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Sample records for br i-benzonitrile derivatives

  1. Analysis of satellite-derived Arctic tropospheric BrO columns in conjunction with aircraft measurements during ARCTAS and ARCPAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Choi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We derive estimates of tropospheric BrO column amounts during two Arctic field campaigns in 2008 using information from the satellite UV nadir sensors Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI and the second Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2 as well as estimates of stratospheric BrO columns from a model simulation. The sensitivity of the satellite-derived tropospheric BrO columns to various parameters is investigated using a radiative transfer model. We conduct a comprehensive analysis of satellite-derived tropospheric BrO columns including a detailed comparison with aircraft in-situ observations of BrO and related species obtained during the field campaigns. In contrast to prior expectation, tropospheric BrO, when present, existed over a broad range of altitudes. Our results show reasonable agreement between tropospheric BrO columns derived from the satellite observations and columns found using aircraft in-situ BrO. After accounting for the stratospheric contribution to total BrO column, several events of rapid BrO activation due to surface processes in the Arctic are apparent in both the OMI and GOME-2 based tropospheric columns. The wide orbital swath of OMI allows examination of the evolution of tropospheric BrO on about hourly time intervals near the pole. Low pressure systems, strong surface winds, and high planetary boundary layer heights are associated with the observed tropospheric BrO activation events.

  2. Pyridine•BrF3, the missing link for clean fluorinations of aromatic derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagooly, Youlia; Rozen, Shlomo

    2012-02-17

    This work demonstrates the unique features of the never used before Py•BrF(3) complex in the field of aromatic organic fluorinations. The main disadvantage of the noncomplexed BrF(3) is the fact that usually, in addition to the desired fluorination, a parallel electrophilic aromatic bromination takes place as well. Use of the Py•BrF(3) complex reduces this electrophilic bromination, which is observed with most reagents based on fluorine and bromine [BrF]. PMID:22313187

  3. Efficient deprotection of F-BODIPY derivatives: removal of BF2 using Brønsted acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfeng Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effective and efficient removal of the BF2 moiety from F-BODIPY derivatives has been achieved using two common Brønsted acids; treatment with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA or methanolic hydrogen chloride (HCl followed by work-up with Ambersep® 900 resin (hydroxide form effects this conversion in near-quantitative yields. Compared to existing methods, these conditions are relatively mild and operationally simple, requiring only reaction at room temperature for six hours (TFA or overnight (HCl.

  4. Tropospheric BrO column densities in the Arctic derived from satellite: retrieval and comparison to ground-based measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sihler

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available During polar spring, halogen radicals like bromine monoxide (BrO play an important role in the chemistry of tropospheric ozone destruction. Satellite measurements of the BrO distribution have become a particularly useful tool to investigate this probably natural phenomenon, but the separation of stratospheric and tropospheric partial columns of BrO is challenging. In this study, an algorithm was developed to retrieve tropospheric vertical column densities of BrO from data of high-resolution spectroscopic satellite instruments such as the second Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2. Unlike recently published approaches, the presented algorithm is capable of separating the fraction of BrO in the activated troposphere from the total BrO column solely based on remotely measured properties. The presented algorithm furthermore allows to estimate a realistic measurement error of the tropospheric BrO column. The sensitivity of each satellite pixel to BrO in the boundary layer is quantified using the measured UV radiance and the column density of the oxygen collision complex O4. A comparison of the sensitivities with CALIPSO LIDAR observations demonstrates that clouds shielding near-surface trace-gas columns can be reliably detected even over ice and snow. Retrieved tropospheric BrO columns are then compared to ground-based BrO measurements from two Arctic field campaigns in the Amundsen Gulf and at Barrow in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Our algorithm was found to be capable of retrieving enhanced near-surface BrO during both campaigns in good agreement with ground-based data. Some differences between ground-based and satellite measurements observed at Barrow can be explained by both elevated and shallow surface layers of BrO. The observations strongly suggest that surface release processes are the dominating source of BrO and that boundary layer meteorology influences the vertical distribution.

  5. Multiple hypersensitivity to mutagens in a cell strain (46BR) derived from a patient with immuno-deficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    46BR is a fibroblast cell strain established from an individual with hypogammaglobulinaemia. The cells are unique in showing hypersensitivity to the lethal effects of a wide range of DNA-damaging agents. Thus they are hypersensitive to #betta#- and 254-nm UV-irradiation and show a limited capacity to repair potentially lethal #betta#-irradiation damage when compared with fibroblasts from normal individuals. A slight hypersensitivity to mitomycin C was also revealed but we were not able to discriminate 46BR from normals with 4-nitroquinoline oxide. The cells were hypersensitive to the alkylating agents, dimethyl sulphate, methyl methanesulphonate, ethyl methanesulphonate, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea but not N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. A consideration of the spectra of DNA lesions produced by these alkylating agents together with the sensitivity to ionising radiation and mitomycin C suggests that 46BR cells are defective in a repair step that is common to all agents. We suggest that the cells are defective in DNA polymerisation or ligation. Support for this suggestion comes from the absence of any hypersensitivity to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea since its major reaction products are not removed by excision pathways that require polymerisation and ligation. (orig.)

  6. Synthetic cannabinoid JWH-018 and its halogenated derivatives JWH-018-Cl and JWH-018-Br impair Novel Object Recognition in mice: Behavioral, electrophysiological and neurochemical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, M; Ossato, A; Canazza, I; Trapella, C; Borelli, A C; Beggiato, S; Rimondo, C; Serpelloni, G; Ferraro, L; Marti, M

    2016-10-01

    It is well known that an impairment of learning and memory function is one of the major physiological effects caused by natural or synthetic cannabinoid consumption in rodents, nonhuman primates and in humans. JWH-018 and its halogenated derivatives (JWH-018-Cl and JWH-018-Br) are synthetic CB1/CB2 cannabinoid agonists, illegally marketed as "Spice" and "herbal blend" for their Cannabis-like psychoactive effects. In the present study the effects of acute exposure to JWH-018, JWH-018-Cl, JWH-018-Br (JWH-018-R compounds) and Δ(9)-THC (for comparison) on Novel Object Recognition test (NOR) has been investigated in mice. Moreover, to better characterize the effects of JWH-018-R compounds on memory function, in vitro electrophysiological and neurochemical studies in hippocampal preparations have been performed. JWH-018, JWH-018-Cl and JWH-018-Br dose-dependently impaired both short- and long-memory retention in mice (respectively 2 and 24 h after training session). Their effects resulted more potent respect to that evoked by Δ(9)-THC. Moreover, in vitro studies showed as JWH-018-R compounds negatively affected electrically evoked synaptic transmission, LTP and aminoacid (glutamate and GABA) release in hippocampal slices. Behavioral, electrophysiological and neurochemical effects were fully prevented by CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 pretreatment, suggesting a CB1 receptor involvement. These data support the hypothesis that synthetic JWH-018-R compounds, as Δ(9)-THC, impair cognitive function in mice by interfering with hippocampal synaptic transmission and memory mechanisms. This data outline the danger that the use and/or abuse of these synthetic cannabinoids may represent for the cognitive process in human consumer. PMID:27346209

  7. Inhibition of {gamma}-radiation induced DNA damage in plasmid pBR322 by TMG, a water-soluble derivative of vitamin E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopalan, R.; Nair, C.K.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Wani, K.; Huilgol, N.G. [Nanavati Hospital and MRC, Vile Parle (India); Kagiya, Tsutomu V. [Kinki Research Foundation, Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    Alpha-tocopherol monoglucoside (TMG), a water-soluble derivative of {alpha}-tocopherol, has been examined for its ability to protect DNA against radiation-induced strand breaks. Gamma radiation, up to a dose of 6 Gy (dose rate, 0.7 Gy/minute), induced a dose-dependent increase in single strand breaks (SSBs) in plasmid pBR322 DNA. TMG inhibited the formation of {gamma}-radiation induced DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) in a concentration-dependent manner; 500 {mu}M of TMG protected the single strand breaks completely. It also protected thymine glycol formation induced by {gamma}-radiation in a dose-dependent manner, based on an estimation of thymine glycol by HPLC. (author)

  8. Inhibition of γ-radiation induced DNA damage in plasmid pBR322 by TMG, a water-soluble derivative of vitamin E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha-tocopherol monoglucoside (TMG), a water-soluble derivative of α-tocopherol, has been examined for its ability to protect DNA against radiation-induced strand breaks. Gamma radiation, up to a dose of 6 Gy (dose rate, 0.7 Gy/minute), induced a dose-dependent increase in single strand breaks (SSBs) in plasmid pBR322 DNA. TMG inhibited the formation of γ-radiation induced DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) in a concentration-dependent manner; 500 μM of TMG protected the single strand breaks completely. It also protected thymine glycol formation induced by γ-radiation in a dose-dependent manner, based on an estimation of thymine glycol by HPLC. (author)

  9. Trace-element compositions and Br/Cl ratios of fluid inclusions in the Tsushima granite, Japan: Significance for formation of granite-derived fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Masanori; Sasa, Kimikazu; Shin, Ki-Choel; Ishii, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    Fluid inclusions in quartz samples from a miarolitic cavity, two quartz veins, and a hydrothermal ore vein in the Tsushima granite, Japan, were analyzed by particle-induced X-ray emission to examine the chemistry and process of formation of hydrothermal fluids in an island-arc granite. Most of the inclusions were polyphase or vapor, and there were smaller numbers of two-phase aqueous inclusions. The inclusions contained Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ge, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba, and Pb. For each inclusion, there was a strong positive correlation between Cl content and contents of other elements identified. Concentration ranges for most elements (other than Rb and Ge) in polyphase inclusions from the miarolitic cavity were comparable to those from cavities in alkaline granites; those from the ore vein were comparable to large-scale continental hydrothermal ore deposits. The lower Rb and higher Ge contents in the polyphase inclusions of the Tsushima granite may be characteristic of hydrothermal fluids from calc-alkaline granites in an island-arc setting. Br/Cl ratios (by weight) for the vapor and two-phase inclusions were 0.0013-0.0030 and differed among the three geological settings. Br/Cl ratios of polyphase inclusions increased with increasing Cl content in single-crystal and polycrystalline quartz, and high values of more than 0.0100 were found. The high Br/Cl ratios and the differences among the geological settings sampled may be due to pressure dependences of partitioning of Cl and Br between fluid and magma during fluid segregation and between liquid and vapor during boiling. Using a simple model based on these dependences, we calculated Br/Cl ratios greater than 0.01 in brine generated at pressures polyphase and vapor inclusions from each geological setting were attributed to mixing between two end-member fluids: a high Br/Cl fluid generated at low pressure and a low Br/Cl fluid generated at high pressure. Br/Cl ratios of polyphase inclusions in quartz may be a key

  10. Comparison of glyoxal, BrO, and IO vertical profiles derived from both ground-based and airborne MAX-DOAS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, Sean; Volkamer, Rainer; Baidar, Sunil; Dix, Barbara; Koenig, Theodore; Ortega, Ivan; Sinreich, Roman; van Roozendael, Michel; Hendrick, Francois; Kinnison, Doug

    2015-04-01

    The information content of ground-based MAX-DOAS retrievals is assessed by collocated aircraft measurements for a ship MAX-DOAS setup over the Eastern tropical Pacific Ocean (TORERO RF17), and a mountain-top MAX-DOAS setup at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii (CONTRAST RF17). During both case studies the CU airborne MAX-DOAS (AMAX-DOAS) instrument aboard the NSF/NCAR GV aircraft measured profiles of glyoxal, BrO, and IO with 12-20 degrees of freedom and up to 500 m vertical resolution. The TORERO field campaign took place in 2012, while CONTRAST in 2014; both campaigns covered the months of January and February. Additional measurements aboard the aircraft helped to provide information/validation of the AMAX-DOAS derived profiles, such as in-situ water vapor from the Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser hygrometer (VCSEL), in-situ hydrocarbon measurements from the Trace Organic Gas Analyzer (TOGA), and aerosol information constrained by the Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer (UHSAS). The AMAX-DOAS profiles are compared with ground-based MAX-DOAS inversions. The latter explores the effect of using either the measured differential slant column density (dSCD) or SCD as input to the optimal estimation inversion, where SCD = dSCD + SCD_ref. SCD_ref is the residual column amount of the trace gas contained within the reference spectrum. For the AMAX-DOAS data, the values of SCD_ref were actively minimized, while SCD_ref is usually unknown for ground-based MAX-DOAS retrievals. In absence of independent measurements to constrain SCD_ref, the current state-of-the-art with ground-based MAX-DOAS applications is to use dSCDs as input to the inversion. Here we assess the effect of uncertain SCD_ref for ground-based MAX-DOAS profiles in form of a sensitivity study. Additionally for the ground-based data, different methods are compared for the determination of SCD_ref: 1) the collocated aircraft profiles described above present the opportunity to forward calculate the SCD

  11. Interaction in ternary HgBr2-BaBr2-CsBr system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Series of polythermal sections in ternary HgBr2-BaBr2-CsBr system are investigated by the methods of physicochemical analysis. In double systems restricting ternary HgBr2-BaBr2-CsBr system formation of CsHg2Br5, CsHgBr3, Cs2HgBr4, CsBa2Br4 and CsBa2Br5 compounds is detected. Projection of liquidus surface of ternary HgBr2-BaBr2-CsBr system on triangle of compositions is plotted. This projection consists of eight fields of the primary crystallization of phases: HgBr2, BaBr2, CsBr, CsHgBr5, CsHgBr3, Cs2HgBr4, Cs2BaBr4 and CsBa2Br5. Coordinates of nonvariant points are determined

  12. Spectra and energy levels of Br XXV, Br XXIX, Br XXX, and Br XXXI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emission lines of highly ionized bromine in the wavelength region 17-93 A have been identified in spectra recorded at the University of Rochester's OMEGA laser facility. The wavelengths of 2s-2p transitions in nitrogen-like Br XXIX, carbon-like Br XXX, and boron-like Br XXXI are presented. The wavelengths of the magnetic dipole transitions within the 2s22p3 ground configurations of Br XXIX are predicted from the experimental energy levels. Transitions from the n = 4 and 5 levels of sodium-like Br XXV were also identified, and the ionization energy of Br XXV was determined to be 9,023,800 +- 2 000cm-1 (1118.8 +- 0.2 eV)

  13. Reactor BR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BR2 reactor is still SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. Various aspects concerning the operation of the BR2 Reactor, the utilisation of the CALLISTO loop and the irradiation programme, the BR2 R and D programme and the production of isotopes and of NTD-silicon are discussed. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported

  14. QTAIM investigation of bis(pyrazol-1-yl)methane derivative and its Zn(II) complexes (ZnLX2, X=Cl, Br or I)

    OpenAIRE

    Dehestani Maryam; Zeidabadinejad Leila

    2015-01-01

    Topological analyses of the electron density using the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) have been carried out at the B3PW91/6-31g (d) theoretical level, on bis(pyrazol-1-yl)methanes derivatives 9-(4-(di (1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-methyl)phenyl)-9H-carbazole (L) and its zinc(II) complexes: ZnLCl2 (1), ZnLBr2 (2) and ZnLI2 (3). The topological parameters derived from Bader theory were also analyzed; these are characteristics of Zn-bond critical points and ...

  15. The BR eigenvalue algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Div.; Howell, G.W. [Florida Inst. of Tech., Melbourne, FL (United States). Dept. of Applied Mathematics; Watkins, D.S. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Pure and Applied Mathematics

    1997-11-01

    The BR algorithm, a new method for calculating the eigenvalues of an upper Hessenberg matrix, is introduced. It is a bulge-chasing algorithm like the QR algorithm, but, unlike the QR algorithm, it is well adapted to computing the eigenvalues of the narrowband, nearly tridiagonal matrices generated by the look-ahead Lanczos process. This paper describes the BR algorithm and gives numerical evidence that it works well in conjunction with the Lanczos process. On the biggest problems run so far, the BR algorithm beats the QR algorithm by a factor of 30--60 in computing time and a factor of over 100 in matrix storage space.

  16. QTAIM investigation of bis(pyrazol-1-ylmethane derivative and its Zn(II complexes (ZnLX2, X=Cl, Br or I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehestani Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Topological analyses of the electron density using the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM have been carried out at the B3PW91/6-31g (d theoretical level, on bis(pyrazol-1-ylmethanes derivatives 9-(4-(di (1H-pyrazol-1-yl-methylphenyl-9H-carbazole (L and its zinc(II complexes: ZnLCl2 (1, ZnLBr2 (2 and ZnLI2 (3. The topological parameters derived from Bader theory were also analyzed; these are characteristics of Zn-bond critical points and also of ring critical points. The calculated structural parameters are the frontier molecular orbital energies highest occupied molecular orbital energy (EHOMO, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy (ELUMO, hardness (η, softness (S, the absolute electronegativity (χ, the electrophilicity index (ω and the fractions of electrons transferred (ΔN from ZnLX2 complexes to L. The numerous correlations and dependencies between energy terms of the Symmetry Adapted Perturbation Theory approach (SAPT, geometrical, topological and energetic parameters were detected and described.

  17. In situ production of brGDGTs in Lake Lugano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Yuki; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Schubert, Carsten; Simona, Marco; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Niemann, Helge

    2015-04-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are bacterial membrane lipids that commonly occur in soils, as well as in sediments and suspended particulate matter (SPM) of lakes. The distribution of brGDGTs is related with temperature and pH, allowing their use as proxy indicators for the reconstruction of past climatic and environmental conditions. While transfer functions are well-established for brGDGTs derived from soils, still little is known about the links between the composition of aquatically produced brGDGTs and environmental parameters. Also the identity, ecology and carbon substrate of the aquatic source organisms are mostly unknown. We analyzed brGDGTs in the core- and intact polar lipid fractions of SPM from eutrophic Lake Lugano (Switzerland) using an advanced HPLC-MS method, capable of distinguishing between 5 methyl brGDGTs and the recently discovered 6 methyl brGDGT isomers. Our data show large variations in both the concentration and the relative abundances of brGDGTs throughout the water column, with most pronounced compositional changes right at the oxic/anoxic interface: A novel brGDGT isomer, which we discovered recently for the first time in sediments of another Swiss lake (Lake Hinterburg) and which is probably intrinsic to lacustrine environments, occurs exclusively in the anoxic monimolimnion but neither in the oxic mixolimnion nor in catchments soils of Lake Lugano. Furthermore, the brGDGT distribution in the lake's mixolimnion also differs from that in the catchment. This indicates that the brGDGTs present in the water column are dominantly autochthonous and that several distinct brGDGT-producing bacterial communities with different redox requirements can co-exist within the same lake system. Hence, our results provide new insights into the sources and distribution of brGDGTs in lacustrine environments, with important implications for the use of brGDGT-based proxies in paleolimnological studies.

  18. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2001-04-01

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is still one of SCK-CEN's important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. During the last three years, the availability of the installation was maintained at an average level of 97.6 percent. In the year 2000, the reactor was operated for a total of 104 days at a mean power of 56 MW. In 2000, most irradiation experiments were performed in the CALLISTO PWR loop. The report describes irradiations achieved or under preparation in 2000, including the development of advanced facilities and concept studies for new programmes. An overview of the scientific irradiation programmes as well as of the R and D programme of the BR2 reactor in 2000 is given.

  19. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2002-04-01

    The BR2 materials testing reactor is one of SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. In 2001, the reactor was operated for a total of 123 days at a mean power of 59 MW in order to satisfy the irradiation conditions of the internal and external programmes using mainly the CALLISTO PWR loop. The mean consumption of fresh fuel elements was 5.26 per 1000 MWd. Main achievements in 2001 included the development of a three-dimensional full-scale model of the BR2 reactor for simulation and prediction of irradiation conditions for various experiments; the construction of the FUTURE-MT device designed for the irradiation of fuel plates under representative conditions of geometry, neutron spectrum, heat flux and thermal-hydraulic conditions and the development of in-pile instrumentation and a data acquisition system.

  20. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is still one of SCK-CEN's important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. During the last three years, the availability of the installation was maintained at an average level of 97.6 percent. In the year 2000, the reactor was operated for a total of 104 days at a mean power of 56 MW. In 2000, most irradiation experiments were performed in the CALLISTO PWR loop. The report describes irradiations achieved or under preparation in 2000, including the development of advanced facilities and concept studies for new programmes. An overview of the scientific irradiation programmes as well as of the R and D programme of the BR2 reactor in 2000 is given

  1. BR2 Reactor: Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiations in the BR2 reactor are in collaboration with or at the request of third parties such as the European Commission, the IAEA, research centres and utilities, reactor vendors or fuel manufacturers. The reactor also contributes significantly to the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial applications, to neutron silicon doping for the semiconductor industry and to scientific irradiations for universities. Along the ongoing programmes on fuel and materials development, several new irradiation devices are in use or in design. Amongst others a loop providing enhanced cooling for novel materials testing reactor fuel, a device for high temperature gas cooled fuel as well as a rig for the irradiation of metallurgical samples in a Pb-Bi environment. A full scale 3-D heterogeneous model of BR2 is available. The model describes the real hyperbolic arrangement of the reactor and includes the detailed 3-D space dependent distribution of the isotopic fuel depletion in the fuel elements. The model is validated on the reactivity measurements of several tens of BR2 operation cycles. The accurate calculations of the axial and radial distributions of the poisoning of the beryllium matrix by 3He, 6Li and 3T are verified on the measured reactivity losses used to predict the reactivity behavior for the coming decades. The model calculates the main functionals in reactor physics like: conventional thermal and equivalent fission neutron fluxes, number of displacements per atom, fission rate, thermal power characteristics as heat flux and linear power density, neutron/gamma heating, determination of the fission energy deposited in fuel plates/rods, neutron multiplication factor and fuel burn-up. For each reactor irradiation project, a detailed geometry model of the experimental device and of its neighborhood is developed. Neutron fluxes are predicted within approximately 10 percent in comparison with the dosimetry measurements. Fission rate, heat flux and

  2. Pathways for the OH + Br2 → HOBr + Br and HOBr + Br → HBr + BrO Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyan; Qiu, Yudong; Schaefer, Henry F

    2016-02-11

    The OH radical reaction with Br2 and the subsequent reaction HOBr + Br are of exceptional importance to atmospheric chemistry and environmental chemistry. The entrance complex, transition state, and exit complex for both reactions have been determined using the coupled-cluster method with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations CCSD(T) with correlation consistent basis sets up to size cc-pV5Z and cc-pV5Z-PP. Coupled cluster effects with full triples (CCSDT) and full quadruples (CCSDTQ) are explicitly investigated. Scalar relativistic effects, spin-orbit coupling, and zero-point vibrational energy corrections are evaluated. The results from the all-electron basis sets are compared with those from the effective core potential (ECP) pseudopotential (PP) basis sets. The results are consistent. The OH + Br2 reaction is predicted to be exothermic 4.1 ± 0.5 kcal/mol, compared to experiment, 3.9 ± 0.2 kcal/mol. The entrance complex HO···BrBr is bound by 2.2 ± 0.2 kcal/mol. The transition state lies similarly well below the reactants OH + Br2. The exit complex HOBr···Br is bound by 2.7 ± 0.6 kcal/mol relative to separated HOBr + Br. The endothermicity of the reaction HOBr + Br → HBr + BrO is 9.6 ± 0.7 kcal/mol, compared with experiment 8.7 ± 0.3 kcal/mol. For the more important reverse (exothermic) HBr + BrO reaction, the entrance complex BrO···HBr is bound by 1.8 ± 0.6 kcal/mol. The barrier for the HBr + BrO reaction is 6.8 ± 0.9 kcal/mol. The exit complex (Br···HOBr) for the HBr + BrO reaction is bound by 1.9 ± 0.2 kcal/mol with respect to the products HOBr + Br. PMID:26766412

  3. High-resolution continuum source electrothermal absorption spectrometry of AlBr and CaBr for the determination of bromine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Mao Dong; Becker-Ross, Helmut; Florek, Stefan; Heitmann, Uwe [ISAS - Institute for Analytical Sciences, Department of Interface Spectroscopy, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Okruss, Michael [Gesellschaft zur Foerderung angewandter Optik, Optoelektronik, Quantenelektronik und Spektroskopie (GOS) e.V., Rudower Chaussee 29, 12489 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: okruss@isas.de

    2008-05-15

    Molecular absorption spectra of AlBr and CaBr, produced in a graphite furnace, were investigated using a high-resolution echelle spectrometer equipped with a xenon short-arc lamp as continuum source. The analytical usability of the spectra for the determination of bromine was studied. To this end, the molecular absorptions of AlBr at 278.914 nm and CaBr at 625.315 nm were evaluated. Apart from strong absorption bands of CaF around 625.3 nm, which disturb the use of CaBr, no spectral interferences were observed for both AlBr and CaBr. Regarding chemical interference with matrix substances, the molecular absorption of AlBr and CaBr is influenced in a different way. While the sensitivity of the CaBr absorption is susceptible to chloride, aluminum, potassium and sodium ions, there is no significant effect on the AlBr absorption. In contrast, the inorganic acids (nitric, phosphoric, and sulfuric) have an influence on AlBr, but not on the CaBr molecular absorption. Therefore, the two methods complement each other and each has its own application area. Regarding real samples, a salt sample from the death sea and an organic pharmaceutical were evaluated. The results were in good agreement with those derived from two independent methods and with an existing reference value. Relative standard deviations were found in the range of 5%. The limit of detection for bromine was about 2 ng for both AlBr and CaBr molecular absorption; the dynamic range was linear at least up to 250 ng Br.

  4. 桥键烷基酚及其衍生物用于合成橡胶防老剂的研究进展%Research progress in antioxIDant of brIDged alkyl phenols category and its derivates used for synthetic rubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜飞; 郭付远

    2009-01-01

    The shortcoming such as easily migration, volatile and low antiaging efficiency of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol(BHT) as synthetic rubber antioxIDant was analyzed, the mechanism of antiaging of BHT and brIDged alkylene phenols were explained, and the advantage, synthetic methods of brIDged alkylene bisphenols were introduced with 20 references. It was pointed out that brIDged alkylene phenols and its derivates replacing BHT would be the direction of antioxIDant for synthetic rubber.%分析了2,6-二叔丁基-4-甲基苯酚(BHT)作为合成橡胶防老剂存在易迁移、易挥发、抗老化效率低等问题,阐述了BHT与桥键烷基酚类防老剂的作用机理,介绍了桥键烷基酚类防老剂的优势、合成方法,指出用桥键烷基酚及其衍生物取代BHT是合成橡胶防老剂发展的方向.

  5. Temperature dependence of rate constants of the reactions Br(Br*)+IBr → Br2+I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rate constant and their temperature dependence in the range from -25 to +50 deg C for reactions Br(2P3/2)+IBr → Br2+I(2P2/3) and Br*(2P1/2)+IBr → Br2+I(2P3/2) have been measured by the method of laser atomic-resonance spectroscopy using radiation of iodine and bromine lasers. It has been detected that at 300 K the values of k1 and k2 agree with the known ones, meanwhile with the temperature growth both constants increase, moreover, for k2 the temperature dependence is much stronger. It is shown that the value of deceleration of the rate of reaction between Br atom and IBr in case of its spin-orbital excitation is the function of the temperature, decreasing with the temperature increase. 14 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  6. Transition probabilities of Br II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, R. D.; Miller, M. H.

    1976-01-01

    Absolute transition probabilities of the three most prominent visible Br II lines are measured in emission. Results compare well with Coulomb approximations and with line strengths extrapolated from trends in homologous atoms.

  7. Sepp, Brüder

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Vater der Brüder war Johann S. (* 24.6.1626 Kaltern/Südtirol [Caldaro/I], † zw. 1679/84 Schlanders/Südtirol [Silandro/I]). Paul (Paolo): * 1649 Kaltern/Südtirol (Caldaro/I), † April 1670 Bozen/Südtirol (Bolzano/I) oder 1692 Kaltern. Sänger, Komponist, Organist.

  8. Underground-brändien rakentuminen

    OpenAIRE

    Hänninen, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    Markkinajohtajuudesta eri toimialoilla taistelevat usein suuret ja kauan toiminnassa olleet brändit, joiden haastaminen saattaa olla vaikeaa. Brändinrakennus kannattaakin suunnata näiden suurien brändien väliin jääviin tyhjiin markkinarakoihin. Yksi esimerkki tällaisesta hyvin hyödynnetystä markkinaraosta ovat underground-brändit, joiden brändinrakennuksen lähtökohtana ei ole kilpailla toimialan suurien brändien kanssa, vaan hallita omaa markkinarakoaan kohdennetulla tarjonnallaan. Niiden tav...

  9. MTR fuel testing in BR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New fuel design for MTR 's requires to be qualified under representative conditions, that is geometry, neutron spectrum, heat flux and thermo hydraulic conditions. An irradiation device for fuel plates has been designed to derive the maximum benefit from the BR2 irradiation capacities. The fuel plates can be easily extracted from their support during a shutdown to undergo additional tests. One of these tests is the measurement of the thickness changes along the fuel plate. To that purpose, a facility in the reactor water pool has been designed to measure the fuel swelling with an accuracy of 5 μm using inductive probes. At SCK-CEN, the full range of destructive and non-destructive PIE can be performed, including γ-scanning, wet sipping, surface examination and other methods. (author)

  10. Yrityksen brändin uudistaminen

    OpenAIRE

    Saarimaa, Petri

    2015-01-01

    Brändin rakentaminen on tänä päivänä tärkeä osa yrityksen näkyvyyden ja kilpailukyvyn edistämisessä. Huolellisesti rakennetulla brändillä ja hyvällä markkinoinnilla yritys voi erottua kilpailijoistaan positiivisesti. Tie menestyvään brändiin on kuitenkin pitkä prosessi. Toimeksiantajana opinnäytetyössä toimi rakennusyritys Rakennus Vuoriot Oy. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli toteuttaa yritykselle brändin uudistaminen luomalla kokonaan uusi perusta ja rakennusosat olemassa olevalle brändille...

  11. Observations of BrO and its vertical distribution during surface ozone depletion at Alert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeinninger, G.; Platt, U. [Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Umweltphysik

    2002-06-01

    During the ALERT2000 polar sunrise experiment at Alert, Nunavut, Canada, we performed measurements of boundary layer bromine oxide radicals (BrO) by differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) using scattered sunlight in the spectral range from 320 to 400 nm. For the first time the Multi-Axis-(MAX)-DOAS method was applied to derive vertical profile information of BrO. BrO was observed at slant column densities (SCD) of up to 10{sup 15} molecules/cm{sup 2} during a 10-day period of complete surface ozone depletion. The largest BrO column densities were found by observing scattered sunlight from 5{sup o} above the horizon, and SCDs were decreasing with increasing elevation angles of the light-receiving telescope. For zenith scattered light the lowest absorption was recorded. Radiative transfer modelling and the calculation of air mass factors show that in most cases the bulk of the observed BrO was present in a layer of 1{+-}0.5 km thickness above the surface (in the boundary layer). The inferred extent of the BrO layer agrees very well with the observed height of the ozone depletion layer (Bottenheim et al., Atmos. Environ., 2002) from ozone sonde data. Assuming that BrO layer is well-mixed, volume mixing ratios reached levels of 20-30 ppt BrO. These values are consistent with previous measurements of BrO during low ozone events in the Arctic boundary layer. (Author)

  12. Ravintola Teerenpelin brändi

    OpenAIRE

    Malaste, Paavo-Sakari

    2007-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä käsitellään brändiä ja sen luomista palveluyrityksissä. Tässä työssä tutkitaan myös millaisena asiakkaat kokevat Teerenpeli-ravintolan brändin. Teoriaosassa selvitetään brändin luomista ja asemointia palveluyrityksissä. Brändin luomiseen palveluyrityksissä liittyy samoja piirteitä kuin tavaroidenkin kohdalla, mutta palvelut eroavat tavaroista siinä, että ne ovat aineettomia. Brändillä tarkoitetaan sekä brändin luojan näkemystä eli brändi-identiteettiä että asiakkaiden nä...

  13. Characterization of soluble bromide measurements and a case study of BrO observations during ARCTAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A focus of the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS mission was examination of bromine photochemistry in the spring time, high latitude troposphere based on aircraft and satellite measurements of BrO and related species. The NASA DC-8 aircraft utilized a chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS instrument to measure BrO and a mist chamber (MC to measure soluble bromide. We have determined that the MC detection efficiency to molecular bromine (Br2, hypobromous acid (HOBr, bromine oxide (BrO, and hydrogen bromide (HBr as soluble bromide (Br was 0.9±0.1, 1.06±0.30, 0.4±0.1, and 0.95±0.1, respectively. These efficiency factors were used to estimate soluble bromide levels along the DC-8 flight track of 17 April 2008 from photochemical calculations constrained to in situ BrO measured by CIMS. During this flight, the highest levels of soluble bromide and BrO were observed and atmospheric conditions were ideal for the space-borne observation of BrO. The good agreement (R2 = 0.76; slope = 0.98; intercept = −3.5 pptv between modeled and observed soluble bromide, when BrO was above detection limit (>2 pptv under unpolluted conditions (NO < 100 pptv, indicates that the CIMS BrO measurements were consistent with the MC soluble bromide. Tropospheric BrO vertical column densities (BROTROPVCD derived from CIMS BrO observations compare well with BROTROPVCD from OMI on 17 April 2008.

  14. Deriving Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Soklakov, Andrei N.

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative Structuring is a rigorous framework for the design of financial products. We show how it incorporates traditional investment ideas while supporting a more accurate expression of clients' views on the market. We briefly touch upon adjacent topics regarding the safety of financial derivatives and the role of pricing models in product design.

  15. BR2 reactor neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of reactor neutron beams is becoming increasingly more widespread for the study of some properties of condensed matter. It is mainly due to the unique properties of the ''thermal'' neutrons as regards wavelength, energy, magnetic moment and overall favorable ratio of scattering to absorption cross-sections. Besides these fundamental reasons, the impetus for using neutrons is also due to the existence of powerful research reactors (such as BR2) built mainly for nuclear engineering programs, but where a number of intense neutron beams are available at marginal cost. A brief introduction to the production of suitable neutron beams from a reactor is given. (author)

  16. Mechanism of antibacterial action of the alcoholic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild.), Plumbago zeylanica L., and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult

    OpenAIRE

    Saritha, Kongari; Rajesh, Angireddy; Manjulatha, Khanapur; Setty, Oruganti H.; Yenugu, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Herbal products derived from Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild.), Plumbago zeylanica L., and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult. are widely used in traditional medicine. Though the extracts of these plants were found to be antimicrobial in nature and have the potential to be used in clinics, the mechanism of action of is not reported. The ethanolic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Hemidesmus indicus ethanolic extract (HIEE), Leucas aspera ...

  17. Ozone Depletion Potential of CH3Br

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Stanley P.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Sze, Nien Dak; Scott, Courtney; Rodriquez, Jose M.; Weisenstein, Debra K.

    1998-01-01

    The ozone depletion potential (ODP) of methyl bromide (CH3Br) can be determined by combining the model-calculated bromine efficiency factor (BEF) for CH3Br and its atmospheric lifetime. This paper examines how changes in several key kinetic data affect BEF. The key reactions highlighted in this study include the reaction of BrO + H02, the absorption cross section of HOBr, the absorption cross section and the photolysis products of BrON02, and the heterogeneous conversion of BrON02 to HOBR and HN03 on aerosol particles. By combining the calculated BEF with the latest estimate of 0.7 year for the atmospheric lifetime of CH3Br, the likely value of ODP for CH3Br is 0.39. The model-calculated concentration of HBr (approximately 0.3 pptv) in the lower stratosphere is substantially smaller than the reported measured value of about I pptv. Recent publications suggested models can reproduce the measured value if one assumes a yield for HBr from the reaction of BrO + OH or from the reaction of BrO + H02. Although the DeAlore et al. evaluation concluded any substantial yield of HBr from BrO + HO2 is unlikely, for completeness, we calculate the effects of these assumed yields on BEF for CH3Br. Our calculations show that the effects are minimal: practically no impact for an assumed 1.3% yield of HBr from BrO + OH and 10% smaller for an assumed 0.6% yield from BrO + H02.

  18. Metathesis Polymerization Reactions Induced by the Bimetallic Complex (Ph4P2[W2(μ-Br3Br6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despoina Chriti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The reactivity of the bimetallic complex (Ph4P2[W2(μ-Br3Br6] ({W 2.5 W}7+, a′2e3 towards ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP of norbornene (NBE and some of its derivatives, as well as the mechanistically related metathesis polymerization of phenylacetylene (PA, is presented. Our results show that addition of a silver salt (AgBF4 is necessary for the activation of the ditungsten complex. Polymerization of PA proceeds smoothly in tetrahydrofuran (THF producing polyphenylacetylene (PPA in high yields. On the other hand, the ROMP of NBE and its derivatives is more efficient in CH2Cl2, providing high yields of polymers. 13C Cross Polarization Magic Angle Spinning (CPMAS spectra of insoluble polynorbornadiene (PNBD and polydicyclopentadiene (PDCPD revealed the operation of two mechanisms (metathetic and radical for cross-linking, with the metathesis pathway prevailing.

  19. Phase diagram of the CsBr-CaBr2 system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Xinhua; CHEN Nianyi; LU Wencong; CHENG Zhixuan; LUO Yunyun; LU Weiying; XIA Yiben

    2006-01-01

    The phase diagram of the CsBr-CaBr2 system was re-determined by using differential thermal analysis and high temperature and room temperature X-ray diffraction analysis. It is concluded that there are three intermediate compounds in this system: a congruently melting compound, CsCaBr3, with a melting point of 823℃ and two incongruently melting compounds, Cs2CaBr4 and Cs3Ca2Br7, whose peritectic points being 597℃ and 635℃, respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that compound CsCaBr3 is of slightly distorted perovskite structure.

  20. Miten brändi säilyttää brändiarvonsa?

    OpenAIRE

    Sara, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä tarkasteltiin brändiä ja sen ylläpitämistä. Tavoitteena oli selvittää, miten brändi voi säilyttää jo saavuttamansa brändiarvon. Brändillä tarkoitetaan tavaramerkin ympärille muodostunutta positiivista mielikuvaa. Yrityksen kannalta brändi on kilpailukeino. Vahvan brändin etuja yritykselle ovat esimerkiksi uskolliset asiakkaat, haluttavuus yhteistyökumppanina ja kiinnostavuus työnantajana. Aihe valittiin työn tekijän oman kiinnostuksen perusteella. Aihetta tarkastelti...

  1. Phase diagram study of CaBr2-SrBr2 binary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydride ion conducting electrolytes are used in the electrochemical sensors for detecting hydrogen in liquid sodium coolant of fast reactors. In this connection several combinations of alkali/alkaline earth metal halides mixed with alkali/alkaline earth metal hydrides were investigated for using them as hydride ion conducting electrolytes. Currently, a mixture of CaBr2-CaH2 is used as the solid electrolyte in electrochemical sensors. With a view to develop and understand electrolyte characteristics of CaBr2-SrBr2-CaH2, system, the binary phase diagram of CaBr2-SrBr2 is being investigated in this work. Samples were prepared in dry argon atmosphere glove box using purified CaBr2 and SrBr2 salts covering the composition range of 0 to 100 mol% of CaBr2 in SrBr2 in steps of ∼10 mol%. Approximately 30 mg of samples were loaded inside hermetically closed iron capsules and were analysed by DTA under argon+4% hydrogen gas at controlled heating and cooling rates. Results have shown that the system shows appreciable terminal solid solution at both CaBr2 and SrBr2 rich sides. The system exhibits a eutectic reaction involving the terminal solid solutions at 553℃ and at ∼40 mol% CaBr2 in SrBr2. Further investigations are in progress. (author)

  2. Photoinduced Br Desorption from CsBr Thin Films Grown on Cu(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliday, Matthew T.; Joly, Alan G.; Hess, Wayne P.; Shluger, AL

    2015-10-22

    Thin films of CsBr deposited onto metals such as copper are potential photocathode materials for light sources and other applications. We investigate desorption dynamics of Br atoms from CsBr films grown on insulator (KBr, LiF) and metal (Cu) substrates induced by sub-bandgap 6.4 eV laser pulses. The experimental results demonstrate that the peak kinetic energy of Br atoms desorbed from CsBr/Cu films is much lower than that for the hyperthermal desorption from CsBr/LiF films. Kelvin probe measurements indicate negative charge at the surface following Br desorption from CsBr/Cu films. Our ab initio calculations of excitons at CsBr surfaces demonstrate that this behavior can be explained by an exciton model of desorption including electron trapping at the CsBr surface. Trapped negative charges reduce the energy of surface excitons available for Br desorption. We examine the electron-trapping characteristics of low-coordinated sites at the surface, in particular, divacancies and kink sites. We also provide a model of cation desorption caused by Franck-Hertz excitation of F centers at the surface in the course of irradiation of CsBr/Cu films. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms of photoinduced structural evolution of alkali halide films on metal substrates and activation of metal photocathodes coated with CsBr.

  3. Characterization of soluble bromide measurements and a case study of BrO observations during ARCTAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A focus of the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS mission was examination of bromine photochemistry in the spring time high latitude troposphere based on aircraft and satellite measurements of bromine oxide (BrO and related species. The NASA DC-8 aircraft utilized a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS to measure BrO and a mist chamber (MC to measure soluble bromide. We have determined that the MC detection efficiency to molecular bromine (Br2, hypobromous acid (HOBr, bromine oxide (BrO, and hydrogen bromide (HBr as soluble bromide (Br was 0.9±0.1, 1.06+0.30/−0.35, 0.4±0.1, and 0.95±0.1, respectively. These efficiency factors were used to estimate soluble bromide levels along the DC-8 flight track of 17 April 2008 from photochemical calculations constrained to in situ BrO measured by CIMS. During this flight, the highest levels of soluble bromide and BrO were observed and atmospheric conditions were ideal for the space-borne observation of BrO. The good agreement (R2 = 0.76; slope = 0.95; intercept = −3.4 pmol mol−1 between modeled and observed soluble bromide, when BrO was above detection limit (>2 pmol mol−1 under unpolluted conditions (NO<10 pmol mol−1, indicates that the CIMS BrO measurements were consistent with the MC soluble bromide and that a well characterized MC can be used to derive mixing ratios of some reactive bromine compounds. Tropospheric BrO vertical column densities (BrOVCD derived from CIMS BrO observations compare well with BrOTROPVCD from OMI on 17 April 2008.

  4. Laser Pyrolysis of CH3Br

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hua,; Hsieh, Jang Ching

    1993-01-01

    Laser pyrolysis of CH3Br by a strong laser irradiation was studied in this work. Besides a fine needle of solid carbon was deposited at the surface on the substrate, HBr and CH4, were found as gaseous products with a ratio of 2:1. Small amount of C2H2 was also detected. The variation in the pressures of CH3Br, HBr and CH4 were measured by Raman spectroscopy. It indicated that the decomposition of CH3Br was first order with respect to CH3Br. The reaction mechanism of the laser pyrolysis was su...

  5. Tuning growth cycles of Brassica crops via natural antisense transcripts of BrFLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaorong; Zhang, Shaofeng; Bai, Jinjuan; He, Yuke

    2016-03-01

    Several oilseed and vegetable crops of Brassica are biennials that require a prolonged winter cold for flowering, a process called vernalization. FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is a central repressor of flowering. Here, we report that the overexpression of natural antisense transcripts (NATs) of Brassica rapa FLC (BrFLC) greatly shortens plant growth cycles. In rapid-, medium- and slow-cycling crop types, there are four copies of the BrFLC genes, which show extensive variation in sequences and expression levels. In Bre, a biennial crop type that requires vernalization, five NATs derived from the BrFLC2 locus are rapidly induced under cold conditions, while all four BrFLC genes are gradually down-regulated. The transgenic Bre lines overexpressing a long NAT of BrFLC2 do not require vernalization, resulting in a gradient of shortened growth cycles. Among them, a subset of lines both flower and set seeds as early as Yellow sarson, an annual crop type in which all four BrFLC genes have non-sense mutations and are nonfunctional in flowering repression. Our results demonstrate that the growth cycles of biennial crops of Brassica can be altered by changing the expression levels of BrFLC2 NATs. Thus, BrFLC2 NATs and their transgenic lines are useful for the genetic manipulation of crop growth cycles. PMID:26250982

  6. Punkaliven brändiohjeisto

    OpenAIRE

    Vikiö, Timo

    2010-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä käsitellään brändiohjeiston rakentamista pk-yritys Punkalivelle, joka valmistaa designkalusteita ja paviljonkeja Finnforestin kehittämästä Kerto®-puumateriaalista. Yrityksen strategisena lähtökohtana on ollut rakentaa uutta yritys-trendiä, joka ottaa huomioon nykypäivän vaativan kuluttajan ja on kiinnostunut kestä-vän kehityksen arvoista. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on ollut kartoittaa kestävän kehityksen käsitettä, siihen liit-tyviä tekijöitä niin viestinnässä kuin mu...

  7. Seasonal variability of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) in a temperate lake system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Shannon E.; Russell, James M.; Heureux, Ana M.; D'Andrea, William J.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2014-11-01

    Quantitative climate reconstructions are crucial for understanding the magnitude of and mechanisms behind natural and anthropogenic climate change, yet there are few proxies that can reliably reconstruct terrestrial temperature. Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are bacterial membrane lipids that are increasingly used to reconstruct paleotemperature from lake sediments, but despite their potential, we have a poor understanding of (1) autochthonous vs. allochthonous sources of brGDGTs in lakes and (2) the seasonality of and environmental controls on brGDGT production within lakes. To investigate these factors, we examined water column suspended particulate matter (SPM) and settling particles from a sediment trap collected on a biweekly to monthly basis over a period of three years at Lower King Pond, a small kettle lake in northern Vermont, USA. We also compared the concentration and fractional abundances of brGDGTs in SPM and settling particles with those of catchment soils, river sediments, and lake surface sediments to constrain the relative importance of brGDGTs derived from the landscape versus brGDGTs produced within the lake itself. We find significant differences in concentrations and fractional abundances of brGDGTs between soil and river sediment samples from the catchment and lake sediments, indicating a mostly autochthonous source for lacustrine brGDGTs. BrGDGT concentrations, fluxes, and fractional abundances in SPM vary over the annual cycle, indicating that brGDGTs are produced throughout the year and respond to changes within the water column. The total annual flux of brGDGTs settling through the water column is comparable to the brGDGT accumulation rates in surface sediments, indicating that in this lake brGDGTs are mostly produced within the water column, not in the sediment itself. While brGDGTs are produced in all seasons within the water column, the flux to the sediments is highest during periods of spring and fall

  8. Sokos Herkun brändimielikuva nuorten silmissä brändiarvojen perusteella mitattuna

    OpenAIRE

    Lappalainen, Sanna

    2016-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö tehtiin Tampereen keskustassa sijaitsevalle Sokos Herkku ruokakaupalle. Opinnäytetyöni käsittelee brändin rakentamista ja brändimielikuvan muodostumista. Teoriaosiossa käydään läpi brändin rakentaminen brändi-identiteetin luomisesta brändin johtamiseen brändipääomalla. Teoriaosiossani katsotaan brändiä myös palvelubrändin näkökulmasta, sillä elintarvikekaupat ovat yhä kasvavassa määrin palveluyrityksiä. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli kehittää Sokos Herkun brändimielikuvaa n...

  9. Som brødre vi dele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Debatten om forskningsfrihed gjorde broderskabet til forudsætningen for forskningfrihed, men skal forskere dele som brødre i 2010?......Debatten om forskningsfrihed gjorde broderskabet til forudsætningen for forskningfrihed, men skal forskere dele som brødre i 2010?...

  10. Financial Derivatives (Based on Two Supports Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Socaciu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we build a PDE like Black-Scholes equation in hypothesis of a financial derivative that is dependent on two supports (usual is dependent only on one support, like am<br />option based on gold, when national currency has a great float.<br />Keywords: Financial derivatives, derivatives evaluation, derivatives based on two supports, extended Itō like lemma.

  11. Cd4As2Br3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Kars

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of Cd4As2Br3 (tetracadmium biarsenide tribromide were grown by a chemical transport reaction. The structure is isotypic with the members of the cadmium and mercury pnictidohalides family with general formula M4A2X3 (M = Cd, Hg; A = P, As, Sb; X = Cl, Br, I and contains two independent As atoms on special positions with site symmetry -3 and two independent Cd atoms, of which one is on a special position with site symmetry -3. The Cd4As2Br3 structure consists of AsCd4 tetrahedra sharing vertices with isolated As2Cd6 octahedra that contain As–As dumbbells in the centre of the octahedron. The Br atoms are located in the voids of this three-dimensional arrangement and bridge the different polyhedra through Cd...Br contacts.

  12. Aagesta-BR3 Decommissioning Cost. Comparison and Benchmarking Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Geoff [NAC International, Henley on Thames (United Kingdom)

    2002-11-01

    25 is equipment. The BR3 work packages described in this report add up to something like 83,000 labour hours plus about MSEK 13 of investments and consumables costs. At Swedish average team labour rates 83,000 hours would equate to about MSEK 52. Adding the investment cost of MSEK 13 gives a total of about MSEK 65. This of course is quite close to the Aagesta figure but it would be wrong to draw immediate, firm conclusions based on these data. Such a comparison should take into account, inter alia: The number and relative sizes of the equipment decontaminated and dismantled at Aagesta and BR3. The assumed productivity in the Aagesta estimate compared to the actual BR3 figures. The physical scale of the Aagesta reactor is somewhat larger than the BR3 reactor, so all other things being equal, one might expect the Aagesta decommissioning cost estimate to be higher than for BR3. Aagesta has better access overall, which should help to constrain costs. The productivity ratio for workers at BR3 on average was high - generally 80 per cent or more, so this is unlikely to be exceeded at Aagesta and might not be equalled, which would tend to push the Aagesta cost up relative to the BR3 situation. There is an additional question of the possible extra work performed at BR3 due to the R and D nature of the project. The BR3 data analysed has tried to strip away any such 'extra' work but nevertheless there may be some residual effect on the final numbers. Analysis and comparison of individual work packages has raised several conclusions, as follows: The constructed cost for Aagesta using BR3 benchmark data is encouragingly close to the Aagesta estimate value but it is not clear that the way of deriving the Aagesta estimate for decontamination was entirely rigorous. The reliability of the Aagesta estimate on these grounds therefore might reasonably be questioned. A significant discrepancy between the BR3 and Aagesta cases appears to exist in respect of the volumes of waste

  13. Variation in the flowering time orthologs BrFLC and BrSOC1 in a natural population of Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Steven J; Perez-Sweeney, Beatriz; Strahl, Maya; Nowogrodzki, Anna; Weber, Jennifer J; Lalchan, Rebecca; Jordan, Kevin P; Litt, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of natural phenotypic variation is of great importance, particularly since selection can act on this variation to cause evolution. We examined expression and allelic variation in candidate flowering time loci in Brassica rapa plants derived from a natural population and showing a broad range in the timing of first flowering. The loci of interest were orthologs of the Arabidopsis genes FLC and SOC1 (BrFLC and BrSOC1, respectively), which in Arabidopsis play a central role in the flowering time regulatory network, with FLC repressing and SOC1 promoting flowering. In B. rapa, there are four copies of FLC and three of SOC1. Plants were grown in controlled conditions in the lab. Comparisons were made between plants that flowered the earliest and latest, with the difference in average flowering time between these groups ∼30 days. As expected, we found that total expression of BrSOC1 paralogs was significantly greater in early than in late flowering plants. Paralog-specific primers showed that expression was greater in early flowering plants in the BrSOC1 paralogs Br004928, Br00393 and Br009324, although the difference was not significant in Br009324. Thus expression of at least 2 of the 3 BrSOC1 orthologs is consistent with their predicted role in flowering time in this natural population. Sequences of the promoter regions of the BrSOC1 orthologs were variable, but there was no association between allelic variation at these loci and flowering time variation. For the BrFLC orthologs, expression varied over time, but did not differ between the early and late flowering plants. The coding regions, promoter regions and introns of these genes were generally invariant. Thus the BrFLC orthologs do not appear to influence flowering time in this population. Overall, the results suggest that even for a trait like flowering time that is controlled by a very well described genetic regulatory network, understanding the underlying genetic basis of

  14. Band structure of 79Br

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-spin states of 79Br have been studied in the reaction 76Ge(7Li, 4nγ) at 32 MeV. A gamma-detector array with twelve Compton-suppressed HPGe detectors was used. The positive-parity yrast states, interpreted as a rotationally aligned g(9(2)) proton band, and the negative-parity ground state band have been extended to spins of (33(2+)) and (25(2-)), respectively. Lifetime measurements indicate that both bands have a similar quadrupole deformation of β2 ∼ 0.2. The positive-parity α = -(1(2)) band has been identified. Several new inter-band transitions are observed. A cranked-shell model analysis shows that the νg(9(2)) and πg(9(2)) alignments occur in the positive-parity and the negative-parity bands at rotational frequencies of ℎω ∼ 0.6 and 0.4 MeV, respectively. The level energies and the electromagnetic properties of the g(9(2)) band can be well reproduced by a particle-rotor model calculation with an axially symmetric core

  15. Aagesta-BR3 Decommissioning Cost. Comparison and Benchmarking Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    equipment. The BR3 work packages described in this report add up to something like 83,000 labour hours plus about MSEK 13 of investments and consumables costs. At Swedish average team labour rates 83,000 hours would equate to about MSEK 52. Adding the investment cost of MSEK 13 gives a total of about MSEK 65. This of course is quite close to the Aagesta figure but it would be wrong to draw immediate, firm conclusions based on these data. Such a comparison should take into account, inter alia: The number and relative sizes of the equipment decontaminated and dismantled at Aagesta and BR3. The assumed productivity in the Aagesta estimate compared to the actual BR3 figures. The physical scale of the Aagesta reactor is somewhat larger than the BR3 reactor, so all other things being equal, one might expect the Aagesta decommissioning cost estimate to be higher than for BR3. Aagesta has better access overall, which should help to constrain costs. The productivity ratio for workers at BR3 on average was high - generally 80 per cent or more, so this is unlikely to be exceeded at Aagesta and might not be equalled, which would tend to push the Aagesta cost up relative to the BR3 situation. There is an additional question of the possible extra work performed at BR3 due to the R and D nature of the project. The BR3 data analysed has tried to strip away any such 'extra' work but nevertheless there may be some residual effect on the final numbers. Analysis and comparison of individual work packages has raised several conclusions, as follows: The constructed cost for Aagesta using BR3 benchmark data is encouragingly close to the Aagesta estimate value but it is not clear that the way of deriving the Aagesta estimate for decontamination was entirely rigorous. The reliability of the Aagesta estimate on these grounds therefore might reasonably be questioned. A significant discrepancy between the BR3 and Aagesta cases appears to exist in respect of the volumes of waste arising from the

  16. Electronic structure and optical properties of RbPb2Br5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentyev, A. A.; Gabrelian, B. V.; Vu, V. T.; Denysyuk, N. M.; Shkumat, P. N.; Tarasova, A. Y.; Isaenko, L. I.; Khyzhun, O. Y.

    2016-04-01

    We report on density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the total and partial densities of states of rubidium dilead pentabromide, RbPb2Br5, employing the augmented plane wave+local orbitals (APW+lo) method as incorporated in the WIEN2k package. The calculations indicate that the Pb 6s and Br 4p states are the dominant contributors to the valence band: their main contributions are found to occur at the bottom and at the top of the band, respectively. Our calculations reveal that the bottom of the conduction band is formed predominantly from contributions of the unoccupied Pb 6p states. Data of total DOS derived in the present DFT calculations are found to be in agreement with the experimental X-ray photoelectron valence-band spectrum of this compound. The predominant contributions of the Br 4p states at the top of the valence band of rubidium dilead pentabromide are confirmed by comparison on a common energy scale of the X-ray emission band representing the energy distribution of the valence Br p states and the X-ray photoelectron valence-band spectrum of the RbPb2Br5 single crystal. Main optical characteristics of RbPb2Br5, such as dispersion of the absorption coefficient, real and imaginary parts of dielectric function, electron energy-loss spectrum, refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical reflectivity are explored for RbPb2Br5 by the DFT calculations.

  17. Lastnosti lesa bršljana

    OpenAIRE

    Merhar, Klemen

    2014-01-01

    Raziskali smo tiste izbrane lastnosti lesa navadnega bršljana (Hedera helix L.), ki bi utegnile predvideti njegovo uporabo. Raziskali smo anatomsko zgradbo in makroskopske posebnosti, vlažnost v svežem stanju, gostoto, anizotropijo krčenja in nabrekanja, kazalnike dimenzijske stabilnosti ter tlačno in upogibno trdnost bršljanovega lesa. Raziskava je pokazala, da bršljanov les spada med polvenčasto porozne drevesne vrste. Gostota absolutno suhega lesa je 522 kg/m3. Vlažnost svežega lesa, ki jo...

  18. Role of Rom protein in copy number control of plasmid pBR322 at different growth rates in Escherichia coli K-12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tove, Atlung; Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Hansen, Flemming G.

    1999-01-01

    The copy number per cell mass of plasmid pBR322 and a rom(-) derivative was measured as a function of generation time. In fast growing cells the copy number per cell mass was virtually identical for rom(+) and rom(-) derivatives. However, the copy number of pBR322 only increased 3- to 4-fold from...... itself, respectively, at fast and slow growth. We conclude that the rom gene product-the Rom protein-is an important element in copy number control of Co1E1-type plasmids especially in slowly growing cells. (C) 1999 Academic Press.......The copy number per cell mass of plasmid pBR322 and a rom(-) derivative was measured as a function of generation time. In fast growing cells the copy number per cell mass was virtually identical for rom(+) and rom(-) derivatives. However, the copy number of pBR322 only increased 3- to 4-fold from a...... effect on the copy number of pBR322 rom(-) at fast growth, but it decreased its copy number at slow growth to the same level as found for pBR322, i.e., complemented the pBR322 rom(-) plasmid. The pACYC184 plasmid and its rom(+) derivatives showed copy numbers similar to those of pBR322 rom(-) and pBR322...

  19. Recognition of breast cancer cells by CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell clones specific for NY-BR-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Epler, Jennifer; Salazar, Lupe G; Riddell, Stanley R

    2006-07-01

    Immunotherapy for breast cancer using cytotoxic T cells (CTL) is hindered by the lack of well-characterized breast cancer antigens that are expressed in most breast tumor cells and recognized by CD8+ CTL. A recently described breast tissue differentiation antigen, NY-BR-1, is expressed in >80% breast tumors and elicits a humoral response in a subset of breast cancer patients. To identify potential NY-BR-1 epitopes that are recognized by CTL, CD8+ T cells were stimulated in vitro with autologous dendritic cells pulsed with NY-BR-1 peptides that were predicted to bind to HLA-A2. In multiple normal female donors and breast cancer patients, specific CD8+ CTL responses were detected by enzyme-linked immunospot assay against several NY-BR-1 peptides after two cycles of stimulation. CD8+ CTL clones against three NY-BR-1 epitopes were isolated and recognized peptide-pulsed target cells with high avidity. T-cell clones specific for one of the NY-BR-1 epitopes (p904) also recognized breast tumor cells expressing NY-BR-1, NY-BR-1(-) cells transfected with a cDNA encoding the NY-BR-1 protein, and autologous dendritic cells pulsed with opsonized NY-BR-1+ breast tumor cells. Taken together, these results show that the p904 epitope derived from NY-BR-1 is efficiently processed and presented endogenously and identify NY-BR-1 as a promising target for T-cell-based immunotherapy for breast cancer. PMID:16818660

  20. Brändimielikuvia kosmetiikan markkinoilla : Cliniquen brändimielikuva

    OpenAIRE

    Pitkä, Nea

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää, millainen Cliniquen brändimielikuva on kuluttajien kokemana. Clinique on suurimpia kosmetiikkabrändejä selektiivisen kosmetiikan markkinoilla. Yhdysvaltalaisella Cliniquella on omalaatuinen kliininen imago kilpailijoihinsa nähden, joten brändistä muotoutunutta mielikuvaa tutkittiin sen pohjalta. Toinen selvityksen kohde oli Cliniquen brändimielikuvan vaikutus ostopäätökseen. Työssä käsiteltiin laajasti brändin määritelmää ja olennaisimpia t...

  1. Brändivalokuva Suomessa : Kuinka saavutetaan laadukas brändivalokuva

    OpenAIRE

    Luostarinen, Antti

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutkitaan mitä brändivalokuva on ja miten laadukas brändivalokuva saavutetaan Suomessa. Kentällä tapahtuvaa toimintaa lähestytään kolmesta suunnasta: valokuvaajan (toteuttaja), suunnittelijan (luova toimisto) sekä yrityksen (tilaaja) näkökulmasta. Brändivalokuvan tekemisen prosessia kuvataan yrityksen ja sen palkkaamien ulkoistettujen yhteistyötahojen toiminnan kautta. Opinnäyte ei siis ota kantaa inhouse-toiminnassa tuotettuun brändivalokuvaan. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on...

