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Sample records for br deduced levels

  1. Comparison of selection methods to deduce natural background levels for groundwater units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen, J.; Passier, H.F.; Klein, J.

    2008-01-01

    Establishment of natural background levels (NBL) for groundwater is commonly performed to serve as reference when assessing the contamination status of groundwater units. We compare various selection methods to establish NBLs using groundwater quality data forfour hydrogeologically different areas i

  2. Relative sea level, deglaciation and tsunami history deduced from isolation basins

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Paper number 1 of the thesis is not available in Munin due to publisher's restrictions: 1. Romundset, A., Lohne, Ø.S., Mangerud, J. & Svendsen, J.I.: «The first Holocene relative sea-level curve from the middle part of Hardangerfjorden, western Norway», Boreas 39(2010), 87-104 (Wiley). Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1502-3885.2009.00108.x NORSK SAMANDRAG: Denne avhandlinga tek for seg endringane i relativt havnivå – strandforskyvinga – dei siste vel 11.500 åra på kysten ...

  3. An ab initio potential energy surface and vibrational energy levels of HXeBr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Guo Huang; En Cui Yang; Dai Qian Xie

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional global potential energy surface for the electronic ground state of HXeBr molecule is constructed from morethan 4200 ab initio points. These points are generated using an internally contracted multi-reference configuration interactionmethod with the Davidson correction (icMRCI + Q) and large basis sets. The stabilities and dissociation barriers are identified fromthe potential energy surfaces. The three-body dissociation channel is found to be the dominate dissociation channel for HXeBr.Based on the obtained potentials, low-lying vibrational energy levels of HXeBr calculated using the Lanczos algorithm is found tobe in good agreement with the available experimental band origins.2008 Zheng Guo Huang. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Level structure of 82Rb, studied through the 81Br(α, 3n) reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, M.; Filevich, A.; Bermudez, G. García; Mariscotti, M. A. J.; Szybisz, L.

    1980-03-01

    Nuclear states of 82Rb were studied through the 81Br(α, 3n) reaction at various bombarding energies between 30 and 55 MeV. Excitation functions, γ-ray angular distributions, γ-γ coincidences and γ-time distributions with respect to the beam bursts were determined. Levels at 123.2, 187.7, 233.6, 796.3, 1214.1 keV and tentatively at 1835.5 keV were observed. It was not possible to establish whether the lowest state of the proposed level scheme corresponds to the ground state or to the T {1}/{2} = 6.2 h isomeric state. The 45.9 and 64.5 keV γ-rays do not exhibit any measurable lifetime and a limit T {1}/{2} ≦ 5 ns has been determined. The situation is similar for the 123.2 keV γ-ray, although in this case the presence of a long-lived component cannot be ruled out.

  5. Energy levels, radiative rates and lifetimes for transitions in Br-like ions with 38 $\\le$ Z $\\le$ 42

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, K M

    2014-01-01

    Energy levels and radiative rates for transitions in five Br-like ions (Sr IV, Y V, Zr VI, Nb VII and Mo VIII) are calculated with the general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package ({\\sc grasp}). Extensive configuration interaction has been included and results are presented among the lowest 31 levels of the 4s$^2$4p$^5$, 4s$^2$4p$^4$4d and 4s4p$^6$ configurations. Lifetimes for these levels have also been determined, although unfortunately no measurements are available with which to compare. However, recently theoretical results have been reported by Singh {\\em et al} [Phys. Scr. {\\bf 88} (2013) 035301] using the same {\\sc grasp} code. But their reported data for radiative rates and lifetimes cannot be reproduced and show discrepancies of up to five orders of magnitude with the present calculations.

  6. Late Weichselian and Holocene relative sea-level history of Bräggerhalväya, Spitsbergen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Steven L.; Mann, Daniel H.; Miller, Gifford H.

    1987-01-01

    Radiocarbon-dated whalebones from raised beaches record a relative sea-level history for Bröggerhalvöya, western Spitsbergen that suggest a two-step deglaciation on Svalbard at the end of the late Weichselian glaciation. The late Weichselian marine limit was reached at about 13,000 yr B.P. and was followed by relatively slow emergence until about 10,000 yr B.P. either in response to ice unloading in the Barents Sea, initial retreat of local fjord glaciers, or some combination of the two. Rare whale skeletons dating between 13,000 and 10,000 yr B.P. indicate that the Norwegian Sea was at least seasonally ice free during that interval. Deglaciation of Spitsbergen is recorded by the rapid emergence of Bröggerhalvöya after 10,000 yr B.P. This was followed by a transgression during the mid-Holocene, here named the Talavera Transgression, and another in modern times. Raised beach morphologies suggest striking differences in nearshore depositional processes before and after 10,000 yr B.P. that are probably related to changes in the rate of uplift and in sea-ice conditions.

  7. Detection efficiency of low levels of boron and cadmium with a LaBr{sub 3}:Ce scintillation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A., E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Anezi, M.S. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Kalakada, Zameer [Department of Civil Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Isab, A.A. [Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Raashid, M.; Al Matouq, Faris Ahmed; Khateeb-ur-Rehman; Khiari, F.Z.; Garwan, M.A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Amoudi, O.S.B. [Department of Civil Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Maslehuddin, M. [Center for Engineering Research, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-02-11

    The response of a cylindrical 3 in. Multiplication-Sign 3 in. (height Multiplication-Sign diameter) LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detector was measured for low energy prompt gamma-rays from boron and cadmium contaminated water samples using a newly designed portable neutron generator-based Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) setup. Prompt gamma-rays were measured from water samples contaminated with 0.031, 0.125, 0.250 and 0.5 wt% boron and 0.0625, 0.125, 0.250 and 0.500 wt% cadmium. The experimental yield of boron and cadmium prompt gamma-rays measured with the LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detector based PGNAA setup were compared with the results of Monte Carlo calculations. An excellent agreement between the experimental and calculated yields of 478 keV gamma-ray from boron and 558 keV gamma-rays from cadmium from boron and cadmium contaminated water samples, indicate an excellent response of the LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detector for the low energy prompt gamma-rays.

  8. Determination of ultra-trace levels of priority PBDEs in water samples by isotope dilution GC(ECNI)MS using {sup 81}Br-labelled standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Gago, Adriana; Marchante-Gayon, Juan Manuel; Garcia Alonso, J.I. [University of Oviedo, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Oviedo (Spain); Brandsma, Sicco H.; Leonards, Pim E.G.; Boer, Jacob de [VU University, Institute for Environmental Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    A gas chromatography electron capture negative ionization mass spectrometry (GC(ECNI)MS) procedure for the determination of priority polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs; congeners 28, 47, 99, 100, 153 and 154) in water samples at regulatory EU levels has been developed. The method is based on the use of {sup 81}Br-labelled PBDEs for isotope dilution analysis and the measurement of {sup 79}Br/{sup 81}Br isotope ratios in gas chromatography peaks with the electron capture negative ionization technique. The suitability of this ion source for the precise and accurate measurement of bromine isotope ratios has been demonstrated. The general ECNI-IDMS procedure was evaluated by the analysis of NIST SRM 1947 (Lake Michigan fish tissue) with satisfactory results. For the analysis of water samples, 500 mL of the samples were spiked with the labelled PBDEs and extracted with 10 mL isooctane for 30 min. The extract was evaporated down to ca. 100 {mu}L and injected in the GC(ECNI)MS. Detection limits ranged from 0.014 {sup -1} to 0.089 pg mL{sup -1} depending on the congener. Recoveries from real water samples, spiked at a level of 0.5 pg mL{sup -1}, ranged from 77% to 102%. (orig.)

  9. On the influence of neutral turbulence on ambipolar diffusivities deduced from meteor trail expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Hall

    Full Text Available By measuring fading times of radar echoes from underdense meteor trails, it is possible to deduce the ambipolar diffusivities of the ions responsible for these radar echoes. It could be anticipated that these diffusivities increase monotonically with height akin to neutral viscosity. In practice, this is not always the case. Here, we investigate the capability of neutral turbulence to affect the meteor trail diffusion rate.<br>>Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; turbulence

  10. New approach to the fast screening of plant oil samples for F-, Cl-, Br- and S-organic compounds on the trace level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivarzin, M E; Revelsky, I A; Nikoshina, A V; Buldyzkova, A N; Chepeliansky, D A; Revelsky, A I; Buriak, A K

    2016-04-01

    The fast method of the simultaneous determination of F(-), Cl(-), Br(-) and SO4(2-) anions in the deionized water on the trace level by ion chromatography using thorough cleaning of respective water containers, 10 μM NaHCO3 water solution as eluent, short Metrohm (50 × 4 mm) separation column and a large water volume injection is proposed. Calculated detection limits are 10(-9)-10(-8)% depending on the element. The method for the fast screening of plant oil samples for the total fluorine-, chlorine-, bromine- and sulfur-organic compounds content (calculated for the respective elements) on the trace level is developed. It is based on the high temperature combustion of oil sample in oxygen flow, absorption of the conversion products in deionized water and whole absorbate volume analysis for F(-), Cl(-), Br(-) and SO4(2-) anions, corresponding to the respective elements, using the developed method of these anions analysis by ion chromatography. The samples of soya, olive, sunflower and cotton seed oil were analyzed. The method detection limits (for 1mg sample) were 2 × 10(-6)%, 2 × 10(-6)%, 5 × 10(-6)% and 5 × 10(-6)% for fluorine, chlorine, bromine and sulfur, respectively. The relative standard deviation was ≤ 15%. The method gives the compressed information about the total content of all target and nontarget fluorine-, chlorine-, bromine- and sulfur-organic compounds in plant oils.

  11. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2001-04-01

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is still one of SCK-CEN's important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. During the last three years, the availability of the installation was maintained at an average level of 97.6 percent. In the year 2000, the reactor was operated for a total of 104 days at a mean power of 56 MW. In 2000, most irradiation experiments were performed in the CALLISTO PWR loop. The report describes irradiations achieved or under preparation in 2000, including the development of advanced facilities and concept studies for new programmes. An overview of the scientific irradiation programmes as well as of the R and D programme of the BR2 reactor in 2000 is given.

  12. High-resolution infrared spectroscopy of the interacting v9, v5 + v6 and 3v6 levels of CH279BrF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visinoni, R.; Baldacci, A.; Larsen, R. Wugt

    2011-01-01

    The high-resolution (0.0030 cm(-1)) Fourier transform infrared spectrum of (CH2BrF)-Br-79 has been studied in part of the atmospheric window between 910 and 980 cm(-1), the region of the v(9) (935.847 cm(-1)) and V-5 + v(6) (961.239 cm(-1)) bands. The v9 fundamental consists of a pseudo a-type band...

  13. Efeito da germinação de soja CV. BR-13 e Paraná sobre ácido fítico, fósforo total e inibidores de tripsina Germination effect of soybean CV. BR-13 and Paraná on phitic acid, total P and trypsin inhibitors levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lucia Luiz Ribeiro

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da germinação sobre os constituintes antinutricionais da soja, ácido fítico, P total e inibidores de tripsina, que interferem na utilização de proteínas e outras substâncias. A diminuição no aproveitamento de nutrientes resulta em inibição de crescimento, hipoglicemia ou danos a tecidos animais. Para os ensaios foram utilizadas as cultivares de soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill BR-13 e Paraná. As sementes foram incubadas em câmara de germinação a 25°C e 100% de umidade, de 0 a 72 horas, com coleta de amostras em intervalos eqüidistantes de seis horas. A cultivar Paraná apresentou teores superiores de ácido fítico, P total e inibidores de tripsina, em relação à cultivar BR-13. As análises de variância e comparações entre médias indicaram que houve aumentos significativos (p The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of germination on the antinutritional constituents of soybean, phytic acid, total P and trypsin inhibitors that interfere with the utilization of proteins and other substances. The decrease of the nutrient utilization results in growth inhibition, hypoglycemia or damage to animal tissues. Seeds of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill cultivars BR-13 and Paraná were incubated in germination chamber at 25°C and 100% of humidity, from 0 to 72 hours, and samples were collected in intervals of six hours. The Paraná cultivar presented higher amount of phytic acid, total phosphorus and trypsin inhibitors, than the BR-13 cultivar. The analysis of variance and comparison among the means indicated that, in 72 hours of germination, there was a significant increase (p<0.05 on the amount of total phosphorus (8.5% and 3.6% for BR-13 and Paraná cultivars, respectively and on the level of trypsin inhibitors (22.05% and 17.10% for BR-13 and Paraná cultivars, respectively while the amount of phytic acid decreased 15.96% and 9.46% for BR-13 and Paraná cultivars

  14. NY-BR-1 protein expression in breast carcinoma: a mammary gland differentiation antigen as target for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurillat, Jean-Philippe; Zürrer-Härdi, Ursina; Varga, Zsuzsanna; Storz, Martina; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Seifert, Burkhardt; Fehr, Mathias K; Fink, Daniel; Ferrone, Soldano; Pestalozzi, Bernhard; Jungbluth, Achim A; Chen, Yao-Tseng; Jäger, Dirk; Knuth, Alexander; Moch, Holger

    2007-11-01

    NY-BR-1 is a recently identified differentiation antigen of the mammary gland. To use NY-BR-1 for T-cell-based immunotherapy, analysis of its co-expression with HLA class I antigens is required. In the present tissue microarray study, primary breast cancers (n = 1,444), recurrences (n = 88), lymph node (n = 525) and distant metastases (n = 91) were studied for NY-BR-1 expression using a novel monoclonal antibody. NY-BR-1 expression was compared with prognosis, estrogen receptor, HER2-status, EGFR and HLA class I antigen expression. NY-BR-1 was more frequently expressed in grade 1 (82%) than in grade 2 (69%) and grade 3 (46%) carcinomas (P < 0.0001). Moreover, NY-BR-1 expression correlated directly with estrogen receptor expression (P < 0.0001) and inversely correlated with HER2-status and EGFR expression (P < 0.0001 for both). Considering high expression level of co-expression, 198/1,321 (15%) primary breast carcinomas and 4/65 (6%) distant metastases expressed NY-BR-1 and HLA class I, suggesting that active immunotherapy can be applied to about 10% of breast cancer patients. Survival analysis showed an association of NY-BR-1 expression with better patient outcome (P = 0.015). No difference between NY-BR-1 expression of primary tumors and metastases could be found, indicating that the presence of NY-BR-1 in metastases can be deduced from their corresponding primary. Forty-three paired biopsies taken from patients before and after chemotherapy suggest that NY-BR-1 expression is not influenced by preceding chemotherapy (kappa = 0.89, P < 0.0001). In summary, the co-expression of NY-BR-1 with HLA class I antigens and its expression in metastases without modification by chemotherapy suggest that NY-BR-1 targeted immunotherapy represents a viable strategy in addition to other targeted cancer drug therapies of breast cancer.

  15. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Reveals Disordered Level-Crossing Physics in the Bose-Glass Regime of the Br-Doped Ni(Cl_{1-x}Br_{x})_{2}-4SC(NH_{2})_{2} Compound at a High Magnetic Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Anna; Blinder, Rémi; Kermarrec, Edwin; Dupont, Maxime; Laflorencie, Nicolas; Capponi, Sylvain; Mayaffre, Hadrien; Berthier, Claude; Paduan-Filho, Armando; Horvatić, Mladen

    2017-02-10

    By measuring the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) T_{1}^{-1} relaxation rate in the Br (bond) doped DTN compound, Ni(Cl_{1-x}Br_{x})_{2}-4SC(NH_{2})_{2}(DTNX), we show that the low-energy spin dynamics of its high magnetic field "Bose-glass" regime is dominated by a strong peak of spin fluctuations found at the nearly doping-independent position H^{*}≅13.6  T. From its temperature and field dependence, we conclude that this corresponds to a level crossing of the energy levels related to the doping-induced impurity states. Observation of the local NMR signal from the spin adjacent to the doped Br allowed us to fully characterize this impurity state. We have thus quantified a microscopic theoretical model that paves the way to better understanding of the Bose-glass physics in DTNX, as revealed in the related theoretical study [M. Dupont, S. Capponi, and N. Laflorencie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 067204 (2017).PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.118.067204].

  16. The BR eigenvalue algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Div.; Howell, G.W. [Florida Inst. of Tech., Melbourne, FL (United States). Dept. of Applied Mathematics; Watkins, D.S. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Pure and Applied Mathematics

    1997-11-01

    The BR algorithm, a new method for calculating the eigenvalues of an upper Hessenberg matrix, is introduced. It is a bulge-chasing algorithm like the QR algorithm, but, unlike the QR algorithm, it is well adapted to computing the eigenvalues of the narrowband, nearly tridiagonal matrices generated by the look-ahead Lanczos process. This paper describes the BR algorithm and gives numerical evidence that it works well in conjunction with the Lanczos process. On the biggest problems run so far, the BR algorithm beats the QR algorithm by a factor of 30--60 in computing time and a factor of over 100 in matrix storage space.

  17. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna Mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coast of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Saiki, Mitiki; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: danyseo@uol.com.br, E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.br, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: mgcatharino@uol.com.br, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sousa, Eduinetty C.P.M. de, E-mail: edvinett@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IO/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico. Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia Marinha e Microfitobentos

    2013-07-01

    In this study the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V was evaluated in samples of Perna perna mussels collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos) subjected to anthropogenic contamination, to compare these values with those of mussels from reference site of Cocanha Beach (in Caraguatatuba). The mussels were collected seasonally from September 2008 to July 2009. They were cleaned, ground, homogenized, lyophilized and then analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The INAA procedure consisted in the irradiation of the samples and synthetic elemental standards for 8 and 10 s, under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. For quality control of analytical results, certified reference materials NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue and NIST 2876 Mussel Tissue were analyzed and their results indicated good accuracy. The ranges of concentrations (dry basis) of the elements obtained in mussels collected for the four seasons of the year were: 173.80 to 358.99 mg kg{sup -1} for Br; 45658 ± 1811 to 109166 ± 824 mg kg{sup -1} for Cl; 7043 ± 856 to 12506 ± 675 mg kg{sup -1} for K; 2774 ± 211 to 5691 ± 717 mg kg{sup -1} for Mg; 7.01 ± 0.30 to 29.74 ± 3.32 mg kg{sup -1} for Mn and 0.77 ± 0.02 to 3.43 ± 0.28 mg kg{sup -1} for V. The seasonal and spatial variations of these element concentrations were in this study. (author)

  18. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Reveals Disordered Level-Crossing Physics in the Bose-Glass Regime of the Br-Doped Ni (Cl1 -xBrx )2-4 SC (NH2 )2 Compound at a High Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Anna; Blinder, Rémi; Kermarrec, Edwin; Dupont, Maxime; Laflorencie, Nicolas; Capponi, Sylvain; Mayaffre, Hadrien; Berthier, Claude; Paduan-Filho, Armando; Horvatić, Mladen

    2017-02-01

    By measuring the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) T1-1 relaxation rate in the Br (bond) doped DTN compound, Ni (Cl1 -xBrx )2-4 SC (NH2 )2(DTN X ) , we show that the low-energy spin dynamics of its high magnetic field "Bose-glass" regime is dominated by a strong peak of spin fluctuations found at the nearly doping-independent position H*≅13.6 T . From its temperature and field dependence, we conclude that this corresponds to a level crossing of the energy levels related to the doping-induced impurity states. Observation of the local NMR signal from the spin adjacent to the doped Br allowed us to fully characterize this impurity state. We have thus quantified a microscopic theoretical model that paves the way to better understanding of the Bose-glass physics in DTN X , as revealed in the related theoretical study [M. Dupont, S. Capponi, and N. Laflorencie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 067204 (2017)., 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.067204].

  19. A Possible Reaction Channel from BrONO to BrNO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A possible isomerization channel from BrONO (bromine nitrite) to BrNO2 (nitryl bromide) is predicted by means of MP2 and QCISD(T) (single-point) methods. The channel is a direct bromine abstraction reaction from BrONO molecule by NO2 in which the forward reaction barrier is 89.30 kJ/mol at final UQCISD(T)/6-311+G(2df)//UMP2/6-311G(d) level of theory with zero-point energies included. The result can explain the available experiments very well.

  20. High temporal resolution Br2, BrCl and BrO observations in coastal Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. von Glasow

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available There are few observations of speciated inorganic bromine in polar regions against which to test current theory. Here we report the first high temporal resolution measurements of Br2, BrCl and BrO in coastal Antarctica, made at Halley during spring 2007 using a Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometer (CIMS. We find indications for an artefact in daytime BrCl measurements arising from conversion of HOBr, similar to that already identified for observations of Br2 made using a similar CIMS method. Using the MISTRA model, we estimate that the artefact represents a conversion of HOBr to Br2 of the order of several tens of percent, while that for HOBr to BrCl is less but non-negligible. If the artefact is indeed due to HOBr conversion, then nighttime observations were unaffected. It also appears that all daytime BrO observations were artefact-free. Mixing ratios of BrO, Br2 and BrCl ranged from instrumental detection limits to 13 pptv (daytime, 45 pptv (nighttime, and 6 pptv (nighttime, respectively. We see considerable variability in the Br2 and BrCl observations over the measurement period which is strongly linked to the prevailing meteorology, and thus air mass origin. Higher mixing ratios of these species were generally observed when air had passed over the sea-ice zone prior to arrival at Halley, than from over the continent. Variation in the diurnal structure of BrO is linked to previous model work where differences in the photolysis spectra of Br2 and O3 is suggested to lead to a BrO maximum at sunrise and sunset, rather than a noon-time maxima. This suite of Antarctic data provides the first analogue to similar measurements made in the Arctic, and of note is that our maximum measured BrCl (nighttime is less than half of the maximum measured during a similar period (spring-time in the Arctic (also nighttime. This difference in maximum measured BrCl may also be the cause of a difference in the Br2 : BrCl ratio between the Arctic and Antarctic. An

  1. Applying generalized non deducibility on compositions (GNDC) approach in dependability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnesi, Stefania; Lenzini, Gabriele; Martinelli, Fabio

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a framework where dependable systems can be uniformly modeled and dependable properties analyzed within the Generalized Non Deducibility on Compositions (GNDC), a scheme that has been profitably used in definition and analysis of security properties. Precisely, our framework requ

  2. Phase Diagram of the System KCI-CsBr-CaBr2%KCI-CsBr-CaBr2相图的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包新华; 陈华莉; 陆文聪; 阎立诚

    2001-01-01

    A computer prediction for the regularities of formation of binary bromide system was made. The results indicate that CsBr-CaBr2 molten salt system is binary complex compound-forming system. The phase diagram of CsBr-CaBr2 system has been determined by visual polythermal method in order to prove the prediction. The phase diagrams of the quasibinary system KCl-CsBr, KC1-CaBr2 and the quasiternary system CsBr-CaBr2-KC1 were determined by using visual polythermal method. The phase diagrams of CsBr-CaBr2 and KCl-CaBr2 show that the intermediate compound is formed. The results are in agreement with the computer prediction. Here, the various parts of the phase diagram of the quasiternary system CsBr-CaBr2-KCl were discussed.

  3. Phase Diagram of the System KCI-CsBr-CaBr2%KCI-CsBr-CaBr2相图的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包新华; 陈华莉; 陆文聪; 阎立诚

    2000-01-01

    A computer prediction for the regularities of formation of binary bromide system was made. The results indicate that CsBr-CaBr2 molten salt system is binary complex compound-forming system. The phase diagram of CsBr-CaBr2 system has been determined by visual polythermal method in order to prove the prediction. The phase diagrams of the quasibinary system KCl-CsBr, KC1-CaBr2 and the quasiternary system CsBr-CaBr2-KC1 were determined by using visual polythermal method. The phase diagrams of CsBr-CaBr2 and KCl-CaBr2 show that the intermediate compound is formed. The results are in agreement with the computer prediction. Here, the various parts of the phase diagram of the quasiternary system CsBr-CaBr2-KCl were discussed.

  4. A new evolutionary theory deduced mathematically from entropy amplification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new evolutionary theory which is able to unite the present evolutionary debates is deduced mathematically from the principle of entropy amplification.It suggests that the extensive evolution is driven by the amplification of entropy,or microscopic diversity,and the biological evolution is driven by the amplification of biodiversity.Forming high hierarchies is the most important way for the amplification and brings out spontaneously three kinds of selection.This theory has some positive cultural meanings.

  5. Photon strength function deduced from photon scattering and neutron capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matic A.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The dipole strength function of 78Se and 196Pt are investigated by two different experimental methods, capture of cold neutrons in 77Se and 195Pt and photon scattering experiments on 78Se and 196Pt. Considering the different ways of excitation, the strength function deduced from the results are expected to agree. The report shows the status of the data analysis and presents first preliminary results.

