal Performance in Recreatıonal Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Ulusoy, Burak; İldiz, Bülent; Tunay, Volga Bayrakçı

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Kinesiotaping is a popular taping method that is used for both therapeutic and performance enchancement purposes. Knee braces are widely used for prevention in sport injuries but their performance effectiveness is still controversial. The aim of this study was to determine whether kinesiotape or brace was more effective on functional performance. Methods: A total twenty male recreational football players (Mean±Standart Deviation (SD) age: 22.5±0.68 years, height: 175.15±3.37 cm, b...

  18. Nickel sensitization in adolescents and association with ear piercing, use of dental braces and hand eczema. The Odense Adolescence Cohort Study on Atopic Diseases and Dermatitis (TOACS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Lauritsen, Jens Martin; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten;

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of nickel allergy (sensitization) and the associations with ear piercing, use of dental braces and hand eczema were assessed in a cohort of 1,501 8th grade schoolchildren (aged 12-16 years) in Odense, Denmark. Nickel allergy was found in 8.6% and was clinically relevant in 69......% of cases. Nickel allergy was found most frequently in girls and the association with ear piercing was confirmed. Application of dental braces (oral nickel exposure) prior to ear piercing (cutaneous nickel exposure) was associated with a significantly reduced prevalence of nickel allergy. In adolescents...

  19. Description of the SAGhE Cohort: A Large European Study of Mortality and Cancer Incidence Risks after Childhood Treatment with Recombinant Growth Hormone

    OpenAIRE

    Swerdlow, Anthony J.; Cooke, Rosi; Albertsson-Wikland, Kersti; Borgström, Birgi; Butler, Gar; Cianfarani, Stefan; Clayton, Pete; Coste, Joë; Deodati, Annalis; Ecosse, Emmanue; Gausche, Rut; Giacomozzi, Claudi; Kiess, Wielan; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.; Kuehni, Claudia E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The long-term safety of growth hormone treatment is uncertain. Raised risks of death and certain cancers have been reported inconsistently, based on limited data or short-term follow-up by pharmaceutical companies. Patients and Methods: The SAGhE (Safety and Appropriateness of Growth Hormone Treatments in Europe) study assembled cohorts of patients treated in childhood with recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH) in 8 European countries since the first use of this treatment in 198...

  20. Implementing a Description Grammar Interpreter: A Notation for Descriptions and Description Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Stouffs, R.M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Description grammars represent a formalism for generating verbal descriptions of designs, used in conjunction with shape grammars. A description grammar constitutes a set of description rules that define a language of descriptions. A description grammar interpreter implements the mechanisms to interpret descriptions and description rules, apply description rules to descriptions to derive new descriptions, and generate the members of the corresponding language of descriptions. In this paper, w...

  1. The interdigital brace and other grips for termite nest perforation by chimpanzees of the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnik, Julie J; Sanz, Crickette M; Morgan, David B

    2015-06-01

    Studies of chimpanzee termite foraging enlighten our understanding of early hominin tool use not only by modeling the cognitive ability of our ancestors but also by emphasizing the possible role of social insects in the hominin diet. The chimpanzees of the Goualougo Triangle are known to have one of the largest and most complex tool repertoires reported for wild chimpanzees. One tool set habitually used by this population includes a perforating tool to penetrate the hard outer crust of elevated termite nests before fishing for termite prey with an herbaceous stem. Here, we report the variation present in the grips used on the perforating tool. Our analysis of video recordings of chimpanzee visitation to termite nests over a 3-year period shows that these chimpanzees use a variety of grips to navigate the challenges encountered in opening a termite nest. For situations in which the soil is most hardened, perforating requires force and a power grip is often used. When the soil in the passageway is loose, precision grips are suitable for the task. One of the preferred grips reported here is an interdigital brace, which has previously been described in studies of how some people hold a pencil. In this study, for the first time, the interdigital brace has been thoroughly described for chimpanzees. The various strategies and grips used during perforation emphasize the importance of termites as a nutritional resource that should be considered more strongly as a food used by early hominins. PMID:25916822

  2. Analysis of Limit Cycle Oscillation Data from the Aeroelastic Test of the SUGAR Truss-Braced Wing Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Robert E.; Funk, Christie; Scott, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Research focus in recent years has been given to the design of aircraft that provide significant reductions in emissions, noise and fuel usage. Increases in fuel efficiency have also generally been attended by overall increased wing flexibility. The truss-braced wing (TBW) configuration has been forwarded as one that increases fuel efficiency. The Boeing company recently tested the Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) Truss-Braced Wing (TBW) wind-tunnel model in the NASA Langley Research Center Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). This test resulted in a wealth of accelerometer data. Other publications have presented details of the construction of that model, the test itself, and a few of the results of the test. This paper aims to provide a much more detailed look at what the accelerometer data says about the onset of aeroelastic instability, usually known as flutter onset. Every flight vehicle has a location in the flight envelope of flutter onset, and the TBW vehicle is not different. For the TBW model test, the flutter onset generally occurred at the conditions that the Boeing company analysis said it should. What was not known until the test is that, over a large area of the Mach number dynamic pressure map, the model displayed wing/engine nacelle aeroelastic limit cycle oscillation (LCO). This paper dissects that LCO data in order to provide additional insights into the aeroelastic behavior of the model.

  3. Description Grammars: An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouffs, R.M.F.

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of seventeen different accounts of the application of description grammars (or description functions), characterizing them according to their role in the grammatical design generation process and according to their representational specification. The objective and intended use

  4. Health-related quality-of-life in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients 25 years after treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simony, A.; Christensen, Steen Bach; Carreon, L. Y.;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long term clinical outcomes using validated measures of health-related qualityof- life (HRQOL), 25 years after termination of scoliosis treatment, in a cohort of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Patients. Method: 219 consecutive patients...... treated with Boston brace (Brace) or posterior spinal fusion (PSF) using Harrington- DDT instrumentation between 1983 and 1990 at Rigshospitalet Copenhagen, were invited to participate in a long-term evaluation study. A validated Danish version of the Scoliosis Research Society 22R (SRS22R) and Short Form...

  5. Fuzzy Description Logic Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Straccia, Umberto

    2005-01-01

    emph{Description Logic Programs} (DLPs), which combine the expressive power of classical description logics and logic programs, are emerging as an important ontology description language paradigm. In this work, we present fuzzy DLPs, which extend DLPs by allowing the representation of vague/imprecise information.

  6. Acquisition of teleological descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, David W.

    1992-03-01

    Teleology descriptions capture the purpose of an entity, mechanism, or activity with which they are associated. These descriptions can be used in explanation, diagnosis, and design reuse. We describe a technique for acquiring teleological descriptions expressed in the teleology language TeD. Acquisition occurs during design by observing design modifications and design verification. We demonstrate the acquisition technique in an electronic circuit design.

  7. SEISMIC RESPONSE AND PERFORMANCE OF BUCKLING-RESTRAINED BRACED FRAMES%偏心BRBFs的抗震性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王菲; 张勇

    2011-01-01

    In order to learn the seismic performance of eccentric buckling-restrained braced frames , two kinds of structures portal eccentric buckling-restrained braced frames and herringbone eccentric buckling-restrained brace frames, were designed with PKPM and numerically simulated based on finite element software ANSYS. The models' response sto- ry drifts, story shear forces under basic seismic intensity were measured. The deformation of the two structures present a shear-flexural type,and the low model has a great influention on the displacement of structure. Story drifts, story shear forces can both meet the seismic-resistent deflection demand, which indicates that the two kinds of structures both have good seismic performance. The components can be equivalent to the structure damping to be analyzed ,when they dissipate the energy through plastic deformation. The solution of calculating the equivalent damping ratio was presented. The seismic performance of the two strutures were evaluated furtherly through the investgation of toplevel displacement and story shear forces under 0.4g peak acceleration seismic ground motion , the result showed that the herringbone eccentric buckling-restrained brace frames performed better in earthquake-resistance.%为了解偏心屈曲约束支撑钢框架(BRBFs)的抗震性能,运用pkpm设计软件设计门架式偏心BRBFs和人字形偏心BRBFs两种结构,基于大型有限元软件ANSYS对两种结构进行有限元数值模拟,分析了两种结构在基本烈度作用下的各层位移反应及层间位移角,结果表明,两种结构变形受低阶振型影响较大,沿高度呈倒三角地形分布,结构变形为弯剪形,各层位移及层间位移角均满足规范要求,体现出良好的抗震性能。构件产生塑性变形而耗能时,可以将结构构件等效为结构阻尼进行分析,介绍了等效阻尼比的求解方法。通过对罕遇地震作用下的两种结

  8. Heterogeneity in the Histidine-brace Copper Coordination Sphere in Auxiliary Activity Family 10 (AA10) Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Amanda K; Wilson, Michael T; Hough, Michael A; Svistunenko, Dimitri A; Hemsworth, Glyn R; Walton, Paul H; Vijgenboom, Erik; Worrall, Jonathan A R

    2016-06-10

    Copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are enzymes that oxidatively deconstruct polysaccharides. The active site copper in LPMOs is coordinated by a histidine-brace. This utilizes the amino group and side chain of the N-terminal His residue with the side chain of a second His residue to create a T-shaped arrangement of nitrogen ligands. We report a structural, kinetic, and thermodynamic appraisal of copper binding to the histidine-brace in an auxiliary activity family 10 (AA10) LPMO from Streptomyces lividans (SliLPMO10E). Unexpectedly, we discovered the existence of two apo-SliLPMO10E species in solution that can each bind copper at a single site with distinct kinetic and thermodynamic (exothermic and endothermic) properties. The experimental EPR spectrum of copper-bound SliLPMO10E requires the simulation of two different line shapes, implying two different copper-bound species, indicative of three and two nitrogen ligands coordinating the copper. Amino group coordination was probed through the creation of an N-terminal extension variant (SliLPMO10E-Ext). The kinetics and thermodynamics of copper binding to SliLPMO10E-Ext are in accord with copper binding to one of the apo-forms in the wild-type protein, suggesting that amino group coordination is absent in the two-nitrogen coordinate form of SliLPMO10E. Copper binding to SliLPMO10B was also investigated, and again it revealed the presence of two apo-forms with kinetics and stoichiometry of copper binding identical to that of SliLPMO10E. Our findings highlight that heterogeneity exists in the active site copper coordination sphere of LPMOs that may have implications for the mechanism of loading copper in the cell. PMID:27129229

  9. [Conservative treatment of knee osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madry, H; Kohn, D

    2004-08-01

    The management of knee osteoarthritis requires a combination of both non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment modalities. Non-pharmacological therapies include patient education, lifestyle modification, weight reduction, regular exercise, physiotherapy and the use of orthopaedic appliances (canes, insoles, braces). Pharmacological treatment includes the application of non-opioid or opioid analgetics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or coxibes and intra-articular glucocorticoids. Glucosamin, chondroitin sulphate and hyaluronic acid are safe and provide symptomatic relief while their therapeutic effects remain uncertain.

  10. A descriptive study of clinical, hematological, and biochemical parameters of inhalant users seeking treatment at a tertiary care center in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwana Quraishi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inhalant (or solvent abuse is the purposeful inhalation of vapors or gases, intended to produce pleasurable psychoactive effects. There is a dearth of Indian studies on inhalant users. Aim: The present study aimed to describe the socio-demographic, clinical, and psychosocial characteristics of inhalant users visiting a Tertiary Care Center in North India. Materials and Methods: The study was a retrospective chart review for 50 inhalant users who sought treatment for the first time from the center over a period of 2 years. All patients seeking treatment for inhalant use at the center were evaluated by a psychiatrist. Results: Mean age of the sample was 17.16±4.09 years and majority comprised of children and adolescents (72.2%. There were only three girls (6%. Majority comprised of school drop-outs (82%, from lower socio-economic status (80%. Mean age of initiation of first substance was 14.13±4.27 years and inhalants were first drugs for 38%. Duration of inhalant use ranged between 1 month and 7.5 years. Use was mostly uninterrupted, and 88% were dependent users. Correction fluid was the commonest product, used by huffing or sniffing. A large majority (86% had used at least one other substance besides inhalants, and 8% reported involvement in high-risk sexual behaviors. Comorbid psychiatric disorder was seen in 8% of sample. Positive family history was observed in 30% of the sample. The mean hemoglobin of the sample was 11.88±0.60, with low hemoglobin in 25% of users. Neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and monocytes were elevated beyond normal in 10.8%, 6.5%, 15.2%, and 7.5%, respectively. There was no evidence of leucopenia. Bilirubin and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase was elevated in 6.6% and 13% of inhalant users, respectively. Conclusion: The study adds to the limited date available on the treatment-seeking inhalant users from Indian settings. There is a need to examine the pattern of inhalant use in larger samples

  11. Milord II. Language description.

    OpenAIRE

    Puyol-Gruart, Josep; Sierra, Carles

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we describe the language Milord II. The description is made in terms of computer language concepts and not in terms of the logical semantics underlying it. In this sense the paper complements others in which the focus of the description has been either the object level multi-valued language description, or the reflective component of the architecture, or even the several applications built using it. All the necessary elements to understand how a system programmed in Milord II ex...

  12. Milord II: language description

    OpenAIRE

    Puyol-Gruart, Josep; Sierra Garriga, Carlos

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we describe the language Milord. The description is made in terms of computer language concepts and not in terms of the logical semantics underlying it. In this sense the paper complements others in which the focus of the description has been either the object level multi-valued language description, or the reflective component of the architecture, or even the several applications built using it. All the necessary elements to understand how a system programmed in Milord e...

  13. [Dextrocardia with situ solitus, ventricular loop, double outlet hypoplastic right ventricle and L-malposition of the great arteries. Description and surgical treatment of a rare and complex cardiopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraisse, A; Ghez, O; Ligi, I; Laporte-Giugliano, V; Chetaille, P; Bonnet, J L; Aubert, F; Metras, D

    2002-05-01

    Despite the cardiac surgery improvements allowing the correction of the majority of congenital heart diseases with ventricle-great vessels discontinuity, some abnormalities increase the risk of bi-ventricular reparation. We herein report the case of a patient presenting a rare form of double outlet right ventricle with a ventricular loop, with moderate right ventricle hypoplasia. L-malposition of great vessels and pulmonary artery stenosis, and for whom we opted for a palliative surgical treatment including a systemic-pulmonary anastomosis followed by a upper right bi-directional cavo-pulmonary derivation. The last surgery was followed by recurrent right pleural effusions disappearing after the embolization of the systemic-pulmonary anastomosis by catheterism as it probably obstructed the draining of the cavo-pulmonary anastomosis. The relevance of this clinical case reported is, firstly the description of this ventricle loop resulted from a marked ventricular malposition which is a rare heart disease, and secondly the discussion about the surgical treatment, especially about the choice between palliative and curative surgery. Only comparative studies on long term morbidity and mortality between the bi-ventricular reparation and mono-ventricular palliation will allow the selection of the most appropriate surgical treatment.

  14. Multimedia content description framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Lawrence David (Inventor); Kim, Michelle Yoonk Yung (Inventor); Li, Chung-Sheng (Inventor); Mohan, Rakesh (Inventor); Smith, John Richard (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A framework is provided for describing multimedia content and a system in which a plurality of multimedia storage devices employing the content description methods of the present invention can interoperate. In accordance with one form of the present invention, the content description framework is a description scheme (DS) for describing streams or aggregations of multimedia objects, which may comprise audio, images, video, text, time series, and various other modalities. This description scheme can accommodate an essentially limitless number of descriptors in terms of features, semantics or metadata, and facilitate content-based search, index, and retrieval, among other capabilities, for both streamed or aggregated multimedia objects.

  15. [A Brief Description on the origin and evolution of the Section on Eyes in Zheng zhi zhun sheng (Standards for Syndrome Identification and Treatment)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liping

    2014-11-01

    Compiled by Wang Kentang, Zheng zhi zhun sheng (Standards for Syndrome Identification and Treatment) has 11 versions falling into 4 classes: (1) The first xylographic version of Wanli reign system, including the first carved version of Renyin year or 30(th) year of Wanli (1602) of the Ming Dynasty, the Japanese Kanbun Dynasty 1670 version of Tongtuo Book Store version, the version of Yimao year or 14(th) year of Kangxi reign (1675) of the Qing Dynasty from the Jintan Yu's Sanctum, the revised version of Jimao year or 38(th) year of Kangxi reign (1699) of the Qing Dynasty from the Jintan Yu's Sanctum, and the version of the 25(th) year of Guangxu reign (1899) of the Qing Dynasty from the Shancheng Sanctum of Western Shu (Sichuan), altogether 4 versions; (2) The system of Xiujing Sanctum, including the version of Guichou year or the 58(th) year of Qianlong reign (1793) of the Qing Dynasty from the Kim's version of Xiujing Sanctum, the version of Renchen year or the 18(th) year of Guangxu reign (1892) of the Qing Dynasty from the revised version of Shijing Sanctum of Guangzhou, the xylographic version of Jiuxueshan Sanctum of the Qing Dynasty, altogether 3 versions; (3) The system of Compendium of Illustrated Books, referring to the printing version of the Renchen year or 18(th) year of Guangxu reign (1892) from the Printing House of Shanghai Compendium of Illustrated Book; (4) The xylographic version of Daiyue Building system, referring to the version of Jisi year or 14th year of Qianlong reign (1749) of the Qing Dynasty from the Daiyue Building; (5) The system of Jiusitang Sanctum xylographic version of the Qing Dynasty from Jiaxing, referring to the said version; (6) The system of lithographic versions: Hongbaozhai of Shanghai in 1912 and Saoyeshan Sanctum of Shanghai in 1935. PMID:25620362

  16. Descriptive set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Moschovakis, YN

    1987-01-01

    Now available in paperback, this monograph is a self-contained exposition of the main results and methods of descriptive set theory. It develops all the necessary background material from logic and recursion theory, and treats both classical descriptive set theory and the effective theory developed by logicians.

  17. Job descriptions made easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry

    2014-01-01

    The act of writing a job description can be a daunting and difficult task for many managers. This article focuses on the key concepts of What, How, and Measureable Results as they relate to an employee's job duties. When the answers to these three elements are articulated, they define the core responsibilities of any job that form the basis for an effective job description.

