Sample records for br i-benzonitrile derivatives

  1. Analysis of satellite-derived Arctic tropospheric BrO columns in conjunction with aircraft measurements during ARCTAS and ARCPAC

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Choi, S; Wang, Y Yuanyue; Salawitch, RJ; Canty, T; Joiner, J; Zeng, T; Kurosu, TP; Chance, K; Richter, A; Huey, LG; Liao, J; Neuman, JA; Nowak, JB; Dibb, JE; Weinheimer, AJ; Diskin, G; Ryerson, TB; Silva, A da; Curry, J; Kinnison, D; Tilmes, S; Levelt, PF Pieternel


    We derive tropospheric column BrO during the ARCTAS and ARCPAC field campaigns in spring 2008 using retrievals of total column BrO from the satellite UV nadir sensors OMI and GOME-2 using a radiative...

  2. Analysis of satellite-derived Arctic tropospheric BrO columns in conjunction with aircraft measurements during ARCTAS and ARCPAC

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    S. Choi


    Full Text Available We derive tropospheric column BrO during the ARCTAS and ARCPAC field campaigns in spring 2008 using retrievals of total column BrO from the satellite UV nadir sensors OMI and GOME-2 using a radiative transfer model and stratospheric column BrO from a photochemical simulation. We conduct a comprehensive comparison of satellite-derived tropospheric BrO column to aircraft in-situ observations of BrO and related species. The aircraft profiles reveal that tropospheric BrO, when present during April 2008, was distributed over a broad range of altitudes rather than being confined to the planetary boundary layer (PBL. Perturbations to the total column resulting from tropospheric BrO are the same magnitude as perturbations due to longitudinal variations in the stratospheric component, so proper accounting of the stratospheric signal is essential for accurate determination of satellite-derived tropospheric BrO. We find reasonably good agreement between satellite-derived tropospheric BrO and columns found using aircraft in-situ BrO profiles, particularly when satellite radiances were obtained over bright surfaces (albedo >0.7, for solar zenith angle <80° and clear sky conditions. The rapid activation of BrO due to surface processes (the bromine explosion is apparent in both the OMI and GOME-2 based tropospheric columns. The wide orbital swath of OMI allows examination of the evolution of tropospheric BrO on about hourly time intervals near the pole. Low surface pressure, strong wind, and high PBL height are associated with an observed BrO activation event, supporting the notion of bromine activation by high winds over snow.

  3. Bromine in the tropical troposphere and stratosphere as derived from balloon-borne BrO observations

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    M. Dorf


    Full Text Available The first tropospheric and stratospheric (4 to 33 km BrO profile is presented for the inner tropics derived from balloon-borne DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy measurements. In combination with photochemical modelling, total stratospheric inorganic bromine (Bry is deduced to be (21.5±2.5 ppt in 4.5-year-old air, probed in 2005. We derive a total contribution of (5.2±2.5 ppt from brominated very short-lived substances and inorganic product gases to stratospheric Bry Tropospheric BrO was found to be <1 ppt. Our results are compared to two 3-D CTM SLIMCAT model runs, which differ in the lifetime of the bromine source gases, affecting the vertical distribution of Bry in the lower stratosphere. Bromine source gas measurements performed 10 days earlier Laube et al., 2008, indicate a lower Bry of (17.5±0.4 ppt. Potential reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  4. Chiral BINOL-derived phosphoric acids: privileged Brønsted acid organocatalysts for C-C bond formation reactions. (United States)

    Zamfir, Alexandru; Schenker, Sebastian; Freund, Matthias; Tsogoeva, Svetlana B


    BINOL-derived phosphoric acids have emerged during the last five years as powerful chiral Brønsted acid catalysts in many enantioselective processes. The most successful transformations carried out with chiral BINOL phosphates include C-C bond formation reactions. The recent advances have been reviewed in this article with a focus being placed on hydrocyanations, aldol-type, Mannich, Friedel-Crafts, aza-ene-type, Diels-Alder, as well as cascade and multi-component reactions.

  5. Tropospheric BrO column densities in the Arctic derived from satellite: retrieval and comparison to ground-based measurements

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    H. Sihler


    Full Text Available During polar spring, halogen radicals like bromine monoxide (BrO play an important role in the chemistry of tropospheric ozone destruction. Satellite measurements of the BrO distribution have become a particularly useful tool to investigate this probably natural phenomenon, but the separation of stratospheric and tropospheric partial columns of BrO is challenging. In this study, an algorithm was developed to retrieve tropospheric vertical column densities of BrO from data of high-resolution spectroscopic satellite instruments such as the second Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2. Unlike recently published approaches, the presented algorithm is capable of separating the fraction of BrO in the activated troposphere from the total BrO column solely based on remotely measured properties. The presented algorithm furthermore allows to estimate a realistic measurement error of the tropospheric BrO column. The sensitivity of each satellite pixel to BrO in the boundary layer is quantified using the measured UV radiance and the column density of the oxygen collision complex O4. A comparison of the sensitivities with CALIPSO LIDAR observations demonstrates that clouds shielding near-surface trace-gas columns can be reliably detected even over ice and snow. Retrieved tropospheric BrO columns are then compared to ground-based BrO measurements from two Arctic field campaigns in the Amundsen Gulf and at Barrow in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Our algorithm was found to be capable of retrieving enhanced near-surface BrO during both campaigns in good agreement with ground-based data. Some differences between ground-based and satellite measurements observed at Barrow can be explained by both elevated and shallow surface layers of BrO. The observations strongly suggest that surface release processes are the dominating source of BrO and that boundary layer meteorology influences the vertical distribution.

  6. Synthesis, Structure, and Optical Properties of Antiperovskite-Derived Ba2MQ3X (M = As, Sb; Q = S, Se; X = Cl, Br, I) Chalcohalides. (United States)

    Wang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xian; He, Jianqiao; Bu, Kejun; Zheng, Chong; Lin, Jianhua; Huang, Fuqiang


    Six isostructural antiperovskite-derived chalcohalides, Ba2MQ3X (M = As, Sb; Q = S, Se; X = Cl, Br, I), crystallizing in the space group Pnma, have been synthesized by solid-state reactions. The crystal structure features a 3D framework with the [XBa5]9+ disordered square pyramids as building blocks and [MQ3]3- units filling the interspace. [XBa5]9+ disordered square pyramids are edge-sharing along [010], derived from the fusing of the two pyramids in octahedral [XBa6]11+. Surprisingly, Ba2AsS3X (X = Cl, Br, I) show almost the same optical band gap of 2.80 eV, and Ba2AsSe3X (X = Br, I) also have a similar band gap of 2.28 eV. The optical band gap of Ba2SbS3I is 2.64 eV. First-principles calculations reveal that the optical absorption is attributed to the transitions between Q np at the valence band maximum (VBM) and M np-Q np at the conduction band minimum (CBM). These compounds also possess interesting photoluminescence properties with splitting emission peaks on excitation at 200 nm.

  7. First and second pressure derivatives of the elastic constants of CsBr crystals. [222 to 330/sup 0/K; phonon dispersion relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, K.J.


    The first and second pressure derivatives of the adiabatic elastic constants of CsBr single crystal were measured at 300, 298, 258.2, and 222/sup 0/K using pulse interference techniques. The corresponding quantities of the bulk modulus of CsBr are also calculated. The maximum pressures used in the experiments ranged from 6 kbars to 11 kbars. B/sub 0//sup T'/ is measured to an accuracy of approximately 5 percent, and B/sub 0//sup S''/ to approximately 15 to 30 percent, assuming the systematic error is absent. It is found, however, the value of B/sub 0//sup S''/ is strongly affected by the systematic error arising from the choice of model in fitting the data. The widely used quadratic fit is found inadequate for a maximum pressure of 10 kbars. The contribution from the third-order term /sup 1///sub 6/ B''/sub 0/'P/sup 3/ can not be neglected. The quasi-harmonic approximation is used to derive the theoretical equation of state. Several two- or three-parameter empirical equations of state are also discussed. Using the long-wave method and the present data, the phonon dispersion relation of CsBr is calculated and compared with the experimental results of neutron scattering. 14 tables, 34 figures, 74 references.

  8. Synthesis of brominated phenstatin derivatives via cerium (IV ammonium nitrate / lithium bromide (CAN/LiBr and investigation with the density functional theory (DFT

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    Yasin Çetinkaya


    Full Text Available In this study, (3,4-dimethoxyphenyl (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl methanone (7 being phenstatin derivation was synthesized using Eaton's reagent (CH3SO3H / P2O5. Novel compound (2-bromo-3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl (3,4-dimethoxyphenyl methanone (10 and (2,6-dibromo-3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl (3,4-dimethoxyphenyl methanone (11 were synthesized with the bromination of diarylmethanone 7 with ceric (IV ammonium nitrate (CAN/LiBr. In order to determine the structures of the compounds synthesized, IR, HRMS, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic analysis were used. Geometrical parameters of the products were optimized with the density functional theory (DFT B3LYP method using the 6-311G(d,p basis set implemented Gaussian 09 and analyzed their structural parameters (bond lenghts, bond angles, dihedral angles.

  9. Growth suppression of colorectal cancer by plant-derived multiple mAb CO17-1A × BR55 via inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. (United States)

    Kwak, Dong Hoon; Moussavou, Ghislain; Lee, Ju Hyoung; Heo, Sung Youn; Ko, Kisung; Hwang, Kyung-A; Jekal, Seung-Joo; Choo, Young-Kug


    We have generated the transgenic Tabaco plants expressing multiple monoclonal antibody (mAb) CO7-1A × BR55 by cross-pollinating with mAb CO17-1A and mAb BR55. We have demonstrated the anti-cancer effect of plant-derived multiple mAb CO17-1A × BR55. We find that co-treatment of colorectal mAbs (anti-epithelial cellular adhesion molecule (EpCAM), plant-derived monoclonal antibody (mAb(P)) CO17-1A and mAb(P) CO17-1A × BR55) with RAW264.7 cells significantly inhibited the cell growth in SW620 cancer cells. In particular, multi mAb(P) CO17-1A × BR55 significantly and efficiently suppressed the growth of SW620 cancer cells compared to another mAbs. Apoptotic death-positive cells were significantly increased in the mAb(P) CO17-1A × BR55-treated. The mAb(P) CO17-1A × BR55 treatment significantly decreased the expression of B-Cell lymphoma-2 (BCl-2), but the expression of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), and cleaved caspase-3 were markedly increased. In vivo, the mAb(P) CO17-1A × BR55 significantly and efficiently inhibited the growth of colon tumors compared to another mAbs. The apoptotic cell death and inhibition of pro-apoptotic proteins expression were highest by treatment with mAb(P) CO17-1A × BR55. In addition, the mAb(P) CO17-1A × BR55 significantly inhibited the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation in cancer cells and tumors. Therefore, this study results suggest that multiple mAb(P) CO17-1A × BR55 has a significant effect on apoptosis-mediated anticancer by suppression of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in colon cancer compared to another mAbs. In light of these results, further clinical investigation should be conducted on mAb(P) CO17-1A × BR55 to determine its possible chemopreventive and/or therapeutic efficacy against human colon cancer.

  10. Growth Suppression of Colorectal Cancer by Plant-Derived Multiple mAb CO17-1A × BR55 via Inhibition of ERK1/2 Phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hoon Kwak


    Full Text Available We have generated the transgenic Tabaco plants expressing multiple monoclonal antibody (mAb CO7-1A × BR55 by cross-pollinating with mAb CO17-1A and mAb BR55. We have demonstrated the anti-cancer effect of plant-derived multiple mAb CO17-1A × BR55. We find that co-treatment of colorectal mAbs (anti-epithelial cellular adhesion molecule (EpCAM, plant-derived monoclonal antibody (mAbP CO17-1A and mAbP CO17-1A × BR55 with RAW264.7 cells significantly inhibited the cell growth in SW620 cancer cells. In particular, multi mAbP CO17-1A × BR55 significantly and efficiently suppressed the growth of SW620 cancer cells compared to another mAbs. Apoptotic death-positive cells were significantly increased in the mAbP CO17-1A × BR55-treated. The mAbP CO17-1A × BR55 treatment significantly decreased the expression of B-Cell lymphoma-2 (BCl-2, but the expression of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax, and cleaved caspase-3 were markedly increased. In vivo, the mAbP CO17-1A × BR55 significantly and efficiently inhibited the growth of colon tumors compared to another mAbs. The apoptotic cell death and inhibition of pro-apoptotic proteins expression were highest by treatment with mAbP CO17-1A × BR55. In addition, the mAbP CO17-1A × BR55 significantly inhibited the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2 phosphorylation in cancer cells and tumors. Therefore, this study results suggest that multiple mAbP CO17-1A × BR55 has a significant effect on apoptosis-mediated anticancer by suppression of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in colon cancer compared to another mAbs. In light of these results, further clinical investigation should be conducted on mAbP CO17-1A × BR55 to determine its possible chemopreventive and/or therapeutic efficacy against human colon cancer.

  11. Association of molecular markers derived from the BrCRTISO1 gene with prolycopene-enriched orange-colored leaves in Brassica rapa [corrected].. (United States)

    Lee, Seohee; Lee, Sang-Choon; Byun, Dong Hae; Lee, Dong Young; Park, Jee Young; Lee, Jong Hoon; Lee, Hyun Oh; Sung, Sang Hyun; Yang, Tae-Jin


    Sequence polymorphism in BrCRTISO1, encoding carotenoid isomerase, is identified in orange-colored B. rapa , and three resulting gene-based markers will be useful for marker-assisted breeding of OC cultivars. Carotenoids are color pigments that are important for protection against excess light in plants and essential sources of retinols and vitamin A for animals. We identified a single recessive gene that might cause orange-colored (OC) inner leaves in Brassica rapa. The inner leaves of the OC cultivar were enriched in lycopene-like compounds, specifically prolycopene and its isomers, which can be a useful functional trait for Kimchi cabbage. We used a candidate gene approach based on the 21 genes in the carotenoid pathway to identify a candidate gene responsible for the orange color. Among them, we focused on two carotenoid isomerase (CRTISO) genes, BrCRTISO1 and BrCRTISO2. The expression of BrCRTISO1 was higher than that of BrCRTISO2 in a normal yellow-colored (YE) cultivar, but full-length BrCRTISO1 transcripts were not detected in the OC cultivar. Genomic sequence analysis revealed that BrCRTISO1 of the OC cultivar had many sequence variations, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions and deletions (InDels), compared to that of the YE cultivar. We developed molecular makers for the identification of OC phenotype based on the polymorphic regions within BrCRTISO1 in B. rapa breeding. The BrCRTISO1 gene and its markers identified in this study are novel genetic resources and will be useful for studying the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway as well as developing new cultivars with unique carotenoid contents in Brassica species.

  12. Comparison of glyoxal, BrO, and IO vertical profiles derived from both ground-based and airborne MAX-DOAS measurements (United States)

    Coburn, Sean; Volkamer, Rainer; Baidar, Sunil; Dix, Barbara; Koenig, Theodore; Ortega, Ivan; Sinreich, Roman; van Roozendael, Michel; Hendrick, Francois; Kinnison, Doug


    The information content of ground-based MAX-DOAS retrievals is assessed by collocated aircraft measurements for a ship MAX-DOAS setup over the Eastern tropical Pacific Ocean (TORERO RF17), and a mountain-top MAX-DOAS setup at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii (CONTRAST RF17). During both case studies the CU airborne MAX-DOAS (AMAX-DOAS) instrument aboard the NSF/NCAR GV aircraft measured profiles of glyoxal, BrO, and IO with 12-20 degrees of freedom and up to 500 m vertical resolution. The TORERO field campaign took place in 2012, while CONTRAST in 2014; both campaigns covered the months of January and February. Additional measurements aboard the aircraft helped to provide information/validation of the AMAX-DOAS derived profiles, such as in-situ water vapor from the Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser hygrometer (VCSEL), in-situ hydrocarbon measurements from the Trace Organic Gas Analyzer (TOGA), and aerosol information constrained by the Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer (UHSAS). The AMAX-DOAS profiles are compared with ground-based MAX-DOAS inversions. The latter explores the effect of using either the measured differential slant column density (dSCD) or SCD as input to the optimal estimation inversion, where SCD = dSCD + SCD_ref. SCD_ref is the residual column amount of the trace gas contained within the reference spectrum. For the AMAX-DOAS data, the values of SCD_ref were actively minimized, while SCD_ref is usually unknown for ground-based MAX-DOAS retrievals. In absence of independent measurements to constrain SCD_ref, the current state-of-the-art with ground-based MAX-DOAS applications is to use dSCDs as input to the inversion. Here we assess the effect of uncertain SCD_ref for ground-based MAX-DOAS profiles in form of a sensitivity study. Additionally for the ground-based data, different methods are compared for the determination of SCD_ref: 1) the collocated aircraft profiles described above present the opportunity to forward calculate the SCD

  13. Radiobromination of anti-HER2/neu/ErbB-2 monoclonal antibody using the p-isothiocyanatobenzene derivative of the [{sup 76}Br]undecahydro-bromo-7,8-dicarba-nido-undecaborate(1-) ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winberg, Karl Johan; Persson, Mikael; Malmstroem, Per-Uno; Sjoeberg, Stefan; Tolmachev, Vladimir E-mail:


    The monoclonal humanized anti-HER2 antibody trastuzumab was radiolabeled with the positron emitter {sup 76}Br (T{sub ((1)/(2))} =16.2 h). Indirect labeling was performed using the p-isothiocyanatobenzene derivative of the [{sup 76}Br]undecahydro-bromo-7,8-dicarba-nido-undecaborate(1-) ({sup 76}Br-NBI) as a precursor molecule. {sup 76}Br-NBI was prepared by bromination of the 7-(p-isothiocyanato-phenyl)dodecahydro-7,8-dicarba-nido-undecaborate(1-) ion (NBI) with a yield of 93-95% using Chloramine-T (CAT) as an oxidant. Coupling of radiobrominated NBI to antibody was performed without intermediate purification, in an ''one pot'' reaction. An overall labeling yield of 55.7 {+-} 4.8% (mean {+-} maximum error) was achieved when 300 {mu}g of antibody was labeled. The label was stable in vitro in physiological and denaturing conditions. In a cell binding test, trastuzumab remained immunoreactive after labeling.

  14. The BR eigenvalue algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Div.; Howell, G.W. [Florida Inst. of Tech., Melbourne, FL (United States). Dept. of Applied Mathematics; Watkins, D.S. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Pure and Applied Mathematics


    The BR algorithm, a new method for calculating the eigenvalues of an upper Hessenberg matrix, is introduced. It is a bulge-chasing algorithm like the QR algorithm, but, unlike the QR algorithm, it is well adapted to computing the eigenvalues of the narrowband, nearly tridiagonal matrices generated by the look-ahead Lanczos process. This paper describes the BR algorithm and gives numerical evidence that it works well in conjunction with the Lanczos process. On the biggest problems run so far, the BR algorithm beats the QR algorithm by a factor of 30--60 in computing time and a factor of over 100 in matrix storage space.

  15. Experimental and theoretical studies of solvent effects on the hydrogen bonds in homoconjugated cations of substituted 4-halo (Cl, Br) pyridine N-oxide derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurzynski, Lukasz [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Puszko, Aniela [Department of Organic Chemistry, School of Economics, Wroclaw (Poland); Makowski, Mariusz [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Chmurzynski, Lech [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)], E-mail:


    Hydrogen bond OHO-type bridges formed between six substituted 4-halo (Cl, Br) pyridine N-oxide systems and their simple cations have been investigated by using the potentiometric titration method. The formation constants of these complexes (expressed as lgK{sub BHB{sup +}}) have been determined in two non-aqueous aprotic solvents with different polarity, i.e., acetone (AC) and acetonitrile (AN). It has been observed that tri- and tetra-substituted pyridine N-oxides [B] and their cationic acids [BH{sup +}] form stable homocomplexed cations [BHB{sup +}] stabilized by O...H...O bridges in both solvents used. It has been found that the most stable homocomplexed system is formed by 3,5-dimethyl-4-chloropyridine N-oxide (3,5Me{sub 2}4ClPyO). The lgK{sub BHB{sup +}} values for this compound in acetone and acetonitrile are 3.15 and 2.82, respectively. Furthermore, by using ab initio methods at the RHF and MP2 levels utilizing the Gaussian 6-31++G{sup **} basis set, the energies of formation of the homocomplexed cations and Gibbs free energies have been determined in vacuo. The calculated energy parameters in vacuo have been compared with the cationic homoconjugation constants determined potentiometrically in acetone and acetonitrile to establish a correlation between these magnitudes. Additionally, the results of potentiometric measurements have been used to determine the acidity constants of the conjugate acids of N-oxides.

  16. Adiabatic states derived from a spin-coupled diabatic transformation: semiclassical trajectory study of photodissociation of HBr and the construction of potential curves for LiBr+. (United States)

    Valero, Rosendo; Truhlar, Donald G; Jasper, Ahren W


    The development of spin-coupled diabatic representations for theoretical semiclassical treatments of photodissociation dynamics is an important practical goal, and some of the assumptions required to carry this out may be validated by applications to simple systems. With this objective, we report here a study of the photodissociation dynamics of the prototypical HBr system using semiclassical trajectory methods. The valence (spin-free) potential energy curves and the permanent and transition dipole moments were computed using high-level ab initio methods and were transformed to a spin-coupled diabatic representation. The spin-orbit coupling used in the transformation was taken as that of atomic bromine at all internuclear distances. Adiabatic potential energy curves, nonadiabatic couplings and transition dipole moments were then obtained from the diabatic ones and were used in all the dynamics calculations. Nonadiabatic photodissociation probabilities were computed using three semiclassical trajectory methods, namely, coherent switching with decay of mixing (CSDM), fewest switches with time uncertainty (FSTU), and its recently developed variant with stochastic decoherence (FTSU/SD), each combined with semiclassical sampling of the initial vibrational state. The calculated branching fraction to the higher fine-structure level of the bromine atom is in good agreement with experiment and with more complete theoretical treatments. The present study, by comparing our new calculations to wave packet calculations with distance-dependent ab initio spin-orbit coupling, validates the semiclassical trajectory methods, the semiclassical initial state sample scheme, and the use of a distance-independent spin-orbit coupling for future applications to polyatomic photodissociation. Finally, using LiBr(+) as a model system, it is shown that accurate spin-coupled potential curves can also be constructed for odd-electron systems using the same strategy as for HBr.

  17. QTAIM investigation of bis(pyrazol-1-ylmethane derivative and its Zn(II complexes (ZnLX2, X=Cl, Br or I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehestani Maryam


    Full Text Available Topological analyses of the electron density using the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM have been carried out at the B3PW91/6-31g (d theoretical level, on bis(pyrazol-1-ylmethanes derivatives 9-(4-(di (1H-pyrazol-1-yl-methylphenyl-9H-carbazole (L and its zinc(II complexes: ZnLCl2 (1, ZnLBr2 (2 and ZnLI2 (3. The topological parameters derived from Bader theory were also analyzed; these are characteristics of Zn-bond critical points and also of ring critical points. The calculated structural parameters are the frontier molecular orbital energies highest occupied molecular orbital energy (EHOMO, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy (ELUMO, hardness (η, softness (S, the absolute electronegativity (χ, the electrophilicity index (ω and the fractions of electrons transferred (ΔN from ZnLX2 complexes to L. The numerous correlations and dependencies between energy terms of the Symmetry Adapted Perturbation Theory approach (SAPT, geometrical, topological and energetic parameters were detected and described.

  18. Rate constant for the reaction SO + BrO yields SO2 + Br (United States)

    Brunning, J.; Stief, L.


    The rate of the radical-radical reaction SO + BrO yields SO2 + Br has been determined at 298 K in a discharge flow system near 1 torr pressure with detection of SO and BrO via collision-free sampling mass spectrometry. The rate constant was determined using two different methods: measuring the decay of SO radicals in the presence of an excess of BrO and measuring the decay of BrO radicals in excess SO. The results from the two methods are in reasonable agreement and the simple mean of the two values gives the recommended rate constant at 298 K, k = (5.7 + or - 2.0) x 10 to the -11th cu cm/s. This represents the first determination of this rate constant and it is consistent with a previously derived lower limit based on SO2 formation. Comparison is made with other radical-radical reactions involving SO or BrO. The reaction SO + BrO yields SO2 + Br is of interest for models of the upper atmosphere of the earth and provides a potential coupling between atmospheric sulfur and bromine chemistry.

  19. Characterization of non-classical Csbnd Br⋯π interactions in (E)-1,3-dibromo-5-(2-(ferrocenyl)vinyl)benzene and related derivatives of ferrocene (United States)

    Shukla, Rahul; Panini, Piyush; McAdam, C. John; Robinson, Brian H.; Simpson, Jim; Tagg, Tei; Chopra, Deepak


    Amongst the halogens, the involvement of bromine atoms in various types of intermolecular interactions is comparatively the least studied. In this manuscript, we report the formation of Csbnd Br⋯π interactions, with the π-rings being the cyclopentadienyl (Cp) rings of a ferrocene molecule in a newly synthesized compound (E)-1,3-dibromo-5-(2-(ferrocenyl)vinyl)benzene. We have also performed a detailed quantitative analysis on Csbnd Br⋯π interactions observed in the synthesized molecule and in several related molecules found in the Cambridge Structure Database (CSD) showing the presence of these interactions. A topological analysis based upon QTAIM theory and electrostatic potential ESP mapped on the Hirshfeld surface of these molecules confirm that these interactions are better described as "halogen bonds" wherein the electropositive region (σ-hole) on the Br-atom interacts with the electronegative region over the Cp-ring of the ferrocene. Further, the electronegative region on the bromine atom (perpendicular to the Csbnd Br bond) was observed to be involved in the formation of highly directional Csbnd H⋯Br interactions with the ∠Csbnd Br⋯H close to 90°. Thus the bromine atom is acting as both a "halogen bond donor" and "hydrogen bond acceptor" in the crystal packing with the two interactions being mutually orthogonal.

  20. Pathways for the OH + Br2 → HOBr + Br and HOBr + Br → HBr + BrO Reactions. (United States)

    Wang, Hongyan; Qiu, Yudong; Schaefer, Henry F


    The OH radical reaction with Br2 and the subsequent reaction HOBr + Br are of exceptional importance to atmospheric chemistry and environmental chemistry. The entrance complex, transition state, and exit complex for both reactions have been determined using the coupled-cluster method with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations CCSD(T) with correlation consistent basis sets up to size cc-pV5Z and cc-pV5Z-PP. Coupled cluster effects with full triples (CCSDT) and full quadruples (CCSDTQ) are explicitly investigated. Scalar relativistic effects, spin-orbit coupling, and zero-point vibrational energy corrections are evaluated. The results from the all-electron basis sets are compared with those from the effective core potential (ECP) pseudopotential (PP) basis sets. The results are consistent. The OH + Br2 reaction is predicted to be exothermic 4.1 ± 0.5 kcal/mol, compared to experiment, 3.9 ± 0.2 kcal/mol. The entrance complex HO···BrBr is bound by 2.2 ± 0.2 kcal/mol. The transition state lies similarly well below the reactants OH + Br2. The exit complex HOBr···Br is bound by 2.7 ± 0.6 kcal/mol relative to separated HOBr + Br. The endothermicity of the reaction HOBr + Br → HBr + BrO is 9.6 ± 0.7 kcal/mol, compared with experiment 8.7 ± 0.3 kcal/mol. For the more important reverse (exothermic) HBr + BrO reaction, the entrance complex BrO···HBr is bound by 1.8 ± 0.6 kcal/mol. The barrier for the HBr + BrO reaction is 6.8 ± 0.9 kcal/mol. The exit complex (Br···HOBr) for the HBr + BrO reaction is bound by 1.9 ± 0.2 kcal/mol with respect to the products HOBr + Br.

  1. Novel CX⋯π halogen bonds in complexes of acetylene and its derivatives of Na and MPH3 (M=Cu, Ag, Au) with XCCF (X=Cl, Br, I). (United States)

    Zhuo, Hongying; Liu, Mingjuan; Li, Qingzhong; Li, Wenzuo; Cheng, Jianbo


    Ab initio calculations have been carried out for a variety of model systems with a T-shaped CX⋯π motif. The CX⋯π interaction of acetylene with the halogen donor molecule XCCF (X=Cl, Br, I) is invariably found to be weak with the interaction energy less than 11kJ/mol in magnitude. Substitution of the two protons in acetylene with more electron-donating sodium atoms increases the π electron density in the CC bond and leads to a substantial enhancement in its interaction with the halogen donor. The calculated interaction energies increase to as much as 73kJ/mol in the case of C2Na2-ICCF. The interaction of XCCF with a model coinage metal ethynide, H3PMCCMPH3 (M=Cu, Ag, Au), is intermediate between these two extremes, and the interaction energy is related to the nature of coinage metals. The CX⋯π halogen bonds have been analyzed with natural bond orbital, atoms in molecules, and energy decomposition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Stig Brøgger's Artists' Books

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania; Hvis Kromann, Thomas

    Introduction and presentation of the many artist's books made by the Danish artist Stig Brøgger......Introduction and presentation of the many artist's books made by the Danish artist Stig Brøgger...

  3. Brændeovn med autopilot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, Jytte Boll


    Ved at sætte brændeovnen på autopilot opnår man en bedre energiudnyttelse og en markant reduktion af luftforurenende stoffer. Automatisk styring af brændeovnen giver lige så lave emissioner hos forbrugeren som på testinstitutter, viser et forskningsprojekt mellem den jyske brændeovnproducent HWAM...

  4. Finding the Missing Stratospheric Br(sub y): A Global Modeling Study of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 (United States)

    Liang, Q.; Stolarski, R. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Nielsen, J. E.; Douglass, A. R.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Blake, D. R.; Atlas, E. L.; Ott, L. E.


    Recent in situ and satellite measurements suggest a contribution of 5 pptv to stratospheric inorganic bromine from short-lived bromocarbons. We conduct a modeling study of the two most important short-lived bromocarbons, bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), with the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOS CCM) to account for this missing stratospheric bromine. We derive a "top-down" emission estimate of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 using airborne measurements in the Pacific and North American troposphere and lower stratosphere obtained during previous NASA aircraft campaigns. Our emission estimate suggests that to reproduce the observed concentrations in the free troposphere, a global oceanic emission of 425 Gg Br yr(exp -1) for CHBr3 and 57 Gg Br yr(exp -l) for CH2Br2 is needed, with 60% of emissions from open ocean and 40% from coastal regions. Although our simple emission scheme assumes no seasonal variations, the model reproduces the observed seasonal variations of the short-lived bromocarbons with high concentrations in winter and low concentrations in summer. This indicates that the seasonality of short-lived bromocarbons is largely due to seasonality in their chemical loss and transport. The inclusion of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 contributes 5 pptv bromine throughout the stratosphere. Both the source gases and inorganic bromine produced from source gas degradation (BrSLS) in the troposphere are transported into the stratosphere, and are equally important. Inorganic bromine accounts for half (2.5 pptv) of the bromine from the inclusion of CHBr3 and CHzBr2 near the tropical tropopause and its contribution rapidly increases to 100% as altitude increases. More than 85% of the wet scavenging of Br(sub y)(sup VSLS) occurs in large-scale precipitation below 500 hPa. Our sensitivity study with wet scavenging in convective updrafts switched off suggests that Br(sub y)(sup SLS) in the stratosphere is not sensitive to convection. Convective scavenging only

  5. Brønsted acid-promoted C-H bond cleavage via electron transfer from toluene derivatives to a protonated nonheme iron(IV)-oxo complex with no kinetic isotope effect. (United States)

    Park, Jiyun; Lee, Yong-Min; Nam, Wonwoo; Fukuzumi, Shunichi


    The reactivity of a nonheme iron(IV)-oxo complex, [(N4Py)Fe(IV)(O)](2+) (N4Py = N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-N-bis(2-pyridyl)methylamine), was markedly enhanced by perchloric acid (70% HClO4) in the oxidation of toluene derivatives. Toluene, which has a high one-electron oxidation potential (Eox = 2.20 V vs SCE), was oxidized by [(N4Py)Fe(IV)(O)](2+) in the presence of HClO4 in acetonitrile (MeCN) to yield a stoichiometric amount of benzyl alcohol, in which [(N4Py)Fe(IV)(O)](2+) was reduced to [(N4Py)Fe(III)(OH2)](3+). The second-order rate constant (kobs) of the oxidation of toluene derivatives by [(N4Py)Fe(IV)(O)](2+) increased with increasing concentration of HClO4, showing the first-order dependence on [HClO4]. A significant kinetic isotope effect (KIE) was observed when mesitylene was replaced by mesitylene-d12 in the oxidation with [(N4Py)Fe(IV)(O)](2+) in the absence of HClO4 in MeCN at 298 K. The KIE value drastically decreased from KIE = 31 in the absence of HClO4 to KIE = 1.0 with increasing concentration of HClO4, accompanied by the large acceleration of the oxidation rate. The absence of KIE suggests that electron transfer from a toluene derivative to the protonated iron(IV)-oxo complex ([(N4Py)Fe(IV)(OH)](3+)) is the rate-determining step in the acid-promoted oxidation reaction. The detailed kinetic analysis in light of the Marcus theory of electron transfer has revealed that the acid-promoted C-H bond cleavage proceeds via the rate-determining electron transfer from toluene derivatives to [(N4Py)Fe(IV)(OH)](3+) through formation of strong precursor complexes between toluene derivatives and [(N4Py)Fe(IV)(OH)](3+).

  6. Ozone Depletion Potential of CH3Br (United States)

    Sander, Stanley P.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Sze, Nien Dak; Scott, Courtney; Rodriquez, Jose M.; Weisenstein, Debra K.


    The ozone depletion potential (ODP) of methyl bromide (CH3Br) can be determined by combining the model-calculated bromine efficiency factor (BEF) for CH3Br and its atmospheric lifetime. This paper examines how changes in several key kinetic data affect BEF. The key reactions highlighted in this study include the reaction of BrO + H02, the absorption cross section of HOBr, the absorption cross section and the photolysis products of BrON02, and the heterogeneous conversion of BrON02 to HOBR and HN03 on aerosol particles. By combining the calculated BEF with the latest estimate of 0.7 year for the atmospheric lifetime of CH3Br, the likely value of ODP for CH3Br is 0.39. The model-calculated concentration of HBr (approximately 0.3 pptv) in the lower stratosphere is substantially smaller than the reported measured value of about I pptv. Recent publications suggested models can reproduce the measured value if one assumes a yield for HBr from the reaction of BrO + OH or from the reaction of BrO + H02. Although the DeAlore et al. evaluation concluded any substantial yield of HBr from BrO + HO2 is unlikely, for completeness, we calculate the effects of these assumed yields on BEF for CH3Br. Our calculations show that the effects are minimal: practically no impact for an assumed 1.3% yield of HBr from BrO + OH and 10% smaller for an assumed 0.6% yield from BrO + H02.

  7. Link between Enhanced Arctic tropospheric BrO observed by Aura OMI and meteorological conditions (United States)

    Choi, S.; Joiner, J.; Theys, N.; Salawitch, R. J.; Wales, P.; Canty, T. P.; Chance, K.; Suleiman, R. M.; Palm, S. P.; Cullather, R. I.; Darmenov, A.; da Silva, A.; Kurosu, T. P.


    Bromine radicals (Br + BrO) are important species owing to the ability to destroy ozone catalytically. They may also impact oxidative pathways of many trace gases including dimethylsulfide (DMS) and mercury. Bromine monoxide (BrO) is the most commonly observed bromine radical species. Since it absorbs ultraviolet (UV) radiation, it can be observed using remote sensing technique including Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). Previous studies have reported rapid enhancements tropospheric BrO (so called "bromine explosion") connected to near-surface ozone depletion events during springtime in the Arctic. Space-based observation of BrO through Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is an excellent tool for studying bromine chemistry particularly for the Arctic due to its frequent observations at high latitudes. We derive tropospheric columns BrO by subtracting estimates of stratospheric column BrO from OMI total column BrO and air mass factor (AMF) correction, and analyze the tropospheric columns BrO in conjunction with Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Application (MERRA) meteorological fields provided by NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) in order to investigate a link between bromine explosion and near-surface meteorological factors.

  8. Atmospheric fate of CF sub 3 Br, CF sub 2 Br sub 2 , CF sub 2 ClBr, and CF sub 2 BrCF sub 2 Br

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkholder, J.B.; Wilson, R.R.; Gierczak, T.; Talukdar, R.; McKeen, S.A.; Orlando, J.J.; Vaghjiani, G.L.; Ravishankara, A.R. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (USA) Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (USA))


    The temperature dependent UV absorption cross sections of the haloalkanes CF{sub 3}Br, CF{sub 2}ClBr, CF{sub 2}Br{sub 2}, and CF{sub 2}BrCF{sub 2} are reported. The UV absorption cross sections were measured over the temperature range 210 to 296 K and the wavelength range 190 to 320 nm. Upper limits of the rate coefficients for the reactions of OH with CF{sub 3}Br, CF{sub 2}Br{sub 2}, CF{sub 2}ClBr, and CF{sub 2}BrCF{sub 2}Br were also determined using both pulsed photolysis and flow tube techniques. The rate coefficients at 296 K were found to be <1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}16}, <1.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}16}, <5.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}16}, and <1.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}16} cm{sup 3} molec{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} for CF{sub 3}Br, CF{sub 2}ClBr, CF{sub 2}BrCF{sub 2}Br, respectively. The UV absorption cross-section data and OH reaction rate coefficients of these species were combined with a one-dimensional model to yield atmospheric lifetimes of 65, 16, 3.2, and <20 years for CF{sub 3}Br, CF{sub 2}ClBr, CF{sub 2}Br{sub 2}, and CF{sub 2}BrCF{sub 2}Br, respectively.

  9. Cd4As2Br3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Kars


    Full Text Available Single crystals of Cd4As2Br3 (tetracadmium biarsenide tribromide were grown by a chemical transport reaction. The structure is isotypic with the members of the cadmium and mercury pnictidohalides family with general formula M4A2X3 (M = Cd, Hg; A = P, As, Sb; X = Cl, Br, I and contains two independent As atoms on special positions with site symmetry -3 and two independent Cd atoms, of which one is on a special position with site symmetry -3. The Cd4As2Br3 structure consists of AsCd4 tetrahedra sharing vertices with isolated As2Cd6 octahedra that contain As–As dumbbells in the centre of the octahedron. The Br atoms are located in the voids of this three-dimensional arrangement and bridge the different polyhedra through Cd...Br contacts.

  10. Characterization of soluble bromide measurements and a case study of BrO observations during ARCTAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liao


    Full Text Available A focus of the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS mission was examination of bromine photochemistry in the spring time high latitude troposphere based on aircraft and satellite measurements of bromine oxide (BrO and related species. The NASA DC-8 aircraft utilized a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS to measure BrO and a mist chamber (MC to measure soluble bromide. We have determined that the MC detection efficiency to molecular bromine (Br2, hypobromous acid (HOBr, bromine oxide (BrO, and hydrogen bromide (HBr as soluble bromide (Br was 0.9±0.1, 1.06+0.30/−0.35, 0.4±0.1, and 0.95±0.1, respectively. These efficiency factors were used to estimate soluble bromide levels along the DC-8 flight track of 17 April 2008 from photochemical calculations constrained to in situ BrO measured by CIMS. During this flight, the highest levels of soluble bromide and BrO were observed and atmospheric conditions were ideal for the space-borne observation of BrO. The good agreement (R2 = 0.76; slope = 0.95; intercept = −3.4 pmol mol−1 between modeled and observed soluble bromide, when BrO was above detection limit (>2 pmol mol−1 under unpolluted conditions (NO<10 pmol mol−1, indicates that the CIMS BrO measurements were consistent with the MC soluble bromide and that a well characterized MC can be used to derive mixing ratios of some reactive bromine compounds. Tropospheric BrO vertical column densities (BrOVCD derived from CIMS BrO observations compare well with BrOTROPVCD from OMI on 17 April 2008.

  11. Diagnostics of low-pressure discharges containing InBr studied for lighting applications (United States)

    Briefi, S.; Fantz, U.


    The utilization of InBr in low-pressure rare-gas plasmas for lighting applications may serve as an efficient alternative to hazardous mercury, which is used in common fluorescent lamps as a radiator. In order to perform systematic investigations of these discharges, diagnostic methods are required to gain insight into the relevant plasma parameters. This goal can be achieved by using white light absorption and optical emission spectroscopy supported by an extended corona model of the indium atom and a simulation of the relative intensity of the InBr emission. The set of diagnostic methods is exemplarily applied to measurements on an inductively coupled argon discharge at 100 W power with varying InBr content. The plasma parameters are derived and the processes determining their changes with varying InBr density are identified. Increasing the InBr density results in a decrease in Te but an increase in ne, which can be explained by considering the ionization and power balance. The relevant population processes for the rovibrational states of InBr are inelastic collisions with heavy particles with an increasing importance of electron impact excitation at a higher InBr density. The radiated power is maximal at a cold spot temperature between 210 and 220 °C as reabsorption occurs at a high InBr density.

  12. Tuning growth cycles of Brassica crops via natural antisense transcripts of BrFLC. (United States)

    Li, Xiaorong; Zhang, Shaofeng; Bai, Jinjuan; He, Yuke


    Several oilseed and vegetable crops of Brassica are biennials that require a prolonged winter cold for flowering, a process called vernalization. FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is a central repressor of flowering. Here, we report that the overexpression of natural antisense transcripts (NATs) of Brassica rapa FLC (BrFLC) greatly shortens plant growth cycles. In rapid-, medium- and slow-cycling crop types, there are four copies of the BrFLC genes, which show extensive variation in sequences and expression levels. In Bre, a biennial crop type that requires vernalization, five NATs derived from the BrFLC2 locus are rapidly induced under cold conditions, while all four BrFLC genes are gradually down-regulated. The transgenic Bre lines overexpressing a long NAT of BrFLC2 do not require vernalization, resulting in a gradient of shortened growth cycles. Among them, a subset of lines both flower and set seeds as early as Yellow sarson, an annual crop type in which all four BrFLC genes have non-sense mutations and are nonfunctional in flowering repression. Our results demonstrate that the growth cycles of biennial crops of Brassica can be altered by changing the expression levels of BrFLC2 NATs. Thus, BrFLC2 NATs and their transgenic lines are useful for the genetic manipulation of crop growth cycles. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Pure Cs4PbBr6: Highly Luminescent Zero-Dimensional Perovskite Solids

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.


    So-called zero-dimensional perovskites, such as Cs4PbBr6, promise outstanding emissive properties. However, Cs4PbBr6 is mostly prepared by melting of precursors that usually leads to a coformation of undesired phases. Here, we report a simple low-temperature solution-processed synthesis of pure Cs4PbBr6 with remarkable emission properties. We found that pure Cs4PbBr6 in solid form exhibits a 45% photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY), in contrast to its three-dimensional counterpart, CsPbBr3, which exhibits more than 2 orders of magnitude lower PLQY. Such a PLQY of Cs4PbBr6 is significantly higher than that of other solid forms of lower-dimensional metal halide perovskite derivatives and perovskite nanocrystals. We attribute this dramatic increase in PL to the high exciton binding energy, which we estimate to be ∼353 meV, likely induced by the unique Bergerhoff–Schmitz–Dumont-type crystal structure of Cs4PbBr6, in which metal-halide-comprised octahedra are spatially confined. Our findings bring this class of perovskite derivatives to the forefront of color-converting and light-emitting applications.

  14. Seasonal variability of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) in a temperate lake system (United States)

    Loomis, Shannon E.; Russell, James M.; Heureux, Ana M.; D'Andrea, William J.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.


    Quantitative climate reconstructions are crucial for understanding the magnitude of and mechanisms behind natural and anthropogenic climate change, yet there are few proxies that can reliably reconstruct terrestrial temperature. Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are bacterial membrane lipids that are increasingly used to reconstruct paleotemperature from lake sediments, but despite their potential, we have a poor understanding of (1) autochthonous vs. allochthonous sources of brGDGTs in lakes and (2) the seasonality of and environmental controls on brGDGT production within lakes. To investigate these factors, we examined water column suspended particulate matter (SPM) and settling particles from a sediment trap collected on a biweekly to monthly basis over a period of three years at Lower King Pond, a small kettle lake in northern Vermont, USA. We also compared the concentration and fractional abundances of brGDGTs in SPM and settling particles with those of catchment soils, river sediments, and lake surface sediments to constrain the relative importance of brGDGTs derived from the landscape versus brGDGTs produced within the lake itself. We find significant differences in concentrations and fractional abundances of brGDGTs between soil and river sediment samples from the catchment and lake sediments, indicating a mostly autochthonous source for lacustrine brGDGTs. BrGDGT concentrations, fluxes, and fractional abundances in SPM vary over the annual cycle, indicating that brGDGTs are produced throughout the year and respond to changes within the water column. The total annual flux of brGDGTs settling through the water column is comparable to the brGDGT accumulation rates in surface sediments, indicating that in this lake brGDGTs are mostly produced within the water column, not in the sediment itself. While brGDGTs are produced in all seasons within the water column, the flux to the sediments is highest during periods of spring and fall

  15. buFacile synthesis and characterization of CsPbBr3 and CsPb2Br5 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    CsPb2Br5 powders show a white color. Based on the results of the XRD analysis, it can be seen that the Cs+/Pb2+ mole ratio has the effect on the phase of final product in this synthesis process. Generally speaking, there is a reaction occurring for the formation of CsPbBr3 by CsBr and. PbBr2: CsBr + PbBr2 → CsPbBr3. (1).

  16. Aagesta-BR3 Decommissioning Cost. Comparison and Benchmarking Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Geoff [NAC International, Henley on Thames (United Kingdom)


    25 is equipment. The BR3 work packages described in this report add up to something like 83,000 labour hours plus about MSEK 13 of investments and consumables costs. At Swedish average team labour rates 83,000 hours would equate to about MSEK 52. Adding the investment cost of MSEK 13 gives a total of about MSEK 65. This of course is quite close to the Aagesta figure but it would be wrong to draw immediate, firm conclusions based on these data. Such a comparison should take into account, inter alia: The number and relative sizes of the equipment decontaminated and dismantled at Aagesta and BR3. The assumed productivity in the Aagesta estimate compared to the actual BR3 figures. The physical scale of the Aagesta reactor is somewhat larger than the BR3 reactor, so all other things being equal, one might expect the Aagesta decommissioning cost estimate to be higher than for BR3. Aagesta has better access overall, which should help to constrain costs. The productivity ratio for workers at BR3 on average was high - generally 80 per cent or more, so this is unlikely to be exceeded at Aagesta and might not be equalled, which would tend to push the Aagesta cost up relative to the BR3 situation. There is an additional question of the possible extra work performed at BR3 due to the R and D nature of the project. The BR3 data analysed has tried to strip away any such 'extra' work but nevertheless there may be some residual effect on the final numbers. Analysis and comparison of individual work packages has raised several conclusions, as follows: The constructed cost for Aagesta using BR3 benchmark data is encouragingly close to the Aagesta estimate value but it is not clear that the way of deriving the Aagesta estimate for decontamination was entirely rigorous. The reliability of the Aagesta estimate on these grounds therefore might reasonably be questioned. A significant discrepancy between the BR3 and Aagesta cases appears to exist in respect of the volumes of waste

  17. BR(Bs to mu+ mu-) as an electroweak precision test

    CERN Document Server

    Guadagnoli, Diego


    Using an effective-theory approach, we analyze the impact of BR(Bs to mu+ mu-) in constraining new-physics models that predict modifications of the Z-boson couplings to down-type quarks. Under motivated assumptions about the flavor structure of the effective theory, we show that the bounds presently derived from BR(Bs to mu+ mu-) on the effective Z-boson couplings are comparable (in the case of minimal flavor violation) or significantly more stringent (in the case of generic partial compositeness) with respect to those derived from observables at the Z peak.

  18. Cooperative effects of noncovalent bonds to the Br atom of halogen-bonded H3N...BrZ and HCN...BrZ (Z = F, Br) complexes. (United States)

    McDowell, Sean A C; Joseph, Jerelle A


    A series of complexes formed between halogen-bonded H(3)N/HCN...BrZ (Z = Br, F) dimers and H(3)N/HCN...BrZ...XY (XY = HF, ClF, BeH(2), LiF) trimers were investigated at the MP2 and B3LYP levels of theory using a 6-31++G(d,p) basis set. Optimized structures, interaction energies, and other properties of interest were obtained. The addition of XY to the H(3)N/HCN...BrZ dyad leads to enhanced intermolecular binding with respect to the isolated monomers. This enhanced binding receives contributions from the electrostatic and inductive forces between the constituent pairs, with, in some instances, substantial three-body non-additive contributions to the binding energy. It was found that the XY = LiF interaction causes the greatest distortion of the H(3)N/HCN...BrZ halogen bond from the preferred linear orientation and also provides the strongest binding energy via the nonadditive energy.

  19. Systematic hardness measurements on CsClxBr (and NH4ClxBr ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia. Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 25; Issue 1. Systematic hardness measurements on CsClBr(1–x) and NH4ClBr(1–x) mixed crystals. K G Subhadra E Balaiah D B Sirdeshmukh. Mechanical Properties Volume 25 Issue 1 February 2002 pp 31- ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In ethanol, a C-S cleavage occurs in final products on allowing R4NCO2SO3H – R = Me, Et - to react with HgX2, SnX4 (M = Hg, X= Cl, Br, leading to carbonate and sulfite adducts and complexes ,infrared study of which have been carried out, then structures suggested on the basis of spectroscopic data. When (Me4NCO2SO3H is allowed to react with SbCl5, HgX2 (X = Cl, Br, sulfite adducts were obtained, studied by infrared. The suggested structures are discrete, the sulfite anion behaving as a bidentate ligand.

  1. The role of Br2 and BrCl in surface ozone destruction at polar sunrise. (United States)

    Foster, K L; Plastridge, R A; Bottenheim, J W; Shepson, P B; Finlayson-Pitts, B J; Spicer, C W


    Bromine atoms are believed to play a central role in the depletion of surface-level ozone in the Arctic at polar sunrise. Br2, BrCl, and HOBr have been hypothesized as bromine atom precursors, and there is evidence for chlorine atom precursors as well, but these species have not been measured directly. We report here measurements of Br2, BrCl, and Cl2 made using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry at Alert, Nunavut, Canada. In addition to Br2 at mixing ratios up to approximately 25 parts per trillion, BrCl was found at levels as high as approximately 35 parts per trillion. Molecular chlorine was not observed, implying that BrCl is the dominant source of chlorine atoms during polar sunrise, consistent with recent modeling studies. Similar formation of bromine compounds and tropospheric ozone destruction may also occur at mid-latitudes but may not be as apparent owing to more efficient mixing in the boundary layer.

  2. Postsynthesis Transformation of Insulating Cs4PbBr6 Nanocrystals into Bright Perovskite CsPbBr3 through Physical and Chemical Extraction of CsBr


    Palazon, Francisco; Urso, Carmine; De Trizio, Luca; Akkerman, Quinten; Marras, Sergio; Locardi, Federico; Nelli, Ilaria; Ferretti, Maurizio; Prato, Mirko; Manna, Liberato


    Perovskite-related Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals present a “zero-dimensional” crystalline structure where adjacent [PbBr6]4– octahedra do not share any corners. We show in this work that these nanocrystals can be converted into “three-dimensional” CsPbBr3 perovskites by extraction of CsBr. This conversion drastically changes the optoelectronic properties of the nanocrystals that become highly photoluminescent. The extraction of CsBr can be achieved either by thermal annealing (physical approach) or b...

  3. Elamusturundus: riigi brändimine ja Eesti bränd / Siiri Same

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Same, Siiri


    Artikli autor oma 2015. a. Tallinna Tehnikaülikoolis kaitstud doktoritööst "Conceptualization of experience marketing and country branding from a marketing management perspective" ("Elamusturunduse ja riigi brändimise kontseptualiseerimine turunduse juhtimise vaatenurgast")

  4. $^{80m}$Br/$^{80}$Br a new electron-$\\gamma$ - PAC Probe

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, J G; Araújo, J P; Marques, J G; Soares, J C; Melo, A A


    Conversion electron-$\\gamma$ PAC measurements of the 49 keV - 37 keV cascade in $^{80}$Br through the intermediate 2$^{-}$ state with T$_{1/2}$=7.4 ns were performed with a system of two magnetic lens spectrometers and two BaF$_{2}$ scintillation detectors. The parent $^{80m}$Br activity with half-life of 4.4 hrs was implanted into Ni, Zn and graphite at the ISOLDE separator at CERN. The observed interaction frequency in the nickel matrix is in good agreement with the known value of the hyperfine field for Br in Ni and the magnetic moment of the 2$^{-}$ state. From the measured quadrupole interaction in Zn and graphite the electric field gradients at Br were obtained.

  5. $^{80}$Br $^{80}$Br-a new electron-gamma PAC probe

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, J G; Araújo, J P; Marques, J G; Soares, J C; Melo, A A


    Conversion electron-gamma PAC measurements of the 49-37 keV cascade in /sup 80/Br through the intermediate 2/sup -/ state with T/sub 1/2 /=7.4 ns were performed with a system of two magnetic lens spectrometers and two BaF/sub 2/ scintillation detectors. The parent /sup 80m/Br activity with a halflife of 4.4 hrs was implanted into Ni, Zn and graphite at the ISOLDE separator at CERN. The observed interaction frequency in the nickel matrix is in good agreement with the known value of the hyperfine field for Br in Ni and the magnetic moment of the 2/sup -/ state. From the measured quadrupole interaction in Zn and graphite the electric field gradients at Br were obtained. (7 refs).

  6. {sup 80m}Br/{sup 80}Br - A New Electron-Gamma PAC Probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, J. G.; Haas, H. [CERN, EP Division (Switzerland); Araujo, J. P. [IFIMUP, Fac. Ciencias (Portugal); Marques, J. G.; Soares, J. C. [Inst. Tecnologico e Nuclear (Portugal); Melo, A. A. [CFNUL (Portugal)


    Conversion electron-gamma PAC measurements of the 49-37 keV cascade in {sup 80}Br through the intermediate 2{sup -} state with T{sub 1/2}=7.4 ns were performed with a system of two magnetic lens spectrometers and two BaF{sub 2} scintillation detectors. The parent {sup 80m}Br activity with a halflife of 4.4 hrs was implanted into Ni, Zn and graphite at the ISOLDE separator at CERN. The observed interaction frequency in the nickel matrix is in good agreement with the known value of the hyperfine field for Br in Ni and the magnetic moment of the 2{sup -} state. From the measured quadrupole interaction in Zn and graphite the electric field gradients at Br were obtained.

  7. On the evolution of Dipodium R. Br.


    Peter O'byrne


    Dipodium R. Br. (Orchidaceae), a genus of ca. 38 species, should be divided into an Australasian clade and a Malesian clade, based on morphological and geographic evidences. Dipodium section Dipodium and section Leopardanthus (Blume) O. Kuntze are re-defined to accommodate this change. An evolutionary scenario that explains this division is proposed. The lack of diversity of floral structure in the genus is probably caused by pollinator-specificity, while the diversity of plant form may be du...

  8. Stratospheric BrO abundance measured by a balloon-borne submillimeterwave radiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Stachnik


    Full Text Available Measurements of mixing ratio profiles of stratospheric bromine monoxide (BrO were made using observations of BrO rotational line emission at 650.179 GHz by a balloon-borne SIS (superconductor-insulator-superconductor submillimeterwave heterodyne limb sounder (SLS. The balloon was launched from Ft. Sumner, New Mexico (34° N on 22 September 2011. Peak mid-day BrO abundance varied from 16 ± 2 ppt at 34 km to 6 ± 4 ppt at 16 km. Corresponding estimates of total inorganic bromine (Bry, derived from BrO vmr (volume mixing ratio using a photochemical box model, were 21 ± 3 ppt and 11 ± 5 ppt, respectively. Inferred Bry abundance exceeds that attributable solely to decomposition of long-lived methyl bromide and other halons, and is consistent with a contribution from bromine-containing very short lived substances, BryVSLS, of 4 ppt to 8 ppt. These results for BrO and Bry were compared with, and found to be in good agreement with, those of other recent balloon-borne and satellite instruments.

  9. Octadecabromidobis(dicarbidodecadysprosium, [Dy10Br18(C22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Daub


    Full Text Available Single crystals of [Dy10Br18(C22] were obtained during the reaction of DyBr3 with dysprosium metal and graphite in a sealed tantalum container. In the crystal structure, the Dy atoms form dimers of edge-sharing octahedra, each encapsulating a C2 unit. The metal atoms are surrounded by Br atoms above the cluster edges and vertices, respectively. The dimers are connected to each other by Br atoms, leading to a three-dimensional network. [Dy10Br18(C22] is isotypic with its iodido analogue [Dy10I18(C22].

  10. Observations of BrO Using Limb Scanning DOAS During the 2013 NOMADSS Campaign (United States)

    Festa, J.; Stutz, J.; Tsai, J. Y.; Spolaor, M.; Zhou, X.; Ye, C.; Jaffe, D. A.; Gratz, L.; Ambrose, J. L., II; Jaegle, L.; Shah, V.; Selin, N. E.; Song, S.


    Bromine monoxide (BrO) is an important atmospheric constituent, participating in the destruction of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone and the oxidation of gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) to form reactive Hg (RM). During the Nitrogen, Oxidants, Mercury and Aerosol Distributions, Sources and Sinks (NOMADSS) campaign in the summer of 2013, our group operated a limb-scanning Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument onboard the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft with the goal of quantifying BrO, formaldehyde (HCHO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and other trace gases. Here we present observations of Differential Slant Column Densities (DSCD) obtained in the limb derived using the DOAS analysis technique. A radiative transfer model (McArtim [Deutschmann et al., 2011]), constrained by in-situ measurement on the aircraft or from published literature, was utilized to simulate the DSCDs and to derive BrO mixing ratios at flight altitude. BrO mixing ratios were typically below our 2σ detection limit (ranging from 0.5 - 1 ppt) with the exception of a high altitude (~7km asl) portion of a flight over Central and West Texas (RF 6), and a marine boundary layer (~0.2km asl) flight leg off the coast of South Carolina (RF 16). Around 1.9 ± 0.25 ppt of BrO was detected for about 1.5 hours in the high altitude flight, and around 1.0 ±0.5 ppt of BrO was detected in the marine boundary layer. Several features were present in the higher altitude air-mass with detectable BrO: O3 and humidity were significantly depressed relative to other flight legs at the same altitude and large concentrations of RM were simultaneously observed. We will present possible sources for the anomalously high BrO mixing ratios in the sampled air mass and discuss the implications of our knowledge on free-tropospheric bromine chemistry and its effects on GEM oxidation.

  11. Hybridization of Single Nanocrystals of Cs4PbBr6 and CsPbBr3 (United States)


    Nanocrystals of all-inorganic cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I) feature high absorption and efficient narrow-band emission which renders them promising for future generation of photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices. Colloidal ensembles of these nanocrystals can be conveniently prepared by chemical synthesis. However, in the case of CsPbBr3, its synthesis can also yield nanocrystals of Cs4PbBr6 and the properties of the two are easily confused. Here, we investigate in detail the optical characteristics of simultaneously synthesized green-emitting CsPbBr3 and insulating Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals. We demonstrate that, in this case, the two materials inevitably hybridize, forming nanoparticles with a spherical shape. The actual amount of these Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals and nanohybrids increases for synthesis at lower temperatures, i.e., the condition typically used for the development of perovskite CsPbBr3 nanocrystals with smaller sizes. We use state-of-the-art electron energy loss spectroscopy to characterize nanoparticles at the single object level. This method allows distinguishing between optical characteristics of a pure Cs4PbBr6 and CsPbBr3 nanocrystal and their nanohybrid. In this way, we resolve some of the recent misconceptions concerning possible visible absorption and emission of Cs4PbBr6. Our method provides detailed structural characterization, and combined with modeling, we conclusively identify the nanospheres as CsPbBr3/Cs4PbBr6 hybrids. We show that the two phases are independent of each other’s presence and merge symbiotically. Herein, the optical characteristics of the parent materials are preserved, allowing for an increased absorption in the UV due to Cs4PbBr6, accompanied by the distinctive efficient green emission resulting from CsPbBr3. PMID:28919935

  12. Postsynthesis Transformation of Insulating Cs4PbBr6 Nanocrystals into Bright Perovskite CsPbBr3 through Physical and Chemical Extraction of CsBr (United States)


    Perovskite-related Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals present a “zero-dimensional” crystalline structure where adjacent [PbBr6]4– octahedra do not share any corners. We show in this work that these nanocrystals can be converted into “three-dimensional” CsPbBr3 perovskites by extraction of CsBr. This conversion drastically changes the optoelectronic properties of the nanocrystals that become highly photoluminescent. The extraction of CsBr can be achieved either by thermal annealing (physical approach) or by chemical reaction with Prussian Blue (chemical approach). The former approach can be simply carried out on a dried film without addition of any chemicals but does not yield a full transformation. Instead, reaction with Prussian Blue in solution achieves a full transformation into the perovskite phase. This transformation was also verified on the iodide counterpart (Cs4PbI6). PMID:29285525

  13. Ozone Depletion Potential of CH3Br. Appendix H (United States)

    Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Sze, Nien Dak; Scott, Courtney; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Sander, Stanley P.


    The ozone depletion potential (ODP) of methyl bromide (CH3Br) can be determined by combining the model-calculated bromine efficiency factor (BEF) for CH3Br and its atmospheric lifetime. This paper examines how changes in several key kinetic data affect BEF. The key reactions highlighted in this study include the reaction of BrO + HO2, the absorption cross section of HOBr, the absorption cross section and the photolysis products of BrONO2, and the heterogeneous conversion of BrONO2 to HOBr and HNO3 on aerosol particles. By combining the calculated BEF with the latest estimate of 0.7 year for the atmospheric lifetime of CH3Br, the likely value of ODP for CH3Br is 0.39. The model-calculated concentration of HBr (approx. 0.3 pptv) in the lower stratosphere is substantially smaller than the reported measured value of about 1 pptv. Recent publications suggested models can reproduce the measured value if one assumes a yield for HBr from the reaction of BrO + OH or from the reaction of BrO + HO2. Although the evaluation concluded any substantial yield of HBr from BrO + HO2 is unlikely, for completeness, we calculate the effects of these assumed yields on BEF for CH3Br. Our calculations show that the effects are minimal: practically no impact for an assumed 1.3% yield of HBr from BrO + OH and 10% smaller for an assumed 0.6% yield from BrO + HO2.

  14. Ion-Association Reaction of Rb+ and Br- in 2-Methylpropan-2-ol + Water Mixtures. (United States)

    Sokol, Vesna; Tomaš, Renato; Bošković, Perica


    The molar conductivity of RbBr solutions in 2-methylpropan-2-ol (tert-butanol) + water mixtures at alcohol mass fractions of 0.70, 0.80 and 0.90 was measured at temperatures from 288.15 to 308.15 K at 5 K intervals. The limiting molar conductivity (Δo) and the ion-pair formation constant (KoA) were determined by the Lee-Wheaton conductivity equation. Thermodynamic quantities, Gibbs energy (ΔGo), enthalpy (ΔHo) and entropy (ΔSo), for the ion-association reaction were derived from the temperature dependence of KoA; the activation energy of the ionic movement (ΔH*) was derived from the temperature dependence of Λo. These values were compared with those obtained earlier for HBr and NaBr in the same mixtures.

  15. Discharge flow kinetic study of the reactions of NO sub 3 with Br, BrO, HBr, and HCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellouki, A.; Poulet, G.; Le Bras, G. (C.N.R.S., Orleans (France)); Singer, R.; Burrows, J.P.; Moortgat, G.K. (Max-Planck Institut fuer Chemie, Mainz (Germany, F.R.))


    The reactions of NO{sub 3} with Br, BrO, HBr, and HCl have been studied at 298 K by using the discharge-flow EPR method. In the study of the reactions of NO{sub 3} with Br and BrO, where NO{sub 3} and Br or BrO were flowed separately in the presence of excess NO{sub 3}, the following rate constants were found: k{sub 1} = (1.6 {plus minus} 0.7) {times} 10{sup {minus}11} for NO{sub 3} + Br {yields} NO{sub 2} + BrO (1) and 0.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} {le} k{sub 3} {le} 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} for NO{sub 3} + BrO {yields} Br + NO{sub 2} + O{sub 2} (3). Units are cm{sup 3} molecule{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}. For the reactions NO{sub 3} + HCl {yields} products (6) and NO{sub 3} + HBr {yields} products (7), the upper limits k{sub 6} {le} 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}17} and k{sub 7} {le} 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}16} were obtained.

  16. Brüssel Euroopa pealinnaks? / Ülar Mark

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mark, Ülar, 1968-


    Brüsseli Euroopa kvartali planeerimisvõistlusest, mille peakorraldaja oli Brüsseli pealinna piirkond koos Brüsseli linna ja Euroopa Komisjoniga. Eestist osales žüriis arhitekt Ülar Mark. Meeskonna Atelier Christian de Portzamparc võidutööst ja teiste teise vooru pääsenud nelja meeskonna (JDS / Julien De Smedt Architects, OMA / Office for Metropolitan Architecture, Xaveer De Geyter Architect, Fletcher Priest Architects) töödest

  17. Alocação de linhagens de milho derivadas das populações BR-105 e BR-106 em grupos heteróticos Allocation of maize lines from BR-105 and BR-106 populations to heterotic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério de Melo Costa Pinto


    Full Text Available Os grupos heteróticos são importantes no melhoramento de milho, pois permitem o uso mais eficiente do germoplasma. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi alocar linhagens de milho em grupos heteróticos a partir de estimativas da capacidade específica de combinação. Oito linhagens S3 da população BR-105 e dez da BR-106, foram cruzadas ao nível interpopulacional seguindo um sistema dialélico. Oitenta híbridos simples foram obtidos e avaliados em látices em três ambientes. Foram avaliados os caracteres produção de grãos (PG, altura da planta (AP e altura da espiga (AE. As estimativas das capacidades geral (CGC e específica (CEC de combinação foram obtidas segundo o método 4, modelo I de Griffing. A partir das estimativas de CEC, as linhagens foram alocadas aos respectivos grupos heteróticos utilizando-se o método UPGMA (média aritmética não ponderada para a construção do dendrograma e a dispersão gráfica pelo método das coordenadas principais. Para PG, as linhagens foram alocadas em quatro grupos heteróticos, sendo dois grupos em cada população. Para AP e AE, o uso das estimativas de CEC não foi eficiente para alocar as linhagens em grupos heteróticos. As análises de agrupamento e de coordenadas principais foram eficientes na alocação das linhagens em grupos heteróticos para PG. Então, como a produção de grãos é a principal característica para o melhoramento de milho, com a alocação das linhagens em quatro grupos heteróticos, os cruzamentos serão direcionados e o processo de melhoramento se tornará mais eficiente, evitando a obtenção e a avaliação de cruzamentos (híbridos desnecessários.The heterotic groups are important in maize breeding programs because they allow the most efficient use of the germoplasm. The objective of this research was to allocate maize lines to heterotic groups from estimates of specific combining ability (SCA. Eight and ten S3 lines derived from populations BR-105 and BR

  18. BrO measurements over the Eastern North-Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Platt


    Full Text Available The aim of the work presented here was to detect BrO in the marine boundary layer over the Eastern North-Atlantic by Multi AXis-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS of scattered sunlight. With this technique, information about the concentration and the vertical profile of trace gases in the atmosphere can be gained. BrO can be formed in the marine atmosphere by degradation of biogenic organohalogens or by oxidation of bromide in sea salt aerosol. BrO influences the chemistry in marine air in many ways, e.g. since it catalytically destroys ozone, changes the NO2/NO-ratio as well as the OH/HO2-ratio and oxidises DMS. However, the abundance and the significance of BrO in the marine atmosphere is not yet fully understood. <br>> We report on data collected during a ship cruise, which took place along the West African Coast in February 2007, within the framework of the Surface Ocean PRocesses in the ANthropocene project (SOPRAN. Tropospheric BrO could be detected during this cruise at peak mixing ratios of (10.2±3.7 ppt at an assumed layer height of 1 km on 18 February 2007. Furthermore, it was found that the mean BrO concentrations increased when cruising close to the African Coast suggesting that at least part of the BrO might have originated from there.

