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Sample records for br-3 reactor

  1. Efficiency Calibration of LaBr3(Ce) γ Spectroscopy in Analyzing Radionucles in Reactor Loop Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Xi-lin; QIN; Guo-xiu; GUO; Xiao-qing; CHEN; Yong-yong; MENG; Jun

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring the occurring and radioactivity concentration of fission products in nuclear reactor loop water is important for the nuclear reactor safe running evaluation,prevention of accidence and safe protection of working personnel.Study on the efficiency calibration for a LaBr3(Ce)detector experimental

  2. Decommissioning of the BR3 PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaut, V.; Klein, M

    1998-07-01

    The objectives, programme and main achievements of SCK-CEN's decommissioning programme in 1997 are summarised. Particular emphasis is on the BR3 decommissioning project. In 1997, auxiliary equipment and loops were dismantled; concrete antimissile slabs were decontaminated; the radiology of the primary loop was modelled; the quality assurance procedure for dismantling loops and equipment were implemented; a method for the dismantling of the reactor pressure vessel was selected; and contaminated thermal insulation of the primary loop containing asbestos was removed.

  3. Aagesta-BR3 Decommissioning Cost. Comparison and Benchmarking Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Geoff [NAC International, Henley on Thames (United Kingdom)

    2002-11-01

    This report presents the results of decommissioning cost analyses focusing on discrete working packages within the decommissioning program of the BR3 reactor in Mol, Belgium and comparison of them with cost estimate data for the Aagesta research reactor in Sweden. The specific BR3 work packages analysed were: Primary coolant piping decontamination; Primary coolant piping dismantling; Vulcain reactor internals dismantling; Westinghouse reactor internals dismantling; Reactor vessel dismantling. The main conclusions to be drawn from the analyses are that: The fixed costs related to decontamination and dismantling activities generally are a very important part of the overall resources needed to execute the work, with the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) seemingly being significantly more demanding than other major components. Cutting activities tend to need something like 150 to 200 labour hours per m{sup 2} of reactor equipment dismantled. Fixed investment costs to set up the equipment needed to cut up major vessels or internals appear to be in the range of MSEK 4 to 8. Consumables costs vary according to the nature of the equipment being dismantled. The thicker the metal being cut, the higher the attrition rate for things such as cutting blades. The range of consumables costs at BR3 have been in the range of MSEK 0.1 to 0.2/m{sup 2} dismantled. The extent of detailed information available in the 1996 Aagesta estimate is not sufficient to enable a full comparison with the BR3 decommissioning results. A global first comparison has been attempted by summing the resources expended on the BR3 work packages described in this report with the combined dismantling data presented in the 1996 Aagesta cost estimate report. Very broadly the cost of decontamination plus dismantling of the main process equipment at Aagesta appears to be in the order of MSEK 70, of which MSEK 4 is labour on preparatory/planning work, MSEK 40 is labour on actual decontamination and dismantling and MSEK

  4. Cd4As2Br3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Kars

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of Cd4As2Br3 (tetracadmium biarsenide tribromide were grown by a chemical transport reaction. The structure is isotypic with the members of the cadmium and mercury pnictidohalides family with general formula M4A2X3 (M = Cd, Hg; A = P, As, Sb; X = Cl, Br, I and contains two independent As atoms on special positions with site symmetry -3 and two independent Cd atoms, of which one is on a special position with site symmetry -3. The Cd4As2Br3 structure consists of AsCd4 tetrahedra sharing vertices with isolated As2Cd6 octahedra that contain As–As dumbbells in the centre of the octahedron. The Br atoms are located in the voids of this three-dimensional arrangement and bridge the different polyhedra through Cd...Br contacts.

  5. Energy Response of LaBr3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertürk, S.; Maj, A.; Ciemala, M.; Stezowski, O.; Courtin, S.; Strachan, J.; Kumar, S.; Paris Collaboration

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, important developments in scintillator technology have been made in the Lanthanum Halogen LaBr3 (Ce) crystal, which has high-energy separation, very good timing-properties and a stopping-power that can be used as a detector at room temperature. The international PARIS project will be created as a prototype of this detector system, which will be used in SPIRAL2 as a stand alone or in collaboration with the EXOGAM or AGATA detector array. A fusion evaporation reaction is used to produce exotic nuclei and is then transferred at a very high angular momentum to compound nuclei. Due to the accompanying high rotation, the exotic shape starts changing into vibrational and rotational collective phenomena which hitherto have together become difficult to detect and fully understand. In order to perform this type of research, in addition to conventional known gamma-ray detectors, high-efficiency gamma-ray detectors that can effectively identify gamma rays are also required as calorimeters. LaBr3 is planned to use such means. Results of ongoing analysis for energy and the time response of LaBr3 will be presented.

  6. Decommissioning of the BR3 PWR[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaut, V.

    1998-07-01

    The dismantling and the decommissioning of nuclear installations at the end of their life-cycle is a new challenge to the nuclear industry. Different techniques and procedures for the dismantling of a nuclear power plant on an existing installation, the BR-3 pressurized-water reactor, are described. The scientific program, objectives, achievements in this research area at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN for 1997 are summarized.

  7. Ca2+-Doped CeBr3 Scintillating Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guss, Paul [NSTec; Foster, Michael E. [SNL; Wong, Bryan M. [SNL; Doty, F. Patrick [SNL; Shah, Kanai [RMD; Squillante, Michael R. [RMD; Shirwadkar, Urmila [RMD; Hawrami, Rastgo [RMD; Tower, Josh [RMD; Yuan, Ding [NSTec

    2014-01-01

    Despite the outstanding scintillation performance characteristics of cerium tribromide (CeBr3) and cerium-activated lanthanum tribromide, their commercial availability and application are limited due to the difficulties of growing large, crack-free single crystals from these fragile materials. This investigation employed aliovalent doping to increase crystal strength while maintaining the optical properties of the crystal. One divalent dopant (Ca2+) was used as a dopant to strengthen CeBr3 without negatively impacting scintillation performance. Ingots containing nominal concentrations of 1.9% of the Ca2+ dopant were grown. Preliminary scintillation measurements are presented for this aliovalently doped scintillator. Ca2+-doped CeBr3 exhibited little or no change in the peak fluorescence emission for 371 nm optical excitation for CeBr3. The structural, electronic, and optical properties of CeBr3 crystals were studied using the density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data. The energy band structures and density of states were obtained. The optical properties of CeBr3, including the dielectric function, were calculated.

  8. Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    1988-01-01

    This standard applies to the following types of reactors: shunt reactors, current-limiting reactors including neutral-earthing reactors, damping reactors, tuning (filter) reactors, earthing transformers (neutral couplers), arc-suppression reactors, smoothing reactors, with the exception of the following reactors: small reactors with a rating generally less than 2 kvar single-phase and 10 kvar three-phase, reactors for special purposes such as high-frequency line traps or reactors mounted on rolling stock.

  9. File list: His.Brs.20.AllAg.SK-BR-3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: Oth.Brs.10.AllAg.SK-BR-3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: His.Brs.05.AllAg.SK-BR-3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: His.Brs.10.AllAg.SK-BR-3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. Improved Growth Methods for LaBr3 Scintillation Radiation Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, Douglas S

    2011-05-01

    The objective is to develop advanced materials for deployment as high-resolution gamma ray detectors. Both LaBr3 and CeBr3 are advanced scintillation materials, and will be studied in this research. Prototype devices, in collaboration Sandia National Laboratories, will be demonstrated along with recommendations for mass production and deployment. It is anticipated that improved methods of crystal growth will yield larger single crystals of LaBr3 for deployable room-temperature operated gamma radiation spectrometers. The growth methods will be characterized. The LaBr3 and CeBr3 scintillation crystals will be characterized for light yield, spectral resolution, and for hardness.

  17. File list: ALL.Brs.10.AllAg.SK-BR-3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: ALL.Brs.20.AllAg.SK-BR-3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: ALL.Brs.05.AllAg.SK-BR-3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. Localisation of gamma-ray interaction points in thick monolithic CeBr3 and LaBr3:Ce scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyanov, Alexei; Morris, Oran; Roberts, Oliver J.; Tobin, Isaac; Hanlon, Lorraine; McBreen, Sheila; Murphy, David; Nelms, Nick; Shortt, Brian

    2017-02-01

    Localisation of gamma-ray interaction points in monolithic scintillator crystals can simplify the design and improve the performance of a future Compton telescope for gamma-ray astronomy. In this paper we compare the position resolution of three monolithic scintillators: a 28×28×20 mm3 (length×breadth × thickness) LaBr3:Ce crystal, a 25×25×20 mm3 CeBr3 crystal and a 25×25×10 mm3 CeBr3 crystal. Each crystal was encapsulated and coupled to an array of 4×4 silicon photomultipliers through an optical window. The measurements were conducted using 81 keV and 356 keV gamma-rays from a collimated 133Ba source. The 3D position reconstruction of interaction points was performed using artificial neural networks trained with experimental data. Although the position resolution was significantly better for the thinner crystal, the 20 mm thick CeBr3 crystal showed an acceptable resolution of about 5.4 mm FWHM for the x and y coordinates, and 7.8 mm FWHM for the z-coordinate (crystal depth) at 356 keV. These values were obtained from the full position scans of the crystal sides. The position resolution of the LaBr3:Ce crystal was found to be considerably worse, presumably due to the highly diffusive optical interface between the crystal and the optical window of the enclosure. The energy resolution (FWHM) measured for 662 keV gamma-rays was 4.0% for LaBr3:Ce and 5.5% for CeBr3. The same crystals equipped with a PMT (Hamamatsu R6322-100) gave an energy resolution of 3.0% and 4.7%, respectively.

  2. A comparative study of LaBr3(Ce(3+)) and CeBr3 based gamma-ray spectrometers for planetary remote sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, A; Mitrofanov, I; Owens, A; Quarati, F; Benkhoff, J; Bakhtin, B; Fedosov, F; Golovin, D; Litvak, M; Malakhov, A; Mokrousov, M; Nuzhdin, I; Sanin, A; Tretyakov, V; Vostrukhin, A; Timoshenko, G; Shvetsov, V; Granja, C; Slavicek, T; Pospisil, S

    2016-08-01

    The recent availability of large volume cerium bromide crystals raises the possibility of substantially improving gamma-ray spectrometer limiting flux sensitivities over current systems based on the lanthanum tri-halides, e.g., lanthanum bromide and lanthanum chloride, especially for remote sensing, low-level counting applications or any type of measurement characterized by poor signal to noise ratios. The Russian Space Research Institute has developed and manufactured a highly sensitive gamma-ray spectrometer for remote sensing observations of the planet Mercury from the Mercury Polar Orbiter (MPO), which forms part of ESA's BepiColombo mission. The Flight Model (FM) gamma-ray spectrometer is based on a 3-in. single crystal of LaBr3(Ce(3+)) produced in a separate crystal development programme specifically for this mission. During the spectrometers development, manufacturing, and qualification phases, large crystals of CeBr3 became available in a subsequent phase of the same crystal development programme. Consequently, the Flight Spare Model (FSM) gamma-ray spectrometer was retrofitted with a 3-in. CeBr3 crystal and qualified for space. Except for the crystals, the two systems are essentially identical. In this paper, we report on a comparative assessment of the two systems, in terms of their respective spectral properties, as well as their suitability for use in planetary mission with respect to radiation tolerance and their propensity for activation. We also contrast their performance with a Ge detector representative of that flown on MESSENGER and show that: (a) both LaBr3(Ce(3+)) and CeBr3 provide superior detection systems over HPGe in the context of minimally resourced spacecraft and (b) CeBr3 is a more attractive system than LaBr3(Ce(3+)) in terms of sensitivities at lower gamma fluxes. Based on the tests, the FM has now been replaced by the FSM on the BepiColombo spacecraft. Thus, CeBr3 now forms the central gamma-ray detection element on the MPO spacecraft.

  3. A comparative study of LaBr3(Ce3+) and CeBr3 based gamma-ray spectrometers for planetary remote sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, A.; Mitrofanov, I.; Owens, A.; Quarati, F.; Benkhoff, J.; Bakhtin, B.; Fedosov, F.; Golovin, D.; Litvak, M.; Malakhov, A.; Mokrousov, M.; Nuzhdin, I.; Sanin, A.; Tretyakov, V.; Vostrukhin, A.; Timoshenko, G.; Shvetsov, V.; Granja, C.; Slavicek, T.; Pospisil, S.

    2016-08-01

    The recent availability of large volume cerium bromide crystals raises the possibility of substantially improving gamma-ray spectrometer limiting flux sensitivities over current systems based on the lanthanum tri-halides, e.g., lanthanum bromide and lanthanum chloride, especially for remote sensing, low-level counting applications or any type of measurement characterized by poor signal to noise ratios. The Russian Space Research Institute has developed and manufactured a highly sensitive gamma-ray spectrometer for remote sensing observations of the planet Mercury from the Mercury Polar Orbiter (MPO), which forms part of ESA's BepiColombo mission. The Flight Model (FM) gamma-ray spectrometer is based on a 3-in. single crystal of LaBr3(Ce3+) produced in a separate crystal development programme specifically for this mission. During the spectrometers development, manufacturing, and qualification phases, large crystals of CeBr3 became available in a subsequent phase of the same crystal development programme. Consequently, the Flight Spare Model (FSM) gamma-ray spectrometer was retrofitted with a 3-in. CeBr3 crystal and qualified for space. Except for the crystals, the two systems are essentially identical. In this paper, we report on a comparative assessment of the two systems, in terms of their respective spectral properties, as well as their suitability for use in planetary mission with respect to radiation tolerance and their propensity for activation. We also contrast their performance with a Ge detector representative of that flown on MESSENGER and show that: (a) both LaBr3(Ce3+) and CeBr3 provide superior detection systems over HPGe in the context of minimally resourced spacecraft and (b) CeBr3 is a more attractive system than LaBr3(Ce3+) in terms of sensitivities at lower gamma fluxes. Based on the tests, the FM has now been replaced by the FSM on the BepiColombo spacecraft. Thus, CeBr3 now forms the central gamma-ray detection element on the MPO spacecraft.

  4. Electronic structure of the CsPbBr3/polytriarylamine (PTAA) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, James; Kulbak, Michael; Zhao, Lianfeng; Rand, Barry P.; Cahen, David; Hodes, Gary; Kahn, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    The inorganic lead halide perovskite CsPbBr3 promises similar solar cell efficiency to its hybrid organic-inorganic counterpart CH3NH3PbBr3 but shows greater stability. Here, we exploit this stability for the study of band alignment between perovskites and carrier selective interlayers. Using ultraviolet, X-ray, and inverse photoemission spectroscopies, we measure the ionization energy and electron affinities of CsPbBr3 and the hole transport polymer polytriarylamine (PTAA). We find that undoped PTAA introduces a barrier to hole extraction of 0.2-0.5 eV, due to band bending in the PTAA and/or a dipole at the interface. p-doping the PTAA eliminates this barrier, raising PTAA's highest occupied molecular orbital to 0.2 eV above the CsPbBr3 valence band maximum and improving hole transport. However, IPES reveals the presence of states below the PTAA lowest unoccupied molecular level. If present at the CsPbBr3/PTAA interface, these states may limit the polymer's efficacy at blocking electrons in solar cells with wide band gap materials like CsPbBr3 and CH3NH3PbBr3.

  5. Studies on Ca2+-Doped CeBr3 Scintillating Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guss, P. [NSTec; Foster, M. E. [SNL; Wong, B. M. [SNL; Doty, F. P. [SNL; Shah, K. [RMD; Squillante, M. [RMD; Glodo, J. [RMD; Yuan, D. [NSTec

    2013-07-03

    Despite the outstanding scintillation performance characteristics of cerium tribromide (CeBr3) and cerium-activated lanthanum tribromide (LaBr3:Ce), their commercial availability and application is limited due to the difficulties of growing large, crack-free single crystals from these fragile materials. The objective of this investigation was to employ aliovalent doping to increase crystal strength while maintaining the optical properties of the crystal. One divalent dopant (Ca2+) was investigated as a dopant to strengthen CeBr3 without negatively impacting scintillation performance. Ingots containing nominal concentrations of 1.9% of the Ca2+ dopant were grown. Preliminary scintillation measurements are presented for this aliovalently doped scintillator. Ca2+-doped CeBr3 exhibited little or no change in the peak fluorescence emission for 371 nm optical excitation for CeBr3. The structural, electronic, and optical properties of CeBr3 crystals were investigated using the density functional theory within generalized gradient approximation. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data. The energy band structures and density of states were obtained. The optical properties of CeBr3, including the dielectric function, were calculated.

  6. Studies on Ca2+-Doped CeBr3 Scintillating Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guss, P. [NSTec; Foster, M. E. [SNL; Wong, B. M. [SNL; Doty, F. P. [SNL; Shah, K. [RMD; Squillante, M. R. [RMD; Shirwadkar, U. [RMD; Hawrami, R. [RMD; Tower, J. [RMD; Yuan, D. [NSTec

    2013-09-01

    Despite the outstanding scintillation performance characteristics of cerium tribromide (CeBr3) and cerium-activated lanthanum tribromide (LaBr3:Ce), their commercial availability and application is limited due to the difficulties of growing large, crack-free single crystals from these fragile materials. The objective of this investigation was to employ aliovalent doping to increase crystal strength while maintaining the optical properties of the crystal. One divalent dopant (Ca2+) was investigated as a dopant to strengthen CeBr3 without negatively impacting scintillation performance. Ingots containing nominal concentrations of 1.9% of the Ca2+ dopant were grown. Preliminary scintillation measurements are presented for this aliovalently doped scintillator. Ca2+-doped CeBr3 exhibited little or no change in the peak fluorescence emission for 371 nm optical excitation for CeBr3. The structural, electronic, and optical properties of CeBr3 crystals were investigated using the density functional theory within generalized gradient approximation. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data. The energy band structures and density of states were obtained. The optical properties of CeBr3, including the dielectric function, were calculated.

  7. The calculation of some gamma shielding parameters for semiconductor CsPbBr3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oto, Berna; Gulebaglan, Sinem Erden; Kanberoglu, Gulsah Saydan

    2017-02-01

    Recently, researchers produced perovskites structures used in optoelectronic devices as substrates, sensors. CsPbBr3 crystal is found in the cubic perovskite structure and its space group is Pm-3m. CsPbBr3 is a developing material for detection of X- and γ-ray radiations and the knowledge of the attenuation parameters of CsPbBr3 crystal is important. In this study, some photon shielding parameters such as mass attenuation coefficient (μρ), effective atomic number (Zeff) and electron density (Nel) have been investigated for CsPbBr3 compound. The theoretical values of μρ have been calculated in the energy range from 1 keV to 100 GeV using WinXCom computer code and these values have been used in order to calculate the values of Zeff and Nel in the same energy range.

  8. File list: InP.Brs.10.AllAg.SK-BR-3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: InP.Brs.20.AllAg.SK-BR-3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: InP.Brs.05.AllAg.SK-BR-3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: InP.Brs.50.AllAg.SK-BR-3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. Linearity for Ca2+-Doped CeBr3 Scintillating Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guss, Paul [NSTec

    2014-02-03

    The Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) developed an aliovalently calcium-doped cerium tribromide (CeBr3:Ca2+) crystal with 3.2% resolution. RSL completed a crystal assessment, and Sandia National Laboratories calculated the predictive performance and physical characteristics using proven density functional theory (DFT) formalism. Results are reported for the work done to map the detector performance, characteristics, calcium doping concentration, and crystal strength. Preliminary scintillation measurements for this aliovalently calcium-doped CeBr3 scintillator exhibit a slight blue shift in fluorescence emission at 371 nm excitation for CeBr3. The structural, electronic, and optical properties of CeBr3 crystals were investigated using DFT within generalized gradient approximation. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data. The energy band structures and density of states were obtained. The optical properties of CeBr3, including the dielectric function, were calculated. Specifically, we report excellent linearity with the aliovalently calcium-doped CeBr3 crystal. Proportionality of light yield is one area of performance in which Ce-doped and Ce-based lanthanide halides excel. Maintaining proportionality is key to producing a strong, high-performance scintillator. Relative light yield proportionality was measured for both doped and undoped samples of CeBr3 to ensure no loss in performance was incurred during doping. The light output and proportionality, however, appear to be similar to CeBr3. There was a reduced yield at low energy. Relative light yield proportionality measurements suggest that dopants do not significantly affect proportionality at higher energies. RSL completed additional testing and evaluation of the new crystal and assessed benchmark spectroscopy measurements. Results, which present energy resolution as a function of energy, are summarized. Typical spectroscopy results using a 137Cs radiation source are shown

  13. Expression of BAFF and BR3 in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Duan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the expression of B cell activating factor (BAFF and BAFF receptor in patients with disease activity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Real-time RT-PCR was used to examine BAFF mRNA expression in peripheral blood monocytes of active and stable SLE patients and healthy controls. The percentage of BAFF receptor 3 (BR3 on B lymphocytes was measured by flow cytometry. Soluble BAFF levels in serum were assayed by ELISA. Microalbumin levels were assayed by an automatic immune analysis machine. BAFF mRNA and soluble BAFF levels were highest in the active SLE group, followed by the stable SLE group, and controls (P<0.01. The percentage of BR3 on B lymphocytes was downregulated in the active SLE group compared with the stable SLE group and controls (P<0.01. BAFF mRNA levels and soluble BAFF levels were higher in patients who were positive for proteinuria than in those who were negative (P<0.01. The percentage of BR3 on B lymphocytes was lower in patients who were positive for proteinuria than in those who were negative (P<0.01. The BAFF/BR3 axis may be over-activated in SLE patients. BAFF and BR3 levels may be useful parameters for evaluating treatment.

  14. Active and passive CT for waste assay using LaBr3(Ce) detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tushar; More, M. R.; Ratheesh, Jilju; Sinha, Amar

    2017-01-01

    An active and passive computed tomography system has been developed that localizes and quantifies 239Pu in a waste drum. The active (transmission) measurement uses an external gamma source and LaBr3(Ce) detector to determine the attenuation map of waste drum contents at different selected energies. The passive (emission) measurement uses multiple LaBr3(Ce) detectors to record the spectra of gamma-rays emitted from within the drum. The active and passive data sets are then coupled to quantitatively assay drum contents for 239Pu.

  15. CsPbBr3 nanocrystal saturable absorber for mode-locking ytterbium fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Hu, Zhiping; Li, Yue; Xu, Jianqiu; Tang, Xiaosheng; Tang, Yulong

    2016-06-01

    Cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I) have been reported as efficient light-harvesting and light-emitting semiconductor materials, but their nonlinear optical properties have been seldom touched upon. In this paper, we prepare layered CsPbBr3 nanocrystal films and characterize their physical properties. Broadband linear absorption from ˜0.8 to over 2.2 μm and nonlinear optical absorption at the 1-μm wavelength region are measured. The CsPbBr3 saturable absorber (SA), manufactured by drop-casting of colloidal CsPbBr3 liquid solution on a gold mirror, shows modulation depth and saturation intensity of 13.1% and 10.7 MW/cm2, respectively. With this SA, mode-locking operation of a polarization-maintained ytterbium fiber laser produces single pulses with duration of ˜216 ps, maximum average output power of 10.5 mW, and the laser spectrum is centered at ˜1076 nm. This work shows that CsPbBr3 films can be efficient SA candidates for fiber lasers and also have great potential to become broadband linear and nonlinear optical materials for photonics and optoelectronics.

  16. Reductive Deoxygenation of Carbonyl to Methylene by LiAlH4/InBr3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Yan FU; Xue Mei ZHAO; Yao Feng YUAN; Ji Tao WANG

    2003-01-01

    The reductive deoxygenation of aldehydes and ketones into the corresponding alkanes isaccomplished by LiA1H4 in the presence of Lewis acid InBr3. It provides a convenient method tocomplete the transformation from carbonyl compounds to alkanes.

  17. Fast-neutron induced background in LaBr3:Ce detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kiener, J; Deloncle, I; de Séréville, N; Laurent, P; Blondel, C; Chabot, M; Chipaux, R; Coc, A; Dubos, S; Gostojic, A; Goutev, N; Hamadache, C; Hammache, F; Horeau, B; Limousin, O; Ouichaoui, S; Prévot, G; Rodríguez-Gasén, R; Yavahchova, M S

    2015-01-01

    The response of a scintillation detector with a cylindrical 1.5-inch LaBr3:Ce crystal to incident neutrons has been measured in the energy range En = 2-12 MeV. Neutrons were produced by proton irradiation of a Li target at Ep = 5-14.6 MeV with pulsed proton beams. Using the time-of-flight information between target and detector, energy spectra of the LaBr3:Ce detector resulting from fast neutron interactions have been obtained at 4 different neutron energies. Neutron-induced gamma rays emitted by the LaBr3:Ce crystal were also measured in a nearby Ge detector at the lowest proton beam energy. In addition, we obtained data for neutron irradiation of a large-volume high-purity Ge detector and of a NE-213 liquid scintillator detector, both serving as monitor detectors in the experiment. Monte-Carlo type simulations for neutron interactions in the liquid scintillator, the Ge and LaBr3:Ce crystals have been performed and compared with measured data. Good agreement being obtained with the data, we present the resul...

  18. Characterization of LaBr3:Ce and CeBr3 calorimeter modules for 3D imaging in gamma-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostojić, A.; Tatischeff, V.; Kiener, J.; Hamadache, C.; Peyré, J.; Karkour, N.; Linget, D.; Gibelin, L.; Lafay, X.; Grave, X.; Dosme, N.; Legay, E.; Blin, S.; Barrillon, P.

    2016-10-01

    For the purpose of future space instrumentation for γ-ray astronomy, we developed a small prototype of a Compton telescope and studied novel detector modules aimed for Compton imaging. We assembled and tested 2 modules, one with a cerium-doped lanthanum(III) bromide (LaBr3:Ce) crystal and the other with cerium(III) bromide (CeBr3). Both crystals measure 5×5 cm2 in area and are 1 cm thick. They are coupled to and read out by 64-channel multi-anode PMTs. Our goals are to obtain the best possible energy resolution and position resolution in 3D on the first impact of an incident γ-ray within the detector. Both information are vital for successful reconstruction of a Compton image with the telescope prototype. We developed a test bench to experimentally study both modules and have utilized a customized readout electronics and data acquisition system. Furthermore, we have written a detailed Geant4 simulation of the experiment, and utilize simulated data to train an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm to create a simplified 3D impact position reconstruction method. We give experimental test results obtained by both modules and present detailed parametrization and results from the Geant4 simulation and from the ANN. We compare and discuss the performance of the modules and conclude by giving a brief overview of the future prospects for using such modules in γ-ray astronomy.

  19. Nutrient/serum starvation derived TRIP-Br3 down-regulation accelerates apoptosis by destabilizing XIAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soonduck; Jeong, Dongjun; Yang, Young; Kim, Keun-Il; Lim, Jong-Seok; Cheon, Chung-Il; Kim, Changjin; Kang, Young-Sook; Lee, Myeong-Sok

    2015-01-01

    TRIP-Br3 and TRIP-Br1 have shown to have important biological functions. However, the function of TRIP-Br3 in tumorigenesis is not well characterized compared to oncogenic TRIP-Br1. Here, we investigated the function of TRIP-Br3 in tumorigenesis by comparing with that of TRIP-Br1. Under nutrient/serum starvation, TRIP-Br3 expression was down-regulated slightly in cancer cells and significantly in normal cells. Unexpectedly, TRIP-Br1 expression was greatly up-regulated in cancer cells but not in normal cells. Moreover, TRIP-Br3 activated autophagy while TRIP-Br1 inactivated it under serum starvation. In spite of different expression and roles of TRIP-Br3 and TRIP-Br1, both of them alleviate cell death by directly binding to and stabilizing XIAP, a potent apoptosis inhibitor, through blocking its ubiquitination. Taken together, we propose that TRIP-Br3 primarily activates the autophagy and suppresses apoptosis in nutrient sufficient condition. However, the prolonged extreme stressful condition of nutrient starvation causes a dramatic decrease of TRIP-Br3, which in turn induces apoptosis by destabilizing XIAP. Up-regulated TRIP-Br1 in cancer cells compensates this effect and delays apoptosis. This can be explained by the competitive alternative binding of TRIP-Br3 and TRIP-Br1 to the BIR2 domain of XIAP. In an extended study, our immunohistochemical analysis revealed a markedly lower level of TRIP-Br3 protein in human carcinoma tissues compared to normal epithelial tissues, implying the role of TRIP-Br3 as a tumor suppressor rather than onco-protein. PMID:25691055

  20. Plasmonic Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes Based on the Ag-CsPbBr3 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Xu, Bing; Wang, Weigao; Liu, Sheng; Zheng, Yuanjin; Chen, Shuming; Wang, Kai; Sun, Xiao Wei

    2017-02-08

    The enhanced luminescence through semiconductor-metal interactions suggests the great potential of device performance improvement via properly tailored plasmonic nanostructures. Surface plasmon enhanced electroluminescence in an all-inorganic CsPbBr3 perovskite light-emitting diode (LED) is fabricated by decorating the hole transport layer with the synthesized Ag nanorods. An increase of 42% and 43.3% in the luminance and efficiency is demonstrated for devices incorporated with Ag nanorods. The device with Ag introduction indicates identical optoelectronic properties to the controlled device without Ag nanostructures. The increased spontaneous emission rate caused by the Ag-induced plasmonic near-field effect is responsible for the performance enhancement. Therefore, the plasmonic Ag-CsPbBr3 nanostructure studied here provides a novel strategy on the road to the future development of perovskite LEDs.

  1. Room temperature three-photon pumped CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite microlasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yisheng; Wang, Shuai; Huang, Can; Yi, Ningbo; Wang, Kaiyang; Xiao, Shumin; Song, Qinghai

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid lead halide perovskites have made great strides in next-generation light-harvesting and light emitting devices. Recently, they have also shown great potentials in nonlinear optical materials. Two-photon absorption and two-photon light emission have been thoroughly studied in past two years. However, the three-photon processes are rarely explored, especially for the laser emissions. Here we synthesized high quality CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite microstructures with solution processed precipitation method and studied their optical properties. When the microstructures are pumped with intense 1240 nm lasers, we have observed clear optical limit effect and the band-to-band photoluminescence at 540 nm. By increasing the pumping density, whispering-gallery-mode based microlasers have been achieved from CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite microplate and microrod for the first time. This work demonstrates the potentials of hybrid lead halide perovskites in nonlinear photonic devices.

  2. Study the performance of LYSO and CeBr3 crystals using Silicon Photomultipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryemadhi, Abaz

    2016-03-01

    The Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) are novel photon-detectors which have been progressively found their use in particle physics. Their small size, good single photon resolution, simple readout, and immunity to magnetic fields offers advantages compared to traditional photomultipliers. LYSO and CeBr3 crystals are relatively new scintillators with high light yield and fast decay time. The response of these detectors to low energy gamma rays and cosmic ray muons will be presented. Messiah College Workload Reallocation Program.

  3. Characterization of Large Volume 3.5 x 8 inches LaBr3:Ce Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Giaz, A; Riboldi, S; Camera, F; Blasi, N; Boiano, C; Bracco, A; Brambilla, S; Ceruti, S; Coelli, S; Crespi, F C L; Csatlòs, M; Frega, S; Gulyàs, J; Krasznahorkay, A; Lodetti, S; Million, B; Owens, A; Quarati, F; Stuhl, L; Wieland, O

    2013-01-01

    The properties of large volume cylindrical 3.5 x 8 inches (89 mm x 203 mm) LaBr3:Ce scintillation detectors coupled to the Hamamatsu R10233-100SEL photo-multiplier tube were investigated. These crystals are among the largest ones ever produced and still need to be fully characterized to determine how these detectors can be utilized and in which applications. We tested the detectors using monochromatic gamma-ray sources and in-beam reactions producing gamma rays up to 22.6 MeV; we acquired PMT signal pulses and calculated detector energy resolution and response linearity as a function of gamma-ray energy. Two different voltage dividers were coupled to the Hamamatsu R10233-100SEL PMT: the Hamamatsu E1198-26, based on straightforward resistive network design, and the LABRVD, specifically designed for our large volume LaBr3:Ce scintillation detectors, which also includes active semiconductor devices. Because of the extremely high light yield of LaBr3:Ce crystals we observed that, depending on the choice of PMT, v...

  4. Position sensitivity in 3"×3" Spectroscopic LaBr3:Ce Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, N.; Giaz, A.; Boiano, C.; Brambilla, S.; Camera, F.; Million, B.; Riboldi, S.

    2015-06-01

    The position sensitivity of a thick, cylindrical and continuous 3" × 3" (7.62 cm × 7.62 cm) LaBr3:Ce crystal with diffusive surfaces was investigated. Nuclear physics basic research uses thick LaBr3:Ce crystals (> 3cm) to measure medium or high energy gamma rays (0.5 MeV < Eγ< 20 MeV). In the first measurement the PMT photocathode entrance window was covered by black absorber except for a small window 1 cm × 1cm wide. A complete scan of the detector over a 0.5 cm step grid was performed. The data show that even in a 3" thick LaBr3:Ce crystal with diffusive surfaces the position of the full energy peak centroid depends on the source position. The position of the full energy peak centroids are sufficient to identify the collimated gamma source position. The crystal was then coupled to four Position Sensitive Photomultipliers (PSPMT). We acquired the signals from the 256 segments of the four PSPMTs grouping them into 16 elements. An event by event analysis shows a positon resolution of the order of 2 cm.

  5. PSD Methods Comparison and Discrimination Efficiency Study for LaBr3:Ce Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cang, Jirong; Zeng, Zhi; Cheng, Jianping; Liu, Yinong; Li, Junli

    2016-01-01

    LaBr3:Ce scintillator has been widely studied for nuclear spectroscopy because of its optimal energy resolution (<3% @ 662keV) and time resolution (~300ps). Despite these promising properties, intrinsic radiation background of LaBr3:Ce is a critical issue, and the Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) is proved to be efficient and a potential method to suppress the alpha background from the 227Ac. In this paper, a detailed comparison of 3 digital PSD algorithms, the Charge Comparison Method, the Mean Time Method and the Gamma-Alpha Model Analysis Method, for alpha and gamma discrimination in LaBr3:Ce was done. The algorithm parameters and discrimination efficiency were analyzed and optimized for each method. Moreover, for the CCM, the correlation between the CCM feature value distribution and the total charge (energy) was quantitatively analyzed, and a fitting equation of the correlation is inferred and verified with experiment. With the equation, an energy-dependent threshold was chosen to optimize the discrim...

  6. The Controlling Mechanism for Potential Loss in CH3NH3PbBr3 Hybrid Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Xiaojia; Chen, Bo; Yang, Mengjin; Wu, Congcong; Orler, Bruce; Moore, Robert B.; Zhu, Kai; Priya, Shashank

    2016-08-12

    We investigated moisture and thermal stability of MAPbBr3 perovskite material. Cubic MAPbBr3 was found to be moisture-insensitive and can avoid the thermal stability issues introduced by low-temperature phase transition in MAPbI3. MAPbBr3 and MAPbI3 hybrid solar cells with efficiencies of ~7.1% and ~15.5%, respectively, were fabricated, and we identified the correlation between the working temperature, light intensity, and the photovoltaic performance. No charge-carrier transport barriers were found in the MAPbBr3 and MAPbI3 solar cells. The MAPbBr3 solar cell displays a better stability under high working temperature because of its close-packed crystal structure. Temperature-dependent photocurrent-voltage characteristics indicate that, unlike the MAPbI3 solar cell with an activation energy (EA) nearly equal to its band gap (Eg), the EA for the MAPbBr3 solar cell is much lower than its Eg. This indicates that a high interface recombination process limits the photovoltage and consequently the device performance of the MAPbBr3 solar cell.

  7. Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert M.

    1976-10-05

    1. A neutronic reactor having a moderator, coolant tubes traversing the moderator from an inlet end to an outlet end, bodies of material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy disposed within the coolant tubes, and means for circulating water through said coolant tubes characterized by the improved construction wherein the coolant tubes are constructed of aluminum having an outer diameter of 1.729 inches and a wall thickness of 0.059 inch, and the means for circulating a liquid coolant through the tubes includes a source of water at a pressure of approximately 350 pounds per square inch connected to the inlet end of the tubes, and said construction including a pressure reducing orifice disposed at the inlet ends of the tubes reducing the pressure of the water by approximately 150 pounds per square inch.

  8. Growth of LaBr_3:Ce~(3+) Single Crystal by Vertical Bridgman Process in Nonvacuum Atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbing Chen; Changyong Zhou; Peizhi Yang; Jinhao Wang

    2009-01-01

    The growth of LaBr_3:Ce~(3+) crystal by the vertical Bridgman process in a nonvacuum atmosphere was reported. According to the dehydration procedure of LaBr_3·7H_2O and CeBr_3·7H_2O investigated by differential thermal analysis/thermogravimetry (DTA/TG), anhydrous LaBr_3 and CeBr_3 were prepared by heating LaBr_3·7H_2O and CeBr_3·7H_2O at 240-260℃ for 5-6 h in dried HBr atmosphere. Using the feed materials prepared from the anhydrous lanthanon bromides, a 0.5 mole fraction Ce~(3+) doped LaBr_3 crystal with size ofφ25 mm×50 mm had been grown by vertical Bridgman process successfully. By sealing the feed material in a platinum crucible, the crystal could be grown in a nonvacuum atmosphere as the oxidization and volatilization of the melt could be avoided. The crystal was grown with the optimum conditions such as a growth rate of 0.5-1.0 mm/h and a temperature gradient of around 30℃/cm across solid-liquid interface under a furnace temperature of 850-880℃. The crystal was characterized by DTA/TG, X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical transmission, photoluminescence and X-ray stimulated luminescence measurement. The Bridgman process was confirmed to be promising for growing transparent LaBr_3:Ce~(3+) crystal with high optical quality.

  9. Effect of Trastuzumab on Notch-1 Signaling Pathway in Breast Cancer SK-BR3 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Han; Hua-yu Deng; Rong Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects and mechanisms of trastuzumab on Notch-1 pathway in breast cancer cells,recognizing the significance of Notch-1 signaling pathway in trastuzumab resistance.Methods:Immunocytochemistry staining and Western blotting were employed to justify the expression of Notch-1 protein in HER2-overexpressing SK-BR3 cells and HER2-non-overexpressing breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.Western blotting and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) were used to detect the activated Notch-1 and Notch-1 target gene HES-1 mRNA expression after SK-BR3 cells were treated with trastuzumab.Double immunofluorescence staining and co-immunoprecipitation were used to analyze the relationship of Notch-1 and HER2 proteins.Results:The level of Notch-1 nuclear localization and activated Notch-1 proteins in HER2-overexpressing cells were significantly lower than in HER2-non-overexpressing cells (P<0.01),and the expressions of activated Notch-1 and HES-1 mRNA were obviously increased after trastuzumab treatment (P<1.05),but HER2 expression did not change significantly for trastuzumab treating (P>0.05).Moreover,Notch-1 was discovered to co-localize and interact with HER2 in SK-BR3 cells.Conclusion:Overexpression of HER2 decreased Notch-1 activity by the formation of a HER2-Notch1 complex,and trastuzumab can restore the activity of Notch-1 signaling pathway,which could be associated with cell resistance to trastuzumab.

  10. LaBr 3:Ce scintillation gamma camera prototype for X and gamma ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, R.; Cinti, M. N.; Pellegrini, R.; Bennati, P.; Betti, M.; Vittorini, F.; Mattioli, M.; Trotta, G.; Orsolini Cencelli, V.; Scafè, R.; Navarria, F.; Bollini, D.; Baldazzi, G.; Moschini, G.; de Notaristefani, F.

    2007-06-01

    LaBr 3:Ce has been showing very promising characteristics as gamma ray imager and spectrometer. In particular its excellent energy resolution values (6% at 140 keV and ˜3% FWHM at 662 keV), obtained when coupled to a PMT, make it the major competitor of semiconductor detectors working at room temperature. In order to improve its imaging performances, the LaBr 3:Ce can easily work as continuous detector allowing sub-millimeter spatial resolution values at 140 keV photon energy when coupled to a Position Sensitive PMT. Further interesting characteristics like a short scintillation decay time (16 ns), a very high light yield (63 000 photons/MeV) and a low afterglow are attracting the scientific community for the potential improvement of a wide range of applications in medicine like PET, SPECT and CT instrumentation. In this paper, we present some preliminary imaging results obtained by coupling H8500 Hamamatsu Flat Panel PMT to two LaBr 3:Ce crystals with 50×50 mm 2 area, 5 and 10 mm thickness respectively. With the aim to propose a single detector able to combine functional information, for example from Single Photon Emission technique, with the morphological ones from X-ray imaging the spatial resolution results obtained in the energy range between 30 and 302 keV are analyzed and discussed. We obtained very interesting spatial resolution results for gamma ray energy value greater than 60 keV (better than 1 mm, intrinsic value), while in the energy range proper to X-ray applications, like RX-Mammography (about 30 keV), the spatial resolution values resulted about 2 mm.

  11. Effects of SbBr3 addition to CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Takeo; Ohishi, Yuya; Suzuki, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    TiO2/CH3NH3Pb1-xSbxI3-2xBr3x-based photovoltaic devices were fabricated, and effects of SbBr3 addition to CH3NH3PbI3 precursor solutions on the photovoltaic properties were investigated. The short-circuit current densities and photoconversion efficiencies were improved by adding a small amount of SbBr3 to the perovskite phase, which would be due to a doping effect of Sb or Br atoms at the Pb or I sites.

  12. Progesterone and estradiol enhance lipid mediated transfection of Sk-Br-3 mammalian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köster, Frank; Felberbaum, Ricardo; Finas, Dominique; Wünsch, Kurt; Schulz, Christiane; Diedrich, Klaus; Hauser, Charlotte

    2002-06-01

    Cyclodextrin encapsulated beta-estradiol and progesterone were used for enhancement of gene delivery using the breast cancer cell line Sk-Br-3. A non-toxic concentration of cyclodextrin encapsulated sex steroids (50 microM) added to lipid or liposomal transfection led to a 12-fold increase of reporter gene expression (luciferase) with progesterone and an 8-fold increase with estradiol using Lipofectamine Plus mediated transfection. Using the lipid formulation Fugene-6 the results were a 5.5-fold and a 4.5-fold increase respectively. This enhancement could only be observed if the sex steroids were added to the cells before application of the DNA-Fugene complex supporting the evidence that intracellular processes are responsible for the activity of the steroids. The strong differences between progesterone and estradiol in modifying Lipofectamine Plus transfection in Sk-Br-3 cells may to be explained by differences in the distribution of these receptors in the cellular compartments. These results seem to add evidence on the possibility of using sex steroids to increase the efficiency of non-viral vectors for transfection, and may ultimately prove to be relevant to gene therapy in the treatment of breast cancer as well as other solid tumors.

  13. Goniothalamin induces apoptosis associated with autophagy activation through MAPK signaling in SK-BR-3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innajak, Sukanda; Mahabusrakum, Wilawan; Watanapokasin, Ramida

    2016-05-01

    Goniothalamin, a plant bioactive styrly-lactone, possesses many biological activities. In the present study, the anticancer effect of goniothalamin on human breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3 was investigated. The results showed that goniothalamin induced nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, apoptotic bodies and mitochondrial dysfunction as determined by JC-1 staining. Goniothalamin also increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and expression of cleaved caspase-7, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved PARP, but decreased Bcl-2 expression. In addition, goniothalamin induced apoptosis via p-JNK1/2 and p-p38 upregulation and inhibited cell survival via p-ERK1/2 and p-Akt downregulation. Notably, goniothalamin induced autophagy through upregulation of Atg7, Atg12-Atg5 conjugation and LC3II. The increased p-p38 and p-JNK1/2 and decreased p-Akt may lead to autophagy induction. Therefore, goniothalamin promoted apoptosis associated with autophagy induction in SK-BR-3 cells through p-p38 and p-JNK1/2 upregulation and p-Akt downregulation. The present study indicated that goniothalamin may be further used as a potential therapeutic candidate or may offer an alternative treatment for breast cancer.

  14. Modifying CH3NH3PbBr3 nanocrystals with arylamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ruimin; Liu, Heyuan; Shen, Li; Sun, Dejun; Li, Xiyou

    2017-04-01

    Chemically decorating CH3NH3PbBr3 with a group of para-substituted arylamine (R-An) was investigated, where R ranges from electron-withdrawing trifluoromethoxy(-CF3O), to hydrogen or electron-donating ethoxy (-EtO). Different ratios of R-An ammonium bromide and methylammonium bromide (MA) (R-An/MA=3/7, 4/6, 5/5, 6/4 and 7/3) were tested. XRD patterns revealed that the perovskite nanocomposite were cubic with good crystallinity. TEM and photoluminescence suggested that the perovskite nanocrystals were composed of 2D layered and 3D bulk structures. 1H NMR and TGA experiments revealed that the non-substituted aniline can readily adsorb to the surface of perovskite at any ratios between R-An and MA. But an EtOAn/MA ratio ≥1 is needed to anchor the EOAn molecules on the surface of perovskite. For the arylamine with the electron-withdrawing -CF3O group, it cannot adsorb to the surface of the perovskite at any concentrations. This result reveals that both steric hindrance and alkalinity can affect the anchoring of arylamine on the surface of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite. I-V curves of the perovskite nanocrystal films prepared by spin coating suggest that proper surface modification can increase the conductivity significantly.

  15. CH3NH3PbBr3 is not pyroelectric, excluding ferroelectric-enhanced photovoltaic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakita, Yevgeny; Meirzadeh, Elena; Bendikov, Tatyana; Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Lubomirsky, Igor; Hodes, Gary; Ehre, David; Cahen, David

    2016-05-01

    To experimentally (dis)prove ferroelectric effects on the properties of lead-halide perovskites and of solar cells, based on them, we used second-harmonic-generation spectroscopy and the periodic temperature change (Chynoweth) technique to detect the polar nature of methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3). We find that MAPbBr3 is probably centrosymmetric and definitely non-polar; thus, it cannot be ferroelectric. Whenever pyroelectric-like signals were detected, they could be shown to be due to trapped charges, likely at the interface between the metal electrode and the MAPbBr3 semiconductor. These results indicate that the ferroelectric effects do not affect steady-state performance of MAPbBr3 solar cells.

  16. CH3NH3PbBr3 is not pyroelectric, excluding ferroelectric-enhanced photovoltaic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeny Rakita

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To experimentally (disprove ferroelectric effects on the properties of lead-halide perovskites and of solar cells, based on them, we used second-harmonic-generation spectroscopy and the periodic temperature change (Chynoweth technique to detect the polar nature of methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3. We find that MAPbBr3 is probably centrosymmetric and definitely non-polar; thus, it cannot be ferroelectric. Whenever pyroelectric-like signals were detected, they could be shown to be due to trapped charges, likely at the interface between the metal electrode and the MAPbBr3 semiconductor. These results indicate that the ferroelectric effects do not affect steady-state performance of MAPbBr3 solar cells.

  17. Study of linearity and internal background for LaBr3(Ce) γ-ray scintillation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavagno, A.; Gervino, G.; Scarfone, A.

    2013-08-01

    Cerium-doped lanthanum bromide, LaBr3(Ce), crystal is the latest among the scintillation counters and shows same attracting properties for γ spectroscopy that makes it a suitable solution for security, medical, geophysics and high energy physics applications. LaBr3(Ce) exhibits a proportional light yield response to γ-ray energy. Very good linearity was seen up to 2 MeV. LaBr3(Ce) has also relatively high intrinsic radiation background due to naturally occurring 138La and 227Ac radioisotopes. A good use of LaBr3(Ce) needs an accurate determination of the self-activity, particularly when low background is required or when events are collected at very low trigger rates. The impact of internal background on energy resolution and linearity is discussed.

  18. Possible mechanism of leptin on human SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells%瘦素作用于人乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞的可能机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾繁余; 刘菁; 黄颖; 骆耐香

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the possible mechanism of leptin on human SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells, cell proliferation and vascular endothelial growth factor ( VEGF) expression. Methods SK-BR-3 cells were treated with different concentration of leptin for different hours in vitro, respectively. Cell proliferation was evaluated by CCK-8 method. The expression of VEGF mRNA and protein were detected in SK-BR-3 by real time PCR and western blot, respectively. Results Cell proliferation of SK-BR-3 was in a dose and time-dependent way in vitro (P < 0. 05 ). The expression level of VEGF mRNA and protein were increased significantly in a leptin dose-dependent manner ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusions Leptin promotes the growth of human SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells in vitro, which plays a role in the mechanism of angiogenesis and metastasis by increasing the expression of VEGF.%目的 观察瘦素对人乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞增殖及对VEGF表达的影响,探讨其可能机制.方法 不同浓度瘦素与人乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞共同培养后,CCK-8法检测其对人乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞增殖的影响,实时荧光定量PCR法及Western印迹法检测VEGF mRNA及蛋白表达情况.结果 在一定范围内,瘦素呈时间、剂量依赖性促进SK-BR-3细胞的生长(P<0.05);细胞受不同浓度瘦素作用后VEGF mRNA及蛋白表达量明显增加并具有剂量依赖性(P<0.05).结论 在体外瘦素对人乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞有明显增殖作用,通过促进VEGF的表达,在促进血管的生成及肿瘤转移机制中可能发挥一定作用.

  19. Effects of PDGF-BB on migration and proliferation of SK-BR-3 mammary carcinoma cells%PDGF-BB 对 SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞迁移、增殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    步玉辉; 史建红; 崔乃鹏; 何欢; 王冰; 陈保平

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察血小板源性生长因子(PDGF)-BB对乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞迁移、增殖的促进作用。方法分别以0.5、1、2、4ng/mL质量浓度的PDGF-BB干预对数期SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞,细胞计数法和內盐法(MTS)检测细胞增殖情况,细胞迁移试验检测细胞迁移能力。结果与未加入任何药物的SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞相比,4ng/mL的PDGF-BB对SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞的迁移及增殖有明显促进作用,该促进作用与药物质量浓度呈正相关。结论在一定质量浓度范围内,PDGF-BB能明显促进人源性SK-BR-3细胞的迁移和增殖。%Objective To explore the effects of platelet-derived growth factor ( PDGF)-BB on the migration and prolif-eration of SK-BR-3 mammary carcinoma cells .Methods SK-BR-3 mammary carcinoma cells in logarithm growth stage were treated with different concentrations of PDGF-BB (0.5, 1, 2, 4 ng/mL).The proliferation was determined by cytom-etry and MTS assay , and the migration ability was detected by cell migration assay .Results Compared with SK-BR-3 mammary carcinoma cells without any drug , 4 ng/mL PDGF-BB promoted the migration and proliferation of SK-BR-3 mam-mary cells and it was positively associated with the drug concentration .Conclusions The PDGF-BB can promote the mi-gration and proliferation of human SK-BR-3 cells in a specific concentration range .

  20. Position sensitivity in large spectroscopic LaBr3:Ce crystals for Doppler broadening correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, N.; Giaz, A.; Boiano, C.; Brambilla, S.; Camera, F.; Million, B.; Riboldi, S.

    2016-12-01

    The position sensitivity of a large LaBr3:Ce crystal was investigated with the aim of correcting for the Doppler broadening in nuclear physics experiments. The crystal was cylindrical, 3 in×3 in (7.62 cm x 7.62 cm) and with diffusive surfaces as typically used in nuclear physics basic research to measure medium or high energy gamma rays (0.5 MeV

  1. Ne matrix spectra of the sym-C6Br3F3+ radical cation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondybey, V.E.; Sears, T.J.; Miller, T.A.; Vaughn, C.; English, J.H.; Shiley, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    The electronic absorption and laser excited, wavelength resolved fluorescence spectra of the title cation have been observed in solid Ne matrix and vibrationally analysed. The vibrational structure of the excited B2A2??? state shows close similarity to the parent compound. The X2E??? ground state structure is strongly perturbed and irregular owing to a large Jahn-Teller distortion. The data are analysed in terms of a recently developed, sophisticated multimode Jahn-Teller theoretical model. We have generated the sym-C6Br3F3+ cations in solid Ne matrix and obtained their wavelength resolved emission and absorption spectra. T ground electronic X2E??? state exhibits an irregular and strongly perturbed vibrational structure, which can be successfully modeled using sophisticated multimode Jahn-Teller theory. ?? 1981.