  6. Nonadiabatic photofragmentation dynamics of BrCN{sup −}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opoku-Agyeman, Bernice; McCoy, Anne B., E-mail: mccoy@chemistry.ohio-state.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Case, Amanda S.; Lehman, Julia H.; Lineberger, W. Carl, E-mail: wcl@jila.colorado.edu [JILA and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2014-08-28

    The photofragmentation dynamics of BrCN{sup −} in the 270–355 nm and the 430–600 nm wavelength regions is explored both experimentally and theoretically. In the case of excitation between 430 nm and 600 nm, it is found that the molecular ion accesses two dissociation channels with a measured 60:40 branching ratio that is nearly constant over this range of photon energies. The dominant product channel corresponds to Br{sup −} + CN, while the second channel correlates to spin-orbit excited Br{sup *} with CN{sup −}. A larger wavelength dependence of the branching ratio is observed at shorter wavelengths, where the fraction of Br{sup −} based products ranges from 80% to 95% at 355 nm and 270 nm, respectively. These branching ratios are reproduced and the mechanisms are explored by quantum dynamics calculations based on ground and excited state potential energy surfaces for BrCN{sup −}, evaluated at the SO-MRCISD level of theory. It is found that the electronic states that correlate to the two observed product channels are coupled through the spin-orbit terms in the electronic Hamiltonian. The strength of this coupling displays a strong dependence on the Br-CN angle. Specifically, after promotion to the excited state that is energetically accessible with 430–600 nm photons, it is found that when the wave packet accesses Br-CN separations of between 4 Å and 6 Å, predominantly the Br{sup −} + CN products are formed when the Br-CN angle is smaller than 120°. For larger values of the Br-CN angle, the Br{sup *} + CN{sup −} channel dominates. At the shorter wavelength excitation, the dynamics is complicated by a pair of states that correlate to electronically excited CN{sup *} + Br{sup −} products that borrow oscillator strength from the bright state, leading to an increase in the amount of Br{sup −} relative to CN{sup −}. The implications of these findings are discussed and compared to the experimentally measured product branching ratios for the

  7. Identification of Yellow Pigmentation Genes in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis Using Br300 Microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jeong Jung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The yellow color of inner leaves in Chinese cabbage depends on its lutein and carotene content. To identify responsible genes for yellow pigmentation in leaves, the transcriptome profiles of white (Kenshin and yellow leaves (Wheessen were examined using the Br300K oligomeric chip in Chinese cabbage. In yellow leaves, genes involved in carotene synthesis (BrPSY, BrPDS, BrCRTISO, and BrLCYE, lutein, and zeaxanthin synthesis (BrCYP97A3 and BrHYDB were upregulated, while those associated with carotene degradation (BrNCED3, BrNCED4, and BrNCED6 were downregulated. These expression patterns might support that the content of both lutein and total carotenoid was much higher in the yellow leaves than that in the white leaves. These results indicate that the yellow leaves accumulate high levels of both lutein and β-carotene due to stimulation of synthesis and that the degradation rate is inhibited. A large number of responsible genes as novel genes were specifically expressed in yellow inner leaves, suggesting the possible involvement in pigment synthesis. Finally, we identified three transcription factors (BrA20/AN1-like, BrBIM1, and BrZFP8 that are specifically expressed and confirmed their relatedness in carotenoid synthesis from Arabidopsis plants.

  8. [Effect of mouse genotype on the hematopoietic stem cell count. II. The number of hematopietic stem cells in BALB/c and CC57BR strain mice differing by the level of endogenous colony formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, V A

    1979-01-01

    The number of stem hematopoietic cells in the hematopoietic organs of mice of BALB/c and CC57BR strains and (CC57BRXBALB/c)F1 hybrids was studied by the method of exogenous colony-forming units. The assay of migration of stem cells from the bone marrow to the spleen was carried out. It was found that the spleen and the bone marrow of mice of the studied genotypes contain approximately the same relative number of hematopoietic stem cells. The number of stem cells which migrate from the bone marrow to the spleen is greater in the mice of BALB/c strain than in the CC57BR mice.

  9. Cloning and Characterization of a Pectin Methylesterase Gene BrPME1 in Chinese Cabbage%大白菜果胶甲酯酶基因BrPME1的克隆及特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志勇; 李承彧; 叶雪凌; 王晓霞; 冯辉

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] This paper aims at cloning a pectin methylesterase gene in order to provide assistance to study the roles of the pectin metabolism in the fertility regulation of Chinese cabbage. [Method] Analysis of gene differential expression was performed by cDNA-AFLP in the genic male sterile line 'AB02'of Chinese cabbage, and a differentially expressed cDNA fragment,TDF-24, was found only in fertile plants. The full-length cDNA of the gene related to TDF-24 was amplified by RACE and RT-PCR,and the characteristics of the deduced protein were analyzed using bioinformatics softwares. Gene expression characteristics were proved by Real-time PCR [Result] The novel pectin methylesterase (PME, EC 3.1.1.11) cDNA(BrPME1, GenBank accession number HM 185497), was isolated from Chinese cabbage. The cDNA was 1 290 bp long, encoding a putative preprotein of 363 amino acids with a signal peptide of 23 amino acids, which contains ten phosphorylation sites, six N-myristoylation site, one amidation site and one conserved PME domain, but no PMEI (pectin methylesterase inhibitor) site. BrPME1 was highly expressed in big flower buds and mature anthers of fertile plants, with an extremely low expression level in sterile buds. [ Conclusion ] The results indicated that BrPME1 is a member of the PME gene family inhibited by genic male sterile gene in Chinese cabbage.%[目的]克隆大白菜果胶甲酯酶基因,为进一步探讨果胶代谢在大白菜育性调控中的分子机制提供帮助.[方法]利用cDNA-AFLP技术分析大白菜核雄性不育两用系'AB02'可育株(msms)和不育株(Msms)花蕾的基因表达谱,在可育株混合花蕾cDNA中扩增出1条特异条带TDF-24,通过RACE技术扩增该基因的cDNA全长序列,采用生物信息学软件分析所克隆基因的编码蛋白特性,利用荧光定量PCR技术分析基因时空表达模式.[结果]该基因编码大白菜果胶甲酯酶(EC 3.1.1.11),被命名为BrPME1(GenBank登录号:HM185497).BrPME1

  10. The CsBr-AlBr3 Phase Diagram and The Crystal Structure of CsAlBr4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    1997-01-01

    The phase diagram in the CsBr-AlBr3 system has been reinvestigated. An adjusted liquidus diagram is given, showing the compound CsAlBr4 which melts congruently at 360 oC. The lack of consistency among previous results is presumably due to the presence of oxide impurities formed by attack of bromide...

  11. Stig Brøgger's Artists' Books

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania; Hvis Kromann, Thomas

    Introduction and presentation of the many artist's books made by the Danish artist Stig Brøgger......Introduction and presentation of the many artist's books made by the Danish artist Stig Brøgger...

  12. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos teores de Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn e V em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) coletados no litoral do estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele

    2012-07-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in Sao Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 37'S - 45 Degree-Sign 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 57'S - 46 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms

  13. Nutrient/serum starvation derived TRIP-Br3 down-regulation accelerates apoptosis by destabilizing XIAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soonduck; Jeong, Dongjun; Yang, Young; Kim, Keun-Il; Lim, Jong-Seok; Cheon, Chung-Il; Kim, Changjin; Kang, Young-Sook; Lee, Myeong-Sok

    2015-01-01

    TRIP-Br3 and TRIP-Br1 have shown to have important biological functions. However, the function of TRIP-Br3 in tumorigenesis is not well characterized compared to oncogenic TRIP-Br1. Here, we investigated the function of TRIP-Br3 in tumorigenesis by comparing with that of TRIP-Br1. Under nutrient/serum starvation, TRIP-Br3 expression was down-regulated slightly in cancer cells and significantly in normal cells. Unexpectedly, TRIP-Br1 expression was greatly up-regulated in cancer cells but not in normal cells. Moreover, TRIP-Br3 activated autophagy while TRIP-Br1 inactivated it under serum starvation. In spite of different expression and roles of TRIP-Br3 and TRIP-Br1, both of them alleviate cell death by directly binding to and stabilizing XIAP, a potent apoptosis inhibitor, through blocking its ubiquitination. Taken together, we propose that TRIP-Br3 primarily activates the autophagy and suppresses apoptosis in nutrient sufficient condition. However, the prolonged extreme stressful condition of nutrient starvation causes a dramatic decrease of TRIP-Br3, which in turn induces apoptosis by destabilizing XIAP. Up-regulated TRIP-Br1 in cancer cells compensates this effect and delays apoptosis. This can be explained by the competitive alternative binding of TRIP-Br3 and TRIP-Br1 to the BIR2 domain of XIAP. In an extended study, our immunohistochemical analysis revealed a markedly lower level of TRIP-Br3 protein in human carcinoma tissues compared to normal epithelial tissues, implying the role of TRIP-Br3 as a tumor suppressor rather than onco-protein. PMID:25691055

  14. Asteroid Sufaces/Regoliths Deduced by Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, S.

    Resolved imagery on a small number of asteroids provides information about the size, density and surface relief from which inferences may be made regarding their regoliths; Eros Eros is the best studied asteroid in this regard However, remote sensing is necessary to deduce properties for the large majority of objects. These techniques include: spectroscopy and multi-spectral band photometry, which provide clues as to the chemical composition of the surface, infrared (plus visible) radiometry, from which physical bulk and surface properties may be inferred through the derived albedo and thermal inertia, and radar, which permits one to deduce the near surface bulk density. This article reviews what these techniques have revealed about the surface characteristics of asteroids. Asteroids have been classified by the broad emissive properties of the surface as indicated by filter band photometry. Recently, observations from large scale surveys - 2MASS (Denis to a lesser extent) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey - provided taxonomic classifications for thousands of asteroids. The mineralogy is more secure at higher spectral resolution. Silicates on the surface of asteroids have been inferred from IRAS, ISO and Kuiper Airborne infrared spectra. Infrared radiometry has been used to derive the albedos and diameters of ~2300 asteroids observed by IRAS and MSX. The simplified Standard Thermal Model (STM) works well for main belt asteroids. The model assumes that the asteroid does not rotate and is in instantaneous thermal equilibrium between absorbed sunlight and emitted radiation. Empirical factors for flux enhancement (beaming) and phase function are adopted. There is a dichotomy between large and small asteroids in this database. About 20% of the asteroids with diameters inertia, rotation rate, orientation of the rotation pole, surface roughness and degree of cratering. A complex model is required to account for all the variables. Such a model was developed using full

  15. Development of Deduced Protein Database Using Variable Bit Binary Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Parvathavarthini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A large amount of biological data is semi-structured and stored in any one the following file formats such as flat, XML and relational files. These databases must be integrated with the structured data available in relational or object-oriented databases. The sequence matching process is difficult in such file format, because string comparison takes more computation cost and time. To reduce the memory storage size of amino acid sequence in protein database, a novel probability-based variable bit length encoding technique has been introduced. The number of mapping of triplet CODON for every amino acid evaluates the probability value. Then, a binary tree has been constructed to assign unique bits of binary codes to each amino acid. This derived unique bit pattern of amino acid replaces the existing fixed byte representation. The proof of reduced protein database space has been discussed and it is found to be reduced between 42.86 to 87.17%. To validate our method, we have collected few amino acid sequences of major organisms like Sheep, Lambda phage and etc from NCBI and represented them using proposed method. The comparison shows that of minimum and maximum reduction in storage space are 43.30% and 72.86% respectively. In future the biological data can further be reduced by applying lossless compression on this deduced data.

  16. Evidence for concerted ring opening and C-Br bond breaking in UV-excited bromocyclopropane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Shubhrangshu; Preston, Thomas J.; King, Simon J.; Vallance, Claire; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J.

    2016-06-01

    Photodissociation of gaseous bromocyclopropane via its A-band continuum has been studied at excitation wavelengths ranging from 230 nm to 267 nm. Velocity-map images of ground-state bromine atoms (Br), spin-orbit excited bromine atoms (Br∗), and C3H5 hydrocarbon radicals reveal the kinetic energies of these various photofragments. Both Br and Br∗ atoms are predominantly generated via repulsive excited electronic states in a prompt photodissociation process in which the hydrocarbon co-fragment is a cyclopropyl radical. However, the images obtained at the mass of the hydrocarbon radical fragment identify a channel with total kinetic energy greater than that deduced from the Br and Br∗ images, and with a kinetic energy distribution that exceeds the energetic limit for Br + cyclopropyl radical products. The velocity-map images of these C3H5 fragments have lower angular anisotropies than measured for Br and Br∗, indicating molecular restructuring during dissociation. The high kinetic energy C3H5 signals are assigned to allyl radicals generated by a minor photochemical pathway which involves concerted C-Br bond dissociation and cyclopropyl ring-opening following single ultraviolet (UV)-photon absorption. Slow photofragments also contribute to the velocity map images obtained at the C3H5 radical mass, but the corresponding slow Br atoms are not observed. These features in the images are attributed to C3H5+ from the photodissociation of the C3H5Br+ molecular cation following two-photon ionization of the parent compound. This assignment is confirmed by 118-nm vacuum ultraviolet ionization studies that prepare the molecular cation in its ground electronic state prior to UV photodissociation.

  17. Rabbit serum amyloid protein A: expression and primary structure deduced from cDNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygg, M; Marhaug, G; Husby, G; Dowton, S B

    1991-12-01

    Serum amyloid A protein (SAA), the precursor of amyloid protein A (AA) in deposits of secondary amyloidosis, is an acute phase plasma apolipoprotein produced by hepatocytes. The primary structure of SAA demonstrates high interspecies homology. Several isoforms exist in individual species, probably with different amyloidogenic potential. The nucleotide sequences of two different rabbit serum amyloid A cDNA clones have been analysed, one (corresponding to SAA1) 569 base pairs (bp) long and the other (corresponding to SAA2) 513 bp long. Their deduced amino acid sequences differ at five amino acid positions, four of which are located in the NH2-terminal region of the protein. The deduced amino acid sequence of SAA2 corresponds to rabbit protein AA previously described except for one amino acid in position 22. Eighteen hours after turpentine stimulation, rabbit SAA mRNA is abundant in liver, while lower levels are present in spleen. None of the other extrahepatic organs studied showed any SAA mRNA expression. A third mRNA species (1.9 kb) hybridizing with a single-stranded RNA probe transcribed from the rabbit SAA cDNA, was identified. SAA1 and SAA2 mRNA were found in approximately equal amounts in turpentine-stimulated rabbit liver, but seem to be coordinately decreased after repeated inflammatory stimulation.

  18. Evidence for shape coexistence in sup 7 sup 7 Br

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, I; Bhattacharya, S; Goswami, A; Muralithar, S; Singh, R P; Bhowmik, R K

    2001-01-01

    The nucleus sup 7 sup 7 Br has been studied in the reaction sup 6 sup 5 Cu( sup 1 sup 6 O, 2p2n) at E=75 MeV. Lifetimes have been measured for several states using the Doppler-shift attenuation technique. The B(E2) values for the inband transitions, deduced from the lifetime results, reflect strong collectivity for both the positive-parity yrast band (band 1) and the ground-state negative-parity band (band 2). States with spin above 17/2 sup + in band 1 are found to have a large average quadrupole deformation of beta sub 2 =0.35. The experimental results for band 2 suggest that the 25/2 sup - and 29/2 sup - states are somewhat more strongly deformed than the lower-spin states. A comparison of the experimental results with particle-rotor-model calculations provides evidence for shape coexistence in sup 7 sup 7 Br, favouring a prolate shape for the g sub 9 sub / sub 2 yrast band and an oblate shape for the lowest negative-parity band.

  19. Br2, BrCl, BrO and surface ozone in coastal Antarctica: a meteorological and chemical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. von Glasow

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There is much debate over the source of bromine radicals in the atmosphere that drives polar boundary layer ozone depletion events (ODEs, but there is strong evidence to suggest a source associated with the sea ice zone. Here we report the first high temporal resolution measurements of Br2, BrCl and BrO in coastal Antarctica, made using a Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometer (CIMS. Mixing ratios ranged from instrumental detection limits to 13 pptv for BrO, 45 pptv for Br2, and 6 pptv for BrCl. We find evidence for blowing snow as a source of reactive bromine both directly during a storm and subsequently from recycling of bromide deposited on the continental snowpack. An unusual event of trans-continental air mass transport might have been responsible for severe surface ozone depletion observed at Halley. The halogen source region was the Bellingshausen Sea, to the west of the Antarctic Peninsula, the air mass having spent 3 1/2 days in complete darkness prior to arrival at Halley. We, further, identify an artefact in daytime BrCl measurements arising from conversion of HOBr, similar to that already identified for CIMS observations of Br2. Model calculations using the MISTRA 0-D model suggest a 50–60% conversion of HOBr to Br2, and 5–10% conversion to BrCl. Careful data filtering enabled us to use the halogen observations, in conjunction with the MISTRA model, to explore the temperature dependence of the Br2:BrCl ratio. We find evidence of a ratio shift towards Br2 at temperatures below ~−21 °C, suggesting a relationship with hydrohalite (NaCl.2H2O precipitation. This suite of Antarctic data provides the first analogue to similar measurements made in the Arctic.

  20. Advance of the perihelion of Mercury deduced from QFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    I deduce the new gravitational formula from the variance in mass of QFT and GR (H05-0029-08, E15-0039 -08, E14-0032-08, D31-0054-10) in the partial differential: f (QFT) = f (GR) = delta∂ (m v)/delta∂ t = f _{P} + f _{C} , f _{P} = m delta∂ v / delta∂ t = - ( G m M /r (2) ) r / r, f _{C} = v delta∂ m / delta∂ t = - ( G m M / r (2) ) v / c (1), f (QFT) is the quasi-Casimir pressure of net virtual neutrinos nuν _{0} flux (after counteract contrary direction nuν _{0}). f (GR) is equivalent to Einstein’s equation, Eq. (1) is a new version of GR and can be solved exactly. Its core content is that the gravity produced by particles collide cannot linear addition, i.e., the nonlinearity of Einstein equation had been replaced by the nonlinearity caused by the variable mass in Eq.(1). Einstein equation can be inferred from Eq.(1) thereby from QFT, but QFT cannot be inferred from Eq.(1) or GR. f (QFT) is essential but f (GR) is phenomenological. Eq.(1) is obtained just by to absorb the essence of corpuscule collided gravitation origin ism proposed by Fatio in 1690 and 1920 Majorana’s experiment concept about gravitational shield effect again fuse with QFT. In my paper ‘QFT’S advance of the perihelion of Mercury, China Science &Technology Overview 125 88-90 (2011)’ QFT gravitational potential U = - G M /r is just the distribution density of net nuν _{0} flux, from SR we again get that: f (QFT) = f _{P} + f _{C}, f _{P} = - m ( delta∂ U / delta∂ r) r / r, f _{C} = - m ( delta∂U / delta∂ r) v / c (2), f _{ P} correspond the change rate of three-dimensional momentum p, f _{C} correspond the change rate of fourth dimensional momentum i m c which show directly as a dissipative force of mass change. According to Eq.(2) the circular motion is instability and elliptic motion is in the auto-stability state. In the fluctuation vacuum a particle with mass M neighbor another particle with mass m, the renormalization mass M and m will be less than that when

  1. Evidence of different ocean responses to atmospheric pressurevariations in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Basins as deduced fromERS-2 altimetric data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gómez-Enri

    2004-01-01

    order to understand why the Atlantic Ocean response is different from the one obtained in the other two, we can infer some explanations based on the interaction of seasonal and intraseasonal signals with the isostatic one.<br>> Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (ocean-atmosphere interactions. Oceanography: physical (sea level variations; remote sensing, instruments and techniques

  2. Total Absorption Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy of 87Br, 88Br and 94Rb Beta-Delayed Neutron Emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Valencia, E; Algora, A; Agramunt, J; Rubio, B; Rice, S; Gelletly, W; Regan, P; Zakari-Issoufou, A -A; Fallot, M; Porta, A; Rissanen, J; Eronen, T; Aysto, J; Batist, L; Bowry, M; Bui, V M; Caballero-Folch, R; Cano-Ott, D; Elomaa, V -V; Estevez, E; Farrelly, G F; Garcia, A R; Gomez-Hornillos, B; Gorlychev, V; Hakala, J; Jordan, M D; Jokinen, A; Kolhinen, V S; Kondev, F G; Martinez, T; Mendoza, E; Moore, I; Penttila, H; Podolyak, Zs; Reponen, M; Sonnenschein, V; Sonzogni, A A

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the decay of 87Br, 88Br and 94Rb using total absorption gamma-ray spectroscopy. These important fission products are beta-delayed neutron emitters. Our data show considerable gamma-intensity, so far unobserved in high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, from states at high excitation energy. We also find significant differences with the beta intensity that can be deduced from existing measurements of the beta spectrum. We evaluate the impact of the present data on reactor decay heat using summation calculations. Although the effect is relatively small it helps to reduce the discrepancy between calculations and integral measurements of the photon component for 235U fission at cooling times in the range 1 to 100 s. We also use summation calculations to evaluate the impact of present data on reactor antineutrino spectra. We find a significant effect at antineutrino energies in the range of 5 to 9 MeV. In addition, we observe an unexpected strong probability for gamma emission from neutron unbound s...

  3. Ozone Depletion Potential of CH3Br

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Stanley P.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Sze, Nien Dak; Scott, Courtney; Rodriquez, Jose M.; Weisenstein, Debra K.

    1998-01-01

    The ozone depletion potential (ODP) of methyl bromide (CH3Br) can be determined by combining the model-calculated bromine efficiency factor (BEF) for CH3Br and its atmospheric lifetime. This paper examines how changes in several key kinetic data affect BEF. The key reactions highlighted in this study include the reaction of BrO + H02, the absorption cross section of HOBr, the absorption cross section and the photolysis products of BrON02, and the heterogeneous conversion of BrON02 to HOBR and HN03 on aerosol particles. By combining the calculated BEF with the latest estimate of 0.7 year for the atmospheric lifetime of CH3Br, the likely value of ODP for CH3Br is 0.39. The model-calculated concentration of HBr (approximately 0.3 pptv) in the lower stratosphere is substantially smaller than the reported measured value of about I pptv. Recent publications suggested models can reproduce the measured value if one assumes a yield for HBr from the reaction of BrO + OH or from the reaction of BrO + H02. Although the DeAlore et al. evaluation concluded any substantial yield of HBr from BrO + HO2 is unlikely, for completeness, we calculate the effects of these assumed yields on BEF for CH3Br. Our calculations show that the effects are minimal: practically no impact for an assumed 1.3% yield of HBr from BrO + OH and 10% smaller for an assumed 0.6% yield from BrO + H02.

  4. 81Br NQR for Uncoordinated Br ions in trans-[CoBr2(en)2][H5O2]Br2 and trans-[CoBr2(en)2] [D5O2]Br2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, H.; Sasane, A.; Miyagi, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Mori, Y.

    1994-02-01

    The temperature dependence of the 81Br NQR frequencies (vD) for uncoordinated Br- ions in trans-[CoBr2(en)2] [D5O2]Br2(D) has been determined by a continuous-wave spectrometer. vD amounted to 16.200 MHz at 273 K. This is lower by 418 kHz than the 81Br NQR frequency (vH) for trans-[CoBr2 (en2] [H5O2 ]Br2 (H). The frequency difference (Δv = vH -vD) remained almost constant in the temperature range studied. A shortening of the O-H bond length caused by deuteration could explain the magnitude and the sign of Av on the basis of a point charge model calculation. The compounds D and H yielded 81Br NQR lines in the range 110-320 K and 90-343 K, respectively. As to the 59Co NQR frequencies (7/2 - 5/2), the observed isotope frequency shifts (Δv1 = v1H - v1D) between D and H were smaller than 5 kHz. Below 160 K, 59Co resonances were only available by pulsed experiments. 59Co NQR spin-lattice relaxation times T1Q of 0.54 ms at 194 K and 4.8 s at 77 K for H have been observed.

  5. Phase diagram of the CsBr-CaBr2 system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Xinhua; CHEN Nianyi; LU Wencong; CHENG Zhixuan; LUO Yunyun; LU Weiying; XIA Yiben

    2006-01-01

    The phase diagram of the CsBr-CaBr2 system was re-determined by using differential thermal analysis and high temperature and room temperature X-ray diffraction analysis. It is concluded that there are three intermediate compounds in this system: a congruently melting compound, CsCaBr3, with a melting point of 823℃ and two incongruently melting compounds, Cs2CaBr4 and Cs3Ca2Br7, whose peritectic points being 597℃ and 635℃, respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that compound CsCaBr3 is of slightly distorted perovskite structure.

  6. Hydrodynamic properties of gamma-ray bursts outflows deduced from thermal component

    CERN Document Server

    Pe'er, Asaf; O'Mahony, Shane; Margutti, Raffaella; Ryde, Felix; Larsson, Josefin; Lazzatti, Davide; Livio, Mario

    2015-01-01

    We study the properties of a significant thermal emission component that was identified in 47 GRBs observed by different instruments. Within the framework of the "fireball" model, we deduce the values of the Lorentz factor Gamma, and the acceleration radius, r_0, for these bursts. We find that all the values of Gamma in our sample are in the range 10^2 = 310. We find a very weak dependence of Gamma on the acceleration radius r_0, Gamma ~ r_0^alpha with alpha = -0.10 +- 0.09 at sigma = 2.1 confidence level. The values of r_0 span a wide range, 10^7 ~10^{8.5} cm. This is higher than the gravitational radius of a 10 M_sun black hole by a factor ~100. We argue that this result provides indirect evidence for jet propagation inside a massive star, and suggests the existence of recollimation shocks that take place close to this radius.