  19. Hurtigste versus mest brændstoføkonomiske ruter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Lahrmann, Harry


    Der er stort fokus på at forbedre brændstoføkonomien i transportbranchen generelt. I denne artikel anvendes brændstoftallene fra Controller Area Network Bus (CANBus) kombineret med GPS data til at skabe et digitalt vejkort, hvor det er muligt at sammenligne de hurtigste ruter med de mest...... brændstoføkonomiske ruter. Kortet er baseret på ca. 100 millioner CANBus observationer og ca. 2,1 milliarder GPS observationer. Hovedkonklusionen er, at CANBus data kan anvendes til at estimere brændstofforbruget for en rute. Sammenlignet med estimering af køretider er det mere kompliceret at estimere...

  20. Product vibrational distributions in CH 3Br photodissociation (United States)

    Escure, Christelle; Leininger, Thierry; Lepetit, Bruno


    We performed a theoretical study of the photodissociation dynamics of CH 3Br in the A˜ band using a wavepacket propagation technique on coupled ab initio potential energy surfaces corresponding to the 3Q 1 and 1Q 1 states correlated at large distance with the Br ground spin-orbit state, as well as the 3Q 0 and 4E states correlated to the excited one. The methyl umbrella vibrational product state distributions are found in very good agreement with experimental results. They are hotter for Br than for Br ∗, and this is related to the shapes of the 3Q 0 and 1Q 1 potentials.

  1. In situ Spectroscopy of Solid-State Chemical Reaction in PbBr2-Deposited CsBr Crystals (United States)

    Kondo, Shin-ichi; Matsunaga, Toshihiro; Saito, Tadaaki; Asada, Hiroshi


    It is possible to measure the fundamental optical absorption spectra of CsPbBr3 and Cs4PbBr6, whose stability is predicted by the study of phase diagram in the binary system CsBr-PbBr2, by means of in situ optical absorption and reflection spectroscopy of thermally induced solid-state chemical reaction in PbBr2-deposited CsBr crystals. On heavy annealing of the crystals, the Pb2+ ions are uniformly dispersed in the crystal matrix. The present experiment provides a novel method for measuring intrinsic optical absorption of ternary metal halides and also for in situ monitoring of doping metal halide crystal with impurities (metal ions or halogen ions).

  2. Determination of nuclear cross-section of 81Br (n,,,) Br82 reaction by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... flux of 4.2 x 1013 n cm-2 s-1. The BaBr2 was chemically processed and measured as Hydrogen Bromide (HBr82). The value of nuclear cross-section was determined to be 2.1 0.2 barns, which falls within the range of values as previously reported elsewhere. (Journal of Applied Science and Technology: 2001 6(1-2): 4-6) ...

  3. Exploring Polaronic, Excitonic Structures and Luminescence in Cs4PbBr6/CsPbBr3. (United States)

    Kang, Byungkyun; Biswas, Koushik


    Among the important family of halide perovskites, one particular case of all-inorganic, 0-D Cs 4 PbBr 6 and 3-D CsPbBr 3 -based nanostructures and thin films is witnessing intense activity due to ultrafast luminescence with high quantum yield. To understand their emissive behavior, we use hybrid density functional calculations to first compare the ground-state electronic structure of the two prospective compounds. The dispersive band edges of CsPbBr 3 do not support self-trapped carriers, which agrees with reports of weak exciton binding energy and high photocurrent. The larger gap 0-D material Cs 4 PbBr 6 , however, reveals polaronic and excitonic features. We show that those lattice-coupled carriers are likely responsible for observed ultraviolet emission around ∼375 nm, reported in bulk Cs 4 PbBr 6 and Cs 4 PbBr 6 /CsPbBr 3 composites. Ionization potential calculations and estimates of type-I band alignment support the notion of quantum confinement leading to fast, green emission from CsPbBr 3 nanostructures embedded in Cs 4 PbBr 6 .

  4. Synthesis and infrared characterization of Br-HBr and Br-DBr entrance channel complexes in solid parahydrogen. (United States)

    Kettwich, Sharon C; Pinelo, Laura F; Anderson, David T


    We report high resolution vibrational spectra in the HBr (2560 cm(-1)) and DBr (1840 cm(-1)) stretching regions for Br-HBr and Br-DBr entrance channel complexes isolated in solid parahydrogen (pH2). The Br-HBr complexes are generated by synthesizing solid pH2 crystals doped with trace amounts of HBr/Br2 mixtures followed by 355 nm in situ photodissociation of Br2 to form Br atoms. After photolysis is complete, the solid is warmed from 2 to 4.3 K resulting in the irreversible formation of Br-HBr complexes. The large 36.63 cm(-1) HBr monomer-to-complex induced vibrational shift to lower energy measured in these studies is consistent with the linear Br-HBr hydrogen bonded structure predicted from theory. The 0.02 cm(-1) Br-HBr absorption linewidths indicate a 1 ns vibrational excited state lifetime for these entrance channel complexes in solid pH2.

  5. Elimination of nonspecific radioactivity from [{sup 76}Br]bromide in PET study with [{sup 76}Br]bromodeoxyuridine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Lu; Bergstroem, Mats E-mail:; Fasth, Karl-Johan; Wu Feng; Eriksson, Barbro; Laangstroem, Bengt


    [{sup 76}Br]Bromodeoxyuridine ([{sup 76}Br]BrdU) might allow a determination of proliferation in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET), but only with consideration of organ nonspecific radioactivity constituted by [{sup 76}Br]bromide. A first study assessed the potential of diuretics to eliminate [{sup 76}Br]bromide. [{sup 76}Br]Bromide was injected in the vein of rats and different diuretic combinations were given. Urine was collected and radioactivity measured. Torasemide plus sodium chloride gave better {sup 76}Br elimination than the other diuretics. In a second experiment, rats were given [{sup 76}Br]BrdU. After the radioactivity injection, the rats of the treatment group were given torasemide plus NaCl. At 44 h after the radioactivity injection, the radioactivity concentration and the fraction incorporated into DNA were measured in different organs. Using diuretics, the elimination of [{sup 76}Br]bromide was increased. The radioactivity decreased 30-50% in most of the organs but the highest radioactivity uptake was found in the organs with more active DNA synthesis. This method may facilitate the use of [{sup 76}Br]BrdU as a tracer for DNA synthesis using PET.

  6. On the evolution of Dipodium R. Br.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter O'byrne


    Full Text Available Dipodium R. Br. (Orchidaceae, a genus of ca. 38 species, should be divided into an Australasian clade and a Malesian clade, based on morphological and geographic evidences. Dipodium section Dipodium and section Leopardanthus (Blume O. Kuntze are re-defined to accommodate this change. An evolutionary scenario that explains this division is proposed. The lack of diversity of floral structure in the genus is probably caused by pollinator-specificity, while the diversity of plant form may be due to long-term environmental factors. An evolutionary explanation is suggested for the complex between Dipodium fevrellii J. J. Sm. and the hybrid D. pandanum Bailey in New Guinea. The complex in Java involving          D. pictum (Lindl. Rchb. f. and D. scandens (Bl. J. J. Sm. is discussed, and the presence of a hybrid noted. In Borneo, the complex taxonomic situation caused by repeated inter-breeding of populations is noted. 

  7. Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by Brahma Rasayana (BR). (United States)

    Thangapazham, Rajesh L; Sharma, Anuj; Gaddipati, Jaya P; Singh, Anoop K; Maheshwari, Radha K


    The current therapy for prostate cancer includes radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy and hormonal ablation. Chemotherapy also provides beneficial results for some patients with advanced prostate cancer but with several harmful side effects. Hence there is a need to identify and develop alternate therapies, which can reduce the disease progression with minimal or few side effects. Earlier studies from our laboratory have shown that a Polyherbal mixture, Brahma Rasayna (BR) rich in anti-oxidant principles has a potential to be an anti-tumor agent. BR treatment of MAT-LyLu cell inoculated Copenhagen rats resulted in a decrease of palpable tumor incidence, delay in tumor occurrence and lower mean tumor volumes. Also, a significant reduction in tumor weight and lung metastasis was observed in BR treated animals in comparison to untreated controls. In the present study, we focused to examine the effect of BR on angiogenesis and regulation of molecular markers involved in angiogenesis using in-vivo and in-vitro models. BR treatment showed a significant reduction in Factor VIII expression compared to control indicating reduced angiogenesis. BR treated tumor specimens showed a decrease in the pro-angiogenic factors like VEGF, MMP-9 and MMP-2. Methanolic extract of BR was found to inhibit the proliferation, tube formation, cell migration and attachment of HUVEC on matrigel in a dose dependant manner. These findings suggest the possible mechanism(s) of action of BR in the reduction of tumor growth and metastatic spread.

  8. Nematocid effects of watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Zahradníková


    Full Text Available The watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br. is often grown as a forced leaf vegetable rich in vitamins and minerals. Its specific taste and curative effects result from the presence of mustard glycosides (glucosinolates that may also show nematocidic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of watercress eluate and juice on tomato plants inoculated with the northern root-knot nematode (NRKN Meloidogyne hapla. It was found out that after the treatment of plants with solutions derived from watercress the yield of fruit was highly significantly increased. The highest yield increase (by 96 % to 165 % was observed in the variant with the highest concentration of watercress extracts (macerate + 200 ml of juice. Although at lower concentrations of watercress solution the increase in yields was also reduced (by 57–118 %, the difference was still statistically highly significant. The effect of this treatment on the content of vitamin C was similar and the increase was also highly significant and ranged from 24 to 67 %. When evaluating the occurrence of nematodes on roots of tomato plants, the presence of pathogens was equal to zero percent in all treated variants. The treatment with this phyto-solution corroborated not only a nematocidic effect of watercress but also its positive influence on the yield and level of vitamin C in dependence on increasing concentrations of the effective agent. It can be therefore concluded that the watercress solution showed a promoting effect on tomato plants.

  9. Corrosion inhibition performance of a ionic liquid surfactant Br

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing LIU


    Full Text Available In order to study the novel green organic mercury-substituting inhibitors, the ionic liquid surfactant 1-methyl-3-dodecyl imidazole bromide ( Br is synthesized with N-methyl imidazole and 1-bromodecane as raw materials. The corrosion inhibition of Br for zinc in zinc-manganese batteries is investigated using electrochemical methods and weight loss methods. The results show that corrosion inhibition efficiency increases with the increase of the concentration of Br, and when the concentration is higher than 8×10-3 mol/L, the inhibition efficiency tends to be stable. The polarization curve shows that Br belongs to mixed-type corrosion inhibitor. The thermodynamic parameters show that Br is spontaneously adsorbed on the zinc surface, forming a monomolecular adsorption layer, which fits with Langmuir adsorption isotherm with physical and chemical adsorption mechanism.

  10. NIRS-Derived Tissue Oxygen Saturation and Hydrogen Ion Concentration Following Bed Rest (United States)

    Lee, S. M. C.; Everett, M. E.; Crowell, J. B.; Westby, C. M.; Soller, B. R.


    . Taken together, these data suggest that longer duration BR induces a number of changes that result in peripheral adaptations which contribute to cardiovascular and muscular deconditioning as measured by NIRS-derived SO2 and [H+] in the VL and may contribute to lower post-BR exercise tolerance. Supported by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute through NASA NCC 9-58

  11. Visible light photocatalytic activity enhancement and mechanism of AgBr/Ag3PO4 hybrids for degradation of methyl orange. (United States)

    Cao, Jing; Luo, Bangde; Lin, Haili; Xu, Benyan; Chen, Shifu


    Novel AgBr/Ag(3)PO(4) hybrids were synthesized via an in situ anion-exchange method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Under visible light (λ>420 nm), AgBr/Ag(3)PO(4) degraded methyl orange (MO) efficiently and displayed much higher photocatalytic activity than that of pure AgBr or Ag(3)PO(4). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggests that AgBr/Ag(3)PO(4) transformed to be Ag@AgBr/Ag(3)PO(4)@Ag system while remained good photocatalytic activity after 5 times of cycle experiments. In addition, the quenching effects of different scavengers proved that reactive OH and h(+) played the major role for the MO degradation. The photocatalytic activity enhancement of AgBr/Ag(3)PO(4) is closely related to the efficient separation of electron-hole pairs derived from the matching band potentials between AgBr and Ag(3)PO(4), as well as the good electron trapping role of Ag nanoparticles in situ formed on the surfaces of AgBr and Ag(3)PO(4) particles during the photocatalytic reaction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A cancer specific cell-penetrating peptide, BR2, for the efficient delivery of an scFv into cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Jung Lim

    Full Text Available Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs have proven very effective as intracellular delivery vehicles for various therapeutics. However, there are some concerns about non-specific penetration and cytotoxicity of CPPs for effective cancer treatments. Herein, based on the cell-penetrating motif of an anticancer peptide, buforin IIb, we designed several CPP derivatives with cancer cell specificity. Among the derivatives, a 17-amino acid peptide (BR2 was found to have cancer-specificity without toxicity to normal cells. After specifically targeting cancer cells through interaction with gangliosides, BR2 entered cells via lipid-mediated macropinocytosis. Moreover, BR2 showed higher membrane translocation efficiency than the well-known CPP Tat (49-57. The capability of BR2 as a cancer-specific drug carrier was demonstrated by fusion of BR2 to a single-chain variable fragment (scFv directed toward a mutated K-ras (G12V. BR2-fused scFv induced a higher degree of apoptosis than Tat-fused scFv in K-ras mutated HCT116 cells. These results suggest that the novel cell-penetrating peptide BR2 has great potential as a useful drug delivery carrier with cancer cell specificity.

  13. Enhanced tropospheric BrO over Antarctic sea ice in mid winter observed by MAX-DOAS on board the research vessel Polarstern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wagner


    Full Text Available We present Multi AXis-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS observations of tropospheric BrO carried out on board the German research vessel Polarstern during the Antarctic winter 2006. Polarstern entered the area of first year sea ice around Antarctica on 24 June 2006 and stayed within this area until 15 August 2006. For the period when the ship cruised inside the first year sea ice belt, enhanced BrO concentrations were almost continuously observed. Outside the first year sea ice belt, typically low BrO concentrations were found. Based on back trajectory calculations we find a positive correlation between the observed BrO differential slant column densities (ΔSCDs and the duration for which the air masses had been in contact with the sea ice surface prior to the measurement. While we can not completely rule out that in several cases the highest BrO concentrations might be located close to the ground, our observations indicate that the maximum BrO concentrations might typically exist in a (possibly extended layer around the upper edge of the boundary layer. Besides the effect of a decreasing pH of sea salt aerosol with altitude and therefore an increase of BrO with height, this finding might be also related to vertical mixing of air from the free troposphere with the boundary layer, probably caused by convection over the warm ocean surface at polynyas and cracks in the ice. Strong vertical gradients of BrO and O3 could also explain why we found enhanced BrO levels almost continuously for the observations within the sea ice. Based on our estimated BrO profiles we derive BrO mixing ratios of several ten ppt, which is slightly higher than many existing observations. Our observations indicate that enhanced BrO concentrations around Antarctica exist about one month earlier than observed by satellite instruments. From detailed radiative transfer simulations we find that MAX-DOAS observations are up to about one order of

  14. Brändikäsikirjan toteutus Yritys X:n brändin rakentamisen tueksi


    Ahokas, Riikka


    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli luoda toimeksiantajayritykselle yhdenmukainen ja kilpailijoista erottuva brändi. Tarkoituksena oli siis selvittää, minkälainen brändi kuvaa yritystä parhaiten sekä eroaa riittävästi yrityksen kilpailijoista. Tämän lisäksi selvitettiin, millainen on hyvä brändikäsikirja. Toimeksiantajayrityksen on tarkoitus käyttää brändikäsikirjaa henkilöstönsä perehdytyksessä. Teoreettisessa viitekehyksessä käsitellään brändiä, sen tärkeimpiä tehtäviä sekä sen merkitys...

  15. Equilibrium reconstruction in the TCA/Br tokamak; Reconstrucao do equilibrio no tokamak TCA/BR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa, Wanderley Pires de


    The accurate and rapid determination of the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium configuration in tokamaks is a subject for the magnetic confinement of the plasma. With the knowledge of characteristic plasma MHD equilibrium parameters it is possible to control the plasma position during its formation using feed-back techniques. It is also necessary an on-line analysis between successive discharges to program external parameters for the subsequent discharges. In this work it is investigated the MHD equilibrium configuration reconstruction of the TCA/BR tokamak from external magnetic measurements, using a method that is able to fast determine the main parameters of discharge. The thesis has two parts. Firstly it is presented the development of an equilibrium code that solves de Grad-Shafranov equation for the TCA/BR tokamak geometry. Secondly it is presented the MHD equilibrium reconstruction process from external magnetic field and flux measurements using the Function Parametrization FP method. this method. This method is based on the statistical analysis of a database of simulated equilibrium configurations, with the goal of obtaining a simple relationship between the parameters that characterize the equilibrium and the measurements. The results from FP are compared with conventional methods. (author) 68 refs., 31 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. La Alpaca -vaatemerkin brändäys


    Lehtinen, Laura


    Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee brändin vahvistamista ja brändiohjeiston luomista vaa-tealan yritykselle La Alpacalle. La Alpaca on suomalainen vaatemerkki, joka suunnit-telee, tuottaa ja myy alpakanvillasta valmistettuja tuotteita. Materiaalin ainutlaatuisuus ja hienous ovat olleet osa yrityksen identiteettiä alusta asti. Brändin lisäksi työssä on tutkittu kaupankäynnin rakenteellista muuttumista perinteisestä myymälätoiminnasta verkkomyyntiin. Työn tavoitteena on ollut luoda materiaalin tun...

  17. Hybridization of Single Nanocrystals of Cs4PbBr6 and CsPbBr3


    Weerd, Chris de; Lin, Junhao; Gomez, Leyre; Fujiwara, Yasufumi; Suenaga, Kazutomo; Gregorkiewicz, Tom


    Nanocrystals of all-inorganic cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I) feature high absorption and efficient narrow-band emission which renders them promising for future generation of photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices. Colloidal ensembles of these nanocrystals can be conveniently prepared by chemical synthesis. However, in the case of CsPbBr3, its synthesis can also yield nanocrystals of Cs4PbBr6 and the properties of the two are easily confused. Here, we investigate in de...

  18. Elu Brüsselis - teisem kui siin / Juune Holvandus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Holvandus, Juune


    Brüsseli kesklinnas elavast noorpaarist ja nende kodust. Veronique Mägi (isa eestlane) on tõlk. Ettevõtja Frederic Flamand on õppinud antiigindust. 1996. a. elati Eestis. Inimsuhetest Eestis ja Belgias. 11 ill.

  19. GMO konverents Brüsselis / Nastja Pertsjonok

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pertsjonok, Nastja


    Brüsselis toimunud GMO-vabade piirkondade konverentsist, kus räägiti GMO-vabade piirkondade liikumisest, GMO-de lubamisest ja keelamisest ning hoiakutest nende suhtes Euroopa Liidus ja mujal maailmas

  20. Kan lignin omdannes til flydende brændstof?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joachim Bachmann; Jensen, Anders; Felby, Claus


    Ved en solvolytisk omdannelse af plantematerialet lignin til et flydende brændstof behandles det ved høj temperatur og højt tryk i et passende opløsningsmiddel. En sådan proces kan gennemføres ikke-katalytisk og være med til at skabe flydende brændsler baseret på vedvarende energikilder. Her...

  1. Saltindhold i brød og morgenmadscerealier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Saxholt, Erling; Knuthsen, Pia


    Saltindholdet i hvedebrød og rugbrød på de danske supermarkedshylder er faldet fra 2009 til 2014. En tilsvarende trend er ikke registreret i brød fra bagerbutikker. Udviklingen betyder, at en større andel af industrielt fremstillede brød end bagerbrød indsamlet i 2014 overholder Nøglehulsmærkets ...... overstiger Nøglehulsmærkets saltkrav. Saltindholdet er dog faldet i forhold til tidligere....

  2. Atmospheric lifetimes and ozone depletion potentials of methyl bromide (CH3Br) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellouki, A.; Talukdar, R.K.; Schmoltner, A.; Gierczak, T.; Mills, M.J.; Solomon, S.; Ravishankara, A.R. (NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States))


    The rate coefficients for the reactions of OH radical with CH3Br and CH2Br2 were measured as functions of temperature using the laser photolysis - laser induced fluorescence method. This data was incorporated into a semiempirical model (Solomon et al., 1992) and a 2D model to calculate the steady-state ozone depletion potentials (ODP) and atmospheri lifetimes, tau, with greatly improved accuracy as compared to earlier studies. The calculated ODPs and tau are 0.65 and 1.7 years and 0.17 and 0.41 years for CH3Br and CH2Br2, respectively, using the semiempirical model. These lifetimes agree well with those calculated using a 2D model. This study better quantifies the ODPs and tau of these species which are needed inputs for discussion of possible regulation of human emissions currently under international considerations. 29 refs.

  3. Br-DIF-1 accelerates dimethyl sulphoxide-induced differentiation of P19CL6 embryonic carcinoma cells into cardiomyocytes. (United States)

    Seya, K; Kanemaru, K; Matsuki, M; Hongo, K; Kitahara, H; Kikuchi, H; Oshima, Y; Kubohara, Y; Okumura, K; Motomura, S; Furukawa, K-I


    Stem cell transplantation therapy is a promising option for treatment of severe ischaemic heart disease. Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) differentiates P19CL6 embryonic carcinoma cells into cardiomyocyte-like cells, but with low differentiation capacity. To improve the degree of this differentiation, we have assessed several derivatives of the differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1), originally found in the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum, on P19CL6 cells. P19CL6 cells were cultured with each derivative and 1% DMSO for up to 16 days. Differentiation was assessed by measuring the number of beating and non-beating aggregates, and the expression of genes relevant to cardiac tissue. The mechanism of action was investigated using a T-type Ca(2+) channel blocker. Of all the DIF-1 derivatives tested only Br-DIF-1 showed any effects on cardiomyocyte differentiation. In the presence of 1% DMSO, Br-DIF-1 (0.3-3 µM) significantly and dose-dependently increased the number of spontaneously beating aggregates compared with 1% DMSO alone, by day 16. Expression of mRNA for T-type calcium channels was significantly increased by Br-DIF-1 + 1% DMSO compared with 1% DMSO alone. Mibefradil (a T-type Ca(2+) channel blocker; 100 nM) and a small interfering RNA for the T-type Ca(2+) channel both significantly decreased the beating rate of aggregates induced by Br-DIF-1 + 1% DMSO. Br-DIF-1 accelerated the differentiation, induced by 1% DMSO, of P19CL6 cells into spontaneously beating cardiomyocyte-like cells, partly by enhancing the expression of the T-type Ca(2+) channel gene. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Molecular characterization of BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 paralogous transcription factors involved in the regulation of aliphatic glucosinolate profiles in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis. (United States)

    Baskar, Venkidasamy; Park, Se Won


    Glucosinolates (GSL) are one of the major secondary metabolites of the Brassicaceae family. In the present study, we aim at characterizing the multiple paralogs of aliphatic GSL regulators, such as BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 genes in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis, by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis in different tissues and at various developmental stages. An overlapping gene expression pattern between the BrMYBs as well as their downstream genes (DSGs) was found at different developmental stages. Among the BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 paralogous genes, the BrMYB28.3 and BrMYB29.1 genes were dominantly expressed in most of the developmental stages, compared to the other paralogs of the BrMYB genes. Furthermore, the differential expression pattern of the BrMYBs was observed under various stress treatments. Interestingly, BrMYB28.2 showed the least expression in most developmental stages, while its expression was remarkably high in different stress conditions. More specifically, the BrMYB28.2, BrMYB28.3, and BrMYB29.1 genes were highly responsive to various abiotic and biotic stresses, further indicating their possible role in stress tolerance. Moreover, the in silico cis motif analysis in the upstream regulatory regions of BrMYBs showed the presence of various putative stress-specific motifs, which further indicated their responsiveness to biotic and abiotic stresses. These observations suggest that the dominantly expressed BrMYBs, both in different developmental stages and under various stress treatments (BrMYB28.3 and BrMYB29.1), may be potential candidate genes for altering the GSL level through genetic modification studies in B. rapa ssp. pekinensis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  5. Phase Control of BR/SBR Blends by Silica Particles (United States)

    Inai, Motoyuki; Aizawa, Seiji; Ito, Masayoshi

    A phase control of butadiene rubber (BR)/styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) blends was examined by using silica particles. The phase structure of the blends was qualitatively evaluated from transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation and temperature dependence of mechanical tanδ. It was found that the temperature dependence of tanδ was dependent on the size of agglomerate formed by silica particles in the blend. The vulcanized blends with small agglomerates showed a single tanδ peak suggesting a pseudo-miscible state. The vulcanized blends with large agglomerates showed two tanδ peaks corresponding to the Tgs of BR and SBR. The mutual dissolution of BR and SBR phases above the UCST line where the vulcanization was carried out might be disturbed by large agglomerates formed by silica particles in the blends.

  6. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements: comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dorf


    Full Text Available For the first time, results of four stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM. Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY satellite instrument. The balloon observations include (a balloon-borne in situ resonance fluorescence detection of BrO (Triple, (b balloon-borne solar occultation DOAS measurements (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy of BrO in the UV, and (c BrO profiling from the solar occultation SAOZ (Systeme d'Analyse par Observation Zenithale balloon instrument. Since stratospheric BrO is subject to considerable diurnal variation and none of the measurements are performed close enough in time and space for a direct comparison, all balloon observations are considered with reference to outputs from the 3-D CTM. The referencing is performed by forward and backward air mass trajectory calculations to match the balloon with the satellite observations. The diurnal variation of BrO is considered by 1-D photochemical model calculation along the trajectories. The 1-D photochemical model is initialised with output data of the 3-D model with additional constraints on the vertical transport, the total amount and photochemistry of stratospheric bromine as given by the various balloon observations. Total [Bry]=(20.1±2.5 pptv obtained from DOAS BrO observations at mid-latitudes in 2003, serves as an upper limit of the comparison. Most of the balloon observations agree with the photochemical model predictions within their given error estimates. First retrieval exercises of BrO limb profiling from the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument on average agree to around 20% with the photochemically-corrected balloon observations of the remote sensing instruments (SAOZ

  7. Characteristics of tropospheric ozone depletion events in the Arctic spring: analysis of the ARCTAS, ARCPAC, and ARCIONS measurements and satellite BrO observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-H. Koo


    Full Text Available Arctic ozone depletion events (ODEs are caused by halogen catalyzed ozone loss. In situ chemistry, advection of ozone-poor air mass, and vertical mixing in the lower troposphere are important factors affecting ODEs. To better characterize the ODEs, we analyze the combined set of surface, ozonesonde, and aircraft in situ measurements of ozone and bromine compounds during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS, the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC, and the Arctic Intensive Ozonesonde Network Study (ARCIONS experiments (April 2008. Tropospheric BrO columns retrieved from satellite measurements and back trajectory calculations are also used to investigate the characteristics of observed ODEs. In situ observations from these field experiments are inadequate to validate tropospheric BrO columns derived from satellite measurements. In view of this difficulty, we construct an ensemble of tropospheric column BrO estimates from two satellite (OMI and GOME-2 measurements and with three independent methods of calculating stratospheric BrO columns. Furthermore, we select analysis methods that do not depend on the absolute magnitude of column BrO, such as time-lagged correlation analysis of ozone and tropospheric column BrO, to understand characteristics of ODEs. Time-lagged correlation analysis between in situ (surface and ozonesonde measurements of ozone and satellite derived tropospheric BrO columns indicates that the ODEs are due to either local halogen-driven ozone loss or short-range (∼1 day transport from nearby regions with ozone depletion. The effect of in situ ozone loss is also evident in the diurnal variation difference between low (10th and 25th percentiles and higher percentiles of surface ozone concentrations at Alert, Canada. Aircraft observations indicate low-ozone air mass transported from adjacent high-BrO regions. Correlation analyses of ozone

  8. On the Etymology of the Place Name Brăíla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay L. Sukhachev


    Full Text Available The paper addresses the etymology of the toponym Brăíla, the name of a Lower Danube town in Romania. The author provides historical and geographic data showing the antiquity of the toponym and, at the same time, its exceptional rarity resulting from its embeddedness into a complex ethno-linguistic area. The latter largely explains the difficulty of its etymological interpretation. Theoretically, it may be derived from Celtic, Turkic, Slavic, or Romanian sources. The author also shows that besides evident isoglosses the collected onomastic material may display isophones, i.e. occasional phonetic coincidences. Based on typological data, the author considers existing hypotheses related to the etymology of Brăíla. The analysis provides evidence that leads to refute any suggestion of its Celtic, Turkic, or Romanian origin and indicates the word *Brail(-o/-a, most likely a Southern Slavic personal name or nickname, as the most probable etymon for the toponym in question. It seems to derive from the common Slavic verb *bьrlati/*bьrl’ati with a broad semantic scope that includes meanings like ‘tinker,’ ‘mess,’ etc.

  9. Stratospheric BrONO2 observed by MIPAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fischer


    Full Text Available The first measurements of stratospheric bromine nitrate (BrONO2 are reported. Bromine nitrate has been clearly identified in atmospheric infrared emission spectra recorded with the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS aboard the European Envisat satellite, and stratospheric concentration profiles have been determined for different conditions (day and night, different latitudes. The BrONO2 concentrations show strong day/night variations, with much lower concentrations during the day. Maximum volume mixing ratios observed during night are 20 to 25 pptv. The observed concentration profiles are in agreement with estimations from photochemical models and show that the current understanding of stratospheric bromine chemistry is generally correct.

  10. Skandaalin vaikutus brändin imagoon - Case Audi


    Puntalo, Ville-Veikko


    Opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin Volkswagenin päästöhuijausskandaalin vaikutusta Audi-brändin imagoon. Tutkimuksessa pyrittiin selvittämään onko ennakoitavissa mahdollisia myyntitulosten muutoksia ja johtuivatko ne kyseisestä skandaalista. Opinnäytetyön teoriaosuudessa perehdyttiin ostokäyttäytymisen prosessiin, brändin rakentumiseen, positiivisen maineen saavuttamiseen ja tunnettuihin yritysmaailman skandaaleihin. Lisäksi käytiin läpi Volkswagen päästöskandaalin taustaa sekä sen seurauksia. ...

  11. Atmospheric test of the J(BrONO2/kBrO+NO2 ratio: implications for total stratospheric Bry and bromine-mediated ozone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kreycy


    Full Text Available We report on time-dependent O3, NO2 and BrO profiles measured by limb observations of scattered skylight in the stratosphere over Kiruna (67.9° N, 22.1° E on 7 and 8 September 2009 during the autumn circulation turn-over. The observations are complemented by simultaneous direct solar occultation measurements around sunset and sunrise performed aboard the same stratospheric balloon payload. Supporting radiative transfer and photochemical modelling indicate that the measurements can be used to constrain the ratio J(BrONO2/kBrO+NO2, for which at T = 220 ± 5 K an overall 1.7 (+0.4 −0.2 larger ratio is found than recommended by the most recent Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL compilation (Sander et al., 2011. Sensitivity studies reveal the major reasons are likely to be (1 a larger BrONO2 absorption cross-section σBrONO2, primarily for wavelengths larger than 300 nm, and (2 a smaller kBrO+NO2 at 220 K than given by Sander et al. (2011. Other factors, e.g. the actinic flux and quantum yield for the dissociation of BrONO2, can be ruled out. The observations also have consequences for total inorganic stratospheric bromine (Bry estimated from stratospheric BrO measurements at high NOx loadings, since the ratio J(BrONO2/kBrO+NO2 largely determines the stratospheric BrO/Bry ratio during daylight. Using the revised J(BrONO2/kBrO+NO2 ratio, total stratospheric Bry is likely to be 1.4 ppt smaller than previously estimated from BrO profile measurements at high NOx loadings. This would bring estimates of Bry inferred from organic source gas measurements (e.g. CH3Br, the halons, CH2Br2, CHBr3, etc. into closer agreement with estimates based on BrO observations (inorganic method. The consequences for stratospheric ozone due to the revised J(BrONO2/kBrO+NO2 ratio are small (maximum −0.8%, since at high NOx (for which most Bry assessments are made the enhanced ozone loss by overestimating Bry is compensated for by the suppressed ozone loss due to the

  12. 75 FR 51693 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Models BR700-710A1-10; BR700-710A2... (United States)


    ... Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Models BR700-710A1-10; BR700-710A2-20; and BR700-710C4-11...-2251. Contact Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG, Eschenweg 11, Dahlewitz, 15827 Blankenfelde-Mahlow..., notified us that an unsafe condition may exist on Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Models BR700-710A1-10...

  13. Product analysis and kinetics of Br-initiated gas-phase oxidation of dimethyl sulphide; Produktanalyse und Kinetik der Br-initiierten Gasphasenoxidation von Dimethylsulfid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K.H.; Maurer, T.


    High Br concentrations in maritime environments may render the reaction between Br radicals and dimethyl sulphide an important process. According to the literature this system has as yet not been studied with a mind to clarifying the reaction mechanisms and performing a product analysis. Thus, for example, the decomposition of the DMS-Br adduct remains to be clarified. The purpose of the present study was therefore to examine the reaction between dimethyl sulphide and Br radicals and so gain information on the decomposition mechanism. This implied a determination of the velocity constant and a product analysis of the reaction between Br radicals and dimethyl sulphide. In addition the velocity constant of the reaction between Br radicals and dimethylsulphoxide (a consequent product of DMS oxidation) was to be determined. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hohe Br-Konzentrationen in maritimen Gebieten machen die Reaktion von Br-Radikalen mit Dimethylsulfid moeglicherweise zu einem wichtigen Prozess. In der Literatur fehlen eingehende Untersuchungen dieses Systems hinsichtlich der Aufklaerung der Reaktionsmechanismen und der Produktanalyse. So ist zum Beispiel der Zerfall des DMS-Br-Adduktes nicht aufgeklaert. Aus diesen Gruenden soll im Rahmen dieser Arbeit die Reaktion von Dimethylsulfid mit Br-Radikalen untersucht werden, um Informationen ueber den Abbaumechanismus zu erhalten. Darunter fallen die Bestimmung der Geschwindigkeitskonstanten und die Produktanalyse der Reaktion von Br-Radikalen mit Dimethylsulfid. Zusaetzlich soll die Geschwindigkeitskonstante der Reaktion vom Br-Radikalen mit Dimethylsulfoxid (einem Folgeprodukt der DMS-Oxidation) bestimmt werden. (orig.)

  14. Redetermination of the Crystal Structure of Al2Br6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.; Poulsen, Finn W.; Nielsen, Kurt


    . In accordance with previous results, the structure belongs to the monoclinic space group P2(1)/a, no. 14, C-2h(5), with a = 10.301(4), b = 7.095(2), c = 7.525(3) Angstrom, and beta = 96.44(3)degrees, and with two Al2Br6 molecules per unit cell. The single crystal was refined to R = 0.0746. Rather similar......The structure of aluminium bromide has been reinvestigated by X-ray diffraction in three different ways: (a) on a single crystal grown in a glass capillary, (b) on powder in a Debye-Scherrer glass capillary and (c) on an area of powder placed in a protective container for Bragg-Brentano geometry...... structural results were obtained from full-profile Rietveld refinements of powder data [goodness of fit = 1.38 and 2.54 for (b) and (c), respectively]. The Al2Br6 molecule consists of two edge-sharing, almost regular AlBr4 tetrahedra. The Al-Br bond distances are in the range 2.21-2.42 Angstrom...

  15. Fragment production in 16 O· 80 Br reaction within dynamical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia. Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 59; Issue 1. Fragment production in 16O + 80Br reaction within dynamical microscopic theory. Rajeev K Puri Jaivir Singh Suneel Kumar. Research Articles Volume 59 Issue 1 July 2002 pp 19-31 ...

  16. (KNa)Br phosphor for ionizing radiation dosimetry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lyoluminescence; γ-ray dose; radiation dosimetry; phosphor; (KNa)Br. 1. Introduction. The measurement of radiation dose has become a science of ever increasing importance due to the estimation of risk and benefits inherent to the uses and to the exposure of ionizing radiation. When strongly energized, crystals are ...

  17. Overexpression of BrSAC1 encoding a phosphoinositide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The full length gene (BrSAC1; GenBank accession no., GU434275) contained 1999 base pairs (bp), with an open reading frame of 1785 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 594 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 65 kDa, including a putative N-terminal signal peptide (the signal peptide counted within the 594 ...

  18. Monika Elisabeth Bründl, Lexikalische Dynamik – Kognitiv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Technology

    Key concepts are the mental lexicon, metaphor and metonymy as central processes in the creation of new lexical units (as defined by Cruse 1986: 77), and iconicity as the cognitive answer to the structural tenet of the arbitrariness of the linguistic sign. Bründl argues that the cognitive approach so far has been mainly applied.

  19. Narva kant vajab oma brändi / Esko Passila

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Passila, Esko


    Autor leiab, et Ida-Virumaa peaks looma ühtse tugeva brändi, mille alusel tulevikuotsuseid teha. See peaks tooma välja soodsa asukoha eelised, võimalused, tööjõu kättesaadavuse, kasutusvalmid maa-alad, hinnad jne.

  20. Overexpression of BrSAC1 encoding a phosphoinositide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 10, 2013 ... Key words: Abiotic stress, Brassica rapa, phosphoinositide phosphatase, transgenic plant. INTRODUCTION. Plant growth is strongly ... specific primers for the analysis of BrSAC1 expression in germinating seeds were: ..... Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries,. Republic of Korea and 2012 ...

  1. Role of Rom protein in copy number control of plasmid pBR322 at different growth rates in Escherichia coli K-12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tove, Atlung; Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Hansen, Flemming G.


    The copy number per cell mass of plasmid pBR322 and a rom(-) derivative was measured as a function of generation time. In fast growing cells the copy number per cell mass was virtually identical for rom(+) and rom(-) derivatives. However, the copy number of pBR322 only increased 3- to 4-fold from...... a 20- to 80-min generation time, whereas the copy number of the torn derivative increased 7- to 10-fold. The copy number stayed constant for the rom(+) and rom(-) plasmids at generation times longer than 80-100 min. Thus, the presence of the rom gene decreased the copy number of plasmid pBR322...... in slowly growing cells at least 2-fold when compared with the rom(-) plasmid. To study the effect of the rom gene in trans we cloned the gene into the compatible P15A-derived rom(-) plasmid pACYC184. In cells carrying both pACYC184 rein; and pBR322 rom(-) the presence of the rom gene in trans had little...

  2. Steering dissociation of Br2 molecules with two femtosecond pulses via wave packet interference. (United States)

    Han, Yong-Chang; Yuan, Kai-Jun; Hu, Wen-Hui; Yan, Tian-Min; Cong, Shu-Lin


    The dissociation dynamics of Br2 molecules induced by two femtosecond pump pulses are studied based on the calculation of time-dependent quantum wave packet. Perpendicular transition from X 1Sigma g+ to A 3Pi 1u+ and 1Pi 1u+ and parallel transition from X 1Sigma g+ to B 3Pi 0u+, involving two product channels Br (2P3/2)+Br (2P3/2) and Br (2P3/2)+Br* (2P1/2), respectively, are taken into account. Two pump pulses create dissociating wave packets interfering with each other. By varying laser parameters, the interference of dissociating wave packets can be controlled, and the dissociation probabilities of Br2 molecules on the three excited states can be changed to different degrees. The branching ratio of Br*/(Br+Br*) is calculated as a function of pulse delay time and phase difference.

  3. The Lowest Triplet of Tetracyanoquinodimethane via UV-vis Absorption Spectroscopy with Br-Containing Solvents. (United States)

    Khvostenko, Olga G; Kinzyabulatov, Renat R; Khatymova, Laysan Z; Tseplin, Evgeniy E


    This study was undertaken to find the previously unknown lowest triplet of the isolated molecule of tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), which is a widely used organic semiconductor. The problem is topical because the triplet excitation of this compound is involved in some processes which occur in electronic devices incorporating TCNQ and its derivatives, and information on the TCNQ triplet is needed for better understanding of these processes. The lowest triplet of TCNQ was obtained at 1.96 eV using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy with Br-containing solvents. Production of the triplet band with sufficient intensity in the spectra was provided by the capacity of the Br atom to augment the triplet excitation and through using a 100 mm cuvette. The assignment of the corresponding spectral band to the triplet transition was made by observation that this band appeared only in the spectra recorded in Br-containing solvents but not in spectra recorded in other solvents. Additional support for the triplet assignment came from the overall UV-vis absorption spectra of TCNQ recorded in various solvents, using a 10 mm cuvette, in the 1.38-6.5 eV energy range. Singlet transitions of the neutral TCNQ(o) molecule and doublet transitions of the TCNQ(¯) negative ion were identified in these overall spectra and were assigned with TD B3LYP/6-31G calculations. Determination of the lowest triplet of TCNQ attained in this work may be useful for theoretical studies and practical applications of this important compound.

  4. Perceptions of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) levels among a sample of bar patrons with BrAC values of 0.08% or higher. (United States)

    Martin, Ryan J; Chaney, Beth H; Cremeens-Matthews, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen


    Breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) is a commonly used measure of alcohol intoxication. Because of the potential negative consequences of excessive alcohol consumption, it is important to examine how accurately intoxicated individuals can estimate their BrAC values, especially individuals over the legal BrAC driving threshold (i.e., 0.08%). To better understand perceptions of BrAC values among intoxicated individuals, this field study examined actual BrAC values and BrAC range estimates (0.08% and above, 0.02-0.07%, less than 0.02%) among a sample of bar patrons (N = 454) with BrAC levels at 0.08% or higher. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between actual BrAC values and perceived BrAC levels. We also examined whether the following demographic and drinking variables were associated with underestimating BrAC in this sample: gender, age, race, college student status, plans to get home, and hazardous drinking. Results indicated that the majority (60.4%) of participants underestimated their BrAC (i.e., less than 0.08%) and lower BrAC values correlated with underestimating BrAC ranges (p < .001, 95% CI[0.2, 0.6]). Further, females (p = .001, 95% CI[1.3, 3.3]) and participants under 21 (p = .039, 95% CI = 1.0, 2.6) were significantly more likely to estimate their BrAC to be less than 0.08%, which is concerning given that young (less than 21) intoxicated females are a group at high risk for sexual assault on college campuses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Obtaining continuous BrAC/BAC estimates in the field: A hybrid system integrating transdermal alcohol biosensor, Intellidrink smartphone app, and BrAC Estimator software tools. (United States)

    Luczak, Susan E; Hawkins, Ashley L; Dai, Zheng; Wichmann, Raphael; Wang, Chunming; Rosen, I Gary


    Biosensors have been developed to measure transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC), but converting TAC into interpretable indices of blood/breath alcohol concentration (BAC/BrAC) is difficult because of variations that occur in TAC across individuals, drinking episodes, and devices. We have developed mathematical models and the BrAC Estimator software for calibrating and inverting TAC into quantifiable BrAC estimates (eBrAC). The calibration protocol to determine the individualized parameters for a specific individual wearing a specific device requires a drinking session in which BrAC and TAC measurements are obtained simultaneously. This calibration protocol was originally conducted in the laboratory with breath analyzers used to produce the BrAC data. Here we develop and test an alternative calibration protocol using drinking diary data collected in the field with the smartphone app Intellidrink to produce the BrAC calibration data. We compared BrAC Estimator software results for 11 drinking episodes collected by an expert user when using Intellidrink versus breath analyzer measurements as BrAC calibration data. Inversion phase results indicated the Intellidrink calibration protocol produced similar eBrAC curves and captured peak eBrAC to within 0.0003%, time of peak eBrAC to within 18min, and area under the eBrAC curve to within 0.025% alcohol-hours as the breath analyzer calibration protocol. This study provides evidence that drinking diary data can be used in place of breath analyzer data in the BrAC Estimator software calibration procedure, which can reduce participant and researcher burden and expand the potential software user pool beyond researchers studying participants who can drink in the laboratory. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Identification of Yellow Pigmentation Genes in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis Using Br300 Microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jeong Jung


    Full Text Available The yellow color of inner leaves in Chinese cabbage depends on its lutein and carotene content. To identify responsible genes for yellow pigmentation in leaves, the transcriptome profiles of white (Kenshin and yellow leaves (Wheessen were examined using the Br300K oligomeric chip in Chinese cabbage. In yellow leaves, genes involved in carotene synthesis (BrPSY, BrPDS, BrCRTISO, and BrLCYE, lutein, and zeaxanthin synthesis (BrCYP97A3 and BrHYDB were upregulated, while those associated with carotene degradation (BrNCED3, BrNCED4, and BrNCED6 were downregulated. These expression patterns might support that the content of both lutein and total carotenoid was much higher in the yellow leaves than that in the white leaves. These results indicate that the yellow leaves accumulate high levels of both lutein and β-carotene due to stimulation of synthesis and that the degradation rate is inhibited. A large number of responsible genes as novel genes were specifically expressed in yellow inner leaves, suggesting the possible involvement in pigment synthesis. Finally, we identified three transcription factors (BrA20/AN1-like, BrBIM1, and BrZFP8 that are specifically expressed and confirmed their relatedness in carotenoid synthesis from Arabidopsis plants.

  7. High gradient rf gun studies of CsBr photocathodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore Vecchione


    Full Text Available CsBr photocathodes have 10 times higher quantum efficiency with only 3 times larger intrinsic transverse emittance than copper. They are robust and can withstand 80  MV/m fields without breaking down or emitting dark current. They can operate in 2×10^{−9}  torr vacuum and survive exposure to air. They are well suited for generating high pulse charge in rf guns without a photocathode transfer system.

  8. Four-dimensional quantum study on exothermic complex-forming reactions: Cl- + CH3Br-->ClCH3+Br-. (United States)

    Hennig, Carsten; Schmatz, Stefan


    The exothermic gas-phase bimolecular nucleophilic substitution (S(N)2) reaction Cl(-)+CH(3)Br (upsilon1',upsilon2',upsilon3')-->ClCH(3) (upsilon1,upsilon2,upsilon3)+Br- and the corresponding endothermic reverse reaction have been studied by time-independent quantum scattering calculations in hyperspherical coordinates on a coupled-cluster potential-energy surface. The dimensionality-reduced model takes four degrees of freedom into account [Cl-C and C-Br stretching modes (quantum numbers upsilon3' and upsilon3); totally symmetric modes of the methyl group, i.e., C-H stretching (upsilon1' and upsilon1) and umbrella bending vibrations (upsilon2' and upsilon2)]. Diagonalization of the Hamiltonian was performed employing the Lanczos algorithm with a variation of partial reorthogonalization. A narrow grid in the total energy was employed so that long-living resonance states could be resolved and extracted. While excitation of the reactant umbrella bending mode already leads to a considerable enhancement of the reaction probability, its combination with vibrational excitation of the broken C-Br bond, (0, 1, 1), results in a strong synergic effect that can be rationalized by the similarity with the classical transitional normal mode. Exciting the C-H stretch has a non-negligible effect on the reaction probability, while for larger translational energies this mode follows the expected spectatorlike behavior. Combination of C-Br stretch and symmetric C-H, (1,0,1), stretch does not show a cooperative effect. Contrary to the spectator mode concept, energy originally stored in the C-H stretching mode is by no means conserved, but almost completely released in other modes of the reaction products. Products are most likely formed in states with a high degree of excitation in the new C-Cl bond, while the internal modes of the methyl group are less important. Reactants with combined umbrella/C-Br stretch excitation, (0, 1, 1), may yield products with two quanta in the umbrella mode.

  9. Optimized Control Rods of the BR2 Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalcheva, Silva; Koonen, E.


    At the present time the BR-2 reactor uses control elements with cadmium as neutron absorbing part. The lower section of the control element is a beryllium assembly cooled by light water. Due to the burn up of the lower end of the cadmium section during the reactor operation, the presently used rods for reactivity control of the BR-2 reactor have to be replaced by new ones. Considered are various types Control Rods with full active part of the following materials: cadmium (Cd), hafnium (Hf), europium oxide (Eu2O3) and gadolinium (Gd2O3). Options to decrease the burn up of the control rod material in the hot spot, such as use of stainless steel in the lower active part of the Control Rod are discussed. Comparison with the characteristics of the presently used Control Rods types is performed. The changing of the characteristics of different types Control Rods and the perturbation effects on the reactor neutronics during the BR-2 fuel cycle are investigated. The burn up of the Control Rod absorbing material, total and differential control rods worth, macroscopic and effective microscopic absorption cross sections, fuel and reactivity evolution are evaluated during approximately 30 operating cycles.

  10. Bréal, un antinaturalisme d’inspiration humboldtienne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Jean-Philippe


    Full Text Available Dans De la forme et de la fonction des mots, Bréal formulait, dès 1866, outre une critique générale du formalisme de la philologie comparative depuis Bopp, une thèse radicalement opposée à l’orientation naturaliste de l’évolutionnisme linguistique de Schleicher. Cette thèse, que nous prendrons le risque de définir comme thèse du primat de la fonction sur la forme linguistique, est au coeur de ce programme de linguistique générale pour lequel Bréal allait forger, quelques années plus tard, le mot de sémantique. Fortement marqué par la notion humboldtienne d’innere Sprachform, Bréal, contrairement à Saussure, n'abandonnera jamais le changement linguistique au hasard de l'histoire et maintiendra l'intelligence comme premier moteur des langues, quitte à poser la nécessité de repenser cette intelligence.

  11. Crystal structure, Hirshfeld surface, physicochemical, thermal and DFT studies of (N1E, N2E)-N1,N2-bis((5-bromothiophen-2-yl)methylene)ethane-1,2-diamine N2S2 ligand and its [CuBr(N2S2)]Br complex (United States)

    Warad, Ismail; Al-Demeri, Yasmin; Al-Nuri, Mohammed; Shahwan, Said; Abdoh, Muneer; Naveen, Shivalingegowda; Lokanath, Neartur Krishnappagowda; Mubarak, Mohammad S.; Ben Hadda, Taibi; Mabkhot, Yahia N.


    A new tetradentate N2S2 Schiff base ligand derived from 5-bromothiophene-2-carbaldehyde and its [CuBr(N2S2)]Br complex were synthesized in good yield. FT-IR was investigated to monitor the condensation reaction during the ligand synthesis process. The ligand, N2S2, and its complex, [CuBr(N2S2)]Br, complex have been characterized with the aid of several spectroscopic techniques such as UV-vis., MS, FT-IR, EA, EDS, NMR (for N2S2), as well as by thermal (TG/DTG) analysis. In addition, cyclic voltammetry has been employed to examine the redox behavior of [CuBr(N2S2)]Br complex in N,N'-dimethylformamide (DMF) containing 0.10 M tetra-n-butylammonium perchlorate (TBAP). The anti-conformation EE isomer of the ligand (N2S2) was confirmed by means of X-ray crystallography; ligand crystallizes in to the monoclinic P21/c space group. N2S2 ligand was subjected to DFT-theoretical calculations and results are consistent with the experimental chemical analysis.

  12. Ustioni da fuoco / Burn injuries / Les brûlures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Copertino


    Full Text Available Severe burn injuries require high specialistic treatment. Burn injuries are common in disasters and war scenarios, so war medicine has been fundamental to improve treatment protocols for burn patients..Burn injuries are classified according to the etiopathogenetic agent (physical, chemical or radiation, that determines different anatomoisthologic aspects.An estimation of the depth and extension are fundamental for defining the gravity of the burn. Critical burn patients have to be transported in specialistic Centers. There they are treated by multispecialistic teams from the resuscitation phase to the reconstructive surgery and specialist rehabilitation.. This process can continue for two years with the objective to return patients to a quiet normal life. Les brûlures sont des lésions traumatiques qui requièrent un traitement spécialisé. Lors de catastrophes et de guerres, les brûlures sont des lésions très fréquentes et la médecine de guerre a contribué à faire avancer la science de manière importante, dans le traitement de cette pathologie.Les brûlures sont classées en fonction de l'agent étiopathogénique (agents physiques, chimiques ou radiations dont le mécanisme d'action qui provoque la lésion cause des aspects anatomohistologiques caractéristiques.Pour définir la sévérité d'une brûlure, il est aussi fondamental d'éstimer l'extension de la surface corporelle et la profondeur de l'épiderme, et éventuellement du derme, atteints. Les patients gravement brûlés doivent être hospitalisés dans des Centres Spécialisés où des équipes multispécialistes les suivent de la phase initiale de la réanimation aux phases de chirurgie reconstructive et au processus de réhabilitation. Ces dernières phases peuvent se prolonger pendant les deux années suivant le traumatisme avant qu'une réintégration dans une vie sociale acceptable ne puisse être faite.

  13. Palladium(II)/Brønsted Acid-Catalyzed Enantioselective Oxidative Carbocyclization-Borylation of Enallenes. (United States)

    Jiang, Tuo; Bartholomeyzik, Teresa; Mazuela, Javier; Willersinn, Jochen; Bäckvall, Jan-E


    An enantioselective oxidative carbocyclization-borylation of enallenes that is catalyzed by palladium(II) and a Brønsted acid was developed. Biphenol-type chiral phosphoric acids were superior co-catalysts for inducing the enantioselective cyclization. A number of chiral borylated carbocycles were synthesized in high enantiomeric excess. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

  14. 3-BrPA eliminates human bladder cancer cells with highly oncogenic signatures via engagement of specific death programs and perturbation of multiple signaling and metabolic determinants. (United States)

    Konstantakou, Eumorphia G; Voutsinas, Gerassimos E; Velentzas, Athanassios D; Basogianni, Aggeliki-Stefania; Paronis, Efthimios; Balafas, Evangelos; Kostomitsopoulos, Nikolaos; Syrigos, Konstantinos N; Anastasiadou, Ema; Stravopodis, Dimitrios J


    Urinary bladder cancer is one of the most fatal and expensive diseases of industrialized world. Despite the strenuous efforts, no seminal advances have been achieved for its clinical management. Given the importance of metabolic reprogramming in cancer cell survival and growth, we have herein employed 3-BrPA, a halogenated derivative of pyruvate and historically considered inhibitor of glycolysis, to eliminate bladder cancer cells with highly oncogenic molecular signatures. Bladder cancer cells were exposed to 3-BrPA in the absence or presence of several specific inhibitors. Cell viability was determined by MTT and flow-cytometry assays; cell death, signaling activity and metabolic integrity by Western blotting and immunofluorescence; mutant-gene profiling by DNA sequencing; and gene expression by RT-sqPCR. 3-BrPA could activate dose-dependent apoptosis (type 1 PCD) and regulated necrosis (type 3 PCD) of T24 (grade III; H-Ras(G12V); p53(ΔY126)), but not RT4 (grade I), cells, with PARP, MLKL, Drp1 and Nec-7-targeted components critically orchestrating necrotic death. However, similarly to RIPK1 and CypD, p53 presented with non-essential contribution to 3-BrPA-induced cellular collapse, while reactivation of mutant p53 with PRIMA-1 resulted in strong synergism of the two agents. Given the reduced expression of MPC components (likely imposing mitochondrial dysfunction) in T24 cells, the suppression of constitutive autophagy (required by cells carrying oncogenic Ras; also, type 2 PCD) and derangement of glucose-homeostasis determinants by 3-BrPA critically contribute to drug-directed depletion of ATP cellular stores. This bioenergetic crisis is translated to severe dysregulation of Akt/FoxO/GSK-3, mTOR/S6, AMPK and MAPK (p44/42, p38 and SAPK/JNK) signaling pathways in 3-BrPA-treated T24 cells. Sensitivity to 3-BrPA (and tolerance to glucose deprivation) does not rely on B-Raf(V600E) or K-Ras(G13D) mutant oncogenic proteins, but partly depends on aberrant signaling

  15. "Brücke dreht sich um!". A Deconstructionist Reading of Kafka's "Die Brücke"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Hoffmann


    Full Text Available Franz Kafka's (1883-1924 "Die Brücke" is one of the less well-known texts by one of the most prolific authors of literary modernity. However, this short prose text embodies prevalent questions of literary modernity and philosophy as it reflects the crisis of language in regard of identity, communication, and literary production. Placed in the context of fin-de-siècle's discourse of language crisis, this article provides a dialogue between Kafka's "Die Brücke" and Hannah Arendt's (1906-1975 philosophy of thinking and speaking in The Life of the Mind. Contrary to Arendt's understanding of the metaphor as "a carrying over" between the mental activities of the solitude thinker and a reconciliation with the pluralistic world shared with others, this article argues for a deconstructionist reading of "Die Brücke" as a tool to reevaluate Arendt's notion of a shared human experience ensured through language and illustrates the advantages of poetic texts within philosophical discourses.

  16. 75 FR 76624 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Models BR700-710A1-10; BR700-710A2... (United States)


    ... Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Models BR700-710A1-10; BR700-710A2-20; and BR700-710C4-11 Turbofan Engines AGENCY....13 by adding the following new AD: 2010-25-05 Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (formerly Rolls-Royce Deutschland GmbH, formerly BMW Rolls-Royce GmbH): Amendment 39- 16538. Docket No. FAA-2010-0614...

  17. Ab Initio Potential Energy Surfaces for Both the Ground (X̃1A′ and Excited (A∼1A′′ Electronic States of HSiBr and the Absorption and Emission Spectra of HSiBr/DSiBr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anyang Li


    Full Text Available Ab initio potential energy surfaces for the ground (X̃1A′ and excited (A˜A′′1 electronic states of HSiBr were obtained by using the single and double excitation coupled-cluster theory with a noniterative perturbation treatment of triple excitations and the multireference configuration interaction with Davidson correction, respectively, employing an augmented correlation-consistent polarized valence quadruple zeta basis set. The calculated vibrational energy levels of HSiBr and DSiBr of the ground and excited electronic states are in excellent agreement with the available experimental band origins. In addition, the absorption and emission spectra of HSiBr and DSiBr were calculated using an efficient single Lanczos propagation method and are in good agreement with the available experimental observations.

  18. Absolute counts of peripheral blood leukocyte subpopulations in intraabdominal sepsis and pneumonia-derived sepsis: a pilot study Absolute counts of peripheral blood leukocyte subpopulations in intraabdominal sepsis and pneumonia-derived sepsis: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyna Anna Hoser


    Full Text Available The leading pathophysiological changes during sepsis include systemic abnormalities in the immune<br />response. Due to the general character of these disturbances, sepsis is usually studied as a homogenous clinical<br />condition. We aimed to compare the immune response in intraabdominal sepsis (IAS and pneumonia-derived />sepsis (PDS. The following cell populations were examined: white blood cell count (WBC, monocytes, lymphocytes:<br />CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells, and NK cells. In both studied groups (i.e. IAS and PDS, the<br />WBC was elevated. However, it was significantly higher in the IAS group than in the PDS group. The difference<br />was due to a lower granulocyte count, as well as a lower monocyte count in PDS. We found no significant<br />correlation between the total lymphocyte number and CD3+CD8+ T cells in either form of sepsis. Similarly, we<br />observed no correlation between the total lymphocyte number and the NK cells subset in IAS. However, the<br />numbers of CD3+CD8+ and NK cells correlated similarly in both types of sepsis. Both studied types of sepsis<br />induced profound lymphocytopenia, with marked loss of CD8+ T cells and the NK cells. However, the similar<br />relation between them, which was independent of the infection type, suggests that the NK and CD3+CD8+ cells<br />have shared mechanisms of regulation. The primary site of infection has an impact on the global immune reaction.<br />These alternations include especially myeloid cells: granulocytes and monocytes which disappear from peripheral<br />blood during PDS, but increase in IAS. <br />The leading pathophysiological changes during sepsis include systemic abnormalities in the immune<br />response. Due to the general character of these disturbances, sepsis is usually studied as a homogenous clinical<br />condition. We aimed to compare the immune response in intraabdominal sepsis (IAS and pneumonia-derived />sepsis (PDS. The following cell

  19. Improved Growth Methods for LaBr3 Scintillation Radiation Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, Douglas S


    The objective is to develop advanced materials for deployment as high-resolution gamma ray detectors. Both LaBr3 and CeBr3 are advanced scintillation materials, and will be studied in this research. Prototype devices, in collaboration Sandia National Laboratories, will be demonstrated along with recommendations for mass production and deployment. It is anticipated that improved methods of crystal growth will yield larger single crystals of LaBr3 for deployable room-temperature operated gamma radiation spectrometers. The growth methods will be characterized. The LaBr3 and CeBr3 scintillation crystals will be characterized for light yield, spectral resolution, and for hardness.

  20. Allelism analysis of BrRfp locus in different restorer lines and map-based cloning of a fertility restorer gene, BrRfp1, for pol CMS in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.). (United States)

    Zhang, Huamin; Wu, Junqing; Dai, Zihui; Qin, Meiling; Hao, Lingyu; Ren, Yanjing; Li, Qingfei; Zhang, Lugang


    In Chinese cabbage, there are two Rf loci for pol CMS and one of them was mapped to a 12.6-kb region containing a potential candidate gene encoding PPR protein. In Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), polima cytoplasmic male sterility (pol CMS) is an important CMS type and is widely used for hybrid breeding. By extensive test crossing in Chinese cabbage, four restorer lines (92s105, 01s325, 00s109, and 88s148) for pol CMS were screened. By analyzing the allelism of the four restorer lines, it was found that 92s105, 01s325, and 00s109 had the same "restorers of fertility" (Rf) locus (designated as BrRfp1), but 88s148 had a different Rf locus (designated as BrRfp2). For fine mapping the BrRfp1 locus of 92s105, a BC1F1 population with 487 individuals and a BC1F2 population with 2485 individuals were successively constructed. Using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed from Brassica rapa reference genome and InDel markers derived from whole-genome resequencing data of 94c9 and 92s105, BrRfp1 was mapped to a 12.6-kb region containing a potential candidate gene encoding pentatricopeptide repeat-containing protein. Based on the nucleotide polymorphisms of the candidate gene sequence between the restoring and nonrestoring alleles, a co-segregating marker SC718 was developed, which would be helpful for hybrid breeding by marker-assisted screening and for detecting new restorer lines.

  1. Unge kontanthjælpsmodtagere i Brøndby


    Mikkelsen, Caroline; Buus, Anniqa Kristine; Larsen, Jonas; Larsen, Andreas Peter


    Welfare recipients in Brøndby are categorized into groups based on social- psychologically factors and their ability to work. This project will examine why youths are placed in group 2 and 3. In doing so, the project look at the different groups and analyze them in relation to the municipality’s policies on welfare. In its analysis, the project focuses on the social and economic dimensions but this is interplayed with the politics of the municipality. The project is orientated by its case stu...

  2. High-speed CuBr brightness amplifier beam profile (United States)

    Evtushenko, G. S.; Torgaev, S. N.; Trigub, M. V.; Shiyanov, D. V.; Evtushenko, T. G.; Kulagin, A. E.


    This paper addresses the experimental study of the beam profile of the CuBr brightness amplifier operating at a wide range of pulse repetition frequencies. The use of a medium-size gas discharge tube (2 cm) ensures the operation of the brightness amplifier both at typical PRFs (520 kHz) and at higher PRFs (up to 100 kHz), either with or without HBr additive. The effect of the active additive on the beam profile is demonstrated. The testing results on kinetic modeling of radial processes in the laser (brightness amplifier) plasma are also discussed.

  3. Brüssel enne Moskvat / Markus Meckel, Matthias Wissmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meckel, Markus


    Saksa liiduparlamendi sotsiaaldemokraatide fraktsiooni liikme Markus Meckeli ja Saksa liiduparlamendi Euroopa komisjoni esimehe Matthias Wissmanni avaldus, milles nad kutsuvad tunnistama Balti riikide ajalugu ja korraldama päev enne Moskvas toimuvat Teise maailmasõja lõppu tähistavat üritust Brüsselis sõja lõpu 60. aastapäeva mälestusürituse. Artikkel ilmus samaaegselt ajalehtedes International Herald Tribune, Die Welt, Die Presse, Le Figaro, Gazeta Wyborcza, Lietuvas rytas, Diena

  4. Brújula electrónica basada en magnetoimpedancia


    Martín Aguilar, Héctor


    Se desarrollara un prototipo funcional de brújula electronica utilizando un sensor de campo magnético de alta sensibilidad basado en el fenómeno de Magneto-Impedancia Gigante (GMI). El trabajo es eminentemente práctico y el alumno utilizará equipamiento científico disponible en los grupos de investigación del Departamento. Tiene componentes relacionadas con los materiales magnéticos, el diseño de circuitos electromagnéticos y la instrumentación y control.