  2. Anticorrosion Performance of Carbon Steel in 55% LiBr Solution Containing PMA/SbBr3 Inhibitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xian-qi; LIANG Cheng-hao; HUANG Nai-bao

    2006-01-01

    The anticorrosion performance of carbon steel in 55% LiBr solution containing PMA/SbBr3 inhibitor was studied by weight-loss tests, electrochemical measurements and surface analysis. In 55%LiBr+PMA/SbBr3 solution, corrosion rates of carbon steel at 145 ℃, 175 ℃, 190 ℃ and 240 ℃ are 18.32 μm·a-1, 27.68 μm·a-1, 53.58 μm·a-1 and 73.78 μm·a-1, respectively. PMA/SbBr3 inhibitor may inhibit the corrosion of carbon steel in 55% LiBr solution effectively. Especially, it shows an excellent corrosion inhibition performance at high temperature. Both anodic and cathodic reactions of carbon steel may be inhibited by PMA/SbBr3 inhibitor, so it may be classified as mixed inhibitor. In 55%LiBr+PMA/SbBr3 solution, the apparent activation energy of the corrosion reaction of carbon steel is 29.61 kJ·mol-1. The corrosion inhibition mechanism of PMA/SbBr3 is suggested as follows: PMA has the effect of inhibiting hydrogen evolution and a strong oxidizing property; Sb3+ also exhibits oxidizing properties, and can exist stably with PMA in LiBr solutions; the passive film comprising Fe2O3 and antimony formed on carbon steel surface may prevent Br- from diffusing into the metal surface due to the synergistic effect of PMA and Sb3+; As a result, the anticorrosion performance of carbon steel may be improved by PMA/SbBr3 inhibitor in 55% LiBr solution.

  3. Four-Terminal Tandem Solar Cells Using CH3NH3PbBr3 by Spectrum Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Rui; Ho-Baillie, Anita W Y; Huang, Shujuan; Keevers, Mark; Hao, Xiaojing; Jiang, Liangcong; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Green, Martin A

    2015-10-01

    In this work, the use of a high bandgap perovskite solar cell in a spectrum splitting system is demonstrated. A remarkable energy conversion efficiency of 23.4% is achieved when a CH3NH3PbBr3 solar cell is coupled with a 22.7% efficient silicon passivated emitter rear locally diffused solar cell. Relative enhancements of >10% are demonstrated by CH3NH3PbBr3/CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbBr3/multicrystalline-screen-printed-Si spectral splitting systems with tandem efficiencies of 13.4% and 18.8%, respectively. The former is the first demonstration of an all perovskite split spectrum system. The CH3NH3PbBr3 cell on a mesoporous structure was fabricated by the vapor-assisted method while the planar CH3NH3PbI3 cell was fabricated by the gas-assisted method. This work demonstrates the advantage of the higher voltage output from the high bandgap CH3NH3PbBr3 cell and its suitability in a tandem system.

  4. Excellent green but less impressive blue luminescence from CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocubes and nanoplatelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Vikash Kumar; Swarnkar, Abhishek; Chakraborty, Rayan; Nag, Angshuman

    2016-08-01

    Green photoluminescence (PL) from CsPbBr3 nanocubes (˜11 nm edge-length) exhibits a high quantum yield (>80%), narrow spectral width (˜85 meV), and high reproducibility, along with a high molar extinction coefficient (3.5 × 106 M-1 cm-1) for lowest energy excitonic absorption. In order to obtain these combinations of excellent properties for blue (PL peak maximum, λ max 80%) was also maintained, but the spectral width increased and became asymmetric for blue emitting CsPbBr3 nanocubes. Furthermore, PL was unstable and irreproducible for samples with λ max ˜ 460 nm, exhibiting multiple features in the PL. These problems arise because smaller (form nanoplatelets and nanorods, eventually yielding inhomogeneity in the shape and size of blue-emitting nanocrystals. Reaction conditions were then modified achieving nanoplatelets, with strong quantum confinement along the thickness of the platelets, yielding blue emission. But inhomogeneity in the thickness of the nanoplatelets again broadens the PL compared to green-emitting CsPbBr3 nanocubes. Therefore, unlike high quality green emitting CsPbBr3 nanocubes, blue emitting CsPbBr3 nanocrystals of any shape need to be improved further.

  5. Optical constants of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite thin films measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2016-07-14

    The lack of optical constants information for hybrid perovskite of CH3NH3PbBr3 in thin films form can delay the progress of efficient LED or laser demonstration. Here, we report on the optical constants (complex refractive index and dielectric function) of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite thin films using spectroscopic ellipsometry. Due to the existence of voids, the refractive index of the thin films is around 8% less than the single crystals counterpart. The energy bandgap is around 2.309 eV as obtained from photoluminescence and spectrophotometry spectra, and calculated from the SE analysis. The precise measurement of optical constants will be useful in designing optical devices using CH3NH3PbBr3 thin films.

  6. Wavelength-shifting fiber readout of LaCl3 and LaBr3 scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Gary L.; Cherry, Michael L.; Stacy, J. Gregory; Welch, Christopher E.

    2005-08-01

    Inorganic scintillators such as NaI(Tl) and CsI(Na) have been used extensively in hard x-ray and low-energy gamma-ray imaging systems. Recently, a new generation of scintillators has been developed with properties that could greatly enhance the performance of such imaging systems. In particular, the lanthanum halides show great promise with increased light yield and peak emission at shorter wavelengths compared to NaI or CsI. Since these scintillators emit at relatively short wavelengths, wavelength-shifting fibers can be used which re-emit at wavelengths around 420 nm, providing a good match to bialkali photocathode response. Multi-anode photomultiplier tubes can be used to read out individual fibers from orthogonal layers to provide x-y position information, while energy measurements can be made by large area photomultiplier tubes. Such an arrangement potentially provides improved overall position and energy resolution and lower thresholds compared to imaging systems configured as standard NaI or CsI gamma cameras. We present measurements of the energy resolution obtained from lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) and lanthanum bromide (LaBr3) scintillators viewed both perpendicular to the axis and down the length of square multi-clad wavelength-shifting fibers. These results are compared to a standard NaI detector with wavelength-shifting fibers. The implications of these results for gamma-ray imaging will then be discussed.

  7. Photoluminescence and lasing properties of MAPbBr3 single crystals grown from solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Sandip; Lafalce, Evan; Zhang, Chuang; Zhai, Yaxin; Vardeny, Z. Valy

    Recent studies of solution-grown single crystals of inorganic-organic hybrid lead-trihalide perovskites have suggested that surface traps may play a significant role in their photophysics. We study electron-hole recombination in single crystal MAPbBr3 through such trap states using cw photoluminescence (PL) and ps transient photoinduced absorption (PA) spectroscopies. By varying the depth of the collecting optics we examined the contributions from surface and bulk radiative recombination. We found a surface dominated PL band at the band-edge that is similar to that observed from polycrystalline thin films, as well as a weaker red-shifted emission band that originates from the bulk crystal. The two PL bands are distinguished in their temperature, excitation intensity and polarization dependencies, as well as their ps dynamics. Additionally, amplified spontaneous emission and crystal-related cavity lasing modes were observed in the same spectral range as the PL band assigned to the surface recombination. This work was funded by AFOSR through MURI Grant RA 9550-14-1-0037.

  8. Engineering Interfacial Charge Transfer in CsPbBr3 Perovskite Nanocrystals by Heterovalent Doping

    KAUST Repository

    Begum, Raihana

    2016-12-17

    Since compelling device efficiencies of perovskite solar cells have been achieved, investigative efforts have turned to understand other key challenges in these systems, such as engineering interfacial energy-level alignment and charge transfer (CT). However, these types of studies on perovskite thin-film devices are impeded by the morphological and compositional heterogeneity of the films and their ill-defined surfaces. Here, we use well-defined ligand-protected perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) as model systems to elucidate the role of heterovalent doping on charge-carrier dynamics and energy level alignment at the interface of perovskite NCs with molecular acceptors. More specifically, we develop an in situ doping approach for colloidal CsPbBr3 perovskite NCs with heterovalent Bi3+ ions by hot injection to precisely tune their band structure and excited-state dynamics. This synthetic method allowed us to map the impact of doping on CT from the NCs to different molecular acceptors. Using time-resolved spectroscopy with broadband capability, we clearly demonstrate that CT at the interface of NCs can be tuned and promoted by metal ion doping. We found that doping increases the energy difference between states of the molecular acceptor and the donor moieties, subsequently facilitating the interfacial CT process. This work highlights the key variable components not only for promoting interfacial CT in perovskites, but also for establishing a higher degree of precision and control over the surface and the interface of perovskite molecular acceptors.

  9. Effects of rhaponticin on proliferation of SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells%土大黄苷对乳腺癌细胞SK-BR-3增殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵素容; 段海峰; 许尹; 卢兖伟; 蒋志文

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察土大黄苷对乳腺癌细胞SK-BR-3增殖的影响,并初步探讨其作用机制.方法 采用MTT法检测土大黄苷对SK-BR-3细胞的增殖抑制作用,倒置显微镜下观察细胞的形态学变化,Western印迹检测Akt及p-Akt蛋白的表达情况.结果 土大黄苷可抑制SK-BR-3细胞增殖,其作用具有浓度和时间依赖性,72 h的IC50为(181.3±11.4)μmol/L.200、400 μmol/L土大黄苷作用48 h后显示出明显的细胞毒作用,显微镜下可见细胞碎片增多、细胞密度减小.土大黄苷在100、200、400 μmol/L浓度时均可抑制p-Akt蛋白的表达.结论 土大黄苷可抑制SK-BR-3细胞的增殖,其机制可能与抑制p-Akt表达有关.

  10. 熊果酸对乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞增殖和凋亡的影响%Effects of Ursolic Acid on Proliferation and Apoptosis of SK-BR-3 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐新伟; 郭玲玲; 顾振纶; 蒋小岗; 周文轩; 郭次仪

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨熊果酸(UA)对ER(-)、Her-2过表达的人乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞增殖和凋亡的影响.方法 利用噻唑蓝(MTT)比色法观察UA对SK-BR-3细胞增殖的影响.用Hoechst 33258荧光染色及电子显微镜观察凋亡细胞核形态变化.流式细胞仪检测UA对细胞周期的影响;DNA琼脂糖凝胶电泳观察DNA片段的断裂.结果 UA明显抑制SK-BR-3细胞的增殖,差异有统计学意义(PBR-3细胞阻滞在G0/G1期,差异有统计学意义(均P<0.05).DNA琼脂糖凝胶电泳显示DNA大片段的断裂.结论 UA在体外对SK-BR-3细胞具有抗增殖和诱导凋亡的作用.

  11. 76 FR 71044 - International Conference on Harmonisation; E2B(R3) Electronic Transmission of Individual Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration International Conference on Harmonisation; E2B(R3) Electronic Transmission of Individual Case Safety Reports; Draft Guidance on Implementation; Data...

  12. X-ray and gamma-ray response of a 2 '' x 2 '' LaBr3 : Ce scintillation detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quarati, F.; Bos, A. J. J.; Brandenburg, S.; Dathy, C.; Dorenbos, P.; Kraft, S.; Ostendorf, R. W.; Ouspenski, V.; Owens, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Advances in material growth techniques have recently made large volume LaBr3:Ce crystals commercially available. These scintillators are currently being assessed by ESA for use as remote sensing gamma-ray spectrometers on future planetary missions. In addition to their superior scintillation propert

  13. The CsBr-AlBr3 Phase Diagram and The Crystal Structure of CsAlBr4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    1997-01-01

    The phase diagram in the CsBr-AlBr3 system has been reinvestigated. An adjusted liquidus diagram is given, showing the compound CsAlBr4 which melts congruently at 360 oC. The lack of consistency among previous results is presumably due to the presence of oxide impurities formed by attack of bromide...

  14. [Rhein lysinate induces apoptosis in breast cancer SK-Br-3 cells by inhibiting HER-2 signal pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ya-Jun; Huang, Yun-Hong; Zhen, Yong-Zhan; Liu, Xiu-Jun; Zhen, Yong-Su

    2008-11-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of rhein lysinate on inducing human breast cancer cell line SK-Br-3 apoptosis and the role of HER-2 signal pathway in the apoptosis. MTT assay was used to detect SK-Br-3 cell proliferation. Cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. The protein expression and the protein phosphorylation of HER-2 signal pathway were detected by Western blotting. The level of HER-2 mRNA was detected by RT-PCR and the level of HER-2 expression was also detected by immunofluorescence cytochemical methods. The results showed that rhein lysinate remarkably inhibited breast cancer SK-Br-3 cell proliferation. The IC50 value for 48 h treatment was 85 micromol x L(-1). Apoptosis in SK-Br-3 cells was induced by rhein lysinate in a dose dependent manner. The protein expressions of HER-2, NF-KB, and the protein phosphorylation of HER-2 were downregulated, however the protein expression of p53 and p21 was upregulated after rhein lysinate treatment. The level of HER-2 mRNA decreased by using RT-PCR assay and the level of HER-2 expression was also decreased by using immunofluorescence cytochemical assay after rhein lysinate treatment. It can be concluded that rhein lysinate could inhibit SK-Br-3 cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. HER-2/NF-kappaB/p53/p21 signal pathway might be involved in this process. Rhein lysinate has a good prospect to be an adjuvant chemotherapeutic drug.

  15. 海兔素对人乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞的抑制作用及机制研究%Effect of Aplysin on the Proliferation and Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer SK-BR-3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文龙; 梁惠; 刘颖

    2012-01-01

    本文阐述了海兔素(Aplysin)对人乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞增殖和凋亡的影响,并探讨了其可能的作用机制.分别采用CCK-8法和流式细胞术Annexin V-FITC/PI双染法测定不同剂量海兔素对SK-BR-3细胞的增殖抑制和凋亡诱导作用,并以Western blot测定SK-BR-3细胞中EGFR、Akt及ERK表达水平和磷酸化水平.结果发现,20、30、40、45、50、55、60 mg/L海兔素处理SK-BR-3细胞24 h后,细胞的生长增殖明显受到抑制,呈量效依赖性,其IC25和IC50值为分别为29.4和33.7 mg/L; IC25和IC50剂量海兔素可明显诱导细胞凋亡,并下调SK-BR-3细胞EGFR、Akt及ERK的磷酸化蛋白表达水平,但是不影响总蛋白表达水平.表明海兔素对人乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞具有抑制增殖和诱导凋亡的作用,其作用机制可能与海兔素抑制细胞中EGFR蛋白磷酸化,进而阻断下游效应分子Akt和ERK的活化有关.%The effects of aplysin, nature extract from Laurencia, on the proliferation and apoptosis on human breast cancer SK-BR-3 cells were investigated in this study. After treatment with aplysin at a serial of concentrations,cell proliferation was investigated by using Cell Counting Kit-8 and apoptosis was analyzed by Annexin V-FTTC/PI staining via flow cy-tometry.The total and phosphorylated proteins of EGFR.Akt,and ERK were detected by western blot. The results showed that aplysin was able to inhibit SK-BR-3 cell proliferation in a concentration dependent manner within the concentration range of 20,30,40,45,50,55,and 60 mg/L. Aplysin could induce significant apoptosis at the dose of IC25 and IC50. Phosphorylation levels of the receptor of EGFR and cytoplasmic protein of Akt and ERK were significantly down-regulated by aplysin at the dose of IC25 and IC50,while their total protein expression levels were not affected. The results indicated that aplysin could inhibit SK-BR-3 cell proliferation and induce apoptosis by blocking EGFR/Akt and EGFR/ERK signal pathways.

  16. Overexpression of YB1 C-terminal domain inhibits proliferation, angiogenesis and tumorigenicity in a SK-BR-3 breast cancer xenograft mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian-Hong; Cui, Nai-Peng; Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Ming-Zhi; Wang, Bing; Wang, Ya-Nan; Chen, Bao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Y-box-binding protein 1 (YB1) is a multifunctional transcription factor with vital roles in proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. In this study, we have examined the role of its C-terminal domain (YB1 CTD) in proliferation, angiogenesis and tumorigenicity in breast cancer. Breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3 was infected with GFP-tagged YB1 CTD adenovirus expression vector. An 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) proliferation assay showed that YB1 CTD decreased SK-BR-3 cell proliferation, and down-regulated cyclin B1 and up-regulated p21 levels in SK-BR-3 cells. YB1 CTD overexpression changed the cytoskeletal organization and slightly inhibited the migration of SK-BR-3 cells. YB1 CTD also inhibited secreted VEGF expression in SK-BR-3 cells, which decreased SK-BR-3-induced EA.hy926 endothelial cell angiogenesis in vitro. YB1 CTD overexpression attenuated the ability of SK-BR-3 cells to form tumours in nude mice, and decreased in vivo VEGF levels and angiogenesis in the xenografts in SK-BR-3 tumour-bearing mice. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the vital role of YB1 CTD overexpression in inhibiting proliferation, angiogenesis and tumorigenicity of breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3.

  17. Manumycin诱导细胞凋亡抑制乳腺癌细胞SK-BR-3活性%Manumycin inhibits the activity of breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3 via inducing apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶祥; 杨惠玲; 杨林; 郑芹

    2004-01-01

    目的:研究manumycin对乳腺癌腹腔转移癌细胞株SK-BR-3的抑癌效应及其诱导凋亡.方法: 用MTT法检测manumycin对SK-BR-3细胞的抑癌作用.免疫印迹方法检测p38 MAPK蛋白表达.用caspase-3活性检测试剂盒定量检测manumycin诱导细胞凋亡的水平及评估特异性的p38 MAPK抑制剂SB203580对凋亡的影响.结果: 经6 μmol/L、18 μmol/L、54 μmol/L manumycin处理SK-BR-3细胞24 h时,其抑制率分别为(7.4±3.9)%、(21.0±4.4)%和(64.7±4.1)%,呈量效关系.其中后2者的细胞活性与对照组比有显著差异(P<0.01).用药24 h的IC50为42.5 μmol/L.同时此药物可明显增加caspase-3的活性,且这一效应可部分地被p38抑制剂SB203580阻断.免疫印迹结果显示manumycin促进p38的磷酸化.结论:manumycin可通过诱导SK-BR-3细胞凋亡而产生抑癌作用,p38 MAPK是manumycin诱导细胞凋亡的通路之一.

  18. Three-dimensional SPECT imaging with LaBr3:Ce scintillator for characterization of nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tushar; Ratheesh, Jilju; Sinha, Amar

    2014-01-01

    Characterization of nuclear waste in terms of radioactivity distribution is important not only for their safe disposal but also for nuclear material accounting. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) provides a non-invasive technique for the characterization and activity distribution of the gamma-emitting sources in a matrix. Sodium iodide scintillators, which are most commonly used, suffer from poor energy resolution and do not provide accurate peak discrimination for radioisotopes like 239Pu which have overlapping peaks. Cerium-activated lanthanum bromide (LaBr3:Ce) scintillators have better energy resolution and provide better peak discrimination. In this paper, experimental studies using LaBr3:Ce for 3D SPECT imaging of dummy waste drum has been discussed. The reconstruction has been done using the Filtered Backprojection scheme with attenuation compensation based on Novikov's inversion formula.

  19. METCAM/MUC18 augments migration, invasion, and tumorigenicity of human breast cancer SK-BR-3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guofang; Cai, Shaoxi; Liu, Yuan; Wu, Guang-Jer

    2012-01-15

    Previous research has identified METCAM/MUC18, an integral membrane cell adhesion molecule (CAM) in the Ig-like gene super-family, as a promoter or a suppressor in the development of human breast cancer by MCF7, MDA-MB-231, and MDA-MB-468. To resolve these conflicting results we have investigated the role of this CAM in the progression of the three aforementioned cell lines plus one additional human breast cancer cell line, SK-BR-3. We transfected the SK-BR-3 cells with human METCAM/MUC18 cDNA to obtain G418-resistant clones, which expressed different levels of the protein and which were used to test the effect of human METCAM/MUC18 expression on in vitro motility, invasiveness, anchorage-independent colony formation in soft agar, disorganized growth in a 3D basement membrane culture assay, and in vivo tumorigenesis in athymic nude mice. Enforced METCAM/MUC18 expression increased in vitro motility, invasiveness, and anchorage-independent colony formation of SK-BR-3 cells and favored disorganized growth of the cells in 3D basement membrane culture. Enforced expression also increased tumorigenicity and final tumor weights of SK-BR-3 clones/cells after subcutaneous injection of the cells under the left third nipple of female athymic nude mice. To understand the mechanisms, we also determined the expression of several downstream key effectors in the tumors. Tumor cells from METCAM/MUC18 expressing clones exhibited elevated expression of an anti-apoptotic and survival index (Bcl2), an aerobic glycolysis index (LDH-A), and pro-angiogenesis indexes (VEGF and VAGFR2). We concluded that human METCAM/MUC18 promotes the development of breast cancer cells by increasing an anti-apoptosis and survival pathway and augmenting aerobic glycolysis and angiogenesis.

  20. Enhanced internalization of ErbB2 in SK-BR-3 cells with multivalent forms of an artificial ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanath, Arun; Hashizume, Toshihiro; Nagaoka, Tadahiro; Takeyasu, Nao; Satoh, Hitomi; Chen, Ling; Wang, Jiyou; Kasai, Tomonari; Kudoh, Takayuki; Satoh, Ayano; Fu, Li; Seno, Masaharu

    2011-11-01

    Targeting and down-regulation of ErbB2, a member of EGF receptor family, is regarded as one of the key aspect for cancer treatment because it is often overexpressed in breast and ovarian cancer cells. Although natural ligands for ErbB2 have not been found, unlike other ErbB receptors, EC-1, a 20-amino acid circular peptide, has been shown to bind to ErbB2 as an artificial ligand. Previously we showed EC-1 peptide did not induce the internalization of ErbB2 in SK-BR-3 cells. In this report, we designed divalent and multivalent forms of EC-1 peptide with the Fc portion of the human IgG and bionanocapsule modified with ZZ-tag on its surface to improve the interaction with ErbB2. These forms showed higher affinity to ErbB2 than that of EC-1 monomer. Furthermore, prominent endosomal accumulation of ErbB2 occurred in SK-BR-3 cells when stimulated with EC-Fc ligand multivalently displayed on the surface of the bionanocapsule, whereas SK-BR-3 cells as themselves displayed stringent mechanism against ErbB2 internalization without stimulation. The multivalent form of EC-1 peptide appeared to internalize ErbB2 more efficiently than divalent form did. This internalization was unaffected by the inhibition of clathrin association, but inhibited when the cholesterol was depleted which explained either caveolar or GPI-AP-early endocytic compartment (GEEC) pathway. Because of the lack of caveolin-1 expression, caveolar machinery may be lost in SK-BR-3 cell line. Therefore, it is suggested that the multivalent form of EC-1 induces the internalization of ErbB2 through the GEEC pathway.

  1. One-pot synthesis of 1-amidoalkyl-2-naphthols catalyzed by melamine-Br3 under solvent-free conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arash Ghorbani-Choghamarani; Shima Rashidimoghadam

    2014-01-01

    A facile and efficient method has been developed for the synthesis of 1-amidoalkyl-2-naphthols via the one-pot multi-component condensation of 2-naphthol with aromatic aldehydes and acetamide or thioacetamide in the presence of melamine-Br3 under solvent-free conditions. There are several advantages to this reaction, including high yields, short reaction time, and high catalytic efficiency.

  2. CsEuBr3: Crystal structure and its role in the photostimulation of CsBr :Eu2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, S.; Zimmermann, J.; von Seggern, H.; Ehrenberg, H.; Fuess, H.; Fasel, C.; Riedel, R.

    2006-10-01

    CsBr :Eu2+ has recently been investigated as a photostimulable x-ray storage phosphor with great potential for application in high-resolution image plates. In a recent paper Hackenschmied et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 93, 5109 (2003)] suggested that segregations of CsEuBr3 or Cs4EuBr6 formed within CsBr :Eu2+ during annealing are responsible for an increase in the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) yield. In this work single crystals of CsEuBr3 were prepared by a one step synthesis and identified by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis as single phase perovskites. It was concluded that, after preparation, CsEuBr3 degrades in normal atmosphere into at least two phases, one of which is the orthorhombic structure of Cs2EuBr5•10H2O. The XRD powder diffraction pattern of this compound is very similar to that of the segregations observed within CsBr :Eu2+ and reported by Hackenschmied et al. However, the increased PSL yield in CsBr :Eu2+ after annealing cannot be due to the segregations, because the trivalent nature of the europium in the segregations renders them PSL inactive.

  3. Effect of rhaponticin on apoptosis in human breast cancer SK-BR-3 cells%土大黄苷对人乳腺癌细胞SK-BR-3凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵素容; 刘浩; 梁颖; 钱江华; 陈超; 蒋志文

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察土大黄苷对人乳腺癌细胞SK-BR-3凋亡的影响.方法:Annexin V-FITC/PI双标法检测100、200、400 μmol/L土大黄苷对SK-BR-3细胞凋亡的影响,Western blot法检测Bcl-2及Bax蛋白的表达情况,试剂盒检测caspase-3的活性变化.结果:土大黄苷可诱导SK-BR-3细胞出现明显的早期凋亡,并呈浓度依赖性(P<0.05~P<0.01).土大黄苷在100、200、400 μmol/L浓度时均可抑制Bcl-2蛋白的表达,且随着其浓度的增加,蛋白表达逐渐降低,并促进Bax蛋白的表达(P<0.01).土大黄苷对caspase-3具有激活作用,且随着土大黄苷浓度的增加,caspase-3的活化程度逐渐增强.结论:土大黄苷具有诱导乳腺癌细胞凋亡的作用,其机制可能与调节凋亡相关蛋白Bcl-2、Bax的表达及激活caspase-3有关(P<0.01).%Objective: To investigate the effect of rhaponticin on apoptosis in human breast cancer SK-BR-3 cells. Methods: SK-BR-3 cells were treated with rhaponticin at the concentrations of 100,200,and 400 ?mol/L. Apoptosis was examined with Annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Detection Kit by flow cytometry. The expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax protein were analyzed by Western blot, caspase-3 activity was detected by special kit. Results: Rhaponticin induced obvious early apoptosis in SK-BR-3 cells in a concentration-dependent manner( P < 0. 05 to P < 0. 01) . Western blot results showed that rhaponticin enhanced the expression of Bax protein, and inhibited the expression of Bcl-2 protein, which was gradually down-regulated following the increase of rhaponticin's concentration ( P < 0. 01 ). Meanwhile, rhaponticin induced the activation of caspase-3 , and caspase-3 activity was increased with its concentration ( P < 0. 01 ) . Conclusions: Rhaponticin can induce apoptosis in SK-BR-3 cells, which may be correlated to the down-regulation of Bcl-2, the up-regulation of Bax, and the activation of caspase-3.

  4. [Connection of magnetic antisense probe with SK-Br-3 oncocyte mRNA nucleotide detected by high resolution atomic force microscope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shude; Ouyang, Yu; Li, Xinyou; Wen, Ming; Li, Shaolin

    2011-06-01

    The present paper is aimed to detect superparamagnetic iron oxide labeled c-erbB2 oncogene antisense oligonucleotide probe (magnetic antisense probe) connected with SK-Br-3 oncocyte mRNA nucleotide by high resolution atomic force microscope (AFM). We transfected SK-Br-3 oncocyte with magnetic antisense probe, then observed the cells by AFM with high resolution and detected protein expression and magnetic resonance imagine (MRI). The high resolution AFM clearly showed the connection of the oligonucleotide remote end of magnetic antisense probe with the mRNA nucleotide of oncocyte. The expression of e-erbB2 protein in SK-Br3 cells were highly inhibited by using magnetic antisense probe. We then obtained the lowest signal to noise ratio (SNR) of SK-Br-3 oncocyte transfected with magnetic antisense probe by MRI (PSK-Br-3 mRNA of tumor cell nuclear.

  5. PAQR3增强乳腺癌细胞SK-BR-3的表柔比星敏感性%PAQR3 enhances chemosensitivity of breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3 to epirubicin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄剑波; 罗鑫荣; 孔令泉; 向廷秀; 任国胜

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨PAQR3增强乳腺癌细胞对表柔比星的敏感性.方法 采用Real-time PCR比较ER、PR及HER2受体不同的4株乳腺癌细胞(MDA-MB-231、MCF7、SK-BR-3及T47D)的PAQR3表达情况.在乳腺癌细胞SK-BR-3中转染人源性PAQR3全长表达质粒,设立对照组,观察比较转染PAQR3细胞组与空载质粒细胞组对表柔比星的敏感性,分别计算其所对应的IC50.通过细胞凋亡检测、Western blot探讨PAQR3增加表柔比星敏感性的机制.结果 在4株乳腺癌细胞中,受体三阴性细胞MDA-MB-231的PAQR3表达量最高,SK-BR-3与MCF7表达量相对较低;SK-BR-3过表达PAQR3后,其对表柔比星的化疗敏感性显著升高,IC50显著降低[(25.33±0.94) μg/mL vs(17.72±1.11) μg/mL,P<0.05];PAQR3本身并未促使SK-BR-3凋亡,实验组与对照组的凋亡率差异并无统计学意义(P>0.05).但在同等浓度表柔比星的作用下,PAQR3促使SK-BR-3表达凋亡相关蛋白Cleaved Caspase-7,从而导致表柔比星抑制率增加,对CleavedCaspase-3、Bcl-2、Bcl-xL表达则无影响.进一步分析发现,PAQR3可抑制乳腺癌化疗中表柔比星所致的ERK活化,因而促使乳腺癌细胞对表柔比星敏感.结论 PAQR3可提高乳腺癌细胞对表柔比星的化疗敏感性,PAQR3表达可能与乳腺癌对表柔比星的敏感性相关.

  6. Characterization of a LaBr3 scintillator with multi-cell Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuschino, F.; Labanti, C.; Campana, R.; Gangemi, G. C.; Marisaldi, M.; Rignanese, L. P.; Baldazzi, G.; Elmi, I.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.; Rashevsky, A.; Vacchi, A.; Rashevskaya, I.; Fabiani, S.; Zorzi, N.; Piemonte, C.; Bellutti, P.; Ficorella, F.; Borghi, G.; Burderi, L.

    2016-07-01

    A scintillation gamma-ray detector, composed of a commercial 0.5" thick, 0.5" diameter LaBr3(Ce) crystal coupled to a 7-cell hexagonal Silicon Drift Detector has been developed and tested. The characterization with X-rays and gamma rays is presented and discussed also within the context of the optical properties of the readout system. A final comparison between our results and state of the art is also discussed in order to propose this prototype for astrophysical applications.

  7. Fullerene-Based Electron Transport Layers for Semi-Transparent MAPbBr3 Perovskite Films in Planar Perovskite Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chien Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four kinds of structures—[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM, PCBM/fullerene (C60, C60/bathocuproine (BCP, and PCBM/C60/BCP—were used as electron transport layers, and the structure, and optical and electronic behaviors of MAPbBr3 perovskite layers after annealing treatments were observed. The experimental results indicate that PCBM/C60 bi-layer structure is acceptable for MAPbBr3 planar perovskite solar cells due to electron step transporting. Low-temperature annealing is suitable for smooth and large grain MAPbBr3 films. The semi-transparent yellow C60/PCBM/MAPbBr3/PEDOT:PSS/ITO glass-structure solar cells exhibit the best performance with a power conversion efficiency of 4.19%. The solar cells are revealed to be suitable for application in building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV systems.

  8. Long-term stable stacked CsPbBr3 quantum dot films for highly efficient white light generation in LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young Hyun; Yoo, Jin Sun; Kang, Bong Kyun; Choi, Seung Hee; Ji, Eun Kyung; Jung, Hyun Suk; Yoon, Dae Ho

    2016-12-01

    We report highly efficient ethyl cellulose with CsPbBr3 perovskite QD films for white light generation in LED application. Ethyl cellulose with CsPbBr3 quantum dots is applied with Sr2Si5N8 : Eu(2+) red phosphor on an InGaN blue chip, achieving a highly efficient luminous efficacy of 67.93 lm W(-1) under 20 mA current.

  9. {[Cu2Br3]n[Cu(H-Leof)2]·2H2O} where Leof is Levofloxacin%{[Cu2Br3]n[Cu(H-Leof)2]·2H2O}(Leof是左氟沙星)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锡森; 唐云志; 熊仁根

    2005-01-01

    The crystal structure of {[Cu2Br3]n[Cu(H-Leof)2]· 2H2O} (1) comprises of [Cu(H-Leof)2] + cations, [Cu2Br3]nanions and lattice water molecules. And anion is a 1-D chain formed through alternative Cu-Br dimer and triangular geometry. CCDC: 274841.

  10. The Recombination Mechanism and True Green Amplified Spontaneous Emission in CH3NH3PbBr3 Perovskite

    KAUST Repository

    Priante, Davide

    2015-08-01

    True-green wavelength emitters at 555 nm are currently dominated by III-V semiconductor-based inorganic materials. Nevertheless, due to high lattice- and thermal-mismatch, the overall power efficiency in this range tends to decline for high current density showing the so-called efficiency droop in the green region (“green gap”). In order to fill the research green gap, this thesis examines the low cost solution-processability of organometal halide perovskites, which presents a unique opportunity for light-emitting devices in the green-yellow region owing to their superior photophysic properties such as high photoluminescence quantum efficiency, small capture cross section of defect states as well as optical bandgap tunability across the visible light regime. Specifically, the mechanisms of radiative recombination in a CH3NH3PbBr3 hybrid perovskite material were investigated using low-temperature, power-dependent (77 K), temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurements. We noted three recombination peaks at 77K, one of which originated from bulk defect states, and other two from surface defect states. The latter were identified as bound-excitonic (BE) radiative transitions related to particle size inhomogeneity or grain size induced surface state in the sample. Both transitions led to PL spectra broadening as a result of concurrent blue- and red-shifts of these excitonic peaks. The blue-shift is most likely due to the Burstein-Moss (band filling) effect. Interestingly, the red-shift of the second excitonic peak becomes pronounced with increasing temperature leading to a true-green wavelength of 553 nm for CH3NH3PbBr3. On the other hand, red-shifted peak originates from the strong absorption in the second excitonic peak owed to the high density of surface states and carrier filling of these states due to the excitation from the first excitonic recombination. We also achieved amplified spontaneous emission around excitation threshold energy of 350 μJ/cm2

  11. Colloidal Synthesis of Strongly Fluorescent CsPbBr3 Nanowires with Width Tunable down to the Quantum Confinement Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Imran, Muhammad; Dang, Zhiya; Canale, Claudio; Khan, Ali Hossain; Shamsi, Javad; Brescia, Rosaria; Prato, Mirko; Manna, Liberato

    2016-01-01

    We report the colloidal synthesis of strongly fluorescent CsPbBr3 perovskite nanowires (NWs) with rectangular section and with tuneable width, from 20 nm (exhibiting no quantum confinement, hence emitting in the green) down to around 3 nm (in the strong quan-tum-confinement regime, emitting in the blue), by introducing in the synthesis a short acid (octanoic acid or hexanoic acid) together with alkyl amines (octylamine and oleylamine). Temperatures below 70 {\\deg}C promoted the formation of monodisperse, few unit cell thick NWs that were free from byproducts. The photoluminescence quantum yield of the NW samples went from 12% for non-confined NWs emitting at 524 nm to a maximum of 77% for the 5 nm diameter NWs emitting at 497 nm, down to 30% for the thinnest NWs (diameter ~ 3nm), in the latter sample most likely due to aggregation occurring in solution.

  12. A High Resolution Phoswich Detector: LaBr3(Ce) Coupled With LaCl3(Ce)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Gallardo, M.; Borge, M. J. G.; Briz, J. A.; Gugliermina, V.; Perea, A.; Tengblad, O.; Turrión, M.

    2010-04-01

    An innovative solution for the forward end-cap CALIFA calorimeter of R3B is under investigation consisting of two scintillation crystals, LaBr3 and LaCl3, stacked together in a phoswich configuration with one readout only. This dispositive should be capable of a good determination of the energy of protons and gamma radiation. This composite detector allows to deduce the initial energy of charged particles by ΔE1+ΔE2 identification. For gammas, the simulations show that there is a high probability that the first interaction occurs inside the scintillator at few centimeters, with a second layer, the rest of the energy is absorbed, or it can be used as veto event in case of no deposition in the first layer. One such a detector has been tested at the Centro de MicroAnálisis de Materiales (CMAM) in Madrid. Good resolution and time signal separation have been achieved.

  13. Ground tests with prototype of CeBr3 active gamma ray spectrometer proposed for future venus surface missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvak, M. L.; Sanin, A. B.; Golovin, D. V.; Jun, I.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Shvetsov, V. N.; Timoshenko, G. N.; Vostrukhin, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    The results of a series of ground tests with a prototype of an active gamma-ray spectrometer based on a new generation of scintillation crystal (CeBr3) are presented together with a consideration to its applicability to future Venus landing missions. We evaluated the instrument's capability to distinguish the subsurface elemental composition of primary rock forming elements such as O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K and Fe. Our study uses heritage from previous ground and field tests and applies to the analysis of gamma lines from activation reaction products generated by a pulsed neutron generator. We have estimated that the expected accuracies achieved in this approach could be as high as 1-10% for the particular chemical element being studied.

  14. Applications of LaBr3(Ce) Gamma-ray Spectrometer Arrays for Nuclear Spectroscopy and Radionuclide Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, PH; Shearman, R.; Daniel, T.; Lorusso, G.; Collins, SM; Judge, SM; Bell; Pearce, AK; Gurgi, LA; Rudigier, M.; Podolyák, Zs; Mărginean, N.; Mărginean, R.; Kisyov, S.

    2016-10-01

    An overview of the use of discrete energy gamma-ray detectors based on cerium- doped LaBr3 scintillators for use in nuclear spectroscopy is presented. This review includes recent applications of such detectors in mixed, 'hybrid' gamma-ray coincidence detection arrays such ROSPHERE at IFIN-HH, Bucharest; EXILL+FATIMA at ILL Grenoble, France; GAMMASPHERE+FATIMA at Argonne National Laboratory, USA; FATIMA + EURICA, at RIKEN, Japan; and the National Nuclear Array (NANA) at the UK's National Physical Laboratory. This conference paper highlights the capabilities and limitations of using these sub-nanosecond 'fast-timing', medium-resolution gamma-ray detectors for both nuclear structure research and radionuclide standardisation. Potential future application of such coincidence scintillator arrays in measurements of civilian nuclear fuel waste evaluation and assay is demonstrated using coincidence spectroscopy of a mixed 134,7Cs source.

  15. Performance of the prototype LaBr3 spectrometer developed for the JET gamma-ray camera upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigamonti, D.; Muraro, A.; Nocente, M.; Perseo, V.; Boltruczyk, G.; Fernandes, A.; Figueiredo, J.; Giacomelli, L.; Gorini, G.; Gosk, M.; Kiptily, V.; Korolczuk, S.; Mianowski, S.; Murari, A.; Pereira, R. C.; Cippo, E. P.; Zychor, I.; Tardocchi, M.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we describe the solution developed by the gamma ray camera upgrade enhancement project to improve the spectroscopic properties of the existing JET γ-ray camera. Aim of the project is to enable gamma-ray spectroscopy in JET deuterium-tritium plasmas. A dedicated pilot spectrometer based on a LaBr3 crystal coupled to a silicon photo-multiplier has been developed. A proper pole zero cancellation network able to shorten the output signal to a length of 120 ns has been implemented allowing for spectroscopy at MHz count rates. The system has been characterized in the laboratory and shows an energy resolution of 5.5% at Eγ = 0.662 MeV, which extrapolates favorably in the energy range of interest for gamma-ray emission from fast ions in fusion plasmas.

  16. Impact of image segmentation on high-content screening data quality for SK-BR-3 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yizheng

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High content screening (HCS is a powerful method for the exploration of cellular signalling and morphology that is rapidly being adopted in cancer research. HCS uses automated microscopy to collect images of cultured cells. The images are subjected to segmentation algorithms to identify cellular structures and quantitate their morphology, for hundreds to millions of individual cells. However, image analysis may be imperfect, especially for "HCS-unfriendly" cell lines whose morphology is not well handled by current image segmentation algorithms. We asked if segmentation errors were common for a clinically relevant cell line, if such errors had measurable effects on the data, and if HCS data could be improved by automated identification of well-segmented cells. Results Cases of poor cell body segmentation occurred frequently for the SK-BR-3 cell line. We trained classifiers to identify SK-BR-3 cells that were well segmented. On an independent test set created by human review of cell images, our optimal support-vector machine classifier identified well-segmented cells with 81% accuracy. The dose responses of morphological features were measurably different in well- and poorly-segmented populations. Elimination of the poorly-segmented cell population increased the purity of DNA content distributions, while appropriately retaining biological heterogeneity, and simultaneously increasing our ability to resolve specific morphological changes in perturbed cells. Conclusion Image segmentation has a measurable impact on HCS data. The application of a multivariate shape-based filter to identify well-segmented cells improved HCS data quality for an HCS-unfriendly cell line, and could be a valuable post-processing step for some HCS datasets.

  17. 掺杂 Nd3+离子 CsCdBr3晶体光谱的理论分析%Theoretical Analysis of Spectra for Nd3 + Ions in CsCdBr 3 Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏萍; 李邦兴

    2015-01-01

    运用稀土自由离子理论和晶体场理论,通过对掺杂 Nd3+离子的 CsCdBr3晶体的发光光谱的计算分析,分别拟合了实验光谱数据中的28、47和65条能级,得出理论晶场能级与实验值的标准差分别为3.83,12.367和25.852 cm -1。该结果比已有的拟合结果小得多,表明此计算结果与实验光谱吻合得较好,说明拟合过程和方法是合理的。同时得到了合理的自由离子参量和晶场参量,为进一步研究稀土离子在晶体材料中受到晶体场作用的各种物理机制打下基础。%The optical spectra of Nd3 + in CsCdBr3 were calculated by using the free rare earth ion the-ory and crystal field theory. Respectively,28,47,65 experimental crystal field levels were fitted, with the standard deviations of 3. 83 cm - 1 ,12. 367 cm - 1 ,25. 852 cm - 1 . These deviations are signif-icantly smaller than those in previous work. The calculated energy levels fit better with the experimen-tal data,which shows that the calculation process and the method are reasonable. Through this fitting procedure,the reasonable free-ion and crystal-field parameters have been obtained. It is beneficial for further research on the physical mechanisms of crystal field of rare earth ions in crystals.

  18. The Role of Trap-assisted Recombination in Luminescent Properties of Organometal Halide CH3NH3PbBr3 Perovskite Films and Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Hai-Yu; Zhang, Yan-Xia; Hao, Ya-Wei; Sun, Chun; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Bing-Rong; Chen, Qi-Dai; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2016-06-01

    Hybrid metal halide perovskites have been paid enormous attentions in photophysics research, whose excellent performances were attributed to their intriguing charge carriers proprieties. However, it still remains far from satisfaction in the comprehensive understanding of perovskite charge-transport properities, especially about trap-assisted recombination process. In this Letter, through time-resolved transient absorption (TA) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements, we provided a relative comprehensive investigation on the charge carriers recombination dynamics of CH3NH3PbBr3 (MAPbBr3) perovskite films and quantum dots (QDs), especially about trap-assisted recombination. It was found that the integral recombination mode of MAPbBr3 films was highly sensitive to the density distribution of generated charge carriers and trap states. Additional, Trap effects would be gradually weakened with elevated carrier densities. Furthermore, the trap-assisted recombination can be removed from MAPbBr3 QDs through its own surface passivation mechanism and this specialty may render the QDs as a new material in illuminating research. This work provides deeper physical insights into the dynamics processes of MAPbBr3 materials and paves a way toward more light-harvesting applications in future.

  19. In vitro detection of human breast cancer cells (SK-BR3) using herceptin-conjugated liquid crystal microdroplets as a sensing platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wang; Gupta, Kailash Chandra; Park, Soo-Young; Kim, Young-Kyoo; Kang, Inn-Kyu

    2016-10-20

    The present study utilizes antibody-protein interactions to develop an LC microdroplet based biosensor for naked eye detection of SK-BR3 human breast cancer cells. The herceptin antibody-conjugated LC microdroplets were fabricated using 4-cyano-4'-pentyl biphenyl (5CB) as the liquid crystalline phase and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as the surfactant. The poly (styrene-b-acrylic acid) amphiphilic block copolymer (PS-b-PA) played a role as a modifier for the liquid crystalline interfaces. The 5CB molecules in the herceptin antibody-conjugated LC microdroplets have shown an orientation transition from radial to bipolar on selective interactions with targeted SK-BR3 breast cancer cells, which are over expressed by the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2). The herceptin antibody-conjugated LC microdroplets are found to be highly selective in the detection of SK-BR3 cancer cells in the presence of control cells, such as KB cancer cells and fibroblast (FB), and also in the presence of 10% human blood plasma. The interaction forces of the SK-BR3 cancer cells were only effective in causing orientation transitions in 5CB molecules in the LC microdroplets, which clearly suggested that the herceptin antibody-conjugated LC microdroplets could be used as a selective biosensor for a real-time detection of SK-BR3 cancer cells in biological fluids.

  20. Krüppel-like factor 4 induces apoptosis and inhibits tumorigenic progression in SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Zhao, Ming-Zhi; Cui, Nai-Peng; Lin, Dan-Dan; Zhang, An-Yi; Qin, Yan; Liu, Cai-Yun; Yan, Wei-Tao; Shi, Jian-Hong; Chen, Bao-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) functions as either a tumor suppressor or an oncogene in different tissues by regulating the expression of various genes. The aim of this study was to reveal the functions of KLF4 in regulating breast cancer apoptosis, proliferation, and tumorigenic progression. KLF4 expression levels in breast cancer tissues and breast cancer cell lines were found to be much lower than those in nontumorous tissues and a nontransformed mammary epithelial cell line. KLF4 was upregulated in the tumor necrosis factor-α-induced SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell apoptotic process. Overexpression of KLF4 promoted SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell apoptosis and suppressed SK-BR-3 cell tumorigenicity in vivo.

  1. Annealing Effect on (FAPbI31−x(MAPbBr3x Perovskite Films in Inverted-Type Perovskite Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chien Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study determines the effects of annealing treatment on the structure and the optical and electronic behaviors of the mixed (FAPbI31−x(MAPbBr3x perovskite system. The experimental results reveal that (FAPbI31−x(MAPbBr3x (x ~ 0.2 is an effective light-absorbing material for use in inverted planar perovskite solar cells owing to its large absorbance and tunable band gap. Therefore, good band-matching between the (FAPbI31−x(MAPbBr3x and C60 in photovoltaic devices can be controlled by annealing at various temperatures. Accordingly, an inverted mixed perovskite solar cell with a record efficiency of 12.0% under AM1.5G irradiation is realized.

  2. Egf binding to its receptor triggers a rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of the erbB-2 protein in the mammary tumor cell line SK-BR-3.

    OpenAIRE

    King, C. R.; Borrello, I; Bellot, F; Comoglio, P; Schlessinger, J

    1988-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) and the erbB-2 proto-oncogene product protein are closely related by their structural homology and their shared enzymatic activity as autophosphorylating tyrosine kinases. We show that in mammary tumor cells (SK-BR-3) EGF causes a rapid increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of the erbB-2 protein. Phosphorylation of erbB-2 does not occur in cells lacking the EGF-R (MDA-MB-453). Phosphorylation of erbB-2 in SK-BR-3 cells is blocked if EGF is prevented...

  3. Fullerene-Based Electron Transport Layers for Semi-Transparent MAPbBr3 Perovskite Films in Planar Perovskite Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lung-Chien Chen; Zong-Liang Tseng; Jun-Kai Huang; Cheng-Chiang Chen; Sheng Hsiung Chang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, four kinds of structures—[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), PCBM/fullerene (C60), C60/bathocuproine (BCP), and PCBM/C60/BCP—were used as electron transport layers, and the structure, and optical and electronic behaviors of MAPbBr3 perovskite layers after annealing treatments were observed. The experimental results indicate that PCBM/C60 bi-layer structure is acceptable for MAPbBr3 planar perovskite solar cells due to electron step transporting. Low-temperature a...

  4. Comparative characterisation study of a LaBr$_3$(Ce scintillation crystal in two surface wrapping scenarios: absorptive and reflective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad eAldawood

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The properties of a 50$times$50$times$30 mm$^3$ monolithic LaBr$_3$:Ce scintillator crystal coupled to a position-sensitive multi-anode photomultiplier (PMT, Hamamatsu H9500, representing the absorbing detector of a Compton camera under study for online ion (proton beam range verification in hadron-therapy, was evaluated in combination with either absorptive and reflective crystal surface coating. This study covered an assessment of the energy and position dependent energy resolution, exhibiting a factor of 2.5-3.5 improvement for the reflectively wrapped crystal at 662 keV. The spatial dependency was investigated using a collimated $^{137}$Cs source, showing a steep degradation of the energy resolution at the edges and corners of the absorptively wrapped crystal. Furthermore, the time resolution was determined to be 273 ps (FWHM and 536 ps (FWHM with reflective and absorptive coating, respectively, using a $^{60}$Co source. In contrast, the light spread function (LSF of the light amplitude distribution on the PMT segments improved for the absorptively wrapped detector. Both wrapping modalities showed almost no differences in the energy-dependent photopeak detection efficiency.

  5. Comparative Characterization Study of a LaBr3(Ce) Scintillation Crystal in Two Surface Wrapping Scenarios: Absorptive and Reflective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldawood, Saad; Castelhano, Ines; Gernhäuser, Roman; Van Der Kolff, Hugh; Lang, Christian; Liprandi, Silvia; Lutter, Rudolf; Maier, Ludwig; Marinšek, Tim; Schaart, Dennis R.; Parodi, Katia; Thirolf, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    The properties of a 50 mm × 50 mm × 30 mm monolithic LaBr3:Ce scintillator crystal coupled to a position-sensitive multi-anode photomultiplier (PMT, Hamamatsu H9500), representing the absorbing detector of a Compton camera under study for online ion (proton) beam range verification in hadron therapy, was evaluated in combination with either absorptive or reflective crystal surface coating. This study covered an assessment of the energy and position-dependent energy resolution, exhibiting a factor of 2.5–3.5 improvement for the reflectively wrapped crystal at 662 keV. The spatial dependency was investigated using a collimated 137Cs source, showing a steep degradation of the energy resolution at the edges and corners of the absorptively wrapped crystal. Furthermore, the time resolution was determined to be 273 ps (FWHM) and 536 ps (FWHM) with reflective and absorptive coating, respectively, using a 60Co source. In contrast, the light spread function (LSF) of the light amplitude distribution on the PMT segments improved for the absorptively wrapped detector. Both wrapping modalities showed almost no differences in the energy-dependent photopeak detection efficiency. PMID:26697405

  6. Whispering-gallery-mode based CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite microrod lasers with high quality factors

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Kaiyang; Zhang, Chen; Sun, Wenzhao; Gu, Zhiyuan; Xiao, Shumin; Song, Qinghai

    2016-01-01

    Lead halide perovskite based micro- and nano- lasers have been widely studied in past two years. Due to their long carrier diffusion length and high external quantum efficiency, lead halide perovskites have been considered to have bright future in optoelectronic devices, especially in the "green gap" wavelength region. However, the quality (Q) factors of perovskite lasers are unspectacular compared to conventional microdisk lasers. The record value of full width at half maximum (FWHM) at threshold is still around 0.22 nm. Herein we synthesized solution-processed, single-crystalline CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite microrods and studied their lasing actions. In contrast to entirely pumping a microrod on substrate, we partially excited the microrods that were hanging in the air. Consequently, single-mode or few-mode laser emissions have been successfully obtained from the whispering-gallery like diamond modes, which are confined by total internal reflection within the transverse plane. Owning to the better light confinem...

