WorldWideScience

Sample records for br deduced levels

  1. Spectra and energy levels of Br XXV, Br XXIX, Br XXX, and Br XXXI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emission lines of highly ionized bromine in the wavelength region 17-93 A have been identified in spectra recorded at the University of Rochester's OMEGA laser facility. The wavelengths of 2s-2p transitions in nitrogen-like Br XXIX, carbon-like Br XXX, and boron-like Br XXXI are presented. The wavelengths of the magnetic dipole transitions within the 2s22p3 ground configurations of Br XXIX are predicted from the experimental energy levels. Transitions from the n = 4 and 5 levels of sodium-like Br XXV were also identified, and the ionization energy of Br XXV was determined to be 9,023,800 +- 2 000cm-1 (1118.8 +- 0.2 eV)

  2. Spectroscopy of low-lying levels in 81Br and its nuclear-structure interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic moments of low-lying levels in 81Br have been measured using Coulomb excitation of 81Br beams and the technique of transient magnetic fields with Gd as ferromagnet. In addition, lifetimes have been redetermined for several states employing the Doppler-shift attenuation method and mixing ratios of γ-transitions were deduced from angular correlations. The data are discussed in the framework of the particle-vibrator and the particle-rotor coupling models. (orig.)

  3. Energy levels of HoBr 63-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Peter A.

    1986-12-01

    The excitation, electronic absorption and luminescence spectra of cubic Cs 2NaHoBr 6 have been recorded at temperatures down to that of liquid helium. The detailed spectral analyses enable comparisons to be made of the crystal-field splittings of Russell—Saunders terms with those in Cs 2NaHoCl 6. Under intense 647.1 nm laser excitation, luminescence is observed in the neat material in the spectral region between 17800 and 21750 cm -1.

  4. Fine-structure energy levels and lifetimes in Br XXIV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayal, Vikas; Gupta, G P [Department of Physics, SD (Postgraduate) College, Muzaffarnagar, UP (India)

    2005-11-28

    We have performed large-scale CIV3 calculations of excitation energies from the ground state for 48 fine-structure levels as well as of oscillator strengths and radiative decay rates for all electric-dipole-allowed and intercombination transitions among the (1s{sup 2}2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6})3s{sup 2}({sup 1}S), 3s3p({sup 1,3}P{sup o}), 3s3d({sup 1,3}D), 3s4s({sup 1,3}S), 3s4p({sup 1,3}P{sup o}), 3s4d({sup 1,3}D), 3s4f({sup 1,3}F{sup o}), 3p{sup 2}({sup 1}S, {sup 3}P, {sup 1}D), 3p3d({sup 1,3}P{sup o}, {sup 1,3}D{sup o}, {sup 1,3}F{sup o}), 3p4s({sup 1,3}P{sup o}) and 3d{sup 2}({sup 1}S, {sup 3}P, {sup 1}D) states of Br XXIV. These states are represented by extensive configuration-interaction (CI) wavefunctions obtained using the CIV3 computer code of Hibbert. The relativistic effects in intermediate coupling are incorporated by means of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian which consists of the non-relativistic term plus the one-body mass correction, Darwin term, and spin-orbit, spin-other-orbit and spin-spin operators. Small adjustments to the diagonal elements of the Hamiltonian matrices have been made so that the energy splittings are as close as possible to the experimental values. Our calculated excitation energies, including their ordering, are in excellent agreement with the available experimental results except that the levels {sup 1}D{sub 2} and {sup 3}P{sub 2} belonging to the same configuration 3p{sup 2} interchanged their positions compared to the experiment. This interchange in our calculation is discussed and explained through eigenvector compositions of the two levels. From our radiative decay rates, we have calculated radiative lifetimes of some fine-structure levels. Our calculated lifetimes of the levels 3s3p({sup 3}P{sub 1}) and 3s3p({sup 1}P{sub 1}) are found to be in good agreement with the experimental and other theoretical results. In this calculation we also predict new data for several fine-structure levels where no other theoretical and experimental

  5. The level of non-thermal velocity fluctuations deduced from Doppler spectroscopy and its role on TJ-II confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Zurro, B

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to study, in the line of previous works, the level of velocity fluctuations in different scenarios of the TJ-II stellarator. The method followed consists in measuring the apparent Doppler temperature of C4+ and protons with high spectral resolution techniques with spatial resolution. The level of turbulent velocities in the plasma has been deduced from the difference observed between the apparent temperature of both species, following a method previously presented and borrowed from astrophysics. The study of this difference, as a function of plasma density and injected power, provides a way to explore if this turbulence plays any role in the confinement of the hot TJ-II plasma.

  6. Theoretical Studies on the Potential Energy Surface and Vibrational Energy Levels of HXeBr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zheng-Guo; YANG En-Cui; XIE Dai-Qian

    2009-01-01

    The potential energy surface for the electronic ground state of the HXeBr molecule is constructed from more than 4200 ab initio points calculated using the internally contracted multi-reference configuration interaction method with the Davidson correction (icMRCI + Q). The stabilities and dissociation barriers are identified from the potential energy surface. The three-body dissociation channel is found to be the dominant dissociation channel for HXeBr. Low-lying vibrational energy levels of HXeBr calculated using the Lanczos algorithm are found to be in good agreement with the available experimental band origins.

  7. An ab initio potential energy surface and vibrational energy levels of HXeBr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Guo Huang; En Cui Yang; Dai Qian Xie

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional global potential energy surface for the electronic ground state of HXeBr molecule is constructed from morethan 4200 ab initio points. These points are generated using an internally contracted multi-reference configuration interactionmethod with the Davidson correction (icMRCI + Q) and large basis sets. The stabilities and dissociation barriers are identified fromthe potential energy surfaces. The three-body dissociation channel is found to be the dominate dissociation channel for HXeBr.Based on the obtained potentials, low-lying vibrational energy levels of HXeBr calculated using the Lanczos algorithm is found tobe in good agreement with the available experimental band origins.2008 Zheng Guo Huang. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  8. The level structure of &76Se from 76Br γ—decay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiYan; HuangWen-Da; 等

    1998-01-01

    The decay of 76Br has been investigated for further study of the 76Se levels.Gamma ray singles were measured with HpGe-NaI compton-suppressed spectrometer,Coincidence spectra were collected with two HpGe detectors coupled to a three-parameter system.There were 138 γ-rays observed.and 120 of these were fitted into 46 levels in 76Se.37 γ-rays and 15 new energy levels were found for the first time.

  9. New Gammas and Levels of 76Se Observed in the 76Br(β++EC)76Se Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, S. F.; Yan, Y. P.

    The decay of bromine-76 is studied by means of γ-ray spectroscopy. Bromine-76 is produced via two reactions: 75As(α, 3n)76Br and 76Se(p, n)76Br. The results of these experiments verify the previously reported levels of 76Se. In addition to the previously described transitions and levels, 37 new γ-rays and 15 new energy levels are found for the first time. In addition, in order to study the deformation of 76Se which lies in transitional region between strongly deformed and spherical nuclei, we calculate the total Routhian surfaces (TRS) of positive-parity states by cranking shell model formalism.

  10. Energy levels, radiative rates and lifetimes for transitions in Br-like ions with 38 $\\le$ Z $\\le$ 42

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, K M

    2014-01-01

    Energy levels and radiative rates for transitions in five Br-like ions (Sr IV, Y V, Zr VI, Nb VII and Mo VIII) are calculated with the general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package ({\\sc grasp}). Extensive configuration interaction has been included and results are presented among the lowest 31 levels of the 4s$^2$4p$^5$, 4s$^2$4p$^4$4d and 4s4p$^6$ configurations. Lifetimes for these levels have also been determined, although unfortunately no measurements are available with which to compare. However, recently theoretical results have been reported by Singh {\\em et al} [Phys. Scr. {\\bf 88} (2013) 035301] using the same {\\sc grasp} code. But their reported data for radiative rates and lifetimes cannot be reproduced and show discrepancies of up to five orders of magnitude with the present calculations.

  11. Detection efficiency of low levels of boron and cadmium with a LaBr3:Ce scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response of a cylindrical 3 in.×3 in. (height×diameter) LaBr3:Ce detector was measured for low energy prompt gamma-rays from boron and cadmium contaminated water samples using a newly designed portable neutron generator-based Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) setup. Prompt gamma-rays were measured from water samples contaminated with 0.031, 0.125, 0.250 and 0.5 wt% boron and 0.0625, 0.125, 0.250 and 0.500 wt% cadmium. The experimental yield of boron and cadmium prompt gamma-rays measured with the LaBr3:Ce detector based PGNAA setup were compared with the results of Monte Carlo calculations. An excellent agreement between the experimental and calculated yields of 478 keV gamma-ray from boron and 558 keV gamma-rays from cadmium from boron and cadmium contaminated water samples, indicate an excellent response of the LaBr3:Ce detector for the low energy prompt gamma-rays.

  12. On the influence of neutral turbulence on ambipolar diffusivities deduced from meteor trail expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Hall

    Full Text Available By measuring fading times of radar echoes from underdense meteor trails, it is possible to deduce the ambipolar diffusivities of the ions responsible for these radar echoes. It could be anticipated that these diffusivities increase monotonically with height akin to neutral viscosity. In practice, this is not always the case. Here, we investigate the capability of neutral turbulence to affect the meteor trail diffusion rate.<br>>Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; turbulence

  13. Determination of F-, Cl-, NO2-, Br-, PO43- and SO42- ions in high-level liquid waste and sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of anions F-, Cl-, NO2-, Br-, PO3-4 and SO42- in high-level liquid waste (HLLW) and high-level radioactive sludge (HLRS) by ion chromatography (IC) is studied in detail. Potentially interfering cations are removed by pretreatment with a cation exchange resin column. A 104 times decrease in radioactivity is achieved by this step. Borate-gluconic acid solution is used as an eluent for IC to alter the peak sequence, and thus suppress the influence of NO3- ion. The method has been successfully used for determination of various anions HLLW and HLRS

  14. First-year sea-ice contact predicts bromine monoxide (BrO levels better than potential frost flower contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Simpson

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Reactive halogens are responsible for boundary-layer ozone depletion and mercury deposition in Polar Regions during springtime. To investigate the source of reactive halogens in the air arriving at Barrow, Alaska, we measured BrO, a marker of reactive halogen chemistry, and correlated its abundance with airmass histories derived from meteorological back trajectories and remotely sensed sea ice properties. The BrO is found to be positively correlated to first-year sea-ice contact (R2=0.55, and weakly negatively correlated to potential frost flower (PFF contact (R2=0.04. These data indicate that snow contaminated with sea salts on first-year sea ice is a more probable bromine source than are frost flowers. Recent climate-driven changes in Arctic sea ice are likely to alter frost flower and first year sea ice prevalence, suggesting a significant change in reactive halogen abundance, which will alter the chemistry of the overlying Arctic atmosphere.

  15. Protein level affects the relative lysine requirement of growing rainbow trout (O ncorhynchus mykiss) fry. Br. J. Nutr.

    OpenAIRE

    Bodin, Noelie

    2009-01-01

    The effect of two digestible protein levels (310 and 469 g/kg DM) on the relative lysine (Lys; g Lys/kg DM or g Lys/100 g protein) and the absolute Lys (g Lys intake/kg0.75 per d) requirements was studied in rainbow trout fry using a dose-response trial. At each protein level, sixteen isoenergetic (22-23 MJ digestible energy/kg DM) diets were tested, involving a full range (2-70 g/kg DM) of sixteen Lys levels. Each diet was given to one group of sixty rainbow trout fry (mean initial body weig...

  16. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2001-04-01

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is still one of SCK-CEN's important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. During the last three years, the availability of the installation was maintained at an average level of 97.6 percent. In the year 2000, the reactor was operated for a total of 104 days at a mean power of 56 MW. In 2000, most irradiation experiments were performed in the CALLISTO PWR loop. The report describes irradiations achieved or under preparation in 2000, including the development of advanced facilities and concept studies for new programmes. An overview of the scientific irradiation programmes as well as of the R and D programme of the BR2 reactor in 2000 is given.

  17. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is still one of SCK-CEN's important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. During the last three years, the availability of the installation was maintained at an average level of 97.6 percent. In the year 2000, the reactor was operated for a total of 104 days at a mean power of 56 MW. In 2000, most irradiation experiments were performed in the CALLISTO PWR loop. The report describes irradiations achieved or under preparation in 2000, including the development of advanced facilities and concept studies for new programmes. An overview of the scientific irradiation programmes as well as of the R and D programme of the BR2 reactor in 2000 is given

  18. Interaction in ternary HgBr2-BaBr2-CsBr system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Series of polythermal sections in ternary HgBr2-BaBr2-CsBr system are investigated by the methods of physicochemical analysis. In double systems restricting ternary HgBr2-BaBr2-CsBr system formation of CsHg2Br5, CsHgBr3, Cs2HgBr4, CsBa2Br4 and CsBa2Br5 compounds is detected. Projection of liquidus surface of ternary HgBr2-BaBr2-CsBr system on triangle of compositions is plotted. This projection consists of eight fields of the primary crystallization of phases: HgBr2, BaBr2, CsBr, CsHgBr5, CsHgBr3, Cs2HgBr4, Cs2BaBr4 and CsBa2Br5. Coordinates of nonvariant points are determined

  19. Energy levels, radiative rates and electron impact excitation rates for transitions in He-like Ga XXX, Ge XXXI, As XXXII, Se XXXIII and Br XXXIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report calculations of energy levels, radiative rates and electron impact excitation cross sections and rates for transitions in He-like Ga XXX, Ge XXXI, As XXXII, Se XXXIII and Br XXXIV. The grasp (general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package) is adopted for calculating energy levels and radiative rates. For determining the collision strengths, and subsequently the excitation rates, the Dirac atomic R-matrix code (darc) is used. Oscillator strengths, radiative rates and line strengths are reported for all E1, E2, M1 and M2 transitions among the lowest 49 levels of each ion. Additionally, theoretical lifetimes are provided for all 49 levels of the above five ions. Collision strengths are averaged over a Maxwellian velocity distribution and the effective collision strengths obtained listed over a wide temperature range up to 108 K. Comparisons are made with similar data obtained using the flexible atomic code (fac) to highlight the importance of resonances, included in calculations with darc, in the determination of effective collision strengths. Discrepancies between the collision strengths from darc and fac, particularly for some forbidden transitions, are also discussed. Finally, discrepancies between the present results for effective collision strengths with the darc code and earlier semi-relativistic R-matrix data are noted over a wide range of electron temperatures for many transitions in all ions. (paper)

  20. Energy levels, radiative rates and electron impact excitation rates for transitions in He-like Ga XXX, Ge XXXI, As XXXII, Se XXXIII and Br XXXIV

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Kanti M

    2013-01-01

    We report calculations of energy levels, radiative rates and electron impact excitation cross sections and rates for transitions in He-like Ga XXX, Ge XXXI, As XXXII, Se XXXIII and Br XXXIV. The {\\sc grasp} (general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package) is adopted for calculating energy levels and radiative rates. For determining the collision strengths, and subsequently the excitation rates, the Dirac Atomic R-matrix Code ({\\sc darc}) is used. Oscillator strengths, radiative rates and line strengths are reported for all E1, E2, M1 and M2 transitions among the lowest 49 levels of each ion. Additionally, theoretical lifetimes are provided for all 49 levels of the above five ions. Collision strengths are averaged over a Maxwellian velocity distribution and the effective collision strengths obtained listed over a wide temperature range up to 10$^{8}$ K. Comparisons are made with similar data obtained using the Flexible Atomic Code ({\\sc fac}) to highlight the importance of resonances, included in calcul...

  1. Energy levels of terbium(III) in the elpasolite Cs2NaTbBr6. II. A correlation crystal field analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaw, C. S.; Denning, R. G.

    A set of more than 100 electronic energy levels in Cs2NaTbBr6, extending from the ground state to 5H4, is used to test different models of the correlation crystal field (CCF). These are based on Judd's orthogonal g(k)iQ two-electron operators, and more specifically on contributions due to spin-correlation, or ligand polarization. Similar data from Cs2NaTbCl6 and Cs2NaTbF6 has also been analysed. Only fourth-rank operators make clear improvements to the quality of the fit in deviant multiplets. Empirically the g7(4) and g9(4) operators are found to be the most effective. Although fourth-rank operators achieve modest success in correcting the calculated spread of the multiplets, no single operator has a significant impact on the shortcomings of the one-body crystal field. This result is discussed in terms of the limitations of an effective-operator Hamiltonian.

  2. Level location and spectroscopy of Ce{sup 3+}, Pr{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}, and Eu{sup 2+} in LaBr{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorenbos, P. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)]. E-mail: p.dorenbos@tnw.tudelft.nl; Loef, E.V.D. van [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands) and Radiation Monitoring Devices, Watertown, MA 02472 (United States); Vink, A.P. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Kolk, E. van der [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Eijk, C.W.E. van [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Kraemer, K.W. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bern, Freiestrasse 3, 3000 Bern 9 (Switzerland); Guedel, H.U. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bern, Freiestrasse 3, 3000 Bern 9 (Switzerland); Higgins, W.M. [Radiation Monitoring Devices, Watertown, MA 02472 (United States); Shah, K.S. [Radiation Monitoring Devices, Watertown, MA 02472 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    The spectroscopic properties of LaBr{sub 3} doped with Ce{sup 3+}, Pr{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}, and Eu{sup 2+} under ultraviolet excitation are reported. LaBr{sub 3} host excitation and emission, 4f-5d excitation and emission of Ce{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 2+}, and charge transfer from the valence band to Pr{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3+} are observed. This experimental information is combined with an empirical model to estimate the position of the lowest 4f and lowest 5d state relative to the conduction band and valence band for each divalent lanthanide ion in LaBr{sub 3}. Existing literature data is used to determine the location of the lowest 4f and lowest 5d state for each trivalent lanthanide.

  3. Reactor BR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BR2 reactor is still SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. Various aspects concerning the operation of the BR2 Reactor, the utilisation of the CALLISTO loop and the irradiation programme, the BR2 R and D programme and the production of isotopes and of NTD-silicon are discussed. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported

  4. Analysis of nuclear resonance fluorescence excitation measured with LaBr3(Ce) detectors near 2 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of LaBr3(Ce) to measure nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) excitations is discussed in terms of limits of detection and in comparison with high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors near the 2 MeV region where many NRF excitation levels from special nuclear materials are located. The NRF experiment was performed at the High Intensity γ-ray Source (HIγS) facility. The incident γ-rays, of 2.12 MeV energy, hit a B4C target to excite the 11B nuclei to the first excitation level. The statistical-sensitive non-linear peak clipping (SNIP) algorithm was implemented to eliminate the background and enhance the limits of detection for the spectra measured with LaBr3(Ce). Both detection and determination limits were deduced from the experimental data

  5. Study of optical properties of protactinium IV (5f1) in ThBr4 and ThCl4 matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis introduces spectroscopy studies of a (IV) which are realized in ThBr4 and ThCl4 host matrices. The optical polarized spectra are reported in the infrared region between 4.2K and 300K. The most important point is the first observation of the Pa4+ fluorescence spectrum. We determined experimentally the energy of all the Stark levels of tetrapositive protactinium ion doped into ThBr4. Consequently the values of the crystal field parameters and the spin-orbit coupling constant are deduced. The same behaviour for Pa4+:ThBr4 and Pa4+:ThCl4 characterized different interactions when the electron (5f1) comes in a different crystal field

  6. The BR eigenvalue algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Div.; Howell, G.W. [Florida Inst. of Tech., Melbourne, FL (United States). Dept. of Applied Mathematics; Watkins, D.S. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Pure and Applied Mathematics

    1997-11-01

    The BR algorithm, a new method for calculating the eigenvalues of an upper Hessenberg matrix, is introduced. It is a bulge-chasing algorithm like the QR algorithm, but, unlike the QR algorithm, it is well adapted to computing the eigenvalues of the narrowband, nearly tridiagonal matrices generated by the look-ahead Lanczos process. This paper describes the BR algorithm and gives numerical evidence that it works well in conjunction with the Lanczos process. On the biggest problems run so far, the BR algorithm beats the QR algorithm by a factor of 30--60 in computing time and a factor of over 100 in matrix storage space.

  7. Precipitation processes as deduced by combining Doppler radar and disdrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Alan Douglas

    Precipitation processes are investigated in stratiform and convective weather systems by combining Doppler radar and disdrometer measurements. Vertical scans are designed to measure the standard radar data fields and the power spectrum of the vertical Doppler velocities with high spatial and temporal resolution. A new method, based on iterative application of a disdrometer-determined Z-R relation, is developed to estimate vertical winds from the vertical scan data. Using this method, radar-based raindrop size spectra calculated near the surface in light stratiform rain compare well with simultaneous measurements from a collocated disdrometer. A full raindrop size spectrum profile is deduced for a specific steady state case. It is found that the spectrum does not vary with height, suggesting that the spectral shape is mainly controlled by the ice particles occurring above the 0oC level. Vertical scan data are also combined with volume scan data obtained by the Atmospheric Environment Service King City radar to examine the precipitation structure of a hail producing region within a severe squall line. The vertical scan shows a large variation in precipitation structure and also reveals important storm features which, in this case, are not detected by the conventional volume scans, such as a weak echo vault, a downdraught outflow, and streaks of very high downward velocity corresponding to separate hail trajectories. The power spectra were used to identify and locate hailstones, to deduce the growth of descending hailstones, and to qualitatively examine properties of raindrop size spectra. A conceptual model of hail formation is proposed by comparing the deduced storm structure and precipitation processes with the analyses of two somewhat similar storms documented in the literature.

  8. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna Mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coast of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V was evaluated in samples of Perna perna mussels collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos) subjected to anthropogenic contamination, to compare these values with those of mussels from reference site of Cocanha Beach (in Caraguatatuba). The mussels were collected seasonally from September 2008 to July 2009. They were cleaned, ground, homogenized, lyophilized and then analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The INAA procedure consisted in the irradiation of the samples and synthetic elemental standards for 8 and 10 s, under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 1012 n cm-2 s-1 in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. For quality control of analytical results, certified reference materials NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue and NIST 2876 Mussel Tissue were analyzed and their results indicated good accuracy. The ranges of concentrations (dry basis) of the elements obtained in mussels collected for the four seasons of the year were: 173.80 to 358.99 mg kg-1 for Br; 45658 ± 1811 to 109166 ± 824 mg kg-1 for Cl; 7043 ± 856 to 12506 ± 675 mg kg-1 for K; 2774 ± 211 to 5691 ± 717 mg kg-1 for Mg; 7.01 ± 0.30 to 29.74 ± 3.32 mg kg-1 for Mn and 0.77 ± 0.02 to 3.43 ± 0.28 mg kg-1 for V. The seasonal and spatial variations of these element concentrations were in this study. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna Mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coast of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Saiki, Mitiki; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: danyseo@uol.com.br, E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.br, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: mgcatharino@uol.com.br, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sousa, Eduinetty C.P.M. de, E-mail: edvinett@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IO/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico. Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia Marinha e Microfitobentos

    2013-07-01

    In this study the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V was evaluated in samples of Perna perna mussels collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos) subjected to anthropogenic contamination, to compare these values with those of mussels from reference site of Cocanha Beach (in Caraguatatuba). The mussels were collected seasonally from September 2008 to July 2009. They were cleaned, ground, homogenized, lyophilized and then analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The INAA procedure consisted in the irradiation of the samples and synthetic elemental standards for 8 and 10 s, under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. For quality control of analytical results, certified reference materials NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue and NIST 2876 Mussel Tissue were analyzed and their results indicated good accuracy. The ranges of concentrations (dry basis) of the elements obtained in mussels collected for the four seasons of the year were: 173.80 to 358.99 mg kg{sup -1} for Br; 45658 ± 1811 to 109166 ± 824 mg kg{sup -1} for Cl; 7043 ± 856 to 12506 ± 675 mg kg{sup -1} for K; 2774 ± 211 to 5691 ± 717 mg kg{sup -1} for Mg; 7.01 ± 0.30 to 29.74 ± 3.32 mg kg{sup -1} for Mn and 0.77 ± 0.02 to 3.43 ± 0.28 mg kg{sup -1} for V. The seasonal and spatial variations of these element concentrations were in this study. (author)

  10. Collision-induced transitions between molecular hyperfine levels: Quantum formalism, propensity rules, and experimental study of CaBr(X 2Σ+)+Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general quantum treatment of collisions of a 2Σ+ molecule with hyperfine structure is presented. The recoupling technique introduced by Corey and McCourt into the field of molecular collisions [J. Phys. Chem. 87, 2723 (1983)] allows us to represent hyperfine-state-resolved tensor opacities, and hence cross sections, in terms of the corresponding nuclear- and also electron-spin-free quantities. The formalism also predicts (independent of the dynamical limit) that the largest F→F' cross sections will be those for which ΔF = ΔJ, a rule well known for radiative transitions. Hyperfine-state-resolved scattering involving collisions of CaBr(X 2Σ+) with Ar is also studied here experimentally by electric quadrupole state selection and cw dye laser fluorescence detection. The relative final F' distributions were determined for the N = 3,e→N = 5,e and N = 2,e→N = 1,e collisional transitions. These results clearly exhibit the ΔF = ΔJ propensity rule. Moreover, the F' distributions were predicted with nearly quantitative accuracy using our previously determined CaCl(X 2Σ+)-Ar tensor opacities. By contrast, the M/sub J/- randomization model, first proposed to treat the influence of hyperfine structure in atomic collisions, is shown to disagree with both our experimental data and theoretical predictions

  11. Molecular elimination of Br2 in photodissociation of CH2BrC(O)Br at 248 nm using cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary elimination channel of bromine molecule in one-photon dissociation of CH2BrC(O)Br at 248 nm is investigated using cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy. By means of spectral simulation, the ratio of nascent vibrational population in v = 0, 1, and 2 levels is evaluated to be 1:(0.5 ± 0.1):(0.2 ± 0.1), corresponding to a Boltzmann vibrational temperature of 581 ± 45 K. The quantum yield of the ground state Br2 elimination reaction is determined to be 0.24 ± 0.08. With the aid of ab initio potential energy calculations, the obtained Br2 fragments are anticipated to dissociate on the electronic ground state, yielding vibrationally hot Br2 products. The temperature-dependence measurements support the proposed pathway via internal conversion. For comparison, the Br2 yields are obtained analogously from CH3CHBrC(O)Br and (CH3)2CBrC(O)Br to be 0.03 and 0.06, respectively. The trend of Br2 yields among the three compounds is consistent with the branching ratio evaluation by Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus method. However, the latter result for each molecule is smaller by an order of magnitude than the yield findings. A non-statistical pathway so-called roaming process might be an alternative to the Br2 production, and its contribution might account for the underestimate of the branching ratio calculations.

  12. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2002-04-01

    The BR2 materials testing reactor is one of SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. In 2001, the reactor was operated for a total of 123 days at a mean power of 59 MW in order to satisfy the irradiation conditions of the internal and external programmes using mainly the CALLISTO PWR loop. The mean consumption of fresh fuel elements was 5.26 per 1000 MWd. Main achievements in 2001 included the development of a three-dimensional full-scale model of the BR2 reactor for simulation and prediction of irradiation conditions for various experiments; the construction of the FUTURE-MT device designed for the irradiation of fuel plates under representative conditions of geometry, neutron spectrum, heat flux and thermal-hydraulic conditions and the development of in-pile instrumentation and a data acquisition system.

  13. Finite pure integer programming algorithms employing only hyperspherically deduced cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Three algorithms are developed that may be based exclusively on hyperspherically deduced cuts. The algorithms only apply, therefore, to problems structured so that these cuts are valid. The algorithms are shown to be finite.

  14. Insufficiency of the quantum state for deducing observational probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is usually assumed that the quantum state is sufficient for deducing all probabilities for a system. This may be true when there is a single observer, but it is not true in a universe large enough that there are many copies of an observer. Then the probability of an observation cannot be deduced simply from the quantum state (say as the expectation value of the projection operator for the observation, as in traditional quantum theory). One needs additional rules to get the probabilities. What these rules are is not logically deducible from the quantum state, so the quantum state itself is insufficient for deducing observational probabilities. This is the measure problem of cosmology.

  15. Angular correlation for gamma-gamma transitions in 81Br and 83Br nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The directional angular correlation of coincident gamma transitions in 81Br and 83Br have been measured following the β- decay of 81Se(T sub(1/2) = 18.6 min) and 83Se(T sub(1/2) = 22.6 min) respectively, using Ge(Li) - high purity Ge and Ge(Li)-NaI(Tl) spectrometers. The radioactive sources were prepared by irradiating with neutrons in the IEA-R1 reactor, metallic selenium (natural) to produce 81Se and samples of metallic selenium enriched (to approx. 90% in 82Se) to produce 83Se. Measurements have been carried out for the gamma cascades 260-276 KeV, 290-276 KeV and 552-276 KeV in 81Br and the gamma cascades 225(510)-356 KeV, 510-356 KeV, 572-(510)-356 KeV, 718-(225)-(510)-356 KeV, 1064-356 KeV, 718-225 KeV, 718-(225)-510 KeV, 836-718 KeV, 718-(225)-866 KeV, 883-718 KeV and 1895-799 KeV in 83Br. The multipole mixing ratios, σ(E2/M1), were determined for 3 gamma transitions in 81Br and 11 gamma transitions in 83Br. In the case of 81Br present results confirmed some of the earlier results. The spin and parity assignment were made to the majority of levels in 81Br and 83Br involved in the present study, some of them confirming the earlier results. A comparison of some of the nuclear properties of the 79Br, 81Br and 83Br is made based on the available experimental data. The experimental results are also discussed qualitatively in terms of some nuclear models applicable for the description of the properties of odd-A bromine isotopes. (Author)

  16. BR2 Reactor: Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiations in the BR2 reactor are in collaboration with or at the request of third parties such as the European Commission, the IAEA, research centres and utilities, reactor vendors or fuel manufacturers. The reactor also contributes significantly to the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial applications, to neutron silicon doping for the semiconductor industry and to scientific irradiations for universities. Along the ongoing programmes on fuel and materials development, several new irradiation devices are in use or in design. Amongst others a loop providing enhanced cooling for novel materials testing reactor fuel, a device for high temperature gas cooled fuel as well as a rig for the irradiation of metallurgical samples in a Pb-Bi environment. A full scale 3-D heterogeneous model of BR2 is available. The model describes the real hyperbolic arrangement of the reactor and includes the detailed 3-D space dependent distribution of the isotopic fuel depletion in the fuel elements. The model is validated on the reactivity measurements of several tens of BR2 operation cycles. The accurate calculations of the axial and radial distributions of the poisoning of the beryllium matrix by 3He, 6Li and 3T are verified on the measured reactivity losses used to predict the reactivity behavior for the coming decades. The model calculates the main functionals in reactor physics like: conventional thermal and equivalent fission neutron fluxes, number of displacements per atom, fission rate, thermal power characteristics as heat flux and linear power density, neutron/gamma heating, determination of the fission energy deposited in fuel plates/rods, neutron multiplication factor and fuel burn-up. For each reactor irradiation project, a detailed geometry model of the experimental device and of its neighborhood is developed. Neutron fluxes are predicted within approximately 10 percent in comparison with the dosimetry measurements. Fission rate, heat flux and

  17. Pathways for the OH + Br2 → HOBr + Br and HOBr + Br → HBr + BrO Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyan; Qiu, Yudong; Schaefer, Henry F

    2016-02-11

    The OH radical reaction with Br2 and the subsequent reaction HOBr + Br are of exceptional importance to atmospheric chemistry and environmental chemistry. The entrance complex, transition state, and exit complex for both reactions have been determined using the coupled-cluster method with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations CCSD(T) with correlation consistent basis sets up to size cc-pV5Z and cc-pV5Z-PP. Coupled cluster effects with full triples (CCSDT) and full quadruples (CCSDTQ) are explicitly investigated. Scalar relativistic effects, spin-orbit coupling, and zero-point vibrational energy corrections are evaluated. The results from the all-electron basis sets are compared with those from the effective core potential (ECP) pseudopotential (PP) basis sets. The results are consistent. The OH + Br2 reaction is predicted to be exothermic 4.1 ± 0.5 kcal/mol, compared to experiment, 3.9 ± 0.2 kcal/mol. The entrance complex HO···BrBr is bound by 2.2 ± 0.2 kcal/mol. The transition state lies similarly well below the reactants OH + Br2. The exit complex HOBr···Br is bound by 2.7 ± 0.6 kcal/mol relative to separated HOBr + Br. The endothermicity of the reaction HOBr + Br → HBr + BrO is 9.6 ± 0.7 kcal/mol, compared with experiment 8.7 ± 0.3 kcal/mol. For the more important reverse (exothermic) HBr + BrO reaction, the entrance complex BrO···HBr is bound by 1.8 ± 0.6 kcal/mol. The barrier for the HBr + BrO reaction is 6.8 ± 0.9 kcal/mol. The exit complex (Br···HOBr) for the HBr + BrO reaction is bound by 1.9 ± 0.2 kcal/mol with respect to the products HOBr + Br. PMID:26766412

  18. Insufficiency of the Quantum State for Deducing Observational Probabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Don N.

    2008-01-01

    It is usually assumed that the quantum state is sufficient for deducing all probabilities for a system. This may be true when there is a single observer, but it is not true in a universe large enough that there are many copies of an observer. Then the probability of an observation cannot be deduced simply from the quantum state (say as the expectation value of the projection operator for the observation, as in traditional quantum theory). One needs additional rules to get the probabilities. W...

  19. Deducing Reaction Mechanism: A Guide for Students, Researchers, and Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Simon J.; Pitman, Catherine L.; Miller, Alexander J. M.

    2016-01-01

    An introductory guide to deducing the mechanism of chemical reactions is presented. Following a typical workflow for probing reaction mechanism, the guide introduces a wide range of kinetic and mechanistic tools. In addition to serving as a broad introduction to mechanistic analysis for students and researchers, the guide has also been used by…

  20. Temperature dependence of rate constants of the reactions Br(Br*)+IBr → Br2+I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rate constant and their temperature dependence in the range from -25 to +50 deg C for reactions Br(2P3/2)+IBr → Br2+I(2P2/3) and Br*(2P1/2)+IBr → Br2+I(2P3/2) have been measured by the method of laser atomic-resonance spectroscopy using radiation of iodine and bromine lasers. It has been detected that at 300 K the values of k1 and k2 agree with the known ones, meanwhile with the temperature growth both constants increase, moreover, for k2 the temperature dependence is much stronger. It is shown that the value of deceleration of the rate of reaction between Br atom and IBr in case of its spin-orbital excitation is the function of the temperature, decreasing with the temperature increase. 14 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  1. The DEDUCE Guided Query tool: providing simplified access to clinical data for research and quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Monica M; Winfield, Stephanie; Evans, Steve; Slopek, Steve; Shang, Howard; Ferranti, Jeffrey

    2011-04-01

    In many healthcare organizations, comparative effectiveness research and quality improvement (QI) investigations are hampered by a lack of access to data created as a byproduct of patient care. Data collection often hinges upon either manual chart review or ad hoc requests to technical experts who support legacy clinical systems. In order to facilitate this needed capacity for data exploration at our institution (Duke University Health System), we have designed and deployed a robust Web application for cohort identification and data extraction--the Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE). DEDUCE is envisioned as a simple, web-based environment that allows investigators access to administrative, financial, and clinical information generated during patient care. By using business intelligence tools to create a view into Duke Medicine's enterprise data warehouse, DEDUCE provides a Guided Query functionality using a wizard-like interface that lets users filter through millions of clinical records, explore aggregate reports, and, export extracts. Researchers and QI specialists can obtain detailed patient- and observation-level extracts without needing to understand structured query language or the underlying database model. Developers designing such tools must devote sufficient training and develop application safeguards to ensure that patient-centered clinical researchers understand when observation-level extracts should be used. This may mitigate the risk of data being misunderstood and consequently used in an improper fashion. PMID:21130181

  2. Transition probabilities of Br II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, R. D.; Miller, M. H.

    1976-01-01

    Absolute transition probabilities of the three most prominent visible Br II lines are measured in emission. Results compare well with Coulomb approximations and with line strengths extrapolated from trends in homologous atoms.

  3. Identification of Yellow Pigmentation Genes in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis Using Br300 Microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jeong Jung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The yellow color of inner leaves in Chinese cabbage depends on its lutein and carotene content. To identify responsible genes for yellow pigmentation in leaves, the transcriptome profiles of white (Kenshin and yellow leaves (Wheessen were examined using the Br300K oligomeric chip in Chinese cabbage. In yellow leaves, genes involved in carotene synthesis (BrPSY, BrPDS, BrCRTISO, and BrLCYE, lutein, and zeaxanthin synthesis (BrCYP97A3 and BrHYDB were upregulated, while those associated with carotene degradation (BrNCED3, BrNCED4, and BrNCED6 were downregulated. These expression patterns might support that the content of both lutein and total carotenoid was much higher in the yellow leaves than that in the white leaves. These results indicate that the yellow leaves accumulate high levels of both lutein and β-carotene due to stimulation of synthesis and that the degradation rate is inhibited. A large number of responsible genes as novel genes were specifically expressed in yellow inner leaves, suggesting the possible involvement in pigment synthesis. Finally, we identified three transcription factors (BrA20/AN1-like, BrBIM1, and BrZFP8 that are specifically expressed and confirmed their relatedness in carotenoid synthesis from Arabidopsis plants.

  4. Band structure of 79Br

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-spin states of 79Br have been studied in the reaction 76Ge(7Li, 4nγ) at 32 MeV. A gamma-detector array with twelve Compton-suppressed HPGe detectors was used. The positive-parity yrast states, interpreted as a rotationally aligned g(9(2)) proton band, and the negative-parity ground state band have been extended to spins of (33(2+)) and (25(2-)), respectively. Lifetime measurements indicate that both bands have a similar quadrupole deformation of β2 ∼ 0.2. The positive-parity α = -(1(2)) band has been identified. Several new inter-band transitions are observed. A cranked-shell model analysis shows that the νg(9(2)) and πg(9(2)) alignments occur in the positive-parity and the negative-parity bands at rotational frequencies of ℎω ∼ 0.6 and 0.4 MeV, respectively. The level energies and the electromagnetic properties of the g(9(2)) band can be well reproduced by a particle-rotor model calculation with an axially symmetric core

  5. On the heat impulse method for deducing sap flow

    OpenAIRE

    Ron Gribben

    1999-01-01

    Speed of sap flow in plants and trees is of interest to botanists and environmentalists because of its connection with the rate of utilisation of nutrients in the soil. An established method uses the transport of heat where an impulsive heat source is introduced along a radial line by a probe in the trunk sapwood. The temperature is monitored, upstream and downstream, and, by solving the heat flow equation in the moving fluid, the sap velocity may be deduced indirectly under so...

  6. A new evolutionary theory deduced mathematically from entropy amplification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new evolutionary theory which is able to unite the present evolutionary debates is deduced mathematically from the principle of entropy amplification.It suggests that the extensive evolution is driven by the amplification of entropy,or microscopic diversity,and the biological evolution is driven by the amplification of biodiversity.Forming high hierarchies is the most important way for the amplification and brings out spontaneously three kinds of selection.This theory has some positive cultural meanings.

  7. Photon strength function deduced from photon scattering and neutron capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matic A.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The dipole strength function of 78Se and 196Pt are investigated by two different experimental methods, capture of cold neutrons in 77Se and 195Pt and photon scattering experiments on 78Se and 196Pt. Considering the different ways of excitation, the strength function deduced from the results are expected to agree. The report shows the status of the data analysis and presents first preliminary results.

  8. Wavelength calculation of highly stripped ions S10+→S13+, Br23+, Br24+, Ge20+, Ge21+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wavelengths of highly stripped ions S10+ →S13+ , Br23+ , Br24+ , Ge20+ , Ge21+ are calculated by means of GRASP code. The calculations are performed based on multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock technique. Corrections to the energy levels due to the retarded Coulomb interaction (Breit interaction) and the polarization of the vacuum by the nuclear distribution and electron self-energy are included in a perturbation approximation. Comparisons with the new experimental data by CIAE group are presented

  9. Temporal variability of TEC deduced from groundbased measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a study of the behaviour of the integrated total electron content (ITEC) deduced from electron density profiles of two Argentine stations: Tucuman (26.9 S; 294.6 E) and San Juan (31.5 S; 290.4 E). The ITEC values have been obtained by the technique proposed by Reinisch and Huang (2000). The database includes electron density profiles derived from ionograms recorded at 4 typical hours of the day (00.00, 06.00, 12.00 and 18.00 LT) during different seasonal and solar activity conditions. An analysis of the day to day variability of ITEC has also been done. (author)

  10. Sepp, Brüder

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Vater der Brüder war Johann S. (* 24.6.1626 Kaltern/Südtirol [Caldaro/I], † zw. 1679/84 Schlanders/Südtirol [Silandro/I]). Paul (Paolo): * 1649 Kaltern/Südtirol (Caldaro/I), † April 1670 Bozen/Südtirol (Bolzano/I) oder 1692 Kaltern. Sänger, Komponist, Organist.

  11. Underground-brändien rakentuminen

    OpenAIRE

    Hänninen, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    Markkinajohtajuudesta eri toimialoilla taistelevat usein suuret ja kauan toiminnassa olleet brändit, joiden haastaminen saattaa olla vaikeaa. Brändinrakennus kannattaakin suunnata näiden suurien brändien väliin jääviin tyhjiin markkinarakoihin. Yksi esimerkki tällaisesta hyvin hyödynnetystä markkinaraosta ovat underground-brändit, joiden brändinrakennuksen lähtökohtana ei ole kilpailla toimialan suurien brändien kanssa, vaan hallita omaa markkinarakoaan kohdennetulla tarjonnallaan. Niiden tav...

  12. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos teores de Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn e V em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) coletados no litoral do estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele

    2012-07-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in Sao Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 37'S - 45 Degree-Sign 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 57'S - 46 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms

  13. Effects of carbon black distribution on the electrical properties of Br/Epdm compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The correlations between mechanical and electrical properties of butadiene/ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (BR/EPDM) and the distribution of carbon black levels are studied. It was found that the BR phase in the blends, compared to the EPDM phase, is more preferential for the used type of carbon black, probably because the lower viscosity and lower polarity of the BR phase. Tensile strength increases with an increase of carbon black. Possible reasons for these results are discussed

  14. Identification of the transition arrays 3d74s-3d74p in Br X and 3d64s-3d64p in Br XI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a beam-foil study of multiply ionized bromine in the region 400-1300A, performed with 6 and 8 MeV Br ions from a tandem accelerator. At these energies transitions belonging to Fe-like Br X and Mn-like Br XI are expected to be prominent. We have identified 31 lines as 3d74s-3d74p transitions in Br X, from which 16 levels of the previously unknown 3d74s configuration could be established. We have also added 6 new 3d74p levels to the 99 previously known. For Br XI we have classified 9 lines as 3d64s-3d64p combinations. The line identifications have been corroborated by isoelectronic comparisons and theoretical calculations using the superposition-of-configurations technique. (orig.)

  15. Yrityksen brändin uudistaminen

    OpenAIRE

    Saarimaa, Petri

    2015-01-01

    Brändin rakentaminen on tänä päivänä tärkeä osa yrityksen näkyvyyden ja kilpailukyvyn edistämisessä. Huolellisesti rakennetulla brändillä ja hyvällä markkinoinnilla yritys voi erottua kilpailijoistaan positiivisesti. Tie menestyvään brändiin on kuitenkin pitkä prosessi. Toimeksiantajana opinnäytetyössä toimi rakennusyritys Rakennus Vuoriot Oy. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli toteuttaa yritykselle brändin uudistaminen luomalla kokonaan uusi perusta ja rakennusosat olemassa olevalle brändille...

  16. Development of Deduced Protein Database Using Variable Bit Binary Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Parvathavarthini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A large amount of biological data is semi-structured and stored in any one the following file formats such as flat, XML and relational files. These databases must be integrated with the structured data available in relational or object-oriented databases. The sequence matching process is difficult in such file format, because string comparison takes more computation cost and time. To reduce the memory storage size of amino acid sequence in protein database, a novel probability-based variable bit length encoding technique has been introduced. The number of mapping of triplet CODON for every amino acid evaluates the probability value. Then, a binary tree has been constructed to assign unique bits of binary codes to each amino acid. This derived unique bit pattern of amino acid replaces the existing fixed byte representation. The proof of reduced protein database space has been discussed and it is found to be reduced between 42.86 to 87.17%. To validate our method, we have collected few amino acid sequences of major organisms like Sheep, Lambda phage and etc from NCBI and represented them using proposed method. The comparison shows that of minimum and maximum reduction in storage space are 43.30% and 72.86% respectively. In future the biological data can further be reduced by applying lossless compression on this deduced data.

  17. Deducing the three gauge interactions from the three Reidemeister moves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We give one of the first known arguments for the origin of the three observed gauge groups. The argument is based on modelling nature at Planck scales as a collection of featureless strands that fluctuate in three dimensions. This approach models vacuum as untangled strands and particles as tangles of strands. Modelling vacuum as untangled strands implies the field equations of general relativity, when applying an argument from 1995 to the thermodynamics of strands. Modelling fermions as tangles of two or more strands allows to define wave functions as time-averages of strand crossings; using an argument from 1980, this allows to deduce the Dirac equation. When modelling fermions as tangled strands, gauge interactions appear naturally as deformation of tangle cores. The three possible types of observable core deformations are given by the three Reidemeister moves. They naturally lead to a U(1), a broken and parity-violating SU(2) and a SU(3) gauge group. The model is unique, is unmodifiable, is consistent with all known data, and makes numerous testable predictions, including the absence of other interactions, of grand unification and of higher dimensions. A method for calculating coupling constants seems to appear naturally.

  18. Ravintola Teerenpelin brändi

    OpenAIRE

    Malaste, Paavo-Sakari

    2007-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä käsitellään brändiä ja sen luomista palveluyrityksissä. Tässä työssä tutkitaan myös millaisena asiakkaat kokevat Teerenpeli-ravintolan brändin. Teoriaosassa selvitetään brändin luomista ja asemointia palveluyrityksissä. Brändin luomiseen palveluyrityksissä liittyy samoja piirteitä kuin tavaroidenkin kohdalla, mutta palvelut eroavat tavaroista siinä, että ne ovat aineettomia. Brändillä tarkoitetaan sekä brändin luojan näkemystä eli brändi-identiteettiä että asiakkaiden nä...

  19. BR2 reactor neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of reactor neutron beams is becoming increasingly more widespread for the study of some properties of condensed matter. It is mainly due to the unique properties of the ''thermal'' neutrons as regards wavelength, energy, magnetic moment and overall favorable ratio of scattering to absorption cross-sections. Besides these fundamental reasons, the impetus for using neutrons is also due to the existence of powerful research reactors (such as BR2) built mainly for nuclear engineering programs, but where a number of intense neutron beams are available at marginal cost. A brief introduction to the production of suitable neutron beams from a reactor is given. (author)

  20. Advance of the perihelion of Mercury deduced from QFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    I deduce the new gravitational formula from the variance in mass of QFT and GR (H05-0029-08, E15-0039 -08, E14-0032-08, D31-0054-10) in the partial differential: f (QFT) = f (GR) = delta∂ (m v)/delta∂ t = f _{P} + f _{C} , f _{P} = m delta∂ v / delta∂ t = - ( G m M /r (2) ) r / r, f _{C} = v delta∂ m / delta∂ t = - ( G m M / r (2) ) v / c (1), f (QFT) is the quasi-Casimir pressure of net virtual neutrinos nuν _{0} flux (after counteract contrary direction nuν _{0}). f (GR) is equivalent to Einstein’s equation, Eq. (1) is a new version of GR and can be solved exactly. Its core content is that the gravity produced by particles collide cannot linear addition, i.e., the nonlinearity of Einstein equation had been replaced by the nonlinearity caused by the variable mass in Eq.(1). Einstein equation can be inferred from Eq.(1) thereby from QFT, but QFT cannot be inferred from Eq.(1) or GR. f (QFT) is essential but f (GR) is phenomenological. Eq.(1) is obtained just by to absorb the essence of corpuscule collided gravitation origin ism proposed by Fatio in 1690 and 1920 Majorana’s experiment concept about gravitational shield effect again fuse with QFT. In my paper ‘QFT’S advance of the perihelion of Mercury, China Science &Technology Overview 125 88-90 (2011)’ QFT gravitational potential U = - G M /r is just the distribution density of net nuν _{0} flux, from SR we again get that: f (QFT) = f _{P} + f _{C}, f _{P} = - m ( delta∂ U / delta∂ r) r / r, f _{C} = - m ( delta∂U / delta∂ r) v / c (2), f _{ P} correspond the change rate of three-dimensional momentum p, f _{C} correspond the change rate of fourth dimensional momentum i m c which show directly as a dissipative force of mass change. According to Eq.(2) the circular motion is instability and elliptic motion is in the auto-stability state. In the fluctuation vacuum a particle with mass M neighbor another particle with mass m, the renormalization mass M and m will be less than that when

  1. Characterization of soluble bromide measurements and a case study of BrO observations during ARCTAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A focus of the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS mission was examination of bromine photochemistry in the spring time, high latitude troposphere based on aircraft and satellite measurements of BrO and related species. The NASA DC-8 aircraft utilized a chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS instrument to measure BrO and a mist chamber (MC to measure soluble bromide. We have determined that the MC detection efficiency to molecular bromine (Br2, hypobromous acid (HOBr, bromine oxide (BrO, and hydrogen bromide (HBr as soluble bromide (Br was 0.9±0.1, 1.06±0.30, 0.4±0.1, and 0.95±0.1, respectively. These efficiency factors were used to estimate soluble bromide levels along the DC-8 flight track of 17 April 2008 from photochemical calculations constrained to in situ BrO measured by CIMS. During this flight, the highest levels of soluble bromide and BrO were observed and atmospheric conditions were ideal for the space-borne observation of BrO. The good agreement (R2 = 0.76; slope = 0.98; intercept = −3.5 pptv between modeled and observed soluble bromide, when BrO was above detection limit (>2 pptv under unpolluted conditions (NO < 100 pptv, indicates that the CIMS BrO measurements were consistent with the MC soluble bromide. Tropospheric BrO vertical column densities (BROTROPVCD derived from CIMS BrO observations compare well with BROTROPVCD from OMI on 17 April 2008.

  2. Ozone Depletion Potential of CH3Br

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Stanley P.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Sze, Nien Dak; Scott, Courtney; Rodriquez, Jose M.; Weisenstein, Debra K.

    1998-01-01

    The ozone depletion potential (ODP) of methyl bromide (CH3Br) can be determined by combining the model-calculated bromine efficiency factor (BEF) for CH3Br and its atmospheric lifetime. This paper examines how changes in several key kinetic data affect BEF. The key reactions highlighted in this study include the reaction of BrO + H02, the absorption cross section of HOBr, the absorption cross section and the photolysis products of BrON02, and the heterogeneous conversion of BrON02 to HOBR and HN03 on aerosol particles. By combining the calculated BEF with the latest estimate of 0.7 year for the atmospheric lifetime of CH3Br, the likely value of ODP for CH3Br is 0.39. The model-calculated concentration of HBr (approximately 0.3 pptv) in the lower stratosphere is substantially smaller than the reported measured value of about I pptv. Recent publications suggested models can reproduce the measured value if one assumes a yield for HBr from the reaction of BrO + OH or from the reaction of BrO + H02. Although the DeAlore et al. evaluation concluded any substantial yield of HBr from BrO + HO2 is unlikely, for completeness, we calculate the effects of these assumed yields on BEF for CH3Br. Our calculations show that the effects are minimal: practically no impact for an assumed 1.3% yield of HBr from BrO + OH and 10% smaller for an assumed 0.6% yield from BrO + H02.

  3. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of São Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in São Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23º 37'S - 45° 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23º 57'S - 46º 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms was performed in all seasons of the year, beginning in spring 2008 and ending in winter 2009. The samples

  4. Phase diagram of the CsBr-CaBr2 system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Xinhua; CHEN Nianyi; LU Wencong; CHENG Zhixuan; LUO Yunyun; LU Weiying; XIA Yiben

    2006-01-01

    The phase diagram of the CsBr-CaBr2 system was re-determined by using differential thermal analysis and high temperature and room temperature X-ray diffraction analysis. It is concluded that there are three intermediate compounds in this system: a congruently melting compound, CsCaBr3, with a melting point of 823℃ and two incongruently melting compounds, Cs2CaBr4 and Cs3Ca2Br7, whose peritectic points being 597℃ and 635℃, respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that compound CsCaBr3 is of slightly distorted perovskite structure.

  5. Miten brändi säilyttää brändiarvonsa?

    OpenAIRE

    Sara, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä tarkasteltiin brändiä ja sen ylläpitämistä. Tavoitteena oli selvittää, miten brändi voi säilyttää jo saavuttamansa brändiarvon. Brändillä tarkoitetaan tavaramerkin ympärille muodostunutta positiivista mielikuvaa. Yrityksen kannalta brändi on kilpailukeino. Vahvan brändin etuja yritykselle ovat esimerkiksi uskolliset asiakkaat, haluttavuus yhteistyökumppanina ja kiinnostavuus työnantajana. Aihe valittiin työn tekijän oman kiinnostuksen perusteella. Aihetta tarkastelti...

  6. Hydrodynamic properties of gamma-ray bursts outflows deduced from thermal component

    CERN Document Server

    Pe'er, Asaf; O'Mahony, Shane; Margutti, Raffaella; Ryde, Felix; Larsson, Josefin; Lazzatti, Davide; Livio, Mario

    2015-01-01

    We study the properties of a significant thermal emission component that was identified in 47 GRBs observed by different instruments. Within the framework of the "fireball" model, we deduce the values of the Lorentz factor Gamma, and the acceleration radius, r_0, for these bursts. We find that all the values of Gamma in our sample are in the range 10^2 = 310. We find a very weak dependence of Gamma on the acceleration radius r_0, Gamma ~ r_0^alpha with alpha = -0.10 +- 0.09 at sigma = 2.1 confidence level. The values of r_0 span a wide range, 10^7 ~10^{8.5} cm. This is higher than the gravitational radius of a 10 M_sun black hole by a factor ~100. We argue that this result provides indirect evidence for jet propagation inside a massive star, and suggests the existence of recollimation shocks that take place close to this radius.

  7. Molecular elimination of Br{sub 2} in photodissociation of CH{sub 2}BrC(O)Br at 248 nm using cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan He; Tsai, Po-Yu; Lin, King-Chuen [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan and Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lin, Cheng-Wei; Yan, Chi-Yu; Yang, Shu-Wei; Chang, A. H. H. [Department of Chemistry, National Dong Hwa University, Shoufeng, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-07

    The primary elimination channel of bromine molecule in one-photon dissociation of CH{sub 2}BrC(O)Br at 248 nm is investigated using cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy. By means of spectral simulation, the ratio of nascent vibrational population in v = 0, 1, and 2 levels is evaluated to be 1:(0.5 {+-} 0.1):(0.2 {+-} 0.1), corresponding to a Boltzmann vibrational temperature of 581 {+-} 45 K. The quantum yield of the ground state Br{sub 2} elimination reaction is determined to be 0.24 {+-} 0.08. With the aid of ab initio potential energy calculations, the obtained Br{sub 2} fragments are anticipated to dissociate on the electronic ground state, yielding vibrationally hot Br{sub 2} products. The temperature-dependence measurements support the proposed pathway via internal conversion. For comparison, the Br{sub 2} yields are obtained analogously from CH{sub 3}CHBrC(O)Br and (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CBrC(O)Br to be 0.03 and 0.06, respectively. The trend of Br{sub 2} yields among the three compounds is consistent with the branching ratio evaluation by Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus method. However, the latter result for each molecule is smaller by an order of magnitude than the yield findings. A non-statistical pathway so-called roaming process might be an alternative to the Br{sub 2} production, and its contribution might account for the underestimate of the branching ratio calculations.

  8. Observations of BrO and its vertical distribution during surface ozone depletion at Alert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeinninger, G.; Platt, U. [Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Umweltphysik

    2002-06-01

    During the ALERT2000 polar sunrise experiment at Alert, Nunavut, Canada, we performed measurements of boundary layer bromine oxide radicals (BrO) by differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) using scattered sunlight in the spectral range from 320 to 400 nm. For the first time the Multi-Axis-(MAX)-DOAS method was applied to derive vertical profile information of BrO. BrO was observed at slant column densities (SCD) of up to 10{sup 15} molecules/cm{sup 2} during a 10-day period of complete surface ozone depletion. The largest BrO column densities were found by observing scattered sunlight from 5{sup o} above the horizon, and SCDs were decreasing with increasing elevation angles of the light-receiving telescope. For zenith scattered light the lowest absorption was recorded. Radiative transfer modelling and the calculation of air mass factors show that in most cases the bulk of the observed BrO was present in a layer of 1{+-}0.5 km thickness above the surface (in the boundary layer). The inferred extent of the BrO layer agrees very well with the observed height of the ozone depletion layer (Bottenheim et al., Atmos. Environ., 2002) from ozone sonde data. Assuming that BrO layer is well-mixed, volume mixing ratios reached levels of 20-30 ppt BrO. These values are consistent with previous measurements of BrO during low ozone events in the Arctic boundary layer. (Author)

  9. Phase diagram study of CaBr2-SrBr2 binary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydride ion conducting electrolytes are used in the electrochemical sensors for detecting hydrogen in liquid sodium coolant of fast reactors. In this connection several combinations of alkali/alkaline earth metal halides mixed with alkali/alkaline earth metal hydrides were investigated for using them as hydride ion conducting electrolytes. Currently, a mixture of CaBr2-CaH2 is used as the solid electrolyte in electrochemical sensors. With a view to develop and understand electrolyte characteristics of CaBr2-SrBr2-CaH2, system, the binary phase diagram of CaBr2-SrBr2 is being investigated in this work. Samples were prepared in dry argon atmosphere glove box using purified CaBr2 and SrBr2 salts covering the composition range of 0 to 100 mol% of CaBr2 in SrBr2 in steps of ∼10 mol%. Approximately 30 mg of samples were loaded inside hermetically closed iron capsules and were analysed by DTA under argon+4% hydrogen gas at controlled heating and cooling rates. Results have shown that the system shows appreciable terminal solid solution at both CaBr2 and SrBr2 rich sides. The system exhibits a eutectic reaction involving the terminal solid solutions at 553℃ and at ∼40 mol% CaBr2 in SrBr2. Further investigations are in progress. (author)

  10. Photoinduced Br Desorption from CsBr Thin Films Grown on Cu(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliday, Matthew T.; Joly, Alan G.; Hess, Wayne P.; Shluger, AL

    2015-10-22

    Thin films of CsBr deposited onto metals such as copper are potential photocathode materials for light sources and other applications. We investigate desorption dynamics of Br atoms from CsBr films grown on insulator (KBr, LiF) and metal (Cu) substrates induced by sub-bandgap 6.4 eV laser pulses. The experimental results demonstrate that the peak kinetic energy of Br atoms desorbed from CsBr/Cu films is much lower than that for the hyperthermal desorption from CsBr/LiF films. Kelvin probe measurements indicate negative charge at the surface following Br desorption from CsBr/Cu films. Our ab initio calculations of excitons at CsBr surfaces demonstrate that this behavior can be explained by an exciton model of desorption including electron trapping at the CsBr surface. Trapped negative charges reduce the energy of surface excitons available for Br desorption. We examine the electron-trapping characteristics of low-coordinated sites at the surface, in particular, divacancies and kink sites. We also provide a model of cation desorption caused by Franck-Hertz excitation of F centers at the surface in the course of irradiation of CsBr/Cu films. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms of photoinduced structural evolution of alkali halide films on metal substrates and activation of metal photocathodes coated with CsBr.

  11. Laser Pyrolysis of CH3Br

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hua,; Hsieh, Jang Ching

    1993-01-01

    Laser pyrolysis of CH3Br by a strong laser irradiation was studied in this work. Besides a fine needle of solid carbon was deposited at the surface on the substrate, HBr and CH4, were found as gaseous products with a ratio of 2:1. Small amount of C2H2 was also detected. The variation in the pressures of CH3Br, HBr and CH4 were measured by Raman spectroscopy. It indicated that the decomposition of CH3Br was first order with respect to CH3Br. The reaction mechanism of the laser pyrolysis was su...

  12. Punkaliven brändiohjeisto

    OpenAIRE

    Vikiö, Timo

    2010-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä käsitellään brändiohjeiston rakentamista pk-yritys Punkalivelle, joka valmistaa designkalusteita ja paviljonkeja Finnforestin kehittämästä Kerto®-puumateriaalista. Yrityksen strategisena lähtökohtana on ollut rakentaa uutta yritys-trendiä, joka ottaa huomioon nykypäivän vaativan kuluttajan ja on kiinnostunut kestä-vän kehityksen arvoista. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on ollut kartoittaa kestävän kehityksen käsitettä, siihen liit-tyviä tekijöitä niin viestinnässä kuin mu...

  13. Sokos Herkun brändimielikuva nuorten silmissä brändiarvojen perusteella mitattuna

    OpenAIRE

    Lappalainen, Sanna

    2016-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö tehtiin Tampereen keskustassa sijaitsevalle Sokos Herkku ruokakaupalle. Opinnäytetyöni käsittelee brändin rakentamista ja brändimielikuvan muodostumista. Teoriaosiossa käydään läpi brändin rakentaminen brändi-identiteetin luomisesta brändin johtamiseen brändipääomalla. Teoriaosiossani katsotaan brändiä myös palvelubrändin näkökulmasta, sillä elintarvikekaupat ovat yhä kasvavassa määrin palveluyrityksiä. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli kehittää Sokos Herkun brändimielikuvaa n...