  5. Adidas Suomi Oy: Brändikuvan rakentaminen markkinoinnin keinoin


    Leinonen, Miira


    Tämä opinnäytetyö tehtiin toimeksiantona Adidas Suomi Oy:lle syksyllä 2014. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää muotialan mielipidevaikuttajien mielikuvat Adidaksesta ja sen merkittävimmistä kilpailijoista. Vertailtaviksi brändeiksi valittiin kuusi tärkeintä kilpailijaa, jotka ovat Converse, Karhu, New Balance, Nike, Puma ja Reebok. Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantaja Adidas Suomi Oy on osa kansainvälistä Adidas Group konsernia. Yritys on yksi maailman tunnetuimmista urheilumerkeistä ja toim...

  6. Taxonomic revision of Asian genus Glyptopetalum Thwaites (Celastraceae R. Br.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan A. Savinov


    Full Text Available Taxonomic survey of Asian genus Glyptopetalum Thwaites (Celastraceae R. Br. is presented. Thirty five species taxa of Glyptopetalum are accepted, including one new species, G.  vidalii I. Savinov (Laos, Thailand, a new record for China, G. tonkinense Pitard (SE Yunnan and a new record for Cambodia,               G. quadrangulare Prain ex King, a new record for Indonesia – G. euonymoides Merr. and a new record for Philippines, Mindanao island – G. loheri Merr. 

  7. New Eudesmane Sesquiterpenoids from Salvia plebeia R. Br. (United States)

    Ma, Lie-Feng; Wang, Peng-Fei; Wang, Ji-Dong; Tong, Xiang-Min; Shan, Wei-Guang; Zhang, Hui; Zhan, Zha-Jun


    Three new sesquiterpenoids, salplebeones A - C (1 - 3), were isolated from the ethanol-soluble extract of the aerial part of Salvia plebeia R. Br. Their structures were established by detailed analysis of NMR and MS spectra. Salplebeone A was an eudesmane lactone, while salplebeones B and C were rare eudesmane sesquiterpenoids, containing 12,8-lactam groups. Antiproliferative activities of salplebeones A - C to myeloid leukemia cell lines were evaluated. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  8. Radiobromination of monoclonal antibody using potassium [{sup 76}Br] (4 isothiocyanatobenzyl-ammonio)-bromo-decahydro-closo-dodecaborate (Bromo-DABI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruskin, Alexander; Sivaev, Igor; Persson, Mikael; Lundqvist, Hans; Carlsson, Joergen; Sjoeberg, Stefan; Tolmachev, Vladimir E-mail:


    The use of charged linkers in attaching radiohalogens to tumor-seeking biomolecules may improve intracellular retention of the radioactive label after internalization and degradation of targeting proteins. Derivatives of polyhedral boron clusters, such as closo-dodecaborate (2-) anion, might be possible charged linkers. In this study, a bifunctional derivative of closo-dodecaborate, (4-isothiocyanatobenzyl-ammonio)-undecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (DABI) was labeled with positron-emitting nuclide {sup 76}Br (T = 16.2 h) and coupled to anti-HER2/neu humanized antibody Trastuzumab. The overall labeling yield at optimized conditions was 80.7 {+-} 0.6%. The label was proven to be stable in vitro in physiological and a set of denaturing conditions. The labeled antibody retained its capacity to bind to HER-2/neu antigen expressing cells. The results of the study demonstrated feasibility for using derivatives of closo-dodecaborate in indirect labeling of antibodies for radioimmunoPET.

  9. Propiconazole is a specific and accessible brassinosteroid (BR biosynthesis inhibitor for Arabidopsis and maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hartwig

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BRs are steroidal hormones that play pivotal roles during plant development. In addition to the characterization of BR deficient mutants, specific BR biosynthesis inhibitors played an essential role in the elucidation of BR function in plants. However, high costs and limited availability of common BR biosynthetic inhibitors constrain their key advantage as a species-independent tool to investigate BR function. We studied propiconazole (Pcz as an alternative to the BR inhibitor brassinazole (Brz. Arabidopsis seedlings treated with Pcz phenocopied BR biosynthetic mutants. The steady state mRNA levels of BR, but not gibberellic acid (GA, regulated genes increased proportional to the concentrations of Pcz. Moreover, root inhibition and Pcz-induced expression of BR biosynthetic genes were rescued by 24epi-brassinolide, but not by GA(3 co-applications. Maize seedlings treated with Pcz showed impaired mesocotyl, coleoptile, and true leaf elongation. Interestingly, the genetic background strongly impacted the tissue specific sensitivity towards Pcz. Based on these findings we conclude that Pcz is a potent and specific inhibitor of BR biosynthesis and an alternative to Brz. The reduced cost and increased availability of Pcz, compared to Brz, opens new possibilities to study BR function in larger crop species.

  10. Brønsted-base-catalyzed remote cascade reactivity of 2,4-dienones - asymmetric synthesis of tetrahydrothiophenes. (United States)

    Przydacz, Artur; Kowalczyk, Rafał; Albrecht, Łukasz


    This study demonstrates that the remote cascade functionalization of 2,4-dienones can be realized by employing Brønsted base catalysis. The developed cascade involving 1,6-addition followed by the intramolecular aldol reaction provides a straightforward access to polysubstituted tetrahydrothiophene derivatives of biological and synthetic importance. Target products, bearing three contiguous stereocenters including one quaternary, have been obtained with excellent yields (up to 98%) and with good to high stereocontrol (>20 : 1 dr, up to 97 : 3 er) with the reaction cascade being promoted by a simple and readily available cinchona alkaloid cinchonine.

  11. Natural Organobromine in Marine Sediments: New Evidence of Biogeochemical Br Cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A Leri; J Hakala; M Marcus; A Lanzirotti; C Reddy; S Myneni


    Organobromine (Br{sub org}) compounds, commonly recognized as persistent, toxic anthropogenic pollutants, are also produced naturally in terrestrial and marine systems. Several enzymatic and abiotic bromination mechanisms have been identified, as well as an array of natural Br{sub org} molecules associated with various marine organisms. The fate of the carbon-bromine functionality in the marine environment, however, remains largely unexplored. Oceanographic studies have noted an association between bromine (Br) and organic carbon (C{sub org}) in marine sediments. Even so, there has been no direct chemical evidence that Br in the sediments exists in a stable form apart from inorganic bromide (Br{sub inorg}), which is widely presumed conservative in marine systems. To investigate the scope of natural Br{sub org} production and its fate in the environment, we probed Br distribution and speciation in estuarine and marine sediments using in situ X-ray spectroscopy and spectromicroscopy. We show that Br{sub org} is ubiquitous throughout diverse sedimentary environments, occurring in correlation with C{sub org} and metals such as Fe, Ca, and Zn. Analysis of sinking particulate carbon from the seawater column links the Br{sub org} observed in sediments to biologically produced Br{sub org} compounds that persist through humification of natural organic matter (NOM). Br speciation varies with sediment depth, revealing biogeochemical cycling of Br between organic and inorganic forms as part of the burial and degradation of NOM. These findings illuminate the chemistry behind the association of Br with Corg in marine sediments and cast doubt on the paradigmatic classification of Br as a conservative element in seawater systems.

  12. Measurement of the ratio of branching fractions BR( B 0→K*γ BR( B s 0→ϕγ ${{BR({B^0} o K*gamma } over {BR(B_s^0 o phi gamma }}$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Savrina


    Full Text Available The interest to the rare radiative decays of the B-mesons at LHCb is mostly aroused due to the measurement of the photon polarization in the Bs0 → ϕγ decay, which may provide a sensitive probe for the Standard Model. The LHCb experiment has started to take data at the energy of √s = 7 TeV in 2010 and the current paper presents the result of the studies of the two rare radiative decays B0 → K*γ and Bs0 → ϕγ with 340 pb−1 of data taken in the first half of 2011. With this data we have a preliminary measurement of BR(B0→K*γBR(Bs0→ϕγ ${{BRleft({{B^0} o K*gamma} ight} over {BRleft({B_s^0 o phi gamma} ight}}$ = 1.52±0.14(stat.±0.10(syst.±0.12(fs/fd and assuming the measured value of B $mathcal{B}$ (B0 → K*γ = (4.33 ± 0.15 × 10.5 we infer B $mathcal{B}$ (Bs0 → ϕγ = (2.8 ± 0.5 × 10−5 [1

  13. Water-resistant, monodispersed and stably luminescent CsPbBr3/CsPb2Br5 core-shell-like structure lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (United States)

    Qiao, Bo; Song, Pengjie; Cao, Jingyue; Zhao, Suling; Shen, Zhaohui; Gao, Di; Liang, Zhiqin; Xu, Zheng; Song, Dandan; Xu, Xurong


    Lead halide perovskite materials are thriving in optoelectronic applications due to their excellent properties, while their instability due to the fact that they are easily hydrolyzed is still a bottleneck for their potential application. In this work, water-resistant, monodispersed and stably luminescent cesium lead bromine perovskite nanocrystals coated with CsPb2Br5 were obtained using a modified non-stoichiometric solution-phase method. CsPb2Br5 2D layers were coated on the surface of CsPbBr3 nanocrystals and formed a core-shell-like structure in the synthetic processes. The stability of the luminescence of the CsPbBr3 nanocrystals in water and ethanol atmosphere was greatly enhanced by the photoluminescence-inactive CsPb2Br5 coating with a wide bandgap. The water-stable enhanced nanocrystals are suitable for long-term stable optoelectronic applications in the atmosphere.

  14. Total Absorption Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy of 87Br, 88Br and 94Rb Beta-Delayed Neutron Emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Valencia, E; Algora, A; Agramunt, J; Rubio, B; Rice, S; Gelletly, W; Regan, P; Zakari-Issoufou, A -A; Fallot, M; Porta, A; Rissanen, J; Eronen, T; Aysto, J; Batist, L; Bowry, M; Bui, V M; Caballero-Folch, R; Cano-Ott, D; Elomaa, V -V; Estevez, E; Farrelly, G F; Garcia, A R; Gomez-Hornillos, B; Gorlychev, V; Hakala, J; Jordan, M D; Jokinen, A; Kolhinen, V S; Kondev, F G; Martinez, T; Mendoza, E; Moore, I; Penttila, H; Podolyak, Zs; Reponen, M; Sonnenschein, V; Sonzogni, A A


    We investigate the decay of 87Br, 88Br and 94Rb using total absorption gamma-ray spectroscopy. These important fission products are beta-delayed neutron emitters. Our data show considerable gamma-intensity, so far unobserved in high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, from states at high excitation energy. We also find significant differences with the beta intensity that can be deduced from existing measurements of the beta spectrum. We evaluate the impact of the present data on reactor decay heat using summation calculations. Although the effect is relatively small it helps to reduce the discrepancy between calculations and integral measurements of the photon component for 235U fission at cooling times in the range 1 to 100 s. We also use summation calculations to evaluate the impact of present data on reactor antineutrino spectra. We find a significant effect at antineutrino energies in the range of 5 to 9 MeV. In addition, we observe an unexpected strong probability for gamma emission from neutron unbound s...

  15. Precision measurement of the ratio BR(K→π+π-e+e-)/BR(K→π+π-πD0) (United States)

    NA48/1 Collaboration; Batley, J. R.; Kalmus, G. E.; Lazzeroni, C.; Munday, D. J.; Patel, M.; Slater, M. W.; Wotton, S. A.; Arcidiacono, R.; Bocquet, G.; Ceccucci, A.; Cundy, D.; Doble, N.; Falaleev, V.; Gatignon, L.; Gonidec, A.; Grafström, P.; Kubischta, W.; Marchetto, F.; Mikulec, I.; Norton, A.; Panzer-Steindel, B.; Rubin, P.; Wahl, H.; Goudzovski, E.; Hristov, P.; Kekelidze, V.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Madigozhin, D.; Molokanova, N.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Stoynev, S.; Zinchenko, A.; Monnier, E.; Swallow, E. C.; Winston, R.; Sacco, R.; Walker, A.; Baldini, W.; Dalpiaz, P.; Frabetti, P. L.; Gianoli, A.; Martini, M.; Petrucci, F.; Savrié, M.; Scarpa, M.; Calvetti, M.; Collazuol, G.; Iacopini, E.; Ruggiero, G.; Bizzeti, A.; Lenti, M.; Veltri, M.; Behler, M.; Eppard, K.; Eppard, M.; Hirstius, A.; Kleinknecht, K.; Koch, U.; Marouelli, P.; Masetti, L.; Moosbrugger, U.; Morales Morales, C.; Peters, A.; Wanke, R.; Winhart, A.; Dabrowski, A.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Szleper, M.; Velasco, M.; Anzivino, G.; Imbergamo, E.; Lamanna, G.; Lubrano, P.; Michetti, A.; Nappi, A.; Piccini, M.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Cenci, P.; Pepe, M.; Petrucci, M. C.; Cerri, C.; Fantechi, R.; Mannelli, I.; Costantini, F.; Fiorini, L.; Giudici, S.; Pierazzini, G.; Sozzi, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Chèze, J. B.; de Beer, M.; Debu, P.; Gouge, G.; Marel, G.; Mazzucato, E.; Peyaud, B.; Vallage, B.; Holder, M.; Maier, A.; Ziolkowski, M.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Clemencic, M.; Lopez, S. Goy; Menichetti, E.; Pastrone, N.; Wislicki, W.; Dibon, H.; Jeitler, M.; Markytan, M.; Neuhofer, G.; Widhalm, L.


    The K→π+π-e+e- decay mode was investigated using the data collected in 2002 by the NA48/1 Collaboration. With about 23 k K→π+π-e+e- events and 59 k K→π+π-πD0 normalization decays, the K→π+π-e+e- branching ratio relative to the K→π+π-πD0 one was determined to be BR(K→π+π-e+e-)/BR(K→π+π-πD0)=(3.28±0.06±0.04)×10-2. This result was used to set the upper limit |g/g|<3.0 at 90% CL on the presence, in the decay amplitude, of an E1 direct emission (g) term relative to the dominant inner bremsstrahlung (g) term. The CP-violating asymmetry A in the sinϕcosϕ distribution of K→π+π-e+e- events, where ϕ is the angle between the π+π- and the e+e- decay planes in the kaon centre of mass, was found to be A=(-0.4±0.8)%, consistent with zero. These results are in good agreement with a description of the K→π+π-e+e- decay amplitude dominated by the CP-even inner bremsstrahlung process.

  16. Estimating Stratospheric and Tropospheric BrO columns using GEOSCCM and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (United States)

    Liang, Q.; Chance, K.; Suleiman, R. M.; Zhang, Y.


    Atmospheric BrO is an important gas - despite its very low abundance of parts per trillion, and it plays an important chemical role in the destruction of ozone in the troposphere and the stratosphere. The current atmospheric BrO abundance estimates are highly uncertain due to significant uncertainties in the contribution of very-short-lived (VSL) bromocarbons, in contrast to the well-quantified contribution from the long-lived bromine-containing compounds, i.e. Halons and CH3Br. This is particularly true in the troposphere with various measurements suggesting the presence of a global background BrO from 0.5 ppt to 2 ppt, and, locally, BrO can be as high as 30 ppt in the Arctic and Antarctic marine boundary layer. We will run a 10-year model simulation between 2001-2010 using the NASA GEOS Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM) V2 which contains a detailed stratospheric chemistry coupled with an interactive VSL bromocarbon chemistry. BrO in the troposphere will be relaxed to monthly mean BrO fields previously archived during a GEOS-Chem full chemistry simulation. The simulated VSL bromocarbons and BrO from both models have been extensively evaluated and compare well with aircraft, balloon-borne and GOME-2 satellite observations. We will analyze the model simulated BrO together with satellite BrO measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to address the following three questions: 1) How much BrO is present in the stratosphere and the troposphere? 2) What is the relative contribution of the stratosphere and the troposphere to total atmospheric BrO column abundance? 3) What drives the seasonal and geographical variability of stratospheric and tropospheric BrO columns?

  17. SO2 and BrO observation in the plume of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano 2010: CARIBIC and GOME-2 retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. J. van Velthoven


    Full Text Available The ash cloud of the Eyjafjallajökull (also referred to as: Eyjafjalla (e.g. Schumann et al., 2011, Eyjafjöll or Eyjafjoll (e.g. Ansmann et al., 2010 volcano on Iceland caused closure of large parts of European airspace in April and May 2010. For the validation and improvement of the European volcanic ash forecast models several research flights were performed. Also the CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container flying laboratory, which routinely measures at cruise altitude (≈11 km performed three dedicated measurements flights through sections of the ash plume. Although the focus of these flights was on the detection and quantification of the volcanic ash, we report here on sulphur dioxide (SO2 and bromine monoxide (BrO measurements with the CARIBIC DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy instrument during the second of these special flights on 16 May 2010. As the BrO and the SO2 observations coincide, we assume the BrO to have been formed inside the volcanic plume. Average SO2 and BrO mixing ratios of ≈40 ppb and ≈5 ppt respectively are retrieved inside the plume. The BrO to SO2 ratio retrieved from the CARIBIC observation is ≈1.3×10−4. Both SO2 and BrO observations agree well with simultaneous satellite (GOME-2 observations. SO2 column densities retrieved from satellite observations are often used as an indicator for volcanic ash. As the CARIBIC O4 column densities changed rapidly during the plume observation, we conclude that the aerosol and the SO2 plume are collocated. For SO2 some additional information on the local distribution can be derived from a comparison of forward and back scan GOME-2 data. More details on the local plume size and position are retrieved by combining CARIBIC and GOME-2 data.

  18. Nutrition chez le brûlé (United States)

    Perro, G.


    Summary La nutrition est un challenge chez le brûlé, paradigme de l’agressé. Les points importants sont les apports entéraux précoces par sonde gastrique voire post pyloriques, la position proclive > 30°, la surveillance du transit et sa régulation par gastro ou entéro-kinétiques, la surveillance du poids, la quantification des apports avec supplémentation parentérale en cas de retard protéino énergétique. Chez l’enfant, l’adhésion à l’alimentation est difficile, de même que chez le senior, où une évaluation nutritionnelle initiale dépiste souvent une dénutrition préexistante. Les compléments alimentaires seront largement prescrits chez les patients de gravité intermédiaire. Les obèses bénéficieront d’un régime hypocalorique et hyperprotidique. Chez l’insuffisant rénal non dialysé il convient de limiter les apports en potassium. En cas brûlure périnéale, on peut proposer soit une constipation de courte durée, soit la mise en place d’un entéro-collecteur, les indications de colostomie étant devenues rares. Les apports entéraux sont difficiles à gérer en cas de décubitus ventral pour SDRA. Chez le brûlé grave de réanimation, l’accent doit plus être mis sur la qualité des nutriments que sur leur quantité. Les anciennes formules d’estimation calorique conduisaient à une surnutrition difficile à administrer et en général mal tolérée; la quantification mesurée par calorimétrie indirecte ou estimée par la formule de Toronto est bien plus adaptée. Plus récemment, l’instauration d’une immunonutrition (supplémentation en vitamines et oligo-éléments, glutamine, arginine, acide Ω 3 et contrôle raisonné de la glycémie) a été proposée pour réduire le stress oxydatif et l’inflammation provoqués par l’accident. PMID:27857647

  19. Effects of methylation at position 2 of cation ring on rotational dynamics of imidazolium-based ionic liquids investigated by NMR spectroscopy: [C4mim]Br vs [C4C1mim]Br. (United States)

    Endo, Takatsugu; Imanari, Mamoru; Seki, Hiroko; Nishikawa, Keiko


    We investigated the rotational dynamics of two imidazolium-based ionic liquids, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C(4)mim]Br) and 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bromide ([C(4)C(1)mim]Br), to reveal the effects of methylation at position 2 of the imidazolium ring (C(2) methylation). The rotational correlation time (τ(local)) for each carbon in the cations is derived from the spin-lattice relaxation time of (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance. The τ(local) results obtained here provide three principle insights into the rotational dynamics of ionic liquids. First, all τ(local) values for [C(4)C(1)mim]Br are greater than those for [C(4)mim]Br owing to a viscosity increase due to C(2) methylation. Second, the rate of change in τ(local) on C(2) methylation differs among the carbons in the cation, which indicates that each carbon has a different microviscosity. Third, the τ(local) increase in the (13)C at the root of the butyl group on C(2) methylation is very small compared to both intuitive prediction and the results from quantum chemical calculations. This indicates that the motion of the butyl group root in [C(4)C(1)mim]Br is not significantly inhibited by the methyl group at the position 2 of the imidazolium ring. The finding provides conclusive information on the origin of the increases in the melting point on C(2) methylation. Hunt previously found through calculation that decreases in entropy are caused by two factors, namely, reductions in the rotational mobility of the butyl group and in the number of stable anion interaction sites with C(2) methylation, resulting in an increase in melting point and viscosity. Our finding experimentally illustrates that the origin of the increases in melting point is not the inhibition of butyl group motion and that the reduction in stable anion interaction sites plays a major role in the increases. Additionally, it is suggested that the viscosity increase on C(2) methylation can be interpreted in the same manner.

  20. Estimering af brændstofforbrug vha. GPS Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Lahrmann, Harry; Torp, Kristian


    Det er simpelt og billigt at opsamle GPS målinger fra køretøjer. Når større mængder GPS data indsamles fra et passende antal køretøjer kan dataen bruges til at beregne f.eks. køretider. Det er ligeledes muligt ud fra GPS data at estimere miljøindikatorer så som, hvor aggressivt kører bilister og er...... der nogle vejstrækninger, der har en højere (negativ) miljø påvirkning end andre? I denne artikel præsenterer et forsøg, hvor GPS data anvendes til at estimere brændstofforbruget ved en enkelt tur og for vejnettet generelt. Dette gøres ved at opbygge en database med GPS data. Ud fra disse data gives...

  1. Bovins et humains au Brésil en 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Théry


    Full Text Available On recherche 35 millions de bovins… Selon les données récemment publiées par l’IBGE (Censo Agropecuário 2006, Resultados preliminares le Brésil comptait en 2006 un peu moins de 170 millions de têtes de bétail, alors que selon la Pesquisa Pecuária Municipal, du même IBGE et à la même date, le pays en comptait alors près de 206 millions.Sans chercher pour le moment la cause de cette différence – de méthodologie, très probablement – et en se rappelant que l’IBGE avertit que ces données provisoi...

  2. Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone Supported Brønsted Acidic Catalyst for Esterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Wang


    Full Text Available A polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP supported Brønsted acidic catalyst ([PVPP-BS]HSO4 was prepared by coupling SO3H-functionalized polyvinylpolypyrrolidone with H2SO4 in this work. After the characterization through FT-IR, FESEM, TG, BET, and elemental analysis, it was found that 1,4-butane sultone (BS and sulfuric acid reacted with PVPP and were immobilized on PVPP surface. The prepared [PVPP-BS]HSO4 catalyst shows high catalytic activity for a series of esterification reactions and could be separated from the reacted mixture easily. Moreover, this catalyst could be recycled and reused for six times without significant loss of catalytic performance.

  3. (C5H12NCu2Br3: A Piperidinium Copper(I Bromide with [Cu2Br3]− Ladders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl W. Krämer


    Full Text Available Piperidinium copper(I bromide, (C5H12NCu2Br3, was obtained from a solution of CuBr2, piperidine, and HBr in ethanol. At 60 °C ethanol slowly reduces copper(II to copper(I. Colorless plates of (C5H12NCu2Br3 crystallize in the triclinic space group P-1 with lattice parameters of a = 6.2948(10 Å, b = 8.2624(14 Å, c = 10.7612(17 Å, α = 75.964(19°, β = 89.232(19°, γ = 84.072(19°, and Z = 2 at 173 K. [CuBr4] tetrahedra share edges and form [Cu2Br3]− ladders parallel to the a-axis. (C5H12N+ ions adopt a chair conformation and connect the [Cu2Br3]− ladders via H-bonding. The (C5H12NCu2Br3 structure is related to the mineral rasvumite, KFe2S3, space group Cmcm, which is isostructural to several alkali copper(I halides.

  4. Cationic P-S-X cages (X=Br, I). (United States)

    Gonsior, Marcin; Krossing, Ingo; Matern, Eberhard


    The first condensed-phase preparation of ternary P-Ch-X cations (Ch=O-Te, X=F-I) is reported: [P5S3X2]+, [P5S2X2]+, and [P4S4X]+ (X=Br, I). [P5S3X2]+ is formed from the reaction of the Ag+/PX3 reagent with P4S3. The [P5S3X2]+ ions have a structure that is related to P4S5 by replacing P=S by P+--X and S in the four-membered ring by P(X). We provide evidence that the active ingredient of the Ag+/PX3 reagent is the (H2CCl2)Ag-X-PX2+ cation. The latter likely reacts with the HOMO of P4S3 in a concerted HOMO-LUMO addition to give the P5S3X2+ ion as the first species visible in situ in the low-temperature 31P NMR spectrum. The [P5S3X2]+ ions are metastable at -78 degrees C and disproportionate at slightly higher temperatures to give [P5S2X2]+ and [P4S4X]+, probably with the extrusion of 1/n (PX)n (X=Br, I). All six new cage compounds have been characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and, in part, by IR or Raman spectroscopy. The [P5S2X2]+ salts have a nortricyclane skeleton and were also characterized by X-ray crystallography. The structure of the [P4S4X]+ ion is related to that of P4S5 in that the exo-cage P=S bond is replaced by an isoelectronic P+--X moiety.

  5. Pan-Balti bränding - müüt või tegelikkus? / Joel Volkov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Volkov, Joel, 1972-


    Brändil pole kodumaad, on keel ja päritolumaa. Lokaalsed brändid valivad suhtlemiseks kohalikega nende kodukeele, globaalsed brändid harilikult inglise keele. Üks suuremaid ja tugevamaid lokaalsest süsteemist kasvanud Pan-Balti brände on Hansapank. Lisa: Sulev Vedler. Hansast võib saada Swedbank

  6. Hemoglobin derivatives (United States)

    ... this page: // Hemoglobin derivatives To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hemoglobin derivatives are altered forms of hemoglobin . Hemoglobin is ...

  7. Catalytic Asymmetric Piancatelli Rearrangement: Brønsted Acid Catalyzed 4π Electrocyclization for the Synthesis of Multisubstituted Cyclopentenones

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Yunfei


    The first catalytic asymmetric Piancatelli reaction is reported. Catalyzed by a chiral Brønsted acid, the rearrangement of a wide range of furylcarbinols with a series of aniline derivatives provides valuable aminocyclopentenones in high yields as well as excellent enantioselectivities and diastereoselectivities. The high value of the aza-Piancatelli rearrangement was demonstrated by the synthesis of a cyclopentane-based hNK1 antagonist analogue.

  8. Two new polymeric chains derived from exo-bidentate binaphthol derivatives (United States)

    Gong, Ya-Qiong; Zhou, You-Fu; Han, Lei; Wang, Rui-Hu; Wu, Ben-Lai; Lou, Ben-Yong; Hong, Mao-Chun


    Assembly of CdBr 2·4H 2O and 2,2'-substituted binol derivatives, ( S)-2,2'-bis(4-pyridylmethyleneoxy)-1,1'-bi-naphthalene [( S)-L], and ( Rac)-2,2'-bis(4-pyridylmethyleneoxy)-1,1'-bi-naphthalene [( Rac)-L], resulted in two one-dimensional chiral chain complexes, {Cd[( S)-L](H 2O)Br 2} n·0.5 nH 2O ( 1) and {Cd 2[( R)-L][( S)-L](H 2O) 2Br 4} n·2 nH 2O ( 2). In complex 1, chain chirality is from axial chirality of BINOL scaffold. In complex 2, racemic ligands including ( S)-L and ( R)-L locate in the two sides of the equatorial plane, which suggests the ligand self-discrimination during the assembly process.

  9. CsPb2Br5 Single Crystals: Synthesis and Characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Dursun, Ibrahim


    CsPb2Br5 is a ternary halogen-plumbate material with close characteristics to well-reported halide perovskites. Due to its unconventional two-dimensional structure, CsPb2Br5 is being looked at broadly for potential applications in optoelectronics. CsPb2Br5 investigations are currently limited to nanostructures and powder forms of the material, which present unclear and conflicting optical properties. In this study, we present the synthesis and characterization of CsPb2Br5 bulk single crystals, which enabled us to finally clarify the material\\'s optical features. Our CsPb2Br5 crystal has a two-dimensional structure with Pb2Br5- layers spaced by Cs+ cations, and exhibits a ~3.1 eV indirect bandgap with no emission in the visible spectrum.

  10. Inhibition of hydrogen oxidation by HBr and Br2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixon-Lewis, Graham; Marshall, Paul; Ruscic, Branko


    O. Ab initio calculations were used to obtain rate coefficients for selected reactions of HBr and HOBr, and the hydrogen/bromine/oxygen reaction mechanism was updated. The resulting model was validated against selected experimental data from the literature and used to analyze the effect of HBr and Br2......The high-temperature bromine chemistry was updated and the inhibition mechanisms involving HBr and Br2 were re-examined. The thermochemistry of the bromine species was obtained using the Active Thermochemical Tables (ATcT) approach, resulting in improved data for, among others, Br, HBr, HOBr and Br...... on laminar, premixed hydrogen flames. Our work shows that hydrogen bromide and molecular bromine act differently as inhibitors in flames. For HBr, the reaction HBr+H⇌H2+Br (R2) is rapidly equilibrated, depleting HBr in favor of atomic Br, which is the major bromine species throughout the reaction zone...

  11. The superacid HBr/AlBr(3) : protonation of benzene and ordered crystal structure of [C(6)H(7)](+)[Al(2)Br(7)](-). (United States)

    Scholz, Franziska; Himmel, Daniel; Eisele, Lea; Unkrig, Wiebke; Krossing, Ingo


    Crystalline and properly ordered protonated benzene as the [C6 H7 ](+) [Al2 Br7 ](-) ⋅(C6 H6 ) salt 1 are obtained by the combination of solid AlBr3 , benzene, and HBr gas. Compound 1 was characterized and verified by NMR, Raman and X-Ray spectroscopy. This unexpected simple and straight forward access shows that HBr/AlBr3 is an underestimated superacid that should be used more frequently. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Critères de gravité des brûlures: à propos de 337 cas de brûlés au ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'objectif était d'étudier les critères de gravité des brûlures chez des patients brûlés hospitalisés à l'hôpital militaire d'instruction Mohamed V de Rabat. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective qui concernait 337 patients hospitalisés de 2004 à 2010. Les variables étudiés sont: l'âge, la surface corporelle brûlée, la profondeur, ...

  13. Solvent dependent branching between C-I and C-Br bond cleavage following 266 nm excitation of CH2BrI (United States)

    Anderson, Christopher P.; Spears, Kenneth G.; Wilson, Kaitlynn R.; Sension, Roseanne J.


    It is well known that ultraviolet photoexcitation of halomethanes results in halogen-carbon bond cleavage. Each halogen-carbon bond has a dominant ultraviolet (UV) absorption that promotes an electron from a nonbonding halogen orbital (nX) to a carbon-halogen antibonding orbital (σ*C-X). UV absorption into specific transitions in the gas phase results primarily in selective cleavage of the corresponding carbon-halogen bond. In the present work, broadband ultrafast UV-visible transient absorption studies of CH2BrI reveal a more complex photochemistry in solution. Transient absorption spectra are reported spanning the range from 275 nm to 750 nm and 300 fs to 3 ns following excitation of CH2BrI at 266 nm in acetonitrile, 2-butanol, and cyclohexane. Channels involving formation of CH2Br + I radical pairs, iso-CH2Br-I, and iso-CH2I-Br are identified. The solvent environment has a significant influence on the branching ratios, and on the formation and stability of iso-CH2Br-I. Both iso-CH2Br-I and iso-CH2I-Br are observed in cyclohexane with a ratio of ˜2.8:1. In acetonitrile this ratio is 7:1 or larger. The observation of formation of iso-CH2I-Br photoproduct as well as iso-CH2Br-I following 266 nm excitation is a novel result that suggests complexity in the dissociation mechanism. We also report a solvent and concentration dependent lifetime of iso-CH2Br-I. At low concentrations the lifetime is >4 ns in acetonitrile, 1.9 ns in 2-butanol and ˜1.4 ns in cyclohexane. These lifetimes decrease with higher initial concentrations of CH2BrI. The concentration dependence highlights the role that intermolecular interactions can play in the quenching of unstable isomers of dihalomethanes.

  14. On forge des partenariats au Brésil | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    9 mai 2011 ... La collaboration entre les différents établissements brésiliens reconnus dans leur champ d'expertise donne du poids aux arguments quand il s'agit de s'adresser aux décideurs, conclut Mme Padua. Instituto de Pesquisas Ecologicas, Brésil Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Brésil Faculté de médecine ...

  15. Photochromic conversions of the Br/sub 2//sup -/ radical ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plyusnin, V.F.

    The photolysis of frozen solutions of HBr, containing complexes of FeBr/sub 3/ or CuBr/sub 4//sup 2 -/, is discussed. The primary product of the photoreduction of complexes is the radical ion Br/sub 2//sup -/. Irradiation in the absorption band of this particle leads to its disappearance. However, it can be regulated by photolysis of the sample in a shorter-wave region of the spectrum. The processes leading to this photochrome conversion are discussed.

  16. Babcock and Wilcox BR-100 100-ton rail/barge spent fuel shipping cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This Preliminary Design Report (PDR) provides a detailed description of the design, analyses, and testing programs for the BR-100 cask. The BR-100 is a Type B(U) cask designed for transport by rail or barge. This report presents the preliminary analyses and tests which have been performed for the BR-100 and outlines the confirmatory analyses and tests which will be performed.

  17. Absorbed dose in AgBr in direct film for photon energies (<150 keV): relation to optical density. Theoretical calculation and experimental evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmrot, E. [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics; Alm Carlsson, G. [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics


    Calculations of absorbed dose in the silver bromide were compared with measurements of optical densities in Ultra-speed and Ektaspeed films for a broad range (25-145 kV) of X-ray energy. The calculated absorbed dose values were appropriately averaged over the complete photon energy spectrum, which was determined experimentally using a Compton spectrometer. For the whole range of tube potentials used, the measured optical densities of the films were found to be proportional to the mean absorbed dose in the AgBr grains calculated according to GREENING`s theory. They were also found to be proportional to the collision kerma in silver bromide (K{sub c,AgBr}) indicating proportionality between K{sub c,AgBr} and the mean absorbed dose in silver bromide. While GREENING`s theory shows that the quotient of the mean absorbed dose in silver bromide and K{sub c,AgBr} varies with photon energy, this is not apparent when averaged over the broad (diagnostic) X-ray energy spectra used here. Alternatively, proportionality between K{sub c,AgBr} and the mean absorbed dose in silver bromide can be interpreted as resulting from a combination of the SPIERS-CHARLTON theory, valid at low photon energies (<30 keV) and GREENING`s theory, which is strictly valid at energies above 50 keV. This study shows that the blackening of non-screen films can be related directly to the energy absorbed in the AgBr grains of the emulsion layer and that, for the purpose of modelling the imaging chain in intraoral radiography, film response can be represented by K{sub c,AgBr} (at the position of the film) independent of photon energy. The importance of taking the complete X-ray energy spectrum into full account in deriving K{sub c,AgBr} is clearly demonstrated, showing that the concept of effective energy must be used with care. (orig./HP).

  18. [Oxidation of mercury by CuBr2 decomposition under controlled-release membrane catalysis condition]. (United States)

    Hu, Lin-Gang; Qu, Zan; Yan, Nai-Qiang; Guo, Yong-Fu; Xie, Jiang-Kun; Jia, Jin-Ping


    CuBr2 in the multi-porous ceramic membrane can release Br2 at high temperature, which was employed as the oxidant for Hg0 oxidation. Hg0 oxidation efficiency was studied by a membrane catalysis device. Meanwhile, a reaction and in situ monitoring device was designed to avoid the impact of Br2 on the downstream pipe. The result showed that the MnO(x)/alpha-Al2O3 catalysis membrane had a considerable "controlled-release" effect on Br2 produced by CuBr2 decomposition. The adsorption and reaction of Hg0 and Br2 on the surface of catalysis membrane obeyed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. The removal efficiency of Hg0 increased with the rising of Br2 concentration. However, when Br2 reached a certain concentration, the removal efficiency was limited by adsorption rate and reaction rate of Hg0 and Br2 on the catalysis membrane. From 473 K to 573 K, the variation of Hg0 oxidation efficiency was relatively stable. SO2 in flue gas inhibited the oxidation of Hg0 while NO displayed no obvious effect.

  19. Photodegradation of Methyl Orange Using Magnetically Recoverable AgBr@Ag3PO4/Fe3O4 Photocatalyst under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang


    Full Text Available A novel magnetically recoverable AgBr@Ag3PO4/Fe3O4 hybrid was prepared by a simple deposition-precipitation approach and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS. The results revealed that the photocatalytic activity and stability of AgBr@Ag3PO4/Fe3O4 composite toward decomposition of methyl orange (MO dye were superior to those of pure Ag3PO4 under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic activity enhancement of AgBr@Ag3PO4/Fe3O4 is closely related to the efficient separation of electron-hole pairs derived from the matching band potentials between Ag3PO4 and AgBr, as well as the good conductivity of Fe3O4. Moreover, the photocatalyst could be easily separated by applying an external magnetic field due to its magnetic property. The quenching effects of different scavengers proved that active h+ and played the major role for the MO degradation. This work would provide new insight for the construction of visible light responsible photocatalysts with high performance, good stability, and recoverability.

  20. Nqrs Data for Al2BrH6LiO6 [Al2LiBr(OH)6] (Subst. No. 0056) (United States)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for Al2BrH6LiO6 [Al2LiBr(OH)6] (Subst. No. 0056)

  1. NY-BR-1 Antigen Expression and anti-NY-BR-1 IgG in Egyptian Breast Cancer Patients: Clinicopathological and Prognostic Significance. (United States)

    Abu El-Nazar, Salma Y; Ghazy, Amany A; Ghoneim, Hossam E; Zoheir, Malak; Ahmed, Ahmed S; Sorour, Sally S; Abouelella, Amira M


    Breast cancer is the most common gynecological malignancy in the world. In Egypt, it ranks the first among female malignancies with incidence of 37.7%. Over the last decades, the integration of prognostic and predictive markers in treatment decisions has led to more individualized and optimized therapy. NY-BR-1 antigen has been shown to be frequently expressed in breast cancers. The study aimed to assess the tissue expression of NY-BR-1 antigen and serum IgG antibody to this antigen in Egyptian breast cancer females. The study was conducted on 60 females (10 healthy, 10 having benign breast lesions, 40 with malignant breast cancer). NY-BR-1 Ag expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and anti-NY-BR-1 IgG was assessed by ELISA. Results revealed a significant difference in NY-BR-1 Ag expression between benign and malignant breast cancer patients. There was a significant correlation between NY-BR-1 antigen expression and estrogen receptor's status (P = 0.019), stage of the disease (P = 0.008), menopausal status (P = 0.008), lymph node involvement (P = 0.022) and anti-NY-BR-1 IgG (P = 0.032) among the studied individuals. In addition, there was a statistically significant increase in anti-NY-BR-1 IgG O.D. results among malignant breast cancer group. It is correlated with tumor type (P 1) and progesterone receptor status (P = 0.038). In conclusion, our work may represent a step towards identification of a new prognostic marker specific for breast cancer.

  2. New cross section measurements for production of the positron emitters {sup 75}Br and {sup 76}Br via intermediate energy proton induced reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spahn, I.; Coenen, H.H.; Qaim, S.M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich (DE). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Biophysik - Nuklearchemie (INB 4); Steyn, G.F.; Vermeulen, C. [Radionuclide Production Group, iThemba LABS, Somerset West (South Africa); Kovacs, Z.; Szelecsenyi, F. [Cyclotron Dept., Inst. of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary)


    The radionuclides {sup 75}Br and {sup 76}Br are of considerable interest for application in Position Emission Tomography (PET). For their production so far mostly low-energy or low-yield production processes have been employed. In this work the production of both isotopes was investigated using intermediate energy proton induced reactions and enriched target materials. Cross section data of the {sup 77,78,80}Se(p, xn){sup 75}Br processes were measured up to 66 MeV and those of the {sup 77,78,80}Se(p, xn){sup 76}Br processes up to 85 MeV. The measured excitation functions were compared with calculated results of the nuclear model code ALICE-IPPE. From the experimental excitation curves, thick target yields were calculated. They are fairly high over the investigated intermediate energy ranges. The production possibilities of {sup 75}Br and {sup 76}Br via various routes and the radionuclidic impurities associated with them are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Numerical modeling of incline plate LiBr absorber (United States)

    Karami, Shahram; Farhanieh, Bijan


    Among major components of LiBr-H2O absorption chillers is the absorber, which has a direct effect on the chillier size and whose characteristics have significant effects on the overall efficiency of absorption machines. In this article, heat and mass transfer process in absorption of refrigerant vapor into a lithium bromide solution of water-cooled incline plate absorber in the Reynolds number range of 5 lithium bromide aqueous properties to the temperature and concentration is employed as well as dependence of film thickness to vapor absorption. An analysis for linear distribution of wall temperature condition carries out to investigate the reliability of the present numerical method through comparing with previous investigation. The effect of plate angle on heat and mass transfer parameters is investigated and the results show that absorption mass flux and heat and mass transfer coefficient increase as the angle of the plate increase. The main parameters of absorber design, namely Nusselt and Sherwood numbers, are correlated as a function of Reynolds Number and the plate angle.

  4. Systematic hardness measurements on CsClxBr(1–x) and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. Vickers hardness measurements have been made on polycrystalline blanks of CsClxBr(1–x) and single crystals of NH4ClxBr(1–x). The composition dependence of hardness is highly nonlinear in both systems and follows an empirical model that includes a lattice contribution and a disorder contribution.

  5. LaBr3 gamma?ray spectrometers for space applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quarati, F.G.A.


    LaBr3 has been developed into large volume scintillator detectors within an ESA and TU Delft programme during this thesis work. The programme, which aimed at the space applications of LaBr3, also led to extensive experiments within a collaborative framework which included representatives for all the

  6. Patents on inventions related to human embryonic stem cells: the morality clause after Brüstle v. Greenpeace. (United States)

    Panis, Sarah


    This paper analyses the meaning of Article 6, para. 2, sub c of the Biotechnology Directive prohibiting patents on inventions using human embryos for industrial or commercial purposes. It first examines the evolution ofthe Court of Justice ofthe EU's interpretation of this provision (which is part of the morality clause) and focuses on its most recent decision, Brüstle v. Greenpeace. This is considered a landmark case for three reasons: firstly, because it defines for the first time the term "embryo" in patent law; secondly, because it is the Court of Justice (and not EPO) that ruled on patent law; the third reason is its very broad interpretation of the morality exclusion. The exclusion is no longer limited to embryos but is extended to (even banked) embryonic stem cells and all downstream products made with them. It then looks into the consequences for the patentability of inventions using cells derived from human embryonic stem cells, such as Brüstle's invention. The recent decision by Germany's Federal Court of Justice on the validity of Brüstle's patent emphasises the limited influence on the patentability of those inventions. After that, the paper addresses possible cuts in funding stem cell research and even legislative bans of this type of research. This is followed by an evaluation of the existence and content of the morality exclusion. After a comparative analysis with the US, which is lacking in such morality exclusion, the paper concludes that the morality clause as a whole paid its dues but the provision on the use of human embryos is questionable as there is no European consensus against the use of human embryos for industrial or commercial purposes.

  7. Cross-cultural adaptation of the assistive technology device - Predisposition assessment (ATD PA) for use in Brazil (ATD PA Br). (United States)

    Alves, Ana Cristina de Jesus; Matsukura, Thelma Simões; Scherer, Marcia J


    The purpose of this study is to conduct a cross-cultural adaptation of the Assistive Technology Device Predisposition Assessment (ATD PA) for use in Brazil. The selection of the Assistive Technology Device Predisposition Assessment (ATD PA) was determined by previous literature reviews of articles published in 2014 and 2016 in six databases with the terms "assistive device" or "assistive technology" or "self-help device" combined with "evidence-based practice" or "framework" or "measurement scale" or "model and outcome assessment". This review indicated that the conceptual model of Assistive Technology (AT) most discussed in the literature was the Matching Person and Technology (MPT) model, and this finding determined the selection of ATD PA as an assessment within the MPT portfolio of measures. The procedures for cross-cultural adaptation were as follows: Equivalence of Concept, Semantic and Operational. Five experts were asked to translate 725 items and these translations were evaluated and a high level of agreement was demonstrated. The Portuguese version, Avaliação de Tecnologia Assistiva - Predisposição ao Uso - ATD PA Br, was derived from the original version in English (ATD PA). The ATD PA Br will support professionals and people with disabilities in Brazil to better select AT devices according to the clients' needs. Implications for rehabilitation Provides a systematic way of selecting assistive technology devices for the use of individuals with disabilities according to the Brazilian reality. A systematic way of selecting the assistive technology that can help decrease the abandonment of the assistive technology use. The use of the Matching Person and Technology theorical model and of the assessment ATD PA Br is essential to guide the researches and clinical practice in Brazil.

  8. X-ray imaging plate using CsBr:Eu phosphors for computed radiography (United States)

    Nanto, H.; Nishimura, A.; Kuroda, M.; Takei, Y.; Nakano, Y.; Shoji, T.; Yanagita, T.; Kasai, S.


    It is shown that X-ray-irradiated Eu-doped CsBr (CsBr:Eu) exhibits intense photostimulated luminescence (PSL). The peak wavelengths of PSL emission and stimulation spectra of CsBr:Eu phosphor ceramic samples are 450 and 690 nm, respectively. The dependence of PSL properties on preparing conditions of phosphor ceramic samples, such as Eu concentration, sintering temperature and sintering time, is studied. It is found that the PSL intensity of CsBr:Eu phosphor ceramics fabricated under optimum preparation condition is higher than that of commercially available imaging plates (IP) using BaFBr:Eu and BaFI:Eu. The image quality of the IP using CsBr:Eu phosphor film is better than that of commercially available IP.

  9. The carcinogenicity of 1-methyl-3(p-bromophenyl)-1-nitrosourea (Br-MPNU). (United States)

    Warzok, R; Martin, J; Mendel, J; Thust, R; Schwarz, H


    In long-term experiments with Hooded rats the carcinogenic potential of 1-methyl-3(p-bromophenyl)-1-nitrosourea (Br-MPNU) could be demonstrated for the first time. Br-MPNU is formed also endogenously after combined administration of 1-methyl-3(p-bromophenyl)-urea (Br-MPU) and sodium nitrite. After repeated intragastric administration of 0.33 mmol Br-MPU and 0.73 mmol NaNO2 per kg b.w. papillomas and carcinomas of the forestomach developed in 83%. After repeated administration of 0.28 mmol Br-MPNU per kg b.w. these neoplasms were observed in 88%. The comparison of results obtained in similar experiments with 1-methyl-3-phenyl-1-nitrosourea shows that bromine substitution led to a reduction of the carcinogenic activity. The present paper is part of a complex program studying the interrelationships between structure, physico-chemical properties, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of nitrosoureas.

  10. octene derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ultrasonication; trimethylsilyloxy-derivatives; bicyclo[2.2.2]octene; Diels–Alder reaction; crystal structure; C–H. . . O and π...π interactions. 1. ... of silyl- derivatives were studied.8 The structural studies indicated a self-assembly ..... Technology (DST), New Delhi, India for the financial assistance. References. 1. Zhao F, Zhang ...

  11. Financial Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigan, Duncan


    Contemporary derivatives mark the development of capital and constitute a novel form of ownership. By reconfiguring the temporal, spatial and legal character of ownership derivatives present a substantive challenge to the tax collecting state. While fiscal systems are nationally bounded and inheren...

  12. Localisation of gamma-ray interaction points in thick monolithic CeBr3 and LaBr3:Ce scintillators (United States)

    Ulyanov, Alexei; Morris, Oran; Roberts, Oliver J.; Tobin, Isaac; Hanlon, Lorraine; McBreen, Sheila; Murphy, David; Nelms, Nick; Shortt, Brian


    Localisation of gamma-ray interaction points in monolithic scintillator crystals can simplify the design and improve the performance of a future Compton telescope for gamma-ray astronomy. In this paper we compare the position resolution of three monolithic scintillators: a 28×28×20 mm3 (length×breadth × thickness) LaBr3:Ce crystal, a 25×25×20 mm3 CeBr3 crystal and a 25×25×10 mm3 CeBr3 crystal. Each crystal was encapsulated and coupled to an array of 4×4 silicon photomultipliers through an optical window. The measurements were conducted using 81 keV and 356 keV gamma-rays from a collimated 133Ba source. The 3D position reconstruction of interaction points was performed using artificial neural networks trained with experimental data. Although the position resolution was significantly better for the thinner crystal, the 20 mm thick CeBr3 crystal showed an acceptable resolution of about 5.4 mm FWHM for the x and y coordinates, and 7.8 mm FWHM for the z-coordinate (crystal depth) at 356 keV. These values were obtained from the full position scans of the crystal sides. The position resolution of the LaBr3:Ce crystal was found to be considerably worse, presumably due to the highly diffusive optical interface between the crystal and the optical window of the enclosure. The energy resolution (FWHM) measured for 662 keV gamma-rays was 4.0% for LaBr3:Ce and 5.5% for CeBr3. The same crystals equipped with a PMT (Hamamatsu R6322-100) gave an energy resolution of 3.0% and 4.7%, respectively.

  13. BR-SIPP: PETROBRAS Integrated Scheduling System; BR-SIPP: Sistema Integrado de Progamacao de Producao da PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Cristiane S.; Joly, Marcel; Hassimotto, Marcelo K.; Magalhaes, Marcus Vinicius O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The lack of a computational aided technology to support short-term scheduling activity in the oil and petrochemical sector has been identified as one of the major obstacles to the harmonic integration of production objectives subsequent to the implementation of the advanced control systems and the consolidation of important benefits at the process unit level. Such technology refers to an analytical tool able to capture plant operational information consistent with the scheduling layer demands, modeling the production system economic performance, and providing mechanisms to consider commercial, operation and technological uncertainties. In this context, PETROBRAS has continuously dedicated effort to develop, implement and enhance its own refinery scheduling solution. Nowadays at its second version, the PETROBRAS Integrated Scheduling System (BR-SIPP - INPI grant 00067400) has become the focus of corporate care, given its critical role on the link between planning objectives and plant operations, according to the hierarchical decision strategy currently adopted by PETROBRAS. This paper presents an overview of the tool and illustrates some real-world applications and main realized benefits. (author)

  14. Derivation of economic values for production traits in aquaculture species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, K.P.E.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Besson, M.B.; Komen, J.


    Background: <br/>In breeding programs for aquaculture species, breeding goal traits are often weighted based on the desired gains but economic gain would be higher if economic values were used instead. The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop a bio-economic model to derive economic values

  15. Alkaline hydrothermal treatment of brominated high impact polystyrene (HIPS-Br) for bromine and bromine-free plastic recovery


    Brebu, Mihai; Bhaskar, Thallada; Muto, Akinori; Sakata, Yusaku


    A method to recover both Br and Br-free plastic from brominated flame retardant high impact polystyrene (HIPS-Br) was proposed. HIPS-Br containing 15% Br was treated in autoclave at 280℃ using water or KOH solution of various amounts and concentrations. Hydrothermal treatment (30 ml water) leads to 90% debromination of 1 g HIPS-Br but plastic is strongly degraded and could not be recovered. previous termAlkalinenext term hydrothermal treatment (45 ml or 60 ml KOH 1 M) showed similar debromina...

  16. Kinetics and Thermochemistry of the Br((sup 2)P3/2) + NO2 Association Reaction (United States)

    Kreutter, K. D.; Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.


    A laser flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique has been employed to study the kinetics of the Br((sup 2)P3/2) + NO2 association reaction as a function of temperature (259-432 K) pressure (12.5 - 700 Torr), and buffer gas identity (He, Ar, H2, N2, CO2, CF4, SF6). The reaction is found to be in the falloff regime between third and second order over the entire range of conditions investigated. At temperatures below 350 K, the association reaction is found to be irreversible on the time scale of the experiment (approximately 30 ms). At higher temperatures reversible addition is observed, allowing equilibrium constants for BrNO2 formation and dissociation to be determined. Second- and third-law analyses of the equilibrium data are in only fair agreement and lead to the following thermochemical parameters for the association reaction: Delta-H(298) = 19.6 +/- 1.7 kcal/mol, Delta-H(0) = -18.6 +/- 2.0 kcal/mol, Delta-S(298) = 29.3 +/- 4.2 cal/mol/K, Delta-H(sub f)(sub 298)(BrNO2) = 17.0 +/-1.8 kcal/mol(uncertainties are 2 sigma estimates of absolute accuracy). The value for Delta-H(0) determined in this study has been employed to calculate k(sub 0)(sup SC), the low-pressure third-order rate coefficient in the strong collision limit, by using the method of Troe; calculated values of k(sub 0)(sup SC) are inconsistent with experimental results unless Delta-H(0) is assigned a value near the lower limit derived from analysis of the high-temperature approach to equilibrium data, i.e. delta-H(0) approximately equals -16.6 kcal/mol. A potential source of systematic error in the calculation of both k(sub 0)(sup SC) and the absolute entropy of BrNO2 results from the complete lack of knowledge of the energies and degeneracies of the electronic states of BrNO3. The procedure developed by Troe and co-workers has been employed to extrapolate experimental falloff curves to the low- and high-pressure limits. Derived values for k(sub 0)(M,298K) in units of 10(exp -31) cm(exp 6

  17. Airborne Measurements of BrO and the Sum of HOBr and Br2 over the Tropical West Pacific from 1 to 15 Km During the CONvective TRansport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) Experiment (United States)

    Chen, Dexian; Huey, L. Gregory; Tanner, David J.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Anderson, Daniel C.; Wales, Pamela A.; Pan, Laura L.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Apel, Eric C.; hide


    A chemical ionization mass spectrometer was used to measure BrO and HOBr + Br2 over the Tropical West Pacific Ocean within the altitude range of 1 to 15 km, during the CONvective TRansport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) campaign in 2014. Isolated episodes of elevated BrO (up to 6.6 pptv) and/or HOBr + Br2 (up to 7.3 pptv) were observed in the tropical free troposphere (TFT) and were associated with biomass burning. However, most of the time we did not observe significant BrO or HOBr + Br2 in the TFT and the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) above our limits of detection (LOD). The 1 min average LOD for BrO ranged from 0.6 to 1.6 pptv and for HOBr + Br2 ranged from 1.3 to 3.5 pptv. During one flight, BrO observations from the TTL to the extratropical lowermost stratosphere were used to infer a profile of inorganic bromine (Br(sub y)). Based on this profile, we estimated the product gas injection of bromine species into the stratosphere to be 2 pptv. Analysis of Br(sub y) partitioning further indicates that BrO levels are likely very low in the TFT environment and that future studies should target the measurement of HBr or atomic Br.

  18. Vertebrados silvestres atropelados na BR 158, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela da Silva Oliveira


    Full Text Available   Entre os problemas que ameaçam a fauna silvestre, o atropelamento de animais é uma importante causa de mortalidade para várias espécies. O presente estudo visou identificar as espécies vitimadas por atropelamento em 98km da rodovia BR 158, entre o município de Cruz Alta e o distrito de Val de Serra, município de Júlio de Castilhos, RS e analisar as variações mensais nas taxas de atropelamento e sua correlação com o volume mensal de chuvas. Foram realizadas expedições mensais, entre os meses de abril a setembro de 2007, onde se registrou 61 animais atropelados pertencentes a 15 espécies, com uma taxa de atropelamento de 0,10 ind./km/mês. As espécies com maior número de atropelamentos foram o zorrilho (Conepatus chinga, com 17 indivíduos (28%, seguida pelo graxaim-do-campo (Lycalopex gymnocercus, com sete (11% e o graxaim-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous, com cinco (8%. Não foi encontrada diferença nas taxas de atropelamento entre os meses amostrados, contudo, o mês com maior registro de atropelamentos foi setembro (n=18. Também não foi verificada correlação entre os atropelamentos e a precipitação mensal, no entanto, há uma tendência entre a ocorrência dos atropelamentos com um volume maior de chuvas.

  19. Efficient solid acid catalyst containing Lewis and Brønsted Acid sites for the production of furfurals. (United States)

    Mazzotta, Michael G; Gupta, Dinesh; Saha, Basudeb; Patra, Astam K; Bhaumik, Asim; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M


    Self-assembled nanoparticulates of porous sulfonated carbonaceous TiO2 material that contain Brønsted and Lewis acidic sites were prepared by a one-pot synthesis method. The material was characterized by XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, NH3 temperature-programmed desorption, pyridine FTIR spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, N2 -sorption, atomic absorbance spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The carbonaceous heterogeneous catalyst (Glu-TsOH-Ti) with a Brønsted-to-Lewis acid density ratio of 1.2 and more accessible acid sites was effective to produce 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural from biomass-derived mono- and disaccharides and xylose in a biphasic solvent that comprised water and biorenewable methyltetrahydrofuran. The catalyst was recycled in four consecutive cycles with a total loss of only 3 % activity. Thus, Glu-TsOH-Ti, which contains isomerization and dehydration catalytic sites and is based on a cheap and biorenewable carbon support, is a sustainable catalyst for the production of furfurals, platform chemicals for biofuels and chemicals. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Local Proton Source in Electrocatalytic CO2 Reduction with [Mn(bpy-R)(CO)3 Br] Complexes. (United States)

    Franco, Federico; Cometto, Claudio; Nencini, Luca; Barolo, Claudia; Sordello, Fabrizio; Minero, Claudio; Fiedler, Jan; Robert, Marc; Gobetto, Roberto; Nervi, Carlo


    The electrochemical behavior of fac-[Mn(pdbpy)(CO)3 Br] (pdbpy=4-phenyl-6-(phenyl-2,6-diol)-2,2'-bipyridine) (1) in acetonitrile under Ar, and its catalytic performances for CO2 reduction with added water, 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE), and phenol are discussed in detail. Preparative-scale electrolysis experiments, carried out at -1.5 V versus the standard calomel electrode (SCE) in CO2 -saturated acetonitrile, reveal that the process selectivity is extremely sensitive to the acid strength, producing CO and formate in different faradaic yields. A detailed spectroelectrochemical (IR and UV/Vis) study under Ar and CO2 atmospheres shows that 1 undergoes fast solvolysis; however, dimer formation in acetonitrile is suppressed, resulting in an atypical reduction mechanism in comparison with other reported MnI catalysts. Spectroscopic evidence of Mn hydride formation supports the existence of different electrocatalytic CO2 reduction pathways. Furthermore, a comparative investigation performed on the new fac-[Mn(ptbpy)(CO)3 Br] (ptbpy=4-phenyl-6-(phenyl-3,4,5-triol)-2,2'-bipyridine) catalyst (2), bearing a bipyridyl derivative with OH groups in different positions to those in 1, provides complementary information about the role that the local proton source plays during the electrochemical reduction of CO2 . © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Satellite observations of long range transport of a large BrO plume in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Begoin


    Full Text Available Ozone Depletion Events (ODE during polar springtime are a well known phenomenon in the Arctic and Antarctic boundary layer. They are caused by the catalytic destruction of ozone by halogens producing reactive halogen oxides like bromine monoxide (BrO. The key halogen bromine can be rapidly transferred into the gas phase in an autocatalytic process – the so called "Bromine Explosion". However, the exact mechanism, which leads to an initial bromine release as well as the influence of transport and chemical processes on BrO, is still not clearly understood. <br>> In this study, BrO measurements from the satellite instrument GOME-2 are used together with model calculations with the dispersion model FLEXPART to study an arctic BrO event in March 2007, which could be tracked over several days and a large area. Full BrO activation was observed within one day east of Siberia with subsequent transport to Hudson Bay. The event was linked to a cyclone with very high surface wind speeds, which could have been involved in the production and lifting of aerosols or blowing snow. Considering the short life time of BrO, transported aerosols or snow can also provide the surface for BrO recycling within the plume for several days. The evolution of the BrO plume could be reproduced by FLEXPART simulations of a passive tracer indicating that the activated air mass was transported all the way from Siberia to Hudson Bay. To localise the most probable transport height, model runs initialised in different heights have been performed showing similar transport patterns throughout the troposphere but best agreement with the measurements between the surface and 3 km. The influence of changes in tropopause height on measured BrO values has been considered, but cannot completely explain the observed high BrO values. Backward trajectories from the area of BrO initialisation show upward lifting from the surface up to 3 km and no indication for intrusion of stratospheric

  2. DMS and MSA measurements in the Antarctic Boundary Layer: impact of BrO on MSA production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Read


    Full Text Available In situ measurements of dimethyl sulphide (DMS and methane sulphonic acid (MSA were made at Halley Station, Antarctica (75°35' S, 26°19' W during February 2004–February 2005 as part of the CHABLIS (Chemistry of the Antarctic Boundary Layer and the Interface with Snow project. DMS was present in the atmosphere at Halley all year (average 38.1±43 pptV with a maximum monthly average value of 113.6±52 pptV in February 2004 coinciding temporally with a minimum in sea extent. Whilst seasonal variability and interannual variability can be attributed to a number of factors, short term variability appeared strongly dependent on air mass origin and trajectory pressure height. The MSA and derived non-sea salt sulphate (nss-SO42− measurements showed no correlation with those of DMS (regression R2=0.039, and R2=0.001 respectively in-line with the complexity of DMS fluxes, alternative oxidation routes, transport of air masses and variable spatial coverage of both sea-ice and phytoplankton. MSA was generally low throughout the year, with an annual average of 42 ng m−3 (9.8±13.2 pptV, however MSA: nss-SO42− ratios were high implying a dominance of the addition oxidation route for DMS. Including BrO measurements into MSA production calculations demonstrated the significance of BrO on DMS oxidation within this region of the atmosphere in austral summer. Assuming an 80% yield of DMSO from the reaction of DMS+BrO, an atmospheric concentration of BrO equal to 3 pptV increased the calculated MSA production from DMS by a factor of 9 above that obtained when considering only reaction with the hydroxyl radical. These findings have significant atmospheric implications, but may also impact on the interpretation of ice cores which previously relied on the understanding of MSA and nss-SO42− chemistry to provide information on

  3. Effect of 8-MOP plus UVA treatment on survival and repair of plasmid pBR322; Efecto del tratamiento con 8-MOP mas UVA en la supervivencia y reparacion de pBR322

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauluz, C.; Vidania, R. de


    We have studied the lethality produced in pBR322 DNA after PUVA treatment (8-MOP+UVA). As recipients, we used a collection of E. coli strains differing in their repair capacities and analysed the involvement of several DNA repair pathways in the removal of plasmid lesions. We have also studied the effect of UVA radiation alone, in order to determine more precisely the effect attributable only to psoralen molecules. Results showed a strong lethal effect derived from PUVA treatment; however, some plasmid recovery was achieved in bacterial hosts proficient in Excision repair and SOS repair. Another repair pathway, only detectable at high density of lesions, appeared to be relevant for the removal of 8-MOP:DNA adducts.(Author) 11 refs.

  4. Global Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    approaches to dealing in the global business environment." - Sharon Brown-Hruska, Commissioner, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, USA. "This comprehensive survey of modern risk management using derivative securities is a fine demonstration of the practical relevance of modern derivatives theory to risk......""In Global Derivatives: A Strategic Risk Management Perspective", Torben Juul Andersen has succeeded to gather in one book a complete and thorough summary and an easy-to-read explanation of all types of derivative instruments and their background, and their use in modern management of risk......." - Steen Parsholt, Chairman and CEO, Aon Nordic Region. "Andersen has done a wonderful job of developing a comprehensive text that deals with risk management in global markets. I would recommend this book to any student or businessman who has a need to better understand the risks and risk management...

  5. AgBr-Coupled TiO2: A Visible Heterostructured Photocatalyst for Degrading Dye Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Liu


    Full Text Available A series of AgBr/TiO2 visible photocatalysts with heterojunction structure was synthesized using Ti(OC4H94, KBr, and AgNO3 as precursors. The phase composition, particle morphology and size, microstructures, and absorbance of these photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope (TEM, high-resolution TEM, and UV-vis spectra. It was found that the coupled AgBr/TiO2 was an effective photocatalyst to degrade the methylene blue under visible light irradiation, compared with the other noncoupled photocatalysts of AgBr, AgBr/P25, and P25. The photocatalytic activities of AgBr/TiO2 increase first and then decrease with increasing the mass ratio of mAgNO3/mTiO2 and the photocatalyst with the mass ratio of 3.35 has the highest photocatalytic activity. The results showed that the coupled photocatalyst has the particle size of about 15 nm with homogeneous dispersion and has the strongest absorption in whole UV-vis light region (250∼800 nm originated from the synergetic effect of heterostructured AgBr/TiO2. The coupled AgBr/TiO2 photocatalyst can keep stable photocatalytic activity after five-circle runs.

  6. Novel x-ray image sensor using CsBr:Eu phosphor for computed radiography (United States)

    Nanto, H.; Takei, Y.; Nishimura, A.; Nakano, Y.; Shouji, T.; Yanagita, T.; Kasai, S.


    CsBr phosphor ceramics doped with different luminescence center such as In IIO 3, Eu IIO 3, EuCl 3, SmCl 3, TbCl 3, GdCl 3 or NdCl 3 as a candidate of a new photosimulable phosphor for medical x-ray imaging sensor are prepared using a conventional ceramic fabrication process. It is found that x-ray-irradiated Eu-doped CsBr (CsBr:Eu) exhibits intense photostimulated luminescence (PSL). The peak wavelength of the PSL emission and stimulation spectra of CsBr:Eu phosphor ceramic sample is 450 nm and 690 nm, respectively. The dependence of PSL properties on preparing conditions of phosphor ceramic samples, such as Eu concentration, sintering temperature and sintering time, is studied and the optimum preparing condition is also studied. It is found that the PSL intensity of CsBr:Eu phosphor ceramics fabricated under optimum preparation condition is higher than that of commercially available imaging plate (IP) using BafBr:Eu. The image quality of the IP using CsBr:Eu phosphor film is better than that of commercially available IP.

  7. Thinning CsPb2Br5 perovskite down to monolayers: Cs-dependent stability (United States)

    Iyikanat, F.; Sari, E.; Sahin, H.


    Using first-principles density functional theory calculations, we systematically investigate the structural, electronic, and vibrational properties of bulk and potential single-layer structures of perovskitelike CsPb2Br5 crystal. It is found that while Cs atoms have no effect on the electronic structure, their presence is essential for the formation of stable CsPb2Br5 crystals. The calculated vibrational spectra of the crystal reveal that not only the bulk form but also the single-layer forms of CsPb2Br5 are dynamically stable. Predicted single-layer forms can exhibit either semiconducting or metallic character. Moreover, the modification of the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of single-layer CsPb2Br5 upon formation of vacancy defects is investigated. It is found that the formation of Br vacancy (i) has the lowest formation energy, (ii) significantly changes the electronic structure, and (iii) leads to ferromagnetic ground state in the single-layer CsPb2Br5 . However, the formation of Pb and Cs vacancies leads to p -type doping of the single-layer structure. Results reported herein reveal that the single-layer CsPb2Br5 crystal is a novel stable perovskite with enhanced functionality and a promising candidate for nanodevice applications.