  7. Temperature-dependent excitonic photoluminescence Excited by Two-Photon Absorption in Perovskite CsPbBr3 Quantum Dots

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Ke; Xu, Zhongjie; Shen, Chao; Cheng, Xiangai; Jiang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    Recently lead halide nanocrystals (quantum dots) have been reported with potential for photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications due to their excellent luminescent properties. Herein excitonic photoluminescence (PL) excited by two-photon absorption in perovskite CsPbBr3 quantum dots (QDs) have been studied across a broad temperature range from 80K to 380K. Two-photon absorption has been investigated with absorption coefficient up to 0.085 cm/GW at room temperature. Moreover, the photoluminescence excited by two-photon absorption shows a linear blue-shift (0.25meV/K) below temperature of ~220K and turned steady with fluctuation below 1nm (4.4meV) for higher temperature up to 380K. These phenomena are distinctly different from general red-shift of semiconductor and can be explained by the competition between lattice expansion and electron-phonon couplling.Our results reveal the strong nonlinear absorption and temperature-independent chromaticity in a large temperature range from 220K to 380K in the CsPbX3 QD...

  8. Mechanism of TNFα Regulating KLF4 Expression in Breast Cancer Cells SK-BR-3%肿瘤坏死因子α调节乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞中KLF4表达及其机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彩云; 史建红; 周金飒; 赵明智; 王冰; 崔乃鹏; 陈保平

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨肿瘤坏死因子α(TNFα)对乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞中Krüppel样因子4(KLF4)表达的影响,明确KLF4在促进乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞凋亡中的作用机制.方法 用不同浓度TNFα(0、1、5、10、20 ng/ml)刺激乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞,采用Western blot法检测KLF4表达水平;用流式细胞术和DAPI染色法分析细胞凋亡情况.结果 随着刺激浓度的增高,KLF4表达水平呈剂量依赖性逐渐增多.流式细胞术和DAPI染色显示,TNFα可诱导乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞凋亡.构建pAd-GFP和pAd-GFP-KLF4腺病毒表达载体,在乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞中过表达GFP或GFP-KLF4,再给予TNFα刺激后,流式细胞术观察结果显示,KLF4过表达可促进乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞凋亡.结论 TNFα可诱导乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞中KLF4表达,KLF4参与了TNFα诱导的乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞凋亡过程.

  9. Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogerton, John

    1964-01-01

    This pamphlet describes how reactors work; discusses reactor design; describes research, teaching, and materials testing reactors; production reactors; reactors for electric power generation; reactors for supply heat; reactors for propulsion; reactors for space; reactor safety; and reactors of tomorrow. The appendix discusses characteristics of U.S. civilian power reactor concepts and lists some of the U.S. reactor power projects, with location, type, capacity, owner, and startup date.

  10. One-pot synthesis of 2-phenylimidazo[1,2-α]pyridines from acetophenone, [Bmim]Br(3) and 2-aminopyridine under solvent-free conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Zhang-Gao; Xie, Zong-Bo; Xu, Jian-Ping

    2012-11-09

    One-pot synthesis of 2-phenylimidazo[1,2-α]pyridines from acetophenone, [Bmim]Br(3) and 2-aminopyridine under solvent-free conditions in the presence of Na(2)CO(3), gave the corresponding 2-phenylimidazo[1,2-α]pyridines in excellent yields ranging from 72% to 89%.

  11. Synthesis of 1H-indazoles and 1H-pyrazoles via FeBr3/O2 mediated intramolecular C-H amination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianshui; Bao, Weiliang

    2013-02-01

    A new synthesis of substituted 1H-indazoles and 1H-pyrazoles from arylhydrazones via FeBr(3)/O(2) mediated C-H activation/C-N bond formation reactions is reported. The corresponding 1,3-diaryl-substituted indazoles and trisubstituted pyrazoles were obtained in moderate to excellent yields under mild conditions.

  12. LaBr3γ-ray spectrometer for detecting 10B in debris of melted nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Mitsuo; Tsuchiya, Harufumi; Kitatani, Fumito; Harada, Hideo; Heyse, Jan; Kopecky, Stefan; Mondelaers, Willy; Paradela, Carlos; Schillebeeckx, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Neutron resonance densitometry has been proposed as a nondestructive analytical method for quantifying special nuclear material (SNM) in the rock- and particle-like debris that is to be removed from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The method is based on neutron resonance transmission analysis (NRTA) and neutron resonance capture analysis combined with prompt-γ-ray analysis (NRCA/PGA). Although quantification of SNM will predominantly rely on NRTA, this will be hampered by the presence of strong neutron-absorbing matrix materials, in particular 10B. Results obtained with NRCA/PGA are used to improve the interpretation of NRTA data. Prompt γ rays originating from the 10B(n, αγ) reaction are used to assess the amount of 10B. The 478 keV γ rays from 10B, however, need to be measured under a high-radiation environment, especially because of 137Cs. To meet this requirement, we developed a well-shaped γ-ray spectrometer consisting of one cylindrical and four rectangular-cuboid LaBr3 scintillators combined with a fast data-acquisition system. Furthermore, to improve the gain stability of the main detector, a special high-voltage divider was developed. Because of the reduction in gain shift, a 3.8% resolution at 662 keV was obtained for long-term measurements. By using the data-acquisition system, which consists of eight 250 MHz digitizers, input signals of over 500 kHz per channel were recorded. The work reported herein demonstrates that, with such a spectrometer, the impact of the Compton edge of 662 keV γ rays from 137Cs is significantly reduced, which allows the 10B amount to be determined with greater sensitivity.

  13. Synthesis, purification, and characterization of perovskite semiconductor CsPbBr3 as a new candidate for y-ray detector(Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Duck Young; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Meng, Fang; Malliakas, Christos D.

    2016-09-01

    CsPbBr3 has direct band gap (orange color, 2.25 eV), high density (4.85 g/cm3), attenuation coefficient comparable to CZT, and high resistivity 10^9 ohm•cm. These fundamental physical properties of CsPbBr3well meet the requirements for gamma-ray detector materials. CsPbBr3 exhibits the carrier mobility-lifetime product in the order of 10^-4 cm2/V promising enough to be further developed for practical applications. The major challenge in the process to further enhance the detection performance is the carrier traps present at a deep level of the energy gap which should be minimized. We report the synthesis, purification, crystal growth and physical characterization of the CsPbBr3 crystals obtained by new processes we developed for highly pure materials with reduced carrier traps. The starting binary materials were prepared by reaction of Cs2CO3/HBr and Pb(ac)2/HBr in aqueous solution. Purification of materials was performed by sublimation, bromination with HBr gas, and filtration of molten materials. Large single crystals were grown by the vertical Bridgman and EelectroDynamic Gradient method and cut to the dimensions appropriate for assessment of the material for gamma-ray detector applications. All characterization including optical characteristics, charge transport properties, photoconductivity, and gamma-ray spectroscopy from the new single crystals of CsPbBr3 will be presented. In addition, the charge carrier traps profile has been studied for this compound by Deep-Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS), Thermally Stimulated Luminescence (TSL), and Photoluminescence (PL) and will be presented.

  14. Effects of magnetic c-erbB2 antisense probe on morphology and expression of SK-Br-3 cancer cell lines in vitro%磁性c-erbB2反义探针对SK-Br-3肿瘤细胞株形态及表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺海容; 谭书德; 文明; 温志鹏; 刘海燕; 李少林

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨磁性c-erbB2反义寡脱氧核苷酸探针对SK-Br-3肿瘤细胞株形态及表达的影响,阐明该探针是否同时具有诊断与治疗功能.方法:磁性c-erbB2反义探针转染高表达c-erbB2的SK Br 3肿瘤细胞作为实验组,磁性c-erbB2反义探针转染Fuda肿瘤细胞株、SPIO及ASODN转染SK-Br-3肿瘤细胞、未转染的SK-Br-3肿瘤细胞设置为4个对照组,普鲁士蓝染色光镜观察细胞内铁的分布,透射电镜观察其超微结构,并检测细胞cerbB2蛋白表达变化及铁含量,行体外MR成像.结果:光镜显示SK-Br-3肿瘤细胞胞浆内散在分布铁颗粒,透射电镜观察到SK-Br-3肿瘤细胞胞浆内铁颗粒、团状吞饮体,细胞出现胞膜空泡化、细胞固缩、核固缩及凋亡小体,而对照组细胞无上述改变;与对照组比较,实验组SK-Br3细胞蛋白的表达抑制率明显升高,细胞铁含量增加(P<0.01),MR扫描显示信号减低(P<0.05).结论:磁性c-erbB2反义探针能够顺利进入SK-Br-3肿瘤细胞,不仅能导致SK-Br-3细胞的凋亡,还能够被体外MR成像所检测,可能成为一种具有治疗与诊断意义的双功能探针.

  15. KLF5在 TNFα诱导的 SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞凋亡中的作用%Roles of KLF5 in inhibition TNFα-induced SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史建红; 刘彩云; 张安易; 崔乃鹏; 王冰; 陈保平; 马振峰

    2014-01-01

    目的探讨肿瘤坏死因子α( TNFα)对 SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞中 Krüppel 样因子5(KLF5)表达的影响,明确KLF5在TNFα诱导SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞凋亡中的作用。方法用不同浓度TNFα(0、1、5、10、20μg/L)刺激SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞不同时间(0、6、12、24、36 h),采用Western印迹方法检测KLF5表达水平;用实时定量PCR( qRT-PCR)检测TNFα刺激对SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞凋亡基因表达的影响, qRT-PCR和流式细胞术观察过表达KLF5对SK-BR-3乳腺癌凋亡的影响。结果TNFα刺激SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞后,随着刺激浓度的增高,KLF5表达水平呈剂量和时间依赖性逐渐降低。 qRT-PCR结果显示,TNFα可上调SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞凋亡基因cascpase3、caspase9和bax表达,并下调bcl-2表达水平。构建pAd-GFP和pAd-GFP-KLF5腺病毒表达载体,在SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞中过表达GFP或GFP-KLF5,再给予TNFα刺激,qRT-PCR和流式细胞术观察结果显示,过表达外源性KLF5可抑制TNFα诱导的SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞凋亡。结论 TNFα可抑制SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞中KLF5表达,KLF5参与了TNFα诱导的SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞凋亡过程。%Objective To explore the expression levels and roles of Kr üpple-like factor 5 ( KLF5 ) in tumor necrosis factor α( TNFα)-induced SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells.Methods SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells were stimulated by TNFαat different concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10, 20 μg/L) for specified durations (0, 6, 12, 24, 36 h).Western blot was performed to detect KLF 5 protein levels.Then Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR ( qRT-PCR) were used to detect the expression levels of apoptosis genes.Flow cytometry and qRT-PCR were used to observe the effects of exogenous KLF 5 on TNFα-induced apoptosis of SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell.Results KLF5 expression levels significantly decreased in TNFα-stimulated SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells in a concentration-and time-dependent manner.Quantitative RT

  16. A synergistic antiproliferation effect of curcumin and docosahexaenoic acid in SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells: unique signaling not explained by the effects of either compound alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Davisson V

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is a collection of diseases in which molecular phenotypes can act as both indicators and mediators of therapeutic strategy. Therefore, candidate therapeutics must be assessed in the context of multiple cell lines with known molecular phenotypes. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and curcumin (CCM are dietary compounds known to antagonize breast cancer cell proliferation. We report that these compounds in combination exert a variable antiproliferative effect across multiple breast cell lines, which is synergistic in SK-BR-3 cells and triggers cell signaling events not predicted by the activity of either compound alone. Methods Dose response curves for CCM and DHA were generated for five breast cell lines. Effects of the DHA+ CCM combination on cell proliferation were evaluated using varying concentrations, at a fixed ratio, of CCM and DHA based on their individual ED50. Detection of synergy was performed using nonlinear regression of a sigmoid dose response model and Combination Index approaches. Cell molecular network responses were investigated through whole genome microarray analysis of transcript level changes. Gene expression results were validated by RT-PCR, and western blot analysis was performed for potential signaling mediators. Cellular curcumin uptake, with and without DHA, was analyzed via flow cytometry and HPLC. Results CCM+DHA had an antiproliferative effect in SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-361, MCF7 and MCF10AT cells. The effect was synergistic for SK-BR-3 (ER- PR- Her2+ relative to the two compounds individually. A whole genome microarray approach was used to investigate changes in gene expression for the synergistic effects of CCM+DHA in SK-BR-3 cells lines. CCM+DHA triggered transcript-level responses, in disease-relevant functional categories, that were largely non-overlapping with changes caused by CCM or DHA individually. Genes involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, inhibition of metastasis, and

  17. The recombination mechanisms leading to amplified spontaneous emission at the true-green wavelength in CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Priante, Davide

    2015-02-23

    We investigated the mechanisms of radiative recombination in a CH3NH3PbBr3 hybrid perovskite material using low-temperature, power-dependent (77K), and temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurements. Two bound-excitonic radiative transitions related to grain size inhomogeneity were identified. Both transitions led to PL spectra broadening as a result of concurrent blue and red shifts of these excitonic peaks. The red-shifted bound-excitonic peak dominated at high PL excitation led to a true-green wavelength of 553nm for CH3NH3PbBr3 powders that are encapsulated in polydimethylsiloxane. Amplified spontaneous emission was eventually achieved for an excitation threshold energy of approximately 350μJ/cm2. Our results provide a platform for potential extension towards a true-green light-emitting device for solid-state lighting and display applications.

  18. Electronic structure and magnetic ordering of the semiconducting chromium trihalides CrCl3, CrBr3, and CrI3

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao

    2011-03-01

    We present results from an electronic structure investigation of the chromium halides CrCl3, CrBr3, and CrI3, as obtained by the linearized augmented plane wave method of density functional theory. Our interest focuses on the chloride. While all three halides display strong ferromagnetic coupling within the halide-Cr-halide triple layers, our emphasis is on differences in the interlayer magnetic coupling. In agreement with experimental results, our calculations indicate ferromagnetic ordering for CrBr3 as well as CrI3. The antiferromagnetic state of CrCl3 can be reproduced by introducing an on-site electron-electron repulsion. However, we observe that the ground state depends critically on the specific approach used. Our results show that a low temperature structural phase transition from monoclinic to trigonal is energetically favourable for CrCl3. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  19. 噬菌体肽库筛选与SK-BR-3细胞表面HER2特异性结合的活性短肽%Screening Short Active Peptide Combinded with HER2 on SK-BR-3 by Phage Display Peptide Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪静; 高晓娟; 吴秀丽

    2015-01-01

    目的 利用噬菌体展示肽库技术筛选与人乳腺癌细胞表面HER2特异性结合的活性短肽.方法 以过表达HER2的人乳腺癌细胞SK-BR-3为靶细胞,Herceptin(R)作为竞争性洗脱剂,采用竞争结合实验,经四轮亲和筛选,获得阳性噬菌体富集;通过ELISA评价与SK-BR-3细胞高特异性结合的阳性噬菌体克隆;分析DNA测序结果并推导短肽序列;采用MTT法比较筛选短肽与Herceptin(R)对SK-BR-3细胞生长的抑制率.结果 随机挑选的16个克隆对SK-BR-3细胞具有特异性结合力,其中S-1阳性克隆与靶细胞特异结合活性最强,且其短肽序列对SK-BR-3细胞生长具有一定的抑制作用.结论 通过噬菌体展示肽库对过表达HER2乳腺癌细胞进行筛选,获得与SK-BR-3细胞高特异性结合的活性短肽序列,为设计乳腺癌靶向药物与导向治疗提供参考数据.

  20. Energy resolution of LaBr3:Ce in a phoswich configuration with CsI:Na and NaI:Tl scintillator crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, G.; Genolini, B.; Josselin, M.; Matea, I.; Peyré, J.; Pouthas, J.; Zerguerras, T.

    2012-12-01

    We studied the performances of the LaBr3:Ce scintillator when optically coupled to NaI:Tl and CsI:Na in a Phoswich detector for the R&D phase of the gamma ray calorimeter PARIS (Photon Array for the studies with Radioactive Ion and Stable beams). This detector has the purpose to measure γ-energies in a wide range (100 keV-40 MeV), and it will be used principally as a part of the SPIRAL2 instrumentation at GANIL. In this communication we report on the study of the light yield and energy resolution for gamma detection realized by coupling the phoswiches with various photomultiplier tubes, providing different characteristics. We were interested in investigating the possible degradation of the scintillation light produced by the LaBr3:Ce due to the presence of NaI:Tl/CsI:Na crystals, before being detected on the photocathode. For this purpose we realized all the measurements employing a standard ADC and QDC read-out system leading the possibility to perform a gate-based event selection. In this study we measured an energy resolution of 4.6% with an uncollimated 137Cs source for a 50.8×50.8×50.8 mm3 LaBr3:Ce coupled to a 50.8×50.8×152.4 mm3 NaI:Tl. This value is 30% bigger than the energy resolution measured for a 50.8×50.8×101.6 mm3 stand-alone LaBr3:Ce but still in the specifications for the PARIS collaboration physics list.

  1. Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 transactivates ErbB family receptors via the activation of Src in SK-BR-3 human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yun Jung; Lee, Hansoo; Lee, Jeong-Hyung

    2010-02-01

    The function of macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1) in cancer remains controversial, and its signaling pathways remain poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that MIC-1 induces the transactivation of EGFR, ErbB2, and ErbB3 through the activation of c-Src in SK-BR-3 breast cells. MIC-1 induced significant phosphorylation of EGFR at Tyr845, ErbB2 at Tyr877, and ErbB3 at Tyr1289 as well as Akt and p38, Erk1/2, and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Treatment of SK-BR-3 cells with MIC-1 increased the phosphorylation level of Src at Tyr416, and induced invasiveness of those cells. Inhibition of c-Src activity resulted in the complete abolition of MIC-1-induced phosphorylation of the EGFR, ErbB2, and ErbB3, as well as invasiveness and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 expression in SK-BR-3 cells. Collectively, these results show that MIC-1 may participate in the malignant progression of certain cancer cells through the activation of c-Src, which in turn may transactivate ErbB-family receptors.

  2. Emulsion Synthesis of Size-Tunable CH3NH3PbBr3 Quantum Dots: An Alternative Route toward Efficient Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hailong; Zhao, Fangchao; Liu, Lige; Zhang, Feng; Wu, Xian-gang; Shi, Lijie; Zou, Bingsuo; Pei, Qibing; Zhong, Haizheng

    2015-12-30

    We report a facile nonaqueous emulsion synthesis of colloidal halide perovskite quantum dots by controlled addition of a demulsifier into an emulsion of precursors. The size of resulting CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots can be tuned from 2 to 8 nm by varying the amount of demulsifier. Moreover, this emulsion synthesis also allows the purification of these quantum dots by precipitation from the colloidal solution and obtains solid-state powder which can be redissolved for thin film coating and device fabrication. The photoluminescence quantum yields of the quantum dots is generally in the range of 80-92%, and can be well-preserved after purification (∼80%). Green light-emitting diodes fabricated comprising a spin-cast layer of the colloidal CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots exhibited maximum current efficiency of 4.5 cd/A, power efficiency of 3.5 lm/W, and external quantum efficiency of 1.1%. This provides an alternative route toward high efficient solution-processed perovskite-based light-emitting diodes. In addition, the emulsion synthesis is versatile and can be extended for the fabrication of inorganic halide perovskite colloidal CsPbBr3 nanocrystals.

  3. Monte-Carlo Simulation of Response Functions for Natural Gamma-Rays in LaBr3 Detector System with Complex Borehole Configurations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴永鹏; 汤彬

    2012-01-01

    Usually, there are several methods, e.g. experiment, interpolation experiment-based, analytic function, and Monte-Carlo simulation, to calculate the response functions in LaBr3(Ce) detectors. In logging applications, the experiment-based methods cannot be adopted because of their limitations. Analytic function has the advantage of fast calculating speed, but it is very difficult to take into account many effects that occur in practical applications. On the contrary, Monte-Carlo simulation can deal with physical and geometric configurations very tactfully. It has a distinct advantage for calculating the functions with complex configurations in borehole. A new application of LaBr3(Ce) detector is in natural gamma-rays borehole spectrometer for uranium well logging. Calculation of response functions must consider a series of physical and geometric factors under complex logging conditions, including earth formations and its relevant parameters, different energies, material and thickness of the casings, the fluid between the two tubes, and relative position of the LaBr3(Ce) crystal to steel ingot at the front of logging tube. The present work establishes Monte-Carlo simulation models for the above-mentioned situations, and then performs calculations for main gamma-rays from natural radio-elements series. The response functions can offer experimental directions for the design of borehole detection system, and provide technique basis and basic data for spectral analysis of natural gamma-rays, and for sonrceless calibration in uranium quantitative interpretation.

  4. Clinical evaluation of pixellated NaI:Tl and continuous LaBr 3:Ce, compact scintillation cameras for breast tumors imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, R.; Pellegrini, R.; Betti, M.; De Vincentis, G.; Cinti, M. N.; Bennati, P.; Vittorini, F.; Casali, V.; Mattioli, M.; Orsolini Cencelli, V.; Navarria, F.; Bollini, D.; Moschini, G.; Iurlaro, G.; Montani, L.; de Notaristefani, F.

    2007-02-01

    The principal limiting factor in the clinical acceptance of scintimammography is certainly its low sensitivity for cancers sized scintillation camera based on Lanthanum tri-Bromide Cerium-doped crystal (LaBr 3:Ce), that demonstrating superior imaging performances with respect to the dedicated scintillation γ-camera that was previously developed. The proposed detector consists of continuous LaBr 3:Ce scintillator crystal coupled to a Hamamatsu H8500 Flat Panel PMT. One centimeter thick crystal has been chosen to increase crystal detection efficiency. In this paper, we propose a comparison and evaluation between lanthanum γ-camera and a Multi PSPMT camera, NaI(Tl) discrete pixel based, previously developed under "IMI" Italian project for technological transfer of INFN. A phantom study has been developed to test both the cameras before introducing them in clinical trials. High resolution scans produced by LaBr 3:Ce camera showed higher tumor contrast with a detailed imaging of uptake area than pixellated NaI(Tl) dedicated camera. Furthermore, with the lanthanum camera, the Signal-to-Noise Ratio ( SNR) value was increased for a lesion as small as 5 mm, with a consequent strong improvement in detectability.

  5. Highly Emissive Divalent-Ion-Doped Colloidal CsPb1–xMxBr3 Perovskite Nanocrystals through Cation Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Colloidal CsPbX3 (X = Br, Cl, and I) perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) have emerged as promising phosphors and solar cell materials due to their remarkable optoelectronic properties. These properties can be tailored by not only controlling the size and shape of the NCs but also postsynthetic composition tuning through topotactic anion exchange. In contrast, property control by cation exchange is still underdeveloped for colloidal CsPbX3 NCs. Here, we present a method that allows partial cation exchange in colloidal CsPbBr3 NCs, whereby Pb2+ is exchanged for several isovalent cations, resulting in doped CsPb1–xMxBr3 NCs (M= Sn2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+; 0 50%), sharp absorption features, and narrow emission of the parent CsPbBr3 NCs. The blue-shift in the optical spectra is attributed to the lattice contraction that accompanies the Pb2+ for M2+ cation exchange and is observed to scale linearly with the lattice contraction. This work opens up new possibilities to engineer the properties of halide perovskite NCs, which to date are demonstrated to be the only known system where cation and anion exchange reactions can be sequentially combined while preserving the original NC shape, resulting in compositionally diverse perovskite NCs. PMID:28260380

  6. Inhibition effects of PMA/SbBr3 complex inhibitor on copper and copper-nickel alloy in LiBr solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xian-qi; LIANG Cheng-hao; HUANG Nai-bao

    2005-01-01

    The effects of PMA/SbBr3 inhibitor on copper and copper-nickel alloy in 55%LiBr solution were investigated by chemical immersion and electrochemical measurements. The results indicate that in boiling 55% LiBr solution containing PMA/SbBr3 inhibitor, corrosion rates of copper and copper-nickel alloy are 67.48 μm/a and 38. 14μm/a, respectively. Since both anodic and cathodic electrochemical reactions can be inhibited, PMA/SbBr3 belongs to complex inhibitor. PMA has the effect of inhibiting hydrogen evolution and [PMo12 O40]3- , the anion of PMA,has a strong oxidizing effect. Sb3+ also shows an oxidizing effect. It may exist in LiBr solutions stably with PMA.Because of the synergistic effect of PMA and Sb3+ , a protective film, comprising CuO, Cu2O and Sb, formed on copper and copper-nickel alloy surface may prevent Br- from diffusing to the surface of metals. As a result, the anticorrosion performance of copper and copper-nickel alloy may be improved.

  7. Connection of Magnetic Antisense Probe with SK-Br-3 Oncocyte mRNA Nucleotide Detected by High Resolution Atomic Force Microscope%高精度原子力显微镜显示磁性反义探针与SK-Br-3肿瘤细胞mRNA核苷酸连接

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭书德; 欧阳羽; 李信友; 文明; 李少林

    2011-01-01

    为了将高精度原子力显微镜(AFM)用于显示超顺磁性氧化铁标记的c-erbB2癌基因反义寡脱氧核苷酸探针(磁性反义探针)与SK-Br-3肿瘤细胞mRNA核苷酸的连接,我们在磁性反义探针转染SK-Br-3肿瘤细胞基础上,用AFM对转染后的肿瘤细胞进行观察,并同时对转染后的肿瘤细胞进行蛋白表达检测及MRI成像,以进一步证实AFM的观察结果.从AFM显示的磁性反义探针转染SK-Br-3肿瘤细胞后单个细胞的全貌图及局部放大图发现,探针中反义寡脱氧核苷酸中的脱氧胞嘧啶核苷酸闭环与肿瘤细胞mRNA嘌呤核苷酸环相连接;此外,磁性反义探针能特异性抑制SK-Br3细胞c-erbB2的蛋白表达,MRI显示磁性反义探针转染SK-Br-3肿瘤细胞的信号强度最低(P<0.05).实验表明,AFM可以清楚显示磁性反义探针与SK-Br-3肿瘤细胞核mRNA核苷酸的连接.%The present paper is aimed to detect superparamagnetic iron oxide labeled c-erbB2 oncogene antisense oli-gonucleotide probe (magnetic antisense probe) connected with SK-Br-3 oncocyte mRNA nucleotide by high resolution atomic force microscope (AFM). We transfected SK-Br-3 oncocyte with magnetic antisense probe, then observed the cells by AFM with high resolution and detected protein expression and magnetic resonance imagine ( MRI). The high resolution AFM clearly showed the connection of the oligonucleotide remote end of magnetic antisense probe with the mRNA nucleotide of oncocyte. The expression of c-erbB2 protein in SK-Br3 cells were highly inhibited by using magnetic antisense probe. We then obtained the lowest signal to noise ratio (SNR) of SK-Br-3 oncocyte transfected with magnetic antisense probe by MRI (P<0. 05). These experiments demonstrated that the high resolution AFM could be used to show the binding of magnetic antisense probe and SK-Br-3 mRNA of tumor cell nuclear.

  8. siRNA干扰人BMP9重组腺病毒载体的构建及其促进乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞增殖%Construction of recombinant adenovirus vector interfering the expression of human BMP9 and promoting the proliferation of breast cancer SK-BR-3 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘月红; 王科; 孙笑笑; 万绍恒; 王维; 陈莹莹; 张彦

    2013-01-01

    目的 筛选特异性干扰人BMP9基因的siRNA序列并制备重组腺病毒AdsiBMP9,探讨RNAi人BMP9基因后对乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞增殖能力的影响.方法 设计制备3对干扰人BMP9的双链DNA序列,亚克隆至Pses-Hus质粒中获得Pses-Hus-siBMP9质粒,脂质体转染乳腺上皮细胞HBL-100筛选有效干扰质粒,构建重组腺病毒并感染SK-BR-3细胞,RT-PCR,Western blot检测BMP9表达,MTT检测细胞增殖能力.结果 成功构建并筛选出针对人BMP9基因的有效干扰质粒并包装成腺病毒,病毒滴度为1×1010IU/mL,感染SK-BR-3细胞显示BMP9在转录水平和翻译水平表达量显著低于对照组和空白组(P<0.05),第5天AdsiBMP9组细胞的增殖率显著高于AdsiNC组(P<0.05).结论 成功构建特异性沉默人BMP9基因的siRNA腺病毒载体,可有效抑制SK-BR-3细胞中BMP9基因的表达从而促进该细胞增殖.%Objective To screen specific small interfering RNA(siRNA) target human BMP9 gene and to prepare recombinant adenovirus vector AdsiBMP9 for investigation of its effects on the proliferation of breast cancer SK-BR-3 cells. Methods Three pairs of double-stranded DNA fragments for silencing human BMP9 were designed and synthesized, then subcloned into the shuttle plasmid Pses-Hus. The recombinant plasmids Pses-Hus-siBMP9 were transfected into the breast epithelial cells HBL-100 by lipofectamine transfection reagent, screened the effective interfering plasmid, constructed AdsiBMP9 and infected SK-BR-3 cells. The expression level of BMP9 mRNA and protein were detected by RT-PCR and western blot. The proliferation of SK-BR-3 cells were observed with MTT assay. Results The recombinant plasmid Pses-Hus-siBMP9 and recombinant adenovirus AdsiBMP9 were successfully constructed and its titer was 1 × 1010 IU/mL. Compared to the negative and non-infected controls, the expres- sion of BMP9 gene was significantly inhibited after the SK-BR-3 cells were infected by AdsiBMP9. SK-BR-3 cells infected with

  9. Effect of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotides targeting at HER-2 mRNA on Caspase-3 protein expression in SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells%靶向HER-2 mRNA反义寡核苷酸对SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞Caspase-3蛋白表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨栓平; 宋海峰; 宋三泰; 郑晓玲; 张凤霞

    2003-01-01

    目的检测HER-2特异性的反义寡核苷酸HA824对SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞Caspase-3蛋白表达的影响.方法选用HER-2 高表达的SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞株作为试验的细胞株.HA824合成如前所述,HA4为已报道的阳性序列,Scramble设定为随机对照序列.上述药物分别以浓度为200 nmol*L-1孵育SK-BR-3细胞8 h和36 h,之后采用逆转录PCR法与免疫细胞化学技术检测SK-BR-3细胞HER-2 mRNA 及Caspase-3蛋白表达水平.结果与Scramble对照序列相比,HA824、HA4能抑制HER-2 mRNA的表达,HA824作用更强;与Scramble 相比,HA824、HA4对Caspase-3蛋白表达水平则无影响.结论 HA824、HA4这两种靶向HER-2 mRNA反义药物对SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞株增殖的抑制作用可能与激活Caspase-3蛋白无关.

  10. Calculation the Efficiencies of LaBr3 (Ce) Detector for γRay Produced by Gaseousβ+ Particle Annihilation in MB Beaker by MC Software%用MC软件模拟计算LaBr3(Ce)探测器对MB容器中气态β+粒子湮灭γ光子的探测效率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘跃龙; 屈国普; 赵越; 刘跃勇

    2011-01-01

    The paper used the MCNPX software to calculate the efficiencies and counting rate of a same size of LaBr3 ( Ce) scintillation crystals detector for β+ particle in different size of MB Beaker, and different size of La-Br3(Ce) scintillation crystals detector for same MB Beaker, and same size of LaBr3(Ce) scintillation crystals detector but in different depth in the same MB Beaker. Based on the result, the optimal volume of MB Beaker and the optimal depth in MB Beaker was assured,then compared with the data attained in analog computation for NaI( Tl) detector,The comparison result shows that the efficiencies of LaBr3 ( Ce) scintillation crystals detector are more than Nal(Tl) detector.%用蒙特卡罗软件MCNPX版本模拟计算了同一尺寸的溴化镧探测器对不同体积的MB容器中β+粒子的探测效率和计数率,以及不同尺寸的探测器对同一MB容器、同一探测器在同一体积的MB容器中处于不同深度时对β+粒子的探测效率和计数率,根据计算结果,确定了MB容器的最佳体积和探测器在MB容器中的最佳位置,并和NaI(Tl)探测器模拟的结果进行了比较,结果显示,LaBr3 (Ce)探测器对MB容器中β+粒子的探测效率比NaI(Il)要高.

  11. The presence of c-erbB-2 gene product-related protein in culture medium conditioned by breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alper, O.; Yamaguchi, K.; Hitomi, J.; Honda, S.; Matsushima, T.; Abe, K. (National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-12-01

    The Mr 185,000 glycoprotein encoded by human c-erbB-2/neu/HER2 gene, termed c-erbB-2 gene product, shows a close structural similarity with epidermal growth factor receptor and is now regarded to be a growth factor receptor for an as yet unidentified ligand. Abundant c-erbB-2 mRNA was demonstrated by Northern blot studies in the human breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3. Cellular radiolabeling experiments followed by immunoprecipitation with three different anti-c-erbB-2 gene product antibodies, recognizing extracellular domain, kinase domain, and carboxyl-terminal portion, respectively, demonstrated the production of a large amount of c-erbB-2 gene product which had the capacity to be phosphorylated. Immunization of mice with concentrated culture medium conditioned by SK-BR-3 cells always generated antibodies against c-erbB-2 gene product, demonstrating that this culture medium contained substance(s) immunologically indistinguishable from c-erbB-2 gene product. This observation was supported by the successful development of a monoclonal antibody against c-erbB-2 gene product, GFD-OA-p185-1, by immunizing mice with this culture medium. The biochemical nature of the substance(s) present in the culture medium was further characterized. When the culture medium conditioned by (35S)cysteine-labeled SK-BR-3 cells was immunoprecipitated by three different anti-c-erbB-2 gene product antibodies, only the antibody recognizing extracellular domain precipitated the (35S)-labeled protein with a molecular weight of 110,000, namely p110. The newly developed monoclonal antibody also immunoprecipitated this protein.

  12. High-performance planar green light-emitting diodes based on a PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbBr3/ZnO sandwich structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhi-Feng; Sun, Xu-Guang; Wu, Di; Xu, Ting-Ting; Zhuang, Shi-Wei; Tian, Yong-Tao; Li, Xin-Jian; Du, Guo-Tong

    2016-05-01

    Recently, perovskite-based light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide emitters have attracted much attention because of their excellent properties of high color purity, tunable emission wavelength and a low-temperature processing technique. As is well-known, organic light-emitting diodes have shown powerful capabilities in this field; however, the fabrication of these devices typically relies on high-temperature and high-vacuum processes, which increases the final cost of the product and renders them uneconomical for use in large-area displays. Organic/inorganic hybrid halide perovskites match with these material requirements, as it is possible to prepare such materials with high crystallinity through solution processing at low temperature. Herein, we demonstrated a high-brightness green light-emitting diode based on PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbBr3/ZnO sandwich structures by a spin-coating method combined with a sputtering system. Under forward bias, a dominant emission peak at ~530 nm with a low full width of half-maximum (FWHM) of 30 nm can be achieved at room temperature. Owing to the high surface coverage of the CH3NH3PbBr3 layer and a device design based on carrier injection and a confinement configuration, the proposed diode exhibits good electroluminescence performance, with an external quantum efficiency of 0.0645%. More importantly, we investigated the working stability of the studied diode under continuous operation to verify the sensitivity of the electroluminescence performance to ambient atmosphere and to assess the suitability of the diode for practical applications. Moreover, the underlying reasons for the undesirable emission decay are tentatively discussed. This demonstration of an effective green electroluminescence based on CH3NH3PbBr3 provides valuable information for the design and development of perovskites as efficient emitters, thus facilitating their use in existing applications and suggesting new potential applications.

  13. Photon Emission and Reabsorption Processes in CH3NH3PbBr3 Single Crystals Revealed by Time-Resolved Two-Photon-Excitation Photoluminescence Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takumi; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Nakaike, Yumi; Wakamiya, Atsushi; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2017-01-01

    The dynamical processes of radiative recombination of photocarriers and reabsorption of emitted photons in CH3NH3PbBr3 single crystals are studied using time-resolved two-photon-excitation photoluminescence (PL) microscopy. We find that the PL spectrum and its decay dynamics depend on the excitation-depth profile. As the excitation depth increases, the PL spectrum becomes asymmetric, the peak energy redshifts, and the PL decay time becomes longer. These observations can be well explained by a simple model including photon recycling (photon emission and reabsorption) in thick samples with strong band-to-band transitions and high radiative recombination efficiencies.

  14. 不同质量浓度磁性c-erbB-2反义探针对SK-Br-3肿瘤细胞株形态及表达的影响%Effects of Magnetic c-erbB-2 Antisense Probe of Different Concentrations on Morphology and Expression of SK-Br-3 Cancer Cell Lines in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海燕; 温志鹏; 文明; 贺海容; 谭书德; 李少林

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨不同质量浓度磁性c-erbB-2反义探针转染乳腺癌SK-Br-3细胞株后,对其形态及表达的影响.方法将反义探针含铁质量浓度分别定为5、10、25、50、100 mg/L,转染乳腺癌SK-Br-3细胞24 h.采用普鲁士蓝染色并在光学显微镜及透射电镜下直接观察细胞铁颗粒,原子吸收光谱法测定细胞内铁含量,台盼蓝排除实验、CCK-8试剂盒观察细胞活性,Western blot法检测蛋白质表达,磁共振成像研究信号强度的变化.结果 SK-Br-3细胞对反义探针在一定质量浓度范围内(5、10、25 mg/L)呈依赖式摄取.当探针质量浓度为25 mg/L时,细胞内铁含量为(18.38±0.28) pg,细胞活力、存活率及细胞内c-erbB-2蛋白表达量明显降低(P均<0.05),磁共振扫描图像显示该组细胞T2值出现明显降低(P<0.05).50及100 mg/L组各项结果与25 mg/L组比较差异无统计学意义(P均>0.05).结论 当磁性c-erbB-2反义探针质量浓度为25 mg/L时,可有效转染并特异性抑制SK-Br-3细胞株的表达,并被磁共振成像所检测.%Objective To explore the effects of the magnetic c-erbB-2 antisense probe of different concentrations on the morphology and expression of SK-Br-3 cancer cells in vitro. Methods Breast cancer SK-Br-3 cells were transfected for 24 h by antisense probe at an iron concentration of 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mg/L, respectively. The distribution and content of iron particles in SK-Br-3 cells was determined by Prussian blue staining, electron microscopy, and atomic absorption spectrometry. Cell viability was observed by trypan-blue exclusion and CCK-8 test. The protein expression of c-erbB-2 was assessed by the Western blot analysis. The changes of the signal strength were considered by magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI). Results c-erbB-2 anti-sense probe was uptake by SK-Br-3 cells in a concentration-dependence manner within a certain range (5 , 10,25 mg/L). When the probe concentration was 25 mg/L, iron content in

  15. RNAi silencing of HER2 gene induces apoptosis and antiproliferative effect of SK-BR-3 cell line%HER2基因RNA干扰质粒对SK-BR-3细胞增殖及凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩冬; 徐煌; 李文浩; 张成文

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine thebiologic effects of HER 2 gene silencing on SKBR 3 eels through the transfection of HER2-specific shRNA expression vector. Methods SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells overexpressing the HER2 gene were transfected with HER2-shRNA2 vector using Lipofectan ine2000 .After transfection the antiproliferative effect of HER2-shRNA2 was detected by MTT assay and apoptosis percentage was detected by flow cytom etry .The expressbns of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA ) were e-valuated by W estem bbtanalysis .Results After tramsfection with HER2-shRNA2,inhibitory ratio of HER2-shARNA2 group was 16 . 53% (48h),39.03% (72 h),or65.47% (96 h) .After Seventy-two hours ,apoptosis percentage of SK-BR-3 cells of transfected w ith HER2-shARNA2 was increased to 10 .29% compared to that in negative control and blank control groups .Conclusbn Silencing of H ER2 gene by shRNA can inhisit proliferation and induce apoptosis in SK-BR-3 cells .These prom ising results suggest that shRNA tergeted against hum anHER2maybe valuable tools as antiproferative agents against neoplastic cells .%目的 探讨HER2基因高效RNA干扰质粒转染到SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞后,对细胞的增殖及其凋亡的影响.方法 采用脂质体转染法将针对HER2基因的高效RNA干扰质粒转染至乳腺癌细胞SK-BR-3中,通过细胞计数、MTT比色法、流式细胞术和Western blot检测PCNA增殖细胞核抗原,分析检测其对SK-BR-3细胞增殖、凋亡的影响.结果 MTT比色测定显示, HER2-shRNA2干扰质粒转染到SK-BR-3细胞后在48 h后现抑制,与空白对照组比抑制率分别为48 h 16.53%、72h 39.03%、96h 65.47%.流式细胞分析HER2-shRNA组细胞在96 h凋亡率达17.36%,明显高于阴性对照组的1.41%和空白对照组的1.25%(P<0.05).结论 将RNA干扰质粒HER2-shRNA2转染至SK-BR-3细胞中,可特异性地抑制SK-BR-3细胞的增殖并诱导其凋亡,为乳腺癌的靶向治疗奠定了基础.

  16. Effect of 3-bromopyruvate on mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis of human breast carcinoma SK-BR-3 cells%3-溴丙酮酸诱导人乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞凋亡及对细胞线粒体膜电位的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛媛; 刘哲; 张倩雯; 晁振华; 张配; 夏飞; 蒋琛琛; 刘浩; 蒋志文

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨糖酵解抑制剂3-溴丙酮酸(3-BrPA)诱导乳腺癌细胞SK-BR-3凋亡的作用及其可能相关机制。方法MTT法检测3-BrPA对乳腺癌细胞SK-BR-3增殖的抑制作用;碘化丙啶(PI)单染流式细胞术检测细胞凋亡;ATP检测试剂盒检测细胞内ATP水平;DHE荧光探针标记法检测细胞内超氧阴离子水平;线粒体膜电位检测试剂盒(JC-1)检测细胞线粒体膜电位。结果MTT结果显示,3-BrPA可抑制SK-BR-3细胞的增殖活性,且呈浓度和时间依赖性。80、160、320μmol·L-1的3-BrPA诱导SK-BR-3细胞24 h的凋亡率分别为6.7%、22.3%、79.6%。80、160、320μmol·L-13-BrPA作用于SK-BR-3细胞5 h后,细胞内ATP水平与对照组相比分别为87.7%、60.6%、23.7%。160μmol·L-1的3-BrPA增加SK-BR-3细胞中活性氧的生成,同时使细胞线粒体膜电位降低。结论3-BrPA可以抑制乳腺癌细胞SK-BR-3的增殖活性,引起线粒体膜电位降低,并且诱导其凋亡,机制可能与抑制肿瘤细胞的糖酵解从而减少ATP的产生并升高细胞内活性氧的水平有关。%Objective To study the effect of glycolysis inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) in inducing apoptosis of human breast carcinoma cells SK-BR-3 and the possible mechanism. Methods MTT assay was used to detect the growth inhibition induced by 3-BrPA in breast cancer cells SK-BR-3. The apoptotic cells were detected by flow cytometry with propidium iodide (PI). ATP levels in the cells were detected by ATP assay kit, and DHE fluorescent probe technique was used to determine superoxide anion levels; the mitochondrial membrane potential was assessed using JC-1 staining assay. Results MTT assay showed that the proliferation of SK-BR-3 cells was inhibited by 3-BrPA in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Exposure to 80, 160, and 320μmol·L-1 3-BrPA for 24 h resulted in cell apoptosis rates of 6.7%, 22.3%, and 79.6%, respectively, and the intracellular ATP levels of SK-BR

  17. Polarization-selective three-photon absorption and subsequent photoluminescence in CsPbBr3 single crystal at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. J.; Stoumpos, C. C.; Saouma, F. O.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Jang, J. I.

    2016-05-01

    We report on highly polarization-selective three-photon absorption (3PA) in a Bridgman-grown single crystal of CsPbBr3 oriented along the (112) direction, which is an inorganic counterpart to emerging organic-inorganic hybrid halide perovskites for solar-cell and optoelectronic applications. The crystal exhibits strong photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature as a direct consequence of 3PA of fundamental radiation. Interestingly, 3PA disappears when the input polarization is parallel to the (-110 ) direction. This 3PA effect is strongest when orthogonal to (-110 ) and the corresponding 3PA coefficient was measured to be γ =0.14 ±0.03 cm3/GW2 under picosecond-pulse excitation at the fundamental wavelength of λ =1200 nm. The laser-induced damage threshold was also determined to be about 20 GW/cm2 at the same wavelength. Based on relative PL intensities upon λ tuning over the entire 3PA range (1100 -1700 nm), we determined the nonlinear optical dispersion of the 3PA coefficient for CsPbBr3, which is consistent with a theoretical prediction. Experimentally observed significant polarization dependence of γ was explained by relevant selection rules. The perovskite is potentially important for nonlinear optical applications owing to its highly efficient 3PA-induced PL response with a sharp on/off ratio by active polarization control.

  18. Tunable bandgap in hybrid perovskite CH3NH3Pb(Br3−yXy single crystals and photodetector applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of CH3NH3Pb(Br3−yXy (X=Cl and I single crystals via a stepwise temperature control approach. High-quality CH3NH3Pb(Br3−yXy crystals with a tunable bandgap from 1.92eV to 2.53eV have been prepared successfully in this way. And further experiments revealed the influence of halogen content and preparation temperature on the structural and optical properties of these crystals. It is observed that chlorine can lower the critical nucleation energy, which results in crystallizing at lower temperature with the chlorine content increasing, while the nucleation energy increases slowly with increasing iodine content. Moreover, in contrast to Frank–van der Merwe growth with low heating rate, high heating rate leads to a mass of small size single crystals and Stranski-Krastanov growth. The single crystals with tunable band gap and impressive characteristics enable us to fabricate high performance photodetectors for different wavelengths.

  19. EGF stimulates Pit-1 independent transcription of the human prolactin pituitary promoter in human breast cancer SK-BR-3 cells through its proximal AP-1 response element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfroid, Isabelle; Van de Weerdt, Cécile; Baudhuin, Ariane; Martial, Joseph A; Muller, Marc

    2005-01-14

    Normal and neoplastic human mammary gland cells are targets for the proliferative action of prolactin. These cells also synthesize prolactin, thereby inducing an autocrine/paracrine proliferative loop. We present the first extensive analysis of the transcriptional regulation of the human prolactin gene (hPRL) in human mammary tumor cells, SK-BR-3. We show that the pituitary promoter is functional in these cells in the absence of the pituitary-specific factor Pit-1. Expression of exogenous Pit-1 or epidermal growth factor (EGF) treatment stimulates the transfected hPRL pituitary promoter and the endogenous hPRL expression. EGF stimulation is mediated by increased synthesis of c-fos and c-jun, resulting in AP-1 binding to the proximal hPRL pituitary promoter. This regulation involves the EGF receptor, possibly ErbB2 that is highly expressed in SK-BR-3 cells, and a PI3K/JNK pathway. The stimulation of hPRL gene transcription by EGF in mammary cells may include hPRL in a complex regulatory network controlling growth of human mammary cells.

  20. TIMP-1 overexpression does not affect sensitivity to HER2-targeting drugs in the HER2-gene-amplified SK-BR-3 human breast cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaohong; Fogh, Louise; Lademann, Ulrik; Jensen, Vibeke; Stenvang, Jan; Yang, Huanming; Brünner, Nils; Schrohl, Anne-Sofie

    2013-04-01

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) has been suggested as a marker of prognosis and response to treatment in breast cancer. In vitro, TIMP-1 can regulate shedding of the extracellular domain of HER2 and signalling via the Akt pathway, and we hypothesize that TIMP-1 therefore can affect sensitivity to the HER2-targeting drugs trastuzumab and lapatinib. SK-BR-3 human breast cancer cells were stably transfected with TIMP-1, characterized with regard to TIMP-1 protein expression, proliferation, and functionality of the secreted TIMP-1, and the sensitivity to trastuzumab and lapatinib was studied in five selected single-cell subclones expressing TIMP-1 protein at various levels plus the parental SK-BR-3 cell line. Both trastuzumab and lapatinib reduced cell viability, as determined by MTT assay, but the sensitivity to the drugs was not associated with the expression level of TIMP-1 protein. Western blotting showed that the activation of Akt, PTEN, and HER2 as well as ADAM10 was similar in all clones. In conclusion, in this model, TIMP-1 overexpression does not affect HER2 cleavage by ADAM10 or signalling via the Akt pathway, and TIMP-1 does not influence sensitivity to trastuzumab and lapatinib.

  1. Tunable bandgap in hybrid perovskite CH3NH3Pb(Br3-yXy) single crystals and photodetector applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Yuan, G. D.; Duan, R. F.; Huang, F.; Wei, T. B.; Liu, Z. Q.; Wang, J. X.; Li, J. M.

    2016-04-01

    We report the synthesis of CH3NH3Pb(Br3-yXy) (X=Cl and I) single crystals via a stepwise temperature control approach. High-quality CH3NH3Pb(Br3-yXy) crystals with a tunable bandgap from 1.92eV to 2.53eV have been prepared successfully in this way. And further experiments revealed the influence of halogen content and preparation temperature on the structural and optical properties of these crystals. It is observed that chlorine can lower the critical nucleation energy, which results in crystallizing at lower temperature with the chlorine content increasing, while the nucleation energy increases slowly with increasing iodine content. Moreover, in contrast to Frank-van der Merwe growth with low heating rate, high heating rate leads to a mass of small size single crystals and Stranski-Krastanov growth. The single crystals with tunable band gap and impressive characteristics enable us to fabricate high performance photodetectors for different wavelengths.

  2. Characterization of PARIS LaBr$_3$(Ce)-NaI(Tl) phoswich detectors upto $E_\\gamma$ $\\sim$ 22 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, C; Pillay, R G; K., Anoop; Dokania, N; Pal, Sanjoy; Pose, M S; Mishra, G; Rout, P C; Kumar, Suresh; Pandit, Deepak; Mondal, Debasish; Pal, Surajit; Banerjee, S R; Napiorkowski, Paweł J; Dorvaux, Oliver; Kihel, S; Mathieu, C; Maj, A

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand the performance of the PARIS (Photon Array for the studies with Radioactive Ion and Stable beams) detector, detailed characterization of two individual phoswich (LaBr$_3$(Ce)-NaI(Tl)) elements has been carried out. The detector response is investigated over a wide range of $E_{\\gamma}$ = 0.6 to 22.6 MeV using radioactive sources and employing $^{11}B(p,\\gamma)$ reaction at $E_p$ = 163 keV and $E_p$ = 7.2 MeV. The linearity of energy response of the LaBr$_3$(Ce) detector is tested upto 22.6 MeV using three different voltage dividers. The data acquisition system using CAEN digitizers is set up and optimized to get the best energy and time resolution. The energy resolution of $\\sim$ 2.1% at $E_\\gamma$ = 22.6~MeV is measured for configuration giving best linearity upto high energy. Time resolution of the phoswich detector is measured with $^{60}$Co source after implementing CFD algorithm for the digitized pulses and is found to be excellent (FWHM $\\sim$ 315~ps). In order to study the effect...

  3. Investigation on gamma-ray position sensitivity at 662 keV in a spectroscopic 3' x 3' LaBr3:Ce scintillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaz, A.; Camera, F.; Birocchi, F.; Blasi, N.; Boiano, C.; Brambilla, S.; Coelli, S.; Fiorini, C.; Marone, A.; Million, B.; Riboldi, S.; Wieland, O.