  14. Competing C-Br and O-NO Photofission upon Excitation of BrCH2CH2ONO at 193 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Scrape, Preston G; Roberts, Trevor D; Joshi, Prakriti P; Butler, Laurie J

    2015-12-17

    This study characterizes two of the primary photodissociation channels of 2-bromoethyl nitrite, BrCH2CH2ONO, at 193 nm and the subsequent unimolecular dissociation channels of the nascent vibrationally excited BrCH2CH2O radicals produced from the O-NO bond photofission. We use a crossed laser-molecular beam scattering apparatus with electron bombardment detection. Upon photodissociation of BrCH2CH2ONO at 193 nm, the measured branching ratio between primary O-NO photofission and C-Br photofission is 3.9:1 (O-NO/C-Br). The measured O-NO photofission recoil kinetic energy distribution (P(ET)) peaks near 30 kcal/mol and extends from 20 to 50 kcal/mol. We use the O-NO photofission P(ET) to characterize the internal energy distribution in the nascent ground-electronic-state BrCH2CH2O radicals. At 193 nm, all of the BrCH2CH2O radicals are formed with enough internal energy to unimolecularly dissociate to CH2Br + H2CO or to BrCH2CHO + H. We also investigated the possibility of the BrCH2CH2O → CH2CHO + HBr reaction arising from the vibrationally excited BrCH2CH2O radicals produced from O-NO primary photodissociation. Signal strengths at HBr(+), however, demonstrate that the vinoxy product does not have HBr as a cofragment, so the BrCH2CH2O → HBr + vinoxy channel is negligible compared to the CH2Br + H2CO channel. We also report our computational prediction of the unimolecular dissociation channels of the vibrational excited CH2CH2ONO radical resulting from C-Br bond photofission. Our theoretical calculations on the ground-state CH2CH2ONO potential energy surface at the G4//B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,2p) level of theory give the energetics of the zero-point corrected minima and transition states. The lowest accessible barrier height for the unimolecular dissociation of CH2CH2ONO is a 12.7 kcal/mol barrier from the cis-ONO conformer, yielding NO2 + ethene. Our measured internal energy distribution of the nascent CH2CH2ONO radicals together with this computational result suggests

  15. Comparative study of α and β-ThBr4: structure and luminescence. Spectroscopy of U4+ in α-ThBr4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UV absorption of β-ThBr4: presents a plain absorption front and for the same temperature the threshold energy has the same value than the threshold energy of excitation function and photocurrent peak. Emission intensity and lifetime decrease when temperature increases from 300 K to 400K (extinction temperature). Results are interpreted either by molecular orbital levels of the ThBr84- cluster or either by conduction and valence bands of the matrix above. Absorption and emission spectra of U4+ in α-ThBr4 (where U4+ has a S4 symmetry) between 300 K and 4.2 K allow indexation of 30 levels. Spectroscopic parameters are calculated in D2d and S4 symmetry. Comparison of these parameters with those of U4+ in β-ThBr4 and β-ThCl4 shows that crystal field force is practically the same in the three matrices but the structure transformation from β to α has more influence on Bqk than ligand change from Br- to Cl-. Owing to very low phonon energy, fluorescence spectra of U4+ is easy to observe in α-ThBr4 as it is in β-ThBr4 and ThCl4

  16. Proton-stopping cross sections and mean excitation energies for gaseous Cl2 and Br2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First measurements of proton stopping powers in gaseous Cl2 and Br2 are reported for the energy range between 50 and 750 keV with statistical and systematical errors of about 1% each. In the stopping-power maximum the experimental values are higher than those predicted by the Andersen-Ziegler tables; moreover, lower peak energies are found. Experimental shell corrections were deduced from the proton stopping cross sections and adjusted to the theoretical predictions of Bonderup, whereby higher-order Z1 correction terms were included. Within this procedure semiempirical values for the mean ionization potentials of 174 eV for Cl2 and 363 eV for Br2 were obtained

  17. Tuning growth cycles of Brassica crops via natural antisense transcripts of BrFLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaorong; Zhang, Shaofeng; Bai, Jinjuan; He, Yuke

    2016-03-01

    Several oilseed and vegetable crops of Brassica are biennials that require a prolonged winter cold for flowering, a process called vernalization. FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is a central repressor of flowering. Here, we report that the overexpression of natural antisense transcripts (NATs) of Brassica rapa FLC (BrFLC) greatly shortens plant growth cycles. In rapid-, medium- and slow-cycling crop types, there are four copies of the BrFLC genes, which show extensive variation in sequences and expression levels. In Bre, a biennial crop type that requires vernalization, five NATs derived from the BrFLC2 locus are rapidly induced under cold conditions, while all four BrFLC genes are gradually down-regulated. The transgenic Bre lines overexpressing a long NAT of BrFLC2 do not require vernalization, resulting in a gradient of shortened growth cycles. Among them, a subset of lines both flower and set seeds as early as Yellow sarson, an annual crop type in which all four BrFLC genes have non-sense mutations and are nonfunctional in flowering repression. Our results demonstrate that the growth cycles of biennial crops of Brassica can be altered by changing the expression levels of BrFLC2 NATs. Thus, BrFLC2 NATs and their transgenic lines are useful for the genetic manipulation of crop growth cycles. PMID:26250982

  18. Som brødre vi dele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Debatten om forskningsfrihed gjorde broderskabet til forudsætningen for forskningfrihed, men skal forskere dele som brødre i 2010?......Debatten om forskningsfrihed gjorde broderskabet til forudsætningen for forskningfrihed, men skal forskere dele som brødre i 2010?...

  19. Cd4As2Br3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Kars

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of Cd4As2Br3 (tetracadmium biarsenide tribromide were grown by a chemical transport reaction. The structure is isotypic with the members of the cadmium and mercury pnictidohalides family with general formula M4A2X3 (M = Cd, Hg; A = P, As, Sb; X = Cl, Br, I and contains two independent As atoms on special positions with site symmetry -3 and two independent Cd atoms, of which one is on a special position with site symmetry -3. The Cd4As2Br3 structure consists of AsCd4 tetrahedra sharing vertices with isolated As2Cd6 octahedra that contain As–As dumbbells in the centre of the octahedron. The Br atoms are located in the voids of this three-dimensional arrangement and bridge the different polyhedra through Cd...Br contacts.

  20. Vertical distribution of tropospheric BrO in the marginal sea ice zone of the Northern Weddell Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasse, Jan-Marcus; Zielcke, Johannes; Lampel, Johannes; Buxmann, Joelle; Frieß, Udo; Platt, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    The free radical bromine monoxide (BrO) strongly influences the chemistry of the troposphere in Polar regions. During springtime with the return of sunlight after Polar night BrO is released in an autocatalytic reaction mechanism from saline surfaces (bromine explosion). Then BrO affects the oxidative properties of the lower atmosphere and can induce complete depletion of ozone within a matter of days or even hours. In addition, elemental mercury can be oxidized by BrO which makes this toxic compound soluble leading to a deposition into the biosphere. Despite numerous observations of elevated BrO levels in the Polar troposphere, bromine radical sources, as well as the details of the mechanisms leading to bromine explosions and the interactions between atmospheric dynamics and chemistry are not yet completely understood. To improve the understanding of these processes, an accurate determination of the spatio-temporal distribution of BrO is crucial. Here we present measurements of BrO performed during two cruises of the German research ice breaker Polarstern in the marginal sea ice zone of the Antarctic Weddell Sea between June and October 2013 when four major periods with elevated BrO concentrations and simultaneous ozone depletion occurred. The events were observed by (1) a ship-based Multi AXis Differential Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) instrument on Polarstern and (2) a compact MAX-DOAS instrument operated on a helicopter. Several flights were performed in the boundary layer as well as in the free troposphere up to altitudes of 2300 m on days with elevated BrO levels. Vertical profiles of aerosol extinction and BrO concentrations were retrieved for both instruments using our HEIPRO (HEIdelberg Profile) retrieval algorithm based on optimal estimation. Elevated BrO levels in the time series from ship-borne measurements show a strong correlation to southerly wind directions indicating transport from sea ice areas. Maximum retrieved BrO mixing ratios at ground

  1. Characterization of soluble bromide measurements and a case study of BrO observations during ARCTAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A focus of the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS mission was examination of bromine photochemistry in the spring time high latitude troposphere based on aircraft and satellite measurements of bromine oxide (BrO and related species. The NASA DC-8 aircraft utilized a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS to measure BrO and a mist chamber (MC to measure soluble bromide. We have determined that the MC detection efficiency to molecular bromine (Br2, hypobromous acid (HOBr, bromine oxide (BrO, and hydrogen bromide (HBr as soluble bromide (Br was 0.9±0.1, 1.06+0.30/−0.35, 0.4±0.1, and 0.95±0.1, respectively. These efficiency factors were used to estimate soluble bromide levels along the DC-8 flight track of 17 April 2008 from photochemical calculations constrained to in situ BrO measured by CIMS. During this flight, the highest levels of soluble bromide and BrO were observed and atmospheric conditions were ideal for the space-borne observation of BrO. The good agreement (R2 = 0.76; slope = 0.95; intercept = −3.4 pmol mol−1 between modeled and observed soluble bromide, when BrO was above detection limit (>2 pmol mol−1 under unpolluted conditions (NO<10 pmol mol−1, indicates that the CIMS BrO measurements were consistent with the MC soluble bromide and that a well characterized MC can be used to derive mixing ratios of some reactive bromine compounds. Tropospheric BrO vertical column densities (BrOVCD derived from CIMS BrO observations compare well with BrOTROPVCD from OMI on 17 April 2008.

  2. Lastnosti lesa bršljana

    OpenAIRE

    Merhar, Klemen

    2014-01-01

    Raziskali smo tiste izbrane lastnosti lesa navadnega bršljana (Hedera helix L.), ki bi utegnile predvideti njegovo uporabo. Raziskali smo anatomsko zgradbo in makroskopske posebnosti, vlažnost v svežem stanju, gostoto, anizotropijo krčenja in nabrekanja, kazalnike dimenzijske stabilnosti ter tlačno in upogibno trdnost bršljanovega lesa. Raziskava je pokazala, da bršljanov les spada med polvenčasto porozne drevesne vrste. Gostota absolutno suhega lesa je 522 kg/m3. Vlažnost svežega lesa, ki jo...

  3. Decommissioning of a small reactor (BR3 reactor, Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1989, SCK-CEN has been dismantling its PWR reactor BR3 (Belgian Reactor No. 3). After gaining a great deal of experience in remote dismantling of highly radioactive components during the actual dismantling of the two sets of internals, the BR3 team completed the cutting of its reactor pressure vessel (RPV). During the feasibility phase of the RPV dismantling, a decision was made to cut it under water in the refuelling pool of the plant, after having removed it from its cavity. The RPV was cut into segments using a milling cutter and a bandsaw machine. These mechanical techniques have shown their ability for this kind of operations. Prior to the segmentation, the thermal insulation situated around the RPV was remotely removed and disposed of. The paper will describe all these operations. The BR3 decommissioning activities also include the dismantling of contaminated loops and equipment. After a careful sorting of the pieces, optimized management routes are selected in order to minimize the final amount of radioactive waste to be disposed of. Some development of different methods of decontamination were carried out: abrasive blasting (or sand blasting), chemical decontamination (Oxidizing-Reducing process using Cerium). The main goal of the decontamination program is to recycle most of the metallic materials either in the nuclear world or in the industrial world by reaching the respective recycling or clearance level. Overall the decommissioning of the BR3 reactor has shown the feasibility of performing such a project in a safe and economical way. Moreover, BR3 has developed methodologies and decontamination processes to economically reduce the amount of radwaste produced. (author)

  4. Decommissioning of the BR3 reactor: status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BR3 plant at Mol in Belgium built at the end of the fifties was the first PWR plant built outside the USA. The reactor had a small net power output (10 MWe) but comprised all the loops and features of a commercial PWR plant. The BR3 plant was operated with the main objective of testing advanced PWR fuels under irradiation conditions similar to those encountered in large commercial PWR plants. The reactor was started in 1962 and shut down in 1987 after 25 years of continuous operation. Since 1989, SCK.CEN is decommissioning the BR3 PWR research reactor. The dismantling of the metallic components including reactor pressure vessel and internals is completed and extensively reported in the literature. The dismantling of auxiliary components and the decontamination of parts of the infrastructure are now going on. The decommissioning progress is continuously monitored and costs and strategy are regularly reassessed. The first part of the paper describes the main results and lessons learned from the reassessment exercises performed in 1994, 1999, 2004 and 2007. Impacts of changes in legal framework on the decommissioning costs will be addressed. These changes concern e.g. licensing aspects, clearance levels, waste management... The middle part of the paper discusses the management of activated and/or contaminated concrete. The costing exercise performed in 1995 highlighted that the management of activated and contaminated concrete is the second main cost item after the dismantling of the reactor pressure vessel and internals. Different possible solutions were studied. These are evacuation as radioactive waste with or without supercompaction, recycling this 'radioactive' grout or concrete for conditioning of radioactive waste e.g. conditioning of metallic waste. The paper will give the results of the cost-benefit analysis made to select the solution retained. The last part of the paper will discuss the end goal of the decommissioning of the BR3. In the final

  5. Formation of brominated phenolic contaminants from natural manganese oxides-catalyzed oxidation of phenol in the presence of Br(.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kunde; Song, Lianghui; Zhou, Shiyang; Chen, Da; Gan, Jay

    2016-07-01

    Brominated phenolic compounds (BPCs) are a class of persistent and potentially toxic compounds ubiquitously present in the aquatic environment. However, the origin of BPCs is not clearly understood. In this study, we investigated the formation of BPCs from natural manganese oxides (MnOx)-catalyzed oxidation of phenol in the presence of Br(-). Experiments at ambient temperature clearly demonstrated that BPCs were readily produced via the oxidation of phenol by MnOx in the presence of Br(-). In the reaction of MnOx sand with 0.213 μmol/L phenol and 0.34 mmol/L Br(-) for 10 min, more than 60% of phenol and 56% of Br(-) were consumed to form BPCs. The yield of BPCs increased with increasing concentrations of phenol and Br(-). Overall, a total of 14 BPCs including simple bromophenols (4-bromophenol, 2,4-dibromophenol, and 2,4,6-tribromophenol), hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs), and hydroxylated polybrominated biphenyls (OH-PBBs) were identified. The production of BPCs increased with increasing concentrations of Br(-) or phenol. It was deduced that Br(-) was first oxidized to form active bromine, leading to the subsequent bromination of phenol to form bromophenols. The further oxidation of bromophenols by MnOx resulted in the formation of OH-PBDEs and OH-PBBs. In view of the ubiquity of phenol, Br(-), and MnOx in the environment, MnOx-mediated oxidation may play a role on the natural production of BPCs. PMID:27131033

  6. The BR-3 decommissioning project, Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BR-3 was a small 10 MW(e) PWR which was shut down in 1987 after 25 years of operation. It was selected as an EU pilot project for the research and development programme on decommissioning of nuclear installations. The decommissioning project started in 1989. The optimization of the management of waste material generated by decommissioning activities has always been an intensive task and the minimization of the radioactive waste a priority. Over the past 16 years, the factors influencing the management of waste have been constantly evolving in Belgium, steered mainly by the following changes in technologies, regulations and economic conditions: - The publication of the Royal Decree of 20 July 2001, establishing a legal frame on decommissioning and including a set of clearance levels; - The improvement of the instrumentation used for characterization; - The increase in the performance of decontamination techniques; - The cost increase of the waste disposal paths; - The implementation of international recommendations in areas such as environmental impact, waste categorization, human aspects, ethics, etc.; -The strengthening of the legislation related to industrial safety and environmental release; - The diminution of the background radiation level at the decommissioning site itself. The first part of this annex gives a description of relevant influencing factors in order to define the context in which the dismantling activities took place. The second part puts in perspective the strategy chosen for the management of the waste, recognizing the influencing factors. As mentioned in the scope of this report, the focus is LLW. High and intermediate level wastes for which disposal in dedicated repositories is assumed are outside the scope of this report. They are therefore not examined in detail here

  7. Shell structure of potassium isotopes deduced from their magnetic moments

    CERN Document Server

    Papuga, J; Kreim, K; Barbieri, C; Blaum, K; De Rydt, M; Duguet, T; Garcia Ruiz, R F; Heylen, H; Kowalska, M; Neugart, R; Neyens, G; Nortershauser, W; Rajabali, M M; Sanchez, R; Smirnova, N; Soma, V; Yordanov, D T

    2014-01-01

    $\\textbf{Background:}$ Ground-state spins and magnetic moments are sensitive to the nuclear wave function, thus they are powerful probes to study the nuclear structure of isotopes far from stability. \\\\ \\\\ $\\textbf{Purpose:}$ Extend our knowledge about the evolution of the $1/2^+$ and $3/2^+$ states for K isotopes beyond the $N = 28$ shell gap. \\\\ \\\\ $\\textbf{Method:}$ High-resolution collinear laser spectroscopy on bunched atomic beams. \\\\ \\\\ $\\textbf{Results:}$ From measured hyperfine structure spectra of K isotopes, nuclear spins and magnetic moments of the ground states were obtained for isotopes from $N = 19$ up to $N = 32$. In order to draw conclusions about the composition of the wave functions and the occupation of the levels, the experimental data were compared to shell-model calculations using SDPF-NR and SDPF-U effective interactions. In addition, a detailed discussion about the evolution of the gap between proton $1d_{3/2}$ and $2s_{1/2}$ in the shell model and $\\textit{ab initio}$ framework is al...

  8. mRNA and Protein Levels for GABA[subscript A][alpha]4, [alpha]5, [beta]1 and GABA[subscript B]R1 Receptors are Altered in Brains from Subjects with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, S. Hossein; Reutiman, Teri J.; Folsom, Timothy D.; Rooney, Robert J.; Patel, Diven H.; Thuras, Paul D.

    2010-01-01

    We have shown altered expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA[subscript A]) and gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABA[subscript B]) receptors in the brains of subjects with autism. In the current study, we sought to verify our western blotting data for GABBR1 via qRT-PCR and to expand our previous work to measure mRNA and protein levels of 3…

  9. Green manures and levels of nitrogen topdressing in wheat crop under no-tillage<br>Adubos verdes e doses de nitrogênio em cobertura na cultura do trigo sob plantio direto

    OpenAIRE

    Anísio da Silva Nunes; Luiz Carlos Ferreira de Souza; Antonio Carlos Tadeu Vitorino; Leandro Henrique de Souza Mota

    2011-01-01

    Green manure is still a not widely used practice in wheat crop, although economic benefits and conservation of natural resources can be observed due to the adoption of this practice. This study was carried out at the Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, with the objective of evaluating the effect of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), associated with levels of mineral nitrogen topdressing in the agronomic performace of wheat crop under no-tillage. The treatme...

  10. Glycerine levels for crossbred heifers growing in pasture: performance, feed intake, feed eficiency and digestibility<br>Níveis de glicerina para novilhas suplementadas em pastagens: desempenho, ingestão, eficiência alimentar e digestibilidade

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Emanuel Eiras; Robério Rodrigues Silva; Fernando Zawadzki; Maribel Velandia Valero; Ivanor Nunes Prado; Mariana de Souza Farias; Dayane Cristina Rivaroli; Beatriz Silva Lima

    2012-01-01

    This work was carried out to study the effect of levels different addition of glycerine on animal performance, feed efficiency and digestibility of heifers supplemented in Brachiaria brizantha cultivar Marandu pasture. The experimental period was 102 days. The first 14 days was the period of adaptation of heifers to experimental diets and management. It was used 36 crossbred heifers with an average initial weight of 226 + 12 kg and 13 months old. The heifers were distributed in a completely r...

  11. A simple model for calculating the bulk modulus of the mixed ionic crystal: NH4Cl1−xBr

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vassiliki Katsika-Tsigourakou

    2011-10-01

    The ammonium halides are an interesting systems because of their polymorphism and the possible internal rotation of the ammonium ion. The static properties of the mixed ionic crystal NH4Cl1−Br have been recently investigated, using the three-body potential model (TDPM) by applying Vegard’s law. Here, by using a simple theoretical model, we estimate the bulk modulus of the alloys NH4Cl1−Br, in terms of the bulk modulus of the end members alone. The calculated values are comparable to those deduced from the three-body potential model (TDPM) by applying Vegard’s law.

  12. The laws of thermodynamics deduced from statistical mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diu, B.; Guthmann, C.; Lederer, D.; Roulet, B.

    Since the advent of statistical mechanics, the laws of thermodynamics are consequences of more fundamental postulates. Nevertheless, the logical link between statistical mechanics and thermodynamics is far from being precisely described in the literature, at an elementary level. The present paper tries to clarify this subject. It is necessary to recall some basic notions and results of statistical mechanics, but also the main definitions concerning thermodynamic transformations (which are partly ignored in too many cases). The laws of thermodynamics, especially the second one, are then derived and analyzed in statistical terms, and the statistical meaning of heat and work is discussed. Depuis l'avènement de la mécanique statistique, les principes de la thermodynamique sont des conséquences de postulats plus fondamentaux. Pourtant, le lien logique entre mécanique statistique et thermodynamique est loin d'etre explicité de façon précise, à un niveau élémentaire, dans la littérature. L'article que voici tente de clarifier le sujet. Il s'avère nécessaire de rappeler quelques notions et résultats de base en mécanique statistique, mais aussi les principales définitions (trop souvent ignorées pour certaines d'entre elles) relatives aux transformations thermodynamiques. Les principes de la thermodynamique, en particulier le second, sont ensuite démontrés et analysés en termes statistiques, et l'interprétation statistique de la chaleur et du travail est discutée.

  13. Brändimielikuvia kosmetiikan markkinoilla : Cliniquen brändimielikuva

    OpenAIRE

    Pitkä, Nea

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää, millainen Cliniquen brändimielikuva on kuluttajien kokemana. Clinique on suurimpia kosmetiikkabrändejä selektiivisen kosmetiikan markkinoilla. Yhdysvaltalaisella Cliniquella on omalaatuinen kliininen imago kilpailijoihinsa nähden, joten brändistä muotoutunutta mielikuvaa tutkittiin sen pohjalta. Toinen selvityksen kohde oli Cliniquen brändimielikuvan vaikutus ostopäätökseen. Työssä käsiteltiin laajasti brändin määritelmää ja olennaisimpia t...

  14. Brändivalokuva Suomessa : Kuinka saavutetaan laadukas brändivalokuva

    OpenAIRE

    Luostarinen, Antti

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutkitaan mitä brändivalokuva on ja miten laadukas brändivalokuva saavutetaan Suomessa. Kentällä tapahtuvaa toimintaa lähestytään kolmesta suunnasta: valokuvaajan (toteuttaja), suunnittelijan (luova toimisto) sekä yrityksen (tilaaja) näkökulmasta. Brändivalokuvan tekemisen prosessia kuvataan yrityksen ja sen palkkaamien ulkoistettujen yhteistyötahojen toiminnan kautta. Opinnäyte ei siis ota kantaa inhouse-toiminnassa tuotettuun brändivalokuvaan. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on...

  15. Function of longitudinal vs circular muscle fibers in esophageal peristalsis, deduced with mathematical modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James G Brasseur; Mark A Nicosia; Anupam Pal; Larr S Miller

    2007-01-01

    We summarize from previous works the functions of circular vs. longitudinal muscle in esophageal peristaltic bolus transport using a mix of experimental data, the conservation laws of mechanics and mathematical modeling. Whereas circular muscle tone generates radial closure pressure to create a local peristaltic closure wave, longitudinal muscle tone has two functions, one physiological with mechanical implications, and one purely mechanical. Each of these functions independently reduces the tension of individual circular muscle fibers to maintain closure as a consequence of shortening of longitudinal muscle locally coordinated with increasing circular muscle tone. The physiological function is deduced by combining basic laws of mechanics with concurrent measurements of intraluminal pressure from manometry, and changes in cross sectional muscle area from endoluminal ultrasound from which local longitudinal shortening (LLS) can be accurately obtained. The purely mechanical function of LLS was discovered from mathematical modeling of peristaltic esophageal transport with the axial wall motion generated by LLS. Physiologically, LLS concentrates circular muscle fibers where closure pressure is highest.However, the mechanical function of LLS is to reduce the level of pressure required to maintain closure. The combined physiological and mechanical consequences of LLS are to reduce circular muscle fiber tension and power by as much as 1/10 what would be required for peristalsis without the longitudinal muscle layer, a tremendous benefit that may explain the existence of longitudinal muscle fiber in the gut. We also review what is understood of the role of longitudinal muscle in esophageal emptying, reflux and pathology.

  16. Observations of BrO above Barrow, AK using Ground-Based MAX-DOAS: Investigating Effects of Surface Chemistry on Observed BrO Boundary Layer Vertical Column Densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, P. K.; Walsh, S. J.; Gleason, E.; Simpson, W. R.; Friess, U.; Platt, U.; Oltmans, S. J.; Pratt, K. A.; Custard, K. D.; Shepson, P.; Tanner, D.; Huey, L. G.

    2012-12-01

    Polar sunrise in the Arctic has been associated with production of reactive halogens from sea salt(e.g. Br, BrO). While effects of these halogen species are well known(e.g. ozone depletion, mercury deposition), their production is not fully understood, but thought to be linked to heterogeneous chemistry taking place on saline ice surfaces(e.g saline snow, first year sea ice). Satellite measurements of BrO allow one to look at the relationship between BrO and various ice surfaces on a basin scale, however, because satellites only measure a vertical column density(VCD), understanding the relationship between surface concentration and VCD is necessary to understand the implications of these measurements. In an effort to further understanding of this relationship, multiple axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) has been used to investigate boundary layer BrO in Barrow, AK during the 2012 BROMEX field campaign. Vertical profiles of BrO are retrieved using optimal estimation. These profiles are then used to obtain a surface mixing ratio, boundary layer VCD(BL-VCD), and layer height. We compare retrieved surface mixing ratios to those observed using chemical ionization mass spectrometry(CIMS). Our measurements are also compared to surface ozone measurements from NOAA's Barrow observatory. During BROMEX, ozone was highly depleted, often to a level where partitioning of reactive bromine (Br + BrO) at the ground lay more towards Br than BrO. Possibly due to these severe depletion episodes, there was not a linear relationship between the boundary layer VCD of BrO and the surface concentration of BrO. Implications of these findings for interpretation of satellite measurements with regard to ground level halogen chemistry are discussed.

  17. Efect of urea levels on the nutritional value of Tanzania-grass hay/ <br> Efeito de níveis de uréia sobre o valor nutricional do feno de capim-Tanzânia

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele de Jesus Ferreira; Edson Mauro Santos; Anderson de Moura Zanine; Odilon Gomes Pereira

    2007-01-01

    This experiment was developed to evaluate the effect of the urea addition on the nutritional value of the Tanzânia-grass hay (Panicum maximum, Jacq cv. Tanzânia). The experimental design was entirely randomized, with four treatments: T1 – only hay, T2 – hay with 1.0% of urea, T3 – hay with 2.0% of urea and T4 – hay with 3.0% of urea, with base in the dry matter, and ten replicates per treatment. There was positive linear effect of the urea levels on the crude protein (CP), being the largest l...

  18. Vibrational spectroscopy of SnBr4 and CCl4 using Lie algebraic approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joydeep Choudhury; Srinivasa Rao Karmuri; Nirmal Kumar Sarkar; Ramendu Bhattacharjee

    2008-09-01

    The stretching and bending vibrational energies of SnBr4 and CCl4 are calculated in the one-dimensional framework. The dynamical symmetry group of tetrahedral molecule was taken into consideration to construct the model Hamiltonian in this frame-work. Casimir and Majorana invariant operators were also determined accordingly. Using the model Hamiltonian so constructed, we reported the vibrational energy levels of SnBr4 and CCl4 molecules accurately.

  19. Single crystal growth, structure and properties of TlHgBr3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchenko, P.; Khyzhun, O. Y.; Fochuk, P. M.; Levkovets, S. I.; Myronchuk, G. L.; Parasyuk, O. V.

    2015-11-01

    High-quality inclusion-free single crystals of ternary thallium mercury bromide, TlHgBr3, were successfully grown by Bridgman-Stockbarger method. For the pristine surface of the TlHgBr3 single crystal, X-ray photoelectron core-level and valence-band spectra were measured. The comparison on a common energy scale of the X-ray photoelectron valence-band spectrum of TlHgBr3 and the X-ray emission Br Kβ2 band, representing peculiarities of the energy distribution of the Br 4p states revealed that the main contribution of the valence Br p states, occurred in the upper portion of the valence band, with also their significant contributions in other valence band regions. It has been determined that TlHgBr3 is a semiconductor with the bandgap energy value of Eg = 2.51 eV at 100 K. The Eg value decreased up to 2.44 eV when temperature increased to 300 K.

  20. Preparation of n.c.a. [18F]-CH2BrF via aminopolyether supported nucleophilic substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complex of the macrocyclic aminopolyether Kryptofix 2.2.2. and potassium carbonate was used to synthesize the positron emission tomography radiopharmaceutical, [18F]-CH2BrF, from dibromomethane. At the no-carrier-added level the nucleophilic 18F-for-Br exchange gives rise to a corrected radiochemical yield up to 62%. (author)

  1. Radiative forcing calculations for CH3Br

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methyl Bromide, CH3Br, is the major organobromine species in the lower atmosphere and is a primary source of bromine in the stratosphere. It has a lifetime of 1.3 years. The IR methyl bromide spectra in the atmospheric window region, 7--13μ, was determined using a well tested Coriolis resonance and ell-doubling (and ell-resonance) computational system. A radiative forcing value of 0.00493 W/m2/ppbv was obtained for CH3Br and is approximately linear in the background abundance. This value is about 2 percent of the forcing of CFC-11 and about 278 times the forcing of C02, on a per molecule basis. The radiative forcing calculation is used to estimate the global warming potential (GWP) of CH3Br. The results give GWPs for CH3Br of the order of 13 for an integration period of 20 years and 4 for an integration period of 100 years (assuming C02 = 1, following IPCC [1994]). While CH3Br has a GWP which is approximately 25 percent of the GWP of CH4, the current emission rates are too low to cause serious atmospheric greenhouse heating effects at this time

  2. Positive regulation by GABA(BR1 subunit of leptin expression through gene transactivation in adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukari Nakamura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The view that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA plays a functional role in non-neuronal tissues, in addition to an inhibitory neurotransmitter role in the mammalian central nervous system, is prevailing, while little attention has been paid to GABAergic signaling machineries expressed by adipocytes to date. In this study, we attempted to demonstrate the possible functional expression of GABAergic signaling machineries by adipocytes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: GABA(B receptor 1 (GABA(BR1 subunit was constitutively expressed by mouse embryonic fibroblasts differentiated into adipocytes and adipocytic 3T3-L1 cells in culture, as well as mouse white adipose tissue, with no responsiveness to GABA(BR ligands. However, no prominent expression was seen with mRNA for GABA(BR2 subunit required for heteromeric orchestration of the functional GABA(BR by any adipocytic cells and tissues. Leptin mRNA expression was significantly and selectively decreased in adipose tissue and embryonic fibroblasts, along with drastically reduced plasma leptin levels, in GABA(BR1-null mice than in wild-type mice. Knockdown by siRNA of GABA(BR1 subunit led to significant decreases in leptin promoter activity and leptin mRNA levels in 3T3-L1 cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that GABA(BR1 subunit is constitutively expressed by adipocytes to primarily regulate leptin expression at the transcriptional level through a mechanism not relevant to the function as a partner of heterodimeric assembly to the functional GABA(BR.

  3. Brändikäsikirja brändinhallinnan tukena Case: Innojok Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Tamminen, Tytti; Uusitalo, Nea

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli laatia brändikäsikirja opinnäytetyön case yritys Innojok Oy:lle. Tutkimustyön tarkoituksena on selvittää, mitä tehokkaan ja hyödyllisen brändikäsikirjan tulisi sisältää, jotta sen optimaalinen käyttötarkoitus toteutuu. Toimeksianto saatiin case yritykseltä, koska yrityksellä ei ollut vielä brändikäsikirjaa olemassa. Opinnäytetyön teoreettinen viitekehys käsittelee brändiä ja brändinhallinnan merkitystä liiketoiminnan kannalta. Opinnäytetyön teoreettisen ...

  4. Optical properties of CdBr2:Eu and CdBr2:Eu, Mn crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical and luminescent properties of the CdBr:Eu and CdBr2:Eu, Mn crystals, grown through the Stockbarger-Bridgman method in evacuated quartz ampoules, are studied within the temperature range of 85-295 K. The results obtained are compared with spectral characteristics of the CdBr2 and CdBr2:Mn crystals. The band with the maximum about 254 nm, observed in the absorption spectra of mono- and polyactivated crystals of cadmium bromide, is attributed to the 4f7 -> 4f65d electron transitions in the Eu2+ ions. The manganese sensitized luminescence is identified by excitation of the CdBr2:Eu, Mn crystals by the light from the area of this band. The nature of the capture centers, responsible for thermostimulated fluorescence, and excitation mechanisms of recombination luminescence in the studied crystals are considered

  5. Brändiopas : brändäys kauneudenhoitoalalla

    OpenAIRE

    Rastas, Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    Brändit vetoavat asiakkaan tunteisiin ja tuottavat elämyksiä sekä unohtumattomia kokemuksia. Brändi on aineeton ulottuvuus, mielikuva, joka rakentuu asiakkaan mielessä. Brändi onkin hieman erilainen eri ihmiseltä kysyttäessä. Tässä oppaassa käsiteltiin kauneudenhoitoalan yritys- ja henkilöbrändin rakentamisen vaiheita. Oppaassa käsiteltiin myös asiakaskokemuksen merkitystä menestyvän yritysbrändin rakentumisessa. Vaikka brändi termiä käytetään hyvin laajasti puhekielessä, se usein liitet...

  6. Preparation, characterization, and photocatalytic activity of porous AgBr@Ag and AgBrI@Ag plasmonic photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Tian, Baozhu; Zhang, Jinlong; Xiong, Tianqing; Wang, Tingting

    2014-02-01

    Porous AgBr@Ag and AgBrI@Ag plasmonic photocatalysts were synthesized by a multistep route, including a dealloying method to prepare porous Ag, a transformation from Ag to AgBr and AgBrI, and a photo-reduction process to form Ag nanoparticles on the surface of AgBr and AgBrI. It was found that the porous structure kept unchanged during Ag was transferred into AgBr, AgBrI, AgBr@Ag, and AgBrI@Ag. Both porous AgBr@Ag and porous AgBrI@Ag showed much higher visible-light photocatalytic activity than cubic AgBr@Ag for the degradation of methyl orange, which is because the interconnected pore channels not only provide more reactive sites but also favor the transportation of photo-generated electrons and holes. For AgBrI@Ag, AgBrI solid solution formed at the interface of AgBr and AgI, and the phase junction can effectively separate the photo-generated electrons and holes, favorable to the improvement of photocatalytic activity. The optimal I content for obtaining the highest activity is ∼10 at.%.

  7. Expression of BAFF and BR3 in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Duan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the expression of B cell activating factor (BAFF and BAFF receptor in patients with disease activity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Real-time RT-PCR was used to examine BAFF mRNA expression in peripheral blood monocytes of active and stable SLE patients and healthy controls. The percentage of BAFF receptor 3 (BR3 on B lymphocytes was measured by flow cytometry. Soluble BAFF levels in serum were assayed by ELISA. Microalbumin levels were assayed by an automatic immune analysis machine. BAFF mRNA and soluble BAFF levels were highest in the active SLE group, followed by the stable SLE group, and controls (P<0.01. The percentage of BR3 on B lymphocytes was downregulated in the active SLE group compared with the stable SLE group and controls (P<0.01. BAFF mRNA levels and soluble BAFF levels were higher in patients who were positive for proteinuria than in those who were negative (P<0.01. The percentage of BR3 on B lymphocytes was lower in patients who were positive for proteinuria than in those who were negative (P<0.01. The BAFF/BR3 axis may be over-activated in SLE patients. BAFF and BR3 levels may be useful parameters for evaluating treatment.

  8. Brändäys pelialalla

    OpenAIRE

    Saarelainen, Joona

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli tarjota lukijalle tietopaketti siitä, mikä merkitys brändeillä ja brändäyksellä on kuluttajille videopelimarkkinoilla. Työn tarkoituksena oli tarjota kansainvälisille pelimarkkinoille pyrkivälle yritykselle tietoa brändin rakentamisen aloittamisesta ja siinä tarvittavista analyyseistä. Tämä oli myös opinnäytetyöhön valittu tutkimusongelma. Opinnäytetyö kirjoitettiin kahdessa eri osassa. Teoriaosuus käsittelee suomalaista ja kansainvälistä pelialaa sekä...

  9. Production of 77 Br for medical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromine-77 is produced with the variable energy cyclotron (CV-28) at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, via the 75 As. (α, 2 n) 77 Br reaction, by bombarding arsenic trioxide with 28 MeV alpha-particles. The thick target yield is 0.3 mCi/μAh. The target is dissolved in concentrated N H4 OH and 77 Br, separated from arsenic, by an anionic exchange resin, is obtained carrier-free with a separation yield greater than 90%. All the process is remotely controlled using electric and pneumatic systems, manipulators and tongs. The quality control is made by atomic absorption and gamma-ray spectroscopy. The present production rate of Br-77 is 2.3 mCi per irradiation. (author)

  10. The influences of molecule structure form the spectrum isotopic effect between 79BrF and 81BrF in the X1Σ+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dissociation limit of BrF in the X1Σ+ ground state are analysed with Atomic and Molecular Reaction Statics. The spectrum isotopic effect between 79BrF and 81BrF in the X1Σ+ are analysed with Herzberg's isotopic theory. Based on the analysis, the isotopic influence for the vibration energy levels and the molecular potential energy function as Murrell-Sorbie potential (MS potential) are discussed. The results show that the spectrum isotopic effect between 79BrF and 81BrF in the X1Σ+ is a kind of weak effect and are agreement with Herzberg's isotope theory, the deviation of low vibration level between experiment and Herzberg's isotope theory are small, for higher-order force constant f4 and higher-order spread coefficient a3, theoretical and experimental results have clearer differences, but the effect for the potential energy function is not obvious as the spread coefficient a3 is much smaller than a1 and a2, the overall impact on the potential energy function is not remarkable. (authors)

  11. Growth, structure and optical properties of Tl4HgBr6 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khyzhun, O. Y.; Kityk, I. V.; Piasecki, M.; Fedorchuk, A. O.; Levkovets, S. I.; Fochuk, P. M.; Myronchuk, G. L.; Parasyuk, O. V.

    2015-12-01

    Tl4HgBr6 single crystals were grown using solution-fusion method. The crystal structure of the ternary bromide was refined. Tl4HgBr6 crystallizes in the non-centrosymmetric space group P4nc with the lattice parameters a=8.9539(8) Å and c=8.7884(8) Å and it is isostructural to the Tl4HgI6 compound. The non-centrosymmetric structure of the Tl4HgBr6 compound was also confirmed by the existence of a modest second harmonic generation effect (0.4-0.5 pm/V) and by the value of piezoelectric coefficient (0.9 pm/V). The electronic structure of Tl4HgBr6 was explored using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES). In particular, for the Tl4HgBr6 crystal, we have measured XPS core-level and valence-band spectra for both pristine and Ar+ ion-bombarded surfaces. The XPS data reveal low hygroscopicity of Tl4HgBr6, the property that is very important when handling this material in optoelectronic devices working at ambient conditions. The present XPS data indicate that the Tl4HgBr6 single crystal surface is rather sensitive with respect to Ar+ ion-bombardment: such a treatment reduces significantly mercury content in the topmost surface layers. Comparison on a common energy scale of the XPS valence-band spectrum of Tl4HgBr6 and the XE Br Kβ2 band, representing peculiarities of the energy distribution of the Br 4 p states, reveals that the main contribution of the valence Br p states occurs in the upper portion of the valence band, with also their significant contributions in other valence band regions. The measurements of spectral distribution of the absorption coefficient indicate that the Tl4HgBr6 compound is a semiconductor with the bandgap energy value of 2.43 eV at 300 K, and the bandgap energy increases up to 2.48 eV when temperature decreases to 100 K.

  12. Method of estimating horizontal vectors of ionospheric electric field deduced from HF Doppler data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An HF Doppler method for estimating the time variations of the horizontal electric field in the ionosphere is presented which takes into account, for long-lasting variations in the electric field, the effect of electron decay due to attachment and/or recombination processes. The method is applied to an isolated substorm event, using equivalent ionospheric current systems deduced from worldwide magnetometer data in the estimations. The present results are found to agree with data deduced from current systems and high latitude electrojet activity. 18 references

  13. Method of estimating horizontal vectors of ionospheric electric field deduced from HF Doppler data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsui, M.; Ogawa, T.; Kamide, Y.; Kroehl, H.W.; Hausman, B.A.

    1988-04-01

    An HF Doppler method for estimating the time variations of the horizontal electric field in the ionosphere is presented which takes into account, for long-lasting variations in the electric field, the effect of electron decay due to attachment and/or recombination processes. The method is applied to an isolated substorm event, using equivalent ionospheric current systems deduced from worldwide magnetometer data in the estimations. The present results are found to agree with data deduced from current systems and high latitude electrojet activity. 18 references.

  14. A novel computational framework for deducing muscle synergies from experimental joint moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantharaman eGopalakrishnan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior experimental studies have hypothesized the existence of a ‘muscle synergy’ based control scheme for producing limb movements and locomotion in vertebrates. Such synergies have been suggested to consist of fixed muscle grouping schemes with the co-activation of all muscles in a synergy resulting in limb movement. Quantitative representations of these groupings (termed muscle weightings and their control signals (termed synergy controls have traditionally been derived by the factorization of experimentally measured EMG. This study presents a novel approach for deducing these weightings and controls from inverse dynamic joint moments that are computed from an alternative set of experimental measurements – movement kinematics and kinetics. This technique was applied to joint moments for healthy human walking at 0.7 and 1.7 m/s, and two sets of ‘simulated’ synergies were computed based on two different criteria (1 synergies were required to minimize errors between experimental and simulated joint moments in a musculoskeletal model (pure-synergy solution (2 along with minimizing joint moment errors, synergies also minimized muscle activation levels (optimal-synergy solution. On comparing the two solutions, it was observed that the introduction of optimality requirements (optimal-synergy to a control strategy solely aimed at reproducing the joint moments (pure-synergy did not necessitate major changes in the muscle grouping within synergies or the temporal profiles of synergy control signals. Synergies from both the simulated solutions exhibited many similarities to EMG derived synergies from a previously published study, thus implying that the analysis of the two different types of experimental data reveals similar, underlying synergy structures.

  15. Ravintola Tallin brändi-identiteetti ja -imago

    OpenAIRE

    Hirvikoski, Mira

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni aiheena on brändi. Brändit ovat nykyaikana oleellinen osa liiketoimintaa ja parhaimmil-laan jopa yritystensä kallisarvoisinta omaisuutta. Brändi-identiteetti on tulevaisuuden tavoite, johon yritys pyrkii. Se kertoo, millaisena yritys toivoisi ulkopuolisten tahojen, kuten asiakkaiden, näkevän sen brändin. Brändi-imago taas kuvaa sitä, millaisena yrityksen ulkopuoliset tahot näkevät sen brändin juuri tällä het-kellä. Opinnäytetyöni tavoitteena oli selvittää, miten Ravintola T...

  16. CONSISTENT USE OF THE KALMAN FILTER IN CHEMICAL TRANSPORT MODELS (CTMS) FOR DEDUCING EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Past research has shown that emissions can be deduced using observed concentrations of a chemical, a Chemical Transport Model (CTM), and the Kalman filter in an inverse modeling application. An expression was derived for the relationship between the "observable" (i.e., the con...

  17. New Route to Deducing Integration Formulas by Virtue of the IWOP Technique*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi; LI Hong-Qi; XU Xing-Lei

    2011-01-01

    We point out a new route to deducing integration formulas, i.e., using the technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators we derive some new integration formulas, which seems concise. As a by-product,some new operator identities also appear.

  18. A Deduced Feynman Rule for Calculating Retarded and Advanced Green function in Closed Time Path Formalism

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Jun; Wang, Enke(Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, 430079, Wuhan, China)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the closed time path formalism, a new Feynman rule for directly calculating the retarded and advanced Green functions is deduced. This Feynman rule is used to calculate the two-point self-energy and three-point vertex correction in $\\phi^3$ theory. The generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorem for three-point nonlinear response function is verified.

  19. Complete amino acid sequence of human intestinal aminopeptidase N as deduced from cloned cDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowell, G M; Kønigshøfer, E; Danielsen, E M;

    1988-01-01

    The complete primary structure (967 amino acids) of an intestinal human aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) was deduced from the sequence of a cDNA clone. Aminopeptidase N is anchored to the microvillar membrane via an uncleaved signal for membrane insertion. A domain constituting amino acid 250...

  20. The TbBr3–LiBr binary system: Experimental thermodynamic investigation and assessment of phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► DSC measurements for the (LiBr + TbBr3) system. ► congruently Li3TbBr6 and incongruently melting Li5TbBr8 compounds. ► Thermodynamic description of the liquid phase in the (LiBr + TbBr3) system. ► Assessment with a two-sublattice ionic solution model. - Abstract: DSC was used to study the phase equilibrium in the TbBr3–LiBr binary system. The results obtained provided a basis for constructing the phase diagram of this system. It exhibits two compounds: Li5TbBr8, which decomposes in the solid state at 611 K, and Li3TbBr6, which melts congruently at 785 K with the related enthalpy 59.1 kJ·mol−1. The binary LiBr–TbBr3 system was then optimized using the available experimental information on phase diagram and thermodynamic properties. A two-sub-lattice ionic solution model (Li+)P:(Br−, TbBr6−3, TbBr3)Q was adopted to describe the liquid phase. The present assessment of the binary LiBr–TbBr3 system was in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data and confirmed their consistency.

  1. Scientific activities in support of the BR2 operation and irradiation programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major characteristics of the BR2 reactor is the fact that the core configuration is essentially variable. This allows to optimize the irradiation conditions of various experiments and to minimize the fuel consumption. In order to do that, BR2 has its own autonomous reactor physics cell. In order to allow for on-line measurements of the major irradiation parameters, BR2 has extended its own proven data acquisition system to serve this purpose. This system, called BIDASSE (for BR2 Integrated Data Acquisition System for Survey and Experiments), originally designed for the follow-up of all BR2 operational parameters, is since several years extensively used for experiments. The object rives of research at the BR2 are to evaluate and adjust provisional irradiation conditions by adjustments of the environment, axial and azimuthal positioning of the samples, global power level, ... ; to deliver reliable, well defined irradiation condition and fluence data during and after irradiation; to assist the designer of new irradiation devices by simulations and neutronic optimisations of design options and o provide the experimenters with accurate on-line information on the evolution of their ongoing irradiation projects

  2. Elamusturundus: riigi brändimine ja Eesti bränd / Siiri Same

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Same, Siiri

    2015-01-01

    Artikli autor oma 2015. a. Tallinna Tehnikaülikoolis kaitstud doktoritööst "Conceptualization of experience marketing and country branding from a marketing management perspective" ("Elamusturunduse ja riigi brändimise kontseptualiseerimine turunduse juhtimise vaatenurgast")

  3. Vahva ja erottuva brändi yrityksen kilpailuetuna : VihreäKeiju-brändin kuluttaja-asiakastutkimus

    OpenAIRE

    Merta, Helinä

    2011-01-01

    Brändi on kaikkien niiden mielikuvien ja tietojen summa, joita ihmisellä on jostain asiasta. Brändi syntyi 1700-luvun Amerikassa, jossa karja merkittiin polttomerkein (engl. brand), jotta jokainen erottaisi oman karjansa. Brändi tarkoittikin aluksi erilaistavaa tunnistetta tai symbolia. Nykyisin brändillä viitataan konkreettisiin ja mielikuvallisiin ominaisuuksiin, joiden avulla tuotteet erottuvat toisistaan. Brändiä rakentamalla pyritään kirkastamaan brändiin liitettyjä mielikuvia sekä er...

  4. Longpath DOAS observations of surface BrO at Summit, Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stutz

    2011-09-01

    on 4 July 2008, during which marine air from the Greenland east coast was rapidly transported to Summit, led to enhanced mixing ratios of BrO and a number of marine tracers. However, rapid transport of marine air from the Greenland east coast is rare and most likely not the main source of bromide in surface snow at Summit. The observed levels of BrO are predicted to influence NOx chemistry as well as impact HOx partitioning. However, impact of local snow photochemistry on HOx is smaller than previously suggested for Summit.

  5. Experimental studies on BrO/Br ratios at Stromboli, Etna, Masaya, Gorely and Nyiragongo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrowski, Nicole; Wittmer, Julian; Liotta, Marcello; Calabrese, Sergio; Giuffrida, Giovanni; Brusca, Lorenzo; Platt, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    Since the discovery of BrO in a volcanic plume (Bobrowski et al. 2003) many measurements have been performed as well as modelling to understand the radical chemistry in volcanic plumes, in particular, the interaction between volcanic gas species, released under strongly reduced conditions, and the oxidizing atmosphere. Besides the goal in atmospheric chemistry to better determine the impact of volcanic emission (e.g. reactive bromine) on the local (and maybe global) scale, volcanologists also have an interest to understand if the BrO/SO2 ratios can be used as a monitoring parameter giving further insides in dynamic processes of volcanoes. One of the major advantages when utilizing BrO/SO2 ratios is the relatively easiness of the measurements, which can be taken in a safe distance from volcanic activity accompanied by a good temporal resolution partly even during explosive eruptions. Recently, it has been shown (Lübcke et al., 2013) that already existing automatically running measurement networks can now be used to gain long-term data sets of BrO/SO2 ratios. However, one of the arguments which potentially makes volcanological interpretations difficult is the reactivity of BrO. Therefore it is, of great importance to link the measurements of BrO and gaseous hydrogen bromide to the total emission flux of bromine in order to estimate the pristine gas composition released from magmas. In particular, meteorological influences, trace gas composition of the surrounding atmosphere and the volcanic gas composition can all potentially effect the formation of BrO and might have to be considered. Some of these factors potentially also influence near source in-situ measurement. We need to answer the question: Can we correlate BrO measurements to the total bromine outgassing? Only with this knowledge we can relate changes of the measured gas ratios (BrO/SO2) to the volcanic fluids emitted by the underlying magma and can interpret data as signals from depth, which provide insight

  6. Deduced soft-rotator model Hamiltonian parameters and collective properties of medium-to-heavy even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soft-rotator model Hamiltonian parameters were deduced for 63 even-even medium and heavy nuclei in a mass range 56 ≤ A ≤ 238. We obtained those values by the combination of the low-lying level structure and the coupled-channels proton scattering analyses. It was found that the values of the effective quadrupole and octupole deformations obtained were consistent with those derived from experimental data. Besides, the equilibrium ground-state quadrupole deformation parameters were also in reasonable accord with the theoretical mass-models results for deformed heavy nuclei. In this report, we present a complete set of the Hamiltonian parameters for each nucleus. The obtained values of the parameters often varied with the constituent neutron and/or proton numbers anomalously. On the other hand, some clear systematic trends were seen among the major Hamiltonian parameters. (author)

  7. Inhibitory role of TRIP-Br1 oncoprotein in hypoxia-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengping; Jung, Samil; Yang, Young; Kim, Keun-Il; Lim, Jong-Seok; Cheon, Chung-Il; Lee, Myeong-Sok

    2016-06-01

    TRIP-Br1 oncoprotein is known to be involved in many vital cellular functions. In this study, we examined the role of TRIP-Br1 in hypoxia-induced cell death. Exposure to the overcrowded and CoCl2-induced hypoxic conditions increased TRIP-Br1 expression at the protein level in six breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, MDA-MB-231, T47D, Hs578D, BT549, and MDA-MB-435) but resulted in no significant change in three normal cell lines (MCF10A, MEF and NIH3T3). Our result revealed that CoCl2-induced hypoxia stimulated apoptosis and autophagy, in which TRIP-Br1 expression was found to be upregulated. Interestingly, TRIP-Br1 silencing in the MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells accelerated apoptosis and destabilization of XIAP under the CoCl2-induced hypoxic condition, implying that TRIP-Br1 may render cancer cells resistant to apoptosis through the stabilization of XIAP. We also propose that TRIP-Br1 seems to be upregulated at least partly as a result of the inhibition of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and the overexpression of HIF-1α. In conclusion, our findings suggest that TRIP-Br1 functions as an oncogenic protein by providing cancer cells resistance to the hypoxia-induced cell death. PMID:27035851

  8. Aging and mechanical properties of NR/BR blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hsien-Tang; Tsai, Peir-An

    2006-02-01

    The mechanical properties and post-thermal aging properties of natural rubber (NR) and polybutadiene rubber (BR) blends at different blending ratios are investigated herein. The experimental results show that both tensile and tear strengths of NR/BR blends increase with increasing NR content. BR has a higher compression stiffness than NR. The deformation of BR is less than that of NR under the same load conditions. With regard to aging properties, both tensile stress and strain of NR/BR blends decrease after prolonged aging. In addition, the stress loss of BR is lower than that of NR, meaning that the aging resistance property of BR is superior to that of NR. Furthermore, accumulated thermal history has shifted the glass transition temperature (T g) of NR/BR blends toward lower temperatures while the loss tangent (tan δ) value increases with prolonged thermal aging.

  9. BR2 Reactor: Irradiation of Fusion Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In collaboration with the EFDA (European Fusion Development Agreement), SCK-CEN irradiates several materials in the BR2 reactor at different temperatures and up to different doses to study their mechanical and physical properties during and after irradiation. Those materials are candidates for the construction of different parts of the ITER fusion reactor and of the long-term DEMO (DEMOnstration) reactor. The objectives of research performed at SCK-CEN are to irradiate up to 2 dpa RAFM (Reduced Activity Ferritic Martensitic) steels joints and RAFM ODS (Oxide Dispersion Strengthening) at 300 degrees Celsius; to build and test an experimental rig to perform in-situ creep-fatigue tests under neutron irradiation and its out-pile equipment and to design a new irradiation basket to irradiate in BR2 copper/stainless steel joints and RAFM specimens with implanted helium at low dose

  10. Decommissioning of the BR3 PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives, programme and main achievements of SCK-CEN's decommissioning programme in 1997 are summarised. Particular emphasis is on the BR3 decommissioning project. In 1997, auxiliary equipment and loops were dismantled; concrete antimissile slabs were decontaminated; the radiology of the primary loop was modelled; the quality assurance procedure for dismantling loops and equipment were implemented; a method for the dismantling of the reactor pressure vessel was selected; and contaminated thermal insulation of the primary loop containing asbestos was removed

  11. Decommissioning of the BR3 PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dismantling and the decommissioning of nuclear installations at the end of their life-cycle is a new challenge to the nuclear industry. Different techniques and procedures for the dismantling of a nuclear power plant on an existing installation, the BR-3 pressurized-water reactor, are described. The scientific program, objectives, achievements in this research area at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN for 1997 are summarized

  12. SOFC brændselsceller i et intelligent elnet

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelm, Johan

    2015-01-01

    SOFC brændselsceller kan være med til at skabe balance i elnettet i takt med at elproduktionen i stigende grad baseres på sol og vind. Brændselscellerne kan kobles til naturgasnettet og på sigt bruge forskellige former for VE-gasser som brændstof.

  13. BR2 reactor: medical and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotopes are produced for various applications in the nuclear medicine (diagnostic, therapy, palliation of metastatic bone pain), industry (radiography of welds, ...), agriculture (radiotracers, ...) and basic research. Due to the availability of high neutron fluxes (thermal neutron flux up to 1015 n/cm2.s), the BR2 reactor is considered as a major facility through its contribution for a continuous supply of products such 99Mo (99mTc), 131I, 133Xe, 192Ir, 186Re, 153Sm, 90Y, 32P, 188W (188Re), 203Hg, 82Br, 41Ar, 125I, 177Lu,89Sr, 60Co, 169Yb, 147Nd, and others. Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) silicon is produced for the semiconductor industry in the SIDONIE (Silicon Doping by Neutron Irradiation Experiment) facility, which is designed to continuously rotate and traverse the silicon through the neutron flux. These combined movements produce exceptional dopant homogeneity in batches of silicon measuring 4 and 5-inches in diameter by up to 750 mm in length. The main objectives of work performed were to provide a reliable and qualitative supply of radioisotopes and NTD-silicon to the customers in accordance with a quality system that has been certified to the requirements of the EN ISO 9001: 2000. This new Quality System Certificate has been obtained in November 2003 for the Production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial applications and the Production of Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) Silicon in the BR2 reactor

  14. Tropospheric CO vertical profiles deduced from total columns using data assimilation: methodology and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. El Amraoui

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a validation of a method to derive the vertical profile of carbon monoxide (CO from its total column using data assimilation. The main motivation of this study is twofold. First, to deduce both the vertical CO profiles and the assimilated CO fields with good confidence. Second, for chemical species that can be measured only as the total column, this method provides an attractive alternative for estimating their vertical profiles in the troposphere. We choose version 3 (V3 of MOPITT CO total columns to validate the proposed method. MOPITT has the advantage of providing both the vertical profiles and the total columns of CO. Furthermore, this version has been extensively validated by comparison with many independent datasets, and has been used in many scientific studies. The first step of the paper consists in the specification of the observation errors based on the Chi-square (χ2 test. The observations have been binned according to day, night, land and sea (LAND_DAY, LAND_NIGHT and SEA, respectively. The respective optimal observation error values for which the χ2 metric is the closest to 1 are: 7%, 8% and 11% for SEA, LAND_DAY and LAND_NIGHT, respectively. In a second step, the CO total column, with its specified errors, is used within the assimilation system to estimate the vertical profiles. These are validated by comparison with vertical profiles of MOPITT V3 retrievals at global and regional scales. Generally, both datasets show similar patterns and good agreement at both global and regional scales. Nevertheless, the total column analyses (TOTCOL_ANALYSES slightly overestimate CO concentrations compared to MOPITT observations. In a third step, vertical profiles calculated from TOTCOL_ANALYSES have been compared to those calculated from the assimilation of MOPITT V3 vertical profiles (PROFILE_ANALYSES. Both datasets shows very good agreement, but TOTCOL_ANALYSES tend to slightly overestimate CO concentrations. The mean

  15. Fission fragment mass yield deduced from density distribution in the pre-scission configuration

    OpenAIRE

    Warda, M.; Zdeb, A.

    2015-01-01

    Static self-consistent methods usually allow to determine the most probable fission fragments mass asymmetry. We have applied random neck rupture mechanism to the nuclei in the configuration at the end of fission paths. Fission fragment mass distributions have been deduced from the pre-scission nuclear density distribution obtained from the self-consistent calculations. Potential energy surfaces as well as nuclear shapes have been calculated in the fully microscopic theory, namely the constra...

  16. MAGNETIC ANOMALY LINEATION AND FRACTURE ZONE IN ENDERBY BASIN DEDUCED FROM GEOMAGNETIC ANOMALY FIELD VECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    ノギ, ヨシフミ; セアマ, ノブカズ; イセザキ, ノブヒロ; フクダ, ヨウイチ; Yoshifumi, NOGI; Nobukazu, SEAMA; Nobuhiro, ISEZAKI; Yoichi, FUKUDA

    1995-01-01

    The formation of magnetic anomaly lineations and fracture zones in Enderby Basin (10°E-80°E), Southern Indian Ocean, are vital to understanding process of the Gondwana breakup. Vector anomalies of the geomagnetic field were obtained during the 30th, 31st, 32nd, and 33rd Japanese Antarctic Research Expeditions. The strikes of the magnetic anomaly lineations and fracture zones were deduced from vector geomagnetic anomaly field data as well as seasurface and satellite gravity anomalies. We surmi...

  17. Dry storage of the BR3 spent fuel in the Castor BR3 cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooms, L.; Massaut, V.; Noynaert, L. [SCK/CEN, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Braeckeveldt, M. [Niras/Ondraf, B-1210 Brussels (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    Twenty-five years of operation has resulted in an inventory of spent fuel with a wide variety in the BR3 nuclear pilot power plant. Studies were launched to evaluate all possible solutions for the BR3 experimental and 'exotic' spent fuel, i.e. reprocessing, dry storage in containers and dry storage in canisters. For the BR3 spent fuel the interim dry storage in Castor BR3 containers was chosen. The present paper describes in a first part the history and characteristics of the spent fuel. A second part handles with the different options, which were studied for the spent fuel evacuation. The last part focuses on the spent fuel preparation and the production of the Castor BR3. This project allowed the SCK-CEN to build up an important know-how in the field of spent fuel management, especially the management of research reactor fuel, which is very specific and not comparable with spent fuel of commercial nuclear power plants. (author)

  18. Communication: An unusual halogen-bonding motif: the LiBr···BrF dimer as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Sean A C; Joseph, Jerelle A

    2012-11-01

    A stable complex, LiBr···BrF, is predicted in which the negative Br atom of LiBr is anchored to the Br atom of BrF by a halogen bond, while the positively charged Li atom interacts with the lone pair electron density on the Br atom of BrF in a direction roughly perpendicular to the halogen bond. As far as we are aware, this is the first reported instance of an atom of one diatomic molecule (Br of BrF) being bonded to two different, oppositely charged atoms (Li and Br) of another diatomic molecule (LiBr). Other less stable dimers of LiBr and BrF were predicted and compared with this novel complex. PMID:23145710

  19. Thermodynamics of reactions of ClHg and BrHg radicals with atmospherically abundant free radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Dibble

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantum calculations are used to determine the stability of reactive gaseous mercury (Hg(II compounds likely to be formed in the Br-initiated oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0. Due to the absence of any evidence, current models neglect the possible reaction of BrHg• with abundant radicals such as NO, NO2, HO2, ClO, or BrO. The present work demonstrates that BrHg• forms stable compounds, BrHgY, with all of these radicals except NO. Additional calculations on the analogous ClHgY compounds reveal that the strength of the XHg-Y bond (for X=Cl, Br varies little with the identity of the halogen. Calculations further suggest that ClO, BrO, and NO3 do not form strong bonds with Hg(0, and cannot initiate Hg(0 oxidation in the gas phase. The theoretical approach is validated by comparison to published data on HgX2 compounds, both from experiments and highly refined quantum chemical calculations. Quantum calculations on the stability of the anions of XHgY are carried out in order to aid future laboratory studies aimed at molecular-level characterization of gaseous Hg(II compounds. Spectroscopic data on BrHg• are analyzed to determine the equilibrium constant for its formation, and BrHg• is determined to be much less stable than previously estimated. An expression is presented for the rate constant for BrHg• dissociation.