  8. Studies on Ca2+-Doped CeBr3 Scintillating Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guss, P. [NSTec; Foster, M. E. [SNL; Wong, B. M. [SNL; Doty, F. P. [SNL; Shah, K. [RMD; Squillante, M. [RMD; Glodo, J. [RMD; Yuan, D. [NSTec


    Despite the outstanding scintillation performance characteristics of cerium tribromide (CeBr3) and cerium-activated lanthanum tribromide (LaBr3:Ce), their commercial availability and application is limited due to the difficulties of growing large, crack-free single crystals from these fragile materials. The objective of this investigation was to employ aliovalent doping to increase crystal strength while maintaining the optical properties of the crystal. One divalent dopant (Ca2+) was investigated as a dopant to strengthen CeBr3 without negatively impacting scintillation performance. Ingots containing nominal concentrations of 1.9% of the Ca2+ dopant were grown. Preliminary scintillation measurements are presented for this aliovalently doped scintillator. Ca2+-doped CeBr3 exhibited little or no change in the peak fluorescence emission for 371 nm optical excitation for CeBr3. The structural, electronic, and optical properties of CeBr3 crystals were investigated using the density functional theory within generalized gradient approximation. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data. The energy band structures and density of states were obtained. The optical properties of CeBr3, including the dielectric function, were calculated.

  9. Max Brödel: his art, legacy, and contributions to neurosurgery through medical illustration. (United States)

    Patel, Smruti K; Couldwell, William T; Liu, James K


    Max Brödel is considered the father of modern medical illustration. This report reviews his contributions to neurosurgery as a medical illustrator. Max Brödel, a young artist from Leipzig, Germany, was hired at Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1894, where he illustrated an operative textbook of gynecology for Howard A. Kelly. Although Brödel did not have any formal medical training, he quickly acquired knowledge of anatomy, pathology, physiology, and surgery. Brödel's extraordinary illustrations were characterized by an aerial perspective that conveyed the surgeon's operative viewpoint and precise surgical anatomy. He masterfully incorporated tissue realism with cross-sectional anatomy to accentuate concepts while maintaining topographical accuracy. Brödel's reputation spread quickly and resulted in collaborations with prominent surgeons, such as Cushing, Halsted, and Dandy. Cushing, who also possessed artistic talent, became a pupil of Brödel and remained a very close friend. In 1911, Brödel was appointed the director of the Department of Art as Applied to Medicine at Johns Hopkins, the first academic department of its kind in the world. For the next several decades, he trained generations of renowned medical illustrators. Just as Osler, Halsted, and Cushing passed their skills and knowledge to future leaders of medicine and surgery, Brödel did the same for the field of medical illustration. The advancement of neurosurgical education has been greatly facilitated by Max Brödel's artistic contributions. His unique ability to synthesize art and medicine resulted in timeless illustrations that remain indispensable to surgeons. The art produced by his legacy of illustrators continues to flourish in neurosurgical literature today.

  10. Retrieval of stratospheric and tropospheric BrO profiles and columns using ground-based zenith-sky DOAS observations at Harestua, 60° N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Pyle


    Full Text Available A profiling algorithm based on the optimal estimation method is applied to ground-based zenith-sky UV-visible measurements from Harestua, Southern Norway (60° N, 11° E in order to retrieve BrO vertical profiles. The sensitivity of the zenith-sky observations to the tropospheric BrO detection is increased by using for the spectral analysis a fixed reference spectrum corresponding to clear-sky noon summer conditions. The information content and retrieval errors are characterized and it is shown that the retrieved stratospheric profiles and total columns are consistent with correlative balloon and satellite observations, respectively. Tropospheric BrO columns are derived from profiles retrieved at 80° solar zenith angle during sunrise and sunset for the 2000–2006 period. They show a marked seasonality with mean column value ranging from 1.52±0.62×1013 molec/cm² in late winter/early spring to 0.92±0.38×1013 molec/cm² in summer, which corresponds to 1.0±0.4 and 0.6±0.2 pptv, respectively, if we assume that BrO is uniformly mixed in the troposphere. These column values are also consistent with previous estimates made from balloon, satellite, and other ground-based observations. Daytime (10:30 LT tropospheric BrO columns are compared to the p-TOMCAT 3-D tropospheric chemical transport model (CTM for the 2002–2003 period. p-TOMCAT shows a good agreement with the retrieved columns except in late winter/early spring where an underestimation by the model is obtained. This finding could be explained by the non-inclusion of sea-ice bromine sources in the current version of p-TOMCAT. Therefore the model cannot reproduce the possible transport of air-masses with enhanced BrO concentration due to bromine explosion events from the polar region to Harestua. The daytime stratospheric BrO columns are compared to the SLIMCAT stratospheric 3-D-CTM. The model run used in this study, which assumes 21.2 pptv for the Bry loading (15 pptv for long

  11. In-situ BrO measurements in the upper troposphere / lower stratosphere. Validation of the ENVISAT satellite measurements and photochemical model studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrechanyy, S.


    and SCOUT-O3 in the 15-20 km altitude regime are at the low side of comparable DOAS measurements a CLaMS study of the evolution of Bry from the source gases has been carried out. For this purpose an ensemble of trajectories rising from the lower troposphere to the TTL within 6 to more than 90 days were initialized with observed mixing ratios in the boundary layer of all important organic bromine source gases and the free-up of Bry by chemical and photochemical reactions was simulated. Bromoform, CHBr3, was found to be the main source of inorganic bromine at the tropopause. The derived tropospheric lifetime of bromoform is 33 days. The modelled BrO mixing ratio at the tropopause (less than 2.5 pptv) is consistent with HALOX measurements which do not detect significant amounts of BrO there (<1-2 pptv). Therefore measurements of more than 4 pptv (as retrieved from SCIAMACHY) can only be explained trough processes not included in the model. (orig.)

  12. New ab initio potential energy surface for BrH2 and rate constants for the H + HBr → H2 + Br abstraction reaction. (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Xie, Changjian; Xie, Daiqian


    A global potential energy surface (PES) for the electronic ground state of the BrH(2) system was constructed based on the multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) method including the Davidson's correction using a large basis set. In addition, the spin-orbit correction were computed using the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian and the unperturbed MRCI wavefunctions in the Br + H(2) channel and the transition state region. Adding the correction to the ground state potential, the lowest spin-orbit correlated adiabatic potential was obtained. The characters of the new potential are discussed. Accurate initial state specified rate constants for the H + HBr → H(2) + Br abstraction reaction were calculated using a time-dependent wave packet method. The predicted rate constants were found to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental values and much better than those obtained from a previous PES.

  13. Optical properties of Pb-based aggregated phases in CsBr crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voloshinovskii, A. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 8 Kyryla i Mefodiya Str., 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Myagkota, S. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 8 Kyryla i Mefodiya Str., 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Garapyn, I. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 8 Kyryla i Mefodiya Str., 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Stryganyuk, G. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 8 Kyryla i Mefodiya Str., 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Rodnyi, P. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 29 Polyteknicheskaya Str., 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Eijk, C.W.E. van [Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)]. E-mail:


    The emission and excitation spectra as well as luminescence decay kinetics of a CsBr:Pb (1.0mol%) crystal have been measured under pulsed synchrotron radiation excitation. The heat-treated ({approx}200 deg. C) crystal shows evidence of single lead centres and aggregated phases such as CsPbBr3 nanocrystals. The latter have been identified from comparison of the spectral-kinetic characteristics of the CsPbBr3 aggregated phases and single crystals. The process of energy transfer from the host to the aggregates is considered.

  14. Nuclear import of transcription factor BR-C is mediated by its interaction with RACK1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daojun Cheng

    Full Text Available The transcription factor Broad Complex (BR-C is an early ecdysone response gene in insects and contains two types of domains: two zinc finger domains for the activation of gene transcription and a Bric-a-brac/Tramtrack/Broad complex (BTB domain for protein-protein interaction. Although the mechanism of zinc finger-mediated gene transcription is well studied, the partners interacting with the BTB domain of BR-C has not been elucidated until now. Here, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using the BTB domain of silkworm BR-C as bait and identified the receptor for activated C-kinase 1 (RACK1, a scaffolding/anchoring protein, as the novel partner capable of interacting with BR-C. The interaction between BR-C and RACK1 was further confirmed by far-western blotting and pull-down assays. Importantly, the disruption of this interaction, via RNAi against the endogenous RACK1 gene or deletion of the BTB domain, abolished the nuclear import of BR-C in BmN4 cells. In addition, RNAi against the endogenous PKC gene as well as phosphorylation-deficient mutation of the predicted PKC phosphorylation sites at either Ser373 or Thr406 in BR-C phenocopied RACK1 RNAi and altered the nuclear localization of BR-C. However, when BTB domain was deleted, phosphorylation mimics of either Ser373 or Thr406 had no effect on the nuclear import of BR-C. Moreover, mutating the PKC phosphorylation sites at Ser373 and Thr406 or deleting the BTB domain significantly decreased the transcriptional activation of a BR-C target gene. Given that RACK1 is necessary for recruiting PKC to close and phosphorylate target proteins, we suggest that the PKC-mediated phosphorylation and nuclear import of BR-C is determined by its interaction with RACK1. This novel finding will be helpful for further deciphering the mechanism underlying the role of BR-C proteins during insect development.

  15. Brändin johtamisen ja siirtohinnoittelun haasteet : case: Battery® Energy Drink


    Tuominen, Harry


    Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee brändin johtamisen ja siirtohinnoittelun haasteita Oy Sinebrychoff Ab:n Battery® Energy Drink –energiajuoman kannalta. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on selvittää Battery® Energy Drink -brändin johtamiseen ja siirtohinnoitteluun liittyviä sekä konsernin sisäisiä että konsernin ulkopuolisia haasteita. Opinnäytetyö tehdään Oy Sinebrychoff Ab:n vientiosastolle toimeksiantona. Tutkimuksen teoriaosuudessa perehdytään brändin johtamisen eri näkökulmiin ja siirtohinnoittelu...

  16. Phase topology of a NR/BR elastomer blend with active filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plavšić Milenko B.


    Full Text Available The relations between the structure and mechanical properties of a polymer blend of natural (NR and polybutadiene (BR rubber (i.e. a NR/BR blend with the weight ratio of the components 70/30 filled with active carbon black were analysed. The properties of the individual phases in the blend were resolved by modeling the stress-strain relationship according to the Bauer procedure for high extensions. The obtained results indicated that BR is the dispersed phase, having a higher modulus, which was also confirmed by the much better fit of the experimental data to the series type of phase coupling according to the Takanayagy theory.

  17. Profiling of MAX-DOAS BrO measurements from Antarctica and NO2 measurements from CINDI (United States)

    Hay, Tim; Kreher, Karin; Johnston, Paul; Bodeker, Greg; Schofield, Robyn; Thomas, Alan; McDonald, Adrian; Martinez-Aviles, Monica


    We will present a newly developed algorithm for the retrieval of tropospheric trace gas profiles from MAX-DOAS measurements. A Monte Carlo radiative transfer model, NIMO (NIWA Monte Carlo model) is used to calculate the weighting functions and forward model DSCDs (Differential Slant Column Densities). NIMO uses the local estimation technique to substantially speed up the determination of DSCDs for any given set of measurement geometries, enabling use of the model ‘online' rather than using pre-calculated lookup tables. The optimal estimation method is used to retrieve profiles for either single or multiple scan sequences or over prescribed time intervals. This inversion method is used to derive NO2 profiles from MAX-DOAS measurements made during the CINDI campaign at Cabauw, Netherlands, in June/July 2009. BrO profiles retrieved from sea-ice MAX-DOAS measurements, made during two Antarctic springtime campaigns in 2006 and 2007, are also presented.

  18. A comparative study of LaBr3(Ce(3+)) and CeBr3 based gamma-ray spectrometers for planetary remote sensing applications. (United States)

    Kozyrev, A; Mitrofanov, I; Owens, A; Quarati, F; Benkhoff, J; Bakhtin, B; Fedosov, F; Golovin, D; Litvak, M; Malakhov, A; Mokrousov, M; Nuzhdin, I; Sanin, A; Tretyakov, V; Vostrukhin, A; Timoshenko, G; Shvetsov, V; Granja, C; Slavicek, T; Pospisil, S


    The recent availability of large volume cerium bromide crystals raises the possibility of substantially improving gamma-ray spectrometer limiting flux sensitivities over current systems based on the lanthanum tri-halides, e.g., lanthanum bromide and lanthanum chloride, especially for remote sensing, low-level counting applications or any type of measurement characterized by poor signal to noise ratios. The Russian Space Research Institute has developed and manufactured a highly sensitive gamma-ray spectrometer for remote sensing observations of the planet Mercury from the Mercury Polar Orbiter (MPO), which forms part of ESA's BepiColombo mission. The Flight Model (FM) gamma-ray spectrometer is based on a 3-in. single crystal of LaBr3(Ce(3+)) produced in a separate crystal development programme specifically for this mission. During the spectrometers development, manufacturing, and qualification phases, large crystals of CeBr3 became available in a subsequent phase of the same crystal development programme. Consequently, the Flight Spare Model (FSM) gamma-ray spectrometer was retrofitted with a 3-in. CeBr3 crystal and qualified for space. Except for the crystals, the two systems are essentially identical. In this paper, we report on a comparative assessment of the two systems, in terms of their respective spectral properties, as well as their suitability for use in planetary mission with respect to radiation tolerance and their propensity for activation. We also contrast their performance with a Ge detector representative of that flown on MESSENGER and show that: (a) both LaBr3(Ce(3+)) and CeBr3 provide superior detection systems over HPGe in the context of minimally resourced spacecraft and (b) CeBr3 is a more attractive system than LaBr3(Ce(3+)) in terms of sensitivities at lower gamma fluxes. Based on the tests, the FM has now been replaced by the FSM on the BepiColombo spacecraft. Thus, CeBr3 now forms the central gamma-ray detection element on the MPO spacecraft.

  19. Time dependence of the luminescence intensity in CdBr2: AgCl,PbBr2 crystals under N2-laser excitation at room temperature (United States)

    Bolesta, I. M.; Kalivoshka, B. M.; Karbovnyk, I. D.; Lesivtsiv, V. M.; Novosad, I. S.; Novosad, S. S.; Rovetskyy, I. M.; Velgosh, S. R.


    Results of optical-luminescence studies of polydoped photochromic CdBr2: AgCl,PbBr2 crystals are presented. It is shown that the luminescence decrease vs. time under N2-laser excitation in the range of A-band of Pb2+ absorption is due to photochemical reactions. The empirical model describing the decrease of the luminescence related to silver impurities due to photochemical processes is suggested. Model parameters (trapping cross-section — σ — and the amount of centres destroyed by irradiation — β) were determined using the comparative analysis of experimental and calculated luminescence decay curves.

  20. Derivative chameleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noller, Johannes, E-mail: [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)


    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field φ, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ∂{sub μ}φ∂{sup μ}φ,□φ,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(φ,∂{sub μ}φ∂{sup μ}φ). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for φ → φ+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type.

  1. Crystal growth and characterization of mixed lead halides PbCl2xBr2(1-x)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lumbreras, M.; Protas, J.; Jebbari, S.; Dirksen, G.J.; Schoonman, J.


    Single crystals of PbCl2-type solid solutions PbCl2xBr2(1−x) have been grown using the Bridgeman technique. XRD measurements reveal preferential site occupancy for Cl and Br, while the anion array of PbClBr is completely ordered. The temperature and composition dependence of the ionic conductivity

  2. Electricity derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, René


    Offering a concise but complete survey of the common features of the microstructure of electricity markets, this book describes the state of the art in the different proposed electricity price models for pricing derivatives and in the numerical methods used to price and hedge the most prominent derivatives in electricity markets, namely power plants and swings. The mathematical content of the book has intentionally been made light in order to concentrate on the main subject matter, avoiding fastidious computations. Wherever possible, the models are illustrated by diagrams. The book should allow prospective researchers in the field of electricity derivatives to focus on the actual difficulties associated with the subject. It should also offer a brief but exhaustive overview of the latest techniques used by financial engineers in energy utilities and energy trading desks.

  3. Parasiticidal effect of 16alpha-bromoepiandrosterone (EpiBr) in amoebiasis and cysticercosis. (United States)

    Carrero, Julio César; Cervantes-Rebolledo, Claudia; Vargas-Villavicencio, José Antonio; Hernández-Bello, Romel; Dowding, Charles; Frincke, James; Reading, Chris; Morales-Montor, Jorge


    The effect of the dehydroepiandrosterone analog 16alpha-bromoepiandrosterone (EpiBr) was tested on the tapeworm Taenia crassiceps and the protist Entamoeba histolytica, both in vivo and in vitro. Administration of EpiBr prior to infection with cysticerci in mice reduced the parasite load by 50% compared with controls. EpiBr treatment induced 20% reduction on the development of amoebic liver abscesses in hamsters. In vitro treatment of T. crassiceps and E. histolytica cultures with EpiBr, reduced reproduction, motility and viability in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. These results leave open the possibility of assessing the potential of this hormonal analog as a possible anti-parasite drug, including cysticercosis and amoebiasis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Best Western - tuntud ja tunnustatud ülemaailmne hotelliketi bränd

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    1946. aastal Californias M. K. Guertini poolt asutatud Best Western hotelliketist, mis pakub just sõltumatutele hotellipidajatele ühtset turundus- ja müügistrateegiat, brändi- ja teeninduskontseptsiooni

  5. Longpath DOAS observations of surface BrO at Summit, Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stutz


    Full Text Available Reactive halogens, and in particular bromine oxide (BrO, have frequently been observed in regions with large halide reservoirs, for example during bromine catalyzed coastal polar ozone depletion events. Much less is known about the presence and impact of reactive halogens in areas without obvious halide reservoirs, such as the polar ice sheets or continental snow. <br>> We report the first LP-DOAS measurements of BrO at Summit research station in the center of the Greenland ice sheet at an altitude of 3200 m. BrO mixing ratios in May 2007 and June 2008 were typically between 1–3 pmol mol−1, with maxima of up to 5 pmol mol−1. These measurements unequivocally show that halogen chemistry is occurring in the remote Arctic, far from known bromine reservoirs, such as the ocean. During periods when FLEXPART retroplumes show that airmasses resided on the Greenland ice sheet for 3 or more days, BrO exhibits a clear diurnal variation, with peak mixing ratios of up to 3 pmol mol−1 in the morning and at night. The diurnal cycle of BrO can be explained by a changing boundary layer height combined with photochemical formation of reactive bromine driven by solar radiation at the snow surface. The shallow stable boundary layer in the morning and night leads to an accumulation of BrO at the surface, leading to elevated BrO despite the expected smaller release from the snowpack during these times of low solar radiation. During the day when photolytic formation of reactive bromine is expected to be highest, efficient mixing into a deeper neutral boundary layer leads to lower BrO mixing ratios than during mornings and nights. <br>> The extended period of contact with the Greenland snowpack combined with the diurnal profile of BrO, modulated by boundary layer height, suggests that photochemistry in the snow is a significant source of BrO measured at Summit during the 2008 experiment. In addition, a rapid transport event

  6. Atmospheric lifetime of CHF sub 2 Br, a proposed substitute for halons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukdar, R.; Mellouki, A.; Gierczak, T.; Burkholder, J.B.; McKeen, S.A.; Ravishankara, A.R. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States) Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States))


    The rate coefficients, k{sub 1}, for the reaction of OH with CHF{sub 2}Br have been measured using pulsed photolysis and discharge flow techniques at temperatures (T) between 233 and 432 K to be k{sub 1} = (7.4 {plus minus} 1.6) {times} 10{sup {minus}13} exp({minus}(1,300 {plus minus} 100)/T) cubic centimeters per molecule per second. The ultraviolet absorption cross sections, {sigma}, of this molecule between 190 and 280 nanometers were measured at 296 K. The k{sub 1} and {sigma} values were used in a one-dimensional model to obtain an atmospheric lifetime of approximately 7 years for CHF{sub 2}Br. This lifetime is shorter by approximately factors of 10 and 2 than those for CF{sub 3}Br and CF{sub 2}ClBr, respectively. The ozone depletion potentials of the three compounds will reflect these lifetimes.

  7. Eesti ajaloo kotkaperspektiivist : minu vaidlus Brüggermanniga / Jaan Undusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Undusk, Jaan, 1958-


    Märkusi Jaan Unduski "metahistooriliste" zhestide kohta, varasema eestikeelse kirjanduse seotusest baltisaksa kirjandusega. Artiklist - Brüggemann, Karl. Rahvusliku vaenlasekuju demontaazhist ehk Carl Schirren kui Eesti iseseisvuse rajaja? // Tuna, 2002, nr. 3, lk. 93-98

  8. Kallas valmistus Brüsselis voliniku tööks / Ahto Lobjakas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobjakas, Ahto, 1970-


    Siim Kallas kohtus Brüsselis Euroopa Komisjoni presidendi Romano Prodi ning komisjoni volinikega. Suure tõenäosusega saab Kallas oma juhendajaks ettevõtluse ja infoühiskonna valdkonnaga tegeleva Erkki Liikaneni

  9. Coulomb-explosion imaging of concurrent CH2BrI photodissociation dynamics (United States)

    Burt, Michael; Boll, Rebecca; Lee, Jason W. L.; Amini, Kasra; Köckert, Hansjochen; Vallance, Claire; Gentleman, Alexander S.; Mackenzie, Stuart R.; Bari, Sadia; Bomme, Cédric; Düsterer, Stefan; Erk, Benjamin; Manschwetus, Bastian; Müller, Erland; Rompotis, Dimitrios; Savelyev, Evgeny; Schirmel, Nora; Techert, Simone; Treusch, Rolf; Küpper, Jochen; Trippel, Sebastian; Wiese, Joss; Stapelfeldt, Henrik; de Miranda, Barbara Cunha; Guillemin, Renaud; Ismail, Iyas; Journel, Loïc; Marchenko, Tatiana; Palaudoux, Jérôme; Penent, Francis; Piancastelli, Maria Novella; Simon, Marc; Travnikova, Oksana; Brausse, Felix; Goldsztejn, Gildas; Rouzée, Arnaud; Géléoc, Marie; Geneaux, Romain; Ruchon, Thierry; Underwood, Jonathan; Holland, David M. P.; Mereshchenko, Andrey S.; Olshin, Pavel K.; Johnsson, Per; Maclot, Sylvain; Lahl, Jan; Rudenko, Artem; Ziaee, Farzaneh; Brouard, Mark; Rolles, Daniel


    The dynamics following laser-induced molecular photodissociation of gas-phase CH2BrI at 271.6 nm were investigated by time-resolved Coulomb-explosion imaging using intense near-IR femtosecond laser pulses. The observed delay-dependent photofragment momenta reveal that CH2BrI undergoes C-I cleavage, depositing 65.6% of the available energy into internal product states, and that absorption of a second UV photon breaks the C-Br bond of CH2Br . Simulations confirm that this mechanism is consistent with previous data recorded at 248 nm, demonstrating the sensitivity of Coulomb-explosion imaging as a real-time probe of chemical dynamics.

  10. Kuidas eristavad ostjad Eesti brände? / Lele Aak, Aivar Voog

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aak, Lele


    Eesti Konverentsikeskuse ja Emori koostöös läbi viidud uuringust eesmärgiga selgitada välja Eesti turundusspetsialistide arvamus brändide eristumisekohta Diagrammid. Kommenteerib Endrik Randoja.

  11. BrO vertical distributions from SCIAMACHY limb measurements: comparison of algorithms and retrieval results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rozanov


    Full Text Available This study presents two scientific and one operational retrieval algorithms used to obtain vertical distributions of bromine monoxide (BrO from observations of the scattered solar light performed by the SCIAMACHY instrument in limb viewing geometry. The study begins with a discussion of the theoretical basis of all algorithms followed by an investigation of the retrieval sensitivity. Simulations with three different radiative transfer models allow us to analyze influence of the forward model implementation upon the retrieval results. By means of synthetic retrievals we analyze major sources of uncertainties in the resulting BrO profiles such as different BrO cross sections, their temperature dependence, and stratospheric aerosols. Finally, the reliability of SCIAMACHY BrO profile retrievals is demonstrated comparing results from different algorithms to each other and to balloon-borne observations.

  12. [Memel als Brücke zu den baltischen Ländern] / Ralph Tuchtenhagen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuchtenhagen, Ralph, 1961-


    Arvustus: Memel als Brücke zu den baltischen Ländern. Kulturgeschichte Klaipedas vom Mittelalter bis ins 20. Jahrhundert. (Tagungsberichte der Historischen Kommission für ost- und westpreussische Landesforschung. Bd. 26)

  13. Brüsselis kõneldi GMO vastu / Nastja Pertsjonok

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pertsjonok, Nastja


    Brüsselis toimunud konverentsil nõudsid Euroopa Liidu maade regionaalministrid ja Europarlamendi liikmed õigust otsustada geneetiliselt muundatud põllukultuuride keelamise üle piirkondlikul tasandil

  14. High yield direct 76Br-bromination of monoclonal antibodies using chloramine-T. (United States)

    Sundin, J; Tolmachev, V; Koziorowski, J; Carlsson, J; Lundqvist, H; Welt, S; Larson, S; Sundin, A


    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) A33 was labeled with the positron emitter 76Br (T(1/2) = 16.2 h). Direct labeling was done using the conventional chloramine-T method. After optimization of the labeling conditions, a maximum yield (mean +/- max error) of 77 +/- 2% was obtained at pH 6.8. In vitro binding of 76Br-A33 to SW1222 colonic cancer cells showed that the immunoreactivity was retained. Also, the MAbs 38S1 and 3S193 and the peptide hEGF were 76Br-labeled, resulting in labeling yields (mean +/- max error) of 75 +/- 3%, 63 +/- 4%, and 73 +/- 0.1%, respectively. We conclude that antibodies and peptides can be labeled conveniently with 76Br for the purpose of whole-body tumour imaging by positron emission tomography.

  15. Nomenclatural notes on the Eurytomids (Chalcidoidea: Eurytomidae) described by Jean Brèthes housed in Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia". (United States)

    Gates, Michael W


    Ten Eurytomidae (Hymenoptera) parasitic wasp species described by Jean Brèthes and deposited in the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales in Buenos Aires are treated and their nomenclature stabilized. The condition of the type material is described. Lectotypes are designated for Decatoma cecidosiphaga Brèthes, Prodecatoma parodii Brèthes, Eudecatoma opposita Brèthes, and Eurytoma caridei Brèthes. One new generic synonymy, Xanthosomodes Brèthes with Tetramesa Walker, n. syn., and five new combinations are proposed: Tetramesa albiangulata (Brèthes), n. comb.; Phylloxeroxenus caridei (Brèthes), n. comb.; Aximopsis vulgata (Brèthes), n. comb.; Proseurytoma parodii (Brèthes), n. comb.; and Bruchophagus opposita (Brèthes), n. comb. Sycophila paranensis Brèthes is declared incertae sedis.

  16. Direct conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons using AlBr3-HBr superacid catalyst. (United States)

    Vasireddy, Sivakumar; Ganguly, Sreemoyee; Sauer, Joe; Cook, Wyndham; Spivey, James J


    The direct gas phase catalytic oligomerization of methane at temperatures ≤673 K has been demonstrated using AlBr(3)-HBr superacid. The reaction produces C(2)+ hydrocarbons and hydrogen in a single step at 1 atm in a continuous flow reactor at a nominal residence time of 60 s. The essentially complete conversion of methane appears to be due to protolytic activation of methane in the presence of H(+)AlBr(4)(-).

  17. Thermogalvanic effects on the corrosion of copper in heavy brine LiBr solutions


    Fernández Domene, Ramón Manuel; Blasco Tamarit, María Encarnación; García García, Dionisio Miguel; García Antón, José


    Thermogalvanic corrosion of copper in heavy brine LiBr solutions has been investigated using a zero-resistance ammeter (ZRA). The temperature gradients between copper electrodes immersed in the same LiBr solution result in the formation of thermogalvanic cells with hot anodes, leading to high and sustained thermogalvanic currents. Copper loss rates, calculated using Faraday's law, substantially exceed 0.025mmyear -1, a value regarded as the threshold of low corrosion rates. The effects of the...

  18. Thermodynamic and structural properties of high temperature solid and liquid EuBr2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rycerz, L.; Gadzuric, S.; Ingier-Stocka, E.


    Heat capacity of solid and liq. EuBr2 was measured by differential scanning calorimetry in the temp. range 300-1100 K. The temp. and enthalpy of fusion were also detd. exptl. By combination of these results with the literature data on the entropy at 298.15 K, S(o,m) (EuBr2, s, 298.15 K) , and the...

  19. Super-high photocatalytic activity, stability and improved photocatalytic mechanism of monodisperse AgBr doped with In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Limin, E-mail: [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering & State Key Laboratory of Hollow-Fiber Membrane Materials and Membrane Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Zhang, Shujuan, E-mail: [College of Science, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Zhang, Shuna [College of Textile Engineering, Zhejiang Industry Polytechnic College, Shaoxing 312000 (China)


    Highlights: • In(III)-AgBr with higher photodegradation ability was synthesized successfully. • ·OH radicals and Br{sup 0} were the main active species in the oxidation of MO. • In(III) substantially reduced the recombination rate of photon-generated carriers. - Abstract: Monodisperse In{sup 3+} doped AgBr (In-AgBr) nanoparticles were synthesized by a hydrothermal route. The pure AgBr and In-AgBr samples were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, measurement of total organic carbon, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry. In-AgBr was more photocatalytically active than pure AgBr in photodegradation of 20 mg/L methyl orange under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). The 0.05 mol/L In-AgBr sample showed the highest photodegradation efficiency and high stability. The doped In{sup 3+} expanded the light absorption range, reduced the band gap of AgBr and improved the utilization of photons. The additional In{sup 3+} can inhibit the formation of Ag particles on the surface of AgBr, which can further stabilize AgBr. The doped In{sup 3+} in AgBr served as a temporary site for trapping of photoinduced electrons, and thereby obviously restrained the recombination of photoinduced electron-hole pairs on the surface of AgBr. The enhanced photocatalytic ability of In-AgBr may be mainly attributed to the improved separation efficiency of photogenerated charges.

  20. Complex derivatives (United States)

    Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Georg, Co-Pierre; May, Robert; Stiglitz, Joseph


    The intrinsic complexity of the financial derivatives market has emerged as both an incentive to engage in it, and a key source of its inherent instability. Regulators now faced with the challenge of taming this beast may find inspiration in the budding science of complex systems.

  1. Effect of antiorthostatic BedRest (BR) on GastroIntestinal Motility (GIM) of normal subjects (United States)

    Putcha, L.; Hunter, R. P.; Tietze, K. J.; Cintron, N. M.


    The combined effects of postural changes, fluid shifts and diuresis associated with the absence of the gravity vector may decrease gastrointestinal motility (GIM) during space flight. GIM can be estimated from the mouth to cecum transit time (MCTT) of orally administered lactulose (LAC); this test is used to assess changes in GIM in normal subjects and in patients with GI pathology and related disease conditions. Since bedrest (BR) mimics some of the physiological changes that occur during space flight, the effect of ten days of BR on GIM was evaluated from the MCTT of LAC. Methods: Subjects were 12 nonsmoking males between the ages of 35 and 50. After an 8-10 hour fast, subjects ingested Cephulac (registered) (20 g solution) with a low-fiber breakfast on four different days (45, 30, 25, and 20) before BR and on three separate days (4, 7, and 10) during BR. Breath-H2 concentrations were measured before and at 10 minute intervals for 4 hours after breakfast using a Quintron breathalyzer and MCTT was determined from these data. Results: MCTT ranged between 10 and 122 minutes during ambulation and 80 to 120 minutes during BR with means of 79 minutes and 122 minutes respectively. Conclusion: Mean MCTT during BR was 54 percent longer than during ambulation, suggesting that absorption and availability of orally administered medications and nutrients may be delayed or impaired as a result of decreased GIM during bedrest.

  2. Enriching Glucoraphanin in Brassica rapa Through Replacement of BrAOP2.2/BrAOP2.3 with Non-functional Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Liu


    Full Text Available Sulforaphane, the hydrolytic product of glucoraphanin glucosinolate, is a potent anticarcinogen that reduces the risk of several human cancers. However, in most B. rapa vegetables, glucoraphanin is undetectable or only present in trace amounts, since the glucoraphanin that is present is converted to gluconapin by three functional BrAOP2 genes. In this study, to enrich beneficial glucoraphanin content in B. rapa, the functional BrAOP2 alleles were replaced by non-functional counterparts through marker-assisted backcrossing (MAB. We identified non-functional mutations of two BrAOP2 genes from B. rapa. The backcross progenies with introgression of both non-functional braop2.2 and braop2.3 alleles significantly increased the glucoraphanin content by 18 times relative to the recurrent parent. In contrast, replacement or introgression of single non-functional braop2.2 or braop2.3 locus did not change glucoraphanin content. Our results suggest that replacement of these two functional BrAOP2 genes with non-functional alleles has the potential for producing improved Brassica crops with enriched beneficial glucoraphanin content.

  3. Precision measurement of the ratio BR($K_{S} \\to \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}e^{+}e^{-}$)/BR($K_{L} \\to \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{0}_{D}$)

    CERN Document Server

    Batley, J R; Lazzeroni, C; Munday, D J; Patel, M; Slater, M W; Wotton, S A; Arcidiacono, R; Bocquet, G; Ceccucci, A; Cundy, D; Doble, N; Falaleev, V; Gatignon, L; Gonidec, A; Grafström, P; Kubischta, W; Marchetto, F; Mikulec, I; Norton, A; Panzer-Steindel, B; Rubin, P; Wahl, H; Goudzovski, E; Hristov, P; Kekelidze, V; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Madigozhin, D; Molokanova, N; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Stoynev, S; Zinchenko, A; Monnier, E; Swallow, E C; Winston, R; Sacco, R; Walker, A; Baldini, W; Dalpiaz, P; Frabetti, P L; Gianoli, A; Martini, M; Petrucci, F; Scarpa, M; Savrié, M; Bizzeti, A; Calvetti, M; Collazuol, E; Iacopini, E; Lenti, M; Ruggiero, G; Veltri, M; Behler, M; Eppard, K; Eppard, M; Hirstius, A; Kleinknecht, K; Koch, U; Marouelli, P; Masetti, L; Moosbrugger, U; Morales Morales, C; Peters, A; Wanke, R; Winhart, A; Dabrowski, A; Fonseca Martin, T; Szleper, M; Velasco, M; Anzivino, G; Cenci, P; Imbergamo, E; Lamanna, G; Lubrano, P; Michetti, A; Nappi, A; Pepe, M; Petrucci, M C; Piccini, M; Valdata, M; Cerri, C; Costantini, F; Fantechi, R; Fiorini, L; Giudici, S; Mannelli, I; Pierazzini, G; Sozzi, M; Cheshkov, C; Chèze, J B; De Beer, M; Debu, P; Gouge, G; Marel, G; Mazzucato, E; Peyaud, B; Vallage, B; Holder, M; Maier, A; Ziolkowski, M; Biino, C; Cartiglia, N; Clemencic, M; Goy Lopez, S; Menichetti, E; Pastrone, N; Wislicki, W; Dibon, H; Jeitler, M; Markytan, M; Neuhofer, G; Widhalm, L


    The $K_{S} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}e^{+}e^{-}$ decay mode was investigated using the data collected in 2002 by the NA48/1 collaboration. With about 23,k $K_{S} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}e^{+}e^{-}$ events and 59,k $K_{L} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{0}_{D}$ normalization decays, the $K_{S} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}e^{+}e^{-}$ branching ratio relative to the $K_{L}\\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{0}_{D}$ one was determined to be BR($K_{S} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}e^{+}e^{-}$)/BR($K_{L} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{0}_{D}$) = $ (3.28 \\pm 0.06_{stat}\\pm 0.04_{syst})\\times 10^{-2}$. This result was used to set the upper limit $|g_{E1}/g_{BR}| \\lt 3.0$ at $90%$ CL on the presence, in the decay amplitude, of an E1 direct emission ($g_{E1}$) term relative to the dominant inner bremsstrahlung ($g_{BR}$) term. The CP-violating asymmetry ${cal A}_{\\phi}$ in the sin$\\phi$,cos$\\phi$ distribution of $K_{S} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}e^{+}e^{-}$ events, where $\\phi$ is the angle between the $\\pi^{+} \\pi^{-}$ and the $...

  4. Precision measurement of the ratio BR (KS →π+π-e+e-) / BR (KL →π+π-πD0) (United States)

    Batley, J. R.; Kalmus, G. E.; Lazzeroni, C.; Munday, D. J.; Patel, M.; Slater, M. W.; Wotton, S. A.; Arcidiacono, R.; Bocquet, G.; Ceccucci, A.; Cundy, D.; Doble, N.; Falaleev, V.; Gatignon, L.; Gonidec, A.; Grafström, P.; Kubischta, W.; Marchetto, F.; Mikulec, I.; Norton, A.; Panzer-Steindel, B.; Rubin, P.; Wahl, H.; Goudzovski, E.; Hristov, P.; Kekelidze, V.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Madigozhin, D.; Molokanova, N.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Stoynev, S.; Zinchenko, A.; Monnier, E.; Swallow, E. C.; Winston, R.; Sacco, R.; Walker, A.; Baldini, W.; Dalpiaz, P.; Frabetti, P. L.; Gianoli, A.; Martini, M.; Petrucci, F.; Savrié, M.; Scarpa, M.; Calvetti, M.; Collazuol, G.; Iacopini, E.; Ruggiero, G.; Bizzeti, A.; Lenti, M.; Veltri, M.; Behler, M.; Eppard, K.; Eppard, M.; Hirstius, A.; Kleinknecht, K.; Koch, U.; Marouelli, P.; Masetti, L.; Moosbrugger, U.; Morales Morales, C.; Peters, A.; Wanke, R.; Winhart, A.; Dabrowski, A.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Szleper, M.; Velasco, M.; Anzivino, G.; Imbergamo, E.; Lamanna, G.; Lubrano, P.; Michetti, A.; Nappi, A.; Piccini, M.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Cenci, P.; Pepe, M.; Petrucci, M. C.; Cerri, C.; Fantechi, R.; Mannelli, I.; Costantini, F.; Fiorini, L.; Giudici, S.; Pierazzini, G.; Sozzi, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Chèze, J. B.; De Beer, M.; Debu, P.; Gouge, G.; Marel, G.; Mazzucato, E.; Peyaud, B.; Vallage, B.; Holder, M.; Maier, A.; Ziolkowski, M.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Clemencic, M.; Lopez, S. Goy; Menichetti, E.; Pastrone, N.; Wislicki, W.; Dibon, H.; Jeitler, M.; Markytan, M.; Neuhofer, G.; Widhalm, L.; NA48/1 Collaboration


    The KS →π+π-e+e- decay mode was investigated using the data collected in 2002 by the NA48/1 Collaboration. With about 23 k KS →π+π-e+e- events and 59 k KL →π+π-πD0 normalization decays, the KS →π+π-e+e- branching ratio relative to the KL →π+π-πD0 one was determined to be BR (KS →π+π-e+e-) / BR (KL →π+π-πD0) = (3.28 ±0.06stat ±0.04syst) ×10-2. This result was used to set the upper limit |gE1 /gBR | < 3.0 at 90% CL on the presence, in the decay amplitude, of an E1 direct emission (gE1) term relative to the dominant inner bremsstrahlung (gBR) term. The CP-violating asymmetry Aϕ in the sin ϕcos ϕ distribution of KS →π+π-e+e- events, where ϕ is the angle between the π+π- and the e+e- decay planes in the kaon centre of mass, was found to be Aϕ = (- 0.4 ± 0.8)%, consistent with zero. These results are in good agreement with a description of the KS →π+π-e+e- decay amplitude dominated by the CP-even inner bremsstrahlung process.

  5. Measurement of BR(Bu to phi K)/BR(Bu to J/psi K) at the collider detector at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napora, Robert A. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)


    This thesis presents evidence for the decay mode B± → ΦK± in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV using (120 ± 7)pb-1 of data collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). This signal is then used to measure the branching ratio relative to the decay mode B± → J/ΨK±. The measurement starts from reconstructing the two decay modes: B± → ΦK±, where Φ → K+K- and B± → J/ΨK±, where J/Ψ → μ+μ-. The measurement yielded 23 ± 7 B± → ΦK± events, and 406 ± 26 B± → J/ΨK± events. The fraction of B± → J/ΨK± events where the J/Ψ subsequently decayed to two muons (as opposed to two electrons) was found to be fμμ = 0.839 ± 0.066. The relative branching ratio of the two decays is then calculated based on the equation: BR(B± → ΦK±)/BR(B± → J/ΨK±) = N ΦK/NΨK • fμμ BR(J/Ψ → μ+μ-)/BR(Φ → K+K-) ϵμμK/ϵKKK R(ϵiso). The measurement finds BR(B± → ΦK±)/BR(B± → J/ΨK±) = 0.0068 ± 0.0021(stat.) ± 0.0007(syst.). The B± → ΦK± branching ratio is then found to be BR(B± → ΦK±) = [6.9 ± 2.1(stat.) ± 0.8(syst.)] x 10-6. This value is consistent with similar measurements reported by the e+e- collider experiments BaBar[1], Belle[2], and CLEO[3].

  6. Efficient preparation of [11C]CH3Br for the labeling of [11C]CH3-containing tracers in positron emission tomography clinical practice. (United States)

    Tang, Ganghua; Tang, Xiaolan; Deng, Huaifu; Wang, Hongliang; Wen, Fuhua; Yi, Chang; Wu, Kening


    [C]methyl iodide ([C]CH3I) is the most extensively used methylation agent for the preparation of a majority of C-labeled positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers, which is commonly produced by the wet method and the gas-phase method. On account of the complexity of the gas-phase method, a simple automated synthesis of [C]methyl bromide ([C]CH3Br) as an analog of [C]CH3I is derived by the wet method in this study. Radiosynthesis of L-[S-methyl-C]methionine (MET), L-[S-methyl-C]cysteine (MCYS), [N-methyl-C]choline (CH), [C]methyl triflate ([C]CH3OSO2CF3), and [C]-2-β-carbomethoxy-3-β-(4-fluorophenyl)-tropane (CFT) by methylation reaction with [C]CH3Br, and PET imaging of patients are also described. The preparation of [C]CH3Br by a one-pot wet method involved the following steps: reduction of [C]carbon dioxide with lithium aluminium hydride (LiAlH4) solution, treatment with hydrobromic acid, and distillation of [C]CH3Br under continuous nitrogen flow. [C]methylation of L-homocysteine thiolactone hydrochloride, L-cysteine, 2-dimethylaminoethanol, silver triflate, and nor-β-CFT as precursors with [C]CH3Br and purification with Sep-Pak cartridges gave MET, MCYS, CH, [C]CH3OSO2CF3, and CFT, respectively. In addition, PET imaging of brain cancer and Parkinson's disease was carried out. The uncorrected radiochemical yield of [C]CH3Br was (37.8±2.5%) based on [C]carbon dioxide within a total synthesis time of 10 min and the radiochemical purity of [C]CH3Br was greater than 95%. The uncorrected yields of MET, MCYS, CH, [C]CH3OSO2CF3, and CFT were 70.1±0.5%, 70.2±2.3%, 60.3±1.8%, 95.1±2.2%, and 60.1±1.5% (from [C]CH3OSO2CF3) within a total synthesis time of 2, 2, 5, 1, and 8 min, respectively. The radiochemical purity of MET, MCYS, CH, [C]CH3OSO2CF3, and CFT was more than 95%. Good PET images in the patients are obtained. Automated synthesis of [C]CH3Br can be done by the wet method on the commercial [C]CH3I synthesizer. [C]CH3Br can be used for a [C

  7. New retrieval of BrO from SCIAMACHY limb: an estimate of the stratospheric bromine loading during April 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Parrella


    Full Text Available We present a new retrieval of stratospheric BrO (bromine monoxide from channel 2 SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY limb observations. Retrievals are shown to agree with independent balloon observations to within one standard deviation of the retrieval noise. We retrieve BrO profiles for all of April 2008, and apply simulated [BrO]/[Bry] (bromine monoxide : stratospheric inorganic bromine ratios to estimate the stratospheric Bry loading. We find 23.5 ± 6 ppt Br, suggesting 7 ppt Br from short-lived bromocarbons to be at the high end of the current best estimate (3–8 ppt. The 6 ppt Br uncertainty estimate is dominated by the 21% uncertainty in the simulated [BrO] / [Bry] ratio due to propagation of errors from the underlying chemical kinetics.

  8. Iminoiodane- and Brønsted Base-Mediated Cross Dehydrogenative Coupling of Cyclic Ethers with 1,3-Dicarbonyl Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciputra Tejo


    Full Text Available A one-pot, two-step approach to prepare 2-tetrahydrofuran and -pyran substituted 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds by PhI=NTs-mediated amination/Brønsted base-catalyzed cross dehydrogenative coupling (CDC reaction of the cyclic ether and 1,3-dicarbonyl derivative under mild conditions is reported. The reaction is compatible with a variety of cyclic ethers and 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, affording the corresponding coupled products in moderate to good yields of up to 80% over two steps.

  9. Theory of singlet-ground-state magnetism. Application to field-induced transitions in CsFeCl3 and CsFeBr3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, P.-A.; Schmid, B.


    In the singlet ground-state systems CsFeCl3 and CsFeBr3 a large single-ion anisotropy causes a singlet ground state and a doubly degenerate doublet as the first excited states of the Fe2+ ion. In addition the magneteic interaction is anisotropic being much larger along the z axis than perpendicular...... to it. Therefore, these quasi-one-dimensional magnetic model systems are ideal to demonstrate unique correlation effects. Within the framework of the correlation theory we derive the expressions for the excitation spectrum. When a magnetic field is applied parallel to the z axis both substances have...

  10. A photoionization mass spectrometric and threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence study of vinylbromide (C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Br) in the vacuum ultraviolet range of 6-21 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoxha, A.; Yu, S.-Y. [Laboratoire de Dynamique Moleculaire, Departement de Chimie, Institut de Chimie Bat.B6c, Universite de Liege, Sart-Tilman par B-4000 Liege 1 (Belgium); Locht, R., E-mail: [Laboratoire de Dynamique Moleculaire, Departement de Chimie, Institut de Chimie Bat.B6c, Universite de Liege, Sart-Tilman par B-4000 Liege 1 (Belgium); Jochims, H.-W. [Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Takustrasse 3, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Leyh, B., E-mail: [Laboratoire de Dynamique Moleculaire, Departement de Chimie, Institut de Chimie Bat.B6c, Universite de Liege, Sart-Tilman par B-4000 Liege 1 (Belgium)


    Graphical abstract: Fragmentation dynamics of photoionized C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Br is investigated. Dissociative photoionization mass spectrometry and TPEPICO data are combined. Thresholds and breakdown diagram are measured and discussed for all detected ions. The role of electronic excitation and isomerization is analyzed. Research highlights: {yields} Fragmentation dynamics of photoionized C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Br is investigated. {yields} Dissociative photoionization mass spectrometry and TPEPICO data are combined. {yields} Thresholds and breakdown diagram are measured and discussed for all detected ions. {yields} The role of electronic excitation and isomerization is analyzed. - Abstract: The dissociative photoionization of vinyl bromide (C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Br) has been investigated by photoionization mass spectrometry (PIMS) and time-of-flight threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence (TOF-TPEPICO) spectrometry using synchrotron radiation. The photoionization efficiency curves of the three most abundant ions, i.e. C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Br{sup +}, C{sub 2}H{sub 3}{sup +} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}{sup +}, are measured and analyzed in detail. A C{sub 2}H{sub 3}{sup +}/Br{sup -} photoion-pair formation process has been detected for the first time. Some arguments are provided in favor of the electronic excitation of the C{sub 2}H{sub 3}{sup +} fragment and of the isomerization of the C{sub 2}H{sub 2}{sup +} ions. The breakdown diagram for these ions in the 9.8-21 eV photon energy range, derived from TOF-TPEPICO mass spectra, is discussed. The involvement of the successive C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Br{sup +} ionic states and the role of autoionization of C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Br Rydberg states are emphasized. For the two minor HBr{sup +} and Br{sup +} fragment ions only the breakdown diagrams are measured and appearance energies are derived.

  11. Synthesis and single crystal growth of perovskite semiconductor CsPbBr3 (United States)

    Zhang, Mingzhi; Zheng, Zhiping; Fu, Qiuyun; Chen, Zheng; He, Jianle; Zhang, Sen; Chen, Cheng; Luo, Wei


    As a typical representative of all-inorganic lead halide perovskites, cesium lead bromine (CsPbBr3) has attracted significant attention in recent years. The direct band gap semiconductor CsPbBr3 has a wide band gap of 2.25 eV and high average atomic number (Cs: 55, Pb: 82 and Br: 35), which meet most of the requirements for detection of X- and γ-ray radiation, such as high attenuation, high resistivity, and significant photoconductivity response. However, the growth of large volume CsPbBr3 single crystals remains a challenge. In this paper, the synthesis of CsPbBr3 polycrystalline powders by a chemical co-precipitation method was investigated and the optimum synthesis conditions were obtained. A large CsPbBr3 single crystal of 8 mm diameter and 60 mm length was obtained by a creative electronic dynamic gradient (EDG) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and X-ray rocking curve showed that the CsPbBr3 crystal preferentially oriented in the (1 1 0) direction and had a low dislocation density and small residual stress in the crystal. The IR and UV-Vis transmittance and temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectra showed the crystal had a good basic optical performance. The almost linear current-voltage (I-V) curves implied good ohmic contact between the electrodes and crystal surfaces. The resistivity of the crystal was calculated 109-1010 Ω cm. The above results showed that the quality of the obtained crystal had met the demand of optoelectronic applications.

  12. Dielectric properties of a CsPbBr3 quantum dot solution in the terahertz region. (United States)

    Yang, Dongsheng; Cheng, Xiangai; Liu, Yu; Shen, Chao; Xu, Zhongjie; Zheng, Xin; Jiang, Tian


    In recent years, CsPbBr3 quantum dots (QDs) have attracted much attention due to their bright prospects in solar cell studies. Dielectric properties are important for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. Here, the dielectric properties of a CsPbBr3 QD solution are investigated between 0.1 and 2.0 THz by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The measured frequency-dependent transmitted ratio is found to decrease from 0.96 to 0.80 in this range. By comparing different concentrations of the QD solution, the frequency-averaged absorption is linearly increased with the increase in QD concentration. After that, the frequency-dependent dielectric constant, including the complex refractive index, complex dielectric constant, and conductivity, is extracted by Fourier transform of the time-domain spectrum. An effective medium approach method is adopted to extract the complex dielectric constant of a CsPbBr3 QD inclusion, and a slight peak around 0.4 THz is found in the imaginary part of the dielectric constant. The result of Drude-Lorentz fitting shows that the phonon plays a dominant role in the dielectric properties of a CsPbBr3 QD solution. Moreover, the THz response of a CsPbBr3 QD is found to be unchanged when the test is conducted under illumination. We attribute this phenomenon to the discrete energy level of excitons in CsPbBr3 QDs due to quantum confinement, and design a comparative experiment to validate it. This study is significant for its deeper insight into the dielectric properties of CsPbBr3 QDs, and thus is helpful through its applications in optoelectronics.

  13. Storm induced large scale TIDs observed in GPS derived TEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Borries


    Full Text Available This work is a first statistical analysis of large scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (LSTID in Europe using total electron content (TEC data derived from GNSS measurements. The GNSS receiver network in Europe is dense enough to map the ionospheric perturbation TEC with high horizontal resolution. The derived perturbation TEC maps are analysed studying the effect of space weather events on the ionosphere over Europe. <br>> Equatorward propagating storm induced wave packets have been identified during several geomagnetic storms. Characteristic parameters such as velocity, wavelength and direction were estimated from the perturbation TEC maps. Showing a mean wavelength of 2000 km, a mean period of 59 min and a phase speed of 684 ms−1 in average, the perturbations are allocated to LSTID. The comparison to LSTID observed over Japan shows an equal wavelength but a considerably faster phase speed. This might be attributed to the differences in the distance to the auroral region or inclination/declination of the geomagnetic field lines. <br>> The observed correlation between the LSTID amplitudes and the Auroral Electrojet (AE indicates that most of the wave like perturbations are exited by Joule heating. Particle precipitation effects could not be separated.

  14. Linearity for Ca2+-Doped CeBr3 Scintillating Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guss, Paul [NSTec


    The Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) developed an aliovalently calcium-doped cerium tribromide (CeBr3:Ca2+) crystal with 3.2% resolution. RSL completed a crystal assessment, and Sandia National Laboratories calculated the predictive performance and physical characteristics using proven density functional theory (DFT) formalism. Results are reported for the work done to map the detector performance, characteristics, calcium doping concentration, and crystal strength. Preliminary scintillation measurements for this aliovalently calcium-doped CeBr3 scintillator exhibit a slight blue shift in fluorescence emission at 371 nm excitation for CeBr3. The structural, electronic, and optical properties of CeBr3 crystals were investigated using DFT within generalized gradient approximation. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data. The energy band structures and density of states were obtained. The optical properties of CeBr3, including the dielectric function, were calculated. Specifically, we report excellent linearity with the aliovalently calcium-doped CeBr3 crystal. Proportionality of light yield is one area of performance in which Ce-doped and Ce-based lanthanide halides excel. Maintaining proportionality is key to producing a strong, high-performance scintillator. Relative light yield proportionality was measured for both doped and undoped samples of CeBr3 to ensure no loss in performance was incurred during doping. The light output and proportionality, however, appear to be similar to CeBr3. There was a reduced yield at low energy. Relative light yield proportionality measurements suggest that dopants do not significantly affect proportionality at higher energies. RSL completed additional testing and evaluation of the new crystal and assessed benchmark spectroscopy measurements. Results, which present energy resolution as a function of energy, are summarized. Typical spectroscopy results using a 137Cs radiation source are shown

  15. CsPbBr{sub 3} nanocrystal saturable absorber for mode-locking ytterbium fiber laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yan; Li, Yue; Xu, Jianqiu; Tang, Yulong, E-mail: [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (MOE), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Hu, Zhiping; Tang, Xiaosheng [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and Systems of the Education Ministry of China, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)


    Cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (CsPbX{sub 3}, X = Cl, Br, I) have been reported as efficient light-harvesting and light-emitting semiconductor materials, but their nonlinear optical properties have been seldom touched upon. In this paper, we prepare layered CsPbBr{sub 3} nanocrystal films and characterize their physical properties. Broadband linear absorption from ∼0.8 to over 2.2 μm and nonlinear optical absorption at the 1-μm wavelength region are measured. The CsPbBr{sub 3} saturable absorber (SA), manufactured by drop-casting of colloidal CsPbBr{sub 3} liquid solution on a gold mirror, shows modulation depth and saturation intensity of 13.1% and 10.7 MW/cm{sup 2}, respectively. With this SA, mode-locking operation of a polarization-maintained ytterbium fiber laser produces single pulses with duration of ∼216 ps, maximum average output power of 10.5 mW, and the laser spectrum is centered at ∼1076 nm. This work shows that CsPbBr{sub 3} films can be efficient SA candidates for fiber lasers and also have great potential to become broadband linear and nonlinear optical materials for photonics and optoelectronics.

  16. A2BR adenosine receptor modulates sweet taste in circumvallate taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Kataoka

    Full Text Available In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3 on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate, but not anterior (fungiform, palate taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields.

  17. A2BR Adenosine Receptor Modulates Sweet Taste in Circumvallate Taste Buds (United States)

    Yang, Dan; Shultz, Nicole; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Ravid, Katya; Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.


    In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3) on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y) purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR) is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate), but not anterior (fungiform, palate) taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields. PMID:22253866

  18. Intrinsic Lead Ion Emissions in Zero-Dimensional Cs4PbBr6 Nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Yin, Jun


    We investigate the intrinsic lead ion (Pb2+) emissions in zero-dimensional (0D) perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) using a combination of experimental and theoretical approaches. The temperature-dependent photoluminescence experiments for both “nonemissive” (highly suppressed green emission) and emissive (bright green emission) Cs4PbBr6 NCs show a splitting of emission spectra into high- and low-energy transitions in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral range. In the nonemissive case, we attribute the high-energy UV emission at approximately 350 nm to the allowed optical transition of 3P1 to 1S0 in Pb2+ ions and the low-energy UV emission at approximately 400 nm to the charge-transfer state involved in the 0D NC host lattice (D-state). In the emissive Cs4PbBr6 NCs, in addition to the broad UV emission, we demonstrate that energy transfer occurs from Pb2+ ions to green luminescent centers. The optical phonon modes in Cs4PbBr6 NCs can be assigned to both Pb–Br stretching and rocking motions from density functional theory calculations. Our results address the origin of the dual broadband Pb2+ ion emissions observed in Cs4PbBr6 NCs and provide insights into the mechanism of ionic exciton–optical phonon interactions in these 0D perovskites.

  19. Structure of ^69Br and the rp-process in X-ray bursts (United States)

    Nesaraja, Caroline; Smith, Michael


    The long (35.5 sec.) positron decay lifetime of ^68Se, coupled with the low estimated probability of proton capture into ^69Br, make ^68Se a waiting point in the rp-process powering explosions in X-ray binaries. The thermonuclear reaction flow in X-ray bursts (XRB) depends sensitively on the properties of ^69Br, especially whether or not the ground state is proton bound [1]. Recent studies of the mass of ^68Se and the decay of ^69Br prompt a reassessment of the ^69Br properties relevant for rp-process burning in XRB. In our current project to evaluate the structure of nuclei with mass 69, we will focus on ^69Br. Our assessment, which will be included in the ENSDF database at the U.S. National Nuclear Data Center, will be used to generate a new reaction rate for proton capture on ^68Se, and subsequently for new X-ray burst nucleosynthesis calculations. [4pt] [1] H.Schatz et al., Phys. Rep. 294, 167 (1988) )

  20. Synthesis and characterization of Ag/AgBrO{sub 3} photocatalyst with high photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Limin, E-mail: [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering & State Key Laboratory of Hollow-Fiber Membrane Materials and Membrane Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin, 300387 (China); Li, Tongtong [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering & State Key Laboratory of Hollow-Fiber Membrane Materials and Membrane Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin, 300387 (China); Zhang, Shujuan [College of Science, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin, 300457 (China)


    A new Ag/AgBrO{sub 3} photocatalyst was prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of AgNO{sub 3} and NaBrO{sub 3}. The catalyst’s structure and performance were investigated with X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The UV–vis absorption spectrum of Ag/AgBrO{sub 3} exhibits a band gap of 3.97 eV. The results show that the Ag/AgBrO{sub 3} semiconductor can be excited by ultraviolet–visible light. The photodegradation of Rhodamine B displayed much higher photocatalytic activity than that of N-doped TiO{sub 2} under the same experimental conditions. Moreover, ·OH and ·O{sub 2}{sup −} generated in the photocatalysis played a key role of the photodegradation of Rhodamine B. - Highlights: • Ag/AgBrO{sub 3} with higher photodegradation ability was synthesized. • ·OH and ·O{sub 2}{sup −} radicals were the main active species in the oxidation of RhB. • The possible reaction mechanism was discussed in details.

  1. CsPbBr3 nanocrystal saturable absorber for mode-locking ytterbium fiber laser (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Hu, Zhiping; Li, Yue; Xu, Jianqiu; Tang, Xiaosheng; Tang, Yulong


    Cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I) have been reported as efficient light-harvesting and light-emitting semiconductor materials, but their nonlinear optical properties have been seldom touched upon. In this paper, we prepare layered CsPbBr3 nanocrystal films and characterize their physical properties. Broadband linear absorption from ˜0.8 to over 2.2 μm and nonlinear optical absorption at the 1-μm wavelength region are measured. The CsPbBr3 saturable absorber (SA), manufactured by drop-casting of colloidal CsPbBr3 liquid solution on a gold mirror, shows modulation depth and saturation intensity of 13.1% and 10.7 MW/cm2, respectively. With this SA, mode-locking operation of a polarization-maintained ytterbium fiber laser produces single pulses with duration of ˜216 ps, maximum average output power of 10.5 mW, and the laser spectrum is centered at ˜1076 nm. This work shows that CsPbBr3 films can be efficient SA candidates for fiber lasers and also have great potential to become broadband linear and nonlinear optical materials for photonics and optoelectronics.

  2. XeBr excilamp based on a non-toxic component mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelman, V A; Shpenik, Yu O; Zhmenyak, Yu V, E-mail: [Institute of Electron Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Universitetska 21, 88017 Uzhgorod (Ukraine)


    This paper presents the results of experimental studies on obtaining UV luminescence of XeBr* molecules at the excitation of a non-toxic Xe-CsBr gas-vapour mixture by a longitudinal pulse-periodic discharge. Effective UV emission yield of the exciplex XeBr* molecules (spectral maximum at 282 nm) is observed within a wide range of excitation conditions. The spectral distribution in the UV emission under the optimal excitation conditions does not differ essentially from that in other XeBr excilamps based on toxic components. The emission of the B {yields} X band of the XeBr* molecules provides the main contribution to the total power of the discharge UV emission. The determined average power of the UV emission for the experimental discharge tube is 12 W at an efficiency of 1%. Spectral, power-related and time-dependent parameters of the laboratory excilamp are presented for a wide range of excitation parameters. A new mechanism of exciplex molecule formation at the excitation of a rare gas/alkali halide vapour mixture is discussed.

  3. Photostriction of CH3NH3PbBr3 Perovskite Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Tzu-Chiao


    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials exhibit a variety of physical properties. Pronounced coupling between phonon, organic cations, and the inorganic framework suggest that these materials exhibit strong light-matter interactions. The photoinduced strain of CH3 NH3 PbBr3 is investigated using high-resolution and contactless in situ Raman spectroscopy. Under illumination, the material exhibits large blue shifts in its Raman spectra that indicate significant structural deformations (i.e., photostriction). From these shifts, the photostrictive coefficient of CH3 NH3 PbBr3 is calculated as 2.08 × 10-8 m2 W-1 at room temperature under visible light illumination. The significant photostriction of CH3 NH3 PbBr3 is attributed to a combination of the photovoltaic effect and translational symmetry loss of the molecular configuration via strong translation-rotation coupling. Unlike CH3 NH3 PbI3 , it is noted that the photostriction of CH3 NH3 PbBr3 is extremely stable, demonstrating no signs of optical decay for at least 30 d. These results suggest the potential of CH3 NH3 PbBr3 for applications in next-generation optical micro-electromechanical devices.

  4. Photostriction of CH3 NH3 PbBr3 Perovskite Crystals. (United States)

    Wei, Tzu-Chiao; Wang, Hsin-Ping; Li, Ting-You; Lin, Chun-Ho; Hsieh, Ying-Hui; Chu, Ying-Hao; He, Jr-Hau


    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials exhibit a variety of physical properties. Pronounced coupling between phonon, organic cations, and the inorganic framework suggest that these materials exhibit strong light-matter interactions. The photoinduced strain of CH3 NH3 PbBr3 is investigated using high-resolution and contactless in situ Raman spectroscopy. Under illumination, the material exhibits large blue shifts in its Raman spectra that indicate significant structural deformations (i.e., photostriction). From these shifts, the photostrictive coefficient of CH3 NH3 PbBr3 is calculated as 2.08 × 10-8 m2 W-1 at room temperature under visible light illumination. The significant photostriction of CH3 NH3 PbBr3 is attributed to a combination of the photovoltaic effect and translational symmetry loss of the molecular configuration via strong translation-rotation coupling. Unlike CH3 NH3 PbI3 , it is noted that the photostriction of CH3 NH3 PbBr3 is extremely stable, demonstrating no signs of optical decay for at least 30 d. These results suggest the potential of CH3 NH3 PbBr3 for applications in next-generation optical micro-electromechanical devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. R and D on fuzzy control applications to the BR1 research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, D.; Li, X. [Nuclear Research Center, Mol (Belgium)


    Fuzzy control applications in nuclear reactor operations present a tremendous challenge. The main reason for this is the public awareness of the risks of nuclear industry and the very strict safety regulations in force for nuclear power plants. The very same regulations prevent a researcher from quickly introducing novel fuzzy-logic methods into this field. On the other hand, the application of fuzzy logic has, despite the ominous sound of the word `fuzzy` to nuclear engineers, a number of very desirable advantages over classical methods, e.g., its robustness and the capability to include human experience into the controller. In this paper we report an on-going R and D project for controlling the power level of the Belgian Nuclear Reactor 1 (BR1) at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN). The project started in 1995 and aims to investigate the added value of fuzzy control for nuclear reactors. We first review some relevant literature on fuzzy logic control in nuclear reactors, then present the state-of-the-art of the BR1 project. After experimenting fuzzy logic control under off-line tests at the BR1 reactor, we now foresee a new development for a closed-loop fuzzy control as an on-line operation of the BR1 reactor. Finally, we present the new development for a closed-loop fuzzy logic control at BR1 with an understanding of the safety requirements for this real fuzzy logic control application in nuclear rectors. (author) 18 refs.

  6. Expression of BAFF and BR3 in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Duan


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the expression of B cell activating factor (BAFF and BAFF receptor in patients with disease activity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Real-time RT-PCR was used to examine BAFF mRNA expression in peripheral blood monocytes of active and stable SLE patients and healthy controls. The percentage of BAFF receptor 3 (BR3 on B lymphocytes was measured by flow cytometry. Soluble BAFF levels in serum were assayed by ELISA. Microalbumin levels were assayed by an automatic immune analysis machine. BAFF mRNA and soluble BAFF levels were highest in the active SLE group, followed by the stable SLE group, and controls (P<0.01. The percentage of BR3 on B lymphocytes was downregulated in the active SLE group compared with the stable SLE group and controls (P<0.01. BAFF mRNA levels and soluble BAFF levels were higher in patients who were positive for proteinuria than in those who were negative (P<0.01. The percentage of BR3 on B lymphocytes was lower in patients who were positive for proteinuria than in those who were negative (P<0.01. The BAFF/BR3 axis may be over-activated in SLE patients. BAFF and BR3 levels may be useful parameters for evaluating treatment.