  7. Photoinduced Br Desorption from CsBr Thin Films Grown on Cu(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliday, Matthew T.; Joly, Alan G.; Hess, Wayne P.; Shluger, AL

    2015-10-22

    Thin films of CsBr deposited onto metals such as copper are potential photocathode materials for light sources and other applications. We investigate desorption dynamics of Br atoms from CsBr films grown on insulator (KBr, LiF) and metal (Cu) substrates induced by sub-bandgap 6.4 eV laser pulses. The experimental results demonstrate that the peak kinetic energy of Br atoms desorbed from CsBr/Cu films is much lower than that for the hyperthermal desorption from CsBr/LiF films. Kelvin probe measurements indicate negative charge at the surface following Br desorption from CsBr/Cu films. Our ab initio calculations of excitons at CsBr surfaces demonstrate that this behavior can be explained by an exciton model of desorption including electron trapping at the CsBr surface. Trapped negative charges reduce the energy of surface excitons available for Br desorption. We examine the electron-trapping characteristics of low-coordinated sites at the surface, in particular, divacancies and kink sites. We also provide a model of cation desorption caused by Franck-Hertz excitation of F centers at the surface in the course of irradiation of CsBr/Cu films. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms of photoinduced structural evolution of alkali halide films on metal substrates and activation of metal photocathodes coated with CsBr.

  8. Cd4As2Br3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Kars

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of Cd4As2Br3 (tetracadmium biarsenide tribromide were grown by a chemical transport reaction. The structure is isotypic with the members of the cadmium and mercury pnictidohalides family with general formula M4A2X3 (M = Cd, Hg; A = P, As, Sb; X = Cl, Br, I and contains two independent As atoms on special positions with site symmetry -3 and two independent Cd atoms, of which one is on a special position with site symmetry -3. The Cd4As2Br3 structure consists of AsCd4 tetrahedra sharing vertices with isolated As2Cd6 octahedra that contain As–As dumbbells in the centre of the octahedron. The Br atoms are located in the voids of this three-dimensional arrangement and bridge the different polyhedra through Cd...Br contacts.

  9. Tapahtumamarkkinointi brändin vahvistamisen tukena

    OpenAIRE

    Kähkönen, Nea

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö on toimeksianto Yritys X:ltä. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on selvittää, miten hyvin järjestetty tapahtuma tukee brändiä. Lisäksi tutkimuksella pyritään selvittämään, oliko järjestetty tapahtuma onnistunut, ja miten sitä voisi kehittää. Teoreettinen viitekehys on rakennettu pitkälti brändi-identiteetin suunnittelun mallin mukaiseksi. Teoriassa käsitellään brändin rakentamista lähtien analyyseistä, brändi-identiteetin muodostamiseen, brändin tunnettuuden luomiseen, positiointiin ja...

  10. Enhanced electrical transport and phase diagram of LiBr-NaBr mixed crystal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoravi, P.; Shahi, K. (Dept. of Physics, Indian Inst. of Tech., Kanpur (India))

    1992-12-01

    The ionic conductivity and the phase diagram of LiBr-NaBr system has been studied. Maximum conductivity enhancement by factors of 2.8 and 2.3x10[sup 4] with respect to pure LiBr and NaBr, respectively are obtained at 400degC for Li[sub 0.7]Na[sub 0.3]Br solid solution. The demixing curve of the phase diagram which was constructed from the conductivity versus temperature studies, suggest that the LiBr-NaBr system forms complete solid solution only above 215degC. The conductivity enhancements and the activation energies are consistent with the melting curve of the phase diagram. (orig.).

  11. Radiation effects on bipolar junction transistors and integrated circuits produced by different energy Br ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingji; Geng, Hongbin; Liu, Chaoming; Zhao, Zhiming; Lan, Mujie; Yang, Dezhuang; He, Shiyu

    2009-12-01

    The radiation responses of the NPN bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) and the TTL bipolar integrated circuits (ICs) have been examined using 20, 40 and 60 MeV Br ions. Key electric parameter was measured and compared after each energy irradiation. Experimental results demonstrate that the degradation in electric parameters caused by the Br ions shows a common feature for the NPN BJTs and TTL ICs, in which the degradation is strengthened with decreasing the Br ions energy. The ionizing dose ( D i) and displacement dose ( D d) as a function of the chip depth in the bipolar devices were calculated using the SRIM code, in order to analyze the radiation effects on the NPN BJTs and the Bipolar ICs. From the experiment and calculation results, it could be deduced that the Br ions mainly cause displacement damage to both the NPN BJTs and the TTL ICs, and the higher the ratio of D d/( D d+D i), the larger the degradation in electric parameters at a given total dose.

  12. Nitrogênio e métodos de semeadura no rendimento da forragem de pós-colheita de sementes de milheto [Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br.] Nitrogen levels and sowing methods on forage yield produced after harvesting of millet seed [Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Eustáquio Mesquita

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento de campo foi realizado para avaliar o efeito de doses de nitrogênio (N (0, 60, 120 e 180 kg/ha e métodos de semeadura (a lanço; 0,40; 0,80; e 1,20 m entre linhas sobre o rendimento de matéria seca (RMS, a densidade de perfilhos e os teores de proteína bruta (PB e minerais (P, K, Ca e Mg do material de pós-colheita de sementes de milheto. O delineamento experimental foi blocos ao acaso com os tratamentos dispostos em parcelas subdivididas, alocando-se os métodos de semeadura nas parcelas principais e as doses de N nas subparcelas. As doses crescentes de N influíram no RMS, rendimento de PB (RPB, número de perfilhos totais/m² (NPT e teor Mg na matéria seca (MS da forragem, porém as respostas variaram conforme o método de semeadura. Maiores RMS e NPT foram observados no método de semeadura com 0,40 m entre linhas. O maior RMS (8872 kg/ha foi obtido com a dose de 120 kg/ha de N e o maior RPB (688,8 kg/ha, com a dose de 180 kg/ha de N. No método de semeadura com 0,80 m entre linhas, os teores de Mg na MS de milheto aumentaram de forma quadrática, em resposta às doses de N, enquanto no método de semeadura com 1,20 m entre linhas a concentração do mineral aumentou linearmente.A field trial was carried out to evaluate the effect of nitrogen (N levels (0, 60, 120 e 180 kg/ha and sowing methods (broadcast and .40, .80, and 1.20 m between rows on dry matter yield (DMY, tiller densities and crude protein content, and minerals (P, K, Ca and Mg of the material of post harvesting of the millet seed. A completely randomized block experimental design with the treatment in a split plot arrangement was used, with the sowing methods on the main plots and N doses on split-plots. The increasing N levels affected the DMY and crude protein yield (CPY, number total of tillers (NTT, and Mg content of the forage dry matter (DM. However, the response changed according to the sowing methods. The highest DMY and NTT were observed in sowing

  13. Shell structure of potassium isotopes deduced from their magnetic moments

    CERN Document Server

    Papuga, J; Kreim, K; Barbieri, C; Blaum, K; De Rydt, M; Duguet, T; Garcia Ruiz, R F; Heylen, H; Kowalska, M; Neugart, R; Neyens, G; Nortershauser, W; Rajabali, M M; Sanchez, R; Smirnova, N; Soma, V; Yordanov, D T

    2014-01-01

    $\\textbf{Background:}$ Ground-state spins and magnetic moments are sensitive to the nuclear wave function, thus they are powerful probes to study the nuclear structure of isotopes far from stability. \\\\ \\\\ $\\textbf{Purpose:}$ Extend our knowledge about the evolution of the $1/2^+$ and $3/2^+$ states for K isotopes beyond the $N = 28$ shell gap. \\\\ \\\\ $\\textbf{Method:}$ High-resolution collinear laser spectroscopy on bunched atomic beams. \\\\ \\\\ $\\textbf{Results:}$ From measured hyperfine structure spectra of K isotopes, nuclear spins and magnetic moments of the ground states were obtained for isotopes from $N = 19$ up to $N = 32$. In order to draw conclusions about the composition of the wave functions and the occupation of the levels, the experimental data were compared to shell-model calculations using SDPF-NR and SDPF-U effective interactions. In addition, a detailed discussion about the evolution of the gap between proton $1d_{3/2}$ and $2s_{1/2}$ in the shell model and $\\textit{ab initio}$ framework is al...

  14. Characterization of soluble bromide measurements and a case study of BrO observations during ARCTAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A focus of the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS mission was examination of bromine photochemistry in the spring time high latitude troposphere based on aircraft and satellite measurements of bromine oxide (BrO and related species. The NASA DC-8 aircraft utilized a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS to measure BrO and a mist chamber (MC to measure soluble bromide. We have determined that the MC detection efficiency to molecular bromine (Br2, hypobromous acid (HOBr, bromine oxide (BrO, and hydrogen bromide (HBr as soluble bromide (Br was 0.9±0.1, 1.06+0.30/−0.35, 0.4±0.1, and 0.95±0.1, respectively. These efficiency factors were used to estimate soluble bromide levels along the DC-8 flight track of 17 April 2008 from photochemical calculations constrained to in situ BrO measured by CIMS. During this flight, the highest levels of soluble bromide and BrO were observed and atmospheric conditions were ideal for the space-borne observation of BrO. The good agreement (R2 = 0.76; slope = 0.95; intercept = −3.4 pmol mol−1 between modeled and observed soluble bromide, when BrO was above detection limit (>2 pmol mol−1 under unpolluted conditions (NO<10 pmol mol−1, indicates that the CIMS BrO measurements were consistent with the MC soluble bromide and that a well characterized MC can be used to derive mixing ratios of some reactive bromine compounds. Tropospheric BrO vertical column densities (BrOVCD derived from CIMS BrO observations compare well with BrOTROPVCD from OMI on 17 April 2008.

  15. mRNA and Protein Levels for GABA[subscript A][alpha]4, [alpha]5, [beta]1 and GABA[subscript B]R1 Receptors are Altered in Brains from Subjects with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, S. Hossein; Reutiman, Teri J.; Folsom, Timothy D.; Rooney, Robert J.; Patel, Diven H.; Thuras, Paul D.

    2010-01-01

    We have shown altered expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA[subscript A]) and gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABA[subscript B]) receptors in the brains of subjects with autism. In the current study, we sought to verify our western blotting data for GABBR1 via qRT-PCR and to expand our previous work to measure mRNA and protein levels of 3…

  16. Hysteresis Loop for a No-loaded, Delta-connected Transformer Model Deduced from Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrodi, Yves; Kamei, Kenji; Kohyama, Haruhiko; Ito, Hiroki

    At a transformer's steady-state condition, whereby a transformer and its load are constantly supplied by a sinusoidal source, the current-flux pair within the transformer core and its windings will cycle along a hysteresis loop. This nonlinear current-flux characteristic becomes important while at transformer gets reenergized. A remaining residual flux and the fact that a transformer is typically used up to its saturation level can lead to high-amplitude magnetizing inrush currents and associated voltage disturbances. These disturbances can be reduced by controlled transformer switching. In order to pre-evaluate the effect of a specific controlled transformer energization, pre-simulations can be applied. In that case the hysteresis loop and its saturation characteristic will become the most important model parameter. If the corresponding manufacturer specifications are not available a standard hysteresis loops can be used, but might come up with an inaccurate simulation result. Therefore, this paper analyses the measured 3-phase currents from two delta-connected power transformers by “Fourier Series” in order to deduce a single-phase hysteresis loop, which can be implemented into a typical 3-phase transformer model. Additionally, the saturation behavior of a power-transformer will be estimated and a comparison of ATP/EMTP simulations will conclude this paper.

  17. Function of longitudinal vs circular muscle fibers in esophageal peristalsis, deduced with mathematical modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James G Brasseur; Mark A Nicosia; Anupam Pal; Larr S Miller

    2007-01-01

    We summarize from previous works the functions of circular vs. longitudinal muscle in esophageal peristaltic bolus transport using a mix of experimental data, the conservation laws of mechanics and mathematical modeling. Whereas circular muscle tone generates radial closure pressure to create a local peristaltic closure wave, longitudinal muscle tone has two functions, one physiological with mechanical implications, and one purely mechanical. Each of these functions independently reduces the tension of individual circular muscle fibers to maintain closure as a consequence of shortening of longitudinal muscle locally coordinated with increasing circular muscle tone. The physiological function is deduced by combining basic laws of mechanics with concurrent measurements of intraluminal pressure from manometry, and changes in cross sectional muscle area from endoluminal ultrasound from which local longitudinal shortening (LLS) can be accurately obtained. The purely mechanical function of LLS was discovered from mathematical modeling of peristaltic esophageal transport with the axial wall motion generated by LLS. Physiologically, LLS concentrates circular muscle fibers where closure pressure is highest.However, the mechanical function of LLS is to reduce the level of pressure required to maintain closure. The combined physiological and mechanical consequences of LLS are to reduce circular muscle fiber tension and power by as much as 1/10 what would be required for peristalsis without the longitudinal muscle layer, a tremendous benefit that may explain the existence of longitudinal muscle fiber in the gut. We also review what is understood of the role of longitudinal muscle in esophageal emptying, reflux and pathology.

  18. Investigation on the mechanism and applications of the reaction Cl2+2HBr=2HCl+Br2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of reaction Cl2+2HBr=2HCl+Br2 has been carefully investigated with density functional theory (DFT) at B3LYP/6-311G** level. A series of three-centred and four-cen- tred transition states have been obtained. The activation energy (138.96 and 147.24 kJ/mol, re-spectively) of two bimolecular elementary reactions Cl2+HBr→HCl+BrCl and BrCl+HBr→HCl+Br2 is smaller than the dissociation energy of Cl2, HBr and BrCl, indicating that it is favorable for the title reaction occurring in the bimolecular form. The reaction has been applied to the chemical engi-neering process of recycling Br2 from HBr. Gaseous Cl2 directly reacts with HBr gas, which pro-duces gaseous mixtures containing Br2, and liquid Br2 and HCl are obtained by cooling the mixtures and further separated by absorption with CCl4. The recovery percentage of Br2 is more than 96%, and the Cl2 remaining in liquid Br2 is less than 3.0%. The paper provides a good example of solving the difficult problem in chemical engineering with basic theory.

  19. Investigation on the mechanism and applications of the reaction Cl2+2HBr=2HCl+Br2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖鹤鸣; 王遵尧; 肖继军; 陈兆旭

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of reaction CI2+2HBr=2HCI+Br2 has been carefully investigated with density functional theory (DFT) at B3LYP/6-311G** level. A series of three-centred and four-centred transition states have been obtained. The activation energy (138.96 and 147.24 kJ/mol, respectively) of two bimolecular elementary reactions CI2+HBr→HCI+BrCI and BrCI+HBr→HCI+Br2 is smaller than the dissociation energy of CI2, HBr and BrCI, indicating that it is favorable for the title reaction occurring in the bimolecular form. The reaction has been applied to the chemical engineering process of recycling Br2 from HBr. Gaseous CI2 directly reacts with HBr gas, which produces gaseous mixtures containing Br2, and liquid Br2 and HCI are obtained by cooling the mixtures and further separated by absorption with CCI4. The recovery percentage of Br2 is more than 96%, and the CI2 remaining in liquid Br2 is less than 3.0%. The paper provides a good example of solving the difficult problem in chemical engineering with basic theory.

  20. A simple model for calculating the bulk modulus of the mixed ionic crystal: NH4Cl1−xBr

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vassiliki Katsika-Tsigourakou

    2011-10-01

    The ammonium halides are an interesting systems because of their polymorphism and the possible internal rotation of the ammonium ion. The static properties of the mixed ionic crystal NH4Cl1−Br have been recently investigated, using the three-body potential model (TDPM) by applying Vegard’s law. Here, by using a simple theoretical model, we estimate the bulk modulus of the alloys NH4Cl1−Br, in terms of the bulk modulus of the end members alone. The calculated values are comparable to those deduced from the three-body potential model (TDPM) by applying Vegard’s law.

  1. Vibrational spectroscopy of SnBr4 and CCl4 using Lie algebraic approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joydeep Choudhury; Srinivasa Rao Karmuri; Nirmal Kumar Sarkar; Ramendu Bhattacharjee

    2008-09-01

    The stretching and bending vibrational energies of SnBr4 and CCl4 are calculated in the one-dimensional framework. The dynamical symmetry group of tetrahedral molecule was taken into consideration to construct the model Hamiltonian in this frame-work. Casimir and Majorana invariant operators were also determined accordingly. Using the model Hamiltonian so constructed, we reported the vibrational energy levels of SnBr4 and CCl4 molecules accurately.

  2. Electronic structure of the CsPbBr3/polytriarylamine (PTAA) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, James; Kulbak, Michael; Zhao, Lianfeng; Rand, Barry P.; Cahen, David; Hodes, Gary; Kahn, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    The inorganic lead halide perovskite CsPbBr3 promises similar solar cell efficiency to its hybrid organic-inorganic counterpart CH3NH3PbBr3 but shows greater stability. Here, we exploit this stability for the study of band alignment between perovskites and carrier selective interlayers. Using ultraviolet, X-ray, and inverse photoemission spectroscopies, we measure the ionization energy and electron affinities of CsPbBr3 and the hole transport polymer polytriarylamine (PTAA). We find that undoped PTAA introduces a barrier to hole extraction of 0.2-0.5 eV, due to band bending in the PTAA and/or a dipole at the interface. p-doping the PTAA eliminates this barrier, raising PTAA's highest occupied molecular orbital to 0.2 eV above the CsPbBr3 valence band maximum and improving hole transport. However, IPES reveals the presence of states below the PTAA lowest unoccupied molecular level. If present at the CsPbBr3/PTAA interface, these states may limit the polymer's efficacy at blocking electrons in solar cells with wide band gap materials like CsPbBr3 and CH3NH3PbBr3.

  3. Fabrication of TlBr Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO; Xiao-yong

    2015-01-01

    1 Introduction Thallium bromide(TlBr)is an attractive compound semiconductor material for fabrication of room temperature radiation detectors due to its characteristics of wide band-gap energy,high density,high atomic numbers.It can be used in the fields of security detection,imaging and radiation protection.

  4. Kinetics and Spectroscopy of BrNO

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-12

    v3 line positions 3-81 xii List of Tables Table Page 2.1. Experimental values of Keq, kf and kr ..................... 2-16 2.2. Data used to...BrNO," Journal of Applied Physics, 59:4184- 4186 (1986). 17. del Barrio, J. I. and F. M. G. Tablas . "Relative Intensities of the NO Vibro- Rotational

  5. A novel computational framework for deducing muscle synergies from experimental joint moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantharaman eGopalakrishnan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior experimental studies have hypothesized the existence of a ‘muscle synergy’ based control scheme for producing limb movements and locomotion in vertebrates. Such synergies have been suggested to consist of fixed muscle grouping schemes with the co-activation of all muscles in a synergy resulting in limb movement. Quantitative representations of these groupings (termed muscle weightings and their control signals (termed synergy controls have traditionally been derived by the factorization of experimentally measured EMG. This study presents a novel approach for deducing these weightings and controls from inverse dynamic joint moments that are computed from an alternative set of experimental measurements – movement kinematics and kinetics. This technique was applied to joint moments for healthy human walking at 0.7 and 1.7 m/s, and two sets of ‘simulated’ synergies were computed based on two different criteria (1 synergies were required to minimize errors between experimental and simulated joint moments in a musculoskeletal model (pure-synergy solution (2 along with minimizing joint moment errors, synergies also minimized muscle activation levels (optimal-synergy solution. On comparing the two solutions, it was observed that the introduction of optimality requirements (optimal-synergy to a control strategy solely aimed at reproducing the joint moments (pure-synergy did not necessitate major changes in the muscle grouping within synergies or the temporal profiles of synergy control signals. Synergies from both the simulated solutions exhibited many similarities to EMG derived synergies from a previously published study, thus implying that the analysis of the two different types of experimental data reveals similar, underlying synergy structures.

  6. Expression of BAFF and BR3 in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Duan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the expression of B cell activating factor (BAFF and BAFF receptor in patients with disease activity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Real-time RT-PCR was used to examine BAFF mRNA expression in peripheral blood monocytes of active and stable SLE patients and healthy controls. The percentage of BAFF receptor 3 (BR3 on B lymphocytes was measured by flow cytometry. Soluble BAFF levels in serum were assayed by ELISA. Microalbumin levels were assayed by an automatic immune analysis machine. BAFF mRNA and soluble BAFF levels were highest in the active SLE group, followed by the stable SLE group, and controls (P<0.01. The percentage of BR3 on B lymphocytes was downregulated in the active SLE group compared with the stable SLE group and controls (P<0.01. BAFF mRNA levels and soluble BAFF levels were higher in patients who were positive for proteinuria than in those who were negative (P<0.01. The percentage of BR3 on B lymphocytes was lower in patients who were positive for proteinuria than in those who were negative (P<0.01. The BAFF/BR3 axis may be over-activated in SLE patients. BAFF and BR3 levels may be useful parameters for evaluating treatment.

  7. Modeling the observed tropospheric BrO background: Importance of multiphase chemistry and implications for ozone, OH, and mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J. A.; Jacob, D. J.; Horowitz, H. M.; Hu, L.; Sherwen, T.; Evans, M. J.; Liang, Q.; Suleiman, R. M.; Oram, D. E.; Le Breton, M.; Percival, C. J.; Wang, S.; Dix, B.; Volkamer, R.

    2016-10-01

    Aircraft and satellite observations indicate the presence of ppt (ppt ≡ pmol/mol) levels of BrO in the free troposphere with important implications for the tropospheric budgets of ozone, OH, and mercury. We can reproduce these observations with the GEOS-Chem global tropospheric chemistry model by including a broader consideration of multiphase halogen (Br-Cl) chemistry than has been done in the past. Important reactions for regenerating BrO from its nonradical reservoirs include HOBr + Br-/Cl- in both aerosols and clouds, and oxidation of Br- by ClNO3 and ozone. Most tropospheric BrO in the model is in the free troposphere, consistent with observations and originates mainly from the photolysis and oxidation of ocean-emitted CHBr3. Stratospheric input is also important in the upper troposphere. Including production of gas phase inorganic bromine from debromination of acidified sea salt aerosol increases free tropospheric Bry by about 30%. We find HOBr to be the dominant gas-phase reservoir of inorganic bromine. Halogen (Br-Cl) radical chemistry as implemented here in GEOS-Chem drives 14% and 11% decreases in the global burdens of tropospheric ozone and OH, respectively, a 16% increase in the atmospheric lifetime of methane, and an atmospheric lifetime of 6 months for elemental mercury. The dominant mechanism for the Br-Cl driven tropospheric ozone decrease is oxidation of NOx by formation and hydrolysis of BrNO3 and ClNO3.

  8. New Route to Deducing Integration Formulas by Virtue of the IWOP Technique*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi; LI Hong-Qi; XU Xing-Lei

    2011-01-01

    We point out a new route to deducing integration formulas, i.e., using the technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators we derive some new integration formulas, which seems concise. As a by-product,some new operator identities also appear.

  9. CONSISTENT USE OF THE KALMAN FILTER IN CHEMICAL TRANSPORT MODELS (CTMS) FOR DEDUCING EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Past research has shown that emissions can be deduced using observed concentrations of a chemical, a Chemical Transport Model (CTM), and the Kalman filter in an inverse modeling application. An expression was derived for the relationship between the "observable" (i.e., the con...

  10. Complete amino acid sequence of human intestinal aminopeptidase N as deduced from cloned cDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowell, G M; Kønigshøfer, E; Danielsen, E M;

    1988-01-01

    The complete primary structure (967 amino acids) of an intestinal human aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) was deduced from the sequence of a cDNA clone. Aminopeptidase N is anchored to the microvillar membrane via an uncleaved signal for membrane insertion. A domain constituting amino acid 250-555 p...

  11. Elamusturundus: riigi brändimine ja Eesti bränd / Siiri Same

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Same, Siiri

    2015-01-01

    Artikli autor oma 2015. a. Tallinna Tehnikaülikoolis kaitstud doktoritööst "Conceptualization of experience marketing and country branding from a marketing management perspective" ("Elamusturunduse ja riigi brändimise kontseptualiseerimine turunduse juhtimise vaatenurgast")

  12. Endüstriyel Enformasyonun Kıbrıs Türk Endüstrisiyle Buluşması: Farkındalık ve Gereksinme Düzeyi = Confrontation of the Industrial Information with the Cyprus Turkish Industry: Awareness and the Level of Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktan, Ayşe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti (KKTC ekonomisine dayalı endüstri kuruluşları üzerine, onların enformasyon ihtiyaçlarının anlaşılmasına yönelik bir araştırma yapılmıştır. Bu bağlamda ilgili kurumların mevcut durumu ve gelişimi incelenmiştir. Bunun yanında endüstriyel enformasyonun önemi üzerinde durularak, KKTC’de genel imalat ve kâğıt ürünleri ile matbaa sanayisinde endüstriyel enformasyon üzerine olan farkındalık ile endüstriyel enformasyonun gereksinme düzeyleri tespit edilmeye çalışılmıştır. / Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus’s (TRNC economy based on the Cyprus Turkish industryand firms have been investigated in this study. The importance of industrial information also has been highlighted in the context of Cyprus Turkish industry. The awareness on general production for the paperwork industry in the frame of information industry tries to determine. Moreover, the level of information needs is determined on those sectors.