  2. Radiative forcing calculations for CH3Br

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methyl Bromide, CH3Br, is the major organobromine species in the lower atmosphere and is a primary source of bromine in the stratosphere. It has a lifetime of 1.3 years. The IR methyl bromide spectra in the atmospheric window region, 7--13μ, was determined using a well tested Coriolis resonance and ell-doubling (and ell-resonance) computational system. A radiative forcing value of 0.00493 W/m2/ppbv was obtained for CH3Br and is approximately linear in the background abundance. This value is about 2 percent of the forcing of CFC-11 and about 278 times the forcing of C02, on a per molecule basis. The radiative forcing calculation is used to estimate the global warming potential (GWP) of CH3Br. The results give GWPs for CH3Br of the order of 13 for an integration period of 20 years and 4 for an integration period of 100 years (assuming C02 = 1, following IPCC [1994]). While CH3Br has a GWP which is approximately 25 percent of the GWP of CH4, the current emission rates are too low to cause serious atmospheric greenhouse heating effects at this time

  3. Brändikäsikirja brändinhallinnan tukena Case: Innojok Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Tamminen, Tytti; Uusitalo, Nea

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli laatia brändikäsikirja opinnäytetyön case yritys Innojok Oy:lle. Tutkimustyön tarkoituksena on selvittää, mitä tehokkaan ja hyödyllisen brändikäsikirjan tulisi sisältää, jotta sen optimaalinen käyttötarkoitus toteutuu. Toimeksianto saatiin case yritykseltä, koska yrityksellä ei ollut vielä brändikäsikirjaa olemassa. Opinnäytetyön teoreettinen viitekehys käsittelee brändiä ja brändinhallinnan merkitystä liiketoiminnan kannalta. Opinnäytetyön teoreettisen ...

  4. Optical properties of CdBr2:Eu and CdBr2:Eu, Mn crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical and luminescent properties of the CdBr:Eu and CdBr2:Eu, Mn crystals, grown through the Stockbarger-Bridgman method in evacuated quartz ampoules, are studied within the temperature range of 85-295 K. The results obtained are compared with spectral characteristics of the CdBr2 and CdBr2:Mn crystals. The band with the maximum about 254 nm, observed in the absorption spectra of mono- and polyactivated crystals of cadmium bromide, is attributed to the 4f7 -> 4f65d electron transitions in the Eu2+ ions. The manganese sensitized luminescence is identified by excitation of the CdBr2:Eu, Mn crystals by the light from the area of this band. The nature of the capture centers, responsible for thermostimulated fluorescence, and excitation mechanisms of recombination luminescence in the studied crystals are considered

  5. Brändiopas : brändäys kauneudenhoitoalalla

    OpenAIRE

    Rastas, Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    Brändit vetoavat asiakkaan tunteisiin ja tuottavat elämyksiä sekä unohtumattomia kokemuksia. Brändi on aineeton ulottuvuus, mielikuva, joka rakentuu asiakkaan mielessä. Brändi onkin hieman erilainen eri ihmiseltä kysyttäessä. Tässä oppaassa käsiteltiin kauneudenhoitoalan yritys- ja henkilöbrändin rakentamisen vaiheita. Oppaassa käsiteltiin myös asiakaskokemuksen merkitystä menestyvän yritysbrändin rakentumisessa. Vaikka brändi termiä käytetään hyvin laajasti puhekielessä, se usein liitet...

  6. CaBr2 hydrolysis for HBr production using a direct sparging contactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated a novel, continuous hybrid cycle for hydrogen production employing both heat and electricity. Calcium bromide (CaBr2) hydrolysis, which is endothermic, generates hydrogen bromide (HBr), and this is electrolysed to produce hydrogen. CaBr2 hydrolysis at 1050 K is endothermic with a 181.5 KJ/mol heat of reaction and the free energy change is positive at 99.6 kJ/mol. What makes this hydrolysis reaction attractive is both its rate and the fact that well over half the thermodynamic requirements for water-splitting free energy of ΔGT = 285.8 KJ/mol are supplied at this stage using heat rather than electricity. These experiments provide support for a second order hydrolysis reaction in CaBr2 forming a complex involving CaBr2 and CaO and the system appears to be: 3CaBr2 + H2O → (CaBr2)2.CaO + 2HBr. This reaction is highly endothermic and the complex also includes some water of hydration. COMSOLTM multi-physics modelling of sparging steam into a calcium bromide melt guided the design of an experiment using a mullite tube (ID 70 mm) capable of holding 0.3-0.5 kg (1.5-2.5 10-3 kmol) CaBr2 forming a melt with a maximum 0.08 m depth. Half of the experiments employed packings. Sparging steam at a steam rate of 0.02-0.04 mol/mol of CaBr2 per minute into this molten bath promptly yielded HBr in a stable operation that converted up to 19 mol% of the calcium bromide. The kinetic constant derived from the experimental data was kinetic constant was 2.17 10-12 kmol s-1 m-2 MPa-1 for the hydrolysis reaction. (authors)

  7. Preparation, characterization, and photocatalytic activity of porous AgBr@Ag and AgBrI@Ag plasmonic photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Tian, Baozhu; Zhang, Jinlong; Xiong, Tianqing; Wang, Tingting

    2014-02-01

    Porous AgBr@Ag and AgBrI@Ag plasmonic photocatalysts were synthesized by a multistep route, including a dealloying method to prepare porous Ag, a transformation from Ag to AgBr and AgBrI, and a photo-reduction process to form Ag nanoparticles on the surface of AgBr and AgBrI. It was found that the porous structure kept unchanged during Ag was transferred into AgBr, AgBrI, AgBr@Ag, and AgBrI@Ag. Both porous AgBr@Ag and porous AgBrI@Ag showed much higher visible-light photocatalytic activity than cubic AgBr@Ag for the degradation of methyl orange, which is because the interconnected pore channels not only provide more reactive sites but also favor the transportation of photo-generated electrons and holes. For AgBrI@Ag, AgBrI solid solution formed at the interface of AgBr and AgI, and the phase junction can effectively separate the photo-generated electrons and holes, favorable to the improvement of photocatalytic activity. The optimal I content for obtaining the highest activity is ∼10 at.%.

  8. Brändäys pelialalla

    OpenAIRE

    Saarelainen, Joona

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli tarjota lukijalle tietopaketti siitä, mikä merkitys brändeillä ja brändäyksellä on kuluttajille videopelimarkkinoilla. Työn tarkoituksena oli tarjota kansainvälisille pelimarkkinoille pyrkivälle yritykselle tietoa brändin rakentamisen aloittamisesta ja siinä tarvittavista analyyseistä. Tämä oli myös opinnäytetyöhön valittu tutkimusongelma. Opinnäytetyö kirjoitettiin kahdessa eri osassa. Teoriaosuus käsittelee suomalaista ja kansainvälistä pelialaa sekä...

  9. Production of 77 Br for medical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromine-77 is produced with the variable energy cyclotron (CV-28) at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, via the 75 As. (α, 2 n) 77 Br reaction, by bombarding arsenic trioxide with 28 MeV alpha-particles. The thick target yield is 0.3 mCi/μAh. The target is dissolved in concentrated N H4 OH and 77 Br, separated from arsenic, by an anionic exchange resin, is obtained carrier-free with a separation yield greater than 90%. All the process is remotely controlled using electric and pneumatic systems, manipulators and tongs. The quality control is made by atomic absorption and gamma-ray spectroscopy. The present production rate of Br-77 is 2.3 mCi per irradiation. (author)

  10. Synthesis of 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-[76Br]bromophenyl)tropane ([76Br]β-CBT), a PET tracer for in vivo imaging of the dopamine uptake sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-[76Br]bromophenyl)tropane ([76Br]β-CBT) was prepared either by electrophilic substitution from the tributyl-stannyl derivative and peracetic acid as oxidant or by nucleophilic substitution from the iodo analogue (β-CIT) and a Cu+ assisted bromodeiodination exchange. After purification by solid phase extraction and reverse phase HPLC, the chemical and radiochemical purities of [76Br]β-CBT were >98% and the specific radioactivity was 20 GBq/μmol. Using the two labelling techniques, the radiochemical yields were 80% and 60%, respectively. From the deshalogeno compound and different oxidizing conditions, the radiolabelling yields were <5%. (Author)

  11. From photoelectron detachment spectra of BrHBr{sup −}, BrDBr{sup −} and IHI{sup −}, IDI{sup −} to vibrational bonding of BrMuBr and IMuI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, Jörn [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Laser Spectrocopy, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Freie Universität Berlin, Institut für Chemie und Biochemie, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Sato, Kazuma; Takayanagi, Toshiyuki, E-mail: tako@mail.saitama-u.ac.jp; Yoshida, Takahiko [Department of Chemistry, Saitama University, Saitama City, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan)

    2015-04-28

    der Waals (vdW) bonded. In contrast, the energies E{sub XMuX,00{sup 0}0} of the light isotopomers XMuX(00{sup 0}0) are below the threshold for dissociation, with wavefunctions centered at the transition state. This means that XMuX(00{sup 0}0) are vibrationally bonded. This implies a fundamental change of the nature of chemical bonding, from vdW bonding of the heavy XHX, XDX to vibrational bonding of XMuX. For BrMuBr, the present results derived from experimental pds of BrHBr{sup −} and BrDBr{sup −} confirm the recent discovery of vibrational bonding based on quantum chemical ab initio calculations [D. G. Fleming, J. Manz, K. Sato, and T. Takayanagi, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 53, 13706 (2014)]. The extension from BrLBr to ILI means the discovery of a new example of vibrational bonding. These empirical results for the vibrational bonding of IMuI, derived from the photoelectron spectra of IHI{sup −} and IDI{sup −}, are supported by ab initio simulations of the spectra and of the wavefunction representing vibrational bonding of IMuI.

  12. Angular correlation for gamma-gamma transitions in 81Br and 83Br nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The directional angular correlation of coincident gamma transitions in 81Br and 83Br have been measured following the β- decay of 81Se(T sub(1/2) = 18.6 min) and 83Se(T sub(1/2) = 22.6 min) respectively, using Ge(Li) - high purity Ge and Ge(Li)-NaI(Tl) spectrometers. The radioactive sources were prepared by irradiating with neutrons in the IEA-R1 reactor, metallic selenium (natural) to produce 81Se and samples of metallic selenium enriched (to approx. 90% in 82Se) to produce 83Se. Measurements have been carried out for the gamma cascades 260-276 KeV, 290-276 KeV and 552-276 KeV in 81Br and the gamma cascades 225(510)-356 KeV, 510-356 KeV, 572-(510)-356 KeV, 718-(225)-(510)-356 KeV, 1064-356 KeV, 718-225 KeV, 718-(225)-510 KeV, 836-718 KeV, 718-(225)-866 KeV, 883-718 KeV and 1895-799 KeV in 83Br. The multipole mixing ratios, σ(E2/M1), were determined for 3 gamma transitions in 81Br and 11 gamma transitions in 83Br. In the case of 81Br present results confirmed some of the earlier results. The spin and parity assignment were made to the majority of levels in 81Br and 83Br involved in the present study, some of them confirming the earlier results. A comparison of some of the nuclear properties of the 79Br, 81Br and 83Br is made based on the available experimental data. The experimental results are also discussed qualitatively in terms of some nuclear models applicable for the description of the properties of odd-A bromine isotopes. (Author)

  13. Ravintola Tallin brändi-identiteetti ja -imago

    OpenAIRE

    Hirvikoski, Mira

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni aiheena on brändi. Brändit ovat nykyaikana oleellinen osa liiketoimintaa ja parhaimmil-laan jopa yritystensä kallisarvoisinta omaisuutta. Brändi-identiteetti on tulevaisuuden tavoite, johon yritys pyrkii. Se kertoo, millaisena yritys toivoisi ulkopuolisten tahojen, kuten asiakkaiden, näkevän sen brändin. Brändi-imago taas kuvaa sitä, millaisena yrityksen ulkopuoliset tahot näkevät sen brändin juuri tällä het-kellä. Opinnäytetyöni tavoitteena oli selvittää, miten Ravintola T...

  14. The TbBr3–LiBr binary system: Experimental thermodynamic investigation and assessment of phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► DSC measurements for the (LiBr + TbBr3) system. ► congruently Li3TbBr6 and incongruently melting Li5TbBr8 compounds. ► Thermodynamic description of the liquid phase in the (LiBr + TbBr3) system. ► Assessment with a two-sublattice ionic solution model. - Abstract: DSC was used to study the phase equilibrium in the TbBr3–LiBr binary system. The results obtained provided a basis for constructing the phase diagram of this system. It exhibits two compounds: Li5TbBr8, which decomposes in the solid state at 611 K, and Li3TbBr6, which melts congruently at 785 K with the related enthalpy 59.1 kJ·mol−1. The binary LiBr–TbBr3 system was then optimized using the available experimental information on phase diagram and thermodynamic properties. A two-sub-lattice ionic solution model (Li+)P:(Br−, TbBr6−3, TbBr3)Q was adopted to describe the liquid phase. The present assessment of the binary LiBr–TbBr3 system was in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data and confirmed their consistency.

  15. Elamusturundus: riigi brändimine ja Eesti bränd / Siiri Same

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Same, Siiri

    2015-01-01

    Artikli autor oma 2015. a. Tallinna Tehnikaülikoolis kaitstud doktoritööst "Conceptualization of experience marketing and country branding from a marketing management perspective" ("Elamusturunduse ja riigi brändimise kontseptualiseerimine turunduse juhtimise vaatenurgast")

  16. Vahva ja erottuva brändi yrityksen kilpailuetuna : VihreäKeiju-brändin kuluttaja-asiakastutkimus

    OpenAIRE

    Merta, Helinä

    2011-01-01

    Brändi on kaikkien niiden mielikuvien ja tietojen summa, joita ihmisellä on jostain asiasta. Brändi syntyi 1700-luvun Amerikassa, jossa karja merkittiin polttomerkein (engl. brand), jotta jokainen erottaisi oman karjansa. Brändi tarkoittikin aluksi erilaistavaa tunnistetta tai symbolia. Nykyisin brändillä viitataan konkreettisiin ja mielikuvallisiin ominaisuuksiin, joiden avulla tuotteet erottuvat toisistaan. Brändiä rakentamalla pyritään kirkastamaan brändiin liitettyjä mielikuvia sekä er...

  17. Experimental studies on BrO/Br ratios at Stromboli, Etna, Masaya, Gorely and Nyiragongo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrowski, Nicole; Wittmer, Julian; Liotta, Marcello; Calabrese, Sergio; Giuffrida, Giovanni; Brusca, Lorenzo; Platt, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    Since the discovery of BrO in a volcanic plume (Bobrowski et al. 2003) many measurements have been performed as well as modelling to understand the radical chemistry in volcanic plumes, in particular, the interaction between volcanic gas species, released under strongly reduced conditions, and the oxidizing atmosphere. Besides the goal in atmospheric chemistry to better determine the impact of volcanic emission (e.g. reactive bromine) on the local (and maybe global) scale, volcanologists also have an interest to understand if the BrO/SO2 ratios can be used as a monitoring parameter giving further insides in dynamic processes of volcanoes. One of the major advantages when utilizing BrO/SO2 ratios is the relatively easiness of the measurements, which can be taken in a safe distance from volcanic activity accompanied by a good temporal resolution partly even during explosive eruptions. Recently, it has been shown (Lübcke et al., 2013) that already existing automatically running measurement networks can now be used to gain long-term data sets of BrO/SO2 ratios. However, one of the arguments which potentially makes volcanological interpretations difficult is the reactivity of BrO. Therefore it is, of great importance to link the measurements of BrO and gaseous hydrogen bromide to the total emission flux of bromine in order to estimate the pristine gas composition released from magmas. In particular, meteorological influences, trace gas composition of the surrounding atmosphere and the volcanic gas composition can all potentially effect the formation of BrO and might have to be considered. Some of these factors potentially also influence near source in-situ measurement. We need to answer the question: Can we correlate BrO measurements to the total bromine outgassing? Only with this knowledge we can relate changes of the measured gas ratios (BrO/SO2) to the volcanic fluids emitted by the underlying magma and can interpret data as signals from depth, which provide insight

  18. Aging and mechanical properties of NR/BR blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hsien-Tang; Tsai, Peir-An

    2006-02-01

    The mechanical properties and post-thermal aging properties of natural rubber (NR) and polybutadiene rubber (BR) blends at different blending ratios are investigated herein. The experimental results show that both tensile and tear strengths of NR/BR blends increase with increasing NR content. BR has a higher compression stiffness than NR. The deformation of BR is less than that of NR under the same load conditions. With regard to aging properties, both tensile stress and strain of NR/BR blends decrease after prolonged aging. In addition, the stress loss of BR is lower than that of NR, meaning that the aging resistance property of BR is superior to that of NR. Furthermore, accumulated thermal history has shifted the glass transition temperature (T g) of NR/BR blends toward lower temperatures while the loss tangent (tan δ) value increases with prolonged thermal aging.

  19. Molecular elimination of Br2 in photodissociation of CH2BrC(O)Br at 248 nm using cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary elimination channel of bromine molecule in one-photon dissociation of CH2BrC(O)Br at 248 nm is investigated using cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy. By means of spectral simulation, the ratio of nascent vibrational population in v = 0, 1, and 2 levels is evaluated to be 1:(0.5 ± 0.1):(0.2 ± 0.1), corresponding to a Boltzmann vibrational temperature of 581 ± 45 K. The quantum yield of the ground state Br2 elimination reaction is determined to be 0.24 ± 0.08. With the aid of ab initio potential energy calculations, the obtained Br2 fragments are anticipated to dissociate on the electronic ground state, yielding vibrationally hot Br2 products. The temperature-dependence measurements support the proposed pathway via internal conversion. For comparison, the Br2 yields are obtained analogously from CH3CHBrC(O)Br and (CH3)2CBrC(O)Br to be 0.03 and 0.06, respectively. The trend of Br2 yields among the three compounds is consistent with the branching ratio evaluation by Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus method. However, the latter result for each molecule is smaller by an order of magnitude than the yield findings. A non-statistical pathway so-called roaming process might be an alternative to the Br2 production, and its contribution might account for the underestimate of the branching ratio calculations.

  20. BR2 Reactor: Irradiation of Fusion Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In collaboration with the EFDA (European Fusion Development Agreement), SCK-CEN irradiates several materials in the BR2 reactor at different temperatures and up to different doses to study their mechanical and physical properties during and after irradiation. Those materials are candidates for the construction of different parts of the ITER fusion reactor and of the long-term DEMO (DEMOnstration) reactor. The objectives of research performed at SCK-CEN are to irradiate up to 2 dpa RAFM (Reduced Activity Ferritic Martensitic) steels joints and RAFM ODS (Oxide Dispersion Strengthening) at 300 degrees Celsius; to build and test an experimental rig to perform in-situ creep-fatigue tests under neutron irradiation and its out-pile equipment and to design a new irradiation basket to irradiate in BR2 copper/stainless steel joints and RAFM specimens with implanted helium at low dose

  1. Functional analysis of three BrMYB28 transcription factors controlling the biosynthesis of glucosinolates in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Mi-Suk; Jin, Mina; Chun, Jin-Hyuk; Kim, Sun-Ju; Park, Beom-Seok; Shon, Seong-Han; Kim, Jung Sun

    2016-03-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) are secondary metabolites that have anticarcinogenic activity and play defense roles in plants of the Brassicaceae family. MYB28 is known as a transcription factor that regulates aliphatic GSL biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Brassicaceae plants have three orthologous copies of AtMYB28 derived from recent genome triplication. These BrMYB28 genes have a high level of sequence homology, with 81-87% similarities in the coding DNA sequence compared to Arabidopsis. Overexpression of three paralogous BrMYB28 genes in transgenic Chinese cabbage increased the total GSL content in all T1 generation plants and in two inbred lines of homozygous T2 plants. The highest total GSL contents were detected in homozygous T2 lines overexpressing BrMYB28.1, which showed an approximate fivefold increase compared to that of nontransgenic plants. The homozygous T2 lines with overexpressed BrMYB28.1 also showed an increased content of aliphatic, indolic, and aromatic GSLs compared to that of nontransgenic plants. Furthermore, all of the three BrMYB28 genes were identified as negative regulators of BrAOP2 and positive regulators of BrGSL-OH in the homozygous T2 lines. These data indicate the regulatory mechanism of GSL biosynthesis in B. rapa is unlike that in A. thaliana. Our results will provide useful information for elucidating the regulatory mechanism of GSL biosynthesis in polyploid plants. PMID:26820138

  2. Energy levels of HoBr 63-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Peter A.

    1986-12-01

    The excitation, electronic absorption and luminescence spectra of cubic Cs 2NaHoBr 6 have been recorded at temperatures down to that of liquid helium. The detailed spectral analyses enable comparisons to be made of the crystal-field splittings of Russell—Saunders terms with those in Cs 2NaHoCl 6. Under intense 647.1 nm laser excitation, luminescence is observed in the neat material in the spectral region between 17800 and 21750 cm -1.

  3. Decommissioning of the BR3 PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives, programme and main achievements of SCK-CEN's decommissioning programme in 1997 are summarised. Particular emphasis is on the BR3 decommissioning project. In 1997, auxiliary equipment and loops were dismantled; concrete antimissile slabs were decontaminated; the radiology of the primary loop was modelled; the quality assurance procedure for dismantling loops and equipment were implemented; a method for the dismantling of the reactor pressure vessel was selected; and contaminated thermal insulation of the primary loop containing asbestos was removed

  4. Decommissioning of the BR3 PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dismantling and the decommissioning of nuclear installations at the end of their life-cycle is a new challenge to the nuclear industry. Different techniques and procedures for the dismantling of a nuclear power plant on an existing installation, the BR-3 pressurized-water reactor, are described. The scientific program, objectives, achievements in this research area at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN for 1997 are summarized

  5. SOFC brændselsceller i et intelligent elnet

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelm, Johan

    2015-01-01

    SOFC brændselsceller kan være med til at skabe balance i elnettet i takt med at elproduktionen i stigende grad baseres på sol og vind. Brændselscellerne kan kobles til naturgasnettet og på sigt bruge forskellige former for VE-gasser som brændstof.

  6. BR2 reactor: medical and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotopes are produced for various applications in the nuclear medicine (diagnostic, therapy, palliation of metastatic bone pain), industry (radiography of welds, ...), agriculture (radiotracers, ...) and basic research. Due to the availability of high neutron fluxes (thermal neutron flux up to 1015 n/cm2.s), the BR2 reactor is considered as a major facility through its contribution for a continuous supply of products such 99Mo (99mTc), 131I, 133Xe, 192Ir, 186Re, 153Sm, 90Y, 32P, 188W (188Re), 203Hg, 82Br, 41Ar, 125I, 177Lu,89Sr, 60Co, 169Yb, 147Nd, and others. Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) silicon is produced for the semiconductor industry in the SIDONIE (Silicon Doping by Neutron Irradiation Experiment) facility, which is designed to continuously rotate and traverse the silicon through the neutron flux. These combined movements produce exceptional dopant homogeneity in batches of silicon measuring 4 and 5-inches in diameter by up to 750 mm in length. The main objectives of work performed were to provide a reliable and qualitative supply of radioisotopes and NTD-silicon to the customers in accordance with a quality system that has been certified to the requirements of the EN ISO 9001: 2000. This new Quality System Certificate has been obtained in November 2003 for the Production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial applications and the Production of Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) Silicon in the BR2 reactor

  7. The bromination Hypocrellin A and the spectra character of the reaction of gelatin with the derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bromination derivates of hypocrellin A (Br-HA) was prepared in this paper, and the photodynamic activity also was appraised. UV-Vis spectroscopy and Fluorescence spectrophotometer were employed to detect the reaction of Br-HA with gelatin. The result shown the Br-HA can react with gelatin, and the HA-Br also photodegraded the pyridinoline cross-link formation in gelatin.

  8. Dry storage of the BR3 spent fuel in the Castor BR3 cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooms, L.; Massaut, V.; Noynaert, L. [SCK/CEN, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Braeckeveldt, M. [Niras/Ondraf, B-1210 Brussels (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    Twenty-five years of operation has resulted in an inventory of spent fuel with a wide variety in the BR3 nuclear pilot power plant. Studies were launched to evaluate all possible solutions for the BR3 experimental and 'exotic' spent fuel, i.e. reprocessing, dry storage in containers and dry storage in canisters. For the BR3 spent fuel the interim dry storage in Castor BR3 containers was chosen. The present paper describes in a first part the history and characteristics of the spent fuel. A second part handles with the different options, which were studied for the spent fuel evacuation. The last part focuses on the spent fuel preparation and the production of the Castor BR3. This project allowed the SCK-CEN to build up an important know-how in the field of spent fuel management, especially the management of research reactor fuel, which is very specific and not comparable with spent fuel of commercial nuclear power plants. (author)

  9. Communication: An unusual halogen-bonding motif: the LiBr···BrF dimer as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Sean A C; Joseph, Jerelle A

    2012-11-01

    A stable complex, LiBr···BrF, is predicted in which the negative Br atom of LiBr is anchored to the Br atom of BrF by a halogen bond, while the positively charged Li atom interacts with the lone pair electron density on the Br atom of BrF in a direction roughly perpendicular to the halogen bond. As far as we are aware, this is the first reported instance of an atom of one diatomic molecule (Br of BrF) being bonded to two different, oppositely charged atoms (Li and Br) of another diatomic molecule (LiBr). Other less stable dimers of LiBr and BrF were predicted and compared with this novel complex. PMID:23145710

  10. Observations of BrO Using Limb Scanning DOAS During the 2013 NOMADSS Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, J.; Stutz, J.; Tsai, J. Y.; Spolaor, M.; Zhou, X.; Ye, C.; Jaffe, D. A.; Gratz, L.; Ambrose, J. L., II; Jaegle, L.; Shah, V.; Selin, N. E.; Song, S.

    2014-12-01

    Bromine monoxide (BrO) is an important atmospheric constituent, participating in the destruction of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone and the oxidation of gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) to form reactive Hg (RM). During the Nitrogen, Oxidants, Mercury and Aerosol Distributions, Sources and Sinks (NOMADSS) campaign in the summer of 2013, our group operated a limb-scanning Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument onboard the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft with the goal of quantifying BrO, formaldehyde (HCHO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and other trace gases. Here we present observations of Differential Slant Column Densities (DSCD) obtained in the limb derived using the DOAS analysis technique. A radiative transfer model (McArtim [Deutschmann et al., 2011]), constrained by in-situ measurement on the aircraft or from published literature, was utilized to simulate the DSCDs and to derive BrO mixing ratios at flight altitude. BrO mixing ratios were typically below our 2σ detection limit (ranging from 0.5 - 1 ppt) with the exception of a high altitude (~7km asl) portion of a flight over Central and West Texas (RF 6), and a marine boundary layer (~0.2km asl) flight leg off the coast of South Carolina (RF 16). Around 1.9 ± 0.25 ppt of BrO was detected for about 1.5 hours in the high altitude flight, and around 1.0 ±0.5 ppt of BrO was detected in the marine boundary layer. Several features were present in the higher altitude air-mass with detectable BrO: O3 and humidity were significantly depressed relative to other flight legs at the same altitude and large concentrations of RM were simultaneously observed. We will present possible sources for the anomalously high BrO mixing ratios in the sampled air mass and discuss the implications of our knowledge on free-tropospheric bromine chemistry and its effects on GEM oxidation.

  11. Vaatemerkin brändin vaikutus vaatteiden ostoon

    OpenAIRE

    Orkamaa, Miro

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni aiheena on tutkia, kuinka vaatemerkin brändi vaikuttaa vaatteiden ostamiseen Kemi-Tornion ammattikorkeakoulun opiskelijoiden keskuudessa. Opinnäytetyössäni pohdin kuluttajien ostokäyttäytymistä, itse ostoprosessia sekä brändiä, brändin merkitystä nyky-yhteiskunnassa ja brändikritiikkiä. Otan esimerkkejä brändeistä, jotka liittyvät vaateteollisuuteen ja ovat tunnettuja merkkejä. Tutkimusta varten suoritin kyselyn, jonka tavoitteena oli selvittää, kuinka paljon vaatemerkki j...

  12. Influence of methoxy-substituents on the strength of BrBr type II halogen bonds in bromobenzoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffo, Pablo A.; Marcolongo, Juan P.; Funes, Alejandro V.; Slep, Leonardo D.; Baggio, Ricardo F.; Cukiernik, Fabio D.

    2016-03-01

    4-bromo-3,5-di(methoxy)benzoic acid (I) crystallizes in the monoclinic C2/c space group, a = 22.3405 (6) Å, b = 4.85142 (14) Å, c = 18.1583 (5) Å, β = 93.086 (2)°. The crystal structure shows head-to-head dimeric units linked via type II BrBr interactions as well as Br … π and weak H-bonding interactions. The whole structure exhibits features similar to those of the parent 4-bromobenzoic acid (II), most notably the overall geometrical features involved in the BrBr type II interactions. Both structures display comparable C-BrBr angles (θ1 = 98.3 and 91.6° and θ2 = 163.0 and 163.5° for (I) and (II) respectively), but the BrBr distance is significantly shorter in (I) (3.58 Å) than in (II) (3.81 Å). QM computations provide the magnitude of the intermolecular interactions present in both (I) and (II), and allow disclosing the individual covalent and electrostatic contributions to the Br⋯Br halogen bond in terms of interaction energies, electrostatic potentials, and a molecular orbital (MO) analysis.

  13. Randnahe Kopfbolzen im Brückenbau

    OpenAIRE

    Raichle, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Kopfbolzen stellen ein bewährtes und wirtschaftliches Verbindungsmittel zwischen einem Bauteil aus Stahl und einem Bauteil aus Beton dar. Die randnahen Kopfbolzen weisen gegenüber dem häufigen Fall der randfernen Kopfbolzen einen geringen Abstand der Bolzenachse zur Betonoberfläche auf. Dadurch ergibt sich bei randnahen Kopfbolzen gegenüber randfernen Kopfbolzen ein geändertes Trag- und Ermüdungsverhalten der Verbundfuge, das insbesondere in Hinblick auf Ermüdung und damit der Anwendung im Br...

  14. Present status of TCA/BR Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TCA tokamak is being partially reconstructed and reassembled in the Plasma Laboratory of The University of Sao Paulo, and afterwards it will be named TCA/BR. The first discharges are expected by June/July of next year. The main scientific objectives envisaged for the machine are: Alfven wave heating and current drive, confinement improvement, disruptions and turbulence. In this paper we also describe: (i) the present status of the project; (ii) the diagnostic system; (iii) the control and data acquisition system; (iv) the RF system for the excitation of Alfven waves, that are being developed, and also the results of predictive transport simulations of its performance. (author)

  15. D-dimensional ideal quantum gases in Arn + Br-n potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is concerned with thermostatistics of both D-dimensional Bose and Fermi ideal gases in a confining potential of type Arn + Br-n. The investigation is performed in the framework of the semiclassical approximation. Some physical quantities for such systems are derived, like density of states, density profiles and number of particles. Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed in the high and low temperature regimes. (author)

  16. Ozone Depletion Potential of CH3Br. Appendix H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Sze, Nien Dak; Scott, Courtney; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Sander, Stanley P.

    1998-01-01

    The ozone depletion potential (ODP) of methyl bromide (CH3Br) can be determined by combining the model-calculated bromine efficiency factor (BEF) for CH3Br and its atmospheric lifetime. This paper examines how changes in several key kinetic data affect BEF. The key reactions highlighted in this study include the reaction of BrO + HO2, the absorption cross section of HOBr, the absorption cross section and the photolysis products of BrONO2, and the heterogeneous conversion of BrONO2 to HOBr and HNO3 on aerosol particles. By combining the calculated BEF with the latest estimate of 0.7 year for the atmospheric lifetime of CH3Br, the likely value of ODP for CH3Br is 0.39. The model-calculated concentration of HBr (approx. 0.3 pptv) in the lower stratosphere is substantially smaller than the reported measured value of about 1 pptv. Recent publications suggested models can reproduce the measured value if one assumes a yield for HBr from the reaction of BrO + OH or from the reaction of BrO + HO2. Although the evaluation concluded any substantial yield of HBr from BrO + HO2 is unlikely, for completeness, we calculate the effects of these assumed yields on BEF for CH3Br. Our calculations show that the effects are minimal: practically no impact for an assumed 1.3% yield of HBr from BrO + OH and 10% smaller for an assumed 0.6% yield from BrO + HO2.

  17. BR2 reactor: medical and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotopes are produced for various applications in the nuclear medicine (diagnostic, therapy, palliation of metastatic bone pain), industry (radiography of welds ...), agriculture (radiotracers ...) and basic research. Due to the availability of high neutron fluxes (thermal neutron flux up to 1015 n/cm2.s), the BR2 reactor is considered as a major facility through its contribution for a continuous supply of products such as 99Mo (99mTc), 131I, 133Xe, 192Ir, 186Re, 90Sm, 131Y, 32P, 188W (188Re), 203Hg, 82Br, 41Ar, 125I, 177Lu, 89Sr, 60Co, 169Yb, 147Nd, ... Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) silicon is produced for the semiconductor industry in the SIDONIE (Silicon Doping by Neutron Irradiation Experiment) facility, which is designed to continuously rotate and traverse the silicon through the neutron flux. These combined movements produce exceptional dopant homogeneity in batches of silicon measuring 4 and 5-inches in diameter by up to 750 mm in length

  18. Brändi ja sen kehittäminen : Bränditutkimus ja brändinkehittämisehdotuksia kauppakeskus Elolle

    OpenAIRE

    Kumanto, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Tämä työn tarkoituksena oli tutkia kauppakeskus Elon asiakkaiden brändimielikuvaa Elosta ja vastauksien perusteella koota brändinkehittämisehdotuksia. Tavoitteena on käyttää näitä tuloksia lisäämään kauppakeskus Elon johdon tietoa Elon brändistä heidän asiakkaiden näkökulmasta. Lisäksi tavoitteena on auttaa tämän tiedon ja työn sisältämien brändikehittämisehdotuksien pohjalta kehittämään Elon brändiä ja näin saada houkuteltua lisää asiakkaita kauppakeskukseen. Johdannossa esitellään kaup...

  19. Brändi mielikuvien luojana : Case:IKU

    OpenAIRE

    Perkiö, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Brändi terminä on yleistynyt puhekielessä viimeisten vuosikymmenien aikana. Brändiä käytetään kuvaamaan esineitä, asioita, yrityksiä, ihmisiä tai ideologiaa. Tässä opinnäytetyössä perehdyttiin brändiin ilmiönä, brändin luomiseen sekä sen erottumiseen kilpailijoistaan. Opinnäytetyössä tarkasteltiin brändiä työkaluna uuden artistin esille tuomisessa kohderyhmälleen sekä suurelle yleisölle. Vaikka brändi termiä käytetään hyvin laajasti puhekielessä, se usein liitetään virheellisesti johonkin...

  20. Yrityksen brändi-imago ja -identiteetti

    OpenAIRE

    Anttonen, Jaakko

    2008-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee brändiä, brändi-imagoa ja -identiteettiä. Opinnäytetyö tehtiin Viikko-Häme Oy:n toimeksiantona. Opinnäytetyön tutkimusongelma oli selvittää, millaisia sanomalehti Viikko-Hämeen tämänhetkiset brändi-imago ja brändi-identiteetti ovat ja miten niitä voisi kehittää. Brändi on yritys, tuote tai palvelu, jolla on jonkinlaista lisäarvoa kuluttajalle, minkä vuoksi se erottuu edukseen markkinoilla. Vahva ja tunnettu brändi herättää kuluttajassa luottamusta ja on näin lupau...

  1. SOFC brændselsceller i et intelligent elnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelm, Johan

    2015-01-01

    SOFC brændselsceller kan være med til at skabe balance i elnettet i takt med at elproduktionen i stigende grad baseres på sol og vind. Brændselscellerne kan kobles til naturgasnettet og på sigt bruge forskellige former for VE-gasser som brændstof.......SOFC brændselsceller kan være med til at skabe balance i elnettet i takt med at elproduktionen i stigende grad baseres på sol og vind. Brændselscellerne kan kobles til naturgasnettet og på sigt bruge forskellige former for VE-gasser som brændstof....

  2. Corrosion inhibition performance of a ionic liquid surfactant Br

    OpenAIRE

    Jing LIU; Dishun ZHAO; LIU, RAN; Wang, Ming; Peibing REN

    2016-01-01

    In order to study the novel green organic mercury-substituting inhibitors, the ionic liquid surfactant 1-methyl-3-dodecyl imidazole bromide ( Br) is synthesized with N-methyl imidazole and 1-bromodecane as raw materials. The corrosion inhibition of Br for zinc in zinc-manganese batteries is investigated using electrochemical methods and weight loss methods. The results show that corrosion inhibition efficiency increases with the increase of the concentration of Br, and when the concentration ...

  3. Brüssel Euroopa pealinnaks? / Ülar Mark

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mark, Ülar, 1968-

    2009-01-01

    Brüsseli Euroopa kvartali planeerimisvõistlusest, mille peakorraldaja oli Brüsseli pealinna piirkond koos Brüsseli linna ja Euroopa Komisjoniga. Eestist osales žüriis arhitekt Ülar Mark. Meeskonna Atelier Christian de Portzamparc võidutööst ja teiste teise vooru pääsenud nelja meeskonna (JDS / Julien De Smedt Architects, OMA / Office for Metropolitan Architecture, Xaveer De Geyter Architect, Fletcher Priest Architects) töödest

  4. Localized environmental control on the distribution of brGDGTs in Chinese soils: Implication for paleo-pH reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, F.; Chen, Y.; Li, F.; Ma, C.; Zhu, Y.; Zhang, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are unique bacterial lipids that commonly occur in soil and peat bog. The methylation and cyclization degrees of brGDGTs, expressed as MBT and CBT, respectively, are mainly controlled by mean annual air temperature (MAAT) and soil pH. However, the brGDGT-derived temperatures scatter widely compared to actual MAATs in both regional and global calibrations. In this study, we collected 297 soil samples from diverse regions of China (Lanzhou, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Yunnan, Dongying and Tibetan Plateau) in order to identify environmental variables that control the distribution of brGDGTs locally. The results show that MBT correlated positively with MAAT under the global calibration framework; however, large variation in MBT occurred for a given MAAT for individual regions. When confined within a specific region, MBT index positively correlated with conductivity in Dongying soils and negatively with pH in Yunnan and Guangzhou soils. Removing GDGT-II from CBT calculation resulted in a revised CBT index that provides more accurate estimation of pH (R2=0.79 vs 0.67), especially in alkaline soils. In addition, the combination of MBT and revised CBT also improves the estimation of soil pH (R2 =0.79) than the original CBT index alone (R2=0.67). Our results demonstrate that brGDGTs-derived proxies may be more reliable for estimating paleo-soil pH than paleo-continental temperature.

  5. Brändin rakentaminen : case Dressing Mimia

    OpenAIRE

    Rinne, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö käsittelee sitä miten brändi rakennetaan ja mistä elementeistä brändikuva muodostuu. Tutkimuskohteena oli Dressing Mimia -tapahtuman brändikuva. Dressing Mimia -tapahtuma on poikkitaiteellinen muotinäytös ja cocktailtilaisuus, joka järjestetään kerran vuodessa Turussa. Työn tavoitteena oli selvittää millaisia mielikuvia tapahtuman asiakkailla on tapahtumasta sekä saada taustatietoa tapahtumassa kävijöistä. Tulosten perusteella voidaan kehittää Dressing Mimian brändiarvoa ja koota...

  6. Brändin kirkastaminen - esimerkki Aleksanterin teatteri

    OpenAIRE

    Lautamo, Jussi

    2011-01-01

    Laurea-ammattikorkeakoulu Tiivistelmä Laurea Leppävaara Palvelujen tuottaminen ja johtaminen Lautamo, Jussi Brändin kirkastaminen – esimerkki Aleksanterin teatteri Vuosi 2011 Sivumäärä 57 Yrityksen brändi ja sen rakentaminen ovat tänä päivänä asioita, joita menestyvä yritys ei voi jättää huomioimatta. Yrityksen brändin määritteleminen ja sen esiintuominen voivat olla ratkaisevia asioita yrityksen menestyksen kannalta. Brändinsä kautta yritys edustaa itseään markki...

  7. BrO measurements over the Eastern North-Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work presented here was to detect BrO in the marine boundary layer over the Eastern North-Atlantic by Multi AXis-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS of scattered sunlight. With this technique, information about the concentration and the vertical profile of trace gases in the atmosphere can be gained. BrO can be formed in the marine atmosphere by degradation of biogenic organohalogens or by oxidation of bromide in sea salt aerosol. BrO influences the chemistry in marine air in many was, e.g. since it catalytically destroys ozone, changes the NO2/NO-ratio as well as the OH/HO2-ratio and oxidises DMS. However, the abundance and the significance of BrO in the marine atmosphere are not yet fully understood. <br>> We report on data collected during a ship cruise, which took place along the West African Coast in February 2007, within the framework of the Surface Ocean PRocesses in the ANthropocene project (SOPRAN. Tropospheric BrO could be detected during this cruise at peak mixing ratios of (10.2±3.7 ppt at an assumed layer height of 1 km on 18 February 2007. Furthermore, it was found that the mean BrO concentrations increased when cruising close to the African Coast suggesting that at least part of the BrO might have originated from the African coast.

  8. BrO measurements over the Eastern North-Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Platt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work presented here was to detect BrO in the marine boundary layer over the Eastern North-Atlantic by Multi AXis-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS of scattered sunlight. With this technique, information about the concentration and the vertical profile of trace gases in the atmosphere can be gained. BrO can be formed in the marine atmosphere by degradation of biogenic organohalogens or by oxidation of bromide in sea salt aerosol. BrO influences the chemistry in marine air in many ways, e.g. since it catalytically destroys ozone, changes the NO2/NO-ratio as well as the OH/HO2-ratio and oxidises DMS. However, the abundance and the significance of BrO in the marine atmosphere is not yet fully understood. <br>> We report on data collected during a ship cruise, which took place along the West African Coast in February 2007, within the framework of the Surface Ocean PRocesses in the ANthropocene project (SOPRAN. Tropospheric BrO could be detected during this cruise at peak mixing ratios of (10.2±3.7 ppt at an assumed layer height of 1 km on 18 February 2007. Furthermore, it was found that the mean BrO concentrations increased when cruising close to the African Coast suggesting that at least part of the BrO might have originated from there.

  9. Kvinnors upplevelser av att leva med bröstcancer

    OpenAIRE

    Music, Sanela

    2010-01-01

    Bakgrund: Bröstcancer utgör en tredjedel av all cancer som kvinnor drabbas av. Tidigare studier indikerar att kvinnor upplever mycket starka känslor kring sjukdomen bröstcancer och att de har drabbats av den. Tanken av att förlora ett bröst är en av punkterna som bringar mycket ångest och lidande. Syfte: Syftet med studien är att belysa kvinnors upplevelser av att leva med bröstcancer. Metod: En litteraturstudie med självbiografiska böcker har utförts. Studiens syfte har besvarats genom att t...

  10. BR-100 spent fuel shipping cask development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continued public acceptance of commercial nuclear power is contingent to a large degree on the US Department of Energy (DOE) establishing an integrated waste management system for spent nuclear fuel. As part of the from-reactor transportation segment of this system, the B ampersand W Fuel Company (BWFC) is under contract to the DOE to develop a spent-fuel cask that is compatible with both rail and barge modes of transportation. Innovative design approaches were the keys to achieving a cask design that maximizes payload capacity and cask performance. The result is the BR-100, a 100-ton rail/barge cask with a capacity of 21 PWR or 52 BWR ten-year cooled, intact fuel assemblies. 3 figs

  11. Yrityksen brändin kehittäminen : Medbit Oy:n brändiuudistus

    OpenAIRE

    Salminen, Valtteri

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö tehtiin toimeksiantona ICT-alalla toimivalle Medbit Oy:lle. Yritys teki brändiuudistuksen vuoden 2015 alkupuolella ja halusi selvittää, miten asiakkaat, yhteistyökumppanit ja henkilökunta ovat ottaneet uudistuksen vastaan. Opinnäytetyössä perehdyttiin bränditutkimuksen lisäksi tutkimuksen kannalta olennaisiin aiheisiin brändin teoriasta. Brändiä käsittelevän tietoperustan avulla selvitettiin, mitä brändillä tarkoitetaan, millainen on hyvä brändi ja mitä hyötyjä siitä on yrityksel...

  12. Enhanced tropospheric BrO over Antarctic sea ice in mid winter observed by MAX-DOAS on board the research vessel Polarstern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wagner

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We present Multi AXis-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS observations of tropospheric BrO carried out on board the German research vessel Polarstern during the Antarctic winter 2006. Polarstern entered the area of first year sea ice around Antarctica on 24 June 2006 and stayed within this area until 15 August 2006. For the period when the ship cruised inside the first year sea ice belt, enhanced BrO concentrations were almost continuously observed. Outside the first year sea ice belt, typically low BrO concentrations were found. Based on back trajectory calculations we find a positive correlation between the observed BrO differential slant column densities (ΔSCDs and the duration for which the air masses had been in contact with the sea ice surface prior to the measurement. While we can not completely rule out that in several cases the highest BrO concentrations might be located close to the ground, our observations indicate that the maximum BrO concentrations might typically exist in a (possibly extended layer around the upper edge of the boundary layer. Besides the effect of a decreasing pH of sea salt aerosol with altitude and therefore an increase of BrO with height, this finding might be also related to vertical mixing of air from the free troposphere with the boundary layer, probably caused by convection over the warm ocean surface at polynyas and cracks in the ice. Strong vertical gradients of BrO and O3 could also explain why we found enhanced BrO levels almost continuously for the observations within the sea ice. Based on our estimated BrO profiles we derive BrO mixing ratios of several ten ppt, which is slightly higher than many existing observations. Our observations indicate that enhanced BrO concentrations around Antarctica exist about one month earlier than observed by satellite instruments. From detailed radiative transfer simulations we find that MAX-DOAS observations are up to about one order of

  13. Escherichia coli dnaT gene function is required for pBR322 plasmid replication but not for R1 plasmid replication.

    OpenAIRE

    Masai, H.; Arai, K.

    1989-01-01

    Plasmid pBR322 was unable to replicate in a temperature-sensitive dnaT1 strain at a nonpermissive temperature, whereas a pBR322-derived plasmid carrying the wild-type dnaT+ gene was able to replicate under the same conditions. In contrast to pBR322, plasmid R1 could replicate in the dnaT1 strain at a nonpermissive temperature. In keeping with this finding, in vitro replication of plasmid R1 did not require DnaT protein.

  14. Dry storage of the BR3 spent fuel in the CASTOR BR3 cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BR3 reactor was the first PWR plant installed in Europe. Started in 1962, BR3 was definitely shut down on June 30th, 1987. Used at the beginning of its life as a training device for commercial plant operators, it was also used during its whole life as test-reactor for new fuel types and assemblies. Most of the spent fuel was stored in the deactivation pool of the plant for more than 15 years. The reactor being now in decommissioning, it was decided to remove the spent fuel from the plant. After comparison of different solutions, the long term storage in dual purpose storage casks was selected in 1997. The selected CASTOR-BR3 cask is designed as a transport and storage cask for accommodating 30 spent fuel assemblies. As a type B(U) cask fitted with shock absorbers, it meets the transport requirements according to the IAEA guidelines and fulfils also the conditions for cask storage. (author)

  15. ESR spectrum and structure of BrF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BrF6 radical has been obtained by γ irradiation of a mixture of BrF5 in SF6. The ESR spectrum was obtained and used to confirm the identity of the radical and to obtain hyperfine coupling constants. (AIP)

  16. Corrosion inhibition performance of a ionic liquid surfactant Br

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing LIU

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the novel green organic mercury-substituting inhibitors, the ionic liquid surfactant 1-methyl-3-dodecyl imidazole bromide ( Br is synthesized with N-methyl imidazole and 1-bromodecane as raw materials. The corrosion inhibition of Br for zinc in zinc-manganese batteries is investigated using electrochemical methods and weight loss methods. The results show that corrosion inhibition efficiency increases with the increase of the concentration of Br, and when the concentration is higher than 8×10-3 mol/L, the inhibition efficiency tends to be stable. The polarization curve shows that Br belongs to mixed-type corrosion inhibitor. The thermodynamic parameters show that Br is spontaneously adsorbed on the zinc surface, forming a monomolecular adsorption layer, which fits with Langmuir adsorption isotherm with physical and chemical adsorption mechanism.

  17. Finding the missing stratospheric Bry: a global modeling study of CHBr3 and CH2Br2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ott

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent in situ and satellite measurements suggest a contribution of ~5 pptv to stratospheric inorganic bromine from short-lived bromocarbons. We conduct a modeling study of the two most important short-lived bromocarbons, bromoform (CHBr3 and dibromomethane (CH2Br2, with the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOS CCM to account for this missing stratospheric bromine. We derive a "top-down" emission estimate of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 using airborne measurements in the Pacific and North American troposphere and lower stratosphere (LS obtained during previous NASA aircraft campaigns. Our emission estimate suggests that to reproduce the observed concentrations in the free troposphere, a global oceanic emission of 425 Gg Br yr−1 for CHBr3 and 57 Gg Br yr−1 for CH2Br2 is needed, with 60% of emissions from open ocean and 40% from coastal regions. Although our simple emission scheme assumes no seasonal variations, the model reproduces the observed seasonal variations of the short-lived bromocarbons with high concentrations in winter and low concentrations in summer. This indicates that the seasonality of short-lived bromocarbons is largely due to seasonality in their chemical loss and transport. The inclusion of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 contributes ~5 pptv bromine throughout the stratosphere. Both the source gases and inorganic bromine produced from the source gas degradation (BryVSLS in the troposphere are transported into the stratosphere, and are equally important. Inorganic bromine accounts for half (2.5 pptv of the bromine from the inclusion of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 near the tropical tropopause and its contribution rapidly increases to ~100% as altitude increases. More than 85% of the wet scavenging of BryVSLS occurs in large-scale precipitation below 500 hPa and BryVSLS in the stratosphere is not sensitive to convection.

  18. The BR-3 decommissioning project, Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BR-3 was a small 10 MW(e) PWR which was shut down in 1987 after 25 years of operation. It was selected as an EU pilot project for the research and development programme on decommissioning of nuclear installations. The decommissioning project started in 1989. The optimization of the management of waste material generated by decommissioning activities has always been an intensive task and the minimization of the radioactive waste a priority. Over the past 16 years, the factors influencing the management of waste have been constantly evolving in Belgium, steered mainly by the following changes in technologies, regulations and economic conditions: - The publication of the Royal Decree of 20 July 2001, establishing a legal frame on decommissioning and including a set of clearance levels; - The improvement of the instrumentation used for characterization; - The increase in the performance of decontamination techniques; - The cost increase of the waste disposal paths; - The implementation of international recommendations in areas such as environmental impact, waste categorization, human aspects, ethics, etc.; -The strengthening of the legislation related to industrial safety and environmental release; - The diminution of the background radiation level at the decommissioning site itself. The first part of this annex gives a description of relevant influencing factors in order to define the context in which the dismantling activities took place. The second part puts in perspective the strategy chosen for the management of the waste, recognizing the influencing factors. As mentioned in the scope of this report, the focus is LLW. High and intermediate level wastes for which disposal in dedicated repositories is assumed are outside the scope of this report. They are therefore not examined in detail here

  19. Selected Femme / Homme - brändin lanseeraus Suomen markkinoille

    OpenAIRE

    Saarinen, Saila

    2009-01-01

    Tanskalaisomistuksessa oleva, kansainvälinen muotitalo Bestseller A/S lanseerasi uuden Selec-ted Femme / Homme - brändin Suomen markkinoille lokakuussa 2008. Tuotemerkin vali-koimiin kuuluu naisten ja miesten vaatteet, asusteet sekä jalkineet. Mallistoista on tuotteita arkeen ja juhlaan. Niissä yhdistyvät hyvän hinta laatu-suhteen lisäksi trendikkyys. Opinnäytetyössä tarkasteltiin brändin ensimmäisen unisex -myymälän lanseerausta kuluttajil-le. Työn tarkoitus oli tutkia uuden brändin ide...

  20. Bränditutkimus Etelä-Pohjanmaan Osuuspankille

    OpenAIRE

    Jämbäck, Anna-Leena

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tutkia Etelä-Pohjanmaan Osuuspankin brändiä sen 20–30-vuotiaiden asiakkaiden näkökulmasta. Ensimmäisenä tavoitteena oli perehtyä brändeihin. Opinnäytetyön toisena tavoitteena oli bränditutkimuksen toteuttaminen EPOP:n 20–30-vuotiaille asiakkaille, jotta saataisiin selville millaiseksi se koetaan eri osa-alueilla sekä kokonaisuutena nuorten aikuisten keskuudessa. Kolmantena tavoitteena oli pohtia tutkimustulosten perusteella uusia ideoita organisaation markkinoi...

  1. Brøndby på Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Louise Løvendahl; Petersen, Simon Boje

    2012-01-01

    Dette er en målgruppeanalyse af Brøndby IF's kommunikation på Facebook, som tager udgangspunkt i Brøndbyfans. Specialet bygger på teori om fællesskab og netværk, hvor teoretikerne Castells, Baumann, Luhmann, Jesper Tække m.fl. er brugt, som alle arbejder med Facebook som enten et netværks- eller fællesskabsmedie. Specialet analysere, hvorledes Brøndby IF formår at kommunikere hensigstsmæssigt til deres fans, og om Facebook kan bruges til genopbyggelse af supporterfællesskabet.

  2. Kolea AK/JPK : -brändin konseptisuunnittelu

    OpenAIRE

    Koskilahti, Anni

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä suunniteltiin valmis konsepti, perusteilla olevalle, Kolea – nimiselle vaatetusalan yritykselle ja brändille. Työssä käytettiin design managementin ja brändäyksen teorioita. Työn tavoitteena oli selventää design managementin mukainen kokonaisuus ja kehittää eheä konsepti vaatetusalan brändille. Työn toimintasuunnitelmaan ja sen kulkuun sovellettiin toimintatutkimuksen syklimallia. Opinnäytetyössä päätiedonhankintamenetelminä käytettiin havainnointia, haastatteluja ja benchm...

  3. Equilibrium reconstruction in the TCA/Br tokamak; Reconstrucao do equilibrio no tokamak TCA/BR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa, Wanderley Pires de

    1996-12-31

    The accurate and rapid determination of the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium configuration in tokamaks is a subject for the magnetic confinement of the plasma. With the knowledge of characteristic plasma MHD equilibrium parameters it is possible to control the plasma position during its formation using feed-back techniques. It is also necessary an on-line analysis between successive discharges to program external parameters for the subsequent discharges. In this work it is investigated the MHD equilibrium configuration reconstruction of the TCA/BR tokamak from external magnetic measurements, using a method that is able to fast determine the main parameters of discharge. The thesis has two parts. Firstly it is presented the development of an equilibrium code that solves de Grad-Shafranov equation for the TCA/BR tokamak geometry. Secondly it is presented the MHD equilibrium reconstruction process from external magnetic field and flux measurements using the Function Parametrization FP method. this method. This method is based on the statistical analysis of a database of simulated equilibrium configurations, with the goal of obtaining a simple relationship between the parameters that characterize the equilibrium and the measurements. The results from FP are compared with conventional methods. (author) 68 refs., 31 figs., 16 tabs.

  4. LiikeAkatemian brändimielikuvan tutkiminen ja brändin kehittäminen

    OpenAIRE

    Petäsnoro, Iida-Mari; Rajala, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Toteutamme opinnäytetyömme Lapin ammattikorkeakoulussa Tornion kampuksella toimivalle LiikeAkatemialle, jossa opiskellaan käytännönläheisesti tiimiyrityksissä. Tavoitteenamme on tutkia LiikeAkatemian aikaisempaa brändimarkkinointia, ja sen vaikutusta nykyisen brändimielikuvan tilaan liiketalouden opettajien ja opiskelijoiden keskuudessa. Näiden tutkimustulosten perusteella esitämme brändin kehittämiseen liittyviä kehitysideoita. Työn teoreettinen viitekehys on koottu aiheeseen liittyvästä...

  5. Brüssel - unistus Euroopa pealinnast / Kristi Grishakov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grishakov, Kristi

    2008-01-01

    Brüsseli linnaplaneerimise ajaloost, linnaehituslikest ja sotsiaalset laadi probleemidest, võimalikust tulevikust Euroopa pealinnana. Berlage Instituudi näitusest "A Vision for Brussels" Bozari kunstikeskuses

  6. GMO konverents Brüsselis / Nastja Pertsjonok

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pertsjonok, Nastja

    2007-01-01

    Brüsselis toimunud GMO-vabade piirkondade konverentsist, kus räägiti GMO-vabade piirkondade liikumisest, GMO-de lubamisest ja keelamisest ning hoiakutest nende suhtes Euroopa Liidus ja mujal maailmas

  7. Performance evaluation of LaBr3: Ce scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cerium doped lanthanum bromide crystal (LaBr3: Ce) is a new kind of scintillator with many advantages such as good energy resolution, high light output, short decay time, good proportionality response. These properties make the LaBr3: Ce attractive substantial interest to use in the radiation detection. The energy resolution were investigated with Φ25 × 25 mm LaBr3: Ce coupled to a Hamamatsu R8900 photomultiplier tube. Energy resolution of 3.6% (FWHM) have been achieved for 511 keV photons (18F source) at room temperature. Decay time constant of 20 ns have been acquired with a Hamamatsu fast-time-response R9800 photomultiplier tube. The results approve the excellent characterizations of LaBr3: Ce and imply its enormous potentiality in the radiation detectors of gamma-ray spectroscopy and PET. (authors)

  8. Traian Brăileanu în documente (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Florian Bruja

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A Romanian’s politician from Bukovina, Traian Brăileanu agreed the idea of possible activities of former political parties. Although he was a regional party, his activity was oriented to complete the unification and consolidation of Romania. Traian Brăileanu was a sociologist and doctor Professor at University of Cernăuţi. A polyglot, TraianBrăileanu has known the Greek and German’s philosophy. He has begun his political activity in People’s Party, then in League of National and Christian Protection and finally in The Legionary Movement. We bring bock into scientific circuit some documents from the personal records of Traian Brăileanu. This documents covering the period 1920-1921 on the ground of some investigations archirved by the author from Cernăuţi, Ukraina.

  9. BR2: Some aspects of structural mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses some of the important aspects of structural mechanics of BR2, namely: the follow-up of the beryllium matrix and of the reactor vessel and the seismic qualification. According the licence, a follow up program for the beryllium matrix is mandatory. This inspection is necessary because of the swelling of beryllium during irradiation. Due to this swelling, the individual beryllium blocks make contact between each other. This results in mechanical stresses and, because beryllium is a brittle material, cracks. At regular intervals inspection are made to evaluate the evolution of the swelling and the cracks. The maximum allowed neutron fluence is 6.4 1022 fast neutrons (energy more than 1 MeV) per cm2 . After this time the matrix has to be replaced. This has been done already twice. During the replacement an inspection of the reactor pressure vessel must be made. Last inspection was performed in 1996, using ultrasonic and eddy current inspections. On this occasion a fracture mechanics calculation was made and the minimum allowed fracture toughness of material was determined. Since very little information on irradiated aluminium 5052-O is available, a number of samples were cut out of a second wall around the vessel. This aluminium had received nearly the fluence. Out of the samples test pieces (tensile and charpy) were made. A number of them were tested immediately, while the other was loaded in the reactor for accelerated irradiation. In this way a material follow up program was started. This program still continues. During the period safety reassessment the authorities requested a seismic qualification. It was decided to make a full dynamic calculation, with input a 0.1g zero period peak ground acceleration and a regulatory guide 1.60 spectrum. The installation can withstand this earthquake, considered as a safe shutdown earthquake. A few structural reinforcements were necessary. The main ones were the primary piping outside the containment

  10. Kan lignin omdannes til flydende brændstof?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joachim Bachmann; Jensen, Anders; Felby, Claus;

    2015-01-01

    Ved en solvolytisk omdannelse af plantematerialet lignin til et flydende brændstof behandles det ved høj temperatur og højt tryk i et passende opløsningsmiddel. En sådan proces kan gennemføres ikke-katalytisk og være med til at skabe flydende brændsler baseret på vedvarende energikilder. Her...

  11. Biquadratic Exchange in CsMnxMg1-xBr3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, U.; Furrer, A.; Kjems, Jørgen; Güdel, H. U.

    1984-01-01

    The importance of higher-order exchange interaction in localized S-state systems is discussed. The equation of motion is solved for a one-dimensional antiferromagnet with bilinear and biquadratic exchange coupling. It is shown that the biquadratic exchange interaction usually cannot be derived fr...... the observed spin-wave dispersion, but is susceptible to experimental determination from the excitation spectra of small clusters of magnetic ions as exemplified for CsMnxMg1-xBr3 by inelastic neutron scattering....