  7. Intrinsic ferromagnetism and quantum anomalous Hall effect in a CoBr2 monolayer. (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Zou, Jin-Yu; Liu, Bang-Gui


    The electronic, magnetic, and topological properties of a CoBr2 monolayer are studied in the framework of density-functional theory (DFT) combined with tight-binding (TB) modeling in terms of the Wannier basis. Our DFT investigation and Monte Carlo simulation show that there exists intrinsic two-dimensional ferromagnetism in the CoBr2 monolayer, thanks to the large out-of-plane magnetocrystalline anisotropic energy. Our further study indicates that the spin-orbit coupling makes it become a topologically nontrivial insulator with a quantum anomalous Hall effect and topological Chern number [script C] = 4 and its edge states can be manipulated by changing the width of its nanoribbons and applying strains. The CoBr2 monolayer can be exfoliated from the layered CoBr2 bulk material because its exfoliation energy is between those of graphene and the MoS2 monolayer and it is dynamically stable. These results make us believe that the CoBr2 monolayer can make a promising spintronic material for future high-performance devices.

  8. Fast-neutron induced background in LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiener, J., E-mail: [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière (CSNSM), CNRS-IN2P3 et Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Campus Orsay (France); Tatischeff, V.; Deloncle, I. [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière (CSNSM), CNRS-IN2P3 et Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Campus Orsay (France); Séréville, N. de [Institut de Physique Nucléaire d' Orsay, CNRS-IN2P3 and Université Paris-Sud, 91406 Orsay (France); Laurent, P. [CEA/IRFU Service d' Astrophysique, Orme des Merisiers, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Laboratoire Astroparticules et Cosmologie (APC), 10, rue A. Domon et L. Duquet, 75205 Paris (France); Blondel, C. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/IRFU, Orme des Merisiers, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chabot, M. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire d' Orsay, CNRS-IN2P3 and Université Paris-Sud, 91406 Orsay (France); Chipaux, R. [CEA/DMS/IRFU/SEDI, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Coc, A. [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière (CSNSM), CNRS-IN2P3 et Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Campus Orsay (France); Dubos, S. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/IRFU, Orme des Merisiers, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gostojic, A. [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière (CSNSM), CNRS-IN2P3 et Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Campus Orsay (France); and others


    The response of a scintillation detector with a cylindrical 1.5-in. LaBr{sub 3}:Ce crystal to incident neutrons has been measured in the energy range E{sub n} = 2–12 MeV. Neutrons were produced by proton irradiation of a Li target at E{sub p} = 5–14.6 MeV with pulsed proton beams. Using the time-of-flight information between target and detector, energy spectra of the LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detector resulting from fast neutron interactions have been obtained at 4 different neutron energies. Neutron-induced γ rays emitted by the LaBr{sub 3}:Ce crystal were also measured in a nearby Ge detector at the lowest proton beam energy. In addition, we obtained data for neutron irradiation of a large-volume high-purity Ge detector and of a NE-213 liquid scintillator detector, both serving as monitor detectors in the experiment. Monte-Carlo type simulations for neutron interactions in the liquid scintillator, the Ge and LaBr{sub 3}:Ce crystals have been performed and compared with measured data. Good agreement being obtained with the data, we present the results of simulations to predict the response of LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detectors for a range of crystal sizes to neutron irradiation in the energy range E{sub n} = 0.5–10 MeV.

  9. A Measurement of the Relative Branching Ratio $BR(B^- \\to D^0 K^-) / BR(B^- \\to D^0 \\pi^-)$ in Three $D^0$ Decay Modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Hung-Chung [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Using 1.3 fb-1 of data from p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron, we have measured the relative branching ratio $BR(B^- \\to D^0 K^-) / BR(B^- \\to D^0 \\pi^-)$ in Three $D^0$ and its charge conjugate in the D0 flavor decay mode D$0\\atop{f}$ → K-π+ and the CP-even decay modes D0 → K-K+ and D0 → π-π+

  10. High temperature infrared spectra and vibrational analysis of GaBr 3 and AlBr 3NH 3 in the vapour phase (United States)

    Rytter, E.; Einarsrud, M.-A.; Sjøgren, Carl E.

    The i.r. vapour spectra of monomeric and dimeric gallium bromide and of tribromoammine aluminium at 523-723 K were recorded in the 50-1800 and 2300-3500 cm -1 regions. An evacuable nickel cell equipped with a type IIa diamond window and sealed with a gold O-ring was employed. With the exception of the dimer ring puckering, all i.r. active gallium bromide fundamentals were observed. The monomer spectra were found to be consistent with a planar D3 h structure. All i.r. active modes of tribromoammine aluminium, except the symmetric NH stretch and AlBr 3 rock vibrations, were assigned. The interpretation was supported by normal coordinate analyses. An attempt was made to correlate the valence stretching force constants of several MX 3, M 2X 6, M 2X -7 (M = Al, Ga; X  Cl, Br, I) compounds with the MX bond lengths.

  11. The reaction ensemble method for the computer simulation of chemical and phase equilibria. II. The Br2+Cl2+BrCl system (United States)

    Lísal, Martin; Nezbeda, Ivo; Smith, William R.


    The reaction ensemble Monte Carlo (REMC) method [W. R. Smith and B. Třı´ska, J. Chem. Phys. 100, 3019 (1994)] is used to study combined reaction and vapor-liquid equilibrium of the Br2+Cl2+BrCl system. The substances are modeled as nonpolar and dipolar two-site Lennard-Jones molecules with Lorentz-Berthelot mixing rules for unlike atoms. No parameters were fitted to any mixture properties in our calculations. The simulated data are compared with experimental results, and with previous simulation data for the mixture obtained by an indirect semigrand ensemble approach. The REMC method efficiently calculates the complete phase compositions, whereas only a limited subset is available experimentally. The agreement of the simulations with experiment is good. In the course of this work, we used the Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo method (which may be regarded as a special case of the REMC method) to calculate the vapor-liquid equilibrium properties of pure BrCl; since this compound is chemically unstable, such data is experimentally inaccessible.

  12. Pyomelanin is produced by Shewanella algae BrY and affected by exogenous iron. (United States)

    Turick, Charles E; Caccavo, Frank; Tisa, Louis S


    Melanin production by Shewanella algae BrY occurred during late- and (or) post-exponential growth in lactate basal salts liquid medium supplemented with tyrosine or phenylalanine. The antioxidant ascorbate inhibited melanin production but not production of the melanin precursor homogentisic acid. In the absence of ascorbate, melanin production was inhibited by the 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase inhibitor sulcotrione and by concentrations of Fe >or= 0.38 mmol L(-1). These data support the hypothesis that pigment production by S. algae BrY was a result of the conversion of tyrosine or phenylalanine to homogentisic acid, which was excreted, auto-oxidized, and self-polymerized to form pyomelanin. Pyomelanin production by S. algae BrY may play an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of Fe in the environment.

  13. Localized optical absorption in Cs{sub 4}PbBr{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, S.; Amaya, K.; Saito, T. [Research Center for Development of Far-Infrared Region, Fukui University, Bunkyo, Fukui (Japan)


    The fundamental optical absorption of Cs{sub 4}PbBr{sub 6} crystals, which are built up of nearly regular Pb{sup 2+}(Br{sup -}){sub 6} octahedra mutually bound by Cs{sup +} ions, exhibits novel features: despite the crystalline entity of Cs{sub 4}PbBr{sub 6}, it shows oscillator-like absorption peaks and a wide window just above the first peak. The Cs{sup +} ions prevent the Pb{sup 2+} 6s and 6p states from taking part in the construction of extended states. These states form a set of localized states confined to within respective octahedra, similar to the case of isolated Pb{sup 2+} ions doped in face-centred cubic alkali halide crystals. (author)

  14. Spectral studies related to dissociation of HBr, HCl and BrO (United States)

    Ginter, M. L.


    Concern over halogen catalyzed decomposition of O3 in the upper atmosphere has generated need for data on the atomic and molecular species X, HX and XO (where X is Cl and Br). Of special importance are Cl produced from freon decomposition and Cl and Br produced from natural processes and from other industrial and agricultural chemicals. Basic spectral data is provided on HCl, HBr, and BrO necessary to detect specific states and energy levels, to enable detailed modeling of the processes involving molecular dissociation, ionization, etc., and to help evaluate field experiments to check the validity of model calculations for these species in the upper atmosphere. Results contained in four published papers and two major spectral compilations are summarized together with other results obtained.

  15. A measurement of the semileptonic branching ratio BR(b-baryon $\\rightarrow p l\\overline{\

    CERN Document Server

    Barate, R; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Nief, J Y; Pietrzyk, B; Boix, G; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Graugès-Pous, E; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Merino, G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Park, I C; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Alemany, R; Becker, U; Bright-Thomas, P G; Casper, David William; Cattaneo, M; Cerutti, F; Ciulli, V; Dissertori, G; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Hansen, J B; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Lehraus, Ivan; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Moneta, L; Pacheco, A; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rolandi, Luigi; Rousseau, D; Schlatter, W D; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Teubert, F; Tomalin, I R; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Badaud, F; Chazelle, G; Deschamps, O; Falvard, A; Ferdi, C; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rosnet, P; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Daskalakis, G; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Boccali, T; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Zachariadou, K; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Lynch, J G; Negus, P; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Thomson, F; Buchmüller, O L; Dhamotharan, S; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Girone, M; Goodsir, S M; Martin, E B; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Spagnolo, P; Williams, M D; Ghete, V M; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Betteridge, A P; Bowdery, C K; Buck, P G; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Jones, R W L; Williams, M I; Giehl, I; Greene, A M; Hoffmann, C; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Carr, J; Coyle, P; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Leroy, O; Motsch, F; Payre, P; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Aleppo, M; Antonelli, M; Ragusa, F; Berlich, R; Blum, Walter; Büscher, V; Dietl, H; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Mannert, C; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Stenzel, H; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Chen, S; Choi, Y; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Höcker, A; Jacholkowska, A; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Schune, M H; Tournefier, E; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Zerwas, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Chambers, J T; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Konstantinidis, N P; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Kelly, M S; Lehto, M H; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Affholderbach, K; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Grupen, Claus; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Charles, E; Elmer, P; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y; González, S; Greening, T C; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, J; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zobernig, G


    Inclusive pi^+/-, K^+/- (p,pbar) production is investigated using data recorded by the ALEPH detector between 1992 and 1994. The momentum spectra and multiplicities are measured separately in Z -->bbar, Z-->ccbar and Z-->uubar,ddbar,ssbar decays. The number of protons found in b-hadron decays is used to estimate the fraction of b-baryons in b-events to be (10.2 +/- 0.7 +/- 2.7)%. From an additional study of proton-lepton correlations in b events the branching ratio Br(b-baryon --> plnuX) = (4.63 +/- 0.72 +/- 0.98)% is obtained. The ratio Br(b-baryon --> plnuX)/ Br(b-baryon --> pX) is found to be 0.080 +/- 0.012 +/- 0.014.

  16. Energy-Dependent Peak Shifts in LaBr3 Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinnett, Jacob [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vo, Duc Ta [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Significant peak shifts were noted in a laboratory LaBr3 detector. To investigate these issues, three LaBr3 detectors were used to collect spectra of Cs-137 with either Co-57, Co-60, or no secondary source included. The cobalt source locations were varied to control the deadtime, while the Cs-137 source remained in a fixed position relative to the detectors. Each setup was measured with a 0.8 μs and a 3.2 μs shaping time. All spectra were measured for a 100 second live time. All three LaBr3 detectors were experienced peak-shifting as a function of deadtime and gamma-ray energies. However, the first detector (Detector A, described below) had significantly more severe peakshifting which was also affected by the shaping time.

  17. BrEPS 2.0: Optimization of sequence pattern prediction for enzyme annotation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian-Alexander Dudek

    Full Text Available The prediction of gene functions is crucial for a large number of different life science areas. Faster high throughput sequencing techniques generate more and larger datasets. The manual annotation by classical wet-lab experiments is not suitable for these large amounts of data. We showed earlier that the automatic sequence pattern-based BrEPS protocol, based on manually curated sequences, can be used for the prediction of enzymatic functions of genes. The growing sequence databases provide the opportunity for more reliable patterns, but are also a challenge for the implementation of automatic protocols. We reimplemented and optimized the BrEPS pattern generation to be applicable for larger datasets in an acceptable timescale. Primary improvement of the new BrEPS protocol is the enhanced data selection step. Manually curated annotations from Swiss-Prot are used as reliable source for function prediction of enzymes observed on protein level. The pool of sequences is extended by highly similar sequences from TrEMBL and SwissProt. This allows us to restrict the selection of Swiss-Prot entries, without losing the diversity of sequences needed to generate significant patterns. Additionally, a supporting pattern type was introduced by extending the patterns at semi-conserved positions with highly similar amino acids. Extended patterns have an increased complexity, increasing the chance to match more sequences, without losing the essential structural information of the pattern. To enhance the usability of the database, we introduced enzyme function prediction based on consensus EC numbers and IUBMB enzyme nomenclature. BrEPS is part of the Braunschweig Enzyme Database (BRENDA and is available on a completely redesigned website and as download. The database can be downloaded and used with the BrEPScmd command line tool for large scale sequence analysis. The BrEPS website and downloads for the database creation tool, command line tool and database are

  18. Novel Ge-Ga-Te-CsBr glass system with ultrahigh resolvability of halide. (United States)

    Cheng, Ci; Wang, Xunsi; Xu, Tiefeng; Zhu, Qingde; Sun, Lihong; Pan, Zhanghao; Nie, Qiuhua; Zhang, Peiqing; Wu, Yuehao; Dai, Shixun; Shen, Xiang; Zhang, Xianghua


    CO2 molecule, one of the main molecules to create new life, should be probed accurately to detect the existence of life in exoplanets. The primary signature of CO2 molecule is approximately 15 μm, and traditional S- and Se-based glass fibers are unsuitable. Thus, Te-based glass is the only ideal candidate glass for far-infrared detection. In this study, a new kind of Te-based chalcohalide glass system was discovered with relatively stable and large optical band gap. A traditional melt-quenching method was adopted to prepare a series of (Ge15Ga10Te75)100-x (CsBr)x chalcogenide glass samples. Experiment results indicate that the glass-forming ability and thermal properties of glass samples were improved when CsBr was added in the host of Ge-Ga-Te glass. Ge-Ga-Te glass could remarkably dissolve CsBr content as much as 85 at.%, which is the highest halide content in all reports for Te-based chalcohalide glasses. Moreover, ΔT values of these glass samples were all above 100 °C. The glass sample (Ge15Ga10Te75)65 (CsBr)35 with ΔT of 119 °C was the largest, which was 7 °C larger than that of Ge15Ga10Te75 host glass. The infrared transmission spectra of these glasses show that the far-infrared cut-off wavelengths of (Ge15Ga10Te75)100-x (CsBr)x chalcogenide glasses were all beyond 25 μm. In conclusion, (Ge15Ga10Te75)100-x (CsBr)x chalcogenide glasses are potential materials for far-infrared optical application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Observation of Enhanced Hole Extraction in Br Concentration Gradient Perovskite Materials. (United States)

    Kim, Min-Cheol; Kim, Byeong Jo; Son, Dae-Yong; Park, Nam-Gyu; Jung, Hyun Suk; Choi, Mansoo


    Enhancing hole extraction inside the perovskite layer is the key factor for boosting photovoltaic performance. Realization of halide concentration gradient perovskite materials has been expected to exhibit rapid hole extraction due to the precise bandgap tuning. Moreover, a formation of Br-rich region on the tri-iodide perovskite layer is expected to enhance moisture stability without a loss of current density. However, conventional synthetic techniques of perovskite materials such as the solution process have not achieved the realization of halide concentration gradient perovskite materials. In this report, we demonstrate the fabrication of Br concentration gradient mixed halide perovskite materials using a novel and facile halide conversion method based on vaporized hydrobromic acid. Accelerated hole extraction and enhanced lifetime due to Br gradient was verified by observing photoluminescence properties. Through the combination of secondary ion mass spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, the diffusion behavior of Br ions in perovskite materials was investigated. The Br-gradient was found to be eventually converted into a homogeneous mixed halide layer after undergoing an intermixing process. Br-substituted perovskite solar cells exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 18.94% due to an increase in open circuit voltage from 1.08 to 1.11 V and an advance in fill-factor from 0.71 to 0.74. Long-term stability was also dramatically enhanced after the conversion process, i.e., the power conversion efficiency of the post-treated device has remained over 97% of the initial value under high humid conditions (40-90%) without any encapsulation for 4 weeks.

  20. Temperature dependence of the rate constant and product channels for the BrO + ClO reaction


    Hills, AJ; Cicerone, RJ; Calvert, JG; Birks, JW


    We have measured the rate constant for the reactions BrO + ClO → Br + OClO (6a), BrO + ClO → Br + Cl + O 2 (6b), and BrO + ClO → BrCl + O 2 (6c) over the temperature range 241-408 K and found k 6 = (8.2 ± 1.0) × 10 -12 cm 3 molecule -1 s independent of temperature. Measurement of the individual product branching ratios yielded values for channels 6a, 6b, and 6c equal to 0.55 ± 0.10, 0.45 ± 0.10, and < 0.02, respectively. Measurements of ozone in the stratosphere over Antarctica have s...

  1. The Mechanism Underlying the Brückner Effect Studied with an Automated, High-Resolution, Continuously Scanning Brückner Device. (United States)

    de Groot, Matthijs J; van der Helm, Frans C T; Simonsz, Huib J


    When an eye is illuminated by a light coaxial with the observing eye or camera, the light is reflected by the back of the eye and a red reflex will be observed through the pupil. The intensity of this red reflex varies with the angle of eccentric gaze. The red reflex darkens as the eye fixates at the light source. Brückner described this principle in 1962. Although this effect has been used as a screening test for strabismus ever since, the mechanism that causes this effect is only partly known. None of the current explanations are accepted as conclusively proven. We developed an automated, high-resolution, continuously scanning Brückner device to study the mechanisms underlying the Brückner effect. The right eyes of 6 subjects, students aged 22-31 years, were measured. A subject sat in front of a camera at a distance of about 0.75 m. The luminance of the red fundus reflex and the eye movements were measured continuously while the subject followed a fixation target that moved in two dimensions. Eye movement was also recorded objectively and in the analysis this was used in addition to the position of the fixation target. The eyes were illuminated coaxially using an infrared light source and a beam splitter. By using two methods to record eye rotation and relating this to the continuously measured pupillary luminous intensity and pupillary area, we were able to construct 2-dimensional maps of pupillary luminance. All 6 subjects showed the expected general darkening of the pupil as fixation changed from eccentric fixation to foveal fixation at the center of the camera. However, there were many local fluctuations. The global minimum in pupillary luminance, the "dark spot," was often roughly circle-shaped with a radius of about 1°. The pupillary luminance kept increasing beyond 2° eccentricity. We measured the Brückner effect continuously in two dimensions. Brückner's original explanation--absorption by the macular pigment--cannot explain our findings as the

  2. Futebol et hiérarchies urbaines au Brésil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Théry


    Full Text Available Le football n’est pas seulement la passion nationale du Brésil, il peut être aussi un bon indicateur des hiérarchies urbaines du pays. Les classements disponibles sur le site de la fédération brésilienne de futebol peuvent être mis en rapport avec d’autres données pour vérifier la corrélation entre les performances sportives des clubs et le degré de centralité des villes où ils sont basés.

  3. Optical characterization of TlBr single crystals for radiation detection applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Joon Ho; Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Han Soo; Lee, Seung Hee; Ha, Jang Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)


    TlBr is of considerable technological importance for radiation detection applications where detecting high-energy photons such as X-rays and γ-rays are of prime importance. However, there were few reports on investigating optical properties of TlBr itself for deeper understandings of this material and for making better radiation detection devices. Thus, in this paper, we report on the optical characterizations of TlBr single crystals. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements at RT were performed for this work. A 2-inch TlBr single crystalline ingot was grown by using the vertical Bridgman furnace. SE measurements were performed at RT within the photon energy range from 1.1 to 6.5 eV. PL measurements were performed at RT by using a home-made PL system equipped with a 266 nm-laser and a spectrometer. Dielectric responses from SE analysis were shown to be slightly different among the different samples possibly due to the different structural/optical properties. Also from the PL measurements, it was observed that the peak intensities of the middle samples were significantly higher than those of the other two samples. With the given values for permittivity of free space (ε0 = 8.854x10{sup -1}2 F·m{sup -1}), thickness (d = 1 mm), and area (A = 10x10 mm{sup 2}) of the TlBr sample, capacitances of TlBr were 6.9 pF (at hν = 3 eV) and 4.4 pF (at hν = 6 eV), respectively. SE and PL measurement and analysis were performed to characterize TlBr samples from the optical perspective. It was observed that dielectric responses of different TlBr samples were slightly different due to the different material properties. PL measurements showed that the middle sample exhibited much stronger PL emission peaks due to the better material quality. From the SE analysis, optical, dielectric constants were extracted, and calculated capacitances were in the few pF range.

  4. Investigation of the PGNAA using the LaBr{sub 3} scintillation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favalli, A. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of Citizen, TP800, Via E. Fermi, 21027 Ispra (Italy)], E-mail:; Mehner, H-C.; Ciriello, V.; Pedersen, B. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of Citizen, TP800, Via E. Fermi, 21027 Ispra (Italy)


    The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission develops instrumentation for detection of hazardous materials. In relation to this a new experimental facility was constructed for research into methods applying the detection of characteristic gamma rays subsequent to neutron irradiation. This includes the detection of prompt gamma rays from neutron inelastic scattering and neutron capture. For this purpose the device employs LaBr{sub 3} scintillation detectors. The paper investigates the applicability of the LaBr{sub 3} scintillation detector to PGNAA.

  5. The complex story of a simple Brønsted acid: unusual speciation of HBr in an ionic liquid medium. (United States)

    Driver, Gordon W; Mutikainen, Ilpo


    Crystalline solids, co-existing in equilibrium with the 3-methyl-1H-imidazolium bromohydrogenates(I) ionic liquid, have been characterised by X-ray diffraction analysis. The Brønsted acidic, homo-conjugate [H(2)Br(3)](-) anions presented are discussed in terms of their structure and reactivity, in efforts to advance the understanding of Brønsted acidity in ionic liquid media.

  6. Microhardness studies on as-grown faces of NaClO3 and NaBrO3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The hardness studies point out that NaBrO3 is harder than NaClO3 ( ≈ 100 kg/mm2), this could be due to strong inter ionic forces acting between Na–Br in NaBrO3 crystals. Using Gilman's empirical relation, hardness values are calculated from the values of elastic constants (44) and are found to be close to the ...

  7. An efficient visible-light photocatalyst prepared by modifying AgBr particles with a small amount of activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Desong, E-mail:; Zhao, Mangmang; Luo, Qingzhi; Yin, Rong; An, Jing; Li, Xueyan


    Highlights: • An efficient visible-light photocatalyst was prepared by modifying AgBr particles. • A small amount of activated carbon was used to modify AgBr particles. • The modified AgBr exhibited improved visible-light photocatalytic performances. - Abstract: An efficient visible-light photocatalyst was successfully prepared by modifying AgBr particles with a small amount of activated carbon (AC) via a simple chemical precipitation approach. The AC/AgBr composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, UV–vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic performances of the AC/AgBr composite were investigated by evaluating photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) and phenol under visible light irradiation, and the effects of the AC content in the composite, concentrations of AC/AgBr composite and MO, carrier scavengers on MO photodegradation rate were systematically investigated. The results indicated that the modification of AC can hardly change the crystalline and crystal size of AgBr particles, while significantly improve their specific surface areas, visible-light absorption and separation efficiency of photogenerated electron–hole pairs. Compared with pure AgBr, the AC/AgBr composite exhibited drastically enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity and stability. The photogenerated electrons and holes, hydroxyl radicals are responsible to the photodegradation of organic pollutants, and the photogenerated holes are the main active species. On the basis of the results and the properties of AC and AgBr, the visible-light photocatalytic mechanism of the AC/AgBr composite was discussed.

  8. A new method of preparation of AgBr/TiO{sub 2} composites and investigation of their photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing Yangyang; Li Rui; Li Qiuye, E-mail:; Yang Jianjun [Henan University, Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials (China)


    Silver bromide/titanium dioxide composites were first prepared using titanic acid nanobelts (TAN) as the TiO{sub 2} source. First, TAN reacted with AgNO{sub 3} to prepare Ag-incorporated TAN by the ion-exchange method, and then AgBr/TAN was obtained after adding NaBr. Finally, AgBr/TAN was transformed to AgBr/TiO{sub 2} composites by calcination. The post-treated calcination would not only convert TAN to TiO{sub 2} (H{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 2} {yields} 2H{sub 2}O + 2TiO{sub 2}), but also increase the effective contact between AgBr and TiO{sub 2}, further to improve the separation of photo-generated electron-holes. The advantage of this preparation method is the small particle size (ca. 10-20 nm) and well dispersion of AgBr on the surface of TiO{sub 2}, and close contact between AgBr and TiO{sub 2}. The effect of the different calcination temperature on the morphology, structure, and properties of AgBr/TiO{sub 2} composites was investigated in detail. The AgBr/TiO{sub 2} composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-Vis DRS). Comparing with pure TAN, AgBr, and AgBr/P25 mixture, the AgBr/TiO{sub 2} composites exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity in decomposition of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation.

  9. Fractional Derivative as Fractional Power of Derivative


    Tarasov, Vasily E.


    Definitions of fractional derivatives as fractional powers of derivative operators are suggested. The Taylor series and Fourier series are used to define fractional power of self-adjoint derivative operator. The Fourier integrals and Weyl quantization procedure are applied to derive the definition of fractional derivative operator. Fractional generalization of concept of stability is considered.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Four new phenylarseniato adducts and organotin derivatives have been synthesized and studied by infrared. The suggested structures are polymeric, (SnX4; X = Cl, Br and SnPh3Cl while being discrete for SnPh2Cl(PhAsO3H2isoBu2NH2. When OH- - - Cl, NH - - - O or NH- - -Cl hydrogen bonds are involved, supramolecular architectures are obtained.

  11. Experimental studies and nuclear model calculations on proton-induced reactions on (nat)Se, (76)Se and (77)Se with particular reference to the production of the medically interesting radionuclides (76)Br and (77)Br. (United States)

    Hassan, H E; Qaim, S M; Shubin, Yu; Azzam, A; Morsy, M; Coenen, H H


    Excitation functions of the reactions (nat)Se(p,x)(75,76,77,82)Br, (76)Se(p,xn)(75,76)Br, (76)Se(p,x)(75)Se and (77)Se(p,xn)(76,77)Br were measured from their respective thresholds up to 40 MeV, with particular emphasis on data for the production of the medically important radionuclides (76)Br and (77)Br. The conventional stacked-foil technique was used. The samples were prepared by a sedimentation process. Irradiations were performed using the compact cyclotron CV 28 and the injector of COSY, both at the Research Centre Jülich. In order to validate the data, nuclear model calculations were performed using the code ALICE-IPPE which is based on the preequilibrium-evaporation model. Good agreement was found between the experimental and theoretical data, except in the high-energy region where the calculated data were somewhat higher. All the measured excitation curves were compared with the data available in the literature. From the experimental data the theoretical yields of all the investigated radionuclides were calculated and plotted as a function of proton energy. The calculated yield of (77)Br from the (nat)Se(p,x)(77)Br process over the energy range E(p)=25-->15 is 72.7 MBq/microAh and from the (77)Se(p,n)(77)Br reaction over E(p)=15-->6 MeV it is 86.2 MBq/microAh. The yield of (76)Br from the (76)Se(p,n)(76)Br reaction for E(p)=15-->8 is 360.1 MBq/microAh and from the (77)Se(p,2n)(76)Br reaction for E(p)=28-->18 MeV it is 879.2 MBq/microAh. The radionuclidic impurity levels are discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Eight new SbF3, SbCl5 and HgX2 (X = Cl, Br amine adducts have been synthesized and their infrared study carried out. Discrete structures have been suggested on the basis of elemental analysis and infrared data, the coordination number of antimony varying from five to nine, while the environment around Hg is tetrahedral.

  13. Eesti moos jõudis Brüsselisse / Ahto Lobjakas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobjakas, Ahto, 1970-


    23. märtsil jõudis Brüsselisse Euroopa Parlamenti 150 purki eestlaste keedetud moosi. Ettevõtmise eesmärk oli selle eestvedaja Jaan Sõrra sõnul vähendada Eestile määratud suhkrutrahvi poole võrra. Lisa: Suhkrutrahv

  14. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity of Anisopus mannii N.E. Br ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity of Anisopus mannii N.E. Br. AB Aliyu, H Ibrahim, AM Musa, MA Ibrahim, AO Oyewale, JO Amupitan. Abstract. Anisopus mannii (Asclepiadaceae) –a plant widely used as an anti-diabetic agent in Northern Nigerian traditional medicine, was subjected to antioxidant evaluation.

  15. Photo-stability of CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum dots for optoelectronic application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Junsheng; Liu, Dongzhou; Al-Marri, Mohammed J.; Nuuttila, Lauri; Lehtivuori, Heli; Zheng, Kaibo

    Due to their superior photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) and tunable optical band gap, all-inorganic CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum dots (QDs) have attracted intensive attention for the application in solar cells, light emitting diodes (LED), photodetectors and laser devices. In this scenario,

  16. Palladium(II)/Brønsted Acid-Catalyzed Enantioselective Oxidative Carbocyclization–Borylation of Enallenes** (United States)

    Jiang, Tuo; Bartholomeyzik, Teresa; Mazuela, Javier; Willersinn, Jochen; Bäckvall, Jan-E


    An enantioselective oxidative carbocyclization–borylation of enallenes that is catalyzed by palladium(II) and a Brønsted acid was developed. Biphenol-type chiral phosphoric acids were superior co-catalysts for inducing the enantioselective cyclization. A number of chiral borylated carbocycles were synthesized in high enantiomeric excess. PMID:25808996

  17. Analytical potential energy function for the Br + H{sub 2} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosaki, Yuzuru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kizu, Kyoto (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment


    Analytical functions with a many-body expansion for the ground and first-excited-state potential energy surfaces for the Br+H{sub 2} system are newly presented in this work. These functions describe the abstraction and exchange reactions qualitatively well, although it has been found that the function for the ground-state potential surface is still quantitatively unsatisfactory. (author)

  18. ÉTUDE DE CAS — Brésil : La contamination par le mercure en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    11 janv. 2011 ... Leishmaniose : maladie sans frontières. Une mouche porteuse d'un parasite mortel hante la jungle des chutes d'Iguazu, qui marque la triple frontière entre le Brésil, l'Argentine et le. Voir davantageLeishmaniose : maladie sans frontières ...

  19. Thiothionyl bromide (S dbnd SBr 2): The elusive isomer of dibromodisulfane (BrSSBr) (United States)

    Ornellas, Fernando R.


    CCSD(T) with a series of correlation consistent basis up to quadruple-zeta is used to investigate the structures, vibrational spectra, relative stability, heats of formation, and barrier to isomerization of S dbnd SBr 2 and BrSSBr. It represents the most accurate and detailed characterization of these molecules to date. We show that the frequency mode at 302 cm -1, detected in various studies and assigned to impurities by some authors, and to the anti-symmetric SBr stretch in BrSSBr by others, thus in fact corresponds to the anti-symmetric SBr stretch in the elusive S dbnd SBr 2 species; it thus corroborates and complements an earlier partial IR spectra study attributable to S dbnd SBr 2. Including corrections for relativistic and core-valence correlation effects, we also predict 26.33 (12.74) kcal/mol for Δ Hf (298.15 K) of S dbnd SBr 2 (BrSSBr). For the S dbnd SBr 2 → BrSSBr reaction, our best estimates for the Gibbs free energy and the enthalpy of the reaction at 298.15 K are -13.71 and -13.44 kcal/mol, respectively. For a value of Δ G# equal to 23.52 kcal/mol, we estimate a TST rate constant, at 298.15 K, of 3.57 × 10 -5 s -1.

  20. Strong pionic intermittency in 'cold'events in 12C–AgBr interactions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper intermittent behaviour of the pions from `cold' and `hot' classes of events from 12C–AgBr interactions at 4.5 A GeV has been studied, separately. The results reveal strong intermittent pattern in case of `cold' class of events.

  1. Childhood Bone and Soft Tissue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    www East and Central African Journal of Surgery. Volume 13 Number 1 œ March / April 2008. Childhood Bone and Soft Tissue Tumours: A review of 43 Treated at two University. Teaching Hospitals in Rwanda (CHUB and CHUK) in RWANDA. M. Makanga, J.P. Majyambere, I. Kakande. Department of ...

  2. [H 2 -Cryptand 222] 2+ (Br 3 – ) 2 as a Tribromide-Type Catalyst for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A stable organic tribromide, [H2-cryptand 222]2+(Br3–)2 was utilized as an active catalyst for the trimethylsilylation/tetrahydropyranylation of alcohols. The method is general for the preparation of OH-protected aliphatic (acyclic and cyclic), aromatic, primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols. Keywords: [H2-cryptand ...

  3. Approche d'un grand espace: la maille municipale des Cerrados brésiliens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe WANIEZ


    Full Text Available L'espace des Cerrados brésiliens est en cours de colonisation. Le système d'information SISECSO facilite l'analyse des transformations économiques et sociales de ce territoire. Le film de la formation de la maille municipale est une première approche originale.

  4. Foliar anatomy and the delimitation of the genus Triodia R. Br

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burbidge, Nancy Tyson


    Peculiarities in leaf anatomy support the opinion that the name Triodia R. Br. should be confined to the Australian species. The leaves of species of Plectrachne Henr. are quite different from those of Triraphis mollis, though formerly included in this genus, but are remarkably similar to those of

  5. Understanding the Relationship among Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry, and Lewis Theories (United States)

    Paik, Seoung-Hey


    Many studies suggest that students have difficulties in learning acid-base concepts. This study presents some conflicts in the textbook descriptions of these concepts and proposes these to be the cause of the students' difficulties. This is especially true regarding the description of the relationship among the Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry, and Lewis…

  6. Berit Teeäär - meie mees Brüsselis / Teet Korsten

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Korsten, Teet


    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje : Subbota 20. sept. lk. 2. Endine Riigikogu aseesimehe abi, praegune Eesti esindaja Euroopa Parlamendi kristlik-demokraatide ja konservatiivsete erakondade fraktsioonis Berit Teeäär räägib oma elust Brüsselis

  7. Protective effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Bacopa floribunda ( ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacopa floribunda (R.Br.) Wettst (Scrophulariaceae) leaf is used in traditional African and Ayurvedic medicine as a brain tonic for promoting memory and psychological disorders. Hence this study was designed to investigate effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Bacopa floribunda (HeBF) on memory impairment and oxidative ...

  8. DFT study on the mechanism of InBr3-catalyzed [2+2] cycloaddition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. Density functional theory calculations at the M06-2X level were done to study the reaction mech- anism and regioselectivity for the [2+2] cycloaddition of allyltrimethylsilane with alkynones using InBr3 as the catalyst. The solvent effect was described by the single-point calculations with SMD model in 1,2-.

  9. L’Île Brésil: la force d’un mythe cartographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enali de Biaggi


    Full Text Available Sur de nombreuses cartes européennes des XVIe et XVIIe siècles, le Brésil apparaît comme une île. Cette représentation a incontestablement servi à la formation du plus grand pays d’Amérique latine.

  10. Hydrothermal Preparation of Visible-Light-Driven N-Br-Codoped TiO2 Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Sheng


    Full Text Available Using a facile hydrothermal method, N-Br-codoped TiO2 photocatalyst that had intense absorption in visible region was prepared at low temperature (100°C, through a direct reaction between nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 solution and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS showed the existence of N-Ti-N, O-Ti-N-R, Ti3+ (attribute to the doped Br atoms by charge compensation, and TiOxNy species, indicating the successful codoping of N and Br atoms, which were substituted for lattice oxygen without any influence on the crystalline phase of TiO2. In contrast to the N-doped sample, the N-Br-codoped TiO2 photocatalyst could more readily photodegrade methylene blue (MB under visible-light irradiation. The visible-light catalytic activity of thus-prepared photocatalyst resulted from the synergetic effect of the doped nitrogen and bromine, which not only gave high absorbance in the visible-light range, but also reduced electron-hole recombination rate.

  11. On the behavior of Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi relations for transition metal oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vojvodic, Aleksandra; Vallejo, Federico Calle; Guo, Wei


    Versatile Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relations are found from density functional theory for a wide range of transition metal oxides including rutiles and perovskites. For oxides, the relation depends on the type of oxide, the active site, and the dissociating molecule. The slope of the BEP...

  12. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of an unprecedented phosphinine-Cu4Br4 cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roesch, Philipp; Nitsch, Jörn; Lutz, Martin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304828971; Wiecko, Jelena; Steffen, Andreas; Müller, Christian


    A hitherto unprecedented polynuclear phosphinine-Cu(I) complex has been prepared and crystallographically characterized. The molecular structure in the crystal verifies the presence of the heterocubanetype tetrameric cluster [LCuBr]4 (L = 2,4-diphenyl-5-methyl-6-(2,3- dimethylphenyl)phosphinine),

  13. Translation, Adaptation, and Validation of the Brazilian Version of the Dickman Impulsivity Inventory (Br-DII) (United States)

    Gomes, Áurea K. V.; Diniz, Leandro F. M.; Lage, Guilherme M.; de Miranda, Débora M.; de Paula, Jonas J.; Costa, Danielle; Albuquerque, Maicon R.


    Impulsivity has mainly been described as a negative or dysfunctional characteristic associated with several disorders. However, impulsivity is not only related to dysfunctional outcomes and may explain individual differences in optimal human functioning as well. The Dickman Impulsivity Inventory (DII) is a self-report instrument measuring both the dysfunctional and the functional aspects of impulsivity. In this study, we performed the translation and cultural adaptation of the DII to the Brazilian context and analyzed its psychometric properties. Translation and cultural adaptation followed a rigorous process, which relied on an expert panel in the cross-cultural adaptation of psychological instruments. Data from 405 undergraduate students were obtained for the Brazilian version of the DII (Br-DII). The 23 items of the Br-DII was considered unsuitable according to model fit indices of the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (both for Oblique and Orthogonal models). Exploratory Factor Analysis showed an 18 items version of the Br-DII to be suitable (CFI = 0.92; TLI = 0.90, and RMSEA = 0.057). The DII’s 18 items version also showed adequate Cronbach’s alpha, intraclass correlation coefficient, and convergent and discriminant validity with the BIS-11. Therefore, the Br-DII demonstrated reliability and validity in the measurement of functional and dysfunctional impulsivity. PMID:29209247

  14. Woodsia ilvensis (L.) R.Br. (Roestbruine wimpervaren) nieuw voor de Benelux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den Louis-Jan; Linde, te Benno


    In 2008 is Woodsia ilvensis (L.) R.Br. voor het eerst in Nederland gevonden. Het enige exemplaar groeide op een 60 jaar oud laag bakstenen muurtje in Doetinchem. De dichtst nabij gelegen groeiplaats van deze kleine varensoort ligt in de Harz in Duitsland op zo’n 330 km afstand van deze stad. In 2008

  15. East and Central African Journal of Surgery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patrick 142. Gastric Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment guidelines 2008: Uganda Cancer Working Group. M. Galukande M, A. Luwaga2, J. Jombwe1, J. Fualal1, J. Kigula-Mugamba2, A. Kanyike2,. A. Gakwaya1. 1Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Makerere University. 2Radiotherapy department ...

  16. Revisiting Max Brödel's 1939 classic coronal illustration of the ear. (United States)

    Jackler, Robert K; Gralapp, Christine L; Mudry, Albert


    To create an anatomically more accurate coronal schematic illustration of the ear. Analysis of Max Brödel's 1939 classic coronal depiction of the ear including the story of its creation. Utilization of high-resolution CT images and 3D digital models of the temporal bone to create an updated and more anatomically accurate illustration. For nearly 7 decades, Brödel's beautiful illustration has served as the inspiration for innumerable textbook and article illustrations. In his design, the artist intentionally choose to diverge from literal anatomy in that he distorted some structures (such as the cochlea and posterior semicircular canal) to bring them into greater prominence and clarity and eliminated others (such as the carotid artery) to avoid a cluttered image. Numerous anatomic errors exist such as a 180-degree reversal of the incus and a markedly foreshortened internal auditory canal. Brödel's illustration has been routinely imitated by subsequent illustrators (in collaboration with otologists) and virtually all have faithfully reproduced Brödel's artistic distortions and inadvertent errors in their depictions--often with the assumption that they represented actual anatomy rather than an artistic interpretation. It is hoped that adoption of a more anatomically accurate standard coronal schematic of the ear will enhance the clarity and precision of future illustrations in the otologic literature.

  17. Role of Brønsted acid in selective production of furfural in biomass pyrolysis. (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Liu, Xuejun; Lu, Meizhen; Hu, Xinyue; Lu, Leigang; Tian, Xiaoning; Ji, Jianbing


    In this work, the role of Brønsted acid for furfural production in biomass pyrolysis on supported sulfates catalysts was investigated. The introduction of Brønsted acid was shown to improve the degradation of polysaccharides to intermediates for furfural, which did not work well when only Lewis acids were used in the process. Experimental results showed that CuSO4/HZSM-5 catalyst exhibited the best performance for furfural (28% yield), which was much higher than individual HZSM-5 (5%) and CuSO4 (6%). The optimum reaction conditions called for the mass ratio of CuSO4/HZSM-5 to be 0.4 and the catalyst/biomass mass ratio to be 0.5. The recycled catalyst exhibited low productivity (9%). Analysis of the catalysts by Py-IR revealed that the CuSO4/HZSM-5 owned a stronger Brønsted acid intensity than HZSM-5 or the recycled CuSO4/HZSM-5. Therefore, the existence of Brønsted acid is necessary to achieve a more productive degradation of biomass for furfural. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Study of Br, Zn, Cu and Fe concentrations in healthy and cancer breast tissues by TXRF (United States)

    Magalhães, T.; Becker, M.; Carvalho, M. L.; von Bohlen, A.


    Tissue samples of fifteen breasts were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry in order to compare the elemental concentration in healthy and carcinoma regions of the same individual. Five women were from Germany and ten from Portugal living in big cities. The elemental distribution of P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu and Br present in both normal and cancerous breast tissues were studied. Several contiguous thin sections (up to 10 μm thickness) of each tissue were analyzed by TXRF in order to study the homogeneity in the elemental concentration along each tissue. Correlations between elemental concentrations were established. The main goal of this study was to demonstrate the presence of Br which is assumed to play an important role in breast carcinoma development. A similar pattern for almost all the analyzed tissues was obtained: levels of P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br increased in carcinoma tissues when compared with the corresponding healthy ones. Contrarily to the findings of this study, those of early studies showed decreased Br levels for different carcinoma tissues, unlike to most other heavy elements.

  19. Experimental and theoretical excitation functions for natBr(p,x) reactions. (United States)

    de Villiers, Dawid; Nortier, Meiring; Richter, Werner


    The excitation functions for protons incident on natBr were measured from threshold up to 100 MeV by means of the stacked-foil technique. Where applicable, the measured cross-section values are compared with previously published values. Theoretical cross-sections were also calculated by means of the computer code ALICE (IPPE) for comparison purposes.

  20. Use of Energy Method to Simulate the Performance of LiBr/H 2 O ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Absorption refrigeration system provides large potential for reducing heat pollution of the environment. In this paper, a model has been developed for description of a simple LiBr / H2O absorption system in a climatic setting that is amenable to change. The fundamental characteristics and performance index of the system ...

  1. Excess Enthalpies of Mixing of Binary Mixtures of NaCl, KCl, NaBr ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 1, 2004 ... Excess enthalpies of mixing for six possible binary combinations of solutions of NaCl, KCl, NaBr and KBr in mixed ternary solvents composed of ... practical interest for industrial and geochemical applications. Interest in ... Pitzer,11–16 where the excess Gibbs energy of the system is repre- sented by a ...

  2. Chemical Composition of Salvia plebeian R.Br. Essential Oil and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Salvia plebeian R.Br. (Labiatae) aerial parts against the larvae of Aedes aegypti L. Methods: The essential oil of S. plebeian aerial parts was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ...

  3. Synthesis and crystal structure determination of Br2SeIBr ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Indian Academy of Sciences. 223. Synthesis and crystal structure determination of Br2SeIBr polyhalogen–chalcogen. A A ALEMI* and E SOLAIMANI†. Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Iran. †Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Shahrood, Shahrood, Iran.

  4. 73 Road Traffic Injuries at Kigali ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Page 1. East and Central African Journal of Surgery East and Central African Journal of Surgery. Volume 13 Number 1 – March / April 2008. 73. Road Traffic Injuries at Kigali University Central Teaching Hospital, Rwanda. E. Twagirayezu, R. Teteli, A. Bonane, E. Rugwizangoga,. Kigali University ...

  5. The Brazilian INPE-UFSM NANOSATC-BR CubeSat Development Capacity Building Program (United States)

    Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Cupertino Durao, Otavio S.

    The Brazilian INPE-UFSM NANOSATC-BR CubeSat Development Capacity Building Program (CBP) and the results of the NANOSATC-BR1, the first Brazilian CubeSat launching, expected for 2014's first semester, are presented. The CBP consists of two CubeSats, NANOSATC-BR 1 (1U) & 2 (2U) and is expected operate in orbit for at least 12 months each, with capacity building in space science, engineering and computer sciences for the development of space technologies using CubeSats satellites. The INPE-UFSM’s CBP Cooperation is basically among: (i) the Southern Regional Space Research Center (CRS), from the Brazilian INPE/MCTI, where acts the Program's General Coordinator and Projects NANOSATC-BR 1 & 2 Manager, having technical collaboration and management of the Mission’s General Coordinator for Engineering and Space Technology at INPE’s Headquarter (HQ), in São José dos Campos, São Paulo; (ii) the Santa Maria Space Science Laboratory (LACESM/CT) from the Federal University of Santa Maria - (UFSM); (iii) the Santa Maria Design House (SMDH); (iv) the Graduate Program in Microelectronics from the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (MG/II/UFRGS); and (v) the Aeronautic Institute of Technology (ITA/DCTA/CA-MD). The INPE-UFSM’s CBP has the involvement of UFSM' undergraduate students and graduate students from: INPE/MCTI, MG/II/UFRGS and ITA/DCTA/CA-MD. The NANOSATC-BR 1 & 2 Projects Ground Stations (GS) capacity building operation with VHF/UHF band and S-band antennas, are described in two specific papers at this COSPAR-2014. This paper focuses on the development of NANOSATC-BR 1 & 2 and on the launching of NANOSATC-BR1. The Projects' concepts were developed to: i) monitor, in real time, the Geospace, the Ionosphere, the energetic particle precipitation and the disturbances at the Earth's Magnetosphere over the Brazilian Territory, and ii) the determination of their effects on regions such as the South American Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA) and the Brazilian sector of the

  6. On $n$-derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Sattari


    Full Text Available In this article, the notion of $n-$derivation is introduced for all integers $ngeq 2$. Although all derivations are $n-$derivations,  in general these notions are not equivalent. Some properties of ordinary derivations are  investigated for $n-$derivations. Also, we show that under certain mild condition  $n-$derivations are derivations.

  7. Breast cancer 1 (BrCa1 may be behind decreased lipogenesis in adipose tissue from obese subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Ortega

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Expression and activity of the main lipogenic enzymes is paradoxically decreased in obesity, but the mechanisms behind these findings are poorly known. Breast Cancer 1 (BrCa1 interacts with acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC reducing the rate of fatty acid biosynthesis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate BrCa1 in human adipose tissue according to obesity and insulin resistance, and in vitro cultured adipocytes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: BrCa1 gene expression, total and phosphorylated (P- BrCa1, and ACC were analyzed in adipose tissue samples obtained from a total sample of 133 subjects. BrCa1 expression was also evaluated during in vitro differentiation of human adipocytes and 3T3-L1 cells. RESULTS: BrCa1 gene expression was significantly up-regulated in both omental (OM; 1.36-fold, p = 0.002 and subcutaneous (SC; 1.49-fold, p = 0.001 adipose tissue from obese subjects. In parallel with increased BrCa1 mRNA, P-ACC was also up-regulated in SC (p = 0.007 as well as in OM (p = 0.010 fat from obese subjects. Consistent with its role limiting fatty acid biosynthesis, both BrCa1 mRNA (3.5-fold, p<0.0001 and protein (1.2-fold, p = 0.001 were increased in pre-adipocytes, and decreased during in vitro adipogenesis, while P-ACC decreased during differentiation of human adipocytes (p = 0.005 allowing lipid biosynthesis. Interestingly, BrCa1 gene expression in mature adipocytes was restored by inflammatory stimuli (macrophage conditioned medium, whereas lipogenic genes significantly decreased. CONCLUSIONS: The specular findings of BrCa1 and lipogenic enzymes in adipose tissue and adipocytes reported here suggest that BrCa1 might help to control fatty acid biosynthesis in adipocytes and adipose tissue from obese subjects.

  8. Diurnal variations of BrONO2 observed by MIPAS-B at midlatitudes and in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wetzel


    Full Text Available The first stratospheric measurements of the diurnal variation in the inorganic bromine (Bry reservoir species BrONO2 around sunrise and sunset are reported. Arctic flights of the balloon-borne Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS-B were carried out from Kiruna (68° N, Sweden in January 2010 and March 2011 inside the stratospheric polar vortices where diurnal variations of BrONO2 around sunrise have been observed. High nighttime BrONO2 volume mixing ratios of up to 21 pptv (parts per trillion by volume were detected in late winter 2011 in the absence of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs. In contrast, the amount of measured BrONO2 was significantly lower in January 2010 due to low available NO2 amounts (for the build-up of BrONO2, the heterogeneous destruction of BrONO2 on PSC particles, and the gas-phase interaction of BrO (the source to form BrONO2 with ClO. A further balloon flight took place at midlatitudes from Timmins (49° N, Canada in September 2014. Mean BrONO2 mixing ratios of 22 pptv were observed after sunset in the altitude region between 21 and 29 km. Measurements are compared and discussed with the results of a multi-year simulation performed with the chemistry climate model ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC. The calculated temporal variation in BrONO2 largely reproduces the balloon-borne observations. Using the nighttime simulated ratio between BrONO2 and Bry, the amount of Bry observed by MIPAS-B was estimated to be about 21–25 pptv in the lower stratosphere.

  9. Slice imaging of the UV photodissociation of CH2BrCl from the maximum of the first absorption band (United States)

    Chicharro, D. V.; Marggi Poullain, S.; González-Vázquez, J.; Bañares, L.


    The photodissociation dynamics of bromochloromethane (CH2BrCl) have been investigated at the maximum of the first absorption band, at the excitation wavelengths 203 and 210 nm, using the slice imaging technique in combination with a probe detection of bromine-atom fragments, Br(2P3/2) and Br*(2P1/2), via (2 + 1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization. Translational energy distributions and angular distributions reported for both Br(2P3/2) and Br*(2P1/2) fragments show two contributions for the Br(2P3/2) channel and a single contribution for the Br*(2P1/2) channel. High level ab initio calculations have been performed in order to elucidate the dissociation mechanisms taking place. The computed absorption spectrum and potential energy curves indicate the main contribution of the populated 4A″, 5A', and 6A' excited states leading to a C-Br cleavage. Consistently with the results, the single contribution for the Br*(2P1/2) channel has been attributed to direct dissociation through the 6A' state as well as an indirect dissociation of the 5A' state requiring a 5A' → 4A' reverse non-adiabatic crossing. Similarly, a faster contribution for the Br(2P3/2) channel characterized by a similar energy partitioning and anisotropy than those for the Br*(2P1/2) channel is assigned to a direct dissociation through the 5A' state, while the slower component appears to be due to the direct dissociation on the 4A″ state.

  10. Ecotoxicity of glyphosate and aterbane® br surfactant on guaru (Phalloceros caudimaculatus = Ecotoxicologia do glifosato e surfactante aterbane® br para guaru (Phalloceros caudimaculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Sayuri Shiogiri


    Full Text Available Aquatic macrophytes are important components of aquatic ecosystems, but these plants have become a problem due to their occurrence in different regions. Some studies aimed to demonstrate the effectiveness of herbicides to control these macrophytes; however, fewstudies report the possible ecotoxicological effects. The objective of this study was to estimate the acute toxicity (LC (I50;96h and assess water quality variables for glyphosate in the Rodeo® formulation, Aterbane® BR surfactant and mixtures of glyphosate + 0.5% and 1.0% of surfactant, for the guaru fish (Phallocerus caudimaculatus. The guaru was exposed to increasing concentrationsof glyphosate and a mixture of glyphosate + 0.5 and 1.0% of surfactant. The mixture of glyphosate and glyphosate + 0.5 and 1.0% of surfactant showed (LC (I50;96h > 975.0 mg L-1. For the surfactant, the rate was 5.81 mg L-1. The glyphosate and mixtures of glyphosate + 0.5% and 1.0% of surfactant caused a decrease in pH and dissolved oxygen and increased the electrical conductivity of water. Glyphosate in the Rodeo® formulation and the mixtures with surfactantAterbane® BR can be classified as practically nontoxic, whereas surfactant Aterbane® BR can be considered as moderately toxic to guaru.As macrófitas aquáticas são importantes componentes dos ecossistemas, porém elas têm se tornado um problema pela sua ocorrência em diversas regiões. Alguns estudos visam comprovar a eficácia dos herbicidas no controle dessas macrófitas, porém, poucos trabalhos relatam os possíveis efeitos ecotoxicológicos. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a toxicidade aguda (LC (I50;96h e avaliar as variáveis de qualidade de água para o glifosato na formulação Rodeo®, o surfactante Aterbane® BR e das misturas de glifosato + 0,5 e 1,0% do surfactante, para o peixe guaru (Phallocerus caudimaculatus. Para tanto, o guaru foi exposto a concentrações de glifosato e da mistura do glifosato + 0,5 e 1,0% do

  11. Isotope fractionation in aqua-gas systems: Cl(2)-HCl-Cl(-), Br(2)-HBr-Br(-) and H(2)S-S(2-). (United States)

    Czarnacki, Maciej; Hałas, Stanisław


    We report calculated values of isotope fractionation factors between chlorine, bromine and sulphide hydrated anions and respective gaseous compounds: hydrogen chloride, hydrogen bromide, molecular chlorine and bromine and hydrogen sulphide. For the calculation of the reduced partition function ratios (β-factors) of hydrated Cl(-), Br(-) and S(2-) anions, we used a model of a cluster composed of the considered ion surrounded by two shells of H(2)O molecules. Only the electrostatic interaction between ion and water molecules treated as electric dipoles was taken into account. The β-factors for the gaseous compounds (HCl, Cl(2), HBr, Br(2) and H(2)S) were calculated from vibrational frequencies reported by Urey and Greiff [Isotopic Exchange Equilibria, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 57, 321 (1935)] and Schauble et al. [Theoretical Estimates Equilibrium Chlorine-Isotope Fractionation, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 67, 3267 (2003)]. Low-temperature isotope fractionation between chlorine-hydrated anion and hydrogen chloride attains 1.55-1.68‰ (this work), which is in good agreement with experimental data (1.4-1.8‰) [Z.D. Sharp, J.D. Barnes, T.P. Fischer and M. Halick, An Experimental Determination of Chlorine Isotope Fractionation in Acid Systems and Applications to Volcanic Fumaroles, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 264 (2010)]. The predicted isotope fractionations for hydrated bromine and HBr, Br(2) gases are very small, 1000 ln α, do not exceed 0.8‰; thus, the expected variations of bromine isotope composition in aqua-gas systems will require enhanced precision for their detection. In contrast, the sulphur isotope fractionation between H(2)S( gas ) and S(2-) attains 6.0‰ at room temperature and drops nearly linearly to 3.1‰ at 350°C.

  12. Stability and Performance of CsPbI2Br Thin Films and Solar Cell Devices. (United States)

    Mariotti, Silvia; Hutter, Oliver S; Phillips, Laurie J; Yates, Peter J; Kundu, Biswajit; Durose, Ken


    In this manuscript, the inorganic perovskite CsPbI2Br is investigated as a photovoltaic material that offers higher stability than the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials. It is demonstrated that CsPbI2Br does not irreversibly degrade to its component salts as in the case of methylammonium lead iodide but instead is induced (by water vapor) to transform from its metastable brown cubic (1.92 eV band gap) phase to a yellow phase having a higher band gap (2.85 eV). This is easily reversed by heating to 350 °C in a dry environment. Similarly, exposure of unencapsulated photovoltaic devices to water vapor causes current (JSC) loss as the absorber transforms to its more transparent (yellow) form, but this is also reversible by moderate heating, with over 100% recovery of the original device performance. NMR and thermal analysis show that the high band gap yellow phase does not contain detectable levels of water, implying that water induces the transformation but is not incorporated as a major component. Performances of devices with best efficiencies of 9.08% (VOC = 1.05 V, JSC = 12.7 mA cm-2 and FF = 68.4%) using a device structure comprising glass/ITO/c-TiO2/CsPbI2Br/Spiro-OMeTAD/Au are presented, and further results demonstrating the dependence of the performance on the preparation temperature of the solution processed CsPbI2Br films are shown. We conclude that encapsulation of CsPbI2Br to exclude water vapor should be sufficient to stabilize the cubic brown phase, making the material of interest for use in practical PV devices.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harno Dwi Pranowo


    Full Text Available Monte Carlo simulations were performed for I-, Br- and Cl-, in water using ab initio pair potential. The systems consisting of one anion in 215 solvent molecules have been simulated at 298 K. Anion-water pair potentials have been newly developed based on ab initio calculations of split valence basis set plus polarization quality. The structure of the solvated ion is discussed in terms of radial distribution functions, coordination number and pair potential distribution. Structural properties were investigated by means of radial distribution functions and their running integration numbers, leading for the first solvation shell to an average 12.60 H2O around I- with I--O distance of 3.74 Å and I--H distance of 2.86 Å, 11.84 H2O around Br- with Br--O distance of 3.40 Å and Br--H distance of 2.42 Å, and 10.68 H2O around Cl- with Cl--O distance of 3.20 Å and Cl--H distance of 2.24 Å, respectively. The structure of the water-anion complexes are agreed with dipole orientation. Pair energy distribution of hydrated anions showed that the pair interaction energy are increase from I-, Cl-, to Br-, namely, -6.28, -9.98 and -13.67 kcal/mol, respectively. The coordination number distribution analysis for the first solvation shell of the all hydrated anions indicated a high exchange rate for the first solvation shell ligands.   Keywords: Monte Carlo simulation, halogen anion, ab initio

  14. Room-temperature synthesis of pure perovskite-related Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals and their ligand-mediated evolution into highly luminescent CsPbBr3 nanosheets (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Li, Dongmei; Wang, Cong; Yao, Wei; Wang, Hao; Huang, Kaixiang


    Currently, all-inorganic cesium lead-halide perovskite nanocrystals have attracted enormous attentions owing to their excellent optical performances. While great efforts have been devoted to CsPbBr3 nanocrystals, the perovskite-related Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals, which were newly reported, still remained poorly understood. Here, we reported a novel room-temperature reaction strategy to synthesize pure perovskite-related Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals. Size of the products could be adjusted through altering the amount of ligands, simply. A mixture of two good solvents with different polarity was innovatively used as precursor solvent, being one key to the high-yield Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals synthesis. Other two keys were Cs+ precursor concentration and surface ligands. Ingenious experiments were designed to reveal the underlying reaction mechanism. No excitonic emission was observed from the prepared Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals in our work. We considered the green emission which was observed in other reports originated from the avoidless transformation of Cs4PbBr6 into CsPbBr3 nanocrystals. Indeed, the new-prepared Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals could transform into CsPbBr3 nanosheets with surface ligands mediated. The new-transformed two-dimensional CsPbBr3 nanosheets could evolve into large-size nanosheets. The influences of surface ligand density on the fluorescent intensity and stability of transformed CsPbBr3 nanosheets were also explained. Notably, the photoluminescence quantum yield of the as-transformed CsPbBr3 nanosheets could reach as high as 61.6% in the form of thin film. The fast large-scale synthesis of Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals and their ligand-mediated transformation into high-fluorescent CsPbBr3 nanosheets will be beneficial to the future optoelectronic applications. Our work provides new approaches to understand the structural evolution and light-emitting principle of perovskite nanocrystals. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. The binuclear dual emitter [Br(CO)3Re(PN)(NP)Re(CO)3Br] (PN): 3-chloro-6-(4-diphenylphosphinyl)butoxypyridazine, a new bridging P,N-bidentate ligand resulting from the ring opening of tetrahydrofuran. (United States)

    Saldías, Marianela; Manzur, Jorge; Palacios, Rodrigo E; Gómez, María L; Fuente, Julio De La; Günther, Germán; Pizarro, Nancy; Vega, Andrés


    Lithium diphenylphosphide unexpectedly provokes the ring-opening of tetrahydrofuran (THF) and by reaction with 3,6-dichloropyridazine leads to the formation of the ligand 3-chloro-6-(4-diphenylphosphinyl)butoxypyridazine (P⋯N), which was isolated. The reaction of this ligand with the (Re(CO)3(THF)Br)2 dimer yields the novel complex [Br(CO)3Re(μ-3-chloro-6-(4-diphenylphosphinyl)butoxypyridazine)2Re(CO)3Br] (BrRe(P⋯N)(N⋯P)ReBr), which was crystallized in the form of a chloroform solvate, (C46H40Br2Cl2N4O8P2Re2)·(CHCl3). The monoclinic crystal (P21/n) displays a bimetallic cage structure with a symmetry inversion centre in the middle of the rhenium to rhenium line. The molecule shows two oxidation signals occurring at +1.50 V and +1.76 V which were assigned to the Re(I)/Re(II) and Re(II)/Re(III) metal-centered couples, respectively, while signals observed at -1.38 V and -1.68 V were assigned to ligand centered reductions. Experimental and DFT/TDDFT results indicate that the UV-Vis absorption maximum of BrRe(P⋯N)(N⋯P)ReBr occurring near 380 nm displays a metal to ligand charge transfer (MLCT) character, which is consistent with CV results. Upon excitation at this wavelength, a weak emission (Φem P⋯N ligand's long carbon chain. Measurements in a frozen solvent at 77 K, where vibrational deactivation is hindered, show intense emission associated with the (3)MLCT state. These results demonstrate that BrRe(P⋯N)(N⋯P)ReBr preserves the dual emitting nature previously reported for the mononuclear complex RePNBr, with emission associated with and states.

  16. Ab initio treatment of the chemical reaction precursor complex Br(2P)-HCN. 1. Adiabatic and diabatic potential surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fishchuk, A.V.; Merritt, J.M.; Avoird, A. van der


    The three adiabatic potential surfaces of the Br(P-2)-HCN complex that correlate to the P-2 ground state of the Br atom were calculated ab initio. With the aid of a geometry-dependent diabatic mixing angle, also calculated ab initio, these adiabatic potential surfaces were transformed into a set of

  17. Manganese dioxide causes spurious gold values in flame atomic-absorption readings from HBr-Br2 digestions (United States)

    Campbell, W.L.


    False readings, apparently caused by the presence of high concentrations of manganese dioxide, have been observed in our current flame atomic-absorption procedure for the determination of gold. After a hydrobromic acid (HBr)-bromine (Br2) leach, simply heating the sample to boiling to remove excess Br2 prior to extraction with methyl-isobutyl-ketone (MIBK) eliminates these false readings. ?? 1981.

  18. Photocatalytic activity of novel AgBr/WO3 composite photocatalyst under visible light irradiation for methyl orange degradation. (United States)

    Cao, Jing; Luo, Bangde; Lin, Haili; Chen, Shifu


    A novel AgBr/WO(3) composite photocatalyst was synthesized by loading AgBr on WO(3) substrate via deposition-precipitation method and characterized by XRD, SEM and DRS. The as-prepared AgBr/WO(3) was composed of monoclinic WO(3) substrate and face-centered cubic AgBr nanoparticles with crystalline sizes less than 56.8 nm. AgBr/WO(3) had absorption edge at about 470 nm in the visible light region. The optical AgBr content in AgBr/WO(3) was 0.30:1 (Ag/W) at the corresponding apparent rate, k(app), of 0.0160 min(-1) for MO degradation. The highest k(app) was 0.0216 min(-1) for 4 g/L catalyst. The OH acted as active species. Addition of H(2)O(2) within 0.020 mmol/L can efficiently trap electrons to generate more OH and further improved photocatalytic activity of AgBr/WO(3). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid Formation of Molecular Bromine from Deliquesced NaBr Aerosol in the Presence of Ozone and UV Light (United States)

    The formation of gas-phase bromine from aqueous sodium bromide aerosols is investigated through a combination of chamber experiments and chemical kinetics modeling. Experiments show that Br2(g) is produced rapidly from deliquesced NaBr aerosols in the presence of OH radicals prod...

  20. Alkaline hydrothermal treatment of brominated high impact polystyrene (HIPS-Br) for bromine and bromine-free plastic recovery. (United States)

    Brebu, Mihai; Bhaskar, Thallada; Muto, Akinori; Sakata, Yusaku


    A method to recover both Br and Br-free plastic from brominated flame retardant high impact polystyrene (HIPS-Br) was proposed. HIPS-Br containing 15% Br was treated in autoclave at 280 degrees C using water or KOH solution of various amounts and concentrations. Hydrothermal treatment (30 ml water) leads to 90% debromination of 1g HIPS-Br but plastic is strongly degraded and could not be recovered. Alkaline hydrothermal treatment (45 ml or 60 ml KOH 1M) showed similar debromination for up to 12 g HIPS-Br and plastic was recovered as pellets with molecular weight distribution close to that of the initial material. Debromination occurs at melt plastic/KOH solution interface when liquid/vapour equilibrium is attained inside autoclave (280 degrees C and 7 MPa in our experimental conditions) and depends on the plastic amount/KOH volume ratio. The antimony oxide synergist from HIPS-Br remains in recovered plastic during treatment. A pictorial imagination of the proposed debromination process is presented.