  13. Bromine-79 NQR for uncoordinated Br- ions in trans-[CoBr2(en)2][H5O2]Br2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasane, A.; Matsuda, T.; Honda, H.; Mori, Y.

    1992-02-01

    A single 79Br NQR line showing a frequency of 19.594 MHz at room temperature has been observed in the crystals of trans-[CoBr2(en)2] [ H5O2 ] Br2 and assigned to the Br - ions which are not coordinated to the central Co(III) atom. The electric field gradient (EFG) at the Br - nuclei arises from O-H • • • Br - hydrogen bond formation between the Br - ions and the terminal O - H hydrogen atoms in [ H5O2 ] + ions. The induced EFG is greater for the present bromine complex than that for the isostructural chlorine complex. A point charge model calculation explains well the relative magnitude of the EFG in the two crystals by introducing Sternheimer's antishielding factors for the halogen ions.

  14. Decommissioning of the BR3 PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaut, V.; Klein, M

    1998-07-01

    The objectives, programme and main achievements of SCK-CEN's decommissioning programme in 1997 are summarised. Particular emphasis is on the BR3 decommissioning project. In 1997, auxiliary equipment and loops were dismantled; concrete antimissile slabs were decontaminated; the radiology of the primary loop was modelled; the quality assurance procedure for dismantling loops and equipment were implemented; a method for the dismantling of the reactor pressure vessel was selected; and contaminated thermal insulation of the primary loop containing asbestos was removed.

  15. Energy Response of LaBr3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertürk, S.; Maj, A.; Ciemala, M.; Stezowski, O.; Courtin, S.; Strachan, J.; Kumar, S.; Paris Collaboration

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, important developments in scintillator technology have been made in the Lanthanum Halogen LaBr3 (Ce) crystal, which has high-energy separation, very good timing-properties and a stopping-power that can be used as a detector at room temperature. The international PARIS project will be created as a prototype of this detector system, which will be used in SPIRAL2 as a stand alone or in collaboration with the EXOGAM or AGATA detector array. A fusion evaporation reaction is used to produce exotic nuclei and is then transferred at a very high angular momentum to compound nuclei. Due to the accompanying high rotation, the exotic shape starts changing into vibrational and rotational collective phenomena which hitherto have together become difficult to detect and fully understand. In order to perform this type of research, in addition to conventional known gamma-ray detectors, high-efficiency gamma-ray detectors that can effectively identify gamma rays are also required as calorimeters. LaBr3 is planned to use such means. Results of ongoing analysis for energy and the time response of LaBr3 will be presented.

  16. 5-Br-PAN-6S的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任显钜; 周华凤

    2011-01-01

    本文合成了5-Br-PAN-6S,从α-氨基吡啶出发进行溴化得5-Br-2-氨基吡啶,在碱性条件下重氮化后,再与β-萘酚偶联得5-Br-PAN,在40-50℃的温度下,用发烟硫酸进行磺化生成5-Br-PAN-6S.

  17. Tropospheric CO vertical profiles deduced from total columns using data assimilation: methodology and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. El Amraoui

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a validation of a method to derive the vertical profile of carbon monoxide (CO from its total column using data assimilation. The main motivation of this study is twofold. First, to deduce both the vertical CO profiles and the assimilated CO fields with good confidence. Second, for chemical species that can be measured only as the total column, this method provides an attractive alternative for estimating their vertical profiles in the troposphere. We choose version 3 (V3 of MOPITT CO total columns to validate the proposed method. MOPITT has the advantage of providing both the vertical profiles and the total columns of CO. Furthermore, this version has been extensively validated by comparison with many independent datasets, and has been used in many scientific studies. The first step of the paper consists in the specification of the observation errors based on the Chi-square (χ2 test. The observations have been binned according to day, night, land and sea (LAND_DAY, LAND_NIGHT and SEA, respectively. The respective optimal observation error values for which the χ2 metric is the closest to 1 are: 7%, 8% and 11% for SEA, LAND_DAY and LAND_NIGHT, respectively. In a second step, the CO total column, with its specified errors, is used within the assimilation system to estimate the vertical profiles. These are validated by comparison with vertical profiles of MOPITT V3 retrievals at global and regional scales. Generally, both datasets show similar patterns and good agreement at both global and regional scales. Nevertheless, the total column analyses (TOTCOL_ANALYSES slightly overestimate CO concentrations compared to MOPITT observations. In a third step, vertical profiles calculated from TOTCOL_ANALYSES have been compared to those calculated from the assimilation of MOPITT V3 vertical profiles (PROFILE_ANALYSES. Both datasets shows very good agreement, but TOTCOL_ANALYSES tend to slightly overestimate CO concentrations. The mean

  18. Tropospheric CO vertical profiles deduced from total columns using data assimilation: methodology and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Amraoui, L.; Attié, J.-L.; Ricaud, P.; Lahoz, W. A.; Piacentini, A.; Peuch, V.-H.; Warner, J. X.; Abida, R.; Barré, J.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a validation of a method to derive the vertical profile of carbon monoxide (CO) from its total column using data assimilation. The main motivation of this study is twofold. First, to deduce both the vertical CO profiles and the assimilated CO fields with good confidence. Second, for chemical species that can be measured only as the total column, this method provides an attractive alternative for estimating their vertical profiles in the troposphere. We choose version 3 (V3) of MOPITT CO total columns to validate the proposed method. MOPITT has the advantage of providing both the vertical profiles and the total columns of CO. Furthermore, this version has been extensively validated by comparison with many independent datasets, and has been used in many scientific studies. The first step of the paper consists in the specification of the observation errors based on the Chi-square (χ2) test. The observations have been binned according to day, night, land and sea (LAND_DAY, LAND_NIGHT and SEA, respectively). The respective optimal observation error values for which the χ2 metric is the closest to 1 are: 7%, 8% and 11% for SEA, LAND_DAY and LAND_NIGHT, respectively. In a second step, the CO total column, with its specified errors, is used within the assimilation system to estimate the vertical profiles. These are validated by comparison with vertical profiles of MOPITT V3 retrievals at global and regional scales. Generally, both datasets show similar patterns and good agreement at both global and regional scales. Nevertheless, the total column analyses (TOTCOL_ANALYSES) slightly overestimate CO concentrations compared to MOPITT observations. In a third step, vertical profiles calculated from TOTCOL_ANALYSES have been compared to those calculated from the assimilation of MOPITT V3 vertical profiles (PROFILE_ANALYSES). Both datasets shows very good agreement, but TOTCOL_ANALYSES tend to slightly overestimate CO concentrations. The mean bias between

  19. Longpath DOAS observations of surface BrO at Summit, Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stutz

    2011-09-01

    on 4 July 2008, during which marine air from the Greenland east coast was rapidly transported to Summit, led to enhanced mixing ratios of BrO and a number of marine tracers. However, rapid transport of marine air from the Greenland east coast is rare and most likely not the main source of bromide in surface snow at Summit. The observed levels of BrO are predicted to influence NOx chemistry as well as impact HOx partitioning. However, impact of local snow photochemistry on HOx is smaller than previously suggested for Summit.

  20. Longpath DOAS observations of surface BrO at Summit, Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stutz

    2011-02-01

    July 2008, during which marine air from the Greenland coast was rapidly transported to Summit, led to enhanced mixing ratios of BrO and a number of marine tracers. However, marine transport events are rare and most likely not the main source of bromide in surface snow at Summit. The observed levels of BrO are predicted to influence NOx chemistry as well as impact HOx partitioning. However, impact of local snow photochemistry on HOx is smaller than previously suggested for Summit.

  1. Two New Types of Conserved Quantities Deduced from Noether Symmetry for Nonholonomic Mechanical System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-Ni; FANG Jian-Hui; PANG Ting; LIN Peng

    2009-01-01

    For a nonholonomic mechanical system, the generalized Mei conserved quantity and the new generalized Hojman conserved quantity deduced from Noether symmetry of the system are studied.The criterion equation of the Noether symmetry for the system is got.The conditions under which the Noether symmetry can lead to the two new conserved quantities are presented and the forms of the conserved quantities are obtained.Finally, an example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  2. Hojman conserved quantity deduced by weak Noether symmetry for Lagrange systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Jia-Fang; Gang Tie-Qiang; Mei Feng-Xiang

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the Hojman conserved quantity,a non-Noether conserved quantity,deduced by special weak Noether symmetry for Lagrange systems.Under special infinitesimal transformations in which the time is not variable,its criterion is given and a method of how to seek the Hojman conserved quantity is presented.A Hojman conserved quantity can be found by using the special weak Noether symmetry.

  3. Antireflective coating for AgBr-TlI and AgBr-TlBr0.46I0.54 solid solution crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsakov, Alexandr; Salimgareev, Dmitrii; Lvov, Alexandr; Zhukova, Liya

    2016-12-01

    We researched the process of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation for the crystals of AgBr-TlI and AgBr-TlBr0.46I0.54 systems. It was found that on the surface of irradiated crystals, the film is formed and film grain size depends on exposure time and crystal composition. This film proved to gain the transmission by reducing the reflection from its surface within the 8.0-27.0 μm range.

  4. UV-Induced Anisotropy In CdBr2-CdBr2: Cu Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Naggar A. M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have found an occurrence of anisotropy in the nanostructure CdBr2-CdBr2: Cu nanocrystalline films. The film thickness was varied from 4 nm up to 80 nm. The films were prepared by successive deposition of the novel layers onto the basic nanocrystals. The detection of anisotropy was performed by occurrence of anisotropy in the polarized light at 633 nm He-Ne laser wavelength. The occurrence of anisotropy was substantially dependent on the film thickness and the photoinduced power density. Possible mechanisms of the observed phenomena are discussed.

  5. On the Reaction Mechanism of Br2 with OCS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Tao YU; Hua ZHONG; Ming Xia LI; Hong Gang FU; Jia Zhong SUN

    2005-01-01

    The reaction mechanism of photochemical reaction between Br2 ( 1 ∑ ) and OCS ( 1 ∑ ) is predicted by means of theoretical methods. The calculated results indicate that the direct addition of Br2 to the CS bond of OCS molecule is more favorable in energy than the direct addition of Br2to the CO bond. Furthermore, the intermediate isomer syn-BrC(O)SBr is more stable thermodynamically and kinetically than anti-BrC(O)SBr. The original resultant anti-BrC(O)SBr formed in the most favorable reaction channel can easily isomerize into the final product syn-BrC(O)SBr with only 31.72 kJ/mol reaction barrier height. The suggested mechanism is in good agreement with previous experimental study.

  6. A comparative study of LaBr3(Ce(3+)) and CeBr3 based gamma-ray spectrometers for planetary remote sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, A; Mitrofanov, I; Owens, A; Quarati, F; Benkhoff, J; Bakhtin, B; Fedosov, F; Golovin, D; Litvak, M; Malakhov, A; Mokrousov, M; Nuzhdin, I; Sanin, A; Tretyakov, V; Vostrukhin, A; Timoshenko, G; Shvetsov, V; Granja, C; Slavicek, T; Pospisil, S

    2016-08-01

    The recent availability of large volume cerium bromide crystals raises the possibility of substantially improving gamma-ray spectrometer limiting flux sensitivities over current systems based on the lanthanum tri-halides, e.g., lanthanum bromide and lanthanum chloride, especially for remote sensing, low-level counting applications or any type of measurement characterized by poor signal to noise ratios. The Russian Space Research Institute has developed and manufactured a highly sensitive gamma-ray spectrometer for remote sensing observations of the planet Mercury from the Mercury Polar Orbiter (MPO), which forms part of ESA's BepiColombo mission. The Flight Model (FM) gamma-ray spectrometer is based on a 3-in. single crystal of LaBr3(Ce(3+)) produced in a separate crystal development programme specifically for this mission. During the spectrometers development, manufacturing, and qualification phases, large crystals of CeBr3 became available in a subsequent phase of the same crystal development programme. Consequently, the Flight Spare Model (FSM) gamma-ray spectrometer was retrofitted with a 3-in. CeBr3 crystal and qualified for space. Except for the crystals, the two systems are essentially identical. In this paper, we report on a comparative assessment of the two systems, in terms of their respective spectral properties, as well as their suitability for use in planetary mission with respect to radiation tolerance and their propensity for activation. We also contrast their performance with a Ge detector representative of that flown on MESSENGER and show that: (a) both LaBr3(Ce(3+)) and CeBr3 provide superior detection systems over HPGe in the context of minimally resourced spacecraft and (b) CeBr3 is a more attractive system than LaBr3(Ce(3+)) in terms of sensitivities at lower gamma fluxes. Based on the tests, the FM has now been replaced by the FSM on the BepiColombo spacecraft. Thus, CeBr3 now forms the central gamma-ray detection element on the MPO spacecraft.

  7. A comparative study of LaBr3(Ce3+) and CeBr3 based gamma-ray spectrometers for planetary remote sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, A.; Mitrofanov, I.; Owens, A.; Quarati, F.; Benkhoff, J.; Bakhtin, B.; Fedosov, F.; Golovin, D.; Litvak, M.; Malakhov, A.; Mokrousov, M.; Nuzhdin, I.; Sanin, A.; Tretyakov, V.; Vostrukhin, A.; Timoshenko, G.; Shvetsov, V.; Granja, C.; Slavicek, T.; Pospisil, S.

    2016-08-01

    The recent availability of large volume cerium bromide crystals raises the possibility of substantially improving gamma-ray spectrometer limiting flux sensitivities over current systems based on the lanthanum tri-halides, e.g., lanthanum bromide and lanthanum chloride, especially for remote sensing, low-level counting applications or any type of measurement characterized by poor signal to noise ratios. The Russian Space Research Institute has developed and manufactured a highly sensitive gamma-ray spectrometer for remote sensing observations of the planet Mercury from the Mercury Polar Orbiter (MPO), which forms part of ESA's BepiColombo mission. The Flight Model (FM) gamma-ray spectrometer is based on a 3-in. single crystal of LaBr3(Ce3+) produced in a separate crystal development programme specifically for this mission. During the spectrometers development, manufacturing, and qualification phases, large crystals of CeBr3 became available in a subsequent phase of the same crystal development programme. Consequently, the Flight Spare Model (FSM) gamma-ray spectrometer was retrofitted with a 3-in. CeBr3 crystal and qualified for space. Except for the crystals, the two systems are essentially identical. In this paper, we report on a comparative assessment of the two systems, in terms of their respective spectral properties, as well as their suitability for use in planetary mission with respect to radiation tolerance and their propensity for activation. We also contrast their performance with a Ge detector representative of that flown on MESSENGER and show that: (a) both LaBr3(Ce3+) and CeBr3 provide superior detection systems over HPGe in the context of minimally resourced spacecraft and (b) CeBr3 is a more attractive system than LaBr3(Ce3+) in terms of sensitivities at lower gamma fluxes. Based on the tests, the FM has now been replaced by the FSM on the BepiColombo spacecraft. Thus, CeBr3 now forms the central gamma-ray detection element on the MPO spacecraft.

  8. Medium-spin states of the neutron-rich 87,89Br isotopes: configurations and shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyakó, B. M.; Timár, J.; Csatlós, M.; Dombrádi, Zs; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kuti, I.; Sohler, D.; Tornyi, T. G.; Czerwiński, M.; Rząca-Urban, T.; Urban, W.; Bączyk, P.; Atanasova, L.; Balabanski, D. L.; Sieja, K.; Blanc, A.; Jentschel, M.; Köster, U.; Mutti, P.; Soldner, T.; de France, G.; Simpson, G. S.; Ur, C. A.

    2016-06-01

    Medium-spin excited states of the neutron-rich 87Br and 89Br nuclei were observed and studied for the first time. They were populated in fission of 235U induced by the cold-neutron beam of the PF1B facility of the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble. The measurement of γ radiation following fission has been performed using the EXILL array of Ge detectors. The observed level schemes were compared with results of large valence space shell model calculations. Both medium-spin level schemes consist of band-like structures, which can be understood as bands built on the πf 5/2, πp 3/2 and πg 9/2 configurations. Both nuclei have 5/2- ground state spin-parity contrary to the odd-mass Br isotopes containing fewer neutrons, which have 3/2- ground state spin-parity. On the basis of the properties of the πg 9/2 decoupled bands the deformations of the 87Br and 89Br fit to the systematics of nuclei in the region. 87Br is close to the vibrational limit, while 89Br is more rotational.

  9. Anticorrosion Performance of Carbon Steel in 55% LiBr Solution Containing PMA/SbBr3 Inhibitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xian-qi; LIANG Cheng-hao; HUANG Nai-bao

    2006-01-01

    The anticorrosion performance of carbon steel in 55% LiBr solution containing PMA/SbBr3 inhibitor was studied by weight-loss tests, electrochemical measurements and surface analysis. In 55%LiBr+PMA/SbBr3 solution, corrosion rates of carbon steel at 145 ℃, 175 ℃, 190 ℃ and 240 ℃ are 18.32 μm·a-1, 27.68 μm·a-1, 53.58 μm·a-1 and 73.78 μm·a-1, respectively. PMA/SbBr3 inhibitor may inhibit the corrosion of carbon steel in 55% LiBr solution effectively. Especially, it shows an excellent corrosion inhibition performance at high temperature. Both anodic and cathodic reactions of carbon steel may be inhibited by PMA/SbBr3 inhibitor, so it may be classified as mixed inhibitor. In 55%LiBr+PMA/SbBr3 solution, the apparent activation energy of the corrosion reaction of carbon steel is 29.61 kJ·mol-1. The corrosion inhibition mechanism of PMA/SbBr3 is suggested as follows: PMA has the effect of inhibiting hydrogen evolution and a strong oxidizing property; Sb3+ also exhibits oxidizing properties, and can exist stably with PMA in LiBr solutions; the passive film comprising Fe2O3 and antimony formed on carbon steel surface may prevent Br- from diffusing into the metal surface due to the synergistic effect of PMA and Sb3+; As a result, the anticorrosion performance of carbon steel may be improved by PMA/SbBr3 inhibitor in 55% LiBr solution.

  10. Ozone Depletion Potential of CH3Br. Appendix H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Sze, Nien Dak; Scott, Courtney; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Sander, Stanley P.

    1998-01-01

    The ozone depletion potential (ODP) of methyl bromide (CH3Br) can be determined by combining the model-calculated bromine efficiency factor (BEF) for CH3Br and its atmospheric lifetime. This paper examines how changes in several key kinetic data affect BEF. The key reactions highlighted in this study include the reaction of BrO + HO2, the absorption cross section of HOBr, the absorption cross section and the photolysis products of BrONO2, and the heterogeneous conversion of BrONO2 to HOBr and HNO3 on aerosol particles. By combining the calculated BEF with the latest estimate of 0.7 year for the atmospheric lifetime of CH3Br, the likely value of ODP for CH3Br is 0.39. The model-calculated concentration of HBr (approx. 0.3 pptv) in the lower stratosphere is substantially smaller than the reported measured value of about 1 pptv. Recent publications suggested models can reproduce the measured value if one assumes a yield for HBr from the reaction of BrO + OH or from the reaction of BrO + HO2. Although the evaluation concluded any substantial yield of HBr from BrO + HO2 is unlikely, for completeness, we calculate the effects of these assumed yields on BEF for CH3Br. Our calculations show that the effects are minimal: practically no impact for an assumed 1.3% yield of HBr from BrO + OH and 10% smaller for an assumed 0.6% yield from BrO + HO2.

  11. Thick-target yields of radioactive targets deduced from inverse kinematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aikawa, M., E-mail: aikawa@sci.hokudai.ac.jp [Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Ebata, S.; Imai, S. [Meme Media Laboratory, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    The thick-target yield (TTY) is a macroscopic quantity reflected by nuclear reactions and matter properties of targets. In order to evaluate TTYs on radioactive targets, we suggest a conversion method from inverse kinematics corresponding to the reaction of radioactive beams on stable targets. The method to deduce the TTY is theoretically derived from inverse kinematics. We apply the method to the {sup nat}Cu({sup 12}C,X){sup 24}Na reaction to confirm availability. In addition, it is applied to the {sup 137}Cs + {sup 12}C reaction as an example of a radioactive system and discussed a conversion coefficient of a TTY measurement.

  12. A2BR adenosine receptor modulates sweet taste in circumvallate taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Kataoka

    Full Text Available In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3 on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate, but not anterior (fungiform, palate taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields.

  13. Genetic analysis of the br gene in halophilic archaea isolated from Xinjiang region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohong XU; Min WU; Huibin ZHANG; Zhihu LIU

    2008-01-01

    Some novel members of extremely halophilic archaea, strains AJ 11, AJ 12 and AJ 13, were isolated from the Aularz Lake located in the Altun Mountain National Nature Reserve of Xinjiang, Uygur Autonomous Region in China. Partial DNA fragments encoding a bacteriorho-dopsin (BR), as well as for 16S rRNA of isolated strains, were amplified by PCR and their DNA sequences were determined subsequently. On the basis of homology and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA, we thought that the isolated strains forming a microbiological population are the members of the genus Natrinema. The results of genetic analysis, such as GC content, transition/transver-sion (Ti/Tv) rate ratios and synonymous substitution rates (Ks) indicate that the br fragments, with a high level of genetic divergence, are faced with both purifying selection and bias mutation pressure. The study provides the basis for use of species and BR proteins resources.

  14. Origin of halides (Cl- and Br-) and of their stable isotopes (d37Cl and d81Br) at the Tournemire URL (France) - Experimental and numerical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachir-Bey, Nassim; Matray, Jean-Michel

    2014-05-01

    This work is part of research conducted by the Institute of Radiological and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) on the geological disposal of High-Level and Intermediate-Level Long-Lived (HL-ILLL) radioactive waste in deep clayrocks. In France, the choice of the potential host rock for the geological storage is focused on the Callovian-Oxfordian (COx) of Meuse/Haute-Marne from its low permeability, capacity for self- sealing, high sorption and ability to radionuclide (RN) transport by diffusion. IRSN, which plays an expert role for ASN has its own underground research laboratory in a clayrock which has strong analogies to the COx. This is the Toarcian/Domerian clayrock located at Tournemire in southern Aveyron in France. The purpose of this study was to assess the transfer of RN in the Tournemire clayrock through the study of halides contents and of their stable isotopes (Cl-, Br-, Cl-/Br-, d37Cl, d81Br). The approach used was multiple and consisted for halides to: 1) Assess their stock in different fractions of the rock by applying several techniques including i) alkaline fusion for their total stock, ii) leaching to access their stock in porewater and to mineral phases sensitive to dissolution iii) cubic diffusion for their stock in porewater, 2) Get their diffusive transport parameters of a selection of samples from the upper Toarcian by cubic diffusion experiments modelled using the Hytec transport code developed by Mines ParisTech and 3) Model their transport after palaeohydrogeological known changes of the Tournemire massif. The experimental approach, conducted at the LAME lab, did not lead to an operational protocol for the alkaline fusion due to an incomplete rock dissolution. Leaching was used to characterize the concentrations of halides in the fractions of pore water and of minerals sensitive to dissolution. The results show levels of halides much higher than those of pore water with very low Cl/Br ratios likely resulting from the dissolution of mineral species. The

  15. SOFC brændselsceller i et intelligent elnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelm, Johan

    2015-01-01

    SOFC brændselsceller kan være med til at skabe balance i elnettet i takt med at elproduktionen i stigende grad baseres på sol og vind. Brændselscellerne kan kobles til naturgasnettet og på sigt bruge forskellige former for VE-gasser som brændstof.......SOFC brændselsceller kan være med til at skabe balance i elnettet i takt med at elproduktionen i stigende grad baseres på sol og vind. Brændselscellerne kan kobles til naturgasnettet og på sigt bruge forskellige former for VE-gasser som brændstof....

  16. New prospects for deducing the evolutionary history of metabolic pathways in prokaryotes: Aromatic biosynthesis as a case-in-point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Suhail; Jensen, Roy A.

    1988-03-01

    Metabolic pathways of prokaryotes are more biochemically diverse than is generally recognized. Distinctive biochemical features are shared by phylogenetic clusters. The hierarchical levels of characterstate clustering depends upon evolutionary events which fortuitously became fixed in the genome of a common ancestor. Prokaryotes can now be ordered on a phylogenetic tree. This allows the evolutionary steps that underlie the construction and regulation of appropriately complex biochemical pathways to be traced in an evolutionary progression of prokaryote types that house these pathways. Essentially the approach is to deduce ancestral character states at ever deeper phylogenetic levels, utilizing logical principles of maximum parsimony. The current perspective on the evolution of the biochemical pathway for biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids is developed as a case-in-point model for analyses that should be feasible with many major metabolic systems. Phenylalanine biosynthesis probably arose prior to the addition of branches leading to tyrosine and tryptophan. An evolutionary scenario is developed that begins with non-enzymatic reactions which may have operated in primitive systems, followed by the evolution of an enzymatic system that pre-dated the divergence of major lineages of modern eubacteria (Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative purple bacteria, and cyanobacteria).