  12. Application of TlBr to nuclear medicine imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirignano, Leonard; Kim, Hadong; Kargar, Alireza; Churilov, Alexei V.; Ciampi, Guido; Higgins, William; Kim, Suyoung; Barber, Bradford; Haston, Kyle; Shah, Kanai

    2012-10-01

    Thallium bromide (TlBr) has been under development for room temperature gamma ray spectroscopy due to high density, high Z and wide bandgap of the material. Furthermore, its low melting point (460 °C), cubic crystal structure and congruent melting with no solid-solid phase transitions between the melting point and room temperature, TlBr can be grown by relatively simple melt based methods. As a result of improvements in material processing and detector fabrication over the last several years, TlBr with electron mobility-lifetime products (μeτe) in the mid 10-3 cm2/V range has been obtained. In this paper we are going to report on our unipolar charging TlBr results for the application as a small animal imaging. For SPECT application, about 5 mm thick pixellated detectors were fabricated and tested. About 1 % FWHM at 662 keV energy resolution was estimated at room temperature. By applying the depth correction technique, less than 1 % energy resolution was estimated. We are going to report the results from orthogonal strip TlBr detector for PET application. In this paper we also present our latest detector highlights and recent progress made in long term stability of TlBr detectors at or near room temperature. This work is being supported by the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) and the Department of Energy (DOE).

  13. Computational study of elastic and electronically inelastic scattering of Br by ground state I atoms: Role of potential curve crossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-state, close-coupled quantal computations of the elastic and inelastic scattering of ground-state I atoms by ground-state Br and spin--orbit excited Br* atoms have been carried out over a range of total energies E from 0.01 to 0.94 eV. The possibility of translational--electronic energy transfer arises from the 3Pi0+ potential curve crossing at E=0.25 eV, responsible for the well-known IBr predissociation. The Y, B, and V12(R) diabatic potentials have been obtained by judicious extension (and manipulation) of the spectroscopically derived B and B' adiabats. At energies below the threshold for Br* formation (E/sub th/=0.457 eV) collisions of I+Br are necessarily elastic, exhibiting both shape and compound-state resonances. These produce interesting interference patterns in the differential cross sections, but no significant inverse-predissociation resonance (which might have been anticipated for E> or =0.25 eV). The main features of the elastic scattering can be fairly well approximated considering only the lower adiabat, even at post threshold energies where the inelastic process becomes important. An oscillatory pattern found in the total elastic cross section has been identified with a barrier effect associated with the maximum in this B adiabat. Total inelastic cross sections are well reproduced by the closed-form Landau--Zener--Stueckelberg (LZS) approximation. The Boltzmann-averaged LZS rate constant for the collisional deactivation I+Br*→I+Br is calculated to be 1.8x10-11 cm3 sec-1 at 300 K (with only a slight temperature dependence over the range 300--1000 K). This large rate is due to the inverse predissociation mechanism, common

  14. Wavelength calculation of highly stripped ions S10+→S13+, Br23+, Br24+, Ge20+, Ge21+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wavelengths of highly stripped ions S10+ →S13+ , Br23+ , Br24+ , Ge20+ , Ge21+ are calculated by means of GRASP code. The calculations are performed based on multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock technique. Corrections to the energy levels due to the retarded Coulomb interaction (Breit interaction) and the polarization of the vacuum by the nuclear distribution and electron self-energy are included in a perturbation approximation. Comparisons with the new experimental data by CIAE group are presented

  15. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements: comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Dorf, M.; H. Bösch; Butz, A.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Engel, A.; Goutail, F.; Grunow, K.; Hendrick, F.; Hrechanyy, S.; B. Naujokat; J.-P. Pommereau; Van Roozendael, M.; C. Sioris; F. Stroh

    2006-01-01

    For the first time, results of four stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM). Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) satellite instrument. The balloon observations include (a) balloon-borne in situ ...

  16. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements: comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Dorf, M.; H. Bösch; Butz, A.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Engel, A.; Goutail, F.; Grunow, K.; Hendrick, F.; Hrechanyy, S.; B. Naujokat; J.-P. Pommereau; Van Roozendael, M.; C. Sioris; F. Stroh

    2005-01-01

    For the first time, results of all four existing stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM). Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) satellite instrument. The balloon observations include (a) balloon-b...

  17. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements: comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Dorf, M.; H. Bösch; Butz, A.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Engel, A.; Goutail, F.; Grunow, K.; Hendrick, F.; Hrechanyy, S.; B. Naujokat; Pommereau, J.-P.; Van Roozendael, M.; C. Sioris; F. Stroh

    2005-01-01

    International audience For the first time, results of all four existing stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM). Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) satellite instrument. The balloon observat...

  18. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements: comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Dorf, M.; H. Bösch; Butz, A.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Engel, A.; Goutail, F.; Grunow, K.; Hendrick, F.; Hrechanyy, S.; B. Naujokat; Pommereau, J.-P.; Van Roozendael, M.; C. Sioris; F. Stroh

    2006-01-01

    International audience For the first time, results of four stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM). Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) satellite instrument. The balloon observations include ...

  19. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements : comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Dorf, Marcel; Bösch, Hartmut; BUTZ Andre; Camy-Peyret, Claude C.; Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Engel, Andreas; Goutail, Florence; Grunow, Katja; Hendrick, François; Hrechanyy, Serhiy; Naujokat, Barbara; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Van Roozendael, Michel; Sioris, Christopher E.; Stroh, Fred

    2005-01-01

    For the first time, results of all four existing stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM). Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) satellite instrument. The balloon observations include (a) balloon-b...

  20. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements: comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Dorf, Marcel; Bösch, Hartmut; BUTZ Andre; Camy-Peyret, Claude C.; Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Engel, Andreas; Goutail, Florence; Grunow, Katja; Hendrick, François; Hrechanyy, Serhiy; Naujokat, Barbara; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Van Roozendael, Michel; Sioris, Christopher E.; Stroh, Fred

    2006-01-01

    For the first time, results of all four existing stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM). Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) satellite instrument. The balloon observations include (a) balloon-b...

  1. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements: comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Dorf, M.; H. Bösch; B. Naujokat; Pommereau, J. P.; Van Roozendael, M.; C. Sioris; F. Stroh; Weidner, F.; K. Pfeilsticker; Butz, A.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Engel, A.; Goutail, F.; Grunow, K.

    2006-01-01

    For the first time, results of four stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM). Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) satellite instrument. The balloon observations include ( a) balloon-borne in situ...

  2. Molecular dynamics simulations of Si etching in Cl- and Br-based plasmas: Cl+ and Br+ ion incidence in the presence of Cl and Br neutrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed for Cl+ and Br+ ions incident on Si(100) surfaces with Cl and Br neutrals, respectively, to gain a better understanding of the ion-enhanced surface reaction kinetics during Si etching in Cl- and Br-based plasmas. The ions were incident normally on surfaces with translational energies in the range Ei = 20–500 eV, and low-energy neutrals of En = 0.01 eV were also incident normally thereon with the neutral-to-ion flux ratio in the range Γn0/Γi0 = 0–100, where an improved Stillinger--Weber potential form was employed for the interatomic potential concerned. The etch yields and thresholds presently simulated were in agreement with the experimental results previously reported for Si etching in Cl2 and Br2 plasmas as well as in Cl+, Cl2+, and Br+ beams, and the product stoichiometry simulated was consistent with that observed during Ar+ beam incidence on Si in Cl2. Moreover, the surface coverage of halogen atoms, halogenated layer thickness, surface stoichiometry, and depth profile of surface products simulated for Γn0/Γi0 = 100 were in excellent agreement with the observations depending on Ei reported for Si etching in Cl2 plasmas. The MD also indicated that the yield, coverage, and surface layer thickness are smaller in Si/Br than in Si/Cl system, while the percentage of higher halogenated species in product and surface stoichiometries is larger in Si/Br. The MD further indicated that in both systems, the translational energy distributions of products and halogen adsorbates desorbed from surfaces are approximated by two Maxwellians of temperature T1 ≈ 2500 K and T2 ≈ 7000–40 000 K. These energy distributions are discussed in terms of the desorption or evaporation from hot spots formed through chemically enhanced physical sputtering and physically enhanced chemical sputtering, which have so far been speculated to both occur in the ion-enhanced surface reaction

  3. Molecular dynamics simulations of Si etching in Cl- and Br-based plasmas: Cl+ and Br+ ion incidence in the presence of Cl and Br neutrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazaki, Nobuya; Takao, Yoshinori; Eriguchi, Koji; Ono, Kouichi

    2015-12-01

    Classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed for Cl+ and Br+ ions incident on Si(100) surfaces with Cl and Br neutrals, respectively, to gain a better understanding of the ion-enhanced surface reaction kinetics during Si etching in Cl- and Br-based plasmas. The ions were incident normally on surfaces with translational energies in the range Ei = 20-500 eV, and low-energy neutrals of En = 0.01 eV were also incident normally thereon with the neutral-to-ion flux ratio in the range Γn0/Γi0 = 0-100, where an improved Stillinger--Weber potential form was employed for the interatomic potential concerned. The etch yields and thresholds presently simulated were in agreement with the experimental results previously reported for Si etching in Cl2 and Br2 plasmas as well as in Cl+, Cl2+, and Br+ beams, and the product stoichiometry simulated was consistent with that observed during Ar+ beam incidence on Si in Cl2. Moreover, the surface coverage of halogen atoms, halogenated layer thickness, surface stoichiometry, and depth profile of surface products simulated for Γn0/Γi0 = 100 were in excellent agreement with the observations depending on Ei reported for Si etching in Cl2 plasmas. The MD also indicated that the yield, coverage, and surface layer thickness are smaller in Si/Br than in Si/Cl system, while the percentage of higher halogenated species in product and surface stoichiometries is larger in Si/Br. The MD further indicated that in both systems, the translational energy distributions of products and halogen adsorbates desorbed from surfaces are approximated by two Maxwellians of temperature T1 ≈ 2500 K and T2 ≈ 7000-40 000 K. These energy distributions are discussed in terms of the desorption or evaporation from hot spots formed through chemically enhanced physical sputtering and physically enhanced chemical sputtering, which have so far been speculated to both occur in the ion-enhanced surface reaction kinetics of plasma etching.

  4. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements: comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dorf

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, results of all four existing stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM. Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY satellite instrument. The balloon observations include (a balloon-borne in situ resonance fluorescence detection of BrO, (b balloon-borne solar occultation DOAS measurements (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy of BrO in the UV, and (c BrO profiling from the solar occultation SAOZ (Systeme d'Analyse par Observation Zenithale balloon instrument. Since stratospheric BrO is subject to considerable diurnal variation and none of the measurements are performed close enough in time and space for a direct comparison, all balloon observations are considered with reference to outputs from the 3-D CTM. The referencing is performed by forward and backward air mass trajectory calculations to match the balloon with the satellite observations. The diurnal variation of BrO is considered by 1-D photochemical model calculation along the trajectories. The 1-D photochemical model is initialised with output data of the 3-D model with additional constraints on the vertical transport, the total amount and photochemistry of stratospheric bromine as given by the various balloon observations. Total [Bry]=(20.1±2.8pptv obtained from DOAS BrO observations at mid-latitudes in 2003, serves as an upper limit of the comparison. Most of the balloon observations agree with the photochemical model predictions within their given error estimates. First retrieval exercises of BrO limb profiling from the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument agree to <±50% with the photochemically-corrected balloon observations, and tend to show less agreement

  5. Mechanism of antibacterial action of the alcoholic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L. R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild., Plumbago zeylanica L and Tridax procumbens (L. R. Br. ex Schult.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongari eSaritha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Herbal products derived from Hemidesmus indicus (L. R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild., Plumbago zeylanica L and Tridax procumbens (L. R. Br. ex Schult. are widely used in traditional medicine.Though the extracts of these plants were found to be antimicrobial in nature and have the potential to be used in clinics, the mechanism of action of is not reported. The ethanolic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L. R. Br. ex Schult (HIEE, Leucas aspera (Wild.(Wild.(LAEE, Plumbago zeylanica L (PZEE and Tridax procumbens (L. R. Br. ex Schult. (TPEE were tested for their antibacterial activity against E. coli. Antibacterial activity was analyzed by CFU assay and the effect on the bacterial membrane by fluorescence activated cell sorting and scanning electron microscopy. LAEE, PZEE and HIEE displayed potent bacterial killing activity in a time and concentration dependent manner. TPEE did not display appreciable antibacterial activity. The antibacterial action involved disruption of membrane potential, inner membrane permeabilization , blebbing and leakage of cellular contents. Our results contribute to the understanding of the antibacterial mechanism of alcoholic extracts of the medicinal plants used in this study.

  6. Mechanism of antibacterial action of the alcoholic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild.), Plumbago zeylanica L., and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saritha, Kongari; Rajesh, Angireddy; Manjulatha, Khanapur; Setty, Oruganti H; Yenugu, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Herbal products derived from Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild.), Plumbago zeylanica L., and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult. are widely used in traditional medicine. Though the extracts of these plants were found to be antimicrobial in nature and have the potential to be used in clinics, the mechanism of action of is not reported. The ethanolic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Hemidesmus indicus ethanolic extract (HIEE), Leucas aspera (Wild.), Leucas aspera ethanolic extract (LAEE), Plumbago zeylanica L., Plumbago zeylanica ethanolic extract (PZEE), and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Tridax procumbens ethanolic extract (TPEE) were tested for their antibacterial activity against E. coli. Antibacterial activity was analyzed by CFU assay and the effect on the bacterial membrane by fluorescence activated cell sorting and scanning electron microscopy. LAEE, PZEE, and HIEE displayed potent bacterial killing activity in a time and concentration dependent manner. TPEE did not display appreciable antibacterial activity. The antibacterial action involved disruption of membrane potential, inner membrane permeabilization, blebbing and leakage of cellular contents. Our results contribute to the understanding of the antibacterial mechanism of alcoholic extracts of the medicinal plants used in this study. PMID:26106379

  7. Structural characterization and properties of [4-CH 3C 5H 4NH][SbBr 4]. The mechanism of phase transitions in 4-methylpyridinium bromoantimonates(III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulicka, B.; Jakubas, R.; Ciunik, Z.

    2006-10-01

    The crystal structure of [4-CH 3C 5H 4NH][SbBr 4] is determined at 297 K. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group: P2/c. The structure consists of SbBr4- ions which form infinite chains through the crystal via halogen linkages. The anions are connected with the 4-methylpyridinium via weak N sbnd H⋯ X hydrogen bonds. The phase situation was studied on two methyl-substituted pyridinium analogous: [4-CH 3C 5H 4NH][SbBr 4] and [4-CH 3C 5H 4NH] 2[SbBr 5] with the differential scanning calorimetry and dilatometric methods. The former derivative undergoes two structural phase transitions: at 351/349 K (heating-cooling) and at 385/381. [4-CH 3C 5H 4NH] 2[SbBr 5] reveals one phase transition at 426/419 K. The dielectric relaxation studies on [4-CH 3C 5H 4NH] 2[SbBr 5] in the frequency range between 800 Hz and 6 MHz indicate a presence of relaxation process below room temperature. The dielectric response is well explained in terms of an existence of two dielectric relaxators. The mechanism of the phase transitions in the studied crystals is discussed.

  8. Atmospheric test of the J(BrONO2)/kBrO+NO2 ratio: implications for total stratospheric Bry and bromine-mediated ozone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreycy, S.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Dorf, M.; Feng, W.; Hossaini, R.; Kritten, L.; Werner, B.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2013-07-01

    We report on time-dependent O3, NO2 and BrO profiles measured by limb observations of scattered skylight in the stratosphere over Kiruna (67.9° N, 22.1° E) on 7 and 8 September 2009 during the autumn circulation turn-over. The observations are complemented by simultaneous direct solar occultation measurements around sunset and sunrise performed aboard the same stratospheric balloon payload. Supporting radiative transfer and photochemical modelling indicate that the measurements can be used to constrain the ratio J(BrONO2)/kBrO+NO2, for which at T = 220 ± 5 K an overall 1.7 (+0.4 -0.2) larger ratio is found than recommended by the most recent Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) compilation (Sander et al., 2011). Sensitivity studies reveal the major reasons are likely to be (1) a larger BrONO2 absorption cross-section σBrONO2, primarily for wavelengths larger than 300 nm, and (2) a smaller kBrO+NO2 at 220 K than given by Sander et al. (2011). Other factors, e.g. the actinic flux and quantum yield for the dissociation of BrONO2, can be ruled out. The observations also have consequences for total inorganic stratospheric bromine (Bry) estimated from stratospheric BrO measurements at high NOx loadings, since the ratio J(BrONO2)/kBrO+NO2 largely determines the stratospheric BrO/Bry ratio during daylight. Using the revised J(BrONO2)/kBrO+NO2 ratio, total stratospheric Bry is likely to be 1.4 ppt smaller than previously estimated from BrO profile measurements at high NOx loadings. This would bring estimates of Bry inferred from organic source gas measurements (e.g. CH3Br, the halons, CH2Br2, CHBr3, etc.) into closer agreement with estimates based on BrO observations (inorganic method). The consequences for stratospheric ozone due to the revised J(BrONO2)/kBrO+NO2 ratio are small (maximum -0.8%), since at high NOx (for which most Bry assessments are made) the enhanced ozone loss by overestimating Bry is compensated for by the suppressed ozone loss due to the underestimation

  9. Specific features of the electronic structure and optical properties of KPb2Br5: DFT calculations and X-ray spectroscopy measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentyev, A. A.; Gabrelian, B. V.; Vu, V. T.; Denysyuk, N. M.; Shkumat, P. N.; Tarasova, A. Y.; Isaenko, L. I.; Khyzhun, O. Y.

    2016-03-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are made in order to explore the total and partial densities of states of potassium dilead pentabromide, KPb2Br5, by using the augmented plane wave + local orbitals (APW + lo) method as incorporated in the WIEN2k package. The present calculations reveal that the principle contributors to the valence band of KPb2Br5 are the Pb 6s and Br 4p states contributing predominantly at the bottom and at the top of the band, respectively, while the bottom of the conduction band is formed mainly from contributions of the unoccupied Pb 6p states. The curves of total density of states derived by the present DFT calculations of KPb2Br5 are found to be in agreement with the experimental X-ray photoelectron valence-band spectrum of the compound studied. Comparison on a common energy scale of the X-ray emission bands representing the energy distribution of the valence Br p and K s states and the X-ray photoelectron valence-band spectrum of the KPb2Br5 single crystal indicate that the Br 4p and K 4s states contribute mainly at the top and in the upper portion of the valence band, respectively, being in agreement with data of the present DFT band-structure calculations of this compound. Principal optical characteristics of KPb2Br5, namely dispersion of the absorption coefficient, real and imaginary parts of dielectric function, electron energy-loss spectrum, refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical reflectivity are also studied by the DFT calculations.

  10. Characteristics of tropospheric ozone depletion events in the Arctic spring: analysis of the ARCTAS, ARCPAC, and ARCIONS measurements and satellite BrO observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-H. Koo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Arctic ozone depletion events (ODEs are due to catalytic ozone loss driven by halogen chemistry. The presence of ODEs is affected not only by in situ chemistry but also by transport including advection of ozone-poor air mass and vertical mixing. To better characterize the ODEs, we analyze the combined set of surface, ozonesonde, and aircraft in situ measurements of ozone and bromine compounds during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS and the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC experiments (April 2008. Tropospheric BrO columns retrieved from satellite measurements and back trajectories calculations are used to investigate the characteristics of observed ODEs. The implications of the analysis results for the validation of the retrieval of tropospheric column BrO are also discussed. Time-lagged correlation analysis between in situ (surface and ozonesonde measurements of ozone and satellite derived tropospheric BrO indicates that the ODEs are due to either local halogen-driven ozone loss or short-range (~1 day transport from nearby regions with ozone depletion. The effect of in situ halogen-driven loss is also evident in the diurnal variation of surface ozone concentrations at Alert, Canada. High-BrO regions revealed by satellite measurements tend to be collocated with first-year sea ice, particularly over the Chukchi Sea. Aircraft observations indicate low-ozone air mass transported from these high-BrO regions. Correlation analyses of ozone with potential temperature and time-lagged tropospheric BrO column show that the vertical extent of local ozone loss is surprisingly deep (1–2 km at Resolute and Churchill, Canada. The unstable boundary layer during ODEs at Churchill could potentially provide a source of free tropospheric BrO through convective transport and explain the significant negative correlation between free tropospheric ozone and

  11. CO2 Solubilities in Amide-based Brφnsted Acidic Ionic Liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A distinguished class of hydrophobic ionic liquids bearing a Brφnsted acidic character derived from amide-like compounds were prepared by a neutralization reaction of N,N-diethylformamide, N,N-dibutylformamide, 1-formylpiperidine, and ε-caprolactam with trifluoroacetic acid and physical absorptions of CO2 in these ionic liquids were demonstrated and evaluated. CO2 solubilities in these ionic liquids were influenced by the molecular structure of the cation and were apparently increased with the molar volume. Comparison based on a volume unit reveals that CO2 solubilities in these liquids are relatively higher than those in imidazolium-based ionic liquids. Henry's coefficients calculated from low-pressure solubility tests at 313 to 333 K were used to derive the thermodynamics quantities. Enthalpy and entropy of solvation may share equal contributions in solubility

  12. New insight into halogen release from experimental studies on BrO/Br ratios in volcanic plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrowski, Nicole; Wittmer, Julian; Liotta, Marcello; Calabrese, Sergio; Giuffrida, Giovanni; Brusca, Lorenzo; Platt, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    Since the discovery of BrO in a volcanic plume (Bobrowski et al. 2003) many measurements have been performed as well as modelling to understand the radical chemistry in volcanic plumes, in particular, the interaction between volcanic gas species, released under strongly reduced conditions, and the oxidizing atmosphere. Besides the goal in atmospheric chemistry to better determine the impact of volcanic emission (e.g. reactive bromine) on the local (and maybe global) scale, volcanologists also have an interest to understand if the BrO/SO2 ratios can be used as a monitoring parameter giving further insides in dynamic processes of volcanoes. However, one of the arguments which potentially makes volcanological interpretations difficult is the reactivity of BrO. Therefore it is, of great importance to link the measurements of BrO and gaseous hydrogen bromide to the total emission flux of bromine in order to estimate the pristine gas composition released from magmas. In particular, trace gas composition of the surrounding atmosphere, the volcanic gas composition and meteorological parameters can all potentially effect the formation of BrO and might have to be considered. Some of these factors potentially also influence near source (crater rim) in-situ measurement. We need to answer the question: Can we correlate BrO measurements to the total bromine outgassing? Only with this knowledge we can relate changes of the measured gas ratios (BrO/SO2) to the volcanic fluids emitted by the underlying magma and can interpret data as signals from depth, which provide insight on the degassing of magmatic bodies inside the Earth. Some studies indicate that the BrO/SO2 ratio is close to a temporarily equilibrium already after only few minutes of the gas emission from the vent (e.g. Bobrowski and Giuffrida, 2012). This equilibrium seems to be relatively independent from meteorological parameters except for extreme conditions. We here present an empirical approach to answer the above

  13. Lifetime measurement of 75Br with inverse kinematic reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    75Br is an isotone of 74Se and 76Kr. Both of them are known for showing shape coexistence with different shape in ground state. It is a question whether odd particle, in this case a proton in 75Br, stabilizes one of the shape or feel the shape co-existence of the core. Transitional probabilities and magnetic moment of the states will help in answering these questions. Thus it motivates us to re-measure the lifetime of excited states of ground state band of 75Br using inverse reaction and to provide necessary information about the feeding time of these states which can then be used in magnetic moment measurement

  14. Pressure-induced structural changes in NH4Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanping; Huang, Xiaoli; Li, Wenbo; Wang, Lu; Wu, Gang; Zhao, Zhonglong; Duan, Defang; Bao, Kuo; Zhou, Qiang; Liu, Bingbing; Cui, Tian

    2015-08-14

    We report angle dispersive X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements and Raman spectroscopy on NH4Br up to 70.0 GPa at room temperature. Three thermodynamically stable phases (phases II, IV, and V) are confirmed and a new possible phase (phase VI) of P21/m symmetry is proposed whose structure was established from Rietveld refinement of synchrotron XRD data for the first time. The phase sequence observed in NH4Br is in accordance with phase II → IV → V → VI. Phase V transforms into phase VI at about 57.8 GPa with a huge volume reduction of 30%. Still, the intramolecular distances are analyzed to better understand the nature of structures. The H-H interactions become markedly more important as the N-Br distances are compacted, which is probably the reason of the kink of symmetric stretching band (ν1) at the transition pressure. PMID:26277143

  15. Pressure-induced structural changes in NH4Br

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report angle dispersive X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements and Raman spectroscopy on NH4Br up to 70.0 GPa at room temperature. Three thermodynamically stable phases (phases II, IV, and V) are confirmed and a new possible phase (phase VI) of P21/m symmetry is proposed whose structure was established from Rietveld refinement of synchrotron XRD data for the first time. The phase sequence observed in NH4Br is in accordance with phase II → IV → V → VI. Phase V transforms into phase VI at about 57.8 GPa with a huge volume reduction of 30%. Still, the intramolecular distances are analyzed to better understand the nature of structures. The H–H interactions become markedly more important as the N–Br distances are compacted, which is probably the reason of the kink of symmetric stretching band (ν1) at the transition pressure

  16. Henkilöbrändäyksen mahdollisuudet kauneudenhoitoalalla

    OpenAIRE

    Gallotti, Mirva

    2015-01-01

    Henkilöbrändäys on vielä suhteellisen uusi termi ja ilmiö Suomessa. Kuitenkin parin viime vuoden aikana aihe on ollut entistä useammin esillä mediassa. Kiristynyt tilanne työmarkkinoilla on pakottanut ihmisiä löytämään tapoja, joilla voi erottautua massasta ja luoda positiivista kuvaa itsestä. Henkilöbrändäystä voidaan kutsua oman osaamisen ja asiantuntijuuden profiloinniksi. Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoitus oli tutkia olisiko henkilöbrändäyksestä apua työllistymiseen ja uralla etenemiseen myös ...

  17. Raman spectra of ZnBr2-based glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman spectra of ZnBr2-KBr and ZnBr2-KBr-CaBr2 glasses contain strong bands at 60 cm-1 and 155 or 174 cm-1 and some weak bands between 200-300 cm-1. From the compositional dependence of the spectra and comparison with vibrational modes of molten mixtures and crystals, the 155 and 174 cm-1 bands are assigned to symmetric stretching modes of tetrahedra consisting of four bridging and four non-bridging bromines, respectively. It is revealed that tetrahedra of bridging bromines exist in the glasses even at the composition of so large amount of bromine that the theoretical number of non-bridging bromine per zinc is beyond 4. (author) 6 refs., 4 figs

  18. Thermal neutron imaging with CsBr storage phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The storage phosphor material CsBr:Eu2+ has been investigated for use in thermal neutron imaging. CsBr:Eu2+ imaging plates were prepared in a polycrystalline form by cold pressing starting powders. These as-prepared materials show only small photostimulated luminescence intensity under thermal neutron irradiation, but the luminescence intensity can be increased by incorporating separate neutron converters, in the form of lithium, boron or gadolinium containing compounds. An imaging plate containing 5% 10B2O3 as a neutron converter has 50% the photostimulated luminescence intensity of a commercial Fuji neutron imaging plate. Thermal neutron imaging was shown to be possible with the CsBr:Eu2+-based imaging plates, and the differences in thermal neutron and X-ray images were clearly observed

  19. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements: comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dorf

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, results of four stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM. Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY satellite instrument. The balloon observations include (a balloon-borne in situ resonance fluorescence detection of BrO (Triple, (b balloon-borne solar occultation DOAS measurements (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy of BrO in the UV, and (c BrO profiling from the solar occultation SAOZ (Systeme d'Analyse par Observation Zenithale balloon instrument. Since stratospheric BrO is subject to considerable diurnal variation and none of the measurements are performed close enough in time and space for a direct comparison, all balloon observations are considered with reference to outputs from the 3-D CTM. The referencing is performed by forward and backward air mass trajectory calculations to match the balloon with the satellite observations. The diurnal variation of BrO is considered by 1-D photochemical model calculation along the trajectories. The 1-D photochemical model is initialised with output data of the 3-D model with additional constraints on the vertical transport, the total amount and photochemistry of stratospheric bromine as given by the various balloon observations. Total [Bry]=(20.1±2.5 pptv obtained from DOAS BrO observations at mid-latitudes in 2003, serves as an upper limit of the comparison. Most of the balloon observations agree with the photochemical model predictions within their given error estimates. First retrieval exercises of BrO limb profiling from the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument on average agree to around 20% with the photochemically-corrected balloon observations of the remote sensing instruments (SAOZ

  20. Simultaneous production of high-pure 76Br, 77Br and 79Kr using an isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A production method of the bromine radioisotopes 76Br and 77Br in high radiochemical purity has been developed without using an isotopically enriched target, instead, their precursors 76Kr and 77Kr produced in a NaBr target by proton irradiation were mass-separated and implanted into Al foils together with 79Kr by means of a high-resolution isotope separator. The isotope separation efficiencies of the radiokryptons with a compact ECR ion source were found to be 15±2%. The 79Kr was recovered cryogenically from the Al foil heated, while 76Kr and 77Kr were allowed to decay for 14.6 h and 1.24 h, respectively during which the almost maximum growth of 76Br and 77Br occurred. A comparison was made between anion and cation exchange methods for chemical separation of the radiobromines from the Al foils. The recovery efficiencies were found to be almost identical between then, and better than 95%. (author)

  1. Brändin kehittäminen : Even juoksukoulu

    OpenAIRE

    Koli, Eveliina

    2016-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selkeyttää Even juoksukoulun brändin tavoitemielikuvaa. Opinnäytetyön tutkimuksen avulla pyrittiin selvittämään Even juoksukoulun brändin tilannetta sekä luomaan sen avulla toiminnalle selkeä missio ja visio. Lisäksi tutkimuksen avulla haluttiin selvittää Even juoksukoulun tunnettavuutta. Even juoksukoulun tarkoituksena on tarjota monipuolisia harjoituksia, opastaa oikeaoppista tekniikkaa ja kehittää asiakkaiden tietämystä lihaskunnon ja liikkuvuuden tä...

  2. Brändin esiintyvyys blogeissa - Case Adidas

    OpenAIRE

    Kolehmainen, Tiia

    2013-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää adidas -brändin blogiesiintyvyys suomalaisissa blogeissa. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli saada käsitys siitä, millaisissa muodoissa adidas-brändi esiintyy Suomen suosituimmissa blogeissa. Tutkimuksessa tutkittiin myös Adidaksen kampanjan blogiesiintyvyyttä. Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantajana toimi Adidas Suomi Oy, joka on osa globaalia Adidas Groupia. Yritys on yksi maailman johtavimmista urheilutuotemerkeistä. Tutkimuksen teoreettisessa osuud...

  3. The BR1 Reactor:. a Versatile Tool for Fission Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemans, J.

    2008-04-01

    The BR1 reactor located at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK·CEN in Mol, Belgium, is a research reactor with a variety of irradiation possibilities. Thanks to its large reactor core, its flexible operation and its different irradiation facilities, this reactor is particularly suited for in-core and ex-core neutron physics experiments. This paper gives a general description of the BR1 reactor, with special emphasis on the available irradiation possibilities. Then some examples of fission experiments that have been performed in the past will be referred to and two ongoing projects related to fission will be presented.

  4. Brändit kustannustoiminassa CASE: Arktinen Banaani

    OpenAIRE

    Pursiainen, Anna-Liisa

    2010-01-01

    Brändien rakentaminen on aina kovaa ja systemaattista työtä toimialasta riippumatta. Yritykset kehittävät tuotteita ja koko toimintaa kysyntä- ja markkinalähtöisesti. Perinteisillä toimialoilla jollaiseksi myös kustannusala voidaan lukea, toimintaa ja kehitystyötä on viime aikoina tehty jatkuvien muutosten parissa. Suuret kustannusyhtiöt ovat ostaneet pienempiä samalla kun osa yhtiöistä on kiristyvän kilpailutilanteen vuoksi lopettanut toimintansa. Tuotteistaminen ja brändin luominen ...

  5. Skandaalin vaikutus brändin imagoon - Case Audi

    OpenAIRE

    Puntalo, Ville-Veikko

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin Volkswagenin päästöhuijausskandaalin vaikutusta Audi-brändin imagoon. Tutkimuksessa pyrittiin selvittämään onko ennakoitavissa mahdollisia myyntitulosten muutoksia ja johtuivatko ne kyseisestä skandaalista. Opinnäytetyön teoriaosuudessa perehdyttiin ostokäyttäytymisen prosessiin, brändin rakentumiseen, positiivisen maineen saavuttamiseen ja tunnettuihin yritysmaailman skandaaleihin. Lisäksi käytiin läpi Volkswagen päästöskandaalin taustaa sekä sen seurauksia. ...

  6. Brändistrategian merkitys yrityksen digitaalisessa markkinoinnissa

    OpenAIRE

    Niskala, Harri

    2011-01-01

    Tämä tutkielma on kirjoitettu siksi, että olen aikaisemmin työskennellyt digitaalista markkinointia myyvän yrityksen palveluksessa. Kyseinen työnantaja, Advertising Media Finland Oy, on ollut tämän tutkielman toimeksiantaja. Työn tavoitteena oli selvittää, kuinka suuri merkitys brändistrategialla on suomalaisissa yrityksissä. Lisäksi pyrittiin selvittämään, mikä on suomalaisten yritysten brändi-identiteetin ja imagon merkitys digitaalisessa markkinoinissa. Näiden kahden asian lisäksi selvitet...

  7. The New Locality of Chenopodium Pumilio R. Br. in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Witosławski, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    The clammy goosefoot Chenopodium pumilio R. Br. is a rare anthropophyte in the Polish flora. Hitherto, this species was recorded in Gdańsk and Rybnik. The present study describes the newly-discovered locality in Stryków near Łódź (Central Poland), the occurrence of this species in Poland and the general geographical distribution in the world.

  8. The new locality of Chetiopodium pumilio R. Br. in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Witosławski, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    The clammy goosefoot Chenopodium pumilio R. Br. is a rare anthropophyte in the Polish flora. Hitherto, this species was recorded in Gdańsk and Rybnik. The present study describes the newly-discovered locality in Stryków near Łódź (Central Poland), the occurrence of this species in Poland and the general geographical distribution in the world.

  9. The stability of TlBr detectors at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thallium bromide (TlBr) is a promising semiconductor detector material due to its high atomic number (Tl: 81, Br: 35), high density (7.56 g/cm3) and wide band gap (2.68 eV). Current TlBr detectors suffer from polarization, which causes performance degradation over time when high voltage is applied. A 4.6-mm thick TlBr detector with pixellated anodes made by Radiation Monitoring Devices Inc. was used in the experiments. The detector has a planar cathode and nine anode pixels surrounded by a guard ring. The pixel pitch is 1.0-mm. Digital pulse waveforms of preamplifier outputs were recorded using a multi-channel GaGe PCI digitizer board for pulse shaping. Several experiments were carried out at -20 oC while the detector was under bias for over a month. No polarization effect was observed and the detector's spectroscopic performance improved over time. Energy resolution of 1.5% FWHM at 662 keV has been measured without depth correction at -2000 V cathode bias. Average electron mobility-lifetime of (5.7±0.8) x10-3 cm2/V has been measured from four anode pixels.

  10. Narva kant vajab oma brändi / Esko Passila

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Passila, Esko

    2007-01-01

    Autor leiab, et Ida-Virumaa peaks looma ühtse tugeva brändi, mille alusel tulevikuotsuseid teha. See peaks tooma välja soodsa asukoha eelised, võimalused, tööjõu kättesaadavuse, kasutusvalmid maa-alad, hinnad jne.

  11. Analytical potential energy function for the Br + H2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical functions with a many-body expansion for the ground and first-excited-state potential energy surfaces for the Br+H2 system are newly presented in this work. These functions describe the abstraction and exchange reactions qualitatively well, although it has been found that the function for the ground-state potential surface is still quantitatively unsatisfactory. (author)

  12. Bellahøj. Ballerup. Brøndby Strand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, S.

    det der skete? Hvem tog initiativet? Hvorfor lykkedes det med så stor succes, som det faktisk gjorde? Hvilke tanker, idealer og indgreb var udgangspunkt for den store indsats? På grundlag af disse spørgsmål har Sven Bertelsen i "Bellahøj - Ballerup - Brøndby Strand" skildret en væsentlig epoke i dansk...

  13. Cône Sud et Brésil

    OpenAIRE

    Droulers, Martine

    2005-01-01

    Synthèse mettant en perspective les rapides mutations actuelles et les anciens héritages de l'Amérique latine. Cet ouvrage distingue quatre ensembles territoriaux dont le Cône Sud et le Brésil (chapitre 4) qui forment l'entité la plus développée...

  14. Large BR(h -> tau mu) in Supersymmetric Models

    CERN Document Server

    Hammad, Ahmed; Un, Cem Salih

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the Lepton Flavor Violating (LFV) Higgs decay h -> tau mu in three supersymmetric models: Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), Supersymmetric Seesaw Model (SSM), and Supersymmetric B-L model with Inverse Seesaw (BLSSM-IS). We show that in generic MSSM, with non-universal slepton masses and/or trilinear couplings, it is not possible to enhance BR(h -> tau mu) without violating the experimental bound on the BR(tau -> mu gamma). In SSM, where flavor mixing is radiatively generated, the LFV process mu -> e gamma strictly constrains the parameter space and the maximum value of BR(h -> tau mu) is of order 10^-10, which is extremely smaller than the recent results reported by the CMS and ATLAS experiments. In BLSSM-IS, with universal soft SUSY breaking terms at the grand unified scale, we emphasize that the measured values of BR(h -> tau mu) can be accommodated in a wide region of parameter space without violating LFV constraints. Thus, confirming the LFV Higgs decay results will be a clear signa...

  15. Specific oxidation pattern of soluble starch with TEMPO-NaBr-NaClO system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jie; Lu, Jiaojiao; Xu, Naiyu; Linhardt, Robert J; Zhang, Zhenqing

    2016-08-01

    Oxidized starch, one of the most important starch derivatives, has many different properties and applications. Currently, there are two ways to produce oxidized starch, through specific and nonspecific oxidation. Specific oxidation using the stable nitroxyl radical, 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl preparidinloxy (TEMPO), with NaBr and NaClO can produce oxidized starches with different properties under good quality control. In the current study, we examine the products of specifically oxidized starch. As the amount of oxidant and the temperature, two critical factors impacting the oxidation of starch were thoroughly investigated. Analysis of the molecular weight (MW), degree of oxidization (DO) and the detailed structures of corresponding products was accomplished using gel permeation chromatography with multi-angle laser light scattering (GPC-MALLS), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and quadrapole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q/TOF-MS). According to the analytical results, the oxidation patterns of starch treated with specific oxidant TEMPO-NaBr-NaClO were established. When high amounts of oxidant was applied, more glucose residues within starch were oxidized to glucuronic acids (higher DO) and substantial degradation to starch oligosaccharides was observed. By selecting a reaction temperature of 25°C a high DO could be obtained for a given amount of oxidant. The reducing end sugar residue within oxidized starch was itself oxidized and ring opened in all TEMPO-NaBr-NaClO reactions. Furthermore, extra oxidant generated additional novel structures in the reducing end residues of some products, particularly in low temperature reactions. PMID:27112871

  16. Pressure and temperature dependence kinetics study of the NO + BrO yielding NO2 + Br reaction - Implications for stratospheric bromine photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, R. T.; Sander, S. P.; Yung, Y. L.

    1979-01-01

    The reactivity of NO with BrO radicals over a wide range of pressure (100-700 torr) and temperature (224-398 K) is investigated using the flash photolysis-ultraviolet absorption technique. The flash photolysis system consists of a high-pressure xenon arc light source, a reaction cell/gas filter/flash lamp combination, and a 216.5 half-meter monochromator/polychromator/spectrography for wavelength selectivity. The details of the reaction and its corresponding Arrhenius expression are identified. The results are compared with previous measurements, and atmospheric implications of the reaction are discussed. The NO + BrO yielding NO2 + Br reaction is shown to be important in controlling the concentration ratios of BrO/Br and BrO/HBr in the stratosphere, but this reaction does not affect the catalytic efficiency of BrOx in ozone destruction.

  17. Decommissioning of the BR3 reactor: status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BR3 plant at Mol in Belgium built at the end of the fifties was the first PWR plant built outside the USA. The reactor had a small net power output (10 MWe) but comprised all the loops and features of a commercial PWR plant. The BR3 plant was operated with the main objective of testing advanced PWR fuels under irradiation conditions similar to those encountered in large commercial PWR plants. The reactor was started in 1962 and shut down in 1987 after 25 years of continuous operation. Since 1989, SCK.CEN is decommissioning the BR3 PWR research reactor. The dismantling of the metallic components including reactor pressure vessel and internals is completed and extensively reported in the literature. The dismantling of auxiliary components and the decontamination of parts of the infrastructure are now going on. The decommissioning progress is continuously monitored and costs and strategy are regularly reassessed. The first part of the paper describes the main results and lessons learned from the reassessment exercises performed in 1994, 1999, 2004 and 2007. Impacts of changes in legal framework on the decommissioning costs will be addressed. These changes concern e.g. licensing aspects, clearance levels, waste management... The middle part of the paper discusses the management of activated and/or contaminated concrete. The costing exercise performed in 1995 highlighted that the management of activated and contaminated concrete is the second main cost item after the dismantling of the reactor pressure vessel and internals. Different possible solutions were studied. These are evacuation as radioactive waste with or without supercompaction, recycling this 'radioactive' grout or concrete for conditioning of radioactive waste e.g. conditioning of metallic waste. The paper will give the results of the cost-benefit analysis made to select the solution retained. The last part of the paper will discuss the end goal of the decommissioning of the BR3. In the final

  18. Finding the missing stratospheric Bry: a global modeling study of CHBr3 and CH2Br2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Blake

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent in situ and satellite measurements suggest a contribution of ~5 pptv to stratospheric inorganic bromine from short-lived bromocarbons. We conduct a modeling study of the two most important short-lived bromocarbons, bromoform (CHBr3 and dibromomethane (CH2Br2, with the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOS CCM to account for this missing stratospheric bromine. We derive a "top-down" emission estimate of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 using airborne measurements in the Pacific and North American troposphere and lower stratosphere obtained during previous NASA aircraft campaigns. Our emission estimate suggests that to reproduce the observed concentrations in the free troposphere, a global oceanic emission of 425 Gg Br yr−1 for CHBr3 and 57 Gg Br yr−1 for CH2Br2 is needed, with 60% of emissions from open ocean and 40% from coastal regions. Although our simple emission scheme assumes no seasonal variations, the model reproduces the observed seasonal variations of the short-lived bromocarbons with high concentrations in winter and low concentrations in summer. This indicates that the seasonality of short-lived bromocarbons is largely due to seasonality in their chemical loss and transport. The inclusion of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 contributes ~5 pptv bromine throughout the stratosphere. Both the source gases and inorganic bromine produced from source gas degradation (BryVSLS in the troposphere are transported into the stratosphere, and are equally important. Inorganic bromine accounts for half (2.5 pptv of the bromine from the inclusion of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 near the tropical tropopause and its contribution rapidly increases to ~100% as altitude increases. More than 85% of the wet scavenging of BryVSLS occurs in large-scale precipitation below 500 hPa. Our sensitivity study with wet scavenging in convective updrafts switched off suggests that BryVSLS in the stratosphere is not sensitive to convection. Convective scavenging only accounts for

  19. Atmospheric test of the J(BrONO2/kBrO+NO2 ratio: implications for total stratospheric Bry and bromine-mediated ozone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Werner

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on time-dependent O3, NO2 and BrO profile measurements taken in the stratosphere by limb observations of scattered skylight at high-latitudes during autumn circulation turn-over. The observations are complemented by simultaneous direct solar occultation measurements around sunset and sunrise performed aboard the same stratospheric balloon payload. Supporting radiative transfer and photochemical modelling indicates that, the measurements can be used to constrain the ratio J(BrONO2/kBrO+NO2, for which overall a 1.69 ± 0.04 larger ratio is found than indicated by the most recent JPL compilation (Sander et al., 2011. Sensitivity studies reveal the major reasons likely to be (1 a larger BrONO2 absorption cross-section σBrONO2, primarily for wavelengths larger than 300 nm, and (2 a smaller kBrO+NO2 at 220 K than given by Sander et al. (2011. Other factors, e.g. the actinic flux and quantum yield for the dissociation of BrONO2, can be ruled out. The observations also have consequences for total inorganic stratospheric bromine (Bry estimated from stratospheric BrO measurements at high NOx loadings, since the J(BrONO2/kBrO+NO2 ratio largely determines the stratospheric BrO/Bry ratio during daylight. Using the revised J(BrONO2/kBrO+NO2 ratio, total stratospheric Bry is likely to be 1.4 ppt smaller than previously estimated from BrO profile measurements at high NOx loadings. This brings estimates of total stratospheric bromine inferred from organic source gas measurements (i.e. CH3Br, the halons, CH2Br2, CHBr3, ... into closer agreement with estimates based on BrO observations (inorganic method. The consequences for stratospheric ozone due to the revised J(BrONO2/kBrO+NO2 ratio are small (maximum −0.8%, since at high NOx (for which most Bry assessments are made an overestimated Bry using the inorganic method would in return almost cancel out with the amount of reactive bromine calculated in the photochemical models.

  20. Decommissioning of a small reactor (BR3 reactor, Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1989, SCK-CEN has been dismantling its PWR reactor BR3 (Belgian Reactor No. 3). After gaining a great deal of experience in remote dismantling of highly radioactive components during the actual dismantling of the two sets of internals, the BR3 team completed the cutting of its reactor pressure vessel (RPV). During the feasibility phase of the RPV dismantling, a decision was made to cut it under water in the refuelling pool of the plant, after having removed it from its cavity. The RPV was cut into segments using a milling cutter and a bandsaw machine. These mechanical techniques have shown their ability for this kind of operations. Prior to the segmentation, the thermal insulation situated around the RPV was remotely removed and disposed of. The paper will describe all these operations. The BR3 decommissioning activities also include the dismantling of contaminated loops and equipment. After a careful sorting of the pieces, optimized management routes are selected in order to minimize the final amount of radioactive waste to be disposed of. Some development of different methods of decontamination were carried out: abrasive blasting (or sand blasting), chemical decontamination (Oxidizing-Reducing process using Cerium). The main goal of the decontamination program is to recycle most of the metallic materials either in the nuclear world or in the industrial world by reaching the respective recycling or clearance level. Overall the decommissioning of the BR3 reactor has shown the feasibility of performing such a project in a safe and economical way. Moreover, BR3 has developed methodologies and decontamination processes to economically reduce the amount of radwaste produced. (author)

  1. Kinetics of the BrO + NO2 Association Reaction. Temperature and Pressure Dependence in the Falloff Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thron, R. P.; Daykin, E. P.; Wine, P.H.

    1997-01-01

    A laser flash photolysis-long path absorption technique has been employed to study the kinetics of the reaction BrO + NO2 + M yields (k1) products as a function of temperature (248-346 K), pressure (16-800 torr), and buffer gas identity (N2,CF4) The reaction is found to be in the falloff regime between third and second-order over the entire range of conditions investigated This is the first study where temperature-dependent measurements of k1(P,T) have been reported at pressures greater than 12 torr; hence, our results help constrain choices of k1(P,T) for use in models of lower stratospheric BrO(x) chemistry. Approximate falloff parameters in a convenient form for atmospheric modeling are derived.

  2. Identification of Yellow Pigmentation Genes in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis Using Br300 Microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jeong Jung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The yellow color of inner leaves in Chinese cabbage depends on its lutein and carotene content. To identify responsible genes for yellow pigmentation in leaves, the transcriptome profiles of white (Kenshin and yellow leaves (Wheessen were examined using the Br300K oligomeric chip in Chinese cabbage. In yellow leaves, genes involved in carotene synthesis (BrPSY, BrPDS, BrCRTISO, and BrLCYE, lutein, and zeaxanthin synthesis (BrCYP97A3 and BrHYDB were upregulated, while those associated with carotene degradation (BrNCED3, BrNCED4, and BrNCED6 were downregulated. These expression patterns might support that the content of both lutein and total carotenoid was much higher in the yellow leaves than that in the white leaves. These results indicate that the yellow leaves accumulate high levels of both lutein and β-carotene due to stimulation of synthesis and that the degradation rate is inhibited. A large number of responsible genes as novel genes were specifically expressed in yellow inner leaves, suggesting the possible involvement in pigment synthesis. Finally, we identified three transcription factors (BrA20/AN1-like, BrBIM1, and BrZFP8 that are specifically expressed and confirmed their relatedness in carotenoid synthesis from Arabidopsis plants.

  3. OClO and BrO observations in the volcanic plume of Mt. Etna - implications on the chemistry of chlorine and bromine species in volcanic plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliss, J.; Bobrowski, N.; Vogel, L.; Pohler, D.; Platt, U.

    2015-05-01

    Spatial and temporal profiles of chlorine dioxide (OClO), bromine monoxide (BrO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) of the volcanic plume at Mt. Etna, Italy, were investigated in September 2012 using Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS). OClO was detected in 119 individual measurements covering plume ages up to 6 min. BrO could be detected in 452 spectra up to 23 min downwind. The retrieved slant column densities (SCDs) reached maximum values of 2.0 × 1014 molecules cm-2 (OClO) and 1.1 × 1015 molecules cm-2 (BrO). Mean mixing ratios of BrO and OClO were estimated assuming a circular plume cross section. Furthermore, ClO mixing ratios were derived directly from the BrO and OClO-SCDs. Average abundances of BrO = 1.35 ppb, OClO = 300 ppt and ClO = 139 ppt were found in the young plume (plume age τ atmospheric lifetime of CH4, the impact of gaseous chlorine on the CH4 budget in the plume environment should nevertheless be relatively small due to plume dispersion (decreasing Cl concentrations) and ongoing mixing of the plume with the surrounding atmosphere (replenishing O3 and CH4). In addition, all spectra were analysed for signatures of IO, OIO and BrO. None of these species could be detected. Upper limits for IO/SO2, OIO/SO2 and OBrO/SO2 are 1.8 × 10-6, 2.0 × 10-5 and 1.1 × 10-5 respectively.

  4. CaBr{sub 2} hydrolysis for HBr production using a direct sparging contactor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.; Panchal, C. B.; Doctor, R. D.; Energy Systems

    2009-09-01

    The calcium-bromine cycle being investigated is a novel continuous hybrid cycle for hydrogen production employing both heat and electricity. Calcium bromide (CaBr{sub 2}) hydrolysis generates hydrogen bromide (HBr) which is electrolyzed to produce hydrogen. The CaBr{sub 2} hydrolysis at 1050 K (777 C) is endothermic with the heat of reaction {delta}G{sub T} = 181.5 KJ/mol (43.38 kcal/mol) and the Gibbs free energy change is positive at 99.6 kJ/mol (23.81 kcal/mol). What makes this hydrolysis reaction attractive is both its rate and that well over half the thermodynamic requirements for water-splitting heat of reaction of {delta}G{sub T} = 285.8 KJ/mol (68.32 kcal/mol) are supplied at this stage using heat rather than electricity. Molten-phase calcium bromide reactors may overcome the technical barriers associated with earlier hydrolysis approaches using supported solid-phase calcium bromide studied in the Japanese UT-3 cycle. Before constructing the experiment two design concepts were evaluated using COMSOL{trademark} multi-physics models; (1) the first involved sparging steam into a calcium-bromide melt, while (2) the second considered a 'spray-dryer' contactor spraying molten calcium bromide counter-currently to upward-flowing steam. A recent paper describes this work. These studies indicated that sparging steam into a calcium-bromide melt is more feasible than spraying molten calcium bromide droplets into steam. Hence, an experimental sparging hydrolysis reactor using a mullite tube (ID 70 mm) was constructed capable of holding 0.3-0.5 kg (1.5-2.5 x 10{sup -3} kg mol) CaBr{sub 2} forming a melt with a maximum 0.08 m (8 cm) depth. Sparging steam at a steam rate of 0.02 mol/mol of CaBr{sub 2} per minute (1.2-2.3 x 10{sup -5} kg/s), into this molten bath promptly yielded HBr in a stable operation that converted up to 25% of the calcium bromide. The kinetic constant derived from the experimental data was 2.17 x 10{sup -12} kmol s{sup -1} m{sup -2} MPa

  5. Simultaneous balloon-borne measurements of the key inorganic bromine species BrO and BrONO2 in the stratosphere: DOAS and MIPAS-B evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarski, Sebastian; Maucher, Guido; Ebersoldt, Andreas; Butz, André; Friedl-Vallon, Felix; Höpfner, Michael; Kleinert, Anne; Nordmeyer, Hans; Oelhaf, Hermann; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Sinnhuber, Björn-Martin; Wetzel, Gerald; Orphal, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Inorganic bromine contributes to a loss of stratospheric ozone of about 25 - 30%. Past studies have demonstrated several uncertainties in the photochemistry of stratospheric bromine, especially by considering the three body reaction (kBrONO2) BrO + NO2 + M → BrONO2 + M, and the photolysis frequencies of BrONO2 (jBrONO2). Hence, an improved knowledge of the ratio jBrONO2/kBrONO2 is crucial to better assess the bromine-related loss of ozone as well as the total amount of bromine in the stratosphere. Here, we report on the first simultaneous balloon-borne measurements of NO2, BrO, and BrONO2 in the stratosphere, performed over Timmins (Ontario, 49 °N, Canada) on Sept., 7th and 8th, 2014. During the flight the targeted species were monitored by remote sensing in the UV, visible and mid-IR spectral ranges by Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) and Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS-B), respectively. The analysis and interpretation of the measurements involves radiative transfer as well as photochemical modelling. Major features of the applied techniques are reported and first results of the DOAS as well as MIPAS-B evaluation are discussed. Further investigations address inter-comparisons of the retrieved NO2, BrO, and O3 concentrations and volume mixing ratios, to demonstrate validations of both evaluation methods.

  6. Volatility Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Carr; Roger Lee

    2009-01-01

    Volatility derivatives are a class of derivative securities where the payoff explicitly depends on some measure of the volatility of an underlying asset. Prominent examples of these derivatives include variance swaps and VIX futures and options. We provide an overview of the current market for these derivatives. We also survey the early literature on the subject. Finally, we provide relatively simple proofs of some fundamental results related to variance swaps and volatility swaps.

  7. Material test reactor fuel research at the BR2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of new, high performance material test reactor or the conversion of such reactors' core from high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) based fuel requires several fuel qualification steps. For the conversion of high performance reactors, high density dispersion or monolithic fuel types are being developed. The Uranium-Molybdenum fuel system has been selected as reference system for the qualification of LEU fuels. For reactors with lower performance characteristics, or as medium enriched fuel for high performance reactors, uranium silicide dispersion fuel is applied. However, on the longer term, the U-Mo based fuel types may offer a more efficient fuel alternative and-or an easier back-end solution with respect to the silicide based fuels. At the BR2 reactor of the Belgian nuclear research center, SCK-CEN in Mol, several types of fuel testing opportunities are present to contribute to such qualification process. A generic validation test for a selected fuel system is the irradiation of flat plates with representative dimensions for a fuel element. By flexible positioning and core loading, bounding irradiation conditions for fuel elements can be performed in a standard device in the BR2. For fuel element designs with curved plates, the element fabrication method compatibility of the fuel type can be addressed by incorporating a set of prototype fuel plates in a mixed driver fuel element of the BR2 reactor. These generic types of tests are performed directly in the primary coolant flow conditions of the BR2 reactor. The experiment control and interpretation is supported by detailed neutronic and thermal-hydraulic modeling of the experiments. Finally, the BR2 reactor offers the flexibility for irradiation of full size prototype fuel elements, as 200mm diameter irradiation channels are available. These channels allow the accommodation of various types of prototype fuel elements, eventually using a dedicated cooling loop to provide the

  8. Les guides et inventaires patrimoniaux au Brésil

    OpenAIRE

    Kühl, Beatriz Mugayar

    2014-01-01

    La production des guides du patrimoine au Brésil, caractérisée par son extrême hétérogénéité, s’appuie dans la plupart des cas sur des listes de biens classés ou sur des inventaires qui ne garantissent pas la protection légale des édifices et qui sont souvent limités à de brèves descriptions sans ou avec peu d’analyses. Alors que des récits plus anciens de voyageurs présentaient des descriptions de villes, d’édifices et de paysages, tout en apportant un regard critique extérieur sur la réalit...

  9. Evaluation of 3-[123I]iodo- and 3-[76Br]bromo-methylphenidate as potential tracers for the study of the dopamine transporter using SPECT and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The psychomotor stimulant methylphenidate (MP) and several derivatives have demonstrated high affinity binding to a site on the dopamine transporter (DAT). Here we report the pharmacological evaluation of 3-[123I]iodomethylphenidate (l23MP) and 3-[76Br]bromomethyl phenidate (76BrMP) as potential SPET and PET tracers for the study of the DAT. Racemic 123IIMP and 76BrMP were synthesized from the corresponding 3-tributylstannyl methylphenidate using Na123I or NH476Br in the presence of chloramine-T. In vivo biodistribution of the active enantiomers of 123IMP in rats indicated a striatum (STR) to cerebellum (CB) ratio of 2.4 at 30 min p.i. Pretreatment of the rats with MP, WIN 35,428 and GBR 12909 reduced the STR/CB ratio to unity. Similarly, in vivo biodistribution of 76BrMP in rats also indicated high uptake in the striatum with a STR/CB ratio of 5.5 at 120 min p.i. Administration of 123IMP and 76BrMP in primates and examination by SPET and PET indicated a high accumulation of radioactivity in the striatum with rapid washout in other non-dopaminergic tissue. These results indicate that the active enantiomers of 123IMP and of 76BrMP have the potential for further development as SPET and PET tracers for the study of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease

  10. Effect of 8-MOP plus treatment on survival and repair of plasmid pBR322

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the lethality produced in pBR322 DNA after PUVA treatment (8-MOP+UVA). As recipients, we used a collection of E. coli strains differing in their repair capacities and analysed the involvement of several DNA repair pathways in the removal of plasmid lesions. We have also studied the effect of UVA radiation alone, in order to determine more precisely the effect attributable only to psoralen molecules. Results showed a strong lethal effect derived from PUVA treatment; however, some plasmid recovery was achieved in bacterial hosts proficient in Excision repair and SOS repair. another repair pathway, only detectable at high density of lesions, appeared to be relevant for the removal of 8-MOP:DNA adducts. (author)

  11. Refurbishment of BR2 (Phases 4 and 5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. In phase 4 of the refurbishment programme, various activities were performed to allow reactor start-up. In phase 5, remaining refurbishment works were carried out as well as the extra studies and upgradings required by the licensing authorities. Major achievements in 1997 are described and discussed

  12. Optimized Control Rods of the BR2 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the present time the BR-2 reactor uses control elements with cadmium as neutron absorbing part. The lower section of the control element is a beryllium assembly cooled by light water. Due to the burn up of the lower end of the cadmium section during the reactor operation, the presently used rods for reactivity control of the BR-2 reactor have to be replaced by new ones. Considered are various types Control Rods with full active part of the following materials: cadmium (Cd), hafnium (Hf), europium oxide (Eu2O3) and gadolinium (Gd2O3). Options to decrease the burn up of the control rod material in the hot spot, such as use of stainless steel in the lower active part of the Control Rod are discussed. Comparison with the characteristics of the presently used Control Rods types is performed. The changing of the characteristics of different types Control Rods and the perturbation effects on the reactor neutronics during the BR-2 fuel cycle are investigated. The burn up of the Control Rod absorbing material, total and differential control rods worth, macroscopic and effective microscopic absorption cross sections, fuel and reactivity evolution are evaluated during approximately 30 operating cycles.

  13. Bréal, un antinaturalisme d’inspiration humboldtienne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Jean-Philippe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dans De la forme et de la fonction des mots, Bréal formulait, dès 1866, outre une critique générale du formalisme de la philologie comparative depuis Bopp, une thèse radicalement opposée à l’orientation naturaliste de l’évolutionnisme linguistique de Schleicher. Cette thèse, que nous prendrons le risque de définir comme thèse du primat de la fonction sur la forme linguistique, est au coeur de ce programme de linguistique générale pour lequel Bréal allait forger, quelques années plus tard, le mot de sémantique. Fortement marqué par la notion humboldtienne d’innere Sprachform, Bréal, contrairement à Saussure, n'abandonnera jamais le changement linguistique au hasard de l'histoire et maintiendra l'intelligence comme premier moteur des langues, quitte à poser la nécessité de repenser cette intelligence.