    2015-02-01

    The position sensitivity of a thick, cylindrical and continuous 3" x 3" (7.62 cm x 7.62 cm) LaBr3:Ce crystal was studied using a 1 mm collimated beam of 662 keV gamma rays from a 400 MBq intense 137Cs source and a spectroscopic photomultiplier (PMT) (HAMAMATSU R6233-100SEL). The PMT entrance window was covered by black absorber except for a small window 1 cm x 1 cm wide. A complete scan of the detector over a 0.5 cm step grid was performed for three positions of the 1 cm x 1 cm window. For each configuration the energy spectrum was measured and the peak centroid, the FWHM, the area and peak asymmetry of the 662 keV gamma transition were analyzed. The data show that, even in a 3" thick LaBr3:Ce crystal with diffusive surfaces the position of the full energy peak centroid depends on the source position. We verified that, on average, the position of the full energy peak centroids measured in the three 1 cm x 1 cm window configurations is sufficient for the correct identification of the collimated gamma source position.

  4. Size-dependent one-photon- and two-photon-pumped amplified spontaneous emission from organometal halide CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite cubic microcrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Hai-Yu; Zhang, Yan-Xia; Li, Kai-Jiao; Zhan, Xue-Peng; Gao, Bing-Rong; Chen, Qi-Dai; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2017-01-18

    In the past few years, organometal halide light-emitting perovskite thin films and colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) have attracted significant research interest in the field of highly purified illuminating applications. However, knowledge of photoluminescence (PL) characteristics, such as amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) of larger-sized perovskite crystals, is still relatively scarce. Here, we presented room-temperature size-dependent spontaneous emission (SE) and ASE of the organometal halide CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite cubic microcrystals pumped through one-photon-(1P) and two-photon-(2P) excitation paradigms. The results showed that the optical properties of SE and ASE were sensitively dependent on the sizes of perovskite microcrystals irrespective of whether 1P or 2P excitation was used. Moreover, by comparing the spectral results of 1P- and 2P-pumped experiments, 2P pumping was found to be an effective paradigm to reduce thresholds by one order of magnitude. Finally, we carried out fluences-dependent time-resolved fluorescence dynamics experiments to study the underlying effects of these scale-dependent SE and ASE. We found that the photoluminescence (PL) recombination rates sensitively became faster with increasing carriers' densities, and that the ASE pumped from larger-sized CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite cubic microcrystals showed faster lifetimes. This work shows that micro-sized perovskite cubic crystals could be the ideal patterns of perovskite materials for realizing ASE applications in the future.

  5. Detector characterization and first coincidence tests of a Compton telescope based on LaBr3 crystals and SiPMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llosá, G.; Barrio, J.; Cabello, J.; Crespo, A.; Lacasta, C.; Rafecas, M.; Callier, S.; de La Taille, C.; Raux, L.

    2012-12-01

    A Compton telescope for dose monitoring in hadron therapy consisting of several layers of continuous LaBr3 crystals coupled to silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) arrays is under development within the ENVISION project. In order to test the possibility of employing such detectors for the telescope, a detector head consisting of a continuous 16 mm×18 mm×5 mm LaBr3 crystal coupled to a SiPM array has been assembled and characterized, employing the SPIROC1 ASIC as readout electronics. The best energy resolution obtained at 511 keV is 6.5% FWHM and the timing resolution is 3.1 ns FWHM. A position determination method for continuous crystals is being tested, with promising results. In addition, the detector has been operated in time coincidence with a second detector layer, to determine the coincidence capabilities of the system. The first tests are satisfactory, and encourage the development of larger detectors that will compose the telescope prototype.

  6. Electronic structure and properties of Cd4As2Br3 and Cd4Sb2I3, analogues of CdSe and CdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anand; Suchitra; Manjunath, K.; Ahmad, Tokeer; Waghmare, Umesh V.; Rao, C. N. R.

    2017-04-01

    Substitution of aliovalent anions in metal oxides and chalcogenides significantly affects the electronic structure and properties of the materials. Thus, substitution of P3- and Cl- in CdS decreases the band gap and favorably influences the photocatalytic activity. Complete substitution of a trivalent (A3-) and a monovalent (B-) anions in a cadmium chalcogenides, CdX, should give rise to a material of the composition Cd A0.5B0.5 or Cd2AB, but a compound with the composition Cd4P2Cl3 (or Cd2PCl1.5) is obtained in the case of CdS. We have investigated the analogous compounds, Cd4As2Br3 and Cd4Sb2I3, wherein the anions in CdSe and CdTe are substituted by As, Br and Sb, I respectively. These compounds are direct band gap semiconductors with a band gap of 1.8-1.9 eV and a photoluminescence band in the visible region. First-principles calculations show both Cd4As2Br3 and Cd4Sb2I3 to be direct band gap semiconductors. The arsenic bromide is predicted to be photochemically more active for HER than the antimony iodide.

  7. International Conference on Harmonisation; E2B(R3) Electronic Transmission of Individual Case Safety Reports; Data Elements and Message Specification; Appendix on Backwards and Forwards Compatibility; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-21

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance for industry entitled "E2B(R3) Electronic Transmission of Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSRs): Implementation Guide--Data Elements and Message Specification'' (the E2B(R3) implementation guidance) and an appendix to the guidance entitled "ICSRs: Appendix to the Implementation Guide--Backwards and Forwards Compatibility'' (the BFC appendix). The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The E2B(R3) implementation guidance is intended to revise the standards for submission of ICSRs and improve the inherent quality of the data, enabling improved handling and analysis of ICSR reports. The BFC appendix describes the relationship between data elements from the 2001 ICH E2B guidance and the E2B(R3) implementation guidance.

  8. Inhibitory effect of c-erbB2 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide combined with taxol on proliferation of SK-Br-3 cells%c-erbB2反义寡脱氧核苷酸联合紫杉醇对乳腺癌细胞SK-Br-3的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭志平; 蒋明东; 王树斌; 尹晓玲; 张清华; 李少林

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨以c-erbB2 mRNA为靶点的反义寡脱氧核苷酸(ASODN)联合紫杉醇对乳腺癌SK-Br-3细胞的抑制作用.方法:实验分为7组:ASODN组,紫杉醇组,赫赛汀组,表阿霉素组,ASODN+紫杉醇组,赫赛汀+紫杉醇组,表阿霉素+紫杉醇组.分别处理乳腺癌SK-Br-3细胞72 h,MTT法测定细胞抑制率,中效原理判定药物联合应用的效果,WesternBlot检测细胞c-erbB2,Bcl-2蛋白表达水平.结果:各组中SK-Br-3细胞的抑制率均随药物浓度的增加而增大;紫杉醇的中效浓度紫杉醇组为0.14 umol/L;ASODN+紫杉醇组为0.07umol/L,其合用指数(CI)<1,为协同作用.ASODN+紫杉醇组c-erbB2,Bcl-2蛋白表达明显低于紫杉醇组,两组相比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:ASODN可明显增强紫杉醇对乳腺癌SK-Br-3细胞的抑制效应,可明显降低紫杉醇的用药量.

  9. Influence of adenovirus vector-mediated RNAi on expression of c-Met in SK-BR-3 cells%腺病毒载体介导的RNAi对SK-BR-3细胞c-Met表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵慧; 陈东; 袁振华; 王忠山; 吴小兵

    2006-01-01

    目的:通过腺病毒载体介导的RNA干扰技术抑制乳腺癌细胞HGF受体c-Met的表达,抑制乳腺癌细胞增殖、诱导细胞凋亡.方法:PCR法获得人U6启动子及带有c-Met反向互补靶序列的片段HU6shmet;利用腺病毒载体将其传递至SK-BR-3细胞;RNA狭缝杂交检测SK-BR-3细胞c-Met mRNA水平,Western印迹检测c-Met蛋白水平.结果:获得了带有人U6启动子及c-Met反向互补靶序列的重组腺病毒载体rAdUshmet1和rAdUshmet2.转导了重组腺病毒的SK-BR-3细胞的c-Met mRNA和蛋白相对表达量均有所下降.结论:腺病毒载体rAdUshmet通过抑制HGF受体c-Met表达,能在一定程度上阻断HGF-c-Met信号转导通路,有可能成为对乳腺癌进行基因治疗的有效载体.

  10. Study on the effect of PDGF-D shRNA on proliferation and invasion of breast cancer SK-BR-3 cells%PDGF-D 稳定沉默后对乳腺癌细胞 SK-BR-3生物学功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红昌; 冯雯; 陈亚峰; 梅怡; 蔡含; 蒋一鸣; 陈腾; 殷佩浩; 奉典旭

    2016-01-01

    目的:通过慢病毒载体沉默乳腺癌细胞系 SK - BR -3中血小板衍生生长因子 D(PDGF - D)基因的表达,探讨 PDGF - D 基因沉默后对乳腺癌细胞增殖、凋亡及迁移的调控作用。方法应用 RT - PCR 及蛋白质印迹方法检测5种乳腺癌细胞系中 PDGF - D 的表达状况;设计人 PDGF - D 基因的 shRNA 慢病毒载体,在293T 细胞中包装病毒并感染 PDGF - D 高表达的乳腺癌细胞系,运用蛋白质免疫印迹的方法鉴定其对 PDGF - D 基因的沉默效果;PDGF - D基因沉默后通过细胞增殖实验和软琼脂克隆形成实验检测其对细胞增殖能力的影响,并应用流式细胞技术检测细胞凋亡;运用 Transwell 迁移实验检测细胞的体外侵袭迁移能力。结果 PDGF - D 在5种细胞系中存在差异性表达,其中具有低转移潜能的 HT -29和 SK - BR -3细胞与具有高转移潜能的 LOVO、RKO 和 SW620细胞相比,具有更高的 PDGF -D 表达水平( t =3.880,P <0.05)。选取低转移细胞株中 PDGF - D 表达相对较高的 SK - BR -3作为研究对象,构建PDGF - D shRNA 慢病毒载体沉默 SK - BR -3细胞中 PDGF - D 的表达,蛋白质免疫印迹结果提示,PDGF - D 稳定沉默的 SK - BR -3细胞系构建成功;在稳定沉默 PDGF - D 基因后,MTT 细胞增殖实验和软琼脂克隆形成实验表明 SK - BR-3细胞增殖能力增强( F =75.23,P <0.001);流式细胞技术检测显示 PDGF - D 基因沉默后可抑制 SK - BR -3细胞凋亡( F =84.44,P <0.001);细胞小室实验结果显示,PDGF - D 沉默后 SK - BR -3迁移能力增强( F =155.9,P <0.001)。结论 PDGF - D 基因可能与乳腺癌的细胞增殖、凋亡与转移有关,进而参与了乳腺癌的发生、发展。%Objective The shRNA lentiviral vector was constructed to silence PDGF - D expression in BrCa cells,in order to explore the role of PDGF - D in proliferation,apoptosis and migration

  11. siRNA抑制人乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞株VEGF基因表达的实验研究%Inhibition of siRNA on VEGF expression in SK-BR-3 cells:An experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞; 王宏伟; 李伟; 孙志军; 秦迎

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究siRNA(small interfering,RNA)对乳腺癌细胞SK-BR-3的VEGF基因表达的抑制作用,为RNAi技术在肿瘤生物治疗中的应用提供实验基础.方法 体外合成一条针对VEGF基因的siRNA,使用脂质体转染的方法导入细胞,观察转染后乳腺癌细胞SK-BR-3的增殖变化,MTT法检测细胞存活率,RT-PCR检测转染后VEGF mRNA表达水平的变化,ELISA检测蛋白表达的下降效果.结果 所设计的siRNA能有效抑制乳腺癌细胞的生长;降低了 VEGF mRNA的表达;蛋白表达水平也显著降低.作为阴性对照的错义序列组siRNA则没有这种效果,不起作用.结论 siRNA可以有效抑制细胞株SK-BR-3中VEGF的表达,从而抑制细胞生长.应用RNA干扰技术可以有效抑制肿瘤细胞的增殖.

  12. Y 盒结合蛋白1在 SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞增殖中的作用%Roles of Y box-binding protein 1 in SK-BR-3 breast cancer proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史建红; 吕心瑞; 王冰; 林丹丹; 王亚婻; 步玉辉; 马振峰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the roles of Y box-binding protein 1 (YB-1) in breast cancer cell proliferation.Methods Twenty cases of surgical removal of breast cancer tissue ( diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma , stage Ⅱ, by postoperative paraffin pathology ) and normal breast tissues adjacent to carcinoma were collected during June 2013 to August 2013.Quantitative real-time PCR ( qRT-PCR ) was performed to detect the YB1 mRNA levels.Cultured mammary epithelial cells (HBL-100) and breast cancer cells (MCF7, MDA-MB-231 &SK-BR-3 cells) were harvested and qRT-PCR was performed to detect the YB1 mRNA levels.SK-BR-3 cells were stimulated with various concentrations of PDGF-BB and YB1 expression levels were detected by qRT-PCR.Down-regulation or over-expression of YB1 by si-YB1 or Ad-GFP-YB1 was detected in SK-BR-3 cells.And MTS cell proliferation assay kit was used to detect cell proliferation.Results YB1 mRNA levels were significantly higher in breast cancer tissues and MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell lines than that in adjacent normal breast tissues and HBL -100 mammary epithelial cells respectively ( P<0.05 ).YB1 expression levels increased in PDGF-BB stimulated SK-BR-3 cells in a dose-dependent manner.Conclusion A down-regulation of endogenous YB 1 decreases and an over-expression of exogenous YB 1 promotes the proliferation activity in SK-BR-3 cells.%目的:探讨Y盒结合蛋白1(YB1)在乳腺癌细胞增殖中的作用。方法收集河北大学附属医院2013年6-8月的乳腺浸润性导管癌及癌旁正常乳腺组织标本,实时定量PCR( qRT-PCR)分析YB1基因的mRNA水平;培养乳腺上皮细胞HBL-100和乳腺癌细胞MCF-7、MDA-MB-231和SK-BR-3,qRT-PCR 观察 YB1的表达水平, MTS 法分析细胞增殖活力;血小板源性生长因子 BB ( PDGF-BB)刺激SK-BR-3细胞,观察YB1的表达水平;应用特异性小干扰RNA敲低内源性YB1或应用GFP-YB1腺病毒载体过表达外源性GFP-YB1,MTS

  13. Influence and Significance of Herceptin on the Notch-1 Signaling Pathway in Breast Cancer SK-BR3 Cells%赫赛汀对乳腺癌SK-BR3细胞Notch-1信号通路的影响及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩铭; 邓华瑜; 隆玲; 姜蓉

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects and mechanism of action of herceptin on Notch-1 protein in breast cancer SK-BR3 cells, and to explore the significance of Notch-1 signaling pathway in breast cancer cell resistance to herceptin.Methods: The breast cancer cells SK-BR3 with HER2 overexpression and MDA-MB-231 overexpression with HER2 non-overexpression were selected.Immunocytochemistry and Western-blot analysis were used to detect the expression of Notch-1 protein and activate Notch-1 ( Notch-1IC ) in the SK-BR3 and MDA-MB-231 cells, respectively.SK-BR3 cells were treated with herceptin.Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of Notch-1IC and HER2 proteins.Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to assay HES-1 mRNA expression.Co-immunoprecipitation detected the interaction between HER2 and Notch-1 proteins in the SK-BR3 cells.Results: The level of Notch-1IC nucleic localization and the expression of Notch-1IC protein in SK-BR3 cells ( 9.37 ± 0.64 ) were significantly lower than in the MDA-MB-231 cells ( 21.665 ± 1.11 ) ( P < 0.01 ).SK-BR3 cells were treated with herceptin.Compared with the controls, the expression of Notch-1IC protein and HES-1 mRNA was significantly increased ( P < 0.01 ).There was no apparent change in HER2 protein expression after herceptin treatment ( F = 0.973, P > 0.05 ).Co-immunoprecipitation showed coprecipitation between the Notch-1 and HER2 proteins.Conclusion: The activity of Notch-1 protein was decreased in the breast cancer cells with HER2 overexpression.HER2 could combine with Notch-1, thereby negatively regulating Notch-1 activity.Herceptin could increase the activity of Notch-1, which could be associated with the cell resistance.%目的:探讨赫赛汀对乳腺癌SK-BR3细胞Notch-1蛋白的影响及其作用机制,认识Notch-1信号通路在乳腺癌细胞形成赫赛汀耐药中的意义.方法:选用HER-2过表达乳腺癌SK-BR3细胞及HER-2非过表达乳腺癌MDA-MB-231细

  14. H Reactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The H Reactor was the first reactor to be built at Hanford after World War II.It became operational in October of 1949, and represented the fourth nuclear reactor on...

  15. 赖氨大黄酸通过抑制HER-2信号通路诱导乳腺癌SK-Br-3细胞凋亡%Rhein lysinate induces apoptosis in breast cancer SK-Br-3 cells by inhibiting HER-2 signal pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林雅军; 黄云虹; 甄永占; 刘秀均; 甄永苏

    2008-01-01

    为研究赖氨大黄酸(rhein lysinate,RHL)对人乳腺癌细胞株SK-Br-3细胞增殖、凋亡的影响及HER-2信号通路在其中的作用.应用MTT法检测赖氨大黄酸对SK-Br-3细胞增殖的影响;应用流式细胞仪检测细胞周期变化及细胞凋亡;应用Western blotting检测HER-2信号通路蛋白表达水平及蛋白磷酸化水平;应用RT-PCR和免疫化学方法分别检测HER-2 mRNA和蛋白表达水平.结果显示,赖氨大黄酸能有效抑制乳腺癌SK-Br-3细胞增殖,作用48 h的IC50值为85 μmol·L-1,并能诱导其凋亡,随药物浓度的增加,细胞凋亡率也逐渐升高;Western blotting结果显示,赖氨大黄酸抑制HER-2蛋白表达和蛋白磷酸化,抑制NF-κB蛋白表达,升高p53和p21蛋白表达;RT-PCR和免疫化学结果表明,赖氨大黄酸能抑制HER-2 mRNA的转录水平,从而抑制其蛋白表达.因此,赖氨大黄酸能有效抑制SK-Br-3细胞增殖,并诱导其凋亡,HER-2/NF-κB/p53/p21参与了赖氨大黄酸诱导SK-Br-3细胞凋亡的过程.赖氨大黄酸解决了大黄酸不溶于水的难题,并且能够通过HER-2信号通路诱导细胞凋亡,有望成为临床肿瘤辅助化疗药物.

  16. A New 1,3,4-Oxadiazole-Based Hole-Transport Material for Efficient CH3 NH3 PbBr3 Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Stefano; Baena, Juan Pablo Correa; Marianetti, Giulia; Marchetti, Nicola; Lessi, Marco; Abate, Antonio; Caramori, Stefano; Grätzel, Michael; Bellina, Fabio; Bignozzi, Carlo Alberto; Hagfeldt, Anders

    2016-04-01

    A new hole-transport material (HTM) based on the 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety (H1) was prepared through a single-step synthetic pathway starting from commercially available products. Thanks to a deep HOMO level, H1 was used as HTM in CH3 NH3 PbBr3 perovskite solar cells yielding an efficiency of 5.8%. The reference HTM (Spiro-OMeTAD), under the same testing conditions, furnished a lower efficiency of 5.1%. Steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence of the thin films showed good charge-extraction dynamics for H1 devices. In addition, H1 shows a large thermal stability and completely amorphous behavior (as evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry).

  17. Gamma-ray spectroscopy at MHz counting rates with a compact LaBr3 detector and silicon photomultipliers for fusion plasma applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocente, M.; Rigamonti, D.; Perseo, V.; Tardocchi, M.; Boltruczyk, G.; Broslawski, A.; Cremona, A.; Croci, G.; Gosk, M.; Kiptily, V.; Korolczuk, S.; Mazzocco, M.; Muraro, A.; Strano, E.; Zychor, I.; Gorini, G.

    2016-11-01

    Gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements at MHz counting rates have been carried out, for the first time, with a compact spectrometer based on a LaBr3 scintillator and silicon photomultipliers. The instrument, which is also insensitive to magnetic fields, has been developed in view of the upgrade of the gamma-ray camera diagnostic for α particle measurements in deuterium-tritium plasmas of the Joint European Torus. Spectra were measured up to 2.9 MHz with a projected energy resolution of 3%-4% in the 3-5 MeV range, of interest for fast ion physics studies in fusion plasmas. The results reported here pave the way to first time measurements of the confined α particle profile in high power plasmas of the next deuterium-tritium campaign at the Joint European Torus.

  18. On the time response of background obtained in γ-ray spectroscopy experiments using LaBr3(Ce) detectors with different shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Régis, J.-M.; Dannhoff, M.; Jolie, J.; Müller-Gatermann, C.; Saed-Samii, N.

    2016-03-01

    Employing the γ-γ fast-timing technique with LaBr3(Ce) scintillator detectors allows the direct determination of lifetimes of nuclear excited states with a lower limit of about 5 ps. This limit is increased as soon as background is present in the coincidence spectra underneath the full-energy peaks of the γ-γ cascade. Our aim was to identify the components of the γ-ray background by systematic γ-γ fast-timing measurements using different types of γ shielding within a large γ-ray spectrometer. The energy dependent physical zero-time response was measured using background-free full-energy peak events from the 152Eu γ-ray source. This is compared with the time response of the (Compton-) background distribution as obtained using the prompt 60Co γ-ray source. The time response of the typical Compton background is about 15 ps faster than the time response of background-free full-energy peak events. Below about 500 keV, a second type of background contributes by the detection of Compton-scattered γ rays generated in the materials of the spectrometer around the detector. Due to the additional time-of-flight of the Compton-scattered γ rays, this low-energy background is largely delayed. Compared with a bare cylindrical 1.5 in . × 1.5 in . LaBr3(Ce) detector, the BGO-shielded detector in the Compton-suppression mode improves the peak-to-total ratio by a factor of 1.66(5), while the Pb-shielded detector only slightly reduces the low-energy background.

  19. Effects of Down-regulating BMP9 on Proliferation and Migration of Human Breast Cancer SK-BR-3 Cells and Its Possible Mechanism in Simulated Bone Microenvironment in vitro%在体外模拟的骨微环境中下调BMP9对人乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞增殖、迁移的影响及其可能机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莹莹; 王维; 刘月红; 万绍恒; 张志慧; 王婷; 王晋蜀; 张彦

    2013-01-01

    探讨在体外模拟的乳腺癌骨转移微环境中,采用RNAi技术下调骨形态发生蛋白9(bone morphogenetic protein 9,BMP9)基因对人乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞增殖、迁移的影响及可能机制.用Transwell小室将空白组SK-BR-3细胞、感染腺病毒AdRFP的对照组SK-BR-3/RFP细胞、感染腺病毒AdsiBMP9的实验组SK-BR-3/siBMP9细胞分别与人骨髓基质HS-5细胞间接共培养后,MTT增殖实验、划痕愈合实验、Transwell迁移实验分别检测下调BMP9对SK-BR-3细胞增殖、迁移的影响;RT-PCR和Western blot法检测相关因子的变化.结果显示,在共培养体系中,SK-BR-3/siBMP9组的BMP9显著低于对照组(P<0.05);下调BMP9可有效促进SK-BR-3/siBMP9细胞增殖P<0.05),SK-BR-3/siBMP9细胞的划痕愈合率、穿膜细胞数也明显升高(P<0.05); SK-BR-3/siBMP9组血管内皮细胞生长因子(VEGF)、结缔组织生长因子(CTGF) mRNA和蛋白表达均显著上调(P<0.05),且Western blot结果显示p-AKT显著上调(P<0.05).综上,在骨转移微环境中,干扰BMP9表达可促进人乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞增殖及迁移,其作用机制可能与上调VEGF、CTGF表达有关,且这个过程可能涉及PI3K/AKT通路的激活.

  20. BMP9 inhibits proliferation and metastasis of HER2-positive SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells through ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ren

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9, a member of TGF-β superfamily, is reported to inhibit the growth and migration of prostate cancer, osteosarcoma and triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. However, little is known about the effect of on the biological behaviors of HER2-positive SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate the effects of BMP9 on the proliferation and metastasis of SK-BR-3 cells with BMP9 over-expression or BMP9 down-regulated expression. Results indicated that exogenously expressed BMP9 inhibited the proliferation and metastasis of SK-BR-3 cells while decreased endogenous BMP9 expression in SK-BR-3 cells promoted the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In SK-BR-3 cells with BMP9 over-expression, the phosphorylation of HER2, ERK1/2 and AKT was markedly suppressed and the HER2 expression decreased at both mRNA and protein levels, while opposite results were observed in SK-BR-3 cells with BMP9 knock down. When the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT was inhibited by PD98059 and LY294002, respectively, the decreased proliferation and invasion induced by BMP9 knock down were eliminated. These findings suggest that BMP9 can inhibit the proliferation and metastasis of SK-BR-3 cells via inactivating ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. Thus, BMP9 may serve as a useful agent in the treatment of HER-2 positive breast cancer.

  1. BMP9 inhibits proliferation and metastasis of HER2-positive SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells through ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei; Liu, Yuehong; Wan, Shaoheng; Fei, Chang; Wang, Wei; Chen, Yingying; Zhang, Zhihui; Wang, Ting; Wang, Jinshu; Zhou, Lan; Weng, Yaguang; He, Tongchuan; Zhang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9), a member of TGF-β superfamily, is reported to inhibit the growth and migration of prostate cancer, osteosarcoma and triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. However, little is known about the effect of on the biological behaviors of HER2-positive SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate the effects of BMP9 on the proliferation and metastasis of SK-BR-3 cells with BMP9 over-expression or BMP9 down-regulated expression. Results indicated that exogenously expressed BMP9 inhibited the proliferation and metastasis of SK-BR-3 cells while decreased endogenous BMP9 expression in SK-BR-3 cells promoted the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In SK-BR-3 cells with BMP9 over-expression, the phosphorylation of HER2, ERK1/2 and AKT was markedly suppressed and the HER2 expression decreased at both mRNA and protein levels, while opposite results were observed in SK-BR-3 cells with BMP9 knock down. When the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT was inhibited by PD98059 and LY294002, respectively, the decreased proliferation and invasion induced by BMP9 knock down were eliminated. These findings suggest that BMP9 can inhibit the proliferation and metastasis of SK-BR-3 cells via inactivating ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. Thus, BMP9 may serve as a useful agent in the treatment of HER-2 positive breast cancer.

  2. 慢病毒介导下干涉酪氨酸激酶B表达对乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞增殖的影响%Impact of lentivirus-mediated knockdown of tyrosine kinase B on proliferation of breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵庆丽; 赵易; 秦芬武; 马骥; 乔如丽; 任晖; 蔡黔

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the impact of lentivirus-mediated knockdown of tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) on the proliferation of breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3 and its the mechanisms.Methods TrkB expression in 4 breast cancer cell lines including MCF-7,BCAP-37,SK-BR-3 and MDA-MB231 were measured and the cell line with relatively high TrkB expression was selected for interference of TrkB using lentivirus infection.The Lv-sh-TrkB cell line with stable interference of TrkB was confirmed by Western blot assay detection; in addition,the Lv-scramble cell line was also built.The four methyl tetrazolium (MTT) method and flow cytometry assays detection were used to assess the proliferation and cell cycle changes.Results Expression level of TrkB in SK-BR-3 cell line was higher than that of other cell lines,and it was used to construct the Lv-sh-TrkB cell line with stable interference of TrkB.Western blot assay showed that TrkB of Lv-sh-TrkB was significantly reduced compared with that of control and Lv-scramble cell line.MTT assay showed that the cell proliferation of Lv-sh-TrkB cell line was significantly slower than that of control and Lv-scramble cell line (P < 0.05).Flow cytometry assays showed that G1 phase arrest occurred in Lv-sh-TrkB cell line (Lv-sh-TrkB cell line G1 phase 78%,control cell line G1 phase 61%,Lv-scramble cell line G1 phase 62%).Conclusion The proliferation of breast cancer cell SK-BR-3 is significantly inhibited and the cell cycle G1 phase arrest is induced by interference of TrkB gene.%目的 探讨慢病毒介导下干涉酪氨酸激酶B(TrkB)表达对乳腺癌细胞SK-BR-3增殖的影响及其作用机制.方法 对MCF-7、BCAP-37、SK-BR-3和MDA-MB231乳腺癌细胞进行筛选,选取TrkB表达水平相对较高的细胞进行慢病毒感染以干涉TrkB表达,构建稳定干涉TrkB的乳腺癌细胞系Lv-sh-TrkB,通过蛋白质印迹(Western blot)实验检测TrkB干涉效果,同时构建乱序干涉细胞系Lv-scramble.采用噻唑蓝方法、流

  3. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2001-04-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  4. Reactor safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    1962-01-01

    Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor

  5. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  6. Activation of retinoic acid receptor alpha is sufficient for full induction of retinoid responses in SK-BR-3 and T47D human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S M; Offterdinger, M; Huber, H; Grunt, T W

    2000-10-01

    Retinoid signaling via retinoic acid (RA) and retinoid X receptors (RARs and RXRs) regulates mammary epithelial cell growth and differentiation. Loss of RAR-beta might represent an early event during breast carcinogenesis. Higher differentiated, estrogen-dependent, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (ER+) mammary carcinoma cells have been found to contain relatively high levels of RAR-alpha and to be responsive to retinoids, whereas most undifferentiated, estrogen-independent, ER-negative (ER-) cells are characterized by low RAR-alpha expression and by retinoid resistance. In contrast, RAR-gamma is detectable at equal levels in both ER+ and ER- cells. In the present investigation, we directly examined the relative contribution of the distinct retinoid receptors to the retinoid response of breast cancer cells by comparing the effects of low concentrations of specific retinoids, which selectively activate individual receptor subtypes, on growth, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, and on the autoregulation of RAR-alpha and RAR-gamma in ER- SK-BR-3 and ER+ T47D breast cancer cells. In vitro growth activity was determined by using a colorimetric cell viability assay and analysis of cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis was performed by flow cytometry of propidium iodide-stained or fluorescent Annexin V-labeled cells, respectively, whereas expression of RAR-alpha and RAR-gamma was determined by Northern blotting. Both cell lines are retinoid sensitive and express high amounts of RAR-alpha, RAR-gamma, and RXR-alpha. RAR-alpha-selective compounds (AM80 and AM580) inhibit cell growth, induce G1 arrest, stimulate apoptosis, and up-regulate RAR-alpha and RAR-gamma mRNA as efficiently as RAR/RXR-pan-reactive (9-cis RA) and RAR-pan-reactive retinoids (all-trans RA, TTNPB). Remarkably, an RAR-alpha antagonist (Ro 41-5253) not only blocks the RAR-alpha-selective agonists but also the pan-reactive compounds. In contrast, RAR-13-selective (CD417), RAR-gamma-selective (CD437/AHPN

  7. Decreased expression of BRCA1 in SK-BR-3 cells is the result of aberrant activation of the GABP Beta promoter by an NRF-1-containing complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacDonald Gwen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BRCA1 has recently been identified as a potential regulator of mammary stem/progenitor cell differentiation, and this function may explain the high prevalence of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers, as well as the downregulation of BRCA1 in a large proportion of sporadic breast cancers. That is, loss of BRCA1 function results in blocked differentiation with expansion of the mammary stem/progenitor cells. Because BRCA1 also maintains genomic integrity, its loss could produce a pool of genetically unstable stem/progenitor cells that are prime targets for further transforming events. Thus, elucidating the regulatory mechanisms of BRCA1 expression is important to our understanding of normal and malignant breast differentiation. Results Loss of BRCA1 expression in the ErbB2-amplified SK-BR-3 cell line was found to be the result of loss of activity of the ets transcription factor GABP, a previously characterized regulator of BRCA1 transcription. The expression of the non-DNA binding GABPβ subunit was shown to be deficient, while the DNA binding subunit, GABPα was rendered unstable by the absence of GABPβ. Deletion analysis of the GABPβ proximal promoter identified a potential NRF-1 binding site as being critical for expression. Supershift analysis, the binding of recombinant protein and chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed the role of NRF-1 in regulating the expression of GABPβ. The siRNA knockdown of NRF-1 resulted in decreased GABPβ and BRCA1 expression in MCF-7 cells indicating that they form a transcriptional network. NRF-1 levels and activity did not differ between SK-BR-3 and MCF-7 cells, however the NRF-1 containing complex on the GABPβ promoter differed between the two lines and appears to be the result of altered coactivator binding. Conclusions Both NRF-1 and GABP have been linked to the regulation of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins, and the results of this study suggest their expression is

  8. Influence of MTDH gene down regulation on proliferation and apoptosis of human breast cancer SK-BR 3 cells%转移粘附基因下调对乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞增殖和凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜成; 刘兆喆; 丁震宇; 郭放; 马东初; 谢晓冬

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate if down regulation of MTDH could inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in breast cancer SK-BR-3 cells.Methods RNA interference was employed to reduce MTDH expression in human breast cancer SK-BR-3 cells.Western blot assay was applied to measure the down regulation of MTDH.MTT assay was performed to assess the proliferation of SK-BR-3 cell.Flow cytometry was employed to detect cell cycle and apoptosis.Western blot assay was applied to detect the molecular alterations that was associated with cell proliferation,cell cycle and apoptosis.Results MTDH down regulation significantly inhibited cell proliferation.48 hours and 72 hours after trasnfection,the absorbance value(A value)in blank control,negative control and treatment group was (2.0 ± 0.1) vs (1.9 ± 0.3) vs (0.9 ± 0.1) (P =0.02) and (2.7 ± 0.2) vs (2.5 ± 0.4) vs (1.3 ± 0.2) (P =0.008).MTDH down regulation resulted in accumulation of the G0/G1 phase cells and reduction of S and G2/M phase cells.Moreover,MTDH down regulation significantly induced cell apoptosis.The cell apoptosis rate in blank control,negative control and trial group was (1.3 ± 0.2) %,(1.4 ± 0.3) % and (19.6 ± 2.7) % (P =0.012).MTDH down regulation resulted in a decreased expression of cyclinD1 and Bcl-2,an increased expression of P21 and the activation of caspase-3.Conclusions Reduced MTDH expression in SKBR-3 cells can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis,which may be associated with decreased expression of cyclinD1 and Bcl-2,an increased expression of P21 and the activation of caspase-3.%目的 探讨转移粘附基因(metadherin,MTDH)表达下调对乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞增殖和凋亡的影响及可能的机制.方法 采用RNA干扰技术,下调乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞MTDH基因的表达,Western blot实验验证MTDH表达下调.四甲基偶氮唑盐比色法(methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium,MTT)实验检测MTDH下调对SK-BR-3细胞增殖的影响,流式细胞术检测细

  9. BMP9 Inhibits Proliferation and Metastasis of HER2-Positive SK-BR-3 Breast Cancer Cells through ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Ren; Yuehong Liu; Shaoheng Wan; Chang Fei; Wei Wang; Yingying Chen; Zhihui Zhang; Ting Wang; Jinshu Wang; Lan Zhou; Yaguang Weng; Tongchuan He; Yan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9), a member of TGF-β superfamily, is reported to inhibit the growth and migration of prostate cancer, osteosarcoma and triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. However, little is known about the effect of on the biological behaviors of HER2-positive SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate the effects of BMP9 on the proliferation and metastasis of SK-BR-3 cells with BMP9 over-expression or BMP9 down-reg...

  10. Biological functions of the nude mice subcutaneous tumor established by MDA-MB-468 and SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells%MDA-MB-468和SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞建立裸鼠皮下种植瘤的生物学功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵期康; 吴颖; 莫雪丽; 熊兵红

    2015-01-01

    目的 建立SK-BR-3和MDA-MB-468裸鼠皮下种植瘤模型,观察两种乳腺癌细胞株在建立裸鼠皮下移植瘤中的成瘤性和生物学与形态学特征.探讨阿霉素缓释剂对两种乳腺癌细胞裸鼠皮下种植瘤的生物学功能的影响.方法 将80只裸小鼠随机分为MDA-MB-468组和SK-BR-3组,MDA-MB-468组小鼠皮下注射乳腺癌MDA-MB-468细胞株,SK-BR-3组小鼠皮下注射乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞株,每组40只.选取一半数量的小鼠,采用皮下注射法将细胞种植在裸鼠右侧腹股沟区,每天注射1次,连续注射4周后处死裸鼠,剥离瘤体,计算两组裸鼠皮下肿瘤的体积抑瘤率,取出两组小鼠模型中另一半小鼠,将阿霉素缓制剂注入两组小鼠模型皮下肿瘤旁,4周后处死两组小鼠,剥离瘤体,测量肿瘤大小.采用原位缺口末端标记法(TUNEL)法检测两组小鼠瘤体组织中肿瘤细胞的凋亡指数,观察阿霉素对两组乳腺癌细胞周期和凋亡的影响.结果 (1)肿瘤生长:至第8周时,两组小鼠肿瘤的体积分别为(3.212±0.151)和(2.924 ±0.316) cm3,两组间差异有统计学意义(t=2.758,P<0.05).(2)注射阿霉素后肿瘤体积抑制率结果:两组乳腺癌小鼠模型注射阿霉素缓释剂后,皮下瘤体停止生长并逐渐缩小,两组肿瘤体积差异有统计学意义(x2=2.53,P<0.05).(3)阿霉素对两组细胞周期和凋亡的影响:阿霉素使两组细胞生长阻滞在G0/G1期.阿霉素可显著引起MDA-MB-468细胞凋亡,最大凋亡率达62.5%.阿霉素处理SK-BR-3细胞后,亦可引起较明显的细胞凋亡,最大凋亡率可达53.8%.结论 成功制备两种乳腺癌转移瘤小鼠模型,同时制备阿霉素缓释剂,证实了其在乳腺癌转移瘤小鼠模型中抑制肿瘤生长的良好疗效.%Objective To establish the tumor models of SK-BR-3 and MDA-MB-468 in subcutaneous xenograft,observe the two breast cancer cell lines in the establishment of tumor and the biological and morphological

  11. Reactor Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Soo-Bong Kim; Thierry Lasserre; Yifang Wang

    2013-01-01

    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments. Short-baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and their interest has been recently revived by the discovery of the reactor antineutrino anomaly, a discrepancy between the reactor neutrino flux state of the art prediction and the measurements at baselines shorter than one kilometer. Middle and long-baseline oscillation experiments at Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO provided very ...

  12. Cellular uptake and retention measurements of alkylphosphocholines in the SK-BR-3 breast cancer and Molt-4 leukemia cell line using capillary gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochez, V; Van Heuverswyn, D; Diniz, J A; De Potter, C R; Van den Eeckhout, E G

    1999-05-01

    The determination of cellular content of octadecylphosphocholine (D-19391) and hexadecylphosphocholine (HePC, D-18506), two anticancer agents of the alkylphosphocholine group, using capillary gas chromatography is described. The compounds' cytotoxicity was first determined by the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium] assay, being indicative for the concentration used in the uptake and retention measurements. D-19391 was added to the SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell line and HePC to the Molt-4 leukemia cell line in concentrations of, respectively, 18.6 and 15.0 microM, during a 36-h incubation period at 37 degrees C, 5% CO2. HePC uptake in the leukemia cells was followed by a 24-h reversibility test in drug-free medium. Subsequently, sample clean-up was performed on a weak cation-exchange column. For the quantitative analysis, HePC was used as internal standard for the D-19391 measurements and vice versa. Derivatization of the samples with trimethylsilylbromide was followed by capillary gas chromatographic analysis. From these data we conclude that our uptake results are quite similar with those of a previous study of HePC cellular uptake in the more resistant Caco-2T colon cancer cell line. Without having investigated the mechanism that underlies the cellular uptake results obtained, our study points to no direct correlation between the compounds' cellular uptake and their cytotoxic effects.

  13. Characterization of Large Volume 3.5″ x 8″ LaBr3:Ce Detectors for the HECTOR+ array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camera F.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A selection of the properties of large volume, cylindrical 3.5” x 8” LaBr3:Ce scintillation detectors coupled to a 3.5” PMT (model R10233-1000SEL from HAMAMATSU and a special designed Voltage Divider (LABRVD will be discussed. A number of 10 of such detectors constitute the HECTOR+ array which, in fall 2012, measured at GSI coupled to the AGATA DEMOSTRATOR at the PRESPEC experimental setup. These crystals are among the largest ever produced and needed to be characterized. We have performed several tests and here we discuss, in particular, the energy resolution measured using monochromatic γ−ray sources and in-beam reactions producing γ−rays up to 22.6 MeV. As already measured in two previous works a saturation in the energy resolution was observed in case of high energy gamma rays. Crystal non-homogeneities and PMT gain drifts can affect the resolution of measurements especially in case of high energy γ−rays.

  14. Characterization of Large Volume 3.5″ x 8″ LaBr3:Ce Detectors for the HECTOR+ array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camera, F.; Giaz, A.; Pellegri, L.; Riboldi, S.; Blasi, N.; Boiano, C.; Bracco, A.; Brambilla, S.; Ceruti, S.; Coelli, S.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Csatlòs, M.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Gulyàs, J.; Lodetti, S.; Frega, S.; Miani, A.; Million, B.; Stuhl, L.; Wieland, O.

    2014-03-01

    A selection of the properties of large volume, cylindrical 3.5" x 8" LaBr3:Ce scintillation detectors coupled to a 3.5" PMT (model R10233-1000SEL from HAMAMATSU) and a special designed Voltage Divider (LABRVD) will be discussed. A number of 10 of such detectors constitute the HECTOR+ array which, in fall 2012, measured at GSI coupled to the AGATA DEMOSTRATOR at the PRESPEC experimental setup. These crystals are among the largest ever produced and needed to be characterized. We have performed several tests and here we discuss, in particular, the energy resolution measured using monochromatic γ-ray sources and in-beam reactions producing γ-rays up to 22.6 MeV. As already measured in two previous works a saturation in the energy resolution was observed in case of high energy gamma rays. Crystal non-homogeneities and PMT gain drifts can affect the resolution of measurements especially in case of high energy γ-rays.

  15. Imaging performance comparison between a LaBr3: Ce scintillator based and a CdTe semiconductor based photon counting compact gamma camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, P; Mettivier, G; Pani, R; Pellegrini, R; Cinti, M N; Bennati, P

    2009-04-01

    The authors report on the performance of two small field of view, compact gamma cameras working in single photon counting in planar imaging tests at 122 and 140 keV. The first camera is based on a LaBr3: Ce scintillator continuous crystal (49 x 49 x 5 mm3) assembled with a flat panel multianode photomultiplier tube with parallel readout. The second one belongs to the class of semiconductor hybrid pixel detectors, specifically, a CdTe pixel detector (14 x 14 x 1 mm3) with 256 x 256 square pixels and a pitch of 55 microm, read out by a CMOS single photon counting integrated circuit of the Medipix2 series. The scintillation camera was operated with selectable energy window while the CdTe camera was operated with a single low-energy detection threshold of about 20 keV, i.e., without energy discrimination. The detectors were coupled to pinhole or parallel-hole high-resolution collimators. The evaluation of their overall performance in basic imaging tasks is presented through measurements of their detection efficiency, intrinsic spatial resolution, noise, image SNR, and contrast recovery. The scintillation and CdTe cameras showed, respectively, detection efficiencies at 122 keV of 83% and 45%, intrinsic spatial resolutions of 0.9 mm and 75 microm, and total background noises of 40.5 and 1.6 cps. Imaging tests with high-resolution parallel-hole and pinhole collimators are also reported.

  16. Effects of NRP-1 Overexpression on Biological Behaviors of Breast Cancer Cell Lines MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3%NRP-1过表达对乳腺癌细胞MDA-MB-231、SK-BR-3生物学行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦瑾; 徐杰; 王红梅; 杜秀平; 韩正祥

    2016-01-01

    目的 通过上调乳腺癌细胞MDA-MB-231、SK-BR-3中NRP-1的表达,观察NRP-1对细胞增殖、凋亡、迁移及侵袭能力的影响.方法 构建pcDNA3.1-NRP-1表达载体,脂质体介导NRP-1表达质粒转染MDA-MB-231、SK-BR-3细胞,用G418筛选出稳定转染的乳腺癌细胞株.利用RT-qPCR、Western blot法分别检测NRP-1基因mRNA及其蛋白表达;CCK-8法、AnnexinⅤ-APC/7-AAD法、Transwell小室分别检测转染细胞增殖率、凋亡率及侵袭、迁移能力.结果 成功构建pcDNA3.1-NRP-1表达载体,转染MDA-MB-231、SK-BR-3细胞并筛选稳定表达系.与对照组相比,过表达组细胞的NRP-1 mRNA及蛋白表达水平明显升高(均P<0.05);NRP-1过表达组的细胞较对照组增殖率增加、凋亡率降低、侵袭及迁移能力增强(均P<0.05).结论 NRP-1在乳腺癌发展、浸润、转移中起着一定的作用,它可促进乳腺癌细胞增殖、迁移和侵袭,抑制其凋亡.

  17. Fabrication of a dye-sensitized solar cell containing a Mg-doped TiO2 electrode and a Br3(-)/Br- redox mediator with a high open-circuit photovoltage of 1.21 V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakiage, Kenji; Tokutome, Toru; Iwamoto, Shinji; Kyomen, Toru; Hanaya, Minoru

    2013-01-07

    A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) fabricated by using a Mg(2+)-doped anatase-TiO(2) electrode with an alkoxysilyl dye and a Br(3)(-)/Br(-) electrolyte solution exhibited successfully a remarkably high open-circuit photovoltage over 1.2 V, demonstrating a new possibility of DSSCs as practical photovoltaic devices.

  18. CH3 NH3 PbBr3 -CH3 NH3 PbI3 Perovskite-Perovskite Tandem Solar Cells with Exceeding 2.2 V Open Circuit Voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jin Hyuck; Im, Sang Hyuk

    2016-07-01

    Perovskite-perovskite tandem solar cells with open-circuit voltages of over 2.2 V are reported. These cost-effective, solution-processible perovskite hybrid tandem solar cells with high open-circuit voltages are fabricated by the simple lamination of a front planar MAPbBr3 perovskite cell and a back MAPbI3 planar perovskite solar cell.

  19. siRNA INHIBITS Her2/neu EXPRESSION AND CELL PROLIFERATION IN SK-BR-3 CELL LINE%siRNA抑制SK-BR-3细胞株Her2/neu的表达及细胞增殖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋磊; 倪吴花; 吴建波; 李继承

    2005-01-01

    目的研究siRNA(small interfering RNA)对乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞株Her2/neu基因表达的抑制作用,为RNAi技术在肿瘤生物治疗中的应用提供实验基础.方法体外合成两条针对Her2/neu基因的siRNA,转染SKBR-3细胞株;分别应用逆转录聚合酶连反应(RT-PCR)法和流式细胞仪测定Her2/neu基因和蛋白的表达,并用MTT比色法测定细胞的增殖活性,Annexin V检测细胞凋亡. 结果两条siRNA分别使Her2/neu基因表达降低了42.88%、49.27%,蛋白表达降低了25.03%、56.59%.同时转染siRNA后细胞生长受到抑制,并发生细胞凋亡,凋亡率分别为28.51%、42.81%.结论siRNA可以有效抑制SK-BR-3细胞株中Her2/neu的表达,从而抑制细胞生长,并导致细胞凋亡.

  20. Determination of the boron content in polyethylene samples using the reactor Orphée

    CERN Document Server

    Gunsing, F; Aberle, O

    2017-01-01

    The boron content of two unknown types of polyethylene has been determined relative to a known reference type. Samples of polyethylene, including a known boron-less one, were irradiated with thermal neutrons at the reactor Orphée at Saclay in France. Prompt gamma rays were measured with a CeBr$_3$ detector and the intensity of the 478~keV line from $^{10}${B}(n,$\\alpha_1\\gamma$)$^{7}{Li*} was extracted.

  1. Spin-forbidden and spin-enabled 4f(14)-->4f(13)5d(1) transitions of Yb(2+)-doped CsCaBr3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sanz, Goar; Seijo, Luis; Barandiarán, Zoila

    2009-07-14

    The lowest part of the 4f-->5d absorption spectrum of Yb(2+)-doped CsCaBr(3) crystals has been calculated using methods of quantum chemistry and it is presented here. A first, low-intensity band is found on the low energy side of the spectrum, followed by several strong absorption bands, in agreement with experimental observations in trivalent and divalent lanthanide ions of the second half of the lanthanide series, doped in crystals. Based on Hund's rule, these transitions are usually interpreted as "spin-forbidden" and "spin-allowed" transitions, but this interpretation has been recently questioned in the literature. Here, a two-step relativistic method has been used which reveals the spin composition of the excited state wave functions. The forbidden band is found to be due to spin-forbidden transitions involving "high-spin" excited states because their 1 (3)T(1u) character is 90%. However, the allowed bands cannot be described as spin-allowed transitions involving "low-spin" excited states. Rather, they correspond to "spin-enabled" transitions because they get their intensity from limited (smaller than 45%) electric dipole enabling low-spin (1)T(1u) character. Calculations using a spin-free Hamiltonian revealed that the difference in their electronic structures is related to the fact that the 4f(13)5d(t(2g))(1) manifold is split by an energy gap which separates the lowest (high-spin) 1 (3)T(1u) from the rest of terms, which, in turn, lie very close in energy from each other. As a consequence, the lowest spin-orbit components of 1 (3)T(1u) are shown to remain 90% pure when spin-orbit coupling is considered, whereas a strong spin-orbit coupling exists between the remaining 4f(13)5d(t(2g))(1) terms, among which the 1-3 (1)T(1u) enabling ones lie. As a result, there is a widespread electric dipole enabling (1)T(1u) character, which, although never higher than 45%, leads to a number of spin-enabled absorption bands.

  2. Multifunctional reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    Multifunctional reactors are single pieces of equipment in which, besides the reaction, other functions are carried out simultaneously. The other functions can be a heat, mass or momentum transfer operation and even another reaction. Multifunctional reactors are not new, but they have received much

  3. Tandem beta-enamino ester formation and cyclization with o-alkynyl anilines catalyzed by InBr3: efficient synthesis of beta-(N-indolyl)-alpha,beta-unsaturated esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Kenichi; Hayashi, Shoko; Takaichi, Nobuhiro; Kita, Yasuyuki; Fujioka, Hiromichi

    2009-02-06

    A tandem reaction providing beta-(N-indolyl)-alpha,beta-unsaturated esters from beta-keto esters and o-alkynyl anilines was developed. Z-Alkenes were selectively formed due to the stability of the beta-enamino ester as an intermediate of the reaction. This reaction includes the intermolecular beta-enamino ester formation and intramolecular cyclization catalyzed by InBr(3).

  4. Application of ZnO/graphene and S6 aptamers for sensitive photoelectrochemical detection of SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells based on a disposable indium tin oxide device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Jinghua; Wang, Shaowei; Ge, Shenguang; Song, Xianrang

    2014-01-15

    ZnO/graphene (ZnO/G) composite and S6 aptamer were employed to sensitive photoelectrochemical (PEC) strategy for the specific detection of SK-BR-3 cancer cells based on a portable indium tin oxide microdevice. ZnO/G composite was synthesized using a facile ultrasonic method, and then applied to improve the PEC performance due to the unique hollow structure of ZnO naospheres and the superior properties of graphene. Subsequently, S6 aptamer was applied to this specific detection of SK-BR-3 cancer cells. And the concentration of SK-BR-3 cells was measured with a low detection limit of 58 cells mL(-1) and a wide linear range of 1×10(2)-1×10(6) cells mL(-1), through the decrease in photocurrent intensity resulting from the increase in steric hindrances when specifically recognized with S6 aptamers. Excellent discrimination against target and analogous cells was demonstrated, indicating the high selectivity of the proposed cell sensor. Our work also demonstrated a sensitive, stable and low cytotoxicity approach for early and accurate detection of cancer cells.