  20. Vaatemerkin brändin vaikutus vaatteiden ostoon

    OpenAIRE

    Orkamaa, Miro

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni aiheena on tutkia, kuinka vaatemerkin brändi vaikuttaa vaatteiden ostamiseen Kemi-Tornion ammattikorkeakoulun opiskelijoiden keskuudessa. Opinnäytetyössäni pohdin kuluttajien ostokäyttäytymistä, itse ostoprosessia sekä brändiä, brändin merkitystä nyky-yhteiskunnassa ja brändikritiikkiä. Otan esimerkkejä brändeistä, jotka liittyvät vaateteollisuuteen ja ovat tunnettuja merkkejä. Tutkimusta varten suoritin kyselyn, jonka tavoitteena oli selvittää, kuinka paljon vaatemerkki j...

  1. A comparative study of LaBr3(Ce3+) and CeBr3 based gamma-ray spectrometers for planetary remote sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, A.; Mitrofanov, I.; Owens, A.; Quarati, F.; Benkhoff, J.; Bakhtin, B.; Fedosov, F.; Golovin, D.; Litvak, M.; Malakhov, A.; Mokrousov, M.; Nuzhdin, I.; Sanin, A.; Tretyakov, V.; Vostrukhin, A.; Timoshenko, G.; Shvetsov, V.; Granja, C.; Slavicek, T.; Pospisil, S.

    2016-08-01

    The recent availability of large volume cerium bromide crystals raises the possibility of substantially improving gamma-ray spectrometer limiting flux sensitivities over current systems based on the lanthanum tri-halides, e.g., lanthanum bromide and lanthanum chloride, especially for remote sensing, low-level counting applications or any type of measurement characterized by poor signal to noise ratios. The Russian Space Research Institute has developed and manufactured a highly sensitive gamma-ray spectrometer for remote sensing observations of the planet Mercury from the Mercury Polar Orbiter (MPO), which forms part of ESA's BepiColombo mission. The Flight Model (FM) gamma-ray spectrometer is based on a 3-in. single crystal of LaBr3(Ce3+) produced in a separate crystal development programme specifically for this mission. During the spectrometers development, manufacturing, and qualification phases, large crystals of CeBr3 became available in a subsequent phase of the same crystal development programme. Consequently, the Flight Spare Model (FSM) gamma-ray spectrometer was retrofitted with a 3-in. CeBr3 crystal and qualified for space. Except for the crystals, the two systems are essentially identical. In this paper, we report on a comparative assessment of the two systems, in terms of their respective spectral properties, as well as their suitability for use in planetary mission with respect to radiation tolerance and their propensity for activation. We also contrast their performance with a Ge detector representative of that flown on MESSENGER and show that: (a) both LaBr3(Ce3+) and CeBr3 provide superior detection systems over HPGe in the context of minimally resourced spacecraft and (b) CeBr3 is a more attractive system than LaBr3(Ce3+) in terms of sensitivities at lower gamma fluxes. Based on the tests, the FM has now been replaced by the FSM on the BepiColombo spacecraft. Thus, CeBr3 now forms the central gamma-ray detection element on the MPO spacecraft.

  2. In situ production of brGDGTs in Lake Lugano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Yuki; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Schubert, Carsten; Simona, Marco; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Niemann, Helge

    2015-04-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are bacterial membrane lipids that commonly occur in soils, as well as in sediments and suspended particulate matter (SPM) of lakes. The distribution of brGDGTs is related with temperature and pH, allowing their use as proxy indicators for the reconstruction of past climatic and environmental conditions. While transfer functions are well-established for brGDGTs derived from soils, still little is known about the links between the composition of aquatically produced brGDGTs and environmental parameters. Also the identity, ecology and carbon substrate of the aquatic source organisms are mostly unknown. We analyzed brGDGTs in the core- and intact polar lipid fractions of SPM from eutrophic Lake Lugano (Switzerland) using an advanced HPLC-MS method, capable of distinguishing between 5 methyl brGDGTs and the recently discovered 6 methyl brGDGT isomers. Our data show large variations in both the concentration and the relative abundances of brGDGTs throughout the water column, with most pronounced compositional changes right at the oxic/anoxic interface: A novel brGDGT isomer, which we discovered recently for the first time in sediments of another Swiss lake (Lake Hinterburg) and which is probably intrinsic to lacustrine environments, occurs exclusively in the anoxic monimolimnion but neither in the oxic mixolimnion nor in catchments soils of Lake Lugano. Furthermore, the brGDGT distribution in the lake's mixolimnion also differs from that in the catchment. This indicates that the brGDGTs present in the water column are dominantly autochthonous and that several distinct brGDGT-producing bacterial communities with different redox requirements can co-exist within the same lake system. Hence, our results provide new insights into the sources and distribution of brGDGTs in lacustrine environments, with important implications for the use of brGDGT-based proxies in paleolimnological studies.

  3. 79BrF和81BrF基态X1∑+光谱性质同位素效应对结构性质的影响%The influences ofmolecule structure fromthe spectrum isotopic effect between 79BrFand 81BrF in the X1Σ+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国跃; 韩彩霞

    2012-01-01

    The dissociation limit of BrF in the X1 Σ+ ground state are analysed with Atomic and Molecular Reaction Statics. The spectrum isotopic effect between "BrF and 81BrF in the X1 Σ+ are analysed with Herzberg's isotopic theory. Based on the analysis, the isotopic influence for the vibration energy levels and the molecular potential energy function as Murrell-Sorbie potential (MS potential) are discussed. The results show that the spectrum isotopic effect between "BrF and "BrF in the X1 Σ+ is a kind of weak effect and are agreement with Herzberg's isotope theory, the deviation of low vibration level between experiment and Herzberg's isotope theory are small, for higher-order force constant f4 and higher-order spread coefficient a3, theoretical and experimental results have clearer differences, but the effect for the potential energy function is not obvious as the spread coefficient a3 is much smaller than ax and a2, the overall impact on the potential energy function is not remarkable.%采用原子分子静力学的基本原理分析了BrF基态X1∑+的离解极限,采用Herzberg同位素理论分析了BrF基态X1∑+光谱数据的同位素效应,并以此为基础,分析了光谱数据的同位素效应对振动能级和分子势能函数(Murrell-Sorbie势即MS势)的影响.结果表明,79BrF和81BrF基态X1∑+的光谱数据的同位素效应是一种弱效应,与Herzberg同位素理论符合得很好,低振动能态的能级对理论预计的偏离很小,高阶力常数f4和高阶展开系数a3与实验结果有较大偏差,但由于a3本身比a1和a2小很多,结果对势能函数整体影响不大.

  4. Influence of methoxy-substituents on the strength of BrBr type II halogen bonds in bromobenzoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffo, Pablo A.; Marcolongo, Juan P.; Funes, Alejandro V.; Slep, Leonardo D.; Baggio, Ricardo F.; Cukiernik, Fabio D.

    2016-03-01

    4-bromo-3,5-di(methoxy)benzoic acid (I) crystallizes in the monoclinic C2/c space group, a = 22.3405 (6) Å, b = 4.85142 (14) Å, c = 18.1583 (5) Å, β = 93.086 (2)°. The crystal structure shows head-to-head dimeric units linked via type II BrBr interactions as well as Br … π and weak H-bonding interactions. The whole structure exhibits features similar to those of the parent 4-bromobenzoic acid (II), most notably the overall geometrical features involved in the BrBr type II interactions. Both structures display comparable C-BrBr angles (θ1 = 98.3 and 91.6° and θ2 = 163.0 and 163.5° for (I) and (II) respectively), but the BrBr distance is significantly shorter in (I) (3.58 Å) than in (II) (3.81 Å). QM computations provide the magnitude of the intermolecular interactions present in both (I) and (II), and allow disclosing the individual covalent and electrostatic contributions to the Br⋯Br halogen bond in terms of interaction energies, electrostatic potentials, and a molecular orbital (MO) analysis.

  5. Randnahe Kopfbolzen im Brückenbau

    OpenAIRE

    Raichle, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Kopfbolzen stellen ein bewährtes und wirtschaftliches Verbindungsmittel zwischen einem Bauteil aus Stahl und einem Bauteil aus Beton dar. Die randnahen Kopfbolzen weisen gegenüber dem häufigen Fall der randfernen Kopfbolzen einen geringen Abstand der Bolzenachse zur Betonoberfläche auf. Dadurch ergibt sich bei randnahen Kopfbolzen gegenüber randfernen Kopfbolzen ein geändertes Trag- und Ermüdungsverhalten der Verbundfuge, das insbesondere in Hinblick auf Ermüdung und damit der Anwendung im Br...

  6. Present status of TCA/BR Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TCA tokamak is being partially reconstructed and reassembled in the Plasma Laboratory of The University of Sao Paulo, and afterwards it will be named TCA/BR. The first discharges are expected by June/July of next year. The main scientific objectives envisaged for the machine are: Alfven wave heating and current drive, confinement improvement, disruptions and turbulence. In this paper we also describe: (i) the present status of the project; (ii) the diagnostic system; (iii) the control and data acquisition system; (iv) the RF system for the excitation of Alfven waves, that are being developed, and also the results of predictive transport simulations of its performance. (author)

  7. R and D on fuzzy control applications to the BR1 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuzzy control applications in nuclear reactor operations present a tremendous challenge. The main reason for this is the public awareness of the risks of nuclear industry and the very strict safety regulations in force for nuclear power plants. The very same regulations prevent a researcher from quickly introducing novel fuzzy-logic methods into this field. On the other hand, the application of fuzzy logic has, despite the ominous sound of the word 'fuzzy' to nuclear engineers, a number of very desirable advantages over classical methods, e.g., its robustness and the capability to include human experience into the controller. In this paper we report an on-going R and D project for controlling the power level of the Belgian Nuclear Reactor 1 (BR1) at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN). The project started in 1995 and aims to investigate the added value of fuzzy control for nuclear reactors. We first review some relevant literature on fuzzy logic control in nuclear reactors, then present the state-of-the-art of the BR1 project. After experimenting fuzzy logic control under off-line tests at the BR1 reactor, we now foresee a new development for a closed-loop fuzzy control as an on-line operation of the BR1 reactor. Finally, we present the new development for a closed-loop fuzzy logic control at BR1 with an understanding of the safety requirements for this real fuzzy logic control application in nuclear rectors. (author)

  8. A2BR adenosine receptor modulates sweet taste in circumvallate taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Kataoka

    Full Text Available In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3 on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate, but not anterior (fungiform, palate taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields.

  9. Supersymmetric WKB Approximation of Anharmonic Potential V(r)=ar2+br-4+cr-6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Shang-Wu; MIAO Chun-Hui; GU Zhi-Yu

    2006-01-01

    This article uses the supersymmetric WKB approximation to obtain the approximate energy levels and wave functions of the anharmonic potential V(r) = ar2 + br-4 + cr-6 in order to tesify the correctness between [Phys.Lett. A 170 (1992) 335] and the paper written by M. Landtman [Phys. Lett. A 175 (1993) 147].

  10. Population Diagnostics of a Hot NaBr Plasma by Detailed Simulation of Absorption Spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Feng-Tao; ZENG Jiao-Long; YUAN Jian-Min

    2006-01-01

    @@ The experimental absorption spectra of a hot NaBr plasma are theoretically studied by using a detailed level accounting model The sodium and bromine absorption spectra have been well reproduced respectively in the approach of local thermodynamic equilibrium, in which the populations between and within ions are obtained by solving the Saha-Boltzmann equation.

  11. Ab Initio Calculations on Halogen Bond Between N-Br and Electron-donating Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-hua; CHEN Xue-song; ZOU Jian-wei; YU Qing-sen

    2007-01-01

    Ab initio calculations of complexes formed between N-bromosuccinimide and a series of electron-donating groups were performed at the level of MP2/Lanl2DZ* to gain a deeper insight into the nature of the N-Br halogen stronger halogen-bonding complex than the C-Br. A comparison of neutral hydrogen bond complex series reveals that the electron-donating capacities of the atoms decrease in the order, N>O>S; O(sp3)>O(sp2), which is adequate for the C-Br halogen bonding. Interaction energies, in conjunction with the geometrical parameters show that the affinitive capacity of trihalide anions X-3 with N-bromosuccinimide are markedly lower than that of the corresponding X- with N-bromosuccinimide, even lower than those of neutral molecules with N-bromosuccinimide. AIM analyses further confirmed the above results.

  12. Genetic analysis of the br gene in halophilic archaea isolated from Xinjiang region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohong XU; Min WU; Huibin ZHANG; Zhihu LIU

    2008-01-01

    Some novel members of extremely halophilic archaea, strains AJ 11, AJ 12 and AJ 13, were isolated from the Aularz Lake located in the Altun Mountain National Nature Reserve of Xinjiang, Uygur Autonomous Region in China. Partial DNA fragments encoding a bacteriorho-dopsin (BR), as well as for 16S rRNA of isolated strains, were amplified by PCR and their DNA sequences were determined subsequently. On the basis of homology and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA, we thought that the isolated strains forming a microbiological population are the members of the genus Natrinema. The results of genetic analysis, such as GC content, transition/transver-sion (Ti/Tv) rate ratios and synonymous substitution rates (Ks) indicate that the br fragments, with a high level of genetic divergence, are faced with both purifying selection and bias mutation pressure. The study provides the basis for use of species and BR proteins resources.

  13. Functional analysis of three BrMYB28 transcription factors controlling the biosynthesis of glucosinolates in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Mi-Suk; Jin, Mina; Chun, Jin-Hyuk; Kim, Sun-Ju; Park, Beom-Seok; Shon, Seong-Han; Kim, Jung Sun

    2016-03-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) are secondary metabolites that have anticarcinogenic activity and play defense roles in plants of the Brassicaceae family. MYB28 is known as a transcription factor that regulates aliphatic GSL biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Brassicaceae plants have three orthologous copies of AtMYB28 derived from recent genome triplication. These BrMYB28 genes have a high level of sequence homology, with 81-87% similarities in the coding DNA sequence compared to Arabidopsis. Overexpression of three paralogous BrMYB28 genes in transgenic Chinese cabbage increased the total GSL content in all T1 generation plants and in two inbred lines of homozygous T2 plants. The highest total GSL contents were detected in homozygous T2 lines overexpressing BrMYB28.1, which showed an approximate fivefold increase compared to that of nontransgenic plants. The homozygous T2 lines with overexpressed BrMYB28.1 also showed an increased content of aliphatic, indolic, and aromatic GSLs compared to that of nontransgenic plants. Furthermore, all of the three BrMYB28 genes were identified as negative regulators of BrAOP2 and positive regulators of BrGSL-OH in the homozygous T2 lines. These data indicate the regulatory mechanism of GSL biosynthesis in B. rapa is unlike that in A. thaliana. Our results will provide useful information for elucidating the regulatory mechanism of GSL biosynthesis in polyploid plants. PMID:26820138

  14. Ozone Depletion Potential of CH3Br. Appendix H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Sze, Nien Dak; Scott, Courtney; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Sander, Stanley P.

    1998-01-01

    The ozone depletion potential (ODP) of methyl bromide (CH3Br) can be determined by combining the model-calculated bromine efficiency factor (BEF) for CH3Br and its atmospheric lifetime. This paper examines how changes in several key kinetic data affect BEF. The key reactions highlighted in this study include the reaction of BrO + HO2, the absorption cross section of HOBr, the absorption cross section and the photolysis products of BrONO2, and the heterogeneous conversion of BrONO2 to HOBr and HNO3 on aerosol particles. By combining the calculated BEF with the latest estimate of 0.7 year for the atmospheric lifetime of CH3Br, the likely value of ODP for CH3Br is 0.39. The model-calculated concentration of HBr (approx. 0.3 pptv) in the lower stratosphere is substantially smaller than the reported measured value of about 1 pptv. Recent publications suggested models can reproduce the measured value if one assumes a yield for HBr from the reaction of BrO + OH or from the reaction of BrO + HO2. Although the evaluation concluded any substantial yield of HBr from BrO + HO2 is unlikely, for completeness, we calculate the effects of these assumed yields on BEF for CH3Br. Our calculations show that the effects are minimal: practically no impact for an assumed 1.3% yield of HBr from BrO + OH and 10% smaller for an assumed 0.6% yield from BrO + HO2.

  15. BR2 reactor: medical and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotopes are produced for various applications in the nuclear medicine (diagnostic, therapy, palliation of metastatic bone pain), industry (radiography of welds ...), agriculture (radiotracers ...) and basic research. Due to the availability of high neutron fluxes (thermal neutron flux up to 1015 n/cm2.s), the BR2 reactor is considered as a major facility through its contribution for a continuous supply of products such as 99Mo (99mTc), 131I, 133Xe, 192Ir, 186Re, 90Sm, 131Y, 32P, 188W (188Re), 203Hg, 82Br, 41Ar, 125I, 177Lu, 89Sr, 60Co, 169Yb, 147Nd, ... Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) silicon is produced for the semiconductor industry in the SIDONIE (Silicon Doping by Neutron Irradiation Experiment) facility, which is designed to continuously rotate and traverse the silicon through the neutron flux. These combined movements produce exceptional dopant homogeneity in batches of silicon measuring 4 and 5-inches in diameter by up to 750 mm in length

  16. Brändi ja sen kehittäminen : Bränditutkimus ja brändinkehittämisehdotuksia kauppakeskus Elolle

    OpenAIRE

    Kumanto, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Tämä työn tarkoituksena oli tutkia kauppakeskus Elon asiakkaiden brändimielikuvaa Elosta ja vastauksien perusteella koota brändinkehittämisehdotuksia. Tavoitteena on käyttää näitä tuloksia lisäämään kauppakeskus Elon johdon tietoa Elon brändistä heidän asiakkaiden näkökulmasta. Lisäksi tavoitteena on auttaa tämän tiedon ja työn sisältämien brändikehittämisehdotuksien pohjalta kehittämään Elon brändiä ja näin saada houkuteltua lisää asiakkaita kauppakeskukseen. Johdannossa esitellään kaup...

  17. Prevalência de asma brônquica e de sintomas a ela relacionados em escolares do Distrito Federal e sua relação com o nível socioeconômico Prevalence of bronchial asthma and related symptoms in schoolchildren in the Federal District of Brazil: correlations with socioeconomic levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Brangeli Maia Felizola

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de asma e sintomas a ela relacionados no Distrito Federal e sua relação com o nível socioeconômico, utilizando o questionário escrito do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 6.437 crianças, em escolas públicas e particulares, divididas em: 3.183 crianças de seis a sete anos e 3.254 de treze a catorze anos. Os dados foram analisados por sexo e grupo socioeconômico (teste do qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: A prevalência encontrada de asma brônquica no Distrito Federal foi de 12,1% e 13,8% nas faixas etárias de seis a sete anos e treze a catorze anos, respectivamente (p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the asthma prevalence in the Federal District of Brazil, using the questionnaire developed for the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood to look for correlations with socioeconomic levels. METHODS: A total of 6437 children (3183 from six to seven years old and 3254 from thirteen to fourteen years old, attending public or private schools, were evaluated. The data were analyzed by gender and socioeconomic status (chi-square test. RESULTS: The prevalence of asthma in the Federal District was 12.1% among the six- and seven-year-olds and 13.8% among the thirteen- and fourteen-year-olds (p < 0.04. In the six-to-seven age bracket, asthma prevalence was significantly greater, and asthma-related symptoms were more frequent, among males (p < 0.001. In contrast, asthma-related symptoms were more frequent among females in the thirteen-to-fourteen age bracket (p < 0.05. Children belonging to the lowest socioeconomic class, as determined by the responses given on the questionnaire completed by the parents, presented the highest prevalence of asthma, regardless of age bracket (p < 0.001. Among such children, asthma-related symptoms were also more frequent (p < 0.05. In the thirteen-to-fourteen age bracket, the prevalence of asthma was greater among those belonging to the

  18. Thick-target yields of radioactive targets deduced from inverse kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thick-target yield (TTY) is a macroscopic quantity reflected by nuclear reactions and matter properties of targets. In order to evaluate TTYs on radioactive targets, we suggest a conversion method from inverse kinematics corresponding to the reaction of radioactive beams on stable targets. The method to deduce the TTY is theoretically derived from inverse kinematics. We apply the method to the natCu(12C,X)24Na reaction to confirm availability. In addition, it is applied to the 137Cs + 12C reaction as an example of a radioactive system and discussed a conversion coefficient of a TTY measurement

  19. Intrinsic neutrino properties: As deduced from cosmology, astrophysics, accelerator and non-accelerator experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I review the intrinsic properties of neutrinos as deduced from cosmological, astrophysical, and laboratory experiments. Bounds on magnetic moments and theoretical models which yield large moments but small masses are briefly discussed. The MSW solution to the solar neutrino problem is reviewed in light of the existing data from the 37Cl and Kamiokande II experiments. The combined data disfavor the adiabatic solution and tend to support either the large angle solution or the nonadiabatic one. In the former case the 71Ga signal will be suppressed by the same factor as for 37Cl, and in the latter case the suppression factor could be as large as 10 or more. 41 refs

  20. ISO Observations of the dusty quasar BR1202-0725

    CERN Document Server

    Leech, K J; Metcalfe, L

    2001-01-01

    We present mid- and far-IR photometry of the high-redshift (z=4.69) dusty quasar BR1202-0725. The quasar was detected in the near-IR, at a flux level (0.7+/-0.2 mJy) consistent with an average Radio-Quiet Quasar at it's redshift. Only upper limits for the emission were obtained in the far-IR. These upper limits, when combined with data from ground-based telescopes, are the first direct evidence for a turn-over in the far-IR emission and hence confirm that a black-body dominates the SED at FIR wavelengths. This black-body is most probably cool dust, constrained to have a temperature below 80K, for a beta of 1.5.

  1. Brändi mielikuvien luojana : Case:IKU

    OpenAIRE

    Perkiö, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Brändi terminä on yleistynyt puhekielessä viimeisten vuosikymmenien aikana. Brändiä käytetään kuvaamaan esineitä, asioita, yrityksiä, ihmisiä tai ideologiaa. Tässä opinnäytetyössä perehdyttiin brändiin ilmiönä, brändin luomiseen sekä sen erottumiseen kilpailijoistaan. Opinnäytetyössä tarkasteltiin brändiä työkaluna uuden artistin esille tuomisessa kohderyhmälleen sekä suurelle yleisölle. Vaikka brändi termiä käytetään hyvin laajasti puhekielessä, se usein liitetään virheellisesti johonkin...

  2. Yrityksen brändi-imago ja -identiteetti

    OpenAIRE

    Anttonen, Jaakko

    2008-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee brändiä, brändi-imagoa ja -identiteettiä. Opinnäytetyö tehtiin Viikko-Häme Oy:n toimeksiantona. Opinnäytetyön tutkimusongelma oli selvittää, millaisia sanomalehti Viikko-Hämeen tämänhetkiset brändi-imago ja brändi-identiteetti ovat ja miten niitä voisi kehittää. Brändi on yritys, tuote tai palvelu, jolla on jonkinlaista lisäarvoa kuluttajalle, minkä vuoksi se erottuu edukseen markkinoilla. Vahva ja tunnettu brändi herättää kuluttajassa luottamusta ja on näin lupau...

  3. SOFC brændselsceller i et intelligent elnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelm, Johan

    2015-01-01

    SOFC brændselsceller kan være med til at skabe balance i elnettet i takt med at elproduktionen i stigende grad baseres på sol og vind. Brændselscellerne kan kobles til naturgasnettet og på sigt bruge forskellige former for VE-gasser som brændstof.......SOFC brændselsceller kan være med til at skabe balance i elnettet i takt med at elproduktionen i stigende grad baseres på sol og vind. Brændselscellerne kan kobles til naturgasnettet og på sigt bruge forskellige former for VE-gasser som brændstof....

  4. Corrosion inhibition performance of a ionic liquid surfactant Br

    OpenAIRE

    Jing LIU; Dishun ZHAO; LIU, RAN; Wang, Ming; Peibing REN

    2016-01-01

    In order to study the novel green organic mercury-substituting inhibitors, the ionic liquid surfactant 1-methyl-3-dodecyl imidazole bromide ( Br) is synthesized with N-methyl imidazole and 1-bromodecane as raw materials. The corrosion inhibition of Br for zinc in zinc-manganese batteries is investigated using electrochemical methods and weight loss methods. The results show that corrosion inhibition efficiency increases with the increase of the concentration of Br, and when the concentration ...

  5. Brüssel Euroopa pealinnaks? / Ülar Mark

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mark, Ülar, 1968-

    2009-01-01

    Brüsseli Euroopa kvartali planeerimisvõistlusest, mille peakorraldaja oli Brüsseli pealinna piirkond koos Brüsseli linna ja Euroopa Komisjoniga. Eestist osales žüriis arhitekt Ülar Mark. Meeskonna Atelier Christian de Portzamparc võidutööst ja teiste teise vooru pääsenud nelja meeskonna (JDS / Julien De Smedt Architects, OMA / Office for Metropolitan Architecture, Xaveer De Geyter Architect, Fletcher Priest Architects) töödest

  6. Role of Rom protein in copy number control of plasmid pBR322 at different growth rates in Escherichia coli K-12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tove, Atlung; Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Hansen, Flemming G.

    1999-01-01

    The copy number per cell mass of plasmid pBR322 and a rom(-) derivative was measured as a function of generation time. In fast growing cells the copy number per cell mass was virtually identical for rom(+) and rom(-) derivatives. However, the copy number of pBR322 only increased 3- to 4-fold from...... itself, respectively, at fast and slow growth. We conclude that the rom gene product-the Rom protein-is an important element in copy number control of Co1E1-type plasmids especially in slowly growing cells. (C) 1999 Academic Press.......The copy number per cell mass of plasmid pBR322 and a rom(-) derivative was measured as a function of generation time. In fast growing cells the copy number per cell mass was virtually identical for rom(+) and rom(-) derivatives. However, the copy number of pBR322 only increased 3- to 4-fold from a...... effect on the copy number of pBR322 rom(-) at fast growth, but it decreased its copy number at slow growth to the same level as found for pBR322, i.e., complemented the pBR322 rom(-) plasmid. The pACYC184 plasmid and its rom(+) derivatives showed copy numbers similar to those of pBR322 rom(-) and pBR322...

  7. Brändin rakentaminen : case Dressing Mimia

    OpenAIRE

    Rinne, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö käsittelee sitä miten brändi rakennetaan ja mistä elementeistä brändikuva muodostuu. Tutkimuskohteena oli Dressing Mimia -tapahtuman brändikuva. Dressing Mimia -tapahtuma on poikkitaiteellinen muotinäytös ja cocktailtilaisuus, joka järjestetään kerran vuodessa Turussa. Työn tavoitteena oli selvittää millaisia mielikuvia tapahtuman asiakkailla on tapahtumasta sekä saada taustatietoa tapahtumassa kävijöistä. Tulosten perusteella voidaan kehittää Dressing Mimian brändiarvoa ja koota...

  8. Brändin kirkastaminen - esimerkki Aleksanterin teatteri

    OpenAIRE

    Lautamo, Jussi

    2011-01-01

    Laurea-ammattikorkeakoulu Tiivistelmä Laurea Leppävaara Palvelujen tuottaminen ja johtaminen Lautamo, Jussi Brändin kirkastaminen – esimerkki Aleksanterin teatteri Vuosi 2011 Sivumäärä 57 Yrityksen brändi ja sen rakentaminen ovat tänä päivänä asioita, joita menestyvä yritys ei voi jättää huomioimatta. Yrityksen brändin määritteleminen ja sen esiintuominen voivat olla ratkaisevia asioita yrityksen menestyksen kannalta. Brändinsä kautta yritys edustaa itseään markki...

  9. BrO measurements over the Eastern North-Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work presented here was to detect BrO in the marine boundary layer over the Eastern North-Atlantic by Multi AXis-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS of scattered sunlight. With this technique, information about the concentration and the vertical profile of trace gases in the atmosphere can be gained. BrO can be formed in the marine atmosphere by degradation of biogenic organohalogens or by oxidation of bromide in sea salt aerosol. BrO influences the chemistry in marine air in many was, e.g. since it catalytically destroys ozone, changes the NO2/NO-ratio as well as the OH/HO2-ratio and oxidises DMS. However, the abundance and the significance of BrO in the marine atmosphere are not yet fully understood. <br>> We report on data collected during a ship cruise, which took place along the West African Coast in February 2007, within the framework of the Surface Ocean PRocesses in the ANthropocene project (SOPRAN. Tropospheric BrO could be detected during this cruise at peak mixing ratios of (10.2±3.7 ppt at an assumed layer height of 1 km on 18 February 2007. Furthermore, it was found that the mean BrO concentrations increased when cruising close to the African Coast suggesting that at least part of the BrO might have originated from the African coast.

  10. BrO measurements over the Eastern North-Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Platt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work presented here was to detect BrO in the marine boundary layer over the Eastern North-Atlantic by Multi AXis-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS of scattered sunlight. With this technique, information about the concentration and the vertical profile of trace gases in the atmosphere can be gained. BrO can be formed in the marine atmosphere by degradation of biogenic organohalogens or by oxidation of bromide in sea salt aerosol. BrO influences the chemistry in marine air in many ways, e.g. since it catalytically destroys ozone, changes the NO2/NO-ratio as well as the OH/HO2-ratio and oxidises DMS. However, the abundance and the significance of BrO in the marine atmosphere is not yet fully understood. <br>> We report on data collected during a ship cruise, which took place along the West African Coast in February 2007, within the framework of the Surface Ocean PRocesses in the ANthropocene project (SOPRAN. Tropospheric BrO could be detected during this cruise at peak mixing ratios of (10.2±3.7 ppt at an assumed layer height of 1 km on 18 February 2007. Furthermore, it was found that the mean BrO concentrations increased when cruising close to the African Coast suggesting that at least part of the BrO might have originated from there.

  11. Kvinnors upplevelser av att leva med bröstcancer

    OpenAIRE

    Music, Sanela

    2010-01-01

    Bakgrund: Bröstcancer utgör en tredjedel av all cancer som kvinnor drabbas av. Tidigare studier indikerar att kvinnor upplever mycket starka känslor kring sjukdomen bröstcancer och att de har drabbats av den. Tanken av att förlora ett bröst är en av punkterna som bringar mycket ångest och lidande. Syfte: Syftet med studien är att belysa kvinnors upplevelser av att leva med bröstcancer. Metod: En litteraturstudie med självbiografiska böcker har utförts. Studiens syfte har besvarats genom att t...

  12. MTR fuel testing in BR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New fuel design for MTR 's requires to be qualified under representative conditions, that is geometry, neutron spectrum, heat flux and thermo hydraulic conditions. An irradiation device for fuel plates has been designed to derive the maximum benefit from the BR2 irradiation capacities. The fuel plates can be easily extracted from their support during a shutdown to undergo additional tests. One of these tests is the measurement of the thickness changes along the fuel plate. To that purpose, a facility in the reactor water pool has been designed to measure the fuel swelling with an accuracy of 5 μm using inductive probes. At SCK-CEN, the full range of destructive and non-destructive PIE can be performed, including γ-scanning, wet sipping, surface examination and other methods. (author)

  13. BR-100 spent fuel shipping cask development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continued public acceptance of commercial nuclear power is contingent to a large degree on the US Department of Energy (DOE) establishing an integrated waste management system for spent nuclear fuel. As part of the from-reactor transportation segment of this system, the B ampersand W Fuel Company (BWFC) is under contract to the DOE to develop a spent-fuel cask that is compatible with both rail and barge modes of transportation. Innovative design approaches were the keys to achieving a cask design that maximizes payload capacity and cask performance. The result is the BR-100, a 100-ton rail/barge cask with a capacity of 21 PWR or 52 BWR ten-year cooled, intact fuel assemblies. 3 figs

  14. Yrityksen brändin kehittäminen : Medbit Oy:n brändiuudistus

    OpenAIRE

    Salminen, Valtteri

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö tehtiin toimeksiantona ICT-alalla toimivalle Medbit Oy:lle. Yritys teki brändiuudistuksen vuoden 2015 alkupuolella ja halusi selvittää, miten asiakkaat, yhteistyökumppanit ja henkilökunta ovat ottaneet uudistuksen vastaan. Opinnäytetyössä perehdyttiin bränditutkimuksen lisäksi tutkimuksen kannalta olennaisiin aiheisiin brändin teoriasta. Brändiä käsittelevän tietoperustan avulla selvitettiin, mitä brändillä tarkoitetaan, millainen on hyvä brändi ja mitä hyötyjä siitä on yrityksel...

  15. Theoretical Study of Decomposition Pathways for Rare-gas-containing Compounds HRgX (Rg = He, Ne, Ar, Kr; X = Cl, Br)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Chun-Zhi; SUN Ren-An; YAN Jie

    2005-01-01

    Eight species, HRgX (Rg = He, Ne, Ar, Kr; X = Cl, Br), are predicted to have bending transition states at B3PW91/AUG-cc-PVTZ level, leading to 2-body decomposition pathway like . The reaction path has been obtained with Intricate Reaction Coordinates (IRC) method on identical theoretical level. Additionally, the linear transition states of HArCl, HArBr, HKrCl and HKrBr were obtained at MP2/6-311++G (2d, 2p) level, resulting in 3-body dissociation channel as.

  16. Variations of the BrO/SO2 molar ratios during the 2015 Cotopaxi eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinger, Florian; Arellano, Santiago; Battaglia, Jean; Bobrowski, Nicole; Galle, Bo; Hernandez, Stephen; Hidalgo, Silvana; Hörmann, Christoph; Lübcke, Peter; Platt, Ulrich; Ruiz, Mario; Warnach, Simon; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Cotopaxi volcano is located 50 km south of Quito, the capital of Ecuador. In case of a large eruption producing lahars, these may cause damage to the inhabited areas located to the south and north of the volcano and to the local water supply and other infrastructure. After almost 140 years of relative quiescence, increasing activity is observed in seismicity and gas emissions since May 2015. During August 2015 ash and gas emissions are recorded. Cotopaxi volcano is part of the Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change (NOVAC) since 2009, thus the observations include the overall eruptive activity onset and its evolution. NOVAC regularly monitors the SO2 emissions of more than 30 volcanoes using scanning UV-spectrometers. Today, monitoring of volcanic SO2 emissions by UV-spectrometers is a widespread tool but its interpretation can be improved by additionally recording halogen/sulphur emission ratios. Recently, it has been shown that spectra from NOVAC instruments can also be used to retrieve the BrO/SO2 molar ratio by applying Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). We apply this new technique to analyse the plume composition of Cotopaxi volcano and will present time series of the BrO/SO2 ratios as monitored by the ground-based NOVAC instruments since March 2015. The SO2 column densities were below 6\\cdot1016 molec/cm^2 prior to May 2015 and up to 1.5\\cdot1018 molec/cm^2 between May and August 2015. For these periods, the BrO column densities were below the detection limit of 3\\cdot1013 molec/cm^2. After the phreatic explosions on 14.08.2015, SO2 column densities of up to 3\\cdot1018 molec/cm^2 and BrO column densities of up to 5\\cdot1014 molec/cm^2 were observed. Until December 2015 these SO2 column densities kept at about the same level but the BrO column densities increased up to 3\\cdot1014 molec/cm^2. After the phreatic explosions we find a detectable signal of BrO. Soon after the eruption the BrO/SO2 molar ratio was low as 1

  17. Dry storage of the BR3 spent fuel in the CASTOR BR3 cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BR3 reactor was the first PWR plant installed in Europe. Started in 1962, BR3 was definitely shut down on June 30th, 1987. Used at the beginning of its life as a training device for commercial plant operators, it was also used during its whole life as test-reactor for new fuel types and assemblies. Most of the spent fuel was stored in the deactivation pool of the plant for more than 15 years. The reactor being now in decommissioning, it was decided to remove the spent fuel from the plant. After comparison of different solutions, the long term storage in dual purpose storage casks was selected in 1997. The selected CASTOR-BR3 cask is designed as a transport and storage cask for accommodating 30 spent fuel assemblies. As a type B(U) cask fitted with shock absorbers, it meets the transport requirements according to the IAEA guidelines and fulfils also the conditions for cask storage. (author)

  18. ESR spectrum and structure of BrF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BrF6 radical has been obtained by γ irradiation of a mixture of BrF5 in SF6. The ESR spectrum was obtained and used to confirm the identity of the radical and to obtain hyperfine coupling constants. (AIP)

  19. Fission fragment mass yield deduced from density distribution in the pre-scission configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Warda, M

    2015-01-01

    Static self-consistent methods usually allow to determine the most probable fission fragments mass asymmetry. We have applied random neck rupture mechanism to the nuclei in the configuration at the end of fission paths. Fission fragment mass distributions have been deduced from the pre-scission nuclear density distribution obtained from the self-consistent calculations. Potential energy surfaces as well as nuclear shapes have been calculated in the fully microscopic theory, namely the constrained Hartree-Fock-Bogolubov model with the effective Gogny D1S density-dependent interaction. The method has been applied for analysis of fission of Fm-256,258, Cf-252 and Hg-180 and compared with the experimental data.

  20. Fission fragment mass yield deduced from density distribution in the pre-scission configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warda, M.; Zdeb, A.

    2015-11-01

    Static self-consistent methods usually allow one to determine the most probable fission fragments mass asymmetry. We have applied random neck rupture mechanism to the nuclei in the configuration at the end of fission paths. Fission fragment mass distributions have been deduced from the pre-scission nuclear density distribution obtained from the self-consistent calculations. Potential energy surfaces as well as nuclear shapes have been calculated in the fully microscopic theory, namely the constrained Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model with the effective Gogny D1S density-dependent interaction. The method has been applied for analysis of fission of {}{256,258}Fm, 252Cf and 180Hg and compared with the experimental data.

  1. Behaviour of the Pleistocene marsupial lion deduced from claw marks in a southwestern Australian cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arman, Samuel D.; Prideaux, Gavin J.

    2016-01-01

    The marsupial lion, Thylacoleo carnifex, was the largest-ever marsupial carnivore, and is one of the most iconic extinct Australian vertebrates. With a highly-specialised dentition, powerful forelimbs and a robust build, its overall morphology is not approached by any other mammal. However, despite >150 years of attention, fundamental aspects of its biology remain unresolved. Here we analyse an assemblage of claw marks preserved on surfaces in a cave and deduce that they were generated by marsupial lions. The distribution and skewed size range of claw marks within the cave elucidate two key aspects of marsupial lion biology: they were excellent climbers and reared young in caves. Scrutiny of >10,000 co-located Pleistocene bones reveals few if any marsupial lion tooth marks, which dovetails with the morphology-based interpretation of the species as a flesh specialist. PMID:26876952

  2. Deducing ink thickness variations of fluorescent print by a spectral prediction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingjuan; Zhang, Yixin; Tian, Dongwen

    2012-01-01

    In the color printing process, the thickness and uniformity of ink have a great affect on the color reproduction. The ink thickness uniformity is an important parameters of measuring the quality of printing. Based on the fluorescent additives may absorb ultraviolet light and exit blue light or visible light and by considering the expansion of the ink, optical properties of paper with fluorescent additives , the internal lateral spread of light in paper with fluorescent additives and the fluorescent Clapper-Yule spectral reflectance prediction model, we introduce two factor parameters which are the initial thickness of the inks and the factor of ink thickness variation. A model for deducing ink thickness variations of printing on the fluorescent substrate is developed by the least square method and the spectrum reflectance of prints which measures the ink thickness variations. The correctness of the conclusions are verified by experiment.

  3. Theoretical model to deduce a PDF with a power law tail using Extreme Physical Information

    CERN Document Server

    Bonilla, Ricardo; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    The theory of Extreme Physical Information (EPI) is used to deduce a probability density function (PDF) of a system that exhibits a power law tail. The computed PDF is useful to study and fit several observed distributions in complex systems. This new approach permits to describe extreme and rare events in the tail, and also the frequent events in the distribution head. Using EPI an information functional is constructed, and minimized using Euler-Lagrange equations. As a solution a second order differential equation is derived. By solving this equation a family of functions is calculated. These functions allow describing the system in terms of a eigenstates. A dissipative term is introduced into the model, as a relevant term to study open systems. One of the main results is a mathematical relation between the scaling parameter of the power law observed in the tail and the shape of the head.

  4. Behaviour of the Pleistocene marsupial lion deduced from claw marks in a southwestern Australian cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arman, Samuel D; Prideaux, Gavin J

    2016-01-01

    The marsupial lion, Thylacoleo carnifex, was the largest-ever marsupial carnivore, and is one of the most iconic extinct Australian vertebrates. With a highly-specialised dentition, powerful forelimbs and a robust build, its overall morphology is not approached by any other mammal. However, despite >150 years of attention, fundamental aspects of its biology remain unresolved. Here we analyse an assemblage of claw marks preserved on surfaces in a cave and deduce that they were generated by marsupial lions. The distribution and skewed size range of claw marks within the cave elucidate two key aspects of marsupial lion biology: they were excellent climbers and reared young in caves. Scrutiny of >10,000 co-located Pleistocene bones reveals few if any marsupial lion tooth marks, which dovetails with the morphology-based interpretation of the species as a flesh specialist. PMID:26876952

  5. Atmospheric phenomena deduced from radiosonde and GPS occultation measurements for various application related studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C J Johny; S K Sarkar; D Punyasesudu

    2009-02-01

    The tropopause height and tropopause temperature are sensitive to temperature changes in troposphere and stratosphere. These are the measures of global climatic variability. Atmospheric profiles of temperature, refractivity and water vapour are always needed for communication, navigation and atmospheric modeling studies. The tropopause characteristics over the Indian region have been studied using radio occultation measurements (CHAMP) on the basis of cold point criterion. Tropopause height shows large variation in the latitude range ∼30° –40°N during winter. Tropopause temperature less than −82°C, assumed to facilitate troposphere to stratosphere air transport, is observed at a number of tropical Indian locations and no seasonal pattern is observed in its occurrence. The bias in temperature and refractivity deduced from radiosonde and radio occultation measurements is also presented.

  6. The work function of n-ZnO deduced from heterojunctions with Si prepared by ALD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quemener, V.; Alnes, M.; Vines, L.; Rauwel, P.; Nilsen, O.; Fjellvåg, H.; Monakhov, E. V.; Svensson, B. G.

    2012-08-01

    Highly doped n-type ZnO films have been grown on n-type and p-type Si substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Transmission electron microscopy shows columnar growth of the ZnO films with randomly oriented grains and a very thin interfacial layer of SiOx(x ⩽ 2) with a thickness below 0.4 nm to the Si substrate. Current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements performed at temperatures from 50 to 300 K reveal a strong rectifying behaviour on both types of substrates with an ideality factor close to unity between 180 and 280 K. Using the classical approach of thermionic emission, the barrier heights of the ZnO/n-Si and ZnO/p-Si junctions have been deduced and consistent values are obtained yielding a work function of n-type ZnO close to 4.65 eV.

  7. Thick-target yields of radioactive targets deduced from inverse kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Aikawa, Masayuki; Imai, Shotaro

    2014-01-01

    The thick-target yield (TTY) of long-lived fission products (LLFP) is an essential quantity and represents basic data for transmutation. In order to evaluate TTY on radioactive targets including LLFP, we suggest a conversion method from inverse kinematics corresponding to the reaction of radioactive beams on stable targets. We demonstrate the method to deduce the TTY from inverse kinematics derived from the theoretical definition. This method is highly applicable in reactions at the energy per nucleon \\epsilon > 20 MeV/A as practically confirmed by the simulation of the SRIM2008 code. In this paper, we apply the method to the natCu(12C,X)24Na reaction to confirm availability. In addition, it is applied to the 137Cs + 12C reaction to reduce 137Cs and to suggest a TTY measurement of the 137Cs induced reaction on a thick 12C target.

  8. Vortex magnetic structure in circularly magnetized microwires as deduced from magneto-optical Kerr measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2014-02-14

    The magneto-optic Kerr effect has been employed to determine the magnetization process and estimate the domain structure of microwires with circular magnetic anisotropy. The diameter of microwires was 8 μm, and pieces 2 cm long were selected for measurements. The analysis of the local surface longitudinal and transverse hysteresis loops has allowed us to deduce a vortex magnetic structure with axial core and circular external shell. Moreover, a bamboo-like surface domain structure is confirmed with wave length of around 10 to 15 μm and alternating chirality in adjacent circular domains. The width of the domain wall is estimated to be less than 3 μm. Finally, closure domain structures with significant helical magnetization component are observed extending up to around 1000 μm from the end of the microwire.

  9. Corrosion inhibition performance of a ionic liquid surfactant Br

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing LIU

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the novel green organic mercury-substituting inhibitors, the ionic liquid surfactant 1-methyl-3-dodecyl imidazole bromide ( Br is synthesized with N-methyl imidazole and 1-bromodecane as raw materials. The corrosion inhibition of Br for zinc in zinc-manganese batteries is investigated using electrochemical methods and weight loss methods. The results show that corrosion inhibition efficiency increases with the increase of the concentration of Br, and when the concentration is higher than 8×10-3 mol/L, the inhibition efficiency tends to be stable. The polarization curve shows that Br belongs to mixed-type corrosion inhibitor. The thermodynamic parameters show that Br is spontaneously adsorbed on the zinc surface, forming a monomolecular adsorption layer, which fits with Langmuir adsorption isotherm with physical and chemical adsorption mechanism.

  10. Core-to-valence spectroscopic detection of the CH{sub 2}Br radical and element-specific femtosecond photodissociation dynamics of CH{sub 2}IBr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attar, Andrew R.; Piticco, Lorena [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Leone, Stephen R. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-10-28

    Element-specific single photon photodissociation dynamics of CH{sub 2}IBr and core-to-valence absorption spectroscopy of CH{sub 2}Br radicals are investigated using femtosecond high-harmonic extreme ultraviolet (XUV) transient absorption spectroscopy. Photodissociation of CH{sub 2}IBr along both the C–I or C–Br reaction coordinates is observed in real-time following excitation at 266 nm. At this wavelength, C–I dissociation is the dominant reaction channel and C–Br dissociation is observed as a minor pathway. Both photodissociation pathways are probed simultaneously through individual 4d(I) N{sub 4/5} and 3d(Br) M{sub 4/5} core-to-valence transitions. The 3d(Br) M{sub 4/5} pre-edge absorption spectrum of the CH{sub 2}Br radical photoproduct corresponding to the C–I dissociation channel is characterized for the first time. Although the radical's singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) is mostly localized on the central carbon atom, the 3d(Br) → π{sup *}(SOMO) resonances at 68.5 eV and 69.5 eV are detected 2 eV below the parent molecule 3d(Br) → σ{sup *}(LUMO) transitions. Core-to-valence XUV absorption spectroscopy provides a unique probe of the local electronic structure of the radical species in reference to the Br reporter atom. The measured times for C–I dissociation leading to I and I{sup *} atomic products are 48 ± 12 fs and 44 ± 4 fs, respectively, while the measured C–Br dissociation time leading to atomic Br is 114 ± 17 fs. The investigation performed here demonstrates the capability of femtosecond time-resolved core-level spectroscopy utilizing multiple reporter atoms simultaneously.

  11. Initial clinical evaluation of radiolabeled MX-DTPA humanized BrE-3 antibody in patients with advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, E L; Liebes, L; Wasserheit, C; Noz, M E; Blank, E W; Zabalegui, A; Melamed, J; Furmanski, P; Peterson, J A; Ceriani, R L

    1998-07-01

    To evaluate radiometal-labeled humanized BrE-3 (huBrE-3) monoclonal antibody as a radioimmunolocalization and therapeutic agent in breast cancer patients, tumor localization, pharmacokinetics, radiation dosimetry, and immunogenicity of (111)In-labeled combined 1-p-isothiocyanatobenzyl 3-methyl- and 1-p-isothiocyanatobenzyl 4-methyldiethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (MX-DTPA) huBrE-3 were studied. Seven women with BrE-3 antigen-positive, metastatic breast carcinoma underwent (111)In huBrE-3 infusion (5 mCi; 50 mg), followed by serial gamma camera imaging and plasma sampling. Region of interest analysis of images was used to make radiation absorbed dose estimates for (111)In huBrE-3. Data were extrapolated to 90Y huBrE-3. Human anti-human antibody (HAHA) response was measured in serum samples obtained up to 3 months after infusion. Patients tolerated infusions well. Seventy-six percent of 105 known sites of disease were identified on planar and single-photon emission computed tomography scans. For six of seven patients, a biexponential model fit the plasma time-activity curve best with an average T1/2alpha=10.6+/-8.5 (SD) h and average T1/2beta=114.2+/-39.2 h. Radiation absorbed dose estimates for (111)In huBrE-3 for whole body averaged 0.53+/-.08 rads/mCi. Dose estimates for 90Y huBrE-3 for marrow averaged 8.4+/-11.9 rads/mCi, and for tumors, 70+/-31.5 rads/mCi. Liver radioactivity uptake averaged 19.7+/-8.8% injected dose at 24 h after infusion, translating into an average radiation absorbed dose 21.1+/-12 rads/90Y mCi administered. Only one of seven patients demonstrated a low level of HAHA response. Although the plasma half-lives are longer and marrow dose higher for radiolabeled huBrE-3 compared with the murine construct, the excellent tumor localization, good tumor dosimetry, and low immunogenicity support the use of 90Y-huBrE-3 antibody for radioimmunotherapy of breast cancer. PMID:9676842

  12. Complexation of lanthanum(3) and terbium(3) with 5-Br-PAAP in the presence of surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complexation of lanthanum(3) and terbium(3) with 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (5-Br-PAAP) in the presence of surfactants was studied by spectrophotometry. Optimal conditions of interaction and chemical and analytical characteristics of the resulting complexes were determined. Molar absorptivities are 7.8x104 (La) and 8.7x104 (Tb). The effect of the ionic strength of the solution and concentration of the organic solvent on the conditions of complexation in the presence of surfactants was considered. Correlation equations relating all chromaticity characteristics to the concentration of lanthanum, terbium, and erbium in the range 5-25 μg per 25 ml were deduced. It was demonstrated that the use of the most sensitive chromaticity functions (yellowness, chromaticity coordinates, color saturation, etc.) increases the sensitivity of the determination by a factor of 25-100 in comparison with the photometric method

  13. Enhanced tropospheric BrO over Antarctic sea ice in mid winter observed by MAX-DOAS on board the research vessel Polarstern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wagner

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We present Multi AXis-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS observations of tropospheric BrO carried out on board the German research vessel Polarstern during the Antarctic winter 2006. Polarstern entered the area of first year sea ice around Antarctica on 24 June 2006 and stayed within this area until 15 August 2006. For the period when the ship cruised inside the first year sea ice belt, enhanced BrO concentrations were almost continuously observed. Outside the first year sea ice belt, typically low BrO concentrations were found. Based on back trajectory calculations we find a positive correlation between the observed BrO differential slant column densities (ΔSCDs and the duration for which the air masses had been in contact with the sea ice surface prior to the measurement. While we can not completely rule out that in several cases the highest BrO concentrations might be located close to the ground, our observations indicate that the maximum BrO concentrations might typically exist in a (possibly extended layer around the upper edge of the boundary layer. Besides the effect of a decreasing pH of sea salt aerosol with altitude and therefore an increase of BrO with height, this finding might be also related to vertical mixing of air from the free troposphere with the boundary layer, probably caused by convection over the warm ocean surface at polynyas and cracks in the ice. Strong vertical gradients of BrO and O3 could also explain why we found enhanced BrO levels almost continuously for the observations within the sea ice. Based on our estimated BrO profiles we derive BrO mixing ratios of several ten ppt, which is slightly higher than many existing observations. Our observations indicate that enhanced BrO concentrations around Antarctica exist about one month earlier than observed by satellite instruments. From detailed radiative transfer simulations we find that MAX-DOAS observations are up to about one order of

  14. Ultrafast dynamics of strong-field dissociative ionization ofCH2Br2 probed by femtosecond soft x-ray transient absorptionspectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loh, Zhi-Heng; Leone, Stephen R.

    2008-01-15

    Femtosecond time-resolved soft x-ray transient absorption spectroscopy based on a high-order harmonic generation source is used to investigate the dissociative ionization of CH{sub 2}Br{sub 2} induced by 800 nm strong-field irradiation. At moderate peak intensities (2.0 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}), strong-field ionization is accompanied by ultrafast C-Br bond dissociation, producing both neutral Br ({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) and Br* ({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) atoms together with the CH{sub 2}Br{sup +} fragment ion. The measured rise times for Br and Br* are 130 {+-} 22 fs and 74 {+-} 10 fs, respectively. The atomic bromine quantum state distribution shows that the Br/Br* population ratio is 8.1 {+-} 3.8 and that the Br {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} state is not aligned. The observed product distribution and the timescales of the photofragment appearances suggest that multiple field-dressed potential energy surfaces are involved in the dissociative ionization process. In addition, the transient absorption spectrum of CH{sub 2}Br{sub 2}{sup +} suggests that the alignment of the molecule relative to the polarization axis of the strong-field ionizing pulse determines the electronic symmetry of the resulting ion; alignment of the Br-Br, H-H, and C{sub 2} axis of the molecule along the polarization axis results in the production of the ion {tilde X}({sup 2}B{sub 2}), {tilde B}({sup 2}B{sub 1}) and {tilde C}({sup 2}A{sub 1}) states, respectively. At higher peak intensities (6.2 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}), CH{sub 2}Br{sub 2}{sup +} undergoes sequential ionization to form the metastable CH{sub 2}Br{sub 2}{sup 2+} dication. These results demonstrate the potential of core-level probing with high-order harmonic transient absorption spectroscopy for studying ultrafast molecular dynamics.

  15. Theoretical investigation of potential energy surface and bound states for the van der Waals complex Ar–BrCl dimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Rui [School of Mathematics and Information Science, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan (China); Li, Song, E-mail: lsong@yangtzeu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Yangtze University, Jingzhou (China); Chen, Shan-Jun; Chen, Yan [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Yangtze University, Jingzhou (China); Zheng, Li-Min [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan (China)

    2015-09-08

    Highlights: • A two-dimensional potential for Ar–BrCl is constructed at the CCSD(T) level. • The PES is characterized by three minima and two saddle points between them. • Bound state calculations were carried out for the complex. - Abstract: The intermolecular potential energy surface (PES) of the ground electronic state for the Ar–BrCl dimer is constructed at the CCSD(T) level with the aug-cc-pVQZ basis set and mid-bond functions. The PES is characterized by three minima and two saddle points. The global minimum corresponding to a collinear Ar–BrCl configuration, which has been observed experimentally, is located at R = 4.10 Å and θ = 2.5° with a well depth of −285.207 cm{sup −1}. A nearly T-shaped structure and an anti-linear Ar–ClBr geometry is also predicted. The bound state calculations are preformed to study intermolecular vibrational modes, rotational levels and average structures for the complex. Our transition frequencies, spectroscopic constants and average structures for all isotopomers of the collinear isomer agree well with experimental data. We have also provided pure rotational transitional frequencies for both nearly T-shaped and anti-linear isomers. These results are significant for further experimental investigations of the Ar–BrCl dimer.

  16. 大白菜BrTCP24基因的克隆与功能分析%Cloning and Functional Analysis of BrTCP24 Gene in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L.ssp.pekinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤德; 谭婷婷; 张一卉; 李景娟; 李化银; 李利斌; 刘立锋; 高建伟

    2013-01-01

    It is very important to isolate and characterize the genes responsible for negative control of the leaf heading growth of Chinese cabbage,which can be help to speed up breeding progress of the small heading Chinese cabbage varieties that meet the current market demands.Here,a full-length TCP cDNA named BrTCP24,which belongs to the second subgroups of TCP domain family,was isolated from leaves of Chinese cabbage inbred line Fushanbaotou (Brassica rapa L.ssp.pekinensis).The full-length cDNA of BrTCP24 consisted of 1 221 nucleotides,and was predicted to code a 406-amino acid polypeptide.In addition,there were no introns in BrTCP24 gene.The phylogenetic analysis about BrTCP24 and TCP families in Arabidopsis was carried out using the software of MEGA4.0.The result indicated that BrTCP24 gene and Arabidopsis AtTCP3 gene would belong to the same branch,which suggested they had closely genetic relationship.The alignment of predicted amino acid sequences of BrTCP24 and Arabidopsis AtTCP3 indicated that there was 55.15% identity between them.Additionally,these two proteins contained conserved TCP domain and had 91.53% identity in this domain.These results suggested that BrTCP24 and Arabidopsis AtTCP3 would have similar biological functions.The semiquantitive RT-PCR indicated that BrTCP24 gene was expressed in roots,dwarf stems,rosette leaves,folding leaves,flowers,siliques and bud flowers examined in Chinese cabbage.Among them,rosette leaves had the highest mRNA level,followed by roots,folding leaves,flowers,siliques and bud flowers,while dwarf stems had the lowest mRNA level.Interestingly,the expression level of BrTCP24 didn't effect by 5 μmol NAA treatment in 12 h period.To test the function of BrTCP24,we then engineered Arabidopsis plants that would over-express BrTCP24 ectopically,driven by CaMV 35S promoter,and obtained 17 transgenic lines by Kanamycin and PCR screening.Using RT-PCR method,we randomly detected 5 transgenic lines and found all of them could express

  17. Selected Femme / Homme - brändin lanseeraus Suomen markkinoille

    OpenAIRE

    Saarinen, Saila

    2009-01-01

    Tanskalaisomistuksessa oleva, kansainvälinen muotitalo Bestseller A/S lanseerasi uuden Selec-ted Femme / Homme - brändin Suomen markkinoille lokakuussa 2008. Tuotemerkin vali-koimiin kuuluu naisten ja miesten vaatteet, asusteet sekä jalkineet. Mallistoista on tuotteita arkeen ja juhlaan. Niissä yhdistyvät hyvän hinta laatu-suhteen lisäksi trendikkyys. Opinnäytetyössä tarkasteltiin brändin ensimmäisen unisex -myymälän lanseerausta kuluttajil-le. Työn tarkoitus oli tutkia uuden brändin ide...

  18. Bränditutkimus Etelä-Pohjanmaan Osuuspankille

    OpenAIRE

    Jämbäck, Anna-Leena

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tutkia Etelä-Pohjanmaan Osuuspankin brändiä sen 20–30-vuotiaiden asiakkaiden näkökulmasta. Ensimmäisenä tavoitteena oli perehtyä brändeihin. Opinnäytetyön toisena tavoitteena oli bränditutkimuksen toteuttaminen EPOP:n 20–30-vuotiaille asiakkaille, jotta saataisiin selville millaiseksi se koetaan eri osa-alueilla sekä kokonaisuutena nuorten aikuisten keskuudessa. Kolmantena tavoitteena oli pohtia tutkimustulosten perusteella uusia ideoita organisaation markkinoi...

  19. Brøndby på Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Louise Løvendahl; Petersen, Simon Boje

    2012-01-01

    Dette er en målgruppeanalyse af Brøndby IF's kommunikation på Facebook, som tager udgangspunkt i Brøndbyfans. Specialet bygger på teori om fællesskab og netværk, hvor teoretikerne Castells, Baumann, Luhmann, Jesper Tække m.fl. er brugt, som alle arbejder med Facebook som enten et netværks- eller fællesskabsmedie. Specialet analysere, hvorledes Brøndby IF formår at kommunikere hensigstsmæssigt til deres fans, og om Facebook kan bruges til genopbyggelse af supporterfællesskabet.

  20. Kolea AK/JPK : -brändin konseptisuunnittelu

    OpenAIRE

    Koskilahti, Anni

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä suunniteltiin valmis konsepti, perusteilla olevalle, Kolea – nimiselle vaatetusalan yritykselle ja brändille. Työssä käytettiin design managementin ja brändäyksen teorioita. Työn tavoitteena oli selventää design managementin mukainen kokonaisuus ja kehittää eheä konsepti vaatetusalan brändille. Työn toimintasuunnitelmaan ja sen kulkuun sovellettiin toimintatutkimuksen syklimallia. Opinnäytetyössä päätiedonhankintamenetelminä käytettiin havainnointia, haastatteluja ja benchm...

  1. Effect of phytohormones on the growth of Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp.) Bréh

    OpenAIRE

    Ewa Tatkowska; Józef Buczek

    2014-01-01

    Studies were made an the effect of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA), kinetin (Kin), and various combinations of these substances upon dry matter increments, soluble protein content, and chlorophyll levels in the cultures of Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp.) Bréb. It was found that all these phytohormones, added separately to the medium, stimulated dry matter increment and protein content, although their effect depended on the concentration and the duration of culture. Addition ...

  2. Abundances of s-process elements in planetary nebulae: Br, Kr & Xe

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Y; Pellegrini, E; Cavagnolo, K; Baldwin, J A; Sharpee, B; Phillips, M; Liu, X W

    2006-01-01

    We identify emission lines of post-iron peak elements in very high signal-to-noise spectra of a sample of planetary nebulae. Analysis of lines from ions of Kr and Xe reveals enhancements in most of the PNe, in agreement with the theories of s-process in AGB star. Surprisingly, we did not detect lines from Br even though s-process calculations indicate that it should be produced with Kr at detectable levels.