  14. Irradiation of Fuel Elements in the Belgian BR3 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under a contract concluded by EURATOM and CEN-BelgoNucléaire, fuel rods containing plutonium-enriched uranium were irradiated in the Belgian BR3 reactor with the object of evaluating the behaviour of plutonium fuel elements in power reactors. The first experiment consisted in introducing 12 fuel elements fabricated by vibration and compacting followed by swaging into a core assembly of the BR3 pressurized-water power reactor. Irradiation was carried out for a period corresponding to 4820 h at full power. Subsequent examination of the fuel rods showed that they had been unaffected by irradiation. A second series of experiments is being carried out in collaboration with the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. These experiments involve irradiating an assembly of 37 plutonium-enriched fuel elements, some compacted and others of the pellet type, in the BR3/VN power reactor. The fabrication of the vibrocompacted elements and the thermal studies relating to the assembly are briefly described. (author)

  15. Optimized Control Rods of the BR2 Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalcheva, Silva; Koonen, E.

    2007-09-15

    At the present time the BR-2 reactor uses control elements with cadmium as neutron absorbing part. The lower section of the control element is a beryllium assembly cooled by light water. Due to the burn up of the lower end of the cadmium section during the reactor operation, the presently used rods for reactivity control of the BR-2 reactor have to be replaced by new ones. Considered are various types Control Rods with full active part of the following materials: cadmium (Cd), hafnium (Hf), europium oxide (Eu2O3) and gadolinium (Gd2O3). Options to decrease the burn up of the control rod material in the hot spot, such as use of stainless steel in the lower active part of the Control Rod are discussed. Comparison with the characteristics of the presently used Control Rods types is performed. The changing of the characteristics of different types Control Rods and the perturbation effects on the reactor neutronics during the BR-2 fuel cycle are investigated. The burn up of the Control Rod absorbing material, total and differential control rods worth, macroscopic and effective microscopic absorption cross sections, fuel and reactivity evolution are evaluated during approximately 30 operating cycles.

  16. Measurement of the relative branching ratio BR(\\Xi_c^+ \\to p^+ K^-\\pi^+)\\BR(\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Xi^- \\pi^+ \\pi^+)

    CERN Document Server

    Link, J M; Yager, P M; Anjos, J C; Bediaga, I; Göbel, C; Magnin, J; Massafferri, A; De Miranda, J M; Pepe, I M; Dos Reis, A C; Simão, F R A; Carrillo, S; Casimiro, E; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Uribe, C; Vázquez, F; Cinquini, L; Cumalat, J P; O'Reilly, B; Ramírez, J E; Vaandering, E W; Butler, J N; Cheung, H W K; Gaines, I; Garbincius, P H; Garren, L A; Gottschalk, E E; Kasper, P H; Kreymer, A E; Kutschke, R; Bianco, S; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Sarwar, S; Zallo, A

    2001-01-01

    We report the observation of the Cabibbo suppressed decay \\Xi_c^+ \\to p K^-\\pi^+ using data collected with the FOCUS spectrometer during the 1996--97 Fermilab fixed target run. We find a \\Xi_c^+ signal peak of 202\\pm35 events. We have measured the relative branching ratios BR(\\Xi^+_c\\to p K^-\\pi^+)/BR(\\Xi^+_c\\to\\Xi^-\\pi^+\\pi^+)= 0.234 \\pm 0.047 \\pm 0.022 and BR(\\Xi^+_c\\to p \\bar{K}^*(892)^0)/BR(\\Xi^+_c\\to p K^-\\pi^+)= 0.54 \\pm 0.09 \\pm 0.05 .

  17. No-carrier-added radiobromination via the Gattermann reaction. Synthesis of 75Br- and 77Br-bromperidol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suehiro, Makiko; Yokoi, Fuji; Nozaki, Tadashi; Iwamoto, Masako

    1987-10-01

    The Gattermann reaction was applied to the non-carrier-added radiobromination of bromperidol. The synthesis with diazotized precursor, no-carrier-added 75Br- or 77Br-, and copper powder proved to give the radiobrominated neuroleptic drug in high radiochemical yield of 60 - 70 %, and in high specific activity (approx. 15 Ci/..mu..mole). The radiobromination also proved to be regio-selective. In the reaction, the copper catalyst was observed to play an important role. Formation of unlabeled by-products due to stable chlorine or bromine contamination in the reaction mixture was also studied by neutron activation analysis. Removal of such undesirable halogen nuclides and separation of the unavoidably-formed chlorinated compound from the radiobrominated bromperidol is discussed.

  18. No-carrier-added radiobromination via the Gattermann reaction. Synthesis of 75Br- and 77Br-bromperidol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gattermann reaction was applied to the non-carrier-added radiobromination of bromperidol. The synthesis with diazotized precursor, no-carrier-added 75Br- or 77Br-, and copper powder proved to give the radiobrominated neuroleptic drug in high radiochemical yield of 60 - 70 %, and in high specific activity (∼ 15 Ci/μmole). The radiobromination also proved to be regio-selective. In the reaction, the copper catalyst was observed to play an important role. Formation of unlabeled by-products due to stable chlorine or bromine contamination in the reaction mixture was also studied by neutron activation analysis. Removal of such undesirable halogen nuclides and separation of the unavoidably-formed chlorinated compound from the radiobrominated bromperidol is discussed. (author)

  19. VSLS Bry estimation from SMILES BrO observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Makoto; Shiotani, Masato; Mitsuda, Chihiro; Manago, Naohiro; Kinnison, Douglas; Imai, Koji; Ozeki, Hiroyuki

    Very Short Lived Source (VSLS) gases of Bry have been investigated, since it affects the chemistry of the stratosphere such as the long term recovery of the Ozone layer. VSLS Bry can be estimated from the difference of observed and model BrO value and the Bry/BrO calculated by the model. But previous VSLS Bry estimation spread over 4-8 ppt, due to the large uncertainty of the BrO observation. In this paper, we will report the SMILES (Superconducting Submillimeter-wave Limb Emission Sounder) BrO observation, and VSLS Bry estimation using SMILES L2 and Specified Dynamics WACCM Model (nudged to GEOS-5 data) calculation. SMILES operated on the ISS from Oct. 12, 2009 to Apr. 21, 2010. Since the detector (Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor: SIS mixer) was cooled down to 4K, SMILES showed system noise figure, Tsys 250K, or spectral noise floor 0.4K, which gave one order better signal to noise ratio compared to previous sub-mm observations from space (Aura/MLS and Odin/SMR). SMILES VSLS Bry estimate (mean of 34 and 37 km) are about 4 pptv for Band A  (625 GHz), and about 5 pptv for Band C (650 GHz) for 10° latitude bins. Estimates become slightly lower in 30S-20S and 20S-10S, but are agreed within 4.63 5.27 pptv at 10S-50N at 34 km. VSLS Bry using v2.3 Band C BrO at 34 km as following, 30S-20S (3.26±0.66 pptv), 20S-10S (3.77±0.88), 10S-EQ (4.63±0.83), EQ-10N (4.67±0.58 ppt), 10N-20N (4.99±0.54), 20N-30N (5.27±0.59), 30N-40N (4.87±0.67). and 40N-50N (4.91±0.70).

  20. BrO in the arctic atmosphere in spring 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados Roman, C.; Butz, A.; Deutschmann, T.; Dorf, M.; Kritten, L.; Minikin, A.; Platt, U.; Schlager, H.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2009-12-01

    Within the ASTAR 2007 campaign ("Arctic Study of Tropospheric Aerosol, Clouds and Radiation", IPY 2007/8) that took place in Svalbard (78°N) in April 2007, spectroscopic limb scattered skylight measurements were performed from aboard the DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) Falcon aircraft. By applying the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy technique (DOAS), we attempted to detect the mixing ratio vertical profiles of O3, NO2, BrO, OClO, IO, OIO, HONO, C2H2O2, CH2O, H2O and O4 from the boundary layer (BL), up to the lowermost stratosphere within the arctic atmosphere. Here we will focus on the detection of BrO and its vertical profile retrieval. Even though the limb DOAS measurements are extremely sensitive regarding the detection of trace gases (i.e., limit for the BrO detection ~1 pptv), the challenge of the profile retrieval comes with dealing appropriately with the actual Radiative Transfer (RT) processes in the atmosphere (e.g., Rayleigh and Mie scattering). Here, our approach is based on the retrieval of the Mie scattering extinction profile from measured radiance ratios, validated using in-situ measured aerosol and cloud particle concentrations. This information is then fed into forward RT calculations in order to obtain the proper kernel for mathematical inversion of the measured slant column absorption. The inverted O4 profile is used as a proof of the viability of this method and, finally, the vertical profile of the BrO mixing ratio is retrieved. In general, results of the ASTAR 2007 flights indicate that bromine explosions and ozone depletion events (ODEs) were occurring above the arctic first-year sea ice in non-hazy conditions in April 2007. In particular, the flight on the 8th April 2007 shows largely depleted O3 (environment will be presented. In addition, the source of our BrO data will be discussed (e.g. BL or stratospheric signal, etc).

  1. Ustioni da fuoco / Burn injuries / Les brûlures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Copertino

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Severe burn injuries require high specialistic treatment. Burn injuries are common in disasters and war scenarios, so war medicine has been fundamental to improve treatment protocols for burn patients..Burn injuries are classified according to the etiopathogenetic agent (physical, chemical or radiation, that determines different anatomoisthologic aspects.An estimation of the depth and extension are fundamental for defining the gravity of the burn. Critical burn patients have to be transported in specialistic Centers. There they are treated by multispecialistic teams from the resuscitation phase to the reconstructive surgery and specialist rehabilitation.. This process can continue for two years with the objective to return patients to a quiet normal life. Les brûlures sont des lésions traumatiques qui requièrent un traitement spécialisé. Lors de catastrophes et de guerres, les brûlures sont des lésions très fréquentes et la médecine de guerre a contribué à faire avancer la science de manière importante, dans le traitement de cette pathologie.Les brûlures sont classées en fonction de l'agent étiopathogénique (agents physiques, chimiques ou radiations dont le mécanisme d'action qui provoque la lésion cause des aspects anatomohistologiques caractéristiques.Pour définir la sévérité d'une brûlure, il est aussi fondamental d'éstimer l'extension de la surface corporelle et la profondeur de l'épiderme, et éventuellement du derme, atteints. Les patients gravement brûlés doivent être hospitalisés dans des Centres Spécialisés où des équipes multispécialistes les suivent de la phase initiale de la réanimation aux phases de chirurgie reconstructive et au processus de réhabilitation. Ces dernières phases peuvent se prolonger pendant les deux années suivant le traumatisme avant qu'une réintégration dans une vie sociale acceptable ne puisse être faite.

  2. The (p, ρ, T) properties and apparent molar volumes Vφ of (ZnBr2 + C2H5OH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The (p, ρ, T) properties and apparent molar volumes Vφ of ZnBr2 in ethanol at temperatures (293.15 to 393.15) K and pressures up to p = 40 MPa are reported. The measurements were made with a recently developed vibration-tube densimeter. The system was calibrated using double-distilled water, methanol, ethanol, and aqueous NaCl solutions. The experiments were carried out at molalities of m = (0.05681, 0.16958, 0.30426, 0.43835, 0.93055, 1.49016, and 1.88723) mol . kg-1 using zinc bromide. An empirical correlation for the density of (ZnBr2 + C2H5OH) with pressure, temperature, and molality has been derived. This equation of state was used to calculate other volumetric properties such as isothermal compressibility, isobaric thermal expansibility, the differences in specific heat capacities at constant pressures and volumes, apparent molar volumes of ZnBr2 in ethanol, and partial molar volumes of both components.

  3. "Brücke dreht sich um!". A Deconstructionist Reading of Kafka's "Die Brücke"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Hoffmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Franz Kafka's (1883-1924 "Die Brücke" is one of the less well-known texts by one of the most prolific authors of literary modernity. However, this short prose text embodies prevalent questions of literary modernity and philosophy as it reflects the crisis of language in regard of identity, communication, and literary production. Placed in the context of fin-de-siècle's discourse of language crisis, this article provides a dialogue between Kafka's "Die Brücke" and Hannah Arendt's (1906-1975 philosophy of thinking and speaking in The Life of the Mind. Contrary to Arendt's understanding of the metaphor as "a carrying over" between the mental activities of the solitude thinker and a reconciliation with the pluralistic world shared with others, this article argues for a deconstructionist reading of "Die Brücke" as a tool to reevaluate Arendt's notion of a shared human experience ensured through language and illustrates the advantages of poetic texts within philosophical discourses.

  4. Improved Growth Methods for LaBr3 Scintillation Radiation Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, Douglas S

    2011-05-01

    The objective is to develop advanced materials for deployment as high-resolution gamma ray detectors. Both LaBr3 and CeBr3 are advanced scintillation materials, and will be studied in this research. Prototype devices, in collaboration Sandia National Laboratories, will be demonstrated along with recommendations for mass production and deployment. It is anticipated that improved methods of crystal growth will yield larger single crystals of LaBr3 for deployable room-temperature operated gamma radiation spectrometers. The growth methods will be characterized. The LaBr3 and CeBr3 scintillation crystals will be characterized for light yield, spectral resolution, and for hardness.

  5. Improved Growth Methods for LaBr3 Scintillation Radiation Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective is to develop advanced materials for deployment as high-resolution gamma ray detectors. Both LaBr3 and CeBr3 are advanced scintillation materials, and will be studied in this research. Prototype devices, in collaboration Sandia National Laboratories, will be demonstrated along with recommendations for mass production and deployment. It is anticipated that improved methods of crystal growth will yield larger single crystals of LaBr3 for deployable room-temperature operated gamma radiation spectrometers. The growth methods will be characterized. The LaBr3 and CeBr3 scintillation crystals will be characterized for light yield, spectral resolution, and for hardness.

  6. Molecular elimination of Br{sub 2} in photodissociation of CH{sub 2}BrC(O)Br at 248 nm using cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan He; Tsai, Po-Yu; Lin, King-Chuen [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan and Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lin, Cheng-Wei; Yan, Chi-Yu; Yang, Shu-Wei; Chang, A. H. H. [Department of Chemistry, National Dong Hwa University, Shoufeng, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-07

    The primary elimination channel of bromine molecule in one-photon dissociation of CH{sub 2}BrC(O)Br at 248 nm is investigated using cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy. By means of spectral simulation, the ratio of nascent vibrational population in v = 0, 1, and 2 levels is evaluated to be 1:(0.5 {+-} 0.1):(0.2 {+-} 0.1), corresponding to a Boltzmann vibrational temperature of 581 {+-} 45 K. The quantum yield of the ground state Br{sub 2} elimination reaction is determined to be 0.24 {+-} 0.08. With the aid of ab initio potential energy calculations, the obtained Br{sub 2} fragments are anticipated to dissociate on the electronic ground state, yielding vibrationally hot Br{sub 2} products. The temperature-dependence measurements support the proposed pathway via internal conversion. For comparison, the Br{sub 2} yields are obtained analogously from CH{sub 3}CHBrC(O)Br and (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CBrC(O)Br to be 0.03 and 0.06, respectively. The trend of Br{sub 2} yields among the three compounds is consistent with the branching ratio evaluation by Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus method. However, the latter result for each molecule is smaller by an order of magnitude than the yield findings. A non-statistical pathway so-called roaming process might be an alternative to the Br{sub 2} production, and its contribution might account for the underestimate of the branching ratio calculations.

  7. Halogen (F, Cl, Br, I) behaviour in subducting slabs: A study of lawsonite blueschists in western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagé, Lilianne; Hattori, Keiko; de Hoog, Jan C. M.; Okay, Aral I.

    2016-05-01

    We examined the F, Cl, Br and I abundance of minimally retrogressed lawsonite blueschists from the Tavsanli Zone in northwest Turkey to evaluate the behaviour of halogens in subduction zones, and to determine the role coexisting high pressure minerals may play in transporting the halogens to the Earth's mantle. The blueschists contain sodic amphibole and lawsonite, with variable amounts of phengite and chlorite, and minor apatite. A positive correlation between Cl, Br and I contents in bulk rocks suggests their overall coherent behaviour in subduction zones, although high ratios of I/Cl and Br/Cl compared to altered oceanic crust indicate that Cl is preferentially lost relative to Br and I before or during blueschist metamorphism. Iodine and F are enriched relative to altered oceanic crust, suggesting incorporation from marine sediments. In situ analyses of minerals in thin sections reveal F preferentially concentrates in apatite (avg. 3.13 wt%), over phengite (482 ppm), lawsonite (avg. 413 ppm) and Na-amphibole (257 ppm). Chlorine also preferentially resides in apatite (138 ppm), followed by equal partitioning between phengite (59 ppm) and Na-amphibole (56 ppm), and lower concentrations in lawsonite (27 ppm). Upon apatite decomposition at a depth of ∼200 km, F may redistribute into lawsonite and phengite in slabs, whilst Cl is likely expelled to the overlying mantle wedge. Given the stability of lawsonite and phengite to a depth of 280-300 km in cold subduction zones, they may transport F beyond subarc depths, contributing to the high F in magmas derived from the deep mantle.

  8. Theoretical investigation of structural properties of CuCl, CuBr and CuI compounds under hydrostatic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louhibi-Fasla, S.; Djabri, H. Rekab; Achour, H. [Laboratoire de Micro et de Nanophysique LaMiN - ENP d' ORAN, BP 1523, El M' Naouer, 31000 (Algeria); Kefif, K. [Laboratoire de Physique des Couches Minces et Matériaux pour l' Electronique, Université d' ORAN, Es-senia (Algeria)

    2013-12-16

    We have applied a recent version of the full potential linear muffin-tin orbitals method (FPLMTO) to study the structural properties of copper halides CuX (X=Cl, Br, I) under high pressure using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the exchange and correlation potential by Perdew et al. Results are given for lattice parameters, bulk modulus and its first derivatives in the wurtzite(B4), zinc-blende (B3), CsCl (B2), rock-salt (B1), and PbO (B10) structures. The results of these calculations are compared with the available theoretical and experimental data.

  9. Biological Sources of Branched Glycerol Dialkyl Glycerol Tetraethers (brGDGTs) in Terrestrial Hot Springs: A Possible Link Between Nitrogen-cycling Bacteria and brGDGT Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. X.; Xie, W.; Boyd, E. S.; Hedlund, B. P.; Zhang, C.

    2014-12-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are common in peat, soil, lakes, rivers and hot springs. To seek the potential biological sources of brGDGTs in geothermal environments, we investigated 65 hot springs in the Yellowstone National Park (USA) and Tengchong (China). Together with previously published data from hot springs in the Great Basin (USA) and Tibet (China), we found that the abundance of brGDGTs tended to peak in springs with pH > 8. This contrasts with previous observations indicating an abundance of brGDGTs in acidic soils and peat bogs, suggesting a different biological source and function for lipids in these environments. In support of this hypothesis, a comparison of Cyclization ratios of Branched Tetraethers (CBT) between hot springs and surrounding soils indicated that more brGDGTs with cyclopentane moieties were produced in alkaline hot springs than in nearby low-temperature soils. Since Acidobacteria (the likely source of brGDGTs in peat bog environments) tend to have low CBT ratios, these data suggest a different source for brGDGTs in hot spring environments. RDA and regression analysis integrating brGDGT compounds and nitrogen species indicate that Bacteria involved in the nitrogen biogeochemical cycle (ammonia oxidation and nitrite reduction) may be related to the production of brGDGTs in terrestrial hot springs. However, direct evidence showing the link between nitrogen-cycling bacteria and brGDGT production has yet to be demonstrated under laboratory conditions. Nevertheless, our study expands the possibility of brGDGT sources into bacterial communities in terrestrial geothermal systems where Acidobacteria are absent or only a minor component.

  10. Financial Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigan, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary derivatives mark the development of capital and constitute a novel form of ownership. By reconfiguring the temporal, spatial and legal character of ownership derivatives present a substantive challenge to the tax collecting state. While fiscal systems are nationally bounded and inheren...

  11. Effect of crystal transformation on 80Br retention in cadmium bromate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both the hydrated and anhydrous forms of cadmium bromate yield 15, 18 and 20 +- 1% initial retention of 80Br, sup(80m)Br and 82Br respectively. On heating at 1250C for 1 h the 80Br retention remains lower by approx. 20% than the identical values (approx. 50%) for sup(80m)Br and 82Br isotopes. The rate and the extent of annealing of the 80Br species during heat and radiation treatments are greater in the hydrated form and are further enhanced when structural rearrangement occurs following dehydration at 1250C. The associated activation energy is 0.09 eV below this temperature while it is 0.40 eV above, the latter value being identical with the activation energy for the dehydration process. (orig.)

  12. Lattice potential energy and standard molar enthalpy in the formation of 1-dodecylamine hydrobromide(1-C12H25NH3·Br)(s)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yu-Pu; Di You-Ying; Dan Wen-Yan; He Dong-Hua; Kong Yu-Xia; Yang Wei-Wei

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports that 1-dodecylamine hydrobromide (1-C12H25NH3·Br)(s) has been synthesized using the liquid phase reaction method. The lattice potential energy of the compound 1-C12H25NH3·Br and the ionic volume and radius of the 1-C12H25NH3+ cation are obtained from the crystallographic data and other auxiliary ther-modynamic data. The constant-volume energy of combustion of 1-C12H25NH3·Br(s) is measured to be △cUm°(1-C12H25NH3·Br, s) =-(7369.03±3.28) kJ·mol-1 by means of an RBC-Ⅱ precision rotating-bomb combustion calorimeter at T=(298.15±0.001) K. The standard molar enthalpy of combustion of the compound is derived to be △cHm°(1-C12H25NH3·Br, s)=-(7384.52±3.28) kJ·mol-1 from the constant-volume energy of combustion. The standard molar enthalpy of formation of the compound is calculated to be △fHm°(1-C12H25NH3·Br, s)=-(1317.86±3.67) kJ·mol-1 from the standard molar enthalpy of combustion of the title compound and other auxiliary thermodynamic quantities through a thermochemical cycle.

  13. SO2 and BrO observation in the plume of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano 2010: CARIBIC and GOME-2 retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. J. van Velthoven

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The ash cloud of the Eyjafjallajökull (also referred to as: Eyjafjalla (e.g. Schumann et al., 2011, Eyjafjöll or Eyjafjoll (e.g. Ansmann et al., 2010 volcano on Iceland caused closure of large parts of European airspace in April and May 2010. For the validation and improvement of the European volcanic ash forecast models several research flights were performed. Also the CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container flying laboratory, which routinely measures at cruise altitude (≈11 km performed three dedicated measurements flights through sections of the ash plume. Although the focus of these flights was on the detection and quantification of the volcanic ash, we report here on sulphur dioxide (SO2 and bromine monoxide (BrO measurements with the CARIBIC DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy instrument during the second of these special flights on 16 May 2010. As the BrO and the SO2 observations coincide, we assume the BrO to have been formed inside the volcanic plume. Average SO2 and BrO mixing ratios of ≈40 ppb and ≈5 ppt respectively are retrieved inside the plume. The BrO to SO2 ratio retrieved from the CARIBIC observation is ≈1.3×10−4. Both SO2 and BrO observations agree well with simultaneous satellite (GOME-2 observations. SO2 column densities retrieved from satellite observations are often used as an indicator for volcanic ash. As the CARIBIC O4 column densities changed rapidly during the plume observation, we conclude that the aerosol and the SO2 plume are collocated. For SO2 some additional information on the local distribution can be derived from a comparison of forward and back scan GOME-2 data. More details on the local plume size and position are retrieved by combining CARIBIC and GOME-2 data.

  14. X-ray transitions in Br XXIV-XXVIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transitions in the wavelength region 4.9-8.1 A from Br , , , , and have been identified in spectra from laser-produced plasmas. The identifications were made using ab initio calculations of wavelengths and oscillator strengths. Spatially resolved spectra were recorded for laser irradiation intensities from 3 x 10/sup 13/ to 4 x 10/sup 14/ W/cm2. The dependence of the spectral lines on the distance from the target and on the irradiation intensity was very useful in distinguishing the transitions from different ionization stages

  15. Brüssel enne Moskvat / Markus Meckel, Matthias Wissmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meckel, Markus

    2005-01-01

    Saksa liiduparlamendi sotsiaaldemokraatide fraktsiooni liikme Markus Meckeli ja Saksa liiduparlamendi Euroopa komisjoni esimehe Matthias Wissmanni avaldus, milles nad kutsuvad tunnistama Balti riikide ajalugu ja korraldama päev enne Moskvas toimuvat Teise maailmasõja lõppu tähistavat üritust Brüsselis sõja lõpu 60. aastapäeva mälestusürituse. Artikkel ilmus samaaegselt ajalehtedes International Herald Tribune, Die Welt, Die Presse, Le Figaro, Gazeta Wyborcza, Lietuvas rytas, Diena

  16. Planetary3br: Three massive body resonance calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Tabaré

    2016-07-01

    Given two planets P1 and P2 with arbitrary orbits, planetary3br calculates all possible semimajor axes that a third planet P0 can have in order for the system to be in a three body resonance; these are identified by the combination k0*P0 + k1*P1 + k2*P2. P1 and P2 are assumed to be not in an exact two-body resonance. The program also calculates three "strengths" of the resonance, one for each planet, which are only indicators of the dynamical relevance of the resonance on each planet. Sample input data are available along with the Fortran77 source code.

  17. Refurbishment of BR2 (Phases 4 and 5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P.; Dekeyser, J.; Van Der Auwera, J

    1998-07-01

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. In phase 4 of the refurbishment programme, various activities were performed to allow reactor start-up. In phase 5, remaining refurbishment works were carried out as well as the extra studies and upgradings required by the licensing authorities. Major achievements in 1997 are described and discussed.

  18. PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF CHLOROPHYTUM LAXUM R. BR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Vishal Narayan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophytum laxum R. Br. belongs to family Liliaceae and is being used in the indigenous systems of medicine as a galactogogue and aphrodisiac. It is being sold in the market under the common name “safed musali”. The white tuberous roots of this plant are the medicinally useful parts. The tuberous roots of other species of Chlorophytum, Asparagus, Bombax and Orchids are also sometimes called safed musali leading to confusion. In order to ensure correct botanical standardization, the detailed pharmacognostic study on tuberous roots of Chlorophytum laxum has been carried out in this study.

  19. Adidas Suomi Oy: Brändikuvan rakentaminen markkinoinnin keinoin

    OpenAIRE

    Leinonen, Miira

    2015-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö tehtiin toimeksiantona Adidas Suomi Oy:lle syksyllä 2014. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää muotialan mielipidevaikuttajien mielikuvat Adidaksesta ja sen merkittävimmistä kilpailijoista. Vertailtaviksi brändeiksi valittiin kuusi tärkeintä kilpailijaa, jotka ovat Converse, Karhu, New Balance, Nike, Puma ja Reebok. Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantaja Adidas Suomi Oy on osa kansainvälistä Adidas Group konsernia. Yritys on yksi maailman tunnetuimmista urheilumerkeistä ja toim...

  20. Competing C-Br and O-NO Photofission upon Excitation of BrCH2CH2ONO at 193 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Scrape, Preston G; Roberts, Trevor D; Joshi, Prakriti P; Butler, Laurie J

    2015-12-17

    This study characterizes two of the primary photodissociation channels of 2-bromoethyl nitrite, BrCH2CH2ONO, at 193 nm and the subsequent unimolecular dissociation channels of the nascent vibrationally excited BrCH2CH2O radicals produced from the O-NO bond photofission. We use a crossed laser-molecular beam scattering apparatus with electron bombardment detection. Upon photodissociation of BrCH2CH2ONO at 193 nm, the measured branching ratio between primary O-NO photofission and C-Br photofission is 3.9:1 (O-NO/C-Br). The measured O-NO photofission recoil kinetic energy distribution (P(ET)) peaks near 30 kcal/mol and extends from 20 to 50 kcal/mol. We use the O-NO photofission P(ET) to characterize the internal energy distribution in the nascent ground-electronic-state BrCH2CH2O radicals. At 193 nm, all of the BrCH2CH2O radicals are formed with enough internal energy to unimolecularly dissociate to CH2Br + H2CO or to BrCH2CHO + H. We also investigated the possibility of the BrCH2CH2O → CH2CHO + HBr reaction arising from the vibrationally excited BrCH2CH2O radicals produced from O-NO primary photodissociation. Signal strengths at HBr(+), however, demonstrate that the vinoxy product does not have HBr as a cofragment, so the BrCH2CH2O → HBr + vinoxy channel is negligible compared to the CH2Br + H2CO channel. We also report our computational prediction of the unimolecular dissociation channels of the vibrational excited CH2CH2ONO radical resulting from C-Br bond photofission. Our theoretical calculations on the ground-state CH2CH2ONO potential energy surface at the G4//B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,2p) level of theory give the energetics of the zero-point corrected minima and transition states. The lowest accessible barrier height for the unimolecular dissociation of CH2CH2ONO is a 12.7 kcal/mol barrier from the cis-ONO conformer, yielding NO2 + ethene. Our measured internal energy distribution of the nascent CH2CH2ONO radicals together with this computational result suggests

  1. Nitrosyl bromo complexes of rhenium: Re(NO)2Br3 and [Re(NO)2Br4]-; crystal structure of PPh4[Re(NO)2Br4] . 2 CCl4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PPh4[Re(NO)2Br4] is prepared in the form of dark red-brown powder by the reaction of PPh4[Re(NO)2Cl4] with excess boron tribromide. From a solution of CH2Br2 and CCl4 it crystallizes with two moles CCl4, one of which splits off easily in vacuo. The reaction of aluminium tribromide in CH2Br2 solution leads to a slightly soluble red-brown Re(NO)2Br3 powder. The i.r. spectra indicate cis positions of the covalently bound NO ligands in both complexes. Re(NO)2Br3 is dimeric via bromo bridges. The crystal structure determination of PPh4[Re(NO)2Br4] . 2 CCl4 was solved by X-ray diffraction methods at -115 0C. The complex crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with four formula units per unit cell (4434 independent reflexions, R = 0.085). The unit cell dimensions are a = 1092.3 pm, b = 2088.0 pm, c = 1657.6 pm, β = 96.100. The structure consists of P(C6H5)4+ cations, [Re(NO)2Br4]- anions and intercalated CCl4 molecules. In the anion the NO groups are covalently bound to the Re atom like Re-=N+=O and they are arranged in cis position to one another. (author)

  2. Dynamics of endoergic substitution reactions. II. Br+/C2H2Cl2/→Cl+/C2H2ClBr/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have extended the crossed beams studies described in the preceding paper to the reactions of Br atoms with 1,1- and trans-dichloroethylene. The shapes of the product translational energy distributions and excitation functions for both reactions support our previous conclusion that Cl elimination from Br--R--Cl collision complexes can compete with Br elimination only in the limit that few vibrational modes of the complex are active in energy redistribution. The substitution cross section for the Br+CH2CCl2 reaction is considerably lower than that for the Br+trans-CHClCHCl reaction in the collision energy range 15--25 kcal/mol, suggesting that steric effects play a dominant role in determining the relative magnitudes of the cross sections

  3. Identification of the transition arrays 3d74s-3d74p in Br X and 3d64s-3d64p in Br XI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a beam-foil study of multiply ionized bromine in the region 400-1300A, performed with 6 and 8 MeV Br ions from a tandem accelerator. At these energies transitions belonging to Fe-like Br X and Mn-like Br XI are expected to be prominent. We have identified 31 lines as 3d74s-3d74p transitions in Br X, from which 16 levels of the previously unknown 3d74s configuration could be established. We have also added 6 new 3d74p levels to the 99 previously known. For Br XI we have classified 9 lines as 3d64s-3d64p combinations. The line identifications have been corroborated by isoelectronic comparisons and theoretical calculations using the superposition-of-configurations technique. (orig.)

  4. Modeling of Artificial Neural Network for Predicting Specific Heat capacity of working fluid LiBr-H2O used in Vapor Absorption Refrigeration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheerendra Vikram Singh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to model an artificial neural network (ANN to predict the value of specific heat capacity of working fluid LiBr-H2O used in vapour absorption refrigeration systems. A feed forward back propagation algorithm is used for the network, which is most popular for ANN. The consistence between experimental and ANN’s approach result was achieved by a mean relative error -0.00573, sum of the squares due to error0.00321, coefficient of multiple determination R-square 0.99961and root mean square error 0.01573 for test data. These results had been achieved in Matlab environment and the use of derived equations in any programmable language for deriving the specific heat capacity of LiBr-H2O solution.

  5. Drastic changes in the distribution of branched tetraether lipids in suspended matter and sediments from the Yenisei River and Kara Sea (Siberia): Implications for the use of brGDGT-based proxies in coastal marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jonge, Cindy; Stadnitskaia, Alina; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Cherkashov, Georgy; Fedotov, Andrey; Streletskaya, Irina D.; Vasiliev, Alexander A.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2015-09-01

    -dominated signal, indicating potential for palaeoclimate reconstructions at this site. Both in the river system and coastal cliffs, brGDGTs were much more abundant than crenarchaeol, an archaeal isoprenoid GDGT, resulting in high (>0.93) Branched and Isoprenoid Tetraether (BIT) index values. Moving downstream in the marine sediments, a decrease in brGDGT concentrations, coeval with an increase in crenarchaeol, resulted in decreasing BIT index values. This decrease correlates with changes in bulk proxies for terrigenous input (δ13Corg, C/N), confirming the use of the BIT index to trace the delivery of river-transported and coastal cliff-derived terrigenous organic matter.

  6. Derivative Chameleons

    CERN Document Server

    Noller, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field \\phi, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants. Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(\\phi,X), where X is the canonical kinetic term for \\phi. The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for \\phi. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning...

  7. Financial derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Gray and Joanna Place

    2006-01-01

    Derivatives, ranging from relatively simple forward contracts to complicated options products, are an increasingly important feature of financial markets worldwide. They are already being used in many emerging markets, and as the financial sector becomes deeper and more stable, their use is certain to grow. This Handbook provides a basic guide to the different types of derivatives traded, including the pricing and valuation of the products, and accounting and statistical treatment. Also, it a...

  8. Large BR( h → τ μ) in the MSSM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloni, Daniel; Nir, Yosef; Stamou, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    We study how large the rate of the lepton-flavor violating Higgs decay h → τ μ can be in the (R-parity conserving) MSSM. We make no assumptions, such as universality or alignment, about the flavor structure of the MSSM. We only assume that all couplings and, in particular, the trilinear scalar ones, are perturbative. We take into account lower bounds on the bino and slepton masses from τ → μγ and h → γγ as well as upper bounds on the trilinear scalar couplings from the requirement that the global minimum is not charge breaking. We find that in highly fine-tuned regions of parameter space, the ratio BR( h → τ μ) /BR( h → τ τ ) can be enhanced by about three orders of magnitude above the estimate from naive dimensional analysis, but still about two orders of magnitude below the present bound. Thus, if h → τ μ is experimentally established to be close to present bounds, the MSSM will be excluded.

  9. BR2: The first year of operation after refurbishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BR2 reactor has resumed operation in April 97 after an extensive refurbishment shutdown, which lasted for nearly two years. The yearly operation is presently limited to major cycles of 21 efpd, plus some short cycles for special programmes. The reactor is mainly used for irradiations in the framework of the following programs: qualification of MOX fuel at high burn-up, the PWR vessel surveillance program and associated modelling activities, the IASCC program focused on PVVR vessel intervals. The major irradiation device is the CALLISTO loop, simulating PWR conditions and comprising three in-pile sections. Additionally production activities are carried out: radio-isotopes and silicon doping. Irradiations for the surveillance programmes of beryllium and aluminum are underway; they concerns unirradiated and preirradiated samples, with various lead factors. Several refurbishment actions are still continuing, mainly: - continuation of the renewal of the process instrumentation, - extension of the BR2 DAS, - follow-up of the seismic qualification study, - follow-up of the PSA study: some detailed studies on supporting systems. A formalised training programme for the reactor operators has been launched. Special attention is given to the new reactor control desk and the emergency control panel outside of the containment building. A solution for the evacuation of the spent fuel has been adopted and is being implemented: reprocessing in La Hague

  10. Equilibrium reconstruction in the TCA/Br tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accurate and rapid determination of the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium configuration in tokamaks is a subject for the magnetic confinement of the plasma. With the knowledge of characteristic plasma MHD equilibrium parameters it is possible to control the plasma position during its formation using feed-back techniques. It is also necessary an on-line analysis between successive discharges to program external parameters for the subsequent discharges. In this work it is investigated the MHD equilibrium configuration reconstruction of the TCA/BR tokamak from external magnetic measurements, using a method that is able to fast determine the main parameters of discharge. The thesis has two parts. Firstly it is presented the development of an equilibrium code that solves de Grad-Shafranov equation for the TCA/BR tokamak geometry. Secondly it is presented the MHD equilibrium reconstruction process from external magnetic field and flux measurements using the Function Parametrization FP method. this method. This method is based on the statistical analysis of a database of simulated equilibrium configurations, with the goal of obtaining a simple relationship between the parameters that characterize the equilibrium and the measurements. The results from FP are compared with conventional methods. (author)

  11. Pan-Balti bränding - müüt või tegelikkus? / Joel Volkov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Volkov, Joel, 1972-

    2006-01-01

    Brändil pole kodumaad, on keel ja päritolumaa. Lokaalsed brändid valivad suhtlemiseks kohalikega nende kodukeele, globaalsed brändid harilikult inglise keele. Üks suuremaid ja tugevamaid lokaalsest süsteemist kasvanud Pan-Balti brände on Hansapank. Lisa: Sulev Vedler. Hansast võib saada Swedbank

  12. Evaluation of 3-[123I]iodomethylphenidate and 3-[76Br]bromomethylphenidate as potential tracers for the study of the dopamine transporter using SPECT and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The psychomotor stimulant methyl phenidate (MP) and several derivatives have demonstrated high affinity binding site on the dopamine transporter (DAT). Here we report the pharmacological evaluation of 3-[123I] iodomethylphenidate (123IMP) and 3-[76Br]bromomethylphenidate (76BrMP). In vivo biodistribution of 123IMP in rats sacrificed after CO2 administration and cervical fracture, indicated a STR/CB ratio of 2.4 at 30 min p.i. Pretreatment of the rats with MP, WIN 35,428 and GBR 12909 reduced the STR/CB ratio to unity. In vitro autoradiographic studies on rat brain slices showed that the active enantiomer of 76BrMP bound specifically to striatal tissue. Administration of GBR 12909 blocked the uptake of activity in the striatum. In vivo biodistribution of 76BrMP in rats indicated high accumulation of the activity in the striatum with a STR/CB ratio of 5.5 at 120 min p.i. Administration of 76BrMP in Papio-Papio baboon initially anesthetized with an intramuscular injection of ketamine hydrochlonde (10 mg/Kg), and examination by PET indicated an high accumulation of radioactivity in the striatum with rapid washout in other non-dopaminergic tissue. These results indicate that the active enantiomers of 123IMP and of 76BrMP have the potential for further development as SPECT and PET tracers for the diagnosis and study of neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright (1998) Australian Neuroscience Society

  13. Studies on a new case of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP3BR) from complementation group G with cellular sensitivity to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    XP3BR is a fibroblast strain derived from a xeroderma pigmentosum patient exhibiting severe mental retardation in addition to the typical changes in the skin. No tumours have been observed by 6 years of age. Cells from this patient had no detectable excision repair of u.v. damage. The defect in daughter strand repair was also characteristic of excision-defective XP7s. The material was assigned to complementation group G and is the second (unrelated) example from this group. XP3BR cells were more sensitive than normal cells to the lethal action not only of u.v. but also of gamma irradiation, in contrast to all other XP cells tested to date including XP2BI, the other representative of complementation group G. The u.v. sensitivity was similar to that of strains from complementation groups A and D, confirming the correlation between extreme u.v. sensitivity and the presence of neurological defects. Following treatment with u.v., XP3BR, and other XP's gave more 6-thioguanine resistant mutants than normal cells whether the comparison was made per unit of dose or per lethal event. After low doses of gamma irradiation XP3BR cells were more mutable than normal or XP2BI cells. (author)

  14. Comparative study of α and β-ThBr4: structure and luminescence. Spectroscopy of U4+ in α-ThBr4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UV absorption of β-ThBr4: presents a plain absorption front and for the same temperature the threshold energy has the same value than the threshold energy of excitation function and photocurrent peak. Emission intensity and lifetime decrease when temperature increases from 300 K to 400K (extinction temperature). Results are interpreted either by molecular orbital levels of the ThBr84- cluster or either by conduction and valence bands of the matrix above. Absorption and emission spectra of U4+ in α-ThBr4 (where U4+ has a S4 symmetry) between 300 K and 4.2 K allow indexation of 30 levels. Spectroscopic parameters are calculated in D2d and S4 symmetry. Comparison of these parameters with those of U4+ in β-ThBr4 and β-ThCl4 shows that crystal field force is practically the same in the three matrices but the structure transformation from β to α has more influence on Bqk than ligand change from Br- to Cl-. Owing to very low phonon energy, fluorescence spectra of U4+ is easy to observe in α-ThBr4 as it is in β-ThBr4 and ThCl4

  15. Separation and characterization of a radioresistant bacterium strain BR501 from radiation polluted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strain BR501, an extremely radioresistant bacterium isolated from the radioactive experimental soil. The optimal temperature for the growth of strain BR501 was 30 degree C. The UV radiation and γ-radiation survival curves showed the strain BR501 had highly radio-resistance. The strain was sensitive to Amp, Km, Rif, Cm and Tc. The 16S rDNA of the BR501 shared highly similarity to those of species in genus Deinococcus, especially to that of D.radiodurans r1(99%). Based on the 16S rDNA sequence analysis and the phenotype characteristics, the BR501 belongs to the evolution branch of Deinococcus and was designated Deinococcus sp. BR501. (authors)

  16. Nuclear-spectroscopic measurements related to the design of 79Br, 81Br, and 87Rb solar-neutrino detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectroscopic properties for low-lying states in 79Kr, 81Kr, and 87Sr were studied using the 78Kr(dvector,p)79Kr, 80Kr(dvector,p)81Kr, and 86Sr(dvector,p)87Sr reactions initiated by 11 MeV purely vector-polarized deuteron beams at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. A Distorted-Wave Born Approximation analysis of the resulting angular distributions of cross section and vector analyzing power enabled the assignment of spin-parity and extraction of neutron spectroscopic factors for 48 nuclear states. A technique for preparation of thin targets using ion implantation was developed as a means to improve spectrum resolution by reducing projectile straggling in the entrance and exit foils of gas cell targets. The neutrino capture process, sigma + (Z,A) → (Z + 1,A) + e-, is equivalent to inverse beta decay. In order to interpret the results of a solar neutrino experiment using 79Br, 81Br, or 87Rb, low-lying states in the daughter nuclei, 79Kr, 81Kr, and 87Sr, must be studied. In particular, the states in the daughter nuclei that have appropriate spin-parity to be populated by allowed inverse beta decay must be identified

  17. Electricity derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, René

    2015-01-01

    Offering a concise but complete survey of the common features of the microstructure of electricity markets, this book describes the state of the art in the different proposed electricity price models for pricing derivatives and in the numerical methods used to price and hedge the most prominent derivatives in electricity markets, namely power plants and swings. The mathematical content of the book has intentionally been made light in order to concentrate on the main subject matter, avoiding fastidious computations. Wherever possible, the models are illustrated by diagrams. The book should allow prospective researchers in the field of electricity derivatives to focus on the actual difficulties associated with the subject. It should also offer a brief but exhaustive overview of the latest techniques used by financial engineers in energy utilities and energy trading desks.

  18. BR-Explorer: An FCA-based algorithm for Information Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Messai, Nizar; Devignes, Marie-Dominique; Napoli, Amedeo; Smaïl-Tabbone, Malika

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present BR-Explorer, an FCA-based algorithm that addresses the problem of retrieving the relevant objects for a given query. Initially, a formal context representing the relation between a set of objects and the corresponding set of attributes is given, and the associated concept lattice is built. BR-Explorer starts by generating a formal concept representing the considered query, and classifies this query concept in the concept lattice. Then, BR-Explorer tries to locate the ...

  19. The BR1 research facilities to calibrate fuzzy logic technology for nuclear reactor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last three decades SCK-CEN has participated in various international programmes using the BR1 (Belgian Reactor 1) facilities for various research and calibration purposes. The BR1 has proved to be an excellent for calibration and validation of techniques, integral nuclear data validation, activation analysis, characterisation of materials by neutron transmission, and physics experiments. Moreover, the knowledge, built up at BR1 has lead to the best calibration conditions for applying fuzzy logic control (FLC) for nuclear reactor control

  20. Effects of carbon black distribution on the electrical properties of Br/Epdm compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The correlations between mechanical and electrical properties of butadiene/ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (BR/EPDM) and the distribution of carbon black levels are studied. It was found that the BR phase in the blends, compared to the EPDM phase, is more preferential for the used type of carbon black, probably because the lower viscosity and lower polarity of the BR phase. Tensile strength increases with an increase of carbon black. Possible reasons for these results are discussed

  1. Babcock and Wilcox BR-100 100-ton rail/barge spent fuel shipping cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Preliminary Design Report (PDR) provides a detailed description of the design, analyses, and testing programs for the BR-100 cask. The BR-100 is a Type B(U) cask designed for transport by rail or barge. This report presents the preliminary analyses and tests which have been performed for the BR-100 and outlines the confirmatory analyses and tests which will be performed

  2. Babcock and Wilcox BR-100 100-ton rail/barge spent fuel shipping cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-02-01

    This Preliminary Design Report (PDR) provides a detailed description of the design, analyses, and testing programs for the BR-100 cask. The BR-100 is a Type B(U) cask designed for transport by rail or barge. This report presents the preliminary analyses and tests which have been performed for the BR-100 and outlines the confirmatory analyses and tests which will be performed.

  3. Solvent dependent branching between C-I and C-Br bond cleavage following 266 nm excitation of CH2BrI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that ultraviolet photoexcitation of halomethanes results in halogen-carbon bond cleavage. Each halogen-carbon bond has a dominant ultraviolet (UV) absorption that promotes an electron from a nonbonding halogen orbital (nX) to a carbon-halogen antibonding orbital (σ*C-X). UV absorption into specific transitions in the gas phase results primarily in selective cleavage of the corresponding carbon-halogen bond. In the present work, broadband ultrafast UV-visible transient absorption studies of CH2BrI reveal a more complex photochemistry in solution. Transient absorption spectra are reported spanning the range from 275 nm to 750 nm and 300 fs to 3 ns following excitation of CH2BrI at 266 nm in acetonitrile, 2-butanol, and cyclohexane. Channels involving formation of CH2Br + I radical pairs, iso-CH2Br-I, and iso-CH2I-Br are identified. The solvent environment has a significant influence on the branching ratios, and on the formation and stability of iso-CH2Br-I. Both iso-CH2Br-I and iso-CH2I-Br are observed in cyclohexane with a ratio of ∼2.8:1. In acetonitrile this ratio is 7:1 or larger. The observation of formation of iso-CH2I-Br photoproduct as well as iso-CH2Br-I following 266 nm excitation is a novel result that suggests complexity in the dissociation mechanism. We also report a solvent and concentration dependent lifetime of iso-CH2Br-I. At low concentrations the lifetime is >4 ns in acetonitrile, 1.9 ns in 2-butanol and ∼1.4 ns in cyclohexane. These lifetimes decrease with higher initial concentrations of CH2BrI. The concentration dependence highlights the role that intermolecular interactions can play in the quenching of unstable isomers of dihalomethanes

  4. Suostuttelevan markkinointiviestinnän metodit brändipersoonallisuuden luomiseksi Twitter-kontekstissa

    OpenAIRE

    Laitinen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Tutkielman tutkimusongelma on määritelty kolmen käsitteen kautta: markkinointiviestintä, brändipersoonallisuus ja suostuttelu. Tutkimusongelman ytimenä on brändin mahdollisuus hyödyntää suostuttelua markkinointiviestinnässään, luodakseen itsestään tarkoituksenmukaisen brändipersoonallisuuden. Tutkimusmenetelmänä on laadullinen sisällönanalyysi ja aineistona toimii kahdeksan kansainvälisen brändin Twitter-markkinointiviestintä. Suostuttelua tut-kitaan harkinnan todennäköisyyden teorian avulla ...

  5. Kuluttaja-asiakkaiden mielikuva Concept.10-brändistä

    OpenAIRE

    Väisänen, Janna-Mari

    2011-01-01

    Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on selvittää, millainen käsitys Concept.10:n kuluttaja-asiakkailla on brändin eri osa-alueista ja millaisia mielleyhtymiä brändin mainonta, nimi, tunnus ja slogan herättävät. Näillä tekijöillä on vaikutusta kokonaismielikuvan syntymiseen brändistä. Tutkimusongelmana on, millainen mielikuva kuluttaja-asiakkailla on Concept.10-brändistä. Concept.10 toimii yhteisenä markkinointinimenä Mikkelin Puhelin Oyj:n omistamille yhtiöille ja niiden palveluille. Teoreettisessa v...

  6. Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder BrO observations in the stratosphere

    OpenAIRE

    J. Kovalenko, L.; L. Livesey, N.; J. Salawitch, R.; Camy-Peyret, C.; P. Chipperfield, M.; E. Cofield, R.; Dorf, M.; J. Drouin, B.; L. Froidevaux; Fuller, R. A.; Goutail, Florence; F. Jarnot, R.; Jucks, K.; W. Knosp, B.; Lambert, A.

    2007-01-01

    Validation of stratospheric BrO vertical profiles obtained by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Aura satellite is discussed. MLS BrO measurements are compared with expectations of its latitudinal and seasonal dependence, as well as with more localized balloon-borne measurements of BrO. We describe the expected precision and systematic errors of the version 2.2 retrieval and show that scientific studies using MLS BrO vertical profiles require extensive averaging to increase the signal-to...

  7. CaBr{sub 2} hydrolysis for HBr production using a direct sparging contactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jianhong; Panchal, C.B.; Doctor, Richard D. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    The calcium-bromine cycle being investigated is a novel continuous hybrid cycle for hydrogen production employing both heat and electricity. Calcium bromide (CaBr{sub 2}) hydrolysis generates hydrogen bromide (HBr) which is electrolyzed to produce hydrogen. The CaBr{sub 2} hydrolysis at 1050 K (777 C) is endothermic with the heat of reaction {delta}G{sub T} = 181.5 KJ/mol (43.38 kcal/mol) and the Gibbs free energy change is positive at 99.6 kJ/mol (23.81 kcal/mol). What makes this hydrolysis reaction attractive is both its rate and that well over half the thermodynamic requirements for water-splitting heat of reaction of {delta}G{sub T} = 285.8 KJ/mol (68.32 kcal/mol) are supplied at this stage using heat rather than electricity. Molten-phase calcium bromide reactors may overcome the technical barriers associated with earlier hydrolysis approaches using supported solid-phase calcium bromide studied in the Japanese UT-3 cycle. Before constructing the experiment two design concepts were evaluated using COMSOL trademark multi-physics models; 1) the first involved sparging steam into a calcium-bromide melt, while 2) the second considered a ''spray-dryer'' contactor spraying molten calcium bromide counter-currently to upward-flowing steam. A recent paper describes this work. These studies indicated that sparging steam into a calcium-bromide melt is more feasible than spraying molten calcium bromide droplets into steam. Hence, an experimental sparging hydrolysis reactor using a mullite tube (ID 70 mm) was constructed capable of holding 0.3-0.5 kg (1.5-2.5 x 10{sup -3} kg mol) CaBr{sub 2} forming a melt with a maximum 0.08 m (8 cm) depth. Sparging steam at a steam rate of 0.02 mol/mol of CaBr{sub 2} per minute (1.2-2.3 x 10{sup -5} kg/s), into this molten bath promptly yielded HBr in a stable operation that converted up to 25% of the calcium bromide. The kinetic constant derived from the experimental data was 2.17 x 10{sup -12} kmol s{sup -1} m{sup -2

  8. 2014, l’année brésilienne

    OpenAIRE

    Dabène,Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Dilma Rousseff pourrait être élue personnalité de l’année 2014 en Amérique latine. La présidente du Brésil a réussi à organiser une Coupe du monde de football exemplaire, apportant un démenti cinglant aux oiseaux de mauvais augure qui ont accaparé les médias pendant des mois. Très impopulaire en début d’année, empêtrée dans un scandale de corruption et handicapée par une récession économique, elle est ensuite parvenue à offrir au Parti des travailleurs (PT) une quatrième victoire ...

  9. Collisional trap losses of cold, magnetically-trapped Br atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, J; Softley, T P

    2014-01-01

    Near-threshold photodissociation of Br$_2$ from a supersonic beam produces slow bromine atoms that are trapped in the magnetic field minimum formed between two opposing permanent magnets. Here, we quantify the dominant trap loss rate due to collisions with two sources of residual gas: the background limited by the vacuum chamber base pressure, and the carrier gas during the supersonic gas pulse. The loss rate due to collisions with residual Ar in the background follows pseudo first-order kinetics, and the bimolecular rate coefficient for collisional loss from the trap is determined by measurement of this rate as a function of the background Ar pressure. This rate coefficient is smaller than the total elastic collision rate coefficient, as it only samples those collisions that lead to trap loss, and is determined to be $\\langle\

  10. Kuluttajat brändisisältöjen parissa

    OpenAIRE

    Puolakka, Patricia; Sjöblom, Siiri

    2015-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aihe on sisältömarkkinoinnin purevuus. Sisältömarkkinointi on kovin laaja käsite, jonka vuoksi aihe rajattiin siihen, mitkä ominaisuudet tekevät sisältömarkkinoinnista tehokkaan ja minkälaiset sisällöt erottuvat miljoonien viestien seasta digitaalisessa ympäristössä. Tarkoituksena on ymmärtää, mitkä piirteet tekevät brändien sisältömarkkinoinnista niin tehokasta ja vetävää, että kuluttajat viettävät sen parissa aikaa sekä samalla rakentaa ymmärrystä kuluttajakäyttäytymises...

  11. Evaluation of theoretical conversion coefficients using BrIcc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new internal conversion coefficient database, BrIcc has been developed which integrates a number of tabulations on internal conversion electron (ICC) and electron-positron pair conversion coefficients (IPC), as well as Ω(E0) electronic factors. A critical review of general formulae and procedures to evaluate theoretical ICC and IPC values are presented, including the treatment of uncertainties in transition energy and mixing ratio in accordance with the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File. The default ICC table, based on the Dirac-Fock calculations using the so called 'Frozen Orbital' approximation, takes into account the effect of atomic vacancies created in the conversion process. The table has been calculated for all atomic shells and to cover transition energies of 1-6000 keV and atomic numbers of Z=5-110. The software tools presented here are well suited for basic nuclear structure research and for a range of applications

  12. ISO Observations of the dusty quasar BR1202-0725

    CERN Document Server

    Leech, K J; Metcalfe, L

    2001-01-01

    We present mid- and far-IR photometry of the high-redshift (z=4.69) dusty quasar BR1202-0725. The quasar was detected in the near-IR, at a flux level (0.7+/-0.2 mJy) consistent with an average Radio-Quiet Quasar at it's redshift. Only upper limits for the emission were obtained in the far-IR. These upper limits, when combined with data from ground-based telescopes, are the first direct evidence for a turn-over in the far-IR emission and hence confirm that a black-body dominates the SED at FIR wavelengths. This black-body is most probably cool dust, constrained to have a temperature below 80K, for a beta of 1.5.

  13. Estimering af brændstofforbrug vha. GPS Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Lahrmann, Harry; Torp, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Det er simpelt og billigt at opsamle GPS målinger fra køretøjer. Når større mængder GPS data indsamles fra et passende antal køretøjer kan dataen bruges til at beregne f.eks. køretider. Det er ligeledes muligt ud fra GPS data at estimere miljøindikatorer så som, hvor aggressivt kører bilister og er...... der nogle vejstrækninger, der har en højere (negativ) miljø påvirkning end andre? I denne artikel præsenterer et forsøg, hvor GPS data anvendes til at estimere brændstofforbruget ved en enkelt tur og for vejnettet generelt. Dette gøres ved at opbygge en database med GPS data. Ud fra disse data gives...

  14. Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of the Massive LMC Multiple Systems Sk-6718 (Br+.1667em5 and HD+.1667em36402 (Br+.1667em31

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Koenigsberger

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Reportamos los resultados de observaciones en el UV de dos sistemas binarios cercanos, ubicados en la Nube Mayor de Magallanes, Br 5 y Br 31. Detectamos variabilidad espectral en Br 31 producida por eclipses atmosféricos, así como variaciones en la velocidad radial de algunas de sus líneas, con el periodo de 3.033 días. El espectro UV de este sistema es consistente con la presencia de 3 estrellas calientes en el sistema. En contraste, no podemos confirmar la presencia de más de 2 estrellas calientes en el sistema Br 5, y la debilidad de Si IV 1400 contradice la presencia de una supergigante O-tardía o B-temprana. Detectamos variaciones de velocidad radial consistentes con el movimiento orbital de la componente O3 If*.

  15. Systematic hardness measurements on CsClBr(1–x) and NH4ClBr(1–x) mixed crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K G Subhadra; E Balaiah; D B Sirdeshmukh

    2002-02-01

    Vickers hardness measurements have been made on polycrystalline blanks of CsClBr(1–x) and single crystals of NH4ClBr(1–x). The composition dependence of hardness is highly nonlinear in both systems and follows an empirical model that includes a lattice contribution and a disorder contribution. The Gilman–Chin parameter (/44) has been calculated and its significance discussed.

  16. Kinetic study of thermal/radiation annealing and dehydration of nickel, bromate following 79Br(n,γ)80Br reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial retentions of 80Br,sup(80m)Br and 82Br following neutron activation with 252Cf source of Ni(BrO3)2.6H2O at 25deg C are 17,19 and 31 +- 1% respectively. Heat and radiation treatments yield higher 80Br recovery in the hydrated salt than in the anhydrous salt. At 110deg C 80Br retention rises suddenly to close on 100% in the hydrated salt while in the anhydrous salt it increases from 22 to 42%. In both the cases thermal annealing carried over the temperature range 25-110deg C follows first order kinetics and shows 77deg C as the threshold annealing temperature. The rate of annealing increases with the rate of dehydration. The annealing data yield 2.7 and 0.49 eV as the activation energy values for the hydrated and dehydrated forms respectively while isothermal dehydration data yield the value as 0.31 eV. A probable mechanism is suggested. (author)

  17. Synthesis and structure of [(NH2)2CSSC(NH2)2]2[OsBr6]Br2 . 3H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complex [(NH2)2CSSC(NH2)2]2[OsBr6]Br2 . 3H2O is synthesized by the reaction of K2OsBr6 with thiocarbamide in concentrated HBr and characterized using electronic absorption and IR absorption spectroscopy. Its crystal structure is determined by X-ray diffraction. The crystals are orthorhombic, a = 11.730(2) A, b = 14.052(3) A, c = 16.994(3) A, space group Cmcm, and Z = 4. The [OsBr6]2- anionic complex has an octahedral structure. The Os-Br distances fall in the range 2.483-2.490 A. The α,α'-dithiobisformamidinium cation is a product of the oxidation of thiocarbamide. The S-S and C-S distances are 2.016 and 1.784 A, respectively. The H2O molecules, Br-ions, and NH2 groups of the cation are linked by hydrogen bonds.

  18. Quantitative assessment of the multiplicity of carbon-halogen bonds: carbenium and halonium ions with F, Cl, Br, and I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalescky, Robert; Zou, Wenli; Kraka, Elfi; Cremer, Dieter

    2014-03-13

    CX (X = F, Cl, Br, I) and CE bonding (E = O, S, Se, Te) was investigated for a test set of 168 molecules using the local CX and CE stretching force constants k(a) calculated at the M06-2X/cc-pVTZ level of theory. The stretching force constants were used to derive a relative bond strength order (RBSO) parameter n. As alternative bond strength descriptors, bond dissociation energies (BDE) were calculated at the G3 level or at the two-component NESC (normalized elimination of the small component)/CCSD(T) level of theory for molecules with X = Br, I or E = Se, Te. RBSO values reveal that both bond lengths and BDE values are less useful when a quantification of the bond strength is needed. CX double bonds can be realized for Br- or I-substituted carbenium ions where as suitable reference the double bond of the corresponding formaldehyde homologue is used. A triple bond cannot be realized in this way as the diatomic CX(+) ions with a limited π-donor capacity for X are just double-bonded. The stability of halonium ions increases with the atomic number of X, which is reflected by a strengthening of the fractional (electron-deficient) CX bonds. An additional stability increase of up to 25 kcal/mol (X = I) is obtained when the X(+) ion can form a bridged halonium ion with ethene such that a more efficient 2-electron-3-center bonding situation is created. PMID:24555526

  19. Measurement and simulation of proton induced activation of LaBr3 : Ce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buis, E. J.; Beijers, H.; Brandenburg, S.; Bos, A. J. J.; Dathy, C.; Dorenbos, P.; Drozdowski, W.; Kraft, S.; Maddox, E.; Ostendorf, R. W.; Owens, A.; Quarati, F.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the suitability of LaBr3:Ce scintillators for space mission applications, proton induced activation of LaBr3 has been investigated. The crystals were irradiated using proton beams at several different energies to mimic the spectrum of a solar flare. We have measured the activation both int

  20. Synthesis of [6-36Cl]chlorouracil, [6-82Br]bromouracil and [6-123I]iodouracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three C-6 radiohalogenated uracil derivatives were prepared by non-isotopic halogen exchange reactions for evaluation as diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals. [6-36Cl]chlorouracil (radiochemical yield 77%, specific activity 5.66 MBq mmol-1) was prepared via calcium [36Cl]chloride exchange on 6-iodouracil, [6-82Br]bromouracil (27%, 68.4 MBq mmol-1) was prepared via ammonium [82Br]bromide exchange on 6-iodouracil and [6-123I]iodouracil (55.4%, 5.41 GBq mmol-1) was prepared via sodium [123I]iodide exchange on 6-chlorouracil. The specific activities and radiochemical yields were dependent upon the halide-ion concentration. (author)

  1. Brändin tunnettuus ja kehittäminen : Case: Ravintola.fi

    OpenAIRE

    Kailio, Armi; Rosvall, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena oli brändin tunnettuus ja kehittäminen. Näkökulmana tässä työssä oli Ravintola.fi-brändi, joka on Restamax Oyj:n kanta-asiakasjärjestelmä ja samalla yrityksen tarjoama brändi. Työn tavoitteena oli tutkia Ravintola.fi:n tämänhetkistä tunnettuutta Tampereen seudulla ja tutkimuksen pohjalta kehittää brändiä ja sen tunnettuutta. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli luoda työn toimeksiantajalle, Restamax Oyj:lle, kehittämisehdotuksia ja työkaluja brändinsä kehittämiseen. ...