  5. Reactor vessel

    OpenAIRE

    Makkee, M.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulijn, J.A

    1999-01-01

    A reactor vessel (1) comprises a reactor body (2) through which channels (3) are provided whose surface comprises longitudinal inwardly directed parts (4) and is provided with a catalyst (6), as well as buffer bodies (8, 12) connected to the channels (3) on both sides of the reactor body (2) and comprising connections for supplying (9, 10, 11) and discharging (13, 14, 15) via the channels (3) gases and/or liquids entering into a reaction with each other and substances formed upon this reactio...

  6. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  7. Reactor Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Bong Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments. Short-baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and their interest has been recently revived by the discovery of the reactor antineutrino anomaly, a discrepancy between the reactor neutrino flux state of the art prediction and the measurements at baselines shorter than one kilometer. Middle and long-baseline oscillation experiments at Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO provided very recently the most precise determination of the neutrino mixing angle θ13. This paper provides an overview of the upcoming experiments and of the projects under development, including the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy and the possible use of neutrinos for society, for nonproliferation of nuclear materials, and geophysics.

  8. Chemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  9. Reactor Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Lasserre, T.; Sobel, H.W.

    2005-01-01

    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments, that toe the cutting edge of neutrino research. Short baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and are still searching for important phenomena such as the neutrino magnetic moment. They could open the door to the measurement of coherent neutrino scattering in a near future. Middle and long baseline oscillation experiments at Chooz and KamLAND have played a relevant role in neutrin...

  10. Sonochemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogate, Parag R; Patil, Pankaj N

    2016-10-01

    Sonochemical reactors are based on the generation of cavitational events using ultrasound and offer immense potential for the intensification of physical and chemical processing applications. The present work presents a critical analysis of the underlying mechanisms for intensification, available reactor configurations and overview of the different applications exploited successfully, though mostly at laboratory scales. Guidelines have also been presented for optimum selection of the important operating parameters (frequency and intensity of irradiation, temperature and liquid physicochemical properties) as well as the geometric parameters (type of reactor configuration and the number/position of the transducers) so as to maximize the process intensification benefits. The key areas for future work so as to transform the successful technique at laboratory/pilot scale into commercial technology have also been discussed. Overall, it has been established that there is immense potential for sonochemical reactors for process intensification leading to greener processing and economic benefits. Combined efforts from a wide range of disciplines such as material science, physics, chemistry and chemical engineers are required to harness the benefits at commercial scale operation.

  11. 铀矿γ能谱测井多核素定量特征能量选择最优化计算——基于特定尺寸LaBr3(Ce)单晶的钻孔γ谱探测%Optimization Calculating on Characteristic Energy Selecting for Determining Multi -radionuclide Content in Gamma- ray Spectra- log for Uranium Mine-Detecting Gamma Spectra in Borehole Based on Specified Size LaBr3 (Ce) Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴永鹏; 汤彬; 程建平

    2012-01-01

    Gamma - ray spectra - log technology for uranium mine using a new LaBr3 (Ce) detector can determine contents of multi - radionuclide including uranium. In order to select the best characteristic energy in detecting effect for a target multi -radionuclide, whether a given small size Φ1.5" x2" LaBr3(Ce) crystal can get a higher relative count rate for detecting characteristic energy gamma photons is an important performance parameter. Moreover, it must be taken into account that characteristic energy peaks may overlap and be affected by Compton scattering spectra. The present work establishes a mathematical formula for calculating relative count rate for a given characteristic energy and a mathematical model for numerical modeling characteristic peak detecting efficiency in accordance with practical borehole detecting conditions, and calculates the detecting efficiency and the parameter which is related to relative count rate for candidate characteristic energies. The optimal energies are selected for determining contents of the radionuclide from uranium group, radium group and thorium series under the given detecting condition by comparing the calculating results and combining with gamma spectrum measured from borehole.%采用新型LaBr3 (Ce)探测器的铀矿γ能谱测井可实现天然产状下对铀等多核素的直接定量.为了选择探测效果最优的特征能量,选定的Φ1.5 ×2英寸LaBr3 (Ce)单晶对备选特征能量光子的探测能否获得较高的相对计数率是一个重要指标.此外,还要考虑是否存在重峰情况及受康普顿散射谱的影响程度.基于此,建立计算相对计数率的数学模型以及与实际钻孔探测条件一致的峰探测效率数值模拟计算模型,计算备选各特征能量的峰探测效率,进而求出可表征各分支相对计数率的指标,通过比较并结合实测仪器谱,分别选出了在该探测条件下对铀组、镭组和钍系核素定量分析最合适的特征能量.

  12. 两种培养方法用于乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞克隆形成实验的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张迎; 袁胜利; 姜鹏飞; 邢世超

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察平板克隆形成实验(PCF)和软琼脂克隆形成实验(SACF)用于乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞学研究的价值.方法 接种1×103~6×104个细胞于12.5 cm2培养瓶(设4个平行样本),分别利用PCF和SACF培养,计数形成克隆数、计算克隆形成率.结果 PCF克隆形成率为0.50%~10.64%,其中接种密度≥1.6×103/cm2者细胞间迅速汇合、难以分辨形成的克隆;SACF克隆形成率为0%~0.33%,接种密度<6.4×102/cm2者无克隆形成.PCF克隆形成率显著高于SACF(P<0.05).结论 检测SK-BR-3细胞对药物或其他治疗方式的敏感性时采用PCF优于SACF.

  13. Modular anti-EGFR and anti-Her2 targeting of SK-BR-3 and BT474 breast cancer cell lines in the presence of ErbB receptor-specific growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diermeier-Daucher, Simone; Breindl, Stefanie; Buchholz, Stefan; Ortmann, Olaf; Brockhoff, Gero

    2011-09-01

    Over the last decade, a number of monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors emerged as potent therapeutic agents in the treatment of Her2/neu overexpressing breast cancer. Numerous patients, however, do not adequately respond to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/Her2 receptor targeting. Receptor- and, in turn, growth-stimulating effects, which potentially hamper antiproliferative cell treatment, have barely been investigated. BT474 and SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell lines were treated with Trastuzumab, Pertuzumab, and Lapatinib alone using different combinations and concentrations. Moreover, epidermal growth factor (EGF) or heregulin (HRG) was added to reveal potential growth factor-mediated compensatory effects. Receptor and intracellular signaling were analyzed as a function of cell treatment. Read-out parameters were cell proliferation and apoptosis. BT474 cells were efficiently driven into quiescence by Trastuzumab, but not by Pertuzumab treatment. Simultaneous EGF or HRG administration, however, restored the BT474 cell proliferation capacity. In contrast, neither therapeutic antibody treatment caused a profound inhibition of SK-BR-3 cell-cycle progress. Lapatinib turned out to be the most potent cell-cycle inhibitor in both cell lines even though its impact was significantly abrogated in the presence of EGF and HRG. The compensatory effect of EGF on Lapatinib-induced cell-cycle inhibition was reversed by Trastuzumab as well as by Pertuzumab treatment. Most importantly, HRG-caused compensation of Lapatinib-induced cell-cycle exit was reversed by Pertuzumab but not by Trastuzumab. Apparently, multiple anti-EGFR/Her2 targeting by using Trastuzumab, Pertuzumab, and Lapatinib more efficiently affects receptor function (interaction and activation) and consequently enhances their antiproliferative capacity. Growth inhibition by anticancer drugs targeted to Her/ErbB receptors, however, can be significantly undermined in the presence of EGF and in

  14. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  15. D and DR Reactors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The world's second full-scale nuclear reactor was the D Reactor at Hanford which was built in the early 1940's and went operational in December of 1944.D Reactor ran...

  16. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  17. Inhibition of glucose regulated protein 78 in sensitizing adriamycin-induced apoptosis of human breast cancer cells%抑制葡萄糖调节蛋白78表达对阿霉素诱导人乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞凋亡的增敏作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宏莉; 龚萍; 刘浩; 张旭东; 蒋志文

    2010-01-01

    目的:探讨特异性下调葡萄糖调节蛋白78(GRP78)对阿霉素(adriamycin,ADR)诱导人乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞凋亡的影响,以期为乳腺癌化疗提供新的靶点.方法:培养人乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞,用ADR(1 mg/L)处理人乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞0、6、12、24、36 h,Western blot检测GRP78的表达;ADR处理SK-BR-3细胞48 h后,用溴化丙啶染色测定细胞凋亡率;用小分子干扰RNA siRNA预处理SK-BR-3细胞,再予ADR同上处理,检测细胞凋亡率,比较siRNA作用前后细胞凋亡率的变化.结果:ADR可诱导内质网应激,上调GRP78的表达,SK-BR-3细胞对ADR诱导的细胞凋亡率<30%;siRNA可明显阻断GRP78的表达,显著增加ADR诱导的细胞凋亡作用,凋亡率达到(62.30±0.88)%(P<0.01).结论:抑制GRP78的表达可增强人乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞对ADR经内质网应激途径诱导细胞凋亡的敏感性,促进肿瘤细胞的凋亡,增强其抗肿瘤作用.

  18. Reactor and method of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, John A.

    1976-08-10

    A nuclear reactor having a flattened reactor activity curve across the reactor includes fuel extending over a lesser portion of the fuel channels in the central portion of the reactor than in the remainder of the reactor.

  19. International Conference on Harmonisation; Electronic Transmission of Postmarket Individual Case Safety Reports for Drugs and Biologics, Excluding Vaccines; Availability of Food and Drug Administration Regional Implementation Specifications for ICH E2B(R3) Reporting to the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System. Notice of Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of its FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) Regional Implementation Specifications for the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) E2B(R3) Specification. FDA is making this technical specifications document available to assist interested parties in electronically submitting individual case safety reports (ICSRs) (and ICSR attachments) to the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) and the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER). This document, entitled "FDA Regional Implementation Specifications for ICH E2B(R3) Implementation: Postmarket Submission of Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSRs) for Drugs and Biologics, Excluding Vaccines" supplements the "E2B(R3) Electronic Transmission of Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSRs) Implementation Guide--Data Elements and Message Specification" final guidance for industry and describes FDA's technical approach for receiving ICSRs, for incorporating regionally controlled terminology, and for adding region-specific data elements when reporting to FAERS.

  20. 溴化镧探测器在伽马测井应用中的MC研究%Monte Carlo Study of LaBr3 Detector in the Application of Gamma-ray Logging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张硕; 汤彬

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the different energy spectrum stimulated by Monte Carlo method of 1.76MeV gamma-ray,which penetrating the tube of the detector of different materials and different sizes of LaBr3 crystal.The full energy peak efficiency can't be effectively increased using Be or Magnesium alloy as detector tube compared with steel material,while photo-fraction can be effectively increased when increasing the crystal volume by analyzing the photo-fraction.%本文利用蒙特卡罗方法模拟实际测井过程,模拟地层中1.76MeV伽马射线经过几种不同材料探管以及不同尺寸溴化镧晶体的能谱。通过分析峰总比可以看出,用铍、镁铝合金作为溴化镧探测器探管并不能够有效地提高全能峰计数率,增大溴化镧晶体体积,能够有效提高峰总比。

  1. Reactor Physics Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Raedt, C

    2000-07-01

    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies.

  2. Ionic pathway studies in fragmentation of the core-excited (CH sub 3) sub 3 SiBr molecule involving the Br(3d) and Si(2p) inner-shells in the range of 60-133 eV

    CERN Document Server

    Boo, B H

    2003-01-01

    Dissociative multiple photoionization of bromotrimethylsilane [(CH sub 3) sub 3 SiBr] has been probed in the valence, the Br(3d), and the Si(2p) core-level photoexcitation/photoionization regions by time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry and photoion-photoion coincidence (PIPICO) method together with linearly polarized synchrotron radiation. The inner-shell photoionization spectra are dominated by a huge resonance attributed to the diffusion of the outgoing photoelectrons by the centrifugal barrier for the Br(3d sup 9 epsilon f) outgoing channel. In addition to the giant resonance, discrete photoabsorption bands below the Br(3d sub 5 sub / sub 2) and Si(2p sub 3 sub / sub 2) thresholds have been observed in both the total photoion and PIPICO yield spectra. In the valence excitation/ionization region, single ionization leading to the formation of C sub n H sub p SiBr sup + (n=0-3), C sub n H sub p Si sup + (n=0-3), and CH sub 3 sup + prevails. Above the Br(3d) threshold including the Si(2p) region, however, de...

  3. Apigenin causes G(2)/M arrest associated with the modulation of p21(Cip1) and Cdc2 and activates p53-dependent apoptosis pathway in human breast cancer SK-BR-3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Jeong; Kim, Gun-Hee

    2009-04-01

    We studied the effects of apigenin on the cell cycle distribution and apoptosis of human breast cancer cells and explored the mechanisms underlying these effects. We first investigated the antiproliferative effects in SK-BR-3 cells exposed to between 1 and 100 microM apigenin for 24, 48 and 72 h. Apigenin significantly inhibited cell proliferation at concentrations over 50 microM, regardless of exposure time (P<.05), and resulted in significant cell cycle arrest in the G(2)/M phase after 48 h of treatment at high concentrations (50 and 100 microM; P<.05). To investigate the regulatory proteins of cell cycle arrest affected by apigenin, we treated cells with 50 and 100 microM apigenin for 72 h. Apigenin caused a slight decrease in cyclin D and cyclin E expression, with no change in CDK2 and CDK4. In addition, the apigenin-induced accumulation of the cell population in the G(2)/M phase resulted in a decrease in CDK1 together with cyclin A and cyclin B. In an additional study, apigenin also increased the accumulation of p53 and further enhanced the level of p21(Cip1), with no change in p27(Kip1). The expression of Bax and cytochrome c of p53 downstream target was increased markedly at high concentration treatment over 50 microM apigenin. Based on our findings, the mechanism by which apigenin causes cell cycle arrest via the regulation of CDK1 and p21(Cip1) and induction of apoptosis seems to be involved in the p53-dependent pathway.

  4. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Hiroto

    1995-02-07

    A reactor container of the present invention has a structure that the reactor container is entirely at the same temperature as that at the inlet of the reactor and, a hot pool is incorporated therein, and the reactor container has is entirely at the same temperature and has substantially uniform temperature follow-up property transiently. Namely, if the temperature at the inlet of the reactor core changes, the temperature of the entire reactor container changes following this change, but no great temperature gradient is caused in the axial direction and no great heat stresses due to axial temperature distribution is caused. Occurrence of thermal stresses caused by the axial temperature distribution can be suppressed to improve the reliability of the reactor container. In addition, since the laying of the reactor inlet pipelines over the inside of the reactor is eliminated, the reactor container is made compact and the heat shielding structures above the reactor and a protection structure of container walls are simplified. Further, secondary coolants are filled to the outside of the reactor container to simplify the shieldings. The combined effects described above can improve economical property and reliability. (N.H.).

  5. Light water reactor safety

    CERN Document Server

    Pershagen, B

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the principles and practices of reactor safety as applied to the design, regulation and operation of light water reactors, combining a historical approach with an up-to-date account of the safety, technology and operating experience of both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. The introductory chapters set out the basic facts upon which the safety of light water reactors depend. The central section is devoted to the methods and results of safety analysis. The accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl are reviewed and their implications for light wate

  6. Nuclear reactor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering. Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide, and new power reactors with improved fuel cycles are being developed. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. The second edition of this successful comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics has been completely updated, revised and enlarged to include the latest developme

  7. Spinning fluids reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  8. Reactor Vessel Surveillance Program for Advanced Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Gyu-Mahn; Kim, Jong-Wook; Park, Keun-Bae; Kim, Keung-Koo

    2008-10-15

    This report provides the design requirements of an integral type reactor vessel surveillance program for an integral type reactor in accordance with the requirements of Korean MEST (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Development) Notice 2008-18. This report covers the requirements for the design of surveillance capsule assemblies including their test specimens, test block materials, handling tools, and monitors of the surveillance capsule neutron fluence and temperature. In addition, this report provides design requirements for the program for irradiation surveillance of reactor vessel materials, a layout of specimens and monitors in the surveillance capsule, procedures of installation and retrieval of the surveillance capsule assemblies, and the layout of the surveillance capsule assemblies in the reactor.

  9. SNTP program reactor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Lewis A.; Sapyta, Joseph J.

    1993-06-01

    The Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program is evaluating the feasibility of a particle bed reactor for a high-performance nuclear thermal rocket engine. Reactors operating between 500 MW and 2,000 MW will produce engine thrusts ranging from 20,000 pounds to 80,000 pounds. The optimum reactor arrangement depends on the power level desired and the intended application. The key components of the reactor have been developed and are being tested. Flow-to-power matching considerations dominate the thermal-hydraulic design of the reactor. Optimal propellant management during decay heat cooling requires a three-pronged approach. Adequate computational methods exist to perform the neutronics analysis of the reactor core. These methods have been benchmarked to critical experiment data.

  10. Fast Spectrum Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Donald; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Fast Spectrum Reactors presents a detailed overview of world-wide technology contributing to the development of fast spectrum reactors. With a unique focus on the capabilities of fast spectrum reactors to address nuclear waste transmutation issues, in addition to the well-known capabilities of breeding new fuel, this volume describes how fast spectrum reactors contribute to the wide application of nuclear power systems to serve the global nuclear renaissance while minimizing nuclear proliferation concerns. Readers will find an introduction to the sustainable development of nuclear energy and the role of fast reactors, in addition to an economic analysis of nuclear reactors. A section devoted to neutronics offers the current trends in nuclear design, such as performance parameters and the optimization of advanced power systems. The latest findings on fuel management, partitioning and transmutation include the physics, efficiency and strategies of transmutation, homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling, in addit...

  11. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-09-09

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  12. Multi purpose research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raina, V.K. [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)]. E-mail: vkrain@magnum.barc.ernet.in; Sasidharan, K. [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sengupta, Samiran [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Singh, Tej [Research Reactor Services Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2006-04-15

    At present Dhruva and Cirus reactors provide the majority of research reactor based facilities to cater to the various needs of a vast pool of researchers in the field of material sciences, physics, chemistry, bio sciences, research and development work for nuclear power plants and production of radio isotopes. With a view to further consolidate and expand the scope of research and development in nuclear and allied sciences, a new 20 MWt multi purpose research reactor is being designed. This paper describes some of the design features and safety aspects of this reactor.

  13. INVAP's Research Reactor Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Villarino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INVAP, an Argentine company founded more than three decades ago, is today recognized as one of the leaders within the research reactor industry. INVAP has participated in several projects covering a wide range of facilities, designed in accordance with the requirements of our different clients. For complying with these requirements, INVAP developed special skills and capabilities to deal with different fuel assemblies, different core cooling systems, and different reactor layouts. This paper summarizes the general features and utilization of several INVAP research reactor designs, from subcritical and critical assemblies to high-power reactors.

  14. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, Mitsuru

    1997-04-04

    An LMFBR type reactor comprises a plurality of reactor cores in a reactor container. Namely, a plurality of pot containing vessels are disposed in the reactor vessel and a plurality of reactor cores are formed in a state where an integrated-type fuel assembly is each inserted to a pot, and a coolant pipeline is connected to each of the pot containing-vessel to cool the reactor core respectively. When fuels are exchanged, the integrated-type fuel assembly is taken out together with the pot from the reactor vessel in a state where the integrated-type fuel assembly is immersed in the coolants in the pot as it is. Accordingly, coolants are supplied to each of the pot containing-vessel connected with the coolant pipeline and circulate while cooling the integrated-type fuel assembly for every pot. Then, when the fuels are exchanged, the integrated type fuel assembly is taken out to the outside of the reactor together with the pot by taking up the pot from the pot-containing vessel. Then, neutron economy is improved to thereby improve reactor power and the breeding ratio. (N.H.)

  15. HER-2/neu·siRNA表达载体的构建及对人乳腺癌细胞株的影响%Vector construction and silencing effects of siRNA to HER-2/neu gene of human breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万光霞; 林辉; 刘浔阳

    2010-01-01

    目的:探讨siRNA 对人乳腺癌细胞株SK-BR-3 的HER-2/neu基因表达的影响.方法:以HER-2/neu mRNA 序列为模板设计合成2对siRNA 序列,构建pGenesil-1-HER-2/neu siRNA 重组质粒,转化感受态的大肠杆菌,质粒酶切、测序鉴定.转染SK-BR-3 细胞48 h后,提取RNA 进行RT-PCR,采用方差分析(ANOVA),分析RNA 干扰效应.结果:成功构建了pGenesil-1-HER-2/neu siRNA 重组质粒,成功转染SK-BR-3 细胞.重组质粒抑制HER-2/neu基因的表达接近54.45 %( P =0.000).结论: HER-2/neu siRNA 重组质粒明显下调HER-2/neu 基因在乳腺癌细胞中的表达.

  16. Light water reactor program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franks, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s Light Water Reactor Program is outlined. The scope of the program consists of: design certification of evolutionary plants; design, development, and design certification of simplified passive plants; first-of-a-kind engineering to achieve commercial standardization; plant lifetime improvement; and advanced reactor severe accident program. These program activities of the Office of Nuclear Energy are discussed.

  17. Space Nuclear Reactor Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, David Irvin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-06

    We needed to find a space reactor concept that could be attractive to NASA for flight and proven with a rapid turnaround, low-cost nuclear test. Heat-pipe-cooled reactors coupled to Stirling engines long identified as the easiest path to near-term, low-cost concept.

  18. Reactor Materials Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walle, E

    2001-04-01

    The activities of the Reactor Materials Research Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) fusion, in particular mechanical testing; (2) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (3) nuclear fuel; and (4) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel (RPVS)

  19. Nuclear reactor design

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on core design and methods for design and analysis. It is based on advances made in nuclear power utilization and computational methods over the past 40 years, covering core design of boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors, as well as fast reactors and high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. The objectives of this book are to help graduate and advanced undergraduate students to understand core design and analysis, and to serve as a background reference for engineers actively working in light water reactors. Methodologies for core design and analysis, together with physical descriptions, are emphasized. The book also covers coupled thermal hydraulic core calculations, plant dynamics, and safety analysis, allowing readers to understand core design in relation to plant control and safety.

  20. Status of French reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballagny, A. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Saclay (France)

    1997-08-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  1. 壳聚糖纳米粒介导人表皮生长因子受体2小干扰RNA抑制乳腺癌细胞迁移%Inhibitory effect of chitosan nanoparticles-mediated HER-2 siRNA on migration of breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永成; 武晓英; 陈晓兰

    2011-01-01

    目的 以壳聚糖纳米粒作为人类表皮生长因子受体2小干扰RNA(HER-2 siRNA)的载体转染人乳腺癌细胞SK-BR-3,观察HER-2沉默对其体外迁移能力的影响.方法 采用离子凝胶法制备壳聚糖-HER-2 siRNA纳米粒,原子力显微镜观察纳米粒的形态.分4组进行转染,分别加入转染试剂壳聚糖-HER-2 siRNA纳米粒(实验组)、LipofectamineTM 2000和HER-2 siRNA(阳性对照组)、壳聚糖-阴性对照siRNA纳米粒(阴性对照组)和空白壳聚糖纳米粒(空白组).一步法逆转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)和Western blot鉴定HER-2在SK-BR-3细胞中的表达变化.Transwell小室法检测HER-2 siRNA对细胞体外迁移能力的影响.统计分析采用单因素方差分析、K-W H秩和检验.结果 成功制备了壳聚糖-siRNA纳米粒,呈球形,大小约100 nm.实验组能有效抑制HER-2 mRNA和蛋白的表达以及SK-BR-3细胞的体外迁移能力,与阴性对照组和空白组相比差异有显著的统计学意义(P均=0.000).结论 壳聚糖纳米粒介导的HER-2 siRNA能有效抑制人乳腺癌细胞SK-BR-3中HER-2的表达及其体外迁移能力.%Objective To investigate the effect of chitosan nanoparticles loaded with small interference RNA ( siRNA ) of HER-2( human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 )on in vitro migratory activity of SK-BR-3 cells from a human breast carcinoma cell line. Methods Chitosan-siRNA nanoparticle targeting HER-2 Mrna was prepared by ionic gelation using tripolyphosphate, and the morphology of the nanoparticles was observed with atomic force microscope. The transfected SK-BR-3 cells were divided into 4 groups: the experimental group, which was transfected with chitosan-HER-2 siRNA nanoparticle, the positive control group, which was transfected with HER-2 siRNA by Lipofectamine? 2000, the negative control group, which was transfected with chitosan-negative control siRNA nanoparticle, and the blank group, which was transfected with blank chitosan-nanoparticle. The

  2. Slurry reactor design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Akgerman, A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA)); Smith, J.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  3. Gas cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-06-01

    Although most of the development work on fast breeder reactors has been devoted to the use of liquid metal cooling, interest has been expressed for a number of years in alternative breeder concepts using other coolants. One of a number of concepts in which interest has been retained is the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR). As presently envisioned, it would operate on the uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel cycle, similar to that used in the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR), and would use helium gas as the coolant.

  4. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, Ralph G [Champaign, IL; Mitrovski, Svetlana M [Urbana, IL

    2011-03-22

    A microfluidic electrochemical reactor includes an electrode and one or more microfluidic channels on the electrode, where the microfluidic channels are covered with a membrane containing a gas permeable polymer. The distance between the electrode and the membrane is less than 500 micrometers. The microfluidic electrochemical reactor can provide for increased reaction rates in electrochemical reactions using a gaseous reactant, as compared to conventional electrochemical cells. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors can be incorporated into devices for applications such as fuel cells, electrochemical analysis, microfluidic actuation, pH gradient formation.

  5. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  6. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2001-04-01

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is still one of SCK-CEN's important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. During the last three years, the availability of the installation was maintained at an average level of 97.6 percent. In the year 2000, the reactor was operated for a total of 104 days at a mean power of 56 MW. In 2000, most irradiation experiments were performed in the CALLISTO PWR loop. The report describes irradiations achieved or under preparation in 2000, including the development of advanced facilities and concept studies for new programmes. An overview of the scientific irradiation programmes as well as of the R and D programme of the BR2 reactor in 2000 is given.

  7. Reactor Neutrino Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, A C

    2016-01-01

    We present a review of the antineutrino spectra emitted from reactors. Knowledge of these and their associated uncertainties are crucial for neutrino oscillation studies. The spectra used to-date have been determined by either conversion of measured electron spectra to antineutrino spectra or by summing over all of the thousands of transitions that makeup the spectra using modern databases as input. The uncertainties in the subdominant corrections to beta-decay plague both methods, and we provide estimates of these uncertainties. Improving on current knowledge of the antineutrino spectra from reactors will require new experiments. Such experiments would also address the so-called reactor neutrino anomaly and the possible origin of the shoulder observed in the antineutrino spectra measured in recent high-statistics reactor neutrino experiments.

  8. New reactor type proposed

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Russian scientists at the Research Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering in Moscow are hoping to develop a new reactor that will use lead and bismuth as fuel instead of uranium and plutonium" (1/2 page).

  9. Helias reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beidler, C.D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Grieger, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Harmeyer, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Kisslinger, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Karulin, N. [Nuclear Fusion Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Maurer, W. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany); Nuehrenberg, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Rau, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Sapper, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Wobig, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    1995-10-01

    The present status of Helias reactor studies is characterised by the identification and investigation of specific issues which result from the particular properties of this type of stellarator. On the technical side these are issues related to the coil system, while physics studies have concentrated on confinement, alpha-particle behaviour and ignition conditions. The usual assumptions have been made in those fields which are common to all toroidal fusion reactors: blanket and shield, refuelling and exhaust, safety and economic aspects. For blanket and shield sufficient space has been provided, a detailed concept will be developed in future. To date more emphasis has been placed on scoping and parameter studies as opposed to fixing a specific set of parameters and providing a detailed point study. One result of the Helias reactor studies is that physical dimensions are on the same order as those of tokamak reactors. However, it should be noticed that this comparison is difficult in view of the large spectrum of tokamak reactors ranging from a small reactor like Aries, to a large device such as SEAFP. The notion that the large aspect ratio of 10 or more in Helias configurations also leads to large reactors is misleading, since the large major radius of 22 m is compensated by the average plasma radius of 1.8 m and the average coil radius of 5 m. The plasma volume of 1400 m{sup 3} is about the same as the ITER reactor and the magnetic energy of the coil system is about the same or even slightly smaller than envisaged in ITER. (orig.)

  10. Future Reactor Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    He, Miao

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ opens a gateway for the next generation experiments to measure the neutrino mass hierarchy and the leptonic CP-violating phase. Future reactor experiments will focus on mass hierarchy determination and the precision measurement of mixing parameters. Mass hierarchy can be determined from the disappearance of reactor electron antineutrinos based on the interference effect of two separated oscillation modes. Relative and absolute measure...

  11. Reactor Neutrino Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Jun

    2007-01-01

    Precisely measuring $\\theta_{13}$ is one of the highest priority in neutrino oscillation study. Reactor experiments can cleanly determine $\\theta_{13}$. Past reactor neutrino experiments are reviewed and status of next precision $\\theta_{13}$ experiments are presented. Daya Bay is designed to measure $\\sin^22\\theta_{13}$ to better than 0.01 and Double Chooz and RENO are designed to measure it to 0.02-0.03. All are heading to full operation in 2010. Recent improvements in neutrino moment measu...

  12. Department of Reactor Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde

    The general development of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risø during 1981 is presented, and the activities within the major subject fields are described in some detail. Lists of staff, publications, and computer programs are included.......The general development of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risø during 1981 is presented, and the activities within the major subject fields are described in some detail. Lists of staff, publications, and computer programs are included....

  13. Moon base reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, H.; Flores, J.; Nguyen, M.; Carsen, K.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of our reactor design is to supply a lunar-based research facility with 20 MW(e). The fundamental layout of this lunar-based system includes the reactor, power conversion devices, and a radiator. The additional aim of this reactor is a longevity of 12 to 15 years. The reactor is a liquid metal fast breeder that has a breeding ratio very close to 1.0. The geometry of the core is cylindrical. The metallic fuel rods are of beryllium oxide enriched with varying degrees of uranium, with a beryllium core reflector. The liquid metal coolant chosen was natural lithium. After the liquid metal coolant leaves the reactor, it goes directly into the power conversion devices. The power conversion devices are Stirling engines. The heated coolant acts as a hot reservoir to the device. It then enters the radiator to be cooled and reenters the Stirling engine acting as a cold reservoir. The engines' operating fluid is helium, a highly conductive gas. These Stirling engines are hermetically sealed. Although natural lithium produces a lower breeding ratio, it does have a larger temperature range than sodium. It is also corrosive to steel. This is why the container material must be carefully chosen. One option is to use an expensive alloy of cerbium and zirconium. The radiator must be made of a highly conductive material whose melting point temperature is not exceeded in the reactor and whose structural strength can withstand meteor showers.

  14. Reactor Safety Planning for Prometheus Project, for Naval Reactors Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Delmolino

    2005-05-06

    The purpose of this letter is to submit to Naval Reactors the initial plan for the Prometheus project Reactor Safety work. The Prometheus project is currently developing plans for cold physics experiments and reactor prototype tests. These tests and facilities may require safety analysis and siting support. In addition to the ground facilities, the flight reactor units will require unique analyses to evaluate the risk to the public from normal operations and credible accident conditions. This letter outlines major safety documents that will be submitted with estimated deliverable dates. Included in this planning is the reactor servicing documentation and shipping analysis that will be submitted to Naval Reactors.

  15. REACTOR GROUT THERMAL PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimke, J.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Guerrero, H.

    2011-01-28

    Savannah River Site has five dormant nuclear production reactors. Long term disposition will require filling some reactor buildings with grout up to ground level. Portland cement based grout will be used to fill the buildings with the exception of some reactor tanks. Some reactor tanks contain significant quantities of aluminum which could react with Portland cement based grout to form hydrogen. Hydrogen production is a safety concern and gas generation could also compromise the structural integrity of the grout pour. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a non-Portland cement grout to fill reactors that contain significant quantities of aluminum. Grouts generate heat when they set, so the potential exists for large temperature increases in a large pour, which could compromise the integrity of the pour. The primary purpose of the testing reported here was to measure heat of hydration, specific heat, thermal conductivity and density of various reactor grouts under consideration so that these properties could be used to model transient heat transfer for different pouring strategies. A secondary purpose was to make qualitative judgments of grout pourability and hardened strength. Some reactor grout formulations were unacceptable because they generated too much heat, or started setting too fast, or required too long to harden or were too weak. The formulation called 102H had the best combination of characteristics. It is a Calcium Alumino-Sulfate grout that contains Ciment Fondu (calcium aluminate cement), Plaster of Paris (calcium sulfate hemihydrate), sand, Class F fly ash, boric acid and small quantities of additives. This composition afforded about ten hours of working time. Heat release began at 12 hours and was complete by 24 hours. The adiabatic temperature rise was 54 C which was within specification. The final product was hard and displayed no visible segregation. The density and maximum particle size were within specification.

  16. Scaleable, High Efficiency Microchannel Sabatier Reactor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Microchannel Sabatier Reactor System (MSRS) consisting of cross connected arrays of isothermal or graded temperature reactors is proposed. The reactor array...

  17. Embrittlement recovery due to annealing of reactor pressure vessel steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eason, E.D.; Wright, J.E.; Nelson, E.E. [Modeling and Computing Services, Boulder, CO (United States); Odette, G.R.; Mader, E.V. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) can be reduced by thermal annealing at temperatures higher than the normal operating conditions. Although such an annealing process has not been applied to any commercial plants in the United States, one US Army reactor, the BR3 plant in Belgium, and several plants in eastern Europe have been successfully annealed. All available Charpy annealing data were collected and analyzed in this project to develop quantitative models for estimating the recovery in 30 ft-lb (41 J) Charpy transition temperature and Charpy upper shelf energy over a range of potential annealing conditions. Pattern recognition, transformation analysis, residual studies, and the current understanding of the mechanisms involved in the annealing process were used to guide the selection of the most sensitive variables and correlating parameters and to determine the optimal functional forms for fitting the data. The resulting models were fitted by nonlinear least squares. The use of advanced tools, the larger data base now available, and insight from surrogate hardness data produced improved models for quantitative evaluation of the effects of annealing. The quality of models fitted in this project was evaluated by considering both the Charpy annealing data used for fitting and the surrogate hardness data base. The standard errors of the resulting recovery models relative to calibration data are comparable to the uncertainty in unirradiated Charpy data. This work also demonstrates that microhardness recovery is a good surrogate for transition temperature shift recovery and that there is a high level of consistency between the observed annealing trends and fundamental models of embrittlement and recovery processes.

  18. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Takeshi; Iida, Masaaki; Moriki, Yasuyuki

    1994-10-18

    A reactor core is divided into a plurality of coolants flowrate regions, and electromagnetic pumps exclusively used for each of the flowrate regions are disposed to distribute coolants flowrates in the reactor core. Further, the flowrate of each of the electromagnetic pumps is automatically controlled depending on signals from a temperature detector disposed at the exit of the reactor core, so that the flowrate of the region can be controlled optimally depending on the burning of reactor core fuels. Then, the electromagnetic pumps disposed for every divided region are controlled respectively, so that the coolants flowrate distribution suitable to each of the regions can be attained. Margin for fuel design is decreased, fuels are used effectively, as well as an operation efficiency can be improved. Moreover, since the electromagnetic pump has less flow resistance compared with a mechanical type pump, and flow resistance of the reactor core flowrate control mechanism is eliminated, greater circulating flowrate can be ensured after occurrence of accident in a natural convection using a buoyancy of coolants utilizable for after-heat removal as a driving force. (N.H.).

  19. Reactor Structural Materials: Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaouadi, R

    2000-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on Rector Pressure Vessel (RPV) Steels are:(1) to complete the fracture toughness data bank of various reactor pressure vessel steels by using precracked Charpy specimens that were tested statically as well as dynamically; (2) to implement the enhanced surveillance approach in a user-friendly software; (3) to improve the existing reconstitution technology by reducing the input energy (short cycle welding) and modifying the stud geometry. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported.

  20. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-08-01

    Paper presented at the 29th IECEC in Monterey, CA in August 1994. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their (thermionic reactor) performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling.

  1. Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Lanin, Anatoly

    2013-01-01

    The development of a nuclear rocket engine reactor (NRER ) is presented in this book. The working capacity of an active zone NRER under mechanical and thermal load, intensive neutron fluxes, high energy generation (up to 30 MBT/l) in a working medium (hydrogen) at temperatures up to 3100 K is displayed. Design principles and bearing capacity of reactors area discussed on the basis of simulation experiments and test data of a prototype reactor. Property data of dense constructional, porous thermal insulating and fuel materials like carbide and uranium carbide compounds in the temperatures interval 300 - 3000 K are presented. Technological aspects of strength and thermal strength resistance of materials are considered. The design procedure of possible emergency processes in the NRER is developed and risks for their origination are evaluated. Prospects of the NRER development for pilotless space devices and piloted interplanetary ships are viewed.

  2. Operation of Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    3.1 Annual Report of SPR Operation Chu Shaochu Having overseen by National Nuclear Safety Administration and specialists, the reactor restarted up successfully after Safety renovation on April 16, 1996. In August 1996 the normal operation of SPR was approved by the authorities of Naitonal Nuclear Safety Administration. 1 Operation status In 1996, the reactor operated safely for 40 d and the energy released was about 137.3 MW·d. The operation status of SPR is shown in table 1. The reactor started up to higher power (power more than 1 MW) and lower power (for physics experiments) 4 times and 14 times respectively. Measurement of control rod efficiency and other measurement tasks were 2 times and 5 times respectively.

  3. An Overview of Reactor Concepts, a Survey of Reactor Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    Public Affairs Office and is releasaole to the National Technical Information Services (NTIS). At NTIS, it will be available to the general public...Reactors that use deu- terium (heavy water) as a coolant can use natural uranium as a fuel. The * Canadian reactor, CANDU , utilizes this concept...reactor core at the top and discharged at the Dotton while the reactor is in operation. The discharged fuel can then b inspected to see if it can De used

  4. Oscillatory flow chemical reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavnić Danijela S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global market competition, increase in energy and other production costs, demands for high quality products and reduction of waste are forcing pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and biochemical industries, to search for radical solutions. One of the most effective ways to improve the overall production (cost reduction and better control of reactions is a transition from batch to continuous processes. However, the reactions of interests for the mentioned industry sectors are often slow, thus continuous tubular reactors would be impractically long for flow regimes which provide sufficient heat and mass transfer and narrow residence time distribution. The oscillatory flow reactors (OFR are newer type of tube reactors which can offer solution by providing continuous operation with approximately plug flow pattern, low shear stress rates and enhanced mass and heat transfer. These benefits are the result of very good mixing in OFR achieved by vortex generation. OFR consists of cylindrical tube containing equally spaced orifice baffles. Fluid oscillations are superimposed on a net (laminar flow. Eddies are generated when oscillating fluid collides with baffles and passes through orifices. Generation and propagation of vortices create uniform mixing in each reactor cavity (between baffles, providing an overall flow pattern which is close to plug flow. Oscillations can be created by direct action of a piston or a diaphragm on fluid (or alternatively on baffles. This article provides an overview of oscillatory flow reactor technology, its operating principles and basic design and scale - up characteristics. Further, the article reviews the key research findings in heat and mass transfer, shear stress, residence time distribution in OFR, presenting their advantages over the conventional reactors. Finally, relevant process intensification examples from pharmaceutical, polymer and biofuels industries are presented.

  5. Perspectives on reactor safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskin, F.E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Camp, A.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains a technical training center at Chattanooga, Tennessee to provide appropriate training to both new and experienced NRC employees. This document describes a one-week course in reactor, safety concepts. The course consists of five modules: (1) historical perspective; (2) accident sequences; (3) accident progression in the reactor vessel; (4) containment characteristics and design bases; and (5) source terms and offsite consequences. The course text is accompanied by slides and videos during the actual presentation of the course.

  6. Reactor Materials Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walle, E

    2002-04-01

    The activities of SCK-CEN's Reactor Materials Research Department for 2001 are summarised. The objectives of the department are: (1) to evaluate the integrity and behaviour of structural materials used in nuclear power industry; (2) to conduct research to unravel and understand the parameters that determine the material behaviour under or after irradiation; (3) to contribute to the interpretation, the modelling of the material behaviour and to develop and assess strategies for optimum life management of nuclear power plant components. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (2) nuclear fuel; and (3) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel.

  7. Reactor operation environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselow, J.S.; Price, V.; Stephenson, D.E.; Bledsoe, H.W.; Looney, B.B.

    1989-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) produces nuclear materials, primarily plutonium and tritium, to meet the requirements of the Department of Defense. These products have been formed in nuclear reactors that were built during 1950--1955 at the SRS. K, L, and P reactors are three of five reactors that have been used in the past to produce the nuclear materials. All three of these reactors discontinued operation in 1988. Currently, intense efforts are being extended to prepare these three reactors for restart in a manner that protects human health and the environment. To document that restarting the reactors will have minimal impacts to human health and the environment, a three-volume Reactor Operations Environmental Impact Document has been prepared. The document focuses on the impacts of restarting the K, L, and P reactors on both the SRS and surrounding areas. This volume discusses the geology, seismology, and subsurface hydrology. 195 refs., 101 figs., 16 tabs.

  8. High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HFIR at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a light-water cooled and moderated reactor that is the United States’ highest flux reactor-based neutron source. HFIR...

  9. Reactor operation safety information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The report contains a reactor facility description which includes K, P, and L reactor sites, structures, operating systems, engineered safety systems, support systems, and process and effluent monitoring systems; an accident analysis section which includes cooling system anomalies, radioactive materials releases, and anticipated transients without scram; a summary of onsite doses from design basis accidents; severe accident analysis (reactor core disruption); a description of operating contractor organization and emergency planning; and a summary of reactor safety evolution. (MB)

  10. Thermal Reactor Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

  11. Chromatographic and Related Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-07

    special information about effects of surface heteroge- neity in the methanation reaction. Studies of an efficient multicolumn assembly for measuring...of organic basic catalysts such as pyridine and 4-methylpicoline. It was demonstrated that the chromatographic reactor gave special information about...Programmed Reaction to obtain special information about surface heterogeneity in the methanation reaction. Advantages of stopped flow over steady state

  12. Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C. [eds.

    1992-01-01

    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  13. Fusion reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  14. WATER BOILER REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L.D.P.

    1960-11-22

    As its name implies, this reactor utilizes an aqueous solution of a fissionable element salt, and is also conventional in that it contains a heat exchanger cooling coil immersed in the fuel. Its novelty lies in the utilization of a cylindrical reactor vessel to provide a critical region having a large and constant interface with a supernatant vapor region, and the use of a hollow sleeve coolant member suspended from the cover assembly in coaxial relation with the reactor vessel. Cool water is circulated inside this hollow coolant member, and a gap between its outer wall and the reactor vessel is used to carry off radiolytic gases for recombination in an external catalyst chamber. The central passage of the coolant member defines a reflux condenser passage into which the externally recombined gases are returned and condensed. The large and constant interface between fuel solution and vapor region prevents the formation of large bubbles and minimizes the amount of fuel salt carried off by water vapor, thus making possible higher flux densities, specific powers and power densities.

  15. The First Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    On December 2, 1942, in a racquet court underneath the West Stands of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago, a team of scientists led by Enrico Fermi created the first controlled, self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction. This updated and revised story of the first reactor (or "pile") is based on postwar interviews (as told to Corbin…

  16. MULTISTAGE FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonke, A.A.; Graae, J.E.A.; Levitz, N.M.

    1959-11-01

    A multistage fluidized bed reactor is described in which each of a number of stages is arranged with respect to an associated baffle so that a fluidizing gas flows upward and a granular solid downward through the stages and baffles, whereas the granular solid stopsflowing downward when the flow of fluidizing gas is shut off.

  17. Brazilian multipurpose reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project is an action of the Federal Government, through the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI) and has its execution under the responsibility of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Within the CNEN, the project is coordinated by the Research and Development Directorate (DPD) and developed through research units of this board: Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (IPEN); Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN); Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN); Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE); and Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD). The Navy Technological Center in Sao Paulo (CTMSP) and also the participation of other research centers, universities, laboratories and companies in the nuclear sector are important and strategic partnerships. The conceptual design and the safety analysis of the reactor and main facilities, related to nuclear and environmental licensing, are performed by technicians of the research units of DPD / CNEN. The basic design was contracted to engineering companies as INTERTHECNE from Brazil and INVAP from Argentine. The research units from DPD/CNEN are also responsible for the design verification on all engineering documents developed by the contracted companies. The construction and installation should be performed by specific national companies and international partnerships. The Nuclear Reactor RMB will be a open pool type reactor with maximum power of 30 MW and have the OPAL nuclear reactor of 20 MW, built in Australia and designed by INVAP, as reference. The RMB reactor core will have a 5x5 configuration, consisting of 23 elements fuels (EC) of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersion-type Al having a density of up to 3.5 gU/cm{sup 3} and enrichment of 19.75% by weight of {sup 23{sup 5}}U. Two positions will be available in the core for materials irradiation devices. The main objectives of the RMB Reactor and the other nuclear and radioactive

  18. Modeling Chemical Reactors I: Quiescent Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Michoski, C E; Schmitz, P G

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a fully generalized quiescent chemical reactor system in arbitrary space $\\vdim =1,2$ or 3, with $n\\in\\mathbb{N}$ chemical constituents $\\alpha_{i}$, where the character of the numerical solution is strongly determined by the relative scaling between the local reactivity of species $\\alpha_{i}$ and the local functional diffusivity $\\mathscr{D}_{ij}(\\alpha)$ of the reaction mixture. We develop an operator time-splitting predictor multi-corrector RK--LDG scheme, and utilize $hp$-adaptivity relying only on the entropy $\\mathscr{S}_{\\mathfrak{R}}$ of the reactive system $\\mathfrak{R}$. This condition preserves these bounded nonlinear entropy functionals as a necessarily enforced stability condition on the coupled system. We apply this scheme to a number of application problems in chemical kinetics; including a difficult classical problem arising in nonequilibrium thermodynamics known as the Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction where we utilize a concentration-dependent diffusivity tensor $\\mathscr{D}_{ij}(...

  19. Alternative approaches to fusion. [reactor design and reactor physics for Tokamak fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The limitations of the Tokamak fusion reactor concept are discussed and various other fusion reactor concepts are considered that employ the containment of thermonuclear plasmas by magnetic fields (i.e., stellarators). Progress made in the containment of plasmas in toroidal devices is reported. Reactor design concepts are illustrated. The possibility of using fusion reactors as a power source in interplanetary space travel and electric power plants is briefly examined.

  20. Reactor monitoring using antineutrino detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, N. S.

    2011-08-01

    Nuclear reactors have served as the antineutrino source for many fundamental physics experiments. The techniques developed by these experiments make it possible to use these weakly interacting particles for a practical purpose. The large flux of antineutrinos that leaves a reactor carries information about two quantities of interest for safeguards: the reactor power and fissile inventory. Measurements made with antineutrino detectors could therefore offer an alternative means for verifying the power history and fissile inventory of a reactor as part of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and/or other reactor safeguards regimes. Several efforts to develop this monitoring technique are underway worldwide.

  1. Reactor vessel support system. [LMFBR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, M.P.; Holley, J.C.

    1980-05-09

    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  2. Methanogenesis in Thermophilic Biogas Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1995-01-01

    Methanogenesis in thermophilic biogas reactors fed with different wastes is examined. The specific methanogenic activity with acetate or hydrogen as substrate reflected the organic loading of the specific reactor examined. Increasing the loading of thermophilic reactors stabilized the process...... as indicated by a lower concentration of volatile fatty acids in the effluent from the reactors. The specific methanogenic activity in a thermophilic pilot-plant biogas reactor fed with a mixture of cow and pig manure reflected the stability of the reactor. The numbers of methanogens counted by the most...... against Methanothrix soehngenii or Methanothrix CALS-I in any of the thermophilic biogas reactors examined. Studies using 2-14C-labeled acetate showed that at high concentrations (more than approx. 1 mM) acetate was metabolized via the aceticlastic pathway, transforming the methyl-group of acetate...

  3. MEANS FOR COOLING REACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, J.A.

    1957-11-01

    A design of a reactor is presented in which the fuel elements may be immersed in a liquid coolant when desired without the necessity of removing them from the reactor structure. The fuel elements, containing the fissionable material are in plate form and are disposed within spaced slots in a moderator material, such as graphite to form the core. Adjacent the core is a tank containing the liquid coolant. The fuel elements are mounted in spaced relationship on a rotatable shaft which is located between the core and the tank so that by rotation of the shaft the fuel elements may be either inserted in the slots in the core to sustain a chain reaction or immersed in the coolant.

  4. Compact fusion reactors

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Fusion research is currently to a large extent focused on tokamak (ITER) and inertial confinement (NIF) research. In addition to these large international or national efforts there are private companies performing fusion research using much smaller devices than ITER or NIF. The attempt to achieve fusion energy production through relatively small and compact devices compared to tokamaks decreases the costs and building time of the reactors and this has allowed some private companies to enter the field, like EMC2, General Fusion, Helion Energy, Lawrenceville Plasma Physics and Lockheed Martin. Some of these companies are trying to demonstrate net energy production within the next few years. If they are successful their next step is to attempt to commercialize their technology. In this presentation an overview of compact fusion reactor concepts is given.

  5. Reactor Neutrino Spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, A. C.; Vogel, Petr

    2016-01-01

    We present a review of the antineutrino spectra emitted from reactors. Knowledge of these spectra and their associated uncertainties is crucial for neutrino oscillation studies. The spectra used to date have been determined either by converting measured electron spectra to antineutrino spectra or by summing over all of the thousands of transitions that make up the spectra, using modern databases as input. The uncertainties in the subdominant corrections to β-decay plague both methods, and we ...

  6. REACTOR MODERATOR STRUCTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstreet, B.L.

    1963-12-31

    A system for maintaining the alignment of moderator block structures in reactors is presented. Integral restraining grids are placed between each layer of blocks in the moderator structure, at the top of the uppermost layer, and at the bottom of the lowermost layer. Slots are provided in the top and bottom surfaces of the moderator blocks so as to provide a keying action with the grids. The grids are maintained in alignment by vertical guiding members disposed about their peripheries. (AEC)

  7. BOILER-SUPERHEATED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, T.P.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear power reactor of the type in which a liquid moderator-coolant is transformed by nuclear heating into a vapor that may be used to drive a turbo- generator is described. The core of this reactor comprises a plurality of freely suspended tubular fuel elements, called fuel element trains, within which nonboiling pressurized liquid moderator-coolant is preheated and sprayed through orifices in the walls of the trains against the outer walls thereof to be converted into vapor. Passage of the vapor ovcr other unwetted portions of the outside of the fuel elements causes the steam to be superheated. The moderatorcoolant within the fuel elements remains in the liqUid state, and that between the fuel elements remains substantiaily in the vapor state. A unique liquid neutron-absorber control system is used. Advantages expected from the reactor design include reduced fuel element failure, increased stability of operation, direct response to power demand, and circulation of a minimum amount of liquid moderatorcoolant. (A.G.W.)