  3. Monoclonal antibody BrE-3 participation in a multivariate prognostic model for infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C M; Baratta, F S; Ozzello, L; Ceriani, R L

    1994-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody (MoAb) BrE-3, an anti-human milk fat globule (HMFG) MoAb, is used here as a novel prognostic indicator for survival and relapse time in patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast. A scoring system (4-Score method) was developed to this effect that measured, in a statistically reliable fashion, the level of expression of the epitope for MoAb BrE-3 in the cytoplasm and membranes of breast carcinoma cells in paraffin-embedded sections. In univariate analysis, data obtained by the 4-Score Method as well as data from traditional prognostic indicators (tumor size, axillary node status, and grade of differentiation) were found to be associated with patient survival and relapse. In multivariate analysis, using a Cox proportional hazards regression model, levels of expression of BrE-3 epitope plus tumor size and axillary node status were weighted and combined in an Individual Linear Composite Prognostic Score (ILCPS) that had a high level of association with survival and relapse time in this sample model of patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast. This level of association was found to be higher than the level of association for any other combination of traditional or 4-Score method variables. The level of expression of BrE-3 significantly adds to the prognostic capacity of traditional prognostic markers for infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast. PMID:7981443

  4. Revision and extension to the analysis of the third spectrum of bromine: Br III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectrum of doubly ionized bromine (Br III) has been investigated in the vacuum ultraviolet wavelength region. Br2+ is an As-like ion with ground configuration of 4s24p3, thus a 3-electron system possessing a complex structure. The theoretical prediction was made using Cowan's quasi-relativistic Hartree–Fock code with superposition of configurations involving the 4s4p4, 4s24p2 (4d+5d+6d+5s+6s+7s), 4s4p3 (5p+4f), 4p4(4d+5s), 4s24p5s5p, 4s4p2 (4d2+5s2), 4s4p24f2 configurations for the even parity matrix and the 4s24p3, 4s24p2 (5p+6p+4f+5f) configurations for the odd parity matrix. Several previously reported levels of Br III have been revised, and new configurations have been added to the analysis. The spectrum used for this work was recorded on a 3-m normal incidence spectrograph in the wavelength region of 400–1326 Å using a triggered vacuum spark source. One hundred and two energy levels belonging to the 4s24p3, 4s4p4, 4s24p2 (4d+5d+6d+5s+6s +7s) configurations have been established, eighty-six being new. Two hundred and seventy-eight lines have been identified in this spectrum. The accuracy of our wavelength measurements for sharp and unblended lines is ±0.006 Å. The ionization potential of Br III was found to be 281,250±100 cm−1 (34.870±0.012 eV). - Highlights: • The spectrum of Br was recorded on a 3-m grating spectrograph with a triggered spark source. • Most of the known energy levels have been revised and further new configurations have been added. • Superposition-of-configurations calculations with relativistic corrections were made for theoretical predictions. • Radiative weighted oscillator strength (gf) & radiative transition probabilities (gA) were calculated. • Ionization Potential of Br III was determined experimentally

  5. Equilibrium reconstruction in the TCA/Br tokamak; Reconstrucao do equilibrio no tokamak TCA/BR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa, Wanderley Pires de

    1996-12-31

    The accurate and rapid determination of the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium configuration in tokamaks is a subject for the magnetic confinement of the plasma. With the knowledge of characteristic plasma MHD equilibrium parameters it is possible to control the plasma position during its formation using feed-back techniques. It is also necessary an on-line analysis between successive discharges to program external parameters for the subsequent discharges. In this work it is investigated the MHD equilibrium configuration reconstruction of the TCA/BR tokamak from external magnetic measurements, using a method that is able to fast determine the main parameters of discharge. The thesis has two parts. Firstly it is presented the development of an equilibrium code that solves de Grad-Shafranov equation for the TCA/BR tokamak geometry. Secondly it is presented the MHD equilibrium reconstruction process from external magnetic field and flux measurements using the Function Parametrization FP method. this method. This method is based on the statistical analysis of a database of simulated equilibrium configurations, with the goal of obtaining a simple relationship between the parameters that characterize the equilibrium and the measurements. The results from FP are compared with conventional methods. (author) 68 refs., 31 figs., 16 tabs.

  6. Angular Momentum Exchange Between Light and Material Media Deduced from the Doppler Shift

    CERN Document Server

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic waves carry energy as well as linear and angular momenta. When a light pulse is reflected from, transmitted through, or absorbed by a material medium, energy and momentum (both linear and angular) are generally exchanged, while the total amount of each entity remains intact. The extent of such exchanges between light and matter can be deduced, among other methods, with the aid of the Doppler shift phenomenon. The main focus of the present paper is on the transfer of angular momentum from a monochromatic light pulse to spinning objects such as a mirror, an absorptive dielectric, or a birefringent plate. The fact that individual photons of frequency omega carry energy in the amount of h_bar*omega, where h_bar is Planck's reduced constant, enables one to relate the Doppler shift to the amount of energy exchanged. Under certain circumstances, the knowledge of exchanged energy leads directly to a determination of the momentum transferred from the photon to the material body, or vice versa.

  7. PAS domain of the deduced Org35 protein mediates the interaction with NifA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Ran; CUI Yanhua; CHEN Sanfeng; LI Jilun

    2006-01-01

    NifA in Azospirillum brasilense plays a key role in regulating the synthesis of nitrogenase in response to ammonia and oxygen available. Recently,our laboratory has identified four clones, whose gene prodcuts interact with NifA, from A. brasilense Sp7genomic libraries by using the yeast two-hybrid system with NifA as bait. We are interested in clone S35,one of the four clones, because it contains a PAS-domain coding region. The entire open reading frame (ORF) for the PAS domain-containing protein was isolated and designated as org35 here. org35gene is 2211-bp long and encodes a protein of 736aa with a predicted molecular weight of about 78.4 kD.The predicted amino acid sequence of org35 has similarity to some two-component sensor kinase/response regulator hybrids of bacteria. Structural analyses showed that Org35 comprises at least three discrete conserved domains: the N-terminal PAS, the central histidine protein kinase (HPK) and the C-terminal response regulator (RR). The PAS domain of the deduced Org35 protein was found to interact directly with NifA, but the central HPK and the C-terminal RR domains of Org35 were not. These results indicated that interaction between NifA and Org35 was mediated by PAS domain.

  8. Epitopes of human testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase deduced from a cDNA sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sequence and structure of human testis-specific L-lactate dehydrogenase [LDHC4, LDHX; (L)-lactate:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.27] has been derived from analysis of a complementary DNA (cDNA) clone comprising the complete protein coding region of the enzyme. From the deduced amino acid sequence, human LDHC4 is as different from rodent LDHC4 (73% homology) as it is from human LDHA4 (76% homology) and porcine LDHB4 (68% homology). Subunit homologies are consistent with the conclusion that the LDHC gene arose by at least two independent duplication events. Furthermore, the lower degree of homology between mouse and human LDHC4 and the appearance of this isozyme late in evolution suggests a higher rate of mutation in the mammalian LDHC genes than in the LDHA and -B genes. Comparison of exposed amino acid residues of discrete anti-genic determinants of mouse and human LDHC4 reveals significant differences. Knowledge of the human LDHC4 sequence will help design human-specific peptides useful in the development of a contraceptive vaccine

  9. Deducing the 237U(n,f) cross-section using the Surrogate Ratio Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, J T; Bernstein, L A; Escher, J; Ahle, L; Church, J A; Dietrich, F; Moody, K J; Norman, E B; Phair, L W; Fallon, P; Clark, R; Delaplanque, M; Descovich, M; Cromaz, M; Lee, I Y; Macchiavelli, A O; McMahan, M A; Moretto, L G; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E; Stephens, F S

    2005-08-16

    The authors have deduced the {sup 237}U(n,f) cross-section over an equivalent neutron energy range of 0 to 20 MeV using the Surrogate Ratio method. A 55 MeV {sup 4}He{sup 2+} beam from the 88 Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was used to induce fission in the following reactions {sup 238}U({alpha},{alpha}'f) and {sup 236}U({alpha},{alpha}'f). The {sup 238}U reaction was a surrogate for {sup 237}U(n,f) and the {sup 236}U reaction was used as a surrogate for {sup 235}U(n,f). The energies of the scattered alpha particles were detected in a fully depleted segmented silicon telescope array (STARS) over an angle range of 35{sup o} to 60{sup o} with respect to the beam axis. The fission fragments were detected in a third independent silicon detector located at backward angles between 106{sup o} to 131{sup o}.

  10. The Seismic risk perception in Italy deduced by a statistical sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Pessina, Vera; Peruzza, Laura; Cerbara, Loredana; Crescimbene, Cristiana

    2015-04-01

    In 2014 EGU Assembly we presented the results of a web a survey on the perception of seismic risk in Italy. The data were derived from over 8,500 questionnaires coming from all Italian regions. Our questionnaire was built by using the semantic differential method (Osgood et al. 1957) with a seven points Likert scale. The questionnaire is inspired the main theoretical approaches of risk perception (psychometric paradigm, cultural theory, etc.) .The results were promising and seem to clearly indicate an underestimation of seismic risk by the italian population. Based on these promising results, the DPC has funded our research for the second year. In 2015 EGU Assembly we present the results of a new survey deduced by an italian statistical sample. The importance of statistical significance at national scale was also suggested by ISTAT (Italian Statistic Institute), considering the study as of national interest, accepted the "project on the perception of seismic risk" as a pilot study inside the National Statistical System (SISTAN), encouraging our RU to proceed in this direction. The survey was conducted by a company specialised in population surveys using the CATI method (computer assisted telephone interview). Preliminary results will be discussed. The statistical support was provided by the research partner CNR-IRPPS. This research is funded by Italian Civil Protection Department (DPC).

  11. Rates of intra- and intermolecular electron transfers in hydrogenase deduced from steady-state activity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dementin, Sébastien; Burlat, Bénédicte; Fourmond, Vincent; Leroux, Fanny; Liebgott, Pierre-Pol; Abou Hamdan, Abbas; Léger, Christophe; Rousset, Marc; Guigliarelli, Bruno; Bertrand, Patrick

    2011-07-01

    Electrons are transferred over long distances along chains of FeS clusters in hydrogenases, mitochondrial complexes, and many other respiratory enzymes. It is usually presumed that electron transfer is fast in these systems, despite the fact that there has been no direct measurement of rates of FeS-to-FeS electron transfer in any respiratory enzyme. In this context, we propose and apply to NiFe hydrogenase an original strategy that consists of quantitatively interpreting the variations of steady-state activity that result from changing the nature of the FeS clusters which connect the active site to the redox partner, and/or the nature of the redox partner. Rates of intra- and intermolecular electron transfer are deduced from such large data sets. The mutation-induced variations of electron transfer rates cannot be explained by changes in intercenter distances and reduction potentials. This establishes that FeS-to-FeS rate constants are extremely sensitive to the nature and coordination of the centers. PMID:21615141

  12. F-region Pedersen conductivity deduced using the TIMED/GUVI limb retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available As a proxy of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth rate for equatorial plasma bubbles, we investigate the flux-tube integrated F-region Pedersen conductivity (ΣPF using the electron density profiles (EDPs provided by the Global Ultraviolet Imager (GUVI on board the Thermosphere Ionosphere and Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED satellite. The investigation is conducted using the EDPs obtained in the Atlantic sector at 19:00-22:00 LT during 4–17 August and 6-16 December 2002. The seasonal difference of the strength and location of the equatorial ionization anomalies (EIAs induces a significant difference in the deduced ΣPF. Much stronger EIAs are created at higher altitudes and latitudes in December rather than in August. At 19:00–20:00 LT, the peak value of the ΣPF has 23 mhos at 1100 km apex height during 14–16 December and 18mhos at 600 km during 15–17 August. The ΣPF decreases as local time progresses. Therefore, ΣPF provides a preferred condition for the growth of bubbles to higher altitudes at 19:00-20:00 LT than at later hours, in December rather than in August in the Atlantic sector.

  13. Deducing conformational variability of intrinsically disordered proteins from infrared spectroscopy with Bayesian statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Deduce secondary structure content of intrinsically disordered proteins from IR spectra. • Bayesian analysis to infer conformations of disordered regions of proteins from IR. • Comparison of measured and calculated IR spectra to obtain thermodynamic weights. - Abstract: As it remains practically impossible to generate ergodic ensembles for large intrinsically disordered proteins (IDP) with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, it becomes critical to compare spectroscopic characteristics of the theoretically generated ensembles to corresponding measurements. We develop a Bayesian framework to infer the ensemble properties of an IDP using a combination of conformations generated by MD simulations and its measured infrared spectrum. We performed 100 different MD simulations totaling more than 10 μs to characterize the conformational ensemble of α-synuclein, a prototypical IDP, in water. These conformations are clustered based on solvent accessibility and helical content. We compute the amide-I band for these clusters and predict the thermodynamic weights of each cluster given the measured amide-I band. Bayesian analysis produces a reproducible and non-redundant set of thermodynamic weights for each cluster, which can then be used to calculate the ensemble properties. In a rigorous validation, these weights reproduce measured chemical shifts

  14. Utilization of metabonomics to identify serum biomarkers in murine H22 hepatocarcinoma and deduce antitumor mechanism of Rhizoma Paridis saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Peiyu; Man, Shuli; Yang, He; Fan, Wei; Yu, Peng; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-08-25

    Murine H22 hepatocarcinoma model is so popular to be used for the preclinical anticancer candidate's evaluation. However, the metabolic biomarkers of this model were not identified. Meanwhile, Rhizoma Paridis saponins (RPS) as natural products have been found to show strong antitumor activity, while its anti-cancer mechanism is not clear. To search for potential metabolite biomarkers of this model, serum metabonomics approach was applied to detect the variation of metabolite biomarkers and the related metabolism genes and signaling pathway were used to deduce the antitumor mechanisms of RPS. As a result, ten serum metabolites were identified in twenty-four mice including healthy mice, non-treated cancer mice, RPS-treated cancer mice and RPS-treated healthy mice. RPS significantly decreased tumor weight correlates to down-regulating lactate, acetate, N-acetyl amino acid and glutamine signals (p p53 and PTEN, and suppressed FASN to inhibit lipogenesis. What's more, RPS repressed Myc and GLS expression and decreased glutamine level. The regulating PI3K/Akt/mTOR and HIF-1α/Myc/Ras networks also participated in these metabolic changes. Taken together, RPS suppressed ATP product made the tumor growth slow, which indicated a good anti-cancer effect and new angle for understanding the mechanism of RPS. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the utility of (1)H NMR metabolic profiles taken together with tumor weight and viscera index was a promising screening tool for evaluating the antitumor effect of candidates. In addition, RPS was a potent anticancer agent through inhibiting cancer cellular metabolism to suppress proliferation in hepatoma H22 tumor murine, which promoted the application of RPS in the future. PMID:27369806

  15. LiikeAkatemian brändimielikuvan tutkiminen ja brändin kehittäminen

    OpenAIRE

    Petäsnoro, Iida-Mari; Rajala, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Toteutamme opinnäytetyömme Lapin ammattikorkeakoulussa Tornion kampuksella toimivalle LiikeAkatemialle, jossa opiskellaan käytännönläheisesti tiimiyrityksissä. Tavoitteenamme on tutkia LiikeAkatemian aikaisempaa brändimarkkinointia, ja sen vaikutusta nykyisen brändimielikuvan tilaan liiketalouden opettajien ja opiskelijoiden keskuudessa. Näiden tutkimustulosten perusteella esitämme brändin kehittämiseen liittyviä kehitysideoita. Työn teoreettinen viitekehys on koottu aiheeseen liittyvästä...

  16. Brüssel - unistus Euroopa pealinnast / Kristi Grishakov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grishakov, Kristi

    2008-01-01

    Brüsseli linnaplaneerimise ajaloost, linnaehituslikest ja sotsiaalset laadi probleemidest, võimalikust tulevikust Euroopa pealinnana. Berlage Instituudi näitusest "A Vision for Brussels" Bozari kunstikeskuses

  17. GMO konverents Brüsselis / Nastja Pertsjonok

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pertsjonok, Nastja

    2007-01-01

    Brüsselis toimunud GMO-vabade piirkondade konverentsist, kus räägiti GMO-vabade piirkondade liikumisest, GMO-de lubamisest ja keelamisest ning hoiakutest nende suhtes Euroopa Liidus ja mujal maailmas

  18. Performance evaluation of LaBr3: Ce scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cerium doped lanthanum bromide crystal (LaBr3: Ce) is a new kind of scintillator with many advantages such as good energy resolution, high light output, short decay time, good proportionality response. These properties make the LaBr3: Ce attractive substantial interest to use in the radiation detection. The energy resolution were investigated with Φ25 × 25 mm LaBr3: Ce coupled to a Hamamatsu R8900 photomultiplier tube. Energy resolution of 3.6% (FWHM) have been achieved for 511 keV photons (18F source) at room temperature. Decay time constant of 20 ns have been acquired with a Hamamatsu fast-time-response R9800 photomultiplier tube. The results approve the excellent characterizations of LaBr3: Ce and imply its enormous potentiality in the radiation detectors of gamma-ray spectroscopy and PET. (authors)

  19. Traian Brăileanu în documente (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Florian Bruja

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A Romanian’s politician from Bukovina, Traian Brăileanu agreed the idea of possible activities of former political parties. Although he was a regional party, his activity was oriented to complete the unification and consolidation of Romania. Traian Brăileanu was a sociologist and doctor Professor at University of Cernăuţi. A polyglot, TraianBrăileanu has known the Greek and German’s philosophy. He has begun his political activity in People’s Party, then in League of National and Christian Protection and finally in The Legionary Movement. We bring bock into scientific circuit some documents from the personal records of Traian Brăileanu. This documents covering the period 1920-1921 on the ground of some investigations archirved by the author from Cernăuţi, Ukraina.

  20. The 3d84s-3d84p transitions in Br IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectrum of bromine was studied in the region 450-1100 A, using the beam-foil method with 6 MeV ions from a tandem accelerator. On the basis of isoelectronic extrapolations and theoretical calculations, 32 lines were classified as transitions between the 3p63d84s and 3p63d84p configurations of Co-like BrIX. Fo the 16 possible 4s levels 13 have been located, and 11 new 4p levels have been added to the previously known ones. Only 4 of all the 4p levels (45 in total) remain to be found. (orig.)

  1. Cloning by 3′-RACE and Expression of BrMYB34-3 Gene from Brassica rapa ssp.pekinensis%大白菜BrMYB34-3基因的3′-RACE克隆及表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国静; 刘庆霞; 李梦莎; 张耀伟; 阎秀峰

    2011-01-01

    以大白菜叶片为材料,根据NCBI数据库中BrMYB34-3基因序列的已知信息,利用3-RACE获得了BrMYB34-3基因全长,用RT-PCR方法对BrMYB34-3在不同组织中的表达进行分析.结果显示,该基因全长1 135 bp,编码280个氨基酸.BrMYB34-3具有R2R3-MYB(含有2个MYB结构域的转录因子)典型的R2、R3结构域及基序.其氨基酸序列与大白菜的BrMYB34-1和BrMYB34-2、拟南芥的AtMYB34具有较高的一致性.BrMYB34-3在莲座叶、当天开的花中表达水平较高,在花序顶端表达水平较低,在根和花序轴中未检测到表达,这与拟南芥AtMYB34的表达模式不同.研究表明,BrMYB34-3是大白菜中的MYB34同源基因,在功能上可能与拟南芥AtMYB34基因存在差异.%An R2R3-MYB gene,BrMYB34-3, was isolated from the leaves of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis by 3′-RACE techniques based on the partial sequence in NCBI database. The full length of BrMYB34-3 cDNA was 1 135 bp,encoding 280 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contained the conserved R2 and R3 domains near the N-terminus and a conserved motif which is the characteristic of R2R3-MYB transcription factor. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that BrMYB34-3 was clustered with BrMYB34-1 and BrMYB34-2 from Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis and AtMYB34 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression analysis by RT-PCR showed that BrMYB34-3 was highly expressed in rosette leaves and flowers and lowly expressed in the tip of inflorescences,but not expressed in the roots and the inflorescence stems, which is different from the expression pattern of AtMYB34 in Arabidopsis thaliana. These results indicate that BrMYB34-3 is a homologous gene of MYB34 in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis,and it might have at least partial different functions with Arabidopsis AtMYB34.

  2. BR2: Some aspects of structural mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses some of the important aspects of structural mechanics of BR2, namely: the follow-up of the beryllium matrix and of the reactor vessel and the seismic qualification. According the licence, a follow up program for the beryllium matrix is mandatory. This inspection is necessary because of the swelling of beryllium during irradiation. Due to this swelling, the individual beryllium blocks make contact between each other. This results in mechanical stresses and, because beryllium is a brittle material, cracks. At regular intervals inspection are made to evaluate the evolution of the swelling and the cracks. The maximum allowed neutron fluence is 6.4 1022 fast neutrons (energy more than 1 MeV) per cm2 . After this time the matrix has to be replaced. This has been done already twice. During the replacement an inspection of the reactor pressure vessel must be made. Last inspection was performed in 1996, using ultrasonic and eddy current inspections. On this occasion a fracture mechanics calculation was made and the minimum allowed fracture toughness of material was determined. Since very little information on irradiated aluminium 5052-O is available, a number of samples were cut out of a second wall around the vessel. This aluminium had received nearly the fluence. Out of the samples test pieces (tensile and charpy) were made. A number of them were tested immediately, while the other was loaded in the reactor for accelerated irradiation. In this way a material follow up program was started. This program still continues. During the period safety reassessment the authorities requested a seismic qualification. It was decided to make a full dynamic calculation, with input a 0.1g zero period peak ground acceleration and a regulatory guide 1.60 spectrum. The installation can withstand this earthquake, considered as a safe shutdown earthquake. A few structural reinforcements were necessary. The main ones were the primary piping outside the containment

  3. Electrodynamics of an omega-band as deduced from optical and magnetometer data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vanhamäki

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate an omega-band event that took place above northern Scandinavia around 02:00–02:30 UT on 9 March 1999. In our analysis we use ground based magnetometer, optical and riometer measurements together with satellite based optical images. The optical and riometer data are used to estimate the ionospheric Hall and Pedersen conductances, while ionospheric equivalent currents are obtained from the magnetometer measurements. These data sets are used as input in a local KRM calculation, which gives the ionospheric potential electric field as output, thus giving us a complete picture of the ionospheric electrodynamic state during the omega-band event. <br>> The overall structure of the electric field and field-aligned current (FAC provided by the local KRM method are in good agreement with previous studies. Also the E×B drift velocity calculated from the local KRM solution is in good qualitative agreement with the plasma velocity measured by the Finnish CUTLASS radar, giving further support for the new local KRM method. The high-resolution conductance estimates allow us to discern the detailed structure of the omega-band current system. The highest Hall and Pedersen conductances, ~50 and ~25 S, respectively, are found at the edges of the bright auroral tongue. Inside the tongue, conductances are somewhat smaller, but still significantly higher than typical background values. The electric field shows a converging pattern around the tongues, and the field strength drops from ~40 mV/m found at optically dark regions to ~10 mV/m inside the areas of enhanced conductivity. Downward FAC flow in the dark regions, while upward currents flow inside the auroral tongue. Additionally, sharp conductance gradients at the edge of an auroral tongue are associated with narrow strips of intense FACs, so that a strip of downward current flows at the eastern (leading edge and a similar strip of upward current is present at the

  4. Kan lignin omdannes til flydende brændstof?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joachim Bachmann; Jensen, Anders; Felby, Claus;

    2015-01-01

    Ved en solvolytisk omdannelse af plantematerialet lignin til et flydende brændstof behandles det ved høj temperatur og højt tryk i et passende opløsningsmiddel. En sådan proces kan gennemføres ikke-katalytisk og være med til at skabe flydende brændsler baseret på vedvarende energikilder. Her...

  5. Band structure of sup 7 sup 9 Br

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, I; Bhattacharya, S; Saha-Sarkar, M; Sethi, B; Chatterjee, J M; Chattopadhyay, S; Goswami, A; Muralithar, S; Singh, R P; Bhowmik, R K

    1999-01-01

    High-spin states of sup 7 sup 9 Br have been studied in the reaction sup 7 sup 6 Ge( sup 7 Li, 4n gamma) at 32 MeV. A gamma-detector array with twelve Compton-suppressed HPGe detectors was used. The positive-parity yrast states, interpreted as a rotationally aligned g sub ( sub 9 sub ( sub 2 sub ) sub ) proton band, and the negative-parity ground state band have been extended to spins of (33(2 sup +)) and (25(2 sup -)), respectively. Lifetime measurements indicate that both bands have a similar quadrupole deformation of beta sub 2 approx 0.2. The positive-parity alpha = -(1(2)) band has been identified. Several new inter-band transitions are observed. A cranked-shell model analysis shows that the nu g sub ( sub 9 sub ( sub 2 sub ) sub ) and pi g sub ( sub 9 sub ( sub 2 sub ) sub ) alignments occur in the positive-parity and the negative-parity bands at rotational frequencies of Planck constant omega approx 0.6 and 0.4 MeV, respectively. The level energies and the electromagnetic properties of the g sub ( sub ...

  6. Modeling study of vibrational photochemical isotope enrichment. [HBr + Cl/sub 2/; HCl + Br/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badcock, C.C.; Hwang, W.C.; Kalsch, J.F.

    1978-09-29

    Chemical kinetic modeling studies of vibrational-photochemical isotope enrichment have been performed on two systems: Model (I), H/sup 79/Br(H/sup 81/Br) + Cl/sub 2/ and, Model (II), H/sup 37/Cl(H/sup 35/Cl) + Br. Pulsed laser excitation was modeled to the first excited vibrational level of H/sup 79/Br in Model I and the first and second excited vibrational levels of both HCl isotopes in Model II. These are prototype systems of exoergic (Model I) and endoergic (Model II) reactions. The effects on enrichment of varying the external parameters (pressure, laser intensity) and the internal parameters (rate constants for V-V exchange and excited-state reactions) were examined. Studies of these prototype systems indicate that a favorable reaction for enrichment, with isotopically-specific excitation and a significantly accelerated vibrationally-excited-state reaction should have the following properties: the reaction from v = 0 should be only moderately exoergic, and the most favorable coreactant should be a polyatomic species, such as alkyl radical. Direct excitation of the reacting vibrational level is at least an order of magnitude more favorable for enrichment than is population by energy transfer. Enrichment of the minor isotope by these processes is more effective than is major isotope enrichment. Within limits, increased laser intensity is beneficial. However, for sequential excitation of a second vibrational level, major isotope enrichment can be diminished by high populations of the first vibrational level.

  7. Molecular characterization of brown carbon (BrC) chromophores in secondary organic aerosol generated from photo-oxidation of toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Peng; Liu, Jiumeng; Shilling, John E; Kathmann, Shawn M; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

    2015-09-28

    Atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) is a significant contributor to light absorption and climate forcing. However, little is known about a fundamental relationship between the chemical composition of BrC and its optical properties. In this work, light-absorbing secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was generated in the PNNL chamber from toluene photo-oxidation in the presence of NOx (Tol-SOA). Molecular structures of BrC components were examined using nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) and liquid chromatography (LC) combined with UV/Vis spectroscopy and electrospray ionization (ESI) high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The chemical composition of BrC chromophores and the light absorption properties of toluene SOA (Tol-SOA) depend strongly on the initial NOx concentration. Specifically, Tol-SOA generated under high-NOx conditions (defined here as initial NOx/toluene of 5/1) appears yellow and mass absorption coefficient of the bulk sample (MACbulk@365 nm = 0.78 m(2) g(-1)) is nearly 80 fold higher than that measured for the Tol-SOA sample generated under low-NOx conditions (NOx/toluene NOx. The integrated absorbance of these fifteen chromophores accounts for 40-60% of the total light absorbance by Tol-SOA at wavelengths between 300 nm and 500 nm. The combination of tandem LC-UV/Vis-ESI/HRMS measurements provides an analytical platform for predictive understanding of light absorption properties by BrC and their relationship to the structure of individual chromophores. General trends in the UV/Vis absorption by plausible isomers of the BrC chromophores were evaluated using theoretical chemistry calculations. The molecular-level understanding of BrC chemistry is helpful for better understanding the evolution and behavior of light absorbing aerosols in the atmosphere. PMID:26173064

  8. Application of TlBr to nuclear medicine imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirignano, Leonard; Kim, Hadong; Kargar, Alireza; Churilov, Alexei V.; Ciampi, Guido; Higgins, William; Kim, Suyoung; Barber, Bradford; Haston, Kyle; Shah, Kanai

    2012-10-01

    Thallium bromide (TlBr) has been under development for room temperature gamma ray spectroscopy due to high density, high Z and wide bandgap of the material. Furthermore, its low melting point (460 °C), cubic crystal structure and congruent melting with no solid-solid phase transitions between the melting point and room temperature, TlBr can be grown by relatively simple melt based methods. As a result of improvements in material processing and detector fabrication over the last several years, TlBr with electron mobility-lifetime products (μeτe) in the mid 10-3 cm2/V range has been obtained. In this paper we are going to report on our unipolar charging TlBr results for the application as a small animal imaging. For SPECT application, about 5 mm thick pixellated detectors were fabricated and tested. About 1 % FWHM at 662 keV energy resolution was estimated at room temperature. By applying the depth correction technique, less than 1 % energy resolution was estimated. We are going to report the results from orthogonal strip TlBr detector for PET application. In this paper we also present our latest detector highlights and recent progress made in long term stability of TlBr detectors at or near room temperature. This work is being supported by the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) and the Department of Energy (DOE).

  9. The radial profile of the inner heliospheric magnetic field as deduced from Faraday rotation observations

    CERN Document Server

    Mancuso, S

    2013-01-01

    Faraday rotation measures (RMs) of the polarized emission from extragalactic radio sources occulted by the coronal plasma were used to infer the radial profile of the inner heliospheric magnetic field near solar minimum activity. By inverting LASCO/SOHO polarized brightness (pB) data taken during the days of observations on May 1997, we retrieved the electron density distribution along the lines of sight to the sources, thus allowing to disentangle the two plasma properties that contribute to the observed RMs. By comparing the observed RM values to those theoretically predicted by a power-law model of the radial component of the coronal magnetic field, using a best-fitting procedure, we found that the radial component of the inner heliospheric magnetic field can be nicely approximated by a power-law of the form B_r = 3.76 r^{-2.29} G in a range of heights from about 5 to 14 solar radii. Finally, our analysis suggests that the radial computation of the potential field source surface (PFSS) model from the Wilco...

  10. Comparison of BR3 Surveillance and Vessel Plates to the Surrogate Plates Representative of the Yankee Rowe PWR Vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sister pressure vessels at the BR3 and Yankee Rowe PWR plants were operated at lower-than-usual temperature ( 260 degrees Celsius) and their plates were austenitized a higher-than-usual temperature (970 degrees Celsius) - a heat treatment leading to a coarser microstructure than is typical for the fine grain plates considered in development of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.99. The surveillance programs provided by Westinghouse for the two plants were limited to the same A302-B plate representative of the Rowe vessel upper shell plate; this material displayed outlier behaviour characterized by a 41 J Charpy-V Notch shift significantly larger than predicted by Regulatory Guide 1.99. Because lower irradiation temperature and nickel alloying are generally considered detrimental to irradiation sensitivity, there was a major concern that the nickel-modified lower Rate plate and the nickel-modified BR3 plate may become too embrittled to satisfy the toughness requirements embodied in the PTS screening criterion. This paper compares free complementary studies undertaken to clarify these uncertainties: (1) The accelerated irradiation and test program launched in 1990 by Yankee Atomic Electric Company using typical vessel plate materials containing 0.24% copper at two nickel levels: YA1, 0.63 % (A533-B) and YA9, 0.19 (A302-B). These were heat-treated to produce the coarse and fine grain microstructures representative of the Yankee/BR3 and the Regulatory Guide plates, respectively; (2) The BR3 surveillance and vessel testing program: this vessel was wet-annealed in 1984, relicensed for operation till the plant shutdown in 1987, and was trepanned in early 1995; (3) The accelerated irradiations in the Belgian test reactor BR2 of the Yankee coarse grain plates YA1 and YA9 together with BR3 vessel specimens extracted at nozzle elevation, a location with negligible radiation exposure. It is contended that the PTS screening criterion was never attained by the BR3 and Rowe plates, and

  11. Zonal currents in the F region deduced from Swarm constellation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lühr, Hermann; Kervalishvili, Guram; Rauberg, Jan; Stolle, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The Swarm constellation has been used to estimate zonal currents in the topside F region ionosphere at about 500 km. Near-simultaneous magnetic field measurements from two altitudes but the same meridian are used for the current density calculations. We consider the period 15 February to 23 June 2014 for deriving a full 24 h local time coverage of the latitudinal distribution over ±50° in magnetic latitude. Intervals with close orbital phasing at the two heights are considered, which repeat every 6 days. From such days seven successive orbits are used where the epochs of equator crossings differ by less than 2 min. Deduced current densities are predominantly eastward (about 20 nA/m2) on the dayside and westward (about 10 nA/m2) on the nightside. A number of different drivers contribute to the observed total current. We identified the gravity-driven eastward current as the most prominent at low latitudes. Eastward currents in the Northern Hemisphere are clearly stronger than in the south. This is attributed to the proximity of our study period to June solstice, when the solar radiation is stronger in the north. In addition, interhemispheric winds from the Northern (summer) to the Southern (winter) Hemisphere contribute. They cause eastward currents in the north and westward in the south. We find a relatively large variability of the zonal currents both in space and time. The standard deviation is at least twice as large as the mean value of current density. This large variability is suggested to be related to gravity wave forcing from below.

  12. Nuclear structure of light thallium isotopes as deduced from laser spectroscopy on a fast atom beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After optimizing the system by experiments on /sup 201,203,205/Tl, the neutron-deficient isotopes 189-193Tl have been studied using the collinear fast atom beam laser spectroscopy system at UNISOR on-line to the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility. A sensitive system for the measurements was developed since the light isotopes were available in mass-separated beams of only 7 x 104 to 4 x 105 atoms per second. By laser excitation of the 535 nm atomic transitions of atoms in the beam, the 6s27s 2S/sub 1/2/ and 6s26s 2P/sub 3/2/ hyperfine structures were measured, as were the isotope shifts of the 535 nm transitions. From these, the magnetic dipole moments, spectroscopic quadrupole moments and isotopic changes in mean-square charge radius were deduced. The magnetic dipole moments are consistent with previous data. The /sup 190,192/Tl isotopes show a considerable difference in quadrupole deformations as well as an anomalous isotope shift with respect to 194Tl. A large isomer shift in 193Tl is observed implying a larger deformation in the 9/2- isomer than in the 1/2+ ground state. The /sup 189,191,193/Tl isomers show increasing deformation away from stability. A deformed shell model calculation indicates that this increase in deformation can account for the dropping of the 9/2- band in these isotopes while an increase in neutron pairing correlations, having opposite and compensating effects on the rotational moment of inertia, maintains the 9/2- strong-coupled band structure. 105 refs., 27 figs

  13. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements: comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Dorf, M.; H. Bösch; Butz, A.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Engel, A.; Goutail, F.; Grunow, K.; Hendrick, F.; Hrechanyy, S.; B. Naujokat; J.-P. Pommereau; Van Roozendael, M.; C. Sioris; F. Stroh

    2006-01-01

    For the first time, results of four stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM). Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) satellite instrument. The balloon observations include (a) balloon-borne in situ ...

  14. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements: comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Dorf, M.; H. Bösch; Butz, A.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Engel, A.; Goutail, F.; Grunow, K.; Hendrick, F.; Hrechanyy, S.; B. Naujokat; J.-P. Pommereau; Van Roozendael, M.; C. Sioris; F. Stroh

    2005-01-01

    For the first time, results of all four existing stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM). Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) satellite instrument. The balloon observations include (a) balloon-b...

  15. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements: comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Dorf, M.; H. Bösch; Butz, A.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Engel, A.; Goutail, F.; Grunow, K.; Hendrick, F.; Hrechanyy, S.; B. Naujokat; Pommereau, J.-P.; Van Roozendael, M.; C. Sioris; F. Stroh

    2005-01-01

    International audience For the first time, results of all four existing stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM). Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) satellite instrument. The balloon observat...

  16. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements: comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Dorf, M.; H. Bösch; Butz, A.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Engel, A.; Goutail, F.; Grunow, K.; Hendrick, F.; Hrechanyy, S.; B. Naujokat; Pommereau, J.-P.; Van Roozendael, M.; C. Sioris; F. Stroh

    2006-01-01

    International audience For the first time, results of four stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM). Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) satellite instrument. The balloon observations include ...

  17. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements : comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Dorf, Marcel; Bösch, Hartmut; BUTZ Andre; Camy-Peyret, Claude C.; Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Engel, Andreas; Goutail, Florence; Grunow, Katja; Hendrick, François; Hrechanyy, Serhiy; Naujokat, Barbara; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Van Roozendael, Michel; Sioris, Christopher E.; Stroh, Fred

    2005-01-01

    For the first time, results of all four existing stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM). Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) satellite instrument. The balloon observations include (a) balloon-b...

  18. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements: comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Dorf, Marcel; Bösch, Hartmut; BUTZ Andre; Camy-Peyret, Claude C.; Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Engel, Andreas; Goutail, Florence; Grunow, Katja; Hendrick, François; Hrechanyy, Serhiy; Naujokat, Barbara; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Van Roozendael, Michel; Sioris, Christopher E.; Stroh, Fred

    2006-01-01

    For the first time, results of all four existing stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM). Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) satellite instrument. The balloon observations include (a) balloon-b...

  19. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements: comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Dorf, M.; H. Bösch; B. Naujokat; Pommereau, J. P.; Van Roozendael, M.; C. Sioris; F. Stroh; Weidner, F.; K. Pfeilsticker; Butz, A.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Engel, A.; Goutail, F.; Grunow, K.

    2006-01-01

    For the first time, results of four stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM). Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) satellite instrument. The balloon observations include ( a) balloon-borne in situ...

  20. BR-SIPP: PETROBRAS Integrated Scheduling System; BR-SIPP: Sistema Integrado de Progamacao de Producao da PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Cristiane S.; Joly, Marcel; Hassimotto, Marcelo K.; Magalhaes, Marcus Vinicius O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The lack of a computational aided technology to support short-term scheduling activity in the oil and petrochemical sector has been identified as one of the major obstacles to the harmonic integration of production objectives subsequent to the implementation of the advanced control systems and the consolidation of important benefits at the process unit level. Such technology refers to an analytical tool able to capture plant operational information consistent with the scheduling layer demands, modeling the production system economic performance, and providing mechanisms to consider commercial, operation and technological uncertainties. In this context, PETROBRAS has continuously dedicated effort to develop, implement and enhance its own refinery scheduling solution. Nowadays at its second version, the PETROBRAS Integrated Scheduling System (BR-SIPP - INPI grant 00067400) has become the focus of corporate care, given its critical role on the link between planning objectives and plant operations, according to the hierarchical decision strategy currently adopted by PETROBRAS. This paper presents an overview of the tool and illustrates some real-world applications and main realized benefits. (author)

  1. Theoretical Study on the Reaction Mechanism of F2+2HBr=2HF+Br2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The gas phase reaction mechanism of F2 + 2HBr = 2HF + Br2 has been investigated by (U)MP2 at 6-311G** level, and a series of four-center and three-center transition states have been obtained. The reaction mechanism was achieved by comparing the activation energy of seven reaction paths, i.e. the dissociation energy of F2 is less than the activation energy of the bimolecular elementary reaction F2 + HBr → HF + BrF. Thus it is theoretically proved that the title reaction occurs more easily inthe free radical reaction with three medium steps.

  2. Design of the RF system for Alfven wave heating and current drive in a TCA/BR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advanced RF system for Alfven wave plasma heating and current drive in TCA/BR tokamak is presented. The antenna system is capable of exciting the standing and travelling wave M = -1,N = 1,N =-4,-6 with single helicity and thus provides the possibility to improve Alfven wave plasma heating efficiency in TCA/BR tokamak and to increase input power level up to P ≅ 1 MW, without the uncontrolled density rise which was encountered in previous TCA (Switzerland) experiments. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  3. Theoretical Investigations on the Interaction Nature of Br2 with HF, H2O and NH3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wen-Sheng; WANG Zhao-Xu; ZHENG Bai-Shu; SHU Hua; LI Xiang; WU Jun-Yong

    2007-01-01

    The interactions of HF, H2O and NH3 with Br2 are investigated at the MP2(full)/ aug-cc-pVDZ level. It is found that two kinds of stable complexes, halogen-bonded and hydrogen- bonded complexes, exist between Br2 and HF and between Br2 and H2O. The interaction energy analysis and natural population analysis (NPA) are conducted to these two kinds of complexes, indicating the halogen-bonded complexes are more stable than the corresponding hydrogen-bonded ones, and the binding energies of the former increase in the order HF<H2O<NH3, different from HF>H2O for the latter.

  4. Molecular dynamics simulations of Si etching in Cl- and Br-based plasmas: Cl+ and Br+ ion incidence in the presence of Cl and Br neutrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed for Cl+ and Br+ ions incident on Si(100) surfaces with Cl and Br neutrals, respectively, to gain a better understanding of the ion-enhanced surface reaction kinetics during Si etching in Cl- and Br-based plasmas. The ions were incident normally on surfaces with translational energies in the range Ei = 20–500 eV, and low-energy neutrals of En = 0.01 eV were also incident normally thereon with the neutral-to-ion flux ratio in the range Γn0/Γi0 = 0–100, where an improved Stillinger--Weber potential form was employed for the interatomic potential concerned. The etch yields and thresholds presently simulated were in agreement with the experimental results previously reported for Si etching in Cl2 and Br2 plasmas as well as in Cl+, Cl2+, and Br+ beams, and the product stoichiometry simulated was consistent with that observed during Ar+ beam incidence on Si in Cl2. Moreover, the surface coverage of halogen atoms, halogenated layer thickness, surface stoichiometry, and depth profile of surface products simulated for Γn0/Γi0 = 100 were in excellent agreement with the observations depending on Ei reported for Si etching in Cl2 plasmas. The MD also indicated that the yield, coverage, and surface layer thickness are smaller in Si/Br than in Si/Cl system, while the percentage of higher halogenated species in product and surface stoichiometries is larger in Si/Br. The MD further indicated that in both systems, the translational energy distributions of products and halogen adsorbates desorbed from surfaces are approximated by two Maxwellians of temperature T1 ≈ 2500 K and T2 ≈ 7000–40 000 K. These energy distributions are discussed in terms of the desorption or evaporation from hot spots formed through chemically enhanced physical sputtering and physically enhanced chemical sputtering, which have so far been speculated to both occur in the ion-enhanced surface reaction

  5. Molecular dynamics simulations of Si etching in Cl- and Br-based plasmas: Cl+ and Br+ ion incidence in the presence of Cl and Br neutrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazaki, Nobuya; Takao, Yoshinori; Eriguchi, Koji; Ono, Kouichi

    2015-12-01

    Classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed for Cl+ and Br+ ions incident on Si(100) surfaces with Cl and Br neutrals, respectively, to gain a better understanding of the ion-enhanced surface reaction kinetics during Si etching in Cl- and Br-based plasmas. The ions were incident normally on surfaces with translational energies in the range Ei = 20-500 eV, and low-energy neutrals of En = 0.01 eV were also incident normally thereon with the neutral-to-ion flux ratio in the range Γn0/Γi0 = 0-100, where an improved Stillinger--Weber potential form was employed for the interatomic potential concerned. The etch yields and thresholds presently simulated were in agreement with the experimental results previously reported for Si etching in Cl2 and Br2 plasmas as well as in Cl+, Cl2+, and Br+ beams, and the product stoichiometry simulated was consistent with that observed during Ar+ beam incidence on Si in Cl2. Moreover, the surface coverage of halogen atoms, halogenated layer thickness, surface stoichiometry, and depth profile of surface products simulated for Γn0/Γi0 = 100 were in excellent agreement with the observations depending on Ei reported for Si etching in Cl2 plasmas. The MD also indicated that the yield, coverage, and surface layer thickness are smaller in Si/Br than in Si/Cl system, while the percentage of higher halogenated species in product and surface stoichiometries is larger in Si/Br. The MD further indicated that in both systems, the translational energy distributions of products and halogen adsorbates desorbed from surfaces are approximated by two Maxwellians of temperature T1 ≈ 2500 K and T2 ≈ 7000-40 000 K. These energy distributions are discussed in terms of the desorption or evaporation from hot spots formed through chemically enhanced physical sputtering and physically enhanced chemical sputtering, which have so far been speculated to both occur in the ion-enhanced surface reaction kinetics of plasma etching.

  6. Br2 molecular elimination in photolysis of (COBr)2 at 248 nm by using cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy: A photodissociation channel being ignored

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A primary dissociation channel of Br2 elimination is detected following a single-photon absorption of (COBr)2 at 248 nm by using cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy. The technique contains two laser beams propagating in a perpendicular configuration. The tunable laser beam along the axis of the ring-down cell probes the Br2 fragment in the B3Πou+-X1Σg+ transition. The measurements of laser energy- and pressure-dependence and addition of a Br scavenger are further carried out to rule out the probability of Br2 contribution from a secondary reaction. By means of spectral simulation, the ratio of nascent vibrational population for v = 0, 1, and 2 levels is evaluated to be 1:(0.65 ± 0.09):(0.34 ± 0.07), corresponding to a Boltzmann vibrational temperature of 893 ± 31 K. The quantum yield of the ground state Br2 elimination reaction is determined to be 0.11 ± 0.06. With the aid of ab initio potential energy calculations, the pathway of molecular elimination is proposed on the energetic ground state (COBr)2 via internal conversion. A four-center dissociation mechanism is followed synchronously or sequentially yielding three fragments of Br2+ 2CO. The resulting Br2 is anticipated to be vibrationally hot. The measurement of a positive temperature effect supports the proposed mechanism.

  7. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements: comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dorf

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, results of all four existing stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM. Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY satellite instrument. The balloon observations include (a balloon-borne in situ resonance fluorescence detection of BrO, (b balloon-borne solar occultation DOAS measurements (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy of BrO in the UV, and (c BrO profiling from the solar occultation SAOZ (Systeme d'Analyse par Observation Zenithale balloon instrument. Since stratospheric BrO is subject to considerable diurnal variation and none of the measurements are performed close enough in time and space for a direct comparison, all balloon observations are considered with reference to outputs from the 3-D CTM. The referencing is performed by forward and backward air mass trajectory calculations to match the balloon with the satellite observations. The diurnal variation of BrO is considered by 1-D photochemical model calculation along the trajectories. The 1-D photochemical model is initialised with output data of the 3-D model with additional constraints on the vertical transport, the total amount and photochemistry of stratospheric bromine as given by the various balloon observations. Total [Bry]=(20.1±2.8pptv obtained from DOAS BrO observations at mid-latitudes in 2003, serves as an upper limit of the comparison. Most of the balloon observations agree with the photochemical model predictions within their given error estimates. First retrieval exercises of BrO limb profiling from the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument agree to <±50% with the photochemically-corrected balloon observations, and tend to show less agreement

  8. Active deformation processes of the Northern Caucasus deduced from the GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milyukov, Vadim; Mironov, Alexey; Rogozhin, Eugeny; Steblov, Grigory; Gabsatarov, Yury

    2015-04-01

    The Northern Caucasus, as a part of the Alpine-Himalayan mobile belt, is a zone of complex tectonics associated with the interaction of the two major tectonic plates, Arabian and Eurasian. The first GPS study of the contemporary geodynamics of the Caucasus mountain system were launched in the early 1990s in the framework of the Russia-US joint project. Since 2005 observations of the modern tectonic motion of the Northern Caucasus are carried out using the continuous GPS network. This network encompasses the territory of three Northern Caucasian Republics of the Russian Federation: Karachay-Cherkessia, Kabardino-Balkaria, and North Ossetia. In the Ossetian part of the Northern Caucasus the network of GPS survey-mode sites has been deployed as well. The GPS velocities confirm weak general compression of the Northern Caucasus with at the rate of about 1-2 mm/year. This horizontal motion at the boundary of the Northern Caucasus with respect to the Eurasian plate causes the higher seismic and tectonic activity of this transition zone. This result confirms that the source of deformation of the Northern Caucasus is the sub-meridional drift of the Arabian plate towards the adjacent boundary of the Eastern European part of the Eurasian lithospheric plate. The concept of such convergence implies that the Caucasian segment of the Alpine-Himalayan mobile belt is under compression, the layers of sedimentary and volcanic rocks are folded, the basement blocks are subject to shifts in various directions, and the upper crust layers are ruptured by reverse faults and thrusts. Weak deviation of observed velocities from the pattern corresponding to homogeneous compression can also be revealed, and numerical modeling of deformations of major regional tectonic structures, such as the Main Caucasus Ridge, can explain this. The deformation tensor deduced from the velocity field also exhibits the sub-meridional direction of the major compressional axes which coincides with the direction of

  9. Atmospheric test of the J(BrONO2)/kBrO+NO2 ratio: implications for total stratospheric Bry and bromine-mediated ozone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreycy, S.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Dorf, M.; Feng, W.; Hossaini, R.; Kritten, L.; Werner, B.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2013-07-01

    We report on time-dependent O3, NO2 and BrO profiles measured by limb observations of scattered skylight in the stratosphere over Kiruna (67.9° N, 22.1° E) on 7 and 8 September 2009 during the autumn circulation turn-over. The observations are complemented by simultaneous direct solar occultation measurements around sunset and sunrise performed aboard the same stratospheric balloon payload. Supporting radiative transfer and photochemical modelling indicate that the measurements can be used to constrain the ratio J(BrONO2)/kBrO+NO2, for which at T = 220 ± 5 K an overall 1.7 (+0.4 -0.2) larger ratio is found than recommended by the most recent Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) compilation (Sander et al., 2011). Sensitivity studies reveal the major reasons are likely to be (1) a larger BrONO2 absorption cross-section σBrONO2, primarily for wavelengths larger than 300 nm, and (2) a smaller kBrO+NO2 at 220 K than given by Sander et al. (2011). Other factors, e.g. the actinic flux and quantum yield for the dissociation of BrONO2, can be ruled out. The observations also have consequences for total inorganic stratospheric bromine (Bry) estimated from stratospheric BrO measurements at high NOx loadings, since the ratio J(BrONO2)/kBrO+NO2 largely determines the stratospheric BrO/Bry ratio during daylight. Using the revised J(BrONO2)/kBrO+NO2 ratio, total stratospheric Bry is likely to be 1.4 ppt smaller than previously estimated from BrO profile measurements at high NOx loadings. This would bring estimates of Bry inferred from organic source gas measurements (e.g. CH3Br, the halons, CH2Br2, CHBr3, etc.) into closer agreement with estimates based on BrO observations (inorganic method). The consequences for stratospheric ozone due to the revised J(BrONO2)/kBrO+NO2 ratio are small (maximum -0.8%), since at high NOx (for which most Bry assessments are made) the enhanced ozone loss by overestimating Bry is compensated for by the suppressed ozone loss due to the underestimation

  10. BrUGE1 transgenic rice showed improved growth performance with enhanced drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdula, Sailila E; Lee, Hye Jung; Kim, Joonki; Niño, Marjohn C; Jung, Yu-Jin; Cho, Young-Chan; Nou, Illsup; Kang, Kwon-Kyoo; Cho, Yong-Gu

    2016-03-01

    UDP-glucose 4-epimerase (UGE) catalyzes the reversible conversion of UDP-glucose to UDP-galactose. To understand the biological function of UGE from Brassica rapa, the gene BrUGE1 was cloned and introduced into the genome of wild type rice 'Gopum' using the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. Four lines which carried a single copy gene were selected and forwarded to T3 generation. Agronomic traits evaluation of the transgenic T3 lines (CB01, CB03, and CB06) under optimal field conditions revealed enriched biomass production particularly in panicle length, number of productive tillers, number of spikelets per panicle, and filled spikelets. These remarkably improved agronomic traits were ascribed to a higher photosynthetic rate complemented with higher CO2 assimilation. Transcripts of BrUGE1 in transgenic lines continuously accumulated at higher levels after the 20% PEG6000 treatment, implying its probable role in drought stress regulation. This was paralleled by rapid accumulation of soluble sugars which act as osmoprotectants, leading to delayed leaf rolling and drying. Our findings suggest the potential of BrUGE1 in improving rice growth performance under optimal and water deficit conditions. PMID:27162494

  11. High-resolution continuum source electrothermal absorption spectrometry of AlBr and CaBr for the determination of bromine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Mao Dong; Becker-Ross, Helmut; Florek, Stefan; Heitmann, Uwe [ISAS - Institute for Analytical Sciences, Department of Interface Spectroscopy, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Okruss, Michael [Gesellschaft zur Foerderung angewandter Optik, Optoelektronik, Quantenelektronik und Spektroskopie (GOS) e.V., Rudower Chaussee 29, 12489 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: okruss@isas.de

    2008-05-15

    Molecular absorption spectra of AlBr and CaBr, produced in a graphite furnace, were investigated using a high-resolution echelle spectrometer equipped with a xenon short-arc lamp as continuum source. The analytical usability of the spectra for the determination of bromine was studied. To this end, the molecular absorptions of AlBr at 278.914 nm and CaBr at 625.315 nm were evaluated. Apart from strong absorption bands of CaF around 625.3 nm, which disturb the use of CaBr, no spectral interferences were observed for both AlBr and CaBr. Regarding chemical interference with matrix substances, the molecular absorption of AlBr and CaBr is influenced in a different way. While the sensitivity of the CaBr absorption is susceptible to chloride, aluminum, potassium and sodium ions, there is no significant effect on the AlBr absorption. In contrast, the inorganic acids (nitric, phosphoric, and sulfuric) have an influence on AlBr, but not on the CaBr molecular absorption. Therefore, the two methods complement each other and each has its own application area. Regarding real samples, a salt sample from the death sea and an organic pharmaceutical were evaluated. The results were in good agreement with those derived from two independent methods and with an existing reference value. Relative standard deviations were found in the range of 5%. The limit of detection for bromine was about 2 ng for both AlBr and CaBr molecular absorption; the dynamic range was linear at least up to 250 ng Br.

  12. New insight into halogen release from experimental studies on BrO/Br ratios in volcanic plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrowski, Nicole; Wittmer, Julian; Liotta, Marcello; Calabrese, Sergio; Giuffrida, Giovanni; Brusca, Lorenzo; Platt, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    Since the discovery of BrO in a volcanic plume (Bobrowski et al. 2003) many measurements have been performed as well as modelling to understand the radical chemistry in volcanic plumes, in particular, the interaction between volcanic gas species, released under strongly reduced conditions, and the oxidizing atmosphere. Besides the goal in atmospheric chemistry to better determine the impact of volcanic emission (e.g. reactive bromine) on the local (and maybe global) scale, volcanologists also have an interest to understand if the BrO/SO2 ratios can be used as a monitoring parameter giving further insides in dynamic processes of volcanoes. However, one of the arguments which potentially makes volcanological interpretations difficult is the reactivity of BrO. Therefore it is, of great importance to link the measurements of BrO and gaseous hydrogen bromide to the total emission flux of bromine in order to estimate the pristine gas composition released from magmas. In particular, trace gas composition of the surrounding atmosphere, the volcanic gas composition and meteorological parameters can all potentially effect the formation of BrO and might have to be considered. Some of these factors potentially also influence near source (crater rim) in-situ measurement. We need to answer the question: Can we correlate BrO measurements to the total bromine outgassing? Only with this knowledge we can relate changes of the measured gas ratios (BrO/SO2) to the volcanic fluids emitted by the underlying magma and can interpret data as signals from depth, which provide insight on the degassing of magmatic bodies inside the Earth. Some studies indicate that the BrO/SO2 ratio is close to a temporarily equilibrium already after only few minutes of the gas emission from the vent (e.g. Bobrowski and Giuffrida, 2012). This equilibrium seems to be relatively independent from meteorological parameters except for extreme conditions. We here present an empirical approach to answer the above

  13. Lifetime measurement of 75Br with inverse kinematic reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    75Br is an isotone of 74Se and 76Kr. Both of them are known for showing shape coexistence with different shape in ground state. It is a question whether odd particle, in this case a proton in 75Br, stabilizes one of the shape or feel the shape co-existence of the core. Transitional probabilities and magnetic moment of the states will help in answering these questions. Thus it motivates us to re-measure the lifetime of excited states of ground state band of 75Br using inverse reaction and to provide necessary information about the feeding time of these states which can then be used in magnetic moment measurement

  14. Pressure-induced structural changes in NH4Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanping; Huang, Xiaoli; Li, Wenbo; Wang, Lu; Wu, Gang; Zhao, Zhonglong; Duan, Defang; Bao, Kuo; Zhou, Qiang; Liu, Bingbing; Cui, Tian

    2015-08-14

    We report angle dispersive X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements and Raman spectroscopy on NH4Br up to 70.0 GPa at room temperature. Three thermodynamically stable phases (phases II, IV, and V) are confirmed and a new possible phase (phase VI) of P21/m symmetry is proposed whose structure was established from Rietveld refinement of synchrotron XRD data for the first time. The phase sequence observed in NH4Br is in accordance with phase II → IV → V → VI. Phase V transforms into phase VI at about 57.8 GPa with a huge volume reduction of 30%. Still, the intramolecular distances are analyzed to better understand the nature of structures. The H-H interactions become markedly more important as the N-Br distances are compacted, which is probably the reason of the kink of symmetric stretching band (ν1) at the transition pressure. PMID:26277143

  15. Pressure-induced structural changes in NH4Br

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report angle dispersive X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements and Raman spectroscopy on NH4Br up to 70.0 GPa at room temperature. Three thermodynamically stable phases (phases II, IV, and V) are confirmed and a new possible phase (phase VI) of P21/m symmetry is proposed whose structure was established from Rietveld refinement of synchrotron XRD data for the first time. The phase sequence observed in NH4Br is in accordance with phase II → IV → V → VI. Phase V transforms into phase VI at about 57.8 GPa with a huge volume reduction of 30%. Still, the intramolecular distances are analyzed to better understand the nature of structures. The H–H interactions become markedly more important as the N–Br distances are compacted, which is probably the reason of the kink of symmetric stretching band (ν1) at the transition pressure

  16. Henkilöbrändäyksen mahdollisuudet kauneudenhoitoalalla

    OpenAIRE

    Gallotti, Mirva

    2015-01-01

    Henkilöbrändäys on vielä suhteellisen uusi termi ja ilmiö Suomessa. Kuitenkin parin viime vuoden aikana aihe on ollut entistä useammin esillä mediassa. Kiristynyt tilanne työmarkkinoilla on pakottanut ihmisiä löytämään tapoja, joilla voi erottautua massasta ja luoda positiivista kuvaa itsestä. Henkilöbrändäystä voidaan kutsua oman osaamisen ja asiantuntijuuden profiloinniksi. Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoitus oli tutkia olisiko henkilöbrändäyksestä apua työllistymiseen ja uralla etenemiseen myös ...

  17. Raman spectra of ZnBr2-based glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman spectra of ZnBr2-KBr and ZnBr2-KBr-CaBr2 glasses contain strong bands at 60 cm-1 and 155 or 174 cm-1 and some weak bands between 200-300 cm-1. From the compositional dependence of the spectra and comparison with vibrational modes of molten mixtures and crystals, the 155 and 174 cm-1 bands are assigned to symmetric stretching modes of tetrahedra consisting of four bridging and four non-bridging bromines, respectively. It is revealed that tetrahedra of bridging bromines exist in the glasses even at the composition of so large amount of bromine that the theoretical number of non-bridging bromine per zinc is beyond 4. (author) 6 refs., 4 figs

  18. Thermal neutron imaging with CsBr storage phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The storage phosphor material CsBr:Eu2+ has been investigated for use in thermal neutron imaging. CsBr:Eu2+ imaging plates were prepared in a polycrystalline form by cold pressing starting powders. These as-prepared materials show only small photostimulated luminescence intensity under thermal neutron irradiation, but the luminescence intensity can be increased by incorporating separate neutron converters, in the form of lithium, boron or gadolinium containing compounds. An imaging plate containing 5% 10B2O3 as a neutron converter has 50% the photostimulated luminescence intensity of a commercial Fuji neutron imaging plate. Thermal neutron imaging was shown to be possible with the CsBr:Eu2+-based imaging plates, and the differences in thermal neutron and X-ray images were clearly observed

  19. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements: comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dorf

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, results of four stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM. Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY satellite instrument. The balloon observations include (a balloon-borne in situ resonance fluorescence detection of BrO (Triple, (b balloon-borne solar occultation DOAS measurements (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy of BrO in the UV, and (c BrO profiling from the solar occultation SAOZ (Systeme d'Analyse par Observation Zenithale balloon instrument. Since stratospheric BrO is subject to considerable diurnal variation and none of the measurements are performed close enough in time and space for a direct comparison, all balloon observations are considered with reference to outputs from the 3-D CTM. The referencing is performed by forward and backward air mass trajectory calculations to match the balloon with the satellite observations. The diurnal variation of BrO is considered by 1-D photochemical model calculation along the trajectories. The 1-D photochemical model is initialised with output data of the 3-D model with additional constraints on the vertical transport, the total amount and photochemistry of stratospheric bromine as given by the various balloon observations. Total [Bry]=(20.1±2.5 pptv obtained from DOAS BrO observations at mid-latitudes in 2003, serves as an upper limit of the comparison. Most of the balloon observations agree with the photochemical model predictions within their given error estimates. First retrieval exercises of BrO limb profiling from the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument on average agree to around 20% with the photochemically-corrected balloon observations of the remote sensing instruments (SAOZ

  20. The X-ray response of TlBr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of a series of X-ray measurements on several prototype TlBr detectors. The devices were fabricated from mono-crystalline material and were typically of size 2.7x2.7x0.8 mm3. The material is extremely pure, having impurity concentrations -4and 1x10-5 cm2 V-1, respectively, which are about an order of magnitude higher than previously reported values. Three detectors were fabricated and extensively tested over the energy range 2.3-100 keV at three synchrotron radiation facilities: the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) laboratory at the Berliner Elektronenspeicherring fuer Synchrotronstrahlung (BESSY II), the European Synchrotron Radiation Research Facility (ESRF) and the Hamburger Synchrotron-strahlungslabor (HASYLAB) radiation facility. Room temperature energy resolutions under full-area illumination of 1.8 and 3.3 keV FWHM have been achieved at 5.9 and 59.95 keV, respectively. At reduced detector temperatures of -30 deg. C, these fall to 800 eV and 2.6 keV FWHM, respectively. Under monochromatic pencil beam illumination, the measured energy resolutions at 6 and 60 keV were 664 eV and ∼3 keV FWHM at the same temperature. For energies 2, 12 keV mono-energetic X-ray beam, raster scanned over the forward active area. Whilst two detectors were spatially uniform to a level commensurate with statistics, the third was not. In all cases, evidence was found for charge collection problems caused by field fringing

  1. Simultaneous production of high-pure 76Br, 77Br and 79Kr using an isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A production method of the bromine radioisotopes 76Br and 77Br in high radiochemical purity has been developed without using an isotopically enriched target, instead, their precursors 76Kr and 77Kr produced in a NaBr target by proton irradiation were mass-separated and implanted into Al foils together with 79Kr by means of a high-resolution isotope separator. The isotope separation efficiencies of the radiokryptons with a compact ECR ion source were found to be 15±2%. The 79Kr was recovered cryogenically from the Al foil heated, while 76Kr and 77Kr were allowed to decay for 14.6 h and 1.24 h, respectively during which the almost maximum growth of 76Br and 77Br occurred. A comparison was made between anion and cation exchange methods for chemical separation of the radiobromines from the Al foils. The recovery efficiencies were found to be almost identical between then, and better than 95%. (author)

  2. Using the Sub-Game Perfect Nash Equilibrium to Deduce the Effect of Government Subsidy on Consumption Rates and Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Magdi Amer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Governments are interested in inducing positive habits and behaviors in its citizens and discouraging ones that are harmful to the individual or to the society. Taxation and legislation are usually used to discourage negative behaviors. Subsidy seems the politically correct way to encourage positive behaviors. In this paper, the Subgame Perfect Nash Equilibrium is used to deduce the effect of the government subsidy on the user consumption, prices and producer and distributor profits.