  2. Brändi-identiteetti bändin tunnuksen suunnittelun perustana : Case: Skulduggery

    OpenAIRE

    Ylönen, Riina

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä perehdyttiin käsitteeseen brändi ja brändi-identiteetin määrittelyn merkitykseen brändin rakennusprosessissa osana kuopiolaisen, progressiivista rockia soittavan bändin tunnuksen suunnittelua. Työssä pohdittiin legendaarisen rock-bändin esimerkin kautta sitä, mitä brändiksi muodostuminen bändiltä vaatii sekä sitä, millaisia ominaispiirteitä progressiivista rockia soittavien bändien tunnuksissa on. Teoriaosuudessa ei käsitelty brändin tunnetuksi tekemiseen tähtäävää strategi...

  3. Jean-Philippe BELLEAU, Le mouvement indien au Brésil. Du village aux organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Fichet, Pascaline

    2015-01-01

    « Le mouvement indien au Brésil est un miracle », annonce l'accroche de la quatrième de couverture du dernier ouvrage de Jean-Philippe Belleau, Le mouvement indien au Brésil, Du village aux organisations. Depuis 1974, année de la première assemblée indigène brésilienne, les indiens du Brésil se sont progressivement constitués en acteurs modernes et éminents de l'espace politico-social national, à travers ce que l'auteur qualifiera de « mouvement indien » brésilien. Comment ces individus issus...

  4. Physical properties and failure behaviors of NR/BR blend compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, C.W. [Provincial College of Damyang, Damyang (Korea, Republic of); Jo, B.W. [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    Various physical properties including failure properties were investigated for carbon black-filled NR/BR (natural rubber/polybutadiene rubber) blends in terms of blend ratio. To see the effect of carbon black type, two different carbon blacks were also incorporated in the rubber blends. In the range of BR content below 40 phr (NR-rich range), the effect of BR content on the tensile strength and tack property of the green compounds was relatively small, but a considerable effect was observed in the range above 40 phr. Apparent cure rate of NR was higher than that of BR, NR vulcanizate was found to be much stronger than BR one in view of tensile strength, crack resistance, and fatigue resistance, however, it was rather inferior in view of abrasion resistance, cutting-chipping resistance, and resistance to heat. 26 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Three-dimensional intramolecular dynamics: Internal rotation of (CH3)3GeBr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microwave spectra of (CH3)374Ge79Br and its isotopologues (CH3)372Ge79Br and (CH3)374Ge81Br have been studied in the frequency range from 2.4-20 GHz revealing the complex internal dynamics of this organometallic molecule with three internal rotors. The assignment of the complex spectrum has been facilitated by permutation-inversion theory - the appropriate molecular symmetry group is G162. The V3 barrier to internal rotation is determined to be 4.783(12) kJ/mol. An analysis of the bromine quadrupole coupling yields the description of the Ge-Br and the Ge-C bonding characters. From this analysis we find that the bromine atom has a positive partial charge resulting from π-backbonding of the bromine towards germanium. From isotopic substitution, the Ge-Br bond distance could be determined to 2.34589(21) A

  6. Results for aliovalent doping of CeBr{sub 3} with Ca{sup 2+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guss, Paul, E-mail: gusspp@nv.doe.gov [Remote Sensing Laboratory – Nellis, P. O. Box 98521, Las Vegas, Nevada 89193-8521 (United States); Foster, Michael E.; Wong, Bryan M.; Patrick Doty, F. [Materials Chemistry Department, Sandia National Laboratories, California, P. O. Box 969, Livermore, California 94551-0969 (United States); Shah, Kanai; Squillante, Michael R.; Shirwadkar, Urmila; Hawrami, Rastgo; Tower, Joshua [Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc., 44 Hunt Street, Watertown, Massachusetts 02472 (United States); Yuan, Ding [National Security Technologies, LLC, Los Alamos Operations, P. O. Box 809, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544-0809 (United States)

    2014-01-21

    Despite the outstanding scintillation performance characteristics of cerium tribromide (CeBr{sub 3}) and cerium-activated lanthanum tribromide, their commercial availability and application are limited due to the difficulties of growing large, crack-free single crystals from these fragile materials. This investigation employed aliovalent doping to increase crystal strength while maintaining the optical properties of the crystal. One divalent dopant (Ca{sup 2+}) was used as a dopant to strengthen CeBr{sub 3} without negatively impacting scintillation performance. Ingots containing nominal concentrations of 1.9% of the Ca{sup 2+} dopant were grown, i.e., 1.9% of the CeBr{sub 3} molecules were replaced by CaBr{sub 2} molecules, to match our target replacement of 1 out of 54 cerium atoms be replaced by a calcium atom. Precisely the mixture was composed of 2.26 g of CaBr{sub 2} added to 222.14 g of CeBr{sub 3}. Preliminary scintillation measurements are presented for this aliovalently doped scintillator. Ca{sup 2+}-doped CeBr{sub 3} exhibited little or no change in the peak fluorescence emission for 371 nm optical excitation for CeBr{sub 3}. The structural, electronic, and optical properties of CeBr{sub 3} crystals were studied using the density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation. Calculated lattice parameters are in agreement with the experimental data. The energy band structures and density of states were obtained. The optical properties of CeBr{sub 3}, including the dielectric function, were calculated.

  7. Results for aliovalent doping of CeBr3 with Ca2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the outstanding scintillation performance characteristics of cerium tribromide (CeBr3) and cerium-activated lanthanum tribromide, their commercial availability and application are limited due to the difficulties of growing large, crack-free single crystals from these fragile materials. This investigation employed aliovalent doping to increase crystal strength while maintaining the optical properties of the crystal. One divalent dopant (Ca2+) was used as a dopant to strengthen CeBr3 without negatively impacting scintillation performance. Ingots containing nominal concentrations of 1.9% of the Ca2+ dopant were grown, i.e., 1.9% of the CeBr3 molecules were replaced by CaBr2 molecules, to match our target replacement of 1 out of 54 cerium atoms be replaced by a calcium atom. Precisely the mixture was composed of 2.26 g of CaBr2 added to 222.14 g of CeBr3. Preliminary scintillation measurements are presented for this aliovalently doped scintillator. Ca2+-doped CeBr3 exhibited little or no change in the peak fluorescence emission for 371 nm optical excitation for CeBr3. The structural, electronic, and optical properties of CeBr3 crystals were studied using the density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation. Calculated lattice parameters are in agreement with the experimental data. The energy band structures and density of states were obtained. The optical properties of CeBr3, including the dielectric function, were calculated

  8. Storm induced large scale TIDs observed in GPS derived TEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Borries

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is a first statistical analysis of large scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (LSTID in Europe using total electron content (TEC data derived from GNSS measurements. The GNSS receiver network in Europe is dense enough to map the ionospheric perturbation TEC with high horizontal resolution. The derived perturbation TEC maps are analysed studying the effect of space weather events on the ionosphere over Europe. <br>> Equatorward propagating storm induced wave packets have been identified during several geomagnetic storms. Characteristic parameters such as velocity, wavelength and direction were estimated from the perturbation TEC maps. Showing a mean wavelength of 2000 km, a mean period of 59 min and a phase speed of 684 ms−1 in average, the perturbations are allocated to LSTID. The comparison to LSTID observed over Japan shows an equal wavelength but a considerably faster phase speed. This might be attributed to the differences in the distance to the auroral region or inclination/declination of the geomagnetic field lines. <br>> The observed correlation between the LSTID amplitudes and the Auroral Electrojet (AE indicates that most of the wave like perturbations are exited by Joule heating. Particle precipitation effects could not be separated.

  9. First-year sea-ice contact predicts bromine monoxide (BrO levels better than potential frost flower contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Simpson

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Reactive halogens are responsible for boundary-layer ozone depletion and mercury deposition in Polar Regions during springtime. To investigate the source of reactive halogens in the air arriving at Barrow, Alaska, we measured BrO, a marker of reactive halogen chemistry, and correlated its abundance with airmass histories derived from meteorological back trajectories and remotely sensed sea ice properties. The BrO is found to be positively correlated to first-year sea-ice contact (R2=0.55, and weakly negatively correlated to potential frost flower (PFF contact (R2=0.04. These data indicate that snow contaminated with sea salts on first-year sea ice is a more probable bromine source than are frost flowers. Recent climate-driven changes in Arctic sea ice are likely to alter frost flower and first year sea ice prevalence, suggesting a significant change in reactive halogen abundance, which will alter the chemistry of the overlying Arctic atmosphere.

  10. Ultraviolet radiation-induced mutability of uvrD3 strains of Escherichia coli B/r and K-12: a problem in analyzing mutagenesis data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The involvement of the uvrD gene product in UV-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli was studied by comparing wild-type and uvrA or uvrB strains with their uvrD derivatives in B/r and K-12(W3110) backgrounds. Mutations per survivor (reversions to prototrophy) were compared as a function of surviving fraction and of UV fluence. While recognizing that both methods are not without problems, arguments are presented for favoring the former rather than the latter method of presenting the data when survival is less than 100%. When UV-induced mutation frequencies were plotted as a function of surviving fraction, the uvrD derivatives were less mutable than the corresponding parent strains. The B/r strains exhibited higher mutation frequencies than did the K-12(W3110) strains. A uvrB mutation increased the mutation frequency of its parental K-12 strain, but a uvrA mutation only increased the mutation frequency of its parental B/r strain at UV survivals greater than approximately 80%. Both the uvrA and uvrB mutations increased the mutation frequencies of the uvrD strains in the B/r and K-12 backgrounds, respectively. Rather different conclusions would be drawn if mutagenesis were considered as a function of UV fluence rather than of survival, a situation that calls for further work and discussion. Ideally mutation efficiencies should be compared as a function of the number of repair events per survivor, a number that is currently unobtainable. (author)

  11. Structural Studies of Some Binaphthyl Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Niels; Bjørnholm, T.; Bechgaard, K.; Geisler, T.

    or H. As would be expected, the torsional angle of the central 1-1' bond varies considerably in the open forms whereas the torsion is rather restricted in the closed forms. Unfortunately, good quality crystals for structural studies are difficult to grow and, therefore, rather high residuals are......Crystal structures of several 1,1'-binaphthyl derivatives have been determined. In particular compounds which at the 2,2' positions have either identical ethoxy groups or a closed bridged ether and furthermore have identical substitution at the 6,6' positions. The latter groups may be Br, CHO, CN...

  12. Band structure of sup 7 sup 9 Br

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, I; Bhattacharya, S; Saha-Sarkar, M; Sethi, B; Chatterjee, J M; Chattopadhyay, S; Goswami, A; Muralithar, S; Singh, R P; Bhowmik, R K

    1999-01-01

    High-spin states of sup 7 sup 9 Br have been studied in the reaction sup 7 sup 6 Ge( sup 7 Li, 4n gamma) at 32 MeV. A gamma-detector array with twelve Compton-suppressed HPGe detectors was used. The positive-parity yrast states, interpreted as a rotationally aligned g sub ( sub 9 sub ( sub 2 sub ) sub ) proton band, and the negative-parity ground state band have been extended to spins of (33(2 sup +)) and (25(2 sup -)), respectively. Lifetime measurements indicate that both bands have a similar quadrupole deformation of beta sub 2 approx 0.2. The positive-parity alpha = -(1(2)) band has been identified. Several new inter-band transitions are observed. A cranked-shell model analysis shows that the nu g sub ( sub 9 sub ( sub 2 sub ) sub ) and pi g sub ( sub 9 sub ( sub 2 sub ) sub ) alignments occur in the positive-parity and the negative-parity bands at rotational frequencies of Planck constant omega approx 0.6 and 0.4 MeV, respectively. The level energies and the electromagnetic properties of the g sub ( sub ...

  13. In-situ BrO measurements in the upper troposphere / lower stratosphere. Validation of the ENVISAT satellite measurements and photochemical model studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrechanyy, S.

    2007-04-15

    and SCOUT-O3 in the 15-20 km altitude regime are at the low side of comparable DOAS measurements a CLaMS study of the evolution of Bry from the source gases has been carried out. For this purpose an ensemble of trajectories rising from the lower troposphere to the TTL within 6 to more than 90 days were initialized with observed mixing ratios in the boundary layer of all important organic bromine source gases and the free-up of Bry by chemical and photochemical reactions was simulated. Bromoform, CHBr3, was found to be the main source of inorganic bromine at the tropopause. The derived tropospheric lifetime of bromoform is 33 days. The modelled BrO mixing ratio at the tropopause (less than 2.5 pptv) is consistent with HALOX measurements which do not detect significant amounts of BrO there (<1-2 pptv). Therefore measurements of more than 4 pptv (as retrieved from SCIAMACHY) can only be explained trough processes not included in the model. (orig.)

  14. Retrieval of stratospheric and tropospheric BrO profiles and columns using ground-based zenith-sky DOAS observations at Harestua, 60° N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Pyle

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A profiling algorithm based on the optimal estimation method is applied to ground-based zenith-sky UV-visible measurements from Harestua, Southern Norway (60° N, 11° E in order to retrieve BrO vertical profiles. The sensitivity of the zenith-sky observations to the tropospheric BrO detection is increased by using for the spectral analysis a fixed reference spectrum corresponding to clear-sky noon summer conditions. The information content and retrieval errors are characterized and it is shown that the retrieved stratospheric profiles and total columns are consistent with correlative balloon and satellite observations, respectively. Tropospheric BrO columns are derived from profiles retrieved at 80° solar zenith angle during sunrise and sunset for the 2000–2006 period. They show a marked seasonality with mean column value ranging from 1.52±0.62×1013 molec/cm² in late winter/early spring to 0.92±0.38×1013 molec/cm² in summer, which corresponds to 1.0±0.4 and 0.6±0.2 pptv, respectively, if we assume that BrO is uniformly mixed in the troposphere. These column values are also consistent with previous estimates made from balloon, satellite, and other ground-based observations. Daytime (10:30 LT tropospheric BrO columns are compared to the p-TOMCAT 3-D tropospheric chemical transport model (CTM for the 2002–2003 period. p-TOMCAT shows a good agreement with the retrieved columns except in late winter/early spring where an underestimation by the model is obtained. This finding could be explained by the non-inclusion of sea-ice bromine sources in the current version of p-TOMCAT. Therefore the model cannot reproduce the possible transport of air-masses with enhanced BrO concentration due to bromine explosion events from the polar region to Harestua. The daytime stratospheric BrO columns are compared to the SLIMCAT stratospheric 3-D-CTM. The model run used in this study, which assumes 21.2 pptv for the Bry loading (15 pptv for long

  15. Satellite observations of long range transport of a large BrO plume in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Begoin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ozone Depletion Events (ODE during polar springtime are a well known phenomenon in the Arctic and Antarctic boundary layer. They are caused by the catalytic destruction of ozone by halogens producing reactive halogen oxides like bromine monoxide (BrO. The key halogen bromine can be rapidly transferred into the gas phase in an autocatalytic process – the so called "Bromine Explosion". However, the exact mechanism, which leads to an initial bromine release as well as the influence of transport and chemical processes on BrO, is still not clearly understood. <br>> In this study, BrO measurements from the satellite instrument GOME-2 are used together with model calculations with the dispersion model FLEXPART to study an arctic BrO event in March 2007, which could be tracked over several days and a large area. Full BrO activation was observed within one day east of Siberia with subsequent transport to Hudson Bay. The event was linked to a cyclone with very high surface wind speeds, which could have been involved in the production and lifting of aerosols or blowing snow. Considering the short life time of BrO, transported aerosols or snow can also provide the surface for BrO recycling within the plume for several days. The evolution of the BrO plume could be reproduced by FLEXPART simulations of a passive tracer indicating that the activated air mass was transported all the way from Siberia to Hudson Bay. To localise the most probable transport height, model runs initialised in different heights have been performed showing similar transport patterns throughout the troposphere but best agreement with the measurements between the surface and 3 km. The influence of changes in tropopause height on measured BrO values has been considered, but cannot completely explain the observed high BrO values. Backward trajectories from the area of BrO initialisation show upward lifting from the surface up to 3 km and no indication for intrusion of stratospheric

  16. Identification of the bound residue composition derived from 14C-labeled chlorsulfuron in soil by using LC-MS and isotope tracing method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Qing-fu; WU Jian-min; SUN Jin-he

    2004-01-01

    A new method for extracting the bound residue(BR) derived from 14C-labeled chlorsulfuron in soils was developed, and the technique of combining LC-MS with isotope tracing method was subsequently applied to identify the composition of the 14 C-BR in a loamy Fluvent derived from marine deposit. The results showed that the 14C-[2-amino-4-methoxyl-6-methyl-1,3,5]-triazine, 14 C-[ 2-amino-4-hydroxyl-6-methyl-1,3,5]-triazine and 14 C-chlorsulfuron parent compound constituted the main composition of the 14 C-BR derived from 14 C-labeled chlorsulfuron in the soil. The radioactive ratio of three compounds accounted for 39.8 %, 35.4 % and 17.9 % of total recovered radioactivity, respectively. However, a small amount(3.6% of total recovered radioactivity) of the complex of 14 C-[ 2-amino-4-hydroxyl-6-methyl-1,3,5 ]-triazine might have existed in the 14 C-BR in association with an unknown soil substrate. 2-chlorobenzenesulfonamide was also detected to be one of the components of the BR. The results could well explain the mechanism of phytotoxicity caused by the BR derived from chlorsulfuron in soil. In addition, the mechanism of BR formation in soil was also discussed in details.

  17. Effect of 8-MOP plus UVA treatment on survival and repair of plasmid pBR322; Efecto del tratamiento con 8-MOP mas UVA en la supervivencia y reparacion de pBR322

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauluz, C.; Vidania, R. de

    1991-07-01

    We have studied the lethality produced in pBR322 DNA after PUVA treatment (8-MOP+UVA). As recipients, we used a collection of E. coli strains differing in their repair capacities and analysed the involvement of several DNA repair pathways in the removal of plasmid lesions. We have also studied the effect of UVA radiation alone, in order to determine more precisely the effect attributable only to psoralen molecules. Results showed a strong lethal effect derived from PUVA treatment; however, some plasmid recovery was achieved in bacterial hosts proficient in Excision repair and SOS repair. Another repair pathway, only detectable at high density of lesions, appeared to be relevant for the removal of 8-MOP:DNA adducts.(Author) 11 refs.

  18. The influences of molecule structure form the spectrum isotopic effect between 79BrF and 81BrF in the X1Σ+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dissociation limit of BrF in the X1Σ+ ground state are analysed with Atomic and Molecular Reaction Statics. The spectrum isotopic effect between 79BrF and 81BrF in the X1Σ+ are analysed with Herzberg's isotopic theory. Based on the analysis, the isotopic influence for the vibration energy levels and the molecular potential energy function as Murrell-Sorbie potential (MS potential) are discussed. The results show that the spectrum isotopic effect between 79BrF and 81BrF in the X1Σ+ is a kind of weak effect and are agreement with Herzberg's isotope theory, the deviation of low vibration level between experiment and Herzberg's isotope theory are small, for higher-order force constant f4 and higher-order spread coefficient a3, theoretical and experimental results have clearer differences, but the effect for the potential energy function is not obvious as the spread coefficient a3 is much smaller than a1 and a2, the overall impact on the potential energy function is not remarkable. (authors)

  19. Single crystal growth, structure and properties of TlHgBr3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchenko, P.; Khyzhun, O. Y.; Fochuk, P. M.; Levkovets, S. I.; Myronchuk, G. L.; Parasyuk, O. V.

    2015-11-01

    High-quality inclusion-free single crystals of ternary thallium mercury bromide, TlHgBr3, were successfully grown by Bridgman-Stockbarger method. For the pristine surface of the TlHgBr3 single crystal, X-ray photoelectron core-level and valence-band spectra were measured. The comparison on a common energy scale of the X-ray photoelectron valence-band spectrum of TlHgBr3 and the X-ray emission Br Kβ2 band, representing peculiarities of the energy distribution of the Br 4p states revealed that the main contribution of the valence Br p states, occurred in the upper portion of the valence band, with also their significant contributions in other valence band regions. It has been determined that TlHgBr3 is a semiconductor with the bandgap energy value of Eg = 2.51 eV at 100 K. The Eg value decreased up to 2.44 eV when temperature increased to 300 K.

  20. Interactions between ionic liquid surfactant [C12mim]Br and DNA in dilute brine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunfei; Shang, Yazhuo; Liu, Zhenhai; Shao, Shuang; Liu, Honglai; Hu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between ionic liquid surfactant [C(12)mim]Br and DNA in dilute brine were investigated in terms of various experimental methods and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. It was shown that the aggregation of [C(12)mim]Br on DNA chains is motivated not only by electrostatic attractions between DNA phosphate groups and [C(12)mim]Br headgroups but also by hydrophobic interactions among [C(12)mim]Br alkyl chains. Isothermal titration calorimetry analysis indicated that the [C(12)mim]Br aggregation in the presence and absence of DNA are both thermodynamically favored driven by enthalpy and entropy. DNA undergoes size transition and conformational change induced by [C(12)mim]Br, and the charges of DNA are neutralized by the added [C(12)mim]Br. Various microstructures were observed such as DNA with loose coil conformation in nature state, necklace-like structures, and compact spherical aggregates. MD simulation showed that the polyelectrolyte collapses upon the addition of oppositely charged surfactants and the aggregation of surfactants around the polyelectrolyte was reaffirmed. The simulation predicted the gradual neutralization of the negatively charged polyelectrolyte by the surfactant, consistent with the experimental results. PMID:23010047

  1. Ultrasonic synthesis, formation mechanism and optical properties of single-crystalline Pb(OH)Br microrings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Guizhen, E-mail: wangguizhen0@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Application Technology of Chemical Materials in Hainan Superior Resources, College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China); Key Laboratory of Chinese Education Ministry for Tropical Biological Resources, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China); Wan Gengping [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Application Technology of Chemical Materials in Hainan Superior Resources, College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China); Key Laboratory of Chinese Education Ministry for Tropical Biological Resources, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China); Lin Shiwei; Yu Wenhui [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Application Technology of Chemical Materials in Hainan Superior Resources, College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elliptic Pb(OH)Br microrings were synthesized by a simple sonochemical process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Size distribution of the median holes could be controlled. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microrings were formed by ultrasonic etching accompanying the Ostwald ripening. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb(OH)Br microrings exhibit optical properties of semiconductors. - Abstract: Novel elliptic Pb(OH)Br microrings have been controllably synthesized on a large scale by a simple sonochemical process in aqueous solution. The structure characterizations of such microrings were investigated in detail by means of X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results indicate that the uniform orthorhombic phase of Pb(OH)Br microrings with good crystallinity can be obtained and such ring-like Pb(OH)Br is single crystalline with the (0 1 1) plane as the 2D exposed surface. The influence of reaction time and alkali sources on the evolution of structures has been studied. The possible hollowing growth mechanism for the Pb(OH)Br microrings has been discussed. Meanwhile, the ultraviolet-visible absorbance spectra and photoluminescence microrings show their ultraviolet absorption and green emitting behavior, indicating that the elliptic Pb(OH)Br microrings have great potential to be applied in luminescent and optoelectronic devices.

  2. Ultrasonic synthesis, formation mechanism and optical properties of single-crystalline Pb(OH)Br microrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Elliptic Pb(OH)Br microrings were synthesized by a simple sonochemical process. ► Size distribution of the median holes could be controlled. ► Microrings were formed by ultrasonic etching accompanying the Ostwald ripening. ► Pb(OH)Br microrings exhibit optical properties of semiconductors. - Abstract: Novel elliptic Pb(OH)Br microrings have been controllably synthesized on a large scale by a simple sonochemical process in aqueous solution. The structure characterizations of such microrings were investigated in detail by means of X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results indicate that the uniform orthorhombic phase of Pb(OH)Br microrings with good crystallinity can be obtained and such ring-like Pb(OH)Br is single crystalline with the (0 1 1) plane as the 2D exposed surface. The influence of reaction time and alkali sources on the evolution of structures has been studied. The possible hollowing growth mechanism for the Pb(OH)Br microrings has been discussed. Meanwhile, the ultraviolet–visible absorbance spectra and photoluminescence microrings show their ultraviolet absorption and green emitting behavior, indicating that the elliptic Pb(OH)Br microrings have great potential to be applied in luminescent and optoelectronic devices.

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity in the Tuber melanosporum brûlé.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Antonietta; Lumini, Erica; Napoli, Chiara; Bianciotto, Valeria; Bonfante, Paola

    2015-06-01

    The development of the fruiting body (truffle) of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Tuber melanosporum is associated with the production of an area (commonly referred to with the French word brûlé) around its symbiotic plant that has scanty vegetation. As truffles produce metabolites that can mediate fungal-plant interactions, the authors wondered whether the brûlé could affect the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) that colonize the patchy herbaceous plants inside the brûlé. A morphological evaluation of the roots of plants collected in 2009 from a T. melanosporum/Quercus pubescens brûlé in France has shown that the herbaceous plants are colonized by AMF to a great extent. An analysis of the 18S rRNA sequences obtained from roots and soil inside the brûlé has shown that the AMF community structure seemed to be affected in the soil inside the brûlé, where less richness was observed compared to outside the brûlé. PMID:25986549

  4. Fractionation of Cl/Br during fluid phase separation in magmatic-hydrothermal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jung Hun; Zajacz, Zoltán

    2016-06-01

    Brine and vapor inclusions were synthesized to study Cl/Br fractionation during magmatic-hydrothermal fluid phase separation at 900 °C and pressures of 90, 120, and 150 MPa in Li/Na/K halide salt-H2O systems. Laser ablation ICP-MS microanalysis of high-density brine inclusions show an elevated Cl/Br ratio compared to the coexisting low-density vapor inclusions. The degree of Cl/Br fractionation between vapor and brine is significantly dependent on the identity of the alkali metal in the system: stronger vapor partitioning of Br occurs in the Li halide-H2O system compared to the systems of K and Na halide-H2O. The effect of the identity of alkali-metals in the system is stronger compared to the effect of vapor-brine density contrast. We infer that competition between alkali-halide and alkali-OH complexes in high-temperature fluids might cause the Cl/Br fractionation, consistent with the observed molar imbalances of alkali metals compared to halides in the analyzed brine inclusions. Our experiments show that the identity of alkali metals controls the degrees of Cl/Br fractionation between the separating aqueous fluid phases at 900 °C, and suggest that a significant variability in the Cl/Br ratios of magmatic fluids can arise in Li-rich systems.

  5. Studies on Ca2+-Doped CeBr3 Scintillating Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guss, P. [NSTec; Foster, M. E. [SNL; Wong, B. M. [SNL; Doty, F. P. [SNL; Shah, K. [RMD; Squillante, M. [RMD; Glodo, J. [RMD; Yuan, D. [NSTec

    2013-07-03

    Despite the outstanding scintillation performance characteristics of cerium tribromide (CeBr3) and cerium-activated lanthanum tribromide (LaBr3:Ce), their commercial availability and application is limited due to the difficulties of growing large, crack-free single crystals from these fragile materials. The objective of this investigation was to employ aliovalent doping to increase crystal strength while maintaining the optical properties of the crystal. One divalent dopant (Ca2+) was investigated as a dopant to strengthen CeBr3 without negatively impacting scintillation performance. Ingots containing nominal concentrations of 1.9% of the Ca2+ dopant were grown. Preliminary scintillation measurements are presented for this aliovalently doped scintillator. Ca2+-doped CeBr3 exhibited little or no change in the peak fluorescence emission for 371 nm optical excitation for CeBr3. The structural, electronic, and optical properties of CeBr3 crystals were investigated using the density functional theory within generalized gradient approximation. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data. The energy band structures and density of states were obtained. The optical properties of CeBr3, including the dielectric function, were calculated.

  6. BR-SIPP: PETROBRAS Integrated Scheduling System; BR-SIPP: Sistema Integrado de Progamacao de Producao da PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Cristiane S.; Joly, Marcel; Hassimotto, Marcelo K.; Magalhaes, Marcus Vinicius O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The lack of a computational aided technology to support short-term scheduling activity in the oil and petrochemical sector has been identified as one of the major obstacles to the harmonic integration of production objectives subsequent to the implementation of the advanced control systems and the consolidation of important benefits at the process unit level. Such technology refers to an analytical tool able to capture plant operational information consistent with the scheduling layer demands, modeling the production system economic performance, and providing mechanisms to consider commercial, operation and technological uncertainties. In this context, PETROBRAS has continuously dedicated effort to develop, implement and enhance its own refinery scheduling solution. Nowadays at its second version, the PETROBRAS Integrated Scheduling System (BR-SIPP - INPI grant 00067400) has become the focus of corporate care, given its critical role on the link between planning objectives and plant operations, according to the hierarchical decision strategy currently adopted by PETROBRAS. This paper presents an overview of the tool and illustrates some real-world applications and main realized benefits. (author)

  7. Effect of 8-MOP plus UVA treatment on survival and repair of plasmid pBR322

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the lethality produced in pBR322 DNA after PUVA treatment (8-MOP+UVA). As recipients, we used a collection of E. coli strains differing in their repair capacities and analysed the involvement of several DNA repair pathways in the removal of plasmid lesions. We have also studied the effect of UVA radiation alone, in order to determine more precisely the effect attributable only to psoralen molecules. Results showed a strong lethal effect derived from PUVA treatment; however, some plasmid recovery was achieved in bacterial hosts proficient in Excision repair and SOS repair. Another repair pathway, only detectable at high density of lesions, appeared to be relevant for the removal of 8-MOP:DNA adducts.(Author) 11 refs

  8. Photostimulated process in CsBrCl:Eu2+: a promising image screen phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CsBrCl and CsBrCl:Eu2+ have been grown by 'Double Run Bridgman technique'. Optical investigations have been carried out on the samples. The formation of F(Br-) and F(Cl-) centers have been confirmed by optical absorption bands at 640 and 615 nm, respectively. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra for europium (100 ppm) doped CsBrCl samples give emission of europium at 442 nm. This 442 nm emission is due to the transition from T2g component of 4f65d configuration to the ground state 8S of europium. The emission due to the presence of impurities in the host lattice is detected by PL technique. The OH- impurity in the host lattice due to decomposition of the salt in open air gives out emission at 395 and 365 nm. The O2- emission is observed at 465 and 468 nm. Photostimulated luminescence (PSL) process is studied in the samples by exciting them at F-absorption wavelength after irradiation. No PSL is observed for the undoped CsBrCl samples grown in vacuum. The PSL of vacuum grown CsBrCl:Eu2+ samples for excitations at 640 nm [F(Br-)] and 615 nm [F(Cl-)] is observed at 420 nm. It is deciphered that both F(Cl-) and F(Br-) centers contribute to PSL. The two F-centers noticed in absorption are stimulated separately; the resulting PSL signal confirms the participation of F-centers in photostimulated process. The lifetime of the PSL emission for CsBrCl:Eu2+ is determined to be 0.69 μs. Application of the material as a prospective image screen phosphor is elaborated based on PSL results

  9. Single crystal growth, electronic structure and optical properties of Cs2HgBr4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentyev, A. A.; Gabrelian, B. V.; Vu, V. T.; Shkumat, P. N.; Parasyuk, O. V.; Fedorchuk, A. O.; Khyzhun, O. Y.

    2015-10-01

    We report on successful synthesis of high-quality single crystal of cesium mercury tetrabromide, Cs2HgBr4, by using the vertical Bridgman-Stockbarger method as well as on studies of its electronic structure. For the Cs2HgBr4 crystal, we have recorded X-ray photoelectron spectra for both pristine and Ar+ ion-bombarded surfaces. Our data indicate that the Cs2HgBr4 single crystal surface is rather sensitive with respect to Ar+ ion-bombardment. In particular, such a treatment of the Cs2HgBr4 single crystal surface alters its elemental stoichiometry. To explore peculiarities of the energy distribution of total and partial densities of states within the valence band and the conduction band of Cs2HgBr4, we have made band-structure calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) employing the augmented plane wave+local orbitals (APW+lo) method as incorporated in the WIEN2k package. The APW+lo calculations allow for concluding that the Br 4p states make the major contributions in the upper portion of the valence band, while its lower portion is dominated by contributors of the Hg 5d and Cs 5p states. Further, the main contributors to the bottom of the conduction band of Cs2HgBr4 are the unoccupied Br p and Hg s states. In addition, main optical characteristics of Cs2HgBr4 such as dispersion of the absorption coefficient, real and imaginary parts of dielectric function, electron energy-loss spectrum, refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical reflectivity have been explored from the first-principles band-structure calculations.

  10. The X-ray response of TlBr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of a series of X-ray measurements on several prototype TlBr detectors. The devices were fabricated from mono-crystalline material and were typically of size 2.7x2.7x0.8 mm3. The material is extremely pure, having impurity concentrations -4and 1x10-5 cm2 V-1, respectively, which are about an order of magnitude higher than previously reported values. Three detectors were fabricated and extensively tested over the energy range 2.3-100 keV at three synchrotron radiation facilities: the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) laboratory at the Berliner Elektronenspeicherring fuer Synchrotronstrahlung (BESSY II), the European Synchrotron Radiation Research Facility (ESRF) and the Hamburger Synchrotron-strahlungslabor (HASYLAB) radiation facility. Room temperature energy resolutions under full-area illumination of 1.8 and 3.3 keV FWHM have been achieved at 5.9 and 59.95 keV, respectively. At reduced detector temperatures of -30 deg. C, these fall to 800 eV and 2.6 keV FWHM, respectively. Under monochromatic pencil beam illumination, the measured energy resolutions at 6 and 60 keV were 664 eV and ∼3 keV FWHM at the same temperature. For energies 2, 12 keV mono-energetic X-ray beam, raster scanned over the forward active area. Whilst two detectors were spatially uniform to a level commensurate with statistics, the third was not. In all cases, evidence was found for charge collection problems caused by field fringing

  11. Consistent interpretation of ground based and GOME BrO slant column data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R. W.; Bovensmann, H.; Kaiser, J. W.; Richter, A.; Rozanov, A.; Wittrock, F.; Burrows, J. P.

    Model computations of slant column densities (SCD) enable the comparison between ground based and satellite based absorption measurements of scattered light and are therefore a good basis to investigate the presence of tropospheric BrO amounts. In this study ground based zenith sky and GOME nadir measurements of BrO SCD are compared with simulations for the 19-21 March 1997 at Ny-Ålesund. The vertical columns of tropospheric BrO amounts are estimated to be in the range 4 ±0.8 ∗ 10 13 [molecules/cm 2] for the investigated period and location.

  12. Brändi-imagon kirkastaminen sosiaalisen median avulla : Case Helin Matkat

    OpenAIRE

    Vilmi, Henna; Kärkkäinen, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön avulla selvitettiin, miten Helin Matkatoimisto Oy voi sosiaalisen median käytön kehityksellä kirkastaa brändi-imagoa, joka syntyy asiakkaiden mielissä. Tavoitteena oli tutkia yrityksen häämatkasegmentin sosiaalisen median käyt-tötottumuksia ja mieltymyksiä, segmentin mielikuvia Helin Matkojen brändistä ja näiden mielikuvien yhdenmukaisuutta yrityksen brändi-identiteetin kanssa. Tutkimus toteutettiin kvantitatiivisena verkkokyselynä Webropolin kautta, ja sitä jaettiin sähköpo...

  13. Festigkeit lasergesinterter Brückengerüste aus einer CoCr-Legierung

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, J.; Stawarczyk, B; Trottmann, A; Hämmerle, C H F

    2008-01-01

    Das Metall-Lasersintern ist ein aufbauendes Verfahren, das sich zur Herstellung von Kronen- und Brückengerüsten eignet. In einer vergleichenden Untersuchung wird die Bruchlast von im Lasersinterverfahren hergestellten Brückengerüsten der maximalen Belastbarkeit von formidentischen gegossenen Gerüsten gegenübergestellt. Als Basis für die Herstellung und Prüfung der Gerüste diente ein Stahlmodell mit zwei geometrisch definierten Zahnstümpfen. Das Modell wurde gescannt und ein Brückengerüst kons...

  14. Lyoluminescence in Ce3+ activated (KNa)Br phosphor for ionizing radiation dosimetry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P M Bhujbal; S J Dhoble

    2012-06-01

    The lyoluminescence (LL) in -ray irradiated (KNa)Br : Ce3+ phosphors are reported in this paper. LL of (KNa)Br : Ce3+ have been recorded for different -ray doses. The nature of variations of LL peak intensities is found to be linear with -ray irradiation dose and LL peak intensity is found to be dependent on concentrations (0.1–10 mol%) of added Ce3+ ions in the (KNa)Br host lattice. Negligible fading in the prepared sample is observed.

  15. Brändin johtamisen ja siirtohinnoittelun haasteet : case: Battery® Energy Drink

    OpenAIRE

    Tuominen, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee brändin johtamisen ja siirtohinnoittelun haasteita Oy Sinebrychoff Ab:n Battery® Energy Drink –energiajuoman kannalta. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on selvittää Battery® Energy Drink -brändin johtamiseen ja siirtohinnoitteluun liittyviä sekä konsernin sisäisiä että konsernin ulkopuolisia haasteita. Opinnäytetyö tehdään Oy Sinebrychoff Ab:n vientiosastolle toimeksiantona. Tutkimuksen teoriaosuudessa perehdytään brändin johtamisen eri näkökulmiin ja siirtohinnoittelu...

  16. Variations of the BrO/SO2 ratios from Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnach, Simon; Lübcke, Peter; Dinger, Florian; Bobrowski, Nicole; Hidalgo, Silvana; Arellano, Santiago; Battaglia, Jean; Galle, Bo; Hörmann, Christoph; Ruiz, Mario; Vogel, Leif; Wagner, Thomas; Platt, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    The amount and composition of volcanic gas emissions can yield information about magmatic processes. Apart from the SO2 emission rate, which is used as a widespread tool in monitoring volcanoes, the molar ratio of BrO/SO2 in a volcanic plume has shown the potential for interpreting volcanic activity. The evaluation of long-term spectral data collected with UV-scanning spectrometers through the Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change (NOVAC) using the DOAS technique can help to obtain a better understanding of the BrO/SO2 molar ratio and its correlation to magmatic processes. BrO and SO2 emissions as well as the BrO/SO2 ratio have been successfully retrieved from NOVAC data at Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia), where a decrease of the BrO/SO2 ratio was observed prior to a large eruption. We apply this evaluation algorithm to determine the plume composition of Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador, which is part of NOVAC since 2007. Different from Nevado del Ruiz the retrieved column densities of SO2 and BrO at Tungurahua are typically more than a factor of two lower during the respective period of observation. In addition, changes in the volcanic activity appear on a smaller timescale, as Tungurahua displays a succession of activity and quiescence phases. In order to still obtain robust BrO/SO2 ratios at Tungurahua, it is necessary to improve the data evaluation as well as applying a more sophisticated scheme to calculate the BrO/SO2 ratio. By combining both methods we create a time series of the BrO/SO2 ratio for several eruptive phases between 2007 and 2014. The ratio shows values between 2 and 8 × 10‑5. The variation of the BrO/SO2 ratio during these eruptive phases is compared to seismic data and volcanological phenomenological observations as well as satellite and ground based SO2 measurements. During several eruptive phases we observe an increase in the BrO/SO2 ratio on the transition from high explosive activity to low explosive activity. During the

  17. A New Promising X-Ray Storage Phosphor BaBrCl:Eu2+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Photostimulated luminescence was observed in X-ray irradiated BaBrCl doped with Eu2+. It shows an emission band that peak at 413 nm, and two difference absorption spectra (DAS) bands that peak at ~550 nm and 675 nm respectively. The stimulation energy is lower than that of BaFX:Eu2+ (X=Cl, Br), and matches the cheaper, more portable, and more convenient semiconductor laser better. The results indicate that BaBrCl:Eu2+ shows positive potential as a promising X-ray storage phosphor for practical utilization.

  18. The thermal analysis of BR-100: A barge/rail nuclear spent fuel transportation container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B ampersand W Fuel Company is designing a spent-fuel container called BR-100 that can be used for either barge or rail transport. This paper presents the thermal design and analysis. Both normal operation and hypothetical accident thermal transient conditions are evaluated. The BR-100 cask has a concrete layer than contains free water. During a hypothetical accident, the free water vaporizes and flows from the cask, removing a significant amount of thermal transient energy. The BR-100 transportation package meets the thermal requirements of 10CFR71. It additionally offers substantial margins to established material temperature limits

  19. Growth, structure and optical properties of Tl4HgBr6 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khyzhun, O. Y.; Kityk, I. V.; Piasecki, M.; Fedorchuk, A. O.; Levkovets, S. I.; Fochuk, P. M.; Myronchuk, G. L.; Parasyuk, O. V.

    2015-12-01

    Tl4HgBr6 single crystals were grown using solution-fusion method. The crystal structure of the ternary bromide was refined. Tl4HgBr6 crystallizes in the non-centrosymmetric space group P4nc with the lattice parameters a=8.9539(8) Å and c=8.7884(8) Å and it is isostructural to the Tl4HgI6 compound. The non-centrosymmetric structure of the Tl4HgBr6 compound was also confirmed by the existence of a modest second harmonic generation effect (0.4-0.5 pm/V) and by the value of piezoelectric coefficient (0.9 pm/V). The electronic structure of Tl4HgBr6 was explored using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES). In particular, for the Tl4HgBr6 crystal, we have measured XPS core-level and valence-band spectra for both pristine and Ar+ ion-bombarded surfaces. The XPS data reveal low hygroscopicity of Tl4HgBr6, the property that is very important when handling this material in optoelectronic devices working at ambient conditions. The present XPS data indicate that the Tl4HgBr6 single crystal surface is rather sensitive with respect to Ar+ ion-bombardment: such a treatment reduces significantly mercury content in the topmost surface layers. Comparison on a common energy scale of the XPS valence-band spectrum of Tl4HgBr6 and the XE Br Kβ2 band, representing peculiarities of the energy distribution of the Br 4 p states, reveals that the main contribution of the valence Br p states occurs in the upper portion of the valence band, with also their significant contributions in other valence band regions. The measurements of spectral distribution of the absorption coefficient indicate that the Tl4HgBr6 compound is a semiconductor with the bandgap energy value of 2.43 eV at 300 K, and the bandgap energy increases up to 2.48 eV when temperature decreases to 100 K.

  20. Verkkosivuprojekti sekä uuden yrityksen brändäys

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenlindt, Arlena

    2015-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä käsiteltiin nykypäiväistä verkkosivukehityksen kulkua sekä sitä, mitä elementtejä vaaditaan yrityksen brändäykseen. Työssä kuvataan brändin vaikutusta verkkosivujen kehitykseen ja sitä, miten uudelle yritykselle luodaan brändi ja miten se vaikuttaa yritykseen sekä sen asiakkaisiin. Yritykselle luotiin verkkosivut, joiden kautta asiakkaat voivat saada lisätietoja yrityksen tarjoamista palveluista sekä varata hoitoaikoja. Yritykselle luotiin myös logo ja muuta mainont...

  1. The mechanical properties of radiation-vulcanized NR/BR blending system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Aoshuang E-mail: yanas@public3.bta.net.cn; Guo Zhengtao; Li Li; Zhai Ying; Zhou Peng

    2002-03-01

    The effect of radiation dose on the mechanical properties of NR/BR blending system is reported in this paper. A comparison was made between sulphur vulcanization and radiation vulcanization for an optimal nature rubber (NR)/ butyl rubber (BR) blending ratio (60/40) at dose range from 10 to 150 kGy. The result shows that the mechanical properties, especially, tensile strength, elongation at break, and tear strength have been improved significantly by radiation-vulcanization. This finding was also proved by thermal aging experiment on a selected NR/BR blend at 70 deg. C for up to 168 h.

  2. Phase topology of a NR/BR elastomer blend with active filler

    OpenAIRE

    Plavšić Milenko B.; Pajić-Lijaković Ivana; Čubrić Branislav; Popović Radivoj S.; Bugarski Branko M.; Popović Ružica G.; Lazić Nada L.

    2003-01-01

    The relations between the structure and mechanical properties of a polymer blend of natural (NR) and polybutadiene (BR) rubber (i.e. a NR/BR blend with the weight ratio of the components 70/30) filled with active carbon black were analysed. The properties of the individual phases in the blend were resolved by modeling the stress-strain relationship according to the Bauer procedure for high extensions. The obtained results indicated that BR is the dispersed phase, having a higher modulus, whic...

  3. The mechanical properties of radiation-vulcanized NR/BR blending system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoshuang, Yan; Zhengtao, Guo; Li, Li; Ying, Zhai; Peng, Zhou

    2002-03-01

    The effect of radiation dose on the mechanical properties of NR/BR blending system is reported in this paper. A comparison was made between sulphur vulcanization and radiation vulcanization for an optimal nature rubber (NR)/ butyl rubber (BR) blending ratio (60/40) at dose range from 10 to 150 kGy. The result shows that the mechanical properties, especially, tensile strength, elongation at break, and tear strength have been improved significantly by radiation-vulcanization. This finding was also proved by thermal aging experiment on a selected NR/BR blend at 70°C for up to 168 h.

  4. Theoretical Studies on the Potential Energy Surface and Vibrational Energy Levels of HXeBr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zheng-Guo; YANG En-Cui; XIE Dai-Qian

    2009-01-01

    The potential energy surface for the electronic ground state of the HXeBr molecule is constructed from more than 4200 ab initio points calculated using the internally contracted multi-reference configuration interaction method with the Davidson correction (icMRCI + Q). The stabilities and dissociation barriers are identified from the potential energy surface. The three-body dissociation channel is found to be the dominant dissociation channel for HXeBr. Low-lying vibrational energy levels of HXeBr calculated using the Lanczos algorithm are found to be in good agreement with the available experimental band origins.

  5. NA60 and BR Scaling in Terms of the Vector Manifestation: A Model Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, G E; Rho, Mannque

    2005-01-01

    It is pointed out that the comparison between the recent NA60 dimuon data and the so-called "Brown-Rho (BR) scaling" as presented at QM2005 is $not$ founded on a correct interpretation of the prediction of BR scaling as formulated in 1991 and modernized recently and hence the conclusion drawn by both the experimental and theoretical speakers that "BR scaling is ruled out by NA60" is erroneous and should be disregarded. We use a simplified model description of how the vector manifestation of hidden local symmetry theory enters into the dilepton production, relegating more rigorous discussions to a follow-up paper.

  6. Measurement of the Ratio BR(B- --> D*0 K-)/BR(B- --> D*0 pi-) and of the CP Asymmetry of B- --> D*0(CP+) K- Decays

    OpenAIRE

    The BABAR Collaboration; Aubert, B.

    2004-01-01

    We study the decays B- --> D*0 pi- and B- --> D*0 K-, where the D*0 decays into D0 pi0, with the D0 reconstructed in the CP-even (CP+) eigenstates K- K+ and pi- pi+ and in the (non-CP) channels K- pi+, K- pi+ pi+ pi-, and K- pi+ pi0. Using a sample of about 123 million BBbar pairs, we measure the ratios of decay rates R*(non-CP)=BR(B- --> D*0(non-CP) K-)/BR(B- --> D*0(non-CP) pi-) = 0.0813+-0.0040(stat)+0.0042-0.0031}(syst), and provide the first measurements of R*(CP+)= BR(B- --> D*0(CP+) K-...

  7. Collision energy effect on the H′ + BrH (ν = 0, j = 0) → H′Br + H reaction: A quasi-classical trajectory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The theoretical studies of the dynamics of the exchange reaction H′ + BrH (ν = 0, j = 0) → H′Br + H reactions are presented by stereodynamics calculations with quasiclassical trajectory method. Highlights: ► The cross sections for collision energies from 0.5 to 2.0 eV are determined. ► The rotational, vibrational and translational fractions are presented. ► The repulsive character of the potential energy surface is explored. ► The alignment and the orientation of H′Br are found to be close relation to Ec. - Abstract: Theoretical studies on the dynamics of the exchange reaction H′ + BrH (ν = 0, j = 0) → H′Br + H are performed on potential energy surface (PES) (Kurosaki et al., private communication) for the ground state using the quasi-classical trajectory method. The cross sections, computed at the collision energies (Ec) of 0.5–2.0 eV, are in good agreement with the earlier quantum wave packet results. The rotational, vibrational, and translational fractions in the total energy and the vibrational distribution for the product molecule are calculated at the same collision-energy range. The results support the repulsive character of the PES. In the considered Ec range, it has little chance to occur in an indirect reaction. The alignment and orientation of the product H′Br are investigated in detail with stereodynamics. The results show that Ec can effect on both the alignment and the orientation of product.

  8. Molecular dynamics simulations of Si etching in Cl- and Br-based plasmas: Cl{sup +} and Br{sup +} ion incidence in the presence of Cl and Br neutrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazaki, Nobuya, E-mail: nakazaki.nobuya.58x@st.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Takao, Yoshinori; Eriguchi, Koji; Ono, Kouichi, E-mail: ono@kuaero.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto-daigaku Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)

    2015-12-21

    Classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed for Cl{sup +} and Br{sup +} ions incident on Si(100) surfaces with Cl and Br neutrals, respectively, to gain a better understanding of the ion-enhanced surface reaction kinetics during Si etching in Cl- and Br-based plasmas. The ions were incident normally on surfaces with translational energies in the range E{sub i} = 20–500 eV, and low-energy neutrals of E{sub n} = 0.01 eV were also incident normally thereon with the neutral-to-ion flux ratio in the range Γ{sub n}{sup 0}/Γ{sub i}{sup 0} = 0–100, where an improved Stillinger--Weber potential form was employed for the interatomic potential concerned. The etch yields and thresholds presently simulated were in agreement with the experimental results previously reported for Si etching in Cl{sub 2} and Br{sub 2} plasmas as well as in Cl{sup +}, Cl{sub 2}{sup +}, and Br{sup +} beams, and the product stoichiometry simulated was consistent with that observed during Ar{sup +} beam incidence on Si in Cl{sub 2}. Moreover, the surface coverage of halogen atoms, halogenated layer thickness, surface stoichiometry, and depth profile of surface products simulated for Γ{sub n}{sup 0}/Γ{sub i}{sup 0} = 100 were in excellent agreement with the observations depending on E{sub i} reported for Si etching in Cl{sub 2} plasmas. The MD also indicated that the yield, coverage, and surface layer thickness are smaller in Si/Br than in Si/Cl system, while the percentage of higher halogenated species in product and surface stoichiometries is larger in Si/Br. The MD further indicated that in both systems, the translational energy distributions of products and halogen adsorbates desorbed from surfaces are approximated by two Maxwellians of temperature T{sub 1} ≈ 2500 K and T{sub 2} ≈ 7000–40 000 K. These energy distributions are discussed in terms of the desorption or evaporation from hot spots formed through chemically enhanced physical

  9. Measurement of the Ratio of Branching Fractions Br(Bs -> Ds- pi+)/Br(B -> D- pi+) at CDF-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furic, Ivan Kresimir; /MIT

    2004-03-01

    The measurement of B{sub s}{sup 0} mixing is one of the flagship analyses for the Run II B physics program. The sensitivity of the measurement to the frequency of B{sub s}{sup 0} oscillations strongly depends on the number of reconstructed B{sub s}{sup 0} mesons. They present the measurement of the ratio of branching fractions Br(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +})/Br(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}{pi}{sup +}), which directly influences the number of B{sub s}{sup 0} events available for the measurement of B{sub s}{sup 0} mixing at CDF-II. They analyze 115 pb{sup -1} of data collected with the CDF-II detector in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using a novel displaced track trigger. They reconstruct 78 {+-} 11 B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} decays at 1153 {+-} 45 B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}{pi}{sup +} decays with good signal to background ratio. This is the world's largest sample of fully reconstructed B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} decays. They find the ratio of production fractions multiplied by the ratio of branching fractions to be: f{sub s}/f{sub d} {center_dot} Br(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +})/Br(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = 0.325 {+-} 0.046(stat) {+-} 0.034(syst) {+-} 0.084 (BR). Using the world average value of f{sub s}/f{sub d} = 0.26 {+-} 0.03, we infer that the ratio of branching fractions is: Br(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +})/Br(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = 1.25 {+-} 0.18(stat) {+-} 0.13(syst) {+-} 0.32(BR) {+-} 0.14(PR) where the last uncertainty is due to the uncertainty on the world average measurement of the ratio of B{sub s}{sup 0} to B{sup 0} production rates, f{sub s}/f{sub d}.

  10. A comparative study of LaBr3(Ce3+) and CeBr3 based gamma-ray spectrometers for planetary remote sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, A.; Mitrofanov, I.; Owens, A.; Quarati, F.; Benkhoff, J.; Bakhtin, B.; Fedosov, F.; Golovin, D.; Litvak, M.; Malakhov, A.; Mokrousov, M.; Nuzhdin, I.; Sanin, A.; Tretyakov, V.; Vostrukhin, A.; Timoshenko, G.; Shvetsov, V.; Granja, C.; Slavicek, T.; Pospisil, S.

    2016-08-01

    The recent availability of large volume cerium bromide crystals raises the possibility of substantially improving gamma-ray spectrometer limiting flux sensitivities over current systems based on the lanthanum tri-halides, e.g., lanthanum bromide and lanthanum chloride, especially for remote sensing, low-level counting applications or any type of measurement characterized by poor signal to noise ratios. The Russian Space Research Institute has developed and manufactured a highly sensitive gamma-ray spectrometer for remote sensing observations of the planet Mercury from the Mercury Polar Orbiter (MPO), which forms part of ESA's BepiColombo mission. The Flight Model (FM) gamma-ray spectrometer is based on a 3-in. single crystal of LaBr3(Ce3+) produced in a separate crystal development programme specifically for this mission. During the spectrometers development, manufacturing, and qualification phases, large crystals of CeBr3 became available in a subsequent phase of the same crystal development programme. Consequently, the Flight Spare Model (FSM) gamma-ray spectrometer was retrofitted with a 3-in. CeBr3 crystal and qualified for space. Except for the crystals, the two systems are essentially identical. In this paper, we report on a comparative assessment of the two systems, in terms of their respective spectral properties, as well as their suitability for use in planetary mission with respect to radiation tolerance and their propensity for activation. We also contrast their performance with a Ge detector representative of that flown on MESSENGER and show that: (a) both LaBr3(Ce3+) and CeBr3 provide superior detection systems over HPGe in the context of minimally resourced spacecraft and (b) CeBr3 is a more attractive system than LaBr3(Ce3+) in terms of sensitivities at lower gamma fluxes. Based on the tests, the FM has now been replaced by the FSM on the BepiColombo spacecraft. Thus, CeBr3 now forms the central gamma-ray detection element on the MPO spacecraft.

  11. Structure-Based Design of a Br Halogen Bond at the Complex Interface of the Human Placental HtrA1 PDZ Domain with Its Heptapeptide Ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Shuo-Fen; Liu, Hong; Cao, Tong-Mei; Wen, Qing-Li; Li, Jie; Shao, Qing-Chun

    2016-04-01

    The shock-induced serine protease HtrA1 is a potential regulator of human placenta development during pregnancy. The protein contains a functional PDZ domain that has been solved in complex with a phage display-derived heptapeptide: Asp-6 Ser-5 Arg-4 Ile-3 Trp-2 Trp-1 Val0 . In this study, a rationally designed halogen bond was introduced to the domain-peptide complex based on its NMR structure in solution. We computationally compared the stabilization energies and hindrance effects due to the presence of different halogens X (X = F, Cl, Br, or I), using a hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) approach, and found that the Br atom could considerably promote the peptide binding free energy (ΔΔG = -5.2 kcal/mol). Fluorescence assays confirmed that the peptide affinity to the HtrA1 PDZ domain was improved by approximately sevenfold upon bromination. Structural analysis identified a geometrically perfect halogen bond between the Br atom of the peptide Trp-1 residue and the carbonyl O atom of the HtrA1 Ile385 residue, with a bond length and an interaction energy of d = 3.20 Å and ΔE = -3.7 kcal/mol, respectively. PMID:26972470

  12. TWO NOVEL FLAVONOID GLYCOSIDES FROM CRATAEGUS PINNATIFIDA BGE.VAR. MAJOR N.E.BR.r

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI-CHENG ZHANG; YING-JUN ZHOU; SUI-XU XU

    2001-01-01

    Two novel natural products, namely pinnatifida C, pinnatifida D, were isolated from the leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.var.rnajor N.E.Br. Their structures were elucidated by the spectro scopic analysis and chemical evidence.

  13. Spin-orbit relaxation of Br ((2)P(sub 1/2))

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. O.; Katapski, S. M.; Perram, G. P.; Roh, W. B.; Tate, R. F.

    Pulsed and steady-state photolysis experiments have been conducted to determine the rate coefficients for collisional deactivation of the spin-orbit excited state atomic bromine, Br ((2)P(sub 1/2)). Pulsed lifetime studies for quenching by Br2 and CO2 established absolute rate coefficients at room temperature of k(sub Br2) = 1.2 +/- 10(exp -12) and k(sub CO2) = 1.5 +/- 0.3 x 10(exp -11)/cc/molecule-s. Steady-state photolysis methods were used to determine the quenching rates for the rare gases, N2, O2, H2, D2, NO, NO2, N2O, SF6, CF4, CH4, CO, CO2, COS, SO2, H2S, HBr, HCl, and HI relative to that for Br2.

  14. Kallas valmistus Brüsselis voliniku tööks / Ahto Lobjakas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobjakas, Ahto, 1970-

    2004-01-01

    Siim Kallas kohtus Brüsselis Euroopa Komisjoni presidendi Romano Prodi ning komisjoni volinikega. Suure tõenäosusega saab Kallas oma juhendajaks ettevõtluse ja infoühiskonna valdkonnaga tegeleva Erkki Liikaneni

  15. Studie ekologických charakteristik invazního druhu Chenopodium pumilio R. Br.

    OpenAIRE

    KAŠPAROVÁ, Františka

    2008-01-01

    Chenopodium pumilio R. Br. is originaly from Australia and Tasmania. This alien species is considered as naturalized species of the Czech Republic flora. Component parts of this thesis are two germination experiments, measuring of relative growth rate and phytocenological releve.

  16. Brüsselis kõneldi GMO vastu / Nastja Pertsjonok

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pertsjonok, Nastja

    2005-01-01

    Brüsselis toimunud konverentsil nõudsid Euroopa Liidu maade regionaalministrid ja Europarlamendi liikmed õigust otsustada geneetiliselt muundatud põllukultuuride keelamise üle piirkondlikul tasandil

  17. Best Western - tuntud ja tunnustatud ülemaailmne hotelliketi bränd

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    1946. aastal Californias M. K. Guertini poolt asutatud Best Western hotelliketist, mis pakub just sõltumatutele hotellipidajatele ühtset turundus- ja müügistrateegiat, brändi- ja teeninduskontseptsiooni

  18. "Aina saa nauraa!" : Heinolan kesäteatterin bränditutkimus

    OpenAIRE

    Niemi, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö käsittelee brändiä ja brändin kehittämistä. Tutkimuksen tarkoitus oli selvittää toimeksiantajaorganisaation eli Heinolan kesäteatterin brändin nykytila. Tutkimuksenavulla haluttiin saada tietoa siitä, vastaako kesäteatterin brändi-identiteetti asi-akkaiden saamia mielikuvia. Koska Heinolan kesäteatteri on kunnan hallinnoima palvelu ja tärkeä matkailukohde, käsiteltiin opinnäytetyössä myös kuntabrändiä ja Heinolan kesäteatterin roolia kuntabrändin osana. Opinnäytetyön teoreett...