  17. Brüssel Euroopa pealinnaks? / Ülar Mark

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mark, Ülar, 1968-

    2009-01-01

    Brüsseli Euroopa kvartali planeerimisvõistlusest, mille peakorraldaja oli Brüsseli pealinna piirkond koos Brüsseli linna ja Euroopa Komisjoniga. Eestist osales žüriis arhitekt Ülar Mark. Meeskonna Atelier Christian de Portzamparc võidutööst ja teiste teise vooru pääsenud nelja meeskonna (JDS / Julien De Smedt Architects, OMA / Office for Metropolitan Architecture, Xaveer De Geyter Architect, Fletcher Priest Architects) töödest

  18. Collectivity in A ∼ 70 nuclei studied via lifetime measurements in {sup 70}Br and {sup 68,70}Se

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, A.J., E-mail: an527@york.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Wadsworth, R. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Iwasaki, H. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, 164 S. Shaw Lane, East Lansing, MI 48825-1321 (United States); Kaneko, K. [Department of Physics, Kyushu Sangyo University, Fukuoka 813-8503 (Japan); Lemasson, A. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, 164 S. Shaw Lane, East Lansing, MI 48825-1321 (United States); Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds, Bd. Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Angelis, G. de [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro dell' INFN, Legnaro (Padova) I-35020 (Italy); Bader, V.M.; Baugher, T.; Bazin, D. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, 164 S. Shaw Lane, East Lansing, MI 48825-1321 (United States); Bentley, M.A. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Berryman, J.S. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, 164 S. Shaw Lane, East Lansing, MI 48825-1321 (United States); Braunroth, T. [Institut für Kernphysik der Universität zu Köln, Köln 50937 (Germany); Davies, P.J. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-06-02

    Transition strengths for decays from low-lying states in A ∼ 70 nuclei have been deduced from lifetime measurements using the recoil distance Doppler shift technique. The results confirm the collectivity previously reported for the 2{sub 1}{sup +}→0{sub gs}{sup +} decay in {sup 68}Se and reveal a relative decrease in collectivity in {sup 70}Br. This trend is reproduced by shell model calculations using the GXPF1A interaction in an fp model space including the Coulomb, spin-orbit and isospin non-conserving interactions. The 3{sub 1}{sup +}→2{sub 1}{sup +} decay in {sup 70}Br is found to have a very small B(M1) value, which is consistent with the configuration of the state being dominated by the coupling of f{sub 5/2} protons and neutrons. The results suggest that the g{sub 9/2} orbit does not play an important role at low spin in these nuclei. The B(E2) values for the decays of the (T = 1) 2{sub 1}{sup +} states in {sup 70}Br and {sup 70}Se are almost identical, suggesting there is no major shape change between the two nuclei at low spin.

  19. Overexpression of YB1 C-terminal domain inhibits proliferation, angiogenesis and tumorigenicity in a SK-BR-3 breast cancer xenograft mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian-Hong; Cui, Nai-Peng; Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Ming-Zhi; Wang, Bing; Wang, Ya-Nan; Chen, Bao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Y-box-binding protein 1 (YB1) is a multifunctional transcription factor with vital roles in proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. In this study, we have examined the role of its C-terminal domain (YB1 CTD) in proliferation, angiogenesis and tumorigenicity in breast cancer. Breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3 was infected with GFP-tagged YB1 CTD adenovirus expression vector. An 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) proliferation assay showed that YB1 CTD decreased SK-BR-3 cell proliferation, and down-regulated cyclin B1 and up-regulated p21 levels in SK-BR-3 cells. YB1 CTD overexpression changed the cytoskeletal organization and slightly inhibited the migration of SK-BR-3 cells. YB1 CTD also inhibited secreted VEGF expression in SK-BR-3 cells, which decreased SK-BR-3-induced EA.hy926 endothelial cell angiogenesis in vitro. YB1 CTD overexpression attenuated the ability of SK-BR-3 cells to form tumours in nude mice, and decreased in vivo VEGF levels and angiogenesis in the xenografts in SK-BR-3 tumour-bearing mice. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the vital role of YB1 CTD overexpression in inhibiting proliferation, angiogenesis and tumorigenicity of breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3.

  20. Active, passive and satellite borne spectroscopic measurements of tropospheric BrO during the OASIS 2009 campaign in Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friess, U.; Sihler, H.; Wagner, T.; Platt, U.

    2009-12-01

    Bromine activation plays an important role in the chemistry of the springtime Arctic boundary layer. The presence of elevated BrO levels, leading to the destruction of near-surface ozone down to undetectable concentrations, is a widespread phenomenon over the sea-ice covered Arctic Ocean. BrO is thought to be released from saline surfaces, such as brine and frost flowers, by autocatalytic reaction cycles leading to the exponential increase of reactive bromine in the gas phase - the so-called bromine explosion. However, the direct sources of reactive bromine and the recycling mechanisms taking place at aerosol particles and snow surfaces are still not entirely understood, and the current knowledge on the BrO vertical distribution is very limited. Here we present synergistic multi-platform spectroscopic measurements of BrO performed during the OASIS 2009 field campaign in Barrow, Alaska. Active Long-Path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements of BrO and other trace gases (e.g., ozone, NO2, SO2, formaldehyde) directly yield the average near-surface concentration along a light path of several kilometers along the coast using an artificial light source. Simultaneously a passive Multi-Axis DOAS instrument collected scattered skylight from different viewing directions between zenith and close to the horizon, making it very sensitive for the overall tropospheric BrO vertical column density. Furthermore, Multi-Axis DOAS measurements contain information on the vertical distribution of trace gases, allowing the retrieval of BrO vertical profiles. Our ground-based measurements will be compared with BrO vertical column densities from the GOME-2 instrument onboard the MetOp satellite. At high latitudes, this instrument has the capability to scan each location several times a day, allowing for the comparison of the diurnal variation of BrO with the ground-based observations.

  1. CsEuBr3: Crystal structure and its role in the photostimulation of CsBr :Eu2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, S.; Zimmermann, J.; von Seggern, H.; Ehrenberg, H.; Fuess, H.; Fasel, C.; Riedel, R.

    2006-10-01

    CsBr :Eu2+ has recently been investigated as a photostimulable x-ray storage phosphor with great potential for application in high-resolution image plates. In a recent paper Hackenschmied et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 93, 5109 (2003)] suggested that segregations of CsEuBr3 or Cs4EuBr6 formed within CsBr :Eu2+ during annealing are responsible for an increase in the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) yield. In this work single crystals of CsEuBr3 were prepared by a one step synthesis and identified by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis as single phase perovskites. It was concluded that, after preparation, CsEuBr3 degrades in normal atmosphere into at least two phases, one of which is the orthorhombic structure of Cs2EuBr5•10H2O. The XRD powder diffraction pattern of this compound is very similar to that of the segregations observed within CsBr :Eu2+ and reported by Hackenschmied et al. However, the increased PSL yield in CsBr :Eu2+ after annealing cannot be due to the segregations, because the trivalent nature of the europium in the segregations renders them PSL inactive.

  2. Atmospheric phenomena deduced from radiosonde and GPS occultation measurements for various application related studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C J Johny; S K Sarkar; D Punyasesudu

    2009-02-01

    The tropopause height and tropopause temperature are sensitive to temperature changes in troposphere and stratosphere. These are the measures of global climatic variability. Atmospheric profiles of temperature, refractivity and water vapour are always needed for communication, navigation and atmospheric modeling studies. The tropopause characteristics over the Indian region have been studied using radio occultation measurements (CHAMP) on the basis of cold point criterion. Tropopause height shows large variation in the latitude range ∼30° –40°N during winter. Tropopause temperature less than −82°C, assumed to facilitate troposphere to stratosphere air transport, is observed at a number of tropical Indian locations and no seasonal pattern is observed in its occurrence. The bias in temperature and refractivity deduced from radiosonde and radio occultation measurements is also presented.

  3. An asymmetric color image encryption method by using deduced gyrator transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lili; Yuan, Caojin; Qiang, Junjie; Feng, Shaotong; Nie, Shouping

    2017-02-01

    An encryption algorithm is proposed by using the properties of deduced gyrator transform (GT). After being transformed by the GT algorithm and multiplied by a phase distribution p*, the spectrum modulus of the input image is considered to be the encrypted image by further performing Fourier transformation. To resist the attack from iterative phase retrieval, the red, green and blue components of the input image is modulated by a random phase mask and then combined using convolution. The encryption result is real-valued, which is convenient for display, transmission and storage. In the decryption process, the three original color components can be recovered with decryption keys which are different from the encryption keys. An optoelectronic hybrid system for the encryption process is also presented. Computer simulations are presented to demonstrate its performance, and the security of the proposed system is analyzed as well.

  4. New values of gravitational moments J2 and J4 deduced from helioseismology

    CERN Document Server

    Redouane, Mecheri; Irbah, Abdanour; Provost, Janine; Berthomieu, Gabrielle; 10.1023/B:SOLA.0000043563.96766.21

    2009-01-01

    By applying the theory of slowly rotating stars to the Sun, the solar quadrupole and octopole moments J2 and J4 were computed using a solar model obtained from CESAM stellar evolution code (Morel, 1997) combined with a recent model of solar differential rotation deduced from helioseismology (Corbard et al., 2002). This model takes into account a near-surface radial gradient of rotation which was inferred and quantified from MDI f-mode observations by Corbard and Thompson (2002). The effect of this observational near-surface gradient on the theoretical values of the surface parameters J2, J4 is investigated. The results show that the octopole moment J4 is much more sensitive than the quadrupole moment J2 to the subsurface radial gradient of rotation.

  5. Martian low-altitude magnetic topology deduced from MAVEN/SWEA observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shaosui; Mitchell, David; Liemohn, Michael; Fang, Xiaohua; Ma, Yingjuan; Luhmann, Janet; Brain, David; Steckiewicz, Morgane; Mazelle, Christian; Connerney, Jack; Jacosky, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission for the first time make regular particle and field measurements down to ~150 km altitude. The Solar Wind Electron Analyzer (SWEA) instrument provides 3-D measurements of the electron energy and angular distributions. This study presents the pitch angle-resolved shape parameters that can separate photoelectrons from solar wind electrons, therefore used to deduce the Martian magnetic topology. The three-dimensional view of the magnetic topology is manifested for the first time. The northern hemisphere is found to be dominated by the crustal closed field lines, instead of draped interplanetary magnetic fields (IMF), on the dayside and more day-night connections through cross-terminator closed field lines than in the south. This study can also single out open field lines attached to the dayside ionosphere, which provide possible passage for ion outflow. Magnetic topology governs energetic electrons' movement, thus necessary to understand nightside ionosphere, and aurora.

  6. Vortex magnetic structure in circularly magnetized microwires as deduced from magneto-optical Kerr measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2014-02-14

    The magneto-optic Kerr effect has been employed to determine the magnetization process and estimate the domain structure of microwires with circular magnetic anisotropy. The diameter of microwires was 8 μm, and pieces 2 cm long were selected for measurements. The analysis of the local surface longitudinal and transverse hysteresis loops has allowed us to deduce a vortex magnetic structure with axial core and circular external shell. Moreover, a bamboo-like surface domain structure is confirmed with wave length of around 10 to 15 μm and alternating chirality in adjacent circular domains. The width of the domain wall is estimated to be less than 3 μm. Finally, closure domain structures with significant helical magnetization component are observed extending up to around 1000 μm from the end of the microwire.

  7. A major protein precursor of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) byssus: deduced sequence and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K E; Waite, J H

    1998-04-01

    The zebra mussel is a nonindigenous invader of North American lakes and rivers and one of the few freshwater bivalve molluscs having a byssus--a sclerotized organ used by the mussel for opportunistic attachment to hard surfaces. We have sequenced a foot-specific cDNA whose composite protein sequence was deduced from a series of overlapping but occasionally nonidentical cDNA fragments. The overall deduced sequence matches tryptic peptides from a major byssal precursor protein--Dreissena polymorpha foot protein 1 (Dpfp1). The calculated mass of Dpfp1 is 49 kDa; but this is known to be extensively hydroxylated and O-glycosylated during maturation. Purified native Dpfp1 analyzed using matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization mass spectrometry with time-of-flight indicates that the protein occurs as at least two size variants with masses of 48.6 and 54.5 kDa. In all probability, the sequence variants reported in this study are related to the larger mass variant. Dpfp1 has a block copolymer-like structure defined by two consensus motifs that are sharply segregated into domains. The N-terminal side of Dpfp1 has 22 tandem repeats of a heptapeptide consensus (P-[V/E]-Y-P-[T/S/delta]-[K/Q]-X); the C-terminal side has 16 repeats of a tridecapeptide motif (K-P-G-P-Y-D-Y-D-G-P-Y-D-K). Both consensus repeats are unique, with some limited homology to other proteins functioning in tension: marine mussel adhesives, plant extensins, titin, and trematode eggshell precursors.

  8. PRR performance of Cu- and CuBr-vapor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, V. F.; Evtushenko, Gennadiy S.; Klimkin, Vladimir M.; Polunin, Yu. P.; Soldatov, Anatoly N.; Sukhanov, Viktor B.

    1998-06-01

    Results obtained from comparative analysis of the pulse repetition rate performance of Cu- and CuBr-vapor lasers operated at high pump pulse repetitions (approximately 100 kHz) are reported. For a CuBr laser with a 8 mm diameter discharge tube the laser pulse repetition rate as high as 270 kHz was realized.

  9. [Br-76]bromodeoxyuridine PET in tumor-bearing animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardelle, O; Roelcke, U; Vontobel, P; Crompton, NEA; Guenther, [No Value; Blauenstein, P; Schubiger, AP; Blattmann, H; Ryser, JE; Leenders, KL; Kaser-Hotz, B

    2001-01-01

    5-bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR) provides in vitro measures of tumor cell proliferation. We used positron emission tomography to study tissue and plasma kinetics of [Br-76]BUdR in tumor-bearing animals. In order to account for the slow washout of the major plasma metabolite, [Br-76]bromide, a mathematical

  10. Growth, structure and optical properties of Tl{sub 4}HgBr{sub 6} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khyzhun, O.Y., E-mail: khyzhun@ipms.kiev.ua [Frantsevych Institute for Problems of Materials Science, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 3 Krzhyzhanivsky Street, 03142 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kityk, I.V. [Electrical Engineering Department, Częstochowa University of Technology, Armii Krajowej 17, PL-42-217 Częstochowa (Poland); Piasecki, M. [Institute of Physics, J. Dlugosz University Częstochowa, Armii Krajowej 13/15, Częstochowa (Poland); Fedorchuk, A.O. [Department of Inorganic and Organic Chemistry, Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, 50 Pekarska Street, 79010 Lviv (Ukraine); Levkovets, S.I. [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Eastern European National University, 13 Voli Avenue, 43025 Lutsk (Ukraine); Fochuk, P.M. [Yuriy Fed’kovych Chernivtsi National University, 2 Kotziubynskoho Street, 58012 Chernivtsi (Ukraine); Myronchuk, G.L. [Department of Solid State Physics, Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University, 13 Voli Avenue, 43025 Lutsk (Ukraine); Parasyuk, O.V. [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Eastern European National University, 13 Voli Avenue, 43025 Lutsk (Ukraine)

    2015-12-15

    Tl{sub 4}HgBr{sub 6} single crystals were grown using solution-fusion method. The crystal structure of the ternary bromide was refined. Tl{sub 4}HgBr{sub 6} crystallizes in the non-centrosymmetric space group P4nc with the lattice parameters a=8.9539(8) Å and c=8.7884(8) Å and it is isostructural to the Tl{sub 4}HgI{sub 6} compound. The non-centrosymmetric structure of the Tl{sub 4}HgBr{sub 6} compound was also confirmed by the existence of a modest second harmonic generation effect (0.4–0.5 pm/V) and by the value of piezoelectric coefficient (0.9 pm/V). The electronic structure of Tl{sub 4}HgBr{sub 6} was explored using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES). In particular, for the Tl{sub 4}HgBr{sub 6} crystal, we have measured XPS core-level and valence-band spectra for both pristine and Ar{sup +} ion-bombarded surfaces. The XPS data reveal low hygroscopicity of Tl{sub 4}HgBr{sub 6}, the property that is very important when handling this material in optoelectronic devices working at ambient conditions. The present XPS data indicate that the Tl{sub 4}HgBr{sub 6} single crystal surface is rather sensitive with respect to Ar{sup +} ion-bombardment: such a treatment reduces significantly mercury content in the topmost surface layers. Comparison on a common energy scale of the XPS valence-band spectrum of Tl{sub 4}HgBr{sub 6} and the XE Br Kβ{sub 2} band, representing peculiarities of the energy distribution of the Br 4 p states, reveals that the main contribution of the valence Br p states occurs in the upper portion of the valence band, with also their significant contributions in other valence band regions. The measurements of spectral distribution of the absorption coefficient indicate that the Tl{sub 4}HgBr{sub 6} compound is a semiconductor with the bandgap energy value of 2.43 eV at 300 K, and the bandgap energy increases up to 2.48 eV when temperature decreases to 100 K.

  11. Statistical γ -decay properties of 64Ni and deduced (n ,γ ) cross section of the s -process branch-point nucleus 63Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo Campo, L.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Eriksen, T. K.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Hadynska-Klek, K.; Klintefjord, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Renstrøm, T.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Springer, A.; Tornyi, T. G.; Tveten, G. M.

    2016-10-01

    Particle-γ coincidence data have been analyzed to obtain the nuclear level density and the γ -strength function of 64Ni by means of the Oslo method. The level density found in this work is in very good agreement with known energy levels at low excitation energies as well as with data deduced from particle-evaporation measurements at excitation energies above Ex≈5.5 MeV. The experimental γ -strength function presents an enhancement at γ energies below Eγ≈3 MeV and possibly a resonancelike structure centered at Eγ≈9.2 MeV. The obtained nuclear level density and γ -strength function have been used to estimate the (n ,γ ) cross section for the s -process branch-point nucleus 63Ni, of particular interest for astrophysical calculations of elemental abundances.

  12. Corrosion inhibition performance of a ionic liquid surfactant Br

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing LIU

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the novel green organic mercury-substituting inhibitors, the ionic liquid surfactant 1-methyl-3-dodecyl imidazole bromide ( Br is synthesized with N-methyl imidazole and 1-bromodecane as raw materials. The corrosion inhibition of Br for zinc in zinc-manganese batteries is investigated using electrochemical methods and weight loss methods. The results show that corrosion inhibition efficiency increases with the increase of the concentration of Br, and when the concentration is higher than 8×10-3 mol/L, the inhibition efficiency tends to be stable. The polarization curve shows that Br belongs to mixed-type corrosion inhibitor. The thermodynamic parameters show that Br is spontaneously adsorbed on the zinc surface, forming a monomolecular adsorption layer, which fits with Langmuir adsorption isotherm with physical and chemical adsorption mechanism.

  13. Alocação de linhagens de milho derivadas das populações BR-105 e BR-106 em grupos heteróticos Allocation of maize lines from BR-105 and BR-106 populations to heterotic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério de Melo Costa Pinto

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Os grupos heteróticos são importantes no melhoramento de milho, pois permitem o uso mais eficiente do germoplasma. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi alocar linhagens de milho em grupos heteróticos a partir de estimativas da capacidade específica de combinação. Oito linhagens S3 da população BR-105 e dez da BR-106, foram cruzadas ao nível interpopulacional seguindo um sistema dialélico. Oitenta híbridos simples foram obtidos e avaliados em látices em três ambientes. Foram avaliados os caracteres produção de grãos (PG, altura da planta (AP e altura da espiga (AE. As estimativas das capacidades geral (CGC e específica (CEC de combinação foram obtidas segundo o método 4, modelo I de Griffing. A partir das estimativas de CEC, as linhagens foram alocadas aos respectivos grupos heteróticos utilizando-se o método UPGMA (média aritmética não ponderada para a construção do dendrograma e a dispersão gráfica pelo método das coordenadas principais. Para PG, as linhagens foram alocadas em quatro grupos heteróticos, sendo dois grupos em cada população. Para AP e AE, o uso das estimativas de CEC não foi eficiente para alocar as linhagens em grupos heteróticos. As análises de agrupamento e de coordenadas principais foram eficientes na alocação das linhagens em grupos heteróticos para PG. Então, como a produção de grãos é a principal característica para o melhoramento de milho, com a alocação das linhagens em quatro grupos heteróticos, os cruzamentos serão direcionados e o processo de melhoramento se tornará mais eficiente, evitando a obtenção e a avaliação de cruzamentos (híbridos desnecessários.The heterotic groups are important in maize breeding programs because they allow the most efficient use of the germoplasm. The objective of this research was to allocate maize lines to heterotic groups from estimates of specific combining ability (SCA. Eight and ten S3 lines derived from populations BR-105 and BR

  14. 气相中BrO-与CH3Cl反应机理的理论研究%Theoretical study on the reaction mechanism of BrO- with CH3C1 in gas phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿志远; 王秀红; 王永成; 周婧; 吴建花; 刘宏强

    2011-01-01

    采用二阶微扰(MP2)计算方法,在aug-cc-pVDZ基组下对反应中各驻点进行了全几何结构参数优化,并在相同基组下进一步用CCSD(T)方法进行了单点能计算.结果表明,BrO与CH3Cl的反应先通过一个传统的SN2反应,生成富能中间体IM2(BrOCH3…Cl),接着中间体IM2解离为SN2机理的产物P1(BrOCH3+Cl);而且还能继续发生氧、碳间的消除反应和氧上的取代反应,前者生成P2(CH2O+Br-+HCl),后者生成P3(CH3OCl+Br-).其中,传统的SN2为主反应通道,SN2诱导消除反应和取代反应为竞争的次反应通道,计算结果与实验相吻合.%The reaction mechanism of BrO- with CH3Cl has been investigated using the MP2 level of theory with aug-cc-pVDZ basis set. The single-point energies have also been refined at the CCSD(T)/augcc-pVDZ level to get more accurate energies. Computational results indicate that BrO- +CH3Cl initially proceed a traditional SN2 mechanism, generating an energy-enriched intermediate IM2 (BrOCH3 … Cl),then followed by decomposition of IM2 produce P1 (BrOCH3+Cl) in SN2 mechanism. IM2 can also occur an elimination reaction between carbon and oxygen atoms. Further substitution reaction takes place on oxygen atom. The former primary generates P2 (CH2O+ HCl+Br- ), the latter primary produces P3 (CH3OCl+Br-). The channel of traditional SN2 reaction is the main reaction channel, while the minor channels of SN2-induction elimination reactions and substitution reactions are the competitive reaction channels. It is very reasonable and considerably consistent with the experimental.

  15. Variations of the BrO/SO2 molar ratios during the 2015 Cotopaxi eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinger, Florian; Arellano, Santiago; Battaglia, Jean; Bobrowski, Nicole; Galle, Bo; Hernandez, Stephen; Hidalgo, Silvana; Hörmann, Christoph; Lübcke, Peter; Platt, Ulrich; Ruiz, Mario; Warnach, Simon; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Cotopaxi volcano is located 50 km south of Quito, the capital of Ecuador. In case of a large eruption producing lahars, these may cause damage to the inhabited areas located to the south and north of the volcano and to the local water supply and other infrastructure. After almost 140 years of relative quiescence, increasing activity is observed in seismicity and gas emissions since May 2015. During August 2015 ash and gas emissions are recorded. Cotopaxi volcano is part of the Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change (NOVAC) since 2009, thus the observations include the overall eruptive activity onset and its evolution. NOVAC regularly monitors the SO2 emissions of more than 30 volcanoes using scanning UV-spectrometers. Today, monitoring of volcanic SO2 emissions by UV-spectrometers is a widespread tool but its interpretation can be improved by additionally recording halogen/sulphur emission ratios. Recently, it has been shown that spectra from NOVAC instruments can also be used to retrieve the BrO/SO2 molar ratio by applying Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). We apply this new technique to analyse the plume composition of Cotopaxi volcano and will present time series of the BrO/SO2 ratios as monitored by the ground-based NOVAC instruments since March 2015. The SO2 column densities were below 6\\cdot1016 molec/cm^2 prior to May 2015 and up to 1.5\\cdot1018 molec/cm^2 between May and August 2015. For these periods, the BrO column densities were below the detection limit of 3\\cdot1013 molec/cm^2. After the phreatic explosions on 14.08.2015, SO2 column densities of up to 3\\cdot1018 molec/cm^2 and BrO column densities of up to 5\\cdot1014 molec/cm^2 were observed. Until December 2015 these SO2 column densities kept at about the same level but the BrO column densities increased up to 3\\cdot1014 molec/cm^2. After the phreatic explosions we find a detectable signal of BrO. Soon after the eruption the BrO/SO2 molar ratio was low as 1

  16. Studies on the acid-base properties of the ZnBr2NaBr molten salt system

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    The acid-base properties of the ZnBr2-NaBr melts at 623 K were investigated on the basis of the electromotive forcemeasurements of a zinc-zinc concentration cell. The following two chemical equilibria were postulated to describe theacid-base character of the melts.