  3. Brändin kehittäminen : Even juoksukoulu

    OpenAIRE

    Koli, Eveliina

    2016-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selkeyttää Even juoksukoulun brändin tavoitemielikuvaa. Opinnäytetyön tutkimuksen avulla pyrittiin selvittämään Even juoksukoulun brändin tilannetta sekä luomaan sen avulla toiminnalle selkeä missio ja visio. Lisäksi tutkimuksen avulla haluttiin selvittää Even juoksukoulun tunnettavuutta. Even juoksukoulun tarkoituksena on tarjota monipuolisia harjoituksia, opastaa oikeaoppista tekniikkaa ja kehittää asiakkaiden tietämystä lihaskunnon ja liikkuvuuden tä...

  4. Brändin esiintyvyys blogeissa - Case Adidas

    OpenAIRE

    Kolehmainen, Tiia

    2013-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää adidas -brändin blogiesiintyvyys suomalaisissa blogeissa. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli saada käsitys siitä, millaisissa muodoissa adidas-brändi esiintyy Suomen suosituimmissa blogeissa. Tutkimuksessa tutkittiin myös Adidaksen kampanjan blogiesiintyvyyttä. Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantajana toimi Adidas Suomi Oy, joka on osa globaalia Adidas Groupia. Yritys on yksi maailman johtavimmista urheilutuotemerkeistä. Tutkimuksen teoreettisessa osuud...

  5. The BR1 Reactor:. a Versatile Tool for Fission Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemans, J.

    2008-04-01

    The BR1 reactor located at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK·CEN in Mol, Belgium, is a research reactor with a variety of irradiation possibilities. Thanks to its large reactor core, its flexible operation and its different irradiation facilities, this reactor is particularly suited for in-core and ex-core neutron physics experiments. This paper gives a general description of the BR1 reactor, with special emphasis on the available irradiation possibilities. Then some examples of fission experiments that have been performed in the past will be referred to and two ongoing projects related to fission will be presented.

  6. Brändit kustannustoiminassa CASE: Arktinen Banaani

    OpenAIRE

    Pursiainen, Anna-Liisa

    2010-01-01

    Brändien rakentaminen on aina kovaa ja systemaattista työtä toimialasta riippumatta. Yritykset kehittävät tuotteita ja koko toimintaa kysyntä- ja markkinalähtöisesti. Perinteisillä toimialoilla jollaiseksi myös kustannusala voidaan lukea, toimintaa ja kehitystyötä on viime aikoina tehty jatkuvien muutosten parissa. Suuret kustannusyhtiöt ovat ostaneet pienempiä samalla kun osa yhtiöistä on kiristyvän kilpailutilanteen vuoksi lopettanut toimintansa. Tuotteistaminen ja brändin luominen ...

  7. Skandaalin vaikutus brändin imagoon - Case Audi

    OpenAIRE

    Puntalo, Ville-Veikko

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin Volkswagenin päästöhuijausskandaalin vaikutusta Audi-brändin imagoon. Tutkimuksessa pyrittiin selvittämään onko ennakoitavissa mahdollisia myyntitulosten muutoksia ja johtuivatko ne kyseisestä skandaalista. Opinnäytetyön teoriaosuudessa perehdyttiin ostokäyttäytymisen prosessiin, brändin rakentumiseen, positiivisen maineen saavuttamiseen ja tunnettuihin yritysmaailman skandaaleihin. Lisäksi käytiin läpi Volkswagen päästöskandaalin taustaa sekä sen seurauksia. ...

  8. Brändistrategian merkitys yrityksen digitaalisessa markkinoinnissa

    OpenAIRE

    Niskala, Harri

    2011-01-01

    Tämä tutkielma on kirjoitettu siksi, että olen aikaisemmin työskennellyt digitaalista markkinointia myyvän yrityksen palveluksessa. Kyseinen työnantaja, Advertising Media Finland Oy, on ollut tämän tutkielman toimeksiantaja. Työn tavoitteena oli selvittää, kuinka suuri merkitys brändistrategialla on suomalaisissa yrityksissä. Lisäksi pyrittiin selvittämään, mikä on suomalaisten yritysten brändi-identiteetin ja imagon merkitys digitaalisessa markkinoinissa. Näiden kahden asian lisäksi selvitet...

  9. Image quality assessment of LaBr3-based whole-body 3D PET scanners: a Monte Carlo evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main thrust for this work is the investigation and design of a whole-body PET scanner based on new lanthanum bromide scintillators. We use Monte Carlo simulations to generate data for a 3D PET scanner based on LaBr3 detectors, and to assess the count-rate capability and the reconstructed image quality of phantoms with hot and cold spheres using contrast and noise parameters. Previously we have shown that LaBr3 has very high light output, excellent energy resolution and fast timing properties which can lead to the design of a time-of-flight (TOF) whole-body PET camera. The data presented here illustrate the performance of LaBr3 without the additional benefit of TOF information, although our intention is to develop a scanner with TOF measurement capability. The only drawbacks of LaBr3 are the lower stopping power and photo-fraction which affect both sensitivity and spatial resolution. However, in 3D PET imaging where energy resolution is very important for reducing scattered coincidences in the reconstructed image, the image quality attained in a non-TOF LaBr3 scanner can potentially equal or surpass that achieved with other high sensitivity scanners. Our results show that there is a gain in NEC arising from the reduced scatter and random fractions in a LaBr3 scanner. The reconstructed image resolution is slightly worse than a high-Z scintillator, but at increased count-rates, reduced pulse pileup leads to an image resolution similar to that of LSO. Image quality simulations predict reduced contrast for small hot spheres compared to an LSO scanner, but improved noise characteristics at similar clinical activity levels

  10. [The Brüstle v. Greenpeace case and the end of pre-implantation embryos discrimination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In October 2011 the Court of Justice of the European Union pronounced the sentence in the case Brüstle v. Greenpeace. This sentence resolves the preliminary ruling interposed by the Bundesgerichtshof. The object of the preliminary ruling was the interpretation of the expression "human embryos", on 44/98/CE Guideline, in order to resolve the litigation between Brüstle, a German neurobiologist, and Greenpeace. Brüstle have patented a process for obtaining stem cells using cells originally extracted from human embryos, Greenpeace have filed a lawsuit against this patent. The article analyzes the meaning of this sentence in the light of the discrimination of the pre-implantation embryos in Spanish law. The content of the Biopatent Guideline, the Opinions of the European Group on Ethics of Science and New Technologies related to it, the EUJC verdict and the Conclusions of the General Advocate are analyzed. We will pay special attention to the final verdict given on November 27, 2012, by the German Federal Court of Justice. The paper also considers the repercussion of Brüstle case at the European level, examining the activity of the European Parliament, in the frame of the discussion of the program Horizon 2020, and the citizen's initiative "One of us". At the Spanish level, the paper underlines the need to reform the laws of Human Assisted Reproduction and of Biomedical Investigation. PMID:24483320

  11. The obesity-induced transcriptional regulator TRIP-Br2 mediates visceral fat endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Guifen; Kong, Hyerim Whang; Fang, Difeng; McCann, Maximilian; Yang, Xiuying; Du, Guanhua; Blüher, Matthias; Zhu, Jinfang; Liew, Chong Wee

    2016-01-01

    The intimate link between location of fat accumulation and metabolic disease risk and depot-specific differences is well established, but how these differences between depots are regulated at the molecular level remains largely unclear. Here we show that TRIP-Br2 mediates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced inflammatory responses in visceral fat. Using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo approaches, we demonstrate that obesity-induced circulating factors upregulate TRIP-Br2 specifically in visceral fat via the ER stress pathway. We find that ablation of TRIP-Br2 ameliorates both chemical and physiological ER stress-induced inflammatory and acute phase response in adipocytes, leading to lower circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines. Using promoter assays, as well as molecular and pharmacological experiments, we show that the transcription factor GATA3 is responsible for the ER stress-induced TRIP-Br2 expression in visceral fat. Taken together, our study identifies molecular regulators of inflammatory response in visceral fat that-given that these pathways are conserved in humans-might serve as potential therapeutic targets in obesity. PMID:27109496

  12. Aagesta-BR3 Decommissioning Cost. Comparison and Benchmarking Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Geoff [NAC International, Henley on Thames (United Kingdom)

    2002-11-01

    This report presents the results of decommissioning cost analyses focusing on discrete working packages within the decommissioning program of the BR3 reactor in Mol, Belgium and comparison of them with cost estimate data for the Aagesta research reactor in Sweden. The specific BR3 work packages analysed were: Primary coolant piping decontamination; Primary coolant piping dismantling; Vulcain reactor internals dismantling; Westinghouse reactor internals dismantling; Reactor vessel dismantling. The main conclusions to be drawn from the analyses are that: The fixed costs related to decontamination and dismantling activities generally are a very important part of the overall resources needed to execute the work, with the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) seemingly being significantly more demanding than other major components. Cutting activities tend to need something like 150 to 200 labour hours per m{sup 2} of reactor equipment dismantled. Fixed investment costs to set up the equipment needed to cut up major vessels or internals appear to be in the range of MSEK 4 to 8. Consumables costs vary according to the nature of the equipment being dismantled. The thicker the metal being cut, the higher the attrition rate for things such as cutting blades. The range of consumables costs at BR3 have been in the range of MSEK 0.1 to 0.2/m{sup 2} dismantled. The extent of detailed information available in the 1996 Aagesta estimate is not sufficient to enable a full comparison with the BR3 decommissioning results. A global first comparison has been attempted by summing the resources expended on the BR3 work packages described in this report with the combined dismantling data presented in the 1996 Aagesta cost estimate report. Very broadly the cost of decontamination plus dismantling of the main process equipment at Aagesta appears to be in the order of MSEK 70, of which MSEK 4 is labour on preparatory/planning work, MSEK 40 is labour on actual decontamination and dismantling and MSEK

  13. Soybean cultivar BR-16-AHAS tolerance to the herbicide imazapyr Tolerância da soja BR-16-AHAS ao herbicida imazapyr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy Aparecida Manabe Kiihl

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the transgenic soybean BR-16-AHAS genetic constitution on the tolerance to the herbicide imazapyr. BR-16-AHAS was crossed with ten other genotypes. The experimental design was a complete randomized block, in a 2x12x3 factorial arrangement, with two sowing periods (winter and summer, twelve crossing groups and three plant positions (upper, mid and lower, with three replicates. The plants were treated with 100 g ha-1 a.i. of imazapyr at the V3/V4 stage. For each position of the plant (upper, mid and lower, the following variables were assessed: number of pods, number of seeds, seed weight, number of seeds per pod and the 100 seeds weight. The effect of the herbicide varied according to the more affected plant position (upper, mid and lower of each genotype. The use of the same gene ahas of BR-16-AHAS, in various genotypes, results in materials with good tolerance to imazapyr; tolerance levels depend not only on the ahas gene, but also on the presence of other genes.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da constituição genética da soja transgênica BR-16-AHAS sobre a tolerância ao herbicida imazapyr. Dez genótipos foram cruzados com BR-16-AHAS. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos completos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2x12x3, com dois períodos de semeadura (inverno e verão, doze grupos de cruzamentos de plantas e três posições (superior, médio e inferior, com três repetições. As plantas foram submetidas ao tratamento com imazapyr, 100 g ha-1 do i.a., nos estádios V3 e V4. Para cada posição da planta (superior, médio e inferior, foram avaliados: número de vagens, número de sementes, peso de sementes, número de sementes por vagem e peso de 100 sementes. Os efeitos do herbicida variaram quanto à posição da planta (alta, média e baixa mais afetada em cada genótipo. O uso do mesmo gene ahas da BR-16-AHAS, em diferentes genótipos, resulta em materiais

  14. Molecular Characterization of Brown Carbon (BrC) Chromophores in Secondary Organic Aerosol Generated From Photo-Oxidation of Toluene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Peng; Liu, Jiumeng; Shilling, John E.; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

    2015-09-28

    Atmospheric Brown carbon (BrC) is a significant contributor to light absorption and climate forcing. However, little is known about a fundamental relationship between the chemical composition of BrC and its optical properties. In this work, light-absorbing secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was generated in the PNNL chamber from toluene photo-oxidation in the presence of NOx (Tol-SOA). Molecular structures of BrC components were examined using nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) and liquid chromatography (LC) combined with UV/Vis spectroscopy and electrospray ionization (ESI) high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The chemical composition of BrC chromophores and the light absorption properties of toluene SOA (Tol-SOA) depend strongly on the initial NOx concentration. Specifically, Tol-SOA generated under high-NOx conditions (defined here as initial NOx/toluene of 5/1) appears yellow and mass absorption coefficient of the bulk sample (MACbulk@365nm = 0.78 m2 g-1) is nearly 80 fold higher than that measured for the Tol-SOA sample generated under low-NOx conditions (NOx/toluene < 1/300). Fifteen compounds, most of which are nitrophenols, are identified as major BrC chromophores responsible for the enhanced light absorption of Tol-SOA material produced in the presence of NOx. The integrated absorbance of these fifteen chromophores accounts for 40-60% of the total light absorbance by Tol-SOA at wavelengths between 300 nm and 500 nm. The combination of tandem LC-UV/Vis-ESI/HRMS measurements provides an analytical platform for predictive understanding of light absorption properties by BrC and their relationship to the structure of individual chromophores. General trends in the UV/vis absorption by plausible isomers of the BrC chromophores were evaluated using theoretical chemistry calculations. The molecular-level understanding of BrC chemistry is helpful for better understanding the evolution and behavior of light absorbing aerosols in the atmosphere.

  15. The New Locality of Chenopodium Pumilio R. Br. in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Witosławski, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    The clammy goosefoot Chenopodium pumilio R. Br. is a rare anthropophyte in the Polish flora. Hitherto, this species was recorded in Gdańsk and Rybnik. The present study describes the newly-discovered locality in Stryków near Łódź (Central Poland), the occurrence of this species in Poland and the general geographical distribution in the world.

  16. The new locality of Chetiopodium pumilio R. Br. in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Witosławski, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    The clammy goosefoot Chenopodium pumilio R. Br. is a rare anthropophyte in the Polish flora. Hitherto, this species was recorded in Gdańsk and Rybnik. The present study describes the newly-discovered locality in Stryków near Łódź (Central Poland), the occurrence of this species in Poland and the general geographical distribution in the world.

  17. The stability of TlBr detectors at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thallium bromide (TlBr) is a promising semiconductor detector material due to its high atomic number (Tl: 81, Br: 35), high density (7.56 g/cm3) and wide band gap (2.68 eV). Current TlBr detectors suffer from polarization, which causes performance degradation over time when high voltage is applied. A 4.6-mm thick TlBr detector with pixellated anodes made by Radiation Monitoring Devices Inc. was used in the experiments. The detector has a planar cathode and nine anode pixels surrounded by a guard ring. The pixel pitch is 1.0-mm. Digital pulse waveforms of preamplifier outputs were recorded using a multi-channel GaGe PCI digitizer board for pulse shaping. Several experiments were carried out at -20 oC while the detector was under bias for over a month. No polarization effect was observed and the detector's spectroscopic performance improved over time. Energy resolution of 1.5% FWHM at 662 keV has been measured without depth correction at -2000 V cathode bias. Average electron mobility-lifetime of (5.7±0.8) x10-3 cm2/V has been measured from four anode pixels.

  18. Narva kant vajab oma brändi / Esko Passila

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Passila, Esko

    2007-01-01

    Autor leiab, et Ida-Virumaa peaks looma ühtse tugeva brändi, mille alusel tulevikuotsuseid teha. See peaks tooma välja soodsa asukoha eelised, võimalused, tööjõu kättesaadavuse, kasutusvalmid maa-alad, hinnad jne.

  19. Analytical potential energy function for the Br + H2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical functions with a many-body expansion for the ground and first-excited-state potential energy surfaces for the Br+H2 system are newly presented in this work. These functions describe the abstraction and exchange reactions qualitatively well, although it has been found that the function for the ground-state potential surface is still quantitatively unsatisfactory. (author)

  20. Aagesta-BR3 Decommissioning Cost. Comparison and Benchmarking Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of decommissioning cost analyses focusing on discrete working packages within the decommissioning program of the BR3 reactor in Mol, Belgium and comparison of them with cost estimate data for the Aagesta research reactor in Sweden. The specific BR3 work packages analysed were: Primary coolant piping decontamination; Primary coolant piping dismantling; Vulcain reactor internals dismantling; Westinghouse reactor internals dismantling; Reactor vessel dismantling. The main conclusions to be drawn from the analyses are that: The fixed costs related to decontamination and dismantling activities generally are a very important part of the overall resources needed to execute the work, with the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) seemingly being significantly more demanding than other major components. Cutting activities tend to need something like 150 to 200 labour hours per m2 of reactor equipment dismantled. Fixed investment costs to set up the equipment needed to cut up major vessels or internals appear to be in the range of MSEK 4 to 8. Consumables costs vary according to the nature of the equipment being dismantled. The thicker the metal being cut, the higher the attrition rate for things such as cutting blades. The range of consumables costs at BR3 have been in the range of MSEK 0.1 to 0.2/m2 dismantled. The extent of detailed information available in the 1996 Aagesta estimate is not sufficient to enable a full comparison with the BR3 decommissioning results. A global first comparison has been attempted by summing the resources expended on the BR3 work packages described in this report with the combined dismantling data presented in the 1996 Aagesta cost estimate report. Very broadly the cost of decontamination plus dismantling of the main process equipment at Aagesta appears to be in the order of MSEK 70, of which MSEK 4 is labour on preparatory/planning work, MSEK 40 is labour on actual decontamination and dismantling and MSEK 25 is

  1. Bellahøj. Ballerup. Brøndby Strand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, S.

    det der skete? Hvem tog initiativet? Hvorfor lykkedes det med så stor succes, som det faktisk gjorde? Hvilke tanker, idealer og indgreb var udgangspunkt for den store indsats? På grundlag af disse spørgsmål har Sven Bertelsen i "Bellahøj - Ballerup - Brøndby Strand" skildret en væsentlig epoke i dansk...

  2. Cône Sud et Brésil

    OpenAIRE

    Droulers, Martine

    2005-01-01

    Synthèse mettant en perspective les rapides mutations actuelles et les anciens héritages de l'Amérique latine. Cet ouvrage distingue quatre ensembles territoriaux dont le Cône Sud et le Brésil (chapitre 4) qui forment l'entité la plus développée...

  3. Large BR(h -> tau mu) in Supersymmetric Models

    CERN Document Server

    Hammad, Ahmed; Un, Cem Salih

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the Lepton Flavor Violating (LFV) Higgs decay h -> tau mu in three supersymmetric models: Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), Supersymmetric Seesaw Model (SSM), and Supersymmetric B-L model with Inverse Seesaw (BLSSM-IS). We show that in generic MSSM, with non-universal slepton masses and/or trilinear couplings, it is not possible to enhance BR(h -> tau mu) without violating the experimental bound on the BR(tau -> mu gamma). In SSM, where flavor mixing is radiatively generated, the LFV process mu -> e gamma strictly constrains the parameter space and the maximum value of BR(h -> tau mu) is of order 10^-10, which is extremely smaller than the recent results reported by the CMS and ATLAS experiments. In BLSSM-IS, with universal soft SUSY breaking terms at the grand unified scale, we emphasize that the measured values of BR(h -> tau mu) can be accommodated in a wide region of parameter space without violating LFV constraints. Thus, confirming the LFV Higgs decay results will be a clear signa...

  4. Pressure and temperature dependence kinetics study of the NO + BrO yielding NO2 + Br reaction - Implications for stratospheric bromine photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, R. T.; Sander, S. P.; Yung, Y. L.

    1979-01-01

    The reactivity of NO with BrO radicals over a wide range of pressure (100-700 torr) and temperature (224-398 K) is investigated using the flash photolysis-ultraviolet absorption technique. The flash photolysis system consists of a high-pressure xenon arc light source, a reaction cell/gas filter/flash lamp combination, and a 216.5 half-meter monochromator/polychromator/spectrography for wavelength selectivity. The details of the reaction and its corresponding Arrhenius expression are identified. The results are compared with previous measurements, and atmospheric implications of the reaction are discussed. The NO + BrO yielding NO2 + Br reaction is shown to be important in controlling the concentration ratios of BrO/Br and BrO/HBr in the stratosphere, but this reaction does not affect the catalytic efficiency of BrOx in ozone destruction.

  5. Optical pump-probe processes in Nd 3+ doped KPb2Br5, RbPb2Br5, and KPb2CI5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, laser activity has been achieved in the low phonon energy, moisture-resistant bromide host crystals, neodymium-doped potassium lead bromide (Nd3+:KPb2Br5) and rubidium lead bromide (Nd3+:RbPb2Br5). Laser activity at 1.07 (micro)m was observed for both crystalline materials. Laser operation at the new wavelengths 1.18 (micro)m and 0.97 (micro)m resulting from the 4F5/2+2H9/2 → 4IJ transitions (J=13/2 and 11/2) in Nd:RPB was achieved for the first time in a solid state laser material. In this paper we present cw pump-probe spectra in order to discuss excited state absorption, reabsorption processes due to the long lived lower laser levels as well as possible depopulation mechanisms feasible for more efficient laser operation in these crystals. The bromides will be compared with potassium lead chloride (Nd3+:KPb2Cl5)

  6. Seviye Belirleme Sınavlarının Matematik Öğretiminde Karşılaşılan Sorunlara Etkisine İlişkin Öğretmen Görüşleri <br> The View of Mathematics Teachers about Problems Encountered Due to Level Determination Exam

    OpenAIRE

    İsmail ŞAN

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was determining the views ofmathematics teachers about problems encountered at teaching processdue to the Level Determination Exam. The work group of this study isconstituted of 17 mathematics teachers. In the light of the obtaineddata 4 themes were determined. These themes are declining of academicsuccess and the level of reaching educational goals, increasing the levelof behavioral problems and positive participation to courses. Accordingto the results, Level Deter...

  7. Atmospheric test of the J(BrONO2/kBrO+NO2 ratio: implications for total stratospheric Bry and bromine-mediated ozone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Werner

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on time-dependent O3, NO2 and BrO profile measurements taken in the stratosphere by limb observations of scattered skylight at high-latitudes during autumn circulation turn-over. The observations are complemented by simultaneous direct solar occultation measurements around sunset and sunrise performed aboard the same stratospheric balloon payload. Supporting radiative transfer and photochemical modelling indicates that, the measurements can be used to constrain the ratio J(BrONO2/kBrO+NO2, for which overall a 1.69 ± 0.04 larger ratio is found than indicated by the most recent JPL compilation (Sander et al., 2011. Sensitivity studies reveal the major reasons likely to be (1 a larger BrONO2 absorption cross-section σBrONO2, primarily for wavelengths larger than 300 nm, and (2 a smaller kBrO+NO2 at 220 K than given by Sander et al. (2011. Other factors, e.g. the actinic flux and quantum yield for the dissociation of BrONO2, can be ruled out. The observations also have consequences for total inorganic stratospheric bromine (Bry estimated from stratospheric BrO measurements at high NOx loadings, since the J(BrONO2/kBrO+NO2 ratio largely determines the stratospheric BrO/Bry ratio during daylight. Using the revised J(BrONO2/kBrO+NO2 ratio, total stratospheric Bry is likely to be 1.4 ppt smaller than previously estimated from BrO profile measurements at high NOx loadings. This brings estimates of total stratospheric bromine inferred from organic source gas measurements (i.e. CH3Br, the halons, CH2Br2, CHBr3, ... into closer agreement with estimates based on BrO observations (inorganic method. The consequences for stratospheric ozone due to the revised J(BrONO2/kBrO+NO2 ratio are small (maximum −0.8%, since at high NOx (for which most Bry assessments are made an overestimated Bry using the inorganic method would in return almost cancel out with the amount of reactive bromine calculated in the photochemical models.

  8. Half-life Measurements of Excited Levels in Fission Products around Mass Number 150

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spectrometer to measure nuclear level half-lives has been installed at the on-line isotope separator of the Kyoto University Reactor. This spectrometer consists of a LaBr3 scintillator, a thin plastic scintillator and an HPGe detector. Half-lives are deduced using the β-γ-γ delayed coincidence method. The prompt-time distribution curves measured with the spectrometer give a time resolution (FWHM) of 600 ps for 100-keV γ rays. This resolution means that half-lives down to the subnanosecond range or shorter can be measured. We reported recent measurements of the half-life of 149Pr and 149Nd. Some of the more interesting results include the first determination of the half-lives of 149Pr levels at 86.5 and 125.6 keV, which are 4.2(5) ns and 1.0(2) ns, respectively. In addition, the data indicate that the half-life of the 270.8-keV level in 149Nd is not 5.1(3) ns as reported previously, but 0.42(3) ns

  9. The B(1/2 2P3/2) --> X(1/2 2Sigma + ) transition in XeBr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevenger, Jason O.; Tellinghuisen, Joel

    1995-12-01

    The B(1/2 2P3/2)→X(1/2 2Σ+) transition in XeBr is recorded at high resolution, using a CCD array detector to record spectra from Tesla discharge sources containing isotopically pure 136Xe with 81Br2 or 79Br2. The high signal/noise capabilities of the detector permit the measurement of discrete vibrational structure in this system, which has normally been treated as a purely bound-free transition. The assignments comprise 119 υ'-υ″ bands for 136Xe81Br and 86 for 136Xe79Br, spanning υ'=0-33 and υ″=0-16. The van der Waals ground state is analyzed through fits to the customary polynomials in (υ+1/2) and to near-dissociation expansions. Franck-Condon calculations are used to locate the X-state potential on the internuclear axis relative to the B state, which is modeled as a Rittner potential. The following fundamental spectroscopic constants (units cm-1, for 136Xe81Br) are obtained from the analysis: Te'=35 863.2, ωe'=135.72, ωexe'=0.32, ωe″=25.7, ωexe″=0.62. The ground state has a dissociation energy De″=254±2 cm-1 and supports 24 bound vibrational levels.

  10. Single crystal growth and the electronic structure of orthorhombic Tl3PbBr5: A novel material for non-linear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khyzhun, O. Y.; Bekenev, V. L.; Parasyuk, O. V.; Danylchuk, S. P.; Denysyuk, N. M.; Fedorchuk, A. O.; AlZayed, N.; Kityk, I. V.

    2013-03-01

    The X-ray photoelectron core-level and valence-band spectra for pristine and Ar+-ion irradiated surfaces of a Tl3PbBr5 single crystal grown by the Bridgman-Stockbarger method have been measured. The present X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results reveal high chemical stability of Tl3PbBr5 single crystal surface. Total and partial densities of states of constituent atoms of low-temperature (LT) orthorhombic Tl3PbBr5 phase (space group P21212) have been calculated using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The FP-LAPW data reveal that contributions of the Br 4p-like states dominate in the valence band of LT-Tl3PbBr5; they contribute mainly into the top and the central portion of the valence band with also significant contributions throughout the whole valence-band region. The bottom of the valence band of LT-Tl3PbBr5 is composed mainly of the Tl 6s-like states, whilst the unoccupied Pb 6p- and Tl 6p-like states dominate at the bottom of the conduction band. We have explored the crystallochemistry and origin of the chemical bonds in Tl3PbBr5 with respect to the use as mid-IR non-linear optical crystals. Comparison of the spectral dependence to the second order susceptibilities for the titled crystals is performed with respect to the 3.39 μm illuminated crystals. Possibility of the use of Tl3PbBr5 crystals as IR operated non-linear optical crystals is discussed.

  11. The four hexamerin genes in the honey bee: structure, molecular evolution and function deduced from expression patterns in queens, workers and drones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Juliana R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hexamerins are hemocyanin-derived proteins that have lost the ability to bind copper ions and transport oxygen; instead, they became storage proteins. The current study aimed to broaden our knowledge on the hexamerin genes found in the honey bee genome by exploring their structural characteristics, expression profiles, evolution, and functions in the life cycle of workers, drones and queens. Results The hexamerin genes of the honey bee (hex 70a, hex 70b, hex 70c and hex 110 diverge considerably in structure, so that the overall amino acid identity shared among their deduced protein subunits varies from 30 to 42%. Bioinformatics search for motifs in the respective upstream control regions (UCRs revealed six overrepresented motifs including a potential binding site for Ultraspiracle (Usp, a target of juvenile hormone (JH. The expression of these genes was induced by topical application of JH on worker larvae. The four genes are highly transcribed by the larval fat body, although with significant differences in transcript levels, but only hex 110 and hex 70a are re-induced in the adult fat body in a caste- and sex-specific fashion, workers showing the highest expression. Transcripts for hex 110, hex 70a and hex70b were detected in developing ovaries and testes, and hex 110 was highly transcribed in the ovaries of egg-laying queens. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that HEX 110 is located at the most basal position among the holometabola hexamerins, and like HEX 70a and HEX 70c, it shares potential orthology relationship with hexamerins from other hymenopteran species. Conclusions Striking differences were found in the structure and developmental expression of the four hexamerin genes in the honey bee. The presence of a potential binding site for Usp in the respective 5' UCRs, and the results of experiments on JH level manipulation in vivo support the hypothesis of regulation by JH. Transcript levels and patterns in the fat body

  12. Crustal deformation deduced from gravity and geodetic data of the high Dam area, Aswan, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The High Dam area in Aswan, Egypt has been subject to various geophysical and geodetic studies, due to its importance for some vital projects. Micro-gravity measurements were established for studying the stability of the road connecting the High and Old Aswan dams. In addition, the micro-gravity measurements were accompanied by the GPS and precise leveling measurements, in order to determine the accurate height of the observation points. Profile of 10 km length joins the High and Old Aswan dams was established to study the recent vertical movements in this road. Four campaigns from 2001 to 2006 were performed for collecting the micro-gravity measurements, precise leveling and GPS data. The stability study of this road, as depicted from the previous techniques is the main target of this paper. The accuracy of micro-gravity campaigns is about 5 microGal. The geodetic results indicated lower rates of vertical displacement. The subsidence of small area from the profile has been detected from the precise leveling contemporary to the negative gravity anomaly which it has been observed in the same part from the profile. The gravity results agree well with the precise leveling and GPS data and due to the stability of the road close to the High and Old Aswan dams.

  13. Research Reactors: Decommissioning of a Small Reactor (BR3 Reactor, Belgium). Appendix III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research reactors are nuclear reactors that serve primarily as source of neutrons. They are less complex than power reactors and operate at lower temperatures. Research reactors need far less fuel, and far less fission products build up as the fuel is used. On the other hand, their fuel requires more highly enriched uranium, typically up to 20% 235U. More than 650 research reactors worldwide have been built or are under construction or in a planning phase; of which more than 350 have been shut down and partly or wholly decommissioned. Experience has shown that decommissioning can be undertaken in line with safety standards aimed at protecting human beings or the environment from harm, provided that decommissioning activities are undertaken in accordance with a properly formulated plan. The potential or actual radiological hazards associated with reactors may require the application of special techniques and procedures during decommissioning. The decommissioning of the BR3 reactor in Mol, Belgium, Belgian nuclear research centre SCK•CEN, provides an example of current good practice in decommissioning research reactors.13 Since 1991, the organization’s statutory mission gives priority to research on problems of societal concern such as the safety of nuclear installations, radiation protection, safe treatment and disposal of radioactive waste, fighting against uncontrolled proliferation of fissile materials, and education and training. BR3 was the first European pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plant and was put into service in 1962. It was in that industrial context that the BR3 has played its role as a demonstration unit for the development and improvement of decommissioning related techniques. While the BR3 power level was low (40 MW(th), 10.5 MW(e) net), it contains all the features of commercial PWR power plants. The reactor was used at the beginning of its lifetime as a training facility for future nuclear power plant operators. Later, it was also used

  14. Simultaneous balloon-borne measurements of the key inorganic bromine species BrO and BrONO2 in the stratosphere: DOAS and MIPAS-B evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarski, Sebastian; Maucher, Guido; Ebersoldt, Andreas; Butz, André; Friedl-Vallon, Felix; Höpfner, Michael; Kleinert, Anne; Nordmeyer, Hans; Oelhaf, Hermann; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Sinnhuber, Björn-Martin; Wetzel, Gerald; Orphal, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Inorganic bromine contributes to a loss of stratospheric ozone of about 25 - 30%. Past studies have demonstrated several uncertainties in the photochemistry of stratospheric bromine, especially by considering the three body reaction (kBrONO2) BrO + NO2 + M → BrONO2 + M, and the photolysis frequencies of BrONO2 (jBrONO2). Hence, an improved knowledge of the ratio jBrONO2/kBrONO2 is crucial to better assess the bromine-related loss of ozone as well as the total amount of bromine in the stratosphere. Here, we report on the first simultaneous balloon-borne measurements of NO2, BrO, and BrONO2 in the stratosphere, performed over Timmins (Ontario, 49 °N, Canada) on Sept., 7th and 8th, 2014. During the flight the targeted species were monitored by remote sensing in the UV, visible and mid-IR spectral ranges by Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) and Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS-B), respectively. The analysis and interpretation of the measurements involves radiative transfer as well as photochemical modelling. Major features of the applied techniques are reported and first results of the DOAS as well as MIPAS-B evaluation are discussed. Further investigations address inter-comparisons of the retrieved NO2, BrO, and O3 concentrations and volume mixing ratios, to demonstrate validations of both evaluation methods.

  15. The X-ray response of TlBr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, Alan E-mail: aowens@rssd.esa.int; Bavdaz, M.; Brammertz, G.; Gostilo, V.; Graafsma, H.; Kozorezov, A.; Krumrey, M.; Lisjutin, I.; Peacock, A.; Puig, A.; Sipila, H.; Zatoloka, S

    2003-02-01

    We present the results of a series of X-ray measurements on several prototype TlBr detectors. The devices were fabricated from mono-crystalline material and were typically of size 2.7x2.7x0.8 mm{sup 3}. The material is extremely pure, having impurity concentrations <100 ppm. The measured electron and hole mobility-lifetime products were found to be 3x10{sup -4}and 1x10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} V{sup -1}, respectively, which are about an order of magnitude higher than previously reported values. Three detectors were fabricated and extensively tested over the energy range 2.3-100 keV at three synchrotron radiation facilities: the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) laboratory at the Berliner Elektronenspeicherring fuer Synchrotronstrahlung (BESSY II), the European Synchrotron Radiation Research Facility (ESRF) and the Hamburger Synchrotron-strahlungslabor (HASYLAB) radiation facility. Room temperature energy resolutions under full-area illumination of 1.8 and 3.3 keV FWHM have been achieved at 5.9 and 59.95 keV, respectively. At reduced detector temperatures of -30 deg. C, these fall to 800 eV and 2.6 keV FWHM, respectively. Under monochromatic pencil beam illumination, the measured energy resolutions at 6 and 60 keV were 664 eV and {approx}3 keV FWHM at the same temperature. For energies <20 keV, the measured spectra display symmetric photopeaks. However, the peaks become increasingly tailed at higher energies. At the highest energies, the energy-losses due to the electrons and holes are clearly separated. Whilst the detectors gave reproducible results over 12 months of operation, it was observed that for synchrotron beam measurements above {approx}45 keV, they were unstable, showing rate dependent gain shifts and polarization effects. These were not observed at lower energies. The spatial uniformity of the detectors was measured using a 50x50 {mu}m{sup 2}, 12 keV mono-energetic X-ray beam, raster scanned over the forward active area. Whilst two detectors were

  16. A type of new conserved quantity deduced from Mei symmetry for Nielsen equations in a holonomic system with unilateral constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Yue-Lin; Sun Xian-Ting; Wang Xiao-Xiao; Zhang Mei-Ling; Jia Li-Qun

    2012-01-01

    A type of new conserved quantity deduced from Mei symmetry for Nielsen equations in a holonomic system with unilateral constraints is investigated.Nielsen equations and differential equations of motion for the holonomic mechanical system with unilateral constraints are established.The definition and the criterion of Mei symmetry for Nielsen equations in the holonomic systems with unilateral constraints under the infinitesimal transformations of Lie group are also given.The expressions of the structural equation and a type of new conserved quantity of Mei symmetry for Nielsen equations in the holonomic system with unilateral constraints are obtained.An example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  17. On the moment of inertia in deformed Ba-Xe nuclei as deduced from gamma-gamma energy correlation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The γ-rays following reactions induced by bombarding targets of 114,116,118,120,122Sn with 118 MeV 12C ions were investigated using six NaI(Tl) detectors in a two-dimensional coincidence arrangement. Experimental energy-correlation spectra were extracted from the original coincidence matrices. The energy-correlation spectra exhibit the features expected for rotational nuclei and were used to deduce information on the moment of inertia Isup((2)) = ΔI/Δω. The gross properties of the behaviour of Isup((2)) in the Ba-Xe region are discussed together with their interpretation within the cranked shell model (CSM). (orig.)

  18. Oscillatory electron phonon coupling in Pb/Si(111) deduced by temperature-dependent quantum well states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yan-Feng; Jia Jin-Feng; Han Tie-Zhu; Tang Zhe; Shen Quan-Tong; Guo Yang; Xue Qi-Kun

    2005-01-01

    Photoemission study of atomically flat Pb films with a thickness from 15 to 24 monolayers (ML) have been performed within a temperature range 75-270K. Well-defined quantum well states (QWSs) are observed, which exhibit interesting temperature-dependent behaviours. The peak position of the QWSs shifts towards higher binding energy with increasing substrate temperature, whereas the peak width broadens linearly due to enhanced electron-phonon coupling strength (λ). An oscillatory λ with a period of 2ML is deduced. Preliminary analysis shows that the oscillation can be explained in terms of the interface induced phase variations, and is thus a manifestation of the quantum size effects.

  19. Material test reactor fuel research at the BR2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of new, high performance material test reactor or the conversion of such reactors' core from high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) based fuel requires several fuel qualification steps. For the conversion of high performance reactors, high density dispersion or monolithic fuel types are being developed. The Uranium-Molybdenum fuel system has been selected as reference system for the qualification of LEU fuels. For reactors with lower performance characteristics, or as medium enriched fuel for high performance reactors, uranium silicide dispersion fuel is applied. However, on the longer term, the U-Mo based fuel types may offer a more efficient fuel alternative and-or an easier back-end solution with respect to the silicide based fuels. At the BR2 reactor of the Belgian nuclear research center, SCK-CEN in Mol, several types of fuel testing opportunities are present to contribute to such qualification process. A generic validation test for a selected fuel system is the irradiation of flat plates with representative dimensions for a fuel element. By flexible positioning and core loading, bounding irradiation conditions for fuel elements can be performed in a standard device in the BR2. For fuel element designs with curved plates, the element fabrication method compatibility of the fuel type can be addressed by incorporating a set of prototype fuel plates in a mixed driver fuel element of the BR2 reactor. These generic types of tests are performed directly in the primary coolant flow conditions of the BR2 reactor. The experiment control and interpretation is supported by detailed neutronic and thermal-hydraulic modeling of the experiments. Finally, the BR2 reactor offers the flexibility for irradiation of full size prototype fuel elements, as 200mm diameter irradiation channels are available. These channels allow the accommodation of various types of prototype fuel elements, eventually using a dedicated cooling loop to provide the

  20. Electronic structure of quasicrystals deduced from Auger and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific features in the electronic structure of Al-transition metal quasicrystals are analysed by a combination of Auger and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. We first demonstrate that different degrees of asymmetry in the transition metals' 2p core-level lineshape observed across different types of surface structure correspond to variations in the density of states at the Fermi level, DOS(EF). Using this effect, we explore the controversial issue of whether the quasicrystalline, decagonal AlNiCo system is electronically stabilized. We find strong evidence for the presence of a reduced DOS(EF) in this system, as expected for electronically stabilized compounds, and as observed in the quasicrystalline, icosahedral AlPdMn and AlCuFe alloys. Finally, qualitative information on the nature of the electronic states in quasiperiodic structures extracted from the core-valence-valence Auger lines are presented and discussed. (author)

  1. Candidate of the member of three-phonon multiplet observed in the + +EC decay of 76Br

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shuifa Shen; Yongbo Chen

    2013-01-01

    The decay scheme of 76Br is established by the 76Br(1/2 = 16.2 h) $\\bate^{+}$/EC study. The 1791.31 keV level, which was identified initially by Müller $\\mathit{et al}$ with 76Se(, ′) reaction more than three decades ago, is reconfirmed. However, the spin and parity have not been assigned by Müller $\\mathit{et al}$. Now we consider it reasonable to assign the 1791.31 keV level as a new candidate of the three-phonon multiplet in 76Se. In addition, in order to study the deformation of 76Se which lies in transitional region between strongly deformed and spherical nuclei, we calculate the total Routhian surfaces (TRS) of positive-parity states by cranking shell model formalism.

  2. Pyridine•BrF3, the missing link for clean fluorinations of aromatic derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagooly, Youlia; Rozen, Shlomo

    2012-02-17

    This work demonstrates the unique features of the never used before Py•BrF(3) complex in the field of aromatic organic fluorinations. The main disadvantage of the noncomplexed BrF(3) is the fact that usually, in addition to the desired fluorination, a parallel electrophilic aromatic bromination takes place as well. Use of the Py•BrF(3) complex reduces this electrophilic bromination, which is observed with most reagents based on fluorine and bromine [BrF]. PMID:22313187

  3. Spatial variability of co2 emission, temperature and moisture of a bare oxisol submitted to different wetting levels / <br> Variabilidade espacial da emissão de CO2, da temperatura e umidade de um latossolo desprovido de vegetação sob diferentes lâminas de molhamento

    OpenAIRE

    Newton La Scala Júnior; Gener Tadeu Pereira; Luiz Carlos Pavani; José Renato Zanini; Carlos Eduardo Rodrigues Ribeiro; Alan Rodrigo Panosso

    2009-01-01

    The irrigation application is one of the most useful techniques in tropical environments, especially during dry seasons. In this study, CO2 efflux, temperature and soil moisture were studied in a field sampled with a grid having 48 points distributed in 35 x 25 m, under irrigation promoted by a sprinkler located at the center of the area, provoking different levels of water deposition, with maximum irrigation levels of 44.4 and 62.2 mm in points closer to the sprinkler. The results show that ...

  4. Effect of genetic strain, cage space and dietetic tryptophan level on the laying hens performance br> Efeito da linhagem, espaço na gaiola e nível de triptofano dietético no desempenho de poedeiras comerciais

    OpenAIRE

    Caio Abércio da Silva; Nilva Aparecida Nicolao Fonseca; João Waine Pinheiro; Otávio Antonio Rech; Alexandre Oba

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lineage, battery cage space allowance and tryptophan level in diet on commercial laying hens performance. A total of 720 hens from two different lineages and 31-47 weeks of age were used in a 2x3x4 factorial experimental design (lineages A and B; space allowances of 563, 450 and 375 cm2/animal and tryptophan levels of 0,175%; 0,195%; 0,392% e 0,591%), with twenty-four treatments and three replications each. The different space allowances wer...

  5. Bioeconomic analysis of crude glycerin levels in milk crossbred cows diets fed with sugarcane<br>Análise bioeconômica de níveis de glicerina bruta em dietas de vacas lactantes alimentadas com cana-de-açúcar

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Teixeira Costa; Fabiano Ferreira da Silva; Aureliano José Vieira Pires; Paulo Bonomo; Eli Santana de Oliveira Rodrigues; Dicastro Dias de Souza; Aires Lima Rocha Neto; Roberio Rodrigue Silva; Alex Resende Schio

    2013-01-01

    The viability of bioeconomic increasing levels of crude glycerin was evaluated, 0, 4, 8 and 12% of dry matter in diets of lactating dairy cows fed with sugarcane. Were used 16 cows Holstein x Zebu (blood level varying from ½ to ¾ Holstein), third or fourth lactation with previous production between 3000 and 4000 kg, adjusted to 300 days, and 80 to 120 days of lactation in beginning of the experiment, which were divided into four 4x4 Latin Square. The information required for elaboration of th...

  6. Les guides et inventaires patrimoniaux au Brésil

    OpenAIRE

    Kühl, Beatriz Mugayar

    2014-01-01

    La production des guides du patrimoine au Brésil, caractérisée par son extrême hétérogénéité, s’appuie dans la plupart des cas sur des listes de biens classés ou sur des inventaires qui ne garantissent pas la protection légale des édifices et qui sont souvent limités à de brèves descriptions sans ou avec peu d’analyses. Alors que des récits plus anciens de voyageurs présentaient des descriptions de villes, d’édifices et de paysages, tout en apportant un regard critique extérieur sur la réalit...

  7. Refurbishment of BR2 (Phases 4 and 5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. In phase 4 of the refurbishment programme, various activities were performed to allow reactor start-up. In phase 5, remaining refurbishment works were carried out as well as the extra studies and upgradings required by the licensing authorities. Major achievements in 1997 are described and discussed

  8. Optimized Control Rods of the BR2 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the present time the BR-2 reactor uses control elements with cadmium as neutron absorbing part. The lower section of the control element is a beryllium assembly cooled by light water. Due to the burn up of the lower end of the cadmium section during the reactor operation, the presently used rods for reactivity control of the BR-2 reactor have to be replaced by new ones. Considered are various types Control Rods with full active part of the following materials: cadmium (Cd), hafnium (Hf), europium oxide (Eu2O3) and gadolinium (Gd2O3). Options to decrease the burn up of the control rod material in the hot spot, such as use of stainless steel in the lower active part of the Control Rod are discussed. Comparison with the characteristics of the presently used Control Rods types is performed. The changing of the characteristics of different types Control Rods and the perturbation effects on the reactor neutronics during the BR-2 fuel cycle are investigated. The burn up of the Control Rod absorbing material, total and differential control rods worth, macroscopic and effective microscopic absorption cross sections, fuel and reactivity evolution are evaluated during approximately 30 operating cycles.

  9. Bréal, un antinaturalisme d’inspiration humboldtienne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Jean-Philippe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dans De la forme et de la fonction des mots, Bréal formulait, dès 1866, outre une critique générale du formalisme de la philologie comparative depuis Bopp, une thèse radicalement opposée à l’orientation naturaliste de l’évolutionnisme linguistique de Schleicher. Cette thèse, que nous prendrons le risque de définir comme thèse du primat de la fonction sur la forme linguistique, est au coeur de ce programme de linguistique générale pour lequel Bréal allait forger, quelques années plus tard, le mot de sémantique. Fortement marqué par la notion humboldtienne d’innere Sprachform, Bréal, contrairement à Saussure, n'abandonnera jamais le changement linguistique au hasard de l'histoire et maintiendra l'intelligence comme premier moteur des langues, quitte à poser la nécessité de repenser cette intelligence.

  10. Irradiation of Fuel Elements in the Belgian BR3 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under a contract concluded by EURATOM and CEN-BelgoNucléaire, fuel rods containing plutonium-enriched uranium were irradiated in the Belgian BR3 reactor with the object of evaluating the behaviour of plutonium fuel elements in power reactors. The first experiment consisted in introducing 12 fuel elements fabricated by vibration and compacting followed by swaging into a core assembly of the BR3 pressurized-water power reactor. Irradiation was carried out for a period corresponding to 4820 h at full power. Subsequent examination of the fuel rods showed that they had been unaffected by irradiation. A second series of experiments is being carried out in collaboration with the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. These experiments involve irradiating an assembly of 37 plutonium-enriched fuel elements, some compacted and others of the pellet type, in the BR3/VN power reactor. The fabrication of the vibrocompacted elements and the thermal studies relating to the assembly are briefly described. (author)

  11. Optimized Control Rods of the BR2 Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalcheva, Silva; Koonen, E.

    2007-09-15

    At the present time the BR-2 reactor uses control elements with cadmium as neutron absorbing part. The lower section of the control element is a beryllium assembly cooled by light water. Due to the burn up of the lower end of the cadmium section during the reactor operation, the presently used rods for reactivity control of the BR-2 reactor have to be replaced by new ones. Considered are various types Control Rods with full active part of the following materials: cadmium (Cd), hafnium (Hf), europium oxide (Eu2O3) and gadolinium (Gd2O3). Options to decrease the burn up of the control rod material in the hot spot, such as use of stainless steel in the lower active part of the Control Rod are discussed. Comparison with the characteristics of the presently used Control Rods types is performed. The changing of the characteristics of different types Control Rods and the perturbation effects on the reactor neutronics during the BR-2 fuel cycle are investigated. The burn up of the Control Rod absorbing material, total and differential control rods worth, macroscopic and effective microscopic absorption cross sections, fuel and reactivity evolution are evaluated during approximately 30 operating cycles.

  12. Effect of Trastuzumab on Notch-1 Signaling Pathway in Breast Cancer SK-BR3 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Han; Hua-yu Deng; Rong Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects and mechanisms of trastuzumab on Notch-1 pathway in breast cancer cells,recognizing the significance of Notch-1 signaling pathway in trastuzumab resistance.Methods:Immunocytochemistry staining and Western blotting were employed to justify the expression of Notch-1 protein in HER2-overexpressing SK-BR3 cells and HER2-non-overexpressing breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.Western blotting and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) were used to detect the activated Notch-1 and Notch-1 target gene HES-1 mRNA expression after SK-BR3 cells were treated with trastuzumab.Double immunofluorescence staining and co-immunoprecipitation were used to analyze the relationship of Notch-1 and HER2 proteins.Results:The level of Notch-1 nuclear localization and activated Notch-1 proteins in HER2-overexpressing cells were significantly lower than in HER2-non-overexpressing cells (P<0.01),and the expressions of activated Notch-1 and HES-1 mRNA were obviously increased after trastuzumab treatment (P<1.05),but HER2 expression did not change significantly for trastuzumab treating (P>0.05).Moreover,Notch-1 was discovered to co-localize and interact with HER2 in SK-BR3 cells.Conclusion:Overexpression of HER2 decreased Notch-1 activity by the formation of a HER2-Notch1 complex,and trastuzumab can restore the activity of Notch-1 signaling pathway,which could be associated with cell resistance to trastuzumab.

  13. Identification of widespread pollution in the southern hemisphere deduced from satellite analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertical profiles of ozone obtained from ozonesondes in Brazzaville, Congo (4 degree S, 15 degree E), and Ascension Island (98 degree S, 15 degree W) show that large quantities of tropospheric ozone are present over southern Africa and the adjacent eastern tropical South Atlantic Ocean. The origin of this pollution is widespread biomass burning in Africa. These measurements support satellite-derived tropospheric ozone data that demonstrate that ozone originating from the region is transported throughout most of the Southern Hemisphere. Seasonally high levels of carbon monoxide and methane observed at middle- and high-latitude stations in Africa, Australia, and Antarctica likely reflect the effects of this distant biomass burning. These data suggest that even the most remote regions on this planet may be significantly more polluted than previously believed

  14. Identification of Widespread Pollution in the Southern Hemisphere Deduced from Satellite Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, J.; Fakhruzzaman, K.; Cros, B.; Nganga, D.

    1991-06-01

    Vertical profiles of ozone obtained from ozonesondes in Brazzaville, Congo (4^circS, 15^circE), and Ascension Island (8^circS, 15^circW) show that large quantities of tropospheric ozone are present over southern Africa and the adjacent eastern tropical South Atlantic Ocean. The origin of this pollution is widespread biomass burning in Africa. These measurements support satellite-derived tropospheric ozone data that demonstrate that ozone originating from this region is transported throughout most of the Southern Hemisphere. Seasonally high levels of carbon monoxide and methane observed at middle- and high-latitude stations in Africa, Australia, and Antarctica likely reflect the effects of this distant biomass burning. These data suggest that even the most remote regions on this planet may be significantly more polluted than previously believed.

  15. Measurement of the relative branching ratio BR(\\Xi_c^+ \\to p^+ K^-\\pi^+)\\BR(\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Xi^- \\pi^+ \\pi^+)

    CERN Document Server

    Link, J M; Yager, P M; Anjos, J C; Bediaga, I; Göbel, C; Magnin, J; Massafferri, A; De Miranda, J M; Pepe, I M; Dos Reis, A C; Simão, F R A; Carrillo, S; Casimiro, E; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Uribe, C; Vázquez, F; Cinquini, L; Cumalat, J P; O'Reilly, B; Ramírez, J E; Vaandering, E W; Butler, J N; Cheung, H W K; Gaines, I; Garbincius, P H; Garren, L A; Gottschalk, E E; Kasper, P H; Kreymer, A E; Kutschke, R; Bianco, S; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Sarwar, S; Zallo, A

    2001-01-01

    We report the observation of the Cabibbo suppressed decay \\Xi_c^+ \\to p K^-\\pi^+ using data collected with the FOCUS spectrometer during the 1996--97 Fermilab fixed target run. We find a \\Xi_c^+ signal peak of 202\\pm35 events. We have measured the relative branching ratios BR(\\Xi^+_c\\to p K^-\\pi^+)/BR(\\Xi^+_c\\to\\Xi^-\\pi^+\\pi^+)= 0.234 \\pm 0.047 \\pm 0.022 and BR(\\Xi^+_c\\to p \\bar{K}^*(892)^0)/BR(\\Xi^+_c\\to p K^-\\pi^+)= 0.54 \\pm 0.09 \\pm 0.05 .

  16. Ergenlerin Benlik Saygısı ve Sosyal Kaygı Düzeyleri Arasındaki İlişki ve Kişisel Değişkenlerin Etkileri <br> The Relation Between Self-Esteem And Social Anxiety Levels Of Adolescents And The Effects Of Personal Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Yasemin ERİŞ; F.Ebru İKİZ

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the self-esteem and the social anxiety levels of adolescents. Besides, the effects of gender, perceived self-image, perceived school success, attending leisure time activities, having a peer group, having a special friend were investigated. The sample consisted of 300 adolescents, 152 girl, 148 boy by random sampling method. Data were collected by Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and Social Anxiety Scale with a questionnai...

  17. Metathesis Polymerization Reactions Induced by the Bimetallic Complex (Ph4P2[W2(μ-Br3Br6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despoina Chriti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The reactivity of the bimetallic complex (Ph4P2[W2(μ-Br3Br6] ({W 2.5 W}7+, a′2e3 towards ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP of norbornene (NBE and some of its derivatives, as well as the mechanistically related metathesis polymerization of phenylacetylene (PA, is presented. Our results show that addition of a silver salt (AgBF4 is necessary for the activation of the ditungsten complex. Polymerization of PA proceeds smoothly in tetrahydrofuran (THF producing polyphenylacetylene (PPA in high yields. On the other hand, the ROMP of NBE and its derivatives is more efficient in CH2Cl2, providing high yields of polymers. 13C Cross Polarization Magic Angle Spinning (CPMAS spectra of insoluble polynorbornadiene (PNBD and polydicyclopentadiene (PDCPD revealed the operation of two mechanisms (metathetic and radical for cross-linking, with the metathesis pathway prevailing.

  18. No-carrier-added radiobromination via the Gattermann reaction. Synthesis of 75Br- and 77Br-bromperidol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suehiro, Makiko; Yokoi, Fuji; Nozaki, Tadashi; Iwamoto, Masako

    1987-10-01

    The Gattermann reaction was applied to the non-carrier-added radiobromination of bromperidol. The synthesis with diazotized precursor, no-carrier-added 75Br- or 77Br-, and copper powder proved to give the radiobrominated neuroleptic drug in high radiochemical yield of 60 - 70 %, and in high specific activity (approx. 15 Ci/..mu..mole). The radiobromination also proved to be regio-selective. In the reaction, the copper catalyst was observed to play an important role. Formation of unlabeled by-products due to stable chlorine or bromine contamination in the reaction mixture was also studied by neutron activation analysis. Removal of such undesirable halogen nuclides and separation of the unavoidably-formed chlorinated compound from the radiobrominated bromperidol is discussed.

  19. No-carrier-added radiobromination via the Gattermann reaction. Synthesis of 75Br- and 77Br-bromperidol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gattermann reaction was applied to the non-carrier-added radiobromination of bromperidol. The synthesis with diazotized precursor, no-carrier-added 75Br- or 77Br-, and copper powder proved to give the radiobrominated neuroleptic drug in high radiochemical yield of 60 - 70 %, and in high specific activity (∼ 15 Ci/μmole). The radiobromination also proved to be regio-selective. In the reaction, the copper catalyst was observed to play an important role. Formation of unlabeled by-products due to stable chlorine or bromine contamination in the reaction mixture was also studied by neutron activation analysis. Removal of such undesirable halogen nuclides and separation of the unavoidably-formed chlorinated compound from the radiobrominated bromperidol is discussed. (author)

  20. VSLS Bry estimation from SMILES BrO observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Makoto; Shiotani, Masato; Mitsuda, Chihiro; Manago, Naohiro; Kinnison, Douglas; Imai, Koji; Ozeki, Hiroyuki

    Very Short Lived Source (VSLS) gases of Bry have been investigated, since it affects the chemistry of the stratosphere such as the long term recovery of the Ozone layer. VSLS Bry can be estimated from the difference of observed and model BrO value and the Bry/BrO calculated by the model. But previous VSLS Bry estimation spread over 4-8 ppt, due to the large uncertainty of the BrO observation. In this paper, we will report the SMILES (Superconducting Submillimeter-wave Limb Emission Sounder) BrO observation, and VSLS Bry estimation using SMILES L2 and Specified Dynamics WACCM Model (nudged to GEOS-5 data) calculation. SMILES operated on the ISS from Oct. 12, 2009 to Apr. 21, 2010. Since the detector (Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor: SIS mixer) was cooled down to 4K, SMILES showed system noise figure, Tsys 250K, or spectral noise floor 0.4K, which gave one order better signal to noise ratio compared to previous sub-mm observations from space (Aura/MLS and Odin/SMR). SMILES VSLS Bry estimate (mean of 34 and 37 km) are about 4 pptv for Band A  (625 GHz), and about 5 pptv for Band C (650 GHz) for 10° latitude bins. Estimates become slightly lower in 30S-20S and 20S-10S, but are agreed within 4.63 5.27 pptv at 10S-50N at 34 km. VSLS Bry using v2.3 Band C BrO at 34 km as following, 30S-20S (3.26±0.66 pptv), 20S-10S (3.77±0.88), 10S-EQ (4.63±0.83), EQ-10N (4.67±0.58 ppt), 10N-20N (4.99±0.54), 20N-30N (5.27±0.59), 30N-40N (4.87±0.67). and 40N-50N (4.91±0.70).

  1. BrO in the arctic atmosphere in spring 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados Roman, C.; Butz, A.; Deutschmann, T.; Dorf, M.; Kritten, L.; Minikin, A.; Platt, U.; Schlager, H.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2009-12-01

    Within the ASTAR 2007 campaign ("Arctic Study of Tropospheric Aerosol, Clouds and Radiation", IPY 2007/8) that took place in Svalbard (78°N) in April 2007, spectroscopic limb scattered skylight measurements were performed from aboard the DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) Falcon aircraft. By applying the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy technique (DOAS), we attempted to detect the mixing ratio vertical profiles of O3, NO2, BrO, OClO, IO, OIO, HONO, C2H2O2, CH2O, H2O and O4 from the boundary layer (BL), up to the lowermost stratosphere within the arctic atmosphere. Here we will focus on the detection of BrO and its vertical profile retrieval. Even though the limb DOAS measurements are extremely sensitive regarding the detection of trace gases (i.e., limit for the BrO detection ~1 pptv), the challenge of the profile retrieval comes with dealing appropriately with the actual Radiative Transfer (RT) processes in the atmosphere (e.g., Rayleigh and Mie scattering). Here, our approach is based on the retrieval of the Mie scattering extinction profile from measured radiance ratios, validated using in-situ measured aerosol and cloud particle concentrations. This information is then fed into forward RT calculations in order to obtain the proper kernel for mathematical inversion of the measured slant column absorption. The inverted O4 profile is used as a proof of the viability of this method and, finally, the vertical profile of the BrO mixing ratio is retrieved. In general, results of the ASTAR 2007 flights indicate that bromine explosions and ozone depletion events (ODEs) were occurring above the arctic first-year sea ice in non-hazy conditions in April 2007. In particular, the flight on the 8th April 2007 shows largely depleted O3 (environment will be presented. In addition, the source of our BrO data will be discussed (e.g. BL or stratospheric signal, etc).

  2. Ustioni da fuoco / Burn injuries / Les brûlures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Copertino

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Severe burn injuries require high specialistic treatment. Burn injuries are common in disasters and war scenarios, so war medicine has been fundamental to improve treatment protocols for burn patients..Burn injuries are classified according to the etiopathogenetic agent (physical, chemical or radiation, that determines different anatomoisthologic aspects.An estimation of the depth and extension are fundamental for defining the gravity of the burn. Critical burn patients have to be transported in specialistic Centers. There they are treated by multispecialistic teams from the resuscitation phase to the reconstructive surgery and specialist rehabilitation.. This process can continue for two years with the objective to return patients to a quiet normal life. Les brûlures sont des lésions traumatiques qui requièrent un traitement spécialisé. Lors de catastrophes et de guerres, les brûlures sont des lésions très fréquentes et la médecine de guerre a contribué à faire avancer la science de manière importante, dans le traitement de cette pathologie.Les brûlures sont classées en fonction de l'agent étiopathogénique (agents physiques, chimiques ou radiations dont le mécanisme d'action qui provoque la lésion cause des aspects anatomohistologiques caractéristiques.Pour définir la sévérité d'une brûlure, il est aussi fondamental d'éstimer l'extension de la surface corporelle et la profondeur de l'épiderme, et éventuellement du derme, atteints. Les patients gravement brûlés doivent être hospitalisés dans des Centres Spécialisés où des équipes multispécialistes les suivent de la phase initiale de la réanimation aux phases de chirurgie reconstructive et au processus de réhabilitation. Ces dernières phases peuvent se prolonger pendant les deux années suivant le traumatisme avant qu'une réintégration dans une vie sociale acceptable ne puisse être faite.