  18. 髋关节镜结合外展支具承重法治疗Perthes病的近期临床疗效观察%Short-term clinical results of hip arthroscopy and ambulatory abduction brace for Perthes disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何锐; 陈光兴; 杨柳; 郭林; 段小军; 戴刚

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effects of hip arthroscopy in treatment of Perthes disease with ambutlatory abduction brace, and evaluate the advantages of this therapy in clinic. Methods 19 patients who were diagnosed as Perthes disease were treated with hip arthroscopy. After operation, these patients were required to use ambulatory abduction brace and began weight loading gradually. The HOS scores before arthroscopy and 12 months after operation were recorded. All the data were compared by t test. Results All the patients were followed up for more than one year, all of whom felt pain relief. The range of motion of hip improved obviously. The HOS scores after operation were higher than those before operation. Conclusions Hip arthroscopy has been therapeutically effective for patients with Perthes disease, by which loose bodies can be removed, and debridements of cartilage flaps, injury glenoid labrum and pathological synovial membrane can be accomplished. It may provide an improvement in symptoms for patients postoperatively. Combined ambulatory abduction brace with stepwise weight loading, it might be an effective procedure of treatment for Perthes disease. The short-term results are heartening.%目的 随访采用髋关节镜手术结合外展支具限制负重治疗Legg-Calve-Perthes患者临床疗效,探讨微创髋关节镜结合外展承重法治疗perthes病的临床应用价值.方法 19例perthes病患者行HOS评分后行髋关节镜下关节腔情理术,术后佩戴外展支具早期限制性功能锻炼,术后6个月开始逐步由限制性负重过渡为完全负重,在术后12个月对患者行HOS评分,采用t检验对术前、术后HOS评分进行统计学分析.结果 19例患者行髋关节镜术后疼痛明显缓解,髋关节自主活动范围增加,术后HOS评分中ADL和Sport评分较术前明显升高.结论 应用髋关节镜微创的方式有效清除既往病变导致的髋关节腔内病变滑膜、软骨碎屑、盂唇损伤

  19. Method Description, Quality Assurance, Environmental Data, and other Information for Analysis of Pharmaceuticals in Wastewater-Treatment-Plant Effluents, Streamwater, and Reservoirs, 2004-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Patrick J.; Smith, Steven G.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Furlong, Edward T.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Wastewater-treatment-plant (WWTP) effluents are a demonstrated source of pharmaceuticals to the environment. During 2004-09, a study was conducted to identify pharmaceutical compounds in effluents from WWTPs (including two that receive substantial discharges from pharmaceutical formulation facilities), streamwater, and reservoirs. The methods used to determine and quantify concentrations of seven pharmaceuticals are described. In addition, the report includes information on pharmaceuticals formulated or potentially formulated at the two pharmaceutical formulation facilities that provide substantial discharge to two of the WWTPs, and potential limitations to these data are discussed. The analytical methods used to provide data on the seven pharmaceuticals (including opioids, muscle relaxants, and other pharmaceuticals) in filtered water samples also are described. Data are provided on method performance, including spike data, method detection limit results, and an estimation of precision. Quality-assurance data for sample collection and handling are included. Quantitative data are presented for the seven pharmaceuticals in water samples collected at WWTP discharge points, from streams, and at reservoirs. Occurrence data also are provided for 19 pharmaceuticals that were qualitatively identified. Flow data at selected WWTP and streams are presented. Between 2004-09, 35-38 effluent samples were collected from each of three WWTPs in New York and analyzed for seven pharmaceuticals. Two WWTPs (NY2 and NY3) receive substantial inflows (greater than 20 percent of plant flow) from pharmaceutical formulation facilities (PFF) and one (NY1) receives no PFF flow. Samples of effluents from 23 WWTPs across the United States were analyzed once for these pharmaceuticals as part of a national survey. Maximum pharmaceutical effluent concentrations for the national survey and NY1 effluent samples were generally less than 1 ug/L. Four pharmaceuticals (methadone, oxycodone

  20. Implementing a Description Grammar Interpreter: A Notation for Descriptions and Description Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouffs, R.M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Description grammars represent a formalism for generating verbal descriptions of designs, used in conjunction with shape grammars. A description grammar constitutes a set of description rules that define a language of descriptions. A description grammar interpreter implements the mechanisms to inter

  1. The glycine brace: a component of Rab, Rho, and Ran GTPases associated with hinge regions of guanine- and phosphate-binding loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuwald Andrew F

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ras-like GTPases function as on-off switches in intracellular signalling pathways and include the Rab, Rho/Rac, Ran, Ras, Arf, Sar and Gα families. How these families have evolutionarily diverged from each other at the sequence level provides clues to underlying mechanisms associated with their functional specialization. Results Bayesian analysis of divergent patterns within a multiple alignment of Ras-like GTPase sequences identifies a structural component, termed here the glycine brace, as the feature that most distinguishes Rab, Rho/Rac, Ran and (to some degree Ras family GTPases from other Ras-like GTPases. The glycine brace consists of four residues: An aromatic residue that forms a stabilizing CH-π interaction with a conserved glycine at the start of the guanine-binding loop; a second aromatic residue, which is nearly always a tryptophan, that likewise forms stabilizing CH-π and NH-π interactions with a glycine at the start of the phosphate-binding P-loop; and two other residues (typically an aspartate and a serine or threonine that, together with a conserved buried water molecule, form a network of interactions connecting the two aromatic residues. Conclusion It is proposed that the two glycine residues function as hinges and that the glycine brace influences guanine nucleotide binding and release by interacting with these hinges.

  2. Initial arch wires for alignment of crooked teeth with fixed orthodontic braces.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wang, Yan

    2010-01-01

    The initial arch wire is the first arch wire to be inserted into the fixed appliance at the beginning of orthodontic treatment and is used mainly for correcting crowding and rotations of teeth. With a number of orthodontic arch wires available for initial tooth alignment, it is important to understand which wire is most efficient, as well as which wires cause the least amount of root resorption and pain during the initial aligning stage of treatment.

  3. Description of vegetation types

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides descriptions of five vegetation types found in Iowa- oak savannah, mature hardwoods, floodplain woods, scrub woods, and riparian woods. Oak...

  4. Hardware description languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jerry H.

    1994-01-01

    Hardware description languages are special purpose programming languages. They are primarily used to specify the behavior of digital systems and are rapidly replacing traditional digital system design techniques. This is because they allow the designer to concentrate on how the system should operate rather than on implementation details. Hardware description languages allow a digital system to be described with a wide range of abstraction, and they support top down design techniques. A key feature of any hardware description language environment is its ability to simulate the modeled system. The two most important hardware description languages are Verilog and VHDL. Verilog has been the dominant language for the design of application specific integrated circuits (ASIC's). However, VHDL is rapidly gaining in popularity.

  5. Expert opinion and controversies in sports and musculoskeletal medicine: the diagnosis and treatment of spondylolysis in adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standaert, Christopher J; Herring, Stanley A

    2007-04-01

    Although spondylolysis is relatively common in adolescent athletes, there are substantial disagreements in the literature concerning the best methods for diagnosing and treating the condition. Controversy particularly arises regarding the optimal use of available imaging modalities in the diagnosis of athletes with suspected pars defects and the extent of activity restriction or brace use required for appropriate treatment. Because there have been no controlled trials on the treatment of spondylolysis and only a very limited number of studies addressing potential imaging strategies, it is difficult to develop true evidence-based guidelines for this condition. Given the current state of the literature, it is our impression that nuclear imaging with single photon emission computed tomography followed by computed tomography, with a limited role for plain radiography, remains the standard for appropriately diagnosing a symptomatic pars lesion. Treatment hinges on activity restriction for an amount of time adequate to allow for symptom resolution and, when possible, potential bony healing followed by a progressive sport-specific rehabilitation program. The biomechanic effects of brace use in this population are not well understood, but there may be some detrimental effects to the use of a brace and there currently is no evidence that the routine use of a rigid brace results in any significant improvement in radiographic or functional outcome. PMID:17398258

  6. Medial collateral ligament injuries of the knee: current treatment concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lan; Kim, Paul D.; Ahmad, Christopher S.; Levine, William N.

    2007-01-01

    The medial collateral ligament is one of the most commonly injured ligaments of the knee. Most injuries result from a valgus force on the knee. The increased participation in football, ice hockey, and skiing has all contributed to the increased frequency of MCL injuries. Prophylactic knee bracing in contact sports may prevent injury; however, performance may suffer. The majority of patients who sustain an MCL injury will achieve their pre-injury activity level with non-operative treatment alo...

  7. Career Path Descriptions

    CERN Document Server

    Charkiewicz, A

    2000-01-01

    Before the Career Path system, jobs were classified according to grades with general statutory definitions, guided by the "Job Catalogue" which defined 6 evaluation criteria with example illustrations in the form of "typical" job descriptions. Career Paths were given concise statutory definitions necessitating a method of description and evaluation adapted to their new wider-band salary concept. Evaluations were derived from the same 6 criteria but the typical descriptions became unusable. In 1999, a sub-group of the Standing Concertation Committee proposed a new guide for describing Career Paths, adapted to their wider career concept by expanding the 6 evaluation criteria into 9. For each criterion several levels were established tracing the expected evolution of job level profiles and personal competencies over their longer salary ranges. While providing more transparency to supervisors and staff, the Guide's official use would be by services responsible for vacancy notices, Career Path evaluations and rela...

  8. Olkiluoto site description 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fourth version of the Olkiluoto Site Report, produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), updates the Olkiluoto Site Report 2008 with the data and knowledge obtained up to December 2010. A descriptive model of the site (the Site Descriptive Model, SDM), i.e. a model describing the geological and hydrogeological structure of the site, properties of the bedrock and the groundwater and its flow, and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms. The SDM is divided into six parts: surface system, geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and transport properties

  9. CRAC2 model description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CRAC2 computer code is a revised version of CRAC (Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences) which was developed for the Reactor Safety Study. This document provides an overview of the CRAC2 code and a description of each of the models used. Significant improvements incorporated into CRAC2 include an improved weather sequence sampling technique, a new evacuation model, and new output capabilities. In addition, refinements have been made to the atmospheric transport and deposition model. Details of the modeling differences between CRAC2 and CRAC are emphasized in the model descriptions

  10. Olkiluoto site description 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    This fourth version of the Olkiluoto Site Report, produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), updates the Olkiluoto Site Report 2008 with the data and knowledge obtained up to December 2010. A descriptive model of the site (the Site Descriptive Model, SDM), i.e. a model describing the geological and hydrogeological structure of the site, properties of the bedrock and the groundwater and its flow, and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms. The SDM is divided into six parts: surface system, geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and transport properties.

  11. Synthesis, crystal structure and characterization of a 1D polyoxometalate-based compound: {l_brace}[Pr(H{sub 2}O){sub 7}][CrMo{sub 6}H{sub 6}O{sub 24}]{r_brace} . 4H{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Lijie; Shen Shuchang; Yu Haiming [Qiqihar Univ., HL (China). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2008-07-15

    A novel polyoxometalated-based compound, {l_brace}[Pr(H{sub 2}O){sub 7}][CrMo{sub 6}H{sub 6}O{sub 24}]{r_brace} . 4H{sub 2}O, was prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy, TG measurement and single crystal X-ray diffraction. A chain-like coordination polymer is formed from a heteropolyanion [CrMo{sub 6}H{sub 6}O{sub 24}]{sup 3} as a building unit and [Pr(H{sub 2}O){sub 7}]{sup 3+} cations as linker. The chains are linked into an extensive three-dimensional supramolecular network through hydrogen bonding. The synthesis of 1 is accomplished only from pre-synthesized Anderson clusters, but not from simple starting materials. (orig.)

  12. 少钢支撑RC框架结构的概念%THE CONCEPTION OF RC FRAME STRUCTURES WITH A FEW STEEL BRACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨馨; 贺小岗; 赵作周; 钱稼茹

    2015-01-01

    震害表明,在钢筋混凝土(RC)框架结构中增设少量支撑,可以解决纯框架结构抗震防线单一、缺乏足够冗余度的问题,通过多重抗震防线,保护主体结构构件、减小建筑震害、增加结构的安全储备和防倒塌能力.我国现行规范对含有少量剪力墙的框架结构已经有了明确定义和相应的设计方法,而对于含有少量支撑的框架结构没有定义.该文以一个典型RC框架结构及三个带不同钢支撑的RC框架结构为例,基于弹性分析和弹塑性Pushover分析,借鉴少墙框架的定义方法,提出了以底层框架倾覆力矩分担率为控制指标的少钢支撑RC框架结构的定义,并通过基于IDA的结构抗倒塌易损性分析验证了少钢支撑RC框架结构相比纯框架结构的抗倒塌能力提高.%The seismic damage of reinforced concrete (RC) frame structures during earthquakes has indicated that the widely used RC frame structures are lack of sufficient redundancy under earthquake actions.The damage of RC columns in a RC frame leads to its serious damage even collapses during a strong earthquake.If few steel braces are installed,the RC frame will become multi-fortification with steel braces as its first yielding structure elements and RC frame structure elements will be protected and its damage will be delayed.As a result,its safety margin and collapse-resisting capacity will be improved.According to a RC frame structure with few shear walls,this paper proposed the new conception of a RC frame structure with few braces.A typical RC frame structure and 3 RC frame structures with different braces are studied to achieve the definition of a RC frame structure with few braces based on the overturning moment carried by a frame part.With few steel braces,the collapse-resistant capacities of a RC frame structure is proved through a collapse fragility analysis based on an incremental dynamic analysis (IDA).

  13. Descriptions of Earthworms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R.

    1887-01-01

    During his last journey in Liberia, my colleague Mr. Büttiköfer had the opportunity to collect a number of earthworms under a mouldering palm-tree. Among them I met with some specimens of Ac. Büttikoferi, a species which I briefly described in this Journal, Vol. VI, p. 105. However this description

  14. Systematic Description of Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regtien, Paul P.L.; Sydenham, Peter H.; Thorn, Richard

    2005-01-01

    A sensor performs the exchange of information (thus energy) from one domain to another and therefore it operates on the interface between different physical domains. Several frameworks have been developed for a systematic description of sensors. Basically, they are based on either of two different a

  15. Generalizing: The descriptive struggle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D.; Hon Ph.D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The literature is not kind to the use of descriptive generalizations. Authors struggle and struggle to find and rationalize a way to use them and then fail in spite of trying a myriad of work-arounds. And then we have Lincoln and Guba’s famous statement: “The only generalization is: there is no generalization” in referring to qualitative research. (op cit, p. 110 They are referring to routine QDA yielding extensive descriptions, but which tacitly include conceptual generalizations without any real thought of knowledge about them. In this chapter I wish to explore this struggle for the purpose of explaining that the various contra arguments to using descriptive generalizations DO NOT apply to the ease of using conceptual generalizations yielded in SGT and especially FGT. I will not argue for the use of descriptive generalization. I agree with Lincoln and Guba with respect to QDA, “the only generalization is: there is no generalization.” It is up to the QDA methodologists, of whom there are many; to continue the struggle and I wish them well.

  16. Erasure Multiple Descriptions

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Ebad

    2010-01-01

    We consider a binary erasure version of the n-channel multiple descriptions problem with symmetric descriptions, i.e., the rates of the n descriptions are the same and the distortion constraint depends only on the number of messages received. We consider the case where there is no excess rate for every k out of n descriptions. Our goal is to characterize the achievable distortions D_1, D_2,...,D_n. We measure the fidelity of reconstruction using two distortion criteria: an average-case distortion criterion, under which distortion is measured by taking the average of the per-letter distortion over all source sequences, and a worst-case distortion criterion, under which distortion is measured by taking the maximum of the per-letter distortion over all source sequences. We present achievability schemes, based on random binning for average-case distortion and systematic MDS (maximum distance separable) codes for worst-case distortion, and prove optimality results for the corresponding achievable distortion region...

  17. A Description Logic Primer

    CERN Document Server

    Krötzsch, Markus; Horrocks, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a self-contained first introduction to description logics (DLs). The main concepts and features are explained with examples before syntax and semantics of the DL SROIQ are defined in detail. Additional sections review light-weight DL languages, discuss the relationship to the Web Ontology Language OWL and give pointers to further reading.

  18. Corrosion studies of thermally sensitised AGR fuel element brace in pH7 and pH9.2 borate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brace and cladding of AGR fuel elements sensitised in reactor are susceptible to intergranular and crevice corrosion, which may initiate in the pH7 borate pond storage environment of CEGB/SSEB stations. This report considers the benefit in corrosion control that is provided by raising the pond solution pH to 9.2, whilst maintaining the boron level at 1250 gm-3. The greater corrosion protection provided by pH9.2 solution compared to the pH7 borate solution is demonstrated by a series of tests with non-active laboratory sensitised brace samples exposed to solutions dosed with chloride or sulphate in order to promote localised corrosion. The corrosion tests undertaken consisted of 5000 hour immersions at 320C and shorter term electrochemically monitored experiments (rest potential, impedance, anodic current) generally conducted at 220C. The pH9.2 solution effectively inhibited the initiation of crevice and intergranular corrosion in the presence of low levels of chloride and sulphate, whereas the pH7 solution did not always do so. However, the pH9.2 solution, dosed with 40 gm-3 chloride, failed to suppress fully crevice corrosion initiated in unborated 40 gm-3 chloride solution at 220C. Fluoride is not deleterious at low levels ∼ 10 gm-3 in the borate solutions. The significant improvement in corrosion control demonstrated for the change from pH7 to pH9.2 borate solution on laboratory sensitised brace samples should ideally be confirmed using complete irradiated AGR fuel elements. (U.K.)

  19. Analysison the improvement of bracing system of European 6.25 m stamp-charging coke oven%欧洲6。25 m捣固焦炉护炉铁件改进分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨泽然; 郑亚杰

    2015-01-01

    叙述了欧洲6.25m捣固焦炉护炉装置的使用情况,并详细介绍了优化设计后焦炉护炉装置的结构及其特点。对护炉装置进行了技术改进,有效改善了焦炉的密封性。%The condition of bracing system of European 6. 25m stamp-charging coke oven is intro-duced. The structure and features of optimized bracing system of coke oven is described in detail. After modification of the bracing system,the tightness of coke oven is remarkably improved.

  20. Multidimensional nonlinear descriptive analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nishisato, Shizuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Quantification of categorical, or non-numerical, data is a problem that scientists face across a wide range of disciplines. Exploring data analysis in various areas of research, such as the social sciences and biology, Multidimensional Nonlinear Descriptive Analysis presents methods for analyzing categorical data that are not necessarily sampled randomly from a normal population and often involve nonlinear relations. This reference not only provides an overview of multidimensional nonlinear descriptive analysis (MUNDA) of discrete data, it also offers new results in a variety of fields. The first part of the book covers conceptual and technical preliminaries needed to understand the data analysis in subsequent chapters. The next two parts contain applications of MUNDA to diverse data types, with each chapter devoted to one type of categorical data, a brief historical comment, and basic skills peculiar to the data types. The final part examines several problems and then concludes with suggestions for futu...

  1. Analysis of Seismic Performance of RC Frame Structure with X-bracings%带X型支撑钢筋混凝土框架结构抗震性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊海涛; 王志鑫; 赵黄娟; 孙爱伏

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the seismic performance of reinforced concrete (RC) frame structure under strong earthquake,the influences of rational arranging bracings on the seismic performances were investigated.Analysis models of 8-story RC frame without bracing,with steel tube X-bracings and with concrete-filled steel tube X-bracings were built,and Pushover analysis of mechanical behavior under strong earthquake of these models was carried out.The results show that the rational arranging bracings in RC frame structure can efficiently increase the structural lateral stiffness,energy dissipation capacity and seismic performance,and significantly decrease the top displacement and the story drift of the RC frame structure.The seismic effects for different material bracings are not the same,and to analysis models in the paper,the concretefilled steel tube bracings can provide more seismic effect than the steel tube bracings for the RC frame.%为了提高钢筋混凝土框架结构抵抗超设防烈度地震的能力,研究了在框架中合理设置支撑对结构抗震性能的影响.以某8层框架工程为背景,对3种不同的结构方案——无支撑钢筋混凝土框架、带X型钢管支撑钢筋混凝土框架和带X型钢管混凝土支撑钢筋混凝土框架结构在强震作用下的受力性能进行了Pushover分析.结果表明:在钢筋混凝土框架结构中合理设置支撑可以有效提高结构抗侧刚度,增大结构耗能能力和抗震能力,减小结构顶点侧移和层间侧移;不同材料的支撑起到的抗震效果也不相同,对于本文分析模型,合理设置钢管混凝土支撑起到的抗震效果比设置钢管支撑更加明显.

  2. TMACS system description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaief, C.C.

    1995-10-17

    This document provides a description of the Tank Monitor and Control System (TMACS). It is intended as an introduction for those persons unfamiliar with the system as well as a reference document for the users, maintenance personnel, and system designers. In addition to describing the system, the document outlines the associated drawing documentation, provides maintenance and spare parts information, and discusses other TMACS documents that provide additional detail

  3. Humanoid Motion Description Language

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Ben; Chen, Yanbing

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we propose a description language for specifying motions for humanoid robots and for allowing humanoid robots to acquire motor skills. Locomotion greatly increases our ability to interact with our environments, which in turn increases our mental abilities. This principle also applies to humanoid robots. However, there are great difficulties to specify humanoid motions and to represent motor skills, which in most cases require four-dimensional space representations. We propose a ...

  4. Reasoning within Fuzzy Description Logics

    CERN Document Server

    Straccia, U

    2011-01-01

    Description Logics (DLs) are suitable, well-known, logics for managing structured knowledge. They allow reasoning about individuals and well defined concepts, i.e., set of individuals with common properties. The experience in using DLs in applications has shown that in many cases we would like to extend their capabilities. In particular, their use in the context of Multimedia Information Retrieval (MIR) leads to the convincement that such DLs should allow the treatment of the inherent imprecision in multimedia object content representation and retrieval. In this paper we will present a fuzzy extension of ALC, combining Zadeh's fuzzy logic with a classical DL. In particular, concepts becomes fuzzy and, thus, reasoning about imprecise concepts is supported. We will define its syntax, its semantics, describe its properties and present a constraint propagation calculus for reasoning in it.