  1. Tartu ülikooli Vene ajaloo professor Alexander Brückner (1834-1896) / Tiit Rosenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rosenberg, Tiit, 1946-


    Alexander Brückneri elust, vaadetest, loomingust ja perekonnast. Alexander Brücknerist kui Õpetatud Eesti Seltsi liikmest. Tartu Ülikooli vene ajaloo õppejõududest. Lühidalt Tartust pärit vene ajaloo uurijast Ernst Adolf Herrmannist

  2. RAPD fingerprint to appraise the genetic fidelity of in vitro propagated Araucaria excelsa R. Br. var. glauca plantlets. (United States)

    Sarmast, Mostafa Khoshhal; Salehi, Hassan; Ramezani, Amin; Abolimoghadam, Ali Asghar; Niazi, Ali; Khosh-Khui, Morteza


    Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used as a tool to assess the genetic fidelity of in vitro propagated Araucaria excelsa R. Br. var. glauca with explants taken from orthotropic stem along with their related mother plants after treatment with kinetin, 2iP, BA (0.02-0.26 mg/l) and TDZ (0.001-1 mg/l) to produce axillary shoots. TDZ and kinetin induced more shoot and higher length per explant. Results showed a total of 1,676 fragments were generated with 12 RAPD primers in micropropagated plants and their donor mother plants. The number of loci ranged from 6 in OPB 12-18 in OPY 07 with a size ranging from 250 bp in OPH 19-3500 bp in OPH 11. Cluster analysis of RAPD data using UPGMA (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average) revealed more than 92% genetic similarities between tissue cultured plants and their corresponding mother plant measured by the Jaccard's similarity coefficient. Similarity matrix and PCoA (two dimensional principal coordinate analysis) resulted in the same affinity. Primers had shown 36% polymorphism. However, careful monitoring of tissue culture derived plants might be needed to determine that rooted shoots are adventitious in origin.

  3. Theoretical and experimental studies of optical nonlinearities of haloforms CHX3, X=F, Cl, Br, I (United States)

    Karna, Shashi P.; Dupuis, Michel; Perrin, Eric; Prasad, Paras N.


    In this paper, we present ab initio calculations of static polarizability α and static first and second hyperpolarizabilities β and γ for the haloform series CHX3, where X=F, Cl, Br, and I using the effective core potential (ECP) approach. The microscopic optical nonlinearities α, β, and γ are calculated as the derivatives of the energy with respect to the electric field, with the energy determined by means of the self-consistent-field approach (SCF), and nonlinearities calculated by means of the coupled perturbed Hartree-Fock (CPHF) formalism. To test the approximation introduced by the ECP method, nonlinear optical responses for the lighter members of the series CHF3 and CHCl3 are compared with all electron calculations. The effects due to basis set size and inclusion of diffuse and polarization functions of d and f type are examined. The ECP technique is then used to calculate optical nonlinearities for CHBr3 and CHI3. Although very good agreement is found between calculated and experimental polarizabilities α for the haloform series, the agreement is not as good for the higher order polarizabilities. Possible causes for this discrepancy are discussed.

  4. Optical properties of Pb2 -based aggregated phases in CsBr Thin film and single crystal matrices (United States)

    Nikl, M.; Nitsch, K.; Mihokova, E.; Polak, K.; Fabeni, P.; Pazzi, G. P.; Gurioli, M.; Phani, R.; Santucci, S.; Scacco, A.; Somma, F.

    Emission characteristics of CsPbBr3 and Cs4PbBr6 aggregates in CsBr bulk and thin film matrices are reported. The emission of the former aggregated phase is peaking about 520-560 nm. It shows small Stokes shift (50 meV) related to narrow free exciton emission line of sub-nanosecond decay times. Quantum size effect was evidenced for the aggregates of 6-7 nm in diameter. The Cs4PbBr6 aggregates show emission peak at 375 nm and overall emission characteristics are similar to those of KBr: Pb, which is explained by very close local arrangement of emission centres-(PbBr6)4- octahedra-in both structures.

  5. Characterization of LaBr{sub 3}:Ce and CeBr{sub 3} calorimeter modules for 3D imaging in gamma-ray astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gostojić, A., E-mail: [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France); Tatischeff, V.; Kiener, J.; Hamadache, C.; Peyré, J.; Karkour, N.; Linget, D.; Gibelin, L.; Lafay, X.; Grave, X.; Dosme, N.; Legay, E. [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France); Blin, S. [OMEGA, École Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Barrillon, P. [LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Saclay, 91898 Orsay (France)


    For the purpose of future space instrumentation for γ-ray astronomy, we developed a small prototype of a Compton telescope and studied novel detector modules aimed for Compton imaging. We assembled and tested 2 modules, one with a cerium-doped lanthanum(III) bromide (LaBr{sub 3}:Ce) crystal and the other with cerium(III) bromide (CeBr{sub 3}). Both crystals measure 5×5 cm{sup 2} in area and are 1 cm thick. They are coupled to and read out by 64-channel multi-anode PMTs. Our goals are to obtain the best possible energy resolution and position resolution in 3D on the first impact of an incident γ-ray within the detector. Both information are vital for successful reconstruction of a Compton image with the telescope prototype. We developed a test bench to experimentally study both modules and have utilized a customized readout electronics and data acquisition system. Furthermore, we have written a detailed Geant4 simulation of the experiment, and utilize simulated data to train an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm to create a simplified 3D impact position reconstruction method. We give experimental test results obtained by both modules and present detailed parametrization and results from the Geant4 simulation and from the ANN. We compare and discuss the performance of the modules and conclude by giving a brief overview of the future prospects for using such modules in γ-ray astronomy.

  6. Interplay between halogen bonds and hydrogen bonds in OH/SH···HOX···HY (X = Cl, Br; Y = F, Cl, Br) complexes. (United States)

    Wu, Wenjie; Zeng, Yanli; Li, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xueying; Zheng, Shijun; Meng, Lingpeng


    The character of the cooperativity between the HOX···OH/SH halogen bond (XB) and the Y-H···(H)OX hydrogen bond (HB) in OH/SH···HOX···HY (X = Cl, Br; Y = F, Cl, Br) complexes has been investigated by means of second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) calculations and "quantum theory of atoms in molecules" (QTAIM) studies. The geometries of the complexes have been determined from the most negative electrostatic potentials (V (S,min)) and the most positive electrostatic potentials (V (S,max)) on the electron density contours of the individual species. The greater the V (S,max) values of HY, the larger the interaction energies of halogen-bonded HOX···OH/SH in the termolecular complexes, indicating that the ability of cooperative effect of hydrogen bond on halogen bond are determined by V (S,max) of HY. The interaction energies, binding distances, infrared vibrational frequencies, and electron densities ρ at the BCPs of the hydrogen bonds and halogen bonds prove that there is positive cooperativity between these bonds. The potentiation of hydrogen bonds on halogen bonds is greater than that of halogen bonds on hydrogen bonds. QTAIM studies have shown that the halogen bonds and hydrogen bonds are closed-shell noncovalent interactions, and both have greater electrostatic character in the termolecular species compared with the bimolecular species.

  7. Spectral intensities in coordination compounds of the transition metals: applications to systems type Cs{sub 2}SnBr{sub 6}: OsBr{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo, R.; Munoz, G. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile, Beauchef 850, Casilla 2777, Santiago (Chile); Meruane, T. [Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias y Educacion, Av. Jose Pedro Alessandri 774, Casilla 147-C Santiago (Chile)


    The luminescence spectrum of the Cs{sub 2}SnBr{sub 6}: OsBr{sub 6} system is examined utilizing a generalized vibronic formalisms. For illustrative purposes we have chosen the most characteristic excitations, which show up a rich and unexpected vibronic structures. These absorptions are tackled with emphasis on both the electronic and the vibrational factors which are responsible for both the overall and the relative vibronic intensities associated with generic transitions of the {gamma}{sub m} = {gamma}{sub l} + v{sub k} (k = 3, 4, 6) type. The advantages and disadvantages of the calculation models as well as a critical studies of the experimental data available are discussed. Relevant conclusions are drawn out in connection with the intensity spectral mechanism as well as the eventual influence on the calculated intensities due to the coupling among the internal and the external vibrations and some suggestions for improvement are put forward to advance the state of the art in the vibronic coupling theory. (Author)

  8. Copper-promoted methylene C-H oxidation to a ketone derivative by O2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deville, Claire; McKee, Vickie; McKenzie, Christine J.


    ) was characterized in the heteroleptic copper(ii) complex [Cu(bpca)(hidpe)](ClO4). The co-ligand in this complex, N-(2′-pyridylcarbonyl)pyridine-2-carboximidate (bpca−), is derived from a copper-promoted Beckmann rearrangement of hidpe. In the presence of bromide only [Cu(bpca)Br] is isolated. When significant water...

  9. Laser-induced UV photodissociation of 2-bromo-2-nitropropane: dynamics of OH and Br formation. (United States)

    Saha, Ankur; Kawade, Monali; Upadhyaya, Hari P; Kumar, Awadhesh; Naik, Prakash D


    Photoexcitation of 2-bromo-2-nitropropane (BNP) at 248 and 193 nm generates OH, Br, and NO(2) among other products. The OH fragment is detected by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, and its translational and internal state distributions (vibration, rotation, spin-orbit, and Λ-doubling components) are probed. At both 248 and 193 nm, the OH fragment is produced translationally hot with the energy of 10.8 and 17.2 kcal∕mol, respectively. It is produced vibrationally cold (v" = 0) at 248 nm, and excited (v" = 1) at 193 nm with a vibrational temperature of 1870 ± 150 K. It is also generated with rotational excitation, rotational populations of OH(v" = 0) being characterized by a temperature of 550 ± 50 and 925 ± 100 K at 248 and 193 nm excitation of BNP, respectively. The spin-orbit components of OH(X(2)Π) are not in equilibrium on excitation at 193 nm, but the Λ-doublets are almost in equilibrium, implying no preference for its π lobe with respect to the plane of rotation. The NO(2) product is produced electronically excited, as detected by measuring UV-visible fluorescence, at 193 nm and mostly in the ground electronic state at 248 nm. The Br product is detected employing resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization with time-of-flight mass spectrometer for better understanding of the dynamics of dissociation. The forward convolution analysis of the experimental data has provided translational energy distributions and anisotropy parameters for both Br((2)P(3∕2)) and Br∗((2)P(1∕2)). The average translational energies for the Br and Br∗ channels are 5.0 ± 1.0 and 6.0 ± 1.5 kcal∕mol. No recoil anisotropies were observed for these products. Most plausible mechanisms of OH and Br formation are discussed based on both the experimental and the theoretical results. Results suggest that the electronically excited BNP molecules at 248 and 234 nm relax to the ground state, and subsequently dissociate to produce OH and Br through different channels. The

  10. Generation of high-titre virus stocks using BrK.219, a B-cell line infected stably with recombinant Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. (United States)

    Kati, Semra; Hage, Elias; Mynarek, Martin; Ganzenmueller, Tina; Indenbirken, Daniela; Grundhoff, Adam; Schulz, Thomas F


    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a gamma-2-lymphotropic human oncogenic herpesvirus associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and two B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). KSHV establishes latency soon after infection in vivo and in vitro. Consequently, it is technically difficult to generate high-titre virus stocks required for infection experiments in tissue culture. Currently used methods of KSHV stock production involve induction of the lytic/productive cycle in PEL cell lines or in adherent cell lines harbouring recombinant KSHV genomes. In this study, the BJAB-derived B-cell line BrK.219, which is infected latently with a recombinant KSHV (rKSHV.219), is used to produce high-titre virus stocks. BrK.219 cells enter the lytic KSHV replication cycle upon cross-linking of B-cell receptors (BCRs) with anti-IgM antibodies without the need for additional, potentially toxic chemical inducers. High cell concentrations can be cultured and induced easily in spinner flasks, saving time and resources. The established protocol allows the generation of KSHV virus stocks with titres of up to 10(6) IU/ml in unconcentrated culture supernatants, representing a 10(3)-10(4)-fold improvement compared to conventional methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. L’infection bactérienne chez le patient brûlé


    Le Floch, R.; Naux, E.; Arnould, J.F.


    La mort d’un patient brûlé est le plus souvent causée par une infection, bactérienne dans la grande majorité des cas. La perte de la barrière cutanée, les dispositifs invasifs et l’immunodépression liée à la brûlure sont trois mécanismes concourant à la survenue de ces infections. Chez un patient inflammatoire, les signes infectieux généraux d’infection sont peu discriminants. Du fait de la gravité des infections chez ce patient, leur prévention est un paramètre essentiel de la prise en charg...

  12. Modulation of Charge Recombination in CsPbBr3 Perovskite Films with Electrochemical Bias

    KAUST Repository

    Scheidt, Rebecca A


    The charging of mesoscopic TiO2 layer in a metal halide perovskite solar cell can influence the overall power conversion efficiency. By employing CsPbBr3 films deposited on a mesoscopic TiO2 film, we have succeeded in probing the influence of electrochemical bias on the charge carrier recombination process. The transient absorption spectroscopy experiments conducted at different applied potentials indicate a decrease in the charge carrier lifetimes of CsPbBr3 as we increase the potential from -0.6 V to + 0.6 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The charge carrier lifetime increased upon reversing the applied bias, thus indicating the reversibility of the photoresponse to charging effects. The ultrafast spectroelectrochemical experiments described here offer a convenient approach to probe the charging effects in perovskite solar cells.

  13. Novel Ionic Liquid with Both Lewis and Brønsted Acid Sites for Michael Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runpu Shen


    Full Text Available Ionic liquid with both Lewis and Brønsted acid sites has been synthesized and its catalytic activities for Michael addition were carefully studied. The novel ionic liquid was stable to water and could be used in aqueous solution. The molar ratio of the Lewis and Brønsted acid sites could be adjusted to match different reactions. The results showed that the novel ionic liquid was very efficient for Michael addition with good to excellent yields within several min. Operational simplicity, high stability to water and air, small amount used, low cost of the catalyst used, high yields, chemoselectivity, applicability to large-scale reactions and reusability are the key features of this methodology, which indicated that this novel ionic liquid also holds great potential for environmentally friendly processes.

  14. Surface modification of graphene using HBC-6ImBr in solution-processed OLEDs (United States)

    Cheng, Tsung-Chin; Ku, Ting-An; Huang, Kuo-You; Chou, Ang-Sheng; Chang, Po-Han; Chang, Chao-Chen; Yue, Cheng-Feng; Liu, Chia-Wei; Wang, Po-Han; Wong, Ken-Tsung; Wu, Chih-I.


    In this work, we report a simple method for solution-processed organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), where single-layer graphene acts as the anode and the hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene exfoliating agent (HBC-6ImBr) provides surface modification. In SEM images, the PEDOT:PSS solution fully covered the graphene electrode after coating with HBC-6ImBr. The fabricated solution-processed OLEDs with a single-layer graphene anode showed outstanding brightness at 3182 cd/m2 and current efficiency up to 6 cd/A which is comparable to that of indium tin oxide films, and the OLED device brightness performance increases six times compared to tri-layer graphene treated with UV-Ozone at the same driving voltage. This method can be used in a wide variety of solution-processed organic optoelectronics on surface-modified graphene anodes.

  15. Inhibition of Ps Formation in Benzene and Cyclohexane by CH3CI and CH3Br

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikander, G.; Mogensen, O. E.; Pedersen, Niels Jørgen


    Positron-annihilation lifetime spectra have been measured for mixtures of CH3Cl and CH3Br in cyclohexane and of CH3Cl in benzene. The ortho-positronium (Ps) yield decreased monotonically from 38% and 43% in cyclohexane and benzene respectively to 11% in pure CH3Cl and 6% in pure CH3Br. The strength......− anions to form Ps. while it forms a bound state with the halides. X−. CH3Cl was a roughly three times weaker Ps inhibitor in benzene than in cyclohexane, which shows that CH3Cl− does not dechlorinate in times comparable to or shorter than 400–500 ps in benzene. An improved model for the explanation of Ps...

  16. Influence of Impurities on the Radiation Response of the TlBr Semiconductor Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Alves dos Santos


    Full Text Available Two commercially available TlBr salts were used as the raw material for crystal growths to be used as radiation detectors. Previously, TlBr salts were purified once, twice, and three times by the repeated Bridgman method. The purification efficiency was evaluated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS, after each purification process. A compartmental model was proposed to fit the impurity concentration as a function of the repetition number of the Bridgman growths, as well as determine the segregation coefficients of impurities in the crystals. The crystalline structure, the stoichiometry, and the surface morphology of the crystals were evaluated, systematically, for the crystals grown with different purification numbers. To evaluate the crystal as a radiation semiconductor detector, measurements of its resistivity and gamma-ray spectroscopy were carried out, using 241Am and 133Ba sources. A significant improvement of the radiation response was observed in function of the crystal purity.

  17. Mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) vid bröstcancer : - en litteraturöversikt


    Olsson, Elin; Bertling, Frida


    Bakgrund: Mindfulness är ett nytt koncept inom omvårdnad. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) är ett program som utvecklats från mindfulness inom vården. MBSR har studerats i samband med olika sjukdomar däribland cancer. Bröstcancer är den vanligaste maligna cancern hos kvinnor världen över och att få en cancerdiagnos medför både fysiska och psykiska svårigheter. Syfte: Att beskriva effekter av MBSR på personer med bröstcancer. Metod: Litteraturöversikt baserad på RCT-studier (randomise...

  18. Combined Lewis acid and Brønsted acid-mediated reactivity of glycosyl trichloroacetimidate donors. (United States)

    Gould, Nathan D; Liana Allen, C; Nam, Brandon C; Schepartz, Alanna; Miller, Scott J


    Biomimetic conditions for a synthetic glycosylation reaction, inspired by the highly conserved functionality of carbohydrate active enzymes, were explored. At the outset, we sought to generate proof of principle for this approach to developing catalytic systems for glycosylation. However, control reactions and subsequent kinetic studies showed that a stoichiometric, irreversible reaction of the catalyst and glycosyl donor was occurring, with a remarkable rate variance depending upon the structure of the carboxylic acid. It was subsequently found that a combination of Brønsted acid (carboxylic acid) and Lewis acid (MgBr2) was unique in catalyzing the desired glycosylation reaction. Thus, it was concluded that the two acids act synergistically to catalyze the desired transformation. The role of the catalytic components was tested with a number of control reactions and based on these studies a mechanism is proposed herein. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A catalytic, Brønsted base strategy for intermolecular allylic C-H amination. (United States)

    Reed, Sean A; Mazzotti, Anthony R; White, M Christina


    A Brønsted base activation mode for oxidative, Pd(II)/sulfoxide-catalyzed, intermolecular C-H allylic amination is reported. N,N-diisopropylethylamine was found to promote amination of unactivated terminal olefins, forming the corresponding linear allylic amine products with high levels of stereo-, regio-, and chemoselectivity. The predictable and high selectivity of this C-H oxidation method enables late-stage incorporation of nitrogen into advanced synthetic intermediates and natural products.

  20. Phytochemical Screening and TLC Profile of Fruits and Flowers of Alstonia venenata R. Br.


    Thomas SK; George RE; Kunjumon M; Thankamani VI


    Alstonia venenata R. Br. belonging to the family Apocynaceae is a tall evergreen shrub distributed throughout Peninsular India. Stem-bark, root-bark, fruits and leaves are used by many tribal communities and also in Ayurveda. The study investigates the phytochemical composition of hexane, butanol, methanol and water extracts of Alstonia venenata fruits and flowers as well as the TLC profile of hexane extracts of fruits and flowers. Quantitative data of the wet and dry weight, yields from diff...

  1. Theoretical study on O $\\cdots $ Br and O $\\cdots $ Cl halogen ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this work, theoretical calculations were carried out using B3LYP/6-31++G∗∗, MP2/6-31++G∗∗ and MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ methods on a series of O ⋯ X halogen bonds between CH2O andCH3CHO as halogen bond acceptor with X-Y (X = Cl, Br; Y = CF3, CF2 H, CFH2, CN, CCH, CCCN) as halogen bond donors.


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the Joshi-Effect is found as a result of extensive work in these laboratories to occur also in a number of other gases, both elemental and compound, and their mixtures, e.g., Br, I, air, N, O, S, Se, NO, HCl and metallic vapours such as Hg, K and Na." Detailed investigations of Deo and others on chlorine have shown that, under ...



    Fred-Jaiyesimi Adediwura* and Adisa Ayotunde


    Telosma africanum (N.E.Br) Colville (Ascelpiadaceae) is a slender riverine and deciduous climber used traditionally in the treatment of venereal diseases. Using standard procedures, the pharmacognostic studies, fluorescence analysis and phytochemical screening were carried out. This study revealed the presence of combined Anthraquinone, Saponin, Cardiac glycoside, alkaloids in the leaf and stem. Flavonoid as well as uniseriate trichomes and anisocytic type of stomata were present in the leaf.

  4. Factorial moments of $^{28}Si$ induced interactions with Ag(Br) nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Adamovich, M I; Andreeva, N P; Badyal, S K; Bakich, A M; Basova, E S; Bhalla, K B; Bhasin, A; Bhatia, V S; Bradnova, V; Bubnov, V I; Cai, X; Chen, G M; El-Chenawi, K F; Chernyavsky, M M; Dhamija, S; Felea, D; Gaitinov, A S; Ganssauge, E R; Garpman, S; Gerassimov, S G; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Gulamov, K G; Gupta, S K; Gupta, V K; Haiduc, M; Hasegan, D; Jakobsson, B; Just, L; Kanygina, E K; Kharlamov, S P; Kim, I C; Kovalenko, A D; Krasnov, S A; Kravcakova, A; Kumar, V; Larionova, V G; Lepekhin, F G; Lebedev, I A; Lee, C G; Lee, Y L; Levitskaya, O V; Li, Y X; Liu, H; Liu, L S; Liu, Z G; Lokanatan, S; Lord, J J; Lu, Y; Lukicheva, N S; Luo, S B; Mangotra, L K; Manhas, I; Mittra, I S; Musaeva, A K; Nasyrov, S Z; Navontny, V S; Nystrand, J; Orlova, G I; Otterlund, I; Peak, L S; Peresadko, N G; Philippova, L N; Plyushchev, V A; Qian, W Y; Qin, Y M; Raniwala, R; Rao, N K; Rhee, J T; Rusakova, V V; Saidkhanov, N; Salmanova, N A; Seitimbetov, A M; Sethi, R; Simonov, B B; Singh, B; Skelding, D; Söderström, K; Stenlund, E; Tawfik, A M; Tretyakova, M I; Trofimova, T P; Vashisht, V; Vokal, S; Vrláková, J; Wang, H Q; Wang, H S; Wang, X R; Wang, J G; Weng, Z Q; Wilkes, R J; Yang, C B; Yang, H Y; Yin, Z B; Yu, L Z; Yung, S Y; Zarubin, P I; Zgura, I S; Zhang, D H; Zheng, P Y; Zhokhova, S I; Zhou, D C; Zhou Dai Mei


    Scaled factorial moment analysis for the multiplicity distributions of shower particles in the pseudorapidity phase space has been done. An evidence for the presence of dynamical fluctuations has been shown for the non-peripheral interactions of /sup 28/Si+Ag(Br) at 14.6 A Ge V/c and 4.5 A GeV/c. The results have been compared with the values obtained from data sample calculated by cascade-evaporation model. (9 refs).

  5. Brésil | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le développement ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les recherches subventionnées par le CRDI au Brésil ont permis d'éclairer les débats sur nombre de questions, dont la démocratie, la croissance économique, la santé, les services sociaux, l'innovation, la foresterie et l'eau. Pendant la dictature militaire, qui a pris fin en 1985, le CRDI s'est employé à assurer la survie de la ...

  6. Excess Enthalpies of Mixing of Binary Mixtures of NaCl, KCl, NaBr ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 1, 2004 ... bDepartment of Chemical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749, Korea. ... interactions play a key role in the solution chemistry of solutes.1–6 ..... I = 1.000 mol kg–1. KBr (1) + KCl (2). NaBr (1) + NaCl (2). KBr (1) + NaCl (2). 0.1093. 22. 0.1208. 10. 0.1128. 19. 0.1582. 36. 0.2118. 14. 0.1818. 28.

  7. Brändin ja mainonnan vaikutusten tutkiminen : Case: Kauppakeskus Tullintori


    Kuusela, Evita


    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tutkia kauppakeskus Tullintorin brändiä. Lisäksi tutkittiin Tullintorin mainonnan vaikutuksia ja Tullintoriin liitettäviä mielikuvia. Kauppakeskus Tullintori on Tampereen ydinkeskustassa sijaitseva erikoisliikkeiden kauppakeskus. Tullintori on avannut ovensa jo vuonna 1991, mutta kauppakeskusta on uudistettu viime vuosina. Tutkimuksessa selvitettiin, onko tehdyillä uudistuksilla ollut vaikutusta kuluttajien mielikuviin kauppakeskuksesta. Lisäksi tutkittii...

  8. A LiBr-H2O Absorption Refrigerator Incorporating a Thermally Activated Solution Pumping Mechanism


    Ian W. Eames


    This paper provides an illustrated description of a proposed LiBr-H2O vapour absorption refrigerator which uses a thermally activated solution pumping mechanism that combines controlled variations in generator vapour pressure with changes it produces in static-head pressure difference to circulate the absorbent solution between the generator and absorber vessels. The proposed system is different and potentially more efficient than a bubble pump system previously proposed and avoids the need f...

  9. Türgi valmistus solvunult Brüsselile selga keerama / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-


    Kreeka otsustas toetada Türgi liitumist EL-iga, samal ajal kui Austria nõudis liitumiskõneluste tingimuste karmistamist. Türgi pealinnas toimus meeleavaldus EL-i vastu, 54 % türklastest ootas valitsuse lahkumist Brüsselis toimuvatelt kõnelustelt, 72% keeldus pidamast genotsiidiks armeenlaste kohtlemist I maailmasõja ajal. 60% türklastest on siiski EL-iga liitumise poolt

  10. Magnetism of CuX2 frustrated chains (X = F, Cl, Br): Role of covalency (United States)

    Lebernegg, S.; Schmitt, M.; Tsirlin, A. A.; Janson, O.; Rosner, H.


    Periodic and cluster density functional theory (DFT) calculations, including DFT+U and hybrid functionals, are applied to study magnetostructural correlations in spin-(1)/(2) frustrated chain compounds CuX2: CuCl2, CuBr2, and a fictitious chain structure of CuF2. The nearest-neighbor and second-neighbor exchange integrals J1 and J2 are evaluated as a function of the Cu-X-Cu bridging angle θ in the physically relevant range 80∘-110∘. In the ionic CuF2, J1 is ferromagnetic for θ≤100∘. For larger angles, the antiferromagnetic superexchange contribution becomes dominant, in accord with the Goodenough-Kanamori-Anderson rules. However, both CuCl2 and CuBr2 feature ferromagnetic J1 in the whole angular range studied. This surprising behavior is ascribed to the increased covalency in the Cl and Br compounds, which amplifies the contribution from Hund's exchange on the ligand atoms and renders J1 ferromagnetic. At the same time, the larger spatial extent of X orbitals enhances the antiferromagnetic J2, which is realized via the long-range Cu-X-X-Cu paths. Both periodic and cluster approaches supply a consistent description of the magnetic behavior which is in good agreement with the experimental data for CuCl2 and CuBr2. Thus, owing to their simplicity, cluster calculations have excellent potential to study magnetic correlations in more involved spin lattices, and facilitate application of quantum-chemical methods.

  11. Thermogalvanic corrosion of Alloy 31 in different heavy brine LiBr solutions


    Fernández Domene, Ramón Manuel; Blasco Tamarit, María Encarnación; García García, Dionisio Miguel; García Antón, José


    Thermogalvanic corrosion generated between two electrodes of Alloy 31, a highly-alloyed austenitic stainless steel (UNS N08031), has been investigated imposing different temperature gradients in three deaerated LiBr solutions, under open circuit conditions by using a zero-resistance ammeter (ZRA). Besides EIS spectra were acquired in order to explain the obtained results. On the whole, cold Alloy 31 electrodes were anodic to hot Alloy 31 electrodes, since an increase in temperature favoured t...

  12. Dental Management Survey Brazil (DMS-BR): creation and validation of a management instrument (United States)

    Gonzales, Paola Sampaio; Martins, Ismar Eduardo; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye; Silva, Paulo Roberto da; Michel-Crosato, Edgard


    Questionnaires for the assessment of knowledge and self-perception can be useful to diagnose what a dentist knows about management and administration. The aim of the present study was to create and validate the Dental Management Survey Brazil (DMS-BR) scale, based on meetings with experts in the field. After having elaborated the first version, 10 audits were performed in dental offices in order to produce the final version, which included nine dimensions: location, patient, finance, marketing, competition, quality, staff, career, and productivity. The accuracy of the instrument was measured by intrarater and interrater reliability. In the validation phase, 247 Brazilian dentists answered a web-based questionnaire. The data were processed using Stata 13.0 and the significance level was set at 95%. The instrument had intrarater and interrater reliability (ICC-0.93 and 0.94). The overall average of respondents for the DMS-BR scale was 3.77 (SD = 0.45). Skewness and kurtosis were below absolute values 3 and 7, respectively. Internal validity measured by Cronbach's alpha was 0.925 and the correlation of each dimension with the final result of the DMS-BR ranged between 0.606 and 0.810. Correlation with the job satisfaction scale was 0.661. The SEM data ranged between 0.80 and 0.56. The questionnaire presented satisfactory indicators of dentists' self-perception about management and administration activities.

  13. L’infection bactérienne chez le patient brûlé (United States)

    Le Floch, R.; Naux, E.; Arnould, J.F.


    Summary La mort d’un patient brûlé est le plus souvent causée par une infection, bactérienne dans la grande majorité des cas. La perte de la barrière cutanée, les dispositifs invasifs et l’immunodépression liée à la brûlure sont trois mécanismes concourant à la survenue de ces infections. Chez un patient inflammatoire, les signes infectieux généraux d’infection sont peu discriminants. Du fait de la gravité des infections chez ce patient, leur prévention est un paramètre essentiel de la prise en charge. En raison des particularités pharmacocinétiques des brûlés, les posologies d’antibiotiques doivent être adaptés et les dosages sanguins doivent être systématiques. A l’heure où les résistances deviennent préoccupantes, les recherches sur les thérapeutiques sur les alternatives thérapeutiques parmi lesquels les inhibiteurs de facteurs de virulence, les peptides antimicrobiens, les polyphénols, l’immunothérapie…) deviennent cruciales. L’une des possibilités thérapeutiques les plus prometteuses semble être la phagothérapie. PMID:27252607

  14. Computational Investigation on Fully Developed Periodic Laminar Flow Structure in Baffled Circular Tube with Various BR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Withada Jedsadaratanachai


    Full Text Available This paper presents a 3D numerical analysis of fully developed periodic laminar flow in a circular tube fitted with 45° inclined baffles with inline arrangement. The computations are based on a finite volume method, and the SIMPLE algorithm has been implemented. The characteristics of fluid flow are presented for Reynolds number, Re = 100–1000, based on the hydraulic diameter (D of the tube. The angled baffles were repeatedly inserted at the middle of the test tube with inline arrangement to generate vortex flows over the tested tube. Effects of different Reynolds numbers and blockage ratios (b/D, BR with a single pitch ratio of 1 on flow structure in the tested tube were emphasized. The flows in baffled tube show periodic flow at x/D ≈ 2-3, and become a fully developed periodic flow profiles at x/D ≈ 6-7, depending on Re, BR and transverse plane positions. The computational results reveal that the higher of BR and closer position of turbulators, the faster of fully developed periodic flow profiles.

  15. An impedance spectroscopy investigation of nanocrystalline CsPbBr{sub 3} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale, G. [Department of Electronic Engineering and INFM, University of Rome ' Roma Tre' , Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); Conte, G. [Department of Electronic Engineering and INFM, University of Rome ' Roma Tre' , Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail:; Aloe, P. [Department of Physics and INFM, University of Rome ' Roma Tre' , Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); Somma, F. [Department of Physics and INFM, University of Rome ' Roma Tre' , Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy)


    Thin films of CsPbBr{sub 3} were prepared by co-evaporation of CsBr and PbBr{sub 2} powders. Deposited materials are constituted by nanometer-sized crystals as evidenced by atomic force microscopy and X ray diffraction. Impedance spectroscopy measurements, aimed to study the dielectric relaxation processes and transport mechanisms at grain boundary and grain interior, reveal a complex response of the material both on the frequency and on the temperature variations. DC current voltage curves are ohmic for applied electric field strength up to 2 x 10{sup 6} V/cm. The DC conductivity Arrhenius plot gives a value of the activation energy equal to 0.85 eV, smaller then that expected for an intrinsic semiconductor. On the other hand, impedance measurements on a wide frequency range and at different temperatures can be reduced to a single master curve addressing hopping transport mechanism and dielectric relaxation processes being active. Finally, a simple model based on multiple Voigt's elements has been used to fit the impedance spectroscopy data and to evaluate relevant material parameters.

  16. Ab initio study of the Br(2P)-HBr van der Waals complex. (United States)

    Toboła, R; Chałasiński, G; Kłos, J; Szcześniak, M M


    This study reports an ab initio characterization of a prereactive van der Waals complex between an open-shell atom Br((2)P) and a closed shell molecule HBr. The three adiabatic potential surfaces 1 (2)A('), 2 (2)A('), and 1 (2)A("), which result from the splitting of degenerate P state of Br are obtained from coupled cluster calculations. The coupling between same-symmetry states is calculated by multireference configuration-interaction method. A transformation to a diabatic representation and inclusion of the spin-orbit coupling effects on the interactions are also discussed. Bound states are calculated using an adiabatic bender model. The global minimum on the lowest adiabatic potential surface corresponds to a T-shaped geometry and has a well depth of D(e)=762.5 cm(-1) at R(e)=3.22 A. A secondary minimum occurs for a hydrogen-bonded geometry with D(e)=445.3 cm(-1) at R(e)=4.24 A. Upon inclusion of spin-orbit coupling the hydrogen-bonded minimum remains at the same depth, but the T-shaped minimum washes out to less than half of its spin-free value. The lowest bound state is localized in the linear minimum. The spin-orbit coupling plays a very important role in shaping of the potential energy surfaces of Br-HBr.

  17. Anomaly observed in Moessbauer spectra near the neel temperature of FeBr sub 2

    CERN Document Server

    Naili Di


    In several decades, iron(II) bromide (FeBr sub 2) has been investigated as a typical Ising-type antiferromagnet by several kinds of experimental techniques. By the Moessbauer measurements, it was normally observed that only the magnetic spectrum appeared just below Neel temperature in FeBr sub 2. However, we found the anomalous spectra, in which paramagnetic component coexisted with magnetic one near Neel temperature. For two kinds of single crystal FeBr sub 2 samples, IM and IIM, we determined the Moessbauer parameters of the observed spectra by the computer analyses: the relative absorption intensity I sub p of the paramagnetic component to the total absorption area of the best fitting spectrum and the value of the hyperfine field H sub h sub f of the magnetic component and values of the quadrupole splitting 1/2 centre dot e sup 2 qQ of the magnetic and the paramagnetic components. The temperature variation of H sub h sub f is unique and the same as that observed for the sample in which the anomaly was not ...

  18. Estimation of LiBr-H2O Using Multimode Interference (MMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Antúnez-Cerón


    Full Text Available We use multimode interference (MMI as an alternative optical technique to estimate lithium bromide (LiBr concentration, of the work pair LiBr-H2O, in absorption heat pumps (AHP. The sensing element is a singlemode-multimode-singlemode (SMS fiber optic structure. This is fabricated by splicing a precisely dimensioned multimode fiber (MMF section between two singlemode fibers (SMFs. The operation principle is based on the multimode interference (MMI effect occurring in the MMF section. For that purpose, different concentrations of the mixture were prepared (from 44.30% to 60.69% to study their optical response. The input field profile entering the sensing element, which is the naked (no cladding MMF section of the SMS fiber structure, produced different transmitted intensity responses for each of these concentrations. Thus the optical characterization of the mixture was used to establish a mathematical relation to estimate the LiBr concentration. A linear fit for solutions with concentrations ranging from 43.30% to 50.87% and refractive indices between 1.421 and 1.439 is demonstrated.

  19. $\\beta$-delayed neutrons from oriented $^{137,139}$I and $^{87,89}$Br nuclei

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose a world-first measurement of the angular distribution of $\\beta$‐delayed n and $\\gamma$-radiation from oriented $^{137, 139}$I and $^{87,89}$Br nuclei, polarised at low temperature at the NICOLE facility. $\\beta$­-delayed neutron emission is an increasingly important decay mechanism as the drip line is approached and its detailed understanding is essential to phenomena as fundamental as the r‐process and practical as the safe operation of nuclear power reactors. The experiments offer sensitive tests of theoretical input concerning the allowed and first­‐forbidden $\\beta$‐decay strength, the spin-density of neutron emitting states and the partial wave barrier penetration as a function of nuclear deformation. In $^{137}$I and $^{87}$Br the decay feeds predominantly the ground state of the daughters $^{136}$Xe and $^{86}$Kr whereas in $^{139}$I and $^{89}$Br we will explore the use of n-$\\gamma$- coincidence to study neutron transitions to the first and second excited states in the daughters...

  20. $\\beta$-delayed neutrons from oriented $^{137,139}$I and $^{87,89}$Br nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Grzywacz, Robert; Stone, Nicholas; Köster, Ulli; Singh, Barlaj; Bingham, Carrol; Gaulard, S; Kolos, Karolina; Madurga, Miguel; Nikolov, J; Otsubo, T; Roccia, S; Veskovic, Miroslav; Walker, Phil; Walters, William


    We propose a world-­‐first measurement of the angular distribution of $\\beta$-­‐delayed n and $\\gamma$- radiation from oriented $^{137, 139}$I and $^{87,89}$Br nuclei, polarised at low temperature at the NICOLE facility. $\\beta$-­‐delayed neutron emission is an increasingly important decay mechanism as the drip line is approached and its detailed understanding is essential to phenomena as fundamental as the r‐process and practical as the safe operation of nuclear power reactors. The experiments offer sensitive tests of theoretical input concerning the allowed and first-­‐forbidden $\\beta$‐decay strength, the spin-­‐density of neutron emitting states and the partial wave barrier penetration as a function of nuclear deformation. In $^{137}$I and $^{87}$Br the decay feeds predominantly the ground state of the daughters $^{136}$Xe and $^{86}$Kr whereas in $^{139}$I and $^{89}$Br we will explore the use of n-$\\gamma$- coincidence to study neutron transitions to the first and second excited state...

  1. Mechanical Properties of Dynamically Vulcanized Thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU/Polybutadiene Rubber (BR Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hoo Kim


    Full Text Available To obtain thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU with low hardness, dynamically vulcanized TPU/polybutadiene rubber(BR(70/30 blends were prepared. The effect of dicumyl peroxide (DCP content and stabilizers on the tensile strength and elongation at break of the dynamically vulcanized blends was examined. The tensile strength and elongation at break of the dynamically vulcanized blends decrease with increasing content of DCP. The addition of optimal content of stabilizer leads to the improvement of tensile strength and elongation at break of the blends. Also, the effect of sulfur cure systems and accelerators on the tensile strength and elongation of the blends was investigated. The tensile strength and elongation at break of all the dynamically vulcanized TPU/BR (70/30 blends using 1-step processing are not higher than those of simple TPU/BR (70/30 blends. However, the tensile strength and elongation of the dynamically vulcanized blends prepared at 8 min (mixing time using 2-step processing are higher than those of the simple blends.

  2. Magnetically separable Ag/AgBr/NiFe2O4 composite as a highly efficient visible light plasmonic photocatalyst (United States)

    Ge, Ming; Liu, Wei; Hu, Xin-Rong; Li, Zhen-Lu


    A magnetic Ag/AgBr/NiFe2O4 plasmonic photocatalyst was firstly prepared by coupling a hydrothermal route with a solvothermal method. The as-synthesized Ag/AgBr/NiFe2O4 was characterized by XRD, XPS, FE-SEM, UV-vis DRS, PL and BET surface area. Under visible light irradiation, the resulting Ag/AgBr/NiFe2O4 exhibited a higher photocatalytic activity for rhodamine B (RhB) degradation compared with Ag/AgBr, which was ascribed to the heterostructured Ag/AgBr/NiFe2O4 and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of Ag nanoparticles. Moreover, the Ag/AgBr/NiFe2O4 plasmonic photocatalyst can be recovered and recycled by a magnetic field along with good stability. A plausible mechanism is also proposed via active species trapping experiments, which indicating that the superoxide radicals (O2-•) are the main reactive oxygen species for RhB degradation in Ag/AgBr/NiFe2O4 suspension under visible light.

  3. Combgap Promotes Ovarian Niche Development and Chromatin Association of EcR-Binding Regions in BR-C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Hitrik


    Full Text Available The development of niches for tissue-specific stem cells is an important aspect of stem cell biology. Determination of niche size and niche numbers during organogenesis involves precise control of gene expression. How this is achieved in the context of a complex chromatin landscape is largely unknown. Here we show that the nuclear protein Combgap (Cg supports correct ovarian niche formation in Drosophila by controlling ecdysone-Receptor (EcR- mediated transcription and long-range chromatin contacts in the broad locus (BR-C. Both cg and BR-C promote ovarian growth and the development of niches for germ line stem cells. BR-C levels were lower when Combgap was either reduced or over-expressed, indicating an intricate regulation of the BR-C locus by Combgap. Polytene chromosome stains showed that Cg co-localizes with EcR, the major regulator of BR-C, at the BR-C locus and that EcR binding to chromatin was sensitive to changes in Cg levels. Proximity ligation assay indicated that the two proteins could reside in the same complex. Finally, chromatin conformation analysis revealed that EcR-bound regions within BR-C, which span ~30 KBs, contacted each other. Significantly, these contacts were stabilized in an ecdysone- and Combgap-dependent manner. Together, these results highlight Combgap as a novel regulator of chromatin structure that promotes transcription of ecdysone target genes and ovarian niche formation.

  4. Biological treatment of a synthetic space mission wastewater using a membrane-aerated, membrane-coupled bioreactor (M2BR). (United States)

    Chen, Ruoyu D; Semmens, Michael J; LaPara, Timothy M


    This paper describes the membrane-aerated, membrane-coupled bioreactor (M2BR), which was developed for wastewater treatment during long-term space missions because it achieves aeration and biomass separation using components that are compatible with microgravity conditions. In the experiments described herein, the M2BR was used to treat a synthetic wastewater formulated by NASA to simulate the wastewater typically collected during space missions. The M2BR was able to achieve more than 90% removal of both chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen when it was fed a modified NASA wastewater that had a 4:1 COD to nitrogen ratio. When the full-strength synthetic wastewater was fed to the M2BR (COD:N=1), however, the nitrogenous pollutant removal efficiency was adversely affected because of either insufficient oxygen transfer to support nitrification (an air-fed M2BR) or insufficient electron donor to support denitrification (an oxygen-fed M2BR). In conclusion, the M2BR provides considerable promise for wastewater treatment during long-term space missions, although additional research is needed to identify the best approach to treat the space mission wastewater, which poses a unique challenge because of its low COD:N ratio.

  5. Crystal-chemistry insight into the photocatalytic activity of BiOCl x Br1- x nanoplate solid solutions (United States)

    Xu, Huan-Yan; Han, Xu; Tan, Qu; Wu, Ke-Jia; Qi, Shu-Yan


    In this study, a facile alcoholysis method was developed to synthesize BiOCl x Br1- x nanoplates at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. In this route, strong acid or alkaline environment was absolutely avoided to realize the high exposure of {001} crystal facets. The regular changes in XRD peaks and cell parameters as a function of the Br content strongly declared that the obtained BiOCl x Br1- x products belonged to a group of solid solutions. The 2D nanosheets with in-plane wrinkles were clearly observed in TEM images. Interestingly, as the Br content increased, band gaps of BiOCl x Br1- x solid solutions gradually decreased. The photocatalytic degradation of RhB under simulated sunlight irradiation indicated that BiOCl0.5Br0.5 had the best photocatalytic activity. From the viewpoint of crystal chemistry, the photocatalytic activity of BiOCl x Br1- x solid solutions was closely related with the exposure amount of {001} facets, interlayer spacing of (001) plane and energy-level position of valence band.

  6. Preparation and Characterization of Highly Efficient and Stable Visible-Light-Responsive Photocatalyst AgBr/Ag3PO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jinfeng


    Full Text Available AgBr/Ag3PO4 photocatalyst was synthesized using a facile coprecipitation method. The photocatalyst was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface areas, and photoluminescence (PL technique. The activity of the photocatalyst was evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange (MO and rhodamine B (RhB. The results showed that the prepared AgBr/Ag3PO4 exhibited excellent performance and much higher photocatalytic activity than the single one under visible-light irradiation. The optimum mole ratio of Br/P in AgBr/Ag3PO4 samples is 0.3. The prepared AgBr/Ag3PO4 photocatalyst was transformed to Ag/AgBr/Ag3PO4 system with excellent property and good stability in the photocatalytic process. The possible mechanisms of the enhanced photocatalytic activity for the AgBr/Ag3PO4 were also discussed in detail.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of graphene oxide modified AgBr nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Du [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Tang, Hua, E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Wang, Yuqi; Wu, Kongqiang; Huang, Hong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Tang, Guogang [Department of Chemical Engineering, Zhenjiang College, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212003 (China); Yang, Jin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China)


    Highlights: • GO/AgBr nanocomposites were prepared successfully. • There exists some synergistic effect between components in the composites. • The composites show high photocatalytic activity toward RhB, MB and MO degradation under visible light. - Abstract: Novel visible-light-driven graphene oxide (GO)/AgBr nanocomposites were synthesized by a facile solution method. The GO/AgBr nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), and Raman spectra. The results indicated that AgBr nanoparticles were evenly distributed on the surface of GO and the heterostructures were formed. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared nanocomposites was evaluated by using Rhodamine B (RhB), Methylene blue (MB) and Methyl orange (MO) as target organic pollutants. The nanocomposites exhibit excellent photocatalytic activity for all of three dyes. Compared with bare AgBr particles, the GO/AgBr nanocomposites show better photocatalytic properties toward RhB pollutants. Additionally, the radical scavengers experiment indicated that O{sub 2}·{sup −} radicals was the main reactive species for the RhB degradation under visible light. The increased photocatalytic activity of the GO/AgBr nanocomposites was attributed to the strong coupling between GO and AgBr, which facilitated interfacial charge transfer and inhibited electron-hole recombination. A photocatalytic mechanism of GO/AgBr nanocomposites was also proposed.

  8. Sonosynthesis of an Ag/AgBr/Graphene-oxide nanocomposite as a solar photocatalyst for efficient degradation of methyl orange. (United States)

    Esmaeili, A; Entezari, M H


    In this study, a new method has developed for the synthesis of Ag/AgBr/Graphene-oxide (Ag/AgBr/GO) nanocomposite with high adsorption capacity and high photocatalytic activity in degradation of methyl orange (MO). In this method, ultrasound was applied in the synthesis and it was facilitated the process. The samples prepared under ultrasound were shown as Ag/AgBr/GO-U, and the samples under conventional method as Ag/AgBr/GO-C. The results of FT-IR, XRD, Raman, DRS and SEM confirmed the structure of the nanocomposites very well. Ultrasound played a key role in the formation of nanocomposite with smaller size of GO sheets and particles. Different amount of GO was used in the nanocomposite composition and their photocatalytic activities were compared. The MO in solution was completely degraded in 15 min, 30 min, and 45 min with Ag/AgBr/GO-U-1 that contained 1 mg mL(-1) GO, Ag/AgBr/GO-U-0.5 that contained 0.5 mg mL(-1) GO and Ag/AgBr/GO-C-0.5 that contained 0.5 mg mL(-1) GO, respectively. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements displayed a complete mineralization in 30 min for Ag/AgBr/GO-U-0.5. The data obtained from the degradation experiments were fitted to the first-order kinetics and the adsorption obeyed the Langmuir model. The nanocatalyst did not exhibit significant loss of activity even after four cycles of successive uses. To determine the mechanism of photocatalytic degradation of MO, different scavengers were used. Based on the results, the superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and hole had a key role in the degradation process. The Ag/AgBr/GO-U-1 nanocomposite exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity due to its high adsorption capacity and enhanced charge transfer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel mesoporous graphitic carbon nitride modified PbBiO2Br porous microspheres with enhanced photocatalytic performance. (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Di, Jun; Liu, Gaopeng; Yin, Sheng; Xia, Jiexiang; Zhang, Qi; Li, Huaming


    Sustainable mesoporous graphitic carbon nitride (mpg-C 3 N 4 ) modified PbBiO 2 Br porous microsphere (mpg-C 3 N 4 /PbBiO 2 Br) had been successfully synthesized via solvothermal process. Multiple techniques were applied to explore the structure, morphology, optical and electronic properties of the as-prepared photocatalysts. It could be found that the mpg-C 3 N 4 was uniformly distributed on the surface of the PbBiO 2 Br porous microsphere. Compared with the pure PbBiO 2 Br, the mpg-C 3 N 4 /PbBiO 2 Br exhibited superior photocatalytic activity for the degradation of organic pollutants under visible light irradiation. When the mass fraction of mpg-C 3 N 4 was 3%, the mpg-C 3 N 4 /PbBiO 2 Br composite materials exhibited the highest photocatalytic performance. The results indicated that the introduction of mpg-C 3 N 4 could effectively enhance the electron mobility to promote the catalytic activity. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the mpg-C 3 N 4 /PbBiO 2 Br materials can be attributed to the stronger optical trapping capability and the more effective separation efficiency of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. During the process of photocatalysis, the main active species of the photocatalysts were determined to be the and hole under visible light irradiation. Based on the relative band positions of mpg-C 3 N 4 and PbBiO 2 Br, a possible photocatalytic mechanism of mpg-C 3 N 4 /PbBiO 2 Br composite catalyst was proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Airborne I-DOAS measurements at Mt. Etna: BrO and OClO evolution in the plume (United States)

    S., General; Bobrowski, N.; Pöhler, D.; Weber, K.; Fischer, C.; Platt, U.


    Spatial distributions of bromine monoxide (BrO), chlorine dioxide (OClO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were determined in the volcanic emissions of Mt. Etna on 8th and 9th of July 2011 by Airborne Imaging Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (AI-DOAS). Slant column densities (SCDs in units of molec/cm2) of up to 4.2 × 1014 for BrO, 1.5 × 1014 for OClO and 4.6 × 1018 for SO2 were detected. Assuming SO2 to be a stable tracer to overcome dilution effects, measurements of BrO/SO2 and OClO/SO2 ratios from distances of 1-19 km to the summit crater region were used to investigate the evolution of BrO and OClO within corresponding plume ages of 2-34 min. Along the centerline of the plume relatively constant BrO/SO2 ratios of 1.4 × 10- 4 and 2.0 × 10- 4 were detected on 8th and 9th of July 2011, respectively. Furthermore the BrO/SO2 ratio was investigated along several cross-sections of the volcanic plume. On both days significant increases by a factor of 2-3 in the BrO/SO2 ratio from the center to the edge of the plume were seen. From simultaneous measurements of BrO and OClO the mixing ratios of ClO could be inferred to range from about 80 to 300 ppt. In addition, decreases in the BrO/SO2 ratio with time could be observed by measurements three to four hours before the culmination of a paroxysm at Mt. Etna on 9th July 2011.

  11. Estudo da modificação química de polidienos do tipo SBR e BR Study of chemical modification of SBR and BR polydiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana L. A. C. Rocha


    Full Text Available A utilização de modificações químicas de polidienos comerciais tem sido estudada como um meio alternativo à síntese de novos polímeros, para otimização das propriedades finais destes materiais através da introdução de diferentes grupamentos reativos na cadeia polimérica. A modificação química pode ser feita através de diferentes métodos, os quais podem ser realizados tanto em solução como em massa, onde podem ser destacadas as reações de epoxidação, sulfonação, maleinização, carboxilação, etc. Neste trabalho foi estudado o método de epoxidação de borrachas do tipo SBR e BR. Foi possível observar que mesmo pequenos graus de modificação química causam mudanças marcantes nas propriedades finais dos polímeros, como determinado para a temperatura de transição vítrea.Chemical modification of polydiene has been studied as an alternative route to obtain modified polymers with improved final properties. This improvement is due to the introduction of different kinds of reactive groups into a polymer chain, and it can be done in solution as well as in bulk. The chemical modification can be carried out by different methods such as epoxidation, maleination, carboxylation, sulfonation etc. In this work we show that in the epoxidation of SBR and BR even a small degree of modification can change the final properties of the polymer, as it occurred for the glass transition temperature.

  12. Estenose benigna dos brônquios principais Bilateral benign mainstem bronchus stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available É descrito o caso de uma paciente de 37 anos de idade atendida em virtude de dispnéia progressiva com duração de 18 meses. O diagnóstico inicial foi de asma brônquica. Teve 10 episódios de pneumonia envolvendo principalmente a língula nos últimos sete anos. Dezessete anos antes da admissão foi submetida a intubação orotraqueal por 15 dias, devido a coma por meningite meningocócica. A broncofibroscopia revelou alargamento da carina e estenose dos brônquios principais, confirmado pela broncoscopia virtual. A estenose era mais acentuada e curta à direita (1cm e menos cerrada e mais longa à esquerda (2cm. Foi submetida a ressecção da carina e anastomose do brônquio principal direito à traquéia e do brônquio principal esquerdo ao brônquio intermediário. Quinze meses depois do procedimento a paciente apresenta boa evolução clínica, radiológica e funcional.We report on a 37-year-old female patient who was first seen on account of a progressive dyspnea of 18 month's duration. Admission diagnosis was bronchial asthma. Over the past seven years, the patient has had seven pneumonia episodes involving mainly the lingular segment. Seventeen years prior to admission (1982 she was orally intubated for 15 days due to meningococcus meningitis and coma. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed marked widening of the carina and stenosis of the main bronchi, confirmed by virtual bronchoscopy. The stenosis was shorter and more severe to the right side (1 cm and longer and less severe on the left side (2 cm. The patient was submitted to carina resection and anastomosis of the right mainstem bronchus to the trachea and the left main bronchus to the bronchus intermedius. Fifteen months after surgery the patient shows good clinical, radiological and functional evolution.

  13. Growth, structure and optical properties of Tl{sub 4}HgBr{sub 6} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khyzhun, O.Y., E-mail: [Frantsevych Institute for Problems of Materials Science, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 3 Krzhyzhanivsky Street, 03142 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kityk, I.V. [Electrical Engineering Department, Częstochowa University of Technology, Armii Krajowej 17, PL-42-217 Częstochowa (Poland); Piasecki, M. [Institute of Physics, J. Dlugosz University Częstochowa, Armii Krajowej 13/15, Częstochowa (Poland); Fedorchuk, A.O. [Department of Inorganic and Organic Chemistry, Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, 50 Pekarska Street, 79010 Lviv (Ukraine); Levkovets, S.I. [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Eastern European National University, 13 Voli Avenue, 43025 Lutsk (Ukraine); Fochuk, P.M. [Yuriy Fed’kovych Chernivtsi National University, 2 Kotziubynskoho Street, 58012 Chernivtsi (Ukraine); Myronchuk, G.L. [Department of Solid State Physics, Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University, 13 Voli Avenue, 43025 Lutsk (Ukraine); Parasyuk, O.V. [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Eastern European National University, 13 Voli Avenue, 43025 Lutsk (Ukraine)


    Tl{sub 4}HgBr{sub 6} single crystals were grown using solution-fusion method. The crystal structure of the ternary bromide was refined. Tl{sub 4}HgBr{sub 6} crystallizes in the non-centrosymmetric space group P4nc with the lattice parameters a=8.9539(8) Å and c=8.7884(8) Å and it is isostructural to the Tl{sub 4}HgI{sub 6} compound. The non-centrosymmetric structure of the Tl{sub 4}HgBr{sub 6} compound was also confirmed by the existence of a modest second harmonic generation effect (0.4–0.5 pm/V) and by the value of piezoelectric coefficient (0.9 pm/V). The electronic structure of Tl{sub 4}HgBr{sub 6} was explored using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES). In particular, for the Tl{sub 4}HgBr{sub 6} crystal, we have measured XPS core-level and valence-band spectra for both pristine and Ar{sup +} ion-bombarded surfaces. The XPS data reveal low hygroscopicity of Tl{sub 4}HgBr{sub 6}, the property that is very important when handling this material in optoelectronic devices working at ambient conditions. The present XPS data indicate that the Tl{sub 4}HgBr{sub 6} single crystal surface is rather sensitive with respect to Ar{sup +} ion-bombardment: such a treatment reduces significantly mercury content in the topmost surface layers. Comparison on a common energy scale of the XPS valence-band spectrum of Tl{sub 4}HgBr{sub 6} and the XE Br Kβ{sub 2} band, representing peculiarities of the energy distribution of the Br 4 p states, reveals that the main contribution of the valence Br p states occurs in the upper portion of the valence band, with also their significant contributions in other valence band regions. The measurements of spectral distribution of the absorption coefficient indicate that the Tl{sub 4}HgBr{sub 6} compound is a semiconductor with the bandgap energy value of 2.43 eV at 300 K, and the bandgap energy increases up to 2.48 eV when temperature decreases to 100 K.

  14. BrO and inferred Bry profiles over the western Pacific: relevance of inorganic bromine sources and a Bry minimum in the aged tropical tropopause layer (United States)

    Koenig, Theodore K.; Volkamer, Rainer; Baidar, Sunil; Dix, Barbara; Wang, Siyuan; Anderson, Daniel C.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Wales, Pamela A.; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Fernandez, Rafael P.; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Evans, Mathew J.; Sherwen, Tomás; Jacob, Daniel J.; Schmidt, Johan; Kinnison, Douglas; Lamarque, Jean-François; Apel, Eric C.; Bresch, James C.; Campos, Teresa; Flocke, Frank M.; Hall, Samuel R.; Honomichl, Shawn B.; Hornbrook, Rebecca; Jensen, Jørgen B.; Lueb, Richard; Montzka, Denise D.; Pan, Laura L.; Reeves, J. Michael; Schauffler, Sue M.; Ullmann, Kirk; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Donets, Valeria; Navarro, Maria A.; Riemer, Daniel; Blake, Nicola J.; Chen, Dexian; Huey, L. Gregory; Tanner, David J.; Hanisco, Thomas F.; Wolfe, Glenn M.


    corroborating evidence that inorganic bromine sources (e.g., SSA-derived gas-phase Bry) are needed to explain the gas-phase Bry budget in the upper free troposphere and TTL. They are also consistent with observations of significant bromide in Upper Troposphere-Lower Stratosphere aerosols. The total Bry budget in the TTL is currently not closed, because of the lack of concurrent quantitative measurements of gas-phase Bry species (i.e., BrO, HOBr, HBr, etc.) and aerosol bromide. Such simultaneous measurements are needed to (1) quantify SSA-derived Bry in the upper FT, (2) test Bry partitioning, and possibly explain the gas-phase Bry minimum in the aged TTL, (3) constrain heterogeneous reaction rates of bromine, and (4) account for all of the sources of Bry to the lower stratosphere.

  15. Communications: Photoinitiated bond dissociation of bromoiodomethane in solution: Comparison of one-photon and two-photon excitations and the formation of iso-CH2Br-I and iso-CH2I-Br (United States)

    Tang, Kuo-Chun; Peng, Jian; Spears, Kenneth G.; Sension, Roseanne J.


    Broadband UV-visible femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy was used to monitor the excited state photochemistry of CH2BrI following one-photon excitation at 266 or 271 nm and two-photon excitation at 395 or 405 nm in 2-butanol. The results for one-photon excitation agree with earlier studies in acetonitrile, showing clear formation of iso-CH2Br-I following cleavage of the C-I bond. In contrast, two-photon excitation at 395 nm results in the appearance of a blueshifted photoproduct absorption band assigned to formation of iso-CH2I-Br following cleavage of the C-Br bond. The results are discussed in the context of prior experimental and theoretical work and the prospects for optical control of bond cleavage.

  16. Novel germanetellones: XYGe=Te (X, Y = H, F, Cl, Br, I and CN) - structures and energetics. Comparison with the first synthetic successes. (United States)

    Jaufeerally, Naziah B; Abdallah, Hassan H; Ramasami, Ponnadurai; Schaefer, Henry F


    No stable germanetellone was described until Tbt(Dis)Ge=Te and Tbt(Tip)Ge=Te (Tbt = 2,4,6-tris[bis(trimethylsilyl)methyl]phenyl, Dis = bis(trimethylsilyl)methyl and Tip = 2,4,6-triisopropylphenyl) were reported in 1997. Following these initial experiments, there has arisen considerable interest in Ge[double bond, length as m-dash]Te systems. An obvious question is: why have the simple XYGe=Te (X, Y = H, F, Cl, Br, I and CN) molecules not yet been isolated? In view of the present situation, theoretical information may be of great help for further advances in germanetellone chemistry. A systematic investigation of the XYGe=Te molecules is carried out using the second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) and density functional theory (DFT). The structures and energetics, including ionization potentials (IPad and IPad(ZPVE)), four different forms of neutral-anion separations (EAad, EAad(ZPVE), VEA and VDE) and the singlet-triplet gaps, are reported. The electronegativity (χ) reactivity descriptor for the halogens (F, Cl, Br and I) and the natural charge separations of the Ge=Te moiety are used to assess the interrelated properties of germanetellone and its derivatives. The results are analyzed, discussed and compared with analogous studies of telluroformaldehyde, silanetellone and their derivatives. The thermodynamic viabilities of some of the novel germanetellones have also been evaluated in terms of the bond dissociation enthalpies of Tbt(Dis)Ge=Te and Tbt(Tip)Ge=Te. The simple mono-substituted germanetellones appear to be slightly more thermodynamically favored than Tbt(Dis)Ge=Te and Tbt(Tip)Ge=Te, since the bond dissociation enthalpies of these kinetically stabilized germanetellones are about 28 and 51 kcal mol(-1) lower, respectively.

  17. Épidémiologie des brûlures de la main chez les enfants vus dans le Centre National des Brûlés et de Chirurgie Plastique de Casablanca, Maroc (United States)

    Rafik, A.; Lahlou, M.; Diouri, M.; Bahechar, N.; Chlihi, A.


    Summary Les brûlures de la main chez l’enfant constituent une source de séquelles invalidantes. A cet régard, la conservation et la restauration complète de la fonction de la main demeurent le but primordial de la prise en charge. Afin de répertorier les caractéristiques épidémiologiques, cliniques et évolutives des mains brûlées, nous avons réalisé une étude rétrospective étalée sur 4 ans, de janvier 2011 à janvier 2015. Cette étude a permis de colliger les cas de 313 enfants atteints de brûlure de la main vus dans le Centre National des Brulés et de Chirurgie Plastique du CHU Ibn Rochd de Casablanca. La majorité des brûlures touche les enfants de 3 à 6 ans (70% des cas), avec une légère prédominance masculine. La principale cause des brûlures survenant à cet âge est l’ébouillantement. Les brûlures par flamme représentent 33% des cas, celles par électricité 4,5%. Les brûlures chimiques et par contact sont anecdotiques (1 cas chacune). L’accident survient le plus souvent à domicile. Soixante douze pour cent des brûlures ont guéri spontanément. Afin de diminuer l’incidence de ces accidents, une approche préventive faite de sensibilisation et d’éducation devrait faire partie du cursus scolaire. PMID:27777543

  18. A numerical study of the effect of various reactions, pressure and gas mixture ratio on the density distribution of etchant species (H, Br, Br{sup +}, and HBr{sup +}) in HBr/He plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gul, Banat, E-mail:; Aman-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan)


    In this study, a fluid model has been used to study the effect of gas mixing ratio and pressure on the density distribution of important etchant species, i.e., hydrogen (H), bromine (Br), Br{sup +}, and HBr{sup +} in HBr/He plasma. Our simulation results show that the densities of active etchant species H, Br, and HBr{sup +} increase with the increase in pressure as well as the HBr fraction in HBr/He mixture. On the contrary, the density of Br{sup +} decreases with the increase in He percentage in HBr/He mixture and with the increase in the pressure. Time averaged reaction rates (of the reactions involved in the production and consumption of these species) have been calculated to study the effect of these reactions on the density distribution of these species. The spatial distribution of these species is explained with the help of the time averaged reaction rates. Important reactions have been identified that contribute considerably to the production and consumption of these active species. The code has been optimized by identifying 26 reactions (out of 40 reactions which contribute in the production and consumption of these species) that have insignificant effect on the densities of H, Br, Br{sup +}, and HBr{sup +}. This shows that out of 40 reactions, only 14 reactions can be used to calculate the density and distribution of the important species in HBr/He plasma discharge.

  19. A numerical study of the effect of various reactions, pressure and gas mixture ratio on the density distribution of etchant species (H, Br, Br+, and HBr+) in HBr/He plasma (United States)

    Gul, Banat; Aman-ur-Rehman


    In this study, a fluid model has been used to study the effect of gas mixing ratio and pressure on the density distribution of important etchant species, i.e., hydrogen (H), bromine (Br), Br+, and HBr+ in HBr/He plasma. Our simulation results show that the densities of active etchant species H, Br, and HBr+ increase with the increase in pressure as well as the HBr fraction in HBr/He mixture. On the contrary, the density of Br+ decreases with the increase in He percentage in HBr/He mixture and with the increase in the pressure. Time averaged reaction rates (of the reactions involved in the production and consumption of these species) have been calculated to study the effect of these reactions on the density distribution of these species. The spatial distribution of these species is explained with the help of the time averaged reaction rates. Important reactions have been identified that contribute considerably to the production and consumption of these active species. The code has been optimized by identifying 26 reactions (out of 40 reactions which contribute in the production and consumption of these species) that have insignificant effect on the densities of H, Br, Br+, and HBr+. This shows that out of 40 reactions, only 14 reactions can be used to calculate the density and distribution of the important species in HBr/He plasma discharge.