  8. A feasibility and optimization study to determine cooling time and burnup of advanced test reactor fuels using a nondestructive technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Jorge [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study presented is to determine the best available non-destructive technique necessary to collect validation data as well as to determine burn-up and cooling time of the fuel elements onsite at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) canal. This study makes a recommendation of the viability of implementing a permanent fuel scanning system at the ATR canal and leads3 to the full design of a permanent fuel scan system. The study consisted at first in determining if it was possible and which equipment was necessary to collect useful spectra from ATR fuel elements at the canal adjacent to the reactor. Once it was establish that useful spectra can be obtained at the ATR canal the next step was to determine which detector and which configuration was better suited to predict burnup and cooling time of fuel elements non-destructively. Three different detectors of High Purity Germanium (HPGe), Lanthanum Bromide (LaBr3), and High Pressure Xenon (HPXe) in two system configurations of above and below the water pool were used during the study. The data collected and analyzed was used to create burnup and cooling time calibration prediction curves for ATR fuel. The next stage of the study was to determine which of the three detectors tested was better suited for the permanent system. From spectra taken and the calibration curves obtained, it was determined that although the HPGe detector yielded better results, a detector that could better withstand the harsh environment of the ATR canal was needed. The in-situ nature of the measurements required a rugged fuel scanning system, low in maintenance and easy to control system. Based on the ATR canal feasibility measurements and calibration results it was determined that the LaBr3 detector was the best alternative for canal in-situ measurements; however in order to enhance the quality of the spectra collected using this scintillator a deconvolution method was developed. Following the development of the deconvolution method

  9. Nuclear research reactors in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Anna Paula Leite; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias, E-mail: aplc@cdtn.b, E-mail: amir@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The rising concerns about global warming and energy security have spurred a revival of interest in nuclear energy, giving birth to a 'nuclear power renaissance' in several countries in the world. Particularly in Brazil, in the recent years, the nuclear power renaissance can be seen in the actions that comprise its nuclear program, summarily the increase of the investments in nuclear research institutes and the government target to design and build the Brazilian Multipurpose research Reactor (BMR). In the last 50 years, Brazilian research reactors have been used for training, for producing radioisotopes to meet demands in industry and nuclear medicine, for miscellaneous irradiation services and for academic research. Moreover, the research reactors are used as laboratories to develop technologies in power reactors, which are evaluated today at around 450 worldwide. In this application, those reactors become more viable in relation to power reactors by the lowest cost, by the operation at low temperatures and, furthermore, by lower demand for nuclear fuel. In Brazil, four research reactors were installed: the IEA-R1 and the MB-01 reactors, both at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares (IPEN, Sao Paulo); the Argonauta, at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN, Rio de Janeiro) and the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor, at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN, Belo Horizonte). The present paper intends to enumerate the characteristics of these reactors, their utilization and current academic research. Therefore, through this paper, we intend to collaborate on the BMR project. (author)

  10. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-06-01

    During the 1960's and early 70's the author performed extensive design studies, analyses, and tests aimed at thermionic reactor concepts that differed significantly from those pursued by other investigators. Those studies, like most others under Atomic Energy Commission (AEC and DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsorship, were terminated in the early 1970's. Some of this work was previously published, but much of it was never made available in the open literature. U.S. interest in thermionic reactors resumed in the early 80's, and was greatly intensified by reports about Soviet ground and flight tests in the late 80's. This recent interest resulted in renewed U.S. thermionic reactor development programs, primarily under Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship. Since most current investigators have not had an opportunity to study all of the author's previous work, a review of the highlights of that work may be of value to them. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling. Where the author's concepts differed from the later Topaz-2 design was in the relative location of the emitter and the collector. Placing the fueled emitter on the outside of the cylindrical diodes permits much higher axial conductances to reduce ohmic

  11. Turning points in reactor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-09-01

    This article provides some historical aspects on nuclear reactor design, beginning with PWR development for Naval Propulsion and the first commercial application at Yankee Rowe. Five turning points in reactor design and some safety problems associated with them are reviewed: (1) stability of Dresden-1, (2) ECCS, (3) PRA, (4) TMI-2, and (5) advanced passive LWR designs. While the emphasis is on the thermal-hydraulic aspects, the discussion is also about reactor systems.

  12. Fast reactor programme in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Chellapandi; P R Vasudeva Rao; Prabhat Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Role of fast breeder reactor (FBR) in the Indian context has been discussed with appropriate justification. The FBR programme since 1985 till 2030 is highlighted focussing on the current status and future direction of fast breeder test reactor (FBTR), prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) and FBR-1 and 2. Design and technological challenges of PFBR and design and safety targets with means to achieve the same are the major highlights of this paper.

  13. Acceptability of reactors in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.

    1981-04-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it dies not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  14. Spiral-shaped disinfection reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2015-08-20

    This disclosure includes disinfection reactors and processes for the disinfection of water. Some disinfection reactors include a body that defines an inlet, an outlet, and a spiral flow path between the inlet and the outlet, in which the body is configured to receive water and a disinfectant at the inlet such that the water is exposed to the disinfectant as the water flows through the spiral flow path. Also disclosed are processes for disinfecting water in such disinfection reactors.

  15. Hydrogen Production in Fusion Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Sudo, S.; Tomita, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Iiyoshi, A.; Momota, H; Motojima, O.; Okamoto, M.; Ohnishi, M.; Onozuka, M; Uenosono, C.

    1993-01-01

    As one of methods of innovative energy production in fusion reactors without having a conventional turbine-type generator, an efficient use of radiation produced in a fusion reactor with utilizing semiconductor and supplying clean fuel in a form of hydrogen gas are studied. Taking the candidates of reactors such as a toroidal system and an open system for application of the new concepts, the expected efficiency and a concept of plant system are investigated.

  16. Neutrino Oscillation Studies with Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Petr; Zhang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective, and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavors are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.

  17. FAST NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, A.H.

    1957-12-01

    This patent relates to a reactor and process for carrying out a controlled fast neutron chain reaction. A cubical reactive mass, weighing at least 920 metric tons, of uranium metal containing predominantly U/sup 238/ and having a U/sup 235/ content of at least 7.63% is assembled and the maximum neutron reproduction ratio is limited to not substantially over 1.01 by insertion and removal of a varying amount of boron, the reactive mass being substantially freed of moderator.

  18. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.D.

    1993-12-14

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase is described. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figures.

  19. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE 5480.6, Safety of Department of Energy-Owned Nuclear Reactors, establishes reactor safety requirements to assure that reactors are sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that adequately protects health and safety and is in accordance with uniform standards, guides, and codes which are consistent with those applied to comparable licensed reactors. This document identifies nuclear safety criteria applied to NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) licensed reactors. The titles of the chapters and sections of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.70, Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Rev. 3, are used as the format for compiling the NRC criteria applied to the various areas of nuclear safety addressed in a safety analysis report for a nuclear reactor. In each section the criteria are compiled in four groups: (1) Code of Federal Regulations, (2) US NRC Regulatory Guides, SRP Branch Technical Positions and Appendices, (3) Codes and Standards, and (4) Supplemental Information. The degree of application of these criteria to a DOE-owned reactor, consistent with their application to comparable licensed reactors, must be determined by the DOE and DOE contractor.

  20. Reactor Physics Analysis Models for a CANDU Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok

    2007-10-15

    Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor physics analysis is typically performed in three steps. At first, macroscopic cross-sections of the reference lattice is produced by modeling the reference fuel channel. Secondly macroscopic cross-sections of reactivity devices in the reactor are generated. The macroscopic cross-sections of a reactivity device are calculated as incremental cross-sections by subtracting macroscopic cross-sections of a three-dimensional lattice without reactivity device from those of a three-dimensional lattice with a reactivity device. Using the macroscopic cross-sections of the reference lattice and incremental cross-sections of the reactivity devices, reactor physics calculations are performed. This report summarizes input data of typical CANDU reactor physics codes, which can be utilized for the future CANDU reactor physics analysis.

  1. BR3试验退役工程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Massa.,V

    1998-01-01

    1989年,BR3核电厂奶役被欧共体选为四个试验性拆除项目之一。该工程主要涉及的是利用经过比较的不同技术对主回路进行拆除前垢整个系统去污和所有堆内构件的拆除。该报告简单描述了热功率变40.5MWt的小型压水堆-BR3试验工程的不同操作及所得结果,同时也描述了废物管理策略和退役计划的制定,工程中所涉及未来的操作将作简要描述。

  2. Fast Timing: Lifetime Measurements With LaBr_3 Scintillators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The lifetime of the first excited 2+ state in well deformed nuclei of the rare earth region is typically in the range of 1 nanosecond. A variety of experimental methods have been developed for such measurements. In addition to the recoil distance

  3. Brookhaven leak reactor to close

    CERN Multimedia

    MacIlwain, C

    1999-01-01

    The DOE has announced that the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven is to close for good. Though the news was not unexpected researchers were angry the decision had been taken before the review to assess the impact of reopening the reactor had been concluded (1 page).

  4. Thermochemical reactor systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipinski, Wojciech; Davidson, Jane Holloway; Chase, Thomas Richard

    2016-11-29

    Thermochemical reactor systems that may be used to produce a fuel, and methods of using the thermochemical reactor systems, utilizing a reactive cylindrical element, an optional energy transfer cylindrical element, an inlet gas management system, and an outlet gas management system.

  5. Chemical-vapor-deposition reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, S.

    1979-01-01

    Reactor utilizes multiple stacked trays compactly arranged in paths of horizontally channeled reactant gas streams. Design allows faster and more efficient deposits of film on substrates, and reduces gas and energy consumption. Lack of dead spots that trap reactive gases reduces reactor purge time.

  6. Antineutrino Monitoring of Thorium Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Akindele, Oluwatomi A; Norman, Eric B

    2015-01-01

    Various groups have demonstrated that antineutrino monitoring can be successful in assessing the plutonium content in water-cooled nuclear reactors for nonproliferation applications. New reactor designs and concepts incorporate nontraditional fuels types and chemistry. Understanding how these properties affect the antineutrino emission from a reactor can extend the applicability of antineutrino monitoring.Thorium molten salt reactors (MSR) breed U-233, that if diverted constitute an IAEA direct use material. The antineutrino spectrum from the fission of U-233 has been determined, the feasibility of detecting the diversion of a significant quantity, 8 kg of U-233, within the IAEA timeliness goal of 30 days has been evaluated. The antineutrino emission from a thorium reactor operating under normal conditions is compared to a diversion scenario at a 25 meter standoff by evaluating the daily antineutrino count rate and the energy spectrum of the detected antineutrinos. It was found that the diversion of a signifi...

  7. Engineering reactors for catalytic reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vivek V Ranade

    2014-03-01

    Catalytic reactions are ubiquitous in chemical and allied industries. A homogeneous or heterogeneous catalyst which provides an alternative route of reaction with lower activation energy and better control on selectivity can make substantial impact on process viability and economics. Extensive studies have been conducted to establish sound basis for design and engineering of reactors for practising such catalytic reactions and for realizing improvements in reactor performance. In this article, application of recent (and not so recent) developments in engineering reactors for catalytic reactions is discussed. Some examples where performance enhancement was realized by catalyst design, appropriate choice of reactor, better injection and dispersion strategies and recent advances in process intensification/ multifunctional reactors are discussed to illustrate the approach.

  8. Unsteady processes in catalytic reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matros, Yu.Sh.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years a realization has occurred that reaction and reactor dynamics must be considered when designing and operating catalytic reactors. In this book, the author has focussed on both the processes occurring on individual porous-catalyst particles as well as the phenomena displayed by collections of these particles in fixed-bed reactors. The major topics discussed include the effects of unsteady-state heat and mass transfer, the influence of inhomogeneities and stagnant regions in fixed beds, and reactor operation during forced cycling of operating conditions. Despite the title of the book, attention is also paid to the determination of the number and stability of fixed-bed steady states, with the aim of describing the possibility of controlling reactors at unstable steady states. However, this development is somewhat dated, given the recent literature on multiplicity phenomena and process control.

  9. A model of reactor kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, A.S.; Thompson, B.R.

    1988-09-01

    The analytical model of nuclear reactor transients, incorporating both mechanical and nuclear effects, simulates reactor kinetics. Linear analysis shows the stability borderline for small power perturbations. In a stable system, initial power disturbances die out with time. With an unstable combination of nuclear and mechanical characteristics, initial disturbances persist and may increase with time. With large instability, oscillations of great magnitude occur. Stability requirements set limits on the power density at which particular reactors can operate. The limiting power density depends largely on the product of two terms: the fraction of delayed neutrons and the frictional damping of vibratory motion in reactor core components. As the fraction of delayed neutrons is essentially fixed, mechanical damping largely determines the maximum power density. A computer program, based on the analytical model, calculates and plots reactor power as a nonlinear function of time in response to assigned values of mechanical and nuclear characteristics.

  10. Metallic fuels for advanced reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmack, W. J.; Porter, D. L.; Chang, Y. I.; Hayes, S. L.; Meyer, M. K.; Burkes, D. E.; Lee, C. B.; Mizuno, T.; Delage, F.; Somers, J.

    2009-07-01

    In the framework of the Generation IV Sodium Fast Reactor Program, the Advanced Fuel Project has conducted an evaluation of the available fuel systems supporting future sodium cooled fast reactors. This paper presents an evaluation of metallic alloy fuels. Early US fast reactor developers originally favored metal alloy fuel due to its high fissile density and compatibility with sodium. The goal of fast reactor fuel development programs is to develop and qualify a nuclear fuel system that performs all of the functions of a conventional fast spectrum nuclear fuel while destroying recycled actinides. This will provide a mechanism for closure of the nuclear fuel cycle. Metal fuels are candidates for this application, based on documented performance of metallic fast reactor fuels and the early results of tests currently being conducted in US and international transmutation fuel development programs.

  11. Neutrino Experiments at Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reines, F.; Gurr, H. S.; Jenkins, T. L.; Munsee, J. H.

    1968-09-09

    A description is given of the electron-antineutrino program using a large fission reactor. A search has been made for a neutral weak interaction via the reaction (electron antineutrino + d .> p + n + electron antineutrino), the reaction (electron antineutrino + d .> n + n + e{sup +}) has now been detected, and an effort is underway to observe the elastic scattering reaction (electron antineutrino + e{sup -} .> electron antineutrino + e{sup -}) as well as to measure more precisely the reaction (electron antineutrino + p .> n + e{sup+}). The upper limit on the elastic scattering reaction which we have obtained with our large composite NaI, plastic, liquid scintillation detector is now about 50 times the predicted value.

  12. Neutronic Reactor Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermi, Enrico; Zinn, Walter H.

    The argument of the present Patent is a radiation shield suitable for protection of personnel from both gamma rays and neutrons. Such a shield from dangerous radiations is achieved to the best by the combined action of a neutron slowing material (a moderator) and a neutron absorbing material. Hydrogen is particularly effective for this shield since it is a good absorber of slow neutrons and a good moderator of fast neutrons. The neutrons slowed down by hydrogen may, then, be absorbed by other materials such as boron, cadmium, gadolinium, samarium or steel. Steel is particularly convenient for the purpose, given its effectiveness in absorbing also the gamma rays from the reactor (both primary gamma rays and secondary ones produced by the moderation of neutrons). In particular, in the present Patent a shield is described, made of alternate layers of steel and Masonite (an hydrolized ligno-cellulose material). The object of the present Patent is not discussed in any other published paper.

  13. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This document is a compilation and source list of nuclear safety criteria that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) applies to licensed reactors; it can be used by DOE and DOE contractors to identify NRC criteria to be evaluated for application to the DOE reactors under their cognizance. The criteria listed are those that are applied to the areas of nuclear safety addressed in the safety analysis report of a licensed reactor. They are derived from federal regulations, USNRC regulatory guides, Standard Review Plan (SRP) branch technical positions and appendices, and industry codes and standards.

  14. Reactor service life extension program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.

    1990-12-31

    A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

  15. Reactor service life extension program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

  16. The ruthenium complex cis-(dichloro)tetraammineruthenium(III) chloride presents selective cytotoxicity against murine B cell lymphoma (A-20), murine ascitic sarcoma 180 (S-180), human breast adenocarcinoma (SK-BR-3), and human T cell leukemia (Jurkat) tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira-Lacerda, Elisângela de Paula; Vilanova-Costa, Cesar Augusto Sam Tiago; Hamaguchi, Amélia; Pavanin, Luiz Alfredo; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Homsi-Brandenburgo, Maria Inês; Dos Santos, Wagner Batista; Soares, Andreimar Martins; Nomizo, Auro

    2010-06-01

    The aim of present study was to verify the in vitro antitumor activity of a ruthenium complex, cis-(dichloro)tetraammineruthenium(III) chloride (cis-[RuCl(2)(NH(3))(4)]Cl) toward different tumor cell lines. The antitumor studies showed that ruthenium(III) complex presents a relevant cytotoxic activity against murine B cell lymphoma (A-20), murine ascitic sarcoma 180 (S-180), human breast adenocarcinoma (SK-BR-3), and human T cell leukemia (Jurkat) cell lines and a very low cytotoxicity toward human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The ruthenium(III) complex decreased the fraction of tumor cells in G0/G1 and/or G2-M phases, indicating that this compound may act on resting/early entering G0/G1 cells and/or precycling G2-M cells. The cytotoxic activity of a high concentration (2 mg mL(-1)) of cis-[RuCl(2)(NH(3))(4)]Cl toward Jurkat cells correlated with an increased number of annexin V-positive cells and also the presence of DNA fragmentation, suggesting that this compound induces apoptosis in tumor cells. The development of new antineoplastic medications demands adequate knowledge in order to avoid inefficient or toxic treatments. Thus, a mechanistic understanding of how metal complexes achieve their activities is crucial to their clinical success and to the rational design of new compounds with improved potency.

  17. Assessment of torsatrons as reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, J.F. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Painter, S.L. (Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia))

    1992-12-01

    Stellarators have significant operational advantages over tokamaks as ignited steady-state reactors because stellarators have no dangerous disruptions and no need for continuous current drive or power recirculated to the plasma, both easing the first wall, blanket, and shield design; less severe constraints on the plasma parameters and profiles; and better access for maintenance. This study shows that a reactor based on the torsatron configuration (a stellarator variant) could also have up to double the mass utilization efficiency (MUE) and a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a conventional tokamak reactor (ARIES-I) for a range of assumptions. Torsatron reactors can have much smaller coil systems than tokamak reactors because the coils are closer to the plasma and they have a smaller cross section (higher average current density because of the lower magnetic field). The reactor optimization approach and the costing and component models are those used in the current stage of the ARIES-I tokamak reactor study. Typical reactor parameters for a 1-GW(e) Compact Torsatron reactor example are major radius R[sub 0] = 6.6-8.8 m, on-axis magnetic field B[sup 0] = 4.8-7.5 T, B[sub max] (on coils) = 16 T, MUE 140-210 kW(e)/tonne, and COE (in constant 1990 dollars) = 67-79 mill/kW(e)h. The results are relatively sensitive to assumptions on the level of confinement improvement and the blanket thickness under the inboard half of the helical windings but relatively insensitive to other assumptions.

  18. Concept for LEU Burst Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimpland, Robert Herbert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-07

    Design and performance of a proposed LEU burst reactor are sketched. Salient conclusions reached are the following: size would be ~1,500 kg or greater, depending on the size of the central cavity; internal stresses during burst require split rings for relief; the reactor would likely require multiple control and safety rods for fine control; the energy spectrum would be comparable to that of HEU machines; and burst yields and steady-state power levels will be significantly greater in an LEU reactor.

  19. Nuclear reactor downcomer flow deflector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, Charles B. (Greensburg, PA); Altman, David A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singleton, Norman R. (Murrysville, PA)

    2011-02-15

    A nuclear reactor having a coolant flow deflector secured to a reactor core barrel in line with a coolant inlet nozzle. The flow deflector redirects incoming coolant down an annulus between the core barrel and the reactor vessel. The deflector has a main body with a front side facing the fluid inlet nozzle and a rear side facing the core barrel. The rear side of the main body has at least one protrusion secured to the core barrel so that a gap exists between the rear side of the main body adjacent the protrusion and the core barrel. Preferably, the protrusion is a relief that circumscribes the rear side of the main body.

  20. Safety of VVER-440 reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Slugen, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Safety of VVER-440 Reactors endeavours to promote an increase in the safety of VVER-440 nuclear reactors via the improvement of fission products limitation systems and the implementation of special non-destructive spectroscopic methods for materials testing. All theoretical and experimental studies performed the by author over the last 25 years have been undertaken with the aim of improving VVER-440 defence in depth, which is one of the most important principle for ensuring safety in nuclear power plants. Safety of VVER-440 Reactors is focused on the barrier system through which the safety pri

  1. Random processes in nuclear reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, M M R

    1974-01-01

    Random Processes in Nuclear Reactors describes the problems that a nuclear engineer may meet which involve random fluctuations and sets out in detail how they may be interpreted in terms of various models of the reactor system. Chapters set out to discuss topics on the origins of random processes and sources; the general technique to zero-power problems and bring out the basic effect of fission, and fluctuations in the lifetime of neutrons, on the measured response; the interpretation of power reactor noise; and associated problems connected with mechanical, hydraulic and thermal noise sources

  2. Fuel Fabrication and Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-02

    The uranium from the enrichment plant is still in the form of UF6. UF6 is not suitable for use in a reactor due to its highly corrosive chemistry as well as its phase diagram. UF6 is converted into UO2 fuel pellets, which are in turn placed in fuel rods and assemblies. Reactor designs are variable in moderators, coolants, fuel, performance etc.The dream of energy ‘too-cheap to meter’ is no more, and now the nuclear power industry is pushing ahead with advanced reactor designs.

  3. Nuclear reactor PBMR and cogeneration; Reactor nuclear PBMR y cogeneracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Alonso V, G., E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    In recent years the nuclear reactor designs for the electricity generation have increased their costs, so that at the moment costs are managed of around the 5000 US D for installed kw, reason for which a big nuclear plant requires of investments of the order of billions of dollars, the designed reactors as modular of low power seek to lighten the initial investment of a big reactor dividing the power in parts and dividing in modules the components to lower the production costs, this way it can begin to build a module and finished this to build other, differing the long term investment, getting less risk therefore in the investment. On the other hand the reactors of low power can be very useful in regions where is difficult to have access to the electric net being able to take advantage of the thermal energy of the reactor to feed other processes like the water desalination or the vapor generation for the processes industry like the petrochemical, or even more the possible hydrogen production to be used as fuel. In this work the possibility to generate vapor of high quality for the petrochemical industry is described using a spheres bed reactor of high temperature. (Author)

  4. FASTER test reactor preconceptual design report summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandy, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Belch, H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brunett, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heidet, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jin, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mohamed, W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moisseytsev, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Passerini, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sumner, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vilim, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hayes, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-02-29

    The FASTER reactor plant is a sodium-cooled fast spectrum test reactor that provides high levels of fast and thermal neutron flux for scientific research and development. The 120MWe FASTER reactor plant has a superheated steam power conversion system which provides electrical power to a local grid allowing for recovery of operating costs for the reactor plant.

  5. ADAPTIVE CONTROL SYSTEM OF INDUSTRIAL REACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav K. Mayevski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a mathematical model of an industrial chemical reactor for production of synthetic rubber. During reactor operation the model parameters vary considerably. To create a control algorithm performed transformation of mathematical model of the reactor in order to obtain a dependency that can be used to determine the model parameters are changing during reactor operation.

  6. FASTER Test Reactor Preconceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandy, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Belch, H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brunett, A. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heidet, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jin, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mohamed, W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moisseytsev, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Passerini, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sumner, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vilim, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hayes, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-31

    The FASTER test reactor plant is a sodium-cooled fast spectrum test reactor that provides high levels of fast and thermal neutron flux for scientific research and development. The 120MWe FASTER reactor plant has a superheated steam power conversion system which provides electrical power to a local grid allowing for recovery of operating costs for the reactor plant.

  7. Breeder Reactors, Understanding the Atom Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Walter, III; Turner, Stanley E.

    The theory of breeder reactors in relationship to a discussion of fission is presented. Different kinds of reactors are characterized by the cooling fluids used, such as liquid metal, gas, and molten salt. The historical development of breeder reactors over the past twenty-five years includes specific examples of reactors. The location and a brief…

  8. Evolution of the tandem mirror reactor concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, G.A.; Logan, B.G.

    1982-03-09

    We discuss the evolution of the tandem mirror reactor concept from the original conceptual reactor design (1977) through the first application of the thermal barrier concept to a reactor design (1979) to the beginning of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (1982).

  9. Jules Horowitz Reactor, basic design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamaschi, Y.; Bouilloux, Y.; Chantoin, P.; Guigon, B.; Bravo, X.; Germain, C.; Rommens, M.; Tremodeux, P

    2003-07-01

    Since the shutdown of the SILOE reactor in 1997, the OSIRIS reactor has ensured the needs regarding technological irradiation at CEA including those of its industrial partners and customers. The Jules Horowitz Reactor will replace it. It has the ambition to provide the necessary nuclear data and maintain a fission research capacity in Europe after 2010. This capacity should be service-oriented. It will be established in Cadarache. The Jules Horowitz reactor will also: - represent a significant step in term of performances and experimental capabilities, - be designed with a high flexibility, in order to satisfy the current demand from European industry, research and be able to accommodate future requirements, - reach a high level of safety, according to the best current practice. This paper will present the main functionalities and the design options resulting from the 'preliminary design' studies. (authors)

  10. Advanced Catalytic Hydrogenation Retrofit Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinaldo M. Machado

    2002-08-15

    Industrial hydrogenation is often performed using a slurry catalyst in large stirred-tank reactors. These systems are inherently problematic in a number of areas, including industrial hygiene, process safety, environmental contamination, waste production, process operability and productivity. This program proposed the development of a practical replacement for the slurry catalysts using a novel fixed-bed monolith catalyst reactor, which could be retrofitted onto an existing stirred-tank reactor and would mitigate many of the minitations and problems associated with slurry catalysts. The full retrofit monolith system, consisting of a recirculation pump, gas/liquid ejector and monolith catalyst, is described as a monolith loop reactor or MLR. The MLR technology can reduce waste and increase raw material efficiency, which reduces the overall energy required to produce specialty and fine chemicals.

  11. Advanced Carbothermal Electric Reactor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of the Phase 1 effort was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the Advanced Carbothermal Electric (ACE) Reactor concept. Unlike...

  12. Reactor operation environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Hunter, C.H.; Marter, W.L.; Moyer, R.A.

    1989-12-01

    This volume is a reactor operation environmental information document for the Savannah River Plant. Topics include meteorology, surface hydrology, transport, environmental impacts, and radiation effects. 48 figs., 56 tabs. (KD)

  13. Unique features of space reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buden, David

    Space reactors are designed to meet a unique set of requirements; they must be sufficiently compact to be launched in a rocket to their operational location, operate for many years without maintenance and servicing, operate in extreme environments, and reject heat by radiation to space. To meet these restrictions, operating temperatures are much greater than in terrestrial power plants, and the reactors tend to have a fast neutron spectrum. Currently, a new generation of space reactor power plants is being developed. The major effort is in the SP-100 program, where the power plant is being designed for seven years of full power, and no maintenance operation at a reactor outlet operating temperature of 1350 K.

  14. Thermal Analysis for Mobile Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Mobile reactor design in the paper is consisted of two grades of thermal electric conversion. The first grade is the thermionic conversion inside the core and the second grade is thermocouple conversion

  15. Teaching About Nature's Nuclear Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Herndon, J M

    2005-01-01

    Naturally occurring nuclear reactors existed in uranium deposits on Earth long before Enrico Fermi built the first man-made nuclear reactor beneath Staggs Field in 1942. In the story of their discovery, there are important lessons to be learned about scientific inquiry and scientific discovery. Now, there is evidence to suggest that the Earth's magnetic field and Jupiter's atmospheric turbulence are driven by planetary-scale nuclear reactors. The subject of planetocentric nuclear fission reactors can be a jumping off point for stimulating classroom discussions about the nature and implications of planetary energy sources and about the geomagnetic field. But more importantly, the subject can help to bring into focus the importance of discussing, debating, and challenging current thinking in a variety of areas.

  16. Advanced Carbothermal Electric Reactor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop the Advanced Carbothermal Electric (ACE) reactor to efficiently extract oxygen from lunar regolith. Unlike state-of-the-art carbothermal...

  17. Solid State Reactor Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, G.T.

    2004-03-10

    The Solid State Reactor (SSR) is an advanced reactor concept designed to take advantage of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) recently developed graphite foam that has enhanced heat transfer characteristics and excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, to provide an inherently safe, self-regulated, source of heat for power and other potential applications. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program (Project No. 99-064) from August 1999 through September 30, 2002. The initial concept of utilizing the graphite foam as a basis for developing an advanced reactor concept envisioned that a suite of reactor configurations and power levels could be developed for several different applications. The initial focus was looking at the reactor as a heat source that was scalable, independent of any heat removal/power conversion process. These applications might include conventional power generation, isotope production and destruction (actinides), and hydrogen production. Having conducted the initial research on the graphite foam and having performed the scoping parametric analyses from neutronics and thermal-hydraulic perspectives, it was necessary to focus on a particular application that would (1) demonstrate the viability of the overall concept and (2) require a reasonably structured design analysis process that would synthesize those important parameters that influence the concept the most as part of a feasible, working reactor system. Thus, the application targeted for this concept was supplying power for remote/harsh environments and a design that was easily deployable, simplistic from an operational standpoint, and utilized the new graphite foam. Specifically, a 500-kW(t) reactor concept was pursued that is naturally load following, inherently safe, optimized via neutronic studies to achieve near-zero reactivity change with burnup, and proliferation resistant. These four major areas

  18. Microchannel Reactors for ISRU Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Susana; Makel, Darby B.; Blizman, Brandon; Ward, Benjamin J.

    2005-02-01

    Affordable planning and execution of prolonged manned space missions depend upon the utilization of local resources and the waste products which are formed in manned spacecraft and surface bases. Successful in-situ resources utilization (ISRU) will require component technologies which provide optimal size, weight, volume, and power efficiency. Microchannel reactors enable the efficient chemical processing of in situ resources. The reactors can be designed for the processes that generate the most benefit for each mission. For instance, propellants (methane) can be produced from carbon dioxide from the Mars atmosphere using the Sabatier reaction and ethylene can be produced from the partial oxidation of methane. A system that synthesizes ethylene could be the precursor for systems to synthesize ethanol and polyethylene. Ethanol can be used as a nutrient for Astrobiology experiments, as well as the production of nutrients for human crew (e.g. sugars). Polyethylene can be used in the construction of habitats, tools, and replacement parts. This paper will present recent developments in miniature chemical reactors using advanced Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and microchannel technology to support ISRU of Mars and lunar missions. Among other applications, the technology has been demonstrated for the Sabatier process and for the partial oxidation of methane. Microchannel reactors were developed based on ceramic substrates as well as metal substrates. In both types of reactors, multiple layers coated with catalytic material are bonded, forming a monolithic structure. Such reactors are readily scalable with the incorporation of extra layers. In addition, this reactor structure minimizes pressure drop and catalyst settling, which are common problems in conventional packed bed reactors.

  19. Reactor antineutrinos and nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balantekin, A. B.

    2016-11-01

    Short-baseline reactor neutrino experiments successfully measured the neutrino parameters they set out to measure, but they also identified a shape distortion in the 5-7 MeV range as well as a reduction from the predicted value of the flux. Nuclear physics input into the calculations of reactor antineutrino spectra needs to be better refined if this anomaly is to be interpreted as due to sterile neutrino states.

  20. Reactor Simulator Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Webster, Kenny L.; Pearson, Boise J.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Nuclear Systems Office Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) project, a reactor simulator test loop (RxSim) was design & built to perform integrated testing of the TDU components. In particular, the objectives of RxSim testing was to verify the operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation and control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. In addition, it was decided to include a thermal test of a cold trap purification design and a pump performance test at pump voltages up to 150 V since the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s was not obtained in the RxSim at the originally constrained voltage of 120 V. This paper summarizes RxSim testing. The gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively in NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain operations. The instrumentation and control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings. The cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the cold temperature indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. The annular linear induction pump (ALIP) tested was able to produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz.

  1. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Nemser, PhD

    2010-10-01

    There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

  2. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwashige, Kengo

    1996-06-21

    In an LMFBR type reactor, partitions are disposed to a coolant channel at positions lower than the free liquid level, and the width of the partitions is adapted to have a predetermined condition. Namely, when low temperature fluid overflowing the wall of the coolant channel, flows down and collided against the free liquid surface in the coolant channel, since the dropping speed thereof is reduced abruptly, large pressure waves are caused by kinetic force of the low temperature fluid. However, if appropriate numbers of partitions having an appropriate shape are formed, the dropping speed of the low temperature fluid is moderated to reduce the pressure waves. In addition, since the pressure waves are dispersed to the circumferential and lateral directions of the coolant flow channel respectively, the propagation of the pressure waves can be prevented effectively. Further, when the flow of the low temperature fluid is changed to the circumferential direction, for example, by earthquakes, since the partitions act as members resisting against the circumferential change of the low temperature fluid, the change of the direction can be suppressed. (N.H.)

  3. Calculation of reactor antineutrino spectra in TEXONO

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Dong Liang; Mao Ze Pu; Wong, T H

    2002-01-01

    In the low energy reactor antineutrino physics experiments, either for the researches of antineutrino oscillation and antineutrino reactions, or for the measurement of abnormal magnetic moment of antineutrino, the flux and the spectra of reactor antineutrino must be described accurately. The method of calculation of reactor antineutrino spectra was discussed in detail. Furthermore, based on the actual circumstances of NP2 reactors and the arrangement of detectors, the flux and the spectra of reactor antineutrino in TEXONO were worked out

  4. Tritium management in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1978-05-01

    This is a review paper covering the key environmental and safety issues and how they have been handled in the various magnetic and inertial confinement concepts and reference designs. The issues treated include: tritium accident analyses, tritium process control, occupational safety, HTO formation rate from the gas-phase, disposal of tritium contaminated wastes, and environmental impact--each covering the Joint European Tokamak (J.E.T. experiment), Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), Russian T-20, The Next Step (TNS) designs by Westinghouse/ORNL and General Atomic/ANL, the ANL and ORNL EPR's, the G.A. Doublet Demonstration Reactor, the Italian Fintor-D and the ORNL Demo Studies. There are also the following full scale plant reference designs: UWMAK-III, LASL's Theta Pinch Reactor Design (RTPR), Mirror Fusion Reactor (MFR), Tandem Mirror Reactor (TMR), and the Mirror Hybrid Reactor (MHR). There are four laser device breakeven experiments, SHIVA-NOVA, LLL reference designs, ORNL Laser Fusion power plant, the German ''Saturn,'' and LLL's Laser Fusion EPR I and II.

  5. Innovative hybrid biological reactors using membranes; Reactores biologico hibrido innovadores utilizando membranas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez, R.; Esteban-Garcia, A. L.; Florio, L. de; Rodriguez-Hernandez, L.; Tejero, I.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we present two lines of research on hybrid reactors including the use of membranes, although with different functions: RBPM, biofilm reactors and membranes filtration RBSOM, supported biofilm reactors and oxygen membranes. (Author) 14 refs.

  6. Establishment of licensing process for development reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Yune, Young Gill; Kim, Woong Sik (and others)

    2006-02-15

    A study on licensing processes for development reactors has been performed to prepare the licensing of development reactors developed in Korea. The contents and results of the study are summarized as follows. The licensing processes for nuclear reactors in Korea, U.S.A., Japan, France, U.K., Canada, and IAEA were surveyed and analyzed to obtain technical bases necessary for establishing licensing processes applicable to development reactors in Korea. Based on the technical bases obtained the above analysis, the purpose, power output, and design characteristics of development reactors were analyzed in detail. The analysis results suggested that development reactors should be classified as a new reactor category (called as 'development reactor') separated from the current reactor categories such as the research reactor and the power reactor. Therefore, it is proposed to establish a new reactor category classified as 'development reactor' for the development reactors. And licensing processes, including licensing technical requirements, licensing document requirements, and other regulatory requirements, were also proposed for the development reactors. In order to institutionalize the licensing processes developed in this study, it is necessary to revise the current laws. Therefore, draft provisions of Atomic Energy Act, Enforcement Decree of the Atomic Energy Act, and Enforcement Regulation of the Atomic Energy Act have been developed for the preparation of the future legalization of the licensing processes proposed for the development reactors. Conclusively, a proposal of licensing processes and draft provisions of laws have been developed for the development reactors. The results proposed in this study can be applied directly to the licensing of the future development reactors. Furthermore, they will also contribute to establishing successfully the licensing processes of the development reactors.

  7. Repairing liner of the reactor; Reparacion del liner del reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar H, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2001-07-15

    Due to the corrosion problems of the aluminum coating of the reactor pool, a periodic inspections program by ultrasound to evaluate the advance grade and the corrosion speed was settled down. This inspections have shown the necessity to repair some areas, in those that the slimming is significant, of not making it can arrive to the water escape of the reactor pool. The objective of the repair is to place patches of plates of 1/4 inch aluminum thickness in the areas of the reactor 'liner', in those that it has been detected by ultrasound a smaller thickness or similar to 3 mm. To carry out this the fuels are move (of the core and those that are decaying) to a temporary storage, the structure of the core is confined in a tank that this placed inside the pool of the reactor, a shield is placed in the thermal column and it is completely extracted the water for to leave uncover the 'liner' of the reactor. (Author)

  8. Reactor Simulator Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Webster, Kenny L.; Pearson, Boise Jon

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Nuclear Systems Office Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) project, a reactor simulator test loop (RxSim) was design & built to perform integrated testing of the TDU components. In particular, the objectives of RxSim testing was to verify the operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation and control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. In addition, it was decided to include a thermal test of a cold trap purification design and a pump performance test at pump voltages up to 150 V since the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s was not obtained in the RxSim at the originally constrained voltage of 120 V. This paper summarizes RxSim testing. The gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively in NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain operations. The instrumentation and control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings. The cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the cold temperature indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. The annular linear induction pump (ALIP) tested was able to produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz. Keywords: fission, space power, nuclear, liquid metal, NaK.

  9. Reactivity determination in accelerator driven reactors using reactor noise analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Ljiljana 1

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Feynman-alpha and Rossi-alpha methods are used in traditional nuclear reactors to determine the subcritical reactivity of a system. The methods are based on the measurement of the mean value, variance and the covariance of detector counts for different measurement times. Such methods attracted renewed attention recently with the advent of the so-called accelerator driven reactors (ADS proposed some time ago. The ADS systems, intended to be used either in energy generation or transuranium transmutation, will use a subcritical core with a strong spallation source. A spallation source has statistical properties that are different from those traditionally used by radioactive sources. In such reactors the monitoring of the subcritical reactivity is very important, and a statistical method, such as the Feynman-alpha method, is capable of resolving this problem.

  10. Heterogeneous Transmutation Sodium Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. E. Bays

    2007-09-01

    The threshold-fission (fertile) nature of Am-241 is used to destroy this minor actinide by capitalizing upon neutron capture instead of fission within a sodium fast reactor. This neutron-capture and its subsequent decay chain leads to the breeding of even neutron number plutonium isotopes. A slightly moderated target design is proposed for breeding plutonium in an axial blanket located above the active “fast reactor” driver fuel region. A parametric study on the core height and fuel pin diameter-to-pitch ratio is used to explore the reactor and fuel cycle aspects of this design. This study resulted in both non-flattened and flattened core geometries. Both of these designs demonstrated a high capacity for removing americium from the fuel cycle. A reactivity coefficient analysis revealed that this heterogeneous design will have comparable safety aspects to a homogeneous reactor of comparable size. A mass balance analysis revealed that the heterogeneous design may reduce the number of fast reactors needed to close the current once-through light water reactor fuel cycle.

  11. Thermonuclear Reflect AB-Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The author offers a new kind of thermonuclear reflect reactor. The remarkable feature of this new reactor is a three net AB reflector, which confines the high temperature plasma. The plasma loses part of its energy when it contacts with the net but this loss can be compensated by an additional permanent plasma heating. When the plasma is rarefied (has a small density), the heat flow to the AB reflector is not large and the temperature in the triple reflector net is lower than 2000 - 3000 K. This offered AB-reactor has significantly less power then the currently contemplated power reactors with magnetic or inertial confinement (hundreds-thousands of kW, not millions of kW). But it is enough for many vehicles and ships and particularly valuable for tunnelers, subs and space apparatus, where air to burn chemical fuel is at a premium or simply not available. The author has made a number of innovations in this reactor, researched its theory, developed methods of computation, made a sample computation of typical pr...

  12. Imaging Fukushima Daiichi reactors with muons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruo Miyadera

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A study of imaging the Fukushima Daiichi reactors with cosmic-ray muons to assess the damage to the reactors is presented. Muon scattering imaging has high sensitivity for detecting uranium fuel and debris even through thick concrete walls and a reactor pressure vessel. Technical demonstrations using a reactor mockup, detector radiation test at Fukushima Daiichi, and simulation studies have been carried out. These studies establish feasibility for the reactor imaging. A few months of measurement will reveal the spatial distribution of the reactor fuel. The muon scattering technique would be the best and probably the only way for Fukushima Daiichi to make this determination in the near future.

  13. Fast breeder reactors an engineering introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, A M

    1981-01-01

    Fast Breeder Reactors: An Engineering Introduction is an introductory text to fast breeder reactors and covers topics ranging from reactor physics and design to engineering and safety considerations. Reactor fuels, coolant circuits, steam plants, and control systems are also discussed. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with a brief summary of the history of fast reactors, with emphasis on international and the prospect of making accessible enormous reserves of energy. The next chapter deals with the physics of fast reactors and considers calculation methods, flux distribution,

  14. Plasma reactor waste management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Robert O., Jr.; Rindt, John R.; Ness, Sumitra R.

    1992-01-01

    The University of North Dakota is developing a plasma reactor system for use in closed-loop processing that includes biological, materials, manufacturing, and waste processing. Direct-current, high-frequency, or microwave discharges will be used to produce plasmas for the treatment of materials. The plasma reactors offer several advantages over other systems, including low operating temperatures, low operating pressures, mechanical simplicity, and relatively safe operation. Human fecal material, sunflowers, oats, soybeans, and plastic were oxidized in a batch plasma reactor. Over 98 percent of the organic material was converted to gaseous products. The solids were then analyzed and a large amount of water and acid-soluble materials were detected. These materials could possibly be used as nutrients for biological systems.

  15. Nuclear Reactor Engineering Analysis Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Chavez-Mercado; Jaime B. Morales-Sandoval; Benjamin E. Zayas-Perez

    1998-12-31

    The Nuclear Reactor Engineering Analysis Laboratory (NREAL) is a sophisticated computer system with state-of-the-art analytical tools and technology for analysis of light water reactors. Multiple application software tools can be activated to carry out different analyses and studies such as nuclear fuel reload evaluation, safety operation margin measurement, transient and severe accident analysis, nuclear reactor instability, operator training, normal and emergency procedures optimization, and human factors engineering studies. An advanced graphic interface, driven through touch-sensitive screens, provides the means to interact with specialized software and nuclear codes. The interface allows the visualization and control of all observable variables in a nuclear power plant (NPP), as well as a selected set of nonobservable or not directly controllable variables from conventional control panels.

  16. Utilisation of thorium in reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantharaman, K.; Shivakumar, V.; Saha, D.

    2008-12-01

    India's nuclear programme envisages a large-scale utilisation of thorium, as it has limited deposits of uranium but vast deposits of thorium. The large-scale utilisation of thorium requires the adoption of closed fuel cycle. The stable nature of thoria and the radiological issues associated with thoria poses challenges in the adoption of a closed fuel cycle. A thorium fuel based Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is being planned to provide impetus to development of technologies for the closed thorium fuel cycle. Thoria fuel has been loaded in Indian reactors and test irradiations have been carried out with (Th-Pu) MOX fuel. Irradiated thorium assemblies have been reprocessed and the separated 233U fuel has been used for test reactor KAMINI. The paper highlights the Indian experience with the use of thorium and brings out various issues associated with the thorium cycle.

  17. A tubular focused sonochemistry reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU GuangPing; LIANG ZhaoFeng; LI ZhengZhong; ZHANG YiHui

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new sonochemistry reactor, which consists of a cylindrical tube with a certain length and piezoelectric transducers at tube's end with the longitudinal vibration. The tube can effectively transform the longitudinal vibration into the radial vibration and thereby generates ultrasound. Furthermore, ultrasound can be focused to form high-intensity ultrasonic field inside tube. The reactor boasts of simple structure and its whole vessel wall can radiate ultrasound so that the electroacoustic transfer efficiency is high. The focused ultrasonic field provides good condition for sonochemical reaction. The length of the reactor can be up to 2 meters, and liquids can pass through it continuously, so it can be widely applied in liquid processing such as sonochemistry.

  18. A compact Tokamak transmutation reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiuLi-Jian; XiaoBing-Jia

    1997-01-01

    The low aspect ration tokamak is proposed for the driver of a transmutation reactor.The main parameters of the reactor core,neutronic analysis of the blanket are given>the neutron wall loading can be lowered from the magnitude order of 1 MW/m2 to 0.5MW/m2 which is much easier to reach in the near future,and the transmutation efficiency (fission/absorption ratio)is raised further.The blanket power density is about 200MW/m3 which is not difficult to deal with.The key components such as diverter and center conductor post are also designed and compared with conventional TOkamak,Finally,by comparison with the other drivers such as FBR,PWR and accelerator,it can be anticipated that the low aspect ratio transmutation reactor would be one way of fusion energy applications in the near future.

  19. Investigation of KW reactor incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturges, D G [USAEC Hanford Operations Office, Richland, WA (United States); Hauff, T W; Greager, O H [General Electric Co., Richland, WA (United States). Hanford Atomic Products Operation

    1955-02-11

    The new KW reactor was placed in operation on January 4, 1955, and had been running at relatively low power levels for only 17 hours when it was shut down because of a process tube water leak which appeared to be associated with a slug rupture. After several days of unrewarding effort to remove the slugs and tube by customary methods, it developed that considerable melting of the tube and slugs had taken place. It was then evident that removal of the stuck mass and repairs to the damaged tube channel would require unusual measures that were certain to extend the reactor outage for several weeks. This report documents the work and findings of the Committee which investigated the KW reactor incident. Its content represents unanimous agreement among the three Committee members.

  20. Fundamentals of Nuclear Reactor Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, E E

    2008-01-01

    This new streamlined text offers a one-semester treatment of the essentials of how the fission nuclear reactor works, the various approaches to the design of reactors, and their safe and efficient operation. The book includes numerous worked-out examples and end-of-chapter questions to help reinforce the knowledge presented. This textbook offers an engineering-oriented introduction to nuclear physics, with a particular focus on how those physics are put to work in the service of generating nuclear-based power, particularly the importance of neutron reactions and neutron behavior. Engin

  1. PITR: Princeton Ignition Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    The principal objectives of the PITR - Princeton Ignition Test Reactor - are to demonstrate the attainment of thermonuclear ignition in deuterium-tritium, and to develop optimal start-up techniques for plasma heating and current induction, in order to determine the most favorable means of reducing the size and cost of tokamak power reactors. This report describes the status of the plasma and engineering design features of the PITR. The PITR geometry is chosen to provide the highest MHD-stable values of beta in a D-shaped plasma, as well as ease of access for remote handling and neutral-beam injection.

  2. Analysis of Adiabatic Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erald Gjonaj

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of acetic anhydride is reacted with excess water in an adiabatic batch reactor to form an exothermic reaction. The concentration of acetic anhydride and the temperature inside the adiabatic batch reactor are calculated with an initial temperature of 20°C, an initial temperature of 30°C, and with a cooling jacket maintaining the temperature at a constant of 20°C. The graphs of the three different scenarios show that the highest temperatures will cause the reaction to occur faster.

  3. External fuel thermionic reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondt, J. F.; Peelgren, M. L.

    1971-01-01

    Thermionic reactors are prime candidates for nuclear electric propulsion. The national thermionic reactor effort is concentrated on the flashlight concept with the external-fuel concept as the backup. The external-fuel concept is very adaptable to a completely modular power subsystem which is attractive for highly reliable long-life applications. The 20- to 25-cm long, externally-fueled converters have been designed, fabricated, and successfully tested with many thermal cycles by electrical heating. However, difficulties have been encountered during encapsulation for nuclear heated tests and none have been started to date. These nuclear tests are required to demonstrate the concept feasibility.

  4. Reactor shutdown delays medical procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A longer-than-expected maintenance shutdown of the Canadian nuclear reactor that produces North America's entire supply of molybdenum-99 - from which the radioactive isotopes technetium-99 and iodine-131 are made - caused delays to the diagnosis and treatment of thousands of seriously ill patients last month. Technetium-99 is a key component of nuclear-medicine scans, while iodine-131 is used to treat cancer and other diseases of the thyroid. Production eventually resumed, but only after the Canadian government had overruled the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), which was still concerned about the reactor's safety.

  5. Request for Naval Reactors Comment on Proposed Prometheus Space Flight Nuclear Reactor High Tier Reactor Safety Requirements and for Naval Reactors Approval to Transmit These Requirements to JPL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Kokkinos

    2005-04-28

    The purpose of this letter is to request Naval Reactors comments on the nuclear reactor high tier requirements for the PROMETHEUS space flight reactor design, pre-launch operations, launch, ascent, operation, and disposal, and to request Naval Reactors approval to transmit these requirements to Jet Propulsion Laboratory to ensure consistency between the reactor safety requirements and the spacecraft safety requirements. The proposed PROMETHEUS nuclear reactor high tier safety requirements are consistent with the long standing safety culture of the Naval Reactors Program and its commitment to protecting the health and safety of the public and the environment. In addition, the philosophy on which these requirements are based is consistent with the Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group recommendations on space nuclear propulsion safety (Reference 1), DOE Nuclear Safety Criteria and Specifications for Space Nuclear Reactors (Reference 2), the Nuclear Space Power Safety and Facility Guidelines Study of the Applied Physics Laboratory.

  6. Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.V.; Johnson, A.G.; Bennett, S.L.; Ringle, J.C.

    1979-08-31

    The use of the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor during the year ending June 30, 1979, is summarized. Environmental and radiation protection data related to reactor operation and effluents are included.

  7. Reactor Antineutrino Signals at Morton and Boulby

    CERN Document Server

    Dye, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the distance from which an antineutrino detector is capable of monitoring the operation of a registered reactor, or discovering a clandestine reactor, strengthens the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Treaty. This report presents calculations of reactor antineutrino interactions, from quasi-elastic neutrino-proton scattering and elastic neutrino-electron scattering, in a water-based detector operated >10 km from a commercial power reactor. It separately calculates signal from the proximal reactor and background from all other registered reactors. The main results are interaction rates and kinetic energy distributions of charged leptons scattered from quasi-elastic and elastic processes. Comparing signal and background distributions evaluates reactor monitoring capability. Scaling the results to detectors of different sizes, target media, and standoff distances is straightforward. Calculations are for two examples of a commercial reactor (P_th~3 GW) operating nearby (L~20 km) an underground facil...

  8. Transmutation of actinides in power reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergelson, B R; Gerasimov, A S; Tikhomirov, G V

    2005-01-01

    Power reactors can be used for partial short-term transmutation of radwaste. This transmutation is beneficial in terms of subsequent storage conditions for spent fuel in long-term storage facilities. CANDU-type reactors can transmute the main minor actinides from two or three reactors of the VVER-1000 type. A VVER-1000-type reactor can operate in a self-service mode with transmutation of its own actinides.

  9. Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-02-01

    The Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor (LEFR) is a modular, lab scale, single-user reactor for the study of catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP). This system can be employed to study a variety of reactor conditions for both in situ and ex situ CFP.

  10. Some new viewpoints in reactor noise analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗征培; 李富; 等

    1996-01-01

    It is propsed that the linearity criterion and order criterion via frequency spectrum features without any limitation of the model's phase can be used in reactor noise analysis.The time constant,natural frequency as well as the recovered transfer function of reactors can bhe obtained via the analyzable model based on reactor noise.

  11. Heat-pipe thermionic reactor concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm Pedersen, E.

    1967-01-01

    Main components are reactor core, heat pipe, thermionic converter, secondary cooling system, and waste heat radiator; thermal power generated in reactor core is transported by heat pipes to thermionic converters located outside reactor core behind radiation shield; thermionic emitters are in direct...