  5. Behavior of Shear Link of WF Section with Diagonal Web Stiffener of Eccentrically Braced Frame (EBF of Steel Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurisman

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of numerical and experimental study of shear link behavior, utilizing diagonal stiffener on web of steel profile to increase shear link performance in an eccentric braced frame (EBF of a steel structure system. The specimen is to examine the behavior of shear link by using diagonal stiffener on web part under static monotonic and cyclic load. The cyclic loading pattern conducted in the experiment is adjusted according to AISC loading standards 2005. Analysis was carried out using non-linear finite element method using MSC/NASTRAN software. Link was modeled as CQUAD shell element. Along the boundary of the loading area the nodal are constraint to produce only one direction loading. The length of the link in this analysis is 400mm of the steel profile of WF 200.100. Important parameters considered to effect significantly to the performance of shear link have been analyzed, namely flange and web thicknesses, , thickness and length of web stiffener, thickness of diagonal stiffener and geometric of diagonal stiffener. The behavior of shear link with diagonal web stiffener was compared with the behavior of standard link designed based on AISC 2005 criteria. Analysis results show that diagonal web stiffener is capable to increase shear link performance in terms of stiffness, strength and energy dissipation in supporting lateral load. However, differences in displacement ductility’s between shear links with diagonal stiffener and shear links based on AISC standards have not shown to be significant. Analysis results also show thickness of diagonal stiffener and geometric model of stiffener to have a significant influence on the performance of shear links. To perform validation of the numerical study, the research is followed by experimental work conducted in Structural Mechanic Laboratory Center for Industrial Engineering ITB. The Structures and Mechanics Lab rotary PAU-ITB. The experiments were carried out using three test

  6. Control of motion of tibial fractures with use of a functional brace or an external fixator. A study of cadavera with use of a magnetic motion sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellop, H; Hoffmann, R; Sarmiento, A; Ebramzadeh, E

    1993-07-01

    A computer-linked magnetic motion transducer was used to monitor and record the six components of motion of the bone fragments in eight cadaveric tibiae in which a simulated, oblique fracture of the middle of the shaft had been stabilized with a functional brace. The limbs were mounted in a servo-hydraulic testing frame, and a cyclic load of 150 newtons was applied along the axis of the tibia. Motion sensors, attached to each side of the fracture, measured and displayed the values of the three translations (axial, anterior-posterior, and medial-lateral), the axial rotation, and the two angulations (anterior-posterior and varus-valgus) as they occurred. Although only an axial load was applied, the off-axis motions were comparable in magnitude with the motion along the axis. The elastic (recoverable) translations of the fragments ranged from 0.5 to 1.9 millimeters, about four to ten times larger than the corresponding motions that were recorded in an earlier study of such fractures that had been stabilized with two types of external fixators. The recoverable rotation and angulations of the fragments of the limbs in the functional brace ranged from 0.7 to 1.2 degrees, about ten times those recorded when the external fixators were used.

  7. Oral health: orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martonffy, Andrea Ildiko

    2015-01-01

    Improper tooth alignment due to crowding, malocclusion, and missing teeth can cause difficulties with eating and speech, and premature wear. It is estimated that more than 20% of children would benefit from orthodontic treatment to correct these conditions, many of which will persist into adulthood if not corrected. Orthodontic care is gaining popularity among adults for similar concerns, as well as for correction of cosmetic issues. The psychological effects of malocclusion should not be ignored. The American Association of Orthodontists recommends that all children undergo evaluation at the first recognition of an orthodontic condition and no later than age 7 years. Some children will need early treatment to help eliminate developing conditions and improve the foundations of the bite, which can ease later treatment in adolescence. For others, treatment in adolescence without early treatment is recommended. Standard cemented braces or clear, removable aligners may be used, depending on the patient's corrective needs. Average treatment time is approximately 2 years; this may be shortened by the use of accelerative techniques. Routine preventive dental care should be continued during the treatment period. PMID:25594451

  8. A. Variable descriptions

    OpenAIRE

    Hohmann, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    The appendix lists all variables, or component variables in the case of the institutional variables w and s, together with sources. Detailed descriptions, the wording of which is taken, if possible, directly from the original sources, are also given. Economic variables – dependent name:external_debt_cris source: Reinhart, Camen M. and Kenneth S. Rogoff, From Financial Crash to Debt Crisis, NBER Working Paper 15795, March 2010. Forthcoming in American Economic Review http://terpconnect.umd.edu...

  9. Polemic and Descriptive Negations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horslund, Camilla Søballe

    2011-01-01

    as such may be more or less central to the meaning of the utterance. The present paper investigates the role of morphosyntactic and prosodic prominence as well as register and social setting on the interpretation of negations. It seems plausible to expect that if the negation as such is central to the meaning...... of the utterance (as in polemic negations), the negation will be articulated prominently in order to emphasise this importance. Likewise, if the negation is not central to the meaning of the utterance, it should not be articulated prominently. Moreover, it is plausible to expect descriptive negations to be more...

  10. Description logic rules

    CERN Document Server

    Krötzsch, M

    2010-01-01

    Ontological modelling today is applied in many areas of science and technology,including the Semantic Web. The W3C standard OWL defines one of the most important ontology languages based on the semantics of description logics. An alternative is to use rule languages in knowledge modelling, as proposed in the W3C's RIF standard. So far, it has often been unclear how to combine both technologies without sacrificing essential computational properties. This book explains this problem and presents new solutions that have recently been proposed. Extensive introductory chapters provide the necessary

  11. Distributed multiple description coding

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Huihui; Zhao, Yao

    2011-01-01

    This book examines distributed video coding (DVC) and multiple description coding (MDC), two novel techniques designed to address the problems of conventional image and video compression coding. Covering all fundamental concepts and core technologies, the chapters can also be read as independent and self-sufficient, describing each methodology in sufficient detail to enable readers to repeat the corresponding experiments easily. Topics and features: provides a broad overview of DVC and MDC, from the basic principles to the latest research; covers sub-sampling based MDC, quantization based MDC,

  12. The Basics of Braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that your kids will, too. Often, your child's dentist will be the first to notice problems during ... and recommend that you see an orthodontist (a dentist who specializes in correcting jaw and/or teeth ...

  13. Knee braces - unloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most people talk about the arthritis in their knees, they are referring to a type of arthritis ... is caused by wear and tear inside your knee joints. Cartilage, the firm, rubbery tissue that cushions ...

  14. Three Approaches to Descriptive Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Lennart

    This report compares three approaches to descriptive research, focusing on the kinds of descriptions developed and on the methods used to develop the descriptions. The main emphasis in all three approaches is on verbal data. In these approaches the importance of interpretation and its intuitive nature are emphasized. The three approaches, however,…

  15. Symmetrical gait descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunajewski, Adam; Dusza, Jacek J.; Rosado Muñoz, Alfredo

    2014-11-01

    The article presents a proposal for the description of human gait as a periodic and symmetric process. Firstly, the data for researches was obtained in the Laboratory of Group SATI in the School of Engineering of University of Valencia. Then, the periodical model - Mean Double Step (MDS) was made. Finally, on the basis of MDS, the symmetrical models - Left Mean Double Step and Right Mean Double Step (LMDS and RMDS) could be created. The method of various functional extensions was used. Symmetrical gait models can be used to calculate the coefficients of asymmetry at any time or phase of the gait. In this way it is possible to create asymmetry, function which better describes human gait dysfunction. The paper also describes an algorithm for calculating symmetric models, and shows exemplary results based on the experimental data.

  16. THULE: A detailed description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the THULE scheme of lattice physics calculation which has been developed in FORTRAN for the IBM 7090. This scheme predicts the neutron flux over energy and space, for many groups and regions, together with reactivity and reaction rate edits for both a single lattice cell and a reactor core. This report describes in detail the input requirements for the THULE programme which forms the main part of the scheme. Brief descriptions of the 7090 programmes TED 6 and NOAH are included as appendices. TED 6 will produce the THULE edits from a WDSN output tape and NOAH is a version of the METHUSELAH programme which contains many of the THULE edits and will also produce input cards for THULE. (author)

  17. Task Description Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Reid; Apfelbaum, David

    2005-01-01

    Task Description Language (TDL) is an extension of the C++ programming language that enables programmers to quickly and easily write complex, concurrent computer programs for controlling real-time autonomous systems, including robots and spacecraft. TDL is based on earlier work (circa 1984 through 1989) on the Task Control Architecture (TCA). TDL provides syntactic support for hierarchical task-level control functions, including task decomposition, synchronization, execution monitoring, and exception handling. A Java-language-based compiler transforms TDL programs into pure C++ code that includes calls to a platform-independent task-control-management (TCM) library. TDL has been used to control and coordinate multiple heterogeneous robots in projects sponsored by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It has also been used in Brazil to control an autonomous airship and in Canada to control a robotic manipulator.

  18. Description of Jet Breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Demetrios T.

    1996-01-01

    In this article we review recent results on the breakup of cylindrical jets of a Newtonian fluid. Capillary forces provide the main driving mechanism and our interest is in the description of the flow as the jet pinches to form drops. The approach is to describe such topological singularities by constructing local (in time and space) similarity solutions from the governing equations. This is described for breakup according to the Euler, Stokes or Navier-Stokes equations. It is found that slender jet theories can be applied when viscosity is present, but for inviscid jets the local shape of the jet at breakup is most likely of a non-slender geometry. Systems of one-dimensional models of the governing equations are solved numerically in order to illustrate these differences.

  19. Descriptive sensory evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian

    aim of this thesis is to compare and evaluate selected rapid evaluation techniques for sensory profiling. Method variations have been suggested for evaluations in product development and quality control, and method insight is provided. The thesis includes three original studies, designed......A recent trend in descriptive sensory evaluation methodology has been the application of rapid evaluation techniques. The ease in use makes the techniques extremely easy to implement by industry and university environments. Thus, one might not consider validity in the choice of method. The overall...... as a consequence of the current practices and needs faced in the industry. Study I compared applicability and validity of rapid methods across several panels of trained assessors. Two rapid approaches were introduced for the evaluation of foods. The first method, ‘Free Multiple Sorting’, allows subjects to perform...

  20. From description to prescription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQuaid, Sara Dybris

    From Description to Prescription: Politics of Recognition, Consociational Theory and the Conflict in Northern Ireland. Within academic discourses on Northern Ireland the politics of recognition and particularly the theory of consociational democracy has made a profound impact. First introduced...... Problem: cases, theories and solutions (1975); Whyte: Interpreting Northern Ireland (1990); McGarry and O’Leary Explaining Northern Ireland (1995)), the paper will trace the historical development of intellectual understandings of the conflict as well as the propelling of consociational theory to its...... by the Dutch political scientist Arend Lijphart in a World Politics article from 1969, it has since increased in importance, both as an authoritative explanatory framework for the institutional design inherent in political agreements and as a desirable approach to manage, balance and potentially dissolve...

  1. Direction and Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Menahem, Yemima

    This paper deals with the dependence of directionality in the course of events-or our claims concerning such directionality-on the modes of description we use in speaking of the events in question. I argue that criteria of similarity and individuation play a crucial role in assessments of directionality. This is an extension of Davidson's claim regarding the difference between causal and explanatory contexts. The argument is based on a characterisation of notions of necessity and contingency that differ from their modal logic counterparts on the one hand, and from causality and chance on the other. I show that some types of directionality are perfectly compatible with both determinism and indeterminism at the microscopic level, and that there is no likelihood of, or advantage to, reducing such directionality to other laws or causal processes.

  2. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  3. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel

  4. Olkiluoto site description 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Olkiluoto Site Description 2004 is a description of the Olkiluoto site, in which the various disciplines have been integrated to produce a coherent picture, and is based on the data available prior to the start of the underground excavation of the ONKALO facility. This report is the first version of such a Site Report and supplements the site syntheses that have already been published. Further Site Reports will be produced on a regular basis and it is planned that the Site Report should form the geoscientific basis of the Safety Case in a future licence application. The report updates the Baseline report published in 2003 and is designed to produce an integrated site model, by focusing on interdisciplinary interactions, and also by including new data obtained during 2003 and 2004. The report has been produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), which covers the areas of geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry. In addition to discussing the input from these four disciplines, the Site Report also includes a description of the surface conditions. Formally, the surface conditions are not within the remit of the OMTF, which is concentrating on modelling the bedrock around the ONKALO and the future repository. The influence of the surface conditions to the overall system and to the conditions at depth is recognised, however, and thus a summary of climate, ecosystems and overburden properties is also included in this report. Chapter 1 sets out the methodology to be used in the modelling, describes the various discipline-specific models which are developed and the modelled areas which are used, and also describes two important processes - the prediction/outcome studies and the uncertainty and confidence assessment. The difference between the estimate (the prediction) and the result (the outcome) indicates the level of knowledge and the prevailing uncertainties in the models. Chapter 2 presents the applied investigation data, which are

  5. Formal description technique SDL for manufacturing systems specification and description

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Rui M.; Putnik, Goran D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses the formal specification and description of manufacturing systems. It is considered the use of SDL (Specification and Description Language), a standard FDT (Formal Description Technique), to model the behaviour, data and structure aspects of a manufacturing system. SDL was originally developed for telecommunication systems (protocol specification and data processing). The adequacy of FDTs, namely SDL, for the manufacturing systems domain is investigated by developing the ...

  6. Functional bracing for delayed union of a femur fracture associated with Paget's disease of the bone in an Asian patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuta Masashi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Paget's disease of the bone is a common metabolic bone disease in most European countries, Australia, New Zealand, and North America. Conversely, this disease is rare in Scandinavia, Asia, and Africa. In Japan, it is extremely rare, with a prevalence of 0.15/100000. Paget's disease is a localized disorder of bone remodeling. Excessive bone resorption and abnormal bone formation result in biomechanically weakened bone and predispose patients to fracture. Delayed union and non-union of fractures have been reported in patients with Paget's disease. Therefore, open reduction and internal fixation of fractures has been recommended to prevent such complications. Here we report an unusual case of a 63-year-old Asian woman with delayed union of a femur fracture secondary to Paget's disease, which was treated successfully by functional bracing.

  7. [Descriptive epidemiology of urolithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, H; Ohno, Y

    1989-06-01

    In this paper, urolithiasis is remarked from the standpoint of descriptive epidemiology, which examines the frequency distribution of a given disease in a population in terms of time, place and personal characteristics with an aim of identifying risk factors or some clues to the etiology. Some descriptive epidemiological features of urolithiasis are summarized. Prevalence rate is around 4% (4-15% in males and 4-8% in females), and incidence rate varies from area to area: 53.2 per 100,000 population in 1975 in Japan, 364 in 1976 in Malaysia, and 540 in 1979 in West Germany. Prevalence and/or incidence rates have, in general, increased in the developed countries since World War II and in the developing countries as well, where upward trends are quite analogous to the trends observed in the nineteenth century in Europe. Recurrence rate, which is much higher in males than in females, ranges from 31% to 75%, depending on the follow-up periods. In the industrialized countries, upper urinary (renal and ureteral) stones account for more than 90% of total stones, which are ordinarily calcium complexes in composition. More common in the developing countries are lower urinary (bladder and urethral) stones, frequently composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate, which indicates a close association with urinary tract infections. Variations in frequency are evident by season and by region within a country. Age and sex differentials in urinary stone formers are substantial: more common in males 30-40 years old in the industrialized countries and in children under 10 years old in the developing countries. Racial differentials are also noted; blacks appear to suffer less frequently than whites. Stone formers experience more frequent episodes of stone formation in their family members, particularly father and brothers, than non-stone formers. These findings on racial differentials and family preponderance suggest the possible relevance of genetic factors in stone formation. Stone

  8. Trusting Description: Authenticity, Accountability, and Archival Description Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Heather

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that one of the purposes of archival description is to establish grounds for presuming the authenticity of the records being described. The article examines the implications of this statement by examining the relationship between and among authenticity, archival description, and archival accountability, assessing how this…

  9. Determination of gadolinium(III) ions in soil and sediment samples by a novel gadolinium membrane sensor based on 6-methyl-4-{l_brace}[1-(2-thienyl)methylidene]amino{r_brace}3-thioxo-3,4-dihydro-1,2,4 -triazin-5-(2H)-one

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, Hassan Ali [Department of Chemistry, Quchan branch, Islamic Azad University, Quchan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: haszamani@yahoo.com; Rajabzadeh, Ghadir [Khorasan Science and Technology Park, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Norouzi, Parviz [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    Highly selective and sensitive poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane electrodes based on 6-methyl-4-{l_brace}[1-(2-thienyl)methylidene]amino{r_brace}3-thioxo-3,4-dihydro-1,2,4 -triazin-5-(2H)-one (MATDTO) as new carriers for gadolinium ion-selective electrode was reported. The membrane solutions containing PVC, o-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE) as plasticizer, sodium tetraphenyl borate (NaTPB) as lipophilic ionic additive, and MATDTO, displays a calibration response for Gd{sup 3+} ions over a wide concentration range of 1.0 x 10{sup -6}-1.0 x 10{sup -1} M with Nernstian slopes of 19.8 {+-} 0.2 mV per decade and a detection limit as 5.8 x 10{sup -7} M. The sensor has a relatively fast response time of <10 s and can be used in the pH range 3.2-8.7 for at least 2 months without any significant divergence in potentials. The selectivity coefficients for mono-, di-, and trivalent cations indicate good selectivity for Gd(III) ions over a large number of interfering cations. The membrane sensor was used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Gd(III) ions with EDTA. The proposed electrode was also applied to the determination of concentration of Gd(III) ions in soil and sediment samples and validation with CRMs.

  10. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria in {l_brace}water + acrylic acid + (1-butanol, or 2-butanol, or 1-pentanol){r_brace} systems at T = 293.2 K, T = 303.2 K, and T = 313.2 K and atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistell, Melissa C.; Alves, Thiago C.; Guadagnini, Talita R.; Hadlich de Oliveira, Leonardo [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas, Av. Albert Einstein 500, 13083-852 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Aznar, Martin, E-mail: maznar@feq.unicamp.br [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas, Av. Albert Einstein 500, 13083-852 Campinas-SP (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > Acrylic acid solubilizes preferably in the studied solvents than in water. > Immiscibility region increases in the order: 2-butanol < 1-butanol < 1-pentanol. > Immiscibility region reduces little with an increase in temperature. > K and S values show that 1-pentanol is the best studied solvent. - Abstract: (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for {l_brace}water + acrylic acid + (1-butanol, or 2-butanol, or 1-pentanol){r_brace} at T = 293.2 K, T = 303.2 K, and T = 313.2 K and atmospheric pressure ({approx}95 kPa) were determined by Karl Fischer titration and densimetry. All systems present type I binodal curves. The size of immiscibility region changes little with an increase in temperature, but increases according to the solvent, following the order: 2-butanol < 1-butanol < 1-pentanol. Values of solute distribution and solvent selectivities show that 1-pentanol is a better solvent than 1-butanol or 2-butanol for acrylic acid removal from water solutions. Quality of data was ascertain by Hand and Othmer-Tobias equations, giving R{sup 2} > 0.916, mass balance and accordance between tie lines and cloud points. The NRTL model was used to correlate experimental data, by estimating new energy parameters, with root mean square deviations below 0.0053 for all systems.

  11. Speeds of sound in {l_brace}(1 - x)CH{sub 4} + xN{sub 2}{r_brace} with x = (0.10001, 0.19999, and 0.5422) at temperatures between 170 K and 400 K and pressures up to 30 MPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estela-Uribe, J.F. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Javeriana-Cali, Calle 18, 118-250 Cali (Colombia); Trusler, J.P.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: m.trusler@imperial.ac.uk; Chamorro, C.R. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Segovia, J.J. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Martin, M.C. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Villamanan, M.A. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain)

    2006-07-15

    The speed of sound in {l_brace}(1 - x)CH{sub 4} + xN{sub 2}{r_brace} has been measured with a spherical acoustic resonator. Two mixtures with x = (0.10001 and 0.19999) were studied along isotherms at temperatures between 220 K and 400 K with pressures up to 20 MPa; a few additional measurements at p = (25 and 30) MPa are also reported. A third mixture with x = 0.5422 was studied along pseudo-isochores at amount-of-substance densities between 0.2 mol . dm{sup -3} and 5 mol . dm{sup -3}. Corrections for molecular vibrational relaxation are discussed in detail and relaxation times are reported. The overall uncertainty of the measured speeds of sound is estimated to be not worse than {+-}0.02%, except for those measurements in the mixture with x = 0.5422 that lie along the pseduo-isochore at the highest amount-of-substance density. The results have been compared with the predictions of several equations of state used for natural gas systems.