  20. Comparison and evaluation of satellite derived precipitation products for hydrological modeling of the Zambezi River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Cohen Liechti


    Full Text Available In the framework of the African DAms ProjecT (ADAPT, an integrated water resource management study in the Zambezi Basin is currently under development. In view of the sparse gauging network for rainfall monitoring, the observations from spaceborne instrumentation currently produce the only available rainfall data for a large part of the basin. <br>> Three operational and acknowledged high resolution satellite derived estimates: the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission product 3B42 (TRMM 3B42, the Famine Early Warning System product 2.0 (FEWS RFE2.0 and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Climate Prediction Centre (NOAA/CPC morphing technique (CMORPH are analyzed in terms of spatial and temporal repartition of the precipitations. They are compared to ground data for the wet seasons of the years 2003 to 2009 on a point to pixel basis at daily, 10-daily and monthly time steps and on a pixel to pixel basis for the wet seasons of the years 2003 to 2007 at monthly time steps. <br>> The general North-South gradient of precipitation is captured by all the analyzed products. Regarding the spatial heterogeneity, FEWS pixels are much more inter-correlated than TRMM and CMORPH pixels. For a rainfall homogeneity threshold criterion of 0.5 global mean correlation coefficient, the area of each sub-basin should not exceed a circle of 2.5° latitude/longitude radius for FEWS and a circle of 0.75° latitude/longitude radius for TRMM and CMORPH considering rectangular meshes. <br>> In terms of reliability, the correspondence of all estimates with ground data increases with the time step chosen for the analysis. The volume ratio computation indicates that CMORPH is overestimating the rainfall by nearly 50%. The statistics of TRMM and FEWS estimates show quite similar results. <br>> Due to its lower inter-correlation and longer data set, the TRMM 3B42 product is chosen as input for the hydraulic-hydrologic model of the basin. <br>

  1. Significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity of visible light responsive AgBr/Bi2Sn2O7 heterostructured composites (United States)

    Hu, Chaohao; Zhuang, Jing; Zhong, Liansheng; Zhong, Yan; Wang, Dianhui; Zhou, Huaiying


    Heterostructured AgBr/Bi2Sn2O7 photocatalysts were synthesized successfully via the ultrasonic-assisted chemical precipitation method. XRD, FT-IR, FE-SEM, TEM, XPS, UV-vis-DRS and PL spectroscopy were used to characterize the phase structure, morphology, chemical composition, oxidation state, and optical properties of AgBr/Bi2Sn2O7 heterojunction. The photocatalytic activity of as-prepared catalysts was evaluated by the degradation of RhB under visible light irradiation. The obtained AgBr/Bi2Sn2O7 composite with the 1:1 molar ratio exhibited significantly enhanced photocatalytic performance. Further first-principles calculations indicated that the hybridization interaction between Ag and O atoms at AgBr/Bi2Sn2O7 interface is expected to be beneficial for enhancing the charge transfer and improving the photocatalytic activity of heterostructured composites.

  2. Raw Knudsen 320B/R CHIRP Subbottom Profiler - CHIRP Subbottom Profiler data for the Arctic Ocean ECS survey. (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Knudsen 320B/R CHIRP Subbottom Profiler - CHIRP Subbottom Profiler data were collected in Raw Knudsen SEG-Y Datagram format.

  3. Comparison of the Properties of SnCl(3)(-) and SnBr(3)(-) Complexes of Platinum(II). (United States)

    Nelson, John H.; Wilson, William L.; Cary, Lewis W.; Alcock, Nathaniel W.; Clase, Howard J.; Jas, Gouri S.; Ramsey-Tassin, Lori; Kenney, John W.


    The complexes M(3)[Pt(SnX(3))(5)] (M = Bu(4)N(+), PhCH(2)PPh(3)(+); X = Cl, Br), cis-M(2)[PtX(2)(SnX(3))(2)] (M = Bu(4)N(+), PhCH(2)PPh(3)(+), CH(3)PPh(3)(+), Pr(4)N(+); X = Cl, Br), and [PhCH(2)PPh(3)](2)[PtBr(3)(SnBr(3))] have been prepared and characterized by (119)Sn and (195)Pt NMR, far-infrared, and electronic absorption and emission spectroscopies. In acetone solutions the [Pt(SnX(3))(5)](3)(-) ions retain their trigonal bipyramidal structures but are stereochemically nonrigid as evidenced by (119)Sn and (195)Pt NMR spectroscopy. For [Pt(SnCl(3))(5)](3)(-) spin correlation is preserved between 183 and 363 K establishing that the nonrigidity is due to intramolecular tin site exchange, probably via Berry pseudorotation. Whereas, [Pt(SnCl(3))(5)](3)(-) does not undergo loss of SnCl(3)(-) or SnCl(2) to form either [Pt(SnCl(3))(4)](2)(-) or [PtCl(2)(SnCl(3))(2)](2)(-), [Pt(SnBr(3))(5)](3)(-) is not stable in acetone solution in the absence of excess SnBr(2) and forms [PtBr(2)(SnBr(3))(2)](2)(-) and [PtBr(3)(SnBr(3))](2)(-) by loss of SnBr(2). Similarly, [PtCl(2)(SnCl(3))(2)](2)(-) is stable in acetone at ambient temperatures but disproportionates at elevated temperatures and [PtBr(2)(SnBr(3))(2)](2)(-) loses SnBr(2) in acetone to form [PtBr(3)(SnBr(3))](2)(-). The crystal structures of methyltriphenylphosphonium cis-dibromobis(tribromostannyl)platinate(II) and benzyltriphenylphosphonium tribromo(tribromostannyl)platinate(II) have been determined. Both compounds crystallize in the triclinic space group P&onemacr; in unit cells with a = 12.293(16) Å, b = 12.868(6) Å, c = 25.047(8) Å, alpha = 96.11(3) degrees, beta = 91.06(3) degrees, gamma = 116.53(3) degrees, rho(calc) = 2.30 g cm(-)(3), Z = 3 and with a = 11.046(7) Å, b = 14.164(9) Å, c = 22.549(10) Å, alpha = 89.44(4) degrees, beta = 83.32(5) degrees, gamma = 68.31(5) degrees, rho(calc) = 1.893 g cm(-)(3), Z = 2, respectively. Least-squares refinements converged at R = 0.057 and 0.099 for 4048 and 4666

  4. CH3NH3PbBr3 is not pyroelectric, excluding ferroelectric-enhanced photovoltaic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeny Rakita


    Full Text Available To experimentally (disprove ferroelectric effects on the properties of lead-halide perovskites and of solar cells, based on them, we used second-harmonic-generation spectroscopy and the periodic temperature change (Chynoweth technique to detect the polar nature of methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3. We find that MAPbBr3 is probably centrosymmetric and definitely non-polar; thus, it cannot be ferroelectric. Whenever pyroelectric-like signals were detected, they could be shown to be due to trapped charges, likely at the interface between the metal electrode and the MAPbBr3 semiconductor. These results indicate that the ferroelectric effects do not affect steady-state performance of MAPbBr3 solar cells.

  5. Improved performance of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite solar cells utilizing PbI2 precursors (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Taiyang; Tian, Hongxiang; Zhao, Zhiguo; Qin, Xiaojun; Wu, Junbo


    High-quality CH3NH3PbBr3 films have been made utilizing the PbI2 precursor via a two-step sequential deposition method. The use of the PbI2 precursor has significantly improved the film quality. UV-Vis results show that the PbI2 precursor leads to moderately enhanced absorptions. XRD and SEM characterizations suggest that compact and uniform films with large grain sizes and high crystallinity can be obtained utilizing PbI2. The power conversion efficiency of the FTO/compact-TiO2/MAPbBr3/Spiro-OMeTAD/Ag device increased from 5.3% to 7.6% after changing the PbBr2 precursor to PbI2. The reaction between PbI2 and excess MABr generated MAPbBr3 through halide anion exchange.

  6. Parts sõdib Brüsselis põlevkivielektri eest / Juhan Parts ; interv. Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Parts, Juhan, 1966-


    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts sõidab Brüsselisse Euroopa Liidu energeetikaministrite kohtumisele. Valitsus tahab, et Eesti saaks tulevikuski tasuta heitmekvoote ning soovitakse piiranguid Vene elektri impordile. Vt. samas: Elektri hind

  7. Amino-functionalized (methacryl polymers by use of a solvent-polarity sensitive protecting group (Br-t-BOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Ritter


    Full Text Available We describe the synthesis of bromo-tert-butyloxycarbonyl (Br-t-BOC-amino-protected monomers 2-((1-bromo-2-methylpropan-2-yloxycarbonylaminoethyl (methacrylate 3a,b. For this purpose, 2-isocyanatoethyl (methacrylate 1a,b was reacted with 1-bromo-2-methylpropan-2-ol (2a. The free radical polymerization of (Br-t-BOC-aminoethyl (methacrylates 3a,b yielded poly((Br-t-BOC-aminoethyl (methacrylate 6a,b bearing protected amino side groups. The subsequent solvolysis of the Br-t-BOC function led to the new polymers poly(2-aminoethyl (methacrylate 8a,b with protonated free amino groups. The monomers and the resulting polymers were thoroughly characterized by 1H NMR, IR, GPC and DSC methods. The kinetics of the deprotection step was followed by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The solvent polarity and neighboring group effects on the kinetics of deprotection are discussed.

  8. Raw Knudsen Chirp 320BR subbottom profiler - Knudsen subbottom profile data for the Chukchi Cap and Arctic Ocean. (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Knudsen Chirp 320BR subbottom profiler - Knudsen subbottom profile data were collected in Raw Knudsen SEG-Y Datagram format.

  9. In situ TEM observation of novel chemical evolution of MnBr2 catalyzed by Cu under electron beam irradiation (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Bai, Xianwei; Guan, Xiangxiang; Shen, Xi; Yao, Yuan; Wang, Yanguo; Zou, Bingsuo; Yu, Richeng


    Manganese bromide has attracted enormous attention for its applications in the syntheses of organic-inorganic hybrid compounds. A complete understanding of structural and chemical stabilities of MnBr2 is important for controlling its properties. Here, we focus on the irradiation resistance of MnBr2. The chief purpose of this research is reached by in situ transmission electron microscopy. It is demonstrated that the deliquescent MnBr2 powder is prone to adsorb the vapor in air, and the hydrous MnBr2 can be decomposed under its continuous exposure to electron beam, indicated by a transmission electron microscope via the catalysis of Cu grid at room temperature.

  10. Kinetics and product studies of the BrO + ClO reaction - Implications for Antarctic chemistry (United States)

    Sander, Stanley P.; Friedl, Randall R.


    Discharge flow-mass spectrometry and flash photolysis-UV spectrometry were used to investigate the reaction of ClO with BrO over the temperature range of 220-400 K and the pressure range of 1-760 Torr. Rate constants were determined for: (1) Br + ClOO, (2) Br + OClO, and (3) BrCl + O2. It is found that the rate constants for the overall reaction and each reaction branch are inversely dependent on temperature and independent of pressure. For temperatures found in the Antarctic stratosphere, the rate coefficients for the channels yielding ClOO and OClO are a factor of 2-3 larger than previously estimated.

  11. Natural production of Tuber aestivum in central Spain: Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp. brûlés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis G. Garcia-Montero


    Full Text Available Aim of study: Tuber aestivum is the most widespread edible truffle, with increasing commercial interest. This species can produce carpophores with conifer hosts, in contrast with the inability of Pinus spp. to induce fruiting in other truffle species such as Tuber melanosporum. Therefore the objective is to compare the characteristics and carpophore production of T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp.Area of study: We studied the natural habitats of T. aestivum in the Alto Tajo Nature Reserve in central Spain.Material and methods: During 5 years, we monitored the production of carpophores and brûlé size of 145 T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris and Quercus ilex subsp. ballota and Q. faginea hosts. Statistical treatment was performed using the Statistica Program v. 6.Main Results: The size of brûlés associated with Pinus was significantly smaller than that of brûlés associated with Quercus. However, carpophore production per brûlé, and especially for brûlés of similar size, was greater when the host plant was a pine. After accounting for brûlé size, the production of brûlés associated with Pinus spp. was 2.23 (95% CI, between 1.35 and 3.69 and 1.61 (95% CI, between 1.02 and 2.54 times greater than the production of brûlés associated with Quercus faginea and Q. ilex subsp. ballota, respectively.Research highlights: The considerable ability of Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris to form effective brûlés and to produce carpophores of Tuber aestivum in natural conditions was clearly demonstrated, and suggest that those species can be of use in the culture of T. aestivum.Key words: Summer truffle; Tuber aestivum; truffle culture; truffle ecology; Pinus spp.; Quercus spp.

  12. Enantioselective Direct Mannich-Type Reactions Catalyzed by Frustrated Lewis Acid/Brønsted Base Complexes. (United States)

    Shang, Ming; Cao, Min; Wang, Qifan; Wasa, Masayuki


    An enantioselective direct Mannich-type reaction catalyzed by a sterically frustrated Lewis acid/Brønsted base complex is disclosed. Cooperative functioning of the chiral Lewis acid and achiral Brønsted base components gives rise to in situ enolate generation from monocarbonyl compounds. Subsequent reaction with hydrogen-bond-activated aldimines delivers β-aminocarbonyl compounds with high enantiomeric purity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Growth mechanism of NaClO3 and NaBrO3 crystals from aqueous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. A study of growth rates of NaClO3 and NaBrO3 has been carried out using a small growth cell by in situ observation. Normal growth rates of {100} faces of NaClO3 and {111} faces of NaBrO3 along 〈110〉 direction are measured under relatively high supersaturation ranging from 3–8%. In the initial stages of growth, ...

  14. Microhardness studies on as-grown faces of NaClO3 and NaBrO3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    studies are made on as-grown faces of these crystals at various loads. Typical cracks are observed at the corners of the impressions in NaClO3 whereas in addition to the cracks at the corners microcracks also appeared in NaBrO3 crystals around the impressions. The impressions formed in NaBrO3 are not very clear.

  15. Formation of brominated phenolic contaminants from natural manganese oxides-catalyzed oxidation of phenol in the presence of Br(.). (United States)

    Lin, Kunde; Song, Lianghui; Zhou, Shiyang; Chen, Da; Gan, Jay


    Brominated phenolic compounds (BPCs) are a class of persistent and potentially toxic compounds ubiquitously present in the aquatic environment. However, the origin of BPCs is not clearly understood. In this study, we investigated the formation of BPCs from natural manganese oxides (MnOx)-catalyzed oxidation of phenol in the presence of Br(-). Experiments at ambient temperature clearly demonstrated that BPCs were readily produced via the oxidation of phenol by MnOx in the presence of Br(-). In the reaction of MnOx sand with 0.213 μmol/L phenol and 0.34 mmol/L Br(-) for 10 min, more than 60% of phenol and 56% of Br(-) were consumed to form BPCs. The yield of BPCs increased with increasing concentrations of phenol and Br(-). Overall, a total of 14 BPCs including simple bromophenols (4-bromophenol, 2,4-dibromophenol, and 2,4,6-tribromophenol), hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs), and hydroxylated polybrominated biphenyls (OH-PBBs) were identified. The production of BPCs increased with increasing concentrations of Br(-) or phenol. It was deduced that Br(-) was first oxidized to form active bromine, leading to the subsequent bromination of phenol to form bromophenols. The further oxidation of bromophenols by MnOx resulted in the formation of OH-PBDEs and OH-PBBs. In view of the ubiquity of phenol, Br(-), and MnOx in the environment, MnOx-mediated oxidation may play a role on the natural production of BPCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Structure and dynamics of room temperature ionic liquids with bromide anion: results from 81Br NMR spectroscopy. (United States)

    Endo, Takatsugu; Imanari, Mamoru; Hidaka, Yuki; Seki, Hiroko; Nishikawa, Keiko; Sen, Sabyasachi


    We report the results of a comprehensive (81)Br NMR spectroscopic study of the structure and dynamics of two room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C(4)mim]Br) and 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bromide ([C(4)C(1)mim]Br), in both liquid and crystalline states. NMR parameters in the gas phase are also simulated for stable ion pairs using quantum chemical calculations. The combination of (81)Br spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation measurements in the motionally narrowed region of the stable liquid state provides information on the correlation time of the translational motion of the cation. (81) Br quadrupolar coupling constants (C(Q)) of the two RTILs were estimated to be 6.22 and 6.52 MHz in the crystalline state which were reduced by nearly 50% in the liquid state, although in the gas phase, the values are higher and span the range of 7-53 MHz depending on ion pair structure. The C(Q) can be correlated with the distance between the cation-anion pairs in all the three states. The (81)Br C(Q) values of the bromide anion in the liquid state indicate the presence of some structural order in these RTILs, the degree of which decreases with increasing temperature. On the other hand, the ionicity of these RTILs is estimated from the combined knowledge of the isotropic chemical shift and the appropriate mean energy of the excited state. [C(4)C(1)mim]Br has higher ionicity than [C(4)mim]Br in the gas phase, while the situation is reverse for the liquid and the crystalline states. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. The obesity-induced transcriptional regulator TRIP-Br2 mediates visceral fat endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced inflammation


    Qiang, Guifen; Kong, Hyerim Whang; Fang, Difeng; McCann, Maximilian; Yang, Xiuying; Du, Guanhua; Bl?her, Matthias; Zhu, Jinfang; Liew, Chong Wee


    The intimate link between location of fat accumulation and metabolic disease risk and depot-specific differences is well established, but how these differences between depots are regulated at the molecular level remains largely unclear. Here we show that TRIP-Br2 mediates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced inflammatory responses in visceral fat. Using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo approaches, we demonstrate that obesity-induced circulating factors upregulate TRIP-Br2 specifically in vi...

  18. Solid-liquid equilibria in the ternary system NaBr-KBr-H2O at 398 K (United States)

    Cui, Rui-Zhi; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Wang, Wei; Sang, Shi-Hua


    The solubilities of the ternary system NaBr-KBr-H2O were investigated by isothermal method at 398 K. On the basis of the experimental data, the phase diagram was plotted. In the phase diagram of ternary system NaBr-KBr-H2O at 398 K, no complex salt or solid solution was found. It belongs to simple co-saturation type. There are only one invariant point, two univariant curves, and two crystallization fields corresponding to NaBr and KBr. Using the equilibrium solubilities data of the ternary system at 398 K, mixing ioninteraction parameter ΨNa,K,Br of Pitzer's equation was fitted by multiple linear regression method. Based on the Pitzer model and its extended Harvie-Weare (HW) model, the solubilities of phase equilibrium in the ternary system NaBr-KBr-H2O at 398 K were calculated. The phase diagram of the ternary system was plotted. The results show that calculated values have a good agreement with measured experimental data. It can demonstrate the accuracy of the experimental data, and it also shows that reasonable parameters of the Pitzer model can be used in ternary system NaBr-KBr-H2O at 398 K.

  19. New insight into daylight photocatalysis of AgBr@Ag: synergistic effect between semiconductor photocatalysis and plasmonic photocatalysis. (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Li, Hao; Zhang, Lizhi


    Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) are often used as electron scavengers in conventional semiconductor photocatalysis to suppress electron-hole (e(-)-h(+) ) recombination and promote interfacial charge transfer, and thus enhance photocatalytic activity of semiconductors. In this contribution, it is demonstrated that noble metal NPs such as Ag NPs function as visible-light harvesting and electron-generating centers during the daylight photocatalysis of AgBr@Ag. Novel Ag plasmonic photocatalysis could cooperate with the conventional AgBr semiconductor photocatalysis to enhance the overall daylight activity of AgBr@Ag greatly because of an interesting synergistic effect. After a systematic investigation of the daylight photocatalysis mechanism of AgBr@Ag, the synergistic effect was attributed to surface plasmon resonance induced local electric field enhancement on Ag, which can accelerate the generation of e(-)-h(+) pairs in AgBr, so that more electrons are produced in the conduction band of AgBr under daylight irradiation. This study provides new insight into the photocatalytic mechanism of noble metal/semiconductor systems as well as the design and fabrication of novel plasmonic photocatalysts. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The toxicity of cationic surfactant HDTMA-Br, desorbed from surfactant modified zeolite, towards faecal indicator and environmental microorganisms. (United States)

    Reeve, Peter J; Fallowfield, Howard J


    Surfactant Modified Zeolite (SMZ) represents a versatile, cost-effective permeable reactive material, capable of treating multiple classes of contaminants. The potential for HDTMA-Br, a cationic surfactant commonly used to modify zeolite, to desorb from the zeolite surface has been identified as a potential issue for the ongoing use of SMZ in water remediation contexts. This paper investigates the toxicity of HDTMA-Br towards enteric virus surrogates, F-RNA bacteriophage MS2 and E. coli, Bacillus subtilis, and soil microflora. The concentration of surfactant desorbing from SMZ was quantified through a bioassay using E. coli. Results showed HDTMA-Br concentrations of ≥10-5M were toxic to MS2, ≥10-4M were toxic to E. coli and ≥10-6M were toxic to B. subtilis. No toxic relationship was established between HDTMA-Br and soil microflora. Desorption of ≥10-4M of HDTMA-Br was shown for the two SMZ samples under the mixing conditions used. Effects of this surfactant on total soil microflora were ambiguous since no toxic relationship could be established, however, HDTMA-Br, at concentrations desorbing from SMZ, were shown to impact the soil bacterium B. subtilis. Further research is required to determine the effect of this surfactant on microbial populations and species diversity in soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimation of chromatographic lipophilicity of some D-homo androstene derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perišić-Janjić Nada U.


    Full Text Available Quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR method was applied to study the chromatographic behaviour of D-homo-androstene derivatives 1-7. Retention constants (RM 0 of the analysed derivatives were determined by reversed-phase high-performance thin-layer chromatography (RP HPTLC on C18 plates by using four mobile phase mixtures: methanol-water, acetone-water, acetonitrile-water, and dioxane-water. Correlation analysis based on multiple regression method was applied in order to model chromatographic retention by means of nine different lipophilicity descriptors (logP. The developed QSRR models were cross-validated and high-quality validation parameters were obtained by leave-one-out method. It was found that the derived QSRR models have a good predictive ability. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172012 i br. 172014

  2. Disability assessment scale for dementia – long version (DADL-BR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Boaro Fernandez Canon


    Full Text Available Introduction: There are no functional assessment tools for elderly with dementia available in the literature that will assess all occupations. Objective: To develop a Long Version of Disability Assessment for Dementia Scale (DADL-Br, covering all occupations provided by the American Association of Occupational Therapy (AOTA and the activities that compose them and evaluate its content validity. Method: With the permission of the original version main author (DAD, Isabelle Gélinas PhD, the new items of the Long Version (DADL-Br were developed based on the classification proposed by AOTA for occupations, considering the gaps in the original instrument. We reviewed the Cultural and Conceptual Equivalence by the Expert Committee and Multidisciplinary Committee. The suggestions of the Committees were accepted and the process followed for the pre-test and author analysis. Results: The first version of the instrument received 10 new fields and 64 new items, which after seven reviews of Cultural Equivalence (average concordance 89.2%, six reviews of Conceptual Equivalence (average concordance 81.2%, tree pre-tests and analysis of the original version main author, has resulted in the development of five versions, addition of twelve items and exclusion of seven items, and the final version consists of 20 fields and 109 items, being 10 new fields and 69 new items. Conclusion: This process conferred the content validity of DADL-Br, which includes all occupations proposed by AOTA and can be a useful tool to evaluate the profile of occupational performance of elderly with dementia.

  3. Ag-AgBr/TiO2/RGO nanocomposite: Synthesis, characterization, photocatalytic activity and aggregation evaluation. (United States)

    Wang, Penghua


    Ag-AgBr/TiO2 supported on reduced graphene oxide (Ag-AgBr/TiO2/RGO) with different mass ratios of grapheme oxide (GO) to TiO2 were synthesized via a facile solvothermal-photo reduction method. Compared to the single-, two- and three-component nanocomposites, the four-component nanocomposite, Ag-AgBr/TiO2/RGO-1 with mass ratio of GO to TiO2 at 1%, exhibited a much higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of penicillin G (PG) under white light-emitting diode (LED-W) irradiation. The PG degradation efficiency increased with the increase of mass ratio of GO to TiO2 from 0.2% to 1%, then it decreased with the increase of mass ratio of GO to TiO2 from 1% to 5%. The zeta potentials of RGO-nanocomposites became more negative with the presence of humic acid (HA) due to the negatively charged HA adsorption, resulting in the shift of points of zero charge to lower values of pH. The aggregations of nanocomposites were more significant due to the bridging effect of HA. Furthermore, the aggregated particle sizes were larger for RGO-nanocomposites compared to other nanoparticles, due to the bindings of the carboxylic and phenolic functional groups in HA with the oxygen-containing functional groups in the RGO-nanocomposites. The microfiltration (MF) membrane was effective for the nanocomposites separation. In the continuous flow through submerged membrane photoreactor (sMPR) system, backwashing operation could efficiently reduce membrane fouling and recover TiO2, and thus indirectly facilitate the PG removal. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Avaliação protéica de uma nova multimistura com base no milho QPM BR 473 Protein evaluation of a nutritional supplement based on QPM BR 473 maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enara Cristina Silva Glória


    Full Text Available A multimistura tem sido utilizada no Brasil pela Pastoral da Criança, em parceria com governos municipais, a fim de reduzir a desnutrição infantil. Não obstante, a eficácia deste suplemento tem sido constantemente arguida, devido à possível presença de fatores antinutricionais. No presente trabalho descrevemos a avaliação biológica de um suplemento contendo milho QPM BR473. Trinta e seis ratos Wistar machos, com 21-23 dias de idade, foram divididos em seis grupos de seis animais cada e alimentados com dietas de caseína contendo multimistura pura, com QPM BR473, láctea (contendo leite em pó, láctea contendo QPM BR473 ou a multimistura proposta (contendo QPM BR473, farinhas de aveia, soja e banana e açúcar mascavo. Mediu-se a Retenção Protéica Líquida. A condição microbiológica dos suplementos e seu custo foram também determinados. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o QPM BR473 pode ser usado em suplementos nutricionais, com alto valor nutritivo, expresso por sua qualidade protéica, e com baixa relação custo/benefício.Nutritional supplements, known as "multimisturas", prepared with low cost ingredients have been distributed in Brazil by municipal governments, in partnership with non-governmental organizations, in order to reduce infant malnutrition. Nevertheless the efficacy of these supplements has been constantly argued, due to the possible presence of anti-nutritional factors. The present work describes the biological evaluation of a supplement containing Quality Protein Maize BR 473. Thirty six 21-23-day old male Wistar rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. The groups were fed casein diets, each containing respectively: "multimistura", "multimistura" with QPM BR 473, "multimistura" with powdered milk, "multimistura" with powderedmilk and QPM BR 473 or the proposed new supplement (containing QPM BR 473 flour, oat meal, soybean flour, brown sugar and banana meal. Net protein retention was measured

  5. Brändin kehittäminen Pinterestin avulla : Pinterest markkinoinnin työkaluna


    Lehtimäki, Noora


    Pinterestin käyttäjämäärät ovat kasvaneet nopeasti ja se on yksi suosituimmista sosiaalisen median kanavista, joten Pinterestin hyödyntämiselle mainoskanavana on kysyntää. Pinterestin kautta yritys voi tavoittaa jokaisella pinnauksella näkyvyyttä, liikennettä verkkosivuilleen sekä uusia potentiaalisia asiakkaita. Opinnäytetyöni tehtiin toimeksiantona Minna Parikka Shoes Ltd:lle. Opinnäytetyöni tarkoituksena oli tutkia, miten voidaan lisätä Minna Parikan brändin tunnettuutta Pinterestissä ...





    O presente trabalho apresenta um estudo sobre a argila mole da rodovia BR 101 em Santa Catarina, no qual são pesquisadas suas características geotécnicas a partir de ensaios de campo e laboratório. Os ensaios de campo realizados foram os de palheta, dilatométricos e de piezocone. O programa experimental de laboratório envolveu ensaios de caracterização, de adensamento e triaxiais consolidados não drenados (CIU). O solo foi caracterizado como argila mole flúvio-...

  7. A novel Br-substituted diarylethene: Synthesis, crystal structure, and solvent dependent acidichromism (United States)

    Zheng, Chunhong; Fan, Congbin; Pu, Shouzhi; Chen, Bing; Chen, Ben


    A novel Br-substituted diarylethene was synthesized, and its structure has been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Its photochemical property in solution, a PMMA film, and single crystalline phase was studied. In solution, the absorption maximum of its closed-ring isomer shifted dramatically to shorter wavelengths with notable color change from violet to yellow upon the stimulation of trifluoroacetic acid. Moreover, the acidichromism showed obviously solvent-dependence. With enhancement of solvent polarity, the protonation-induced absorption maxima (Δλmax) and the response time became longer.

  8. Direct Mannich-Type Reactions Promoted by Frustrated Lewis Acid/Brønsted Base Catalysts. (United States)

    Chan, Jessica Z; Yao, Wenzhi; Hastings, Brian T; Lok, Charles K; Wasa, Masayuki


    Direct Mannich-type reactions that afford both α- and β-amino esters by the reaction of a broad range of carbonyl compounds and aldimines are disclosed. The transformation is promoted by a sterically frustrated Lewis acid/Brønsted base pair, which is proposed to operate cooperatively: Within the catalyst complex, an enolate is generated that then reacts with a hydrogen-bond-activated imine. Noncovalent interactions between reactants and the catalyst provide selectivity and new opportunities for future catalyst design. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Certification environnementale et durabilité au Brésil


    Piketty, Marie-Gabrielle; Martins De Souza, Maria-Célia; Garcia Drigo, Isabel


    Au Brésil, les préoccupations environnementales sont croissantes du fait des impacts négatifs d’une croissance agricole accélérée sur l’environnement et les ressources naturelles. Face à ce contexte, la certification environnementale de divers produits issus de l’usage des terres agricoles et forestières augmente. Cet article analyse et compare les cas du bois issu de l’exploitation communautaire en Amazonie et du café bio. La mise en place de ces certifications est-elle à même de concilier e...

  10. LiBr absorption systems integrated with high–efficiency IGSG plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Bellomare, Filippo


    Over the last few years, the energy demand for cooling systems is increasing; different solutions in fact have been proposed in order to minimize the energetic and environmental impact of this trend. In this direction, absorption cooling systems are recognized as a valid alternative to traditional...... vapor compression inverse cycles; waste heat from other systems can in fact be used as an efficient input instead of electrical energy. The opportunity to integrate Li-Br absorption systems with a high-efficiency energy plant was studied; rejected heat from a Municipal Solid Waste Gasification Plant...

  11. Evaluation of (o)-(77Br)bromohippuran as renal tubular function agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Aswegen, A.; van Wyk, A.J.; Roodt, J.P.; Pieters, H.; Herbst, C.P.; Otto, A.C.; Loetter, M.G.H.; Haasbroek, F.J.; Minnaar, P.C.; Fourie, P.J.


    (o)-(77Br)bromohippuran (BHIP) was developed as renal tubular function agent due to its favourable chemical and physical properties and compared to (o)-(131I)iodohippuran (IHIP). Renograms obtained from baboons were compared and absorbed radiation dose calculations performed. Although BHIP showed a delayed kidney uptake and washout pattern, good kidney clearance of the radionuclide was obtained after 30 min. Radiation dose values for BHIP were markedly lower than for IHIP indicating that larger activities of BHIP could be administered to increase counting statistics. BHIP imaging in normal volunteers did however not substantiate the favourable behaviour obtained in the primate.

  12. Evaluation of (o)-[77Br]bromohippuran as renal tubular function agent. (United States)

    van Aswegen, A; van Wyk, A J; Roodt, J P; Pieters, H; Herbst, C P; Otto, A C; Lötter, M G; Haasbroek, F J; Minnaar, P C; Fourie, P J


    (o)-[77Br]bromohippuran (BHIP) was developed as renal tubular function agent due to its favourable chemical and physical properties and compared to (o)-[131I]iodohippuran (IHIP). Renograms obtained from baboons were compared and absorbed radiation dose calculations performed. Although BHIP showed a delayed kidney uptake and washout pattern, good kidney clearance of the radionuclide was obtained after 30 min. Radiation dose values for BHIP were markedly lower than for IHIP indicating that larger activities of BHIP could be administered to increase counting statistics. BHIP imaging in normal volunteers did however not substantiate the favourable behaviour obtained in the primate.

  13. Layer-by-layer deposition of nanostructured CsPbBr3 perovskite thin films (United States)

    Reshetnikova, A. A.; Matyushkin, L. B.; Andronov, A. A.; Sokolov, V. S.; Aleksandrova, O. A.; Moshnikov, V. A.


    Layer-by-layer deposition of nanostructured perovskites cesium lead halide thin films is described. The method of deposition is based on alternate immersion of the substrate in the precursor solutions or colloidal solution of nanocrystals and methyl acetate/lead nitrate solution using the device for deposition of films by SILAR and dip-coating techniques. An example of obtaining a photosensitive structure based on nanostructures of ZnO nanowires and layers of CsBbBr3 nanocrystals is also shown.

  14. Calidad del aceite de las brásicas cultivadas en Galicia


    Cartea González, María Elena; Vilar Iglesias, Marta; Francisco Candeira, Marta; Haro Bailón, Antonio de


    Los cultivos de brásicas utilizados para la obtención de aceite son la colza (Brassica napus), la nabina (B. rapa) y las mostazas (B.carinata y B. juncea). Entre todos ellos, el cultivo de colza es el más importante. Estas especies son a nivel mundial una de las fuentes más importantes de aceites vegetales, tanto para uso alimenticio como industrial. La calidad del aceite depende fundamentalmente de su contenido cualitativo y cuantitativo en los ácidos grasos que lo componen. En este senti...

  15. Institut brésilien pour la recherche écologique : L'enseignement et l ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    En faisant un retour sur son expérience au FIE 2008, la Dre Suzana Padua, présidente de l'Institut pour la recherche écologique (IPE) du Brésil a déclaré ce qui suit : « Quand on comprend plus l'interconnexion de tout ce qui vit sur la planète, on ne pas faire autrement que d'être touchée d'une certaine façon », a dit la Dre ...

  16. Passive and transpassive behaviour of Alloy 31 in a heavy brine LiBr solution


    Fernández Domene, Ramón Manuel; Blasco Tamarit, María Encarnación; García García, Dionisio Miguel; García Antón, José


    The passive and transpassive behaviour of Alloy 31, a highly alloyed austenitic stainless steel (UNS N08031), has been investigated in a LiBr heavy brine solution (400 g/l) at 25 °C using potentiostatic polarisation combined with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Mott–Schottky analysis. The passive film formed on Alloy 31 has been found to be p-type and/or n-type in electronic character, depending on the film formation potential. The thickness of the film formed at potentials within ...

  17. Two new species of Hoya R.Br. (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae from Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Rodda


    Full Text Available Two new Hoya R.Br. species from Borneo are described and illustrated. The first, Hoya ruthiae Rodda was collected in Sabah on Bukit Baturong, a limestone outcrop. It is one of the few species in the genus to have clear exudate. It is compared with the morphologically related Hoya uncinata Teijsm. and Binn. The other, Hoya bakoensis Rodda, was collected in the kerangas forests of Bako National Park. It belongs to Hoya section Acanthostemma (Bl. Kloppenb., a section with numerous members in the Philippines but under-represented in Borneo.

  18. A Brønsted base-promoted diastereoselective dimerization of azlactones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle L. J. Pinheiro


    Full Text Available A novel Brønsted base system for the diastereoselective dimerization of azlactones using trichloroacetate salts and acetonitrile has been developed. Desired products were obtained in good yields (60–93% and with up to >19:1 dr after one hour of reaction. Additionally, the relative stereochemistry of the major dimer was assigned as being trans, by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The kinetic reaction profile was determined by using 1H NMR reaction monitoring and revealed a second order overall kinetic profile. Furthermore, by employing this methodology, a diastereoselective total synthesis of a functionalized analogue of streptopyrrolidine was accomplished in 65% overall yield.

  19. Interest rate derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikkel

    This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered.......This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered....

  20. Determining the effective Wilson coefficient a2 in terms of BR (Bs→ηcϕ ) and evaluating BR (Bs→ηcf0(980 )) (United States)

    Ke, Hong-Wei; Li, Xue-Qian


    In this work, we investigate decays of Bs→ηcϕ and Bs→ηcf0(980 ) in a theoretical framework. The calculation is based on the postulation that f0(980 ) and f0(500 ) are mixtures of pure quark states 1/√{2 }(u ¯u +d ¯d ) and s ¯s . The hadronic matrix elements for Bs→ϕ and Bs→f0(980 ) are calculated in the light-front quark model and the important Wilson coefficient a2 which is closely related to nonperturbative QCD is extracted. However, our numerical results indicate that no matter how the mixing parameter is adjusted to reconcile contributions of f0(980 ) and f0(500 ), one cannot make the theoretical prediction on Bs→ηc+π+π- to meet the data. Moreover, the new measurement of BR (Bs→J /ψ +f0(500 ))<1.7 ×10-6 also negates the mixture scenario. Thus, we conclude that the recent data suggest that f0(980 ) is a four-quark state (tetraquark or K K ¯ molecule), at least the fraction of its pure quark constituents is small.

  1. Exploring the C-X…π Halogen Bonding Motif: An Infrared and Raman Study of the Complexes of CF3X (X = Cl, Br and I with the Aromatic Model Compounds Benzene and Toluene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter A. Herrebout


    Full Text Available The formation of halogen bonded complexes formed between the trifluorohalomethanes CF3Cl, CF3Br and CF3I and the Lewis bases benzene and toluene at temperatures below 150K was investigated using FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. Experiments using liquid krypton as solvent show that for both CF3Br and CF3I substantial fractions of the monomers can be involved in 1:1 complexes. In addition, weak absorptions illustrating the formation of 2:1 complexes between CF3I and benzene are observed. Using spectra recorded at temperatures between 120 and 140 K, observed information on the relative stability was obtained for all complexes by determining the complexation enthalpies in solution. The resulting values for CF3Br.benzene, CF3I.benzene and (CF3I2.benzene are −6.5(3, −7.6(2 and −14.5(9 kJ mol−1. The values for CF3Br.toluene and CF3I.toluene are −6.2(5 and −7.4(5 kJ mol−1. The experimental complexation enthalpies are compared with theoretical data obtained by combining results from MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ(-PP and MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ(-PP ab initio calculations, from statistical thermodynamical calculations and from Monte Carlo Free Energy Perturbation simulations. The data are also compared with results derived for other C-X···π halogen bonded complexes involving unsaturated Lewis bases such as ethene and ethyne.

  2. Generalized Riemann derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Radulescu


    Full Text Available Initiated by Marshall Ash in 1966, the study of generalized Riemann derivative draw significant attention of the mathematical community and numerous studies where carried out since then. One of the major areas that benefits from these developments is the numerical analysis, as the use of generalized Riemann derivatives leads to solving a wider class of problems that are not solvable with the classical tools. This article studies the generalized Riemann derivative and its properties and establishes relationships between Riemann generalized derivative and the classical one. The existence of classical derivative implies the existence of the Riemann generalized derivative, and we study conditions necessary for the generalized Riemann derivative to imply the existence of the classical derivative. Furthermore, we provide conditions on the generalized Riemann derivative that are sufficient for the existence of the classical derivative.

  3. Carbon nanomaterials: Biologically active fullerene derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Gordana


    Full Text Available Since their discovery, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene attract significant attention of researches in various scientific fields including biomedicine. Nano-scale size and a possibility for diverse surface modifications allow carbon nanoallotropes to become an indispensable nanostructured material in nanotechnologies, including nanomedicine. Manipulation of surface chemistry has created diverse populations of water-soluble derivatives of fullerenes, which exhibit different behaviors. Both non-derivatized and derivatized fullerenes show various biological activities. Cellular processes that underline their toxicity are oxidative, genotoxic, and cytotoxic responses. The antioxidant/cytoprotective properties of fullerenes and derivatives have been considered in the prevention of organ oxidative damage and treatment. The same unique physiochemical properties of nanomaterials may also be associated with potential health hazards. Non-biodegradability and toxicity of carbon nanoparticles still remain a great concern in the area of biomedical application. In this review, we report on basic physical and chemical properties of carbon nano-clusters - fullerenes, nanotubes, and graphene - their specificities, activities, and potential application in biological systems. Special emphasis is given to our most important results obtained in vitro and in vivo using polyhydroxylated fullerene derivative C60(OH24. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45005

  4. Synthetic Bioluminescent Coelenterazine Derivatives. (United States)

    Nishihara, Ryo; Citterio, Daniel; Suzuki, Koji


    The development of coelenterazine (CTZ) derivatives resulting in superior optical characteristics is an efficient method to extend the range of its possible applications. Here, we describe the synthesis of three C-6 substituted CTZ derivatives retaining the recognition by Renilla luciferase (RLuc) and its derivatives. The novel derivatives are useful as bright blue-shifted CTZ derivatives, which can be used as an alternative to hitherto reported compound DeepBlueC™.

  5. 3+ and [Sb13Se16Br2] 5+ - Double and quadruple spiro cubanes from ionic liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ejaz


    The reaction of antimony and selenium in the bromine-rich Lewis acidic ionic liquid [BMIm]Br·4.7AlBr3 (BMIm: 1-butyl-3- methylimidazolium) in the presence of a small amount of NbCl5 at 160 °C yielded dark-red crystals of [Sb7Se8Br 2][AlX4]3. For X = Cl0.15(1)Br 0.85(1), the compound is isostructural to [Sb7S 8Br2][AlCl4]3 [P212 121, a = 12.5132(5) Å, b = 17.7394(6) Å, c = 18.3013(6) Å]. For a higher chlorine content, X = Cl 0.58(1)Br0.42(1), a slightly disordered variant with a bisected unit cell is found [P21212, a = 12.3757(3) Å, b = 17.4116(5) Å, c = 9.0420(2) Å]. The [Sb 7Se8Br2]3+ heteropolycation (C 2 symmetry) is a spiro double-cubane with an antimony atom on the shared corner. From this distorted octahedrally coordinated central atom, tricoordinate selenium and antimony atoms alternate in the bonding sequence. The terminal antimony atoms each bind to a bromine atom. Quantum chemical calculations confirm polar covalent Sb-Se bonding within the cubes and indicate three-center, four-electron bonds for the six-coordinate spiro atoms. The calculated charge distribution reflects the electron-donor role of the antimony atoms. The use of a chlorine-rich ionic liquid resulted in the formation of triclinic [Sb13Se16Br2][AlX4] 5 with X = Cl0.80(1)Br0.20(1) [P$\\\\bar {1}$, a = 9.0842(5) Å, b = 19.607(1) Å, c = 21.511(1) Å, α = 64.116(6), β = 79.768(7), γ = 88.499(7)]. The cationic cluster [Sb13Se16Br2]5+ is a bromine-terminated spiro quadruple-cubane. This 31 atom concatenation of four cubes is assumed to be the largest known discrete main group polycation. A similar reaction in a chloride-free system yielded [Sb7Se 8Br2][Sb13Se16Br2] [AlBr4]8. In its monoclinic structure [P2/c, a = 27.214(5) Å, b = 9.383(2) Å, c = 22.917(4) Å, β = 101.68(1)], the two types of polycations alternate in layers along the a axis. In the series [Sb4+3nSe4+4nBr2](2+n)+, these cations are the members with n = 1 and 3. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGa

  6. The evaporation path of seawater and the coprecipitation of Br- and K+ with halite (United States)

    McCaffrey, M. A.; Lazar, B.; Holland, H. D.


    Brines and salt were sampled at the Morton Bahamas solar salt production facility on Great Inagua Island in the Bahamas. The brines were analyzed by ion chromatography to define more precisely than heretofore the evaporation path of seawater to the end of the halite facies. At Inagua, calcium carbonate begins to precipitate at a brine concentration factor of 1.8 times that of seawater. Gypsum begins to precipitate at a brine concentration of 3.8 times seawater, and halite at a concentration factor of 10.6. Three of the most concentrated brines from Inagua (40 times seawater) were evaporated further in the laboratory. Magnesium sulfate first precipitated at brine concentrations about 70 times those of seawater, and potassium-bearing phases began to precipitate for these brines at concentrations greater than 90 times those of seawater. The distribution of coefficients of Br- and K+ between brines and halite were determined by combining analytical data for the Inagua brines with measurements of the Br- and K+ content of halites from Inagua and of halite which had precipitated from Inagua brines during storage. The observed average value of DBr- is 0.032, in good agreement with some of the previous measurements. The measured values of DK+ are highly variable (0.001 to 0.021); DK+ for halite precipitated early in the halite facies is in the vicinity of 0.015.

  7. Determination of $P(c \\to D^{*+})$ and $BR(c \\to l^{+})$ at LEP 1

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Ajinenko, I; Albrecht, Z; Alderweireld, T; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anassontzis, E G; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbiellini, Guido; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blom, H M; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bozovic, I; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschbeck, Brigitte; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crépé, S; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Dris, M; Duperrin, A; Durand, J D; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Fayot, J; Feindt, Michael; Ferrari, P; Ferrer, A; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Ferro, F; Fichet, S; Firestone, A; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gamblin, S; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gaspar, C; Gaspar, M; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerdyukov, L N; Ghodbane, N; Gil, I; Glege, F; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; González-Caballero, I; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Grahl, J; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grimm, H J; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Haider, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hansen, J; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Heising, S; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hughes, G J; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, P E; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Kersevan, Borut P; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B J; Kinvig, A; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P M; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kriznic, E; Krstic, J; Krumshtein, Z; Kubinec, P; Kurowska, J; Kurvinen, K L; Lamsa, J; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Leinonen, L; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; Lopes, J H; López, J M; López-Fernandez, R; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malek, A; Malmgren, T G M; Maltezos, S; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Myagkov, A; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Moreau, X; Morettini, P; Morton, G A; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mulet-Marquis, C; Muresan, R; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neufeld, N; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nikolenko, M; Nomokonov, V P; Normand, Ainsley; Nygren, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Orazi, G; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Pain, R; Paiva, R; Palacios, J; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Røhne, O M; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Rosinsky, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Royon, C; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sampsonidis, D; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schwemling, P; Schwering, B; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Sheridan, A; Siebel, M; Simard, L C; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Solovyanov, O; Sopczak, André; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stanic, S; Stevenson, K; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tegenfeldt, F; Terranova, F; Thomas, J; Timmermans, J; Tinti, N; Tkatchev, L G; Todorova-Nová, S; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tzamarias, S; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I B; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vollmer, C F; Voulgaris, G; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G R; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wolf, G; Yi, J; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G


    The probability $P(c \\rightarrow D^{*+})$ that a charm quark fragments into a $D^{*+}$ meson and the $c \\rightarrow l^+$ semileptonic branching fraction were measured in $Z^0\\ $ decay into $c\\bar{c}$ events. \\par % A double tag method based % on the detection of exclusively reconstructed $D$ mesons % accompanied by a slow pion or a lepton in the opposite hemisphere was used.\\par From the analysis of 3.5 Million $Z^0\\ $ events collected from 1992 to 1995, a sample of charm meson decays with $81\\%$ $c\\bar{c}$ purity was selected. % In this sample, a signal of $2371\\pm140$ low momentum pions % originating from a $D^{*\\pm}$ decay in the opposite hemisphere % was observed. The product of the $c \\rightarrow D^{*+}$ fragmentation probability times the $D^{*+}\\rightarrow D^0\\pi^+$ branching fraction was measured to be: \\begin{eqnarray*} P(c \\rightarrow D^{*+})\\cdot BR(D^{*+}\\rightarrow D^0\\pi^+) = 0.174\\pm0.010(stat) \\pm0.004(syst) \\; . \\end{eqnarray*} Using the world averaged value for $BR(D^{*+}\\rightarrow D^0\\pi^+...

  8. Non-Parametric Bayesian Registration (NParBR) of Body Tumors in DCE-MRI Data. (United States)

    Pilutti, David; Strumia, Maddalena; Buchert, Martin; Hadjidemetriou, Stathis


    The identification of tumors in the internal organs of chest, abdomen, and pelvis anatomic regions can be performed with the analysis of Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) data. The contrast agent is accumulated differently by pathologic and healthy tissues and that results in a temporally varying contrast in an image series. The internal organs are also subject to potentially extensive movements mainly due to breathing, heart beat, and peristalsis. This contributes to making the analysis of DCE-MRI datasets challenging as well as time consuming. To address this problem we propose a novel pairwise non-rigid registration method with a Non-Parametric Bayesian Registration (NParBR) formulation. The NParBR method uses a Bayesian formulation that assumes a model for the effect of the distortion on the joint intensity statistics, a non-parametric prior for the restored statistics, and also applies a spatial regularization for the estimated registration with Gaussian filtering. A minimally biased intra-dataset atlas is computed for each dataset and used as reference for the registration of the time series. The time series registration method has been tested with 20 datasets of liver, lungs, intestines, and prostate. It has been compared to the B-Splines and to the SyN methods with results that demonstrate that the proposed method improves both accuracy and efficiency.

  9. Thickness-dependent nonlinear optical properties of CsPbBr3 perovskite nanosheets. (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Tian; Zheng, Xin; Shen, Chao; Cheng, Xiang'ai


    Halide perovskite has attracted significant attention because of excellent optical properties. Here, we study the optical properties of CsPbBr3 perovskite nanosheets and observe that the nonlinear optical properties can be tuned by the thickness. The photoluminescence (PL) properties and nonlinear absorption effects induced by saturation absorption (SA) and two-photon absorption (TPA) in CsPbBr3 nanosheets with different thicknesses (from 104.6 to 195.4 nm) have been studied. The PL intensity increases nearly three times with changing from the thinnest one to the thinnest under the same excitation condition. Moreover, the same phenomenon takes place no matter when SA or TPA effects happen. The PL lifetime (τ) varies inversely with the thickness. When SA happens, τ decreases from 11.54 to 9.43 ns while when TPA happens new decay channels emerge with the increase of the thickness. Besides, both saturation intensity (Isat) and the modulation depth are proportional to the thickness (Isat rises from 3.12 to 4.79  GW/cm2, the modulation depth increases from 18.6% to 32.3%), while the TPA coefficient (β) is inversely proportional with the thickness (decreases from 10.94 to 4.73  cm/GW). In addition, quantum yields and thicknesses are in the direct ratio. This Letter advocates great promise for nonlinear optical property related photonics devices.

  10. Produtividade de brócolis de verão com diferentes doses de bokashi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindynara Ferreira


    Full Text Available O plantio de brócolis tipo cabeça única vem se expandindo nos últimos anos. A procura por alimentos mais saudáveis tem causado um aumento na utilização de compostos orgânicos enriquecidos com microrganismos, e entre estes, destaca-se o bokashi. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento da cultivar de brócolis de cabeça única Lord Summer sob diferentes doses do composto orgânico bokashi. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições e cinco doses do composto (0; 250; 500; 750; 1000 g.m-2. Houve resposta linear para as características altura de plantas, número de folhas por planta, diâmetro do caule e cabeça e massa média de cabeça. Em sistema orgânico a melhor dosagem de bokashi para a cultivar Lord Sumer correspondeu a 1000 g.m-2 porém, a ausência de um ponto de máxima em todas características avaliadas, sugere que doses mais elevadas de bokashi poderiam resultar em maiores valores.

  11. Electronic structures and geometries of the XF{sub 3} (X = Cl, Br, I, At) fluorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergentu, Dumitru-Claudiu [SUBATECH, UMR CNRS 6457, IN2P3/EMN Nantes/Université de Nantes, 4 Rue A. Kastler, BP 20722, 44307 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); CEISAM, UMR CNRS 6230, Université de Nantes, 2 Rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Amaouch, Mohamed; Pilmé, Julien [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7616, Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, Case Courier 137, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); CNRS, UMR 7616, Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, Case Courier 137, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Galland, Nicolas, E-mail: [CEISAM, UMR CNRS 6230, Université de Nantes, 2 Rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Maurice, Rémi, E-mail: [SUBATECH, UMR CNRS 6457, IN2P3/EMN Nantes/Université de Nantes, 4 Rue A. Kastler, BP 20722, 44307 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)


    The potential energy surfaces of the group 17 XF{sub 3} (X = Cl, Br, I, At) fluorides have been investigated for the first time with multiconfigurational wave function theory approaches. In agreement with experiment, bent T-shaped C{sub 2v} structures are computed for ClF{sub 3}, BrF{sub 3}, and IF{sub 3}, while we predict that an average D{sub 3h} structure would be experimentally observed for AtF{sub 3}. Electron correlation and scalar relativistic effects strongly reduce the energy difference between the D{sub 3h} geometry and the C{sub 2v} one, along the XF{sub 3} series, and in the X = At case, spin-orbit coupling also slightly reduces this energy difference. AtF{sub 3} is a borderline system where the D{sub 3h} structure becomes a minimum, i.e., the pseudo-Jahn-Teller effect is inhibited since electron correlation and scalar-relativistic effects create small energy barriers leading to the global C{sub 2v} minima, although both types of effects interfere.


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    Ogi Setiawan


    Full Text Available One of potential Non Timber Forest Products (NTFPs in West Nusa Tenggara and Bali is Strychnos lucida R.Br. which is used for medicinal purposes. The species is also potential to use in land rehabilitation of dry land where it offers an additional benefit of landslide control. Part of the plant which has important role in landslide control is root system. Therefore this study aimed to investigate the Strychnos lucida root system in landslide control. The study was held in Bali Barat National Park. Root characteristics observed in the study were the penetration position in the soil, root architecture, and Index of Roots Anchoring (IRA and Index of Roots Binding (IRB. The result showed that Strychnos lucida root was able to penetrate into deep soil layer and had R-tipe root architecture which can increase shear resistance of soil. Value of IRA and IRB indicated the species had a more vertical roots in every growth stage and a high enough horizontal roots. Based on its root characteristics, Strychnos lucida was able to decrease landslide risk, especially shallow and surface landslide.Keywords: Strychnos lucida R.Br., root system, landslide

  13. Elucidating the Methylammonium (MA) Conformation in MAPbBr3 Perovskite with Application in Solar Cells. (United States)

    López, Carlos A; Martínez-Huerta, María Victoria; Alvarez-Galván, María Consuelo; Kayser, Paula; Gant, Patricia; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres; Fernández-Díaz, María T; Fauth, Francois; Alonso, José A


    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites, MAPbX3 (X = halogen), containing methylammonium (MA: CH3-NH3+) in the large voids conformed by the PbX6 octahedral network, are the active absorption materials in the new generation of solar cells. CH3NH3PbBr3 is a promising member with a large band gap that gives rise to a high open circuit voltage. A deep knowledge of the crystal structure and, in particular, the MA conformation inside the perovskite cage across the phase transitions undergone below room temperature, seems essential to establish structure-property correlations that may drive to further improvements. The presence of protons requires the use of neutrons, combined with synchrotron XRD data that help to depict subtle symmetry changes undergone upon cooling. We present a consistent picture of the structural features of this fascinating material, in complement with photocurrent measurements from a photodetector device, demonstrating the potential of MAPbBr3 in optoelectronics.

  14. A LiBr-H2O Absorption Refrigerator Incorporating a Thermally Activated Solution Pumping Mechanism

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    Ian W. Eames


    Full Text Available This paper provides an illustrated description of a proposed LiBr-H2O vapour absorption refrigerator which uses a thermally activated solution pumping mechanism that combines controlled variations in generator vapour pressure with changes it produces in static-head pressure difference to circulate the absorbent solution between the generator and absorber vessels. The proposed system is different and potentially more efficient than a bubble pump system previously proposed and avoids the need for an electrically powered circulation pump found in most conventional LiBr absorption refrigerators. The paper goes on to provide a sample set of calculations that show that the coefficient of performance values of the proposed cycle are similar to those found for conventional cycles. The theoretical results compare favourably with some preliminary experimental results, which are also presented for the first time in this paper. The paper ends by proposing an outline design for an innovative steam valve, which is a key component needed to control the solution pumping mechanism.

  15. Development of a compact and high spatial resolution gamma camera system using LaBr 3(Ce) (United States)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Imaizumi, Masao; Shimosegawa, Eku; Hatazawa, Jun


    In small animal imaging using a single photon emitting radionuclide, a high spatial resolution gamma camera is required. However, its spatial resolution is limited by the light output of conventional scintillators such as NaI(Tl). We developed and tested a small field-of-view (FOV) gamma camera using a new scintillator, LaBr3(Ce). The LaBr3(Ce) gamma camera consists of a 2 mm thick LaBr3(Ce) scintillator, a 2 in. 8×8 multi-anode position sensitive photomultiplier tube (Hamamatsu H8500), and a personal computer-based data acquisition system. The LaBr3(Ce) scintillator was directly coupled to the PSPMT and was contained in a hermetically shielded and light tight aluminum case. The signals from the PSPMT were gain corrected, weighted summed, and digitized by 100 MHz free running A-D converters in the data acquisition system. The detector part of the gamma camera was encased in a tungsten gamma shield, and a tungsten pinhole collimator was mounted in front of the detector surface. The intrinsic spatial resolution that was measured using a tungsten slit mask was 0.75 mm FWHM, and the energy resolution was 8.9% FWHM for 122 keV gamma photons. We obtained transmission and emission images that demonstrated the high spatial resolution of the gamma camera system. Approximately two years after the fabrication of the detector, the flood image showed significant distortion due to the change in LaBr3(Ce) of its hygroscopic characteristic. These results confirm that the developed LaBr3(Ce) gamma camera is promising for small animal imaging using a low energy single photon emitting radionuclide if the hygroscopic problem of LaBr3(Ce) will be solved.

  16. Luminescent characteristic of the CsBr phosphor activated with Eu{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Téllez-Flores, E., E-mail: [Programa de Posgrado en Ciencias (Física), Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Rosales y Blvd. Transversal S/N, 83000 Hermosillo, Son., México (Mexico); Aceves, R., E-mail: [Centro de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-88, 83190 Hermosillo, Son., México (Mexico); Pérez-Salas, R., E-mail: [Centro de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-88, 83190 Hermosillo, Son., México (Mexico); Camarillo, I., E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, Delegación Iztapalapa, C.P. 09340 México D.F. (Mexico); Caldiño, U., E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, Delegación Iztapalapa, C.P. 09340 México D.F. (Mexico)


    Spectra of excitation and emission were measured at RT and 15 K in crystals quenched (Q) of CsBr:Eu{sup 2+}, CsBr:Mn{sup 2+} and CsBr:Eu{sup 2+},Mn{sup 2+}. Emission bands at 444, 480, 520 and 570 nm with different relative intensities are generated in the samples after UV excitation. The blue band at 444 nm was ascribed with unknown clusters or aggregated centers (AC) of dipoles type Eu{sup 2+}–V{sub C}{sup −} and insulated dipole centers (IDC) like Eu{sup 2+}–O{sup 2−}. The bands at 480, 520 and 570 nm were assigned to Cs{sub 4}EuBr{sub 6} nanocrystals; AC containing MnBr{sub 4}{sup 2−} units in tetrahedral symmetry and another yet unidentified AC defect, respectively. In crystals of CsBr:Eu{sup 2+},Mn{sup 2+} the excitation and emission spectra taken at 15 K show no clear evidence of an energy transfer mechanism. Instead, the results suggest that the emission is produced by direct excitation of the ions of Eu{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+}. Accordingly, single- or double-doped CsBr crystals may contain the same type of defects, either AC and/or IDC. -- Highlights: • The PL consists of several overlapping bands in the entire visible region. • The emission bands were ascribed to dipoles, aggregated and nanocrystals of different nature. • No clear evidence of energy transfer, meaning Eu and Mn pairs are not formed. • The material shows potential characteristics for its use as LED to white emission.

  17. (H, Li)Br and LiOH Solvation Bonding Dynamics: Molecular Nonbond Interactions and Solute Extraordinary Capabilities. (United States)

    Sun, Chang Q; Chen, Jiasheng; Gong, Yinyan; Zhang, Xi; Huang, Yongli


    We resolved the O:H-O bond transition from the mode of ordinary water to its hydration in terms of its phonon stiffness (vibration frequency shift Δω), order of fluctuation (line width), and number fraction (phonon abundance), fx(C) = Nhyd/Ntotal. The fx(C) follows fH(C) = 0, fLi(C) ∝ fOH(C) ∝ C, and fBr(C) ∝ 1 - exp(-C/C0) toward saturation with C being the solute concentration. The invariant dfx(C)/dC suggests that the solute forms a constantly sized hydration droplet without responding to interference of other ions because its hydrating H2O dipoles fully screen its electric field. However, the number inadequacy of the highly ordered hydration H2O dipoles partially screens the large Br-. The Br- then interacts repulsively with other Br- anions, which weakens its electric field and the fBr(C) approaches saturation at higher solute concentration. The consistency in the concentration trend of the fLiBr(C), the Jones-Dole viscosity η(C), and the surface stress of LiBr solution clarifies their common origin of ionic polarization. The resultant energy of the solvent H-O exothermic elongation by O: ⇔ :O repulsion and the solute H-O endothermic contraction by bond-order deficiency heats up the LiOH solution. An estimation of at least 0.15 eV (160% of the O:H cohesive energy of 0.1 eV) suggests that the H-O elongation is the main source heating up the solution, while the molecular motion, structure fluctuation, or even evaporation dissipates energy caped at 0.1 eV.

  18. Experimental studies and nuclear model calculations on proton-induced reactions on $^{nat}$Se, $^{76}$Se and $^{77}$Se with particular reference to the production of the medically interesting radionuclides $^{76}$Br and $^{77}$Br

    CERN Document Server

    Hassan, H E; Coenen, H H; Morsy, M; Qaim, S M; Shubin, Yu; 10.1016/j.apradiso.2004.02.001


    Excitation functions of the reactions /sup nat/Se(p, x)/sup 75,76,77,82/Br, /sup 76/Se(p, xn)/sup 75,76/Br, /sup 76/Se(p, x)/sup 75/Se and /sup 77/Se(p, xn)/sup 76,77/Br were measured from their respective thresholds up to 40 MeV, with particular emphasis on data for the production of the medically important radionuclides /sup 76 /Br and /sup 77/Br. The conventional stacked-foil technique was used. The samples were prepared by a sedimentation process. Irradiations were performed using the compact cyclotron CV 28 and the injector of COSY, both at the Research Centre Julich. In order to validate the data, nuclear model calculations were performed using the code ALICE- IPPE which is based on the preequilibrium-evaporation model. Good agreement was found between the experimental and theoretical data, except in the high-energy region where the calculated data were somewhat higher. All the measured excitation curves were compared with the data available in the literature. From the experimental data the theoretical ...

  19. Quality Structures, Vibrational Frequencies, and Thermochemistry of the Products of Reaction of BrHg(•) with NO2, HO2, ClO, BrO, and IO. (United States)

    Jiao, Yuge; Dibble, Theodore S


    Quantum chemical calculations have been carried out to investigate the structures, vibrational frequencies, and thermochemistry of the products of BrHg(•) reactions with atmospherically abundant radicals Y(•) (Y = NO2, HO2, ClO, BrO, or IO). The coupled cluster method with single and double excitations (CCSD), combined with relativistic effective core potentials, is used to determine the equilibrium geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies of BrHgY species. The BrHg-Y bond energies are refined using CCSD with a noniterative estimate of the triple excitations (CCSD(T)) combined with core-valence correlation consistent basis sets. We also assess the performances of various DFT methods for calculating molecular structures and vibrational frequencies of BrHgY species. We attempted to estimate spin-orbit coupling effects on bond energies computed by comparing results from standard and two-component spin-orbit density functional theory (DFT) but obtained unphysical results. The results of the present work will provide guidance for future studies of the halogen-initiated chemistry of mercury.

  20. Synthesis, antimicrobial and antioxidative activity of some new isatin derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šekularac Gavrilo M.