  17. Density Functional Study of Structures and Electron Affinities of BrO4F/BrO4F-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The structures, electron affinities and bond dissociation energies of BrO4F/BrO4F− species have been investigated with five density functional theory (DFT methods with DZP++ basis sets. The planar F-Br…O2…O2 complexes possess 3A' electronic state for neutral molecule and 4A' state for the corresponding anion. Three types of the neutral-anion energy separations are the adiabatic electron affinity (EAad, the vertical electron affinity (EAvert, and the vertical detachment energy (VDE. The EAad value predicted by B3LYP method is 4.52 eV. The bond dissociation energies De (BrO4F → BrO4-mF + Om (m = 1-4 and De- (BrO4F- → BrO4-mF- + Om and BrO4F- → BrO4-mF + Om- are predicted. The adiabatic electron affinities (EAad were predicted to be 4.52 eV for F-Br…O2…O2 (3A'← 4A' (B3LYP method.

  18. Equilibrium reconstruction in the TCA/Br tokamak; Reconstrucao do equilibrio no tokamak TCA/BR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa, Wanderley Pires de

    1996-12-31

    The accurate and rapid determination of the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium configuration in tokamaks is a subject for the magnetic confinement of the plasma. With the knowledge of characteristic plasma MHD equilibrium parameters it is possible to control the plasma position during its formation using feed-back techniques. It is also necessary an on-line analysis between successive discharges to program external parameters for the subsequent discharges. In this work it is investigated the MHD equilibrium configuration reconstruction of the TCA/BR tokamak from external magnetic measurements, using a method that is able to fast determine the main parameters of discharge. The thesis has two parts. Firstly it is presented the development of an equilibrium code that solves de Grad-Shafranov equation for the TCA/BR tokamak geometry. Secondly it is presented the MHD equilibrium reconstruction process from external magnetic field and flux measurements using the Function Parametrization FP method. this method. This method is based on the statistical analysis of a database of simulated equilibrium configurations, with the goal of obtaining a simple relationship between the parameters that characterize the equilibrium and the measurements. The results from FP are compared with conventional methods. (author) 68 refs., 31 figs., 16 tabs.

  19. Effect of πg and νg alignments in the shape of 75Br from lifetime measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, G.; Joshi, P.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Roy, S. N.; Dutta, S.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.

    2009-10-01

    Lifetimes of 18 high spin states of 75Br were measured by Doppler shift attenuation method. The high spin states in the nucleus were populated by the reaction 51V( 28Si, 2p2n) at 115 MeV beam energy. The transition quadrupole moments, deduced from the lifetimes, were measured beyond the g neutron and proton band crossings in the positive and the negative parity bands. The results were discussed in the cranking model with Woods-Saxon potential and Strutinsky shell correction. Change in triaxiality γ due to neutron and proton alignments has been proposed to explain the observed change in transitional quadrupole moments Q. The experimental results and the cranking calculations suggest that the alignment of a pair of neutrons in the g orbital tends to drive the shape of the nucleus towards negative value of γ while the proton pair alignment in the g orbital tends to drive it towards positive γ.

  20. A High Resolution Phoswich Detector: LaBr3(Ce) Coupled With LaCl3(Ce)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Gallardo, M.; Borge, M. J. G.; Briz, J. A.; Gugliermina, V.; Perea, A.; Tengblad, O.; Turrión, M.

    2010-04-01

    An innovative solution for the forward end-cap CALIFA calorimeter of R3B is under investigation consisting of two scintillation crystals, LaBr3 and LaCl3, stacked together in a phoswich configuration with one readout only. This dispositive should be capable of a good determination of the energy of protons and gamma radiation. This composite detector allows to deduce the initial energy of charged particles by ΔE1+ΔE2 identification. For gammas, the simulations show that there is a high probability that the first interaction occurs inside the scintillator at few centimeters, with a second layer, the rest of the energy is absorbed, or it can be used as veto event in case of no deposition in the first layer. One such a detector has been tested at the Centro de MicroAnálisis de Materiales (CMAM) in Madrid. Good resolution and time signal separation have been achieved.

  1. On some questions of Fisk and Br\\"and\\'en

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Rintaro

    2010-01-01

    P. Br\\"and\\'en recently proved a conjecture due to S. Fisk, R. P. Stanley, P. R. W. McNamara and B. E. Sagan. In addition, P. Br\\"and\\'en gave a partial answer to a question posed by S. Fisk regarding the distribution of zeros of polynomials under the action of certain non-linear operators. In this paper, we give an extension to a result of P. Br\\"and\\'en, and we also answer a question posed by S. Fisk.

  2. Radiation pressure on a submerged absorptive partial reflector deduced from the Doppler shift

    CERN Document Server

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2012-01-01

    When a light pulse is reflected from a mirror, energy and momentum are exchanged between the electromagnetic field and the material medium. The resulting change in the energy of the reflected photons is directly related to their Doppler shift arising from the change in the state of motion of the mirror. Similarly, the Doppler shift of photons that enter an absorber is intimately tied to the kinetic energy and momentum acquired by the absorber in its interaction with the incident light. The argument from the Doppler shift yields expressions for the exchanged energy and momentum that are identical with those obtained from Maxwell's equations and the Lorentz law of force, despite the fact that the physical bases of the two methods are fundamentally different. Here we apply the Doppler shift argument to a submerged partial reflector (one that absorbs a fraction of the incident light), deducing in the process the magnitude of the photon momentum within the submerging medium. We also discuss the case of the submerg...

  3. PAS domain of the deduced Org35 protein mediates the interaction with NifA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Ran; CUI Yanhua; CHEN Sanfeng; LI Jilun

    2006-01-01

    NifA in Azospirillum brasilense plays a key role in regulating the synthesis of nitrogenase in response to ammonia and oxygen available. Recently,our laboratory has identified four clones, whose gene prodcuts interact with NifA, from A. brasilense Sp7genomic libraries by using the yeast two-hybrid system with NifA as bait. We are interested in clone S35,one of the four clones, because it contains a PAS-domain coding region. The entire open reading frame (ORF) for the PAS domain-containing protein was isolated and designated as org35 here. org35gene is 2211-bp long and encodes a protein of 736aa with a predicted molecular weight of about 78.4 kD.The predicted amino acid sequence of org35 has similarity to some two-component sensor kinase/response regulator hybrids of bacteria. Structural analyses showed that Org35 comprises at least three discrete conserved domains: the N-terminal PAS, the central histidine protein kinase (HPK) and the C-terminal response regulator (RR). The PAS domain of the deduced Org35 protein was found to interact directly with NifA, but the central HPK and the C-terminal RR domains of Org35 were not. These results indicated that interaction between NifA and Org35 was mediated by PAS domain.

  4. Optimizing Network Routing by Deducing a QoS Metric Using Rough Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali.A.Sakr,

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The routing within networks, must satisfy the QoS metrics. In traditional data networks, routing is concerned on connectivity or cost. Routing protocols usually characterize the network with one or more metric(s. However, in order to support a wide range of QoS requirements, routing protocols need to have a more complex model. Thenetwork is characterized with multiple metrics such as bandwidth, delay, jitters, loss rate, authentication, security,…etc. This complex model necessitates a long time to proceed. The Rough Set Theory (RST is applied to reduce these metrics successfully and decide the most effective ones. In this paper, RST is applied to reduce the online metrics that are reported by Routing Information Protocols (RIP. The paper represents information about network elements (links, or nodes to obtain the Quality of Service (QoS core [1]. ROSETTA software is applied to deduce a QoS metric as a substitution for all routing metrics. This metric is used to select the optimal routes. The results confirm that the proposed metric is adequately suit for selecting the proper routes.

  5. Deducing the 237U(n,f) cross-section using the Surrogate Ratio Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, J T; Bernstein, L A; Escher, J; Ahle, L; Church, J A; Dietrich, F S; Moody, K J; Norman, E B; Phair, L; Fallon, P; Clark, R M; Deleplanque, M A; Descovich, M; Cromaz, M; Lee, I Y; Macchiavelli, A O; McMahan, M A; Moretto, L G; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E; Stephens, F S; Ai, H; Beausang, C; Cridder, B

    2005-12-29

    The authors have deduced the cross section for {sup 237}U(n,f) over an equivalent neutron energy range from 0 to 20 MeV using the Surrogate Ratio method. A 55 MeV {sup 4}He beam from the 88 Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was used to induce fission in the following reactions: {sup 238}U({alpha},{alpha}{prime}f) and {sup 236}U({alpha},{alpha}{prime}f). The {sup 238}U reaction was a surrogate for {sup 237}U(n,f) and the {sup 236}U reaction was used as a surrogate for {sup 235}U(n,f). Scattered alpha particles were detected in a fully depleted segmented silicon telescope array (STARS) over an angle range of 35{sup o} to 60{sup o} with respect to the beam axis. The fission fragments were detected in a third independent silicon detector located at backward angles between 106{sup o} and 131{sup o}.

  6. Stratospheric aerosol acidity, density, and refractive index deduced from SAGE 2 and NMC temperature data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, G. K.; Poole, L. R.; Wang, P.-H.; Chiou, E. W.

    1994-01-01

    Water vapor concentrations obtained by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 2 (SAGE 2) and collocated temperatures provided by the National Meteorological Center (NMC) from 1986 to 1990 are used to deduce seasonally and zonally averaged acidity, density, and refractive index of stratospheric aerosols. It is found that the weight percentage of sulfuric acid in the aerosols increases from about 60 just above the tropopause to about 86 at 35 km. The density increases from about 1.55 to 1.85 g/cu cm between the same altitude limits. Some seasonal variations of composition and density are evident at high latitudes. The refractive indices at 1.02, 0.694, and 0.532 micrometers increase, respectively, from about 1.425, 1.430, and 1.435 just above the tropopause to about 1.445, 1.455, and 1.458 at altitudes above 27 km, depending on the season and latitude. The aerosol properties presented can be used in models to study the effectiveness of heterogeneous chemistry, the mass loading of stratospheric aerosols, and the extinction and backscatter of aerosols at different wavelengths. Computed aerosol surface areas, rate coefficients for the heterogeneous reaction ClONO2 + H2O yields HOCl + HNO3 and aerosol mass concentrations before and after the Pinatubo eruption in June 1991 are shown as sample applications.

  7. Deducing the 237U(n,f) cross-section using the Surrogate Ratio Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, J T; Bernstein, L A; Escher, J; Ahle, L; Church, J A; Dietrich, F; Moody, K J; Norman, E B; Phair, L W; Fallon, P; Clark, R; Delaplanque, M; Descovich, M; Cromaz, M; Lee, I Y; Macchiavelli, A O; McMahan, M A; Moretto, L G; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E; Stephens, F S

    2005-08-16

    The authors have deduced the {sup 237}U(n,f) cross-section over an equivalent neutron energy range of 0 to 20 MeV using the Surrogate Ratio method. A 55 MeV {sup 4}He{sup 2+} beam from the 88 Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was used to induce fission in the following reactions {sup 238}U({alpha},{alpha}'f) and {sup 236}U({alpha},{alpha}'f). The {sup 238}U reaction was a surrogate for {sup 237}U(n,f) and the {sup 236}U reaction was used as a surrogate for {sup 235}U(n,f). The energies of the scattered alpha particles were detected in a fully depleted segmented silicon telescope array (STARS) over an angle range of 35{sup o} to 60{sup o} with respect to the beam axis. The fission fragments were detected in a third independent silicon detector located at backward angles between 106{sup o} to 131{sup o}.

  8. Martian low-altitude magnetic topology deduced from MAVEN/SWEA observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shaosui; Mitchell, David; Liemohn, Michael; Fang, Xiaohua; Ma, Yingjuan; Luhmann, Janet; Brain, David; Steckiewicz, Morgane; Mazelle, Christian; Connerney, Jack; Jakosky, Bruce

    2017-02-01

    The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution mission has obtained comprehensive particle and magnetic field measurements. The Solar Wind Electron Analyzer provides electron energy-pitch angle distributions along the spacecraft trajectory that can be used to infer magnetic topology. This study presents pitch angle-resolved electron energy shape parameters that can distinguish photoelectrons from solar wind electrons, which we use to deduce the Martian magnetic topology and connectivity to the dayside ionosphere. Magnetic topology in the Mars environment is mapped in three dimensions for the first time. At low altitudes (connections through cross-terminator closed field lines than in the south. Although draped field lines with 100 km amplitude vertical fluctuations that intersect the electron exobase ( 160-220 km) in two locations could appear to be closed at the spacecraft, a more likely explanation is provided by crustal magnetic fields, which naturally have the required geometry. Around 30% of the time, we observe open field lines from 200 to 400 km, which implies three distinct topological layers over the northern hemisphere: closed field lines below 200 km, open field lines with foot points at lower latitudes that pass over the northern hemisphere from 200 to 400 km, and draped interplanetary magnetic field above 400 km. This study also identifies open field lines with one end attached to the dayside ionosphere and the other end connected with the solar wind, providing a path for ion outflow.

  9. F-region Pedersen conductivity deduced using the TIMED/GUVI limb retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available As a proxy of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth rate for equatorial plasma bubbles, we investigate the flux-tube integrated F-region Pedersen conductivity (ΣPF using the electron density profiles (EDPs provided by the Global Ultraviolet Imager (GUVI on board the Thermosphere Ionosphere and Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED satellite. The investigation is conducted using the EDPs obtained in the Atlantic sector at 19:00-22:00 LT during 4–17 August and 6-16 December 2002. The seasonal difference of the strength and location of the equatorial ionization anomalies (EIAs induces a significant difference in the deduced ΣPF. Much stronger EIAs are created at higher altitudes and latitudes in December rather than in August. At 19:00–20:00 LT, the peak value of the ΣPF has 23 mhos at 1100 km apex height during 14–16 December and 18mhos at 600 km during 15–17 August. The ΣPF decreases as local time progresses. Therefore, ΣPF provides a preferred condition for the growth of bubbles to higher altitudes at 19:00-20:00 LT than at later hours, in December rather than in August in the Atlantic sector.

  10. Relations between aliphatics and silicate components in 12 stratospheric particles deduced from vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merouane, S.; Djouadi, Z.; Le Sergeant d' Hendecourt, L., E-mail: sihane.merouane@ias.u-psud.fr [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS, UMR-8617, Université Paris Sud, Bâtiment 121, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2014-01-10

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) are among the most pristine extraterrestrial samples available in the laboratory for analyses with moderate to high spatial- and spectral-resolution spectroscopic techniques. Their composition can provide precious information on the early stages of the solar nebula as well as on the processes on the surfaces of different small bodies in the solar system from which IDPs originate. In this work, we have analyzed six anhydrous IDPs and six stratospheric particles possibly of cosmic origin through infrared (IR) and Raman micro-spectroscopy to study and investigate their silicate and organic components. We find that the length/ramification of the aliphatic organics given by the CH{sub 2}/CH{sub 3} ratios in the IDPs is closely linked to the silicate family (pyroxene or olivine) present in the samples. Both IR and Raman data suggest that this relation is not correlated with either aqueous (as evidenced by the absence of aqueous related minerals) or thermal processes (as deduced from Raman measurements). Therefore, this observation might be related to the initial path of formation of the organics on the silicate surfaces, thus tracing a possible catalytic role that silicates would play in the formation and/or ramification of organic matter in the primitive nebula.

  11. Some results on the upper atmosphere deduced from satellite occultation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felske, D.; Knuth, R.; Martini, L.; Ohle, K.H.; Sonnemann, G.; Stark, B.

    1980-08-01

    Measurements of neutral gas densities in the upper atmosphere deduced from extinction profiles from the Intercosmos 1, 4, 7, 11 and 16 and SOLRAD 9 and 10 solar radiation satellites at sunrise and sunset are presented. Occultation measurements in the Lyman alpha range have revealed the presence of an anomalously high absorption above 110 km in winter, which may be explained by high densities of water in the thermosphere. Calculations of oxygen densities based on extinction profiles measured in Lyman alpha and the Schumann-Runge range also indicate the presence of high densities of NO, and an unknown Lyman alpha absorber of molecular weight corresponding to that of water. Observations obtained for the D-region winter anomaly indicate that the wavelike ionization variations have counterparts in similar neutral thermosphere density variations, which may influence the ion production and/or loss processes. Finally, short-term neutral density fluctuations between 90 and 300 km measured during a strong F-region disturbance are presented which demonstrate sharp rises in O density and decreases in O2 density accompanied by increases in electron concentration during the first phase of the disturbance, the opposite changes during the second phase, and complex mixing variations between O and O2 and their plasma counterparts in the recovery phase.

  12. On the strength of the hydrogen-carbon interaction as deduced from physisorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T X; Bae, J-S; Wang, Y; Bhatia, S K

    2009-04-21

    We deduce a new value for the potential well depth for the C-H2 interaction on the basis of experimental validations of isotherms of H2 and D2 predicted using independently characterized microstructural parameters. We use two carbons, one an activated carbon fiber whose structure has been recently characterized by us (Nguyen, T. X.; cohaut, N.; Bae, J.-S.; Bhatia, S. K. Langmuir 2008, 24, 7912) using hybrid reverse Monte Carlo simulation (HRMC) and the other the commercial Takeda 3A carbon molecular sieve whose pore size distribution is determined here from the 273 K CO2 adsorption isotherm. The conventional grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation technique incorporating a semiclassical Feynman and Hibbs (FH) potential approximation (FHGCMC) as well as path integral Monte Carlo calculations is employed to determine theoretical adsorption isotherms. It is found that curvature enhances the well depth for the LJ C-H2 interaction by a factor of 1.134 over that for a flat graphite surface, consistent with our recent study (Nguyen, T. X.; cohaut, N.; Bae, J.-S.; Bhatia, S. K. Langmuir 2008, 24, 7912). A value of the C-C well depth of 37.26 K, used for estimating the C-H2 well depth in conjunction with the Berthelot rules, with the Steele C-C well depth used for interaction with heavier gases (Ar, CO2 and CH4), leads to excellent agreement with experimental isotherms in all cases.

  13. Theoretical investigation of potential energy surface and bound states for the van der Waals complex Ar–BrCl dimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Rui [School of Mathematics and Information Science, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan (China); Li, Song, E-mail: lsong@yangtzeu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Yangtze University, Jingzhou (China); Chen, Shan-Jun; Chen, Yan [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Yangtze University, Jingzhou (China); Zheng, Li-Min [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan (China)

    2015-09-08

    Highlights: • A two-dimensional potential for Ar–BrCl is constructed at the CCSD(T) level. • The PES is characterized by three minima and two saddle points between them. • Bound state calculations were carried out for the complex. - Abstract: The intermolecular potential energy surface (PES) of the ground electronic state for the Ar–BrCl dimer is constructed at the CCSD(T) level with the aug-cc-pVQZ basis set and mid-bond functions. The PES is characterized by three minima and two saddle points. The global minimum corresponding to a collinear Ar–BrCl configuration, which has been observed experimentally, is located at R = 4.10 Å and θ = 2.5° with a well depth of −285.207 cm{sup −1}. A nearly T-shaped structure and an anti-linear Ar–ClBr geometry is also predicted. The bound state calculations are preformed to study intermolecular vibrational modes, rotational levels and average structures for the complex. Our transition frequencies, spectroscopic constants and average structures for all isotopomers of the collinear isomer agree well with experimental data. We have also provided pure rotational transitional frequencies for both nearly T-shaped and anti-linear isomers. These results are significant for further experimental investigations of the Ar–BrCl dimer.

  14. Brüssel - unistus Euroopa pealinnast / Kristi Grishakov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grishakov, Kristi

    2008-01-01

    Brüsseli linnaplaneerimise ajaloost, linnaehituslikest ja sotsiaalset laadi probleemidest, võimalikust tulevikust Euroopa pealinnana. Berlage Instituudi näitusest "A Vision for Brussels" Bozari kunstikeskuses

  15. GMO konverents Brüsselis / Nastja Pertsjonok

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pertsjonok, Nastja

    2007-01-01

    Brüsselis toimunud GMO-vabade piirkondade konverentsist, kus räägiti GMO-vabade piirkondade liikumisest, GMO-de lubamisest ja keelamisest ning hoiakutest nende suhtes Euroopa Liidus ja mujal maailmas

  16. Ultrafast dynamics of strong-field dissociative ionization ofCH2Br2 probed by femtosecond soft x-ray transient absorptionspectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loh, Zhi-Heng; Leone, Stephen R.

    2008-01-15

    Femtosecond time-resolved soft x-ray transient absorption spectroscopy based on a high-order harmonic generation source is used to investigate the dissociative ionization of CH{sub 2}Br{sub 2} induced by 800 nm strong-field irradiation. At moderate peak intensities (2.0 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}), strong-field ionization is accompanied by ultrafast C-Br bond dissociation, producing both neutral Br ({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) and Br* ({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) atoms together with the CH{sub 2}Br{sup +} fragment ion. The measured rise times for Br and Br* are 130 {+-} 22 fs and 74 {+-} 10 fs, respectively. The atomic bromine quantum state distribution shows that the Br/Br* population ratio is 8.1 {+-} 3.8 and that the Br {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} state is not aligned. The observed product distribution and the timescales of the photofragment appearances suggest that multiple field-dressed potential energy surfaces are involved in the dissociative ionization process. In addition, the transient absorption spectrum of CH{sub 2}Br{sub 2}{sup +} suggests that the alignment of the molecule relative to the polarization axis of the strong-field ionizing pulse determines the electronic symmetry of the resulting ion; alignment of the Br-Br, H-H, and C{sub 2} axis of the molecule along the polarization axis results in the production of the ion {tilde X}({sup 2}B{sub 2}), {tilde B}({sup 2}B{sub 1}) and {tilde C}({sup 2}A{sub 1}) states, respectively. At higher peak intensities (6.2 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}), CH{sub 2}Br{sub 2}{sup +} undergoes sequential ionization to form the metastable CH{sub 2}Br{sub 2}{sup 2+} dication. These results demonstrate the potential of core-level probing with high-order harmonic transient absorption spectroscopy for studying ultrafast molecular dynamics.

  17. Abundances of s-process elements in planetary nebulae: Br, Kr & Xe

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Y; Pellegrini, E; Cavagnolo, K; Baldwin, J A; Sharpee, B; Phillips, M; Liu, X W

    2006-01-01

    We identify emission lines of post-iron peak elements in very high signal-to-noise spectra of a sample of planetary nebulae. Analysis of lines from ions of Kr and Xe reveals enhancements in most of the PNe, in agreement with the theories of s-process in AGB star. Surprisingly, we did not detect lines from Br even though s-process calculations indicate that it should be produced with Kr at detectable levels.

  18. Ca2+-Doped CeBr3 Scintillating Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guss, Paul [NSTec; Foster, Michael E. [SNL; Wong, Bryan M. [SNL; Doty, F. Patrick [SNL; Shah, Kanai [RMD; Squillante, Michael R. [RMD; Shirwadkar, Urmila [RMD; Hawrami, Rastgo [RMD; Tower, Josh [RMD; Yuan, Ding [NSTec

    2014-01-01

    Despite the outstanding scintillation performance characteristics of cerium tribromide (CeBr3) and cerium-activated lanthanum tribromide, their commercial availability and application are limited due to the difficulties of growing large, crack-free single crystals from these fragile materials. This investigation employed aliovalent doping to increase crystal strength while maintaining the optical properties of the crystal. One divalent dopant (Ca2+) was used as a dopant to strengthen CeBr3 without negatively impacting scintillation performance. Ingots containing nominal concentrations of 1.9% of the Ca2+ dopant were grown. Preliminary scintillation measurements are presented for this aliovalently doped scintillator. Ca2+-doped CeBr3 exhibited little or no change in the peak fluorescence emission for 371 nm optical excitation for CeBr3. The structural, electronic, and optical properties of CeBr3 crystals were studied using the density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data. The energy band structures and density of states were obtained. The optical properties of CeBr3, including the dielectric function, were calculated.

  19. The radial profile of the inner heliospheric magnetic field as deduced from Faraday rotation observations

    CERN Document Server

    Mancuso, S

    2013-01-01

    Faraday rotation measures (RMs) of the polarized emission from extragalactic radio sources occulted by the coronal plasma were used to infer the radial profile of the inner heliospheric magnetic field near solar minimum activity. By inverting LASCO/SOHO polarized brightness (pB) data taken during the days of observations on May 1997, we retrieved the electron density distribution along the lines of sight to the sources, thus allowing to disentangle the two plasma properties that contribute to the observed RMs. By comparing the observed RM values to those theoretically predicted by a power-law model of the radial component of the coronal magnetic field, using a best-fitting procedure, we found that the radial component of the inner heliospheric magnetic field can be nicely approximated by a power-law of the form B_r = 3.76 r^{-2.29} G in a range of heights from about 5 to 14 solar radii. Finally, our analysis suggests that the radial computation of the potential field source surface (PFSS) model from the Wilco...

  20. Structure of La Primavera caldera, Jalisco, Mexico, deduced from gravity anomalies and drilling results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, I.; Mena, M.