  19. Jalkapalloseuran brändin kehittäminen : Case:Mikkelin Kissat

    OpenAIRE

    Aholainen, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on kehittää jalkapalloseuran brändiä. Välitavoitteena on ensin selvittää brändin tämänhetkinen tila ja sen kehittämisen kohteet. Tutkimus on rajattu junioreiden vanhempiin sekä seuran junioreihin, toimihenkilöihin ja yhteistyökumppaneihin. Tutkimusongelmana oli kysymys: miten kehitämme Mikkelin Kissojen brändiä? Miten tärkeimmät sidosryhmät saadaan paremmin mukaan brändin kehittämiseen? Kyselyiden ja haastatteluiden tulosten pohjalta tehdään kehittämisehdotuksi...

  20. Muotinäytöksestä brändiksi? : Aurelian kasvutarina

    OpenAIRE

    Antikainen, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä käsiteltiin Savonia-ammattikorkeakoulun vaatetusmuotoilun opiskelijoiden Aurelia-muotinäytöksen brändäämistä ja markkinointia vaatetusmuotoilun opiskelijan näkökulmasta. Työssä käsiteltiin brändäyksen keskeisiä käsitteitä ja brändin rakennuksen vaiheita, sekä analysoitiin muotinäytös Aurelia-brändiä näiden pohjalta. Työssä myös analysoitiin vuosien 2012-2015 näytösprojekteja käyttäen apuna sisällön analyysiä sekä haastatteluja. Asiantuntijapalautetta opinnäytetyöstä pyydettiin...

  1. Thermal dehydration and the effect of crystal transformation on 80Br retention in strontium bromate monohydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isothermal dehydration and isothermal annealing of neutron activated Sr(BrO3)2.H2O was studied in the temperature range 80-225 degC. Fractional dehydration at 80 degC observed to be 0.02 increasing to 0.3 at 100 degC for the same 30 min. heating period indicating the crystal transformation between 80-100 degC. 80Br initial retention, 11.3% raised to 28.0% for heating at 100 degC for 30 min. indicating some structural rearrangement. Activation energy involved for Sr(BrO3)2.H2O and Sr(BrO3)2 was 0.06 and 0.12eV where as it was 2.1 x 10-2) for isothermal dehydration. (author). 4 refs. 1 tab

  2. Longpath DOAS observations of surface BrO at Summit, Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stutz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Reactive halogens, and in particular bromine oxide (BrO, have frequently been observed in regions with large halide reservoirs, for example during bromine catalyzed coastal polar ozone depletion events. Much less is known about the presence and impact of reactive halogens in areas without obvious halide reservoirs, such as the polar ice sheets or continental snow. <br>> We report the first LP-DOAS measurements of BrO at Summit research station in the center of the Greenland ice sheet at an altitude of 3200 m. BrO mixing ratios in May 2007 and June 2008 were typically between 1–3 pmol mol−1, with maxima of up to 5 pmol mol−1. These measurements unequivocally show that halogen chemistry is occurring in the remote Arctic, far from known bromine reservoirs, such as the ocean. During periods when FLEXPART retroplumes show that airmasses resided on the Greenland ice sheet for 3 or more days, BrO exhibits a clear diurnal variation, with peak mixing ratios of up to 3 pmol mol−1 in the morning and at night. The diurnal cycle of BrO can be explained by a changing boundary layer height combined with photochemical formation of reactive bromine driven by solar radiation at the snow surface. The shallow stable boundary layer in the morning and night leads to an accumulation of BrO at the surface, leading to elevated BrO despite the expected smaller release from the snowpack during these times of low solar radiation. During the day when photolytic formation of reactive bromine is expected to be highest, efficient mixing into a deeper neutral boundary layer leads to lower BrO mixing ratios than during mornings and nights. <br>> The extended period of contact with the Greenland snowpack combined with the diurnal profile of BrO, modulated by boundary layer height, suggests that photochemistry in the snow is a significant source of BrO measured at Summit during the 2008 experiment. In addition, a rapid transport event

  3. [Memel als Brücke zu den baltischen Ländern] / Ralph Tuchtenhagen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuchtenhagen, Ralph, 1961-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Memel als Brücke zu den baltischen Ländern. Kulturgeschichte Klaipedas vom Mittelalter bis ins 20. Jahrhundert. (Tagungsberichte der Historischen Kommission für ost- und westpreussische Landesforschung. Bd. 26)

  4. Laser and X-ray structural investigations of EtBr which is used in photo-dynamical therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqueous solution EtBr (2,7-diamino-10 ethyl-9 phenylphenanthridinium bromide) + DNA is analyzed by means of laser excitation and by x-rays. Laser excitation mechanism is explained and structural changes are observed. A working hypothesis is that the high polar EtBr molecules orients according the electromagnetic field of the Ro beam. This constrains the DNA fibbers to arrange parallel to each other due to the high concentration of the EtBr molecules intercalated in DNA (1 EtBr per 10 DNA bases). Further investigations will be done at lower EtBr concentrations

  5. The X-ray response of TlBr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, Alan E-mail: aowens@rssd.esa.int; Bavdaz, M.; Brammertz, G.; Gostilo, V.; Graafsma, H.; Kozorezov, A.; Krumrey, M.; Lisjutin, I.; Peacock, A.; Puig, A.; Sipila, H.; Zatoloka, S

    2003-02-01

    We present the results of a series of X-ray measurements on several prototype TlBr detectors. The devices were fabricated from mono-crystalline material and were typically of size 2.7x2.7x0.8 mm{sup 3}. The material is extremely pure, having impurity concentrations <100 ppm. The measured electron and hole mobility-lifetime products were found to be 3x10{sup -4}and 1x10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} V{sup -1}, respectively, which are about an order of magnitude higher than previously reported values. Three detectors were fabricated and extensively tested over the energy range 2.3-100 keV at three synchrotron radiation facilities: the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) laboratory at the Berliner Elektronenspeicherring fuer Synchrotronstrahlung (BESSY II), the European Synchrotron Radiation Research Facility (ESRF) and the Hamburger Synchrotron-strahlungslabor (HASYLAB) radiation facility. Room temperature energy resolutions under full-area illumination of 1.8 and 3.3 keV FWHM have been achieved at 5.9 and 59.95 keV, respectively. At reduced detector temperatures of -30 deg. C, these fall to 800 eV and 2.6 keV FWHM, respectively. Under monochromatic pencil beam illumination, the measured energy resolutions at 6 and 60 keV were 664 eV and {approx}3 keV FWHM at the same temperature. For energies <20 keV, the measured spectra display symmetric photopeaks. However, the peaks become increasingly tailed at higher energies. At the highest energies, the energy-losses due to the electrons and holes are clearly separated. Whilst the detectors gave reproducible results over 12 months of operation, it was observed that for synchrotron beam measurements above {approx}45 keV, they were unstable, showing rate dependent gain shifts and polarization effects. These were not observed at lower energies. The spatial uniformity of the detectors was measured using a 50x50 {mu}m{sup 2}, 12 keV mono-energetic X-ray beam, raster scanned over the forward active area. Whilst two detectors were

  6. Fine-structure energy levels and lifetimes in Br XXIV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayal, Vikas; Gupta, G P [Department of Physics, SD (Postgraduate) College, Muzaffarnagar, UP (India)

    2005-11-28

    We have performed large-scale CIV3 calculations of excitation energies from the ground state for 48 fine-structure levels as well as of oscillator strengths and radiative decay rates for all electric-dipole-allowed and intercombination transitions among the (1s{sup 2}2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6})3s{sup 2}({sup 1}S), 3s3p({sup 1,3}P{sup o}), 3s3d({sup 1,3}D), 3s4s({sup 1,3}S), 3s4p({sup 1,3}P{sup o}), 3s4d({sup 1,3}D), 3s4f({sup 1,3}F{sup o}), 3p{sup 2}({sup 1}S, {sup 3}P, {sup 1}D), 3p3d({sup 1,3}P{sup o}, {sup 1,3}D{sup o}, {sup 1,3}F{sup o}), 3p4s({sup 1,3}P{sup o}) and 3d{sup 2}({sup 1}S, {sup 3}P, {sup 1}D) states of Br XXIV. These states are represented by extensive configuration-interaction (CI) wavefunctions obtained using the CIV3 computer code of Hibbert. The relativistic effects in intermediate coupling are incorporated by means of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian which consists of the non-relativistic term plus the one-body mass correction, Darwin term, and spin-orbit, spin-other-orbit and spin-spin operators. Small adjustments to the diagonal elements of the Hamiltonian matrices have been made so that the energy splittings are as close as possible to the experimental values. Our calculated excitation energies, including their ordering, are in excellent agreement with the available experimental results except that the levels {sup 1}D{sub 2} and {sup 3}P{sub 2} belonging to the same configuration 3p{sup 2} interchanged their positions compared to the experiment. This interchange in our calculation is discussed and explained through eigenvector compositions of the two levels. From our radiative decay rates, we have calculated radiative lifetimes of some fine-structure levels. Our calculated lifetimes of the levels 3s3p({sup 3}P{sub 1}) and 3s3p({sup 1}P{sub 1}) are found to be in good agreement with the experimental and other theoretical results. In this calculation we also predict new data for several fine-structure levels where no other theoretical and experimental

  7. Brändimielikuvien vaikutus ostamiseen second hand -verkkokaupasta : Case: WST

    OpenAIRE

    Kati, Voutilainen

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää WST:n ja sen brändin synnyttämiä mielikuvia toimeksiantajan asiakkaissa ja potentiaalisissa asiakkaissa ja niiden vaikutusta asiakkaiden ostamiseen second hand -verkkokaupasta. Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantajana toimi koti-mainen second hand -vaatteiden ja asusteiden verkkokauppa We Started This eli WST. Tutkimuskysymykset muotoituivat seuraavanlaisiksi: Millaiset brändimielikuvat second hand -verkkokauppa We started this:n asiakkailla ja potentiaalisilla...

  8. Brückenhypothesen - Kritik der ökonomischen Theorie der Ziele

    OpenAIRE

    Stachura, Mateusz

    2009-01-01

    Im vorliegenden Aufsatz wird eine institutionentheoretische Alternative zu Siegwart Lindenbergs Modell der theoriereichen Konstruktion von Brückenhypothesen entwickelt. Lindenbergs Modell richtet sich sowohl gegen theoriearme, empirische Verfahren der Konstruktion von Brückenhypothesen als auch gegen bloße Ad-hoc-Annahmen über Präferenzen sozialer Akteure. Durch die Anwendung des Nachfragegesetzes auf die Relation zwischen Präferenzen und Metapräferenzen gelingt es Lindenberg, eine innovative...

  9. Distribution of 82Br between serum and CSF in patients with meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ratio between concentrations of 82Br in serum and spinal fluid was determined in patients with meningitis. The ratio was found to be low in three patients strongly suspect for tuberculous meningitis and in eight of nine patients with purulent meningitis, but normal in 13 patients with non-tuberculous, serous meningitis. These results confirm previous investigations and determination of the 82Br ratio is a simple, reliable aid in the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis. (author)

  10. Radiochemical solar neutrino experiment using 81Br(nu, e-)81Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both geochemical and radiochemical experiments based on the interaction 81Br(nu,e-)81Kr to detect 7Be solar neutrinos have been suggested as a logical extension of the 37Cl experiment of Davis et al. The 81Br experiment, however, requires the development of a direct counter for the slowly decaying 81Kr. Progress toward such a detector based on Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS) is discussed

  11. Positive regulation by GABA(BR1 subunit of leptin expression through gene transactivation in adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukari Nakamura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The view that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA plays a functional role in non-neuronal tissues, in addition to an inhibitory neurotransmitter role in the mammalian central nervous system, is prevailing, while little attention has been paid to GABAergic signaling machineries expressed by adipocytes to date. In this study, we attempted to demonstrate the possible functional expression of GABAergic signaling machineries by adipocytes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: GABA(B receptor 1 (GABA(BR1 subunit was constitutively expressed by mouse embryonic fibroblasts differentiated into adipocytes and adipocytic 3T3-L1 cells in culture, as well as mouse white adipose tissue, with no responsiveness to GABA(BR ligands. However, no prominent expression was seen with mRNA for GABA(BR2 subunit required for heteromeric orchestration of the functional GABA(BR by any adipocytic cells and tissues. Leptin mRNA expression was significantly and selectively decreased in adipose tissue and embryonic fibroblasts, along with drastically reduced plasma leptin levels, in GABA(BR1-null mice than in wild-type mice. Knockdown by siRNA of GABA(BR1 subunit led to significant decreases in leptin promoter activity and leptin mRNA levels in 3T3-L1 cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that GABA(BR1 subunit is constitutively expressed by adipocytes to primarily regulate leptin expression at the transcriptional level through a mechanism not relevant to the function as a partner of heterodimeric assembly to the functional GABA(BR.

  12. Spectroscopy of low-lying levels in 81Br and its nuclear-structure interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic moments of low-lying levels in 81Br have been measured using Coulomb excitation of 81Br beams and the technique of transient magnetic fields with Gd as ferromagnet. In addition, lifetimes have been redetermined for several states employing the Doppler-shift attenuation method and mixing ratios of γ-transitions were deduced from angular correlations. The data are discussed in the framework of the particle-vibrator and the particle-rotor coupling models. (orig.)

  13. The modeling of the RF system performance in TCA/BR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of numerical simulation of RF Alfven wave heating system that is intended to be used in TCA/BR tokamak are presented. The problem of monochromatic travelling RF field excitation in TCA/BR tokamak is analyzed by means of numerical simulation. The spectrum of the excited Alfven waves is determined using a one-dimensional MHD code. The transient time and AC analysis of the RF generator performance with antenna loading are discussed. (author). 9 refs., 6 figs

  14. Thermodynamic and structural properties of high temperature solid and liquid EuBr2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rycerz, L.; Gadzuric, S.; Ingier-Stocka, E.; Berg, Rolf W.; Gaune-Escard, M.

    Heat capacity of solid and liq. EuBr2 was measured by differential scanning calorimetry in the temp. range 300-1100 K. The temp. and enthalpy of fusion were also detd. exptl. By combination of these results with the literature data on the entropy at 298.15 K, S(o,m) (EuBr2, s, 298.15 K) , and the...

  15. Satellite observations of long range transport of a large BrO cloud in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Begoin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Ozone Depletion Events (ODE during polar springtime are a well known phenomenon in the Arctic and Antarctic boundary layer. They are caused by the catalytic destruction of ozone by halogens producing reactive halogen oxides like bromine monoxide (BrO. The key halogen bromine can be rapidly transferred into the gas phase in an autocatalytic process – the so called "Bromine Explosion". However, the exact mechanism, which leads to an initial bromine release as well as the influence of transport and chemical processes on BrO, is still not clearly understood. In this study, BrO measurements from the satellite instrument GOME-2 are used together with model calculations with the dispersion model FLEXPART and Potential Frost Flowers (PFF maps to study a special arctic BrO event in March/April 2007, which could be tracked over many days and large areas. Full BrO activation was observed within one day east of Siberia with subsequent transport to the Hudson Bay. The event was linked to a cyclone with very high surface wind speeds which could have been involved in the production and the sustaining of aerosols providing the surface for BrO recycling within the plume. The evolution of the BrO plume could be well reproduced by FLEXPART calculations for a passive tracer indicating that the activated air mass was transported all the way from Siberia to the Hudson Bay without further activation at the surface. No direct link could be made to frost flower occurrence and BrO activation but enhanced PFF were observed a few days before the event in the source regions.

  16. Molecular characterization of Br-cadherin, a developmentally regulated, brain-specific cadherin

    OpenAIRE

    Selig, Sara; Lidov, Hart G. W.; Bruno, Sandra A.; Segal, Michael M.; Kunkel, Louis M

    1997-01-01

    Cadherins are a family of transmembrane proteins that play a crucial role in cell adhesion and in morphogenesis. Several of the cadherins are expressed in the nervous system, but none is neuron-specific. We characterize a new member of the cadherin family, Br-cadherin, which is present exclusively in the central nervous system. Although the Br-cadherin protein is confined to the central nervous system, its mRNA is present in several additional tissues, suggesting that there is posttranscripti...

  17. Vibrational spectroscopy of SnBr4 and CCl4 using Lie algebraic approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joydeep Choudhury; Srinivasa Rao Karmuri; Nirmal Kumar Sarkar; Ramendu Bhattacharjee

    2008-09-01

    The stretching and bending vibrational energies of SnBr4 and CCl4 are calculated in the one-dimensional framework. The dynamical symmetry group of tetrahedral molecule was taken into consideration to construct the model Hamiltonian in this frame-work. Casimir and Majorana invariant operators were also determined accordingly. Using the model Hamiltonian so constructed, we reported the vibrational energy levels of SnBr4 and CCl4 molecules accurately.

  18. The influence of the temperature on electron attachment to some Br-substituted alkanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wnorowski, K.; Wnorowska, J.; Michalczuk, B.; Jówko, A.; Barszczewska, W.

    2013-10-01

    Thermal electron attachment rate coefficients and activation energies for CH3CH2Br, CH3CH2CH2Br, CH3CHBrCH3, CF3CHBrCH3, CH3(CH2)2CH2Br and CH2F(CH2)2CH2Br have been measured using the Pulsed Townsend technique over the temperature range (298-378) K. The corresponding rate coefficients (k's) at 298 K were equal to 9.3 ± 2.10 × 10-13, 2.9 ± 0.20 × 10-12, 2.7 ± 0.07 × 10-12, 1.1 ± 0.06 × 10-9, 6.6 ± 1.10 × 10-12 and 2.3 ± 0.3 × 10-10 cm3s-1, respectively. Activation energies (Ea's) were determined from the fit of the Arrhenius function to the experimental points and were found to be equal to 0.35 ± 0.002, 0.35 ± 0.004, 0.31 ± 0.004, 0.19 ± 0.002, 0.33 ± 0.006 and 0.22 ± 0.002 eV, respectively for CH3CH2Br, CH3CH2CH2Br, CH3CHBrCH3, CF3CHBrCH3, CH3(CH2)2CH2Br and CH2F(CH2)2CH2Br molecules.

  19. In the Middle of Snowhere : brändivideon toteutus Sallan Hiihtokeskukselle

    OpenAIRE

    Pehkonen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni aiheena on brändivideon toteuttaminen Sallan hiihtokeskukselle. Asiakas toivoi videon tuovan esille hiihtokeskuksen parhaat puolet ja erot kilpaileviin suurempiin hiihtokeskuksiin. Videon haluttiin tukevan Hiihtokeskuksen brändiä, joka kiteytyy sloganiin “in the middle of snowhere”. Sallan hiihtokeskus kokeilee ensimmäistä kertaa videomarkkinointia. Video on suunnattu mainostukseen sosiaalisen median kautta. Kirjallinen osa on prosessikuvaus toteuttamani videon eri tuotan...

  20. On $n$-derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Sattari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the notion of $n-$derivation is introduced for all integers $ngeq 2$. Although all derivations are $n-$derivations,  in general these notions are not equivalent. Some properties of ordinary derivations are  investigated for $n-$derivations. Also, we show that under certain mild condition  $n-$derivations are derivations.

  1. SO2 and BrO observation in the plume of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano 2010: CARIBIC and GOME-2 retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. J. van Velthoven

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The ash cloud of the Eyjafjallajökull1 volcano on Iceland caused closure of large parts of European airspace in April and May 2010. For the validation and improvement of the European volcanic ash forecast models several research flights were performed. Also the CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container flying laboratory, which routinely measures at cruise altitude (≈11 km performed three dedicated measurements flights through sections of the ash plume. Although the focus of these flights was on the detection and quantification of the volcanic ash, we report here on sulphur dioxide (SO2 and bromine monoxide (BrO measurements with the CARIBIC DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy instrument during the second of these special flights on 16 May 2010. As the BrO and the SO2 observations coincide, we assume the BrO to have been formed inside the volcanic plume. Both SO2 and BrO observations agree well with simultaneous satellite (GOME-2 observations. SO2 column densities retrieved from satellite observations are often used as an indicator for volcanic ash. For SO2 some additional information on the local distribution can be derived from a~comparison of forward and back scan GOME-2 data. More details on the local plume size and position are retrieved by combining CARIBIC and GOME-2 data. 1Also referred to as: Eyjafjalla (e.g. Schumann et al., 2010, Eyjafjöll or Eyjafjoll (e.g. Ansmann et al., 2010.

  2. Iminoiodane- and Brønsted Base-Mediated Cross Dehydrogenative Coupling of Cyclic Ethers with 1,3-Dicarbonyl Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciputra Tejo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A one-pot, two-step approach to prepare 2-tetrahydrofuran and -pyran substituted 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds by PhI=NTs-mediated amination/Brønsted base-catalyzed cross dehydrogenative coupling (CDC reaction of the cyclic ether and 1,3-dicarbonyl derivative under mild conditions is reported. The reaction is compatible with a variety of cyclic ethers and 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, affording the corresponding coupled products in moderate to good yields of up to 80% over two steps.

  3. Nuevos resultados sobre la cinem\\'atica global y nuclear de NGC 253: movimientos no circulares y emisi\\'on en Br-gamma

    CERN Document Server

    Camperi, J A; Diaz, R J; Aguero, M P; Gimeno, G; Pessev, P

    2016-01-01

    Continuing with previous research (Camperi et al. 2011),new heliocentric radial velocity distributions are presented for the nearby galaxy NGC 253, obtained from the ionized hydrogen recombination line H-alpha. These distributions have been derived from long-slit spectroscopy for various position angles. It is also shown the heliocentric radial velocity distribution corresponding to part of the infrared data (ionized hydrogen recombination line Br-gamma) observed with the Phoenix spectrograph of the Gemini South Observatory. Sequential mapping with the long slit using this instrument will enable to study in detail the kinematics of the galaxy's core, which is strongly obscured by dust.

  4. 1-Methylimidazolium trifluoroacetate [Hmim]Tfa: Mild and efficient Brønsted acidic ionic liquid for Hantzsch reaction under microwave irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jemin R Avalani; Devji S Patel; Dipak K Raval

    2012-09-01

    One pot synthesis of 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives was achieved via condensation of various -ketoesters with aromatic/aliphatic aldehydes and ammonium acetate. The reaction was catalysed by a stable and reusable Brønsted acidic ionic liquid (IL), 1-methyl-imidazolium trifluoroacetate ([Hmim]Tfa), under microwave (MW) irradiation. The synergistic combination ofMWwith IL can potentially go a long way tomeet the increasing demand for chemical processes. This homogeneous catalytic procedure is simple and efficient. The catalyst can be reused at least four times with almost complete retention in its activity.

  5. A novel Bi-based oxybromide SrBiO{sub 2}Br: Synthesis, optical property and photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Ying; Huang, Hongwei, E-mail: hhw@cugb.edu.cn; Zhang, Yihe, E-mail: zyh@cugb.edu.cn; Li, Xiaowei; Tian, Na; Guo, Yuxi; Luo, Yi

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • SrBiO{sub 2}Br was first explored as a novel photocatalyst. • SrBiO{sub 2}Br has been successfully synthesized by a solid state reaction. • We systematically synthesized SrBiO{sub 2}Br in different temperature. • SrBiO{sub 2}Br calcinated at 700 °C exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: A novel Bi-based photocatalyst SrBiO{sub 2}Br with layered structure was successfully synthesized via a solid state reaction method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). SrBiO{sub 2}Br has an indirect-transition optical band-gap of 2.58 eV. Density functional calculations revealed that conduction band (CB) were composed of the Bi 6p and Br 4s orbitals, and valence band (VB) were occupied by Br 4p and O 2p. The photodecomposition of rhodamine-B (RhB) experiments demonstrated SrBiO{sub 2}Br can be used as photocatalysts under ultraviolet (UV) light and visible light irradiation (λ > 400 nm). The results revealed that SrBiO{sub 2}Br calcinated at 700 °C exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity among the obtained SrBiO{sub 2}Br samples.

  6. Effect of inorganic hybrid Li Br on the silica matrix xerogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SiO2-Li Br hybrid porous materials were prepared by the sol-gel method. This process was obtained by the hydrolysis and condensation tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) with replacement of ethanol from alcogel by drying at ambient temperature to obtain xerogel structure. The alcogel samples were synthesized from TEOS, EtOH, H2O, HCl, NH4OH and Li Br. The total molar ratio of the compounds was 1: 9: 4: 8 x 10-4, 8 x 10-3. Xerogel contain 30percentwt of Li Br (dry matter) was prepared and characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Fourier Transmittance Infra Red, Energy Dispersive X-ray and Thermal Gravimetry Analysis systems. The results obtained from Scanning Electron Microscopy were shown the micrograph of Li Br on the silica matrix. Chemical elemental analysis data was resulted by Energy Dispersive X-ray. On the other hand, the Transmission Electron Microscopy have confirmed average particle size of SiO2-Li Br about 50 nm and Fourier Transmittance Infra Red spectrum describes functional groups of nano composite. The thermal analysis of SiO2-Li Br nano composite was performed using Thermal Gravimetry Analysis system. The results show that the suitable temperature for initial thermal treatment is about 200degreeC.

  7. BR-10 Reactor Sodium and Sodium-Potassium Removal and Passivation. Appendix I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research reactor BR-10 is located in the State Scientific Centre of the Russian Federation ‘A.I. Leipunski Institute of Physics and Power Engineering’ (IPPE), Russian Federation, Obninsk. BR-10 operated from 1959 to 2002, during which time a significant amount of radioactive waste in the form of liquid-metal alkali coolants was accumulated by the research institute. A schematic illustration of the BR-10 systems is shown. The sodium coolant of the primary circuit was changed three times, and the cold traps were regenerated with the resulting spent sodium drained into tanks for long-term storage. The tanks also received sodium potassium (NaK) eutectic alloy coolant from the secondary circuit, contaminated with mercury. This was the result of de-pressurization of a double-wall steam generator tube with a mercury layer, which was part of the BR-2 reactor. The BR-2 reactor was located in the building where the BR-10 reactor was built. The volumes and activities of the drained materia are indicated

  8. Effects of Br- and I- concentrations on Zn electrodeposition from ammoniacal electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhi-mei; Yang, Sheng-hai; Duan, Liang-hong; Tang, Mo-tang

    2015-07-01

    The effects of Br- and I- concentrations on the cell voltage, anodic polarization, current efficiency (CE), and energy consumption (EC) of zinc electrodeposition from ammoniacal ammonium chloride solutions were investigated. The surface morphology of zinc deposits was also examined. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the morphology of zinc deposits and the phase of anodic sediments produced during electrolysis. The results clearly showed that the CE slightly increased from approximately 95.12% in the absence of I- and Br- to 97.08% in the presence of 10 g·L-1 Br-; in contrast, the CE significantly decreased to less than 83% in the presence of 10 g·L-1 I-. The addition of Br- and I- positively affected the EC, which decreased from 2514 kW·h·t-1 to approximately 2300 kW·h·t-1. The results of anodic polarization measurements showed that the voltage drops were 130 and 510 mV when the concentrations of Br- and I- were 10 g·L-1 at a current density of 400 A·m-2, respectively. SEM images showed that the addition of Br- and I- caused different crystal growth mechanisms, which resulted in the production of compact and smooth zinc deposits. The anodic reactions of I- were also studied.

  9. Scientific activities in support of the BR2 operation and irradiation programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major characteristics of the BR2 reactor is the fact that the core configuration is essentially variable. This allows to optimize the irradiation conditions of various experiments and to minimize the fuel consumption. In order to do that, BR2 has its own autonomous reactor physics cell. In order to allow for on-line measurements of the major irradiation parameters, BR2 has extended its own proven data acquisition system to serve this purpose. This system, called BIDASSE (for BR2 Integrated Data Acquisition System for Survey and Experiments), originally designed for the follow-up of all BR2 operational parameters, is since several years extensively used for experiments. The object rives of research at the BR2 are to evaluate and adjust provisional irradiation conditions by adjustments of the environment, axial and azimuthal positioning of the samples, global power level, ... ; to deliver reliable, well defined irradiation condition and fluence data during and after irradiation; to assist the designer of new irradiation devices by simulations and neutronic optimisations of design options and o provide the experimenters with accurate on-line information on the evolution of their ongoing irradiation projects

  10. Experimental research on LiBr refrigeration - Heat pump system applied in CCHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new heat recovery technique for a LiBr refrigeration-heat pump system applied in CCHP(Combined Cooling, Heating and Power system) system is proposed in this paper. The system can recover the heat of the LiBr refrigeration cooling water to heat the demineralized water of the boiler. Experimental research on the operating characteristics of the compound system is carried out and the obtained conclusions are as follows: The LiBr refrigeration-heat pump system is able to perform stably and flexibly. The heat pump system has a relative large coefficient of performance (COPP) which can be as high as 6.13. When the outlet temperature of the demineralized water is 67.8 oC, the CCHP system brings 26.6% decrease in primary energy rate consumption compared with the combined heat and power production system (CHP) plus electricity-driven refrigeration. It is suggested that heat pumps should be used in CCHP system to heat the demineralized water of the boiler by recovering the exhaust heat of the LiBr refrigeration system. - Highlights: → LiBr refrigeration-heat pump system applied in CCHP system is proposed. → This system can recover the heat of the LiBr refrigeration cooling water to heat the demineralized water of the boiler. → Using heat pump to recover exhaust heat can increase the energy efficiency of the whole CCHP.

  11. On-line fast flux measurements in the BR2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2001, CEA-Cadarache and the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are collaborating on the development and in-pile qualification of subminiature fission chambers (diameter of 1.5 mm). Initially, efforts concentrated on fission chambers for the in-pile measurement of thermal fluxes (with 235U as fissile material). Meanwhile successful long-term tests of the prototypes have been performed in various environments: in low temperature (40-100 degress Celsius) BR2 pool water (up to a thermal neutron fluence of 3 1021 n/cm2) and in the CALLISTO PWR loop (300 degrees Celsius, 155 bars). The long-term qualification of derived industrial detectors (Photonis CFUZ53) in CALLISTO is still ongoing. However, for various types of irradiations in research reactors, the knowledge of the evolution of the fast neutron flux is even of more interest than the thermal flux data. Therefore the collaboration program was extended to the development and the in-pile qualification of subminiature or miniature fission chambers (with 3 mm diameter) for fast neutron detection, for which 242Pu was selected as the optimal fissile material. In order to achieve the on-line in-pile measurement of fast neutron flux, the fission chambers will be operated in the Campbelling mode (based on the mean square fluctuation of the detector current). In this mode the gamma induced contribution to the signal can be efficiently suppressed. Moreover, a data processing software will take into account the evolution of the fissile deposit in order to assess on-line the fast flux sensitivity and to correct for the low energy neutron contributions. The final objective is to qualify a Fast Neutron Detector System (FNDS) able to provide on-line data for local fast neutron fluxes in Material Testing Reactors. The on-line measurement of the fast neutron flux would contribute significantly to the characterization of the irradiation conditions during test experiments with materials and innovative fuel elements

  12. Precision measurement of the ratio BR($K_{S} \\to \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}e^{+}e^{-}$)/BR($K_{L} \\to \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{0}_{D}$)

    CERN Document Server

    Batley, J R; Lazzeroni, C; Munday, D J; Patel, M; Slater, M W; Wotton, S A; Arcidiacono, R; Bocquet, G; Ceccucci, A; Cundy, D; Doble, N; Falaleev, V; Gatignon, L; Gonidec, A; Grafström, P; Kubischta, W; Marchetto, F; Mikulec, I; Norton, A; Panzer-Steindel, B; Rubin, P; Wahl, H; Goudzovski, E; Hristov, P; Kekelidze, V; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Madigozhin, D; Molokanova, N; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Stoynev, S; Zinchenko, A; Monnier, E; Swallow, E C; Winston, R; Sacco, R; Walker, A; Baldini, W; Dalpiaz, P; Frabetti, P L; Gianoli, A; Martini, M; Petrucci, F; Scarpa, M; Savrié, M; Bizzeti, A; Calvetti, M; Collazuol, E; Iacopini, E; Lenti, M; Ruggiero, G; Veltri, M; Behler, M; Eppard, K; Eppard, M; Hirstius, A; Kleinknecht, K; Koch, U; Marouelli, P; Masetti, L; Moosbrugger, U; Morales Morales, C; Peters, A; Wanke, R; Winhart, A; Dabrowski, A; Fonseca Martin, T; Szleper, M; Velasco, M; Anzivino, G; Cenci, P; Imbergamo, E; Lamanna, G; Lubrano, P; Michetti, A; Nappi, A; Pepe, M; Petrucci, M C; Piccini, M; Valdata, M; Cerri, C; Costantini, F; Fantechi, R; Fiorini, L; Giudici, S; Mannelli, I; Pierazzini, G; Sozzi, M; Cheshkov, C; Chèze, J B; De Beer, M; Debu, P; Gouge, G; Marel, G; Mazzucato, E; Peyaud, B; Vallage, B; Holder, M; Maier, A; Ziolkowski, M; Biino, C; Cartiglia, N; Clemencic, M; Goy Lopez, S; Menichetti, E; Pastrone, N; Wislicki, W; Dibon, H; Jeitler, M; Markytan, M; Neuhofer, G; Widhalm, L

    2011-01-01

    The $K_{S} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}e^{+}e^{-}$ decay mode was investigated using the data collected in 2002 by the NA48/1 collaboration. With about 23,k $K_{S} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}e^{+}e^{-}$ events and 59,k $K_{L} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{0}_{D}$ normalization decays, the $K_{S} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}e^{+}e^{-}$ branching ratio relative to the $K_{L}\\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{0}_{D}$ one was determined to be BR($K_{S} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}e^{+}e^{-}$)/BR($K_{L} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{0}_{D}$) = $ (3.28 \\pm 0.06_{stat}\\pm 0.04_{syst})\\times 10^{-2}$. This result was used to set the upper limit $|g_{E1}/g_{BR}| \\lt 3.0$ at $90%$ CL on the presence, in the decay amplitude, of an E1 direct emission ($g_{E1}$) term relative to the dominant inner bremsstrahlung ($g_{BR}$) term. The CP-violating asymmetry ${cal A}_{\\phi}$ in the sin$\\phi$,cos$\\phi$ distribution of $K_{S} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}e^{+}e^{-}$ events, where $\\phi$ is the angle between the $\\pi^{+} \\pi^{-}$ and the $...

  13. Measurement of BR(Bu to phi K)/BR(Bu to J/psi K) at the collider detector at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napora, Robert A

    2004-10-01

    This thesis presents evidence for the decay mode B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}} in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using (120 {+-} 7)pb{sup -1} of data collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). This signal is then used to measure the branching ratio relative to the decay mode B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup {+-}}. The measurement starts from reconstructing the two decay modes: B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}}, where {phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -} and B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup {+-}}, where J/{psi} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}. The measurement yielded 23 {+-} 7 B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}} events, and 406 {+-} 26 B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup {+-}} events. The fraction of B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup {+-}} events where the J/{psi} subsequently decayed to two muons (as opposed to two electrons) was found to be f{sub {mu}{mu}} = 0.839 {+-} 0.066. The relative branching ratio of the two decays is then calculated based on the equation: BR(B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}})/BR(B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup {+-}}) = N{sub {phi}K}/N{sub {psi}K} {center_dot}f{sub {mu}{mu}} BR(J/{psi} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -})/BR({phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}) {epsilon}{sub {mu}{mu}}K/{epsilon}KKK R({epsilon}{sub iso}). The measurement finds BR(B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}})/BR(B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup {+-}}) = 0.0068 {+-} 0.0021(stat.) {+-} 0.0007(syst.). The B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}} branching ratio is then found to be BR(B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}}) = [6.9 {+-} 2.1(stat.) {+-} 0.8(syst.)] x 10{sup -6}. This value is consistent with similar measurements reported by the e{sup +}e{sup -} collider experiments BaBar[1], Belle[2], and CLEO[3].

  14. Is truffle brûlé a case of perturbational niche construction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Bragato

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: in the context of niche construction theory, the investigation was aimed at assessing if truffle brûlé is a case of niche construction by testing if the disappearance of grasses in the brûlé induces a non-arbitrary perturbation in the soil physical environment and, in that case, which are the physical processes involved.Area of study: a natural truffle bed located in the Italian Apennines inside an experimental truffle-producing area of the University of Perugia.Material and methods: Three aggregate size classes in the soil of a brûlé and of the neighbouring grass-covered area were determined with the wet-sieving technique in accordance with international standards. In the first part of the investigation, the area was sampled according to a systematic sampling design and the spatial patterns of aggregate size classes in the brûlé and in the neighbouring grass-covered area were compared by means of geostatistics. In the second part, the suppression of grasses in the brûlé was mimicked in the laboratory by removing roots from a sample collected in the grass-covered area and the effect of freeze-thaw cycles was tested by comparing a control treatment to other four treatments consisting in sub-samples equilibrated at a water tension of -2.5, -5, -10 and -20 kPa. Samples were submitted to a number of freeze-thaw cycles equal to those recorded in the area, analysed for aggregate size distribution and compared with univariate ANOVA.Main results: The aggregate size classes larger than 0.25mm displayed a spatial pattern comparable to that of the brûlé, with sharp changes along the boundaries of the brûlé itself. The laboratory experiment showed that such changes are attributable to freeze-thaw cycles that in one winter season may produce a significant decrease in aggregate size compared to the grass-covered area. Both results indicate that the disappearance of grasses in the brûlé fulfils the requirement of perturbational

  15. La politique du terrain brûlé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Vienne

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available L’article entend évoquer à partir d’une ethnographie d’un « terrain miné » dans une école de relégation, quelques pièges ethnographiques et dilemmes éthiques du chercheur « pris » dans le réseau social qu’il étudie, comme l’indiquait Everett C. Hughes. Inséré par une observation participante dans des rôles d’enseignant remplaçant ou d’éducateur stagiaire au sein du personnel de cette école, le chercheur est amené à connaître les incidents que les élèves imposent au jeune membre du personnel pour le « tester », ainsi que les tensions et conflits au sein même du personnel. L’arrière-plan moral et psychologique de conditions d’observation basées sur la tension et la confrontation conduisent le chercheur à une « politique du terrain brûlé » examinée en comparaison d’expériences ethnographiques similaires.The paper, based on an ethnography of a « mined field » in a school of relegation, deals about some ethnographical traps and ethical dilemmas of the searcher « trapped » in the social network he’s studying, as Everett C. Hughes suggested. Put in the schoof staff in substitute teacher roles or trainee educator by a participant observation, the searcher is induced to know the incidents that the students impose to the young staff member to « test » him, so as the tensions and conflicts inside the staff. The moral and psychological background of observation conditions based on tension and confrontation lead the searcher to a kind of « scorched field policy » examined from similar fieldwork experiences.El objetivo de este articulo es el de resaltar, centrandose el autor en el estudio etnográfico de una escuela situada en una zona socialmente coflictiva, las dificultades de caracter etnográfico y los dilemas éticos que surgen ante el investigador implicado inevitablemente en el contexto social analizado, problemas ya señalados por Everett C. Hughes. Adoptando el m

  16. Nickel-catalyzed vinylation of aryl chlorides and bromides with vinyl ZnBr.MgBrCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Yamakawa, Tetsu

    2009-05-01

    The Ni-catalyzed cross-coupling of aryl halides and vinylzinc bromide for the synthesis of styrene derivatives was investigated. Of the catalysts surveyed, the combination of Ni(acac)(2) and Xantphos was found to be the most effective for this cross-coupling. This catalyst could be used in reactions with various aryl bromides and chlorides, including electron-rich aryl chlorides such as chloroanisoles. PMID:19354270

  17. Rheological properties of long-chain branched chlorinated poly(isobutylene-co-isoprene)-graft-polybutadiene terpolymers (CIIR-g-BR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendorek, Jerzy (George)

    Anionically polymerized "living" polybutadiene (BR) was grafted onto chlorinated poly(isobutylene-co-isoprene) (CIIR) to form a series of elastomeric graft copolymers (CIIR-g-BR) of comb-type, long-chain branching structure (LCB) with systematically varying length and number of branches. A comprehensive program of analytical characterization of the structure and morphology of these materials using SEC/DRI-DV, NMR, FT-IR, DSC, TGA, TEM and other techniques, was designed to determine all relevant structural variables and parameters, as well as to exclude the presence of the potential compositional interferences (gel, residual solvent, unattached branch parent polymer, etc.) for intended correlations between branching structure and rheological properties. The principal branching characteristics of comb-like long-chain branched structures were derived from the stoichiometry of the grafting reaction, confirmed by compositional analysis using a combination of NMR/FT-IR/SEC and supplemented by SEC characterization of the parent linear polymers constituting the backbone (CIIR) and the branch of the graft (BR), respectively. Linear viscoelastic properties of these materials were determined by a Rheometrics Mechanical Spectrometer (RMS-800) using small amplitude, dynamic (sinusoidal oscillatory) shear. These measurements were supplemented by Rubber Process Analyzer (RPA 2000sp{TM}) testing in a comparable range of strain amplitudes, frequencies and temperatures. Stress relaxation experiments, following small amplitude step-strain in shear, complemented the dynamic mechanical measurement. Non-linear viscoelastic properties in shear were investigated in a series of isothermal strain and frequency sweeps using large strain (up to 800%) oscillations (RPA 2000), and by stress following a large-amplitude (˜75%) step shear strain, using the Dynamic Stress Relaxometer (DSR). An insight into the morphology of the grafts by means of the TEM and DSC has been compared to the results of

  18. Atmospheric test of the J(BrONO2)/k(BrO+NO2) ratio: implications for total stratospheric Br-y and bromine-mediated ozone loss

    OpenAIRE

    Kreycy, S.; C. Camy-Peyret; Chipperfield, M. P.; Dorf, M.; Feng, W.; R. Hossaini; L. Kritten; Werner, B.; K. Pfeilsticker

    2013-01-01

    We report on time-dependent O3, NO2 and BrO profiles measured by limb observations of scattered skylight in the stratosphere over Kiruna (67.9° N, 22.1° E) on 7 and 8 September 2009 during the autumn circulation turn-over. The observations are complemented by simultaneous direct solar occultation measurements around sunset and sunrise performed aboard the same stratospheric balloon payload. Supporting radiative transfer and photochemical modelling...

  19. Vertical distribution of tropospheric BrO in the marginal sea ice zone of the Northern Weddell Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasse, Jan-Marcus; Zielcke, Johannes; Lampel, Johannes; Buxmann, Joelle; Frieß, Udo; Platt, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    The free radical bromine monoxide (BrO) strongly influences the chemistry of the troposphere in Polar regions. During springtime with the return of sunlight after Polar night BrO is released in an autocatalytic reaction mechanism from saline surfaces (bromine explosion). Then BrO affects the oxidative properties of the lower atmosphere and can induce complete depletion of ozone within a matter of days or even hours. In addition, elemental mercury can be oxidized by BrO which makes this toxic compound soluble leading to a deposition into the biosphere. Despite numerous observations of elevated BrO levels in the Polar troposphere, bromine radical sources, as well as the details of the mechanisms leading to bromine explosions and the interactions between atmospheric dynamics and chemistry are not yet completely understood. To improve the understanding of these processes, an accurate determination of the spatio-temporal distribution of BrO is crucial. Here we present measurements of BrO performed during two cruises of the German research ice breaker Polarstern in the marginal sea ice zone of the Antarctic Weddell Sea between June and October 2013 when four major periods with elevated BrO concentrations and simultaneous ozone depletion occurred. The events were observed by (1) a ship-based Multi AXis Differential Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) instrument on Polarstern and (2) a compact MAX-DOAS instrument operated on a helicopter. Several flights were performed in the boundary layer as well as in the free troposphere up to altitudes of 2300 m on days with elevated BrO levels. Vertical profiles of aerosol extinction and BrO concentrations were retrieved for both instruments using our HEIPRO (HEIdelberg Profile) retrieval algorithm based on optimal estimation. Elevated BrO levels in the time series from ship-borne measurements show a strong correlation to southerly wind directions indicating transport from sea ice areas. Maximum retrieved BrO mixing ratios at ground

  20. Pharmacological characterization of BR-A-657, a highly potent nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pharmacological profile of BR-A-657, 2-n-butyl-5-dimethylamino-thiocarbonyl-methyl-6-methyl-3 - {[2-(1H-tetrazole-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl} - pyrimidin-4(3H)-one, a new nonpeptide AT1-selective angiotensin receptor antagonist, has been investigated in a variety of in vitro and in vivo experimental models. In the present study, BR-A-657 displaced [125I][Sar1-Ile8]angiotensin II (Ang II) from its specific binding sites to AT1 subtype receptors in membrane fractions of HEK-293 cells with an IC50 of 0.16 nM. In a functional assay using isolated rabbit thoracic aorta, BR-A-657 inhibited the contractile response to Ang II (pD'2: 9.15) with a significant reduction in the maximum. In conscious rats, BR-A-657 (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg/kg; intravenously (i.v.)) dose-dependently antagonized Ang II-induced pressor responses. In addition, BR-A-657 dose-dependently decreased mean arterial pressure in furosemide-treated rats and renal hypertensive rats. Moreover, BR-A-657 given orally at 1 and 3 mg/kg reduced blood pressure in conscious renal hypertensive rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that BR-A-657 is a potent and specific antagonist of Ang II at the AT1 receptor subtype, and reveal the molecular basis responsible for the marked lowering of blood pressure in conscious rats. (author)

  1. Luminescent characteristic of the CsBr phosphor activated with Eu2+ and Mn2+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectra of excitation and emission were measured at RT and 15 K in crystals quenched (Q) of CsBr:Eu2+, CsBr:Mn2+ and CsBr:Eu2+,Mn2+. Emission bands at 444, 480, 520 and 570 nm with different relative intensities are generated in the samples after UV excitation. The blue band at 444 nm was ascribed with unknown clusters or aggregated centers (AC) of dipoles type Eu2+–VC− and insulated dipole centers (IDC) like Eu2+–O2−. The bands at 480, 520 and 570 nm were assigned to Cs4EuBr6 nanocrystals; AC containing MnBr42− units in tetrahedral symmetry and another yet unidentified AC defect, respectively. In crystals of CsBr:Eu2+,Mn2+ the excitation and emission spectra taken at 15 K show no clear evidence of an energy transfer mechanism. Instead, the results suggest that the emission is produced by direct excitation of the ions of Eu2+ and Mn2+. Accordingly, single- or double-doped CsBr crystals may contain the same type of defects, either AC and/or IDC. -- Highlights: • The PL consists of several overlapping bands in the entire visible region. • The emission bands were ascribed to dipoles, aggregated and nanocrystals of different nature. • No clear evidence of energy transfer, meaning Eu and Mn pairs are not formed. • The material shows potential characteristics for its use as LED to white emission

  2. The influence of nutrients on the relative distributions of brGDGTs and implications for the lacustrine paleothermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, S. E.; Russell, J. M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.

    2012-12-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are an increasingly important tool for paleotemperature reconstructions in marine, lacustrine, and other terrestrial environments. Numerous studies using environmental samples have demonstrated that the relative abundances of nine brGDGTs are correlated to both mean annual air temperature (MAAT) and pH. Studies of lacustrine brGDGT have also explored the influence of other, potentially confounding limnological variables, including water depth, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen, on the relative distributions of brGDGTs, and have suggested that these variables have minimal influence on the relative distributions of brGDGTs. However, no study to date has explored the influence of nutrient concentrations on the relative distributions of brGDGTs. Here we examine the influence of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP) of lake waters on the relative distributions of brGDGTs in 91 lakes in East Africa. We find that TN is not significantly correlated to the relative distribution of any of the nine brGDGTs (p > 0.05 for all), and TP is significantly, but weakly, correlated to brGDGTs I (r = 0.39, p analysis (PCA) and redundancy analysis (RDA) further demonstrate that TN has the smallest influence on the relative abundances of brGDGTs of all the environmental variables examined. TP shows a higher loading than TN on PCA and RDA axes 1 and 2, but its loading is smaller than all variables except TN. In both the RDA and PCA analyses, MAAT is the only environmental variable that significantly loads onto axis 1 and pH is the only variable that significantly loads onto axis 2. Moreover, MAAT explains the most variance in our brGDGT dataset, consistent with previous studies. The strong influence of MAAT, and weak influence of other environmental parameters, on the relative distribution of brGDGTs is encouraging for paleotemperature reconstructions using brGDGTs in lacustrine environments.

  3. Performance tests of a large volume cerium tribromide (CeBr3) scintillation detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, A A; Khiari, F Z; Liadi, F A; Khateeb-Ur-Rehman; Isab, A A

    2016-08-01

    The response of a large cylindrical 76mm×76mm (height×diameter) cerium tribromide (CeBr3) detector was measured for prompt gamma rays. The total intrinsic activity of the CeBr3 detector, which was measured over 0.33-3.33MeV range, was found to be 0.022±0.001 counts/s/cm(3). The partial intrinsic activity ( due to (227)Ac contamination), was measured over a energy range of 1.22-2.20MeV energy, was found to be 0.007±0.001 counts/s/cm(3). Compared to intrinsic activities of LaBr3:Ce and LaCl3:Ce detectors of equivalent volume, the CeBr3 detector has 7-8 times less total intrinsic activity. The detector response for low energy prompt gamma rays was measured over 0.3-0.6MeVgamma energy range using a portable neutron generator-based Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) setup. The experimental yield of boron, cadmium and mercury prompt gamma-rays was measured from water samples contaminated with 0.75-2.5wt% mercury, 0.31-2.50wt% boron, and 0.0625-0.500wt% cadmium, respectively. An excellent agreement has been observed between the calculated and experimental yields of the gamma rays. Also minimum detection limit (MDC) of the CeBr3 detector was measured for boron, cadmium and mercury samples. The CeBr3 detector has 23% smaller value of MDCB and 18% larger value of MDCCd than those of a LaBr3:Ce detector of equivalent size. This study has shown that CeBr3 detector has an excellent response for the low energy prompt gamma-rays with almost an order of magnitude low intrinsic activity as compared to LaCl3:Ce and LaBr3:Ce detectors of equivalent volume. PMID:27180221

  4. Measurement of SO2 and BrO at Lastarria, Lascar, and Salar de Atacama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinger, Florian; Osorio, Matias; Gliß, Jonas; Lübcke, Peter; Bobrowski, Nicole; Platt, Ulich; Frins, Erna; Wagner, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    In November 2014 the 12th CCVG (Commission of the Chemistry of Volcanic Gases) gas workshop took place in Northern Chile. Subject of the field trips were Lastarria (25°10' S, 68°30' W) and Lascar (23°22' S, 67°43' W), both stratovolcanoes with a height of 5700 and 5600 a.s.l., respectively. One of the goals was to investigate the SO2 and BrO emissions of these volcanoes by remote-sensing using Multi-AXial Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS). The used 'mini MAX-DOAS' instrument measures scattered solar UV radiation recording spectra within a wavelength range of 294-437 nm and with a spectral resolution of 0.9 nm. The instrument took spectra sequentially at various elevation angles scanning the sky from horizon to zenith. The scanning geometry was adapted to each measurement location. At Lastarria volcano we observed SO2 slant column densities (SCDs) in the order of 1018 molecules/cm2 and BrO SCDs up to 5 - 1013 molecules/cm2. At Lascar volcano we observed SO2 SCDs up to 4 - 1017 molecules/cm2 but no significant BrO absorption features (in a preliminary evaluation). We will present SO2 fluxes and upper detection limits of BrO, and present maxima BrO/SO2 ratios of Lastarria and Lascar. Those ratios will be compared to BrO/SO2 ratios of other - previously studied - Andean volcanoes (e.g. Villarica). Furthermore, we measured the SO2 and BrO SCDs above the Salar de Atacama (23°30' S, 68°15' W), a salt pan with an area of 3000 km2. Spectra were taken in a direction where the Salar de Atacama has an extension of about 50 km and no other obvious emission sources were contributing to the SO2 and BrO absorption signals. At the Salar de Atacama we observed SO2 SCDs up to 2 - 1017 molecules/cm2 and BrO SCDs of up to 7 - 1013 molecules/cm2.

  5. 79BrF和81BrF基态X1∑+光谱性质同位素效应对结构性质的影响%The influences ofmolecule structure fromthe spectrum isotopic effect between 79BrFand 81BrF in the X1Σ+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国跃; 韩彩霞

    2012-01-01

    The dissociation limit of BrF in the X1 Σ+ ground state are analysed with Atomic and Molecular Reaction Statics. The spectrum isotopic effect between "BrF and 81BrF in the X1 Σ+ are analysed with Herzberg's isotopic theory. Based on the analysis, the isotopic influence for the vibration energy levels and the molecular potential energy function as Murrell-Sorbie potential (MS potential) are discussed. The results show that the spectrum isotopic effect between "BrF and "BrF in the X1 Σ+ is a kind of weak effect and are agreement with Herzberg's isotope theory, the deviation of low vibration level between experiment and Herzberg's isotope theory are small, for higher-order force constant f4 and higher-order spread coefficient a3, theoretical and experimental results have clearer differences, but the effect for the potential energy function is not obvious as the spread coefficient a3 is much smaller than ax and a2, the overall impact on the potential energy function is not remarkable.%采用原子分子静力学的基本原理分析了BrF基态X1∑+的离解极限,采用Herzberg同位素理论分析了BrF基态X1∑+光谱数据的同位素效应,并以此为基础,分析了光谱数据的同位素效应对振动能级和分子势能函数(Murrell-Sorbie势即MS势)的影响.结果表明,79BrF和81BrF基态X1∑+的光谱数据的同位素效应是一种弱效应,与Herzberg同位素理论符合得很好,低振动能态的能级对理论预计的偏离很小,高阶力常数f4和高阶展开系数a3与实验结果有较大偏差,但由于a3本身比a1和a2小很多,结果对势能函数整体影响不大.

  6. Influence of LiBr on photoluminescence properties of porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimassi, W., E-mail: dimassi_inrst@yahoo.f [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie, Technopole de Borj-Cedria, BP 95 Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Haddadi, I.; Bousbih, R.; Slama, S.; Ali Kanzari, M.; Bouaicha, M.; Ezzaouia, H. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie, Technopole de Borj-Cedria, BP 95 Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2011-05-15

    A new method has been developed to improve the photoluminescence intensity of porous silicon (PS), which is first time that LiBr is used for passivation of PS. Immersion of the PS in a LiBr solution, followed by a thermal treatment at 100 {sup o}C for 30 min under nitrogen, leads to a nine fold increase in the intensity of the photoluminescence. The atomic force microscope (AFM) shows an increase of the nanoparticle dimension compared to the initial dimension of the PS nanostructure. The LiBr covers the nanoparticles of silicon without changing the wavelength distribution of the optical excitation and emission spectra. Moreover, a significant decrease of reflectivity was observed for the wavelength in the range of 350-500 nm. - Research highlights: {yields} A new method based on the use of LiBr was developed to enhance nine times the photoluminescence of porous silicon. {yields} The LiBr covers the silicon nanoparticles without changing in the optical excitation and emission spectra. {yields} We observed a significant decrease of the reflectivity in the 350-500 nm spectral range.

  7. Water radiolysis in extreme conditions of temperature and LET. Scavenging of HO. by Br- ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of the oxidation mechanism of Br- in which the HO. radical is involved. The HO. radiolytic yield is strongly connected with the oxidation yield of Br-, and therefore we have studied the influence of different physical and chemical parameters on this global yield: temperature, LET, dose rate, pH, saturation gas. The solutions have been irradiated with 4 types of ionizing rays: X-rays (from 13 to 18 keV), electrons (from 7 to 10 MeV), C6+-ions beam of 975 MeV and He2+-ions beam of 70 MeV. The development of an optical autoclave with solution flow, compatible with high LET ionizing rays has allowed us conduct the first experiments at constant high LET and high temperature. This cell has turned out to be compatible with the picosecond pump-probe experiments performed with the ELYSE accelerator. The HO. scavenging yield has been, therefore, estimated at both high LET and high temperature. A better understanding of the Br- oxidation mechanism has been achieved, in acid medium, in particular, by comparing the kinetics results with Monte Carlo Simulations for time scales inferior to the microsecond and with Chemsimul for the stable products (Br2.- and Br3- formations). (author)

  8. CsPbBr3 nanocrystal saturable absorber for mode-locking ytterbium fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Hu, Zhiping; Li, Yue; Xu, Jianqiu; Tang, Xiaosheng; Tang, Yulong

    2016-06-01

    Cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I) have been reported as efficient light-harvesting and light-emitting semiconductor materials, but their nonlinear optical properties have been seldom touched upon. In this paper, we prepare layered CsPbBr3 nanocrystal films and characterize their physical properties. Broadband linear absorption from ˜0.8 to over 2.2 μm and nonlinear optical absorption at the 1-μm wavelength region are measured. The CsPbBr3 saturable absorber (SA), manufactured by drop-casting of colloidal CsPbBr3 liquid solution on a gold mirror, shows modulation depth and saturation intensity of 13.1% and 10.7 MW/cm2, respectively. With this SA, mode-locking operation of a polarization-maintained ytterbium fiber laser produces single pulses with duration of ˜216 ps, maximum average output power of 10.5 mW, and the laser spectrum is centered at ˜1076 nm. This work shows that CsPbBr3 films can be efficient SA candidates for fiber lasers and also have great potential to become broadband linear and nonlinear optical materials for photonics and optoelectronics.

  9. Fast-neutron induced background in LaBr3:Ce detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response of a scintillation detector with a cylindrical 1.5-in. LaBr3:Ce crystal to incident neutrons has been measured in the energy range En = 2–12 MeV. Neutrons were produced by proton irradiation of a Li target at Ep = 5–14.6 MeV with pulsed proton beams. Using the time-of-flight information between target and detector, energy spectra of the LaBr3:Ce detector resulting from fast neutron interactions have been obtained at 4 different neutron energies. Neutron-induced γ rays emitted by the LaBr3:Ce crystal were also measured in a nearby Ge detector at the lowest proton beam energy. In addition, we obtained data for neutron irradiation of a large-volume high-purity Ge detector and of a NE-213 liquid scintillator detector, both serving as monitor detectors in the experiment. Monte-Carlo type simulations for neutron interactions in the liquid scintillator, the Ge and LaBr3:Ce crystals have been performed and compared with measured data. Good agreement being obtained with the data, we present the results of simulations to predict the response of LaBr3:Ce detectors for a range of crystal sizes to neutron irradiation in the energy range En = 0.5–10 MeV

  10. R and D on fuzzy control applications to the BR1 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuzzy control applications in nuclear reactor operations present a tremendous challenge. The main reason for this is the public awareness of the risks of nuclear industry and the very strict safety regulations in force for nuclear power plants. The very same regulations prevent a researcher from quickly introducing novel fuzzy-logic methods into this field. On the other hand, the application of fuzzy logic has, despite the ominous sound of the word 'fuzzy' to nuclear engineers, a number of very desirable advantages over classical methods, e.g., its robustness and the capability to include human experience into the controller. In this paper we report an on-going R and D project for controlling the power level of the Belgian Nuclear Reactor 1 (BR1) at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN). The project started in 1995 and aims to investigate the added value of fuzzy control for nuclear reactors. We first review some relevant literature on fuzzy logic control in nuclear reactors, then present the state-of-the-art of the BR1 project. After experimenting fuzzy logic control under off-line tests at the BR1 reactor, we now foresee a new development for a closed-loop fuzzy control as an on-line operation of the BR1 reactor. Finally, we present the new development for a closed-loop fuzzy logic control at BR1 with an understanding of the safety requirements for this real fuzzy logic control application in nuclear rectors. (author)

  11. Expression of BAFF and BR3 in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Duan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the expression of B cell activating factor (BAFF and BAFF receptor in patients with disease activity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Real-time RT-PCR was used to examine BAFF mRNA expression in peripheral blood monocytes of active and stable SLE patients and healthy controls. The percentage of BAFF receptor 3 (BR3 on B lymphocytes was measured by flow cytometry. Soluble BAFF levels in serum were assayed by ELISA. Microalbumin levels were assayed by an automatic immune analysis machine. BAFF mRNA and soluble BAFF levels were highest in the active SLE group, followed by the stable SLE group, and controls (P<0.01. The percentage of BR3 on B lymphocytes was downregulated in the active SLE group compared with the stable SLE group and controls (P<0.01. BAFF mRNA levels and soluble BAFF levels were higher in patients who were positive for proteinuria than in those who were negative (P<0.01. The percentage of BR3 on B lymphocytes was lower in patients who were positive for proteinuria than in those who were negative (P<0.01. The BAFF/BR3 axis may be over-activated in SLE patients. BAFF and BR3 levels may be useful parameters for evaluating treatment.