  12. [Exercise therapy in the treatment of idiopathic adolescent scoliosis: Is it useful?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porte, M; Patte, K; Dupeyron, A; Cottalorda, J

    2016-06-01

    Many practitioners, pediatricians, and general practitioners prescribe physical therapy when tracking scoliosis. However, has physical therapy alone proved its efficacy in the care of the scoliosis to slow down progression? Our purpose is to report the results of a literature review on the effectiveness of rehabilitation in idiopathic scoliosis. No current study presents sufficient scientific proof to validate the efficacy of isolated exercise therapy in scoliosis. Learned societies recognize, however, the efficacy of combining conservative therapy (brace+physiotherapy) in idiopathic scoliosis. Should we then still prescribe rehabilitation without brace treatment? Although physical therapy alone does not seem effective in treating scoliosis, it can limit potential painful phenomena and be beneficial for respiratory function. The physical therapist can also teach the teenager the classic principles of hygiene of the back. It may therefore be appropriate to prescribe physical therapy, but the principles and objectives must be explained to the patient and family in light of current evidence-based medicine. PMID:27117993

  13. Study on Links Length Effect on Y-Eccentrically Braced Frames Seismic Performance%Y形偏心支撑耗能段长度对结构抗震性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宝成; 于安林; 沈淼; 李仁达

    2012-01-01

    In order to research stiffs, strength and energy-dissipation of Y-eccentrically braced frames in changing length of links,the one-bay two-story test specimen was carried out under low reversed cyclic loading. Process and method of test was introduced. Load capacity, displacement ductility, hysteretic behavior, ductility, energy-dissipation and plastic mechanism of Y-eccentrically braced frames were analyzed. Experimental studies and analysis show that changing lengths of links have effect on strength, stiffness and energy-dissipation capacity of Y-eccentrically braced frames. The length of links is shorter, the Y-eccentrically braced frames strength and stiffness are bigger. The links entering the plasticity to form the plastic mechanism dissipate structure seismic energy. Failure of connection between links and braces causes the structure expiration. Specimens have good displacement capacity and the displacement ductility ratios is between 3. 62 ~4. 44. The length of links was designed reasonably,and then Y-eccentrically braced steel frames provide high stiffness and well resistant-seismic.%目的 研究Y形偏心支撑耗能段长度对结构的刚度、承载能力以及滞回性能的影响.方法 对2榀改变耗能段长度的Y形偏心支撑框架进行循环加荷试验.介绍了试验方案和试验过程,对比分析了试件的承载能力、位移延性、耗能能力以及Y形偏心支撑框架塑性机构.结果 耗能段长度对Y形偏心支撑框架强度、刚度以及耗能能力影响较大;耗能段长度越短,Y形偏心支撑框架强度和刚度越大;结构主要由耗能段进入塑性形成塑性机构耗散地震能量;耗能段与支撑之间的连接破坏导致结构失效;试件的位移延性系数为3.62 ~4.44,结构的位移延性较好.结论 Y形偏心支撑耗能段长度选取合理,结构抗侧刚度高、抗震性能好.

  14. Description of station waste water treatment and study of reclaiming industry ceramic red; Caracterizacao de residuos de estacao de tratamento de agua e estudo de reaproveitamento na industria de ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadava, Y.P.; Rego, S.A.B.C.; Junior, B.S.; Bezerra, L.P.; Ferreira, R.A.S., E-mail: yadava@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), PE (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    So that the water meets potability standards required by the laws it passes through various treatment processes which generate waste called WTS (Water Treatment Sludge). This sludge is disposed of without any processing, however, environmental agencies and the public are demanding alternatives to this situation. Knowing this, this study aims to characterize the sludge from the Water Treatment Plant Botafogo and analyze its viability as a feedstock in the manufacture of red bricks. (author)

  15. Combine harvester : threshing process description

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carton, Denis Manuel

    1999-01-01

    The harvest consists of two mains opertions : cutting the crop and extracting the grain.This report is a general description of a model for this mechanism.......The harvest consists of two mains opertions : cutting the crop and extracting the grain.This report is a general description of a model for this mechanism....

  16. Software Architecture Description and UML

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Guelfi, Nicolas; Medvidovic, Nenad

    2005-01-01

    The description of software architectures has always been concerned with the definition of the appropriate languages for designing the various architectural artifacts. Over the past ten years, formal or less formal Architecture Description Languages (ADLs) and supporting methods and tools have been

  17. Multiple Descriptions Using Sparse Decompositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Østergaard, Jan; Dahl, Joachim;

    2010-01-01

    and furthermore are able to refine each other. In this paper, we form descriptions using convex optimization with l1-norm minimization and Euclidean distortion constraints on the reconstructions and show that with this method we can obtain non-trivial descriptions. We give an algorithm based on recently developed...

  18. Çelik Çapraz Elemanlarla Güçlendirilen Betonarme Yapıların Deprem Davranışlarının İncelenmesi = Earthquake Behavior Evaluation of R/C Structures Strengthened with Steel Bracings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasım Armağan KORKMAZ

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the seismic behavior of reinforced concrete (R/C frame structures strengthened with eccentric steel bracing is examined. In this aim, a R/C frame structure is designed and then strengthened with different eccentric steel bracings. The existing and the strengthened structures are analyzed using nonlinear static pushover analysis. Their structural behavior under earthquake effect is compared with each other. In the analyses, 10- story R/C frame structure is designed and this structure is strengthened with different types of strengthening bracings. Thus, the earthquake behavior is defined for the strengthened and existing structures. It is also aimed to determine the best strengthening way with steel bracings.

  19. Non-operative Treatment Outcomes of Stable Juvenile Osteochondritis Dissecans Lesions of the Knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepolt, Frances; Heyworth, Benton E.; Kocher, Mininder S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the knee most commonly occurs in skeletally-immature pre-adolescent or adolescent patients. Stable juvenile OCD lesions are initially treated via non-operative methods, with varying rates of successful healing reported in the literature. Unloader bracing has been introduced as a relatively new method designed to reduce weight-bearing stress and promote healing for femoral condyle lesions, although the outcomes of unloader bracing compared to other forms of non-operative treatment have not been established. Methods: A retrospective case series was designed to include all patients initially treated non-operatively for stable juvenile OCD of the femoral condyle at a single institution from 2002-2014. Following IRB approval, patient medical records were reviewed for demographic and clinical data, including symptom duration, prior conservative treatment, non-operative treatment modality prescribed and clinical outcome. Results: 223 knees of 196 patients (146/196 (74%) male) underwent non-operative treatment for stable OCD of the medial or lateral femoral condyle. Mean age at presentation 11.5 +/- 1.7 years (range 6-16 years). 27/196 patients (14%) were diagnosed with bilateral OCD at presentation, while 169/196 (86%) presented with unilateral OCD. 180/223 knees (81%) were medial femoral condyle lesions, while 39/223 (17%) were lateral femoral condyle lesions and 4/223 (2%) bicondylar. Reported symptom duration was 10.4 +/- 8.8 months (range 0.1 - 38 months). 222/223 (99.6%) knees presented with knee pain, 68/223 (30%) with one or more mechanical symptoms (swelling, giving-way, locking, clicking). 87/223 (39%) had undergone previous non-operative treatment for an average of 2.1 months. On exam at presentation, 130/223 (58%) had tenderness to palpation noted over the associated femoral condyle or ipsilateral joint line. Treatment was based on physician preference. 121/223 (54%) were treated with unloader bracing with activity

  20. [Pediatric clubfoot : Treatment of recurrence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radler, C; Mindler, G T

    2016-10-01

    Over the last 10 years the Ponseti method has become established as the gold standard for initial treatment of clubfeet nearly worldwide. Nevertheless, there are considerable fluctuations regarding the authenticity and quality in the application of the Ponseti method. Especially the efforts to ensure and promote compliance with the foot abduction brace and subsequently the recurrence rate show great variation. As a result, we are still faced with a significant number of recurrent or residual clubfeet. In recent years it has been shown in high-volume clinics that even these can almost always be successfully treated with recasting and with minor interventions, such as anterior tibial tendon transfer and lengthening of the Achilles tendon. More invasive surgical procedures are only very rarely indicated and are reserved for severe recurrence in previously surgically treated and secondary clubfeet. PMID:27577568

  1. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: natural history and long term treatment effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asher Marc A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a lifetime, probably systemic condition of unknown cause, resulting in a spinal curve or curves of ten degrees or more in about 2.5% of most populations. However, in only about 0.25% does the curve progress to the point that treatment is warranted. Untreated, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis does not increase mortality rate, even though on rare occasions it can progress to the >100° range and cause premature death. The rate of shortness of breath is not increased, although patients with 50° curves at maturity or 80° curves during adulthood are at increased risk of developing shortness of breath. Compared to non-scoliotic controls, most patients with untreated adolescent idiopathic scoliosis function at or near normal levels. They do have increased pain prevalence and may or may not have increased pain severity. Self-image is often decreased. Mental health is usually not affected. Social function, including marriage and childbearing may be affected, but only at the threshold of relatively larger curves. Non-operative treatment consists of bracing for curves of 25° to 35° or 40° in patients with one to two years or more of growth remaining. Curve progression of ≥ 6° is 20 to 40% more likely with observation than with bracing. Operative treatment consists of instrumentation and arthrodesis to realign and stabilize the most affected portion of the spine. Lasting curve improvement of approximately 40% is usually achieved. In the most completely studied series to date, at 20 to 28 years follow-up both braced and operated patients had similar, significant, and clinically meaningful reduced function and increased pain compared to non-scoliotic controls. However, their function and pain scores were much closer to normal than patient groups with other, more serious conditions. Risks associated with treatment include temporary decrease in self-image in braced patients. Operated patients face the usual

  2. Finite element analysis of structural ductility for diagrid tube structure with buckling restrained braces%设置屈曲约束支撑的斜交网筒结构延性有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丰; 张崇厚

    2013-01-01

    斜交网筒结构具有较大的抗侧刚度,但其延性较差,通过设置屈曲约束支撑可改善斜交网筒结构延性.以30层的斜交网筒结构模型为研究对象,分别对普通斜交网筒结构和设置屈曲约束支撑斜交网筒结构进行静力弹塑性推覆(Pushover)分析.结果表明:屈曲约束支撑可有效改善斜交网筒结构延性.此外,对立面中部、立面角部、底部楼层、上部楼层共4种局部区域布置屈曲约束支撑的方案进行了结构延性分析.局部设置屈曲约束支撑斜交网筒结构的设计应确保斜柱处于弹性工作状态,屈曲约束支撑率先进入塑性耗能状态.建议采用立面中部布置屈曲约束支撑的方案,可实现在保证结构受剪承载力的前提下,较好地改善斜交网筒结构的延性,避免结构发生脆性破坏.%Diagrid tube structures have excellent lateral force resistance but poor structural ductility,which can be improved through buckling restrained brace.With respect to 30-story diagrid tube structures,nonlinear static analysis,i.e.pushover analysis was conducted respectively for the conventional diagrid tube structure and those with buckling restrained brace.The results show that the structural ductility is improved by utilizing buckling restrained brace.Furthermore,four schemes of diagrid tube structures partially with buckling restrained brace in different parts of the facades,including the corner and the middle,the bottom and the upper,were investigated for structural ductility.Diagrid tube structures partially with buckling restrained brace should be designed so that conventional brace remain in elastic state,while buckling restrained brace turn into plastic state in advance for energy dissipation.Diagrid tube structure with buckling restrained brace in the middle part of facade is recommended,which could effectively improve structural ductility to avoid brittle failure without decreasing shear load-bearing capacity.

  3. 佩带膝外翻支具膝骨关节炎患者膝关节的生物力学变化%Biomechanical changes of the knee with the valgus bracing in people with medial knee osteoarthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旻; 江澜

    2011-01-01

    背景:佩带膝关节外翻矫形器已被证明是一种可以有效减轻内侧间室膝骨关节炎患者疼痛的方法,但是佩带矫形器后的膝关节所产生的运动学以及动力学变化至今尚不明确.目的:观察内侧间室膝骨关节炎患者佩带膝关节矫形器前后的膝关节运动学以及动力学参数变化,便于为将来设计新型膝关节矫形器提供依据.方法:纳入20例内侧间室膝骨关节炎患者,分别通过三维步态分析系统和测力板对其在佩带膝外翻矫形器及不佩带膝外翻矫形器两种情况步行中的运动学及动力学参数进行采集,并进行对比.结果与结论:相比未佩带膝关节外翻支具,佩带膝关节外翻支具后患者在步行过程中膝关节内收力矩明显减小,与此同时膝关节内翻角度明显减小,外翻角度明显增加(P均< 0.05),膝关节在步行过程中的最大屈曲角度以及时间空间参数差异无显著性意义.提示膝关节外翻矫形器可有效地通过增加内侧间室膝骨关节炎患者膝关节在步行过程中的外翻角度减小内翻角度从而降低膝内侧间室所承受的压力,与此同时纠正膝关节非正常对线.%BACKGROUND: Unloading valgus knee brace has been proved to be a very effective method which can help patients in medial knee osteoarthritis, but the kinematic and kinetic changes at knee joint after taking knee brace was not clear.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the kinematics and kinetics changes of the medial knee osteoarthritis at knee during walking with and without unloading valgus knee brace which is benefit for designing new type of knee brace in the future.METHODS: Totally 20 patients with medial knee osteoarthritis were included in this test kinematics changes were conducted with three dimensional gait analysis system and the kinetics changes were collected by the force platforms for medial knee osteoarthritis subjects with or without valgus knee brace.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION

  4. Carpal tunnel syndrome - Part II (treatment,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Chammas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The treatments for non-deficit forms of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS are corticoid infiltration and/or a nighttime immobilization brace. Surgical treatment, which includes sectioning the retinaculum of the flexors (retinaculotomy, is indicated in cases of resistance to conservative treatment in deficit forms or, more frequently, in acute forms. In minimally invasive techniques (endoscopy and mini-open, and even though the learning curve is longer, it seems that functional recovery occurs earlier than in the classical surgery, but with identical long-term results. The choice depends on the surgeon, patient, severity, etiology and availability of material. The results are satisfactory in close to 90% of the cases. Recovery of strength requires four to six months after regression of the pain of pillar pain type. This surgery has the reputation of being benign and has a complication rate of 0.2–0.5%.

  5. Do Laterally Wedged Insoles or Valgus Braces Unload the Medial Compartment of the Knee in Patients With Osteoarthritis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Duivenvoorden (Tijs); T.M. van Raaij (Tom); H.L.D. Horemans (Herwin); R.W. Brouwer (Reinoud); P.K. Bos (Koen); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); M. Reijman (Max)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The results of conservative treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA) are generally evaluated in epidemiological studies with clinical outcome measures as primary outcomes. Biomechanical evaluation of orthoses shows that there are potentially beneficial biomechanical changes to j

  6. The Fundamental Scale of Descriptions

    CERN Document Server

    Febres, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of a system description is a function of the entropy of its symbolic description. Prior to computing the entropy of the system description, an observation scale has to be assumed. In natural language texts, typical scales are binary, characters, and words. However, considering languages as structures built around certain preconceived set of symbols, like words or characters, is only a presumption. This study depicts the notion of the Description Fundamental Scale as a set of symbols which serves to analyze the essence a language structure. The concept of Fundamental Scale is tested using English and MIDI music texts by means of an algorithm developed to search for a set of symbols, which minimizes the system observed entropy, and therefore best expresses the fundamental scale of the language employed. Test results show that it is possible to find the Fundamental Scale of some languages. The concept of Fundamental Scale, and the method for its determination, emerges as an interesting tool to fac...

  7. Quantum mechanical description of waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhi-Yong; Xiong Cai-Dong; He Bing

    2008-01-01

    Applying the spinor representation of the electromagnetic field,this paper present a quantum-mechanical description of waveguides.As an example of application,a potential qubit generated by photon tunnelling is discussed.

  8. Back Bay Wilderness area description

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a description of the lands located within the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Within these lands, it designates which area is suitable for...

  9. IMPORT FREIGHT FORWARDER WORK DESCRIPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkilä, Mauno

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to research and create a general work description for an import freight forwarder in company X. Description can be converted generally to any freight forwarding company, excluding functions that are characteristic to company X’s role also as a port operator. Thesis emphasizes a viewpoint of an import freight forwarder in international sea logistics since company X is a port operator and has business in stevedoring, freight forwarding, warehousing and ship ag...

  10. Risk culture - a descriptive model

    OpenAIRE

    Paalanen, Anssi

    2013-01-01

    The term risk culture means how people in organisations understand risk. Risk culture influences all risk management related aspects. The term risk culture is relatively new. No comprehensive descriptive model of risk culture can be found in the literature. To understand risk culture better a descriptive model is needed. This thesis aims to answer the following research questions: How risk culture can be described, how different culture types can be classified, and what risk management me...

  11. Lagrangian description of nonlinear chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Heng; LIU Xiaolong

    2004-01-01

    Under the framework of non-equilibrium thermodynamic separation theory (NTST), Local Lagrangian approach (LLA) was proposed to deal with the essential issues of the convection and diffusion (shock waves) phenomena in nonlinear chromatography with recursion equations based on the three basic theorems, Lagrangian description, continuity axiom and local equilibrium assumption (LEA). This approach remarkably distinguished from the system of contemporary chromatographic theories (Eulerian description-partial differential equations), and can felicitously match modern cybernetics.

  12. Treatment goals and treatment in exercise therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuijderduin, W.M.; Dekker, J.

    1994-01-01

    In the present study a quantitative description is given of treatment in exercise therapy according to Cesar and according to Mensendieck. Information was gathered from saurvey on exercise therapy in the Netherlands. Characteristics of treatment are described including treatment goals, emphasis of t

  13. CdS thin films obtained by thermal treatment of cadmium(II) complex precursor deposited by MAPLE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotaru, Andrei [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PPAM - Lasers Department, 409 Atomistilor Bvd., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Mietlarek-Kropidlowska, Anna [Gdansk University of Technology, Chemistry Faculty, 11/12 G. Narutowicza Str., PL-90-233 Gdansk (Poland); Constantinescu, Catalin, E-mail: catalin.constantinescu@inflpr.ro [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PPAM - Lasers Department, 409 Atomistilor Bvd., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Scarisoreanu, Nicu; Dumitru, Marius [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PPAM - Lasers Department, 409 Atomistilor Bvd., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Strankowski, Michal [Gdansk University of Technology, Chemistry Faculty, 11/12 G. Narutowicza Str., PL-90-233 Gdansk (Poland); Rotaru, Petre [University of Craiova, Faculty of Physics, 13 A.I. Cuza St., Craiova RO-200585, Dolj (Romania); Ion, Valentin [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PPAM - Lasers Department, 409 Atomistilor Bvd., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Vasiliu, Cristina [INOE 2000 - National Institute for Optoelectronics, 1 Atomistilor Bvd., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Becker, Barbara [Gdansk University of Technology, Chemistry Faculty, 11/12 G. Narutowicza Str., PL-90-233 Gdansk (Poland); Dinescu, Maria [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PPAM - Lasers Department, 409 Atomistilor Bvd., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania)

    2009-05-15

    Thin films of [Cd{l_brace}SSi(O-Bu{sup t}){sub 3}{r_brace}(S{sub 2}CNEt{sub 2})]{sub 2}, precursor for semiconducting CdS layers, were deposited on silicon substrates by Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. Structural analysis of the obtained films by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the viability of the procedure. After the deposition of the coordination complex, the layers are manufactured by appropriate thermal treatment of the system (thin film and substrate), according to the thermal analysis of the compound. Surface morphology of the thin films was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectroscopic-ellipsometry (SE) measurements.

  14. Treatment of Scoliosis-Evidence and Management (Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Context Scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformity of the spine and trunk which includes lateral deviation, rotation, and a disturbance of the sagittal profile. Treatment is indicated for scoliosis because it may lead to negative consequences with regard to the quality of life and other health issues for some patients. The purpose of this review was to gather current, up-to-date information, and to search the recent articles on scoliosis for evidence of the different modes of treatment. Evidence Acquisition A PubMed search for review articles, prospective controlled trials (PCT, and randomized controlled trials (RCT was performed. The search terms were: 1 scoliosis, treatment (12,045 items found; 2 scoliosis, physiotherapy (776 items found; 3 scoliosis, brace treatment (1,447 items found; and 4 scoliosis, surgery (10,485 items found. Results When looking at the current literature, high quality evidence (level I was found to support physical rehabilitation and brace treatments, while no evidence was found to support spinal fusion surgery. The numerous long-term complications that patients may face post-operation, and the lack of evidence for spinal fusion surgery indicate that there is no clear medical indication for this kind of treatment. Conclusions There is a high level of evidence for the conservative treatment of scoliosis, but there are varying levels of success in the different approaches. The better the correction of the curve, the better the end result and outcome for the patient. This is supported by the current evidence reviewed in this paper. Physiotherapy and bracing should be used and, specifically, those approaches using high corrective methods. Spinal fusion surgery is not supported by the current evidence. According to the literature, the long-term complications of surgery for scoliosis far outweigh the consequences of untreated scoliosis.