  3. Origins of short gamma-ray bursts deduced from offsets in their host galaxies revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hong Cui; Shigehiro Nagataki; Junichi Aoi; Ren-Xin Xu

    2012-01-01

    The spatial distribution of short Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in their host galaxies provides us with an opportunity to investigate their origins.Based on the currently observed distribution of short GRBs relative to their host galaxies,we obtain the fraction of the component that traces the mergers of binary compact objects and the one that traces star formation rate (such as massive stars) in early- and late-type host galaxies.From the analysis of projected offset distribution and only based on population synthesis and massive star models,we find that the fraction of massive stars is 0.37+0.42-0.37 with an error at the lσ level for a sample with 22 short GRBs in the literature.From these results,it is hard to accept that the origin of short GRBs with observed statistics is well described by current models using only the offset distribution.The uncertainties in observational localizations of short GRBs also strongly affect the resulting fraction.

  4. Properties of post-shock solar wind deduced from geomagnetic indices responses after sudden impulses

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Interplanetary (IP) shock plays a key role in causing the global dynamic changes of the geospace environment. For the perspective of Solar-Terrestrial relationship, it will be of great importance to estimate the properties of post-shock solar wind simply and accurately. Motivated by this, we performed a statistical analysis of IP shocks during 1998-2008, focusing on the significantly different responses of two well-used geomagnetic indices (SYMH and AL) to the passive of two types of IP shocks. For the IP shocks with northward IMF (91 cases), the SYMH index keeps on the high level after the sudden impulses (SI) for a long time. Meanwhile, the change of AL index is relative small, with an mean value of only -29 nT. However, for the IP shocks with southward IMF (92 cases), the SYMH index suddenly decreases at a certain rate after SI, and the change of AL index is much significant, of -316 nT. Furthermore, the change rate of SYMH index after SI is found to be linearly correlated with the post-shock reconnection ...

  5. Evaluating woody material transport and deposition in alpine rivers and deducing risk mitigation approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzorana, B.; Zischg, A.; Hübl, J.; Largiader, A.

    2009-04-01

    The impact levels of recent flashflood events in Switzerland and Western Austria in 2005 have significantly been accentuated by a considerable amount of transported woody material. As a consequence, either protection measures or bridges suffered considerable damage. Furthermore, cross-sectional obstructions due to woody material entrapment caused unexpected floodplain inundations resulting in severe damage to elements at risk. Until now, these woody material transport phenomena are neither sufficiently taken into account nor systematically considered, leading to a decrease in prediction accuracy during the procedure of hazard mapping. To close this gap, a procedure is proposed that (1) allows for the estimation of woody material recruitment from wood covered bankslopes and floodplains within the perimeter of the considered extreme flood event; and (2) permits the analysis of, the disposition for woody material entrainment and transport to selected critical configurations along the channel. The proposed procedure had been implemented into an ArcGIS-environment and provided indications for potential accentuation of flood hazards due to the transport of woody material. Results from a case study suggested the general applicability of the concept. The computational results can be used to devise effective risk mitigation strategies that comprise: (1) selective woody material volume reduction within the source areas, (2) thinning measures to increase the elasticity of the forest structure, (3) preventive interception of transported woody material and (4) redesign of the critical configurations.

  6. "Brücke dreht sich um!". A Deconstructionist Reading of Kafka's "Die Brücke"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Hoffmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Franz Kafka's (1883-1924 "Die Brücke" is one of the less well-known texts by one of the most prolific authors of literary modernity. However, this short prose text embodies prevalent questions of literary modernity and philosophy as it reflects the crisis of language in regard of identity, communication, and literary production. Placed in the context of fin-de-siècle's discourse of language crisis, this article provides a dialogue between Kafka's "Die Brücke" and Hannah Arendt's (1906-1975 philosophy of thinking and speaking in The Life of the Mind. Contrary to Arendt's understanding of the metaphor as "a carrying over" between the mental activities of the solitude thinker and a reconciliation with the pluralistic world shared with others, this article argues for a deconstructionist reading of "Die Brücke" as a tool to reevaluate Arendt's notion of a shared human experience ensured through language and illustrates the advantages of poetic texts within philosophical discourses.

  7. Improved Growth Methods for LaBr3 Scintillation Radiation Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, Douglas S

    2011-05-01

    The objective is to develop advanced materials for deployment as high-resolution gamma ray detectors. Both LaBr3 and CeBr3 are advanced scintillation materials, and will be studied in this research. Prototype devices, in collaboration Sandia National Laboratories, will be demonstrated along with recommendations for mass production and deployment. It is anticipated that improved methods of crystal growth will yield larger single crystals of LaBr3 for deployable room-temperature operated gamma radiation spectrometers. The growth methods will be characterized. The LaBr3 and CeBr3 scintillation crystals will be characterized for light yield, spectral resolution, and for hardness.

  8. Improved Growth Methods for LaBr3 Scintillation Radiation Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective is to develop advanced materials for deployment as high-resolution gamma ray detectors. Both LaBr3 and CeBr3 are advanced scintillation materials, and will be studied in this research. Prototype devices, in collaboration Sandia National Laboratories, will be demonstrated along with recommendations for mass production and deployment. It is anticipated that improved methods of crystal growth will yield larger single crystals of LaBr3 for deployable room-temperature operated gamma radiation spectrometers. The growth methods will be characterized. The LaBr3 and CeBr3 scintillation crystals will be characterized for light yield, spectral resolution, and for hardness.

  9. Chemical composition, fatty acid profile and CLA levels in the Longissimus muscle of Caracu and Caracu vs. Charolais cattle / <br> Composição química, perfil de ácidos graxos e níveis de CLA no músculo Longissimus de bovinos Caracu e Caracu vs. Charolês

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanor Nunes do Prado; Jair de Araújo Marques; Makoto Matsushita; Nilson Evelázio de Souza; Polyana Pizzi Rotta; Carlos Alberto Fugita; Rodolpho Martin do Prado; Adriana Nery de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    This work was conducted in order to study the chemical composition, fatty acid profile, as well as the levels of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) present in the Longissimus muscle of Caracu and Caracu vs. Charolais genetic groups of cattle. This study was carried out at the Experimental Farm of the Agronomic Institute of Paraná, in southern Brazil. Twenty animals (10 Caracu – CAR and 10 Caracu vs. Charolais – CAC) were used, with an initial average age between 8 and ...

  10. Ruminal degradation kinetics of elephant grass silage with different levels of jack fruit and cassava scraping<br>Cinética de degradação ruminal de silagem de capim-elefante com diferentes níveis de jaca e raspa de mandioca

    OpenAIRE

    André Luiz Custódio Franco; Marina de Arruda Camargo Danés; Thiago Carvalho da Silva; Anderson de Moura Zanine; Edson Mauro Santos; Juliana Silva de Oliveira; João Ricardo Rebouças Dórea; Vinícius Nunes de Gouvêa; Ivone Yurika Mizubuti

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in situ ruminal degradation kinetics in two experiments, which different levels of dehydrated jackfruit (0, 5, 10 and 15% in natural matter) and cassavas scraping (0, 7, 15 and 30 % in natural matter) in the elephant grass silage, were used. The two experiments were carried out at the Department of Animal Science, Federal University of Viçosa, Brazil, in the same period and followed the same protocol. A mixed model was used, in which was considered ...

  11. Levels of replacing corn by cassava starch on performance and carcass characteristics of bulls finished in feedlot / <br>Substituição do milho pelo resíduo da fecularia de mandioca no desempenho e nas características de carcaça de bovinos terminados em confinamento

    OpenAIRE

    Liandra Maria Abaker Bertipaglia; Robério Rodrigues Silva; Rodolpho Martin do Prado; Polyana Pizzi Rotta; Maribel Velandia Valero; Ivanor Nunes do Prado; Paulo Henrique Moura Dian

    2010-01-01

    This work was carried out to study the effects of replacing corn by different levels of cassava starch (0; 12.5; 22.8 and 32.7%) on performance and carcass characteristics of bulls finished in feedlot. Thirtytwo crossbred bulls (½ Aberdeen Angus vs. ½ Nellore) with 18 months old and 380 + 24 kg live weight were used in a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments and eight replications. The experiment was realized during 56 days with 14 days for adaptation. The complete di...

  12. High-resolution infrared spectroscopy of the interacting v9, v5 + v6 and 3v6 levels of CH279BrF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visinoni, R.; Baldacci, A.; Larsen, R. Wugt

    2011-01-01

    induced by Coriolis coupling with v(5) + v(6), in turn exhibiting a predominant a-type structure. Several interactions connecting these levels and the dark state 3v(6) have been assessed. The whole data set is treated using Watson's A-reduced Hamiltonian in the 1(r) representation implemented with first...... order a- and b- and c-type Coriolis terms. A detailed analysis of the rotational structure yields a set of accurate upper-state parameters up to quartic distortion terms for v(9) and v(5) + v(6). In addition, spectroscopic information about the dark ternary overtone of v(6) has been obtained. (C) 2011...

  13. Assessment of noise level emitted by micro tractor in static and dynamic conditions<br>Avaliação do nível de ruído emitido por um microtrator em condição estática e dinâmica

    OpenAIRE

    Elivânia Maria Sousa Nascimento; Carlos Alberto Viliotti; Renildo Luiz Mion; Daniel Albiero; Leonardo Almeida Monteiro

    2013-01-01

    Noise is a complex mixture of sounds that causes the feeling of discomfort and is continuously present in the daily lives of human beings. The objective of this study is to assess the noise level emitted by a micro tractor in various situations. In the first situation, the micro tractor is standing still and is subjected to 600, 800, and 1100 rpm from four positions –right, front, left, and rear sides –as well as four distance radii –1, 2, 5, and 10 m. In the second situation, the micro tract...

  14. High-frequency Earth rotation variations deduced from altimetry-based ocean tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzak, Matthias; Schindelegger, Michael; Böhm, Johannes; Bosch, Wolfgang; Hagedoorn, Jan

    2016-06-01

    A model of diurnal and semi-diurnal variations in Earth rotation parameters (ERP) is constructed based on altimetry-measured tidal heights from a multi-mission empirical ocean tide solution. Barotropic currents contributing to relative angular momentum changes are estimated for nine major tides in a global inversion algorithm that solves the two-dimensional momentum equations on a regular 0.5° grid with a heavily weighted continuity constraint. The influence of 19 minor tides is accounted for by linear admittance interpolation of ocean tidal angular momentum, although the assumption of smooth admittance variations with frequency appears to be a doubtful concept for semi-diurnal mass terms in particular. A validation of the newly derived model based on post-fit corrections to polar motion and universal time (Δ UT1) from the analysis of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations shows a variance reduction for semi-diurnal Δ UT1 residuals that is significant at the 0.05 level with respect to the conventional ERP model. Improvements are also evident for the explicitly modeled K_1 , Q_1 , and K_2 tides in individual ERP components, but large residuals of more than 15 μ as remain at the principal lunar frequencies of O_1 and M_2 . We attribute these shortcomings to uncertainties in the inverted relative angular momentum changes and, to a minor extent, to violation of mass conservation in the empirical ocean tide solution. Further dedicated hydrodynamic modeling efforts of these anomalous constituents are required to meet the accuracy standards of modern space geodesy.

  15. Ionic pathway studies in fragmentation of the core-excited (CH sub 3) sub 3 SiBr molecule involving the Br(3d) and Si(2p) inner-shells in the range of 60-133 eV

    CERN Document Server

    Boo, B H

    2003-01-01

    Dissociative multiple photoionization of bromotrimethylsilane [(CH sub 3) sub 3 SiBr] has been probed in the valence, the Br(3d), and the Si(2p) core-level photoexcitation/photoionization regions by time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry and photoion-photoion coincidence (PIPICO) method together with linearly polarized synchrotron radiation. The inner-shell photoionization spectra are dominated by a huge resonance attributed to the diffusion of the outgoing photoelectrons by the centrifugal barrier for the Br(3d sup 9 epsilon f) outgoing channel. In addition to the giant resonance, discrete photoabsorption bands below the Br(3d sub 5 sub / sub 2) and Si(2p sub 3 sub / sub 2) thresholds have been observed in both the total photoion and PIPICO yield spectra. In the valence excitation/ionization region, single ionization leading to the formation of C sub n H sub p SiBr sup + (n=0-3), C sub n H sub p Si sup + (n=0-3), and CH sub 3 sup + prevails. Above the Br(3d) threshold including the Si(2p) region, however, de...

  16. Low-energy tail of the giant dipole resonance in Mo98 and Mo100 deduced from photon-scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusev, G.; Schwengner, R.; Dönau, F.; Erhard, M.; Grosse, E.; Junghans, A. R.; Kosev, K.; Schilling, K. D.; Wagner, A.; Bečvář, F.; Krtička, M.

    2008-06-01

    Dipole-strength distributions in the nuclides Mo98 and Mo100 up to the neutron-separation energies have been studied in photon-scattering experiments at the bremsstrahlung facility of the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. To determine the dipole-strength distributions up to the neutron-emission thresholds, statistical methods were developed for the analysis of the measured spectra. The measured spectra of scattered photons were corrected for detector response and atomic background by simulations using the code GEANT3. Simulations of γ-ray cascades were performed to correct the intensities of the transitions to the ground state for feeding from higher-lying levels and to determine their branching ratios. The photoabsorption cross sections obtained for Mo98 and Mo100 from the present (γ,γ') experiments are combined with (γ,n) data from literature, resulting in a photoabsorption cross section covering the range from 4 to about 15 MeV of interest for network calculations in nuclear astrophysics. Novel information about the low-energy tail of the giant dipole resonance and its energy dependence is derived. The photoabsorption cross sections deduced from the present photon-scattering experiments are compared with existing data from neutron capture and He3-induced reactions.

  17. Biological Sources of Branched Glycerol Dialkyl Glycerol Tetraethers (brGDGTs) in Terrestrial Hot Springs: A Possible Link Between Nitrogen-cycling Bacteria and brGDGT Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. X.; Xie, W.; Boyd, E. S.; Hedlund, B. P.; Zhang, C.

    2014-12-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are common in peat, soil, lakes, rivers and hot springs. To seek the potential biological sources of brGDGTs in geothermal environments, we investigated 65 hot springs in the Yellowstone National Park (USA) and Tengchong (China). Together with previously published data from hot springs in the Great Basin (USA) and Tibet (China), we found that the abundance of brGDGTs tended to peak in springs with pH > 8. This contrasts with previous observations indicating an abundance of brGDGTs in acidic soils and peat bogs, suggesting a different biological source and function for lipids in these environments. In support of this hypothesis, a comparison of Cyclization ratios of Branched Tetraethers (CBT) between hot springs and surrounding soils indicated that more brGDGTs with cyclopentane moieties were produced in alkaline hot springs than in nearby low-temperature soils. Since Acidobacteria (the likely source of brGDGTs in peat bog environments) tend to have low CBT ratios, these data suggest a different source for brGDGTs in hot spring environments. RDA and regression analysis integrating brGDGT compounds and nitrogen species indicate that Bacteria involved in the nitrogen biogeochemical cycle (ammonia oxidation and nitrite reduction) may be related to the production of brGDGTs in terrestrial hot springs. However, direct evidence showing the link between nitrogen-cycling bacteria and brGDGT production has yet to be demonstrated under laboratory conditions. Nevertheless, our study expands the possibility of brGDGT sources into bacterial communities in terrestrial geothermal systems where Acidobacteria are absent or only a minor component.

  18. Temporal Changes in Eruption Dynamics at Tungurahua Volcano Deduced from Infrasonic Measurements, June 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmigiani, A.; Chojnicki, K. N.; Parcheta, C. E.; Christensen, B.; Marcillo, O. E.; Johnson, J. B.

    2009-12-01

    Tungurahua volcano (1.45S, 78.43W, 5023m), located in the heart of the Andes and within Ecuador's Eastern Cordillera, is the most active populated volcano in the region. Since 1999 Tungurahua has affected the communities on its western flanks with a continuous cycle of Strombolian and Vulcanian activity (VEI 0 and 1) that climaxed on August 16th, 2006 with a VEI 2 event. Continuous tracking of Tungurahua eruptive activity presents a challenge as inclement weather often prevents direct observation of eruptive activity and strong volcanic tremor often masks seismic signals associated with explosive events. Infrasound signals have thus proven invaluable in identifying explosive activity and estimating erupted flux at Tungurahua. During a 10-day-long campaign in June 2009, two temporary arrays (a seismo-acoustic array at 6 km and an acoustic array at 11.5 km) were installed to provide insight into temporal changes in eruption dynamics and near-vent conditions. During the deployment interval, explosive activity was dominated by impulsive infrasonic events. Time-lapse camera footage confirmed Strombolian-style eruptions associated with 77 impulsive events, recorded at an average rate of 8 explosions per day. Columns with variable ash content rose from 2-6 km above the crater rim and incandescent blocks were seen to rise up to 800 meters in altitude during some events. Corresponding infrasonic waveforms had peak pressures as great as 74 Pa at 6 km from the vent and the primary pulses lasted 6-10s. Waveform shapes often displayed high levels of self-similarity in contrast to their seismic counterparts, which persisted up to 40-50s and were emergent and dis-similar. Acoustic array beam-forming and semblance analyses have been employed to decompose the infrasonic wave field, verify volcano acoustic sources, construct a volcano acoustic catalogue, and identify apparent variations in the lateral position of the vent(s). The ratio of elastic energy propagated into the

  19. Effect of crystal transformation on 80Br retention in cadmium bromate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both the hydrated and anhydrous forms of cadmium bromate yield 15, 18 and 20 +- 1% initial retention of 80Br, sup(80m)Br and 82Br respectively. On heating at 1250C for 1 h the 80Br retention remains lower by approx. 20% than the identical values (approx. 50%) for sup(80m)Br and 82Br isotopes. The rate and the extent of annealing of the 80Br species during heat and radiation treatments are greater in the hydrated form and are further enhanced when structural rearrangement occurs following dehydration at 1250C. The associated activation energy is 0.09 eV below this temperature while it is 0.40 eV above, the latter value being identical with the activation energy for the dehydration process. (orig.)

  20. Problems of impurities deducing from multicomponent media at thermal heating, ionization and rotation of plasma in crossed fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of multicomponent mixtures separation at thermal heating, ionization and plasma rotation in relation to the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is shown. At thermal heating it is possible to allocate up to 75% of impurities of fission products (FP), after which the SNF contains oxides of zirconium, niobium and lanthanides. At the stage of ionization it is impossible to deduce the lanthanide oxides, but it is possible to remove partially the oxides of zirconium and niobium. Further removal of impurities will occur in rotated plasma. Under certain conditions heavy ions will get to lateral surface of vacuum chamber, and the light ones will move along the magnetic field lines and precipitate on the collector. The molecular plasma has energy cost to excitation of vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom, dissociation. As simulation media it is advisable to use non-radioactive isotopes of spent nuclear fuel oxides

  1. Structural and functional characterization of hBD-1(Ser35), a peptide deduced from a DEFB1 polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circo, Raffaella; Skerlavaj, Barbara; Gennaro, Renato; Amoroso, Antonio; Zanetti, Margherita

    2002-04-26

    beta-Defensins are mammalian antimicrobial peptides that share a unique disulfide-bonding motif of six conserved cysteines. An intragenic polymorphism of the DEFB1 gene that changes a highly conserved Cys to Ser in the peptide coding region has recently been described. The deduced peptide cannot form three disulfide bonds, as one of the cysteines is unpaired. We have determined the cysteine connectivities of a corresponding synthetic hBD-1(Ser35) peptide, investigated the structure by circular dichroism spectroscopy, and assayed the in vitro antimicrobial activity. Despite a different arrangement of the disulfides, hBD-1(Ser35) proved as active as hBD-1 against the microorganisms tested. This activity likely depends on the ability of hBD-1(Ser35) to adopt an amphipathic conformation in hydrophobic environment, similar to the wild type peptide, as suggested by CD spectroscopy. PMID:12054642

  2. On the $\\lambda$ energy dependence deduced from BEC of $\\pi\\pi$ pairs produced in $pp$ collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, G

    2016-01-01

    The $\\sqrt{s_{pp}}$ behavior of the chaoticity parameter $\\lambda$, derived from Bose - Einstein Correlations (BEC) of pion-pairs produced in $pp$ collisions, is investigated. Considered are the one and three dimensions (1D, 3D) of the BEC analyzed in terms of a Gaussian and/or Exponential distributions. A marked difference is observed between the $\\lambda$ dependence on energy in the 1D and the 3D analyzes. The experimental data are examined in terms of the relation between the pion cluster of sources and the BEC dimension R which in turn are deduced from the charged outgoing particle multiplicity. While in this approach the general decrease with energy of the 1D $\\lambda$ is accounted for it fails to represent the few 3D $\\lambda$ data which are seen to remain constant with energy above $\\sim$200 GeV.

  3. Use of activity measurements in the plume from Chernobyl to deduce fuel state before, during and after the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work performed at Berkely Nuclear Laboratories both prior to the meeting in Vienna at which USSR gave full details of the Chernobyl accident and after that meeting is recorded. Plume data from Western Europe were used to deduce the likely damage to the fuel and its previous irradiation history. The note concludes that the source to the environment consisted of an initial dispersion of fuel particulate followed by a prolonged release at a lower rate, the total release being some 3% of the core inventory of fuel. Early and late in the release period it was enhanced in volatile species. Damage to the fuel was thus due both to mechanical disruption and to high temperatures. During the early dispersive event high temperatures (probably approaching fuel melting) were reached in some of the core, though the proportion of the fuel affected may have been small. (UK)

  4. Solution conformation and dynamics of a tetrasaccharide related to the LewisX antigen deduced by NMR relaxation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1H-NMR cross-relaxation rates and nonselective longitudinal relaxation times have been obtained at two magnetic fields (7.0 and 11.8 T) and at a variety of temperatures for the branched tetrasaccharide methyl 3-O-α-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl-β-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)[3-O-α-fucosyl] -glucopyranoside (1), an inhibitor of astrocyte growth. In addition, 13C-NMR relaxation data have also been recorded at both fields. The 1H-NMR relaxation data have been interpreted using different motional models to obtain proton-proton correlation times. The results indicate that the GalNAc and Fuc rings display more extensive local motion than the two inner Glc and Gal moieties, since those present significantly shorter local correlation times. The13C-NMR relaxation parameters have been interpreted in terms of the Lipari-Szabo model-free approach. Thus, order parameters and internal motion correlation times have been deduced. As obtained for the1H-NMR relaxation data, the two outer residues possess smaller order parameters than the two inner rings. Internal correlation times are in the order of 100 ps. The hydroxymethyl groups have also different behaviour,with the exocyclic carbon on the glucopyranoside unit showing the highestS2. Molecular dynamics simulations using a solvated system have also been performed and internal motion correlation functions have been deduced from these calculations. Order parameters and interproton distances have been compared to those inferred from the NMR measurements. The obtained results are in fair agreement with the experimental data

  5. Solution conformation and dynamics of a tetrasaccharide related to the Lewis{sup X} antigen deduced by NMR relaxation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poveda, Ana [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigacion (Spain); Asensio, Juan Luis; Martin-Pastor, Manuel; Jimenez-Barbero, Jesus [Instituto de Quimica Organica, CSIC, Grupo de Carbohidratos (Spain)

    1997-07-15

    {sup 1}H-NMR cross-relaxation rates and nonselective longitudinal relaxation times have been obtained at two magnetic fields (7.0 and 11.8 T) and at a variety of temperatures for the branched tetrasaccharide methyl 3-O-{alpha}-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl-{beta}-galactopyranosyl-(1{sup {yields}}4)[3-O-{alpha}-fucosyl] -glucopyranoside (1), an inhibitor of astrocyte growth. In addition, {sup 13}C-NMR relaxation data have also been recorded at both fields. The {sup 1}H-NMR relaxation data have been interpreted using different motional models to obtain proton-proton correlation times. The results indicate that the GalNAc and Fuc rings display more extensive local motion than the two inner Glc and Gal moieties, since those present significantly shorter local correlation times. The{sup 13}C-NMR relaxation parameters have been interpreted in terms of the Lipari-Szabo model-free approach. Thus, order parameters and internal motion correlation times have been deduced. As obtained for the{sup 1}H-NMR relaxation data, the two outer residues possess smaller order parameters than the two inner rings. Internal correlation times are in the order of 100 ps. The hydroxymethyl groups have also different behaviour,with the exocyclic carbon on the glucopyranoside unit showing the highestS{sup 2}. Molecular dynamics simulations using a solvated system have also been performed and internal motion correlation functions have been deduced from these calculations. Order parameters and interproton distances have been compared to those inferred from the NMR measurements. The obtained results are in fair agreement with the experimental data.

  6. Could Immigration Prevent Population Decline? <br>The Demographic Prospects of Germany Revisited<br>

    OpenAIRE

    Hannes Weber

    2015-01-01

    Germany has a record of more than 40 years of below-replacement fertility and annual death surplus. Hence, it is commonly accepted that Germany’s population will decline considerably in the coming decades. Recent increases in immigration may, however, challenge the official long-term demographic projections for Germany. This paper assesses the impact of a permanent higher-than-expected level of net immigration to Germany as in the past three years on the projections for population, age struct...

  7. From photoelectron detachment spectra of BrHBr{sup −}, BrDBr{sup −} and IHI{sup −}, IDI{sup −} to vibrational bonding of BrMuBr and IMuI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, Jörn [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Laser Spectrocopy, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Freie Universität Berlin, Institut für Chemie und Biochemie, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Sato, Kazuma; Takayanagi, Toshiyuki, E-mail: tako@mail.saitama-u.ac.jp; Yoshida, Takahiko [Department of Chemistry, Saitama University, Saitama City, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan)

    2015-04-28

    Photoelectron detachment XLX{sup −}(00{sup 0}0) + hν → XLX(vib) + e{sup −} + KER (X = Br or I, L = H or D) at sufficiently low temperatures photoionizes linear dihalogen anions XLX{sup −} in the vibrational ground state (v{sub 1}v{sub 2}{sup l}v{sub 3} = 00{sup 0}0) and prepares the neutral radicals XLX(vib) in vibrational states (vib). At the same time, part of the photon energy (hν) is converted into kinetic energy release (KER) of the electron [R. B. Metz, S. E. Bradforth, and D. M. Neumark, Adv. Chem. Phys. 81, 1 (1992)]. The process may be described approximately in terms of a Franck-Condon type transfer of the vibrational wavefunction representing XLX{sup −}(00{sup 0}0) from the domain close to the minimum of its potential energy surface (PES) to the domain close to the linear transition state of the PES of the neutral XLX. As a consequence, prominent peaks of the photoelectron detachment spectra (pds) correlate with the vibrational energies E{sub XLX,vib} of states XLX(vib) which are centered at linear transition state. The corresponding vibrational quantum numbers may be labeled vib = (v{sub 1}v{sub 2}{sup l}v{sub 3}) = (00{sup 0}v{sub 3}). Accordingly, the related most prominent peaks in the pds are labeled v{sub 3}. We construct a model PES which mimics the “true” PES in the domain of transition state such that it supports vibrational states with energies E{sub XLX,pds,00{sup 0}v{sub 3}} close to the peaks of the pds labeled v{sub 3} = 0, 2, and 4. Subsequently, the same model PES is also used to calculate approximate values of the energies E{sub XMuX,00{sup 0}0} of the isotopomers XMuX(00{sup 0}0). For the heavy isotopomers XHX and XDX, it turns out that all energies E{sub XLX,00{sup 0}v{sub 3}} are above the threshold for dissociation, which means that all heavy XLX(00{sup 0}v{sub 3}) with wavefunctions centered at the transition state are unstable resonances with finite lifetimes. Turning the table, bound states of the heavy XLX are van

  8. Histologia das brânquias de larvas da tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (L., de origem tailandesa, submetidas a diferentes níveis de vitamina C Histology of branchiae of larvae of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L. from Thailand, with different levels of vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Raquel Marçal Natali

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, foi avaliado o efeito da vitamina C sobre a integridade histológica branquial e morfologia das células mucosas, em larvas de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes, cichlidae de origem tailandesa, durante a fase de reversão sexual, em Maringá, Estado do Paraná. Larvas foram submetidas a três diferentes dietas sendo: T1- isenta de vitamina C, T2- 1.000 mg de vitamina C e T3- 2.000 mg por quilo de ração. As alterações histológicas foram classificadas por graus de severidade, numa escala de 1 a 3 unidades de Valor Médio de Alteração (V.M.A., tais como: elevação epitelial, hiperplasia de células dos filamentos, telangectasia e fusão lamelar, que foram significativamente mais freqüentes no T1 em relação ao T2 e T3. As análises morfométricas demonstraram significativo aumento no tamanho médio das células no T1, em relação às do T2 e do T3, (p The effect of vitamin C (ascorbic acid on the histological integrity and the morphology of mucous cells from gill structure of larvae of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes, cichlidae, from Thailand, during sex reversion process was evaluated. Assay was performed during 28 days in Maringá PR Brazil. Three diets were given to the larvae: vitamin C-free diet; and two diets with monophosphated vitamin C, or rather, T1 (0; T2 (1,000; T3 (2,000 mg of vitamin C per kilo of diet respectively. Histological changes were classified according to severity levels in a scale ranging from 1 to 3 unities of Mean Assessment Value (MAV. These were epithelial lifting, hyperplasia of filament cells, telangectasy, and lamellar fusion, significantly more frequent in T1 than in T2 and T3. Morphometrical analyses showed an increase in average size of cells in T1 when compared to those of T2 or T3 (p < 0.05. Number of mucous cells showed a higher significant frequency of cells in T1 filaments as a contrast to those of T2 and T3. Results indicate that best inclusion

  9. X-ray transitions in Br XXIV-XXVIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transitions in the wavelength region 4.9-8.1 A from Br , , , , and have been identified in spectra from laser-produced plasmas. The identifications were made using ab initio calculations of wavelengths and oscillator strengths. Spatially resolved spectra were recorded for laser irradiation intensities from 3 x 10/sup 13/ to 4 x 10/sup 14/ W/cm2. The dependence of the spectral lines on the distance from the target and on the irradiation intensity was very useful in distinguishing the transitions from different ionization stages

  10. Brüssel enne Moskvat / Markus Meckel, Matthias Wissmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meckel, Markus

    2005-01-01

    Saksa liiduparlamendi sotsiaaldemokraatide fraktsiooni liikme Markus Meckeli ja Saksa liiduparlamendi Euroopa komisjoni esimehe Matthias Wissmanni avaldus, milles nad kutsuvad tunnistama Balti riikide ajalugu ja korraldama päev enne Moskvas toimuvat Teise maailmasõja lõppu tähistavat üritust Brüsselis sõja lõpu 60. aastapäeva mälestusürituse. Artikkel ilmus samaaegselt ajalehtedes International Herald Tribune, Die Welt, Die Presse, Le Figaro, Gazeta Wyborcza, Lietuvas rytas, Diena

  11. Planetary3br: Three massive body resonance calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Tabaré

    2016-07-01

    Given two planets P1 and P2 with arbitrary orbits, planetary3br calculates all possible semimajor axes that a third planet P0 can have in order for the system to be in a three body resonance; these are identified by the combination k0*P0 + k1*P1 + k2*P2. P1 and P2 are assumed to be not in an exact two-body resonance. The program also calculates three "strengths" of the resonance, one for each planet, which are only indicators of the dynamical relevance of the resonance on each planet. Sample input data are available along with the Fortran77 source code.

  12. Refurbishment of BR2 (Phases 4 and 5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P.; Dekeyser, J.; Van Der Auwera, J

    1998-07-01

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. In phase 4 of the refurbishment programme, various activities were performed to allow reactor start-up. In phase 5, remaining refurbishment works were carried out as well as the extra studies and upgradings required by the licensing authorities. Major achievements in 1997 are described and discussed.

  13. PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF CHLOROPHYTUM LAXUM R. BR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Vishal Narayan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophytum laxum R. Br. belongs to family Liliaceae and is being used in the indigenous systems of medicine as a galactogogue and aphrodisiac. It is being sold in the market under the common name “safed musali”. The white tuberous roots of this plant are the medicinally useful parts. The tuberous roots of other species of Chlorophytum, Asparagus, Bombax and Orchids are also sometimes called safed musali leading to confusion. In order to ensure correct botanical standardization, the detailed pharmacognostic study on tuberous roots of Chlorophytum laxum has been carried out in this study.

  14. Adidas Suomi Oy: Brändikuvan rakentaminen markkinoinnin keinoin

    OpenAIRE

    Leinonen, Miira

    2015-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö tehtiin toimeksiantona Adidas Suomi Oy:lle syksyllä 2014. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää muotialan mielipidevaikuttajien mielikuvat Adidaksesta ja sen merkittävimmistä kilpailijoista. Vertailtaviksi brändeiksi valittiin kuusi tärkeintä kilpailijaa, jotka ovat Converse, Karhu, New Balance, Nike, Puma ja Reebok. Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantaja Adidas Suomi Oy on osa kansainvälistä Adidas Group konsernia. Yritys on yksi maailman tunnetuimmista urheilumerkeistä ja toim...

  15. Nitrosyl bromo complexes of rhenium: Re(NO)2Br3 and [Re(NO)2Br4]-; crystal structure of PPh4[Re(NO)2Br4] . 2 CCl4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PPh4[Re(NO)2Br4] is prepared in the form of dark red-brown powder by the reaction of PPh4[Re(NO)2Cl4] with excess boron tribromide. From a solution of CH2Br2 and CCl4 it crystallizes with two moles CCl4, one of which splits off easily in vacuo. The reaction of aluminium tribromide in CH2Br2 solution leads to a slightly soluble red-brown Re(NO)2Br3 powder. The i.r. spectra indicate cis positions of the covalently bound NO ligands in both complexes. Re(NO)2Br3 is dimeric via bromo bridges. The crystal structure determination of PPh4[Re(NO)2Br4] . 2 CCl4 was solved by X-ray diffraction methods at -115 0C. The complex crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with four formula units per unit cell (4434 independent reflexions, R = 0.085). The unit cell dimensions are a = 1092.3 pm, b = 2088.0 pm, c = 1657.6 pm, β = 96.100. The structure consists of P(C6H5)4+ cations, [Re(NO)2Br4]- anions and intercalated CCl4 molecules. In the anion the NO groups are covalently bound to the Re atom like Re-=N+=O and they are arranged in cis position to one another. (author)

  16. Dynamics of endoergic substitution reactions. II. Br+/C2H2Cl2/→Cl+/C2H2ClBr/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have extended the crossed beams studies described in the preceding paper to the reactions of Br atoms with 1,1- and trans-dichloroethylene. The shapes of the product translational energy distributions and excitation functions for both reactions support our previous conclusion that Cl elimination from Br--R--Cl collision complexes can compete with Br elimination only in the limit that few vibrational modes of the complex are active in energy redistribution. The substitution cross section for the Br+CH2CCl2 reaction is considerably lower than that for the Br+trans-CHClCHCl reaction in the collision energy range 15--25 kcal/mol, suggesting that steric effects play a dominant role in determining the relative magnitudes of the cross sections

  17. How to deduce and teach the logical and unambiguous answer, namely L = ∑C, to "What is Life?" using the principles of communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Loof, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Is it possible to understand the very nature of 'Life' and 'Death' based on contemporary biology? The usual spontaneous reaction is: "No way. Life is far too complicated. It involves both material- and an immaterial dimensions, and this combination exceeds the capacities of the human brain." In this paper, a fully contrarian stand is taken. Indeed it will be shown that without invoking any unknown principle(s) unambiguous definitions can be logically deduced. The key? First ask the right questions. Next, thoroughly imbue contemporary biology with the principles of communication, including both its 'hardware' and its 'software' aspects. An integrative yet simple principle emerges saying that: 1. All living matter is invariably organized as sender-receiver compartments that incessantly handle and transfer information (= communicate); 2. The 'communicating compartment' is better suited to serve as universal unit of structure, function and evolution than 'the (prokaryotic) cell', the smallest such unit; 3. 'Living matter' versus 'non-living' are false opposites while 'still alive' and 'just not alive anymore' are true opposites; 4. 'Death' ensues when a given sender-receiver compartment irreversibly loses its ability to handle information at its highest level of compartmental organization; 5. The verb 'Life' (L) denotes nothing else than the total sum (∑) of all acts of communication (C) executed by a sender-receiver at all its levels of compartmental organization: L = ∑C; 6. Any act of communication is a problem-solving act; 6. Any Extended Evolutionary Synthesis (EES) should have the definition of Life at its core. PMID:27064373

  18. Large BR( h → τ μ) in the MSSM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloni, Daniel; Nir, Yosef; Stamou, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    We study how large the rate of the lepton-flavor violating Higgs decay h → τ μ can be in the (R-parity conserving) MSSM. We make no assumptions, such as universality or alignment, about the flavor structure of the MSSM. We only assume that all couplings and, in particular, the trilinear scalar ones, are perturbative. We take into account lower bounds on the bino and slepton masses from τ → μγ and h → γγ as well as upper bounds on the trilinear scalar couplings from the requirement that the global minimum is not charge breaking. We find that in highly fine-tuned regions of parameter space, the ratio BR( h → τ μ) /BR( h → τ τ ) can be enhanced by about three orders of magnitude above the estimate from naive dimensional analysis, but still about two orders of magnitude below the present bound. Thus, if h → τ μ is experimentally established to be close to present bounds, the MSSM will be excluded.

  19. BR2: The first year of operation after refurbishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BR2 reactor has resumed operation in April 97 after an extensive refurbishment shutdown, which lasted for nearly two years. The yearly operation is presently limited to major cycles of 21 efpd, plus some short cycles for special programmes. The reactor is mainly used for irradiations in the framework of the following programs: qualification of MOX fuel at high burn-up, the PWR vessel surveillance program and associated modelling activities, the IASCC program focused on PVVR vessel intervals. The major irradiation device is the CALLISTO loop, simulating PWR conditions and comprising three in-pile sections. Additionally production activities are carried out: radio-isotopes and silicon doping. Irradiations for the surveillance programmes of beryllium and aluminum are underway; they concerns unirradiated and preirradiated samples, with various lead factors. Several refurbishment actions are still continuing, mainly: - continuation of the renewal of the process instrumentation, - extension of the BR2 DAS, - follow-up of the seismic qualification study, - follow-up of the PSA study: some detailed studies on supporting systems. A formalised training programme for the reactor operators has been launched. Special attention is given to the new reactor control desk and the emergency control panel outside of the containment building. A solution for the evacuation of the spent fuel has been adopted and is being implemented: reprocessing in La Hague

  20. Equilibrium reconstruction in the TCA/Br tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accurate and rapid determination of the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium configuration in tokamaks is a subject for the magnetic confinement of the plasma. With the knowledge of characteristic plasma MHD equilibrium parameters it is possible to control the plasma position during its formation using feed-back techniques. It is also necessary an on-line analysis between successive discharges to program external parameters for the subsequent discharges. In this work it is investigated the MHD equilibrium configuration reconstruction of the TCA/BR tokamak from external magnetic measurements, using a method that is able to fast determine the main parameters of discharge. The thesis has two parts. Firstly it is presented the development of an equilibrium code that solves de Grad-Shafranov equation for the TCA/BR tokamak geometry. Secondly it is presented the MHD equilibrium reconstruction process from external magnetic field and flux measurements using the Function Parametrization FP method. this method. This method is based on the statistical analysis of a database of simulated equilibrium configurations, with the goal of obtaining a simple relationship between the parameters that characterize the equilibrium and the measurements. The results from FP are compared with conventional methods. (author)

  1. Pan-Balti bränding - müüt või tegelikkus? / Joel Volkov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Volkov, Joel, 1972-

    2006-01-01

    Brändil pole kodumaad, on keel ja päritolumaa. Lokaalsed brändid valivad suhtlemiseks kohalikega nende kodukeele, globaalsed brändid harilikult inglise keele. Üks suuremaid ja tugevamaid lokaalsest süsteemist kasvanud Pan-Balti brände on Hansapank. Lisa: Sulev Vedler. Hansast võib saada Swedbank

  2. Longitudinal (UT effect in the onset of auroral disturbances over two solar cycles as deduced from the AE-index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Hajkowicz

    Full Text Available Statistical study on the universal time variations in the mean hourly auroral electrojet index (AE-index has been undertaken for a 21 y period over two solar cycles (1957–1968 and 1978–1986. The analysis, applied to isolated auroral substorm onsets (inferred from rapid variations in the AE-index and to the bulk of the AE data, indicates that the maximum in auroral activity is largely confined to 09–18 UT, with a distinct minimum at 03–06 UT. The diurnal effect was clearly present throughout all seasons in the first cycle but was mainly limited to northern winter in the second cycle. Severe storms (AE > 1000 nT tended to occur between 9–18 UT irrespective of the seasons whereas all larger magnetic disturbances (AE > 500 nT tended to occur in this time interval mostly in winter. On the whole the diurnal trend was strong in winter, intermediate at equinox and weak in summer. The implication of this study is that Eastern Siberia, Japan and Australia are mostly at night, during the period of maximum auroral activity whereas Europe and Eastern America are then mostly at daytime. The minimum of auroral activity coincides with near-midnight conditions in Eastern America. It appears that the diurnal UT distribution in the AE-index reflects a diurnal change between interplanetary magnetic field orientation and the Earth's magnetic dipole inclination.<br>>Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere · Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; storms and substorms.

  3. Dehydroepiandrosterone and its Sulfate brJoint Statement by the German Society for Gynecological Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine [DGGEF] and the German Professional Association of Gynecologists [BVF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabe T

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA is the most frequent circulating steroid hormone in humans. It is formed in the reticular zone of the adrenal glands to 90– 95% and, to a lower extent in the gonads and the brain where DHEA acts as neuro-steroid. There is an interconversion of DHEA to DHEAS in both directions. DHEAS levels in the blood are approximately 300 times higher in comparison to free DHEA levels. The DHEA peak levels are reached in the early morning hours whereas DHEAS is not subject to a circadian rhythm. Hence, DHEAS is well suitable for analysis in serum. DHEA is a universal precursor for the formation of androgen and estrogen in peripheral tissues. They contain enzyme systems such as 3beta-HSDH for the formation of androstenedione, 17alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase for the synthesis of testosterone and aromatase for estrogen-synthesis. Maximum levels of DHEA/DHEAS are reached between 20 and 30 years of age. At the age of 70 or older DHEAS levels can be up to 75% lower.br Mode of action: DHEA acts predominantly as steroid precursor in the biosynthesis of androgenic and estrogenic sex steroids. There have been no DHEA/ DHEAS receptors identified yet. DHEA and DHEAS bind and activate several receptors including ER-alpha and ER-beta, peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors, PXR (pregnant-X-receptor, AUTO (constitutive androstane receptor and beyond that membrane receptors as neuro-steroids like NMDA receptors (N-methyl- D-aspartate, glutamate as positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor and negative allosteric modulator. DHEA/DHEAS has a variety of dose independent effects like immune-modulation, effects on haemostasis, the lipid- and carbohydrate metabolism, bone health and mental health.br Pharmacology: The pharmacokinetic of DHEA depends on gender, dosing (25–50, 100 or 300 mg/day oral, no further increase of DHEA or DHEAS concentrations, respectively, and the route of application (oral, transdermal, vaginal. The oral

  4. De-excitation processes of optically excited Nd3+ pairs in CsCdBr3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CsCdBr3:Nd3+ crystals have been studied by laser selective excitation and time resolved spectroscopy. Due to the charge compensation resulting from the Nd3+/Cd2+ substitution, the proportion of Nd3+ pairs is very large and does not follow the statistical laws. This proportion has been measured, its variation with concentration has been established and the effect of codoping with a monovalent metal observed. From a comparison between the properties of single ions and pairs, energy transfers have been analysed. De-excitation channels have been determined for some excited levels from the dynamics and the relative intensities of luminescence lines. An unusual behaviour, which can lead to applications, has been observed: the 4F3/2 luminescence of pairs if favoured with respect to that of single ions. This behaviour is well explained

  5. Use of 82Br and 131I radionuclides in studies of goitrogenic effects of exogenous bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interference of excessive bromide intake with iodine metabolism in the rat was studied using 82Br and 131I radionuclides. Mainly lactating rat dams and their pups were used, in addition to adult male rats, in the present studies. Particularly, the influence of high bromide intake in lactating rat dams on the transfer of iodine and bromide to suckling young through breast milk was evaluated. The induction of hypothyroid status in the pups by high bromide intake in the mothers was proved unambiguously. Excessive bromide in lactating rat dams caused a marked decrease in plasma levels of thyroid hormones both, in the mothers and in their sucklings. The effects of an enhanced bromide intake on the thyroid function in relation to iodine status in the animals were also followed. Marked goitrogenic and thyrotoxic effects of excessive bromide in adult rats were significantly enhanced under the conditions of simultaneous iodine deficiency in the experimental animals. (author)

  6. Effect of phytohormones on the growth of Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp. Bréh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Tatkowska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies were made an the effect of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, gibberellic acid (GA, kinetin (Kin, and various combinations of these substances upon dry matter increments, soluble protein content, and chlorophyll levels in the cultures of Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp. Bréb. It was found that all these phytohormones, added separately to the medium, stimulated dry matter increment and protein content, although their effect depended on the concentration and the duration of culture. Addition of various combinations of the substances under study into the medium resulted in a less pronounced increment of dry matter, whereas the content of soluble protein significantly increased. The results reflect positive reaction of Scenedesmus quadricauda to the addition of phytohormones into the medium. They also suggest some differences in the action of particular hormones.

  7. A novel method for producing hydrogen based on the Ca-Br cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Michael F.; Sachdev, Prateek; McGrady, Christopher [Idaho National Laboratory, Materials and Fuels Complex, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83403 (United States); Utgikar, Vivek [University of Idaho at Idaho Falls, 1776 Science Center Dr., Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    The Ca-Br cycle is a promising method for efficiently producing hydrogen from water; however, it suffers from limitations inherent to gas-solid reactions. The cycle depends on the repeatable transformation of calcium bromide to calcium oxide and back to calcium bromide. The use of pure solids for these reactions would lead to rapid particle degradation and slow reaction kinetics. To circumvent these problems, a new reactor concept based on molten calcium bromide with dissolved calcium oxide has been proposed and developed. Preliminary experimental results indicate that the solubility of calcium oxide in calcium bromide at 800 C is at least 1.2 wt%, a level that is expected to be high enough to make the proposed process work as designed. Early attempts to hydrolyze molten calcium bromide indicated that solid calcium oxide formation may inhibit reactivity, and thus injection of the moisture into the salt must be optimized. (author)

  8. Spectroscopy of light Br and Rb isotopes. Onset of large quadrupole deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the nuclei off the line of stability, the N ≅ Z = 34-40 region offers some very interesting and unique features: large quadrupole deformations, triaxiality, shape coexistence and transitions, and reductions of pairing correlations leading to rigid body rotation. The authors have performed over the last years at the University of Gottingen a systematic study of level energies and lifetimes of rotational bands in this mass region. In particular, they have investigated the effects which one or several aligned g/sub 9/2/ proton(s) or neutron(s) have on the collective parameters. They present here recent results in the odd-A proton nuclei Br and Rb

  9. Bulk and surface band structure of the new family of semiconductors BiTeX (X=I, Br, Cl)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreschini, L., E-mail: lmoreschini@lbl.gov [Advanced Light Source (ALS), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Autès, G. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Crepaldi, A. [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Moser, S. [Advanced Light Source (ALS), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Johannsen, J.C. [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Kim, K.S. [Advanced Light Source (ALS), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Artificial Low Dimensional Electronic Systems, Institute for Basic Science, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Berger, H.; Bugnon, Ph.; Magrez, A. [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Denlinger, J.; Rotenberg, E.; Bostwick, A. [Advanced Light Source (ALS), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Yazyev, O.V. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); and others

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We provide an ARPES comparison between the three tellurohalides BiTeX (X = I, Br, Cl). • They present a similar band structure with namely spin-split bulk and surface states. • They offer, except for BiTeCl, the possibility of ambipolar conduction. • They can be easily doped. • From the data appeared so far, BiTeBr may be the most appealing for applications. - Abstract: We present an overview of the new family of semiconductors BiTeX (X = I, Br, Cl) from the perspective of angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The strong band bending occurring at the surface potentially endows them with a large flexibility, as they are capable of hosting both hole and electron conduction, and can be modified by inclusion or adsorption of foreign atoms. In addition, their trigonal crystal structure lacks a center of symmetry and allows for both bulk and surface spin-split bands at the Fermi level. We elucidate analogies and differences among the three materials, also in the light of recent theoretical and experimental work.

  10. Analytic ab initio-based molecular interaction potential for the BrOṡH2O complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehn, Ross D.; Yeole, Sachin D.; Kais, Sabre; Francisco, Joseph S.

    2016-05-01

    Radical halogen oxide species play important roles within atmospheric processes, specifically those responsible for the removal of O3. To facilitate future investigations on this family of compounds, RCCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVQZ-level electronic structure calculations were employed to generate individual-molecule optimized geometries, as well as to determine the global minimum energy structure for the BrOṡH2O complex. This information facilitated the generation of several one-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) scans for the BrOṡH2O complex. Scans were performed for both the ground state and the first excited state; this inclusion is due to a low-lying first electronic excited-state energy. These rigid-geometry PES scans were used both to generate a novel analytic interaction potential by modifying the existing Thole-type model used for water and to the fitted potential function. This interaction potential features anisotropic atomic polarizabilities facilitating appropriate modeling of the physics regarding the unpaired electron residing within the p-orbitals of the oxygen atom of the bromine oxide radical. The intention of this work is to facilitate future molecular dynamics simulations involving the interaction between the BrO radical and water clusters as a first step in devising possible novel chemistries taking place at the water interface of clouds within the atmosphere.

  11. Bulk and surface band structure of the new family of semiconductors BiTeX (X=I, Br, Cl)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We provide an ARPES comparison between the three tellurohalides BiTeX (X = I, Br, Cl). • They present a similar band structure with namely spin-split bulk and surface states. • They offer, except for BiTeCl, the possibility of ambipolar conduction. • They can be easily doped. • From the data appeared so far, BiTeBr may be the most appealing for applications. - Abstract: We present an overview of the new family of semiconductors BiTeX (X = I, Br, Cl) from the perspective of angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The strong band bending occurring at the surface potentially endows them with a large flexibility, as they are capable of hosting both hole and electron conduction, and can be modified by inclusion or adsorption of foreign atoms. In addition, their trigonal crystal structure lacks a center of symmetry and allows for both bulk and surface spin-split bands at the Fermi level. We elucidate analogies and differences among the three materials, also in the light of recent theoretical and experimental work

  12. Separation and characterization of a radioresistant bacterium strain BR501 from radiation polluted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strain BR501, an extremely radioresistant bacterium isolated from the radioactive experimental soil. The optimal temperature for the growth of strain BR501 was 30 degree C. The UV radiation and γ-radiation survival curves showed the strain BR501 had highly radio-resistance. The strain was sensitive to Amp, Km, Rif, Cm and Tc. The 16S rDNA of the BR501 shared highly similarity to those of species in genus Deinococcus, especially to that of D.radiodurans r1(99%). Based on the 16S rDNA sequence analysis and the phenotype characteristics, the BR501 belongs to the evolution branch of Deinococcus and was designated Deinococcus sp. BR501. (authors)

  13. Nuclear-spectroscopic measurements related to the design of 79Br, 81Br, and 87Rb solar-neutrino detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectroscopic properties for low-lying states in 79Kr, 81Kr, and 87Sr were studied using the 78Kr(dvector,p)79Kr, 80Kr(dvector,p)81Kr, and 86Sr(dvector,p)87Sr reactions initiated by 11 MeV purely vector-polarized deuteron beams at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. A Distorted-Wave Born Approximation analysis of the resulting angular distributions of cross section and vector analyzing power enabled the assignment of spin-parity and extraction of neutron spectroscopic factors for 48 nuclear states. A technique for preparation of thin targets using ion implantation was developed as a means to improve spectrum resolution by reducing projectile straggling in the entrance and exit foils of gas cell targets. The neutrino capture process, sigma + (Z,A) → (Z + 1,A) + e-, is equivalent to inverse beta decay. In order to interpret the results of a solar neutrino experiment using 79Br, 81Br, or 87Rb, low-lying states in the daughter nuclei, 79Kr, 81Kr, and 87Sr, must be studied. In particular, the states in the daughter nuclei that have appropriate spin-parity to be populated by allowed inverse beta decay must be identified

  14. Optimization of the Time Response of LaBr3(Ce) Detectors, and Its Dependence on Ce Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedia, V.; Mach, H.; Fraile, L. M.; Lalkovski, S.; Udías, J. M.

    Fast inorganic scintillators that exhibit good spectroscopy performance, like LaBr3(Ce), are the crystals of choice for many applications; they play a crucial role in the Ultra Fast Timing technique by virtue of their good energy resolution and fast response [1]. This method, which is very sensitive to the LaBr3(Ce) time resolution, allows measurements of nuclear level lifetimes down to few ps range. There are indications that the nominal Ce concentration does strongly influence on the timing properties as well as it varies the photon yield and the energy resolution [2]. In this work we have searched for the best settings in order to optimize the time resolution of three cylindrical LaBr3(Ce) detectors equipped with crystals identical in volume and shape but with different Ce dopant concentration. The time resolution of every detector depends on the proper selection of the fast photomultiplier tube and the set up parameters that can be further optimized by fine-tuning of the Constant Fraction Discrimination (CFD) and the PMT bias voltage. Very good time resolution can be obtained with the ORTEC 935 CFD for very short time-delays. Timing properties of the three crystals were studied by delayed coincidence measurements against a reference BaF2 detector, whose time response is well known. The LaBr3(Ce) detector and the reference unit were placed in a close geometry with the radioactive source in between. We report timing results measured at the 60Co and 22Na energies.

  15. BR-Explorer: An FCA-based algorithm for Information Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Messai, Nizar; Devignes, Marie-Dominique; Napoli, Amedeo; Smaïl-Tabbone, Malika

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present BR-Explorer, an FCA-based algorithm that addresses the problem of retrieving the relevant objects for a given query. Initially, a formal context representing the relation between a set of objects and the corresponding set of attributes is given, and the associated concept lattice is built. BR-Explorer starts by generating a formal concept representing the considered query, and classifies this query concept in the concept lattice. Then, BR-Explorer tries to locate the ...

  16. The BR1 research facilities to calibrate fuzzy logic technology for nuclear reactor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last three decades SCK-CEN has participated in various international programmes using the BR1 (Belgian Reactor 1) facilities for various research and calibration purposes. The BR1 has proved to be an excellent for calibration and validation of techniques, integral nuclear data validation, activation analysis, characterisation of materials by neutron transmission, and physics experiments. Moreover, the knowledge, built up at BR1 has lead to the best calibration conditions for applying fuzzy logic control (FLC) for nuclear reactor control

  17. Babcock and Wilcox BR-100 100-ton rail/barge spent fuel shipping cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Preliminary Design Report (PDR) provides a detailed description of the design, analyses, and testing programs for the BR-100 cask. The BR-100 is a Type B(U) cask designed for transport by rail or barge. This report presents the preliminary analyses and tests which have been performed for the BR-100 and outlines the confirmatory analyses and tests which will be performed

  18. Babcock and Wilcox BR-100 100-ton rail/barge spent fuel shipping cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-02-01

    This Preliminary Design Report (PDR) provides a detailed description of the design, analyses, and testing programs for the BR-100 cask. The BR-100 is a Type B(U) cask designed for transport by rail or barge. This report presents the preliminary analyses and tests which have been performed for the BR-100 and outlines the confirmatory analyses and tests which will be performed.

  19. Variation in the flowering time orthologs BrFLC and BrSOC1 in a natural population of Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Steven J; Perez-Sweeney, Beatriz; Strahl, Maya; Nowogrodzki, Anna; Weber, Jennifer J; Lalchan, Rebecca; Jordan, Kevin P; Litt, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of natural phenotypic variation is of great importance, particularly since selection can act on this variation to cause evolution. We examined expression and allelic variation in candidate flowering time loci in Brassica rapa plants derived from a natural population and showing a broad range in the timing of first flowering. The loci of interest were orthologs of the Arabidopsis genes FLC and SOC1 (BrFLC and BrSOC1, respectively), which in Arabidopsis play a central role in the flowering time regulatory network, with FLC repressing and SOC1 promoting flowering. In B. rapa, there are four copies of FLC and three of SOC1. Plants were grown in controlled conditions in the lab. Comparisons were made between plants that flowered the earliest and latest, with the difference in average flowering time between these groups ∼30 days. As expected, we found that total expression of BrSOC1 paralogs was significantly greater in early than in late flowering plants. Paralog-specific primers showed that expression was greater in early flowering plants in the BrSOC1 paralogs Br004928, Br00393 and Br009324, although the difference was not significant in Br009324. Thus expression of at least 2 of the 3 BrSOC1 orthologs is consistent with their predicted role in flowering time in this natural population. Sequences of the promoter regions of the BrSOC1 orthologs were variable, but there was no association between allelic variation at these loci and flowering time variation. For the BrFLC orthologs, expression varied over time, but did not differ between the early and late flowering plants. The coding regions, promoter regions and introns of these genes were generally invariant. Thus the BrFLC orthologs do not appear to influence flowering time in this population. Overall, the results suggest that even for a trait like flowering time that is controlled by a very well described genetic regulatory network, understanding the underlying genetic basis of

  20. Solvent dependent branching between C-I and C-Br bond cleavage following 266 nm excitation of CH2BrI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that ultraviolet photoexcitation of halomethanes results in halogen-carbon bond cleavage. Each halogen-carbon bond has a dominant ultraviolet (UV) absorption that promotes an electron from a nonbonding halogen orbital (nX) to a carbon-halogen antibonding orbital (σ*C-X). UV absorption into specific transitions in the gas phase results primarily in selective cleavage of the corresponding carbon-halogen bond. In the present work, broadband ultrafast UV-visible transient absorption studies of CH2BrI reveal a more complex photochemistry in solution. Transient absorption spectra are reported spanning the range from 275 nm to 750 nm and 300 fs to 3 ns following excitation of CH2BrI at 266 nm in acetonitrile, 2-butanol, and cyclohexane. Channels involving formation of CH2Br + I radical pairs, iso-CH2Br-I, and iso-CH2I-Br are identified. The solvent environment has a significant influence on the branching ratios, and on the formation and stability of iso-CH2Br-I. Both iso-CH2Br-I and iso-CH2I-Br are observed in cyclohexane with a ratio of ∼2.8:1. In acetonitrile this ratio is 7:1 or larger. The observation of formation of iso-CH2I-Br photoproduct as well as iso-CH2Br-I following 266 nm excitation is a novel result that suggests complexity in the dissociation mechanism. We also report a solvent and concentration dependent lifetime of iso-CH2Br-I. At low concentrations the lifetime is >4 ns in acetonitrile, 1.9 ns in 2-butanol and ∼1.4 ns in cyclohexane. These lifetimes decrease with higher initial concentrations of CH2BrI. The concentration dependence highlights the role that intermolecular interactions can play in the quenching of unstable isomers of dihalomethanes

  1. cDNA, deduced polypeptide structure and chromosomal assignment of human pulmonary surfactant proteolipid, SPL(pVal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In hyaline membrane disease of premature infants, lack of surfactant leads to pulmonary atelectasis and respiratory distress. Hydrophobic surfactant proteins of M/sub r/ = 5000-14,000 have been isolated from mammalian surfactants which enhance the rate of spreading and the surface tension lowering properties of phospholipids during dynamic compression. The authors have characterized the amino-terminal amino acid sequence of pulmonary proteolipids from ether/ethanol extracts of bovine, canine, and human surfactant. Two distinct peptides were identified and termed SPL(pVal) and SPL(Phe). An oligonucleotide probe based on the valine-rich amino-terminal amino acid sequence of SPL(pVal) was utilized to isolate cDNA and genomic DNA encoding the human protein, termed surfactant proteolipid SPL(pVal) on the basis of its unique polyvaline domain. The primary structure of a precursor protein of 20,870 daltons, containing the SPL(pVal) peptide, was deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the cDNAs. Hybrid-arrested translation and immunoprecipitation of labeled translation products of human mRNA demonstrated a precursor protein, the active hydrophobic peptide being produced by proteolytic processing. Two classes of cDNAs encoding SPL(pVal) were identified. Human SPL(pVal) mRNA was more abundant in the adult than in fetal lung. The SPL(pVal) gene locus was assigned to chromosome 8

  2. A blind trial evaluation of a crime scene methodology for deducing impact velocity and droplet size from circular bloodstains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse-Smith, Lee; Illes, Mike

    2007-01-01

    In a previous study, mechanical engineering models were utilized to deduce impact velocity and droplet volume of circular bloodstains by measuring stain diameter and counting spines radiating from their outer edge. A blind trial study was subsequently undertaken to evaluate the accuracy of this technique, using an applied, crime scene methodology. Calculations from bloodstains produced on paper, drywall, and wood were used to derive surface-specific equations to predict 39 unknown mock crime scene bloodstains created over a range of impact velocities (2.2-5.7 m/sec) and droplet volumes (12-45 microL). Strong correlations were found between expected and observed results, with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.83 and 0.99. The 95% confidence limit associated with predictions of impact velocity and droplet volume was calculated for paper (0.28 m/sec, 1.7 microL), drywall (0.37 m/sec, 1.7 microL), and wood (0.65 m/sec, 5.2 microL). PMID:17209911

  3. Comparison of the chromosomal localization of murine and human glucocerebrosidase genes and of the deduced amino acid sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study structure-function relationships and molecular evolution, the authors determined the nucleotide sequence and chromosomal location of the gene encoding murine glucocerebrosidase. In the protein coding region of the murine cDNA, the nucleotide sequence and the corresponding deduced amino acid sequences were 82% and 86% identical to the respective humans sequences. All five amino acids presently known to be essential for normal enzymatic activity were conserved between mouse and man. The murine enzyme had a single deletion relative to the human enzyme at amino acid number 273. One ATG translation initiation signal was present in the mouse sequence in contrast to the human sequence, where two start codons have been reported. Nucleotide sequencing of a clone derived from murine genomic DNA revealed that the murine signal for translation initiation was located in exon 2. The locations of all 10 introns were conserved among mouse and man. They mapped the genetic locus for glucocerebrosidase to mouse chromosome 3, at a position 7.6 ± 3.2 centimorgans from the locus for the β subunit of nerve growth factor. Comparison of linkage relationships in the human and murine genome indicates that these closely linked mouse genes are also syntenic on human chromosome 1 but in positions that span the centromere

  4. Deducing receptor signaling parameters from in vivo analysis: LuxN/AI-1 quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swem, Lee R.; Swem, Danielle L.; Wingreen, Ned S.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Quorum sensing, a process of bacterial cell-cell communication, relies on production, detection, and response to autoinducer signaling molecules. Here we focus on LuxN, a nine transmembrane domain protein from Vibrio harveyi, and the founding example of membrane-bound receptors for acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) autoinducers. Previously, nothing was known about signal recognition by membrane-bound AHL receptors. We used mutagenesis and suppressor analyses to identify the AHL-binding domain of LuxN, and discovered LuxN mutants that confer decreased and increased AHL sensitivity. Our analysis of dose-response curves of multiple LuxN mutants pins these inverse phenotypes on quantifiable opposing shifts in the free-energy bias of LuxN for its kinase and phosphatase states. To extract signaling parameters, we exploited a strong LuxN antagonist, one of fifteen small-molecule antagonists we identified. We find that quorum-sensing-mediated communication can be manipulated positively and negatively to control bacterial behavior, and that signaling parameters can be deduced from in vivo data. PMID:18692469

  5. Suostuttelevan markkinointiviestinnän metodit brändipersoonallisuuden luomiseksi Twitter-kontekstissa

    OpenAIRE

    Laitinen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Tutkielman tutkimusongelma on määritelty kolmen käsitteen kautta: markkinointiviestintä, brändipersoonallisuus ja suostuttelu. Tutkimusongelman ytimenä on brändin mahdollisuus hyödyntää suostuttelua markkinointiviestinnässään, luodakseen itsestään tarkoituksenmukaisen brändipersoonallisuuden. Tutkimusmenetelmänä on laadullinen sisällönanalyysi ja aineistona toimii kahdeksan kansainvälisen brändin Twitter-markkinointiviestintä. Suostuttelua tut-kitaan harkinnan todennäköisyyden teorian avulla ...