  12. Response of LaBr3(Ce) scintillators to 14 MeV fusion neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response of a 3″×3″ LaBr3(Ce) scintillator to 14 MeV neutron irradiation has been measured at the Frascati Neutron Generator and simulated by means of a dedicated MCNP model. Several reactions are found to contribute to the measured response, with a key role played by neutron inelastic scattering and (n,2n) reactions on 79Br, 81Br and 139La isotopes. An overall 43% efficiency to 14 MeV neutron detection above an experimental threshold of 0.35 MeV is calculated and confirmed by measurements. Post irradiation activation of the crystal has been also observed and is explained in terms of nuclear decays from the short lived 78Br and 80Br isotopes produced in (n,2n) reactions. The results presented in this paper are of relevance for the design of γ-ray detectors in burning plasma fusion experiments of the next generation, such as ITER, where capability to perform measurements in an intense 14 MeV neutron flux is required

  13. A2BR adenosine receptor modulates sweet taste in circumvallate taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Kataoka

    Full Text Available In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3 on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate, but not anterior (fungiform, palate taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields.

  14. BrO/SO2 molar ratios from scanning DOAS measurements in the NOVAC network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübcke, P.; Bobrowski, N.; Arellano, S.; Galle, B.; Garzón, G.; Vogel, L.; Platt, U.

    2014-06-01

    The molar ratio of BrO to SO2 is, like other halogen/sulfur ratios, a possible precursor for dynamic changes in the shallow part of a volcanic system. While the predictive significance of the BrO/SO2 ratio has not been well constrained yet, it has the major advantage that this ratio can be readily measured using the remote-sensing technique differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) in the UV. While BrO/SO2 ratios have been measured during several short-term field campaigns, this article presents an algorithm that can be used to obtain long-term time series of BrO/SO2 ratios from the scanning DOAS instruments of the Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change (NOVAC) or comparable networks. Parameters of the DOAS retrieval of both trace gases are given. The influence of co-adding spectra on the retrieval error and influences of radiative transfer will be investigated. Difficulties in the evaluation of spectroscopic data from monitoring instruments in volcanic environments and possible solutions are discussed. The new algorithm is demonstrated by evaluating data from the NOVAC scanning DOAS systems at Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia, encompassing almost 4 years of measurements between November 2009 and end of June 2013. This data set shows variations of the BrO/SO2 ratio several weeks prior to the eruption on 30 June 2012.

  15. Fast-neutron induced background in LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiener, J., E-mail: Jurgen.Kiener@csnsm.in2p3.fr [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière (CSNSM), CNRS-IN2P3 et Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Campus Orsay (France); Tatischeff, V.; Deloncle, I. [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière (CSNSM), CNRS-IN2P3 et Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Campus Orsay (France); Séréville, N. de [Institut de Physique Nucléaire d' Orsay, CNRS-IN2P3 and Université Paris-Sud, 91406 Orsay (France); Laurent, P. [CEA/IRFU Service d' Astrophysique, Orme des Merisiers, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Laboratoire Astroparticules et Cosmologie (APC), 10, rue A. Domon et L. Duquet, 75205 Paris (France); Blondel, C. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/IRFU, Orme des Merisiers, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chabot, M. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire d' Orsay, CNRS-IN2P3 and Université Paris-Sud, 91406 Orsay (France); Chipaux, R. [CEA/DMS/IRFU/SEDI, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Coc, A. [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière (CSNSM), CNRS-IN2P3 et Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Campus Orsay (France); Dubos, S. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/IRFU, Orme des Merisiers, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gostojic, A. [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière (CSNSM), CNRS-IN2P3 et Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Campus Orsay (France); and others

    2015-10-21

    The response of a scintillation detector with a cylindrical 1.5-in. LaBr{sub 3}:Ce crystal to incident neutrons has been measured in the energy range E{sub n} = 2–12 MeV. Neutrons were produced by proton irradiation of a Li target at E{sub p} = 5–14.6 MeV with pulsed proton beams. Using the time-of-flight information between target and detector, energy spectra of the LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detector resulting from fast neutron interactions have been obtained at 4 different neutron energies. Neutron-induced γ rays emitted by the LaBr{sub 3}:Ce crystal were also measured in a nearby Ge detector at the lowest proton beam energy. In addition, we obtained data for neutron irradiation of a large-volume high-purity Ge detector and of a NE-213 liquid scintillator detector, both serving as monitor detectors in the experiment. Monte-Carlo type simulations for neutron interactions in the liquid scintillator, the Ge and LaBr{sub 3}:Ce crystals have been performed and compared with measured data. Good agreement being obtained with the data, we present the results of simulations to predict the response of LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detectors for a range of crystal sizes to neutron irradiation in the energy range E{sub n} = 0.5–10 MeV.

  16. On the Attosecond charge migration in Cl.....N, Cl.....O, Br.....N and Br.....O Halogen-bonded clusters: Effect of donor, acceptor, vibration, rotation, and electron correlation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SANKHABRATA CHANDRA; MOHAMMED MUSTHAFA IQBAL; ATANU BHATTACHARYA

    2016-08-01

    The electron-electron relaxation and correlation-driven charge migration process, which features pure electronic aspect of ultrafast charge migration phenomenon, occurs on a very short timescale in ionized molecules and molecular clusters, prior to the onset of nuclear motion. In this article, we have presented natureof ultrafast pure electronic charge migration dynamics through Cl.....N, Cl.....O, Br.....N, and Br.....O halogen bonds, explored using density functional theory. We have explored the role of donor, acceptor, electron correlation, vibration and rotation in charge migration dynamics through these halogen bonds. For this work, we have selected ClF, Cl₂, ClOH, ClCN, BrF, BrCl, BrOH, and BrCN molecules paired with either NH₃ or H₂O. We have found that the timescale for pure electron-electron relaxation and correlation-driven charge migration through the Cl.....N, Br.....N, Cl.....O, and Br.....O halogen bonds falls in the range of 300–600 attosecond. The primary driving force behind the attosecond charge migration through the Cl.....N, Br.....N, Cl.....O, and Br.....O halogen bonds is the energy difference (∆E) between two stationary cationic orbitals (LUMO-β and HOMO-β), which together represents the initial hole density immediately following vertical ionization. We have also predicted that the strength of electron correlation has significant effect on the charge migration timescale in Cl.....N, Br.....N, Cl.....O, and Br.....O halogen bonded clusters. Vibration and rotation are also found to exhibit profound effect on attosecond charge migration dynamics through halogen bonds.

  17. Observations of BrO above Barrow, AK using Ground-Based MAX-DOAS: Investigating Effects of Surface Chemistry on Observed BrO Boundary Layer Vertical Column Densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, P. K.; Walsh, S. J.; Gleason, E.; Simpson, W. R.; Friess, U.; Platt, U.; Oltmans, S. J.; Pratt, K. A.; Custard, K. D.; Shepson, P.; Tanner, D.; Huey, L. G.

    2012-12-01

    Polar sunrise in the Arctic has been associated with production of reactive halogens from sea salt(e.g. Br, BrO). While effects of these halogen species are well known(e.g. ozone depletion, mercury deposition), their production is not fully understood, but thought to be linked to heterogeneous chemistry taking place on saline ice surfaces(e.g saline snow, first year sea ice). Satellite measurements of BrO allow one to look at the relationship between BrO and various ice surfaces on a basin scale, however, because satellites only measure a vertical column density(VCD), understanding the relationship between surface concentration and VCD is necessary to understand the implications of these measurements. In an effort to further understanding of this relationship, multiple axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) has been used to investigate boundary layer BrO in Barrow, AK during the 2012 BROMEX field campaign. Vertical profiles of BrO are retrieved using optimal estimation. These profiles are then used to obtain a surface mixing ratio, boundary layer VCD(BL-VCD), and layer height. We compare retrieved surface mixing ratios to those observed using chemical ionization mass spectrometry(CIMS). Our measurements are also compared to surface ozone measurements from NOAA's Barrow observatory. During BROMEX, ozone was highly depleted, often to a level where partitioning of reactive bromine (Br + BrO) at the ground lay more towards Br than BrO. Possibly due to these severe depletion episodes, there was not a linear relationship between the boundary layer VCD of BrO and the surface concentration of BrO. Implications of these findings for interpretation of satellite measurements with regard to ground level halogen chemistry are discussed.

  18. MnBr2/18-crown-6 coordination complexes showing high room temperature luminescence and quantum yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, David; Kuzmanoski, Ana; Feldmann, Claus

    2016-04-12

    The reaction of manganese(ii) bromide and the crown ether 18-crown-6 in the ionic liquid [(n-Bu)3MeN][N(Tf)2] under mild conditions (80-130 °C) resulted in the formation of three different coordination compounds: MnBr2(18-crown-6) (), Mn3Br6(18-crown-6)2 () and Mn3Br6(18-crown-6) (). In general, the local coordination and the crystal structure of all compounds are driven by the mismatch between the small radius of the Mn(2+) cation (83 pm) and the ring opening of 18-crown-6 as a chelating ligand (about 300 pm). This improper situation leads to different types of coordination and bonding. MnBr2(18-crown-6) represents a molecular compound with Mn(2+) coordinated by two bromine atoms and only five oxygen atoms of 18-crown-6. Mn3Br6(18-crown-6)2 falls into a [MnBr(18-crown-6)](+) cation - with Mn(2+) coordinated by six oxygen atoms and Br - and a [MnBr(18-crown-6)MnBr4](-) anion. In this anion, Mn(2+) is coordinated by five oxygen atoms of the crown ether as well as by two bromine atoms, one of them bridging to an isolated (MnBr4) tetrahedron. Mn3Br6(18-crown-6), finally, forms an infinite, non-charged [Mn2(18-crown-6)(MnBr6)] chain. Herein, 18-crown-6 is exocyclically coordinated by two Mn(2+) cations. All compounds show intense luminescence in the yellow to red spectral range and exhibit remarkable quantum yields of 70% (Mn3Br6(18-crown-6)) and 98% (Mn3Br6(18-crown-6)2). The excellent quantum yield of Mn3Br6(18-crown-6)2 and its differentiation from MnBr2(18-crown-6) and Mn3Br6(18-crown-6) can be directly correlated to the local coordination. PMID:26956783

  19. Relevance of weak intermolecular forces on the supramolecular structure of free or DMSO solvated 5-(4-X-benzylidene)rhodanines (X = F, Cl, Br, I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, José S.; Castaño, M. Victoria; Couce, María D.; Sánchez, Agustín; Sordo, José; Torres, M. Dolores; Vázquez, Saulo A.; Vázquez-López, Ezequiel M.

    2016-09-01

    The rhodanines of the title (Xp-Rhod, X = F, Cl, Br, I) were synthesized and characterized in solid state and in solution. The crystal structures of the four compounds show different supramolecular organizations. In the F-, Cl- and Br-derivatives, a R22(8) (CSNH)2 ring forms via Nsbnd H⋯S hydrogen bonds between two neighbouring molecules to give dimers. The I-derivative is also dimeric, but exhibits R22(8) (CONH)2 rings. The two type of dimers are associated in a variety of structures through hydrogen bonding, π-stacking, Csbnd H⋯π interactions and halogen bonding. These interactions were analysed from a crystallographic point of view and their relative relevance was explored using DFT calculations. The effect produced on all these interactions by the incorporation of DMSO molecules to the lattice was analysed by comparing the crystal structures of Xp-Rhod compounds and those of corresponding Xp-RhodṡDMSO solvates.

  20. Peculiarities of kinetics of destruction of excited Br*(2P2/2) atoms forming at IBr photolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetics of destruction of bromine atoms in excited Br*(2P1/2) and basic Br(2P3/2) states, depending on degree of IBr photodissociation α, has been studied under conditions of pulsed lamp UV-photolysis of IBr molecules at 293+-2 K by the method of laser atomic resonance spectroscopy. It has been ascertained that with α increase the rate of destruction of nonexcited Br atoms practically does not change, whereas for excited Br* atoms it increases by nearly an order with α increase from 3x10-3 to 8x10-2. The detected effect of strong dependence of Br* destruction rate on α is explained, making allowance for fast reaction of Br* atoms with highly vibration-excited molecules formed in the course of IBr photolysis. Ways of suppressing the effect mentioned are suggested. 21 refs.; 4 figs

  1. Yrityksen X artesaanijäätelöiden ja -sorbettien brändäysmahdollisuudet

    OpenAIRE

    Riihijärvi, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena on yritys X:n artesaanijäätelöiden ja -sorbettien brändäysmahdollisuudet. Työn tavoitteena on välittää yrityksen henkilökunnalle tietoa brändistä ja brändin rakentamisesta. Brändäystä sivutaan myös markkinoinnin perusteissa, markkinointiviestinnässä ja erityisesti sosiaalisessa mediassa sekä asiakassegmentoinnissa. Opinnäytetyö painottuu teoriaan, jonka pohjalta brändin rakentamista sivuavia aihealueita sekä itse brändin rakentamista tarkastellaan ja ideoidaan ...

  2. Study of bromide salts solubility in the (m1KBr + m2CaBr2)(aq) system at T = 323.15 K. Thermodynamic model of solution behaviour and (solid + liquid) equilibria in the ternaries (m1KBr + m2CaBr2)(aq), and (m1MgBr2 + m2CaBr2)(aq), and in the quinary (Na + K + Mg + Ca + Br + H2O) systems to high concentration and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We study the solubility in the mixed system (m1KBr + m2CaBr2)(aq) at T = 323.15 K. ► We construct T-variable model for (m1KBr + m2CaBr2)(aq) and (m1MgBr2 + m2CaBr2)(aq). ► The solubility modelling approach based on Pitzer equations is employed. ► We validate the model for all subsystems within quinary {Na + K + Mg + Ca + Br + H2O} system. ► Model calculations are in excellent agreement with the reference data and recommendations. - Abstract: The bromide minerals solubility in the mixed system (m1KBr + m2CaBr2)(aq) have been investigated at T = 323.15 K by the physico-chemical analysis method. The equilibrium crystallization of KBr(cr), and CaBr2·4H2O(cr) has been established. The results from solubility measurements obtained have been combined with experimental equilibrium solubility data available in the literature at T = 298.15 K to construct a chemical model that calculates (solid + liquid) equilibria in the ternary (m1KBr + m2CaBr2)(aq) system. The solubility modelling approach based on fundamental Pitzer specific interaction equations is employed. Temperature extrapolation of the mixed system model provides reasonable mineral solubilities at low (273.15 K) and high temperature (up to 373.15 K). The reference solubility data for (m1MgBr2 + m2CaBr2)(aq) system, which are available in the literature at T = (273.15, 298.15, and 323.15) K are used to evaluate mixing ion interaction parameters and to develop a model that calculates (solid + liquid) equilibria in this ternary system. The models for both ternary systems give a very good agreement with bromide salts equilibrium solubility data. Limitations of the mixed solution models due to data insufficiencies at high temperature are discussed. The mixed system models presented in this study expand the previously published temperature dependent sodium–potassium–magnesium–bromide model by evaluating potassium–calcium–bromide and magnesium–calcium–bromide mixing solution

  3. Studies on 'carrier-free' radiohalogenation of receptor-binding 1,4-benzodiazepines with 18F, 75Br and 123I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to label suitable benzodiazepine derivatives with the short-lived radionuclides F-18, Br-75 and I-123 in order to map the receptor areas of these compounds in-vivo by emission tomography. Selective labelling of the diazepines in the 7th position was achieved starting from the nitro compound and then carrying out reduction, diazotization and dediazotization via triazene decomposition. Greatest radio-chemical yields were achieved with the bromium derivative. This compound was tested with success in clinical trials. A detailed discussion is presented on the choice of diazapines, the reaction conditions and the analytical methods used. In view of the short half-lives of the halogens, the synthesis could be completed within an hour. (PW)

  4. Synthesis and structural characterization of luminescent inorganic materials of the type CS2NaErBr6 and CS2NaHoBr6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis and structural characterization is described of two luminescent materials, with technological [1] and spectroscopic [2] interest, whose crystallographic charts have not been published in the literature. The synthesis of both systems: Cs2NaErBr6 and CS2NaHoBr6, was done using solid state reactions in a controlled environment. The thermal analyses DTA/TGA, applied with a temperature gradient of 10o C/min., established crystallization ranges of 490,4 oC to 545,4 oC, for the elpasolite CS2NaHoBr6 and 501oC to 556oC, for the structure CS2NaErBr6.. The heat vacuum treatments were carried out at 505 oC and 526 oC respectively, obtaining optimum crystallization. The structural characterization was performed with powdered X-ray diffraction (XRD). The range between 12o and 80o (2θ), was analyzed for 3352 points, measured steps of 0.02o (2θ using the Rietveld profile refining program. The following crystallographic parameters were established: a0 = 11,279(1), and 11,293(4) Angstroms, for the two structures analyzed, respectively. The relationship Rexp wp in both cases is highly accurate for the 32 test lines that were analyzed. The structures present cubic closed packing Cs1+ 3 Cl1-, with Ho3+ and Er3+ atoms, filling the octahedral holes. The test data obtained will be very useful for completing the mass of experimental data needed to develop the design engineering, with specific applications for luminescent devices

  5. Gas-Phase Reactions of (n, γ) and Isomeric Transition-Activated Br80 with Alkanes and Haloalkanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental data are presented on the gas-phase reactions of alkanes and haloalkanes with bromine atoms and ions activated by nuclear transformations. The target molecules include CH4 CD4, C2H6, C2D6, CH3Cl, CH2Cl2, CHCI3, CCl4, CH2F2, CHF3, CF4, C2F6, CF3Br, and CH3Br. The nuclear reactions and transformations used in producing the energetic recoil atoms and ions were Br80m (isomeric transition), Br80, and Br79 (n, γ) Br80. The percentage of the radioactivity found in organic combination (the organic yield, O. Y.) was determined as a function of the concentration of the target molecule in the mole-fraction range of about 0.95 to 1.00. Elemental Br2 served both as a source of hot atoms and as a scavenger. Usually 20-50 separate samples of each reaction system were examined and the data of O.Y. as a function of the concentration of scavenger were plotted and extrapolated to unit mole fraction of target molecule. In all cases, die O.Y. decreased with increasing halogen concentration. Data on the (n, γ) activated reactions of Br80 with isotopic alkanes suggest a comparable extrapolated O.Y. for C2H6 and C2D6, but an O.Y. for CD4 about half of the O.Y. with CH4. Gas chromatographic analysis of the organic products indicates that about 90% of the O.Y. in CH4 is caused by CH3Br and 10% by CH2Br2 For CD4 as the target the distribution of organic activity is approx. 75% CD3Br and 25% CD2Br2. These various data are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms involving hot halogen atoms and ions

  6. Tropospheric BrO column densities in the Arctic from satellite: retrieval and comparison to ground-based measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sihler

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available During polar spring, halogen radicals like bromine monoxide (BrO play an important role in the chemistry of tropospheric ozone destruction. Satellite measurements of the BrO-distribution have become a particularly useful tool to investigate this probably natural phenomenon, but the separation of stratospheric and tropospheric partial columns of BrO is challenging. In this study, an algorithm was developed to retrieve tropospheric vertical column densities of BrO from data of high-resolution spectroscopic satellite instruments such as the second Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2. Unlike recently published approaches, the presented algorithm is capable of separating the fraction of BrO in the activated troposphere from the total BrO column solely based on remotely measured properties. The sensitivity of each satellite pixel to BrO in the boundary-layer is quantified using the measured UV-radiance and the column density of the oxygen collision complex O4. A comparison of the sensitivities with CALIPSO LIDAR observations demonstrates that clouds shielding near-surface trace-gas columns can be reliably detected even over ice and snow. Retrieved tropospheric BrO columns are then compared to ground-based BrO measurements from two Arctic field campaigns in the Amundsen Gulf and at Barrow in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Our algorithm was found to be capable of retrieving enhanced near-surface BrO during both campaigns in good agreement to ground-based data. Some differences between ground-based and satellite measurements observed at Barrow can be explained by both, elevated and shallow surface layers of BrO. The observations strongly suggest that surface release processes are the dominating source of BrO and that boundary-layer meteorology influences the vertical distribution.

  7. Some mechanisms involved in the radiosensitization of E.coli B/r by paracetamol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paracetamol, a widely-used analgesic and antipyretic drug, sensitized E.coli B/r to 60Co gamma-rays under hypoxic conditions. Part of the sensitizing effect has been shown to be due to an electron adduct of the drug. Paracetamol inhibited both post-irradiation DNA and protein syntheses. The targets involved in the inhibition of post-irradiation DNA synthesis have been shown to be different in the presence of the sensitizer. Increased DNA degradation after irradiation was also observed when E.coli B/r were irradiated in the presence of the drug. The presence of paracetamol during hypoxic irradiation of E.coli B/r resulted in the enhancement of DNA single-strand scissions with no apparent effect on their rejoining. (author)

  8. BrO/SO2 ratios at Popocatepetl volcano during increased activity in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickel, M.; Delgado Granados, H.

    2012-12-01

    Since its reactivation in 1994 after many decades of inactivity, Popocatepetl volcano has been showing long periods of quiescent degassing and some events of intensified activity in connection with dome building and destruction processes. During a period of increased activity of the volcano, which began in April 2012, mobile ultraviolet DOAS measurements and stationary DOAS scans were performed to quantify SO2 fluxes and BrO/SO2 ratios within the volcanic plume. The results of these measurements are presented in the context of the volcanic activity, which consisted of increased emission of gas and ash and Vulcanian type explosions. In general, SO2 emissions were high during the period April-June 2012 and so the BrO emissions, however, the BrO/SO2 ratios did not change strongly before, during and after the increased activity.

  9. Ab Initio Calculations on Halogen Bond Between N-Br and Electron-donating Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-hua; CHEN Xue-song; ZOU Jian-wei; YU Qing-sen

    2007-01-01

    Ab initio calculations of complexes formed between N-bromosuccinimide and a series of electron-donating groups were performed at the level of MP2/Lanl2DZ* to gain a deeper insight into the nature of the N-Br halogen stronger halogen-bonding complex than the C-Br. A comparison of neutral hydrogen bond complex series reveals that the electron-donating capacities of the atoms decrease in the order, N>O>S; O(sp3)>O(sp2), which is adequate for the C-Br halogen bonding. Interaction energies, in conjunction with the geometrical parameters show that the affinitive capacity of trihalide anions X-3 with N-bromosuccinimide are markedly lower than that of the corresponding X- with N-bromosuccinimide, even lower than those of neutral molecules with N-bromosuccinimide. AIM analyses further confirmed the above results.

  10. Genetic analysis of the br gene in halophilic archaea isolated from Xinjiang region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohong XU; Min WU; Huibin ZHANG; Zhihu LIU

    2008-01-01

    Some novel members of extremely halophilic archaea, strains AJ 11, AJ 12 and AJ 13, were isolated from the Aularz Lake located in the Altun Mountain National Nature Reserve of Xinjiang, Uygur Autonomous Region in China. Partial DNA fragments encoding a bacteriorho-dopsin (BR), as well as for 16S rRNA of isolated strains, were amplified by PCR and their DNA sequences were determined subsequently. On the basis of homology and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA, we thought that the isolated strains forming a microbiological population are the members of the genus Natrinema. The results of genetic analysis, such as GC content, transition/transver-sion (Ti/Tv) rate ratios and synonymous substitution rates (Ks) indicate that the br fragments, with a high level of genetic divergence, are faced with both purifying selection and bias mutation pressure. The study provides the basis for use of species and BR proteins resources.

  11. The effect of cooling on the acetylcholine-induced current of identified Helix pomatia Br neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedeljkovic, Miodrag; Kartelija, Gordana; Radenovic, Lidija; Todorovic, Natasa

    2005-05-01

    The Br neuron of the snail Helix pomatia, involved in neuronal regulation of various homeostatic and adaptive mechanisms, represents an interesting model for studying effects of temperature changes on neuronal activity of poikilotherms. The acetylcholine (ACh) induces a transient, inward dose-dependent current in the identified Br neuron. In the work presented, we analyses the effects of cooling on the ACh-induced inward current. The amplitude of ACh-induced inward current was markedly decreased after cooling and the speed of the decay of ACh response was decreased. Sensitivity to cooling of Ach-activated current on the Br neuron is mediated by a mechanism that does not involve change in the apparent receptor affinity or the cooperativity of binding. PMID:15759140

  12. A mechanism of Cu work function reduction in CsBr/Cu photocathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliday, Matthew T.; Hess, Wayne P.; Shluger, AL

    2016-03-14

    Thin films of CsBr deposited on Cu(100) have been proposed as next-generation photocathode materials for applications in particle accelerators and free-electron lasers. However, the mechanisms underlying an improved photocathode performance remain poorly understood. We present density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations of the work function reduction following the application of CsBr thin film coatings to Cu photocathodes. The effects of structure and van der Waals forces are examined. Calculations suggest that CsBr films can reduce the work function by around 1.5 eV, which would explain the exponential increase in quantum efficiency (QE) of coated vs. uncoated photocathodes. A model explaining experimentally observed laser activation of photocathode is provided whereby the photo-induced creation of di-vacancies at the surface, and their subsequent diffusion throughout the lattice and segregation at the interface leads to a further increase in QE after a period of laser irradiation.

  13. Ongoing refurbishment activities and strategy for the future operation of the BR2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of the BR2 reactor with its second Be-matrix is foreseen up to mid-1995 or mid-1996. A life extension for another 15 years is envisaged considering programmatic, financial and technical aspects. At present, the second phase of the refurbishment programme is being executed. The major activities of this programme can be grouped under two headings: safety reassessment and ageing issues. The expected outcome end '93 is an assessment report defining extent, choosen options, prioritized activities, budget and a tentative planning for the preparation and execution of the refurbishment. These aspects together with the prospects of possible cooperation with other parties for the refurbishment programme and the future operation of BR2 will be evaluated by the CEN/SCK Board who has to take a decision early in 1994. Various scenarios are now being considered and evaluated for the refurbishment and the future BR2 operation regime. (author)

  14. Measuring BR($h \\to \\tau ^+ \\tau ^-$) at the ILC: a full simulation study

    CERN Document Server

    Kawada, Shin-ichi; Suehara, Taikan; Takahashi, Tohru; Tanabe, Tomohiko; Yokoyama, Harumichi

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the expected measurement accuracy of the branching ratio of the Standard Model Higgs boson decaying into tau pairs at the ILC with a full simulation of the ILD detector concept. We assume a Higgs mass of 125 GeV, a branching ratio of BR($h \\to \\tau ^+ \\tau ^-$) = 6.32%, a beam polarization of electron (positron) of -0.8(+0.3), and an integrated luminosity of 250 fb$^{-1}$. The Higgs-strahlung process $e^+ e^- \\to Zh$ with $Z \\to q\\overline{q}$ is analyzed. We estimate the measurement accuracy of the branching ratio $\\Delta (\\sigma \\times \\mathrm{BR}) / (\\sigma \\times \\mathrm{BR})$ to be 3.4% with using a multivariate analysis technique.

  15. Corrosion of type 316 stainless steel in molten LiF-LiCl-LiBr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of LiF-LiCl-LiBr salt make it attractive as a solvent for extracting tritium from a fusion reactor lithium blanket. Consequently, the corrosion of type 316 stainless steel by flowing (about 15 mm/s) LiF-LiCl-LiBr at a maximum temperature of 5350C was studied to determine whether compatibility with the structural material would be limiting in such a system. The corrosion rate was found to be low (0C (approximately that of type 316 stainless steel exposed to lithium flowing at a similar velocity). At the proposed operating temperature (less than or equal to approx. 5350C), however, it appears that type 316 stainless steel has acceptable compatibility with the tritium-processing salt LiF-LiCl-LiBr for use with a lithium blanket

  16. Proton and helium stopping cross sections in Cl2 and Br2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton and 4He stopping powers for gaseous Cl2 and Br2 were measured in the energy ranges 50-750 keV and 100-1000 keV, respectively, and fitted with the semi-empirical Andersen-Ziegler formula. The peak energies are located near the minima of the oscillating structure as a function of the target atomic number Z2 recently observed by Gowda et al. The stopping-power ratios Ssub(He)/Ssub(p) for Cl2 and Br2 as a function of ion velocity show a similar behavior as for the adjacent inert gases Ar and Kr. The low-energy helium stopping cross sections were described by the power functions S=kEsup(p), whereby p values of 0.5 for Cl2 and 0.67 for Br2 were found. (orig.)

  17. An ab initio potential energy surface and vibrational energy levels of HXeBr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Guo Huang; En Cui Yang; Dai Qian Xie

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional global potential energy surface for the electronic ground state of HXeBr molecule is constructed from morethan 4200 ab initio points. These points are generated using an internally contracted multi-reference configuration interactionmethod with the Davidson correction (icMRCI + Q) and large basis sets. The stabilities and dissociation barriers are identified fromthe potential energy surfaces. The three-body dissociation channel is found to be the dominate dissociation channel for HXeBr.Based on the obtained potentials, low-lying vibrational energy levels of HXeBr calculated using the Lanczos algorithm is found tobe in good agreement with the available experimental band origins.2008 Zheng Guo Huang. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  18. An experimental study of formation of the mercury mixed halides HgClBr and HgBrI and of their purity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Ahmad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Claims to have produced the mixed halides of mercury are very old. However, their stability or even their very existence was seriously questioned by Ammlung and Brill several decades back, on the basis of their study, in several solvents, of what was thought to be HgBrI. The mixed halide HgClI was already known to be unstable. On the basis of these facts, which were also lent some theoretical support, it was strongly conjectured that the mixed halides of mercury and similar elements, were expected to be unstable. However, the matter does not seem to have received the attention it deserved. It was in this light that this study was taken up. What has been thought to be HgClBr has been produced by several methods and HgBrI by one or rather two methods. The product has been subjected to X-ray diffraction, FTIR and Raman studies. Studies confined to the solid product are being reported here and only those results are being presented for which all the three techniques could be employed. These studies show that a new product is indeed formed in most of these cases, but the product is not pure in any of these cases, although the impurity seems to be quite small in most of these cases. This calls for having a thorough look at not only the mixed halides of the elements, but of all compounds claimed to be like:

  19. 81Br NQR and 1H NMR of guanidinium hexabromoantimonate(V) [C(NH2)3]SbBr6: phase transition and molecular motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guanidinium hexabromoantimonate(V) [C(NH2)3]SbBr6 was prepared. It was black in color at room temperature and showed a tendency to turn yellow by loosing bromine in open air. Six 81Br NQR lines were observed at 77 K. On heating, four of the six lines faded out around 200 K, while the remaining two lines could be observed up to room temperature. This temperature behavior suggests a preferential libration or reorientation around a pseudo C4 axis of the octahedral [SbBr6]- anion. DTA measurement revealed a small heat anomaly at Tc1 = 273 K (on heating), showing a thermal hysteresis, and a sharp and large anomaly at Tc2 = 314 K. The temperature dependence curve of 1H NMR T1 is characterized by a single minimum of 26 ms (32 MHz) near 280 K, which is assigned to the C3 reorientation of the planar [C(NH2)3]+ cations. Its activation energy (Ea) is 43.3 kJ/mol. (orig.)

  20. Prévention de la maladie thromboembolique veineuse chez le brûlé

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siah, S.; El Farouki, A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Les complications thromboemboliques sont considérées comme rares chez le patient brûlé. Leur incidence varie selon les études réalisées. Les patients brûlés présentent de nombreux facteurs de risque favorisant la survenue de ces complications. Le diagnostic clinique de la thrombose veineuse profonde et de l’embolie pulmonaire reste difficile vu leur évolution infraclinique et la non spécificité des signes cliniques. L’échodoppler veineux et l’angioscanner thoracique constituent les éléments clés dans la stratégie diagnostique de la thrombose veineuse profonde et de l’embolie pulmonaire chez les patients brûlés. Le traitement ne diffère pas de celui administré aux autres patients non brûlés et victimes de la thrombose veineuse profonde et de l’embolie pulmonaire. La prophylaxie controversée entre les auteurs, est un sujet d’actualité. Plusieurs praticiens et organismes recommandent son utilisation de routine chez les patients brûlés à risque. Elle reste le seul moyen capable d’empêcher la survenue de la maladie thromboembolique veineuse capable d’engager le pronostic vital chez ces patients. Nous rapportons 6 observations de patients brûlés ayant développé une maladie thromboembolique veineuse. PMID:26170780

  1. Novel Ge-Ga-Te-CsBr glass system with ultrahigh resolvability of halide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ci; Wang, Xunsi; Xu, Tiefeng; Zhu, Qingde; Sun, Lihong; Pan, Zhanghao; Nie, Qiuhua; Zhang, Peiqing; Wu, Yuehao; Dai, Shixun; Shen, Xiang; Zhang, Xianghua

    2015-11-01

    CO2 molecule, one of the main molecules to create new life, should be probed accurately to detect the existence of life in exoplanets. The primary signature of CO2 molecule is approximately 15 μm, and traditional S- and Se-based glass fibers are unsuitable. Thus, Te-based glass is the only ideal candidate glass for far-infrared detection. In this study, a new kind of Te-based chalcohalide glass system was discovered with relatively stable and large optical band gap. A traditional melt-quenching method was adopted to prepare a series of (Ge15Ga10Te75)100-x (CsBr)x chalcogenide glass samples. Experiment results indicate that the glass-forming ability and thermal properties of glass samples were improved when CsBr was added in the host of Ge-Ga-Te glass. Ge-Ga-Te glass could remarkably dissolve CsBr content as much as 85 at.%, which is the highest halide content in all reports for Te-based chalcohalide glasses. Moreover, ΔT values of these glass samples were all above 100 °C. The glass sample (Ge15Ga10Te75)65 (CsBr)35 with ΔT of 119 °C was the largest, which was 7 °C larger than that of Ge15Ga10Te75 host glass. The infrared transmission spectra of these glasses show that the far-infrared cut-off wavelengths of (Ge15Ga10Te75)100-x (CsBr)x chalcogenide glasses were all beyond 25 μm. In conclusion, (Ge15Ga10Te75)100-x (CsBr)x chalcogenide glasses are potential materials for far-infrared optical application. PMID:26099824

  2. Magnetic ordering in the erbium honey comb lattices of ErX3 (X = Cl, Br,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Unusual 2-D and 3-D magnetic ordering phenomena have been observed in the insulating, transparent erbium trihalides ErX3 (X = Cl, Br, I) in the mini Kelvin temperature range. The layer-type crystal structures of ErCl3 (AlCl3 type structure) and ErBr3/ErI3 (BiI3 type structure) are closely related. All three compounds show a new type of 2 sublattice 120 deg antiferromagnetic order in the erbium honey comb layers with an infinite rotational degeneracy. The magnetic structures were determined by powder and single crystal neutron diffraction. ErCl3 shows a transition to 3-D magnetic order at 350 mK with a k-vector of (2/3, 0, -1/12). ErBr3 and ErI3 display short-range 2-D magnetic order from 400 mK to several Kelvin, longrange 2-D order between 280 mK and 400 mK, and short-range 3-D order below 280 mK with a correlation length of 15 A and k = (1/3, 1/3, 0). The differences between ErCl3 and ErBr3/ErI3 are due to different geometrical layer stackings. For ErBr3/ErI3 a threefold ambiguity in the magnetic layer stacking causes the disorder along the c-axis. The ordered magnetic moments at saturation increase from 3.3 to 4.7 and 5.5 μB/Er3+ for ErCl3, ErBr3 and ErI3, respectively. This is the first report on magnetic structures of layer-type rare-earth trihalides. (author)

  3. Synthesis and properties of [(DMSO)2H][Ru(DMSO)2Br4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ruthenium (3) [(DMSO)2H][Ru(DMSO)2Br4] complex, structure of which is defined on the basis of the chemical analysis, IRS and ESP data, is synthesized by interaction of ruthenium tribromide with DMSO. The compound is labile in the solutions, in the DMSO solutions it transforms into the ruthenium (2) dimethylsulfoxide complexes, in the HBr solutions occurs fast deoxygeneration of coordinated DMSO and formation of the ruthenium(3) dimethylsulfide complexes, which thereafter are transformed into [RuBr6]3- ion. The ruthenium(3) dimethylsulfide is formed by interaction of ruthenium with DMSO and in thepresence of HBr at the temperature of 130 deg C

  4. Helsingin matkailullisen brändi-identiteetin vahvistuminen Helsinki-oppaan työssä

    OpenAIRE

    Riehunkangas, Juha; Oikarinen, Satu

    2010-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee Helsingin tavoittelemaa matkailubrändiä ja brändi-identiteetin vahvistumista Helsinki-oppaan työssä. Helsingin matkailustrategian 2009–2012 mukaan Helsinki tavoittelee vahvaa matkailubrändiä. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää, ovatko Helsinki-oppaiden tärkeinä pitämät ja korostamat vetovoimatekijät linjassa strategiassa määriteltyjen brändi-elementtien kanssa. Toisena tavoitteena oli selvittää Helsinki-oppaiden kiinnostus lisäkoulutukseen ja koulutusaiheisiin....

  5. Feasibility of a 81Br(ν,e-)81 Kr solar neutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper examines the feasibility of a 81Br(ν, e-)81Kr solar neutrino experiment, in order to solve the solar neutrino problem. The solar neutrino problem is where the measured solar neutrino flux on Earth is much smaller than the value calculated from the Standard model. Proposed experiments to try to resolve the mystery are described, including a bromine experiment to utilize the reaction 81Br(ν, e)81K and using Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy to count the small numbers of 81Kr atoms. (U.K.)

  6. Prévention de la maladie thromboembolique veineuse chez le brûlé

    OpenAIRE

    Siah, S.; El Farouki, A.

    2014-01-01

    Les complications thromboemboliques sont considérées comme rares chez le patient brûlé. Leur incidence varie selon les études réalisées. Les patients brûlés présentent de nombreux facteurs de risque favorisant la survenue de ces complications. Le diagnostic clinique de la thrombose veineuse profonde et de l’embolie pulmonaire reste difficile vu leur évolution infraclinique et la non spécificité des signes cliniques. L’échodoppler veineux et l’angioscanner thoracique constituent les éléments c...

  7. Investigation of the PGNAA using the LaBr3 scintillation detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favalli, A; Mehner, H-C; Ciriello, V; Pedersen, B

    2010-01-01

    The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission develops instrumentation for detection of hazardous materials. In relation to this a new experimental facility was constructed for research into methods applying the detection of characteristic gamma rays subsequent to neutron irradiation. This includes the detection of prompt gamma rays from neutron inelastic scattering and neutron capture. For this purpose the device employs LaBr(3) scintillation detectors. The paper investigates the applicability of the LaBr(3) scintillation detector to PGNAA. PMID:19884018

  8. Investigation of the PGNAA using the LaBr{sub 3} scintillation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favalli, A. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of Citizen, TP800, Via E. Fermi, 21027 Ispra (Italy)], E-mail: andrea.dr.favalli@gmail.com; Mehner, H-C.; Ciriello, V.; Pedersen, B. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of Citizen, TP800, Via E. Fermi, 21027 Ispra (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission develops instrumentation for detection of hazardous materials. In relation to this a new experimental facility was constructed for research into methods applying the detection of characteristic gamma rays subsequent to neutron irradiation. This includes the detection of prompt gamma rays from neutron inelastic scattering and neutron capture. For this purpose the device employs LaBr{sub 3} scintillation detectors. The paper investigates the applicability of the LaBr{sub 3} scintillation detector to PGNAA.

  9. D-Galacturonsäure in der nicht-enzymatischen Bräunungsreaktion

    OpenAIRE

    Bornik, Maria-Anna

    2012-01-01

    Uronsäuren sind Zuckersäuren, die im Vergleich zu reduzierenden Zuckern neben der Carbonyl-Gruppe am C-1 eine Carboxyl-Gruppe am C-6 besitzen. Sie sind Reaktionspartner in allen nicht-enzymatischen Bräunungsprozessen (Caramelisierung, Maillard-Reaktion). Über den Einfluss der Carboxyl-Gruppe auf die Abbaumechanismen und die daraus resultierenden Schlüsselintermediate ist wenig bekannt. Erste kinetische Untersuchungen zeigten aber im Vergleich zu reduzierenden Zuckern ein verstärktes Bräunungs...

  10. Novel Ionic Liquid with Both Lewis and Brønsted Acid Sites for Michael Addition

    OpenAIRE

    Runpu Shen; Xiaohua Song; Wenxin Ma; Xuejun Lao; Xiaoyue Jiang; Weidong Ye

    2011-01-01

    Ionic liquid with both Lewis and Brønsted acid sites has been synthesized and its catalytic activities for Michael addition were carefully studied. The novel ionic liquid was stable to water and could be used in aqueous solution. The molar ratio of the Lewis and Brønsted acid sites could be adjusted to match different reactions. The results showed that the novel ionic liquid was very efficient for Michael addition with good to excellent yields within several min. Operational simplicity, high ...

  11. Lapsiperheiden mielikuvat Rossosta ja asiakaslupauksien toteutuminen : bränditutkimus HOK-Elannon Rossoissa

    OpenAIRE

    Apponen, Riikka

    2010-01-01

    Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää perheellisten kuluttajien näkemyksiä ja mielikuvia Rosso-ravintolaketjun brändin tämän hetkisestä tilasta. Selvityksen avulla haluttiin saada selville, vastasiko brändi lapsiperheiden tarpeisiin ja toteutuivatko heille suunnatut asiakaslupaukset ravintolakäynnin aikana. Tutkimus toteutettiin asiakastyytyväisyyskyselynä S-ryhmän Rosso-ravintolaketjun HOK-Elannon alueella sijaitsevissa seitsemässä Rosso-ravintolassa syksyn 2010 aikana. Kohderyhmänä tutkimuk...

  12. AC Kajaanin seuralehden uudistaminen ja brändin kehittäminen

    OpenAIRE

    Kauppinen, Niina

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on kajaanilaisen jalkapalloseuran AC Kajaanin seuralehden uudistaminen ja toteuttaminen. Opinnäytetyön päätehtävänä oli tukea AC Kajaanin imagouudistusta ja olla osana sen brändin kehittämistä. Työn tarkoituksena oli tutkia ammattilaisurheiluseuran markkinointia ja brändin vaikutusta seuran markkinoinnissa sekä löytää uusia keinoja ja ideoita seuran strategisen markkinoinnin näkökulmasta. Tavoitteena oli myös auttaa markkinoinnin kautta seuran talouden kehittymistä. ...

  13. Palvelujen tuotteistaminen ja brändin hallinta sisävesiristeilyissä : Kuopion Roll Risteilyt

    OpenAIRE

    Kuosmanen, Taneli; Helminen, Juho

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli pohtia Kuopion Roll Risteilyjen kesällä 2011 uudistuneiden tai täysin uusien lisäpalvelujen toimivuutta sekä niiden vaikutusta brändiin. Toimivuutta ja brändinhallintaa pyrittiin selvittämään tutkimalla yrityksen tuotteistamisen tasoa ja tuotteistamisprosessin kulkua. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli antaa toimeksiantajalle erilaisia näkökulmia tulevaisuuden tuotekehittelyä varten. Opinnäytetyö toteutettiin käyttäen laadullisen tutkimuksen keinoja. Opinnäytet...

  14. Brändi-imagon kartoitus ja kehitys : case R/H

    OpenAIRE

    Kuusela, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä toteutettiin suomalaisen naistenvaatemerkki R/H:n kanssa yhteistyössä brändi-imagon kartoitus ja kehityssuunnitelma. Työn tavoitteena oli muodostaa selkeä kuva R/H:n brändi-identiteetistä ja sen toteutuneesta imagosta kuluttajien keskuudessa, sekä laatia tutkimustuloksiin perustuva suunnitelma tulevaisuuden imagollisista kehitysmahdollisuuksista. Työ jakautuu kahteen osaan, joista ensimmäisen, teoreettisen osuuden tavoitteena on tukea toisen osion empiiristä tutkimusta. En...

  15. Variations of the BrO/SO2 molar ratios during the 2015 Cotopaxi eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinger, Florian; Arellano, Santiago; Battaglia, Jean; Bobrowski, Nicole; Galle, Bo; Hernandez, Stephen; Hidalgo, Silvana; Hörmann, Christoph; Lübcke, Peter; Platt, Ulrich; Ruiz, Mario; Warnach, Simon; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Cotopaxi volcano is located 50 km south of Quito, the capital of Ecuador. In case of a large eruption producing lahars, these may cause damage to the inhabited areas located to the south and north of the volcano and to the local water supply and other infrastructure. After almost 140 years of relative quiescence, increasing activity is observed in seismicity and gas emissions since May 2015. During August 2015 ash and gas emissions are recorded. Cotopaxi volcano is part of the Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change (NOVAC) since 2009, thus the observations include the overall eruptive activity onset and its evolution. NOVAC regularly monitors the SO2 emissions of more than 30 volcanoes using scanning UV-spectrometers. Today, monitoring of volcanic SO2 emissions by UV-spectrometers is a widespread tool but its interpretation can be improved by additionally recording halogen/sulphur emission ratios. Recently, it has been shown that spectra from NOVAC instruments can also be used to retrieve the BrO/SO2 molar ratio by applying Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). We apply this new technique to analyse the plume composition of Cotopaxi volcano and will present time series of the BrO/SO2 ratios as monitored by the ground-based NOVAC instruments since March 2015. The SO2 column densities were below 6\\cdot1016 molec/cm^2 prior to May 2015 and up to 1.5\\cdot1018 molec/cm^2 between May and August 2015. For these periods, the BrO column densities were below the detection limit of 3\\cdot1013 molec/cm^2. After the phreatic explosions on 14.08.2015, SO2 column densities of up to 3\\cdot1018 molec/cm^2 and BrO column densities of up to 5\\cdot1014 molec/cm^2 were observed. Until December 2015 these SO2 column densities kept at about the same level but the BrO column densities increased up to 3\\cdot1014 molec/cm^2. After the phreatic explosions we find a detectable signal of BrO. Soon after the eruption the BrO/SO2 molar ratio was low as 1

  16. Holographic Properties of BR-D96N Film and Its Application in Hologram Aberration Correction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yuan(郑媛); YAO Bao-Li(姚保利); WANG Ying-Li(王英利); MENKE Neimule(门克内木乐); LEI Ming(雷铭); CHEN Guo-Fu(陈国夫); Norbert HAMPP

    2003-01-01

    A biophotochromic material, i.e., genetic mutant bacteriorhodopsin (BR-D96N), was experimentally studied on its holographic recording properties. The saturation absorption curve and the diffraction efficiency curve were measured respectively. As holographic storage application, reflection type polarization holograms were recorded on the BR-D96N film. The 173° configuration between the object and reference beams proves that the spatial resolution of the film is over 6000 lines/mm. By using phase conjugate wave of reference beam as reconstruction beam, the distorted object image introduced by the optical components and the defects in the recording medium can be well corrected.

  17. Tuntumasta tunnukseen : tekstiilimerkin logon suunnittelu ja brändäys

    OpenAIRE

    Osada, Viljami

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena on tekstiilimerkin brändäys ja tunnuksen suunnittelu. Merkin taustalla on tekstiilisuunnittelun opiskelija, jolla on olemassa oleva suunnitteluyritys. Työ tehdään toimeksiantona tälle yritykselle ja uusi merkki lanseerataan yrityksen alaisuuteen. Työ jakautuu teoriaosuuteen, jossa käsitellään brändäyksen määrittelyä ja muotibrändäyksen yksityiskohtia, sekä toiminnalliseen osuuteen, jossa toteutetaan merkille tunnus, siihen liittyvät käyntikortit, pesu- ja kokolaput s...

  18. Lessons learned from the decommissioning of the Belgian pressurized water test reactor BR3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BR3 plant was operated with the main objective of testing advanced PWR fuels under irradiation conditions similar to those encountered in large commercial PWR plants. In 1989, it was selected as one of the pilot projects of the European Commission for its R and D programme on Decommissioning of nuclear installations. With the decommissioning of the BR3 reactor, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK·CEN gained a lot of experiences in the field of decommissioning. This paper describes the main phases carried out in the decommissioning project up till now and will discuss the main lessons to learn. (author)

  19. The possibilities of application of experimental Kfk results from BR2 on SNR designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of the relevant results of the technological application for the SNR300 reactor, since the BR2 reactor has been used as a test facility for the material development. Special emphasis has been laid on the fuel pin behavior under the aspect of chemical and mechanical fuel-clad interaction and on the specification of the cladding in terms of high temperature mechanical behavior in the SNR 300 reactor. A systematic analysis of urgent research topics in BR2 test facility reactor is presented. (A.F.)

  20. Improving the radionuclide Inventory Determination of the Irradiated Graphite from BR1 in Mol

    OpenAIRE

    Nijst, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The Belgian Reactor 1 (BR1) operational since 1956 at SCK'CEN in Mol, is the oldest research reactor in Belgium. It is a graphite-moderated and air-cooled reactor fuelled with natural metallic uranium. The active core consists of a 6.66 x 6.84 x 6.84 m3 graphite matrix, built by stacking squared-base prismatic graphite blocks (~14500), yielding a total mass of 492 tons. The BR1 is supposed to continue its operation for several decades; however it is necessary to already make studies abou...

  1. Arkkitehtisuunnittelu Pakkanen Oy:n brändin suunnittelu ja toteutus

    OpenAIRE

    Tukiainen, Jouni

    2013-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena on visuaalisen identiteetin suunnittelu ja toteutus Arkkitehtisuunnittelu Pakkanen Oy:lle. Arkkitehtisuunnittelu Pakkanen Oy on pieni arkkitehtitoimisto Kouvolassa. Suunnittelutyön tavoitteena oli luoda yritykselle kilpailijoista erottuva, yhtenäinen visuaalinen identiteetti. Visuaalinen uudistus tehtiin, koska yrityksellä ei ole aikaisemmin ollut selkeää yritysilmettä. Ilmeen uudistus sisältää brändiohjeiston, johon sisältyy suppea brändistrategia. Suun...

  2. Liquid-vapor heterogeneous equilibrium in the UF6-IF5-BrF3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid-vapor phase equilibria in the uranium hexafluoride - iodine pentafluoride - bromine trifluoride system at 80 deg C were studied based on experimental data. Phase diagram describing the change in saturated vapor composition depending on liquid composition was plotted. Based on the obtained experimental and calculated data, distillation separation of the above system components was analyzed. It is pointed out that diagrams of the UF6-IF5-BrF3 system can be used for calculation of other technological processes necessitating data on the composition of vapor phase in equilibrium with condensed system UF6-IF5-BrF3 of any composition

  3. Very fast doped LaBr.sub.3 scintillators and time-of-flight PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kanai S.

    2006-10-31

    The present invention concerns very fast scintillator materials capable of resolving the position of an annihilation event within a portion of a human body cross-section. In one embodiment, the scintillator material comprises LaBr.sub.3 doped with cerium. Particular attention is drawn to LaBr.sub.3 doped with a quantity of Ce that is chosen for improving the timing properties, in particular the rise time and resultant timing resolution of the scintillator, and locational capabilities of the scintillator.

  4. Turbo på udvikling af 3. generations SOFC brændselsceller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderberg Petersen, L.

    2006-01-01

    Højteknologifonden har bevilliget 30 mio. kr. til et projekt Risø skal gennemføre sammen med Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S, Amminex A/S og DTU. Målet er at udvikle 3. generations SOFC brændselscellesystemer.......Højteknologifonden har bevilliget 30 mio. kr. til et projekt Risø skal gennemføre sammen med Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S, Amminex A/S og DTU. Målet er at udvikle 3. generations SOFC brændselscellesystemer....

  5. Futebol et hiérarchies urbaines au Brésil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Théry

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Le football n’est pas seulement la passion nationale du Brésil, il peut être aussi un bon indicateur des hiérarchies urbaines du pays. Les classements disponibles sur le site de la fédération brésilienne de futebol peuvent être mis en rapport avec d’autres données pour vérifier la corrélation entre les performances sportives des clubs et le degré de centralité des villes où ils sont basés.

  6. Three new chalcohalides, Ba4Ge2PbS8Br2, Ba4Ge2PbSe8Br2 and Ba4Ge2SnS8Br2: Syntheses, crystal structures, band gaps, and electronic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Three new chalcohalides: Ba4Ge2PbS8Br2, Ba4Ge2PbSe8Br2 and Ba4Ge2SnS8Br2 have been synthesized. • The MQ5Br octahedra and GeQ4 tetrahedra form a three-dimensional framework with Ba2+ in the channels. • Band Gaps and electronic structures of the three compounds were studied. - Abstract: Single crystals of three new chalcohalides: Ba4Ge2PbS8Br2, Ba4Ge2PbSe8Br2 and Ba4Ge2SnS8Br2 have been synthesized for the first time. These isostructural compounds crystallize in the orthorhombic space group Pnma. In the structure, the tetra-valent Ge atom is tetrahedrally coordinated with four Q (Q = S, Se) atoms, while the bi-valent M atom (M = Pb, Sn) is coordinated with an obviously distorted octahedron of five Q (Q = S, Se) atoms and one Br atom, showing the stereochemical activity of the ns2 lone pair electron. The MQ5Br (M = Sn, Pb; Q = S, Se) distorted octahedra and the GeQ4 (Q = S, Se) tetrahedra are connected to each other to form a three-dimensional framework with channels occupied by Ba2+ cations. Based on UV–vis–NIR spectroscopy measurements and the electronic structure calculations, Ba4Ge2PbS8Br2, Ba4Ge2PbSe8Br2 and Ba4Ge2SnS8Br2 have indirect band gaps of 2.054, 1.952, and 2.066 eV respectively, which are mainly determined by the orbitals from the Ge, M and Q atoms (M = Pb, Sn; Q = S, Se)

  7. Sarcoide equino associado ao papilomavírus bovino BR-UEL-4 Equine sarcoid associated with bovine papillomavirus BR-UEL-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Leite dos Anjos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Um equino, sem raça definida, macho com três anos de idade apresentou múltiplos nódulos na pele, em diversas regiões do corpo. As lesões localizavam-se predominantemente nos lábios, nas bochechas, na região submandibular e na região inguinal direita. Os tumores caracterizavam-se como sarcoides dos tipos misto, fibroblástico, verrucoso e oculto. Histologicamente apresentaram proliferação de fibroblastos dérmicos, muitas vezes ulcerado, com ou sem hiperplasia pseudoepiteliomatosa da epiderme e formação de pequenos grupos isolados de fibroblastos neoplásicos na derme superficial. Três amostras de tecido foram submetidas à extração de DNA e amplificação por PCR com oligonucleotídeos iniciadores genéricos direcionados para uma região interna do gene L1 dos papilomavírus. Os produtos resultantes da amplificação de duas amostras foram sequenciados e demonstraram identidade de 99% com o papilomavírus bovino (BPV BR-UEL-4. Essa é a primeira descrição da infecção de equinos, bem como de sua associação com sarcoide pelo BPV BR-UEL-4, um suposto novo tipo de BPV identificado recentemente no Brasil a partir de papilomas cutâneos em bovinos.A 3-year-old, mixed breed, male horse showed multiple nodules in different areas of the skin. Lesions occurred predominantly on the lips, cheeks, and submandibular and right inguinal regions. The nodules were characterized as mixed, fibroblastic, verrucous and occult types of sarcoid. Histologically there was proliferation of dermal fibroblasts, with or without pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia of the epidermis (frequently ulcerated, and formation of small isolated groups of neoplastic fibroblasts in the superficial dermis. Three tissue samples were submitted to DNA extraction and PCR amplification with generic primers for the internal region of the papillomavirus L1 gene. The amplified products from two samples were sequenced and showed 99% identity with the bovine papillomavirus (BPV

  8. Immunity to Salmonella typhimurium infection in C3H/HeJ and C3H/HeNCrlBR mice: studies with an aromatic-dependent live S. typhimurium strain as a vaccine.

    OpenAIRE

    Killar, L M; Eisenstein, T K

    1985-01-01

    Immunization with avirulent Salmonella typhimurium strain SL3235, a smooth, aroA- derivative, was shown to induce high levels of resistance to challenge with virulent S. typhimurium in innately hypersusceptible C3H/HeJ mice and inherently resistant C3H/HeNCrlBR mice. Strain SL3235 is one of a class of avirulent aroA- derivatives made from various strains and species of Salmonella that are being considered as vaccine candidates for cattle and humans. This paper supports their efficacy and pote...

  9. Comparison and evaluation of satellite derived precipitation products for hydrological modeling of the Zambezi River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Cohen Liechti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the African Dams ProjecT (ADAPT, an integrated water resource management study in the Zambezi Basin is currently under development. In view of the sparse gauging network for rainfall monitoring, the observations from spaceborne instrumentation currently produce the only available rainfall data for a large part of the basin. <br>> Three operational and acknowledged high resolution satellite derived estimates: the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission product 3B42 (TRMM 3B42, the Famine Early Warning System product 2.0 (FEWS RFE2.0 and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Climate Prediction Centre (NOAA/CPC morphing technique (CMORPH are analyzed in terms of spatial and temporal repartition of the precipitations. They are compared to ground data for the wet seasons of the years 2003 to 2009 on a point to pixel basis at daily, 10-daily and monthly time steps and on a pixel to pixel basis for the wet seasons of the years 2003 to 2007 at monthly time steps. <br>> The general North-South gradient of precipitation is captured by all the analyzed products. Regarding the spatial heterogeneity, FEWS pixels are much more inter-correlated than TRMM and CMORPH pixels. For a rainfall homogeneity threshold criterion of 0.5 global mean correlation coefficient, the area of each subbasin should not exceed a circle of 2.5° latitude/longitude radius for FEWS and a circle of 0.75° latitude/longitude radius for TRMM and CMORPH considering rectangular mesh. <br>> In terms of reliability, the correspondence of all estimates with ground data increases with the time step chosen for the analysis. The volume ratio computation indicates that CMORPH is overestimating by nearly 1.5 times the rainfall. The statistics of TRMM and FEWS estimates show quite similar results. <br>> Due to the its lower inter-correlation and longer data set, the TRMM 3B42 product is chosen as input for the hydraulic-hydrologic model of the basin. <br>

  10. Synthesis and Fluorescent Property of Pyrazoline Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆蓓琼; 章建民; 王明剑; 邹元海; 陈晓藿

    2012-01-01

    A series of fluorinated pyrazoline derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of fluorinated chalcone with hy- drazine ArNHNH2 (Ar=4-BrC6F4, 4-CIC6H4, C6Hs, 4-CH3C6H4 and 4-CH3OC6H4), The structures of all these compounds were fully supported by their spectroscopic data and one of products was further confirmed by X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. The capability of fluorinated triaryl-2-pyrazolines to detect metal cations was in- vestigated, by monitoring changes in their fluorescence spectra in the presence of Cd^2+, Co^2+, Cu^2+, Mn^2+, Ni^2+ and Zn^2+.

  11. TRIP-Br2 promotes oncogenesis in nude mice and is frequently overexpressed in multiple human tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peh Bee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the TRIP-Br/SERTAD family of mammalian transcriptional coregulators have recently been implicated in E2F-mediated cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis. We, herein, focus on the detailed functional characterization of the least understood member of the TRIP-Br/SERTAD protein family, TRIP-Br2 (SERTAD2. Methods Oncogenic potential of TRIP-Br2 was demonstrated by (1 inoculation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts, which were engineered to stably overexpress ectopic TRIP-Br2, into athymic nude mice for tumor induction and (2 comprehensive immunohistochemical high-throughput screening of TRIP-Br2 protein expression in multiple human tumor cell lines and human tumor tissue microarrays (TMAs. Clinicopathologic analysis was conducted to assess the potential of TRIP-Br2 as a novel prognostic marker of human cancer. RNA interference of TRIP-Br2 expression in HCT-116 colorectal carcinoma cells was performed to determine the potential of TRIP-Br2 as a novel chemotherapeutic drug target. Results Overexpression of TRIP-Br2 is sufficient to transform murine fibroblasts and promotes tumorigenesis in nude mice. The transformed phenotype is characterized by deregulation of the E2F/DP-transcriptional pathway through upregulation of the key E2F-responsive genes CYCLIN E, CYCLIN A2, CDC6 and DHFR. TRIP-Br2 is frequently overexpressed in both cancer cell lines and multiple human tumors. Clinicopathologic correlation indicates that overexpression of TRIP-Br2 in hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with a worse clinical outcome by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Small interfering RNA-mediated (siRNA knockdown of TRIP-Br2 was sufficient to inhibit cell-autonomous growth of HCT-116 cells in vitro. Conclusion This study identifies TRIP-Br2 as a bona-fide protooncogene and supports the potential for TRIP-Br2 as a novel prognostic marker and a chemotherapeutic drug target in human cancer.