  15. Multilingual Image Description with Neural Sequence Models

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Desmond; Frank, Stella; Hasler, Eva

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to multi-language image description bringing together insights from neural machine translation and neural image description. To create a description of an image for a given target language, our sequence generation models condition on feature vectors from the image, the description from the source language, and/or a multimodal vector computed over the image and a description in the source language. In image description experiments on the IAPR-TC12 dataset o...

  16. CANISTER HANDLING FACILITY DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.F. Beesley

    2005-04-21

    The purpose of this facility description document (FDD) is to establish requirements and associated bases that drive the design of the Canister Handling Facility (CHF), which will allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This FDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This FDD identifies the requirements and describes the facility design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This FDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This FDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flowdown of upper tier requirements onto the facility. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The FDD follows the design with regard to the description of the facility. The description provided in this FDD reflects the current results of the design process.

  17. Fuel Handling Facility Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the facility description document (FDD) is to establish the requirements and their bases that drive the design of the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) to allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This FDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. It identifies the requirements and describes the facility design as it currently exists, with emphasis on design attributes provided to meet the requirements. This FDD was developed as an engineering tool for design control. Accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the facility. Knowledge of these requirements is essential to performing the design process. It trails the design with regard to the description of the facility. This description is a reflection of the results of the design process to date

  18. Phenomenological description of phase inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piela, K.; Ooms, G.; Sengers, J.V.

    2009-01-01

    We propose an extended Ginzburg-Landau model for a description of the ambivalence region associated with the phenomenon of phase inversion observed in dispersed water-oil flow through a pipe. In analogy to the classical mean-field theory of phase transitions, it is shown that a good quantitative rep

  19. The Geometry Description Markup Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RadovanChytracek

    2001-01-01

    Currently,a lot of effort is being put on designing complex detectors.A number of simulation and reconstruction frameworks and applications have been developed with the aim to make this job easier.A very important role in this activity is played by the geometry description of the detector apparatus layout and its working environment.However,no real common approach to represent geometry data is available and such data can be found in various forms starting from custom semi-structured text files,source code (C/C++/FORTRAN),to XML and database solutions.The XML(Extensible Markup Language)has proven to provide an interesting approach for describing detector geometries,with several different but incompatible XML-based solutions existing.Therefore,interoperability and geometry data exchange among different frameworks is not possible at present.This article introduces a markup language for geometry descriptions.Its aim is to define a common approach for sharing and exchanging of geometry description data.Its requirements and design have been driven by experience and user feedback from existing projects which have their geometry description in XML.

  20. Natural Language Description of Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemzadeh, Abe

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation studies how people describe emotions with language and how computers can simulate this descriptive behavior. Although many non-human animals can express their current emotions as social signals, only humans can communicate about emotions symbolically. This symbolic communication of emotion allows us to talk about emotions that we…

  1. Turbulent Dissipation Challenge -- Problem Description

    CERN Document Server

    Parashar, Tulasi N; Wicks, Robert; Karimabadi, Homa; Chandran, S Peter Gary Benjamin; Matthaeus, William H

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this document is to present a detailed description of the goals, simulation setup and diagnostics for the Turbulent Dissipation Challenge $($http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.0204$)$ as discussed in the Solar Heliospheric and INterplanetary Environment $($SHINE$)$ 2013 workshop, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting 2013 and the accompanying antenna meeting in Berkeley.

  2. Exclusion Statistics: a Generalized Description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bao-Quan; WANG Yu-Peng

    2005-01-01

    @@ By constructing the fused-particle representation of the free boson gas, we propose a description of the exclusion statistics which allows us to connect the Bose-Einstein statistics and the Fermi-Dirac statistics smoothly.With an proper choice of the exclusion factors γl, Hadane-Wu's fractional statistics is retrieved in this representation.

  3. Epsilon. A System Description Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten

    This paper discusses the use of Petri nets as a semantic tool in the design of languages and in the construction and analysis of system descriptions. The topics treated are: -- Languages based on nets. -- The problem of time in nets. -- Nets and related models. -- Nets and formal semantics...

  4. Towards a formal representation for description rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouffs, R.M.F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores a generalized specification for descriptions and description rules, on the basis of an extensive overview of applications of description grammars in literature. The aim of this research is to establish a formal representation for description rules and the implementation of a gram

  5. 40 CFR 233.11 - Program description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program description. 233.11 Section... PROGRAM REGULATIONS Program Approval § 233.11 Program description. The program description as required under § 233.10 shall include: (a) A description of the scope and structure of the State's program....

  6. Description of the Current Status of Reclamation and Treatment Methods of the Conta minated Land in China%污染土地的复垦现状与治理方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏成斌

    2015-01-01

    介绍了我国土地复垦工作的现状,指出了土地复垦在我国现阶段的重要性,针对土地复垦的现状提出了一些治理方法和相关建议,以期为我国土地复垦工作提供参考.%This article describes the status of land reclamation work in China and points out the importance of land reclamation at this stage;at the same time ,the article proposes a number of treatment methods and reco mmendations , which will help the land reclamation work to get a better development .

  7. Descriptive Analyses of Pediatric Food Refusal and Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, Carrie S. W.; Woods, Julia N.; Borrero, John C.; Masler, Elizabeth A.; Lesser, Aaron D.

    2010-01-01

    Functional analyses of inappropriate mealtime behavior typically include conditions to determine if the contingent delivery of attention, tangible items, or escape reinforce food refusal. In the current investigation, descriptive analyses were conducted for 25 children who had been admitted to a program for the assessment and treatment of food…

  8. Stress Concentration Factors at Saddle and Crown Positions on the Central Brace of Two-Planar Welded CHS DKT-connections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Ahmadi; Mohammad Ali Lotfollahi-Yaghin; Mohammad H. Aminfar

    2012-01-01

    A set of parametric stress analyses was carried out for two-planar tubular DKT-joints under different axial loading conditions.The analysis results were used to present general remarks on the effects of the geometrical parameters on stress concentration factors (SCFs) at the inner saddle,outer saddle,and crown positions on the central brace.Based on results of finite element (FE) analysis and through nonlinear regression analysis,a new set of SCF parametric equations was established for fatigue design purposes.An assessment study of equations was conducted against the experimental data and original SCF database.The satisfaction of acceptance criteria proposed by the UK Department of Energy (UK DoE) was also checked.Results of parametric study showed that highly remarkable differences exist between the SCF values in a multi-planar DKT-joint and the corresponding SCFs in an equivalent uni-planar KT-joint having the same geometrical properties.It can be clearly concluded from this observation that using the equations proposed for uni-planar KT-connections to compute the SCFs in multi-planar DKT-joints will lead to either considerably under-predicting or over-predicting results.Hence,it is necessary to develop SCF formulae specially designed for multi-planar DKT-joints.Good results of equation assessment according to UK DoE acceptance criteria,high values of correlation coefficients,and the satisfactory agreement between the predictions of the proposed equations and the experimental data guarantee the accuracy of the equations.Therefore,the developed equations can be reliably used for fatigue design of offshore structures.

  9. Simpevarp - site descriptive model version 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-01

    SICADA and SKB GIS, and an inventory and assessment of relevant data in other databases; a systematic overview of data needs and availability for developing a site descriptive model for the surface ecosystems (biosphere) in the Simpevarp regional model area; a more detailed treatment of the present data base for the geosphere in the Simpevarp regional model area, and its transformation into the format of a site descriptive model. V. 0 modelling is based on data available before the start of site investigations, mostly collected for reasons not directly related to the deep disposal of spent nuclear fuel. An important component of the present work, therefore, is a data inventory, in which the location and scope of all potential sources of data is detailed and evaluated with respect to prospective usefulness for future site descriptive modelling for deep disposal. This includes a general description of existing geographical data, of which most are stored in SKB GIS, a survey of data already stored in the SICADA database, and an inventory of other data sources, whose information content has not yet been evaluated and/or inserted in SICADA or SKB GIS. Data sources relevant to the Simpevarp regional model area which still, to some degree, need to be evaluated/converted/inserted include the siting and construction of spent fuel interim storage facility, CLAB, and the siting, pre-investigation, predictive modelling and construction of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The present report describes the current level of knowledge of the surface ecosystems in the Simpevarp regional model area, in a highly condensed form. It refers to, and draws its examples from, a series of SKB background reports which have been produced since the completion of the Oskarshamn feasibility study, and a number of other sources of information which are gathered here for the first time. The data sources are outlined with reference to a series of functional ecosystem types: drainage areas, forest, wetland

  10. Normal hips and the hips covered with protective brace A finite-element comparative analysis%正常髋部与佩戴保护支具髋部的有限元对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何剑颖; 董谢平

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Finite element method has become an important means for biomechanical study against sideways falls because of its unlimited sample size, small experimental error and good repeatability.OBJECTIVE: To establish three-dimensional normal pelvis and brace-covered pelvis models and then to analyze the stress, strain and displacement distribution during sideways fall and to verify the effectiveness of hip brace.METHODS: Digital human Abaqus 6.51 software was used to build three-dimensional normal pelvis and brace-covered pelvis models. The rigid constraint surface was fixed. The whole pelvic model was loaded with 2 m/s loading. The stress, strain and displacement variation with time and contours were detected prior to and after wearing the hip brace. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the normal model, the contact force between the pelvis and the ground, the maximal compression strain of the cancellous bone when the maximal contact force between the pelvis and the ground generated, the maximal strain of the greater trochanter and femoral neck, the maximal von-Mises stress of the greater trochanter and femoral neck, and the mean stress of the greater trochanter and femoral neck were significantly reduced in the brace-covered pelvis model during sideways falls. These findings indicate that the hip brace can play a protective role in the greater trochanter, and effectively reduce the incidence of intertrochanteric fractures during sideways fall.%背景:有限元法因其具有不受样本量限制,实验误差小,重复性好等优点而成为防滑倒生物力学研究的重要手段.目的:建立正常骨盆以及佩戴护具骨盆的三维有限元模型,分析滑倒过程中骨盆各部位的应力、应变和位移分布,验证护具的有效性.方法:以中国数字人原始资料应用Abaqus 6.51软件构建正常骨盆以及佩戴护具骨盆的三维有限元模型,固定约束地面刚体,对整个骨盆模型加载2 m/s的速度载荷,程序运算

  11. RESEARCH ON STATIC PERFORMANCE OF CABLE-BRACED FRAME FOR PRESTRESSED MULTIPLE AND HIGH-RISE STEEL STRUCTURES%多高层预应力钢结构索支撑-框架静力性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学春; 林娜; 张爱林; 赵亮; 王艺蒙

    2015-01-01

    将预应力索支撑引入多高层钢结构,提出耗能预应力索支撑-框架结构,该结构体系能有效提高框架结构的抗侧能力和侧移延性,减小柱子计算长度,降低结构用钢量。利用有限元分析方法,分别对预应力索支撑-刚接框架、预应力索支撑-半刚接框架以及纯刚接框架进行静力性能分析,研究轴压比对三者的弹塑性发展、极限承载力、破坏机理、侧移刚度和侧移延性等方面的影响规律。研究表明,设置索支撑除增大框架抗侧刚度和提高极限承载力外,更重要的是提高侧移延性,改善破坏模式,且当外荷载去除或减小时使框架全部或者部分回到原始平衡位置,实现自复位。另外,随着轴压比的增大,三者抗侧承载力均降低,纯框架侧移延性降低,但索支撑-框架延性基本不受轴压比影响。%A new type of prestressed cable-braced energy-dissipation frame structure was proposed by adding prestressed cable brace to a high-rise building.This structure could improve lateral resistance and ductility of steel frame effectively, thus resulting in smaller calculation length of columns and less steel-consumption.By using finite element method, the static behavior of cable-braced rigid frame, cable-braced semi-rigid frame and steel frame was analyzed, and the influence law of axial compression ratio on their elastioplasticity behavior, ultimate bearing capacity, failure mechanism, lateral stiffness and ductility etc was studied.The results showed that cable brace could improve the lateral stiffness and bearing capacity of steel frame, more importantly, could also improve its lateral ductility, change failure model, and produce the self-centering function by tensioning frame back to the original location entirely or partly when the load was removed.In addition, with the increase of axial compression ratio, bearing capacities of the three type frames were all

  12. Anaerobic procedures of wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Zupančič, Tadeja

    2013-01-01

    Highly polluted wastewater is formed in dairies, pig farms and slaughterhouses. Before released into watercourses, wastewater should be properly processed with different treatment procedures in wastewater treatment plants. The thesis deals with the descriptions of mechanical, physical and chemical, and biological wastewater treatment procedures and the description of the factors which affect the reactions in wastewater treatment plants. I give special emphasis on anaerobic wastewater treatmen...

  13. Volumetric properties and enthalpies of solution of alcohols C{sub k}H{sub 2k+1}OH (k = 1, 2, 6) in 1-methyl-3-alkylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide {l_brace}[C{sub 1}C{sub n}Im][NTf{sub 2}] n = 2, 4, 6, 8, 10{r_brace} ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Y. [CNRS, Laboratoire Thermodynamique et Interactions Moleculaires, UMR 6272, 24 avenue des Landais, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Husson, P. [CNRS, Laboratoire Thermodynamique et Interactions Moleculaires, UMR 6272, 24 avenue des Landais, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, Laboratoire Thermodynamique et Interactions Moleculaires, UMR 6272, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Jacquemin, J. [The QUILL Research Centre, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AG (United Kingdom); Universite Francois Rabelais, Laboratoire PCMB (EA 4244), equipe Chimie-physique des Interfaces et des Milieux Electrolytiques (CIME), Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Youngs, T.G.A. [The QUILL Research Centre, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AG (United Kingdom); Kett, V.L. [The School of Pharmacy, The Queen' s University of Belfast, 97 Lisburn Road, Belfast BT9 7BL (United Kingdom); Hardacre, C. [The QUILL Research Centre, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AG (United Kingdom); Costa Gomes, M.F., E-mail: margarida.c.gomes@univ-bpclermont.fr [CNRS, Laboratoire Thermodynamique et Interactions Moleculaires, UMR 6272, 24 avenue des Landais, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, Laboratoire Thermodynamique et Interactions Moleculaires, UMR 6272, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Excess properties of (ionic liquid + alcohol) mixtures. > Volumetric properties, excess molar volumes. > Heats of mixing of (ionic liquid + alcohol) mixtures. > Molecular simulation of (ionic liquid + alcohol) mixtures. - Abstract: We present a study on the effect of the alkyl chain length of the imidazolium ring in 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquids, [C{sub 1}C{sub n}Im][NTf{sub 2}] (n = 2 to 10), on the mixing properties of (ionic liquid + alcohol) mixtures (enthalpy and volume). We have measured small excess molar volumes with highly asymmetric curves as a function of mole fraction composition (S-shape) with more negative values in the alcohol-rich regions. The excess molar volumes increase with the increase of the alkyl-chain length of the imidazolium cation of the ionic liquid. The values of the partial molar excess enthalpy and the enthalpy of mixing are positive and, for the case of methanol, do not vary monotonously with the length of the alkyl side-chain of the cation on the ionic liquid - increasing from n = 2 to 6 and then decreasing from n = 8. This non-monotonous variation is explained by a more favourable interaction of methanol with the cation head group of the ionic liquid for alkyl chains longer than eight carbon atoms. It is also observed that the mixing is less favourable for the smaller alcohols, the enthalpy of mixing decreasing to less positive values as the alkyl chain of the alcohol increases. Based on the data from this work and on the knowledge of the vapour pressure of {l_brace}[C{sub 1}C{sub n}Im][NTf{sub 2}] + alcohol{r_brace} binary mixtures at T = 298 K reported in the literature, the excess Gibbs free energy, excess enthalpy and excess entropy could be then calculated and it was observed that these mixtures behave like the ones constituted by a non-associating and a non-polar component, with its solution behaviour being determined by the enthalpy.

  14. SpineCor treatment for Juvenile Idiopathic Scoliosis: SOSORT award 2010 winner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Circo Alin B

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Juvenile idiopathic scoliosis is a condition used to describe patients who are least 4 years of age but younger than 10 when the deformity is first identified. In these patients, the condition is usually progressive and those that are diagnosed at five years or younger have a high chance of progression to a large curve, with additional pulmonary and cardiac complications. The main form of conservative treatment for juvenile scoliosis is the use of a bracing system. This prospective interventional study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the Dynamic SpineCor orthosis for juvenile idiopathic scoliosis as well as to evaluate the stability of the spine after the weaning point. Material and Methods For this study, 150 juvenile patients were treated by the SpineCor orthosis between 1993 and 2009. Of these, 67 patients had a definite outcome and 83 are still actively being treated. To determine the effectiveness of the brace the OUTCOME criteria recommended by the SRS was used. Results The results from our study showed that of the 67 patients with a definite outcome, 32.9% corrected their Cobb angle by at least 5° and 10.5% had a stabilization of their Cobb angle. Within the patients with a definite outcome, 37.3% of patients where recommended for surgery before authorized end of treatment. For this group of patients, surgery was postponed. Looking at the stability of the curves 2 years after the end of the treatment, we found 12.5% of the patients continued their correction without the brace being used and 71.4% remained stable. Discussion From our study we can clearly see that the effectiveness of the SpineCor orthosis in obtaining and maintaining the neuromuscular integration of the corrective movement can be achieved effectively for juvenile patients. Over 75% of all patients that finished the treatment had remained stable with a few continuing to correct their Cobb angle after the use of the SpineCor orthosis was

  15. Seismic Analysis of Frame Structures with Self-centering Friction Energy Dissipative Braces%自复位摩擦耗能支撑框架的抗震性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡丹; 周臻; 苗建义; 王维影

    2014-01-01

    Self-centering friction energy dissipative ( SCFED) brace is a novel bracing system that has both energy dissipative and self-centering capacity. A 9-storey benchmark steel frame structure model was equipped with SCFED braces. OpenSEES software was employed to conduct nonlinear static pushover analysis and dynamic time-history analysis. As compared to buckling restrained brace ( BRB) frames, the seismic performance of SCFED frames was investigated. Results show that SCFED frames have smaller peak storey drift angel than BRB frames. The storey drift distributes more uniformly along the structural height for SCFED frames. The average residual peak storey drift angel of BRB frames is 10-20% of peak storey drift angel, while it is only 1-2% for SCFED frames. This demonstrates that SCFED can effectively control the structural residual deformation. However, since the stiffness transfer is acute in the re-centering process of SCFED, the storey acceleration of SCFED frames is larger than BRB frames.%自复位摩擦耗能支撑( SCFED)是一种兼具耗能能力与自定心能力的新型支撑。本文将SCFED应用于一9层Benchmark钢框架,采用OpenSEES有限元软件,进行了非线性静力推覆分析( Pushover)和非线性动力时程分析,通过与屈曲约束支撑( BRB)框架结构的对比,研究了SCFED框架结构的抗震性能。结果表明:SCFED框架的最大层间位移角较BRB框架小,且沿楼层高度分布更为均匀;BRB框架平均残余层间位移角约为最大位移角的10%~20%,而SCFED框架的残余位移角仅为最大位移角的1%~2%,表明SCFED能有效控制结构的残余变形;由于SCFED在自复位时的刚度转换较为剧烈,导致SCFED框架的层加速度比BRB框架大。

  16. Phenomenological description of phase inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piela, K; Ooms, G; Sengers, J V

    2009-02-01

    We propose an extended Ginzburg-Landau model for a description of the ambivalence region associated with the phenomenon of phase inversion observed in dispersed water-oil flow through a pipe. In analogy to the classical mean-field theory of phase transitions, it is shown that a good quantitative representation of the ambivalence region is obtained by using the injected phase volume fraction and a friction factor as the appropriate physical parameters.

  17. GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAQUETTE,D.E.; BENNETT,D.B.; DORSCH,W.R.; GOODE,G.A.; LEE,R.J.; KLAUS,K.; HOWE,R.F.; GEIGER,K.

    2002-05-31

    THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ORDER 5400.1, GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION PROGRAM, REQUIRES THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A GROUNDWATER PROTECTION PROGRAM. THE BNL GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION PROVIDES AN OVERVIEW OF HOW THE LABORATORY ENSURES THAT PLANS FOR GROUNDWATER PROTECTION, MONITORING, AND RESTORATION ARE FULLY DEFINED, INTEGRATED, AND MANAGED IN A COST EFFECTIVE MANNER THAT IS CONSISTENT WITH FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL REGULATIONS.