  6. Kuluttaja-asiakkaiden mielikuva Concept.10-brändistä

    OpenAIRE

    Väisänen, Janna-Mari

    2011-01-01

    Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on selvittää, millainen käsitys Concept.10:n kuluttaja-asiakkailla on brändin eri osa-alueista ja millaisia mielleyhtymiä brändin mainonta, nimi, tunnus ja slogan herättävät. Näillä tekijöillä on vaikutusta kokonaismielikuvan syntymiseen brändistä. Tutkimusongelmana on, millainen mielikuva kuluttaja-asiakkailla on Concept.10-brändistä. Concept.10 toimii yhteisenä markkinointinimenä Mikkelin Puhelin Oyj:n omistamille yhtiöille ja niiden palveluille. Teoreettisessa v...

  7. Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder BrO observations in the stratosphere

    OpenAIRE

    J. Kovalenko, L.; L. Livesey, N.; J. Salawitch, R.; Camy-Peyret, C.; P. Chipperfield, M.; E. Cofield, R.; Dorf, M.; J. Drouin, B.; L. Froidevaux; Fuller, R. A.; Goutail, Florence; F. Jarnot, R.; Jucks, K.; W. Knosp, B.; Lambert, A.

    2007-01-01

    Validation of stratospheric BrO vertical profiles obtained by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Aura satellite is discussed. MLS BrO measurements are compared with expectations of its latitudinal and seasonal dependence, as well as with more localized balloon-borne measurements of BrO. We describe the expected precision and systematic errors of the version 2.2 retrieval and show that scientific studies using MLS BrO vertical profiles require extensive averaging to increase the signal-to...

  8. 2014, l’année brésilienne

    OpenAIRE

    Dabène,Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Dilma Rousseff pourrait être élue personnalité de l’année 2014 en Amérique latine. La présidente du Brésil a réussi à organiser une Coupe du monde de football exemplaire, apportant un démenti cinglant aux oiseaux de mauvais augure qui ont accaparé les médias pendant des mois. Très impopulaire en début d’année, empêtrée dans un scandale de corruption et handicapée par une récession économique, elle est ensuite parvenue à offrir au Parti des travailleurs (PT) une quatrième victoire ...

  9. Collisional trap losses of cold, magnetically-trapped Br atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, J; Softley, T P

    2014-01-01

    Near-threshold photodissociation of Br$_2$ from a supersonic beam produces slow bromine atoms that are trapped in the magnetic field minimum formed between two opposing permanent magnets. Here, we quantify the dominant trap loss rate due to collisions with two sources of residual gas: the background limited by the vacuum chamber base pressure, and the carrier gas during the supersonic gas pulse. The loss rate due to collisions with residual Ar in the background follows pseudo first-order kinetics, and the bimolecular rate coefficient for collisional loss from the trap is determined by measurement of this rate as a function of the background Ar pressure. This rate coefficient is smaller than the total elastic collision rate coefficient, as it only samples those collisions that lead to trap loss, and is determined to be $\\langle\

  10. Kuluttajat brändisisältöjen parissa

    OpenAIRE

    Puolakka, Patricia; Sjöblom, Siiri

    2015-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aihe on sisältömarkkinoinnin purevuus. Sisältömarkkinointi on kovin laaja käsite, jonka vuoksi aihe rajattiin siihen, mitkä ominaisuudet tekevät sisältömarkkinoinnista tehokkaan ja minkälaiset sisällöt erottuvat miljoonien viestien seasta digitaalisessa ympäristössä. Tarkoituksena on ymmärtää, mitkä piirteet tekevät brändien sisältömarkkinoinnista niin tehokasta ja vetävää, että kuluttajat viettävät sen parissa aikaa sekä samalla rakentaa ymmärrystä kuluttajakäyttäytymises...

  11. Evaluation of theoretical conversion coefficients using BrIcc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new internal conversion coefficient database, BrIcc has been developed which integrates a number of tabulations on internal conversion electron (ICC) and electron-positron pair conversion coefficients (IPC), as well as Ω(E0) electronic factors. A critical review of general formulae and procedures to evaluate theoretical ICC and IPC values are presented, including the treatment of uncertainties in transition energy and mixing ratio in accordance with the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File. The default ICC table, based on the Dirac-Fock calculations using the so called 'Frozen Orbital' approximation, takes into account the effect of atomic vacancies created in the conversion process. The table has been calculated for all atomic shells and to cover transition energies of 1-6000 keV and atomic numbers of Z=5-110. The software tools presented here are well suited for basic nuclear structure research and for a range of applications

  12. Estimering af brændstofforbrug vha. GPS Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Lahrmann, Harry; Torp, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Det er simpelt og billigt at opsamle GPS målinger fra køretøjer. Når større mængder GPS data indsamles fra et passende antal køretøjer kan dataen bruges til at beregne f.eks. køretider. Det er ligeledes muligt ud fra GPS data at estimere miljøindikatorer så som, hvor aggressivt kører bilister og er...... der nogle vejstrækninger, der har en højere (negativ) miljø påvirkning end andre? I denne artikel præsenterer et forsøg, hvor GPS data anvendes til at estimere brændstofforbruget ved en enkelt tur og for vejnettet generelt. Dette gøres ved at opbygge en database med GPS data. Ud fra disse data gives...

  13. Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of the Massive LMC Multiple Systems Sk-6718 (Br+.1667em5 and HD+.1667em36402 (Br+.1667em31

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Koenigsberger

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Reportamos los resultados de observaciones en el UV de dos sistemas binarios cercanos, ubicados en la Nube Mayor de Magallanes, Br 5 y Br 31. Detectamos variabilidad espectral en Br 31 producida por eclipses atmosféricos, así como variaciones en la velocidad radial de algunas de sus líneas, con el periodo de 3.033 días. El espectro UV de este sistema es consistente con la presencia de 3 estrellas calientes en el sistema. En contraste, no podemos confirmar la presencia de más de 2 estrellas calientes en el sistema Br 5, y la debilidad de Si IV 1400 contradice la presencia de una supergigante O-tardía o B-temprana. Detectamos variaciones de velocidad radial consistentes con el movimiento orbital de la componente O3 If*.

  14. Seasonal variability of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) in a temperate lake system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Shannon E.; Russell, James M.; Heureux, Ana M.; D'Andrea, William J.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2014-11-01

    Quantitative climate reconstructions are crucial for understanding the magnitude of and mechanisms behind natural and anthropogenic climate change, yet there are few proxies that can reliably reconstruct terrestrial temperature. Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are bacterial membrane lipids that are increasingly used to reconstruct paleotemperature from lake sediments, but despite their potential, we have a poor understanding of (1) autochthonous vs. allochthonous sources of brGDGTs in lakes and (2) the seasonality of and environmental controls on brGDGT production within lakes. To investigate these factors, we examined water column suspended particulate matter (SPM) and settling particles from a sediment trap collected on a biweekly to monthly basis over a period of three years at Lower King Pond, a small kettle lake in northern Vermont, USA. We also compared the concentration and fractional abundances of brGDGTs in SPM and settling particles with those of catchment soils, river sediments, and lake surface sediments to constrain the relative importance of brGDGTs derived from the landscape versus brGDGTs produced within the lake itself. We find significant differences in concentrations and fractional abundances of brGDGTs between soil and river sediment samples from the catchment and lake sediments, indicating a mostly autochthonous source for lacustrine brGDGTs. BrGDGT concentrations, fluxes, and fractional abundances in SPM vary over the annual cycle, indicating that brGDGTs are produced throughout the year and respond to changes within the water column. The total annual flux of brGDGTs settling through the water column is comparable to the brGDGT accumulation rates in surface sediments, indicating that in this lake brGDGTs are mostly produced within the water column, not in the sediment itself. While brGDGTs are produced in all seasons within the water column, the flux to the sediments is highest during periods of spring and fall

  15. Systematic hardness measurements on CsClBr(1–x) and NH4ClBr(1–x) mixed crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K G Subhadra; E Balaiah; D B Sirdeshmukh

    2002-02-01

    Vickers hardness measurements have been made on polycrystalline blanks of CsClBr(1–x) and single crystals of NH4ClBr(1–x). The composition dependence of hardness is highly nonlinear in both systems and follows an empirical model that includes a lattice contribution and a disorder contribution. The Gilman–Chin parameter (/44) has been calculated and its significance discussed.

  16. Quantitative assessment of the multiplicity of carbon-halogen bonds: carbenium and halonium ions with F, Cl, Br, and I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalescky, Robert; Zou, Wenli; Kraka, Elfi; Cremer, Dieter

    2014-03-13

    CX (X = F, Cl, Br, I) and CE bonding (E = O, S, Se, Te) was investigated for a test set of 168 molecules using the local CX and CE stretching force constants k(a) calculated at the M06-2X/cc-pVTZ level of theory. The stretching force constants were used to derive a relative bond strength order (RBSO) parameter n. As alternative bond strength descriptors, bond dissociation energies (BDE) were calculated at the G3 level or at the two-component NESC (normalized elimination of the small component)/CCSD(T) level of theory for molecules with X = Br, I or E = Se, Te. RBSO values reveal that both bond lengths and BDE values are less useful when a quantification of the bond strength is needed. CX double bonds can be realized for Br- or I-substituted carbenium ions where as suitable reference the double bond of the corresponding formaldehyde homologue is used. A triple bond cannot be realized in this way as the diatomic CX(+) ions with a limited π-donor capacity for X are just double-bonded. The stability of halonium ions increases with the atomic number of X, which is reflected by a strengthening of the fractional (electron-deficient) CX bonds. An additional stability increase of up to 25 kcal/mol (X = I) is obtained when the X(+) ion can form a bridged halonium ion with ethene such that a more efficient 2-electron-3-center bonding situation is created. PMID:24555526

  17. Coastal evolution of a Holocene barrier spit (Bug peninsula/NW-Rügen deduced from geological structure and relative sea-level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Naumann

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Die an der südwestlichen Ostseeküste gelegene Halbinsel Bug/NW Rügen wurde untersucht, um die Entwicklung von Haken und Nehrungen unter dem Einfluss des holozänen Meeresspiegelanstiegs zu studieren. Als Datengrundlage dienten 25 Sedimentkerne, sowie sieben Georadar- und sechs Sedimentecholotprofile, aus denen sechs Lithofaziestypen abgeleitet wurden. Danach besteht die Nehrung aus einer durchschnittlich 10 m mächtigen holozänen Sedimentfolge, die auf pleistozäner Basis aus Geschiebemergel und (glazi-fluviolimnischen Feinsanden lagert. Obwohl keine absoluten Altersdaten gewonnen wurden, kann die Sedimentabfolge mit der lokalen relativen Meeresspiegelkurve problemlos korreliert und eine Modellvorstellung für die Nehrungsentwicklung geschlussfolgert werden. Die marine Inundation des Untersuchungsgebietes erfolgte um 7.000 BC während der Littorina-Transgression. In diesem Stadium stieg der Meeresspiegel rapide an und generierte einen schnell wachsenden Akkumulationsraum, in dem feinklastisches Material an oder unter der Wellenbasis akkumulierte und zu einem Reliefausgleich beitrug. Akkumulative Küstenformen bildeten sich nur in geringem Maße, da der Akkumulationsraum schneller wuchs als er durch das aus der Küstenerosion stammende Material aufgefüllt werden konnte. In dem Maße, indem der Meeresspiegelanstieg sich verlangsamte, gewann die Akkumulation an Bedeutung und der Hauptteil der Nehrung wurde innerhalb von rund zweitausend Jahren landfest. Entsprechend dem Verlauf von Strandwällen auf seiner heutigen Oberfläche lassen sich zwei Entwicklungsphasen aushalten, die von unterschiedlichen wellenenergetischen, erosiven und overwash-Prozessen bestimmt werden. Gegenwärtig besitzt die Nehrung ein Volumen von 66,4 Mio m³, woraus sich auf einen Rückgang des benachbarten Kliffs von rund 2000 m schließen lässt. Obwohl die Nehrung entwicklungsmäßig in ihrem Reifestadium angelangt zu sein scheint, deuten einige Merkmale auf zunehmende Instabilität hin. Im nördlichen Bereich verhindern Küstenschutzmaßnahmen einen Nehrungsdurchbruch und beginnende Auflösung. Im Süden haben Fahrwasserbaggerungen eine weitere Längenzunahme und das Zusammenwachsen mit Haken von Hiddensee verhindert. Ohne diese Maßnahmen würde die Nehrung durch Seegattbildung und zunehmende Erosion im Norden und Seegattschließung und zunehmende Uferprogradation im Süden eine neue Gestalt annehmen.

  18. Kinetic study of thermal/radiation annealing and dehydration of nickel, bromate following 79Br(n,γ)80Br reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial retentions of 80Br,sup(80m)Br and 82Br following neutron activation with 252Cf source of Ni(BrO3)2.6H2O at 25deg C are 17,19 and 31 +- 1% respectively. Heat and radiation treatments yield higher 80Br recovery in the hydrated salt than in the anhydrous salt. At 110deg C 80Br retention rises suddenly to close on 100% in the hydrated salt while in the anhydrous salt it increases from 22 to 42%. In both the cases thermal annealing carried over the temperature range 25-110deg C follows first order kinetics and shows 77deg C as the threshold annealing temperature. The rate of annealing increases with the rate of dehydration. The annealing data yield 2.7 and 0.49 eV as the activation energy values for the hydrated and dehydrated forms respectively while isothermal dehydration data yield the value as 0.31 eV. A probable mechanism is suggested. (author)

  19. Synthesis and structure of [(NH2)2CSSC(NH2)2]2[OsBr6]Br2 . 3H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complex [(NH2)2CSSC(NH2)2]2[OsBr6]Br2 . 3H2O is synthesized by the reaction of K2OsBr6 with thiocarbamide in concentrated HBr and characterized using electronic absorption and IR absorption spectroscopy. Its crystal structure is determined by X-ray diffraction. The crystals are orthorhombic, a = 11.730(2) A, b = 14.052(3) A, c = 16.994(3) A, space group Cmcm, and Z = 4. The [OsBr6]2- anionic complex has an octahedral structure. The Os-Br distances fall in the range 2.483-2.490 A. The α,α'-dithiobisformamidinium cation is a product of the oxidation of thiocarbamide. The S-S and C-S distances are 2.016 and 1.784 A, respectively. The H2O molecules, Br-ions, and NH2 groups of the cation are linked by hydrogen bonds.

  20. Embrittlement and annealing of reactor pressure vessel steels: comparison of BR3 surveillance and vessel plates to the surrogate plates representative of the Yankee Rowe vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sister pressure vessels at the BR3 and Rowe Yankee PWR plants were operated at a lower-than-usual temperature (260 degrees Celsius) and their plates were austenitized at higher-than-usual temperature (970 degrees Celsius). A heat tratemement leading to a coarser microstructure than typical for the fine grain plates that are considered in development of USNRC Regulatory guide 1.99. This material displayed outlier behaviour charackterized by a 41J CVN-shift significantly larger than predicted by Regulatory Guide 1.99. Because lower radiation temperature and nickell alloying are generally considered detrimental to irradiation sensitivity, there was a major concern that the nickel-modified lower Rowe plate and the nickel-modified BR3 plate may become too embrittled to satisfy the toughness requirements enbodied in the PTS screening criterion. This paper compares three complementary studies undertaken to clarify these uncertainties: 1) the accelerated irradiation and test program launched in 1990 by Yankee Atomic Electric Company using typical vessel plate materials containing 0.24% copper at two nickel levels: YA1, 0.63% (A533-B) and YA9, 0.19% (A302-B). These were heat-treated to produce the coarse and fine grain microstructures representative of the Yankee/BR3 and the Regulatory Guide plates, respectively, 2) the BR3 surveillance and vessel testing program: this vessel was wet-annealed in 1984, relicensed for operation till the plant shutdown in 1987, ANCL was trepanned in early 1995, 3) the accelerated irradiations in the Belgian BR2 test reactor of the Yankee coarse grain plates YA1 and YA9 together with BR3 vessel specimens extracted at nozzle elevation, a location with negligible radiation exposure. It is shown that the PTS screening criterion was never attained by the BR3 and Rowe plates, and that the BR3 vessel anneal was neither necessary nor sufficient. Finally, the sensitivity of embrittlement, annealing and post-annealing reembrittlement to irradiation

  1. High resolution infrared absorption spectra, crystal field, and relaxation processes in CsCdBr_3:Pr^3+

    OpenAIRE

    Popova, M. N.; Chukalina, E. P.; Malkin, B. Z.; Iskhakova, A. I.; Antic-Fidancev, E.; P Porcher; Chaminade, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    High resolution low-temperature absorption spectra of 0.2% Pr^3+ doped CsCdBr_3 were measured in the spectral region 2000--7000 cm-1. Positions and widths of the crystal field levels within the 3H5, 3H4, 3F2, and 3F3 multiplets of the Pr^3+ main center have been determined. Hyperfine structure of several spectral lines has been found. Crystal field calculations were carried out in the framework of the semiphenomenological exchange charge model (ECM). Parameters of the ECM were determined by f...

  2. Luminescence of MFX:Eu/sup 2+/ M=Ca,Sr,Ba; X=Cl,Br, I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BaFCl:Eu/sup 2+/ as an excellent x-ray phosphor, has been used successfully in medical x-ray intensifying screens and other x-ray displaying devices. Others have reported the emission spectra of MFCl:Eu (M=Ca, Sr, Ba). In this paper the authors focus the discussion on the characteristics of the emission and the energy level splitting of 4f 5d excited state of Eu/sup 2+/ ion in matrices MFX (M=Ca, Sr or Ba; X=Cl, Br or I)

  3. Measurement and simulation of proton induced activation of LaBr3 : Ce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buis, E. J.; Beijers, H.; Brandenburg, S.; Bos, A. J. J.; Dathy, C.; Dorenbos, P.; Drozdowski, W.; Kraft, S.; Maddox, E.; Ostendorf, R. W.; Owens, A.; Quarati, F.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the suitability of LaBr3:Ce scintillators for space mission applications, proton induced activation of LaBr3 has been investigated. The crystals were irradiated using proton beams at several different energies to mimic the spectrum of a solar flare. We have measured the activation both int

  4. Brändin tunnettuus ja kehittäminen : Case: Ravintola.fi

    OpenAIRE

    Kailio, Armi; Rosvall, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena oli brändin tunnettuus ja kehittäminen. Näkökulmana tässä työssä oli Ravintola.fi-brändi, joka on Restamax Oyj:n kanta-asiakasjärjestelmä ja samalla yrityksen tarjoama brändi. Työn tavoitteena oli tutkia Ravintola.fi:n tämänhetkistä tunnettuutta Tampereen seudulla ja tutkimuksen pohjalta kehittää brändiä ja sen tunnettuutta. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli luoda työn toimeksiantajalle, Restamax Oyj:lle, kehittämisehdotuksia ja työkaluja brändinsä kehittämiseen. ...

  5. Brändi-identiteetti bändin tunnuksen suunnittelun perustana : Case: Skulduggery

    OpenAIRE

    Ylönen, Riina

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä perehdyttiin käsitteeseen brändi ja brändi-identiteetin määrittelyn merkitykseen brändin rakennusprosessissa osana kuopiolaisen, progressiivista rockia soittavan bändin tunnuksen suunnittelua. Työssä pohdittiin legendaarisen rock-bändin esimerkin kautta sitä, mitä brändiksi muodostuminen bändiltä vaatii sekä sitä, millaisia ominaispiirteitä progressiivista rockia soittavien bändien tunnuksissa on. Teoriaosuudessa ei käsitelty brändin tunnetuksi tekemiseen tähtäävää strategi...

  6. Jean-Philippe BELLEAU, Le mouvement indien au Brésil. Du village aux organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Fichet, Pascaline

    2015-01-01

    « Le mouvement indien au Brésil est un miracle », annonce l'accroche de la quatrième de couverture du dernier ouvrage de Jean-Philippe Belleau, Le mouvement indien au Brésil, Du village aux organisations. Depuis 1974, année de la première assemblée indigène brésilienne, les indiens du Brésil se sont progressivement constitués en acteurs modernes et éminents de l'espace politico-social national, à travers ce que l'auteur qualifiera de « mouvement indien » brésilien. Comment ces individus issus...

  7. Physical properties and failure behaviors of NR/BR blend compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, C.W. [Provincial College of Damyang, Damyang (Korea, Republic of); Jo, B.W. [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    Various physical properties including failure properties were investigated for carbon black-filled NR/BR (natural rubber/polybutadiene rubber) blends in terms of blend ratio. To see the effect of carbon black type, two different carbon blacks were also incorporated in the rubber blends. In the range of BR content below 40 phr (NR-rich range), the effect of BR content on the tensile strength and tack property of the green compounds was relatively small, but a considerable effect was observed in the range above 40 phr. Apparent cure rate of NR was higher than that of BR, NR vulcanizate was found to be much stronger than BR one in view of tensile strength, crack resistance, and fatigue resistance, however, it was rather inferior in view of abrasion resistance, cutting-chipping resistance, and resistance to heat. 26 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Three-dimensional intramolecular dynamics: Internal rotation of (CH3)3GeBr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microwave spectra of (CH3)374Ge79Br and its isotopologues (CH3)372Ge79Br and (CH3)374Ge81Br have been studied in the frequency range from 2.4-20 GHz revealing the complex internal dynamics of this organometallic molecule with three internal rotors. The assignment of the complex spectrum has been facilitated by permutation-inversion theory - the appropriate molecular symmetry group is G162. The V3 barrier to internal rotation is determined to be 4.783(12) kJ/mol. An analysis of the bromine quadrupole coupling yields the description of the Ge-Br and the Ge-C bonding characters. From this analysis we find that the bromine atom has a positive partial charge resulting from π-backbonding of the bromine towards germanium. From isotopic substitution, the Ge-Br bond distance could be determined to 2.34589(21) A

  9. Results for aliovalent doping of CeBr{sub 3} with Ca{sup 2+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guss, Paul, E-mail: gusspp@nv.doe.gov [Remote Sensing Laboratory – Nellis, P. O. Box 98521, Las Vegas, Nevada 89193-8521 (United States); Foster, Michael E.; Wong, Bryan M.; Patrick Doty, F. [Materials Chemistry Department, Sandia National Laboratories, California, P. O. Box 969, Livermore, California 94551-0969 (United States); Shah, Kanai; Squillante, Michael R.; Shirwadkar, Urmila; Hawrami, Rastgo; Tower, Joshua [Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc., 44 Hunt Street, Watertown, Massachusetts 02472 (United States); Yuan, Ding [National Security Technologies, LLC, Los Alamos Operations, P. O. Box 809, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544-0809 (United States)

    2014-01-21

    Despite the outstanding scintillation performance characteristics of cerium tribromide (CeBr{sub 3}) and cerium-activated lanthanum tribromide, their commercial availability and application are limited due to the difficulties of growing large, crack-free single crystals from these fragile materials. This investigation employed aliovalent doping to increase crystal strength while maintaining the optical properties of the crystal. One divalent dopant (Ca{sup 2+}) was used as a dopant to strengthen CeBr{sub 3} without negatively impacting scintillation performance. Ingots containing nominal concentrations of 1.9% of the Ca{sup 2+} dopant were grown, i.e., 1.9% of the CeBr{sub 3} molecules were replaced by CaBr{sub 2} molecules, to match our target replacement of 1 out of 54 cerium atoms be replaced by a calcium atom. Precisely the mixture was composed of 2.26 g of CaBr{sub 2} added to 222.14 g of CeBr{sub 3}. Preliminary scintillation measurements are presented for this aliovalently doped scintillator. Ca{sup 2+}-doped CeBr{sub 3} exhibited little or no change in the peak fluorescence emission for 371 nm optical excitation for CeBr{sub 3}. The structural, electronic, and optical properties of CeBr{sub 3} crystals were studied using the density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation. Calculated lattice parameters are in agreement with the experimental data. The energy band structures and density of states were obtained. The optical properties of CeBr{sub 3}, including the dielectric function, were calculated.

  10. Results for aliovalent doping of CeBr3 with Ca2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the outstanding scintillation performance characteristics of cerium tribromide (CeBr3) and cerium-activated lanthanum tribromide, their commercial availability and application are limited due to the difficulties of growing large, crack-free single crystals from these fragile materials. This investigation employed aliovalent doping to increase crystal strength while maintaining the optical properties of the crystal. One divalent dopant (Ca2+) was used as a dopant to strengthen CeBr3 without negatively impacting scintillation performance. Ingots containing nominal concentrations of 1.9% of the Ca2+ dopant were grown, i.e., 1.9% of the CeBr3 molecules were replaced by CaBr2 molecules, to match our target replacement of 1 out of 54 cerium atoms be replaced by a calcium atom. Precisely the mixture was composed of 2.26 g of CaBr2 added to 222.14 g of CeBr3. Preliminary scintillation measurements are presented for this aliovalently doped scintillator. Ca2+-doped CeBr3 exhibited little or no change in the peak fluorescence emission for 371 nm optical excitation for CeBr3. The structural, electronic, and optical properties of CeBr3 crystals were studied using the density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation. Calculated lattice parameters are in agreement with the experimental data. The energy band structures and density of states were obtained. The optical properties of CeBr3, including the dielectric function, were calculated

  11. Experimental study of the tritium inventory in the BR3 and extrapolation to a P.W.R. of 900 MWe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this report is to evaluate the tritium production and diffusion in uranium and plutonium fuel in the primary circuit of a PWR and to improve the knowledge about the production difference between the two kinds of isotopes. The first part of the work is relative to the experimental PWR BR3, cycle 4A, during which a constant control of the tritium activity has been performed in the primary circuit. These experimental evaluation was compared with the the theoretical estimation of the tritium production during the cycle 4A. From these observations and calculations, a tritium release fraction was deduced and estimated to be 0.81% of the total tritium produced in the fuel. The second part of the work is devoted to post-irradiation examinations on a few uranium and plutonium rods irradiated in the BR3 reactor. The tritium content was measured in the cladding, in the fuel and in the gas plenum for various samples of fuel rods. These results show the relationship between the release rate from the fuel matrix, the linear power and the burnup. The last part of the work is the estimate of the tritium production in a PWR of 900 MWe in operating conditions. The tritium production was calculated for an uranium fuelled core and for a core containing 30% of all plutonium fuel assemblies in a generic power plant of 900 MWe. From this study, it results that the loading with 30% plutonium assemblies at equilibrium increases the tritium balance in the moderator water of less than 5%

  12. Satellite observations of long range transport of a large BrO plume in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Begoin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ozone Depletion Events (ODE during polar springtime are a well known phenomenon in the Arctic and Antarctic boundary layer. They are caused by the catalytic destruction of ozone by halogens producing reactive halogen oxides like bromine monoxide (BrO. The key halogen bromine can be rapidly transferred into the gas phase in an autocatalytic process – the so called "Bromine Explosion". However, the exact mechanism, which leads to an initial bromine release as well as the influence of transport and chemical processes on BrO, is still not clearly understood. <br>> In this study, BrO measurements from the satellite instrument GOME-2 are used together with model calculations with the dispersion model FLEXPART to study an arctic BrO event in March 2007, which could be tracked over several days and a large area. Full BrO activation was observed within one day east of Siberia with subsequent transport to Hudson Bay. The event was linked to a cyclone with very high surface wind speeds, which could have been involved in the production and lifting of aerosols or blowing snow. Considering the short life time of BrO, transported aerosols or snow can also provide the surface for BrO recycling within the plume for several days. The evolution of the BrO plume could be reproduced by FLEXPART simulations of a passive tracer indicating that the activated air mass was transported all the way from Siberia to Hudson Bay. To localise the most probable transport height, model runs initialised in different heights have been performed showing similar transport patterns throughout the troposphere but best agreement with the measurements between the surface and 3 km. The influence of changes in tropopause height on measured BrO values has been considered, but cannot completely explain the observed high BrO values. Backward trajectories from the area of BrO initialisation show upward lifting from the surface up to 3 km and no indication for intrusion of stratospheric

  13. Error-free uvr+-dependent inducible DNA repair in Escherichia coli B/r Hcr+ cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequency of suppressor (tryptophan reversions) and of true (streptomycin-resistant and dependent) mutations has been followed in E. coli cells irradiated with a single dose or two separate doses of ultraviolet (U.V.) radiation. Under these conditions dimers were efficiently excised after a single dose, while about 40 per cent of the dimers remained unexcised after two doses. Although the level of unexcised dimers in the latter case increased proportionally with the second U.V. dose, the mutation frequency increased by 1.5-2-fold, but did not continue to increase with the level of unexcised dimers. A comparison of excision-proficient and excision-deficient cells containing similar amounts of persisting dimers has shown that proficient cells can tolerate a high level of dimers without an adequate increase in mutation frequency. Results suggest the existence of an error-free uvr+-dependent inducible repair in E. coli B/r Hcr+ cells. (author)

  14. TIMP-1 overexpression does not affect sensitivity to HER2-targeting drugs in the HER2-gene-amplified SK-BR-3 human breast cancer cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Xiaohong; Fogh, Louise; Lademann, Ulrik Axel;

    2013-01-01

    affect sensitivity to the HER2-targeting drugs trastuzumab and lapatinib. SK-BR-3 human breast cancer cells were stably transfected with TIMP-1, characterized with regard to TIMP-1 protein expression, proliferation, and functionality of the secreted TIMP-1, and the sensitivity to trastuzumab and...... lapatinib was studied in five selected single-cell subclones expressing TIMP-1 protein at various levels plus the parental SK-BR-3 cell line. Both trastuzumab and lapatinib reduced cell viability, as determined by MTT assay, but the sensitivity to the drugs was not associated with the expression level of...

  15. Electronic structure and optical properties of RbPb2Br5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentyev, A. A.; Gabrelian, B. V.; Vu, V. T.; Denysyuk, N. M.; Shkumat, P. N.; Tarasova, A. Y.; Isaenko, L. I.; Khyzhun, O. Y.

    2016-04-01

    We report on density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the total and partial densities of states of rubidium dilead pentabromide, RbPb2Br5, employing the augmented plane wave+local orbitals (APW+lo) method as incorporated in the WIEN2k package. The calculations indicate that the Pb 6s and Br 4p states are the dominant contributors to the valence band: their main contributions are found to occur at the bottom and at the top of the band, respectively. Our calculations reveal that the bottom of the conduction band is formed predominantly from contributions of the unoccupied Pb 6p states. Data of total DOS derived in the present DFT calculations are found to be in agreement with the experimental X-ray photoelectron valence-band spectrum of this compound. The predominant contributions of the Br 4p states at the top of the valence band of rubidium dilead pentabromide are confirmed by comparison on a common energy scale of the X-ray emission band representing the energy distribution of the valence Br p states and the X-ray photoelectron valence-band spectrum of the RbPb2Br5 single crystal. Main optical characteristics of RbPb2Br5, such as dispersion of the absorption coefficient, real and imaginary parts of dielectric function, electron energy-loss spectrum, refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical reflectivity are explored for RbPb2Br5 by the DFT calculations.

  16. Interactions between ionic liquid surfactant [C12mim]Br and DNA in dilute brine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunfei; Shang, Yazhuo; Liu, Zhenhai; Shao, Shuang; Liu, Honglai; Hu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between ionic liquid surfactant [C(12)mim]Br and DNA in dilute brine were investigated in terms of various experimental methods and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. It was shown that the aggregation of [C(12)mim]Br on DNA chains is motivated not only by electrostatic attractions between DNA phosphate groups and [C(12)mim]Br headgroups but also by hydrophobic interactions among [C(12)mim]Br alkyl chains. Isothermal titration calorimetry analysis indicated that the [C(12)mim]Br aggregation in the presence and absence of DNA are both thermodynamically favored driven by enthalpy and entropy. DNA undergoes size transition and conformational change induced by [C(12)mim]Br, and the charges of DNA are neutralized by the added [C(12)mim]Br. Various microstructures were observed such as DNA with loose coil conformation in nature state, necklace-like structures, and compact spherical aggregates. MD simulation showed that the polyelectrolyte collapses upon the addition of oppositely charged surfactants and the aggregation of surfactants around the polyelectrolyte was reaffirmed. The simulation predicted the gradual neutralization of the negatively charged polyelectrolyte by the surfactant, consistent with the experimental results. PMID:23010047

  17. Ultrasonic synthesis, formation mechanism and optical properties of single-crystalline Pb(OH)Br microrings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Guizhen, E-mail: wangguizhen0@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Application Technology of Chemical Materials in Hainan Superior Resources, College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China); Key Laboratory of Chinese Education Ministry for Tropical Biological Resources, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China); Wan Gengping [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Application Technology of Chemical Materials in Hainan Superior Resources, College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China); Key Laboratory of Chinese Education Ministry for Tropical Biological Resources, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China); Lin Shiwei; Yu Wenhui [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Application Technology of Chemical Materials in Hainan Superior Resources, College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elliptic Pb(OH)Br microrings were synthesized by a simple sonochemical process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Size distribution of the median holes could be controlled. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microrings were formed by ultrasonic etching accompanying the Ostwald ripening. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb(OH)Br microrings exhibit optical properties of semiconductors. - Abstract: Novel elliptic Pb(OH)Br microrings have been controllably synthesized on a large scale by a simple sonochemical process in aqueous solution. The structure characterizations of such microrings were investigated in detail by means of X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results indicate that the uniform orthorhombic phase of Pb(OH)Br microrings with good crystallinity can be obtained and such ring-like Pb(OH)Br is single crystalline with the (0 1 1) plane as the 2D exposed surface. The influence of reaction time and alkali sources on the evolution of structures has been studied. The possible hollowing growth mechanism for the Pb(OH)Br microrings has been discussed. Meanwhile, the ultraviolet-visible absorbance spectra and photoluminescence microrings show their ultraviolet absorption and green emitting behavior, indicating that the elliptic Pb(OH)Br microrings have great potential to be applied in luminescent and optoelectronic devices.

  18. Ultrasonic synthesis, formation mechanism and optical properties of single-crystalline Pb(OH)Br microrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Elliptic Pb(OH)Br microrings were synthesized by a simple sonochemical process. ► Size distribution of the median holes could be controlled. ► Microrings were formed by ultrasonic etching accompanying the Ostwald ripening. ► Pb(OH)Br microrings exhibit optical properties of semiconductors. - Abstract: Novel elliptic Pb(OH)Br microrings have been controllably synthesized on a large scale by a simple sonochemical process in aqueous solution. The structure characterizations of such microrings were investigated in detail by means of X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results indicate that the uniform orthorhombic phase of Pb(OH)Br microrings with good crystallinity can be obtained and such ring-like Pb(OH)Br is single crystalline with the (0 1 1) plane as the 2D exposed surface. The influence of reaction time and alkali sources on the evolution of structures has been studied. The possible hollowing growth mechanism for the Pb(OH)Br microrings has been discussed. Meanwhile, the ultraviolet–visible absorbance spectra and photoluminescence microrings show their ultraviolet absorption and green emitting behavior, indicating that the elliptic Pb(OH)Br microrings have great potential to be applied in luminescent and optoelectronic devices.

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity in the Tuber melanosporum brûlé.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Antonietta; Lumini, Erica; Napoli, Chiara; Bianciotto, Valeria; Bonfante, Paola

    2015-06-01

    The development of the fruiting body (truffle) of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Tuber melanosporum is associated with the production of an area (commonly referred to with the French word brûlé) around its symbiotic plant that has scanty vegetation. As truffles produce metabolites that can mediate fungal-plant interactions, the authors wondered whether the brûlé could affect the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) that colonize the patchy herbaceous plants inside the brûlé. A morphological evaluation of the roots of plants collected in 2009 from a T. melanosporum/Quercus pubescens brûlé in France has shown that the herbaceous plants are colonized by AMF to a great extent. An analysis of the 18S rRNA sequences obtained from roots and soil inside the brûlé has shown that the AMF community structure seemed to be affected in the soil inside the brûlé, where less richness was observed compared to outside the brûlé. PMID:25986549

  20. Fractionation of Cl/Br during fluid phase separation in magmatic-hydrothermal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jung Hun; Zajacz, Zoltán

    2016-06-01

    Brine and vapor inclusions were synthesized to study Cl/Br fractionation during magmatic-hydrothermal fluid phase separation at 900 °C and pressures of 90, 120, and 150 MPa in Li/Na/K halide salt-H2O systems. Laser ablation ICP-MS microanalysis of high-density brine inclusions show an elevated Cl/Br ratio compared to the coexisting low-density vapor inclusions. The degree of Cl/Br fractionation between vapor and brine is significantly dependent on the identity of the alkali metal in the system: stronger vapor partitioning of Br occurs in the Li halide-H2O system compared to the systems of K and Na halide-H2O. The effect of the identity of alkali-metals in the system is stronger compared to the effect of vapor-brine density contrast. We infer that competition between alkali-halide and alkali-OH complexes in high-temperature fluids might cause the Cl/Br fractionation, consistent with the observed molar imbalances of alkali metals compared to halides in the analyzed brine inclusions. Our experiments show that the identity of alkali metals controls the degrees of Cl/Br fractionation between the separating aqueous fluid phases at 900 °C, and suggest that a significant variability in the Cl/Br ratios of magmatic fluids can arise in Li-rich systems.

  1. Studies on Ca2+-Doped CeBr3 Scintillating Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guss, P. [NSTec; Foster, M. E. [SNL; Wong, B. M. [SNL; Doty, F. P. [SNL; Shah, K. [RMD; Squillante, M. [RMD; Glodo, J. [RMD; Yuan, D. [NSTec

    2013-07-03

    Despite the outstanding scintillation performance characteristics of cerium tribromide (CeBr3) and cerium-activated lanthanum tribromide (LaBr3:Ce), their commercial availability and application is limited due to the difficulties of growing large, crack-free single crystals from these fragile materials. The objective of this investigation was to employ aliovalent doping to increase crystal strength while maintaining the optical properties of the crystal. One divalent dopant (Ca2+) was investigated as a dopant to strengthen CeBr3 without negatively impacting scintillation performance. Ingots containing nominal concentrations of 1.9% of the Ca2+ dopant were grown. Preliminary scintillation measurements are presented for this aliovalently doped scintillator. Ca2+-doped CeBr3 exhibited little or no change in the peak fluorescence emission for 371 nm optical excitation for CeBr3. The structural, electronic, and optical properties of CeBr3 crystals were investigated using the density functional theory within generalized gradient approximation. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data. The energy band structures and density of states were obtained. The optical properties of CeBr3, including the dielectric function, were calculated.

  2. Photostimulated process in CsBrCl:Eu2+: a promising image screen phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CsBrCl and CsBrCl:Eu2+ have been grown by 'Double Run Bridgman technique'. Optical investigations have been carried out on the samples. The formation of F(Br-) and F(Cl-) centers have been confirmed by optical absorption bands at 640 and 615 nm, respectively. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra for europium (100 ppm) doped CsBrCl samples give emission of europium at 442 nm. This 442 nm emission is due to the transition from T2g component of 4f65d configuration to the ground state 8S of europium. The emission due to the presence of impurities in the host lattice is detected by PL technique. The OH- impurity in the host lattice due to decomposition of the salt in open air gives out emission at 395 and 365 nm. The O2- emission is observed at 465 and 468 nm. Photostimulated luminescence (PSL) process is studied in the samples by exciting them at F-absorption wavelength after irradiation. No PSL is observed for the undoped CsBrCl samples grown in vacuum. The PSL of vacuum grown CsBrCl:Eu2+ samples for excitations at 640 nm [F(Br-)] and 615 nm [F(Cl-)] is observed at 420 nm. It is deciphered that both F(Cl-) and F(Br-) centers contribute to PSL. The two F-centers noticed in absorption are stimulated separately; the resulting PSL signal confirms the participation of F-centers in photostimulated process. The lifetime of the PSL emission for CsBrCl:Eu2+ is determined to be 0.69 μs. Application of the material as a prospective image screen phosphor is elaborated based on PSL results

  3. Single crystal growth, electronic structure and optical properties of Cs2HgBr4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentyev, A. A.; Gabrelian, B. V.; Vu, V. T.; Shkumat, P. N.; Parasyuk, O. V.; Fedorchuk, A. O.; Khyzhun, O. Y.

    2015-10-01

    We report on successful synthesis of high-quality single crystal of cesium mercury tetrabromide, Cs2HgBr4, by using the vertical Bridgman-Stockbarger method as well as on studies of its electronic structure. For the Cs2HgBr4 crystal, we have recorded X-ray photoelectron spectra for both pristine and Ar+ ion-bombarded surfaces. Our data indicate that the Cs2HgBr4 single crystal surface is rather sensitive with respect to Ar+ ion-bombardment. In particular, such a treatment of the Cs2HgBr4 single crystal surface alters its elemental stoichiometry. To explore peculiarities of the energy distribution of total and partial densities of states within the valence band and the conduction band of Cs2HgBr4, we have made band-structure calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) employing the augmented plane wave+local orbitals (APW+lo) method as incorporated in the WIEN2k package. The APW+lo calculations allow for concluding that the Br 4p states make the major contributions in the upper portion of the valence band, while its lower portion is dominated by contributors of the Hg 5d and Cs 5p states. Further, the main contributors to the bottom of the conduction band of Cs2HgBr4 are the unoccupied Br p and Hg s states. In addition, main optical characteristics of Cs2HgBr4 such as dispersion of the absorption coefficient, real and imaginary parts of dielectric function, electron energy-loss spectrum, refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical reflectivity have been explored from the first-principles band-structure calculations.

  4. Analysis of satellite-derived Arctic tropospheric BrO columns in conjunction with aircraft measurements during ARCTAS and ARCPAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Choi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We derive estimates of tropospheric BrO column amounts during two Arctic field campaigns in 2008 using information from the satellite UV nadir sensors Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI and the second Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2 as well as estimates of stratospheric BrO columns from a model simulation. The sensitivity of the satellite-derived tropospheric BrO columns to various parameters is investigated using a radiative transfer model. We conduct a comprehensive analysis of satellite-derived tropospheric BrO columns including a detailed comparison with aircraft in-situ observations of BrO and related species obtained during the field campaigns. In contrast to prior expectation, tropospheric BrO, when present, existed over a broad range of altitudes. Our results show reasonable agreement between tropospheric BrO columns derived from the satellite observations and columns found using aircraft in-situ BrO. After accounting for the stratospheric contribution to total BrO column, several events of rapid BrO activation due to surface processes in the Arctic are apparent in both the OMI and GOME-2 based tropospheric columns. The wide orbital swath of OMI allows examination of the evolution of tropospheric BrO on about hourly time intervals near the pole. Low pressure systems, strong surface winds, and high planetary boundary layer heights are associated with the observed tropospheric BrO activation events.

  5. Consistent interpretation of ground based and GOME BrO slant column data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R. W.; Bovensmann, H.; Kaiser, J. W.; Richter, A.; Rozanov, A.; Wittrock, F.; Burrows, J. P.

    Model computations of slant column densities (SCD) enable the comparison between ground based and satellite based absorption measurements of scattered light and are therefore a good basis to investigate the presence of tropospheric BrO amounts. In this study ground based zenith sky and GOME nadir measurements of BrO SCD are compared with simulations for the 19-21 March 1997 at Ny-Ålesund. The vertical columns of tropospheric BrO amounts are estimated to be in the range 4 ±0.8 ∗ 10 13 [molecules/cm 2] for the investigated period and location.

  6. Brändi-imagon kirkastaminen sosiaalisen median avulla : Case Helin Matkat

    OpenAIRE

    Vilmi, Henna; Kärkkäinen, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön avulla selvitettiin, miten Helin Matkatoimisto Oy voi sosiaalisen median käytön kehityksellä kirkastaa brändi-imagoa, joka syntyy asiakkaiden mielissä. Tavoitteena oli tutkia yrityksen häämatkasegmentin sosiaalisen median käyt-tötottumuksia ja mieltymyksiä, segmentin mielikuvia Helin Matkojen brändistä ja näiden mielikuvien yhdenmukaisuutta yrityksen brändi-identiteetin kanssa. Tutkimus toteutettiin kvantitatiivisena verkkokyselynä Webropolin kautta, ja sitä jaettiin sähköpo...

  7. Festigkeit lasergesinterter Brückengerüste aus einer CoCr-Legierung

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, J.; Stawarczyk, B; Trottmann, A; Hämmerle, C H F

    2008-01-01

    Das Metall-Lasersintern ist ein aufbauendes Verfahren, das sich zur Herstellung von Kronen- und Brückengerüsten eignet. In einer vergleichenden Untersuchung wird die Bruchlast von im Lasersinterverfahren hergestellten Brückengerüsten der maximalen Belastbarkeit von formidentischen gegossenen Gerüsten gegenübergestellt. Als Basis für die Herstellung und Prüfung der Gerüste diente ein Stahlmodell mit zwei geometrisch definierten Zahnstümpfen. Das Modell wurde gescannt und ein Brückengerüst kons...

  8. Lyoluminescence in Ce3+ activated (KNa)Br phosphor for ionizing radiation dosimetry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P M Bhujbal; S J Dhoble

    2012-06-01

    The lyoluminescence (LL) in -ray irradiated (KNa)Br : Ce3+ phosphors are reported in this paper. LL of (KNa)Br : Ce3+ have been recorded for different -ray doses. The nature of variations of LL peak intensities is found to be linear with -ray irradiation dose and LL peak intensity is found to be dependent on concentrations (0.1–10 mol%) of added Ce3+ ions in the (KNa)Br host lattice. Negligible fading in the prepared sample is observed.

  9. Brändin johtamisen ja siirtohinnoittelun haasteet : case: Battery® Energy Drink

    OpenAIRE

    Tuominen, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee brändin johtamisen ja siirtohinnoittelun haasteita Oy Sinebrychoff Ab:n Battery® Energy Drink –energiajuoman kannalta. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on selvittää Battery® Energy Drink -brändin johtamiseen ja siirtohinnoitteluun liittyviä sekä konsernin sisäisiä että konsernin ulkopuolisia haasteita. Opinnäytetyö tehdään Oy Sinebrychoff Ab:n vientiosastolle toimeksiantona. Tutkimuksen teoriaosuudessa perehdytään brändin johtamisen eri näkökulmiin ja siirtohinnoittelu...

  10. Variations of the BrO/SO2 ratios from Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnach, Simon; Lübcke, Peter; Dinger, Florian; Bobrowski, Nicole; Hidalgo, Silvana; Arellano, Santiago; Battaglia, Jean; Galle, Bo; Hörmann, Christoph; Ruiz, Mario; Vogel, Leif; Wagner, Thomas; Platt, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    The amount and composition of volcanic gas emissions can yield information about magmatic processes. Apart from the SO2 emission rate, which is used as a widespread tool in monitoring volcanoes, the molar ratio of BrO/SO2 in a volcanic plume has shown the potential for interpreting volcanic activity. The evaluation of long-term spectral data collected with UV-scanning spectrometers through the Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change (NOVAC) using the DOAS technique can help to obtain a better understanding of the BrO/SO2 molar ratio and its correlation to magmatic processes. BrO and SO2 emissions as well as the BrO/SO2 ratio have been successfully retrieved from NOVAC data at Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia), where a decrease of the BrO/SO2 ratio was observed prior to a large eruption. We apply this evaluation algorithm to determine the plume composition of Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador, which is part of NOVAC since 2007. Different from Nevado del Ruiz the retrieved column densities of SO2 and BrO at Tungurahua are typically more than a factor of two lower during the respective period of observation. In addition, changes in the volcanic activity appear on a smaller timescale, as Tungurahua displays a succession of activity and quiescence phases. In order to still obtain robust BrO/SO2 ratios at Tungurahua, it is necessary to improve the data evaluation as well as applying a more sophisticated scheme to calculate the BrO/SO2 ratio. By combining both methods we create a time series of the BrO/SO2 ratio for several eruptive phases between 2007 and 2014. The ratio shows values between 2 and 8 × 10‑5. The variation of the BrO/SO2 ratio during these eruptive phases is compared to seismic data and volcanological phenomenological observations as well as satellite and ground based SO2 measurements. During several eruptive phases we observe an increase in the BrO/SO2 ratio on the transition from high explosive activity to low explosive activity. During the

  11. A New Promising X-Ray Storage Phosphor BaBrCl:Eu2+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Photostimulated luminescence was observed in X-ray irradiated BaBrCl doped with Eu2+. It shows an emission band that peak at 413 nm, and two difference absorption spectra (DAS) bands that peak at ~550 nm and 675 nm respectively. The stimulation energy is lower than that of BaFX:Eu2+ (X=Cl, Br), and matches the cheaper, more portable, and more convenient semiconductor laser better. The results indicate that BaBrCl:Eu2+ shows positive potential as a promising X-ray storage phosphor for practical utilization.

  12. The thermal analysis of BR-100: A barge/rail nuclear spent fuel transportation container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B ampersand W Fuel Company is designing a spent-fuel container called BR-100 that can be used for either barge or rail transport. This paper presents the thermal design and analysis. Both normal operation and hypothetical accident thermal transient conditions are evaluated. The BR-100 cask has a concrete layer than contains free water. During a hypothetical accident, the free water vaporizes and flows from the cask, removing a significant amount of thermal transient energy. The BR-100 transportation package meets the thermal requirements of 10CFR71. It additionally offers substantial margins to established material temperature limits

  13. Verkkosivuprojekti sekä uuden yrityksen brändäys

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenlindt, Arlena

    2015-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä käsiteltiin nykypäiväistä verkkosivukehityksen kulkua sekä sitä, mitä elementtejä vaaditaan yrityksen brändäykseen. Työssä kuvataan brändin vaikutusta verkkosivujen kehitykseen ja sitä, miten uudelle yritykselle luodaan brändi ja miten se vaikuttaa yritykseen sekä sen asiakkaisiin. Yritykselle luotiin verkkosivut, joiden kautta asiakkaat voivat saada lisätietoja yrityksen tarjoamista palveluista sekä varata hoitoaikoja. Yritykselle luotiin myös logo ja muuta mainont...

  14. The mechanical properties of radiation-vulcanized NR/BR blending system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Aoshuang E-mail: yanas@public3.bta.net.cn; Guo Zhengtao; Li Li; Zhai Ying; Zhou Peng

    2002-03-01

    The effect of radiation dose on the mechanical properties of NR/BR blending system is reported in this paper. A comparison was made between sulphur vulcanization and radiation vulcanization for an optimal nature rubber (NR)/ butyl rubber (BR) blending ratio (60/40) at dose range from 10 to 150 kGy. The result shows that the mechanical properties, especially, tensile strength, elongation at break, and tear strength have been improved significantly by radiation-vulcanization. This finding was also proved by thermal aging experiment on a selected NR/BR blend at 70 deg. C for up to 168 h.

  15. Phase topology of a NR/BR elastomer blend with active filler

    OpenAIRE

    Plavšić Milenko B.; Pajić-Lijaković Ivana; Čubrić Branislav; Popović Radivoj S.; Bugarski Branko M.; Popović Ružica G.; Lazić Nada L.

    2003-01-01

    The relations between the structure and mechanical properties of a polymer blend of natural (NR) and polybutadiene (BR) rubber (i.e. a NR/BR blend with the weight ratio of the components 70/30) filled with active carbon black were analysed. The properties of the individual phases in the blend were resolved by modeling the stress-strain relationship according to the Bauer procedure for high extensions. The obtained results indicated that BR is the dispersed phase, having a higher modulus, whic...

  16. The mechanical properties of radiation-vulcanized NR/BR blending system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoshuang, Yan; Zhengtao, Guo; Li, Li; Ying, Zhai; Peng, Zhou

    2002-03-01

    The effect of radiation dose on the mechanical properties of NR/BR blending system is reported in this paper. A comparison was made between sulphur vulcanization and radiation vulcanization for an optimal nature rubber (NR)/ butyl rubber (BR) blending ratio (60/40) at dose range from 10 to 150 kGy. The result shows that the mechanical properties, especially, tensile strength, elongation at break, and tear strength have been improved significantly by radiation-vulcanization. This finding was also proved by thermal aging experiment on a selected NR/BR blend at 70°C for up to 168 h.

  17. NA60 and BR Scaling in Terms of the Vector Manifestation: A Model Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, G E; Rho, Mannque

    2005-01-01

    It is pointed out that the comparison between the recent NA60 dimuon data and the so-called "Brown-Rho (BR) scaling" as presented at QM2005 is $not$ founded on a correct interpretation of the prediction of BR scaling as formulated in 1991 and modernized recently and hence the conclusion drawn by both the experimental and theoretical speakers that "BR scaling is ruled out by NA60" is erroneous and should be disregarded. We use a simplified model description of how the vector manifestation of hidden local symmetry theory enters into the dilepton production, relegating more rigorous discussions to a follow-up paper.

  18. Evaluation of the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential of whole plant extracts of Hedyotis puberula (G. Don) R. Br. ex Arn.

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Jince M.; Sowndhararajan, Kandhasamy; Manian, Sellamuthu

    2011-01-01

    The total phenolic content and in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of the whole plants of Hedyotis puberula (G. Don) R.Br. ex Arn. were appraised. The methanol extract of the plant contained higher levels of total phenolics, tannins and flavonoids content than other solvent extracts. Extracts were screened for antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities using various in vitro model systems. The methanol extract manifested strongest antioxidant and free radical scave...

  19. Vertical ozone distribution characteristics deduced from 44,000 re-evaluated Umkehr profiles (1957-2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojkov, R. D.; Kosmidis, E.; DeLuisi, J. J.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; Fioletov, V. E.; Godin, S.; Zerefos, C.

    maximum. The deduced trends above 33km confirm a strong ozone decline since the mid-1970s of over 5% per decade without significant seasonal differences. In the mid-latitude stations, the decline in the 15-24km layer is nearly twice as strong in the winter-spring season but much smaller in the summer and fall. The effect of including 1998 and 1999 years with relatively high total ozone data reduces the overall-declining trend. The trends estimated from alg-99 retrievals are statistically not significantly different from those in WMO 1998a; however, they are stronger by about 1% per decade in the lower stratosphere and thus closer to the estimates by sondes. Comparisons of the integrated ozone loss from the Umkehr measurements with the total ozone changes for the same periods at stations with good records show complete concurrence. The altitude and latitude appearances of the long-term geophysical signals like solar (1-2%) and QBO (2-7%) are investigated.

  20. Measurement of the Ratio BR(B- --> D*0 K-)/BR(B- --> D*0 pi-) and of the CP Asymmetry of B- --> D*0(CP+) K- Decays

    OpenAIRE

    The BABAR Collaboration; Aubert, B.

    2004-01-01

    We study the decays B- --> D*0 pi- and B- --> D*0 K-, where the D*0 decays into D0 pi0, with the D0 reconstructed in the CP-even (CP+) eigenstates K- K+ and pi- pi+ and in the (non-CP) channels K- pi+, K- pi+ pi+ pi-, and K- pi+ pi0. Using a sample of about 123 million BBbar pairs, we measure the ratios of decay rates R*(non-CP)=BR(B- --> D*0(non-CP) K-)/BR(B- --> D*0(non-CP) pi-) = 0.0813+-0.0040(stat)+0.0042-0.0031}(syst), and provide the first measurements of R*(CP+)= BR(B- --> D*0(CP+) K-...

  1. Modelling Al-4wt.%Cu as-cast structure using equiaxed morphological parameters deduced from in-situ synchrotron X-ray radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadein, M.; Wu, M.; Reinhart, G.; Nguyen-Thi, H.; Ludwig, A.

    2016-03-01

    The as-cast structure of laboratory scale Al-4wt.%Cu was numerically calculated using assumed morphological parameters. Two parameters are identified: The shape factor which correlates the growth velocity of dendrite envelope to that of the tip; and the sphericity of the equiaxed envelope or the circularity of the columnar trunk envelope which is required to calculate the averaged species diffusion flux across the envelope. In the present work, the real-time radiographs of equiaxed solidification experiment carried out on Al-4wt.%Cu at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility are used to track the development of crystal envelope with time. The growth rate of the equivalent circular envelope was correlated to dendrite tip growth velocity to deduce the shape factor. The sphericity of dendrite envelope is estimated over the time. The average of the deduced morphological parameters is applied to the model to predict the as-cast structure. The results were compared to those obtained by using morphological parameters from literature. The predicted phase quantities, columnar-to- equiaxed transition, and macrosegregation exhibited significant dependence on those parameters. The predicted macrosegregation using the experimentally deduced parameters fits better to the measurements.

  2. Collision energy effect on the H′ + BrH (ν = 0, j = 0) → H′Br + H reaction: A quasi-classical trajectory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The theoretical studies of the dynamics of the exchange reaction H′ + BrH (ν = 0, j = 0) → H′Br + H reactions are presented by stereodynamics calculations with quasiclassical trajectory method. Highlights: ► The cross sections for collision energies from 0.5 to 2.0 eV are determined. ► The rotational, vibrational and translational fractions are presented. ► The repulsive character of the potential energy surface is explored. ► The alignment and the orientation of H′Br are found to be close relation to Ec. - Abstract: Theoretical studies on the dynamics of the exchange reaction H′ + BrH (ν = 0, j = 0) → H′Br + H are performed on potential energy surface (PES) (Kurosaki et al., private communication) for the ground state using the quasi-classical trajectory method. The cross sections, computed at the collision energies (Ec) of 0.5–2.0 eV, are in good agreement with the earlier quantum wave packet results. The rotational, vibrational, and translational fractions in the total energy and the vibrational distribution for the product molecule are calculated at the same collision-energy range. The results support the repulsive character of the PES. In the considered Ec range, it has little chance to occur in an indirect reaction. The alignment and orientation of the product H′Br are investigated in detail with stereodynamics. The results show that Ec can effect on both the alignment and the orientation of product.

  3. Molecular dynamics simulations of Si etching in Cl- and Br-based plasmas: Cl{sup +} and Br{sup +} ion incidence in the presence of Cl and Br neutrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazaki, Nobuya, E-mail: nakazaki.nobuya.58x@st.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Takao, Yoshinori; Eriguchi, Koji; Ono, Kouichi, E-mail: ono@kuaero.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto-daigaku Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)

    2015-12-21

    Classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed for Cl{sup +} and Br{sup +} ions incident on Si(100) surfaces with Cl and Br neutrals, respectively, to gain a better understanding of the ion-enhanced surface reaction kinetics during Si etching in Cl- and Br-based plasmas. The ions were incident normally on surfaces with translational energies in the range E{sub i} = 20–500 eV, and low-energy neutrals of E{sub n} = 0.01 eV were also incident normally thereon with the neutral-to-ion flux ratio in the range Γ{sub n}{sup 0}/Γ{sub i}{sup 0} = 0–100, where an improved Stillinger--Weber potential form was employed for the interatomic potential concerned. The etch yields and thresholds presently simulated were in agreement with the experimental results previously reported for Si etching in Cl{sub 2} and Br{sub 2} plasmas as well as in Cl{sup +}, Cl{sub 2}{sup +}, and Br{sup +} beams, and the product stoichiometry simulated was consistent with that observed during Ar{sup +} beam incidence on Si in Cl{sub 2}. Moreover, the surface coverage of halogen atoms, halogenated layer thickness, surface stoichiometry, and depth profile of surface products simulated for Γ{sub n}{sup 0}/Γ{sub i}{sup 0} = 100 were in excellent agreement with the observations depending on E{sub i} reported for Si etching in Cl{sub 2} plasmas. The MD also indicated that the yield, coverage, and surface layer thickness are smaller in Si/Br than in Si/Cl system, while the percentage of higher halogenated species in product and surface stoichiometries is larger in Si/Br. The MD further indicated that in both systems, the translational energy distributions of products and halogen adsorbates desorbed from surfaces are approximated by two Maxwellians of temperature T{sub 1} ≈ 2500 K and T{sub 2} ≈ 7000–40 000 K. These energy distributions are discussed in terms of the desorption or evaporation from hot spots formed through chemically enhanced physical

  4. C-Reactive Protein Levels in the Brugada Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimé Bonny

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inflammation in the Brugada syndrome (BrS and its clinical implication have been little studied. Aims. To assess the level of inflammation in BrS patients. Methods. All studied BrS patients underwent blood samples drawn for C-reactive protein (CRP levels at admission, prior to any invasive intervention. Patients with a previous ICD placement were controlled to exclude those with a recent (<14 days shock. We divided subjects into symptomatic (syncope or aborted sudden death and asymptomatic groups. In a multivariable analysis, we adjusted for significant variables (age, CRP ≥ 2 mg/L. Results. Fifty-four subjects were studied (mean age 45 ± 13 years, 49 (91% male. Twenty (37% were symptomatic. Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. Mean CRP level was 1,4 ± 0,9 mg/L in asymptomatic and 2,4 ± 1,4 mg/L in symptomatic groups (P = .003. In the multivariate model, CRP concentrations ≥ 2 mg/L remained an independent marker for being symptomatic (P = .018; 95% CI: 1.3 to 19.3. Conclusion. Inflammation seems to be more active in symptomatic BrS. C-reactive protein concentrations ≥ 2 mg/L might be associated with the previous symptoms in BrS. The value of inflammation as a risk factor of arrhythmic events in BrS needs to be studied.