    1991-07-01

    Previous studies of La Primavera caldera have mostly been based on surface geology and topography. Since 1980, many wells, exploring for geothermal energy, have reached depths of about 2 to 3 km at the center of the caldera. The results of the drillings, together with those of the gravity surveys, provide information about the subsurface structure of the caldera, and shed light on its formation. The drilling results and gravity anomalies at La Primavera caldera and San Marcos, located at about 40 km distance from the caldera, suggest that regional gravity anomalies can be interpreted in terms of depths of the granitic basements: the basement beneath La Primavera caldera is about 3 km deep and consists of roughly the same horizon as that beneath San Marcos. The drilling results within the caldera reveal that the depth of the caldera fills ranges from 0.3 to 1 km at the drilling sites. The andesite basement, about 1 km deep, remains approximately horizontal, and the granitic basement has a depth of about 3 km. The surface topographies, such as the postcaldera domes, scarcely disturb the subsurface strata. The local gravity anomalies show two lows within the caldera reflecting the configuration of caldera bottom, two funnel-shaped depressions, one of which corresponds to a vent of the Tala tuff deduced from geological observations. The mass deficiency within the caldera estimated from the gravity anomaly, satisfies the general relationship that the mass deficiency is proportional to the caldera diameter cubed. This means that caldera structure is three-dimensional: the larger the diameter, the deeper the funnel-shape. At present this argument may be limited to funnel-shaped calderas.

  1. Deducing growth mechanisms for minerals from the shapes of crystal size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberl, D.D.; Drits, V.A.; Srodon, J.

    1998-01-01

    Crystal size distributions (CSDs) of natural and synthetic samples are observed to have several distinct and different shapes. We have simulated these CSDs using three simple equations: the Law of Proportionate Effect (LPE), a mass balance equation, and equations for Ostwald ripening. The following crystal growth mechanisms are simulated using these equations and their modifications: (1) continuous nucleation and growth in an open system, during which crystals nucleate at either a constant, decaying, or accelerating nucleation rate, and then grow according to the LPE; (2) surface-controlled growth in an open system, during which crystals grow with an essentially unlimited supply of nutrients according to the LPE; (3) supply-controlled growth in an open system, during which crystals grow with a specified, limited supply of nutrients according to the LPE; (4) supply- or surface-controlled Ostwald ripening in a closed system, during which the relative rate of crystal dissolution and growth is controlled by differences in specific surface area and by diffusion rate; and (5) supply-controlled random ripening in a closed system, during which the rate of crystal dissolution and growth is random with respect to specific surface area. Each of these mechanisms affects the shapes of CSDs. For example, mechanism (1) above with a constant nucleation rate yields asymptotically-shaped CSDs for which the variance of the natural logarithms of the crystal sizes (??2) increases exponentially with the mean of the natural logarithms of the sizes (??). Mechanism (2) yields lognormally-shaped CSDs, for which ??2 increases linearly with ??, whereas mechanisms (3) and (5) do not change the shapes of CSDs, with ??2 remaining constant with increasing ??. During supply-controlled Ostwald ripening (4), initial lognormally-shaped CSDs become more symmetric, with ??2 decreasing with increasing ??. Thus, crystal growth mechanisms often can be deduced by noting trends in ?? versus ??2 of CSDs for

  2. Possible mechanism of leptin on human SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells%瘦素作用于人乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞的可能机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾繁余; 刘菁; 黄颖; 骆耐香

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the possible mechanism of leptin on human SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells, cell proliferation and vascular endothelial growth factor ( VEGF) expression. Methods SK-BR-3 cells were treated with different concentration of leptin for different hours in vitro, respectively. Cell proliferation was evaluated by CCK-8 method. The expression of VEGF mRNA and protein were detected in SK-BR-3 by real time PCR and western blot, respectively. Results Cell proliferation of SK-BR-3 was in a dose and time-dependent way in vitro (P < 0. 05 ). The expression level of VEGF mRNA and protein were increased significantly in a leptin dose-dependent manner ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusions Leptin promotes the growth of human SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells in vitro, which plays a role in the mechanism of angiogenesis and metastasis by increasing the expression of VEGF.%目的 观察瘦素对人乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞增殖及对VEGF表达的影响,探讨其可能机制.方法 不同浓度瘦素与人乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞共同培养后,CCK-8法检测其对人乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞增殖的影响,实时荧光定量PCR法及Western印迹法检测VEGF mRNA及蛋白表达情况.结果 在一定范围内,瘦素呈时间、剂量依赖性促进SK-BR-3细胞的生长(P<0.05);细胞受不同浓度瘦素作用后VEGF mRNA及蛋白表达量明显增加并具有剂量依赖性(P<0.05).结论 在体外瘦素对人乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞有明显增殖作用,通过促进VEGF的表达,在促进血管的生成及肿瘤转移机制中可能发挥一定作用.

  3. ARCHITECTURE OF PEROXISOMAL ALCOHOL OXIDASE CRYSTALS FROM THE METHYLOTROPHIC YEAST HANSENULA-POLYMORPHA AS DEDUCED BY ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VONCK, J; VANBRUGGEN, EFJ

    1992-01-01

    The architecture of alcohol oxidase crystalloids occurring in vivo in the peroxisomes of methylotrophic yeasts was deduced from electron micrographs of similar crystals of the Hansenula polymorpha enzyme grown in vitro. Three characteristic views of the crystal are observed, as well as single layers

  4. BR-SIPP: PETROBRAS Integrated Scheduling System; BR-SIPP: Sistema Integrado de Progamacao de Producao da PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Cristiane S.; Joly, Marcel; Hassimotto, Marcelo K.; Magalhaes, Marcus Vinicius O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The lack of a computational aided technology to support short-term scheduling activity in the oil and petrochemical sector has been identified as one of the major obstacles to the harmonic integration of production objectives subsequent to the implementation of the advanced control systems and the consolidation of important benefits at the process unit level. Such technology refers to an analytical tool able to capture plant operational information consistent with the scheduling layer demands, modeling the production system economic performance, and providing mechanisms to consider commercial, operation and technological uncertainties. In this context, PETROBRAS has continuously dedicated effort to develop, implement and enhance its own refinery scheduling solution. Nowadays at its second version, the PETROBRAS Integrated Scheduling System (BR-SIPP - INPI grant 00067400) has become the focus of corporate care, given its critical role on the link between planning objectives and plant operations, according to the hierarchical decision strategy currently adopted by PETROBRAS. This paper presents an overview of the tool and illustrates some real-world applications and main realized benefits. (author)

  5. Modeling study of vibrational photochemical isotope enrichment. [HBr + Cl/sub 2/; HCl + Br/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badcock, C.C.; Hwang, W.C.; Kalsch, J.F.

    1978-09-29

    Chemical kinetic modeling studies of vibrational-photochemical isotope enrichment have been performed on two systems: Model (I), H/sup 79/Br(H/sup 81/Br) + Cl/sub 2/ and, Model (II), H/sup 37/Cl(H/sup 35/Cl) + Br. Pulsed laser excitation was modeled to the first excited vibrational level of H/sup 79/Br in Model I and the first and second excited vibrational levels of both HCl isotopes in Model II. These are prototype systems of exoergic (Model I) and endoergic (Model II) reactions. The effects on enrichment of varying the external parameters (pressure, laser intensity) and the internal parameters (rate constants for V-V exchange and excited-state reactions) were examined. Studies of these prototype systems indicate that a favorable reaction for enrichment, with isotopically-specific excitation and a significantly accelerated vibrationally-excited-state reaction should have the following properties: the reaction from v = 0 should be only moderately exoergic, and the most favorable coreactant should be a polyatomic species, such as alkyl radical. Direct excitation of the reacting vibrational level is at least an order of magnitude more favorable for enrichment than is population by energy transfer. Enrichment of the minor isotope by these processes is more effective than is major isotope enrichment. Within limits, increased laser intensity is beneficial. However, for sequential excitation of a second vibrational level, major isotope enrichment can be diminished by high populations of the first vibrational level.

  6. Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity of Br-Doped Bismuth Oxide Formate Nanosheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Feng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A facile method was developed to enhance the visible light photocatalytic activity of bismuth oxide formate (BiOCOOH nanosheets via Br-doping. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectra, and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms measurement. The Br− ions replaced the COOH− ions in the layers of BiOCOOH, result in a decreased layer distance. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared materials was evaluated by removal of NO in qir at ppb level. The results showed that the Br-doped BiOCOOH nanosheets showed enhanced visible light photocatalytic activtiy with a NO removal of 37.8%. The enhanced activity can be ascribed to the increased visible light absorption and the promoted charge separation.

  7. Finding the Missing Stratospheric Br(sub y): A Global Modeling Study of CHBr3 and CH2Br2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Q.; Stolarski, R. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Nielsen, J. E.; Douglass, A. R.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Blake, D. R.; Atlas, E. L.; Ott, L. E.

    2010-01-01

    Recent in situ and satellite measurements suggest a contribution of 5 pptv to stratospheric inorganic bromine from short-lived bromocarbons. We conduct a modeling study of the two most important short-lived bromocarbons, bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), with the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOS CCM) to account for this missing stratospheric bromine. We derive a "top-down" emission estimate of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 using airborne measurements in the Pacific and North American troposphere and lower stratosphere obtained during previous NASA aircraft campaigns. Our emission estimate suggests that to reproduce the observed concentrations in the free troposphere, a global oceanic emission of 425 Gg Br yr(exp -1) for CHBr3 and 57 Gg Br yr(exp -l) for CH2Br2 is needed, with 60% of emissions from open ocean and 40% from coastal regions. Although our simple emission scheme assumes no seasonal variations, the model reproduces the observed seasonal variations of the short-lived bromocarbons with high concentrations in winter and low concentrations in summer. This indicates that the seasonality of short-lived bromocarbons is largely due to seasonality in their chemical loss and transport. The inclusion of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 contributes 5 pptv bromine throughout the stratosphere. Both the source gases and inorganic bromine produced from source gas degradation (BrSLS) in the troposphere are transported into the stratosphere, and are equally important. Inorganic bromine accounts for half (2.5 pptv) of the bromine from the inclusion of CHBr3 and CHzBr2 near the tropical tropopause and its contribution rapidly increases to 100% as altitude increases. More than 85% of the wet scavenging of Br(sub y)(sup VSLS) occurs in large-scale precipitation below 500 hPa. Our sensitivity study with wet scavenging in convective updrafts switched off suggests that Br(sub y)(sup SLS) in the stratosphere is not sensitive to convection. Convective scavenging only

  8. Theoretical Study on the Reaction Mechanism of F2+2HBr=2HF+Br2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The gas phase reaction mechanism of F2 + 2HBr = 2HF + Br2 has been investigated by (U)MP2 at 6-311G** level, and a series of four-center and three-center transition states have been obtained. The reaction mechanism was achieved by comparing the activation energy of seven reaction paths, i.e. the dissociation energy of F2 is less than the activation energy of the bimolecular elementary reaction F2 + HBr → HF + BrF. Thus it is theoretically proved that the title reaction occurs more easily inthe free radical reaction with three medium steps.

  9. Ab initio study on the electronic states and laser cooling of AlCl and AlBr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Yang; Bin, Tang; Tao, Gao

    2016-04-01

    We investigate whether AlCl and AlBr are promising candidates for laser cooling. We report new ab initio calculations on the ground state X1Σ+ and two low-lying states (A1Π and a3Π) of AlCl and AlBr. The calculated spectroscopic constants show good agreement with available theoretical and experimental results. We also obtain the permanent dipole moments (PDMs) curve at multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI) level of theory. The transition properties of A1Π and a3Π states are predicted, including the transition dipole moments (TDMs), Franck-Condon factors (FCFs), radiative times and radiative width. The calculated radiative lifetimes are of the order of a nanosecond, implying that they are sufficiently short for rapid laser cooling. Both AlCl and AlBr have highly diagonally distributed FCFs which are crucial requirement for molecular laser cooling. The results demonstrate the feasibility of laser cooling AlCl and AlBr, and we propose laser cooling schemes for AlCl and AlBr.

  10. High level binocular rivalry effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal eWolf

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Binocular rivalry (BR occurs when the brain cannot fuse percepts from the two eyes because they are different. We review results relating to an ongoing controversy regarding the cortical site of the BR mechanism. Some BR qualities suggest it is low-level: 1 BR, as its name implies, is usually between eyes and only low levels have access to utrocular information. 2 All input to one eye is suppressed: blurring doesn’t stimulate accommodation; pupilary constrictions are reduced; probe detection is reduced. 3 Rivalry is affected by low level attributes, contrast, spatial frequency, brightness, motion. 4 There is limited priming due to suppressed words or pictures. On the other hand, recent studies favor a high level mechanism: 1 Rivalry occurs between patterns, not eyes, as in patchwork rivalry or a swapping paradigm. 2 Attention affects alternations. 3 Context affects dominance. There is conflicting evidence from physiological studies (single cell and fMRI regarding cortical level(s of conscious perception. We discuss the possibility of multiple BR sites and theoretical considerations that rule out this solution.We present new data regarding the locus of the BR switch by manipulating stimulus semantic content or high-level characteristics. Since these variations are represented at higher cortical levels, their affecting rivalry supports high-level BR intervention. In Experiment I, we measure rivalry when one eye views words and the other nonwords and find significantly longer dominance durations for nonwords. In Experiment II, we find longer dominance times for line drawings of simple, structurally impossible figures than for similar, possible objects. In Experiment III, we test the influence of idiomatic context on rivalry between words. Results show that generally words within their idiomatic context have longer mean dominance durations. We conclude that Binocular Rivalry has high-level cortical influences, and may be controlled by a high-level

  11. The 3-kind ideals relation and properties of BR0-algebras%BR0-代数三种理想的关系和性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娜; 吴洪博

    2013-01-01

    为了进一步研究BR0-代数的结构.首先在BR0-代数中给出了蕴涵理想,⊙-理想和V-理想的定义;其次,讨论了BR0-代数中这三种理想的关系;最后,研究了BR0-代数中理想的一些性质,并证明了极大理想存在定理.%In order to study the structure of BR0-algebras in depth,firstly,the definitions of implicative ideal,⊙-ideal and V-ideal are given on the BR0-algebras; Secondly,the relation of 3-kind ideals is discussed in the BR0-algebras; Finally,some properties of ideal are researched in the BR0-algebras and maximal ideal existence theorem is proved.

  12. The NQR observation of spin-Peierls transition in an antiferromagnetic MX-chain complex [NiBr(chxn)2]Br2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaishi, Shinya; Tobu, Yasuhiro; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Goto, Atsushi; Shimizu, Tadashi; Okubo, Takashi; Mitani, Tadaoki; Ikeda, Ryuichi

    2004-02-18

    81Br Nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurement was performed in an S = 1/2 one-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnetic metal complex [NiBr(chxn)2]Br2 (chxn: 1R,2R-diaminocyclohexane), having a halogen-bridged MX chain structure -Br-Ni3+-Br-Ni3+-Br-. Two 81Br NQR signals were observed below 40 K, while a single signal was observed above 130 K, showing the presence of two nonequivalent bridging Br sites below 40 K. This NQR result together with previously reported magnetic susceptibility and X-ray results indicate the occurrence of a transition into a spin-Peierls state between 40 and 130 K. This communication reports the first spin-Peierls transition in metal complexes in which pure d electrons contribute to the magnetism. In addition, we demonstrated a new experimental method for studying a spin-Peierls system.

  13. Atmospheric test of the J(BrONO2)/kBrO+NO2 ratio: implications for total stratospheric Bry and bromine-mediated ozone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreycy, S.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Dorf, M.; Feng, W.; Hossaini, R.; Kritten, L.; Werner, B.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2013-07-01

    We report on time-dependent O3, NO2 and BrO profiles measured by limb observations of scattered skylight in the stratosphere over Kiruna (67.9° N, 22.1° E) on 7 and 8 September 2009 during the autumn circulation turn-over. The observations are complemented by simultaneous direct solar occultation measurements around sunset and sunrise performed aboard the same stratospheric balloon payload. Supporting radiative transfer and photochemical modelling indicate that the measurements can be used to constrain the ratio J(BrONO2)/kBrO+NO2, for which at T = 220 ± 5 K an overall 1.7 (+0.4 -0.2) larger ratio is found than recommended by the most recent Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) compilation (Sander et al., 2011). Sensitivity studies reveal the major reasons are likely to be (1) a larger BrONO2 absorption cross-section σBrONO2, primarily for wavelengths larger than 300 nm, and (2) a smaller kBrO+NO2 at 220 K than given by Sander et al. (2011). Other factors, e.g. the actinic flux and quantum yield for the dissociation of BrONO2, can be ruled out. The observations also have consequences for total inorganic stratospheric bromine (Bry) estimated from stratospheric BrO measurements at high NOx loadings, since the ratio J(BrONO2)/kBrO+NO2 largely determines the stratospheric BrO/Bry ratio during daylight. Using the revised J(BrONO2)/kBrO+NO2 ratio, total stratospheric Bry is likely to be 1.4 ppt smaller than previously estimated from BrO profile measurements at high NOx loadings. This would bring estimates of Bry inferred from organic source gas measurements (e.g. CH3Br, the halons, CH2Br2, CHBr3, etc.) into closer agreement with estimates based on BrO observations (inorganic method). The consequences for stratospheric ozone due to the revised J(BrONO2)/kBrO+NO2 ratio are small (maximum -0.8%), since at high NOx (for which most Bry assessments are made) the enhanced ozone loss by overestimating Bry is compensated for by the suppressed ozone loss due to the underestimation

  14. Stratospheric BrONO2 observed by MIPAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fischer

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The first measurements of stratospheric bromine nitrate (BrONO2 are reported. Bromine nitrate has been clearly identified in atmospheric infrared emission spectra recorded with the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS aboard the European Envisat satellite, and stratospheric concentration profiles have been determined for different conditions (day and night, different latitudes. The BrONO2 concentrations show strong day/night variations, with much lower concentrations during the day. Maximum volume mixing ratios observed during night are 20 to 25 pptv. The observed concentration profiles are in agreement with estimations from photochemical models and show that the current understanding of stratospheric bromine chemistry is generally correct.

  15. Stratospheric BrONO2 observed by MIPAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fischer

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The first measurements of stratospheric bromine nitrate (BrONO2 are reported. Bromine nitrate has been clearly identified in atmospheric infrared emission spectra recorded with the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS aboard the European Envisat satellite, and stratospheric concentration profiles have been determined for different conditions (day and night, different latitudes. The BrONO2 concentrations show strong day/night variations, with much lower concentrations during the day. Maximum volume mixing ratios observed during night are 20 to 25 pptv. The observed concentration profiles are in agreement with estimations from photochemical models and show that the current understanding of stratospheric bromine chemistry is generally correct.

  16. Brändistrategian merkitys yrityksen digitaalisessa markkinoinnissa

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Tämä tutkielma on kirjoitettu siksi, että olen aikaisemmin työskennellyt digitaalista markkinointia myyvän yrityksen palveluksessa. Kyseinen työnantaja, Advertising Media Finland Oy, on ollut tämän tutkielman toimeksiantaja. Työn tavoitteena oli selvittää, kuinka suuri merkitys brändistrategialla on suomalaisissa yrityksissä. Lisäksi pyrittiin selvittämään, mikä on suomalaisten yritysten brändi-identiteetin ja imagon merkitys digitaalisessa markkinoinissa. Näiden kahden asian lisäksi selvitet...

  17. SiBr4--prediction and determination of crystal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Alexandra K; Glinnemann, Jürgen; Schmidt, Martin U; Tong, Jianwei; Dinnebier, Robert E; Simon, Arndt; Köhler, Jürgen

    2009-06-01

    For SiBr4 no crystal structures have been reported yet. In this work the crystal structures of SiBr4 were predicted by global lattice-energy minimizations using force-field methods. Over an energy range of 5 kJ mol(-1) above the global minimum ten possible structures were found. Two of these structures were experimentally determined from X-ray synchrotron powder diffraction data: The low-temperature beta phase crystallizes in P2(1)/c, the high-temperature alpha phase in Pa3. Temperature-dependant X-ray powder diffraction shows that the phase transition occurs at 168 K.

  18. SiBr4 - Prediction and Determination of Crystal Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, A.; Glinnemann, J; Schmidt, M; Tong, J; Dinnebier, R; Simon, A; Kohler, J

    2009-01-01

    For SiBr4 no crystal structures have been reported yet. In this work the crystal structures of SiBr4 were predicted by global lattice-energy minimizations using force-field methods. Over an energy range of 5 kJ mol-1 above the global minimum ten possible structures were found. Two of these structures were experimentally determined from X-ray synchrotron powder diffraction data: The low-temperature [beta] phase crystallizes in P21/c, the high-temperature [alpha] phase in Pa overline3. Temperature-dependant X-ray powder diffraction shows that the phase transition occurs at 168 K.

  19. Generalized Toda Mechanics Associated with Loop Algebra (ι)(Br)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhan-Ying; ZHAO Liu; SHI Kang-Jie

    2005-01-01

    A class of generalization of Toda mechanics with long range interactions is constructed in this paper. These systems are associated with the loop algebras (ι)(Br) in the sense that their Lax matrices can be realized in terms of the c = 0 representations of the affine Lie algebras Br(1). We adopt a pair of ordered integers (m, n) to describe the Toda mechanics system when we present the equations of motion and the Hamiltonian structure. We also extract the classical r matrix which satisfy the classical Yang-Baxter relation. Such generalizations will become systems with noncommutative variables in the quantum case.

  20. Brändin esiintyvyys blogeissa - Case Adidas

    OpenAIRE

    Kolehmainen, Tiia

    2013-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää adidas -brändin blogiesiintyvyys suomalaisissa blogeissa. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli saada käsitys siitä, millaisissa muodoissa adidas-brändi esiintyy Suomen suosituimmissa blogeissa. Tutkimuksessa tutkittiin myös Adidaksen kampanjan blogiesiintyvyyttä. Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantajana toimi Adidas Suomi Oy, joka on osa globaalia Adidas Groupia. Yritys on yksi maailman johtavimmista urheilutuotemerkeistä. Tutkimuksen teoreettisessa osuud...

  1. A precise investigation of the 76Br decay for PET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, K.; Lister, C. J.; Chowdhury, P.; McCutchan, E. A.; Sonzogni, A.; Broder, B.; Nickles, R. J.; Ellison, P.; Zhu, S.; Greene, J. P.

    2016-09-01

    Radioisotopes are used in over 14 million medical imaging and therapy procedures each year. New isotopes are constantly introduced to optimize targeting or decay radiation. The dose of internal radiation is calculated from data which in some cases have not been updated for several decades. A thorough investigation of these isotopes using modern technologies and improved analysis techniques is vital to ensure accurate quantification of dose to patients. In this work, we explore the decay of 76Br, a β+ emitter for PET (positron emission tomography), which is used with 77Br for therapy. A sample containing several isotopes of interest, including 76,77Br, was produced at the University of Wisconsin Medical School, shipped to Argonne National Lab, and assayed for 7 days using the Gammasphere detector array, running both analog and digital data acquisition systems simultaneously. More than 6 terabytes of data were collected from the 1MBq source. Analysis of this data set shows new strength to high-lying levels, and allows a reappraisal of the received dose as well as an investigation of count-rate advantages of digital Gammasphere. Supported by US DOE under Grant DE-FG02-94ER40848 and Contracts No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and No. DE-AC02-98CH10946.

  2. BrUGE1 transgenic rice showed improved growth performance with enhanced drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdula, Sailila E; Lee, Hye Jung; Kim, Joonki; Niño, Marjohn C; Jung, Yu-Jin; Cho, Young-Chan; Nou, Illsup; Kang, Kwon-Kyoo; Cho, Yong-Gu

    2016-03-01

    UDP-glucose 4-epimerase (UGE) catalyzes the reversible conversion of UDP-glucose to UDP-galactose. To understand the biological function of UGE from Brassica rapa, the gene BrUGE1 was cloned and introduced into the genome of wild type rice 'Gopum' using the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. Four lines which carried a single copy gene were selected and forwarded to T3 generation. Agronomic traits evaluation of the transgenic T3 lines (CB01, CB03, and CB06) under optimal field conditions revealed enriched biomass production particularly in panicle length, number of productive tillers, number of spikelets per panicle, and filled spikelets. These remarkably improved agronomic traits were ascribed to a higher photosynthetic rate complemented with higher CO2 assimilation. Transcripts of BrUGE1 in transgenic lines continuously accumulated at higher levels after the 20% PEG6000 treatment, implying its probable role in drought stress regulation. This was paralleled by rapid accumulation of soluble sugars which act as osmoprotectants, leading to delayed leaf rolling and drying. Our findings suggest the potential of BrUGE1 in improving rice growth performance under optimal and water deficit conditions.

  3. Fabrication of graphene oxide enwrapped Z-scheme Ag2SO3/AgBr nanoparticles with enhanced visible-light photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yujuan; Liang, Chunyan; Xia, Yue; Huang, Wei; Li, Zelin

    2017-02-01

    A novel graphene oxide (GO) enwrapped Ag2SO3/AgBr (GO/Ag2SO3/AgBr) composite was fabricated through a facile solution approach via electrostatic interaction and precipitation transformation reaction for the first time. The results of XRD, Raman, SEM, TEM and XPS confirmed the structure, morphology and composition of the GO/Ag2SO3/AgBr composite very well. The Ag2SO3/AgBr nanoparticles were found to be encapsulated by GO sheets. The photocatalytic activity of the composite was investigated by the degradation of methyl orange (MO), rhodamine B (RhB) and methylene blue (MB) in water under visible light. The incorporation of GO sheets not only significantly enhanced the photocatalytic activity but also improved the reusability of Ag2SO3/AgBr nanoparticles. The photocatalytic ability of GO/Ag2SO3/AgBr can be maintained at a high level for 4 times cycle experiments. The trapping experiments confirmed that holes and superoxide ion radicals were the main active species responsible for the degradation reaction. A plasmonic Z-scheme photocatalytic mechanism was proposed to illustrate the possible transferred and separated behavior of electron-hole pairs among Ag, Ag2SO3, AgBr and GO quaternary system under visible light irradiation.