  18. Mind you: an enunciative description

    OpenAIRE

    Ranger, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The predicate mind is situated somewhere between the lexical and the grammatical, lending itself to various grammaticalised uses, such as never mind or mind employed alone as a form of discourse particle. The present article deals with the parenthetical sequence mind you, using examples taken from the British National Corpus. After a brief discussion evoking the methodological difficulties implied by corpus study of a polyvalent, multiword marker of this type, I will propose a description, fo...

  19. Descriptive Analyses of Caregiver Reprimands

    OpenAIRE

    Sloman, Kimberly N; Vollmer, Timothy R; Cotnoir, Nicole M; Borrero, Carrie S.W; Borrero, John C; Samaha, Andrew L; St. Peter, Claire C

    2005-01-01

    We conducted descriptive observations of 5 individuals with developmental disabilities and severe problem behavior while they interacted with their caregivers in either simulated environments (an inpatient hospital facility) or in their homes. The focus of the study was on caregiver reprimands and child problem behavior. Thus, we compared the frequency of problem behavior that immediately preceded a caregiver reprimand to that immediately following a caregiver reprimand, and the results showe...

  20. Personality: Description, Classification and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Taymur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many descriptions and classifications of personality have been made to understand and acknowledge human being through out the history. During the developmental process of psychiatry, almost every school defined and assessed personality regarding to their own perspective. As DSM (Diagnostical and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and ICD (International Classification of Diseases being available to common usage, scientists conducted studies to set a common terminology for personality. Categorical and dimensional approaches are the most fundamentally different assessment strategies in the research and clinical aspects about personality. While categorical approach views the personality as dichotomies which consists of different groups, dimensional approach aims to describe the personality on the basis of dimensions, thus suggests that the personality is a structure formed by definite dimensions. Several advantages and disadvantages can be noticed when descriptions of personality and tools for the evaluation of personality are reviewed. When the section making suggestions about personality disorder in DSM-5 is evaluated, it is seen that it aims to restructure the personality disorder diagnostic group according to new findings and critiques. In this article, the description of personality throughout the history, dimensional, categorical and cognitive approaches to personality, the features of the tools that are used to assess and measure the personality are reviewed.

  1. Description of fiction in Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Šauperl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject description of fiction in the Slovenian Cooperative On-line Bibliographic Database (COBIB is still inadequate. Participation in COBIB is granted to librarians who have successfully passed the exam. As a consequence, the number of contributing librarians is limited. However, all Slovenian librarians can collaborate in the Slovenian Wikipedia. Slovenian and foreign library science researchers have proposed the structure of subject description of fiction. An analysis of articles describing nine works of fiction in five wikipedias (English, French, Spanish, Croatian and Slovenian has shown new characteristics. Drawing on these findings, a suggestion of an optimal structure is made. An article describing a work of fiction should begin with a general introductory statement comprising the name of the author, his/her nationality and genre.Translators and original title should be written if a translation is presented. Illustrators and other contributors, the background and other specific information on the work should be added if relevant. The main body of the text should be structured in the following chapters: 1 contents, 2 collection, 3 reviews and awards, 4 editions and translations, 5 adaptations, 6 see also, 7 links and 8 sources. An "infobox: book" with Slovenian adaptation and relevant categories should be inserted. Copying these Wikipedia articles into the library catalogue would enhance subject description and provide better subject access to fiction.

  2. Application of soil-nailing wall in foundation pit bracing of building No.18 for measurement and scientific experiment%土钉墙在18号计量科研实验楼基坑支护中应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春山

    2012-01-01

    总结出土钉墙支护具有经济、安全、质量可靠等优点,通过分析18号计量科研实验楼基坑土钉支护的施工情况,进一步了解土钉墙支护的施工工艺,为土钉墙施工提供一定的参考价值。%This paper outlines advantages of soil-nailing wall bracing,such as economic,safe,and reliable quality and so on.Through analyzing the soil-nailing bracing condition of foundation pit of building No.18 for measurement and scientific experiment,it further knows the bracing technology of soil-nailing wall,which has provided certain valuable reference for the construction of soil-nailing wall.

  3. Boundary Liouville Theory: Hamiltonian Description and Quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Dorn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the Hamiltonian treatment of classical and quantum properties of Liouville field theory on a timelike strip in 2d Minkowski space. We give a complete description of classical solutions regular in the interior of the strip and obeying constant conformally invariant conditions on both boundaries. Depending on the values of the two boundary parameters these solutions may have different monodromy properties and are related to bound or scattering states. By Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization we find the quasiclassical discrete energy spectrum for the bound states in agreement with the corresponding limit of spectral data obtained previously by conformal bootstrap methods in Euclidean space. The full quantum version of the special vertex operator $e^varphi$ in terms of free field exponentials is constructed in the hyperbolic sector.

  4. Conformal radiotherapy of prostate carcinoma: Procedure description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erak Marko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Today, three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy is a standard way in the radical treatment of localized prostate cancer, and it is an alternative to the radical prostatectomy. This method of radiotherapy treatment is widely accepted in the treatment of prostate cancer patients, and provides irradiation of targeted volume (prostate, seminal vesicles with dose escalation sparing the surrounding healthy tissues (rectum, bladder at the same time. That is not possible with the conventional twodimension technique. Procedure description. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy is a volumetric, visual simulation according to the computed tomography slices; it defines the tumour and organ at risk individually in each patient. Results of several studies have shown that there is a significant decrease in the development of acute toxicity when prostate cancer patients are treated with conformal radiotherapy. High dose irradiation gives excellent results in treatment of localized prostate carcinoma and improves treatment results in the patients with locally advanced carcinoma of prostate. Discussion. Prostate carcinoma irradiation techniques have been changed dramatically during recent years. Data obtained by computed tomography are important since the size and shapes of the prostate as well as its anatomic relations towards the rectum and bladder are considerably different in individual patients. The three-dimension plan of irradiation can be designed for each patient individually by performing computed tomography technique when planning radiotherapy. Conclusion. The advanced planning systems for conformal radiotherapy can reconstruct the anatomic structures of pelvis in three-dimension technique on the basis of computed tomography scans, which provides better conformality between the irradiation beam and geometrical shape of the tumour with minimal irradiation of the surrounding healthy tissue.

  5. Multiple descriptions based wavelet image coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海林; 杨宇航

    2004-01-01

    We present a simple and efficient scheme that combines multiple descriptions coding with wavelet transform under JPEG2000 image coding architecture. To reduce packet losses, controlled amounts of redundancy are added to the wavelet transform coefficients to produce multiple descriptions of wavelet coefficients during the compression process to produce multiple descriptions bit-stream of a compressed image. Even if areceiver gets only parts of descriptions (other descriptions being lost), it can still reconstruct image with acceptable quality. Specifically, the scheme uses not only high-performance wavelet transform to improve compression efficiency, but also multiple descriptions technique to enhance the robustness of the compressed image that is transmitted through unreliable network channels.

  6. Subject categories and scope descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series. It defines the subject categories and provides the scope descriptions to be used for categorization of the nuclear literature for the preparation of INIS and ETDE input by national and regional centres. Together with the other volumes of the INIS Reference Series it defines the rules, standards and practices and provides the authorities to be used in the International Nuclear Information System and ETDE. A complete list of the volumes published in the INIS Reference Series may be found on the inside front cover of this publication. This INIS/ETDE Reference Series document is intended to serve two purposes: to define the subject scope of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and to define the subject classification scheme of INIS and ETDE. It is thus the guide to the inputting centres in determining which items of literature should be reported, and in determining where the full bibliographic entry and abstract of each item should be included in INIS or ETDE database. Each category is identified by a category code consisting of three alphanumeric characters. A scope description is given for each subject category. The scope of INIS is the sum of the scopes of all the categories. With most categories cross references are provided to other categories where appropriate. Cross references should be of assistance in finding the appropriate category; in fact, by indicating topics that are excluded from the category in question, the cross references help to clarify and define the scope of the category to which they are appended. A Subject Index is included as an aid to subject classifiers, but it is only an aid and not a means for subject classification. It facilitates the use of this document, but is no substitute for the description of the scope of the subject categories

  7. ELECTRICAL SUPPORT SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Roy

    2004-06-24

    The purpose of this revision of the System Design Description (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the electrical support system and their bases to allow the design effort to proceed to License Application. This SDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures over time. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design as they exist at this time, with emphasis on those attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD has been developed to be an engineering tool for design control. Accordingly, the primary audience/users are design engineers. This type of SDD both ''leads'' and ''trails'' the design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The SDD trails the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD is a reflection of the results of the design process to date. Functional and operational requirements applicable to electrical support systems are obtained from the ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Siddoway 2003). Other requirements to support the design process have been taken from higher-level requirements documents such as the ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (Doraswamy 2004), and fire hazards analyses. The above-mentioned low-level documents address ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canon and Leitner 2003) requirements. This SDD contains several appendices that include supporting information. Appendix B lists key system charts, diagrams, drawings, and lists, and Appendix C includes a list of system procedures.

  8. ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Maniyar

    2004-06-22

    The purpose of this revision of the System Description Document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the electrical power system and their bases to allow the design effort to proceed to License Application. This SDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures over time. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design as they exist at this time, with emphasis on those attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD has been developed to be an engineering tool for design control. Accordingly, the primary audience are design engineers. This type of SDD leads and follows the design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential to performing the design process. This SDD follows the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD is a reflection of the results of the design process to date. Functional and operational requirements applicable to this system are obtained from ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Siddoway, 2003). Other requirements to support the design process have been taken from higher level requirements documents such as ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (Doraswamy 2004), the fire hazards analyses, and the preclosure safety analysis. The above mentioned low-level documents address ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canori and Leitner 2003) requirements. This SDD includes several appendices with supporting information. Appendix B lists key system charts, diagrams, drawings, and lists; and Appendix C is a list of system procedures.

  9. Standardizing the microsystems technology description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liateni, Karim; Thomas, Gabriel; Hui Bon Hoa, Christophe; Bensaude, David

    2002-04-01

    The microsystems industry is promising a rapid and widespread growth for the coming years. The automotive, network, telecom and electronics industries take advantage of this technology by including it in their products; thus, getting better integration and high energetic performances. Microsystems related software and data exchange have inherited from the IC technology experience or standards, which appear not to fit the advanced level of conception currently needed by microsystems designers. A typical design flow to validate a microsystem device involves several software from disconnected areas like layout editors, FEM simulators, HDL modeling and simulation tools. However, and fabricated microsystem is obtained through execution of a layered process. Process characteristics will be used at each level of the design and analysis. Basically, the designer will have to customize each of his tools after the process. The project introduced here intends to unify the process description language and speed up the critical and tedious CAD customization task. We gather all the information related to the technology of a microsystem process in a single file. It is based on the XML standard format to receive worldwide attention. This format is called XML-MTD, standing for XML Microsystems Technology Description. Built around XML, it is an ASCII format which gives the ability to handle a comprehensive database for technology data. This format is open, given under general public license, but the aim is to manage the format withing a XML-MTD consortium of leader and well-established EDA companies and Foundries. In this way, it will take profit of their experience. For automated configuration of design and analysis tools regarding process-dependant information, we ship the Technology Manger software. Technology Manager links foundries with a large panel of standard EDA and FEA packages used by design teams relying on the Microsystems Technology Description in XML-MTD format.

  10. Health-related quality-of-life in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients 25 years after treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simony, Ane; Hansen, Emil Jesper; Carreon, Leah Y;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since 1962 to the mid eighties the Harrington Rod instrumentation was the Golden standard for surgical treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS). The Boston braces were introduced in the 1970´s and are still used as a conservative treatment, for curves less than 40°. Very few......) using Harrington- DDT instrumentation between 1983 and 1990 at Rigshospitalet Copenhagen, were invited to participate in a long-term evaluation study. A validated Danish version of the Scoliosis Research Society 22R (SRS22R) and Short Form-36 (SF36v1) were administrated to the patients two weeks before...

  11. Archival Descriptions from the National Archives Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — Archival Descriptions from the National Archives Catalog data set provides archival descriptions of the permanent holdings of the federal government in the custody...

  12. Task descriptions versus use cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauesen, Søren; Kuhail, Mohammad Amin

    2011-01-01

    Use cases are widely used as a substantial part of requirements, also when little programming is expected (COTS-based systems, Commercial-Off-The-Shelf). Are use cases effective as requirements? To answer this question, we invited professionals and researchers to specify requirements for the same...... project: Acquire a new system to support a hotline. Among the 15 replies, eight used traditional use cases that specified a dialog between user and system. Seven used a related technique, task description, which specified the customer’s needs without specifying a dialog. It also allowed the analyst to...

  13. Inflationary universe in fluid description

    CERN Document Server

    Bamba, Kazuharu

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a fluid description of inflationary cosmology. It is shown that the three observables of the inflationary universe: the spectral index of the curvature perturbations, the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the density perturbations, and the running of the spectral index, can be compatible with the Planck analysis. In addition, we reconstruct the equation of state (EoS) for a fluid from the spectral index of the curvature perturbations consistent with the Planck results. We explicitly demonstrate that the universe can gracefully exit from inflation in the reconstructed fluid models. Furthermore, we explore the singular inflation for a fluid model.

  14. Hadl: HUMS Architectural Description Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkamala, R.; Adavi, V.; Agarwal, N.; Gullapalli, S.; Kumar, P.; Sundaram, P.

    2004-01-01

    Specification of architectures is an important prerequisite for evaluation of architectures. With the increase m the growth of health usage and monitoring systems (HUMS) in commercial and military domains, the need far the design and evaluation of HUMS architectures has also been on the increase. In this paper, we describe HADL, HUMS Architectural Description Language, that we have designed for this purpose. In particular, we describe the features of the language, illustrate them with examples, and show how we use it in designing domain-specific HUMS architectures. A companion paper contains details on our design methodology of HUMS architectures.

  15. College Readiness -- A Simple Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Dancis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To survive academically the first year of college, students basically need the three Rs, Reading, wRiting and aRithmetic, albeit all on high school levels. No Statistics needed.Reading means reading with understanding the expository and descriptive text in science and social studies textbooks, not literature. This includes following written directions. Writing means writing a coherent summary of each chapter in the science and social studies textbooks, and relating the chapter to material previously studied. Arithmetic means Arithmetic, including fractions, decimals, percents, measurement and multi-step Arithmetic word problems, along with “generalized” Arithmetic, better known as Algebra.

  16. 刚架拱桥斜撑破坏及加固后可靠性分析%Bracing strut failure and its reliability analysis after reinforce in framed arch bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚良云; 陈燊

    2013-01-01

    Based on the framed arch bridge mechanical behavior and its component structure defects, a solid model of batter brace by means of ANSYS program was established to simulate the reduction of the strength in the wet formed joint of the batter brace, resulting from the descent of the elastic modulus of the concrete. Based on its reliability analysis after reinforce in the framed arch bridge, the the residual service-life of bridge could be predicted.%根据刚架拱桥结构的受力特性和构件本身存在的缺陷,利用斜撑的ANSYS实体模型分析刚架拱桥斜撑的破坏机理,以弹模的降低来模拟斜撑湿接缝处混凝土强度的衰变.研究表明湿接缝处混凝土强度不足是斜撑破坏的主要原因,并对斜撑加固后的可靠性进行分析,预测了斜撑的剩余使用寿命.

  17. Analysis and design on buckling restrained braces-reinforced concrete frame structures%屈曲约束支撑-钢筋混凝土框架结构的设计与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱江; 李帼昌; 马传正

    2012-01-01

    Computer models of buckling restrained braces-reinforced concrete frame and RC frame were set up,and seismic performances of the models were calculated by adopting response spectrum analysis and Pushover analysis based on SAP2000.The results show that the RC frame including buckling restrained braces will increase story-stiffness,decrease lateral deformation of frame structure significantly,and reach requirement of more defences in seismic concept design of buildings.%利用SAP2000软件建立包含和不包含屈曲约束支撑的钢筋混凝土框架计算模型,分别采用反应谱分析和Pushover分析方法对两种模型进行对比计算分析。结果表明:在纯钢筋混凝土框架结构中合理设置屈曲约束支撑,可以达到增加框架结构的侧向刚度、明显降低结构侧向变形、实现多道设防的效果。

  18. RESPONSE MODIFICATION FACTOR R AND OVERSTRENGTH FACTOR OF Y-ECCENTRIC BRACED STEEL FRAME%Y形偏心支撑钢框架的地震反应折减系数和超强系数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文侠; 顾强; 宋振森; 李东; 方有珍

    2012-01-01

    该文采用静力推覆和能力谱方法分析了基于我国抗震规范设计的12个Y形偏心支撑钢框架的地震反应折减系数R和超强系数及赘余度超强系数3,分析了结构层数、楼层高跨比对各系数的影响。研究结果表明:Y形偏心支撑钢框架的设计地震作用可在我国现行抗震规范的基础上降低20%左右。%Twelve Y-eccentric braced steel frames were designed to complie with Chinese seismic code. The response modification factor R, overstrength factor and redundancy factor of each building were evaluated by the capacity spectrum method combined with the global capacity envelops obtained from an improved pushover analysis. Moreover, the effects of storey numbers and spans of the structure on these factors were analyzed. The results show that the 20% elastic design earthquake action of Y-eccentric braced steel frames can be approximately reduced on the base of Chinese seismic code.

  19. 40 CFR 123.22 - Program description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employees. The State need not submit complete job descriptions for every employee carrying out the State... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program description. 123.22 Section... PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS State Program Submissions § 123.22 Program description. Any State that seeks...

  20. 40 CFR 145.23 - Program description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employees. The State need not submit complete job descriptions for every employee carrying out the State... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program description. 145.23 Section...) STATE UIC PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS State Program Submissions § 145.23 Program description. Any State...

  1. 7 CFR 52.801 - Product description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Product description. 52.801 Section 52.801 Agriculture... United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Product Description and Grades § 52.801 Product description. Frozen red tart pitted cherries is the food prepared from properly...

  2. 17 CFR 2.1 - Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Description. 2.1 Section 2.1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.1 Description... Futures Trading Commission has adopted an official seal (the “Seal”), the description of which is...

  3. 14 CFR 415.109 - Launch description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Launch description. 415.109 Section 415.109... From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.109 Launch description. An applicant's safety review document must contain the following information: (a) Launch site description. An applicant must identify the...

  4. 7 CFR 52.3181 - Product description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Product description. 52.3181 Section 52.3181... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Dried Prunes Product Description, Varietal Types, Sizes, Grades § 52.3181 Product description. Dried prunes are prepared from sound,...

  5. 37 CFR 1.435 - The description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The description. 1.435... Application § 1.435 The description. (a) The application must meet the requirements as to the content and form of the description set forth in PCT Rules 5, 9, 10, and 11 and sections 204 and 208 of...

  6. 14 CFR 437.23 - Program description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program description. 437.23 Section 437.23... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Requirements to Obtain an Experimental Permit Program Description § 437.23 Program description. (a) An applicant must provide— (1) Dimensioned three-view drawings...

  7. 7 CFR 52.1001 - Product description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Product description. 52.1001 Section 52.1001... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Dates Product Description, Styles, and Grades § 52.1001 Product description. Dates are the properly cured fresh fruit of the date tree...

  8. 10 CFR 71.33 - Package description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Package description. 71.33 Section 71.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Application for Package Approval § 71.33 Package description. The application must include a description of the...

  9. Integrated Project Management System description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integrated Program Management System (IPMS) Description is a ''working'' document that describes the work processes of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Office (UMTRA) and IPMS Group. This document has undergone many revisions since the UMTRA Project began; this revision not only updates the work processes but more clearly explains the relationships between the Project Office, contractors, and other participants. The work process flow style has been revised to better describe Project work and the relationships of participants. For each work process, more background and guidance on ''why'' and ''what is expected'' is given. For example, a description of activity data sheets has been added in the work organization and the Project performance and reporting processes, as well as additional detail about the federal budget process and funding management and improved flow charts and explanations of cost and schedule management. A chapter has been added describing the Cost Reduction/Productivity Improvement Program. The Change Control Board (CCB) procedures (Appendix A) have been updated. Project critical issues meeting (PCIM) procedures have been added as Appendix B. Budget risk assessment meeting procedures have been added as Appendix C. These appendices are written to act as stand-alone documentation for each process. As the procedures are improved and updated, the documentation can be updated separately

  10. Treatment of internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xui-qin; Li, Meng-chen; Tao, Ran

    2010-10-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is a prevalent, highly comorbid, and significantly impairing disorder. Although many psychotherapeutic approaches and psychotropic medications have been recommended and some of the psychotherapeutic approaches and a few pharmacotherapy strategies have been studied, treatment of IA is generally in its early stages. This article reviews theoretical descriptions of psychotherapy and the effects of psychosocial treatment and pharmacologic treatment. We also outline our own treatment model of IA.