  5. Measurement of the Ratio of Branching Fractions Br(Bs -> Ds- pi+)/Br(B -> D- pi+) at CDF-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furic, Ivan Kresimir; /MIT

    2004-03-01

    The measurement of B{sub s}{sup 0} mixing is one of the flagship analyses for the Run II B physics program. The sensitivity of the measurement to the frequency of B{sub s}{sup 0} oscillations strongly depends on the number of reconstructed B{sub s}{sup 0} mesons. They present the measurement of the ratio of branching fractions Br(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +})/Br(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}{pi}{sup +}), which directly influences the number of B{sub s}{sup 0} events available for the measurement of B{sub s}{sup 0} mixing at CDF-II. They analyze 115 pb{sup -1} of data collected with the CDF-II detector in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using a novel displaced track trigger. They reconstruct 78 {+-} 11 B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} decays at 1153 {+-} 45 B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}{pi}{sup +} decays with good signal to background ratio. This is the world's largest sample of fully reconstructed B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} decays. They find the ratio of production fractions multiplied by the ratio of branching fractions to be: f{sub s}/f{sub d} {center_dot} Br(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +})/Br(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = 0.325 {+-} 0.046(stat) {+-} 0.034(syst) {+-} 0.084 (BR). Using the world average value of f{sub s}/f{sub d} = 0.26 {+-} 0.03, we infer that the ratio of branching fractions is: Br(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +})/Br(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = 1.25 {+-} 0.18(stat) {+-} 0.13(syst) {+-} 0.32(BR) {+-} 0.14(PR) where the last uncertainty is due to the uncertainty on the world average measurement of the ratio of B{sub s}{sup 0} to B{sup 0} production rates, f{sub s}/f{sub d}.

  6. TWO NOVEL FLAVONOID GLYCOSIDES FROM CRATAEGUS PINNATIFIDA BGE.VAR. MAJOR N.E.BR.r

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI-CHENG ZHANG; YING-JUN ZHOU; SUI-XU XU

    2001-01-01

    Two novel natural products, namely pinnatifida C, pinnatifida D, were isolated from the leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.var.rnajor N.E.Br. Their structures were elucidated by the spectro scopic analysis and chemical evidence.

  7. Spin-orbit relaxation of Br ((2)P(sub 1/2))

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. O.; Katapski, S. M.; Perram, G. P.; Roh, W. B.; Tate, R. F.

    Pulsed and steady-state photolysis experiments have been conducted to determine the rate coefficients for collisional deactivation of the spin-orbit excited state atomic bromine, Br ((2)P(sub 1/2)). Pulsed lifetime studies for quenching by Br2 and CO2 established absolute rate coefficients at room temperature of k(sub Br2) = 1.2 +/- 10(exp -12) and k(sub CO2) = 1.5 +/- 0.3 x 10(exp -11)/cc/molecule-s. Steady-state photolysis methods were used to determine the quenching rates for the rare gases, N2, O2, H2, D2, NO, NO2, N2O, SF6, CF4, CH4, CO, CO2, COS, SO2, H2S, HBr, HCl, and HI relative to that for Br2.

  8. Kallas valmistus Brüsselis voliniku tööks / Ahto Lobjakas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobjakas, Ahto, 1970-

    2004-01-01

    Siim Kallas kohtus Brüsselis Euroopa Komisjoni presidendi Romano Prodi ning komisjoni volinikega. Suure tõenäosusega saab Kallas oma juhendajaks ettevõtluse ja infoühiskonna valdkonnaga tegeleva Erkki Liikaneni

  9. Studie ekologických charakteristik invazního druhu Chenopodium pumilio R. Br.

    OpenAIRE

    KAŠPAROVÁ, Františka

    2008-01-01

    Chenopodium pumilio R. Br. is originaly from Australia and Tasmania. This alien species is considered as naturalized species of the Czech Republic flora. Component parts of this thesis are two germination experiments, measuring of relative growth rate and phytocenological releve.

  10. Brüsselis kõneldi GMO vastu / Nastja Pertsjonok

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pertsjonok, Nastja

    2005-01-01

    Brüsselis toimunud konverentsil nõudsid Euroopa Liidu maade regionaalministrid ja Europarlamendi liikmed õigust otsustada geneetiliselt muundatud põllukultuuride keelamise üle piirkondlikul tasandil

  11. Best Western - tuntud ja tunnustatud ülemaailmne hotelliketi bränd

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    1946. aastal Californias M. K. Guertini poolt asutatud Best Western hotelliketist, mis pakub just sõltumatutele hotellipidajatele ühtset turundus- ja müügistrateegiat, brändi- ja teeninduskontseptsiooni

  12. "Aina saa nauraa!" : Heinolan kesäteatterin bränditutkimus

    OpenAIRE

    Niemi, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö käsittelee brändiä ja brändin kehittämistä. Tutkimuksen tarkoitus oli selvittää toimeksiantajaorganisaation eli Heinolan kesäteatterin brändin nykytila. Tutkimuksenavulla haluttiin saada tietoa siitä, vastaako kesäteatterin brändi-identiteetti asi-akkaiden saamia mielikuvia. Koska Heinolan kesäteatteri on kunnan hallinnoima palvelu ja tärkeä matkailukohde, käsiteltiin opinnäytetyössä myös kuntabrändiä ja Heinolan kesäteatterin roolia kuntabrändin osana. Opinnäytetyön teoreett...

  13. Jalkapalloseuran brändin kehittäminen : Case:Mikkelin Kissat

    OpenAIRE

    Aholainen, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on kehittää jalkapalloseuran brändiä. Välitavoitteena on ensin selvittää brändin tämänhetkinen tila ja sen kehittämisen kohteet. Tutkimus on rajattu junioreiden vanhempiin sekä seuran junioreihin, toimihenkilöihin ja yhteistyökumppaneihin. Tutkimusongelmana oli kysymys: miten kehitämme Mikkelin Kissojen brändiä? Miten tärkeimmät sidosryhmät saadaan paremmin mukaan brändin kehittämiseen? Kyselyiden ja haastatteluiden tulosten pohjalta tehdään kehittämisehdotuksi...

  14. Muotinäytöksestä brändiksi? : Aurelian kasvutarina

    OpenAIRE

    Antikainen, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä käsiteltiin Savonia-ammattikorkeakoulun vaatetusmuotoilun opiskelijoiden Aurelia-muotinäytöksen brändäämistä ja markkinointia vaatetusmuotoilun opiskelijan näkökulmasta. Työssä käsiteltiin brändäyksen keskeisiä käsitteitä ja brändin rakennuksen vaiheita, sekä analysoitiin muotinäytös Aurelia-brändiä näiden pohjalta. Työssä myös analysoitiin vuosien 2012-2015 näytösprojekteja käyttäen apuna sisällön analyysiä sekä haastatteluja. Asiantuntijapalautetta opinnäytetyöstä pyydettiin...

  15. Thermal dehydration and the effect of crystal transformation on 80Br retention in strontium bromate monohydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isothermal dehydration and isothermal annealing of neutron activated Sr(BrO3)2.H2O was studied in the temperature range 80-225 degC. Fractional dehydration at 80 degC observed to be 0.02 increasing to 0.3 at 100 degC for the same 30 min. heating period indicating the crystal transformation between 80-100 degC. 80Br initial retention, 11.3% raised to 28.0% for heating at 100 degC for 30 min. indicating some structural rearrangement. Activation energy involved for Sr(BrO3)2.H2O and Sr(BrO3)2 was 0.06 and 0.12eV where as it was 2.1 x 10-2) for isothermal dehydration. (author). 4 refs. 1 tab

  16. [Memel als Brücke zu den baltischen Ländern] / Ralph Tuchtenhagen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuchtenhagen, Ralph, 1961-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Memel als Brücke zu den baltischen Ländern. Kulturgeschichte Klaipedas vom Mittelalter bis ins 20. Jahrhundert. (Tagungsberichte der Historischen Kommission für ost- und westpreussische Landesforschung. Bd. 26)

  17. Laser and X-ray structural investigations of EtBr which is used in photo-dynamical therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqueous solution EtBr (2,7-diamino-10 ethyl-9 phenylphenanthridinium bromide) + DNA is analyzed by means of laser excitation and by x-rays. Laser excitation mechanism is explained and structural changes are observed. A working hypothesis is that the high polar EtBr molecules orients according the electromagnetic field of the Ro beam. This constrains the DNA fibbers to arrange parallel to each other due to the high concentration of the EtBr molecules intercalated in DNA (1 EtBr per 10 DNA bases). Further investigations will be done at lower EtBr concentrations

  18. Observations of hydroxyl and peroxy radicals and the impact of BrO at Summit, Greenland in 2007 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liao

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Greenland Summit Halogen-HOx (GSHOX Campaign was performed in spring~2007 and summer~2008 to investigate the impact of halogens on HOx (=OH + HO2 cycling above the Greenland Ice Sheet. Chemical species including hydroxyl and peroxy radicals (OH and HO2 + ROx, ozone (O3, nitrogen oxide (NO, nitric acid (HNO2, nitrous acid (HONO, reactive gaseous mercury (RGM, and bromine oxide (BrO were measured during the campaign. The median midday values of HO2 + RO2 and OH concentrations observed by chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS were 2.7 × 108 molec cm−3 and 3.0 × 106 molec cm−3 in spring 2007, and 4.2 × 108 molec cm−3 and 4.1 × 106 molec cm−3 in summer~2008. A basic photochemical 0-D box model highly constrained by observations of H2O, O3, CO, CH4, NO, and J values predicted HO2 + RO2 (R = 0.90, slope = 0.87 in 2007; R = 0.79, slope = 0.96 in 2008 reasonably well and under predicted OH (R = 0.83, slope = 0.72 in 2007; R = 0.76, slope = 0.54 in 2008. Constraining the model to HONO observations did not significantly change the predictions. Including bromine chemistry in the model constrained by observations of BrO improved the correlation between observed and predicted HO2 + RO2 and OH, and brought the average hourly OH and HO2+RO2 predictions closer to the observations. These model comparisons confirmed our understanding of the dominant HOx sources and sinks in this environment and indicated that BrO impacted the OH levels at Summit. Although, significant discrepancies between observed and predicted OH could not be explained by the measured BrO. Finally, observations of enhanced RGM were found to be coincident

  19. Observations of hydroxyl and peroxy radicals and the impact of BrO at Summit, Greenland in 2007 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liao

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Greenland Summit Halogen-HOx (GSHOX Campaign was performed in spring 2007 and summer 2008 to investigate the impact of halogens on HOx (= OH + HO2 cycling above the Greenland Ice Sheet. Chemical species including hydroxyl and peroxy radicals (OH and HO2 + RO2, ozone (O3, nitrogen oxide (NO, nitric acid (HNO3, nitrous acid (HONO, reactive gaseous mercury (RGM, and bromine oxide (BrO were measured during the campaign. The median midday values of HO2 + RO2 and OH concentrations observed by chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS were 2.7 × 108 molec cm−3 and 3.0 × 106 molec cm−3 in spring 2007, and 4.2 × 108 molec cm−3 and 4.1 × 106 molec cm−3 in summer 2008. A basic photochemical 0-D box model highly constrained by observations of H2O, O3, CO, CH4, NO, and J values predicted HO2 + RO2 (R = 0.90, slope = 0.87 in 2007; R = 0.79, slope = 0.96 in 2008 reasonably well and under predicted OH (R = 0.83, slope = 0.72 in 2007; R = 0.76, slope = 0.54 in 2008. Constraining the model to HONO observations did not significantly improve the ratio of OH to HO2 + RO2 and the correlation between predictions and observations. Including bromine chemistry in the model constrained by observations of BrO improved the correlation between observed and predicted HO2 + RO2 and OH, and brought the average hourly OH and HO2 + RO2 predictions closer to the observations. These model comparisons confirmed our understanding of the dominant HOx sources and sinks in this environment and indicated that BrO impacted the OH levels at Summit. Although, significant discrepancies between observed and predicted OH could not be

  20. Brändimielikuvien vaikutus ostamiseen second hand -verkkokaupasta : Case: WST

    OpenAIRE

    Kati, Voutilainen

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää WST:n ja sen brändin synnyttämiä mielikuvia toimeksiantajan asiakkaissa ja potentiaalisissa asiakkaissa ja niiden vaikutusta asiakkaiden ostamiseen second hand -verkkokaupasta. Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantajana toimi koti-mainen second hand -vaatteiden ja asusteiden verkkokauppa We Started This eli WST. Tutkimuskysymykset muotoituivat seuraavanlaisiksi: Millaiset brändimielikuvat second hand -verkkokauppa We started this:n asiakkailla ja potentiaalisilla...

  1. Brückenhypothesen - Kritik der ökonomischen Theorie der Ziele

    OpenAIRE

    Stachura, Mateusz

    2009-01-01

    Im vorliegenden Aufsatz wird eine institutionentheoretische Alternative zu Siegwart Lindenbergs Modell der theoriereichen Konstruktion von Brückenhypothesen entwickelt. Lindenbergs Modell richtet sich sowohl gegen theoriearme, empirische Verfahren der Konstruktion von Brückenhypothesen als auch gegen bloße Ad-hoc-Annahmen über Präferenzen sozialer Akteure. Durch die Anwendung des Nachfragegesetzes auf die Relation zwischen Präferenzen und Metapräferenzen gelingt es Lindenberg, eine innovative...

  2. Distribution of 82Br between serum and CSF in patients with meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ratio between concentrations of 82Br in serum and spinal fluid was determined in patients with meningitis. The ratio was found to be low in three patients strongly suspect for tuberculous meningitis and in eight of nine patients with purulent meningitis, but normal in 13 patients with non-tuberculous, serous meningitis. These results confirm previous investigations and determination of the 82Br ratio is a simple, reliable aid in the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis. (author)

  3. Radiochemical solar neutrino experiment using 81Br(nu, e-)81Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both geochemical and radiochemical experiments based on the interaction 81Br(nu,e-)81Kr to detect 7Be solar neutrinos have been suggested as a logical extension of the 37Cl experiment of Davis et al. The 81Br experiment, however, requires the development of a direct counter for the slowly decaying 81Kr. Progress toward such a detector based on Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS) is discussed

  4. CaBr2 hydrolysis for HBr production using a direct sparging contactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated a novel, continuous hybrid cycle for hydrogen production employing both heat and electricity. Calcium bromide (CaBr2) hydrolysis, which is endothermic, generates hydrogen bromide (HBr), and this is electrolysed to produce hydrogen. CaBr2 hydrolysis at 1050 K is endothermic with a 181.5 KJ/mol heat of reaction and the free energy change is positive at 99.6 kJ/mol. What makes this hydrolysis reaction attractive is both its rate and the fact that well over half the thermodynamic requirements for water-splitting free energy of ΔGT = 285.8 KJ/mol are supplied at this stage using heat rather than electricity. These experiments provide support for a second order hydrolysis reaction in CaBr2 forming a complex involving CaBr2 and CaO and the system appears to be: 3CaBr2 + H2O → (CaBr2)2.CaO + 2HBr. This reaction is highly endothermic and the complex also includes some water of hydration. COMSOLTM multi-physics modelling of sparging steam into a calcium bromide melt guided the design of an experiment using a mullite tube (ID 70 mm) capable of holding 0.3-0.5 kg (1.5-2.5 10-3 kmol) CaBr2 forming a melt with a maximum 0.08 m depth. Half of the experiments employed packings. Sparging steam at a steam rate of 0.02-0.04 mol/mol of CaBr2 per minute into this molten bath promptly yielded HBr in a stable operation that converted up to 19 mol% of the calcium bromide. The kinetic constant derived from the experimental data was kinetic constant was 2.17 10-12 kmol s-1 m-2 MPa-1 for the hydrolysis reaction. (authors)

  5. The modeling of the RF system performance in TCA/BR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of numerical simulation of RF Alfven wave heating system that is intended to be used in TCA/BR tokamak are presented. The problem of monochromatic travelling RF field excitation in TCA/BR tokamak is analyzed by means of numerical simulation. The spectrum of the excited Alfven waves is determined using a one-dimensional MHD code. The transient time and AC analysis of the RF generator performance with antenna loading are discussed. (author). 9 refs., 6 figs

  6. Thermodynamic and structural properties of high temperature solid and liquid EuBr2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rycerz, L.; Gadzuric, S.; Ingier-Stocka, E.; Berg, Rolf W.; Gaune-Escard, M.

    Heat capacity of solid and liq. EuBr2 was measured by differential scanning calorimetry in the temp. range 300-1100 K. The temp. and enthalpy of fusion were also detd. exptl. By combination of these results with the literature data on the entropy at 298.15 K, S(o,m) (EuBr2, s, 298.15 K) , and the...

  7. Satellite observations of long range transport of a large BrO cloud in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Begoin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Ozone Depletion Events (ODE during polar springtime are a well known phenomenon in the Arctic and Antarctic boundary layer. They are caused by the catalytic destruction of ozone by halogens producing reactive halogen oxides like bromine monoxide (BrO. The key halogen bromine can be rapidly transferred into the gas phase in an autocatalytic process – the so called "Bromine Explosion". However, the exact mechanism, which leads to an initial bromine release as well as the influence of transport and chemical processes on BrO, is still not clearly understood. In this study, BrO measurements from the satellite instrument GOME-2 are used together with model calculations with the dispersion model FLEXPART and Potential Frost Flowers (PFF maps to study a special arctic BrO event in March/April 2007, which could be tracked over many days and large areas. Full BrO activation was observed within one day east of Siberia with subsequent transport to the Hudson Bay. The event was linked to a cyclone with very high surface wind speeds which could have been involved in the production and the sustaining of aerosols providing the surface for BrO recycling within the plume. The evolution of the BrO plume could be well reproduced by FLEXPART calculations for a passive tracer indicating that the activated air mass was transported all the way from Siberia to the Hudson Bay without further activation at the surface. No direct link could be made to frost flower occurrence and BrO activation but enhanced PFF were observed a few days before the event in the source regions.

  8. Molecular characterization of Br-cadherin, a developmentally regulated, brain-specific cadherin

    OpenAIRE

    Selig, Sara; Lidov, Hart G. W.; Bruno, Sandra A.; Segal, Michael M.; Kunkel, Louis M

    1997-01-01

    Cadherins are a family of transmembrane proteins that play a crucial role in cell adhesion and in morphogenesis. Several of the cadherins are expressed in the nervous system, but none is neuron-specific. We characterize a new member of the cadherin family, Br-cadherin, which is present exclusively in the central nervous system. Although the Br-cadherin protein is confined to the central nervous system, its mRNA is present in several additional tissues, suggesting that there is posttranscripti...

  9. The influence of the temperature on electron attachment to some Br-substituted alkanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wnorowski, K.; Wnorowska, J.; Michalczuk, B.; Jówko, A.; Barszczewska, W.

    2013-10-01

    Thermal electron attachment rate coefficients and activation energies for CH3CH2Br, CH3CH2CH2Br, CH3CHBrCH3, CF3CHBrCH3, CH3(CH2)2CH2Br and CH2F(CH2)2CH2Br have been measured using the Pulsed Townsend technique over the temperature range (298-378) K. The corresponding rate coefficients (k's) at 298 K were equal to 9.3 ± 2.10 × 10-13, 2.9 ± 0.20 × 10-12, 2.7 ± 0.07 × 10-12, 1.1 ± 0.06 × 10-9, 6.6 ± 1.10 × 10-12 and 2.3 ± 0.3 × 10-10 cm3s-1, respectively. Activation energies (Ea's) were determined from the fit of the Arrhenius function to the experimental points and were found to be equal to 0.35 ± 0.002, 0.35 ± 0.004, 0.31 ± 0.004, 0.19 ± 0.002, 0.33 ± 0.006 and 0.22 ± 0.002 eV, respectively for CH3CH2Br, CH3CH2CH2Br, CH3CHBrCH3, CF3CHBrCH3, CH3(CH2)2CH2Br and CH2F(CH2)2CH2Br molecules.

  10. In the Middle of Snowhere : brändivideon toteutus Sallan Hiihtokeskukselle

    OpenAIRE

    Pehkonen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni aiheena on brändivideon toteuttaminen Sallan hiihtokeskukselle. Asiakas toivoi videon tuovan esille hiihtokeskuksen parhaat puolet ja erot kilpaileviin suurempiin hiihtokeskuksiin. Videon haluttiin tukevan Hiihtokeskuksen brändiä, joka kiteytyy sloganiin “in the middle of snowhere”. Sallan hiihtokeskus kokeilee ensimmäistä kertaa videomarkkinointia. Video on suunnattu mainostukseen sosiaalisen median kautta. Kirjallinen osa on prosessikuvaus toteuttamani videon eri tuotan...

  11. Hard X-ray spectroscopy using a small-format TlBr array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report X-ray measurements on a prototype 3x3 TlBr pixel array, produced to assess the technological feasibility of making a Fano limited imager, which can operate near room temperature. The device was fabricated on monocrystalline material of size 2.7x2.7x1.0 mm3. It has a pixel size of 350x350 μm2 and pitch of 450 μm. Measurements were carried out on all pixels over the energy range 5.9-662 keV using radioactive sources. The leakage currents were found to be low enough to allow room-temperature operation, with typical energy resolutions of ∼20 keV FWHM at 59.95 keV under full-area illumination. At a reduced detector temperature of -30 deg. C, these fell to ∼4 keV FWHM. Although the spectral performance of the present array is currently impaired by material limitations, its spectral acuity was found to be greatly enhanced by the small pixel effect. Additional photon metrology was carried out at the Hamburger Synchrotron-strahlungslabor radiation facility. Under monochromatic pencil beam illumination, the measured energy resolutions at 20 keV were ∼3 keV FWHM at -30 deg. C. The spatial uniformity of the array was measured using a 50x50 μm2, 20 keV monoenergetic X-ray beam, raster scanned over the entire active area. The response, in terms of count rate, gain and energy resolution was found to be uniform at the few percent level, consistent with statistics. It was observed during these measurements, that the X-ray response of the pixels was unstable, showing time-dependent gain shifts indicative of polarization effects. The magnitude of the effect was proportional to the total energy deposition per unit time. Lastly, the use of TlBr arrays in nuclear medicine applications is discussed with particular emphasis on radio-guided surgical probes. Recommendations for an optimized design are given

  12. Structural and electronic properties of silicene on MgX2 (X = Cl, Br, and I)

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie

    2014-07-23

    Silicene is a monolayer of Si atoms in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice, being expected to be compatible with current Si-based nanoelectronics. The behavior of silicene is strongly influenced by the substrate. In this context, its structural and electronic properties on MgX2 (X = Cl, Br, and I) have been investigated using first-principles calculations. Different locations of the Si atoms are found to be energetically degenerate because of the weak van der Waals interaction with the substrates. The Si buckling height is below 0.55 Å, which is close to the value of free-standing silicene (0.49 Å). Importantly, the Dirac cone of silicene is well preserved on MgX2 (located slightly above the Fermi level), and the band gaps induced by the substrate are less than 0.1 eV. Application of an external electric field and stacking can be used to increase the band gap. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  13. The management routes for materials produced by the dismantling of the BR3-PWR reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M.; Demeulemeester, Y.; Ponnet, M.; Emond, M.; Emond, O.; Dadoumont, J.; Massaut, V. [SCK. CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Mol (Belgium)

    2000-07-01

    The dismantling of the BR3 reactor produces quite large masses of contaminated materials, mainly metals or concrete. The main management routes are: conditioning of the radioactive wastes and disposal, recycling of radioactive materials in the nuclear sector and the recycling of free released materials in the industrial sector or their evacuation as industrial waste. The conditioning of the radioactive wastes is essentially performed in the installations of Belgoprocess and must follow the specifications imposed by the national radwaste management agency ONDRAF/NIRAS. The conditioning of the pieces produced during the cutting of the reactor pressure vessel is given as example. The recycling of radioactive materials in the nuclear sector is possible for metals and for concrete. For metals, SCK.CEN has an agreement with a nuclear foundry which reuses these materials for the fabrication of shieldings. For concrete, an R and D programme is going on with the objective to demonstrate the possible reuse of baryte concrete as raw materials for the production of mortar used in the conditioning of radioactive wastes. The free release of radioactive materials and their reuse or evacuation as radioactive wastes requires the strict respect of procedures and the use of low level measurement techniques. Various decontamination techniques are used at SCK.CEN to reach this objective. For the metals, we use mainly simple washing, abrasive decontamination and hard chemical decontamination. For concrete, we use mainly scabbling or shaving techniques. (authors)

  14. The management routes for materials produced by the dismantling of the BR3-PWR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dismantling of the BR3 reactor produces quite large masses of contaminated materials, mainly metals or concrete. The main management routes are: conditioning of the radioactive wastes and disposal, recycling of radioactive materials in the nuclear sector and the recycling of free released materials in the industrial sector or their evacuation as industrial waste. The conditioning of the radioactive wastes is essentially performed in the installations of Belgoprocess and must follow the specifications imposed by the national radwaste management agency ONDRAF/NIRAS. The conditioning of the pieces produced during the cutting of the reactor pressure vessel is given as example. The recycling of radioactive materials in the nuclear sector is possible for metals and for concrete. For metals, SCK.CEN has an agreement with a nuclear foundry which reuses these materials for the fabrication of shieldings. For concrete, an R and D programme is going on with the objective to demonstrate the possible reuse of baryte concrete as raw materials for the production of mortar used in the conditioning of radioactive wastes. The free release of radioactive materials and their reuse or evacuation as radioactive wastes requires the strict respect of procedures and the use of low level measurement techniques. Various decontamination techniques are used at SCK.CEN to reach this objective. For the metals, we use mainly simple washing, abrasive decontamination and hard chemical decontamination. For concrete, we use mainly scabbling or shaving techniques. (authors)

  15. A novel Bi-based oxybromide SrBiO{sub 2}Br: Synthesis, optical property and photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Ying; Huang, Hongwei, E-mail: hhw@cugb.edu.cn; Zhang, Yihe, E-mail: zyh@cugb.edu.cn; Li, Xiaowei; Tian, Na; Guo, Yuxi; Luo, Yi

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • SrBiO{sub 2}Br was first explored as a novel photocatalyst. • SrBiO{sub 2}Br has been successfully synthesized by a solid state reaction. • We systematically synthesized SrBiO{sub 2}Br in different temperature. • SrBiO{sub 2}Br calcinated at 700 °C exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: A novel Bi-based photocatalyst SrBiO{sub 2}Br with layered structure was successfully synthesized via a solid state reaction method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). SrBiO{sub 2}Br has an indirect-transition optical band-gap of 2.58 eV. Density functional calculations revealed that conduction band (CB) were composed of the Bi 6p and Br 4s orbitals, and valence band (VB) were occupied by Br 4p and O 2p. The photodecomposition of rhodamine-B (RhB) experiments demonstrated SrBiO{sub 2}Br can be used as photocatalysts under ultraviolet (UV) light and visible light irradiation (λ > 400 nm). The results revealed that SrBiO{sub 2}Br calcinated at 700 °C exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity among the obtained SrBiO{sub 2}Br samples.

  16. Effect of inorganic hybrid Li Br on the silica matrix xerogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SiO2-Li Br hybrid porous materials were prepared by the sol-gel method. This process was obtained by the hydrolysis and condensation tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) with replacement of ethanol from alcogel by drying at ambient temperature to obtain xerogel structure. The alcogel samples were synthesized from TEOS, EtOH, H2O, HCl, NH4OH and Li Br. The total molar ratio of the compounds was 1: 9: 4: 8 x 10-4, 8 x 10-3. Xerogel contain 30percentwt of Li Br (dry matter) was prepared and characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Fourier Transmittance Infra Red, Energy Dispersive X-ray and Thermal Gravimetry Analysis systems. The results obtained from Scanning Electron Microscopy were shown the micrograph of Li Br on the silica matrix. Chemical elemental analysis data was resulted by Energy Dispersive X-ray. On the other hand, the Transmission Electron Microscopy have confirmed average particle size of SiO2-Li Br about 50 nm and Fourier Transmittance Infra Red spectrum describes functional groups of nano composite. The thermal analysis of SiO2-Li Br nano composite was performed using Thermal Gravimetry Analysis system. The results show that the suitable temperature for initial thermal treatment is about 200degreeC.

  17. BR-10 Reactor Sodium and Sodium-Potassium Removal and Passivation. Appendix I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research reactor BR-10 is located in the State Scientific Centre of the Russian Federation ‘A.I. Leipunski Institute of Physics and Power Engineering’ (IPPE), Russian Federation, Obninsk. BR-10 operated from 1959 to 2002, during which time a significant amount of radioactive waste in the form of liquid-metal alkali coolants was accumulated by the research institute. A schematic illustration of the BR-10 systems is shown. The sodium coolant of the primary circuit was changed three times, and the cold traps were regenerated with the resulting spent sodium drained into tanks for long-term storage. The tanks also received sodium potassium (NaK) eutectic alloy coolant from the secondary circuit, contaminated with mercury. This was the result of de-pressurization of a double-wall steam generator tube with a mercury layer, which was part of the BR-2 reactor. The BR-2 reactor was located in the building where the BR-10 reactor was built. The volumes and activities of the drained materia are indicated

  18. Effects of Br- and I- concentrations on Zn electrodeposition from ammoniacal electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhi-mei; Yang, Sheng-hai; Duan, Liang-hong; Tang, Mo-tang

    2015-07-01

    The effects of Br- and I- concentrations on the cell voltage, anodic polarization, current efficiency (CE), and energy consumption (EC) of zinc electrodeposition from ammoniacal ammonium chloride solutions were investigated. The surface morphology of zinc deposits was also examined. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the morphology of zinc deposits and the phase of anodic sediments produced during electrolysis. The results clearly showed that the CE slightly increased from approximately 95.12% in the absence of I- and Br- to 97.08% in the presence of 10 g·L-1 Br-; in contrast, the CE significantly decreased to less than 83% in the presence of 10 g·L-1 I-. The addition of Br- and I- positively affected the EC, which decreased from 2514 kW·h·t-1 to approximately 2300 kW·h·t-1. The results of anodic polarization measurements showed that the voltage drops were 130 and 510 mV when the concentrations of Br- and I- were 10 g·L-1 at a current density of 400 A·m-2, respectively. SEM images showed that the addition of Br- and I- caused different crystal growth mechanisms, which resulted in the production of compact and smooth zinc deposits. The anodic reactions of I- were also studied.

  19. Experimental research on LiBr refrigeration - Heat pump system applied in CCHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new heat recovery technique for a LiBr refrigeration-heat pump system applied in CCHP(Combined Cooling, Heating and Power system) system is proposed in this paper. The system can recover the heat of the LiBr refrigeration cooling water to heat the demineralized water of the boiler. Experimental research on the operating characteristics of the compound system is carried out and the obtained conclusions are as follows: The LiBr refrigeration-heat pump system is able to perform stably and flexibly. The heat pump system has a relative large coefficient of performance (COPP) which can be as high as 6.13. When the outlet temperature of the demineralized water is 67.8 oC, the CCHP system brings 26.6% decrease in primary energy rate consumption compared with the combined heat and power production system (CHP) plus electricity-driven refrigeration. It is suggested that heat pumps should be used in CCHP system to heat the demineralized water of the boiler by recovering the exhaust heat of the LiBr refrigeration system. - Highlights: → LiBr refrigeration-heat pump system applied in CCHP system is proposed. → This system can recover the heat of the LiBr refrigeration cooling water to heat the demineralized water of the boiler. → Using heat pump to recover exhaust heat can increase the energy efficiency of the whole CCHP.

  20. A synergistic antiproliferation effect of curcumin and docosahexaenoic acid in SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells: unique signaling not explained by the effects of either compound alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is a collection of diseases in which molecular phenotypes can act as both indicators and mediators of therapeutic strategy. Therefore, candidate therapeutics must be assessed in the context of multiple cell lines with known molecular phenotypes. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and curcumin (CCM) are dietary compounds known to antagonize breast cancer cell proliferation. We report that these compounds in combination exert a variable antiproliferative effect across multiple breast cell lines, which is synergistic in SK-BR-3 cells and triggers cell signaling events not predicted by the activity of either compound alone. Dose response curves for CCM and DHA were generated for five breast cell lines. Effects of the DHA+ CCM combination on cell proliferation were evaluated using varying concentrations, at a fixed ratio, of CCM and DHA based on their individual ED50. Detection of synergy was performed using nonlinear regression of a sigmoid dose response model and Combination Index approaches. Cell molecular network responses were investigated through whole genome microarray analysis of transcript level changes. Gene expression results were validated by RT-PCR, and western blot analysis was performed for potential signaling mediators. Cellular curcumin uptake, with and without DHA, was analyzed via flow cytometry and HPLC. CCM+DHA had an antiproliferative effect in SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-361, MCF7 and MCF10AT cells. The effect was synergistic for SK-BR-3 (ER- PR- Her2+) relative to the two compounds individually. A whole genome microarray approach was used to investigate changes in gene expression for the synergistic effects of CCM+DHA in SK-BR-3 cells lines. CCM+DHA triggered transcript-level responses, in disease-relevant functional categories, that were largely non-overlapping with changes caused by CCM or DHA individually. Genes involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, inhibition of metastasis, and cell adhesion were upregulated, whereas genes involved

  1. Multiple bonds to gold: a theoretical investigation of XAuC (X = F, Cl, Br, I) molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structures and spectroscopic properties are reported for the linear XAuC (X = F, Cl, Br, I) series of molecules and their related diatomic species at a high level of accuracy. The singles and doubles coupled cluster method including a perturbational correction for connected triple excitations, CCSD(T), with systematic sequences of new correlation consistent basis sets have been employed. Scalar relativistic effects have been accurately included by making use of relativistic effective core potentials. Extrapolation to the complete basis set limit has been used with accurate treatments of core-valence correlation and spin-orbit effects in order to accurately predict spectroscopic properties, as well as dissociation and atomization energies at 0 K of AuC, AuC+, AuF, AuCl, AuBr, AuI, and the XAuC molecules. The Au-C bond length in the FAuC molecule is predicted to be nearly identical to that calculated for AuC+, which makes it the shortest known for a neutral gold molecule. The Au-C and Au-F (0 K) bond dissociation energies in FAuC are predicted to be 92.5 and 93.1 kcal/mol, respectively, also making them some of the strongest known bonds to gold

  2. Assessment of optimal control mechanism complexity by experimental landscape Hessian analysis: fragmentation of CH2BrI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimally shaped femtosecond laser pulses can often be effectively identified in adaptive feedback quantum control experiments, but elucidating the underlying control mechanism can be a difficult task requiring significant additional analysis. We introduce landscape Hessian analysis (LHA) as a practical experimental tool to aid in elucidating control mechanism insights. This technique is applied to the dissociative ionization of CH2BrI using shaped fs laser pulses for optimization of the absolute yields of ionic fragments as well as their ratios for the competing processes of breaking the C–Br and C–I bonds. The experimental results suggest that these nominally complex problems can be reduced to a low-dimensional control space with insights into the control mechanisms. While the optimal yield for some fragments is dominated by a non-resonant intensity-driven process, the optimal generation of other fragments maa difficult task requiring significant additionaly be explained by a non-resonant process coupled to few level resonant dynamics. Theoretical analysis and modeling is consistent with the experimental observations. (paper)

  3. Determination of Br in blood of amateur runners using NAA and ITS correlation with adopted physical training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromine (Br) is one of the most abundant trace elements in the biosphere, in the human body is present in blood (as bromide), lungs, liver and hair. There is no evidence in humans of bromide concentration in any particular organ that might indicate a specific physiological function and not enough information is available on bromine metabolism but, some studies report its use by eosinophilic leukocytes for immune defense and electrolytic balance. In this study the Br levels were determined in Brazilian amateur athlete's blood that performing physical exercise at (Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio (LABEX/UNICAMP-Brazil). The samples were collected from twenty six male athletes, ranging from 18 to 26 years old, at rest. The blood samples were irradiated in the nuclear reactor (IEA-R1, 3-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/Sao Paulo - Brazil and were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA) technique. These results were compared with the control group (subjects of same age but not involved with physical activities). The range established at rest for amateur runner (0.0040 - 0.0096 gL-1) when compared with control group (0.0074 - 0.0306 gL-1) suggests that there is a dependency of these limits in the function of the adopted physical training. (author)

  4. Determination of Br in blood of amateur runners using NAA and ITS correlation with adopted physical training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, Luciana; Zamboni, Cibele B., E-mail: lukovacs@gmail.com, E-mail: czamboni@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nunes, Lazaro A.S.; Lourenco, Thiago F.; Macedo, Denise V., E-mail: lazaroalessandro@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: thiago_fl@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: denivevm@unicamp.br [Universidade de Campinas (LABEX/UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Bioquimica do Exercicio

    2013-07-01

    Bromine (Br) is one of the most abundant trace elements in the biosphere, in the human body is present in blood (as bromide), lungs, liver and hair. There is no evidence in humans of bromide concentration in any particular organ that might indicate a specific physiological function and not enough information is available on bromine metabolism but, some studies report its use by eosinophilic leukocytes for immune defense and electrolytic balance. In this study the Br levels were determined in Brazilian amateur athlete's blood that performing physical exercise at (Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio (LABEX/UNICAMP-Brazil). The samples were collected from twenty six male athletes, ranging from 18 to 26 years old, at rest. The blood samples were irradiated in the nuclear reactor (IEA-R1, 3-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/Sao Paulo - Brazil and were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA) technique. These results were compared with the control group (subjects of same age but not involved with physical activities). The range established at rest for amateur runner (0.0040 - 0.0096 gL{sup -1}) when compared with control group (0.0074 - 0.0306 gL{sup -1}) suggests that there is a dependency of these limits in the function of the adopted physical training. (author)

  5. Precision measurement of the ratio BR($K_{S} \\to \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}e^{+}e^{-}$)/BR($K_{L} \\to \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{0}_{D}$)

    CERN Document Server

    Batley, J R; Lazzeroni, C; Munday, D J; Patel, M; Slater, M W; Wotton, S A; Arcidiacono, R; Bocquet, G; Ceccucci, A; Cundy, D; Doble, N; Falaleev, V; Gatignon, L; Gonidec, A; Grafström, P; Kubischta, W; Marchetto, F; Mikulec, I; Norton, A; Panzer-Steindel, B; Rubin, P; Wahl, H; Goudzovski, E; Hristov, P; Kekelidze, V; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Madigozhin, D; Molokanova, N; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Stoynev, S; Zinchenko, A; Monnier, E; Swallow, E C; Winston, R; Sacco, R; Walker, A; Baldini, W; Dalpiaz, P; Frabetti, P L; Gianoli, A; Martini, M; Petrucci, F; Scarpa, M; Savrié, M; Bizzeti, A; Calvetti, M; Collazuol, E; Iacopini, E; Lenti, M; Ruggiero, G; Veltri, M; Behler, M; Eppard, K; Eppard, M; Hirstius, A; Kleinknecht, K; Koch, U; Marouelli, P; Masetti, L; Moosbrugger, U; Morales Morales, C; Peters, A; Wanke, R; Winhart, A; Dabrowski, A; Fonseca Martin, T; Szleper, M; Velasco, M; Anzivino, G; Cenci, P; Imbergamo, E; Lamanna, G; Lubrano, P; Michetti, A; Nappi, A; Pepe, M; Petrucci, M C; Piccini, M; Valdata, M; Cerri, C; Costantini, F; Fantechi, R; Fiorini, L; Giudici, S; Mannelli, I; Pierazzini, G; Sozzi, M; Cheshkov, C; Chèze, J B; De Beer, M; Debu, P; Gouge, G; Marel, G; Mazzucato, E; Peyaud, B; Vallage, B; Holder, M; Maier, A; Ziolkowski, M; Biino, C; Cartiglia, N; Clemencic, M; Goy Lopez, S; Menichetti, E; Pastrone, N; Wislicki, W; Dibon, H; Jeitler, M; Markytan, M; Neuhofer, G; Widhalm, L

    2011-01-01

    The $K_{S} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}e^{+}e^{-}$ decay mode was investigated using the data collected in 2002 by the NA48/1 collaboration. With about 23,k $K_{S} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}e^{+}e^{-}$ events and 59,k $K_{L} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{0}_{D}$ normalization decays, the $K_{S} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}e^{+}e^{-}$ branching ratio relative to the $K_{L}\\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{0}_{D}$ one was determined to be BR($K_{S} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}e^{+}e^{-}$)/BR($K_{L} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{0}_{D}$) = $ (3.28 \\pm 0.06_{stat}\\pm 0.04_{syst})\\times 10^{-2}$. This result was used to set the upper limit $|g_{E1}/g_{BR}| \\lt 3.0$ at $90%$ CL on the presence, in the decay amplitude, of an E1 direct emission ($g_{E1}$) term relative to the dominant inner bremsstrahlung ($g_{BR}$) term. The CP-violating asymmetry ${cal A}_{\\phi}$ in the sin$\\phi$,cos$\\phi$ distribution of $K_{S} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}e^{+}e^{-}$ events, where $\\phi$ is the angle between the $\\pi^{+} \\pi^{-}$ and the $...

  6. Measurement of BR(Bu to phi K)/BR(Bu to J/psi K) at the collider detector at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napora, Robert A

    2004-10-01

    This thesis presents evidence for the decay mode B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}} in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using (120 {+-} 7)pb{sup -1} of data collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). This signal is then used to measure the branching ratio relative to the decay mode B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup {+-}}. The measurement starts from reconstructing the two decay modes: B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}}, where {phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -} and B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup {+-}}, where J/{psi} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}. The measurement yielded 23 {+-} 7 B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}} events, and 406 {+-} 26 B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup {+-}} events. The fraction of B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup {+-}} events where the J/{psi} subsequently decayed to two muons (as opposed to two electrons) was found to be f{sub {mu}{mu}} = 0.839 {+-} 0.066. The relative branching ratio of the two decays is then calculated based on the equation: BR(B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}})/BR(B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup {+-}}) = N{sub {phi}K}/N{sub {psi}K} {center_dot}f{sub {mu}{mu}} BR(J/{psi} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -})/BR({phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}) {epsilon}{sub {mu}{mu}}K/{epsilon}KKK R({epsilon}{sub iso}). The measurement finds BR(B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}})/BR(B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup {+-}}) = 0.0068 {+-} 0.0021(stat.) {+-} 0.0007(syst.). The B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}} branching ratio is then found to be BR(B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}}) = [6.9 {+-} 2.1(stat.) {+-} 0.8(syst.)] x 10{sup -6}. This value is consistent with similar measurements reported by the e{sup +}e{sup -} collider experiments BaBar[1], Belle[2], and CLEO[3].

  7. Is truffle brûlé a case of perturbational niche construction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Bragato

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: in the context of niche construction theory, the investigation was aimed at assessing if truffle brûlé is a case of niche construction by testing if the disappearance of grasses in the brûlé induces a non-arbitrary perturbation in the soil physical environment and, in that case, which are the physical processes involved.Area of study: a natural truffle bed located in the Italian Apennines inside an experimental truffle-producing area of the University of Perugia.Material and methods: Three aggregate size classes in the soil of a brûlé and of the neighbouring grass-covered area were determined with the wet-sieving technique in accordance with international standards. In the first part of the investigation, the area was sampled according to a systematic sampling design and the spatial patterns of aggregate size classes in the brûlé and in the neighbouring grass-covered area were compared by means of geostatistics. In the second part, the suppression of grasses in the brûlé was mimicked in the laboratory by removing roots from a sample collected in the grass-covered area and the effect of freeze-thaw cycles was tested by comparing a control treatment to other four treatments consisting in sub-samples equilibrated at a water tension of -2.5, -5, -10 and -20 kPa. Samples were submitted to a number of freeze-thaw cycles equal to those recorded in the area, analysed for aggregate size distribution and compared with univariate ANOVA.Main results: The aggregate size classes larger than 0.25mm displayed a spatial pattern comparable to that of the brûlé, with sharp changes along the boundaries of the brûlé itself. The laboratory experiment showed that such changes are attributable to freeze-thaw cycles that in one winter season may produce a significant decrease in aggregate size compared to the grass-covered area. Both results indicate that the disappearance of grasses in the brûlé fulfils the requirement of perturbational

  8. La politique du terrain brûlé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Vienne

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available L’article entend évoquer à partir d’une ethnographie d’un « terrain miné » dans une école de relégation, quelques pièges ethnographiques et dilemmes éthiques du chercheur « pris » dans le réseau social qu’il étudie, comme l’indiquait Everett C. Hughes. Inséré par une observation participante dans des rôles d’enseignant remplaçant ou d’éducateur stagiaire au sein du personnel de cette école, le chercheur est amené à connaître les incidents que les élèves imposent au jeune membre du personnel pour le « tester », ainsi que les tensions et conflits au sein même du personnel. L’arrière-plan moral et psychologique de conditions d’observation basées sur la tension et la confrontation conduisent le chercheur à une « politique du terrain brûlé » examinée en comparaison d’expériences ethnographiques similaires.The paper, based on an ethnography of a « mined field » in a school of relegation, deals about some ethnographical traps and ethical dilemmas of the searcher « trapped » in the social network he’s studying, as Everett C. Hughes suggested. Put in the schoof staff in substitute teacher roles or trainee educator by a participant observation, the searcher is induced to know the incidents that the students impose to the young staff member to « test » him, so as the tensions and conflicts inside the staff. The moral and psychological background of observation conditions based on tension and confrontation lead the searcher to a kind of « scorched field policy » examined from similar fieldwork experiences.El objetivo de este articulo es el de resaltar, centrandose el autor en el estudio etnográfico de una escuela situada en una zona socialmente coflictiva, las dificultades de caracter etnográfico y los dilemas éticos que surgen ante el investigador implicado inevitablemente en el contexto social analizado, problemas ya señalados por Everett C. Hughes. Adoptando el m

  9. Atmospheric test of the J(BrONO2)/k(BrO+NO2) ratio: implications for total stratospheric Br-y and bromine-mediated ozone loss

    OpenAIRE

    Kreycy, S.; C. Camy-Peyret; Chipperfield, M. P.; Dorf, M.; Feng, W.; R. Hossaini; L. Kritten; Werner, B.; K. Pfeilsticker

    2013-01-01

    We report on time-dependent O3, NO2 and BrO profiles measured by limb observations of scattered skylight in the stratosphere over Kiruna (67.9° N, 22.1° E) on 7 and 8 September 2009 during the autumn circulation turn-over. The observations are complemented by simultaneous direct solar occultation measurements around sunset and sunrise performed aboard the same stratospheric balloon payload. Supporting radiative transfer and photochemical modelling...

  10. Pharmacological characterization of BR-A-657, a highly potent nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pharmacological profile of BR-A-657, 2-n-butyl-5-dimethylamino-thiocarbonyl-methyl-6-methyl-3 - {[2-(1H-tetrazole-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl} - pyrimidin-4(3H)-one, a new nonpeptide AT1-selective angiotensin receptor antagonist, has been investigated in a variety of in vitro and in vivo experimental models. In the present study, BR-A-657 displaced [125I][Sar1-Ile8]angiotensin II (Ang II) from its specific binding sites to AT1 subtype receptors in membrane fractions of HEK-293 cells with an IC50 of 0.16 nM. In a functional assay using isolated rabbit thoracic aorta, BR-A-657 inhibited the contractile response to Ang II (pD'2: 9.15) with a significant reduction in the maximum. In conscious rats, BR-A-657 (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg/kg; intravenously (i.v.)) dose-dependently antagonized Ang II-induced pressor responses. In addition, BR-A-657 dose-dependently decreased mean arterial pressure in furosemide-treated rats and renal hypertensive rats. Moreover, BR-A-657 given orally at 1 and 3 mg/kg reduced blood pressure in conscious renal hypertensive rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that BR-A-657 is a potent and specific antagonist of Ang II at the AT1 receptor subtype, and reveal the molecular basis responsible for the marked lowering of blood pressure in conscious rats. (author)

  11. Luminescent characteristic of the CsBr phosphor activated with Eu2+ and Mn2+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectra of excitation and emission were measured at RT and 15 K in crystals quenched (Q) of CsBr:Eu2+, CsBr:Mn2+ and CsBr:Eu2+,Mn2+. Emission bands at 444, 480, 520 and 570 nm with different relative intensities are generated in the samples after UV excitation. The blue band at 444 nm was ascribed with unknown clusters or aggregated centers (AC) of dipoles type Eu2+–VC− and insulated dipole centers (IDC) like Eu2+–O2−. The bands at 480, 520 and 570 nm were assigned to Cs4EuBr6 nanocrystals; AC containing MnBr42− units in tetrahedral symmetry and another yet unidentified AC defect, respectively. In crystals of CsBr:Eu2+,Mn2+ the excitation and emission spectra taken at 15 K show no clear evidence of an energy transfer mechanism. Instead, the results suggest that the emission is produced by direct excitation of the ions of Eu2+ and Mn2+. Accordingly, single- or double-doped CsBr crystals may contain the same type of defects, either AC and/or IDC. -- Highlights: • The PL consists of several overlapping bands in the entire visible region. • The emission bands were ascribed to dipoles, aggregated and nanocrystals of different nature. • No clear evidence of energy transfer, meaning Eu and Mn pairs are not formed. • The material shows potential characteristics for its use as LED to white emission

  12. Primary structure of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) ascorbate oxidase deduced from cDNA sequence: homology with blue copper proteins and tissue-specific expression.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohkawa, J; Okada, N; Shinmyo, A; Takano, M.

    1989-01-01

    cDNA clones for ascorbate oxidase were isolated from a cDNA library made from cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit mRNA. The library was screened with synthetic oligonucleotides that encode the NH2-terminal sequence of this enzyme. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the cloned cDNA inserts revealed a 1761-base-pair open reading frame that encoded an NH2-terminal signal peptide of 33 amino acids and a mature enzyme of 554 amino acids (Mr, 62,258). The amino acid sequence deduced from nucleotide seque...

  13. Concentrations of carbonyl sulfide and hydrogen cyanide in the free upper troposphere and lower stratosphere deduced from ATMOS/Spacelab 3 infrared solar occultation spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, R.; Rinsland, C. P.; Russell, J. M., III; Farmer, C. B.; Norton, R. H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results on the volume mixing ratio profiles of carbonyl sulfide and hydrogen cyanide, deduced from the spectroscopic analysis of IR solar absorption spectra obtained in the occultation mode with the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) instrument during its mission aboard Spacelab 3. A comparison of the ATMOS measurements for both northern and southern latitudes with previous field investigations at low midlatitudes shows a relatively good agreement. Southern Hemisphere volume mixing ratio profiles for both molecules were obtained for the first time, as were the profiles for the Northern Hemisphere covering the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere simultaneously.

  14. Nucleotide sequence of Phaseolus vulgaris L. alcohol dehydrogenase encoding cDNA and three-dimensional structure prediction of the deduced protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelia, Kassim; Khor, Chin Yin; Shah, Farida Habib; Bhore, Subhash J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are widely consumed as a source of proteins and natural products. However, its yield needs to be increased. In line with the agenda of Phaseomics (an international consortium), work of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) generation from bean pods was initiated. Altogether, 5972 ESTs have been isolated. Alcohol dehydrogenase (AD) encoding gene cDNA was a noticeable transcript among the generated ESTs. This AD is an important enzyme; therefore, to understand more about it this study was undertaken. Objective: The objective of this study was to elucidate P. vulgaris L. AD (PvAD) gene cDNA sequence and to predict the three-dimensional (3D) structure of deduced protein. Materials and Methods: positive and negative strands of the PvAD cDNA clone were sequenced using M13 forward and M13 reverse primers to elucidate the nucleotide sequence. Deduced PvAD cDNA and protein sequence was analyzed for their basic features using online bioinformatics tools. Sequence comparison was carried out using bl2seq program, and tree-view program was used to construct a phylogenetic tree. The secondary structures and 3D structure of PvAD protein were predicted by using the PHYRE automatic fold recognition server. Results: The sequencing results analysis showed that PvAD cDNA is 1294 bp in length. It's open reading frame encodes for a protein that contains 371 amino acids. Deduced protein sequence analysis showed the presence of putative substrate binding, catalytic Zn binding, and NAD binding sites. Results indicate that the predicted 3D structure of PvAD protein is analogous to the experimentally determined crystal structure of s-nitrosoglutathione reductase from an Arabidopsis species. Conclusions: The 1294 bp long PvAD cDNA encodes for 371 amino acid long protein that contains conserved domains required for biological functions of AD. The predicted deduced PvAD protein's 3D structure reflects the analogy with the crystal structure of

  15. Effect of the glacial rebound on elevation changes deduced from the ice core records in Greenland ice sheet

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    It is important to investigate the behavior of the Greenland ice sheet in Quaternary for elucidating the future sea-level rise due to glacial melting. In order to reconstruct the elevation changes of the Greenland ice sheet throughout the Holocene, δ18O data obtained from ice cores were recently used (Vinther et al., 2009). Vinther et al. (2009) also indicated that the Greenland ice sheet elevation changes inferred from ice core records show a significantly greater elevation reduction than th...

  16. The influence of nutrients on the relative distributions of brGDGTs and implications for the lacustrine paleothermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, S. E.; Russell, J. M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.

    2012-12-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are an increasingly important tool for paleotemperature reconstructions in marine, lacustrine, and other terrestrial environments. Numerous studies using environmental samples have demonstrated that the relative abundances of nine brGDGTs are correlated to both mean annual air temperature (MAAT) and pH. Studies of lacustrine brGDGT have also explored the influence of other, potentially confounding limnological variables, including water depth, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen, on the relative distributions of brGDGTs, and have suggested that these variables have minimal influence on the relative distributions of brGDGTs. However, no study to date has explored the influence of nutrient concentrations on the relative distributions of brGDGTs. Here we examine the influence of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP) of lake waters on the relative distributions of brGDGTs in 91 lakes in East Africa. We find that TN is not significantly correlated to the relative distribution of any of the nine brGDGTs (p > 0.05 for all), and TP is significantly, but weakly, correlated to brGDGTs I (r = 0.39, p analysis (PCA) and redundancy analysis (RDA) further demonstrate that TN has the smallest influence on the relative abundances of brGDGTs of all the environmental variables examined. TP shows a higher loading than TN on PCA and RDA axes 1 and 2, but its loading is smaller than all variables except TN. In both the RDA and PCA analyses, MAAT is the only environmental variable that significantly loads onto axis 1 and pH is the only variable that significantly loads onto axis 2. Moreover, MAAT explains the most variance in our brGDGT dataset, consistent with previous studies. The strong influence of MAAT, and weak influence of other environmental parameters, on the relative distribution of brGDGTs is encouraging for paleotemperature reconstructions using brGDGTs in lacustrine environments.

  17. Tropospheric BrO column densities in the Arctic derived from satellite: retrieval and comparison to ground-based measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sihler

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available During polar spring, halogen radicals like bromine monoxide (BrO play an important role in the chemistry of tropospheric ozone destruction. Satellite measurements of the BrO distribution have become a particularly useful tool to investigate this probably natural phenomenon, but the separation of stratospheric and tropospheric partial columns of BrO is challenging. In this study, an algorithm was developed to retrieve tropospheric vertical column densities of BrO from data of high-resolution spectroscopic satellite instruments such as the second Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2. Unlike recently published approaches, the presented algorithm is capable of separating the fraction of BrO in the activated troposphere from the total BrO column solely based on remotely measured properties. The presented algorithm furthermore allows to estimate a realistic measurement error of the tropospheric BrO column. The sensitivity of each satellite pixel to BrO in the boundary layer is quantified using the measured UV radiance and the column density of the oxygen collision complex O4. A comparison of the sensitivities with CALIPSO LIDAR observations demonstrates that clouds shielding near-surface trace-gas columns can be reliably detected even over ice and snow. Retrieved tropospheric BrO columns are then compared to ground-based BrO measurements from two Arctic field campaigns in the Amundsen Gulf and at Barrow in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Our algorithm was found to be capable of retrieving enhanced near-surface BrO during both campaigns in good agreement with ground-based data. Some differences between ground-based and satellite measurements observed at Barrow can be explained by both elevated and shallow surface layers of BrO. The observations strongly suggest that surface release processes are the dominating source of BrO and that boundary layer meteorology influences the vertical distribution.

  18. Performance tests of a large volume cerium tribromide (CeBr3) scintillation detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, A A; Khiari, F Z; Liadi, F A; Khateeb-Ur-Rehman; Isab, A A

    2016-08-01

    The response of a large cylindrical 76mm×76mm (height×diameter) cerium tribromide (CeBr3) detector was measured for prompt gamma rays. The total intrinsic activity of the CeBr3 detector, which was measured over 0.33-3.33MeV range, was found to be 0.022±0.001 counts/s/cm(3). The partial intrinsic activity ( due to (227)Ac contamination), was measured over a energy range of 1.22-2.20MeV energy, was found to be 0.007±0.001 counts/s/cm(3). Compared to intrinsic activities of LaBr3:Ce and LaCl3:Ce detectors of equivalent volume, the CeBr3 detector has 7-8 times less total intrinsic activity. The detector response for low energy prompt gamma rays was measured over 0.3-0.6MeVgamma energy range using a portable neutron generator-based Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) setup. The experimental yield of boron, cadmium and mercury prompt gamma-rays was measured from water samples contaminated with 0.75-2.5wt% mercury, 0.31-2.50wt% boron, and 0.0625-0.500wt% cadmium, respectively. An excellent agreement has been observed between the calculated and experimental yields of the gamma rays. Also minimum detection limit (MDC) of the CeBr3 detector was measured for boron, cadmium and mercury samples. The CeBr3 detector has 23% smaller value of MDCB and 18% larger value of MDCCd than those of a LaBr3:Ce detector of equivalent size. This study has shown that CeBr3 detector has an excellent response for the low energy prompt gamma-rays with almost an order of magnitude low intrinsic activity as compared to LaCl3:Ce and LaBr3:Ce detectors of equivalent volume. PMID:27180221

  19. Measurement of SO2 and BrO at Lastarria, Lascar, and Salar de Atacama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinger, Florian; Osorio, Matias; Gliß, Jonas; Lübcke, Peter; Bobrowski, Nicole; Platt, Ulich; Frins, Erna; Wagner, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    In November 2014 the 12th CCVG (Commission of the Chemistry of Volcanic Gases) gas workshop took place in Northern Chile. Subject of the field trips were Lastarria (25°10' S, 68°30' W) and Lascar (23°22' S, 67°43' W), both stratovolcanoes with a height of 5700 and 5600 a.s.l., respectively. One of the goals was to investigate the SO2 and BrO emissions of these volcanoes by remote-sensing using Multi-AXial Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS). The used 'mini MAX-DOAS' instrument measures scattered solar UV radiation recording spectra within a wavelength range of 294-437 nm and with a spectral resolution of 0.9 nm. The instrument took spectra sequentially at various elevation angles scanning the sky from horizon to zenith. The scanning geometry was adapted to each measurement location. At Lastarria volcano we observed SO2 slant column densities (SCDs) in the order of 1018 molecules/cm2 and BrO SCDs up to 5 - 1013 molecules/cm2. At Lascar volcano we observed SO2 SCDs up to 4 - 1017 molecules/cm2 but no significant BrO absorption features (in a preliminary evaluation). We will present SO2 fluxes and upper detection limits of BrO, and present maxima BrO/SO2 ratios of Lastarria and Lascar. Those ratios will be compared to BrO/SO2 ratios of other - previously studied - Andean volcanoes (e.g. Villarica). Furthermore, we measured the SO2 and BrO SCDs above the Salar de Atacama (23°30' S, 68°15' W), a salt pan with an area of 3000 km2. Spectra were taken in a direction where the Salar de Atacama has an extension of about 50 km and no other obvious emission sources were contributing to the SO2 and BrO absorption signals. At the Salar de Atacama we observed SO2 SCDs up to 2 - 1017 molecules/cm2 and BrO SCDs of up to 7 - 1013 molecules/cm2.

  20. Influence of LiBr on photoluminescence properties of porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimassi, W., E-mail: dimassi_inrst@yahoo.f [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie, Technopole de Borj-Cedria, BP 95 Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Haddadi, I.; Bousbih, R.; Slama, S.; Ali Kanzari, M.; Bouaicha, M.; Ezzaouia, H. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie, Technopole de Borj-Cedria, BP 95 Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2011-05-15

    A new method has been developed to improve the photoluminescence intensity of porous silicon (PS), which is first time that LiBr is used for passivation of PS. Immersion of the PS in a LiBr solution, followed by a thermal treatment at 100 {sup o}C for 30 min under nitrogen, leads to a nine fold increase in the intensity of the photoluminescence. The atomic force microscope (AFM) shows an increase of the nanoparticle dimension compared to the initial dimension of the PS nanostructure. The LiBr covers the nanoparticles of silicon without changing the wavelength distribution of the optical excitation and emission spectra. Moreover, a significant decrease of reflectivity was observed for the wavelength in the range of 350-500 nm. - Research highlights: {yields} A new method based on the use of LiBr was developed to enhance nine times the photoluminescence of porous silicon. {yields} The LiBr covers the silicon nanoparticles without changing in the optical excitation and emission spectra. {yields} We observed a significant decrease of the reflectivity in the 350-500 nm spectral range.