  12. Heavy Water Reactor; Reacteurs a eau lourde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, St.; HOpwood, J.; Meneley, D. [Energie Atomique du Canada (Canada)

    2000-04-01

    This document deals with the Heavy Water Reactor (HWR) technology and especially the Candu (Canada Deuterium Uranium) reactor. This reactors type offers many advantages that promote them for the future. General concepts, a description of the Candu nuclear power plants, the safety systems, the fuel cycle and economical and environmental aspects are included. (A.L.B.)

  13. Operating Modes Of Chemical Reactors Of Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meruyert Berdieva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the work the issues of stable technological modes of operation of main devices of producing polysterol reactors have been researched as well as modes of stable operation of a chemical reactor have been presented, which enables to create optimum mode parameters of polymerization process, to prevent emergency situations of chemical reactor operation in industrial conditions.

  14. Nuclear Reactors and Technology; (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on EDB and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to EDB, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user's needs.

  15. A Simple Tubular Reactor Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, Robert R.; Cayrol, Bertrand

    1981-01-01

    Using the hydrolysis of crystal violet dye by sodium hydroxide as an example, the theory, apparatus, and procedure for a laboratory demonstration of tubular reactor behavior are described. The reaction presented can occur at room temperature and features a color change to reinforce measured results. (WB)

  16. Silica-Immobilized Enzyme Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    immobilized artificial membrane chromatography and lysophospholipid micellar electrokinetic chromatography . J. Chromatogr. A 1998, 810, 95-103. 50...Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies. Air Force Research Laboratory Materials and Manufacturing Directorate Airbase...immobilized enzyme reactors (IMERs) can also be integrated directly to further analytical methods such as liquid chromatography or mass spectrometry.[6] In

  17. British high flux beam reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egelstaff, P A

    1970-10-24

    The neutron scattering technique has become an accepted method for the study of condensed matter. Because of the great scientific and technical value of neutron experiments and the growing body of users, several proposals have been made during the past decade for a nuclear reactor devoted primarily to this technique. This article reviews the reasons for and history behind these proposals.

  18. Nuclear reactors and fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) of IPEN produces nuclear fuel for the continuous operation of the IEA-R1 research reactor of IPEN. The serial production started in 1988, when the first nuclear fuel element was delivered for IEA-R1. In 2011, CCN proudly presents the 100{sup th} nuclear fuel element produced. Besides routine production, development of new technologies is also a permanent concern at CCN. In 2005, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} were replaced by U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-based fuels, and the research of U Mo is currently under investigation. Additionally, the Brazilian Multipurpose Research Reactor (RMB), whose project will rely on the CCN for supplying fuel and uranium targets. Evolving from an annual production from 10 to 70 nuclear fuel elements, plus a thousand uranium targets, is a huge and challenging task. To accomplish it, a new and modern Nuclear Fuel Factory is being concluded, and it will provide not only structure for scaling up, but also a safer and greener production. The Nuclear Engineering Center has shown, along several years, expertise in the field of nuclear, energy systems and correlated areas. Due to the experience obtained during decades in research and technological development at Brazilian Nuclear Program, personnel has been trained and started to actively participate in design of the main system that will compose the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) which will make Brazil self-sufficient in production of radiopharmaceuticals. The institution has participated in the monitoring and technical support concerning the safety, licensing and modernization of the research reactors IPEN/MB-01 and IEA-R1. Along the last two decades, numerous specialized services of engineering for the Brazilian nuclear power plants Angra 1 and Angra 2 have been carried out. The contribution in service, research, training, and teaching in addition to the development of many related technologies applied to nuclear engineering and correlated areas enable the institution to

  19. Heterogeneous Recycling in Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forget, Benoit; Pope, Michael; Piet, Steven J.; Driscoll, Michael

    2012-07-30

    Current sodium fast reactor (SFR) designs have avoided the use of depleted uranium blankets over concerns of creating weapons grade plutonium. While reducing proliferation risks, this restrains the reactor design space considerably. This project will analyze various blanket and transmutation target configurations that could broaden the design space while still addressing the non-proliferation issues. The blanket designs will be assessed based on the transmutation efficiency of key minor actinide (MA) isotopes and also on mitigation of associated proliferation risks. This study will also evaluate SFR core performance under different scenarios in which depleted uranium blankets are modified to include minor actinides with or without moderators (e.g. BeO, MgO, B4C, and hydrides). This will be done in an effort to increase the sustainability of the reactor and increase its power density while still offering a proliferation resistant design with the capability of burning MA waste produced from light water reactors (LWRs). Researchers will also analyze the use of recycled (as opposed to depleted) uranium in the blankets. The various designs will compare MA transmutation efficiency, plutonium breeding characteristics, proliferation risk, shutdown margins and reactivity coefficients with a current reference sodium fast reactor design employing homogeneous recycling. The team will also evaluate the out-of-core accumulation and/or burn-down rates of MAs and plutonium isotopes on a cycle-by-cycle basis. This cycle-by-cycle information will be produced in a format readily usable by the fuel cycle systems analysis code, VISION, for assessment of the sustainability of the deployment scenarios.

  20. A new MTR fuel for a new MTR reactor: UMo for the Jules Horowitz reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guigon, B. [CEA Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Vacelet, H. [CERCA, Romans (France); Dornbusch, D. [Technicatome, Aix en Provence (France)

    2000-07-01

    Within some years, the Jules Horowitz Reactor will be the only working experimental reactor (material and fuel testing reactor) in France. It will have to provide facilities for a wide range of needs from activation analysis to power reactor fuel qualification. In this paper the main characteristics of the Jules Horowitz Reactor are presented. Safety criteria are explained. Finally, merits and disadvantages of UMo compared to the standard U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuel are discussed. (author)

  1. Neutrino Mixing Discriminates Geo-reactor Models

    CERN Document Server

    Dye, S T

    2009-01-01

    Geo-reactor models suggest the existence of natural nuclear reactors at different deep-earth locations with loosely defined output power. Reactor fission products undergo beta decay with the emission of electron antineutrinos, which routinely escape the earth. Neutrino mixing distorts the energy spectrum of the electron antineutrinos. Characteristics of the distorted spectrum observed at the earth's surface could specify the location of a geo-reactor, discriminating the models and facilitating more precise power measurement. The existence of a geo-reactor with known position could enable a precision measurement of the neutrino oscillation parameter delta-mass-squared.

  2. Reactor monitoring and safeguards using antineutrino detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bowden, N S

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear reactors have served as the antineutrino source for many fundamental physics experiments. The techniques developed by these experiments make it possible to use these very weakly interacting particles for a practical purpose. The large flux of antineutrinos that leaves a reactor carries information about two quantities of interest for safeguards: the reactor power and fissile inventory. Measurements made with antineutrino detectors could therefore offer an alternative means for verifying the power history and fissile inventory of a reactors, as part of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and other reactor safeguards regimes. Several efforts to develop this monitoring technique are underway across the globe.

  3. Reactor assessments of advanced bumpy torus configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uckan, N.A.; Owen, L.W.; Spong, D.A.; Miller, R.L.; Ard, W.B.; Pipkins, J.F.; Schmitt, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Recently, several configurational approaches and concept improvement schemes were introduced for enhancing the performance of the basic ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) concept and for improving its reactor potential. These configurations include planar racetrack and square geometries, Andreoletti coil systems, and bumpy torus-stellarator hybrids (which include twisted racetrack and helical axis stellarator-snakey torus). Preliminary evaluations of reactor implications of each of these configurations have been carried out based on magnetics (vacuum) calculations, transport and scaling relationships, and stability properties. Results indicate favorable reactor projections with a significant reduction in reactor physical size as compared to conventional EBT reactor designs carried out in the past.

  4. Detection of antineutrinos for reactor monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeong Duk [Center for Underground Physics, Institute of Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Reactor neutrinos have been detected in the past 50 years by various detectors for different purposes. Beginning in the 1980s, neutrino physicists have tried to use neutrinos to monitor reactors and develop an optimized detector for nuclear safeguards. Recently, motivated by neutrino oscillation physics, the technology and scale of reactor neutrino detection have progressed considerably. In this review, I will give an overview of the detection technology for reactor neutrinos, and describe the issues related to further improvements in optimized detectors for reactor monitoring.

  5. CFD Simulation on Ethylene Furnace Reactor Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Different mathematical models for ethylene furnace reactor tubes were reviewed. On the basis of these models a new mathematical simulation approach for reactor tubes based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique was presented. This approach took the flow, heat transfer, mass transfer and thermal cracking reactions in the reactor tubes into consideration. The coupled reactor model was solved with the SIMPLE algorithm. Some detailed information about the flow field, temperature field and concentration distribution in the reactor tubes was obtained, revealing the basic characteristics of the hydrodynamic phenomena and reaction behavior in the reactor tubes. The CFD approach provides the necessary information for conclusive decisions regarding the production optimization, the design and improvement of reactor tubes, and the new techniques implementation.

  6. Advanced reactor physics methods for heterogeneous reactor cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Steven A.

    To maintain the economic viability of nuclear power the industry has begun to emphasize maximizing the efficiency and output of existing nuclear power plants by using longer fuel cycles, stretch power uprates, shorter outage lengths, mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel and more aggressive operating strategies. In order to accommodate these changes, while still satisfying the peaking factor and power envelope requirements necessary to maintain safe operation, more complexity in commercial core designs have been implemented, such as an increase in the number of sub-batches and an increase in the use of both discrete and integral burnable poisons. A consequence of the increased complexity of core designs, as well as the use of MOX fuel, is an increase in the neutronic heterogeneity of the core. Such heterogeneous cores introduce challenges for the current methods that are used for reactor analysis. New methods must be developed to address these deficiencies while still maintaining the computational efficiency of existing reactor analysis methods. In this thesis, advanced core design methodologies are developed to be able to adequately analyze the highly heterogeneous core designs which are currently in use in commercial power reactors. These methodological improvements are being pursued with the goal of not sacrificing the computational efficiency which core designers require. More specifically, the PSU nodal code NEM is being updated to include an SP3 solution option, an advanced transverse leakage option, and a semi-analytical NEM solution option.

  7. Reactor pulse repeatability studies at the annular core research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePriest, K.R. [Applied Nuclear Technologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Mail Stop 1146, Post Office Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1146 (United States); Trinh, T.Q. [Nuclear Facility Operations, Sandia National Laboratories, Mail Stop 0614, Post Office Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1146 (United States); Luker, S. M. [Applied Nuclear Technologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Mail Stop 1146, Post Office Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1146 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Laboratories is a water-moderated pool-type reactor designed for testing many types of objects in the pulse and steady-state mode of operations. Personnel at Sandia began working to improve the repeatability of pulse operations for experimenters in the facility. The ACRR has a unique UO{sub 2}-BeO fuel that makes the task of producing repeatable pulses difficult with the current operating procedure. The ACRR produces a significant quantity of photoneutrons through the {sup 9}Be({gamma}, n){sup 8}Be reaction in the fuel elements. The photoneutrons are the result of the gammas produced during fission and in fission product decay, so their production is very much dependent on the reactor power history and changes throughout the day/week of experiments in the facility. Because the photoneutrons interfere with the delayed-critical measurements required for accurate pulse reactivity prediction, a new operating procedure was created. The photoneutron effects at delayed critical are minimized when using the modified procedure. In addition, the pulse element removal time is standardized for all pulse operations with the modified procedure, and this produces less variation in reactivity removal times. (authors)

  8. In-reactor performance of pressure tubes in CANDU reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, D. K.; Coleman, C. E.; Griffiths, M.; Bickel, G. A.; Theaker, J. R.; Muir, I.; Bahurmuz, A. A.; Lawrence, S. St.; Resta Levi, M.

    2008-12-01

    The pressure tubes in CANDU reactors have been operating for times up to about 25 years. The in-reactor performance of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes has been evaluated by sampling and periodic inspection. This paper describes the behaviour and discusses the factors controlling the behaviour of these components in currently operating CANDU reactors. The mechanical properties (such as ultimate tensile strength, UTS, and fracture toughness), and delayed-hydride-cracking properties (crack growth rate Vc, and threshold stress intensity factor, KIH) change with irradiation; the former reach a limiting value at a fluence of Pressure tubes exhibit elongation and diametral expansion. The deformation behaviour is a function of operating conditions and material properties that vary from tube-to-tube and as a function of axial location. Semi-empirical predictive models have been developed to describe the deformation response of average tubes as a function of operating conditions. For corrosion and, more importantly deuterium pickup, semi-empirical predictive models have also been developed to represent the behaviour of an average tube. The effect of material variability on corrosion behaviour is less well defined compared with other properties. Improvements in manufacturing have increased fracture resistance by minimising trace elements, especially H and Cl, and reduced variability by tightening controls on forming parameters, especially hot-working temperatures.

  9. Fluidized bed coal combustion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed coal reactor includes a combination nozzle-injector ash-removal unit formed by a grid of closely spaced open channels, each containing a worm screw conveyor, which function as continuous ash removal troughs. A pressurized air-coal mixture is introduced below the unit and is injected through the elongated nozzles formed by the spaces between the channels. The ash build-up in the troughs protects the worm screw conveyors as does the cooling action of the injected mixture. The ash layer and the pressure from the injectors support a fluidized flame combustion zone above the grid which heats water in boiler tubes disposed within and/or above the combustion zone and/or within the walls of the reactor.

  10. Nuclear reactor alignment plate configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, David A; Forsyth, David R; Smith, Richard E; Singleton, Norman R

    2014-01-28

    An alignment plate that is attached to a core barrel of a pressurized water reactor and fits within slots within a top plate of a lower core shroud and upper core plate to maintain lateral alignment of the reactor internals. The alignment plate is connected to the core barrel through two vertically-spaced dowel pins that extend from the outside surface of the core barrel through a reinforcement pad and into corresponding holes in the alignment plate. Additionally, threaded fasteners are inserted around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad and into the alignment plate to further secure the alignment plate to the core barrel. A fillet weld also is deposited around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad. To accomodate thermal growth between the alignment plate and the core barrel, a gap is left above, below and at both sides of one of the dowel pins in the alignment plate holes through with the dowel pins pass.

  11. Transport simulation for EBT reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uckan, T.; Uckan, N.A.; Jaeger, E.F.

    1983-08-01

    Transport simulation and modeling studies for the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) reactor are carried out by using zero-dimensional (0-D) and one-and-one-half-dimensional (1 1/2-D) transport calculations. The time-dependent 0-D model is used for global analysis, whereas the 1 1/2-D radial transport code is used for accurate determination of density, temperature, and ambipolar potential profiles and of the role of these profiles in reactor plasma performance. Analysis with the 1 1/2-D transport code shows that profile effects near the outer edge of the hot electron ring lead to enhanced confinement by at least a factor of 2 to 5 beyond the simple scaling that is obtained from the global analysis. The radial profiles of core plasma density and temperatures (or core pressure) obtained from 1 1/2-D transport calculations are found to be similar to those theoretically required for stability.

  12. Gas-liquid autoxidation reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morbidelli, M.; Paludetto, R.; Carra, S.

    1986-01-01

    A procedure for the simulation of autoxidation gas-liquid reactors has been developed based both on mathematical models and laboratory experiments. It has been shown that the complex radical chain mechanism of the autoxidation process can be simulated through two global parallel reactions, whose rates are obtained by assuming pseudo-steady-state concentration values for all the radical species involved. Using ethylbenzene autoxidation as a model reaction, an experimental analysis has been performed in order to estimate all the kinetic parameters of the model. The effect of the interaction between gas-liquid mass-transfer phenomena and the complex kinetic mechanism on the overall performance of an autoxidation reactor has been examined in detail within the framework of the liquid film model.

  13. Fast breeder reactor protection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Erp, J.B.

    1973-10-01

    Reactor protection is provided for a liquid-metal-fast breeder reactor core by measuring the coolant outflow temperature from each of the subassemblies of the core. The outputs of the temperature sensors from a subassembly region of the core containing a plurality of subassemblies are combined in a logic circuit which develops a scram alarm if a predetermined number of the sensors indicate an over temperature condition. The coolant outflow from a single subassembly can be mixed with the coolant outflow from adjacent subassemblies prior to the temperature sensing to increase the sensitivity of the protection system to a single subassembly failure. Coherence between the sensors can be required to discriminate against noise signals. (Official Gazette)

  14. Reactor vessel lower head integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, A.M.

    1997-02-01

    On March 28, 1979, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) nuclear power plant underwent a prolonged small break loss-of-coolant accident that resulted in severe damage to the reactor core. Post-accident examinations of the TMI-2 reactor core and lower plenum found that approximately 19,000 kg (19 metric tons) of molten material had relocated onto the lower head of the reactor vessel. Results of the OECD TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project concluded that a localized hot spot of approximately 1 meter diameter had existed on the lower head. The maximum temperature on the inner surface of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in this region reached 1100{degrees}C and remained at that temperature for approximately 30 minutes before cooling occurred. Even under the combined loads of high temperature and high primary system pressure, the TMI-2 RPV did not fail. (i.e. The pressure varied from about 8.5 to 15 MPa during the four-hour period following the relocation of melt to the lower plenum.) Analyses of RPV failure under these conditions, using state-of-the-art computer codes, predicted that the RPV should have failed via local or global creep rupture. However, the vessel did not fail; and it has been hypothesized that rapid cooling of the debris and the vessel wall by water that was present in the lower plenum played an important role in maintaining RPV integrity during the accident. Although the exact mechanism(s) of how such cooling occurs is not known, it has been speculated that cooling in a small gap between the RPV wall and the crust, and/or in cracks within the debris itself, could result in sufficient cooling to maintain RPV integrity. Experimental data are needed to provide the basis to better understand these phenomena and improve models of RPV failure in severe accident codes.

  15. The ARIES tokamak reactor study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-10-01

    The ARIES study is a community effort to develop several visions of tokamaks as fusion power reactors. The aims are to determine the potential economics, safety, and environmental features of a range of possible tokamak reactors, and to identify physics and technology areas with the highest leverage for achieving the best tokamak reactor. Three ARIES visions are planned, each having a different degree of extrapolation from the present data base in physics and technology. The ARIES-I design assumes a minimum extrapolation from current tokamak physics (e.g., 1st stability) and incorporates technological advances that can be available in the next 20 to 30 years. ARIES-II is a DT-burning tokamak which would operate at a higher beta in the 2nd MHD stability regime. It employs both potential advances in the physics and expected advances in technology and engineering. ARIES-II will examine the potential of the tokamak and the D{sup 3}He fuel cycle. This report is a collection of 14 papers on the results of the ARIES study which were presented at the IEEE 13th Symposium on Fusion Engineering (October 2-6, 1989, Knoxville, TN). This collection describes the ARIES research effort, with emphasis on the ARIES-I design, summarizing the major results, the key technical issues, and the central conclusions.

  16. Actinide transmutation in nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bultman, J.H.

    1995-01-17

    An optimization method is developed to maximize the burning capability of the ALMR while complying with all constraints imposed on the design for reliability and safety. This method leads to a maximal transuranics enrichment, which is being limited by constraints on reactivity. The enrichment can be raised by using the neutrons less efficiently by increasing leakage from the fuel. With the developed optimization method, a metallic and an oxide fueled ALMR were optimized. Both reactors perform equally well considering the burning of transuranics. However, metallic fuel has a much higher heat conductivity coefficient, which in general leads to better safety characteristics. In search of a more effective waste transmuter, a modified Molten Salt Reactor was designed. A MSR operates on a liquid fuel salt which makes continuous refueling possible, eliminating the issue of the burnup reactivity loss. Also, a prompt negative reactivity feedback is possible for an overmoderated reactor design, even when the Doppler coefficient is positive, due to the fuel expansion with fuel temperature increase. Furthermore, the molten salt fuel can be reprocessed based on a reduction process which is not sensitive to the short-lived spontaneously fissioning actinides. (orig./HP).

  17. Assessment of the thorium fuel cycle in power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasten, P.R.; Homan, F.J.; Allen, E.J.

    1977-01-01

    A study was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to evaluate the role of thorium fuel cycles in power reactors. Three thermal reactor systems were considered: Light Water Reactors (LWRs); High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGRs); and Heavy Water Reactors (HWRs) of the Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor (CANDU) type; most of the effort was on these systems. A summary comparing thorium and uranium fuel cycles in Fast Breeder Reactors (FBRs) was also compiled.

  18. Investigation of molten salt fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Kenichi; Konomura, Mamoru [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    On survey research for practicability strategy of fast reactor (FR) (phase 1), to extract future practicability image candidates of FR from wide options, in addition to their survey and investigation objects of not only solid fuel reactors of conventional research object but also molten salt reactor as a flowing fuel reactor, investigation on concept of molten salt FR plant was carried out. As a part of the first step of the survey research for practicability strategy, a basic concept on plant centered at nuclear reactor facility using chloride molten salt reactor capable of carrying out U-Pu cycle was examined, to perform a base construction to evaluate economical potential for a practical FBR. As a result, a result could be obtained that because of inferior fuel inventory and heat transmission to those in Na cooling reactor in present knowledge, mass of reactor vessel and intermediate heat exchanger were to widely increased to expect reduction of power generation unit price even on considering cheapness of its fuel cycle cost. Therefore, at present step further investigation on concept design of the chloride molten salt reactor plant system is too early in time, and it is at a condition where basic and elementary researches aiming at upgrading of economical efficiency such as wide reduction of fuel inventory, a measure expectable for remarkable rationalization effect of reprocessing system integrating a reactor to a processing facility, and so on. (G.K.)

  19. Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Bao-Guo; Gu, Ji-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The supercritical, reactor core melting and nuclear fuel leaking accidents have troubled fission reactors for decades, and greatly limit their extensive applications. Now these troubles are still open. Here we first show a possible perfect reactor, Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor which is no above accident trouble. We found this reactor could be realized in practical applications in terms of all of the scientific principle, principle of operation, technology, and engineering. Our results demonstrate how these reactors can possess and realize extraordinary excellent characteristics, no prompt critical, long-term safe and stable operation with negative feedback, closed uranium-plutonium cycle chain within the vessel, normal operation only with depleted-uranium, and depleted-uranium high burnup in reality, to realize with fission nuclear energy sufficiently satisfying humanity long-term energy resource needs, as well as thoroughly solve the challenges of nuclear criticality safety, uranium resource insuffic...

  20. Performance of a multipurpose research electrochemical reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henquin, E.R. [Programa de Electroquimica Aplicada e Ingenieria Electroquimica (PRELINE), Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829, S3000AOM Santa Fe (Argentina); Bisang, J.M., E-mail: jbisang@fiq.unl.edu.ar [Programa de Electroquimica Aplicada e Ingenieria Electroquimica (PRELINE), Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829, S3000AOM Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: > For this reactor configuration the current distribution is uniform. > For this reactor configuration with bipolar connection the leakage current is small. > The mass-transfer conditions are closely uniform along the electrode. > The fluidodynamic behaviour can be represented by the dispersion model. > This reactor represents a suitable device for laboratory trials. - Abstract: This paper reports on a multipurpose research electrochemical reactor with an innovative design feature, which is based on a filter press arrangement with inclined segmented electrodes and under a modular assembly. Under bipolar connection, the fraction of leakage current is lower than 4%, depending on the bipolar Wagner number, and the current distribution is closely uniform. When a turbulence promoter is used, the local mass-transfer coefficient shows a variation of {+-}10% with respect to its mean value. The fluidodynamics of the reactor responds to the dispersion model with a Peclet number higher than 10. It is concluded that this reactor is convenient for laboratory research.

  1. Sulfide toxicity kinetics of a uasb reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Paula Jr.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sulfide toxicity on kinetic parameters of anaerobic organic matter removal in a UASB (up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor is presented. Two lab-scale UASB reactors (10.5 L were operated continuously during 12 months. The reactors were fed with synthetic wastes prepared daily using glucose, ammonium acetate, methanol and nutrient solution. One of the reactors also received increasing concentrations of sodium sulfide. For both reactors, the flow rate of 16 L.d-1 was held constant throughout the experiment, corresponding to a hydraulic retention time of 15.6 hours. The classic model for non-competitive sulfide inhibition was applied to the experimental data for determining the overall kinetic parameter of specific substrate utilization (q and the sulfide inhibition coefficient (Ki. The application of the kinetic parameters determined allows prediction of methanogenesis inhibition and thus the adoption of operating parameters to minimize sulfide toxicity in UASB reactors.

  2. Introduction to the neutron kinetics of nuclear power reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Tyror, J G; Grant, P J

    2013-01-01

    An Introduction to the Neutron Kinetics of Nuclear Power Reactors introduces the reader to the neutron kinetics of nuclear power reactors. Topics covered include the neutron physics of reactor kinetics, feedback effects, water-moderated reactors, fast reactors, and methods of plant control. The reactor transients following faults are also discussed, along with the use of computers in the study of power reactor kinetics. This book is comprised of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the reactor physics characteristics of a nuclear power reactor and their influence on system design and

  3. Microstructured reactors for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aartun, Ingrid

    2005-07-01

    Small scale hydrogen production by partial oxidation (POX) and oxidative steam reforming (OSR) have been studied over Rh-impregnated microchannel Fecralloy reactors and alumina foams. Trying to establish whether metallic microchannel reactors have special advantages for hydrogen production via catalytic POX or OSR with respect to activity, selectivity and stability was of special interest. The microchannel Fecralloy reactors were oxidised at 1000 deg C to form a {alpha}-Al2O3 layer in the channels in order to enhance the surface area prior to impregnation. Kr-BET measurements showed that the specific surface area after oxidation was approximately 10 times higher than the calculated geometric surface area. Approximately 1 mg Rh was deposited in the channels by impregnation with an aqueous solution of RhCl3. Annular pieces (15 mm o.d.,4 mm i.d., 14 mm length) of extruded {alpha}-Al2O3 foams were impregnated with aqueous solutions of Rh(NO3)3 to obtain 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 wt.% loadings, as predicted by solution uptake. ICP-AES analyses showed that the actual Rh loadings probably were higher, 0.025, 0.077 and 0.169 wt.% respectively. One of the microchannel Fecralloy reactors and all Al2O3 foams were equipped with a channel to allow for temperature measurement inside the catalytic system. Temperature profiles obtained along the reactor axes show that the metallic microchannel reactor is able to minimize temperature gradients as compared to the alumina foams. At sufficiently high furnace temperature, the gas phase in front of the Rh/Al2O3/Frecralloy microchannel reactor and the 0.025 wt.% Rh/Al2O3 foams ignites. Gas phase ignition leads to lower syngas selectivity and higher selectivity to total oxidation products and hydrocarbon by-products. Before ignition of the gas phase the hydrogen selectivity is increased in OSR as compared to POX, the main contribution being the water-gas shift reaction. After gas phase ignition, increased formation of hydrocarbon by

  4. Plasma spark discharge reactor and durable electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young I.; Cho, Daniel J.; Fridman, Alexander; Kim, Hyoungsup

    2017-01-10

    A plasma spark discharge reactor for treating water. The plasma spark discharge reactor comprises a HV electrode with a head and ground electrode that surrounds at least a portion of the HV electrode. A passage for gas may pass through the reactor to a location proximate to the head to provide controlled formation of gas bubbles in order to facilitate the plasma spark discharge in a liquid environment.

  5. Experimental Breeder Reactor I Preservation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Braun

    2006-10-01

    Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR I) is a National Historic Landmark located at the Idaho National Laboratory, a Department of Energy laboratory in southeastern Idaho. The facility is significant for its association and contributions to the development of nuclear reactor testing and development. This Plan includes a structural assessment of the interior and exterior of the EBR I Reactor Building from a preservation, rather than an engineering stand point and recommendations for maintenance to ensure its continued protection.

  6. Reactor Bolshoi Moshchnosti Kalani; Reacteurs RBMK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastien, D. [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (CNAM), 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-01-01

    The Reactor Bolshoi Molshchnosti Kalani (RBMK) are pressure tubes reactor, boiling light water cooled. Exported since 1990 from the ex-USSR, they are today in three independent countries: Russian, Ukraine and Lithuania. Since this date, data exchange with the occident allowed the better knowledge of this reactor type. The design, the technical description (core, fuel, primary system), the safety and the improvement since Chernobyl are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  7. NASA Reactor Facility Hazards Summary. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration proposes to build a nuclear research reactor which will be located in the Plum Brook Ordnance Works near Sandusky, Ohio. The purpose of this report is to inform the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission in regard to the design Lq of the reactor facility, the characteristics of the site, and the hazards of operation at this location. The purpose of this research reactor is to make pumped loop studies of aircraft reactor fuel elements and other reactor components, radiation effects studies on aircraft reactor materials and equipment, shielding studies, and nuclear and solid state physics experiments. The reactor is light water cooled and moderated of the MTR-type with a primary beryllium reflector and a secondary water reflector. The core initially will be a 3 by 9 array of MTR-type fuel elements and is designed for operation up to a power of 60 megawatts. The reactor facility is described in general terms. This is followed by a discussion of the nuclear characteristics and performance of the reactor. Then details of the reactor control system are discussed. A summary of the site characteristics is then presented followed by a discussion of the larger type of experiments which may eventually be operated in this facility. The considerations for normal operation are concluded with a proposed method of handling fuel elements and radioactive wastes. The potential hazards involved with failures or malfunctions of this facility are considered in some detail. These are examined first from the standpoint of preventing them or minimizing their effects and second from the standpoint of what effect they might have on the reactor facility staff and the surrounding population. The most essential feature of the design for location at the proposed site is containment of the maximum credible accident.

  8. Heat for industry from nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikoin, I.K.; Novikov, V.M.

    Two factors which incline nations toward the use of heat from nuclear reactors for industrial use are: 1) exhaustion of cheap fossil fuel resources, and 2) ecological problems associated both with extraction of fossil fuel from the earth and with its combustion. In addition to the usual problems that beset nuclear reactors, special problems associated with using heat from nuclear reactors in various industries are explored.

  9. D-D tokamak reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, K.E. Jr.; Baker, C.C.; Brooks, J.N.; Ehst, D.A.; Finn, P.A.; Jung, J.; Mattas, R.F.; Misra, B.; Smith, D.L.; Stevens, H.C.

    1980-11-01

    A tokamak D-D reactor design, utilizing the advantages of a deuterium-fueled reactor but with parameters not unnecessarily extended from existing D-T designs, is presented. Studies leading to the choice of a design and initial studies of the design are described. The studies are in the areas of plasma engineering, first-wall/blanket/shield design, magnet design, and tritium/fuel/vacuum requirements. Conclusions concerning D-D tokamak reactors are stated.

  10. Initiating Events for Multi-Reactor Plant Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhlheim, Michael David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Flanagan, George F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Poore, III, Willis P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Inherent in the design of modular reactors is the increased likelihood of events that initiate at a single reactor affecting another reactor. Because of the increased level of interactions between reactors, it is apparent that the Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) for modular reactor designs need to specifically address the increased interactions and dependencies.

  11. High Performance Photocatalytic Oxidation Reactor System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Pioneer Astronautics proposes a technology program for the development of an innovative photocatalytic oxidation reactor for the removal and mineralization of...

  12. Savannah River Site reactor safety assessment. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woody, N.D.; Brandyberry, M.D. [eds.] [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Baker, W.H.; Brandyberry, M.D.; Kearnaghan, D.P.; O`Kula, K.R.; Woody, N.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Amos, C.N.; Weingardt, J.J. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1991-02-28

    This report gives the results of a Savannah River Site (SRS) Production Reactor risk assessment. Measures of adverse consequences to health and safety resulting from representations of severe accidents in SRS reactors are presented. In addition, the report gives a summary of the methods employed to represent these accidents and to assess the resultant consequences. The report is issued to provide timely information to the US Department of Energy (DOE) on the risk of operation of SRS reactors, for insights into severe accident phenomena that contribute to this risk, and in support of improved bases for other Site programs in Heavy Water Reactor safety.

  13. History of fast reactor fuel development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittel, J.H.; Frost, B.R.T. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Mustelier, J.P. (COGEMA, Velizy-Villacoublay (France))

    1992-01-01

    Most of the first generation of fast reactors that were operated at significant power levels employed solid metal fuels. They were constructed in the United States and United Kingdom in the 1950s and included Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR)-I and -II operated by Argonne National Laboratory, United States, the Enrico Fermi Reactor operated by the Atomic Power Development Associates, United States and DFR operated by the U.K. Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA). Their paper tracer pre-development of fast reactor fuel from these early days through the 1980s including ceramic fuels.

  14. Advanced nuclear reactor types and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatiev, V. [ed.; Feinberg, O.; Morozov, A. [Russian Research Centre `Kurchatov Institute`, Moscow (Russian Federation); Devell, L. [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1995-07-01

    The document is a comprehensive world-wide catalogue of concepts and designs of advanced fission reactor types and fuel cycle technologies. Two parts have been prepared: Part 1 Reactors for Power Production and Part 2 Heating and Other Reactor Applications. Part 3, which will cover advanced waste management technology, reprocessing and disposal for different nuclear fission options is planned for compilation during 1995. The catalogue was prepared according to a special format which briefly presents the project title, technical approach, development status, application of the technology, reactor type, power output, and organization which developed these designs. Part 1 and 2 cover water cooled reactors, liquid metal fast reactors, gas-cooled reactors and molten salt reactors. Subcritical accelerator-driven systems are also considered. Various reactor applications as power production, heat generation, ship propulsion, space power sources and transmutation of such waste are included. Each project is described within a few pages with the main features of an actual design using a table with main technical data and figure as well as references for additional information. Each chapter starts with an introduction which briefly describes main trends and approaches in this field. Explanations of terms and abbreviations are provided in a glossary.

  15. Supercritical-pressure light water cooled reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Oka, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the latest reactor concepts, single pass core and experimental findings in thermal hydraulics, materials, corrosion, and water chemistry. It highlights research on supercritical-pressure light water cooled reactors (SCWRs), one of the Generation IV reactors that are studied around the world. This book includes cladding material development and experimental findings on heat transfer, corrosion and water chemistry. The work presented here will help readers to understand the fundamental elements of reactor design and analysis methods, thermal hydraulics, materials and water

  16. Sandia National Laboratories Medical Isotope Reactor concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coats, Richard Lee; Dahl, James J.; Parma, Edward J., Jr.

    2010-04-01

    This report describes the Sandia National Laboratories Medical Isotope Reactor and hot cell facility concepts. The reactor proposed is designed to be capable of producing 100% of the U.S. demand for the medical isotope {sup 99}Mo. The concept is novel in that the fuel for the reactor and the targets for the {sup 99}Mo production are the same. There is no driver core required. The fuel pins that are in the reactor core are processed on a 7 to 21 day irradiation cycle. The fuel is low enriched uranium oxide enriched to less than 20% {sup 235}U. The fuel pins are approximately 1 cm in diameter and 30 to 40 cm in height, clad with Zircaloy (zirconium alloy). Approximately 90 to 150 fuel pins are arranged in the core in a water pool {approx}30 ft deep. The reactor power level is 1 to 2 MW. The reactor concept is a simple design that is passively safe and maintains negative reactivity coefficients. The total radionuclide inventory in the reactor core is minimized since the fuel/target pins are removed and processed after 7 to 21 days. The fuel fabrication, reactor design and operation, and {sup 99}Mo production processing use well-developed technologies that minimize the technological and licensing risks. There are no impediments that prevent this type of reactor, along with its collocated hot cell facility, from being designed, fabricated, and licensed today.

  17. NCSU reactor sharing program. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, P.B.

    1997-01-10

    The Nuclear Reactor Program at North Carolina State University provides the PULSTAR Research Reactor and associated facilities to eligible institutions with support, in part, from the Department of Energy Reactor Sharing Program. Participation in the NCSU Reactor Sharing Program continues to increase steadily with visitors ranging from advance high school physics and chemistry students to Ph.D. level research from neighboring universities. This report is the Final Technical Report for the DOE award reference number DE-FG05-95NE38136 which covers the period September 30, 1995 through September 30, 1996.

  18. Molecular ecology of anaerobic reactor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofman-Bang, H. Jacob Peider; Zheng, D.; Westermann, Peter;

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic reactor systems are essential for the treatment of solid and liquid wastes and constitute a core facility in many waste treatment plants. Although much is known about the basic metabolism in different types of anaerobic reactors, little is known about the microbes responsible...... to the abundance of each microbe in anaerobic reactor systems by rRNA probing. This chapter focuses on various molecular techniques employed and problems encountered when elucidating the microbial ecology of anaerobic reactor systems. Methods such as quantitative dot blot/fluorescence in-situ probing using various...

  19. Advances in light water reactor technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Takehiko; Ishiwatari, Yuki; Oka, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    ""Advances in Light Water Reactor Technologies"" focuses on the design and analysis of advanced nuclear power reactors. This volume provides readers with thorough descriptions of the general characteristics of various advanced light water reactors currently being developed worldwide. Safety, design, development and maintenance of these reactors is the main focus, with key technologies like full MOX core design, next-generation digital I&C systems and seismic design and evaluation described at length. This book is ideal for researchers and engineers working in nuclear power that are interested

  20. Nanostructured Catalytic Reactors for Air Purification Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project proposes the development of lightweight compact nanostructured catalytic reactors for air purification from toxic gaseous organic...

  1. Phosphorus removal in aerated stirred tank reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghigliazza, R.; Lodi, A.; Rovatti, M. [Inst. of Chemical and Process Engineering ``G.B. Bonino``, Univ. of Genoa (Italy)

    1999-03-01

    The possibility to obtain biological phosphorus removal in strictly aerobic conditions has been investigated. Experiments, carried out in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), show the feasibility to obtain phosphorus removal without the anaerobic phase. Reactor performance in terms of phosphorus abatement kept always higher then 65% depending on adopted sludge retention time (SRT). In fact increasing SRT from 5 days to 8 days phosphorus removal and reactor performance increase but overcoming this SRT value a decreasing in reactor efficiency was recorded. (orig.) With 6 figs., 3 tabs., 18 refs.

  2. Sodium fast reactors with closed fuel cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Raj, Baldev; Vasudeva Rao, PR 0

    2015-01-01

    Sodium Fast Reactors with Closed Fuel Cycle delivers a detailed discussion of an important technology that is being harnessed for commercial energy production in many parts of the world. Presenting the state of the art of sodium-cooled fast reactors with closed fuel cycles, this book:Offers in-depth coverage of reactor physics, materials, design, safety analysis, validations, engineering, construction, and commissioning aspectsFeatures a special chapter on allied sciences to highlight advanced reactor core materials, specialized manufacturing technologies, chemical sensors, in-service inspecti

  3. Autonomous Control of Space Nuclear Reactors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nuclear reactors to support future robotic and manned missions impose new and innovative technological requirements for their control and protection instrumentation....

  4. Neutron imaging on the VR-1 reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crha, J.; Sklenka, L.; Soltes, J.

    2016-09-01

    Training reactor VR-1 is a low power research reactor with maximal thermal power of 1 kW. The reactor is operated by the Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering of the Czech Technical University in Prague. Due to its low power it suits as a tool for education of university students and training of professionals. In 2015, as part of student research project, neutron imaging was introduced as another type of reactor utilization. The low available neutron flux and the limiting spatial and construction capabilities of the reactor's radial channel led to the development of a special filter/collimator insertion inside the channel and choosing a nonstandard approach by placing a neutron imaging plate inside the channel. The paper describes preliminary experiments carried out on the VR-1 reactor which led to first radiographic images. It seems, that due to the reactor construction and low reactor power, the neutron imaging technique on the VR-1 reactor is feasible mainly for demonstration or educational and training purposes.

  5. Microchannel Methanation Reactors Using Nanofabricated Catalysts Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) and the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) propose to develop and demonstrate a microchannel methanation reactor based on...

  6. Nanostructured Catalytic Reactors for Air Purification Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase II project proposes the development of lightweight compact nanostructured catalytic reactors for air purification from toxic gaseous organic...

  7. Continuous steroid biotransformations in microchannel reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Marco P C; Fernandes, Pedro; Cabral, Joaquim M S; Znidaršič-Plazl, Polona; Plazl, Igor

    2012-01-15

    The use of microchannel reactor based technologies within the scope of bioprocesses as process intensification and production platforms is gaining momentum. Such trend can be ascribed a particular set of characteristics of microchannel reactors, namely the enhanced mass and heat transfer, combined with easier handling and smaller volumes required, as compared to traditional reactors. In the present work, a continuous production process of 4-cholesten-3-one by the enzymatic oxidation of cholesterol without the formation of any by-product was assessed. The production was carried out within Y-shaped microchannel reactors in an aqueous-organic two-phase system. Substrate was delivered from the organic phase to aqueous phase containing cholesterol oxidase and the product formed partitions back to the organic phase. The aqueous phase was then forced through a plug-flow reactor, containing immobilized catalase. This step aimed at the reduction of hydrogen peroxide formed as a by-product during cholesterol oxidation, to avoid cholesterol oxidase deactivation due to said by-product. This setup was compared with traditional reactors and modes of operation. The results showed that microchannel reactor geometry outperformed traditional stirred tank and plug-flow reactors reaching similar conversion yields at reduced residence time. Coupling the plug-flow reactor containing catalase enabled aqueous phase reuse with maintenance of 30% catalytic activity of cholesterol oxidase while eliminating hydrogen peroxide. A final production of 36 m of cholestenone was reached after 300 hours of operation.

  8. Reactors for nuclear electric propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J.A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Propulsion is the key to space exploitation and power is the key to propulsion. This paper examines the role of nuclear fission reactors as the primary power source for high specific impulse electric propulsion systems for space missions of the 1980s and 1990s. Particular mission applications include transfer to and a reusable orbital transfer vehicle from low-Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit, outer planet exploration and reconnaissance missions, and as a versatile space tug supporting lunar resource development. Nuclear electric propulsion is examined as an indispensable component in space activities of the next two decades.

  9. Biodegradation of MTBE in reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waul, Christopher Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was first introduced in the 1970’s to improve gasoline combustion efficiency and reduce emission of harmful gases. However, it has caused groundwater contamination in Denmark and in many locations worldwide through accidental releases from leaking...... such as ammonium or benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene (BTEX) oxidizers, which can be present together in a single system. The competition resulted in reduced and/or delayed degradation of MTBE when there were limitations of oxygen or space in the reactor. The fraction of biologically active (BA) MTBE...

  10. Coupled reactor kinetics and heat transfer model for heat pipe cooled reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Steven A.; Houts, Michael

    2001-02-01

    Heat pipes are often proposed as cooling system components for small fission reactors. SAFE-300 and STAR-C are two reactor concepts that use heat pipes as an integral part of the cooling system. Heat pipes have been used in reactors to cool components within radiation tests (Deverall, 1973); however, no reactor has been built or tested that uses heat pipes solely as the primary cooling system. Heat pipe cooled reactors will likely require the development of a test reactor to determine the main differences in operational behavior from forced cooled reactors. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of a systems code capable of modeling the coupling between the reactor kinetics and heat pipe controlled heat transport. Heat transport in heat pipe reactors is complex and highly system dependent. Nevertheless, in general terms it relies on heat flowing from the fuel pins through the heat pipe, to the heat exchanger, and then ultimately into the power conversion system and heat sink. A system model is described that is capable of modeling coupled reactor kinetics phenomena, heat transfer dynamics within the fuel pins, and the transient behavior of heat pipes (including the melting of the working fluid). This paper focuses primarily on the coupling effects caused by reactor feedback and compares the observations with forced cooled reactors. A number of reactor startup transients have been modeled, and issues such as power peaking, and power-to-flow mismatches, and loading transients were examined, including the possibility of heat flow from the heat exchanger back into the reactor. This system model is envisioned as a tool to be used for screening various heat pipe cooled reactor concepts, for designing and developing test facility requirements, for use in safety evaluations, and for developing test criteria for in-pile and out-of-pile test facilities. .

  11. Compound cryopump for fusion reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Kovari, M; Shephard, T

    2013-01-01

    We reconsider an old idea: a three-stage compound cryopump for use in fusion reactors such as DEMO. The helium "ash" is adsorbed on a 4.5 K charcoal-coated surface, while deuterium and tritium are adsorbed at 15-22 K on a second charcoal-coated surface. The helium is released by raising the first surface to ~30 K. In a separate regeneration step, deuterium and tritium are released at ~110 K. In this way, the helium can be pre-separated from other species. In the simplest design, all three stages are in the same vessel, with a single valve to close the pump off from the tokamak during regeneration. In an alternative design, the three stages are in separate vessels, connected by valves, allowing the stages to regenerate without interfering with each other. The inclusion of the intermediate stage would not affect the overall pumping speed significantly. The downstream exhaust processing system could be scaled down, as much of the deuterium and tritium could be returned directly to the reactor. This could reduce ...

  12. K-East and K-West Reactors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hanford's "sister reactors", the K-East and the K-West Reactors, were built side-by-side in the early 1950's. The two reactors went operational within four months of...

  13. A new MTR fuel for a new MTR reactor: UMo for the Jules Horowitz reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guigon, B. [CEA Cadarache, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire DEN, Reacteur Jules Horowitz, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Vacelet, H. [Compagnie pour l' Etude et la Realisation de Combustibles Atomiques, CERCA, Etablissement de Romans, 26 (France); Dornbusch, D. [Technicatome, Service d' Architecture Generale, 13 - Aix-en-Provence (France)

    2003-07-01

    Within some years, the Jules Horowitz Reactor will be the only working experimental reactor (material and fuel testing reactor) in France. It will have to provide facilities for a wide range of needs: from activation analysis to power reactor fuel qualification. In this paper will be presented the main characteristics of the Jules Horowitz Reactor: its total power, neutron flux, fuel element... Safety criteria will be explained. Finally merits and disadvantages of UMo compared to the standard U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuel will be discussed. (authors)

  14. Annual report on JEN-1 reactor; Informe periodico del Reactor JEN-1 correspondiente al ano 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, J.

    1972-07-01

    In the annual report on the JEN-1 reactor the main features of the reactor operations and maintenance are described. The reactor has been critical for 1831 hours, what means 65,8% of the total working time. Maintenance and pool water contamination have occupied the rest of the time. The maintenance schedule is shown in detail according to three subjects. The main failures and reactor scrams are also described. The daily maximum values of the water activity are given so as the activity of the air in the reactor hall. (Author)

  15. Selective purge for hydrogenation reactor recycle loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2001-01-01

    Processes and apparatus for providing improved contaminant removal and hydrogen recovery in hydrogenation reactors, particularly in refineries and petrochemical plants. The improved contaminant removal is achieved by selective purging, by passing gases in the hydrogenation reactor recycle loop or purge stream across membranes selective in favor of the contaminant over hydrogen.

  16. Radiochemical problems of fusion reactors. 1. Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespi, M.B.A.

    1984-02-01

    A list of fusion reactor candidate materials is given, for use in connection with blanket structure, breeding, moderation, neutron multiplication, cooling, magnetic field generation, electrical insulation and radiation shielding. The phenomena being studied for each group of materials are indicated. Suitable irradiation test facilities are discussed under the headings (1) accelerator-based neutron sources, (2) fission reactors, and (3) ion accelerators.

  17. Advanced tokamak concepts and reactor designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, A. A. M.

    2000-01-01

    From a discussion of fusion reactor designs based on today's well-established experience gained in the operation of large tokamaks, it is concluded that such reactors are economically not attractive. The physics involved in the various options for concept improvement is described, some examples

  18. Startup of an industrial adiabatic tubular reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwijs, J.W.; Berg, van den H.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    The dynamic behaviour of an adiabatic tubular plant reactor during the startup is demonstrated, together with the impact of a feed-pump failure of one of the reactants. A dynamic model of the reactor system is presented, and the system response is calculated as a function of experimentally-determine

  19. Rotor for a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a rotor for a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor, said rotor comprising a rotor body having a longitudinal centre axis, and at least one pivotally mounted blade being adapted to pivot around a pivot axis under rotation of the rotor body around the longitudinal centre axis....... Moreover, the present invention relates to a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor applying such a rotor....

  20. Helix reactor: great potential for flow chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, P.; Runstraat, A. van den; Roelands, C.P.M.; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2009-01-01

    The Helix reactor is highly suited for precise reaction control based on good hydrodynamics. The hydrodynamics are controlled by the Dean vortices, which create excellent heat transfer properties, approach plug flow and avoid turbulence. The flexibility of this reactor has been demonstrated using a

  1. The Design of a Nuclear Reactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this largely pedagogical article is toemploy pre-college physics to arrive at an understanding of a system as complex as a nuclear reactor. We focus on three key issues: the fuelpin, the moderator, and lastly the dimensions ofthe nuclear reactor.

  2. Design of an organic simplified nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvan, Koroush [Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States); Forrest, Eric [Primary Standards Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Numerous advanced reactor concepts have been proposed to replace light water reactors ever since their establishment as the dominant technology for nuclear energy production. While most designs seek to improve cost competitiveness and safety, the implausibility of doing so with affordable materials or existing nuclear fuel infrastructure reduces the possibility of near-term deployment, especially in developing countries. The organic nuclear concept, first explored in the 1950s, offers an attractive alternative to advanced reactor designs being considered. The advent of high temperature fluids, along with advances in hydrocracking and reforming technologies driven by the oil and gas industries, make the organic concept even more viable today. We present a simple, cost-effective, and safe small modular nuclear reactor for offshore underwater deployment. The core is moderated by graphite, zirconium hydride, and organic fluid while cooled by the organic fluid. The organic coolant enables operation near atmospheric pressure and use of plain carbon steel for the reactor tank and primary coolant piping system. The core is designed to mitigate the coolant degradation seen in early organic reactors. Overall, the design provides a power density of 40 kW/L, while reducing the reactor hull size by 40% compared with a pressurized water reactor while significantly reducing capital plant costs.

  3. Technical features of the MR reactor decommissioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig David

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a preliminary technical design for the dismantling of the MR reactor. The goal of the design is the removal of reactor components allowing the re-use of the building for a different nuclear related purpose. The sequence of segmentation procedures is established. Considerations on the size reduction and tooling are presented.

  4. The First Reactor, 40th Anniversary (rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allardice, Corbin; Trapnell, Edward R; Fermi, Enrico; Fermi, Laura; Williams, Robert C

    1982-12-01

    This booklet, an updated version of the original booklet describing the first nuclear reactor, was written in honor of the 40th anniversary of the first reactor or "pile". It is based on firsthand accounts told to Corbin Allardice and Edward R. Trapnell, and includes recollections of Enrico and Laura Fermi.

  5. MODERATOR ELEMENTS FOR UNIFORM POWER NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balent, R.

    1963-03-12

    This patent describes a method of obtaining a flatter flux and more uniform power generation across the core of a nuclear reactor. The method comprises using moderator elements having differing moderating strength. The elements have an increasing amount of the better moderating material as a function of radial and/or axial distance from the reactor core center. (AEC)

  6. Parametric sensitivity and runaway in tubular reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morbidelli, M.; Varma, A.

    1982-09-01

    Parametric sensitivity of tubular reactors is analyzed to provide critical values of the heat of reaction and heat transfer parameters defining runaway and stable operations for all positive-order exothermic reactions with finite activation energies, and for all reactor inlet temperatures. Evaluation of the critical values does not involve any trial and error.

  7. Microbial degradation of MTBE in reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waul, Christopher Kevin; Arvin, Erik; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2007-01-01

    , toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, may reduce the removal rates of MTBE, or prevent its removal in reactors. With mathematical modelling, the long startup time required for some MTBE degrading reactors could be predicted. Long startup times of up to 200 days were due to the low maximum growth rate...

  8. Design of an Organic Simplified Nuclear Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koroush Shirvan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous advanced reactor concepts have been proposed to replace light water reactors ever since their establishment as the dominant technology for nuclear energy production. While most designs seek to improve cost competitiveness and safety, the implausibility of doing so with affordable materials or existing nuclear fuel infrastructure reduces the possibility of near-term deployment, especially in developing countries. The organic nuclear concept, first explored in the 1950s, offers an attractive alternative to advanced reactor designs being considered. The advent of high temperature fluids, along with advances in hydrocracking and reforming technologies driven by the oil and gas industries, make the organic concept even more viable today. We present a simple, cost-effective, and safe small modular nuclear reactor for offshore underwater deployment. The core is moderated by graphite, zirconium hydride, and organic fluid while cooled by the organic fluid. The organic coolant enables operation near atmospheric pressure and use of plain carbon steel for the reactor tank and primary coolant piping system. The core is designed to mitigate the coolant degradation seen in early organic reactors. Overall, the design provides a power density of 40 kW/L, while reducing the reactor hull size by 40% compared with a pressurized water reactor while significantly reducing capital plant costs.