  11. LARYNGEAL MALIGNANCY: A RETROSPECTIVE DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Laryngeal cancer is the second most common head and neck cancer in India. The onset, rate of progression and duration of symptoms are variable for supraglottic, glottic and subglottic cancer. Smoking and alcohol are also most important risk factors for laryngeal cancer. Data regarding cases of laryngeal cancer in relation to age, sex, symptoms and signs, aetiological factors with special reference to smoking and alcohol, histopathological types, tumour staging, treatment and outcomes are important to assess changing trends in laryngeal cancer treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study is about retrospective descriptive analysis of diagnosed and treated cases of laryngeal cancer in the Department of ENT from 2005 to 2008. Total fifty patients with laryngeal malignancy were seen from May 2005 to May 2008 with average 1 year of follow-up. Data regarding cases of laryngeal cancer in relation to age, sex, symptoms and signs, aetiological factors with special reference to smoking and alcohol, histopathological types, tumour staging, treatment and outcomes were analysed using SPSS software. All patients who were diagnosed to have laryngeal cancer and treated were included in the study. RESULTS In this descriptive analysis, 62% patients are between 51-70 years. Most of the patients had been symptomatic for 3-5 months; 58% patients presented with voice change followed by other complaints like throat pain, foreign body sensation, otalgia, breathing difficulty. Voice change was distinctly the most common symptom regardless of tumour site. It was more prevalent in glottis cases, but it was also the leading symptom in supraglottic tumours. Glottis tumours were more often found at an early stage and patients with a supraglottic tumour presented more often with neck node metastasis. CONCLUSION Laryngeal malignancy is one of the head and neck malignancies, which are more common in males. Tobacco is an important risk factor in causation of the

  12. Is there a body of evidence for the treatment of patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Hans-Rudolf

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Historically, the treatment options for AIS, the most common form of scoliosis are; exercises; in-patient rehabilitation; braces and surgery. While there is evidence in the form of prospective controlled studies that Scoliosis Intensive Rehabilitation (SIR and braces can alter the natural history of the condition, there is no prospective controlled study comparing the natural history with surgical treatment. One aim of the Scoliosis Society (SOSORT should be; to help develop a body of research regarding the outcomes of conservative and operative treatment as well, and to highlight the problems of treatment indications in patients with AIS and other spinal deformities. Another aim is to help to improve the safety of patients who have surgery. By producing evidence-based information that can be used to develop guidelines that could aid both professionals and patients in making decisions about surgical and conservative options. Although 'Scoliosis' is the official journal of the SOSORT and is the main forum for experts in the field of conservative management of patients with spinal deformities, there needs to be more wide spread attempt to develop a fuller body of evidence focussing on spine surgery as well.

  13. A Descriptive Study on Sexually Exploited Children in Residential Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twill, Sarah E.; Green, Denise M.; Traylor, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Sexual exploitation and prostitution of children and adolescents is a multibillion dollar industry in the United States (Estes and Weiner in "Medical, legal & social science aspects of child sexual exploitation: A comprehensive review of pornography, prostitution, and internet crimes, vol I," G.W. Medical Publishing, Inc, St Louis, 2005; Milloy in…

  14. SNF AGING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.L. Swanson

    2005-04-06

    The purpose of this system description document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) aging system and associated bases, which will allow the design effort to proceed. This SDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This SDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The SDD follows the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD reflects the current results of the design process. Throughout this SDD, the term aging cask applies to vertical site-specific casks and to horizontal aging modules. The term overpack is a vertical site-specific cask that contains a dual-purpose canister (DPC) or a disposable canister. Functional and operational requirements applicable to this system were obtained from ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Curry 2004 [DIRS 170557]). Other requirements that support the design process were taken from documents such as ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (BSC 2004 [DES 171599]), ''Site Fire Hazards Analyses'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172174]), and ''Nuclear Safety Design Bases for License Application'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 171512]). The documents address requirements in the ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canori and Leitner 2003 [DIRS 166275]). This SDD includes several appendices. Appendix A is a Glossary; Appendix B is a list of key system charts

  15. Surface parametrization and shape description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechbuehler, Christian; Gerig, Guido; Kuebler, Olaf

    1992-09-01

    Procedures for the parameterization and description of the surface of simply connected 3-D objects are presented. Critical issues for shape-based categorization and comparison of 3-D objects are addressed, which are generality with respect to object complexity, invariance to standard transformations, and descriptive power in terms of object geometry. Starting from segmented volume data, a relational data structure describing the adjacency of local surface elements is generated. The representation is used to parametrize the surface by defining a continuous, one-to-one mapping from the surface of the original object to the surface of a unit sphere. The mapping is constrained by two requirements, minimization of distortions and preservation of area. The former is formulated as the goal function of a nonlinear optimization problem and the latter as its constraints. Practicable starting values are obtained by an initial mapping based on a heat conduction model. In contract to earlier approaches, the novel parameterization method provides a mapping of arbitrarily shaped simply connected objects, i.e., it performs an unfolding of convoluted surface structures. This global parameterization allows the systematical scanning of the object surface by the variation of two parameters. As one possible approach to shape analysis, it enables us to expand the object surface into a series of spherical harmonic functions, extending the concept of elliptical Fourier descriptors for 2-D closed curves. The novel parameterization overcomes the traditional limitations of expressing an object surface in polar coordinates, which restricts such descriptions to star-shaped objects. The numerical coefficients in the Fourier series form an object-centered, surface-oriented descriptor of the object''s form. Rotating the coefficients in parameter space and object space puts the object into a standard position and yields a spherical harmonic descriptor which is invariant to translations, rotations

  16. Simpevarp - site descriptive model version 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-01

    SICADA and SKB GIS, and an inventory and assessment of relevant data in other databases; a systematic overview of data needs and availability for developing a site descriptive model for the surface ecosystems (biosphere) in the Simpevarp regional model area; a more detailed treatment of the present data base for the geosphere in the Simpevarp regional model area, and its transformation into the format of a site descriptive model. V. 0 modelling is based on data available before the start of site investigations, mostly collected for reasons not directly related to the deep disposal of spent nuclear fuel. An important component of the present work, therefore, is a data inventory, in which the location and scope of all potential sources of data is detailed and evaluated with respect to prospective usefulness for future site descriptive modelling for deep disposal. This includes a general description of existing geographical data, of which most are stored in SKB GIS, a survey of data already stored in the SICADA database, and an inventory of other data sources, whose information content has not yet been evaluated and/or inserted in SICADA or SKB GIS. Data sources relevant to the Simpevarp regional model area which still, to some degree, need to be evaluated/converted/inserted include the siting and construction of spent fuel interim storage facility, CLAB, and the siting, pre-investigation, predictive modelling and construction of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The present report describes the current level of knowledge of the surface ecosystems in the Simpevarp regional model area, in a highly condensed form. It refers to, and draws its examples from, a series of SKB background reports which have been produced since the completion of the Oskarshamn feasibility study, and a number of other sources of information which are gathered here for the first time. The data sources are outlined with reference to a series of functional ecosystem types: drainage areas, forest, wetland

  17. Simpevarp - site descriptive model version 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SICADA and SKB GIS, and an inventory and assessment of relevant data in other databases; a systematic overview of data needs and availability for developing a site descriptive model for the surface ecosystems (biosphere) in the Simpevarp regional model area; a more detailed treatment of the present data base for the geosphere in the Simpevarp regional model area, and its transformation into the format of a site descriptive model. V. 0 modelling is based on data available before the start of site investigations, mostly collected for reasons not directly related to the deep disposal of spent nuclear fuel. An important component of the present work, therefore, is a data inventory, in which the location and scope of all potential sources of data is detailed and evaluated with respect to prospective usefulness for future site descriptive modelling for deep disposal. This includes a general description of existing geographical data, of which most are stored in SKB GIS, a survey of data already stored in the SICADA database, and an inventory of other data sources, whose information content has not yet been evaluated and/or inserted in SICADA or SKB GIS. Data sources relevant to the Simpevarp regional model area which still, to some degree, need to be evaluated/converted/inserted include the siting and construction of spent fuel interim storage facility, CLAB, and the siting, pre-investigation, predictive modelling and construction of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The present report describes the current level of knowledge of the surface ecosystems in the Simpevarp regional model area, in a highly condensed form. It refers to, and draws its examples from, a series of SKB background reports which have been produced since the completion of the Oskarshamn feasibility study, and a number of other sources of information which are gathered here for the first time. The data sources are outlined with reference to a series of functional ecosystem types: drainage areas, forest, wetland

  18. Lockable Knee Brace Speeds Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center develops key transportation and propulsion technologies for the Space Agency. The Center manages propulsion hardware and technologies of the space shuttle, develops the next generation of space transportation and propulsion systems, oversees science and hardware development for the International Space Station, manages projects and studies that will help pave the way back to the Moon, and handles a variety of associated scientific endeavors to benefit space exploration and improve life here on Earth. It is a large and diversified center, and home to a great wealth of design skill. Some of the same mechanical design skill that made its way into the plans for rocket engines and advanced propulsion at this Alabama-based NASA center also worked its way into the design of an orthotic knee joint that is changing the lives of people with weakened quadriceps.

  19. Schools Brace for Bhutanese Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    American educators in cities such as Syracuse, NY, Burlington, VT, and St. Paul, MN, for reasons including civic culture, existing ethnic communities, availability of jobs, and the location of refugee-resettlement organizations, periodically receive waves of resettling immigrants. Officials in those communities have become adept at educating…

  20. The tropical double description method

    CERN Document Server

    Allamigeon, Xavier; Goubault, Eric

    2010-01-01

    We develop a tropical analogue of the classical double description method allowing one to compute an internal representation (in terms of vertices) of a polyhedron defined externally (by inequalities). The heart of the tropical algorithm is a characterization of the extreme points of a polyhedron in terms of a system of constraints which define it. We show that checking the extremality of a point reduces to checking whether there is only one minimal strongly connected component in an hypergraph. The latter problem can be solved in almost linear time, which allows us to eliminate quickly redundant generators. We report extensive tests (including benchmarks from an application to static analysis) showing that the method outperforms experimentally the previous ones by orders of magnitude. The present tools also lead to worst case bounds which improve the ones provided by previous methods.

  1. Integrated Project Management System description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is a Department of Energy (DOE) designated Major System Acquisition (MSA). To execute and manage the Project mission successfully and to comply with the MSA requirements, the UMTRA Project Office (''Project Office'') has implemented and operates an Integrated Project Management System (IPMS). The Project Office is assisted by the Technical Assistance Contractor's (TAC) Project Integration and Control (PIC) Group in system operation. Each participant, in turn, provides critical input to system operation and reporting requirements. The IPMS provides a uniform structured approach for integrating the work of Project participants. It serves as a tool for planning and control, workload management, performance measurement, and specialized reporting within a standardized format. This system description presents the guidance for its operation. Appendices 1 and 2 contain definitions of commonly used terms and abbreviations and acronyms, respectively. 17 figs., 5 tabs

  2. Resource Description Framework (RDF) -konsepti

    OpenAIRE

    Antikainen, Lauri

    2014-01-01

    Tämä on opinnäytetyö Resource Description Framework (RDF) -konseptista. Tämä opinnäytetyö on suunnattu lukijoille, joilla ei ole ennalta mainittavaa käsitystä RDF:stä. Tästä syystä tarkasteltavaksi on otettu koko konsepti, sillä yksittäisten seikkojen ymmärtäminen konseptin sisältä on erittäin vaikeaa ilman edes hataraa käsitystä kokonaisuudesta. Työssä pyrittiin kuvaamaan se, mitä RDF tarkoittaa, mitä se sisältää, mikä on sen paikka Semanttisessa Webissä ja miksi sitä kehitetään. Tämä ty...

  3. Relativistic description of deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author has shown that relativistic Hartree calculations using parameters that have been fit to the properties of nuclear matter can provide a good description of both spherical and axially deformed nuclei. The quantitative agreement with experiment is equivalent to that which was obtained in non-relativistic calculations using Skyrme interactions. The equilibrium deformation is strongly correlated with the size of the spin-orbit splitting, and that parameter sets which give roughly the correct value for this splitting provide the best agreement with the quadrupole moments in the s-d shell. Finally, for closed shell +/- 1 nuclei, it was shown that the self-consistent calculations are able to reproduce the experimental magnetic moments. This was not possible in relativistic calculations which include only the effects of the valence orbital

  4. Theory buried under heavy description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin Ph.D.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In journalism when a reporter puts the main news or point of the story deep down in the text, we say she’s buried the lead, the lead being the main point of the story and usually the first paragraph. In Children in Genocide: extreme traumatization and affect regulation, psychoanalyst Suzanne Kaplan buries her theory. Her study of the after effects of trauma among Holocaust survivors who were children during their persecution and survivors of atrocities during the Rwandan atrocities of the 1990s, is filled with highly descriptive material from the many interviews that serve as data. An interesting grounded theory is peeking out from under all the disciplinary discourse and historical background one must read through to get to what grounded theory readers will consider the juicy parts: concepts on affect regulation in trauma survivors.

  5. 青少年脊柱侧凸症的支具治疗:应用与评估%Adolescent scoliosis treated with braces: application and evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱雪华; 孙鹏; 施杞

    2005-01-01

    目的:探讨青少年脊柱侧凸症的非手术疗法之一支具治疗的应用历史,疗效评估及其副作用.资料来源:应用计算机检索Medline 1970-01/2003-12和Embase1970-01/2004-04有关青少年脊柱侧凸症支具治疗的文章,检索词为"Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis,brace,review",并限定文章语言种类为English.资料选择:根据综述描述及引用文献,选取使用支具治疗青少年脊柱侧凸症的研究报道.纳入标准:符合随机临床试验,有正常组对照或/和支具类型之间的对比评估分析及10个月以上的随访研究.排除标准:明显不符合临床随机实验要求的文章.资料提炼:共检索到42篇支具治疗青少年脊柱侧凸症的综述文献,从中筛选出24篇文献,分析评估青少年脊柱侧凸症的支具应用,排除的文献包括同一内容的实验研究及未做随访的研究文章.资料综合:24个实验包括5 432例患者,均采取各种支具治疗青少年脊柱侧凸症.支具类型包括Boston、Charleston、胸腰骶支具和Milwaukee等.目前对支具的有效性及支具选择方面仍存在不同意见.不恰当的支具治疗可能引起多种并发症,如皮肤溃疡、心理障碍、背痛、胸廓畸形及影响呼吸功能障碍等.结论:虽然对支具使用和效果评估存在不同意见,但一般认为规范化的早期支具治疗可以有限的控制青少年脊柱侧凸症的畸形进展.

  6. Practical Study on Displacements of Oblique Bracing Supporting System in Excavation of Large Pit%一种改进的斜支撑体系支护某超大深基坑的变形分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘裕华; 陈征宙; 毕港

    2011-01-01

    A modified oblique bracing supporting system was used in supporting construction of foundation pit for a shopping mall in Jinan city,which occupies more than 50000 m2. The oblique bracing supporting system, which is different from normal pattern, includes supporting piles,oblique bracing constructions,vertical pillars and struts. Through the analysis of explicit finite difference numerical calculation with FLAC3D program,considering the results of in-situ monitoring of supporting piles,some conclusions are drawn on the displacements of the supporting system,and the effects of supporting constuctions. It indicates that the supporting constructions in the system are fully utilized to work with the soil at the bottom of pit to resist the soil pressures caused by foundation pit excavation,and that the displacements of soil around the pit are reduced. Furthermore, the normal operation of roads, underground lines, and buildings surrounding the pit are ensured under the effective support of the system.%济南某商业广场超过50000 m2的基坑采用一种改进的斜支撑支护体系进行支护,与普通斜支撑支护型式不同,该支护体系包括支护桩、斜撑、立柱与支撑桩.本文采用FLAC3D显式有限差分数值计算分析方法,并结合支护桩水平位移测斜数据,对该支护体系的变形特性进行分析研究,从中论证各支护单元在3个开挖阶段的运动学效应.研究结果表明,该斜支撑支护体系可以把各支护单元以及它们之间的土体充分调动起来,相互之间积极协调,以抵挡基坑开挖带来的土压力,从而减小基坑周围土体位移,保障周围道路、地下设施及周边建筑的正常运行.

  7. 巨型钢框架--拉索支撑体系在水平荷载作用下的破坏性能%Mechanical performance of mega steel frame-cable bracing structure under horizontal loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王飞; 缪冬冬; 朱佳锋; 彭小龙

    2014-01-01

    The Pushover analysis is applied to investigate the failure mode and anti-seismic performance of the mega steel frame and cable bracing structure system under two different lateral loading patterns :the inverted tri-angular and uniform distribution .The developing sequence of plastic hinges , lateral stiffness , and characteristics of pre-stressed cables in a typical mega steel frame and cable bracing structure with optimized member sections are researched .The results indicate that the developing sequences of plastic hinges under these two lateral load -ing patterns are the same .The failure sequence of members is: braces between columns , web rods of mega beams, floor beams, and columns.The lateral stiffness under the uniform loading is larger than that under the inverted triangular loading .The earlier the cable fails , the more rapidly the tension of the other cable in the same story increases .%为了解巨型钢框架-拉索支撑体系在水平荷载作用下的破坏性能,采用倒三角和均匀分布两种水平加载模式对经抗风抗震优化后的巨型钢框架-拉索支撑结构进行Pushover分析,研究在不同水平加载模式下的出铰顺序,并考察其抗侧刚度及拉索受力特征。研究表明,在倒三角和均匀分布两种加载模式下,结构的出铰顺序基本一致,构件破坏先后顺序为巨型柱肢间支撑、巨型梁腹杆、楼层梁、柱肢。均布加载得到的抗侧刚度大于倒三角分布;拉索退出工作的时间越早,则同一层中另一侧索拉力增加得越快。

  8. Multiple descriptions based wavelet image coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hai-lin(陈海林); YANG Yu-hang(杨宇航)

    2004-01-01

    We present a simple and efficient scheme that combines multiple descriptions coding with wavelet transform under JPEG2000 image coding architecture. To reduce packet losses, controlled amounts of redundancy are added to the wavelet transform coefficients to produce multiple descriptions of wavelet coefficients during the compression process to produce multiple descriptions bit-stream of a compressed image. Even if a receiver gets only parts of descriptions (other descriptions being lost), it can still reconstruct image with acceptable quality. Specifically, the scheme uses not only high-performance wavelet transform to improve compression efficiency, but also multiple descriptions technique to enhance the robustness of the compressed image that is transmitted through unreliable network channels.

  9. Compressed Transmission of Route Descriptions

    CERN Document Server

    Batz, Gernot Veit; Luxen, Dennis; Sanders, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We present two methods to compress the description of a route in a road network, i.e., of a path in a directed graph. The first method represents a path by a sequence of via edges. The subpaths between the via edges have to be unique shortest paths. Instead of via edges also via nodes can be used, though this requires some simple preprocessing. The second method uses contraction hierarchies to replace subpaths of the original path by shortcuts. The two methods can be combined with each other. Also, we propose the application to mobile server based routing: We compute the route on a server which has access to the latest information about congestions for example. Then we transmit the computed route to the car using some mobile radio communication. There, we apply the compression to save costs and transmission time. If the compression works well, we can transmit routes even when the bandwidth is low. Although we have not evaluated our ideas with realistic data yet, they are quite promising.

  10. Beyond statistical descriptions of variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Matthew; Catalina Real-time Transient Survey Team

    2016-01-01

    The first generation of large synoptic survey archives, such as CRTS, PTF and Pan-STARRs, are now (or soon will be) available to the community, enabling unprecedented systematic searches and studies of variable astrophysical phenomena. These range from moving objects in the Solar System to extreme quasars in the distant universe. However, much of the analyses of these data sets conducted so far have aimed at providing statistical descriptions of the variability. Whilst such parameterizations are useful for feeding classification algorithms, they are not effective at describing the underlying type of variability in the sources or the physical mechanism(s) for it. In this talk, we will discuss new approaches, such as wavelet variance, random matrix theory and echo state networks, that can provide insight into the science of variability rather than just statistically characterizing it. We will pay particular attention to sources exhibiting stochastic variation and how much information about the host system can be determined from their time series. For example, characteristic restframe timescales have been identified in quasars, potentially related to the size of coherent noise fields in the accretion disk. Finally, we will also consider the potential limitations of the next generation surveys, such as LSST and SKA.