  12. Caveats for poly(methimazolyl)borate chemistry: the novel inorganic heterocycles [H2C(mt)2BR2]Cl (mt = methimazolyl; BR2 = BH2, BH(mt), 9-BBN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Ian R; Hill, Anthony F; Humphrey, Elizabeth R; Smith, Matthew K; Tshabang, Never; Willis, Anthony C

    2004-08-21

    Whilst frequently used for reactions of poly(methimazolyl)borates, dichloromethane is not an innocent solvent, but rather slowly forms heterocyclic salts [H(2)C(mt)(2)BR(2)]Cl, three examples of which (BR(2) = BH(2), BH(mt), 9-borabicyclononyl) have been structurally characterised to confirm the unprecedented B(NCS)(2)C connectivity. PMID:15306929

  13. Improving the Photoluminescence Properties of Perovskite CH3NH3PbBr3-xClx Films by Modulating Organic Cation and Chlorine Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Yunlin; Zhang, Ao; Ke, Xiaohan

    2016-05-25

    The photoluminescence (PL) properties of inorganic-organic perovskites can be drastically changed by tuning the halogen composition, especially the Cl content. However, our research demonstrated that in addition to the influence of Cl concentration, the PL emission intensity of CH3NH3PbBr3 strongly depends on the content of CH3NH3Br in the coating solution. The effects of CH3NH3Br and Cl concentrations on the PL properties of CH3NH3PbBr3-xClx were investigated. We found that a strong PL emission intensity of CH3NH3PbBr3 can be obtained from solutions with a high CH3NH3Br concentration. The PL emission intensities of CH3NH3PbBr3-xClx films were enhanced by adjusting the molar ratio of PbBr to PbCl2 only in a highly concentrated CH3NH3Br environment. Moreover, it was found that an optimum CH3NH3Br/PbBr2/PbCl2 ratio in the precursor solutions can be used to obtain the strongest PL emission intensity of CH3NH3PbBr3-xClx films. Further studies revealed that both CH3NH3Br and Cl concentrations significantly influence the CH3NH3PbBr3-xClx films evolution, which affects their PL properties. PMID:27163386

  14. Derivation and assessment of a mixed layer sub-mesoscale model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Canuto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Present studies of mixed layer sub-mesoscales rely primarily on high resolution numerical simulations. Only few of these studies have attempted to parameterize the ensuing buoyancy submesoscale fluxes in terms of the resolved fields so that they can be used in OGCMs (ocean circulation models that do not resolve sub-mesoscales. In reality, OGCMs used in climate studies include a carbon-cycle which also requires the flux of a passive tracer. <br>> The goal of this work is to derive and assess a parameterization of the submesoscale vertical flux of an arbitrary tracer in terms of the resolved fields. The parameterization is obtained by first solving the dynamic equations governing the velocity and tracer fields that describe sub-mesoscales and then constructing second-order moments such as the tracer fluxes. A key ingredient of the present approach is the modeling of the non-linear terms that enter the dynamic equations of the velocity and tracer fields, a problem that we discuss in two Appendices. <br>> The derivation of the sub-mesoscale tracer vertical flux is analytical and can be followed in detail since no additional information is required. The external forcing includes both baroclinic instabilities and wind stresses. <br>> We compare the model results with data from sub-mesoscale resolving simulations available in the literature which are of two kinds, one with no wind (baroclinic instabilities only and the other with both baroclinic instabilities and wind. In both cases, the model results reproduce the simulation data satisfactorily.

  15. Intercomparison of BrO and O3 vertical distributions retrieved from SMILES and SCIAMACHY measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanov, Alexei; Hendrick, Francois; Kasai, Yasuko; Mieruch, Sebastian; Sinnhuber, Bjoern-Martin; Baron, Philippe; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Burrows, John P.; van Roozendael, Michel; von Savigny, Christian; Shiotani, Masato; Suzuki, Makoto

    Whereas the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIA-MACHY) launched on board ENVISAT in March 2002 provides now almost eight years of global measurements of various atmospheric species, the Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) is a new instrument put to operation on board the International Space Station (ISS) in October 2009. In this study we present first results obtained from the SMILES instrument and perform a comparison to SCIAMACHY and some other instru-ments. We consider vertical distributions of two atmospheric species which can be retrieved from measurements from both instruments, namely, bromine monoxide (BrO) and ozone. As there are a lot of space-borne instruments providing vertical distributions of ozone this species is used to control the overall retrieval quality of SMILES and to analyze the consistency be-tween ozone datasets from different space-borne instruments. Despite its major role in ozone depletion, measurements of stratospheric BrO are still relatively sparse and a need in addi-tional observations to improve our knowledge of the stratospheric bromine balance still exists. A new important source of information on the stratospheric BrO is potentially provided by the SMILES instrument. In this study we perform a quality assessment of BrO vertical pro-files obtained from SMILES comparing these to results from SCIAMACHY and ground-based UV-visible observations.

  16. Alvarlega veikir sjúklingar á bráðamóttöku

    OpenAIRE

    Kristín Erla Sigurðardóttir 1983

    2016-01-01

    Alvarlega veikir sjúklingar á bráðamóttöku er fjölbreyttur hópur og getur ástand þeirra breyst fyrirvaralaust. Alvarlega veikir sjúklingar dvelja oft dágóðan tíma á bráðamóttöku á meðan verið er að meta ástand þeirra, veita fyrstu meðferð og taka ákvarðanir um mögulega innlögn á gjörgæslu. Dvalartími á bráðamóttöku er mislangur og ýmislegt tengt ástandi sjúklinga, meðferð þeirra og aðstæðum á bráðamóttöku sem hefur áhrif á dvalartímann. Tilgangur verkefnisins var að skoða hvort að líkamle...

  17. Spin-orbit relaxation kinetics of Br(4 2P1/2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ray O.; Perram, Glen P.; Roh, Won B.

    1996-05-01

    Pulsed and steady-state photolysis techniques have been employed to measure the rate coefficients for collisional deactivation of the spin-orbit excited state of atomic bromine, Br(4 2P1/2). Pulsed lifetime studies for quenching by Br2 and CO2 yielded absolute rate coefficients at room temperature of kBr2=1.2±0.1×10-12 and kCO2=1.5±0.3×10-11 cm3/molecule s. The rate coefficients for quenching by rare gases, N2, O2, NO, NO2, N2O, CO, CO2, COS, SO2, SF6, CF4, CH4, H2S, H2, D2, HBr, HCl, and HI, relative to that for Br2 were determined in a steady-state photolysis experiment. Correlation of the deactivation probabilities with energy defect for the case of electronic-to-vibrational energy transfer is demonstrated.

  18. Effect of TlBr crystal impurities for gamma-ray detector application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Robinson A. dos; Mesquita, Carlos H. de; Costa, Fabio E. da; Martins, Joao F. Trencher; Marcondes, Renata M.; Hamada, Margarida M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Thallium bromide (TlBr) is a semiconductor compound with a high atomic number and wide band gap, being a very promising material to be used as room temperature radiation detectors. The performance of a radiation detector depends on several factors, such as, the carrier lifetime, the mobility, the crystallographic imperfections and the impurity concentrations of the detector. These factors may play an important role in the final performance of radiation semiconductor detectors. The TlBr crystal purity is a crucial factor for its optimal performance as a radiation detector. In this work, the commercial TlBr salts were used as the raw material for crystal growths. To reduce impurities, these salts were purified by the repeated Bridgman growth method. To evaluate the purification efficiency, measurements of the impurity concentration were made after each growth, analyzing the trace impurities by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). A compartmental model defined by linear differential equations was proposed to calculate the impurity migration in the crystal during the growth. It is useful for predicting the repetitions number of Bridgman growth needed to achieve a desirable concentration value. To evaluate the crystal used as a radiation semiconductor detector, measurements of its resistivity and gamma-ray spectroscopy were carried out. The radiation response depended on the crystal purity. The repeated Bridgman technique improved the TlBr crystal quality used as a radiation semiconductor detector. (author)

  19. Tetracycline resistance element of pBR322 mediates potassium transport.

    OpenAIRE

    Dosch, D C; Salvacion, F F; Epstein, W

    1984-01-01

    The tetracycline resistance element of plasmid pBR322 partially complements the potassium transport defect of Escherichia coli K-12 mutants having markedly impaired K+ transport. The plasmid increases K+ transport. The Tn10 element does not result in increased transport, demonstrating that the effect is not general for elements that increase resistance to tetracycline.

  20. Approche d'un grand espace: la maille municipale des Cerrados brésiliens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe WANIEZ

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available L'espace des Cerrados brésiliens est en cours de colonisation. Le système d'information SISECSO facilite l'analyse des transformations économiques et sociales de ce territoire. Le film de la formation de la maille municipale est une première approche originale.

  1. Dihydroxyacetone (DHA) monomer complexes with CaBr2 and CdCl2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rlepokura, Katarzyna; Lis, Tadeusz

    2008-03-01

    Two hydrated complexes of monomeric dihydroxyacetone (DHA; the simplest ketose), viz. the calcium bromide complex bis(mu-dihydroxyacetone)bis[tetraaquacalcium(II)] tetrabromide (isomorphous with the chloride compound reported previously), [Ca(2)(C(3)H(6)O(3))(2)(H(2)O)(8)]Br(4), (2e), and the cadmium chloride complex poly[[bis(mu-dihydroxyacetone)bis[bis(dihydroxyacetone)cadmium(II)

  2. Turbidimetric behavior of Butadiene Rubber (BR) solutions in toluene and dichloromethane after heating at open air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the turbidimetric behavior of Butadiene Rubber BR solutions, a synthetic rubber, in two solvents (toluene and dichloromethane), after heating at open air till 180 Deg Celsius for optimal polymer cracking conditions. Concentration, solvent and temperature effects have been studied using methanol as precipitant. Butadiene rubber exhibits a high sensitivity to autoxidation with high tendency to reticulation.

  3. Supersymmetric WKB Approximation of Anharmonic Potential V(r)=ar2+br-4+cr-6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Shang-Wu; MIAO Chun-Hui; GU Zhi-Yu

    2006-01-01

    This article uses the supersymmetric WKB approximation to obtain the approximate energy levels and wave functions of the anharmonic potential V(r) = ar2 + br-4 + cr-6 in order to tesify the correctness between [Phys.Lett. A 170 (1992) 335] and the paper written by M. Landtman [Phys. Lett. A 175 (1993) 147].

  4. Installation of a neutral particle analyzer in the TCA-BR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutral particle analyzer will be installed in the TCA-BR tokamak to measure the ion temperature profile and distribution function. This diagnostic was originally built in Frascati, Italy, for operation in the JET tokamak in Culham, England. The equipment was donated to our Plasma Group and is described below. (author). 2 refs., 2 figs

  5. Installation of a neutral particle analyzer in the TCA-BR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, I.H.; Nascimento, I.C.; Degasperi, F.T. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Oliveira Pauletti, R.M. de [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    1995-12-31

    A neutral particle analyzer will be installed in the TCA-BR tokamak to measure the ion temperature profile and distribution function. This diagnostic was originally built in Frascati, Italy, for operation in the JET tokamak in Culham, England. The equipment was donated to our Plasma Group and is described below. (author). 2 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Hydrothermal Preparation of Visible-Light-Driven N-Br-Codoped TiO2 Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a facile hydrothermal method, N-Br-codoped TiO2 photocatalyst that had intense absorption in visible region was prepared at low temperature (100°C, through a direct reaction between nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 solution and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS showed the existence of N-Ti-N, O-Ti-N-R, Ti3+ (attribute to the doped Br atoms by charge compensation, and TiOxNy species, indicating the successful codoping of N and Br atoms, which were substituted for lattice oxygen without any influence on the crystalline phase of TiO2. In contrast to the N-doped sample, the N-Br-codoped TiO2 photocatalyst could more readily photodegrade methylene blue (MB under visible-light irradiation. The visible-light catalytic activity of thus-prepared photocatalyst resulted from the synergetic effect of the doped nitrogen and bromine, which not only gave high absorbance in the visible-light range, but also reduced electron-hole recombination rate.

  7. Direct reduction of some benzoic acids to alcohols via NaBH4-Br2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Direct reduction of seven benzoic acids to alcohols via sodium borohydride-bromine (NaBH4-Br2) reagent was developed. The isolated yields for the seven acids to reduce reached 60.6-90.1 %. This new synthesis route has the advantages of simple of application, low cost, mild nature, and satisfactory yields.

  8. Mechanical testing and microstructural characterization of pressure vessel at decommissioned Belgian BR3 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper was a discussion of a proposal to perform mechanical testing and microstructural characterization of the annealed reactor vessel of the Belgian BR-3 reactor. Motivation for this effort was discussed, and a preliminary cost estimate for some of the tasks was also presented

  9. First Observation of the Rotational Spectrum of the Bromomethyl Radical, CH2Br

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bailleux, S.; Dréan, P.; Godon, M.; Zelinger, Zdeněk; Duan, CH.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 6, - (2004), s. 3049-3051. ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3040101; GA AV ČR IAA1010110 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : rotational spectrum * bromomethyl radical * CH2Br Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.076, year: 2004

  10. Luminescence, autolocalization and decay of excitons on defects in ionic crystals (CsBr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review is made of investigations on specific features of excitons in alkali haloid crystals: existence of free and autolocalized excitons, autolocalizing excitons with defects production, defects recombination with luminescent exciton production, cubic crystals (mainly CsBr) taken as an exsample

  11. Effects of Phosphorus on Morphology of Hydroponically Grown Scaevola aemula R. Br. "Whirlwind Blue"

    Science.gov (United States)

    The popular hanging basket plant, fan-flower (Scaevola aemula R. Br. ‘Whirlwind Blue’), is cultivated from low phosphorus soils and requires minimal supplemental phosphorus. To accurately evaluate the effects of phosphorus on morphology, fan-flower was grown hydroponically in order to maintain conc...

  12. Population Diagnostics of a Hot NaBr Plasma by Detailed Simulation of Absorption Spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Feng-Tao; ZENG Jiao-Long; YUAN Jian-Min

    2006-01-01

    @@ The experimental absorption spectra of a hot NaBr plasma are theoretically studied by using a detailed level accounting model The sodium and bromine absorption spectra have been well reproduced respectively in the approach of local thermodynamic equilibrium, in which the populations between and within ions are obtained by solving the Saha-Boltzmann equation.

  13. Investigation of LaBr3:Ce probe for gamma-ray spectroscopy and dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghraby, Ahmed M.; Alzimami, K. S.; Alkhorayef, M. A.; Alsafi, K. G.; Ma, A.; Alfuraih, A. A.; Alghamdi, A. A.; Spyrou, N. M.

    2014-02-01

    The main thrust of this work is the investigation of performance of relatively new commercial LaBr3:Ce probe (Inspector 1000™ with LaBr3:Ce crystal) for gamma-ray spectroscopy and dosimetry measurements in comparison to LaCl3:Ce and NaI:Tl scintillators. The crystals were irradiated by a wide range of energies (57Co, 22Na, 18F, 137Cs and 60Co). The study involved recording of detected spectra and measurement of energy resolution, photopeak efficiency, internal radioactivity measurements as well as dose rate. The Monte Carlo package, Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) was used to validate the experiments. Overall results showed very good agreement between the measurements and the simulations. The LaBr3:Ce crystal has excellent energy resolution, energy resolutions of (3.37±0.05)% and (2.98±0.07)% for a 137Cs 662 keV and a 60Co 1332 keV gamma-ray point sources respectively, were recorded. The disadvantage of the lanthanum halide scintillators is their internal radioactivity. Inspector 1000™ with LaBr3:Ce scintillator has shown an accurate and quick dose measurements at Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Units which allows accurate assessment of the radiation dose received by staff members compared to the use of electronic personal dosimeters (EPD).

  14. Brüssel ootab Eestilt rahastamisgarantiid / Maria-Elisa Rannajõe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rannajõe, Maria-Elisa

    2007-01-01

    Seirekomisjon "Euroopa kultuuripealinn 2011" ootab Eesti valitsuselt kinnitust kultuuripealinna projekti rahastamislubaduse kehtivusele. Projekti rahastab ühe kolmandiku ulatuses Tallinn, ühe kolmandiku osas Eesti riik, ühe kolmandiku moodustab sihtasutuse Tallinn 2011 omatulu. Komisjoni kohtumisest Brüsselis

  15. Impacts of Recent Perennial Sea Ice Reduction on BrO Observations at Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, P.; Simpson, W. R.; Donohoue, D.; Nghiem, S. V.; Friess, U.; Platt, U.

    2013-12-01

    Polar sunrise in the Arctic has been associated with production of reactive halogens from sea salt(e.g. Br, BrO). While effects of these halogen species are well known(e.g. ozone depletion, mercury deposition), their production is not fully understood, but thought to be linked to heterogeneous chemistry taking place on saline ice surfaces(e.g saline snow, first year sea ice). Given the recent decline of perennial sea ice in the Arctic, it is imperative to understand the role of younger, more saline, first year ice in halogen activation processes. We used multiple axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy(MAX-DOAS) at Barrow, Alaska to observe BrO during the spring/early summer of 2008,2009,2012, and 2013. While average BrO boundary layer vertical column densities(BL-VCD) agreed within error during 2008 and 2009, the average observed BL-VCD doubled from 1e13 mol/cm^2 in 2008 and 2009, to 2e13 mol/cm^2 in 2012. We explore potential explanations for this observed increase using satellite maps of synoptic sea ice classes, MODIS imagery of local sea ice features, and back trajectory modelling. Potential impacts of the 2012 record minimum sea ice extent on observed halogen activation during the spring of 2013 are also discussed.

  16. Estimation of chromatographic lipophilicity of some D-homo androstene derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perišić-Janjić Nada U.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR method was applied to study the chromatographic behaviour of D-homo-androstene derivatives 1-7. Retention constants (RM 0 of the analysed derivatives were determined by reversed-phase high-performance thin-layer chromatography (RP HPTLC on C18 plates by using four mobile phase mixtures: methanol-water, acetone-water, acetonitrile-water, and dioxane-water. Correlation analysis based on multiple regression method was applied in order to model chromatographic retention by means of nine different lipophilicity descriptors (logP. The developed QSRR models were cross-validated and high-quality validation parameters were obtained by leave-one-out method. It was found that the derived QSRR models have a good predictive ability. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172012 i br. 172014

  17. Inhibitory role of TRIP-Br1 oncoprotein in hypoxia-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengping; Jung, Samil; Yang, Young; Kim, Keun-Il; Lim, Jong-Seok; Cheon, Chung-Il; Lee, Myeong-Sok

    2016-06-01

    TRIP-Br1 oncoprotein is known to be involved in many vital cellular functions. In this study, we examined the role of TRIP-Br1 in hypoxia-induced cell death. Exposure to the overcrowded and CoCl2-induced hypoxic conditions increased TRIP-Br1 expression at the protein level in six breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, MDA-MB-231, T47D, Hs578D, BT549, and MDA-MB-435) but resulted in no significant change in three normal cell lines (MCF10A, MEF and NIH3T3). Our result revealed that CoCl2-induced hypoxia stimulated apoptosis and autophagy, in which TRIP-Br1 expression was found to be upregulated. Interestingly, TRIP-Br1 silencing in the MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells accelerated apoptosis and destabilization of XIAP under the CoCl2-induced hypoxic condition, implying that TRIP-Br1 may render cancer cells resistant to apoptosis through the stabilization of XIAP. We also propose that TRIP-Br1 seems to be upregulated at least partly as a result of the inhibition of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and the overexpression of HIF-1α. In conclusion, our findings suggest that TRIP-Br1 functions as an oncogenic protein by providing cancer cells resistance to the hypoxia-induced cell death. PMID:27035851

  18. The cutworm Peridroma saucia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) supports growth and transport of pBR322-bearing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J L; Porteous, L A; Wood, N D

    1989-09-01

    Variegated cutworms were exposed to bean plants in microcosms sprayed with pBR322-carrying strains of Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella planticola, and Erwinia herbicola. The three bacterial species exhibited differential survival on leaves, in soil, and in guts and fecal pellets (frass) of the insects. High numbers of Enterobacter cloacae(pBR322) were detected in all samples, while the other species were unable to establish residence in the insect. To assess the impact of this colonization on site-to-site transport of microorganisms, larvae were fed plants that had been sprayed with the bacteria and then were transferred to uninoculated plants. Cutworms were efficient carriers of Enterobacter cloacae(pBR322), as indicated by its rapid appearance on uninoculated leaves and continued persistence in the insects for 3 days after transfer. Few Erwinia herbicola(pBR322) and K. planticola(pBR322) were obtained from larvae after transfer, although up to 10(3) CFU/g were detected in soil and on plants. Differences in bacterial survival and growth were confirmed by incubating frass overnight and observing the change in population numbers. The proportion of total samples showing at least a 25-fold increase during incubation was 68% for Enterobacter cloacae(pBR322), 39% for K. planticola(pBR322), and 0% for Erwinia herbicola(pBR322). Our results emphasize the role that cutworms and possibly other insects have in persistence and growth of microorganisms in the environment. PMID:2802606

  19. Tartu ülikooli Vene ajaloo professor Alexander Brückner (1834-1896) / Tiit Rosenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rosenberg, Tiit, 1946-

    2004-01-01

    Alexander Brückneri elust, vaadetest, loomingust ja perekonnast. Alexander Brücknerist kui Õpetatud Eesti Seltsi liikmest. Tartu Ülikooli vene ajaloo õppejõududest. Lühidalt Tartust pärit vene ajaloo uurijast Ernst Adolf Herrmannist

  20. Chemical effects of the radioactive decay 7677Kr→7677Br reactions of recoil bromine in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes the chemical reactions of 76Br and 77Br recoil species, formed by radioactive decay of 76Kr and 77Kr, with various gaseous compounds. Due to differences in decay energy and decay mode the resulting 76Br and 77Br isotopes obtain different kinetic energies and carry different charges; 76Kr decays completely via electron capture and the resulting 76Br is formed with a multiple positive charge and a kinetic energy of 7.2 eV at the most. 77Kr decays for only 16% via electron capture, resulting in 77Brsup(n+) ions with a maximal kinetic energy of 56.9 eV. 84% of the 77Kr decays via #betta#+ particle emission, which leads to 77Br species, that are mainly negative or uncharged and that possess a maximal kinetic energy of 36.4 eV. The aim of this study was to explore whether these initial differences in charge and kinetic energy are reflected in the products, formed after chemical reactions of 76Br and 77Br. (Auth.)

  1. Manganese dioxide causes spurious gold values in flame atomic-absorption readings from HBr-Br2 digestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    False readings, apparently caused by the presence of high concentrations of manganese dioxide, have been observed in our current flame atomic-absorption procedure for the determination of gold. After a hydrobromic acid (HBr)-bromine (Br2) leach, simply heating the sample to boiling to remove excess Br2 prior to extraction with methyl-isobutyl-ketone (MIBK) eliminates these false readings. ?? 1981.

  2. Preparation of n.c.a. [18F]-CH2BrF via aminopolyether supported nucleophilic substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complex of the macrocyclic aminopolyether Kryptofix 2.2.2. and potassium carbonate was used to synthesize the positron emission tomography radiopharmaceutical, [18F]-CH2BrF, from dibromomethane. At the no-carrier-added level the nucleophilic 18F-for-Br exchange gives rise to a corrected radiochemical yield up to 62%. (author)

  3. Interest rate derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikkel

    This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered.......This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered....

  4. Suppression of Rapidly Progressive Mouse Glomerulonephritis with the Non-Steroidal Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonist BR-4628.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Y Ma

    Full Text Available Steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs are effective in the treatment of kidney disease; however, the side effect of hyperkalaemia, particularly in the context of renal impairment, is a major limitation to their clinical use. Recently developed non-steroidal MRAs have distinct characteristics suggesting that they may be superior to steroidal MRAs. Therefore, we explored the benefits of a non-steroidal MRA in a model of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis.Accelerated anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM glomerulonephritis was induced in groups of C57BL/6J mice which received no treatment, vehicle or a non-steroidal MRA (BR-4628, 5mg/kg/bid from day 0 until being killed on day 15 of disease. Mice were examined for renal injury.Mice with anti-GBM glomerulonephritis which received no treatment or vehicle developed similar disease with severe albuminuria, impaired renal function, glomerular tuft damage and crescents in 40% of glomeruli. In comparison, mice which received BR-4628 displayed similar albuminuria, but had improved renal function, reduced severity of glomerular tuft lesions and a 50% reduction in crescents. The protection seen in BR-4628 treated mice was associated with a marked reduction in glomerular macrophages and T-cells and reduced kidney gene expression of proinflammatory (CCL2, TNF-α, IFN-γ and profibrotic molecules (collagen I, fibronectin. In addition, treatment with BR-4626 did not cause hyperkalaemia or increase urine Na+/K+ excretion (a marker of tubular dysfunction.The non-steroidal MRA (BR-4628 provided substantial suppression of mouse crescentic glomerulonephritis without causing tubular dysfunction. This finding warrants further investigation of non-steroidal MRAs as a therapy for inflammatory kidney diseases.

  5. Conductivity studies of biopolymer electrolytes based on chitosan incorporated with NH4Br

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A polymer electrolyte system based on chitosan complexed with ammonium bromide (NH4Br) salt was prepared by the solution cast technique. 30 wt% NH4Br added electrolyte gave a room temperature conductivity of (4.38 ± 1.26) × 10−7 S cm−1 and increased to (2.15 ± 0.47) × 10−4 S cm−1 with addition of 40 wt% glycerol. The dependence of the conductivity on temperature proves that both chitosan–NH4Br and chitosan–NH4Br–glycerol systems are Arrhenian. The activation energy (Ea) value for 70 wt% chitosan–30 wt% NH4Br film is 0.31 eV and the Ea value for 42 wt% chitosan–18 wt% NH4Br–40 wt% glycerol film is 0.20 eV. The carboxamide band at 1640 cm−1 and the amine band at 1549 cm−1 in the spectrum of pure chitosan film shifted to 1617 and 1516 cm−1, respectively, in the spectrum of 70 wt% chitosan–30 wt% NH4Br film, indicating the occurrence of complexation between polymer and salt. The band at 1024 cm−1 in the pure chitosan film spectrum, which corresponds to the C–O stretching vibration, shifted to lower wavenumbers on addition of salt. A new band appears at 997 cm−1 on addition of 40 wt% glycerol. (paper)

  6. Ecotoxicity of glyphosate and aterbane® br surfactant on guaru (Phalloceros caudimaculatus = Ecotoxicologia do glifosato e surfactante aterbane® br para guaru (Phalloceros caudimaculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Sayuri Shiogiri

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic macrophytes are important components of aquatic ecosystems, but these plants have become a problem due to their occurrence in different regions. Some studies aimed to demonstrate the effectiveness of herbicides to control these macrophytes; however, fewstudies report the possible ecotoxicological effects. The objective of this study was to estimate the acute toxicity (LC (I50;96h and assess water quality variables for glyphosate in the Rodeo® formulation, Aterbane® BR surfactant and mixtures of glyphosate + 0.5% and 1.0% of surfactant, for the guaru fish (Phallocerus caudimaculatus. The guaru was exposed to increasing concentrationsof glyphosate and a mixture of glyphosate + 0.5 and 1.0% of surfactant. The mixture of glyphosate and glyphosate + 0.5 and 1.0% of surfactant showed (LC (I50;96h > 975.0 mg L-1. For the surfactant, the rate was 5.81 mg L-1. The glyphosate and mixtures of glyphosate + 0.5% and 1.0% of surfactant caused a decrease in pH and dissolved oxygen and increased the electrical conductivity of water. Glyphosate in the Rodeo® formulation and the mixtures with surfactantAterbane® BR can be classified as practically nontoxic, whereas surfactant Aterbane® BR can be considered as moderately toxic to guaru.As macrófitas aquáticas são importantes componentes dos ecossistemas, porém elas têm se tornado um problema pela sua ocorrência em diversas regiões. Alguns estudos visam comprovar a eficácia dos herbicidas no controle dessas macrófitas, porém, poucos trabalhos relatam os possíveis efeitos ecotoxicológicos. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a toxicidade aguda (LC (I50;96h e avaliar as variáveis de qualidade de água para o glifosato na formulação Rodeo®, o surfactante Aterbane® BR e das misturas de glifosato + 0,5 e 1,0% do surfactante, para o peixe guaru (Phallocerus caudimaculatus. Para tanto, o guaru foi exposto a concentrações de glifosato e da mistura do glifosato + 0,5 e 1,0% do

  7. Soybean cultivar BR-16-AHAS tolerance to the herbicide imazapyr Tolerância da soja BR-16-AHAS ao herbicida imazapyr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy Aparecida Manabe Kiihl

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the transgenic soybean BR-16-AHAS genetic constitution on the tolerance to the herbicide imazapyr. BR-16-AHAS was crossed with ten other genotypes. The experimental design was a complete randomized block, in a 2x12x3 factorial arrangement, with two sowing periods (winter and summer, twelve crossing groups and three plant positions (upper, mid and lower, with three replicates. The plants were treated with 100 g ha-1 a.i. of imazapyr at the V3/V4 stage. For each position of the plant (upper, mid and lower, the following variables were assessed: number of pods, number of seeds, seed weight, number of seeds per pod and the 100 seeds weight. The effect of the herbicide varied according to the more affected plant position (upper, mid and lower of each genotype. The use of the same gene ahas of BR-16-AHAS, in various genotypes, results in materials with good tolerance to imazapyr; tolerance levels depend not only on the ahas gene, but also on the presence of other genes.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da constituição genética da soja transgênica BR-16-AHAS sobre a tolerância ao herbicida imazapyr. Dez genótipos foram cruzados com BR-16-AHAS. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos completos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2x12x3, com dois períodos de semeadura (inverno e verão, doze grupos de cruzamentos de plantas e três posições (superior, médio e inferior, com três repetições. As plantas foram submetidas ao tratamento com imazapyr, 100 g ha-1 do i.a., nos estádios V3 e V4. Para cada posição da planta (superior, médio e inferior, foram avaliados: número de vagens, número de sementes, peso de sementes, número de sementes por vagem e peso de 100 sementes. Os efeitos do herbicida variaram quanto à posição da planta (alta, média e baixa mais afetada em cada genótipo. O uso do mesmo gene ahas da BR-16-AHAS, em diferentes genótipos, resulta em materiais

  8. Effect of gamma-irradiation on structural and thermal properties of [N(C2H5)4]2ZrBr4 in range of the first-type phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unit cell parameters a and c of nonirradiated [N(C2H5)4]2ZnBr4 crystals in the temperature range 90-300 K and of samples irradiated with γ rays to doses of 106 and 5x106 R in the range from 270 to 300 K were measured using X-ray diffraction. The data obtained were used to derive the thermal expansion coefficients αa and αc. It is shown that the parameter a increases and the parameter c decreases with temperature increase. The heat capacity of nonirradiated and irradiated [N(C2H5)4]2ZnBr4 samples was measured by adiabatic calorimetry. A maximum was found in the Cp(T) curve at T = 285 K. Both X-ray diffraction and heat capacity measurements showed that the phase transition temperature decreased after γ irradiation

  9. Visible and near-ultraviolet spectroscopy at McMurdo Station, Antarctica. 6. Observations of BrO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations of the evening twilight BrO abundance over McMurdo Station, Antarctica during austral spring, 1987, are described. The observed variation of the slant column abundance with increasing solar zenith angles suggests that most of the BrO is located near 15 km. The total vertical column abundance observed during 1 week of measurements yielded an average value of 2.5 x 1013 cm-2, assuming the room temperature absorption cross sections measured by Cox et al. (1982). These values are consistent with BrO mixing ratios of about 5-15 parts per trillion by volume distributed from 150 to 20 mbar. If the differential absorption cross section of BrO increases by 30% at temperatures characteristic of the Antarctic lower stratosphere, as indicated by Sander and Watson (1981), then the BrO measurements reported in this paper should be decreased by 30%

  10. Brändien ja mielikuvien vaikutus farkkujen ostopäätöksessä: Case Yritys X

    OpenAIRE

    Nazimov, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli tutkia brändien, farkkubrändien ja mielikuvien vaikutusta kuluttajien ostopäätökseen. Lähtökohtaisesti tutkittiin brändiä ja sen merkitystä, mielikuvia, mistä mielikuvat syntyvät ja mitä ne ovat. Mitkä tekijät vaikuttavat mielikuviin ja miten brändi ja siitä oleva mielikuva saa kuluttajan valitsemaan tietyn farkkubrändin. Nykypäivänä brändäys on yrityksille elintärkeää. Brändi sanana on yleistynyt ja sen käyttötapa kasvanut puhekielessä. Moni tuotemerkki koke...

  11. Brånemark and ITI dental implants in the human bone-grafted maxilla: a comparative evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, Else M

    2003-01-01

    either Brånemark- or ITI-fixures. In 25 patients (18 females, seven males) the severely atrophied maxilla was reconstructed with autogenous iliac or mandibular bone and either Brånemark or ITI implants. Seventy-eight Brånemark implants and 80 SLA-ITI implants were inserted in the augmented bone....... Twelve consecutive patients received machine-surfaced Brånemark fixtures and 13 consecutive patients received SLA-ITI fixtures. Gradual loading was applied after healing abutment application. After 6 months the permanent prosthetic reconstruction was provided to the patient, either as a fixed...... or removable bridge. Comparison in survival rate was performed: 15 machined Brånemark fixtures were lost, resulting in an overall survival rate of 81%. Two ITI fixtures were lost, resulting in an overall survival rate of 98%. The results of this evaluation show that sandblasted large grit acid etched surface...

  12. Thermodynamic and economic performance of the LiBr-H2O single stage absorption water chiller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LiBr-H2O single stage absorption water chiller, installed at the Municipal CHP plant of the city of Poznan, Poland was examined in order to find its energy performance. The 495 kW water chiller is used for CHP plant technological rooms air conditioning (e.g. control rooms, power supply rooms). The superheated steam (p = 1.0 MPa, t = 250 oC) is the heat source for the generator and cooling water for the absorber and condenser is supplied from the existing cooling water installation. The chilled water temperature is set at 6 oC. On the basis of online temperature and media flow measurements, the system's energy balance was created. Employing the first law of thermodynamics the energy balance equation was solved and used for the derivation of the chiller's COP factor. The work's main goal was to establish the influence of the chiller's actual load on the energy efficiency of the system. The economic evaluation of cooling energy unit price was carried out on the basis of the measured chiller's COP factor

  13. Mechanisms involved in repairing the lesions induced in pBR 322 by PUVA treatment (8-Methoxypsoralen + ultraviolet A light)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the genotoxic effects derived from damaging pBR322 DNA through PUVA treatment (8-Methoxypsoralen plusUVA light), both with respect to the lethality and mutagenicity of the lesions produced by the treatment. The mechanisms involved in the repair of the plasmid lesions have been investigated by transforming several strains of E. coli differing in their DNA-repair capacities. The frequency, distribution and type of mutations occurring in a restriction fragment of the damaged plasmid were determined in order to establish the mutagenic features of the PUVA treatment. Damages produced bY PUVA habe a strong lethal effect on plasmid survival; however, partial recovery is possible through some of the bacterial DNA repair pathways, namely Excision repair, SOS-repair and a third mechanism which appears to be independent from the analised genes and is detected at high density of lesions per plasmid molecule. PUVA treatment produces a high increase in plasmid mutagenesis; however, the contribution of such an increase to the whole plasmid survival is negligible. Only punctual mutations were detected and consisted mainly in base-pair substitutions. Some mutation-prone regions were sound inside the investigated DNA fragment, a though their existence is more likely to be related with the structure acquired by the damaged DNA than with the type of damaging agent. (Author)

  14. Synthetic Bioluminescent Coelenterazine Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Ryo; Citterio, Daniel; Suzuki, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The development of coelenterazine (CTZ) derivatives resulting in superior optical characteristics is an efficient method to extend the range of its possible applications. Here, we describe the synthesis of three C-6 substituted CTZ derivatives retaining the recognition by Renilla luciferase (RLuc) and its derivatives. The novel derivatives are useful as bright blue-shifted CTZ derivatives, which can be used as an alternative to hitherto reported compound DeepBlueC™. PMID:27424892

  15. An experimental study of formation of the mercury mixed halides HgClBr and HgBrI and of their purity

    OpenAIRE

    Rabia Ahmad; Jamshed Ali; Qamer Faisal

    2015-01-01

    Claims to have produced the mixed halides of mercury are very old. However, their stability or even their very existence was seriously questioned by Ammlung and Brill several decades back, on the basis of their study, in several solvents, of what was thought to be HgBrI. The mixed halide HgClI was already known to be unstable. On the basis of these facts, which were also lent some theoretical support, it was strongly conjectured that the mixed halides of mercury and similar elements, were...

  16. Yritys X - Henkilöstön mielikuva yrityksen brändistä ja brändin näkyvyys myyntitilanteissa

    OpenAIRE

    Kemppi, Mari

    2014-01-01

    Ennen vanhaan asiantuntijapalveluiden markkinointi pohjautui lähinnä ainoastaan suhdemarkkinointiin ja henkilökohtaisiin suhteisiin. Nykypäivänä asiantuntijapalveluiden markkinointi on olennaista yrityksen menestykselle ja sen olemassaololle. Kun tarjotaan asiakkaille aineettomia palveluja, brändin merkitys yritykselle on erittäin suuri. Tässä opinnäytetyössä tutkitaan miten anonyymin asiantuntijapalveluyrityksen, Yritys X:n työntekijät ovat omaksuneet, sisäistäneet ja ymmärtäneet yrityk...

  17. Thermodynamics of reactions of ClHg and BrHg radicals with atmospherically abundant free radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Dibble

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantum calculations are used to determine the stability of reactive gaseous mercury (Hg(II compounds likely to be formed in the Br-initiated oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0. Due to the absence of any evidence, current models neglect the possible reaction of BrHg• with abundant radicals such as NO, NO2, HO2, ClO, or BrO. The present work demonstrates that BrHg• forms stable compounds, BrHgY, with all of these radicals except NO. Additional calculations on the analogous ClHgY compounds reveal that the strength of the XHg-Y bond (for X=Cl, Br varies little with the identity of the halogen. Calculations further suggest that ClO, BrO, and NO3 do not form strong bonds with Hg(0, and cannot initiate Hg(0 oxidation in the gas phase. The theoretical approach is validated by comparison to published data on HgX2 compounds, both from experiments and highly refined quantum chemical calculations. Quantum calculations on the stability of the anions of XHgY are carried out in order to aid future laboratory studies aimed at molecular-level characterization of gaseous Hg(II compounds. Spectroscopic data on BrHg• are analyzed to determine the equilibrium constant for its formation, and BrHg• is determined to be much less stable than previously estimated. An expression is presented for the rate constant for BrHg• dissociation.

  18. The sesquiterpenoid nootkatone and the absolute configuration of a dibromo derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Anne M; Fronczek, Frank R; Zhu, Betty C R; Crowe, William E; Henderson, Gregg; Laine, Roger A

    2003-05-01

    Nootkatone, or (4R,4aS,6R)-4,4a,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,4a-dimethyl-6-(1-methylethenyl)naphthalen-2(3H)-one, C(15)H(22)O, a sesquiterpene with strong repellent properties against Formosan subterranean termites and other insects, has the valencene skeleton. The dibromo derivative (1S,3R,4S,4aS,6R,8aR)-1,3-dibromo-6-isopropyl-4,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydronaphthalen-2-one, C(15)H(24)Br(2)O, has two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit, which differ in the rotation of the isopropyl group with respect to the main skeleton. The C-Br distances are in the range 1.950 (4)-1.960 (4) A. Both independent molecules form zigzag chains, with very short intermolecular carbonyl-carbonyl interactions, having the perpendicular motif and O...C distances of 2.886 (6) and 2.898 (6) A. These chains are flanked by intermolecular Br...Br interactions of distances in the range 4.067 (1)-4.218 (1) A. The absolute configuration of the dibromo derivative was determined, from which that of nootkatone was inferred. PMID:12743407

  19. Using routine meteorological data to derive sky conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pagès

    Full Text Available Sky condition is a matter of interest for public and weather predictors as part of weather analyses. In this study, we apply a method that uses total solar radiation and other meteorological data recorded by an automatic station for deriving an estimation of the sky condition. The impetus of this work is the intention of the Catalan Meteorological Service (SMC to provide the public with real-time information about the sky condition. The methodology for deriving sky conditions from meteorological records is based on a supervised classification technique called maximum likelihood method. In this technique we first need to define features which are derived from measured variables. Second, we must decide which sky conditions are intended to be distinguished. Some analyses have led us to use four sky conditions: (a cloudless or almost cloudless sky, (b scattered clouds, (c mostly cloudy – high clouds, (d overcast – low clouds. An additional case, which may be treated separately, corresponds to precipitation (rain or snow. The main features for estimating sky conditions are, as expected, solar radiation and its temporal variability. The accuracy of this method of guessing sky conditions compared with human observations is around 70% when applied to four sites in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula. The agreement increases if we take into account the uncertainty both in the automatic classifier and in visual observations.<br>>Key words. Meteorological and atmospheric dynamics (instruments and techniques; radiative processes – Atmospheric composition and structure (cloud physics and chemistry

  20. H 2O and halogen (F, Cl, Br) behaviour during shallow magma degassing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villemant, Benoı̂t; Boudon, Georges

    1999-05-01

    Degassing paths of silicic H 2O-rich magmas during explosive Plinian and dome-forming eruptions may be represented in simple evolution diagrams relating the residual volatile content of the melt to the volume ratio of gas over melt ( Vg/ Vl). These parameters are measurable in erupted magma fragments. They are used for interpreting the H 2O and halogen contents determined in a series of variously degassed volcanic clasts from the 650 y. B.P. eruption at Mt. Pelée (Martinique, FWI) which is characterized by the succession of a dome extrusion and a Plinian activity. H 2O degassing of Plinian pumice clasts are modeled by an equilibrium closed system evolution which allows to calculate the partition coefficients of halogen between the aqueous fluid and the rhyolitic melt d v-li: ≪1 for F, 10±1.5 for Cl and 3.7±1 for Br, at around 900°C. The strong increase of the dv-li values of Cl and Br during dome extrusion is explained by an open system degassing model with a simultaneous crystallization of the melt. Some significant Br enrichments relative to Cl in dome fragments are attributed to interactions with an hydrothermal fluid close to seawater in composition. The models allow calculation of Cl and Br contents of aqueous fluids generated by the different degassing paths: Cl contents are ≈0.5 mol/l for closed system evolution and vary between 0.2 and 1 mol/l during open system evolutions. These fluids are able to extract significant amounts of chloride complexed metals and silica from the magma during dome forming eruptions. They also may generate mineralization of the wall rocks or the rising dome itself (e.g. silica precipitation) which may seal the volcanic system and be responsible for the dome explosivity and the transition from dome-forming to Plinian eruptive style. The Cl/Br ratio of initial melts of P1 eruption (≈250) is much lower than the basaltic and exospheric ratios (≈400), suggesting that strong Cl-Br fractionation may occur during the

  1. Laser-induced UV photodissociation of 2-bromo-2-nitropropane: dynamics of OH and Br formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Ankur; Kawade, Monali; Upadhyaya, Hari P; Kumar, Awadhesh; Naik, Prakash D

    2011-01-28

    Photoexcitation of 2-bromo-2-nitropropane (BNP) at 248 and 193 nm generates OH, Br, and NO(2) among other products. The OH fragment is detected by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, and its translational and internal state distributions (vibration, rotation, spin-orbit, and Λ-doubling components) are probed. At both 248 and 193 nm, the OH fragment is produced translationally hot with the energy of 10.8 and 17.2 kcal∕mol, respectively. It is produced vibrationally cold (v" = 0) at 248 nm, and excited (v" = 1) at 193 nm with a vibrational temperature of 1870 ± 150 K. It is also generated with rotational excitation, rotational populations of OH(v" = 0) being characterized by a temperature of 550 ± 50 and 925 ± 100 K at 248 and 193 nm excitation of BNP, respectively. The spin-orbit components of OH(X(2)Π) are not in equilibrium on excitation at 193 nm, but the Λ-doublets are almost in equilibrium, implying no preference for its π lobe with respect to the plane of rotation. The NO(2) product is produced electronically excited, as detected by measuring UV-visible fluorescence, at 193 nm and mostly in the ground electronic state at 248 nm. The Br product is detected employing resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization with time-of-flight mass spectrometer for better understanding of the dynamics of dissociation. The forward convolution analysis of the experimental data has provided translational energy distributions and anisotropy parameters for both Br((2)P(3∕2)) and Br∗((2)P(1∕2)). The average translational energies for the Br and Br∗ channels are 5.0 ± 1.0 and 6.0 ± 1.5 kcal∕mol. No recoil anisotropies were observed for these products. Most plausible mechanisms of OH and Br formation are discussed based on both the experimental and the theoretical results. Results suggest that the electronically excited BNP molecules at 248 and 234 nm relax to the ground state, and subsequently dissociate to produce OH and Br through different channels. The

  2. Revision and extension to the analysis of the third spectrum of bromine: Br III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectrum of doubly ionized bromine (Br III) has been investigated in the vacuum ultraviolet wavelength region. Br2+ is an As-like ion with ground configuration of 4s24p3, thus a 3-electron system possessing a complex structure. The theoretical prediction was made using Cowan's quasi-relativistic Hartree–Fock code with superposition of configurations involving the 4s4p4, 4s24p2 (4d+5d+6d+5s+6s+7s), 4s4p3 (5p+4f), 4p4(4d+5s), 4s24p5s5p, 4s4p2 (4d2+5s2), 4s4p24f2 configurations for the even parity matrix and the 4s24p3, 4s24p2 (5p+6p+4f+5f) configurations for the odd parity matrix. Several previously reported levels of Br III have been revised, and new configurations have been added to the analysis. The spectrum used for this work was recorded on a 3-m normal incidence spectrograph in the wavelength region of 400–1326 Å using a triggered vacuum spark source. One hundred and two energy levels belonging to the 4s24p3, 4s4p4, 4s24p2 (4d+5d+6d+5s+6s +7s) configurations have been established, eighty-six being new. Two hundred and seventy-eight lines have been identified in this spectrum. The accuracy of our wavelength measurements for sharp and unblended lines is ±0.006 Å. The ionization potential of Br III was found to be 281,250±100 cm−1 (34.870±0.012 eV). - Highlights: • The spectrum of Br was recorded on a 3-m grating spectrograph with a triggered spark source. • Most of the known energy levels have been revised and further new configurations have been added. • Superposition-of-configurations calculations with relativistic corrections were made for theoretical predictions. • Radiative weighted oscillator strength (gf) & radiative transition probabilities (gA) were calculated. • Ionization Potential of Br III was determined experimentally

  3. Optical pump-probe processes in Nd 3+ doped KPb2Br5, RbPb2Br5, and KPb2CI5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, laser activity has been achieved in the low phonon energy, moisture-resistant bromide host crystals, neodymium-doped potassium lead bromide (Nd3+:KPb2Br5) and rubidium lead bromide (Nd3+:RbPb2Br5). Laser activity at 1.07 (micro)m was observed for both crystalline materials. Laser operation at the new wavelengths 1.18 (micro)m and 0.97 (micro)m resulting from the 4F5/2+2H9/2 → 4IJ transitions (J=13/2 and 11/2) in Nd:RPB was achieved for the first time in a solid state laser material. In this paper we present cw pump-probe spectra in order to discuss excited state absorption, reabsorption processes due to the long lived lower laser levels as well as possible depopulation mechanisms feasible for more efficient laser operation in these crystals. The bromides will be compared with potassium lead chloride (Nd3+:KPb2Cl5)

  4. Structure and phase transitions in [(CH3)4P]3[Sb2Br9] and [(CH3)4P]3[Bi2Br9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new phosphonium bromoantimonate(III) and bromobismuthate(III) [(CH3)4P]3[Sb2Br9] (PBA) and [(CH3)4P]3[Bi2Br9] (PBB) crystals have been synthesized and their structure determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Both compounds are isomorphous in the room temperature phase and crystallize in the trigonal space group (polar), P31c. The structure consists of discrete [M2X9]3- anions and [(CH3)4P]+ cations. A sequence of structural phase transitions in PBA and PBB is established on the basis of differential scanning calorimetry and dilatometric studies. Two reversible phase transitions are found: (I↔II) at 540/540 K and (II↔III) at 193/195 K for PBA and (I↔II) at 550/550 K and (II↔III) at 205/207.5 K for PBB (on cooling/heating). The pyroelectric measurements of both compounds have confirmed the polar nature of phases (II) and (III). Proton spin-lattice relaxation time of polycrystalline PBA have been studied in temperatures 77-400 K. A dynamic inequivalence of two tetramethylphosphonium cations has been detected. A ferroelastic domain structure was found over the lowest temperature phase (III) of both crystals studied. The possible mechanisms of the phase transitions are discussed on the basis of the presented results

  5. Structure and phase transitions in [(CH 3) 4P] 3[Sb 2Br 9] and [(CH 3) 4P] 3[Bi 2Br 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtaś, M.; Jakubas, R.; Ciunik, Z.; Medycki, W.

    2004-04-01

    Two new phosphonium bromoantimonate(III) and bromobismuthate(III) [(CH 3) 4P] 3[Sb 2Br 9] (PBA) and [(CH 3) 4P] 3[Bi 2Br 9] (PBB) crystals have been synthesized and their structure determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Both compounds are isomorphous in the room temperature phase and crystallize in the trigonal space group (polar), P31 c. The structure consists of discrete [ M2X9] 3- anions and [(CH 3) 4P] + cations. A sequence of structural phase transitions in PBA and PBB is established on the basis of differential scanning calorimetry and dilatometric studies. Two reversible phase transitions are found: (I↔II) at 540/540 K and (II↔III) at 193/195 K for PBA and (I↔II) at 550/550 K and (II↔III) at 205/207.5 K for PBB (on cooling/heating). The pyroelectric measurements of both compounds have confirmed the polar nature of phases (II) and (III). Proton spin-lattice relaxation time of polycrystalline PBA have been studied in temperatures 77- 400 K. A dynamic inequivalence of two tetramethylphosphonium cations has been detected. A ferroelastic domain structure was found over the lowest temperature phase (III) of both crystals studied. The possible mechanisms of the phase transitions are discussed on the basis of the presented results.

  6. Spectral intensities in coordination compounds of the transition metals: applications to systems type Cs{sub 2}SnBr{sub 6}: OsBr{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo, R.; Munoz, G. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile, Beauchef 850, Casilla 2777, Santiago (Chile); Meruane, T. [Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias y Educacion, Av. Jose Pedro Alessandri 774, Casilla 147-C Santiago (Chile)

    2001-07-01

    The luminescence spectrum of the Cs{sub 2}SnBr{sub 6}: OsBr{sub 6} system is examined utilizing a generalized vibronic formalisms. For illustrative purposes we have chosen the most characteristic excitations, which show up a rich and unexpected vibronic structures. These absorptions are tackled with emphasis on both the electronic and the vibrational factors which are responsible for both the overall and the relative vibronic intensities associated with generic transitions of the {gamma}{sub m} = {gamma}{sub l} + v{sub k} (k = 3, 4, 6) type. The advantages and disadvantages of the calculation models as well as a critical studies of the experimental data available are discussed. Relevant conclusions are drawn out in connection with the intensity spectral mechanism as well as the eventual influence on the calculated intensities due to the coupling among the internal and the external vibrations and some suggestions for improvement are put forward to advance the state of the art in the vibronic coupling theory. (Author)

  7. Synthesis, antimicrobial and antioxidative activity of some new isatin derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šekularac Gavrilo M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The isatin derivatives, Schiff bases, were synthesized by the reaction of isatin and various substituted primary amines and characterized by several spectroscopic methods. Investigation of the antimicrobial activity of the synthesized compounds was performed by the agar dilution method, against different strains of bacteria and one fungi. The antioxidative activity of the synthesized compounds was also determined. Some of the compounds have shown the significant activity against the selected strains of microorganisms and the antioxidative activity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172013 i III 46010

  8. Entire Functions Sharing One Polynomial with their Derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiao-Min Li; Cun-Chen Gao

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we study the growth of solutions of -th order linear differential equation and that of +1-th order linear differential equation. From this we affirmatively answer a uniqueness question concerning a conjecture given by Brück in 1996 under the restriction of the hyper order less than 1/2, and obtain some uniqueness theorems of a nonconstant entire function and its derivative sharing a finite nonzero complex number CM. The results in this paper also improve some known results. Some examples are provided to show that the results in this paper are best possible.

  9. Synthesis and Phase Transition Behaviours of New Chalcone Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    S. T. Ha; Low, Y. W.

    2013-01-01

    A series of new chalcone derivatives with a general formula of C11H27COOC6H4COCH=CHC6H4X where X=F, Cl, Br, and NO2 were well synthesized and crystallized from organic solution. The physical properties as well as the chemical formulations of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic techniques (FTIR, and 1H and 13C NMR). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarizing optical microscopy (POM) techniques were employed to study their transition temperatures and mesophase character...

  10. Synthesis, structure and Eu2+-doped luminescence properties of bromosilicate compound Ca3SiO4Br2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bromosilicate Ca3SiO4Br2 crystal has been grown, and this compound crystallizes in triclinic symmetry, space group P-1 (No. 2), with unit cell parameters: a=8.0051(18) Å, b=8.720(3) Å, c=11.749(3)Å, α=69.07(0)°, β=89.98(0)°, γ=75.46(0)°, and cell volume V=737.88(1 9 6)Å3, Z=3. The unit cell of the Ca3SiO4Br2 crystal is composed of the alternating layers of CaBr2 and Ca2SiO4, therefore, the luminescence of Ca3SiO4Br2:Eu2+ gives a broad emission band centered at 469 nm with some asymmetry on the long wavelength side with different coordination environment. Their detailed photoluminescence (PL) properties, PL decay curves and the temperature dependent PL behavior were also discussed. - Highlights: ► The Ca3SiO4Br2 crystal has been grown and the structure has been analyzed. ► Ca3SiO4Br2:Eu2+ gives a blue emission band centered at 469 nm. ► PL decay curves and the temperature dependent PL behavior of Ca3SiO4Br2:Eu2+ have been discussed.

  11. Lactobacillus fermentum BR11, a potential new probiotic, alleviates symptoms of colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Mark S; Butler, Ross N; Giffard, Philip M; Howarth, Gordon S

    2007-03-20

    Current treatments for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are relatively ineffective. Recently, probiotics have emerged as a potential treatment modality for numerous gastrointestinal disorders, including IBD. Few probiotics, however, have undergone appropriate preclinical screening in vivo. The current study compared the effects of four candidate probiotics on development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats. Sprague Dawley rats were gavaged 1 mL of the potential probiotic (1 x 10(10) CFU/mL), or vehicle, twice daily for 14 days. Strains tested were Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), Streptococcus thermophilus TH-4 (TH-4), Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Bb12) and Lactobacillus fermentum BR11 (BR11). Colitis was induced from day 7 to 14 via administration of 2% DSS in drinking water. Disease activity index (DAI) was monitored daily until rats were killed at day 14. DAI decreased in DSS+Bb12 and DSS+BR11 compared to DSS+Vehicle. Colon length increased in DSS+BR11 (10%) and DSS+LGG (10%) compared to DSS+Vehicle. DSS+Bb12 and DSS+BR11 prevented the distal colon crypt hyperplasia evident in DSS+Vehicle, DSS+LGG and DSS+TH-4. BR11 was most effective at reducing colitic symptoms. Bb12 had minimal effects, whilst TH-4 did not prevent DSS-colitis and LGG actually exacerbated some indicators of colitis. Further studies into the potential benefits of L. fermentum BR11 are indicated. PMID:17150273

  12. A NEW FRACTAL DERIVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ji-Huan He

    2011-01-01

    A new fractal derive is defined, which is very easy for engineering applications to discontinuous problems, two simple examples are given to elucidate to establish governing equations with fractal derive and how to solve such equations, respectively.

  13. The global derivatives market

    OpenAIRE

    William J. McDonough

    1993-01-01

    Remarks on Derivatives: Practices and Principles, a report by the Global Derivatives Study Group of the Group of Thirty, presented at the Group of Thirty Meeting, Washington, D.C., September 27, 1993.

  14. Novel Ionic Liquid with Both Lewis and Brønsted Acid Sites for Michael Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runpu Shen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquid with both Lewis and Brønsted acid sites has been synthesized and its catalytic activities for Michael addition were carefully studied. The novel ionic liquid was stable to water and could be used in aqueous solution. The molar ratio of the Lewis and Brønsted acid sites could be adjusted to match different reactions. The results showed that the novel ionic liquid was very efficient for Michael addition with good to excellent yields within several min. Operational simplicity, high stability to water and air, small amount used, low cost of the catalyst used, high yields, chemoselectivity, applicability to large-scale reactions and reusability are the key features of this methodology, which indicated that this novel ionic liquid also holds great potential for environmentally friendly processes.

  15. Synergistic effect of Brønsted acid and platinum on purification of automobile exhaust gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei; Li, Xin-Hao; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wei, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2013-08-01

    The catalytic purification of automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx and hydrocarbons) is one of the most practiced conversion processes used to lower the emissions and to reduce the air pollution. Nevertheless, the good performance of exhaust gas purification catalysts often requires the high consumption of noble metals such as platinum. Here we report that the Brønsted acid sites on the external surface of a microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) act as a promoter for exhaust gas purification, effectively cutting the loading amount of platinum in the catalyst without sacrifice of performance. It is revealed that in the Pt-loaded SAPO-CHA catalyst, there exists a remarkable synergistic effect between the Brønsted acid sites and the Pt nanoparticles, the former helping to adsorb and activate the hydrocarbon molecules for NO reduction during the catalytic process. The thermal stability of SAPO-CHA also makes the composite catalyst stable and reusable without activity decay.

  16. Study of 138La radioactive decays using LaBr3 scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a detailed investigation of the intrinsic activity of LaBr3 scintillators from the natural abundance of radioactive isotope 138La. Compared to earlier studies of lanthanum halides intrinsic activity, we gained a sharper insight by using samples of different sizes, ranging from 0.16 cm3 to 347 cm3, and by applying in our recent analysis results on the non-proportionality of scintillation response. In addition, we took advantage of the fact that LaBr3 spectrometers offer a unique opportunity, never available before, to study the characteristics of the 138La electron capture and β radioactive decays that are 2nd order unique forbidden transitions. The observed shape of the β continuum, measured down to the energy of 2 keV, is found to be different than expected from standard nuclear theory, indicating a possible underestimation of the screening effect for β energies below 75 keV.

  17. La géographie culturelle au Brésil

    OpenAIRE

    Claval, Paul

    2013-01-01

    L’unité et la diversité humaines du Brésil favorisent l’étude des faits de culture. Apparue dès les années 1930 sous l’influence de Pierre Deffontaines, l’approche culturelle en géographie piétine lorsque triomphent les travaux quantitatifs à l’américaine des années 1970, ou les courants critiques des années 1980. Comme dans les autres pays occidentaux, les recherches modernes traduisent le tournant culturel, pris au Brésil par le Centre de Recherche sur Espace et Culture (NEPEC) qu’animent Z...

  18. SPR sensitivity of silver nanorods in CsBr-Ag nanocomposite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovkush; Ravikant, Chhaya; Arun, P.; Kumar, Kuldeep

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated the optical and morphological properties of CsBr-Ag complex thin films deposited by thermal evaporation on glass substrate. By varying the thickness of the film with fixed mass ratio of cesium bromide and silver, we observed a broad absorption peak in the visible region from 350 to 450 nm corresponding to the transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (SPR) mode. Red shift is observed, with varying film thickness, in SPR peak position corresponding to longitudinal mode with no significant change in transverse mode due to variation in the aspect ratio of the silver nano crystalline grains. Scanning electron microscope and EDX revealed the formation of silver nanorods in film samples. Such, stable and tunable CsBr-Ag films can be used in optical filters.

  19. Fuel characteristics needed for optimal operation of the BR2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard BR2 fuel element contains 400 g 235U under the form of UAlx with burnable absorbers homogeneously mixed into the fuel meat. The uranium is highly enriched with a density of ∼1.30 g U/cm3. This fuel element was developed in the early seventies to satisfy the irradiation conditions required by many experimental programmes: large reactivity available, cycle length, hard neutron spectrum, limited motion of the control rods during the cycle thereby stabilizing the irradiation conditions. Another benefit is the reduction of the fuel consumption by increasing the burnup at discharge. BR2 has recently been restarted after the completion of an important refurbishment programme. Future utilization will again be concentrated on engineering R and D in the field of nuclear fuels, materials and safety, and on radioisotope production. Therefore the required irradiation conditions and the corresponding fuel characteristics remain essentially the same as in the past. (author)

  20. Efficient Preparation of TMSCCl2 Br and Its Use in Dichlorocyclopropanation of Electron-Deficient Alkenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Darren S; Durán-Peña, María Jesús; Burroughs, Laurence; Woodward, Simon

    2016-05-23

    The reaction of excess TMSCl and LiCCl2 Br at low temperature is a technically simple high yield route to TMSCCl2 Br. The latter is a stable source of the dichlorobromomethide carbanion, which undergoes 1,4-addition with cyclic nitroalkenes and (E)-fumarates leading to dichlorocyclopropanes after bromide expulsion. For nitrostyrenes the reaction arrests at the 1,4-addition product. Low temperature NMR spectroscopy studies and DFT calculations suggest the formation of an "ate" species [(nitronate)SiFMe3 ](-) which, upon boil-off of TMSF at 10-20 °C, yields the cyclopropane. DFT calculations also support the experimental differences between fluoride and acetate as promotors. PMID:27112785