  9. Verification of Remote Inspection Techniques for Reactor Internal Structures of Liquid Metal Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Young Sang; Lee, Jae Han

    2007-02-15

    The reactor internal structures and components of a liquid metal reactor (LMR) are submerged in hot sodium of reactor vessel. The division 3 of ASME code section XI specifies the visual inspection as major in-service inspection (ISI) methods of reactor internal structures and components. Reactor internals of LMR can not be visually examined due to opaque liquid sodium. The under-sodium viewing techniques using an ultrasonic wave should be applied for the visual inspection of reactor internals. Recently, an ultrasonic waveguide sensor with a strip plate has been developed for an application to the under-sodium inspection. In this study, visualization technique, ranging technique and monitoring technique have been suggested for the remote inspection of reactor internals by using the waveguide sensor. The feasibility of these remote inspection techniques using ultrasonic waveguide sensor has been evaluated by an experimental verification.

  10. State space modeling of reactor core in a pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashaari, A.; Ahmad, T.; M, Wan Munirah W. [Department of Mathematical Science, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Shamsuddin, Mustaffa [Institute of Ibnu Sina, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Abdullah, M. Adib [Swinburne University of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Computing and Science, Jalan Simpang Tiga, 93350 Kuching, Sarawak (Malaysia)

    2014-07-10

    The power control system of a nuclear reactor is the key system that ensures a safe operation for a nuclear power plant. However, a mathematical model of a nuclear power plant is in the form of nonlinear process and time dependent that give very hard to be described. One of the important components of a Pressurized Water Reactor is the Reactor core. The aim of this study is to analyze the performance of power produced from a reactor core using temperature of the moderator as an input. Mathematical representation of the state space model of the reactor core control system is presented and analyzed in this paper. The data and parameters are taken from a real time VVER-type Pressurized Water Reactor and will be verified using Matlab and Simulink. Based on the simulation conducted, the results show that the temperature of the moderator plays an important role in determining the power of reactor core.

  11. State space modeling of reactor core in a pressurized water reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashaari, A.; Ahmad, T.; Shamsuddin, Mustaffa; M, Wan Munirah W.; Abdullah, M. Adib

    2014-07-01

    The power control system of a nuclear reactor is the key system that ensures a safe operation for a nuclear power plant. However, a mathematical model of a nuclear power plant is in the form of nonlinear process and time dependent that give very hard to be described. One of the important components of a Pressurized Water Reactor is the Reactor core. The aim of this study is to analyze the performance of power produced from a reactor core using temperature of the moderator as an input. Mathematical representation of the state space model of the reactor core control system is presented and analyzed in this paper. The data and parameters are taken from a real time VVER-type Pressurized Water Reactor and will be verified using Matlab and Simulink. Based on the simulation conducted, the results show that the temperature of the moderator plays an important role in determining the power of reactor core.

  12. Precision spectroscopy with reactor anti-neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, P; Huber, Patrick; Schwetz, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    In this work we present an accurate parameterization of the anti-neutrino flux produced by the isotopes 235U, 239Pu and 241Pu in nuclear reactors. We determine the coefficients of this parameterization, as well as their covariance matrix, by performing a fit to spectra inferred from experimentally measured beta spectra. Subsequently we show that flux shape uncertainties play only a minor role in the KamLAND experiment, however, we find that future reactor neutrino experiments to measure the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ are sensitive to the fine details of the reactor neutrino spectra. Finally, we investigate the possibility to determine the isotopic composition in nuclear reactors through an anti-neutrino measurement. We find that with a 3 month exposure of a one ton detector the isotope fractions and the thermal reactor power can be determined at a few percent accuracy, which may open the possibility of an application for safeguard or non-proliferation objectives.

  13. Scanning tunneling microscope assembly, reactor, and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Feng; Salmeron, Miquel; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2014-11-18

    An embodiment of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) reactor includes a pressure vessel, an STM assembly, and three spring coupling objects. The pressure vessel includes a sealable port, an interior, and an exterior. An embodiment of an STM system includes a vacuum chamber, an STM reactor, and three springs. The three springs couple the STM reactor to the vacuum chamber and are operable to suspend the scanning tunneling microscope reactor within the interior of the vacuum chamber during operation of the STM reactor. An embodiment of an STM assembly includes a coarse displacement arrangement, a piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement, and a receiver. The piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube is coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement. The receiver is coupled to the piezoelectric scanning tube and is operable to receive a tip holder, and the tip holder is operable to receive a tip.

  14. Reactor assessments of advanced bumpy torus configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uckan, N.A.; Owen, L.W.; Spong, D.A.; Miller, R.L.; Ard, W.B.; Pipkins, J.F.; Schmitt, R.J.

    1984-02-01

    Recently, several innovative approaches were introduced for enhancing the performance of the basic ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) concept and for improving its reactor potential. These include planar racetrack and square geometries, Andreoletti coil systems, and bumpy torus-stellarator hybrids (which include twisted racetrack and helical axis stellarator - snakey torus). Preliminary evaluations of reactor implications of each approach have been carried out based on magnetics (vacuum) calculations, transport and scaling relationships, and stability properties deduced from provisional configurations that implement the approach but are not necessarily optimized. Further optimization is needed in all cases to evaluate the full potential of each approach. Results of these studies indicate favorable reactor projections with a significant reduction in reactor physical size as compared to conventional EBT reactor designs carried out in the past.

  15. Reactivity control assembly for nuclear reactor. [LMFBR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, L.R.

    1982-03-17

    This invention, which resulted from a contact with the United States Department of Energy, relates to a control mechanism for a nuclear reactor and, more particularly, to an assembly for selectively shifting different numbers of reactivity modifying rods into and out of the core of a nuclear reactor. It has been proposed heretofore to control the reactivity of a breeder reactor by varying the depth of insertion of control rods (e.g., rods containing a fertile material such as ThO/sub 2/) in the core of the reactor, thereby varying the amount of neutron-thermalizing coolant and the amount of neutron-capturing material in the core. This invention relates to a mechanism which can advantageously be used in this type of reactor control system.

  16. Power Control Method for Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baang, Dane; Suh, Yongsuk; Park, Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Considering safety-oriented design concept and other control environment, we developed a simple controller that provides limiting function of power change- rate as well as fine tracking performance. The design result has been well-proven via simulation and actual application to a TRIGA-II type research reactor. The proposed controller is designed to track the PDM(Power Demand) from operator input as long as maintaining the power change rate lower than a certain value for stable reactor operation. A power control method for a TRIGA-II type research reactor has been designed, simulated, and applied to actual reactor. The control performance during commissioning test shows that the proposed controller provides fine control performance for various changes in reference values (PDM), even though there is large measurement noise from neutron detectors. The overshoot at low power level is acceptable in a sense of reactor operation.

  17. Ceramic oxygen transport membrane array reactor and reforming method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Robinson, Charles; Wilson, Jamie R.; Gonzalez, Javier E.; Doraswami, Uttam R.

    2016-11-08

    The invention relates to a commercially viable modular ceramic oxygen transport membrane reforming reactor configured using repeating assemblies of oxygen transport membrane tubes and catalytic reforming reactors.

  18. Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Patton, Bruce W [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL; Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2011-07-01

    During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

  19. Radiation protection at new reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brissaud, A. [EDF INDUSTRY, Basic Design Department, EDF-SEPTEN, VILLEURBANNE Cedex (France)

    2000-05-01

    The theoritical knowledge and the feedback of operating experience concerning radiations in reactors is now considerable. It is available to the designer in the form of predictive softwares and data bases. Thus, it is possible to include the radiation protection component throughout all the design process. In France, the existing reactors have not been designed with quantified radiation protection targets, although considerable efforts have been made to reduce sources of radiation illustrated by the decrease of the average dose rates (typically a factor 5 between the first 900 MWe and the last 1300 MWe units). The EDF ALARA PROJECT has demonstrated that good practises, radiation protection awareness, careful work organization had a strong impact on operation and maintenance work volume. A decrease of the average collective dose by a factor 2 has been achieved without noticeable modifications of the units. In the case of new nuclear facilities projects (reactor, intermediate storage facility,...), or special operations (such as steam generator replacement), quantified radiation protection targets are included in terms of collective and average individual doses within the frame of a general optimization scheme. The target values by themselves are less important than the application of an optimization process throughout the design. This is because the optimization process requires to address all the components of the dose, particularly the work volume for operation and maintenance. A careful study of this parameter contributes to the economy of the project (suppression of unecessary tasks, time-saving ergonomy of work sites). This optimization process is currently applied to the design of the EPR. General radiation protection provisions have been addressed during the basic design phase by applying general rules aiming at the reduction of sources and dose rates. The basic design optimization phase has mainly dealt with the possibility to access the containment at full

  20. The research reactors their contribution to the reactors physics; Les reacteurs de recherche leur apport sur la physique des reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barral, J.C. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Zaetta, A. [CEA/Cadarache, Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires, DRN, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Johner, J. [CEA/Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee (DRFC), 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Mathoniere, G. [CEA/Saclay, DEN, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    The 19 october 2000, the french society of nuclear energy organized a day on the research reactors. This associated report of the technical session, reactors physics, is presented in two parts. The first part deals with the annual meeting and groups general papers on the pressurized water reactors, the fast neutrons reactors and the fusion reactors industry. The second part presents more technical papers about the research programs, critical models, irradiation reactors (OSIRIS and Jules Horowitz) and computing tools. (A.L.B.)

  1. PCCF flow analysis -- DR Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calkin, J.F.

    1961-04-26

    This report contains an analysis of PCCF tube flow and Panellit pressure relations at DR reactor. Supply curves are presented at front header pressures from 480 to 600 psig using cold water and the standard 0.236 inch orifice with taper down stream and the pigtail valve (plug or ball) open. Demand curves are presented for slug column lengths of 200 inches to 400 inches using 1.44 inch O.D. solid poison pieces (either Al or Pb-Cd) and cold water with a rear header pressure of 50 psig. Figure 1 is a graph of Panellit pressure vs. flow with the above supply and demand curves and clearly shows the effect of front header pressure and charge length on flow.

  2. Coacervates as prebiotic chemical reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Vera M.; Swanson, Mercedes; Menger, Fredric M.

    2012-10-01

    Coacervates are colloidal systems that are comprised of two immiscible aqueous layers, the colloid-rich layer, so-called coacervate, and the colloid-poor layer, so-called equilibrium liquid. Although immiscible, the two phases are both water-rich. Coacervates are important for prebiotic chemistry, but also have various practical applications, notably as transport vehicles of personal care products and pharmaceuticals. Our objectives are to explore the potential of coacervates as prebiotic chemical reactors. Since the reaction medium in coacervates is water, this creates a challenge, since most organic reactants are not water-soluble. To overcome this challenge we are utilizing recent Green Chemistry examples of the organic reactions in water, such as the Passerini reaction. We have investigated this reaction in two coacervate systems, and report here our preliminary results.

  3. Replacement reactor to revolutionise magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, G

    2002-01-01

    Electric motors, hearing aids and magnetic resonance imaging are only some of the applications that will benefit from the first advances in magnets in a quarter of a century. Magnets achieve their characteristics when electrons align themselves to produce a unified magnetic field. Neutrons can probe these magnetic structures. The focus is not just on making more powerful magnets, but also identifying the characteristics that make magnets cheaper and easier for industry to manufacture. Staff from the ANSTO's Neutron Scattering Group have already performed a number of studies on the properties of magnets using using HIFAR, but the Replacement Research Reactor that will produce cold neutrons would allow scientists to investigate the atomic properties of materials with large molecules. A suite of equipment will enable studies at different temperatures, pressures and magnetic fields

  4. Dynamic analysis of process reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadle, L.J.; Lawson, L.O.; Noel, S.D.

    1995-06-01

    The approach and methodology of conducting a dynamic analysis is presented in this poster session in order to describe how this type of analysis can be used to evaluate the operation and control of process reactors. Dynamic analysis of the PyGas{trademark} gasification process is used to illustrate the utility of this approach. PyGas{trademark} is the gasifier being developed for the Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) by Jacobs-Siffine Engineering and Riley Stoker. In the first step of the analysis, process models are used to calculate the steady-state conditions and associated sensitivities for the process. For the PyGas{trademark} gasifier, the process models are non-linear mechanistic models of the jetting fluidized-bed pyrolyzer and the fixed-bed gasifier. These process sensitivities are key input, in the form of gain parameters or transfer functions, to the dynamic engineering models.

  5. Reactor operation environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.; Specht, W.L.; Mackey, H.E.; Paller, M.H.; Wilde, E.W.; Dicks, A.S.

    1989-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a large United States Department of Energy installation on the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina. The SRS contains diverse habitats, flora, and fauna. Habitats include upland terrestrial areas, varied wetlands including Carolina Bays, the Savannah River swamp system, and impoundment related and riparian wetlands, and the aquatic habitats of several stream systems, two large cooling reservoirs, and the Savannah River. These diverse habitats support a large variety of plants and animals including many commercially or recreational valuable species and several rare, threatened or endangered species. This volume describes the major habitats and their biota found on the SRS, and discuss the impacts of continued operation of the K, L, and P production reactors.

  6. (Meeting on fusion reactor materials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.H. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Klueh, R.L.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Wiffen, F.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Loomis, B.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1990-11-01

    During his visit to the KfK, Karlsruhe, F. W. Wiffen attended the IEA 12th Working Group Meeting on Fusion Reactor Materials. Plans were made for a low-activation materials workshop at Culham, UK, for April 1991, a data base workshop in Europe for June 1991, and a molecular dynamics workshop in the United States in 1991. At the 11th IEA Executive Committee on Fusion Materials, discussions centered on the recent FPAC and Colombo panel review in the United States and EC, respectively. The Committee also reviewed recent progress toward a neutron source in the United States (CWDD) and in Japan (ESNIT). A meeting with D. R. Harries (consultant to J. Darvas) yielded a useful overview of the EC technology program for fusion. Of particular interest to the US program is a strong effort on a conventional ferritic/martensitic steel for fist wall/blanket operation beyond NET/ITER.

  7. Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-06-30

    Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

  8. The Swedish Zero Power Reactor R0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landergaard, Olof; Cavallin, Kaj; Jonsson, Georg

    1961-05-15

    The reactor R0 is a critical facility built for heavy water and natural uranium or fuel of low enrichment,, The first criticality was achieved September 25, 1959. During a first period of more than two years the R0 will be operated as a bare reactor in order to simplify interpretation of results. The reactor tank is 3. 2 m high and 2. 25 m in diameter. The fuel suspension system is quite flexible in order to facilitate fuel exchange and lattice variations. The temperature of the water can be varied between about 10 and 90 C by means of a heater and a cooler placed in the external circulating system. The instrumentation of the reactor has to meet the safety requirements not only during operation but also during rearrangements of the core in the shut-down state. Therefore, the shut-down state is always defined by a certain low 'safe' moderator level in the reactor tank. A number of safety rods are normally kept above the moderator ready for action. For manual or automatic control of the reactor power a specially designed piston pump is needed, by which the moderator level is varied. The pump speed is controlled from the reactor power error by means of a Ward-Leonard system. Moderator level measurement is made by means of a water gauge with an accuracy of {+-} 0. 1 mm.

  9. Facility for a Low Power Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalker, R. G.

    1949-09-14

    Preliminary investigation indicates that a reactor facility with ample research provisions for use by University or other interested groups, featuring safety in design, can be economically constructed in the Los Angeles area. The complete installation, including an underground gas-tight reactor building, with associated storage and experiment assembly building, administration offices, two general laboratory buildings, hot latoratory and lodge, can be constructed for approxinately $1,500,000. This does not include the cost of the reactor itself or of its auxiliary equipment,

  10. Pyrometric fuel particle measurements in pressurised reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernberg, R.; Joutsenoja, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    A fiberoptic two-colour pyrometric technique for fuel particle temperature and size measurement is modified and applied to three pressurized reactors of different type in Finland, Germany and France. A modification of the pyrometric method for simultaneous in situ measurement of the temperature and size of individual pulverized coal particles at the pressurized entrained flow reactor in Jyvaeskylae was developed and several series of measurements were made. In Orleans a fiberoptic pyrometric device was installed to a pressurised thermogravimetric reactor and the two-colour temperatures of fuel samples were measured. Some results of these measurements are presented. The project belongs to EU`s Joule 2 extension research programme. (author)

  11. Oxidation performance of graphite material in reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaowei LUO; Xinli YU; Suyuan YU

    2008-01-01

    Graphite is used as a structural material and moderator for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR). When a reactor is in operation, graphite oxida-tion influences the safety and operation of the reactor because of the impurities in the coolant and/or the acci-dent conditions, such as water ingress and air ingress. In this paper, the graphite oxidation process is introduced, factors influencing graphite oxidation are analyzed and discussed, and some new directions for further study are pointed out.

  12. Sistemas de salvaguardia en reactores EPR

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    En este documento se describe brevemente el funcionamiento de los diversos sistemas de una planta nuclear operada con un reactor de tipo PWR. Más concretamente, el proyecto se centra en una descripción exhaustiva de los sistemas de salvaguardia y seguridad que regulan el funcionamiento de un reactor de tipo EPR, así como la central nuclear que contiene a dicho reactor. El proceso ha consistido en clasificar y resumir los distintos sistemas que operan en dicha planta, estudiando sus caracterís...

  13. Packed fluidized bed blanket for fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, John W. H.

    1984-01-01

    A packed fluidized bed blanket for a fusion reactor providing for efficient radiation absorption for energy recovery, efficient neutron absorption for nuclear transformations, ease of blanket removal, processing and replacement, and on-line fueling/refueling. The blanket of the reactor contains a bed of stationary particles during reactor operation, cooled by a radial flow of coolant. During fueling/refueling, an axial flow is introduced into the bed in stages at various axial locations to fluidize the bed. When desired, the fluidization flow can be used to remove particles from the blanket.

  14. Monitoring and control of anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pind, Peter Frode; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær;

    2003-01-01

    measurements are reviewed in detail. In the sequel, possible manipulated variables, such as the hydraulic retention time, the organic loading rate, the sludge retention time, temperature, pH and alkalinity are evaluated with respect to the two main reactor types: high-rate and low-rate. Finally, the different......The current status in monitoring and control of anaerobic reactors is reviewed. The influence of reactor design and waste composition on the possible monitoring and control schemes is examined. After defining the overall control structure, and possible control objectives, the possible process...

  15. Transients in reactors for power systems compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Hamid, Haziah

    This thesis describes new models and investigations into switching transient phenomena related to the shunt reactors and the Mechanically Switched Capacitor with Damping Network (MSCDN) operations used for reactive power control in the transmission system. Shunt reactors and MSCDN are similar in that they have reactors. A shunt reactor is connected parallel to the compensated lines to absorb the leading current, whereas the MSCDN is a version of a capacitor bank designed as a C-type filter for use in the harmonic-rich environment. In this work, models have been developed and transient overvoltages due to shunt reactor deenergisation were estimated analytically using MathCad, a mathematical program. Computer simulations used the ATP/EMTP program to reproduce both single-phase and three-phase shunt reactor switching at 275 kV operational substations. The effect of the reactor switching on the circuit breaker grading capacitor was also examined by considering various switching conditions.. The main original achievement of this thesis is the clarification of failure mechanisms occurring in the air-core filter reactor due to MSCDN switching operations. The simulation of the MSCDN energisation was conducted using the ATP/EMTP program in the presence of surge arresters. The outcome of this simulation shows that extremely fast transients were established across the air-core filter reactor. This identified transient event has led to the development of a detailed air-core reactor model, which accounts for the inter-turn RLC parameters as well as the stray capacitances-to-ground. These parameters are incorporated into the transient simulation circuit, from which the current and voltage distribution across the winding were derived using electric field and equivalent circuit modelling. Analysis of the results has revealed that there are substantial dielectric stresses imposed on the winding insulation that can be attributed to a combination of three factors. (i) First, the

  16. Assessing Pretreatment Reactor Scaling Through Empirical Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lischeske, James J.; Crawford, Nathan C.; Kuhn, Erik; Nagle, Nicholas J.; Schell, Daniel J.; Tucker, Melvin P.; McMillan, James D.; Wolfrum, Edward J.

    2016-12-01

    Pretreatment is a critical step in the biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. Due to the complexity of the physicochemical transformations involved, predictively scaling up technology from bench- to pilot-scale is difficult. This study examines how pretreatment effectiveness under nominally similar reaction conditions is influenced by pretreatment reactor design and scale using four different pretreatment reaction systems ranging from a 3 g batch reactor to a 10 dry-ton/d continuous reactor. The reactor systems examined were an Automated Solvent Extractor (ASE), Steam Explosion Reactor (SER), ZipperClave(R) reactor (ZCR), and Large Continuous Horizontal-Screw Reactor (LHR). To our knowledge, this is the first such study performed on pretreatment reactors across a range of reaction conditions (time and temperature) and at different reactor scales. The comparative pretreatment performance results obtained for each reactor system were used to develop response surface models for total xylose yield after pretreatment and total sugar yield after pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Near- and very-near-optimal regions were defined as the set of conditions that the model identified as producing yields within one and two standard deviations of the optimum yield. Optimal conditions identified in the smallest-scale system (the ASE) were within the near-optimal region of the largest scale reactor system evaluated. A reaction severity factor modeling approach was shown to inadequately describe the optimal conditions in the ASE, incorrectly identifying a large set of sub-optimal conditions (as defined by the RSM) as optimal. The maximum total sugar yields for the ASE and LHR were 95%, while 89% was the optimum observed in the ZipperClave. The optimum condition identified using the automated and less costly to operate ASE system was within the very-near-optimal space for the total xylose yield of both the ZCR and the LHR, and was

  17. Passive compact molten salt reactor (PCMSR), modular thermal breeder reactor with totally passive safety system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harto, Andang Widi [Engineering Physics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia)

    2012-06-06

    Design Study Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR) with totally passive safety system has been performed. The term of Compact in the PCMSR name means that the reactor system is designed to have relatively small volume per unit power output by using modular and integral concept. In term of modular, the reactor system consists of three modules, i.e. reactor module, turbine module and fuel management module. The reactor module is an integral design that consists of reactor, primary and intermediate heat exchangers and passive post shutdown cooling system. The turbine module is an integral design of a multi heating, multi cooling, regenerative gas turbine. The fuel management module consists of all equipments related to fuel preparation, fuel reprocessing and radioactive handling. The preliminary calculations show that the PCMSR has negative temperature and void reactivity coefficient, passive shutdown characteristic related to fuel pump failure and possibility of using natural circulation for post shutdown cooling system.

  18. Advanced research reactor fuel development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Kyu; Pak, H. D.; Kim, K. H. [and others

    2000-05-01

    The fabrication technology of the U{sub 3}Si fuel dispersed in aluminum for the localization of HANARO driver fuel has been launches. The increase of production yield of LEU metal, the establishment of measurement method of homogeneity, and electron beam welding process were performed. Irradiation test under normal operation condition, had been carried out and any clues of the fuel assembly breakdown was not detected. The 2nd test fuel assembly has been irradiated at HANARO reactor since 17th June 1999. The quality assurance system has been re-established and the eddy current test technique has been developed. The irradiation test for U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersed fuels at HANARO reactor has been carried out in order to compare the in-pile performance of between the two types of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuels, prepared by both the atomization and comminution processes. KAERI has also conducted all safety-related works such as the design and the fabrication of irradiation rig, the analysis of irradiation behavior, thermal hydraulic characteristics, stress analysis for irradiation rig, and thermal analysis fuel plate, for the mini-plate prepared by international research cooperation being irradiated safely at HANARO. Pressure drop test, vibration test and endurance test were performed. The characterization on powders of U-(5.4 {approx} 10 wt%) Mo alloy depending on Mo content prepared by rotating disk centrifugal atomization process was carried out in order to investigate the phase stability of the atomized U-Mo alloy system. The {gamma}-U phase stability and the thermal compatibility of atomized U-16at.%Mo and U-14at.%Mo-2at.%X(: Ru, Os) dispersion fuel meats at an elevated temperature have been investigated. The volume increases of U-Mo compatibility specimens were almost the same as or smaller than those of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}. However the atomized alloy fuel exhibited a better irradiation performance than the comminuted alloy. The RERTR-3 irradiation test of nano

  19. Hydrodynamics of multi-phase packed bed micro-reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Márquez Luzardo, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Why to use packed bed micro-reactors for catalyst testing? Miniaturized packed bed reactors have a large surface-to-volume ratio at the reactor and particle level that favors the heat- and mass-transfer processes at all scales (intra-particle, inter-phase and inter-particle or reactor level). If the

  20. Progress of China Experimental Fast Reactor in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    1 Background Fast reactor is the reactor which realized the chain fission with fast neutron.As an optional type of generation Ⅳ reactor,fast reactor has three characters:1) It can change 238U to 239Pu and raise the uranium resource utilization

  1. Uncertainties in the Anti-neutrino Production at Nuclear Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Djurcic, Z.(Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, 60439, U.S.A.); Detwiler, J. A.; Piepke, A.; Foster Jr., V. R.; Miller, L.; Gratta, G.

    2008-01-01

    Anti-neutrino emission rates from nuclear reactors are determined from thermal power measurements and fission rate calculations. The uncertainties in these quantities for commercial power plants and their impact on the calculated interaction rates in electron anti-neutrino detectors is examined. We discuss reactor-to-reactor correlations between the leading uncertainties and their relevance to reactor anti-neutrino experiments.

  2. Ex-vessel Steam Explosion Analysis for Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Matjaž Leskovar; Mitja Uršič

    2016-01-01

    A steam explosion may occur during a severe accident, when the molten core comes into contact with water. The pressurized water reactor and boiling water reactor ex-vessel steam explosion study, which was carried out with the multicomponent three-dimensional Eulerian fuel–coolant interaction code under the conditions of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Steam Explosion Resolution for Nuclear Applications project reactor exercise, is presented and discussed. In ...

  3. Optimization of a sequence of reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    1991-01-01

    Concerns the optimal production of sulphuric acid in a sequence of reactors. Using a suitable approximation to the objective function, this problem can easily be solved using the maximum principle. A numerical example documents the applicability of the suggested approach...

  4. The Bifurcation Behavior of CO Coupling Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐艳; 马新宾; 许根慧

    2005-01-01

    The bifurcation behavior of the CO coupling reactor was examined based on the one-dimensional pseudohomogeneous axial dispersion dynamic model. The method of finite difference was used for solving the boundary value problem; the continuation technique and the direct method were applied to determine the bifurcation diagram.The effects of dimensionless adiabatic temperature rise, Damkoehler number, activation energy, heat transfer coefficient and feed ratio on the bifurcation behavior were investigated. It was shown that there existed static bifurcation and the oscillations did not occur in the reactor. The result also revealed that the reactor exhibited at most 1-3-1 multiplilicity patterns within the range of practical possible parameters and the measures, such as weakening the axial dispersion of reactor, enhancing heat transfer, decreasing the concentration of ethyl nitrite, were efficient for avoiding the possible risk of multiple steady states.

  5. Heat pipe reactors for space power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, D. R.; Ranken, W. A.; Salmi, E. W.

    1977-01-01

    A family of heat pipe reactors design concepts has been developed to provide heat to a variety of electrical conversion systems. Three power plants are described that span the power range 1-500 kWe and operate in the temperature range 1200-1700 K. The reactors are fast, compact, heat-pipe cooled, high-temperature nuclear reactors fueled with fully enriched refractory fuels, UC-ZrC or UO2. Each fuel element is cooled by an axially located molybdenum heat pipe containing either sodium or lithium vapor. Virtues of the reactor designs are the avoidance of single-point failure mechanisms, the relatively high operating temperature, and the expected long lifetimes of the fuel element components.

  6. Reactor Antineutrinos: From Confusion to Clarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Dan

    2016-09-01

    Antineutrinos emitted by nuclear reactors have been a powerful tool for particle physics, demonstrating the existence of these weakly-interacting particles as well as their flavor oscillation. Despite these successes, our understanding of the total flux and energy spectra of reactor antineutrinos has been fraught with problems. I will give a brief overview of the unexpected developments in this field, and discuss upcoming measurements of antineutrinos, beta decays, and nuclear fission which are relevant to these questions. These measurements are expected to clarify many currently murky issues, including the hypothetical oscillation of reactor antineutrinos to sterile states. The results should also provide a unique perspective into the nuclear physics of fission reactors. DOE OHEP DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  7. Chemical reactor modeling multiphase reactive flows

    CERN Document Server

    Jakobsen, Hugo A

    2014-01-01

    Chemical Reactor Modeling closes the gap between Chemical Reaction Engineering and Fluid Mechanics.  The second edition consists of two volumes: Volume 1: Fundamentals. Volume 2: Chemical Engineering Applications In volume 1 most of the fundamental theory is presented. A few numerical model simulation application examples are given to elucidate the link between theory and applications. In volume 2 the chemical reactor equipment to be modeled are described. Several engineering models are introduced and discussed. A survey of the frequently used numerical methods, algorithms and schemes is provided. A few practical engineering applications of the modeling tools are presented and discussed. The working principles of several experimental techniques employed in order to get data for model validation are outlined. The monograph is based on lectures regularly taught in the fourth and fifth years graduate courses in transport phenomena and chemical reactor modeling, and in a post graduate course in modern reactor m...

  8. µ-reactors for Heterogeneous Catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Robert

    catalyst surface area by reacting off an adsorbed layer of oxygen with CO. This procedure can be performed at temperatures low enough that sintering of Pt nanoparticles is not an issue. Some results from the reactors are presented. In particular an unexpected oscillation phenomenon of CO-oxidation on Pt...... nanoparticles are presented in detail. The sensitivity of the reactors are currently being investigated with CO oxidation on Pt thin films as a test reaction, and the results so far are presented. We have at this point shown that we are able to reach full conversion with a catalyst area of 38 µm2 with a turn......This thesis is the summary of my work on the µ-reactor platform. The concept of µ-reactors is presented and some of the experimental challenges are outlined. The various experimental issues regarding the platform are discussed and the actual implementation of three generations of the setup...

  9. Corrosion Minimization for Research Reactor Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Shaber; Gerard Hofman

    2005-06-01

    Existing university research reactors are being converted to use low-enriched uranium fue to eliminate the use of highly-enriched uranium. These conversions require increases in fuel loading that will result in the use of elements with more fuel plates, resulting in a net decrease in the water annulus between fuel plates. The proposed decrease in the water annulus raises questions about the requirements and stability of the surface hydroxide on the aluminum fuel cladding and the potential for runaway corrosion resulting in fuel over-temperature incidents. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), as regulator for these university reactors, must ensure that proposed fuel modifications will not result in any increased risk or hazard to the reactor operators or the public. This document reviews the characteristics and behavior of aluminum hydroxides, analyzes the drivers for fuel plate corrosion, reviews relevant historical incidents, and provides recommendations on fuel design, surface treatment, and reactor operational practices to avoid corrosion issues.

  10. Interactions of Pellet with Reactor Relevant Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENGLilin; DENGBaiquan; YANJiancheng

    2003-01-01

    Extended algorithm has been developed for ablation rate calculations of Li, Be, B impurity pellets and five combinations of solid isotopic hydrogenic H2, HD, D2, DT, T2 pellets. Numerical calculations have been performed for reactor relevant plasma.

  11. Autonomous Control of Space Nuclear Reactors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nuclear reactors to support future lunar and Mars robotic and manned missions impose new and innovative technological requirements for their control and protection...

  12. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frances M. Marshall; Jeff Benson; Mary Catherine Thelen

    2011-08-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is a large test reactor for providing the capability for studying the effects of intense neutron and gamma radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The ATR is a pressurized, light-water, high flux test reactor with a maximum operating power of 250 MWth. The INL also has several hot cells and other laboratories in which irradiated material can be examined to study material irradiation effects. In 2007 the US Department of Energy (DOE) designated the ATR as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to facilitate greater access to the ATR and the associated INL laboratories for material testing research by a broader user community. This paper highlights the ATR NSUF research program and the associated educational initiatives.

  13. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: SPOUTED BED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Spouted Bed Reactor (SBR) technology utilizes the unique attributes of the "spouting " fluidization regime, which can provide heat transfer rates comparable to traditional fluid beds, while providing robust circulation of highly heterogeneous solids, concurrent with very agg...

  14. Molten salt reactors - safety options galore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gat, U. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dodds, H.L. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Safety features and attributes of molten salt reactors (MSR) are described. The unique features of fluid fuel reactors of on-line continuous processing and the ability for so-called external cooling result in simple and safe designs with low excess reactivity, low fission product inventory, and small source term. These, in turn, make a criticality accident unlikely and reduce the severity of a loss of coolant to where they are no longer severe accidents. A melt down is not an accident for a reactor that uses molten fuel. The molten salts are stable, non-reactive and efficient heat transfer media that operate at high temperatures at low pressures and are highly compatible with selected structural materials. All these features reduce the accident plethora. Freeze valves can be used for added safety. An ultimate safe reactor (U.S.R) is described with safety features that are passive, inherent and non-tamperable (PINT).

  15. Steady State Analysis of Small Molten Salt Reactor : Effect of Fuel Salt Flow on Reactor Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Takahisa; MITACHI, Koshi; Suzuki, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a thermal neutron reactor with graphite moderation and operates on the thorium-uranium fuel cycle. The feature of the MSR is that fuel salt flows inside the reactor during the nuclear fission reaction. In the previous study, the authors developed numerical model with which to simulate the effects of fuel salt flow on the reactor characteristics. In this study, we apply the model to the steady-state analysis of a small MSR system and estimate the effects of fue...

  16. Development of technology for next generation reactor - Development of next generation reactor in Korea -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Kyun; Chang, Moon Heuy; Hwang, Yung Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1993-09-01

    The project, development of next generation reactor, aims overall related technology development and obtainment of related license in 2001. The development direction is to determine the reactor type and to build up the design concept in 1994. For development trend analysis of foreign next generation reactor, level-1 PSA, fuel cycle analysis and computer code development are performed on System 80+ and AP 600. Especially for design characteristics analysis and volume upgrade of AP 600, nuclear fuel and reactor core design analysis, coolant circuit design analysis, mechanical structure design analysis and safety analysis etc. are performed. (Author).

  17. A fast and flexible reactor physics model for simulating neutron spectra and depletion in fast reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recktenwald, Geoff; Deinert, Mark

    2010-03-01

    Determining the time dependent concentration of isotopes within a nuclear reactor core is central to the analysis of nuclear fuel cycles. We present a fast, flexible tool for determining the time dependent neutron spectrum within fast reactors. The code (VBUDS: visualization, burnup, depletion and spectra) uses a two region, multigroup collision probability model to simulate the energy dependent neutron flux and tracks the buildup and burnout of 24 actinides, as well as fission products. While originally developed for LWR simulations, the model is shown to produce fast reactor spectra that show high degree of fidelity to available fast reactor benchmarks.

  18. Developments and Tendencies in Fission Reactor Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamov, E. O.; Fuji-Ie, Y.

    This chapter describes, in two parts, new-generation nuclear energy systems that are required to be in harmony with nature and to make full use of nuclear resources. The issues of transmutation and containment of radioactive waste will also be addressed. After a short introduction to the first part, Sect. 58.1.2 will detail the requirements these systems must satisfy on the basic premise of peaceful use of nuclear energy. The expected designs themselves are described in Sect. 58.1.3. The subsequent sections discuss various types of advanced reactor systems. Section 58.1.4 deals with the light water reactor (LWR) whose performance is still expected to improve, which would extend its application in the future. The supercritical-water-cooled reactor (SCWR) will also be shortly discussed. Section 58.1.5 is mainly on the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which offers efficient and multipurpose use of nuclear energy. The gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) is also included. Section 58.1.6 focuses on the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) as a promising concept for advanced nuclear reactors, which may help both to achieve expansion of energy sources and environmental protection thus contributing to the sustainable development of mankind. The molten-salt reactor (MSR) is shortly described in Sect. 58.1.7. The second part of the chapter deals with reactor systems of a new generation, which are now found at the research and development (R&D) stage and in the medium term of 20-30 years can shape up as reliable, economically efficient, and environmentally friendly energy sources. They are viewed as technologies of cardinal importance, capable of resolving the problems of fuel resources, minimizing the quantities of generated radioactive waste and the environmental impacts, and strengthening the regime of nonproliferation of the materials suitable for nuclear weapons production. Particular attention has been given to naturally safe fast reactors with a closed fuel cycle (CFC

  19. A comparison of radioactive waste from first generation fusion reactors and fast fission reactors with actinide recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, M.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1991-04-01

    Limitations of the fission fuel resources will presumably mandate the replacement of thermal fission reactors by fast fission reactors that operate on a self-sufficient closed fuel cycle. This replacement might take place within the next one hundred years, so the direct competitors of fusion reactors will be fission reactors of the latter rather than the former type. Also, fast fission reactors, in contrast to thermal fission reactors, have the potential for transmuting long-lived actinides into short-lived fission products. The associated reduction of the long-term activation of radioactive waste due to actinides makes the comparison of radioactive waste from fast fission reactors to that from fusion reactors more rewarding than the comparison of radioactive waste from thermal fission reactors to that from fusion reactors. Radioactive waste from an experimental and a commercial fast fission reactor and an experimental and a commercial fusion reactor has been characterized. The fast fission reactors chosen for this study were the Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 and the Integral Fast Reactor. The fusion reactors chosen for this study were the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and a Reduced Activation Ferrite Helium Tokamak. The comparison of radioactive waste parameters shows that radioactive waste from the experimental fast fission reactor may be less hazardous than that from the experimental fusion reactor. Inclusion of the actinides would reverse this conclusion only in the long-term. Radioactive waste from the commercial fusion reactor may always be less hazardous than that from the commercial fast fission reactor, irrespective of the inclusion or exclusion of the actinides. The fusion waste would even be far less hazardous, if advanced structural materials, like silicon carbide or vanadium alloy, were employed.

  20. Environmental Information Document: L-reactor reactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr. (comp.)

    1982-04-01

    Purpose of this Environmental Information Document is to provide background for assessing environmental impacts associated with the renovation, restartup, and operation of L Reactor at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). SRP is a major US Department of Energy installation for the production of nuclear materials for national defense. The purpose of the restart of L Reactor is to increase the production of nuclear weapons materials, such as plutonium and tritium, to meet projected needs in the nuclear weapons program.

  1. Oscillation Parameters with forthcoming Reactor Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Lasserre, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    I review the status of the forthcoming reactor neutrino experiments that toe the cutting edge of neutrino oscillation research. Kilometer baseline oscillation experiments (Double Chooz, Daya Bay, and Reno) will soon play a relevant role providing clean information on the last undetermined neutrino mixing angle !13. A 50-70 km baseline reactor neutrino experiment could later provide the best sensitivity to the !12 mixing angle.

  2. Advanced Reactors Transition Program Resource Loaded Schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GANTT, D.A.

    2000-01-12

    The Advanced Reactors Transition (ART) Resource Loaded Schedule (RLS) provides a cost and schedule baseline for managing the project elements within the ART Program. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FETF) activities are delineated through the end of FY 2000, assuming continued standby. The Nuclear Energy (NE) Legacies and Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) activities are delineated through the end of the deactivation process. This revision reflects the 19 Oct 1999 baseline.

  3. Advanced Reactors Transition Program Resource Loaded Schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWEN, W.W.

    1999-11-08

    The Advanced Reactors Transition (ART) Resource Loaded Schedule (RLS) provides a cost and schedule baseline for managing the project elements within the ART Program. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) activities are delineated through the end of FY 2000, assuming continued standby. The Nuclear Energy (NE) Legacies and Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) activities are delineated through the end of the deactivation process. This document reflects the 1 Oct 1999 baseline.

  4. The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On Aug.15, 201l, a new large-scale scientific facility in China, Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment, started to operate. It is located in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant in Guangdong Province, around 50kin to both Hong Kong and Shenzhen City. The main scientific goal is to precisely determine the neutrino mixing angle 013 by detecting neutrinos from the reactors at different distances.

  5. Design of an Organic Simplified Nuclear Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Koroush Shirvan; Eric Forrest

    2016-01-01

    Numerous advanced reactor concepts have been proposed to replace light water reactors ever since their establishment as the dominant technology for nuclear energy production. While most designs seek to improve cost competitiveness and safety, the implausibility of doing so with affordable materials or existing nuclear fuel infrastructure reduces the possibility of near-term deployment, especially in developing countries. The organic nuclear concept, first explored in the 1950s, offers an attr...

  6. Strengthening IAEA Safeguards for Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Bruce D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Anzelon, George A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Budlong-Sylvester, Kory [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    During their December 10-11, 2013, workshop in Grenoble France, which focused on the history and future of safeguarding research reactors, the United States, France and the United Kingdom (UK) agreed to conduct a joint study exploring ways to strengthen the IAEA’s safeguards approach for declared research reactors. This decision was prompted by concerns about: 1) historical cases of non-compliance involving misuse (including the use of non-nuclear materials for production of neutron generators for weapons) and diversion that were discovered, in many cases, long after the violations took place and as part of broader pattern of undeclared activities in half a dozen countries; 2) the fact that, under the Safeguards Criteria, the IAEA inspects some reactors (e.g., those with power levels under 25 MWt) less than once per year; 3) the long-standing precedent of States using heavy water research reactors (HWRR) to produce plutonium for weapons programs; 4) the use of HEU fuel in some research reactors; and 5) various technical characteristics common to some types of research reactors that could provide an opportunity for potential proliferators to misuse the facility or divert material with low probability of detection by the IAEA. In some research reactors, for example, such characteristics include rapid on-line refueling, and a core design with room for such a large number of assemblies or targets that it is difficult to detect diversion or undeclared irradiation. In addition, infrastructure associated with research reactors, such as hot cells, where plutonium could be separated, could pose a safeguards challenge because, in some cases, they are not declared (because they are not located in the facility or because nuclear materials are not foreseen to be processed inside) and may not be accessible to inspectors in States without an Additional Protocol in force.

  7. Current status of fast reactor physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, H.H.

    1979-01-01

    The subject of calculation of reactivity coefficients for fast reactors is developed, starting with a discussion of the status of relevant nuclear data and proceeding to the subjects of group cross section generation and of methods of obtaining reactivity coefficients from group cross sections. Reactivity coefficients measured in critical experiments are compared with calculated values. Dependence of reactivity coefficients on reactor design is discussed. Finally, results of the recent international comparison of calculated reactivity coefficients are presented.

  8. Automatic safety rod for reactors. [LMFBR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germer, J.H.

    1982-03-23

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  9. Monitoring and control of anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pind, Peter Frode; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær;

    2003-01-01

    control approaches that have been used are comprehensively described. These include simple and adaptive controllers, as well as more recent developments such as fuzzy controllers, knowledge-based controllers and controllers based on neural networks.......The current status in monitoring and control of anaerobic reactors is reviewed. The influence of reactor design and waste composition on the possible monitoring and control schemes is examined. After defining the overall control structure, and possible control objectives, the possible process...

  10. COUPLED FAST-THERMAL POWER BREEDER REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, R.

    1961-07-18

    A nuclear reactor having a region operating predominantly on fast neutrons and another region operating predominantly on slow neutrons is described. The fast region is a plutonium core and the slow region is a natural uranium blanket around the core. Both of these regions are free of moderator. A moderating reflector surrounds the uranium blanket. The moderating material and thickness of the reflector are selected so that fissions in the uranium blanket make a substantial contribution to the reactivity of the reactor.

  11. Short-baseline reactor neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariani, C. [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The neutrino mixing angle {theta}13 is currently a high-priority topic in the field of neutrino physics, with three different reactor neutrino experiments under way, searching for neutrino oscillations induced by this angle. A description of the reactor experiments searching for a non-zero value of {theta}13 is given, together with a discussion of their sensitivity within the next few years.

  12. Reactor Simulator Integration and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfield, M. P.; Webster, K. L.; Pearson, J. B.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Nuclear Systems Office Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) project, a reactor simulator (RxSim) test loop was designed and built to perform integrated testing of the TDU components. In particular, the objectives of RxSim testing were to verify the operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation and control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. In addition, it was decided to include a thermal test of a cold trap purification design and a pump performance test at pump voltages up to 150 V because the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s was not obtained in the RxSim at the originally constrained voltage of 120 V. This Technical Memorandum summarizes RxSim testing. The gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively in NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain operations. The instrumentation and control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings. The cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained, which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the cold temperature, indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. The annular linear induction pump tested was able to produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz.

  13. Solid oxide electrochemical reactor science.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Neal P. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Moyer, Connor J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Ambrosini, Andrea; Key, Robert J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO)

    2010-09-01

    Solid-oxide electrochemical cells are an exciting new technology. Development of solid-oxide cells (SOCs) has advanced considerable in recent years and continues to progress rapidly. This thesis studies several aspects of SOCs and contributes useful information to their continued development. This LDRD involved a collaboration between Sandia and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) ins solid-oxide electrochemical reactors targeted at solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOEC), which are the reverse of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). SOECs complement Sandia's efforts in thermochemical production of alternative fuels. An SOEC technology would co-electrolyze carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with steam at temperatures around 800 C to form synthesis gas (H{sub 2} and CO), which forms the building blocks for a petrochemical substitutes that can be used to power vehicles or in distributed energy platforms. The effort described here concentrates on research concerning catalytic chemistry, charge-transfer chemistry, and optimal cell-architecture. technical scope included computational modeling, materials development, and experimental evaluation. The project engaged the Colorado Fuel Cell Center at CSM through the support of a graduate student (Connor Moyer) at CSM and his advisors (Profs. Robert Kee and Neal Sullivan) in collaboration with Sandia.

  14. Thermal-hydraulic interfacing code modules for CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.S.; Gold, M.; Sills, H. [Ontario Hydro Nuclear, Toronto (Canada)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    The approach for CANDU reactor safety analysis in Ontario Hydro Nuclear (OHN) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is presented. Reflecting the unique characteristics of CANDU reactors, the procedure of coupling the thermal-hydraulics, reactor physics and fuel channel/element codes in the safety analysis is described. The experience generated in the Canadian nuclear industry may be useful to other types of reactors in the areas of reactor safety analysis.

  15. Development of computer simulator for coal liquefaction reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yawata, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Ohi, S.; Itho, H.; Hiraide, M. [Nippon Oil Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    The computer simulator for a coal liquefaction reactor is a useful engineering tool to analyse the data of such reactors. The authors applied this technique to a reactor in the NEDOL process to predict the performance of the reactor, and to assist in the design of a reactor for demonstration plant. The development program of the simulator and its utilization plan are discussed. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Optimally moderated nuclear fission reactor and fuel source therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ougouag, Abderrafi M.; Terry, William K.; Gougar, Hans D.

    2008-07-22

    An improved nuclear fission reactor of the continuous fueling type involves determining an asymptotic equilibrium state for the nuclear fission reactor and providing the reactor with a moderator-to-fuel ratio that is optimally moderated for the asymptotic equilibrium state of the nuclear fission reactor; the fuel-to-moderator ratio allowing the nuclear fission reactor to be substantially continuously operated in an optimally moderated state.

  17. Design options for a bunsen reactor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Robert Charles

    2013-10-01

    This work is being performed for Matt Channon Consulting as part of the Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program (NMSBA). Matt Channon Consulting has requested Sandia's assistance in the design of a chemical Bunsen reactor for the reaction of SO2, I2 and H2O to produce H2SO4 and HI with a SO2 feed rate to the reactor of 50 kg/hour. Based on this value, an assumed reactor efficiency of 33%, and kinetic data from the literature, a plug flow reactor approximately 1%E2%80%9D diameter and and 12 inches long would be needed to meet the specification of the project. Because the Bunsen reaction is exothermic, heat in the amount of approximately 128,000 kJ/hr would need to be removed using a cooling jacket placed around the tubular reactor. The available literature information on Bunsen reactor design and operation, certain support equipment needed for process operation and a design that meet the specification of Matt Channon Consulting are presented.

  18. Decommissioning of the Salaspils Research Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramenkovs Andris

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In May 1995, the Latvian government decided to shut down the Salaspils Research Reactor and to dispense with nuclear energy in the future. The reactor has been out of operation since July 1998. A conceptual study on the decommissioning of the Salaspils Research Reactor was drawn up by Noell-KRC-Energie- und Umwelttechnik GmbH in 1998-1999. On October 26th, 1999, the Latvian government decided to start the direct dismantling to “green-field” in 2001. The upgrading of the decommissioning and dismantling plan was carried out from 2003-2004, resulting in a change of the primary goal of decommissioning. Collecting and conditioning of “historical” radioactive wastes from different storages outside and inside the reactor hall became the primary goal. All radioactive materials (more than 96 tons were conditioned for disposal in concrete containers at the radioactive wastes depository “Radons” at the Baldone site. Protective and radiation measurement equipment of the personnel was upgraded significantly. All non-radioactive equipment and materials outside the reactor buildings were released for clearance and dismantled for reuse or conventional disposal. Contaminated materials from the reactor hall were collected and removed for clearance measurements on a weekly basis.

  19. MOX in reactors: present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslan, Marc; Gros, Jean Pierre [AREVA NC - 33 rue La Fayette, 75009 Paris (France); Niquille, Aurelie; Marincic, Alexis [AREVA NP - Tour AREVA, 1 Place Jean Millier 92084 Paris La Defense (France)

    2010-07-01

    In Europe, MOX fuel has been supplied by AREVA for more than 30 years, to 36 reactors: 21 in France, 10 in Germany, 3 in Switzerland, 2 in Belgium. For the present and future, recycling is compulsory in the frame of sustainable development of nuclear energy. By 2030 the overall volume of used fuel will reach about 400 000 t worldwide. Their plutonium and uranium content represents a huge resource of energy to recycle. That is the reason why, the European Utilities issued an EUR (European Utilities Requirement) demanding new builds reactors to be able of using MOX Fuel Assemblies in up to 50 % of the core. AREVA GEN3+ reactors, like EPR{sup TM} or ATMEA{sup TM} designed with MHI partnership, are designed to answer any utility need of MOX recycling. The example of the EPR{sup TM} reactor operated with 100 % MOX core optimized for MOX recycling will be presented. A standard EPR{sup TM} can be operated with 100 % MOX core using an advanced homogeneous MOX (single Pu content) with highly improved performances (burn-up and Cycle length). The adaptations needed and the main operating and safety reactor features will be presented. AREVA offers the utilities throughout the world, fuel supply (UO{sub 2}, ERU, MOX), and reactors designed with all the needed capability for recycling. For each country and each utility, an adapted global solution, competitive and non proliferant can be proposed. (authors)

  20. Moving hot cell for LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, Mitsuru

    1994-09-16

    A moving hot cell for an LMFBR type reactor is made movable on a reactor operation floor between a position just above the reactor container and a position retreated therefrom. Further, it comprises an overhung portion which can incorporate a spent fuel just thereunder, and a crane for moving a fuel assembly between a spent fuel cask and a reactor container. Further, an opening/closing means having a shielding structure is disposed to the bottom portion and the overhung portion thereof, to provide a sealing structure, in which only the receiving port for the spent fuel cask faces to the inner side, and the cask itself is disposed at the outside. Upon exchange of fuels, the movable hot cell is placed just above the reactor to take out the spent fuels, so that a region contaminated with primary sodium is limited within the hot cell. On the other hand, upon maintenance and repair for equipments, the hot cell is moved, thereby enabling to provide a not contaminated reactor operation floor. (N.H.).