  11. XML Translator for Interface Descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroson, Elizabeth R.

    2009-01-01

    A computer program defines an XML schema for specifying the interface to a generic FPGA from the perspective of software that will interact with the device. This XML interface description is then translated into header files for C, Verilog, and VHDL. User interface definition input is checked via both the provided XML schema and the translator module to ensure consistency and accuracy. Currently, programming used on both sides of an interface is inconsistent. This makes it hard to find and fix errors. By using a common schema, both sides are forced to use the same structure by using the same framework and toolset. This makes for easy identification of problems, which leads to the ability to formulate a solution. The toolset contains constants that allow a programmer to use each register, and to access each field in the register. Once programming is complete, the translator is run as part of the make process, which ensures that whenever an interface is changed, all of the code that uses the header files describing it is recompiled.

  12. Continuous description of fluctuating eccentricities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Blaizot

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider the initial energy density in the transverse plane of a high energy nucleus–nucleus collision as a random field ρ(x, whose probability distribution P[ρ], the only ingredient of the present description, encodes all possible sources of fluctuations. We argue that it is a local Gaussian, with a short-range 2-point function, and that the fluctuations relevant for the calculation of the eccentricities that drive the anisotropic flow have small relative amplitudes. In fact, this 2-point function, together with the average density, contains all the information needed to calculate the eccentricities and their variances, and we derive general model independent expressions for these quantities. The short wavelength fluctuations are shown to play no role in these calculations, except for a renormalization of the short range part of the 2-point function. As an illustration, we compare to a commonly used model of independent sources, and recover the known results of this model.

  13. Towards Music Captioning: Generating Music Playlist Descriptions

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Keunwoo; Fazekas, George; Sandler, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Descriptions are often provided along with recommendations to help users' discovery. Recommending automatically generated music playlists (e.g. personalised playlists) introduces the problem of generating descriptions. In this paper, we propose a method for generating music playlist descriptions, which is called as music captioning. In the proposed method, audio content analysis and natural language processing are adopted to utilise the information of each track.

  14. Assessment and Treatment of Paraphilias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Linda; Hardenburg, Stephanie A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides a description of the category of mental disorders called "paraphilias" and guidelines for assessment of people who present with paraphillic behavior. Includes a review of inventories that can facilitate diagnosis and description of paraphilias. Discusses effective approaches to treatment of these disorders as well as personal and…

  15. Biological and phytopharmacological descriptions of Litchi chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eswar Kumar Kilari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants remain a vital source of drugs and at present, much emphasis is given to nutraceuticals. Herbal medicines have been the basis of treatment and cure for various diseases and physiological conditions in the traditional methods practiced such as ayurveda and homeopathy. Litchi chinensis belongs to the Sapindaceae family and is well-known in the Indian traditional system for its traditional uses. The parts of the plant used are leaves, flowers, fruits, seed, pulp, and pericarp. All parts of the plant are rich sources of phytochemicals––epicatechin; procyanidin A2 and procyanidin B2; leucocyanidin; cyanidin glycoside, malvidin glycoside, and saponins; butylated hydroxytoluene; isolariciresinol; kaempferol; rutin; and stigmasterol. In the present review, we explore the lychee's description, traditional medicinal uses, and phytoconstituents, and investigate the pharmacological activities in various parts of the lychee to show its importance in ethanopharmacology. This is so that this review can serve as a ready-to-use material for further research on the plant.

  16. Biological and Phytopharmacological Descriptions of Litchi Chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilari, Eswar Kumar; Putta, Swathi

    2016-01-01

    Plants remain a vital source of drugs and at present, much emphasis is given to nutraceuticals. Herbal medicines have been the basis of treatment and cure for various diseases and physiological conditions in the traditional methods practiced such as ayurveda and homeopathy. Litchi chinensis belongs to the Sapindaceae family and is well-known in the Indian traditional system for its traditional uses. The parts of the plant used are leaves, flowers, fruits, seed, pulp, and pericarp. All parts of the plant are rich sources of phytochemicals--epicatechin; procyanidin A2 and procyanidin B2; leucocyanidin; cyanidin glycoside, malvidin glycoside, and saponins; butylated hydroxytoluene; isolariciresinol; kaempferol; rutin; and stigmasterol. In the present review, we explore the lychee's description, traditional medicinal uses, and phytoconstituents, and investigate the pharmacological activities in various parts of the lychee to show its importance in ethanopharmacology. This is so that this review can serve as a ready-to-use material for further research on the plant. PMID:27041875

  17. Class II malocclusion occlusal severity description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Janson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It is well known that the efficacy and the efficiency of a Class II malocclusion treatment are aspects closely related to the severity of the dental anteroposterior discrepancy. Even though, sample selection based on cephalometric variables without considering the severity of the occlusal anteroposterior discrepancy is still common in current papers. In some of them, when occlusal parameters are chosen, the severity is often neglected. The purpose of this study is to verify the importance given to the classification of Class II malocclusion, based on the criteria used for sample selection in a great number of papers published in the orthodontic journal with the highest impact factor. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A search was performed in PubMed database for full-text research papers referencing Class II malocclusion in the history of the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (AJO-DO. RESULTS: A total of 359 papers were retrieved, among which only 72 (20.06% papers described the occlusal severity of the Class II malocclusion sample. In the other 287 (79.94% papers that did not specify the anteroposterior discrepancy severity, description was considered to be crucial in 159 (55.40% of them. CONCLUSIONS: Omission in describing the occlusal severity demands a cautious interpretation of 44.29% of the papers retrieved in this study.

  18. Inadequate description of educational interventions in ongoing randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pino Cécile

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The registration of clinical trials has been promoted to prevent publication bias and increase research transparency. Despite general agreement about the minimum amount of information needed for trial registration, we lack clear guidance on descriptions of non-pharmacologic interventions in trial registries. We aimed to evaluate the quality of registry descriptions of non-pharmacologic interventions assessed in ongoing randomized controlled trials (RCTs of patient education. Methods On 6 May 2009, we searched for all ongoing RCTs registered in the 10 trial registries accessible through the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We included trials evaluating an educational intervention (that is, designed to teach or train patients about their own health and dedicated to participants, their family members or home caregivers. We used a standardized data extraction form to collect data related to the description of the experimental intervention, the centers, and the caregivers. Results We selected 268 of 642 potentially eligible studies and appraised a random sample of 150 records. All selected trials were registered in 4 registers, mainly ClinicalTrials.gov (61%. The median [interquartile range] target sample size was 205 [100 to 400] patients. The comparator was mainly usual care (47% or active treatment (47%. A minority of records (17%, 95% CI 11 to 23% reported an overall adequate description of the intervention (that is, description that reported the content, mode of delivery, number, frequency, duration of sessions and overall duration of the intervention. Further, for most reports (59%, important information about the content of the intervention was missing. The description of the mode of delivery of the intervention was reported for 52% of studies, the number of sessions for 74%, the frequency of sessions for 58%, the duration of each session for 45% and the overall duration for 63

  19. On the tomographic description of classical fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a general description of the tomographic picture for classical systems, a tomographic description of free classical scalar fields is proposed both in a finite cavity and the continuum. The tomographic description is constructed in analogy with the classical tomographic picture of an ensemble of harmonic oscillators. The tomograms of a number of relevant states such as the canonical distribution, the classical counterpart of quantum coherent states and a new family of so-called Gauss–Laguerre states, are discussed. Finally the Liouville equation for field states is described in the tomographic picture offering an alternative description of the dynamics of the system that can be extended naturally to other fields.

  20. On the tomographic description of classical fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibort, A., E-mail: albertoi@math.uc3m.es [Departamento de Matemáticas, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain); López-Yela, A., E-mail: alyela@math.uc3m.es [Departamento de Matemáticas, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain); Man' ko, V.I., E-mail: manko@na.infn.it [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskii Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Marmo, G., E-mail: marmo@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Università “Federico II” e Sezione INFN di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Naples (Italy); Simoni, A., E-mail: simoni@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Università “Federico II” e Sezione INFN di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Naples (Italy); Sudarshan, E.C.G., E-mail: bhamathig@gmail.com [Physics Department, Center for Particle Physics, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Ventriglia, F., E-mail: ventriglia@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Università “Federico II” e Sezione INFN di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Naples (Italy)

    2012-03-26

    After a general description of the tomographic picture for classical systems, a tomographic description of free classical scalar fields is proposed both in a finite cavity and the continuum. The tomographic description is constructed in analogy with the classical tomographic picture of an ensemble of harmonic oscillators. The tomograms of a number of relevant states such as the canonical distribution, the classical counterpart of quantum coherent states and a new family of so-called Gauss–Laguerre states, are discussed. Finally the Liouville equation for field states is described in the tomographic picture offering an alternative description of the dynamics of the system that can be extended naturally to other fields.

  1. On the tomographic description of classical fields

    CERN Document Server

    Ibort, A; Man'ko, V I; Marmo, G; Simoni, A; Sudarshan, E C G; Ventriglia, F

    2012-01-01

    After a general description of the tomographic picture for classical systems, a tomographic description of free classical scalar fields is proposed both in a finite cavity and the continuum. The tomographic description is constructed in analogy with the classical tomographic picture of an ensemble of harmonic oscillators. The tomograms of a number of relevant states such as the canonical distribution, the classical counterpart of quantum coherent states and a new family of so called Gauss--Laguerre states, are discussed. Finally the Liouville equation for field states is described in the tomographic picture offering an alternative description of the dynamics of the system that can be extended naturally to other fields.

  2. 防屈曲耗能支撑在三边简支网架结构中的应用研究%Applied Analysis of Trilateral Simply Supported Space Grid with Buckling-restrained Brace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓国杰; 傅昶彬

    2012-01-01

    采用SAP2000V14.1对防屈曲耗能支撑在矩形平面三边简支一边自由的斜放四角锥网架结构进行了弹塑性时程分析.在难以直接比较多方案网架结构减震优劣的情况下,提出了以综合轴力减震值作为进一步的比较指标的方法,并用此方法对9种防屈曲耗能支撑替换方案的减震效果进行了对比分析.得出了较优的替换方案.为今后该类网架结构的耗能减震设计提供了参考依据.此外对结构不同部位的动力响应也作了分析.%The elastic-plastic time history analysis of a rectangular planar trilateral simply-supported and one side free diagonal square pyramid grids with buckling-restrained brace was explored with the SAP2000V14. 1 software. Facing the difficulty of determining the better scheme directly, further comparison index synthetic parameters -comprehensive anti-seismic value of axial force were put forward. Comparison analysis of the anti-seismic effect of 9 replacement schemes of buckling-restrained brace in the dynamic process was carried out using this method, and then a replacement scheme of the optimal solution was obtained, providing reference for the energy dissipation and anti-seismic design of grid structure of this kind in the future. The analysis of dynamic response in different parts of the structure was also made.

  3. 双层柱面网壳结构在BRB作用下的减震分析%Vibration reduction analysis of double - layer cylinder lattice shell with bucking- restrained brace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭燕秋; 甄晓慧; 史三元

    2012-01-01

    运用SAP2000有限元软件对跨度30 m,长度42 m的正放四角锥双层柱面网壳建立模型,并进行模态分析和力学性能分析.在EL - Centro波作用下对支撑布置位置不同和布置数量不同时的网壳结构进行地震响应分析.结果表明:防屈曲支撑在双层柱面网壳中替换部分杆件时可以起到较好的减震效果,其中替换受力较大的腹杆要比替换其他位置杆件的减震效果要好,而在替换腹杆的不同方案中,替换了48根杆件的减震效果明显优于替换20根杆件的效果.%The model of square pyramid double - layer cylindrical lattice shell with 30 m span and 42 m length was established for modal analysis and mechanical property analysis by use of the finite element analysis software SAP2000. The seismic response analysis of the shell structures was carried out with the bucking - restrained braces in different locations and different numbers under the EL - Centro wave. The results show that replacing some bars with the bucking - restrained braces in the double -layer cylindrical lattice shell could strengthen the damping effect. The replacement of the web members bearing more loads has a better damping effect than the replacement of other members, and the effect of replacing 48 web members is better than replacing 20 web members in the web - member replacement scheme.

  4. Performance-based Seismic Design Method of Chevron Steel Braced Frames Using YPS%人字形中心支撑钢框架基于屈服点谱的陛态抗震设计方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚; 顾强

    2011-01-01

    屈服点谱(Yield Point Spectra,YPS)是一种新的位移一加速度反应谱的表述形式。基于结构屈服位移的稳定性.根据性态目标得出延性限值,通过YPS结构屈服强度,采用能力方法设计了1榀人字形中心支撑钢框架结构,通过非线性静力分析和动力时程分析,结果表明运用屈服点谱对中心支撑钢框架进行性态设计具有可行性。%Yield point spectra (YPS) is a constant ductility response spectra with the yield displacementacceleration format, which is different from the elastic response spectra of Chinese code and the elastic-plastic displacement response spectra (ADRS spectra). The spectra build the seismic demand curve of different ductility factor between Cy and improves the traditional methods, which can be convenient to the performance-based design and evaluation. Based on the stability of yield displacement, this paper estimates the allowable system displacement ductility according to the desired peak roof displacement. Using the simple graphical construction and the capacity design method to determine sectional dimension constraints on strength and stiffness, the paper designs a plane Chevron steel braced frames, the nonlinear static analyses and nonlinear dynamic analyses were used for verification purposes. Results indicate that the yield point spectrum method on Chevron steel braced frames design is feasible.

  5. Dynamic Analysis of Steel Frame with Double-tube Buckling Restrained Braces%带改进型双钢管约束屈曲支撑的钢框架力学性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷占忠; 张素峰; 孙源; 王立功

    2016-01-01

    Pushover analysis and nonlinear time-history analysis of the retrofitted steel frame structures with im-proved double-tube buckling restrained braces and original steel frame were performed using Opensees and the seis-mic performances were compared.The conclusions are following: the stiffness and strength of the retrofitted steel frame are improved, and the roof drift ratio reduces while the base shear ratio has a little increase;under the earth quake, the degree of damage is far less than that of original steel frame, and the formed plastic hinges mainly con-centrate on the middle beams and brace, avoiding the damages on other members.%基于Opensees程序对原框架和增设改进型双钢管约束屈曲支撑加固的钢框架进行Pushover分析和非线性时程分析,对两者的抗震性能进行比较。得出以下结论:加固后的钢框架刚度和强度明显提高,顶层侧移比减小而底部剪力比增加较小;地震作用下,加固后的框架破坏程度远小于原框架,所产生的塑性铰主要集中在中间跨梁和支撑处,避免了其他构件发生破坏。说明对原框架增设改进型双钢管约束屈曲支撑加固,可提高结构的抗震性能。

  6. STUDY ON RESTORING-FORCE MODEL OF THE ECCENTRICALLY BUCKLING-RESTRAINED BRACED REINFORCED CONCRETE FRAMES%防屈曲偏心支撑混凝土框架结构恢复力模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘如月; 杨勇; 伊波松; 马晨光; 王婷; 韦超谋; 叶明坤

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the seismic performance of a full-scale eccentrically buckling-restrained braced reinforced concrete frame specimen was tested.The frame had three stories and one bay.The specimen was tested under low-cycle loading.Based on the test results, and with full analysis of the hysteresis curve and skeleton curves, a simplified restoring-force model was founded and proposed.Compared to the experimental hysteresis curves, it was indicated that the proposed restoring-force models was well.And furthermore this proposed restoring-force model could well enough to characterize the hysteresis performance of buckling-restrained braced-frame very well.%对防屈曲偏心支撑混凝土框架结构(BRB frame)进行低周反复试验研究,对试验得到的滞回曲线及骨架曲线进行分析,在已有恢复力模型的基础上,简化得到了防屈曲偏心支撑框架结构的恢复力模型.通过实测滞回曲线与所建立恢复力模型的分析对比,结果表明:所建立的恢复力模型和实测滞回曲线吻合较好,该模型能够较好地描述防屈曲偏心支撑框架在反复荷载作用下的滞回特性.

  7. SEM-EDS-Based Elemental Identification on the Enamel Surface after the Completion of Orthodontic Treatment: In Vitro Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeliger, Julia; Lipski, Mariusz; Wójcicka, Anna; Gedrange, Tomasz; Woźniak, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Braces as foreign bodies in the mouth carry a risk of side effects and toxicity to the human body. This article presents the results indicating the possible toxic effects of tools used for cleaning the enamel after the completion of orthodontic treatment. The studies were carried out in vitro. The procedure of enamel etching, bonding orthodontic metal brackets, and enamel cleaning after their removal was performed under laboratory conditions. The enamel microstructure and elements present on its surface were evaluated using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Silicon and aluminium were found in addition to the tooth building elements.

  8. The effect of taping versus semi-rigid bracing on patient outcome and satisfaction in ankle sprains: A prospective, randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Lardenoye (Sacha); E. Theunissen (Ed); B.I. Cleffken (Berry); P.R. Brink (Peter Rg); R.A. de Bie (Robert); H. Poeze

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Functional treatment is a widely used and generally accepted treatment for ankle sprain. A meta-analysis comparing the different functional treatment options could not make definitive conclusions regarding the effectiveness, and until now, little was known about patient satis

  9. Influence of behaviorism to American descriptive linguistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟莹莹

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of the behaviorism on American descriptive linguistics through the analysis of the tenets of behaviorism and the Bloomfield’s stimulus-response theory and tries to give an fair comment on the influence of the behaviorism on American descriptive linguistics.

  10. 34 CFR 675.32 - Program description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program description. 675.32 Section 675.32 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Job Location and Development Program § 675.32 Program description. An institution may expend up to the lesser of $50,000 or 10 percent of its FWS allocation...

  11. A Simplified Description of Fuzzy TOPSIS

    CERN Document Server

    Sodhi, Balwinder

    2012-01-01

    A simplified description of Fuzzy TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Situation) is presented. We have adapted the TOPSIS description from existing Fuzzy theory literature and distilled the bare minimum concepts required for understanding and applying TOPSIS. An example has been worked out to illustrate the application of TOPSIS for a multi-criteria group decision making scenario.

  12. Indexing Images: Testing an Image Description Template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Corinne

    1996-01-01

    A template for pictorial image description to be used by novice image searchers in recording their descriptions of images was tested; image attribute classes derived in previous research were used to model the template. Results indicated that users may need training and/or more guidance to correctly assign descriptors to higher-level classes.…

  13. 15 CFR 100.2 - Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Description. 100.2 Section 100.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SEAL § 100.2 Description. Seal: On a shield an open book beneath which is a lamp...

  14. 46 CFR 126.220 - Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Description. 126.220 Section 126.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificate of Inspection § 126.220 Description. The Certificate of Inspection issued to an OSV specifies...

  15. 14 CFR 1259.400 - Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Description. 1259.400 Section 1259.400 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL SPACE GRANT COLLEGE AND FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM Space Grant College and Consortium Designation § 1259.400 Description. (a)...

  16. 30 CFR 1.2 - Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Description. 1.2 Section 1.2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OFFICIAL EMBLEM AND OMB CONTROL NUMBERS FOR....2 Description. The emblem of the Mine Safety and Health Administration is of contemporary...

  17. Advances in China's Oil Reservoir Description Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Longxin; Huang Shiyan; Jia Ailin; Rong Jiashu

    1997-01-01

    @@ Oil reservoir description in China has undergone rapid development in recent years. Extensive research carried out at various oilfields and petroleum universities has resulted in the formulation of comprehensive oil reservoir description techniques and methods uniquely suited to the various development phases of China's continental facies. The new techniques have the following characteristics:

  18. 22 CFR 1503.2 - Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Description. 1503.2 Section 1503.2 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION OFFICIAL SEAL § 1503.2 Description. The official seal of the African Development Foundation is described as follows: (a) Forming an outer circle is a ring of type...

  19. 50 CFR 261.101 - Standard description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard description. 261.101 Section 261.101 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRADES § 261.101 Standard description. A U.S....

  20. 14 CFR 1259.500 - Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Description. 1259.500 Section 1259.500 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL SPACE GRANT COLLEGE AND FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM Space Grant Fellowships § 1259.500 Description. The Space Grant fellowship program...