    Full Text Available The isatin derivatives, Schiff bases, were synthesized by the reaction of isatin and various substituted primary amines and characterized by several spectroscopic methods. Investigation of the antimicrobial activity of the synthesized compounds was performed by the agar dilution method, against different strains of bacteria and one fungi. The antioxidative activity of the synthesized compounds was also determined. Some of the compounds have shown the significant activity against the selected strains of microorganisms and the antioxidative activity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172013 i III 46010

  1. Five-coordinate complexes [FeX(depe)(2)]BPh(4), X = Cl, Br: electronic structure and spin-forbidden reaction with N(2). (United States)

    Franke, Oliver; Wiesler, Beatrix E; Lehnert, Nicolai; Näther, Christian; Ksenofontov, Vadim; Neuhausen, Jörg; Tuczek, Felix


    The bonding of N(2) to the five-coordinate complexes [FeX(depe)(2)](+), X = Cl (1a) and Br (1b), has been investigated with the help of X-ray crystallography, spectroscopy, and quantum-chemical calculations. Complexes 1a and 1b are found to have an XP(4) coordination that is intermediate between square-pyramidal and trigonal-bipyramidal. Mössbauer and optical absorption spectroscopy coupled with angular overlap model (AOM) calculations reveal that 1a and 1b have (3)B(1) ground states deriving from a (xz)(1)(z(2))(1) configuration. The zero-field splitting for this state is found to be 30-35 cm(-1). In contrast, the analogous dinitrogen complexes [FeX(N(2))(depe)(2)](+), X = Cl (2a) and Br (2b), characterized earlier are low-spin (S = 0; Wiesler, B. E.; Lehnert, N.; Tuczek, F.; Neuhausen, J.; Tremel, W. Angew. Chem, Int. Ed. 1998, 37, 815-817). N(2) bonding and release in these systems are thus spin-forbidden. It is shown by density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the chloro complex that the crossing from the singlet state (ground state of 2a) to the triplet state (ground state of 1a) along the Fe-N coordinate occurs at r(C) = 2.4 A. Importantly, this intersystem crossing lowers the enthalpy calculated for N(2) release by 10-18 kcal/mol. The free reaction enthalpy Delta G degrees for this process is calculated to be 4.7 kcal/mol, which explains the thermal instability of N(2) complex 2a with respect to the loss of N(2). The differences in reactivity of analogous trans hydrido systems are discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Paiva Carvalho,\tDeivison carvalho Molinari


    Full Text Available RESUMO O trabalho teve como objetivo realizar caracterização das voçorocas ao longo da BR 174, no trecho que compreende entre Manaus e a sede do município de Presidente Figueiredo. Utilizou-se a seguinte metodologia: primeiramente, a caracterização das formações geológicas; identificação dos tipos litológicos, geológico e geomorfológico com localização por meio de GPS de navegação e bússola bruton. Os resultados encontrados na primeira coleta permitem afirmar que a totalidade das voçorocas encontram-se no trecho compreendido entre os km 0 e 82, e que das 31 voçorocas cadastradas em trabalhos anteriores, 7 foram recuperadas pelo Departamento Nacional de Infraestrutura e Transporte (DNIT. As incisões cadastradas encontram-se entre o contato (vertente-vale-igarapés, sendo este último em forma de “U”, algumas estão estáveis devido contenções realizadas por meio de aterramento, plantio de grama (capim-gordura. Durante a caracterização verificou-se que através de cortes expostos (taludes na estrada, há presença de crostas lateríticas ou canga laterítica. A presença de áreas institucionais (órgãos públicos federais e estaduais, comerciais e serviços, propriedades particulares e construção de moradias próximas à saída da cidade de Manaus também são significativas no que diz respeito ao uso do solo. Palavras-chave: Voçorocas, bacia hidrográfica, Presidente Figueiredo (AM. ABSTRACT This paper was aimed at making geoenvironmental characterization and describe the differences landscape along the BR 174, comprising the stretch between Manaus and the seat of the municipality of Presidente Figueiredo. For this, we used the following methodology: first, the characterization of geological formations; identification of rock types, geological and geomorphological with location through GPS navigation and compass bruton. The results in the first test have revealed that all of the incisions are in the stretch

  3. Crescimento e produtividade do sorgo forrageiro BR 601 sob adubação verde Growth and yield of forage sorghum cv. BR 601 under green manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu C. Andrade Neto


    Full Text Available O efeito da adubação verde sobre o crescimento e a produtividade do sorgo forrageiro BR 601, foi estudado em experimento desenvolvido na UFERSA, em Mossoró, RN, no qual o delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados completos, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo com três repetições. Testaram-se sete espécies de leguminosas, Mucuna aterrima, Canavalia ensiformis, Cajanus cajan, Dolichos lab-lab, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis e Vigna unguiculata, uma mistura das leguminosas mais milho, sorgo e girassol, e a vegetação espontânea, como testemunha. Determinaram-se, para cada tratamento, a quantidade de massa verde, massa seca e teores de N, P, K, Na, Ca e Mg da parte aérea, a partir dos quais foi calculada a quantidade de nutrientes acumulada por hectare. As quantidades de matéria fresca e seca da parte aérea, altura de plantas e número de folhas do sorgo semeado após a incorporação dos adubos verdes, foram avaliadas aos 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 dias após o plantio. A Mucuna aterrima mostrou-se a melhor opção como adubo verde em virtude de proporcionar os maiores valores das características avaliadas ao final do ciclo do sorgo podendo-se, também, recomendar a Crotalaria juncea e o Dolichos lab-lab, o qual apresentou a maior massa seca e quantidade de nutrientes na parte aérea.The effect of green manure on growth and yield of forage sorghum BR 601 was studied in a trial carried out at the UFERSA, Mossoró, RN, Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks in a scheme of split plots in time, with three replications. Treatments tested were seven legume species, Mucuna aterrima, Canavalia ensiformis, Cajanus cajan, Dolichos lab-lab, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis, and Vigna unguiculata, a mixture of the legumes plus corn, sorghum and sunflower, and spontaneous vegetation as a control. For each treatment the amount of fresh mass, dry mass and contents of N, P, K, Na, Ca and Mg in

  4. Comparison of BR3 Surveillance and Vessel Plates to the Surrogate Plates Representative of the Yankee Rowe PWR Vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabry, A.; Chaouadi, R.; Puzzolante, J.L.; Van de Velde, J.; Biemiller, E.C.; Rosinski, S.T.; Carter, R.G


    The sister pressure vessels at the BR3 and Yankee Rowe PWR plants were operated at lower-than-usual temperature ( 260 degrees Celsius) and their plates were austenitized a higher-than-usual temperature (970 degrees Celsius) - a heat treatment leading to a coarser microstructure than is typical for the fine grain plates considered in development of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.99. The surveillance programs provided by Westinghouse for the two plants were limited to the same A302-B plate representative of the Rowe vessel upper shell plate; this material displayed outlier behaviour characterized by a 41 J Charpy-V Notch shift significantly larger than predicted by Regulatory Guide 1.99. Because lower irradiation temperature and nickel alloying are generally considered detrimental to irradiation sensitivity, there was a major concern that the nickel-modified lower Rate plate and the nickel-modified BR3 plate may become too embrittled to satisfy the toughness requirements embodied in the PTS screening criterion. This paper compares free complementary studies undertaken to clarify these uncertainties: (1) The accelerated irradiation and test program launched in 1990 by Yankee Atomic Electric Company using typical vessel plate materials containing 0.24% copper at two nickel levels: YA1, 0.63 % (A533-B) and YA9, 0.19 (A302-B). These were heat-treated to produce the coarse and fine grain microstructures representative of the Yankee/BR3 and the Regulatory Guide plates, respectively; (2) The BR3 surveillance and vessel testing program: this vessel was wet-annealed in 1984, relicensed for operation till the plant shutdown in 1987, and was trepanned in early 1995; (3) The accelerated irradiations in the Belgian test reactor BR2 of the Yankee coarse grain plates YA1 and YA9 together with BR3 vessel specimens extracted at nozzle elevation, a location with negligible radiation exposure. It is contended that the PTS screening criterion was never attained by the BR3 and Rowe plates, and

  5. Luminescence studies on gamma irradiated RbCl:Sm 3+ and RbBr:Sm 3+crystals (United States)

    Manimozhi, P. K.; Muralidharan, G.


    This paper presents and discusses the results obtained on the thermoluminescence (TL) and other optical studies of gamma irradiated RbCl:Sm 3+ and RbBr:Sm 3+ crystals. Samarium when doped into the RbCl and RbBr is found to enter the host lattice in its trivalent state and act as electron trap during gamma irradiation, there by partially converting itself to Sm 2+. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of both RbCl and RbBr crystals doped with Sm exhibit the strong red/orange emissions of Sm corresponding to 4G 5/2 → 6H 9/2 (red) and 4G 5/2 → 6H 7/2 (orange) transitions. Z 3 centers are observed in RbBr on F bleaching subsequent to gamma irradiation and a TL glow peak attributable to the same has been identified. The thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve explains the defect annihilation process to be due to the mobilization of two different kinds of traps created as a result of exposure to high energy irradiation in both the cases. Spectral distribution under the thermoluminescence emission (TLE) and optically stimulated emission(OSL), support the idea that defect annihilation process to be due to thermal release of F electron in RbCl:Sm 3+ and in RbBr:Sm 3+ crystals. Both Sm 3+ and Sm 2+ emissions were observed in the thermoluminescence emission of the crystals.

  6. Preparation of mesoporous Ag/AgBr/TiO2 nanocomposites with comb-type polymer as template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li XU

    Full Text Available The mesoporous TiO2 nanocomposites were fabricated in a water bath at lower temperatures using the sol-gel method with a comb-type polymer as template and tetrabutyl titanate as Ti source. The Ag/AgBr/TiO2 nanocomposites with higher specific surface areas were obtained by the introduction of Ag/AgBr on the surface of the mesoporous TiO2 using a deposition-precipitation method. The as-prepared nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, N2 sorption analysis, transmission electron microscope (TEM and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS. The results showed that both the as-prepared TiO2 and Ag/AgBr/TiO2 exhibited mesoporous structure. The introduction of Ag/AgBr not only decreased the specific surface area of the mesoporous TiO2 from 346 m2/g to 253 m2/g, but also significantly increased its visible light photocatalytic activity. The degradation rate of methyl orange under visible light irradiation over Ag/AgBr/TiO2 was 145 and 60 times of those over the commercial TiO2 P25 and the mesoporous TiO2, respectively.

  7. Épidémiologie des brûlures de la main chez les enfants vus dans le Centre National des Brûlés et de Chirurgie Plastique de Casablanca, Maroc


    Rafik, A.; Lahlou, M.; Diouri, M.; Bahechar, N.; Chlihi, A.


    Les brûlures de la main chez l’enfant constituent une source de séquelles invalidantes. A cet régard, la conservation et la restauration complète de la fonction de la main demeurent le but primordial de la prise en charge. Afin de répertorier les caractéristiques épidémiologiques, cliniques et évolutives des mains brûlées, nous avons réalisé une étude rétrospective étalée sur 4 ans, de janvier 2011 à janvier 2015. Cette étude a permis de colliger les cas de 313 enfants atteints de brûlure de ...

  8. Acidity enhancement of unsaturated bases of group 15 by association with borane and beryllium dihydride. Unexpected boron and beryllium Brønsted acids. (United States)

    Martín-Sómer, Ana; Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel; Guillemin, Jean-Claude


    The intrinsic acidity of CH2[double bond, length as m-dash]CHXH2, HC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CXH2 (X = N, P, As, Sb) derivatives and of their complexes with BeH2 and BH3 has been investigated by means of high-level density functional theory and molecular orbital ab initio calculations, using as a reference the ethyl saturated analogues. The acidity of the free systems steadily increases down the group for the three series of derivatives, ethyl, vinyl and ethynyl. The association with both beryllium dihydride and borane leads to a very significant acidity enhancement, being larger for BeH2 than for BH3 complexes. This acidity enhancement, for the unsaturated compounds, is accompanied by a change in the acidity trends down the group, which do not steadily decrease but present a minimum value for both the vinyl- and the ethynyl-phosphine. When the molecule acting as the Lewis acid is beryllium dihydride, the π-type complexes in which the BeH2 molecules interact with the double or triple bond are found, in some cases, to be more stable, in terms of free energies, than the conventional complexes in which the attachment takes place at the heteroatom, X. The most important finding, however, is that P, As, and Sb ethynyl complexes with BeH2 do not behave as P, As, or Sb Brønsted acids, but unexpectedly as Be acids.

  9. Validade de critério do sistema de avaliação de habilidades sociais (SSRS-BR Criterion validity of the social skills rating system (SSRS-BR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Cordeiro Freitas


    Full Text Available O presente estudo efetuou a análise da validade de critério da versão brasileira do Sistema de Avaliação de Habilidades Sociais (SSRS-BR, com base na comparação entre os resultados de uma amostra de 84 crianças com deficiência mental e de 496 crianças com desenvolvimento típico. As crianças e seus professores avaliaram habilidades sociais, problemas de comportamento e competência acadêmica por meio do SSRS-BR. Em todas as escalas globais e na maioria das subescalas, os instrumentos de auto-avaliação e de avaliação por professores foram sensíveis para diferenciar, significativamente, crianças com e sem deficiência mental nos construtos medidos pelo SSRS-BR. Esse estudo permite disponibilizar o instrumento para futuras pesquisas, processos de avaliação e programas de intervenção para crianças com deficiência mental.This study carried out the analysis of the criterion validity of the Brazilian version of the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS-BR. The results of a sample of 84 children with mental disability were compared with a sample of 496 children with typical development. The children and their teachers evaluated social skills, behavior problems and academic competence using the SSRS-BR. In all global scales and in most subscales the instruments of self-evaluation and evaluations done by teachers were sensitive to, significantly, differentiate children with and without mental disability in the constructs measured by the SSRS-BR. This study provides the instrument for future researches as well as for the development of evaluation procedures and intervention programs for children with mental disability.

  10. Intrarectal artemisinin derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nosten, F.; van Vugt, M.; White, N. J.


    The artemisinin derivatives are the most potent antimalarials. They are rapidly absorbed orally, parenterally and intra-rectally. The latter mode of administration is particularly interesting in rural tropics. Preliminary studies have shown that artemisinin and its derivatives artesunate and

  11. A comparative study of LaBr{sub 3}(Ce{sup 3+}) and CeBr{sub 3} based gamma-ray spectrometers for planetary remote sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyrev, A., E-mail:; Mitrofanov, I.; Bakhtin, B.; Fedosov, F.; Golovin, D.; Litvak, M.; Malakhov, A.; Mokrousov, M.; Nuzhdin, I.; Sanin, A.; Tretyakov, V.; Vostrukhin, A. [Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IKI), 84/32 Profsoyuznaya St., Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Owens, A.; Benkhoff, J. [European Space Agency, ESTEC, Keplerlaan, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Quarati, F. [AP, RST, FAME, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Gonitec BV, J. Bildersstraat 60, 2596 EJ Den Haag (Netherlands); Timoshenko, G.; Shvetsov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, Dubna, Moscow Region 141980 (Russian Federation); Granja, C.; Slavicek, T.; Pospisil, S. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)


    The recent availability of large volume cerium bromide crystals raises the possibility of substantially improving gamma-ray spectrometer limiting flux sensitivities over current systems based on the lanthanum tri-halides, e.g., lanthanum bromide and lanthanum chloride, especially for remote sensing, low-level counting applications or any type of measurement characterized by poor signal to noise ratios. The Russian Space Research Institute has developed and manufactured a highly sensitive gamma-ray spectrometer for remote sensing observations of the planet Mercury from the Mercury Polar Orbiter (MPO), which forms part of ESA’s BepiColombo mission. The Flight Model (FM) gamma-ray spectrometer is based on a 3-in. single crystal of LaBr{sub 3}(Ce{sup 3+}) produced in a separate crystal development programme specifically for this mission. During the spectrometers development, manufacturing, and qualification phases, large crystals of CeBr{sub 3} became available in a subsequent phase of the same crystal development programme. Consequently, the Flight Spare Model (FSM) gamma-ray spectrometer was retrofitted with a 3-in. CeBr{sub 3} crystal and qualified for space. Except for the crystals, the two systems are essentially identical. In this paper, we report on a comparative assessment of the two systems, in terms of their respective spectral properties, as well as their suitability for use in planetary mission with respect to radiation tolerance and their propensity for activation. We also contrast their performance with a Ge detector representative of that flown on MESSENGER and show that: (a) both LaBr{sub 3}(Ce{sup 3+}) and CeBr{sub 3} provide superior detection systems over HPGe in the context of minimally resourced spacecraft and (b) CeBr{sub 3} is a more attractive system than LaBr{sub 3}(Ce{sup 3+}) in terms of sensitivities at lower gamma fluxes. Based on the tests, the FM has now been replaced by the FSM on the BepiColombo spacecraft. Thus, CeBr{sub 3} now forms

  12. [Control of the fermentation activity during ensilage of Lolium italicum A. Br. and Medicago sativa L]. (United States)

    Ozino Marletto, O I; Ambrosoli, R; Piccone, G; Biasiol, B


    Samples with different dry matter contents of Lolium italicum A. Br., Medicago sativa L., have been ensiled in hermetically sealed containers, in order to study the evolution of microflora and its activity. The principal microbial groups (coliforms, proteolytics , lactic acid bacteria, clostridia, yeasts) have been detected and enumerated, in anaerobic atmosphere, after ensiling periods of 3, 6, 10, 13, 20, 100 days. At the same time, the samples were chemically analyzed for the detection of: pH, moisture, ashes, total and ammoniacal nitrogen, total reducing sugars, lactic acid, volatile fatty acids, short chain alcohols. The relations found between chemical and microbiological data, show that a strong lactic fermentation is not enough for the inhibition of silage spoiling microorganisms, such as coliforms, yeasts, and (less) proteolytics . This phenomenon may be related to the "quality" of the lactic acid microflora, more than to the characteristics of the environment.

  13. Precision Lifetime Measurements Using LaBr3 Detectors With Stable and Radioactive Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regan P.H.


    Full Text Available A range of high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements have been carried out using arrays which include a number of Cerium-doped Lanthanum-Tribromide (LrBr3(Ce scintillation detectors used in conjunction with high-resolution hyper-pure germanium detectors. Examples of the spectral and temporal responses of such set-ups, using both standard point radioactive sources 152Eu and 56Co, and in-beam fusionevaporation reaction experiments for precision measurements of nuclear excited states in 34P and 138Ce are presented. The current and future use of such arrays at existing (EURICA at RIKEN and future (NUSTAR at FAIR secondary radioactive beam facilities for precision measurements of excited nuclear state lifetimes in the 10 ps to 10 ns regime are also discussed.

  14. Hairy Root Cultures of Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. to Produce Gymnemic Acid. (United States)

    Rajashekar, J; Kumar, Vadlapudi; Veerashree, V; Poornima, D V; Sannabommaji, Torankumar; Gajula, Hari; Giridhara, B


    Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae) is an endangered species extensively used in the management of diabetes, obesity, and treatment of various diseases. Uncontrolled exploitation to meet the increasing demand and low seed viability hastens the disappearance of the plant from its natural habitat. Hairy root culture provides a suitable alternative for the enhanced production of active principles. The current protocol provides the optimized culture conditions for the establishment of hairy root cultures and elicitation studies and also confirmation of stable integration of A. rhizogenes plasmid T-DNA into host genetic material by PCR and RT-PCR. Furthermore, it also discusses the suitable methods for the extraction procedures, and qualitative and quantitative analysis of gymnemic acid by HPTLC and HPLC.

  15. Magnetoelectric effects in the spiral magnets CuCl2 and CuBr2. (United States)

    Tolédano, P; Ayala, A P; Furtado Filho, A F G; do Nascimento, J P C; Silva, M A S; Sombra, A S B


    The nature and symmetry of transition mechanisms in the spin-spiral copper halides CuCl2 and CuBr2 are analyzed theoretically. The magnetoelectric effects observed in the two multiferroic compounds are described and their phase diagram at zero and applied magnetic fields are worked out. The emergence of the electric polarization at zero field below the paramagnetic phase is shown to result from the coupling of two distinct spin-density waves and to be only partly related to the Dzialoshinskii-Moriya interactions. Applying a magnetic field along the two-fold monoclinic axis of CuCl2 yields a decoupling of the spin-density waves modifying the symmetry of the phase and the spin-spiral orientation. The remarkable periodic dependences of the magnetic susceptibility and polarization, on rotating the field in the monoclinic plane, are described theoretically.

  16. Modeling of Output Characteristics of a UV Cu+ Ne-CuBr Laser

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    Snezhana Georgieva Gocheva-Ilieva


    Full Text Available This paper examines experiment data for a Ne-CuBr UV copper ion laser excited by longitudinal pulsed discharge emitting in multiline regime. The flexible multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARSs method has been used to develop nonparametric regression models describing the laser output power and service life of the devices. The models have been constructed as explicit functions of 9 basic input laser characteristics. The obtained models account for local nonlinearities of the relationships within the various multivariate subregions. The built best MARS models account for over 98% of data. The models are used to estimate the investigated output laser characteristics of existing UV lasers. The capabilities for using the models in predicting existing and future experiments have been demonstrated. Specific analyses have been presented comparing the models with actual experiments. The obtained results are applicable for guiding and planning the engineering experiment. The modeling methodology can be applied for a wide range of similar lasers and laser devices.

  17. Brás Cubas e a solidariedade do aborrecimento humano

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    Vitor Cei Santos


    Full Text Available Seguindo a máxima do personagem-narrador de que “a obra em si mesma é tudo”, o artigo visa ler o romance Memórias Póstumas de Brás Cubas a partir dos recursos oferecidos pelo próprio texto. Nesse sentido, pensamos uma questão intrínseca à narrativa, a saber: o que é a solidariedade do aborrecimento humano e qual a sua relação com galhofa e melancolia, disposições que perpassam e impulsionam toda a obra. A questão é pensada a partir de uma análise do capítulo XLII, “Que escapou a Aristóteles”, em comparação com outros trechos da obra.

  18. The 235U Prompt Fission Neutron Spectrum in the BR1 Reactor at SCK•CEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagemans Jan


    Full Text Available The BR1 research reactor at SCK•CEN has a spherical cavity in the graphite above the reactor core. In this cavity an accurately characterised Maxwellian thermal neutron field is present. Different converters can be loaded in the cavity in order to obtain other types of neutron (and gamma irradiation fields. Inside the so-called MARK III converter a fast 235U(n,f prompt fission neutron field can be obtained. With the support of MCNP calculations, irradiations in MARK III can be directly related to the pure 235U(n,f prompt fission neutron spectrum. For this purpose MARK III spectrum averaged cross sections for the most relevant fluence dosimetry reactions have been determined. A calibration factor for absolute measurements has been determined applying activation dosimetry following ISO/IEC 17025 standards.

  19. The 235U Prompt Fission Neutron Spectrum in the BR1 Reactor at SCK•CEN (United States)

    Wagemans, Jan; Malambu, Edouard; Borms, Luc; Fiorito, Luca


    The BR1 research reactor at SCK•CEN has a spherical cavity in the graphite above the reactor core. In this cavity an accurately characterised Maxwellian thermal neutron field is present. Different converters can be loaded in the cavity in order to obtain other types of neutron (and gamma) irradiation fields. Inside the so-called MARK III converter a fast 235U(n,f) prompt fission neutron field can be obtained. With the support of MCNP calculations, irradiations in MARK III can be directly related to the pure 235U(n,f) prompt fission neutron spectrum. For this purpose MARK III spectrum averaged cross sections for the most relevant fluence dosimetry reactions have been determined. A calibration factor for absolute measurements has been determined applying activation dosimetry following ISO/IEC 17025 standards.

  20. Effect of phytohormones on the growth of Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp. Bréh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Tatkowska


    Full Text Available Studies were made an the effect of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, gibberellic acid (GA, kinetin (Kin, and various combinations of these substances upon dry matter increments, soluble protein content, and chlorophyll levels in the cultures of Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp. Bréb. It was found that all these phytohormones, added separately to the medium, stimulated dry matter increment and protein content, although their effect depended on the concentration and the duration of culture. Addition of various combinations of the substances under study into the medium resulted in a less pronounced increment of dry matter, whereas the content of soluble protein significantly increased. The results reflect positive reaction of Scenedesmus quadricauda to the addition of phytohormones into the medium. They also suggest some differences in the action of particular hormones.

  1. Negative collision energy dependence of Br formation in the OH + HBr reaction. (United States)

    Che, Dock-Chil; Matsuo, Takashi; Yano, Yuya; Bonnet, Laurent; Kasai, Toshio


    The reaction between HBr and OH leading to H(2)O and Br in its ground state is studied by means of a crossed molecular beam experiment for a collision energy varying from 0.05 to 0.26 eV, the initial OH being selected in the state |JOmega> = |3/2 3/2> by an electrostatic hexapole field. The reaction cross-section is found to decrease with increasing collision energy. This negative dependence suggests that there is no barrier on the potential energy surface for the formation pathway considered. The experimental results are compared with the previously reported quantum scattering calculations of Clary et al. (D. C. Clary, G. Nyman and R. Hernandez, J. Phys. Chem., 1994, 101, 3704), and briefly discussed in the light of skewed potential energy surfaces associated with heavy-light-heavy type reactions.

  2. Orientation dependence for Br formation in the reaction of oriented OH radical with HBr molecule. (United States)

    Tsai, Po-Yu; Che, Dock-Chil; Nakamura, Masaaki; Lin, King-Chuen; Kasai, Toshio


    The orientation dependence of Br-atom formation in the reaction of the oriented OH radical with the HBr molecule using the hexapole electrostatic field was studied. Experimental results for the orientation dependence in the reaction were analyzed using a Legendre polynomial fit. The results show two reactive sites. It was found that O-end attack is most favored for this reaction, and that H-end attack also shows a pronounced reactivity. The reactivity of the side-ways attack was found to be small. By comparing the results of the orientation dependence in the reaction with studies of inelastic collisions and theoretical calculations, two reaction pathways are proposed. Reaction by O-end attack is followed by a direct abstraction of the H-atom from the HBr molecule. The mechanism for H-end attack may have H-atom migration from HBr to form the water molecule.

  3. Spectral characteristics for a spherically confined -a/r + br{sup 2} potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Richard L [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Boulevard West, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8 (Canada); Saad, Nasser [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PEI C1A 4P3 (Canada); Sen, K D, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [School of Chemistry, University of Hyderabad 500046 (India)


    We consider the analytical properties of the eigenspectrum generated by a class of central potentials given by V(r) = -a/r + br{sup 2}, b > 0. In particular, scaling, monotonicity, and energy bounds are discussed. The potential V(r) is considered both in all space, and under the condition of spherical confinement inside an impenetrable spherical boundary of radius R. With the help of the asymptotic iteration method, several exact analytic results are obtained which exhibit the parametric dependence of energy on a, b, and R, under certain constraints. More general spectral characteristics are identified by use of a combination of analytical properties and accurate numerical calculations of the energies, obtained by both the generalized pseudo-spectral method, and the asymptotic iteration method. The experimental significance of the results for both the free and confined potential V(r) cases are discussed.

  4. Un antecedent de l'estructuralisme: "La muerte y la brújula" /


    McGuirk, Bernard


    Traducció d'una ponència llegida al congrés anual de l'Associació d'Hispanistes Britànics celebrat del 29 de març a l'1 d'abril a la Universitat de Newcastle Amb l'anàlisi del conte "La muerte y la brújula" l'autor intenta demostrar que la teoria literària és implícita al text literari i que és en aquesta perspectiva que s'ha d'enfocar l'ensenyament de la teoria i la crítica literàries.

  5. Transesterification of waste oil to biodiesel using Brønsted acid ionic liquid as catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Xie


    Full Text Available Brønsted acid ionic liquids were employed for the preparation of biodiesel using waste oil as the feedstock. It was found that IL 1–(3–sulfonic acidpropyl–3–methylimidazole hydrosulfate–[HO3S-pmim]HSO4 was an efficient catalyst for the reaction under the optimum conditions: n(oil:n(methanol 1:12, waste oil 15.0 g, ionic liquid 2.0 g, reaction temperature 120 oC and reaction time 8 h, the yield of biodiesel was more than 96%. The reusability of the ionic liquid was also investigated. When the ionic liquid was repeatedly used for five times, the yield of product was still more than 93%. Therefore, an efficient and environmentally friendly catalyst was provided for the synthesis of biodiesel from waste oils.

  6. Le pentecôtisme brésilien en Terre africaine


    Mary, André


    L’expansion du mouvement pentecôtiste dans le monde et plus particulièrement en Afrique est généralement liée à ses origines et à ses ressources américaines, même si les formes de son appropriation par les populations africaines sont anciennes et multiples. Il existe cependant un réseau d’échange religieux Sud-Sud qui se traduit entre autres par l’implantation d’Églises coréennes ou brésiliennes dans les capitales africaines. Cet article fait le point sur les stratégies missionnaires, essenti...

  7. Ar+ and CuBr laser-assisted chemical bleaching of teeth: estimation of whiteness degree (United States)

    Dimitrov, S.; Todorovska, Roumyana; Gizbrecht, Alexander I.; Raychev, L.; Petrov, Lyubomir P.


    In this work the results of adaptation of impartial methods for color determination aimed at developing of techniques for estimation of human teeth whiteness degree, sufficiently handy for common use in clinical practice are presented. For approbation and by the way of illustration of the techniques, standards of teeth colors were used as well as model and naturally discolored human teeth treated by two bleaching chemical compositions activated by three light sources each: Ar+ and CuBr lasers, and a standard halogen photopolymerization lamp. Typical reflection and fluorescence spectra of some samples are presented; the samples colors were estimated by a standard computer processing in RGB and B coordinates. The results of the applied spectral and colorimetric techniques are in a good agreement with those of the standard computer processing of the corresponding digital photographs and complies with the visually estimated degree of the teeth whiteness judged according to the standard reference scale commonly used in the aesthetic dentistry.

  8. Acyclic diterpenic constituents from the roots of Calotropis procera (Ait. R. Br.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilasha Mittal


    Full Text Available Three new terpenic constituents characterized as 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl hexadecanyl 6′-methyl hept-5′-enyl ether (phytyl iso-octyl ether (1, 2,6,10,14,18-pentamethylnonadecanoyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(2 → 1-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(2 → 1-β-d-glucopyranoside (procerasesterterpenoyl triglucoside (3 and 3,7,11,15 tetramethylhexadecanoyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(2 → 1-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(2 → 1-β-d-glucopyranosyl(2 → 1-β-d-glucofuranoside (dihydrophytoyl tetraglucoside (4 have been isolated for the first time from the roots of Calotropis procera (Ait. R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae along with the known compound 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-3-phosphatyl glycerol (2. The structures of all these phytoconstituents have been established by spectral data analysis and chemical reactions.

  9. Determination of BR(chi_{cJ} --> p \\bar{p}) in psi(2S) decays

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, J Z; Bian, J G; Cai, X; Chang, J F; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, H X; Chen, J; Chen, J C; Chen Jun; Chen, M L; Chen, Y B; Chi, S P; Chu, Y P; Cui, X Z; Dai, H L; Dai, Y S; Deng, Z Y; Dong, L Y; Du, S X; Du, Z Z; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fu, C D; Fu, H Y; Fu, L P; Gao, C S; Gao, M L; Gao, Y N; Gong, M Y; Gong, W X; Gu, S D; Guo, Y N; Guo, Y Q; Guo, Z J; Han, S W; Harris, F A; He, J; He, K L; He, M; He, X; Heng, Y K; Hu, H M; Hu, T; Huang, G S; Huang, L; Huang, X P; Ji, X B; Jia, Q Y; Jiang, C H; Jiang, X S; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Jin, Y; Lai, Y F; Li, F; Li, G; Li, H H; Li, J; Li, J C; Li, Q J; Li, R B; Li, R Y; Li, S M; Li, W; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X Q; Li, X S; Liang, Y F; Liao, H B; Liu, C X; Liu Fang; Liu, F; Liu, H M; Liu, J B; Liu, J P; Liu, R G; Liu, Y; Liu, Z A; Liu, Z X; Lu, G R; Lu, F; Lu, J G; Luo, C L; Luo, X L; Ma, F C; Ma, J M; Ma, L L; Ma, X Y; Mao, Z P; Meng, X C; Mo, X H; Nie, J; Nie, Z D; Olsen, S L; Peng, H P; Qi, N D; Qian, C D; Qin, H; Qiu, J F; Ren, Z Y; Rong, G; Shan, L Y; Shang, L; Shen, D L; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shi, F; Shi, X; Song, L W; Sun, H S; Sun, S S; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Tang, X; Tao, N; Tian, Y R; Tong, G L; Varner, G S; Wang, D Y; Wang, J Z; Wang, L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, Meng; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, S Z; Wang, W F; Wang, Y F; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Z; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Z Y; Wei, C L; Wu, N; Wu, Y M; Xia, X M; Xie, X X; Xin, B; Xu, G F; Xu, H; Xu, Y; Xue, S T; Yan, M L; Yan, W B; Yang, F; Yang, H X; Yang, J; Yang, S D; Yang, Y X; Yi, L H; Yi, Z Y; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Ye, Y X; Yu, C S; Yu, G W; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, J M; Yuan, Y; Yue, Q; Zang, S L; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang Bing Yun; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J M; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J W; Zhang, L S; Zhang, Q J; Zhang, S Q; Zhang Xiao Min; Zhang, X Y; Zhang Yi Yun; Zhang, Y J; Zhang, Y Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Q; Zhao, D X; Zhao, J B; Zhao, J W; Zhao, P P; Zhao, W R; Zhao, X J; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zheng, H Q; Zheng, J P; Zheng, L S; Zheng, Z P; Zhong, X C; Zhou, B Q; Zhou, G M; Zhou, L; Zhou, N F; Zhu, K J; Zhu, Q M; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, B A; Zou, B S


    The processes psi(2S) --> gamma chi_{cJ}, chi_{cJ} --> p pbar (J=0,1,2) are studied using a sample of 14X10^6 psi(2S) decays collected with the Beijing Spectrometer at the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider. Very clear chi_{c0}, chi_{c1} and chi_{c2} signals are observed, and the branching fractions BR(chi_{cJ} --> p pbar) (J=0,1,2) are determined to be (27.1^{+4.3}_{-3.9}\\pm 4.7)X10^{-5}, (5.7^{+1.7}_{-1.5}\\pm0.9)X10^{-5}, and (6.5^{+2.4}_{-2.1}\\pm1.0)X10^{-5}, respectively, where the first errors are statistical and the second are systematic.

  10. Measurement of the Branching Fraction Br(Lambda_c+ -> p K- pi+)

    CERN Document Server

    Zupanc, A; Gabyshev, N; Adachi, I; Aihara, H; Asner, D M; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Bakich, A M; Bala, A; Belous, K; Bhuyan, B; Bondar, A; Bonvicini, G; Bozek, A; Bračko, M; Browder, T E; Červenkov, D; Chang, M -C; Chekelian, V; Cheon, B G; Chilikin, K; Chistov, R; Cho, I -S; Cho, K; Chobanova, V; Choi, S -K; Choi, Y; Cinabro, D; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Doležal, Z; Drásal, Z; Dutta, D; Dutta, K; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D; Farhat, H; Fast, J E; Feindt, M; Ferber, T; Gaur, V; Ganguly, S; Garmash, A; Gillard, R; Glattauer, R; Goh, Y M; Golob, B; Haba, J; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; He, X H; Hoshi, Y; Hou, W -S; Huschle, M; Hyun, H J; Iijima, T; Ishikawa, A; Itoh, R; Iwasaki, Y; Iwashita, T; Jaegle, I; Julius, T; Kang, J H; Kato, E; Kato, Y; Kawasaki, T; Kichimi, H; Kim, D Y; Kim, H J; Kim, J B; Kim, J H; Kim, M J; Kim, Y J; Kinoshita, K; Klucar, J; Ko, B R; Kodyš, P; Korpar, S; Križan, P; Krokovny, P; Kronenbitter, B; Kuhr, T; Kumita, T; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y -J; Lee, S -H; Li, J; Li, Y; Libby, J; Liu, C; Liu, Y; Liu, Z Q; Liventsev, D; MacNaughton, J; Miyabayashi, K; Miyata, H; Mizuk, R; Mohanty, G B; Moll, A; Mussa, R; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Natkaniec, Z; Nayak, M; Nedelkovska, E; Niiyama, M; Nisar, N K; Nishida, S; Nitoh, O; Ogawa, S; Olsen, S L; Ostrowicz, W; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Park, C W; Park, H; Park, H K; Pedlar, T K; Pestotnik, R; Petrič, M; Piilonen, L E; Ritter, M; Röhrken, M; Rostomyan, A; Ryu, S; Sahoo, H; Saito, T; Sakai, Y; Sandilya, S; Santelj, L; Sanuki, T; Savinov, V; Schneider, O; Schnell, G; Schwanda, C; Semmler, D; Senyo, K; Seon, O; Sevior, M E; Shapkin, M; Shen, C P; Shibata, T -A; Shiu, J -G; Shwartz, B; Sibidanov, A; Simon, F; Sohn, Y -S; Sokolov, A; Solovieva, E; Stanič, S; Starič, M; Steder, M; Sumiyoshi, T; Tamponi, U; Tanida, K; Tatishvili, G; Teramoto, Y; Trabelsi, K; Uchida, M; Uehara, S; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Urquijo, P; Usov, Y; Van Hulse, C; Vanhoefer, P; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Vinokurova, A; Vorobyev, V; Wagner, M N; Wang, C H; Wang, P; Wang, X L; Watanabe, M; Watanabe, Y; Williams, K M; Won, E; Yamamoto, H; Yamashita, Y; Yashchenko, S; Yook, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhilich, V; Zhulanov, V


    We present the first model-independent measurement of the absolute branching fraction of the Lambda_c+ -> p K- pi+ decay using a data sample of 978 fb^-1 collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+e- collider. The number of Lambda_c+ baryons is determined by reconstructing the recoiling D(*)- anti-p pi+ system in events of the type e+e- -> D(*)- anti-p pi+ Lambda_c+. The branching fraction is measured to be Br(Lambda_c+ -> p K- pi+) = (6.84 +- 0.24^{+0.21}_{-0.27})%, where the first and second uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively.

  11. Bernard Maris, Anti-Manuel d'Economie, Bréal, 2003, 359p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Zin


    Full Text Available "Il doit être clair au terme de cet Antimanuel que la gratuité et la solidarité font la croissance, l'invention de la richesse malgré la concurrence, essentiellement inefficace". p.349Après l'Antimanuel de philosophie confié à Michel Onfray, les éditions Bréal publient un Antimanuel d'économie par Bernard Maris (l'oncle Bernard de Charlie-Hebdo. En fait, la forme est relativement proche de celle d'un manuel. Ce qui justifie le titre d'Antimanuel, c'est plutôt de dire le contraire de ce que d...

  12. Optical constants of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite thin films measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal


    The lack of optical constants information for hybrid perovskite of CH3NH3PbBr3 in thin films form can delay the progress of efficient LED or laser demonstration. Here, we report on the optical constants (complex refractive index and dielectric function) of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite thin films using spectroscopic ellipsometry. Due to the existence of voids, the refractive index of the thin films is around 8% less than the single crystals counterpart. The energy bandgap is around 2.309 eV as obtained from photoluminescence and spectrophotometry spectra, and calculated from the SE analysis. The precise measurement of optical constants will be useful in designing optical devices using CH3NH3PbBr3 thin films.

  13. Bröst cancerpatienters upplevelser i mötet med sjuksköterskan : En litteraturstudie


    Einarsson, Susann; Karlsson, Mette


    År 2000 fick 6 348 kvinnor diagnosen bröst cancer. Bröst cancer är därmed den vanligaste formen av cancer hos kvinnor. Personer som har fått diagnosen cancer upplever stora existentiella förändringar, osäkerhet och ensamhet. Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva bröst cancerpatienters upplevelser i mötet med sjuksköterskan. Studien är en litteraturstudie och författarna har använt sig av Polit & Hunglers modell. I resultatet framgick det att kvinnornas upplevelser i mötet med sjuksköte...

  14. Green Brönsted acid ionic liquids as novel corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in acidic medium. (United States)

    Cao, Shuyun; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Peng; Yang, Lixia; Yang, Peng; Lu, Hui; Gui, Jianzhou


    New ionic liquids with multiple Brönsted acid sites were synthesized in ≥98% yield, and their inhibiting properties for the corrosion of carbon steel in 0.5 M HCl solution had been evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization and weight loss method, finally the possible inhibiting mechanism was proposed according to UV-visible spectroscopic measurements and surface analysis including SEM and XPS techniques. The designed cation structure of Brönsted acid ionic liquids (BAILs), with one phenyl and two imidazolium rings, makes them good mixed-type inhibitors via the adsorption of BAILs on the steel surface to suppress both anodic and cathodic processes, obeying Langmuir adsorption isotherm. As potential acid catalysts, BAILs show nice corrosion inhibiting performance in acidic medium regardless of their Brönsted acidity, which is of great significance to enlarge the industry applications of BAILs.

  15. The role of MgBr2 to enhance the ionic conductivity of PVA/PEDOT:PSS polymer composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslam M. Sheha


    Full Text Available A solid polymer electrolyte system based on poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA and poly(3,4-Etylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS complexed with magnesium bromide (MgBr2 salt was prepared using solution cast technique. The ionic conductivity is observed to increase with increasing MgBr2 concentration. The maximum conductivity was found to be 9.89 × 10−6 S/cm for optimum polymer composite film (30 wt.% MgBr2 at room temperature. The increase in the conductivity is attributed to the increase in the number of ions as the salt concentration is increased. This has been proven by dielectric studies. The increase in conductivity is also attributable to the increase in the fraction of amorphous region in the electrolyte films as confirmed by their structural, thermal, electrical and optical properties.

  16. Brånemark and ITI dental implants in the human bone-grafted maxilla: a comparative evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, Else M


    and the patients were followed between 20 and 67 months post implantation. The bone graft was transplanted to add bony volume in the maxillary sinus, the anterior floor of the nose and/or the alveolar ridge. After a healing period of 4(1/2) months, dental implants were inserted and left for healing for 8 months......The development of new characteristics concerning implant surface makes it interesting to clinically compare different implant systems in the bone-grafted maxilla. The aim of this evaluation was to compare clinical data of a two-staged procedure on the augmented extremely atrophic maxilla using...... either Brånemark- or ITI-fixures. In 25 patients (18 females, seven males) the severely atrophied maxilla was reconstructed with autogenous iliac or mandibular bone and either Brånemark or ITI implants. Seventy-eight Brånemark implants and 80 SLA-ITI implants were inserted in the augmented bone...

  17. The Ungraded Derived Category


    Stai, Torkil Utvik


    By means of the ungraded derived category we prove that the orbit category of the bounded derived category of an iterated tilted algebra with respect to translation is triangulated in such a way that the canonical functor from the bounded derived category to the orbit category becomes a triangle functor.

  18. Quantification of Lewis acid induced Brønsted acidity of protogenic Lewis bases. (United States)

    Lathem, A Paige; Heiden, Zachariah M


    Proton transfer promoted by the coordination of protogenic Lewis bases to a Lewis acid is a critical step in catalytic transformations. Although the acidification of water upon coordination to a Lewis acid has been known for decades, no attempts have been made to correlate the Brønsted acidity of the coordinated water molecule with Lewis acid strength. To probe this effect, the pK a 's (estimated error of 1.3 pK a units) in acetonitrile of ten protogenic Lewis bases coordinated to seven Lewis acids containing Lewis acidities varying 70 kcal mol -1 , were computed. To quantify Lewis acid strength, the ability to transfer a hydride (hydride donor ability) from the respective main group hydride was used. Coordination of a Lewis acid to water increased the acidity of the bound water molecule between 20 and 50 pK a units. A linear correlation exhibiting a 2.6 pK a unit change of the Lewis acid-water adduct per ten kcal mol -1 change in hydride donor ability of the respective main group hydride was obtained. For the ten protogenic Lewis bases studied, the coordinated protogenic Lewis bases were acidified between 10 and 50 pK a units. On average, a ten kcal mol -1 change in hydride donor ability of the respective main group hydride resulted in about a 2.8 pK a unit change in the Brønsted acidity of the Lewis acid-Lewis base adducts. Since attempts to computationally investigate the pK a of main group dihydrogen complexes were unsuccessful, experimental determination of the first reported pK a of a main group dihydrogen complex is described. The pK a of H 2 -B(C 6 F 5 ) 3 was determined to be 5.8 ± 0.2 in acetonitrile.

  19. Limitations of workers diagnosed with cancer evaluated with Work Role Functioning Questionnaire-Br. (United States)

    Gallasch, Cristiane H; Alexandre, Neusa Mc; Esteves, Sergio Cb; Gomes, Helena F; da Rocha, Elaine Cl; Baptista, Patricia Cp


    The main subject of the current study is to look into the limitations found in individuals diagnosed with cancer, considered a public health problem, especially in developing countries where the impact of this disease is expected to account for 80% of 20 million new cases estimated worldwide by 2025. For some patients undergoing treatment, continuing to be professionally active is challenging especially considering that work fosters a purpose in life, a sense of contribution, distraction, and self-esteem, which aids in physical, cognitive, emotional, and interpersonal recovery. Within this context, the aim is to describe the limitations found in individuals with cancer, who have maintained their work activities in private service during radiotherapy treatment, through a descriptive study and a quantitative approach. The final sample of 51 participants was defined by non-probability convenience sampling, based on information from all patients admitted in that period, with a research protocol approved by the Research Ethics Committee. The assessment using the Brazilian version of the Work Role Functioning Questionnaire showed higher average work functioning indexes for social demand, with an average score of 94.33 (11.47). In turn, the worst indexes were registered in physical demand. No significant differences were observed between groups of treatment protocols in terms of WRFQ-Br scores. The work functioning assessment of workers diagnosed with cancer in radiotherapy using the WRFQ-Br showed higher scores for social demands and lower for physical demands. The preserved social performance may be linked to individual work functioning within the family, at work and, consequently, within society, given that the study included patients who maintained their work activities during the proposed treatment period, highlighting the social role of work for patients with cancer.

  20. Ab initio study of valence and Rydberg states of CH3Br (United States)

    Escure, Christelle; Leininger, Thierry; Lepetit, Bruno


    We performed configuration interaction ab initio calculations on the valence and 5s, 5pa1, and 5pe Rydberg bands of the CH3Br molecule as a function of the methyl-bromide distance for frozen C3v geometries. The valence state potential energy curves are repulsive, the Rydberg state ones are similar to the one of the CH3Br+ ion with a minimum at short distance. One state emerging from the 5pe band has valence and ion-pair characters as distance increases and the corresponding potential curve has a second minimum at large distance. This state has a very strong parallel electric dipole transition moment with the ground state and plays a central role in UV photon absorption spectra. It is also responsible for the parallel character of the anisotropy parameters measured in ion-pair production experiments. In each band, there is a single state, which has a non-negligible transition moment with the ground state, corresponding to a transition perpendicular to the molecular axis of symmetry, except for the 5pe band where it is parallel. The perpendicular transition moments between ground and valence states increase sharply as methyl-bromide distance decreases due to a mixing between valence and 5s Rydberg band at short distance. In each band, spin orbit interaction produces a pair of states, which have significant transition moments with the ground one. In the valence band, the mixing between singlet and triplet states is weak and the perpendicular transition to the Q11 state is dominant. In each Rydberg band, however, spin-orbit interaction is larger than the exchange interaction and the two significant transition moments with the ground state have comparable strengths. The valence band has an additional state (Q10) with significant parallel transition moment induced by spin-orbit interaction with the ground state at large distance.

  1. An instrument for measurements of BrO with LED-based Cavity-Enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (United States)

    Hoch, D. J.; Buxmann, J.; Sihler, H.; Pöhler, D.; Zetzsch, C.; Platt, U.


    The chemistry of the troposphere and specifically the global tropospheric ozone budget is affected by reactive halogen species such as bromine monoxide (BrO) or chlorine monoxide (ClO). Especially BrO plays an important role in the processes of ozone destruction, disturbance of NOx and HOx chemistry, oxidation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), and the deposition of elementary mercury. In the troposphere BrO has been detected in polar regions, at salt lakes, in volcanic plumes, and in the marine boundary layer. For a better understanding of these processes, field measurements as well as reaction chamber studies are performed. In both cases instruments with high spatial resolution and high sensitivity are necessary. A Cavity-Enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CE-DOAS) instrument with an open path measurement cell was designed and applied. For the first time, a CE-DOAS instrument is presented using an UV LED in the 325-365 nm wavelength range. In laboratory studies, BrO as well as HONO, HCHO, O3, and O4 could be reliably determined at detection limits of 20 ppt for BrO, 9.1 ppb for HCHO, 970 ppt for HONO, and 91 ppb for O3, for five minutes integration time. The best detection limits were achieved for BrO (11 ppt), HCHO (5.1 ppb), HONO (490 ppt), and O3 (59 ppb) for integration times of 81 minutes or less. Comparison with established White system (WS) DOAS and O3 monitor measurements demonstrate the reliability of the instrument.

  2. Recyclable and visible light sensitive Ag–AgBr/TiO{sub 2}: Surface adsorption and photodegradation of MO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xinxin [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Zhang, Dong [Key Laboratory of Physics and Technology for Advanced Batteries (Ministry of Education), College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Guo, Biao; Qu, Yue; Tian, Ge [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Yue, Huijuan, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Feng, Shouhua [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanoheterojunction Ag–AgBr/TiO{sub 2} sphere are prepared by CTAB-assisted method. • Uncalcined samples exhibit predominantly surface adsorption on dye removal. • Calcined composites demonstrate excellent degradation activity for MO under visible light irradiation. • The loading of Ag–AgBr is optimized. • The catalyst possesses good photochemical stability and reusability. - Abstract: A range of highly efficient nanoheterojunction structured Ag–AgBr/TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts have been synthesized by CTAB-assisted method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL). The results demonstrated that Ag–AgBr nanoparticles were successfully deposited on the surface of anatase TiO{sub 2} hierarchical spheres. The remarkable adsorptive removal of methyl orange (MO) by the uncalcined samples was investigated before evaluating its photocatalytic ability. All the calcined three-component catalysts possessed excellent photocatalytic activities for degrading MO under visible light, in which, 162.4% Ag–AgBr/TiO{sub 2} exhibited highest efficiency. The greatly enhanced activity can be attributed to the well combination of surface plasmons photocatalyst Ag–AgBr and TiO{sub 2}, which can simultaneously inhibit the photo-generated electrons and holes recombination. The nanoheterojunctions architecture catalyst also showed high stability even after five consecutive cycles. Meanwhile, the possible mechanism and interpretation of the photocatalytic process were also proposed.

  3. Evaluation of Brāhmī ghṛtam in children suffering from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Bhalerao


    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. In view of the adverse effects associated with psycho-stimulants used for the treatment of this disorder, efficacy of Brāhmīghṛtam was evaluated in this condition. Materials and Methods: After following due ethical considerations, children of either sex between the age group of 6 and 12 years diagnosed to be suffering from mixed variety of ADHD as per The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV criteria irrespective of other co-morbid psychiatric illnesses were recruited in the study. Initially a pilot study (n = 10 was carried out to confirm the efficacy of the identified dose of Brāhmīghṛtam. Using this dose, further therapeutic confirmatory study (n = 27 was carried out, wherein Brāhmīghṛtam was compared with methylphenidate. Effect on ADHD symptoms was assessed using the Dupaul ADHD rating scale and this was the main efficacy parameter. Results: In the pilot exploratory study, Brāhmīghṛtam showed 66% decrease in total ADHD score. In the therapeutic confirmatory study, only 16% improvement was seen with Brāhmīghṛtam, which was similar to methylphenidate, standard treatment for ADHD that was used as a comparator in the present study. No side-effects were reported in both studies. Conclusion: Our study thus has adequately demonstrated efficacy and safety of Brāhmīghṛtam in ADHD.

  4. Alcohol-related injuries, hazardous drinking, and BrAC levels among a sample of bar patrons. (United States)

    Martin, Ryan J; Brechbiel, Kerry; Chaney, Beth H; Cremeens-Matthews, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen


    Alcohol-related injuries are a serious public health issue and research has found that alcohol consumption is positively correlated with injury risk. To better understand the association between alcohol consumption and injury risk. We conducted four anonymous cross-sectional field studies among a sample of bar patrons (N = 917) to assess breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) levels, hazardous drinking levels (based on AUDIT-C score), and past year alcohol-related injuries in Fall 2014. Next, we conducted two logistic regression analyses to predict alcohol-related injuries: one model used hazardous drinking level as a predictor variable and the other model used BrAC. Among participants in our sample, the average BrAC% was .076 (SD =.055) and the average hazardous drinking score (based on the AUDIT-C) was 5.0 (SD = 2.6). The majority of participants indicated that they had not experienced an alcohol-related injury in the past year (859; 93.7%). Our regression analyses found that each incremental increase in a participants' hazardous drinking score increased the odds of experiencing a self-reported alcohol-related injury by 1.4 times and as BrAC increased one unit of change (percentage), the odds of a past-year alcohol related injury increased twofold (OR = 2.2). Other covariates (ie, age, gender, race, college student status) did not significantly predict alcohol-related injuries in either model. High-risk drinking behaviors, including higher BrAC levels, greatly influenced experiencing an alcohol-related injury. This is the first examination of BrAC levels and alcohol-related injuries in a primarily college student sample. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  5. Influences of organic cation and hydrochloric acid additive on the morphology and photoluminescence of HC(NH2)2PbBr3 films (United States)

    Yan, Jun; Chen, Yunlin; Wang, Ji; Zhang, Ao; Zhang, Bing


    The hydrohalic acid additives have been used in perovskite thin films to improve the film morphology and optical properties. However, our study demonstrated that the hydrochloric acid (HCl) additive greatly improved the surface coverage but lowered the photoluminescence (PL) emission intensities of HC(NH2)2PbBr3 (HC(NH2)2 = FA) films. The effects of organic cation and hydrochloric acid additive on the morphology and photoluminescence of FAPbBr3 films were investigated. We found that FAPbBr3 films prepared with HCl additive in low FABr concentration environment displayed good film quality but weak PL emission intensity. The optical properties of FAPbBr3 films have close relationship with FABr concentration. The optical absorption edge of FAPbBr3 showed a blue shift with increasing the FABr concentration. The strong PL emission intensities of FAPbBr3 can be obtained from the solutions with high FABr concentration.

  6. X-ray and NQR studies of bromoindate(III) complexes. [C{sub 2}H{sub 5}NH{sub 3}]{sub 4}InBr{sub 7}, [C(NH{sub 2}){sub 3}]{sub 3}InBr{sub 6}, and [H{sub 3}NCH{sub 2}C(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CH{sub 2}NH{sub 3}]InBr{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwakiri, Takeharu; Ishihara, Hideta [Saga Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Culture and Education; Terao, Hiromitsu [Tokushima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences; Lork, Enno; Gesing, Thorsten M. [Bremen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry and Crystallography


    The crystal structures of [C{sub 2}H{sub 5}NH{sub 3}]{sub 4}InBr{sub 7}(1), [C(NH{sub 2}){sub 3}]{sub 3}InBr{sub 6}(2), and [H{sub 3}NCH{sub 2}C(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CH{sub 2}NH{sub 3}]InBr{sub 5}(3) were determined at 100(2) K: monoclinic, P2{sub 1}/n, a=1061.94(3), b=1186.40(4), c=2007.88(7) pm, β= 104.575(1) , Z=4 for 1; monoclinic, C2/c, a=3128.81(12), b=878.42(3), c=2816.50(10) pm, β=92.1320(10) , Z=16 for 2; orthorhombic, P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, a=1250.33(5), b=1391.46(6), c=2503.22(9) pm, Z=4 for 3. The structure of 1 contains an isolated octahedral [InBr{sub 6}]{sup 3-} ion and a Br{sup -} ion. The structure of 2 contains three different isolated octahedral [InBr{sub 6}]{sup 3-} ions. The structure of 3 has a corner-shared double-octahedral [In{sub 2}Br{sub 11}]{sup 5-} ion and an isolated tetrahedral [InBr{sub 4}]{sup -} ion. The {sup 81}Br nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) lines of the terminal Br atoms of the compounds are widely spread in frequency, and some of them show unusual positive temperature dependence. These observations manifest the N-H..Br-In hydrogen bond networks developed between the cations and anions to stabilize the crystal structures. The {sup 81}Br NQR and differential thermal analysis (DTA) measurements have revealed the occurrence of unique phase transitions in 1 and 3. When the bond angles were estimated from the electric field gradient (EFG) directions calculated by the molecular orbital (MO) methods, accurate values were obtained for [InBr{sub 6}]{sup 3-} of 1 and for [In{sub 2}Br{sub 11}]{sup 5-} and [InBr{sub 4}]{sup -} of 3, except for several exceptions in those for the latter two ions. On the other hand, the calculations of {sup 81}Br NQR frequencies have produced up to 1.4 times higher values than the observed ones.

  7. μ-Bromido-dibromido-μ-hydroxido-bis­[(4S)-2-halo-6-(4-isopropyl-4,5-dihydro­oxazol-2-yl)pyridine]dicopper(II) (halo: Cl/Br = 3:1)


    Andy Ch. Laungani; Manfred Keller; Bernhard Breit


    The crystal structure of the title complex, [Cu2Br3(OH)(C11H13Br0.5Cl1.5N2O)2], consists of two (2-halo-6-oxazolinyl)pyridine·CuBr units bridged by a Br atom and a hydroxide group. The CuII atoms are five-coordinate with an (N,N)BrCu(Br)(OH) distorted tetragonal–pyramidal core, and relatively short contacts to the bridging atoms (Cu—μ-OH and Cu—μ-Br). There are two symmetry-independent half-molecules in the asymmetric unit, which differ only in the arrangement...

  8. PbBr2薄膜を蒸着したCsBr結晶における固体化学反応の分光学的その場観測


    松永, 敏宏; 樋口, 聖; 斎藤, 忠昭; 近藤, 新一; 浅田, 拡志; 石金, 益夫


    The effect of annealing on PbBr2 films vacuum-evaporated onto 77K CsBr crystals has been investigated by in situ optical absorption and reflection spectroscopy. In the early stages of the annealing, the Pb2+ ions take part in the formation of Cs4PbBr6 crystallites, near the surface of the CsBr crystals, via the formation of CsPbBr3 by the chemical between PbBr2 and CsBr. The crystallites exhibit a novel absorption spectrum suggesting that the 6s and 6p states of the Pb2+ ions are strongly l...

  9. N-Heterocyclic carbene/Brønsted acid cooperative catalysis as a powerful tool in organic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob De Vreese


    Full Text Available The interplay between metals and N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs has provided a window of opportunities for the development of novel catalytic strategies within the past few years. The recent successful combination of Brønsted acids with NHCs has added a new dimension to the field of cooperative catalysis, enabling the stereoselective synthesis of functionalized pyrrolidin-2-ones as valuable scaffolds in heterocyclic chemistry. This Commentary will briefly highlight the concept of N-heterocyclic carbene/Brønsted acid cooperative catalysis as a new and powerful methodology in organic chemistry.

  10. Brønsted acid catalyzed enantioselective indole aza-Claisen rearrangement mediated by an arene CH-O interaction. (United States)

    Maity, Pradip; Pemberton, Ryan P; Tantillo, Dean J; Tambar, Uttam K


    Although the aromatic aza-Claisen rearrangement is a general strategy for accessing substituted aromatic amines, there are no highly enantioselective examples of this process. We report the first Brønsted acid catalyzed enantioselective indole aza-Claisen rearrangement for the synthesis of chiral 3-amino-2-substituted indoles. We present evidence for an arene CH-O interaction as a source of activation and stereoinduction, which is an unprecedented phenomenon in enantioselective Brønsted acid catalysis. The products of this reaction can be transformed into 3-aminooxindoles, which are prevalent in many biologically active small molecules.

  11. Preliminary evaluation of a pre-industrial air-cooled LiBr-H2O small capacity absorption machine


    Farnós Baulenas, Joan; Castro González, Jesús; Morales Ruíz, Sergio; García Rivera, Eduardo; Oliva Llena, Asensio


    The paper describes the thermal design, and evaluates the preliminary operational results of a small capacity pre-industrial LiBr-H2O air-cooled absorption machine in order to validate a numerical model and apply it to simulate a new 7kW LiBr-H2O air-cooled absorption chiller, conceived for low temperature driven, solar cooling or wasted heat. This numerical model is able to simulate the dynamical thermohydraulic behavior of a single-effect absorption machine in transient conditions, being im...

  12. Effect of temperature on the corrosion resistance and pitting behaviour of Alloy 31 in LiBr solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasco-Tamarit, E.; Igual-Munoz, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, E.T.S.I. Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, P.O. Box 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Anton, J. Garcia [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, E.T.S.I. Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, P.O. Box 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail:; Garcia-Garcia, D. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, E.T.S.I. Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, P.O. Box 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)


    The corrosion resistance and pitting behaviour of Alloy 31, a high-alloyed austenitic stainless steel (UNS N08031), is studied in two heavy brine LiBr solutions (850 g/l) with and without corrosion inhibitor (lithium chromate) at different temperatures (25 deg. C, 50 deg. C, 75 deg. C and 100 deg. C) using electrochemical techniques. Cyclic potentiodynamic curves indicate that UNS N08031 is less pitting corrosion resistant and it reduces its repassivation properties as temperature increases. Comparison between the results obtained in LiBr solutions with and without inhibitor suggested a decrease in the inhibitor efficiency of lithium chromate at high temperatures.

  13. Buying Blood Diamonds and Altering Global Capitalism. Mads Brügger as Unruly Artivist in The Ambassador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reestorff, Camilla Møhring


    This article argues that it is necessary to distinguish between different modalities of globalisation to ensure that we do not simply equate globalisation with global capitalism. Following this, this article conducts a study of the way in which Mads Brügger’s documentary film The Ambassador...... challenges global inequality in relation to finance and mobility. This critique of global inequality is staged through a peculiar ‘‘unruly artivist’’ provocation. Mads Brügger fictionalises his character and over-identifies with the corrupt diplomat seeking to buy and trade blood diamonds. The film is unruly...

  14. A chemometric approach for prediction of antifungal activity of some benzoxazole derivatives against Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podunavac-Kuzmanović Sanja O.


    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to promote and facilitate prediction of antifungal activity of the investigated series of benzoxazoles against Candida albicans. The clinical importance of this investigation is to simplify design of new antifungal agents against the fungi which can cause serious illnesses in humans. Quantitative structure activity relationship analysis was applied on nineteen benzoxazole derivatives. A multiple linear regression (MLR procedure was used to model the relationships between the molecular descriptors and the antifungal activity of benzoxazole derivatives. Two mathematical models have been developed as a calibration models for predicting the inhibitory activity of this class of compounds against Candida albicans. The quality of the models was validated by the leave-one-out technique, as well as by the calculation of statistical parameters for the established model. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172012 i br. 172014

  15. Ce3+ activated LaBr3?xIx : High-light-yield and fast-response mixed halide scintillators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birowosuto, M.D.; Dorenbos, P.; Krämer, K.W.; Güdel, H.U.


    Here, we report the scintillation properties of LaBr3?xIx:5%Ce3+ with four different compositions of x, i.e., x = 0.75, 1.5, 2, and 2.25. Radioluminescence spectra reveal a shift of the emission wavelength with the LaBr3 to LaI3 ratio. LaBr1.5I1.5:5%Ce3+ shows the highest scintillation light yield

  16. Microwave-assisted solvothermal synthesis of flower-like Ag/AgBr/BiOBr microspheres and their high efficient photocatalytic degradation for p-nitrophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tingting, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Department of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for Ecological Diagnosis, Remediation and Pollution Control, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Luo, Shenglian, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Department of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for Ecological Diagnosis, Remediation and Pollution Control, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Yang, Lixia [Department of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for Ecological Diagnosis, Remediation and Pollution Control, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China)


    Flower-like Ag/AgBr/BiOBr microspheres were successfully fabricated by the approach of microwave-assisted solvothermal and in situ photo-assisted reduction. A reactive ionic liquid 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C{sub 16}mim]Br) was employed as Br source in the presence of surfactant polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The photocatalytic activity of Ag/AgBr/BiOBr towards the decomposition of p-nitrophenol under visible light irradiation was evaluated. The results indicated that Ag/AgBr/BiOBr showed enhanced photocatalytic activity towards p-nitrophenol, comparing with P25, BiOBr and Ag/AgBr. More than 96% of p-nitrophenol was decomposed in 3.5 h under visible-light irradation. The excellent photocatalytic activity of flower-like Ag/AgBr/BiOBr microspheres can be attributed to the large specific surface area, strong visible-light absorption, suitable energy band structure and surface plasmon resonance effect of Ag nanoparticles. The possible photocatalytic mechanism was proposed based on the active species test and band gap structure analysis. - Graphical abstract: The photocatalytic reaction mechanisms of the as-prepared Ag/AgBr/BiOBr. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Successful synthesis of flower-like Ag/AgBr/BiOBr microspheres. • The Ag/AgBr/BiOBr showed much higher photocatalytic activity towards p-nitrophenol as compared to BiOBr and Ag/AgBr. • The reasons for the excellent photocatalytic activity are the large specific surface area, strong visible-light absorption and surface plasmon resonance effect of Ag nanoparticles. • The O{sub 2}·{sup −}, Br{sup 0} and photogenerated h{sup +} play key roles in the photocatalytic degradation process.

  17. Taxation of Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyppel, Katja Joo


    The main objective for this thesis is to analyse and systematise the Danish legislation on taxation of derivatives. According to financial terminology, a derivative is a financial instrument. Its value is derived from changes in the value of one or more underlying assets.The most common derivatives...... with the scope of sections 29-33 of the Danish Act on Taxation of Gains and Losses on Claims and Debt and the tax consequences for the covered financial contracts. In the analysis of taxation of derivatives, the fundamental issues of qualification and tax treatment of the instruments are dealt with....... are known as futures, forwards, options and swaps. Derivatives are traded for the purpose of hedging financial or business risk, speculating in future spot prices and taking advantage of arbitrage opportunities. This market has increased tremendously in recent years. The term derivative is not used...

  18. Crystal structure, hydrogen bonding, and sup 8 sup 1 Br NQR of low-temperature phase of 4-aminopyridinium tetrabromoantimonate (3)

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, M; Fuess, H; Svoboda, I; Ehrenberg, H


    The crystal structure of the low-temperature phase (LTP) of the title compound was determined at 220 K (monoclinic, P2 sub 1 sub / sub c). The 4-aminopyridinium cations (4-NH sub 2 C sub 5 H sub 4 NH sup +) were found to be ordered in LTP, while being severely disordered in the room-temperature phase (monoclinic, C2/c). The tetrabromoantimonate anions (SbBr sub 4 sup -) were incorporated into the infinite polyanion chains of irregular SbBr sub 6 octahedra with two-edges sharing. The trans-Br-Sb-Br moiety in the SbBr sub 4 sup - anion was approximately symmetric differing from the asymmetric Br-Sb centre dot centre dot centre dot Br moiety found in LTP of pyridinium tetrabromoantimonate (3). The N-H moieties in both of the pyridine ring and the amino (-NH sub 2) group participate in the formation of N-H centre dot centre dot centre dot Br hydrogen bonds. It was shown that the sup 8 sup 1 Br NQR spectrum of LTP is closely related to the anion structure and the hydrogen bonds. The distinctive anion structures, a...

  19. Radiation induced defects in Sr{sub 2}B{sub 5}O{sub 9}Br:Ce{sup 3+} storage phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorenko, A V [Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Bos, A J J [Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Dorenbos, P [Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Eijk, C W E van [Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Rodnyi, P A [St Petersburg State Technical University, Polytekhnicheskaya 29, 195251 St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Berezovskaya, I V [A V Bogatsky Physico-Chemical Institute, Ukranian Academy of Science, 65080 Odessa (Ukraine); Dotsenko, V P [A V Bogatsky Physico-Chemical Institute, Ukranian Academy of Science, 65080 Odessa (Ukraine); Guillot-Noel, O [Laboratoire de Chimie Appliquee de l' Etat Solide, UMR 7574, ENSCP, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Gourier, D [Laboratoire de Chimie Appliquee de l' Etat Solide, UMR 7574, ENSCP, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)


    Radiation induced defects in polycrystalline pure and Ce{sup 3+} doped Sr{sub 2}B{sub 5}O{sub 9}Br storage phosphors have been investigated using EPR and optical absorption methods. The EPR of irradiated pure Sr{sub 2}B{sub 5}O{sub 9}Br represents two overlapping spectra in the 335-340 mT range from paramagnetic electron and hole trapping centres, which are stable at room temperature. These centres are attributed to F(Br{sup -}) and O{sub Br}{sup -} centres, i.e. an electron trapped in a bromine vacancy and a hole trapped on an oxygen ion at a bromine site. The 1s {yields} 2p transitions of F(Br{sup -}) centres cause the optical absorption band at 560 nm. Another observed absorption band at 365 nm was attributed to the transitions of O{sup -} centres. Thus electron and hole trapping in pure Sr{sub 2}B{sub 5}O{sub 9}Br occurs in V{sub Br} and O{sub Br}{sup 2-} aggregates, which are created during the synthesis. EPR and optical absorption measurements on Ce{sup 3+} doped Sr{sub 2}B{sub 5}O{sub 9}Br reveal similar defects as in pure material. It is very likely that the same defects take part in the processes of thermally and photo-stimulated luminescence.

  20. Amino-functionalized (meth)acryl polymers by use of a solvent-polarity sensitive protecting group (Br-t-BOC)


    Helmut Ritter; Monir Tabatabai; Markus Herrmann


    We describe the synthesis of bromo-tert-butyloxycarbonyl (Br-t-BOC)-amino-protected monomers 2-((1-bromo-2-methylpropan-2-yl)oxycarbonylamino)ethyl (meth)acrylate 3a,b. For this purpose, 2-isocyanatoethyl (meth)acrylate 1a,b was reacted with 1-bromo-2-methylpropan-2-ol (2a). The free radical polymerization of (Br-t-BOC)-aminoethyl (meth)acrylates 3a,b yielded poly((Br-t-BOC)-aminoethyl (meth)acrylate) 6a,b bearing protected amino side groups. The subsequent solvolysis of the Br-t-BOC function...