  4. Approximate formulae (deduced from a mathematical model) for the characteristics of the interepidemic and epidemic periods of some virus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristea, A L; Deutsch, I; Copelovici, Y

    1992-01-01

    By a qualitative analysis of the solutions of the mathematical model equations (describing the morbidity and susceptibility evolution in a viral epidemics), approximate formulae for the extreme values of the variables and for the duration of the main phases of a multiannual cycle are deduced. These formulae were validated by numerical simulation of the solutions, leading to the exact values of the mentioned essential characteristics of the diseases propagation.

  5. BR 0-代数的表示定理及其简化形式%The Representive Theorem and the Simplied Form of BR 0-Algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚加安; 崔宏志; 吴洪博

    2016-01-01

    通过对基础模糊命题演算系统BL∗及相应的Lindenbaum代数的研究,给出了BR0-代数的格蕴涵表示形式,使得BR0-代数从定义形式上更加符合逻辑代数的特征,突出了BR0-代数和其他逻辑代数的区别与联系,其次,结合MV-代数,R0-代数和BR0-代数的关系给出了MV-代数的BR0-代数表示形式以及BR0-代数的简化形式。%Through study of basic fuzzy propositional calculus formal deductive system BL ∗ and Lindenbaum algebra,we get the lattice-implication representive theorem of BR0-algebra. This work conforms BR0-algebra to the features of logic algebra in definition,which protrudes the relations between BR0- algebra and other logic algebra. In addition,with the help of the relation between BR0-algebra and MV-algebra,R0-algebra,we have also given the simplied form of BR0-algebra and the BR0-algebra form of MV-algebra.

  6. Product analysis and kinetics of Br-initiated gas-phase oxidation of dimethyl sulphide; Produktanalyse und Kinetik der Br-initiierten Gasphasenoxidation von Dimethylsulfid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K.H.; Maurer, T.

    1996-07-01

    High Br concentrations in maritime environments may render the reaction between Br radicals and dimethyl sulphide an important process. According to the literature this system has as yet not been studied with a mind to clarifying the reaction mechanisms and performing a product analysis. Thus, for example, the decomposition of the DMS-Br adduct remains to be clarified. The purpose of the present study was therefore to examine the reaction between dimethyl sulphide and Br radicals and so gain information on the decomposition mechanism. This implied a determination of the velocity constant and a product analysis of the reaction between Br radicals and dimethyl sulphide. In addition the velocity constant of the reaction between Br radicals and dimethylsulphoxide (a consequent product of DMS oxidation) was to be determined. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hohe Br-Konzentrationen in maritimen Gebieten machen die Reaktion von Br-Radikalen mit Dimethylsulfid moeglicherweise zu einem wichtigen Prozess. In der Literatur fehlen eingehende Untersuchungen dieses Systems hinsichtlich der Aufklaerung der Reaktionsmechanismen und der Produktanalyse. So ist zum Beispiel der Zerfall des DMS-Br-Adduktes nicht aufgeklaert. Aus diesen Gruenden soll im Rahmen dieser Arbeit die Reaktion von Dimethylsulfid mit Br-Radikalen untersucht werden, um Informationen ueber den Abbaumechanismus zu erhalten. Darunter fallen die Bestimmung der Geschwindigkeitskonstanten und die Produktanalyse der Reaktion von Br-Radikalen mit Dimethylsulfid. Zusaetzlich soll die Geschwindigkeitskonstante der Reaktion vom Br-Radikalen mit Dimethylsulfoxid (einem Folgeprodukt der DMS-Oxidation) bestimmt werden. (orig.)

  7. Aagesta-BR3 Decommissioning Cost. Comparison and Benchmarking Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Geoff [NAC International, Henley on Thames (United Kingdom)

    2002-11-01

    This report presents the results of decommissioning cost analyses focusing on discrete working packages within the decommissioning program of the BR3 reactor in Mol, Belgium and comparison of them with cost estimate data for the Aagesta research reactor in Sweden. The specific BR3 work packages analysed were: Primary coolant piping decontamination; Primary coolant piping dismantling; Vulcain reactor internals dismantling; Westinghouse reactor internals dismantling; Reactor vessel dismantling. The main conclusions to be drawn from the analyses are that: The fixed costs related to decontamination and dismantling activities generally are a very important part of the overall resources needed to execute the work, with the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) seemingly being significantly more demanding than other major components. Cutting activities tend to need something like 150 to 200 labour hours per m{sup 2} of reactor equipment dismantled. Fixed investment costs to set up the equipment needed to cut up major vessels or internals appear to be in the range of MSEK 4 to 8. Consumables costs vary according to the nature of the equipment being dismantled. The thicker the metal being cut, the higher the attrition rate for things such as cutting blades. The range of consumables costs at BR3 have been in the range of MSEK 0.1 to 0.2/m{sup 2} dismantled. The extent of detailed information available in the 1996 Aagesta estimate is not sufficient to enable a full comparison with the BR3 decommissioning results. A global first comparison has been attempted by summing the resources expended on the BR3 work packages described in this report with the combined dismantling data presented in the 1996 Aagesta cost estimate report. Very broadly the cost of decontamination plus dismantling of the main process equipment at Aagesta appears to be in the order of MSEK 70, of which MSEK 4 is labour on preparatory/planning work, MSEK 40 is labour on actual decontamination and dismantling and MSEK

  8. Nuclear-induced XeBr/asterisk/ photolytic laser model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    Parameters for a photolytically pumped alkyl iodide lasant gas by the nuclear-induced XeBr excimer fluorescence are calculated according to a detailed kinetic model. High gain on the atomic iodine 2P1/2 state is estimated and 100-mJ pulses with an average power output on the order of 1 kW appear possible.

  9. Infections fongiques des brûlé : revue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, JF.; Le Floch, R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Les infections fongiques locales ou générales sont souvent d’une extrême gravité chez les brûlés. Les brûlés combinent de nombreux facteurs de risque à une immunodépression induite par la brûlure. Les infections de plaies sont le fait des genres Candida, Aspergillus et des agents de mucormycoses. Ces deux derniers cas sont à l’origine de lésions particulièrement sévères. Leur diagnostic repose sur la biopsie cutanée avec examens mycologique et anatomopathologique. Le traitement est essentiellement chirurgical, associé à une antibiothérapie adaptée. Les septicémies sont le fait de levures, essentiellement du genre Candida. Le diagnostic en est difficile dans le contexte des brûlés et repose souvent sur une forte suspicion clinique. Leur traitement repose sur les échinocandines et plus secondairement sur le fluconazole. PMID:26668558

  10. Narva kant vajab oma brändi / Esko Passila

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Passila, Esko

    2007-01-01

    Autor leiab, et Ida-Virumaa peaks looma ühtse tugeva brändi, mille alusel tulevikuotsuseid teha. See peaks tooma välja soodsa asukoha eelised, võimalused, tööjõu kättesaadavuse, kasutusvalmid maa-alad, hinnad jne.

  11. Peter Griffenfeld og brødrene Resen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olden-Jørgensen, Sebastian

    2000-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i moderne teorier om klientelisme gives eksempler på relevansen af denne indfaldsvinkel til den tidlige enevældes politiske kultur. Eksemplet er Peter Griffenfelds forhold til brødrene Resen, og et par breve med relation til Resens Atlas aftrykkes....

  12. Large BR(h -> tau mu) in Supersymmetric Models

    CERN Document Server

    Hammad, Ahmed; Un, Cem Salih

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the Lepton Flavor Violating (LFV) Higgs decay h -> tau mu in three supersymmetric models: Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), Supersymmetric Seesaw Model (SSM), and Supersymmetric B-L model with Inverse Seesaw (BLSSM-IS). We show that in generic MSSM, with non-universal slepton masses and/or trilinear couplings, it is not possible to enhance BR(h -> tau mu) without violating the experimental bound on the BR(tau -> mu gamma). In SSM, where flavor mixing is radiatively generated, the LFV process mu -> e gamma strictly constrains the parameter space and the maximum value of BR(h -> tau mu) is of order 10^-10, which is extremely smaller than the recent results reported by the CMS and ATLAS experiments. In BLSSM-IS, with universal soft SUSY breaking terms at the grand unified scale, we emphasize that the measured values of BR(h -> tau mu) can be accommodated in a wide region of parameter space without violating LFV constraints. Thus, confirming the LFV Higgs decay results will be a clear signa...

  13. [Rhein lysinate induces apoptosis in breast cancer SK-Br-3 cells by inhibiting HER-2 signal pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ya-Jun; Huang, Yun-Hong; Zhen, Yong-Zhan; Liu, Xiu-Jun; Zhen, Yong-Su

    2008-11-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of rhein lysinate on inducing human breast cancer cell line SK-Br-3 apoptosis and the role of HER-2 signal pathway in the apoptosis. MTT assay was used to detect SK-Br-3 cell proliferation. Cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. The protein expression and the protein phosphorylation of HER-2 signal pathway were detected by Western blotting. The level of HER-2 mRNA was detected by RT-PCR and the level of HER-2 expression was also detected by immunofluorescence cytochemical methods. The results showed that rhein lysinate remarkably inhibited breast cancer SK-Br-3 cell proliferation. The IC50 value for 48 h treatment was 85 micromol x L(-1). Apoptosis in SK-Br-3 cells was induced by rhein lysinate in a dose dependent manner. The protein expressions of HER-2, NF-KB, and the protein phosphorylation of HER-2 were downregulated, however the protein expression of p53 and p21 was upregulated after rhein lysinate treatment. The level of HER-2 mRNA decreased by using RT-PCR assay and the level of HER-2 expression was also decreased by using immunofluorescence cytochemical assay after rhein lysinate treatment. It can be concluded that rhein lysinate could inhibit SK-Br-3 cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. HER-2/NF-kappaB/p53/p21 signal pathway might be involved in this process. Rhein lysinate has a good prospect to be an adjuvant chemotherapeutic drug.

  14. Deducing the magma chamber processes of middle Eocene volcanics, Sivas and Tokat regions; NE Turkey: Insights from clinopyroxene chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göçmengil, Gönenç; Karacık, Zekiye; Genç, Ş. Can; Prelevic, Dejan

    2016-04-01

    Middle Eocene Tokat and Sivas volcanic successions occur within the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone. Different models are suggested for the development of the middle Eocene volcanism such as post-collisional, delamination and slab-breakoff models as well as the arc magmatism. In both areas, volcanic units cover all the basement units with a regional disconformity and comprise lavas spanning a compositional range from mainly basalt-basaltic andesite to a lesser amount trachyte. Here, we report mineral chemistry of different basaltic lavas through transect from northern continent (Tokat region, Pontides) to southern continent (Sivas region, Kırşehir block) to deduce the characteristics of the magma chamber processes which are active during the middle Eocene. Basaltic lavas include olivine bearing basalts (Ol-basalt: ± olivine + clinopyroxene + plagioclase); amphibole bearing basaltic andesite (Amp-basaltic andesite: amphibole + clinopyroxene + plagioclase ± biotite) and pyroxene bearing basaltic andesite (Px-basaltic andesite: clinopyroxene + plagioclase). Microlitic, glomeroporphyric and pilotaxitic texture are common. Clinopyroxene phenocrystals (macro ≥ 750 μm and micro ≤300 μm) are common in all three lava series which are investigated by transecting core to rim compositional profiles. They are generally augite and diopside; euhedral to subhedral in shape with oscillatory, normal and reverse zoning patterns. Also, all clinopyroxene phenocrystals are marked by moderately high Mg# (for Ol-basalt: 67-91; avg. 80; Amp-basaltic andesite: 76-83, avg: 80; Px -basaltic andesite 68-95, avg: 81). In Ol-basalt, clinopyroxene phenocrystals show normal zonation (high Mg# cores and low Mg# rims). In Amp-basaltic andesite, clinopyroxenes are generally homogenous in composition with minor variation of Mg# towards the rims. On the contrary, in Px-basaltic andesite, clinopyroxene macro phenocrystals show reverse zonation with the core with low Mg# and the rims with

  15. Brûlure chez l’épileptique: brûlure pas comme les autres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukind, S.; Elatiqi, O.K.; Dlimi, M.; Elamrani, D.; Benchamkha, Y.; Ettalbi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary L’association brûlure et épilepsie est une constatation fréquente au Maroc. Ces brûlures, souvent itératives, touchent le plus souvent des femmes jeunes de milieu rural. L’accident survient habituellement au domicile, le plus souvent dans la cuisine à la suite d’une chute sur un moyen de cuisson posé au sol. Elles peuvent être inaugurales de la maladie mais surviennent plus souvent chez des patients connus mais au traitement mal suivi. Les conséquences de ces brûlures, toujours profondes, sont souvent dramatiques en termes de séquelles, chez des patients ayant déjà une insertion sociale rendue difficile par l’épilepsie. La prise en charge doit être multidisciplinaire et concerner à la fois la brûlures et l’épilepsie. Des mesures de prévention simples, visant à équilibrer l’épilepsie et éviter au patient de se trouver seul à proximité d’une source de chaleur, doivent être mises en place. PMID:27252613

  16. The Ionospheric Bubble Index deduced from magnetic field and plasma observations onboard Swarm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Jaeheung; Noja, Max; Stolle, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    In the post-sunset tropical ionospheric F-region plasma density often exhibits depletions, which are usually called equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs). In this paper we give an overview of the Swarm Level 2 Ionospheric Bubble Index (IBI), which is a standard scientific data of the Swarm mission. Th...

  17. Atmospheric test of the J(BrONO2/kBrO+NO2 ratio: implications for total stratospheric Bry and bromine-mediated ozone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Werner

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on time-dependent O3, NO2 and BrO profile measurements taken in the stratosphere by limb observations of scattered skylight at high-latitudes during autumn circulation turn-over. The observations are complemented by simultaneous direct solar occultation measurements around sunset and sunrise performed aboard the same stratospheric balloon payload. Supporting radiative transfer and photochemical modelling indicates that, the measurements can be used to constrain the ratio J(BrONO2/kBrO+NO2, for which overall a 1.69 ± 0.04 larger ratio is found than indicated by the most recent JPL compilation (Sander et al., 2011. Sensitivity studies reveal the major reasons likely to be (1 a larger BrONO2 absorption cross-section σBrONO2, primarily for wavelengths larger than 300 nm, and (2 a smaller kBrO+NO2 at 220 K than given by Sander et al. (2011. Other factors, e.g. the actinic flux and quantum yield for the dissociation of BrONO2, can be ruled out. The observations also have consequences for total inorganic stratospheric bromine (Bry estimated from stratospheric BrO measurements at high NOx loadings, since the J(BrONO2/kBrO+NO2 ratio largely determines the stratospheric BrO/Bry ratio during daylight. Using the revised J(BrONO2/kBrO+NO2 ratio, total stratospheric Bry is likely to be 1.4 ppt smaller than previously estimated from BrO profile measurements at high NOx loadings. This brings estimates of total stratospheric bromine inferred from organic source gas measurements (i.e. CH3Br, the halons, CH2Br2, CHBr3, ... into closer agreement with estimates based on BrO observations (inorganic method. The consequences for stratospheric ozone due to the revised J(BrONO2/kBrO+NO2 ratio are small (maximum −0.8%, since at high NOx (for which most Bry assessments are made an overestimated Bry using the inorganic method would in return almost cancel out with the amount of reactive bromine calculated in the photochemical models.

  18. A Quina assemblage in level XIth of Esquilleu cave: specialized management of lithic production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrión Santafé, Elena

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The XIth Level lithic assemblage of Esquilleu Cave (Cantabria, Spain permits us to observe the high degree of standardization, morphological as well as technological,of lithic blank production,used mainly for the production of side-scrapers. This homogeneity permits us to infer some notions about function, as deduced by the essential characteristics of the side-scrapers (considerable thickness and convex edge delineation, and to suggest, albeit tentatively, the function of the settlement.<br>>El estudio del conjunto del Nivel XI de la Cueva del Esquilleu (Cantabria, España nos permite observar la elevada estandarización formal y tecnológica de la producción de matrices, orientada de forma preferente a la producción de raederas. Esta homogeneidad permite inferir algunas nociones sobre funcionalidad a partir de las características esenciales de las raederas (considerable espesor y delineación convexa del filo y aproximamos de forma tentativa a la funcionalidad de la ocupación.

  19. Effect of 3-bromopyruvate on mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis of human breast carcinoma SK-BR-3 cells%3-溴丙酮酸诱导人乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞凋亡及对细胞线粒体膜电位的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛媛; 刘哲; 张倩雯; 晁振华; 张配; 夏飞; 蒋琛琛; 刘浩; 蒋志文

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨糖酵解抑制剂3-溴丙酮酸(3-BrPA)诱导乳腺癌细胞SK-BR-3凋亡的作用及其可能相关机制。方法MTT法检测3-BrPA对乳腺癌细胞SK-BR-3增殖的抑制作用;碘化丙啶(PI)单染流式细胞术检测细胞凋亡;ATP检测试剂盒检测细胞内ATP水平;DHE荧光探针标记法检测细胞内超氧阴离子水平;线粒体膜电位检测试剂盒(JC-1)检测细胞线粒体膜电位。结果MTT结果显示,3-BrPA可抑制SK-BR-3细胞的增殖活性,且呈浓度和时间依赖性。80、160、320μmol·L-1的3-BrPA诱导SK-BR-3细胞24 h的凋亡率分别为6.7%、22.3%、79.6%。80、160、320μmol·L-13-BrPA作用于SK-BR-3细胞5 h后,细胞内ATP水平与对照组相比分别为87.7%、60.6%、23.7%。160μmol·L-1的3-BrPA增加SK-BR-3细胞中活性氧的生成,同时使细胞线粒体膜电位降低。结论3-BrPA可以抑制乳腺癌细胞SK-BR-3的增殖活性,引起线粒体膜电位降低,并且诱导其凋亡,机制可能与抑制肿瘤细胞的糖酵解从而减少ATP的产生并升高细胞内活性氧的水平有关。%Objective To study the effect of glycolysis inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) in inducing apoptosis of human breast carcinoma cells SK-BR-3 and the possible mechanism. Methods MTT assay was used to detect the growth inhibition induced by 3-BrPA in breast cancer cells SK-BR-3. The apoptotic cells were detected by flow cytometry with propidium iodide (PI). ATP levels in the cells were detected by ATP assay kit, and DHE fluorescent probe technique was used to determine superoxide anion levels; the mitochondrial membrane potential was assessed using JC-1 staining assay. Results MTT assay showed that the proliferation of SK-BR-3 cells was inhibited by 3-BrPA in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Exposure to 80, 160, and 320μmol·L-1 3-BrPA for 24 h resulted in cell apoptosis rates of 6.7%, 22.3%, and 79.6%, respectively, and the intracellular ATP levels of SK-BR

  20. Hypoglycemic effect of Gymnema sylvestre (retz.,) R.Br leaf in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathya, S; Kokilavani, R; Gurusamy, K

    2008-10-01

    The water extract of Gymnema sylvestre R.Br leaf was tested for hypoglycemic activity in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Grated amount (2ml/kg) of the water extract of Gymnema sylvestre leaf was given to both normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. A significant reduction of glucose concentration was noticed in normal rats, blood glucose level was significantly reduced in diabetic rats. Protein level is also decreased in diabetic rats. Urea, uric acid and creatinine levels were increased in diabetic condition. After the herbal treatment the levels were altered near to normal level.

  1. Oscillatory electron phonon coupling in Pb/Si(111) deduced by temperature-dependent quantum well states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yan-Feng; Jia Jin-Feng; Han Tie-Zhu; Tang Zhe; Shen Quan-Tong; Guo Yang; Xue Qi-Kun

    2005-01-01

    Photoemission study of atomically flat Pb films with a thickness from 15 to 24 monolayers (ML) have been performed within a temperature range 75-270K. Well-defined quantum well states (QWSs) are observed, which exhibit interesting temperature-dependent behaviours. The peak position of the QWSs shifts towards higher binding energy with increasing substrate temperature, whereas the peak width broadens linearly due to enhanced electron-phonon coupling strength (λ). An oscillatory λ with a period of 2ML is deduced. Preliminary analysis shows that the oscillation can be explained in terms of the interface induced phase variations, and is thus a manifestation of the quantum size effects.

  2. The four hexamerin genes in the honey bee: structure, molecular evolution and function deduced from expression patterns in queens, workers and drones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Juliana R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hexamerins are hemocyanin-derived proteins that have lost the ability to bind copper ions and transport oxygen; instead, they became storage proteins. The current study aimed to broaden our knowledge on the hexamerin genes found in the honey bee genome by exploring their structural characteristics, expression profiles, evolution, and functions in the life cycle of workers, drones and queens. Results The hexamerin genes of the honey bee (hex 70a, hex 70b, hex 70c and hex 110 diverge considerably in structure, so that the overall amino acid identity shared among their deduced protein subunits varies from 30 to 42%. Bioinformatics search for motifs in the respective upstream control regions (UCRs revealed six overrepresented motifs including a potential binding site for Ultraspiracle (Usp, a target of juvenile hormone (JH. The expression of these genes was induced by topical application of JH on worker larvae. The four genes are highly transcribed by the larval fat body, although with significant differences in transcript levels, but only hex 110 and hex 70a are re-induced in the adult fat body in a caste- and sex-specific fashion, workers showing the highest expression. Transcripts for hex 110, hex 70a and hex70b were detected in developing ovaries and testes, and hex 110 was highly transcribed in the ovaries of egg-laying queens. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that HEX 110 is located at the most basal position among the holometabola hexamerins, and like HEX 70a and HEX 70c, it shares potential orthology relationship with hexamerins from other hymenopteran species. Conclusions Striking differences were found in the structure and developmental expression of the four hexamerin genes in the honey bee. The presence of a potential binding site for Usp in the respective 5' UCRs, and the results of experiments on JH level manipulation in vivo support the hypothesis of regulation by JH. Transcript levels and patterns in the fat body

  3. Analysis of an unusual hetero-halogen bonded trimer using charge density analysis: A case of concerted type I Br· · · Br and type II Br· · · Cl interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MYSORE S PAVAN; TAYUR N GURU ROW

    2016-10-01

    The crystal structure of 4−bromo−2−chlorobenzoic acid generates an unusual triangular motif consisting of a hitherto uncharacterized Type I Br· · · Br contact along with two Type II Br· · · Cl interactions as edges of the triangle. The nature of such bonding is analyzed based on both experimental and theoretical chargedensity followed by topological analysis.

  4. Measurement of the branching fraction Br(Bs -> Ds(*) Ds(*))

    CERN Document Server

    Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguiló, E; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benítez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Berntzon, L; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Binder, M; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Böhnlein, A; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clement, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M C; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; De, K; Degenhardt, J D; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Déliot, F; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Gelé, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, P; Grivaz, J F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutíerrez, G; Gutíerrez, P; Gómez, B; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hansson, P; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J M; Kalk, J R; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kasper, P; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A I; Kharzheev, Yu M; Khatidze, D; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J P; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Koubarovsky, A; Kozelov, A V; Krop, D; Kryemadhi, A; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Käfer, D; Kühl, T; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G L; Lazoflores, J; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Lesne, V; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Z; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajícek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lynker, M; Lyon, A L; Lévêque, J; Cwiok, M; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Michaut, M; Miettinen, H; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Monk, J; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Mättig, P; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Nöding, C; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Oguri, V; Oliveira, N; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Oteroy-Garzon, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Perea, P M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Petroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M E; Pompos, A; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S D; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rangel, M S; Rani, K J; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F K; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Wang, M H L; Sajot, G; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A F S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, A D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schmitt, C; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Sen-Gupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Siccardi, V; Sidwell, R A; Simák, V; Sirotenko, V I; Skubic, P L; Slattery, P F; Smirnov, D; Smith, R P; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Strom, D; Strovink, M; Ströhmer, R; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Söldner-Rembold, S; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Trefzger, T; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; Van Kooten, R; Van Leeuwen, W M; Van den Berg, P J; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vartapetian, A H; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Séguier, F; Vint, P; Vlimant, J R; Von Törne, E; Voutilainen, M; Vreeswijk, M; Wahl, H D; Walder, J; Wang, L; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Weerts, H; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, C; Yu, J; Yurkewicz, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G; de Jong, P; van Eijk, B; Åsman, B

    2007-01-01

    We report a measurement of the branching fraction Br(Bs -> Ds(*) Ds(*)) using a data sample corresponding to 1.3 fb^{-1} of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 experiment in 2002-2006 during Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. One Ds(*) meson was partially reconstructed in the decay Ds -> phi mu nu, and the other Ds(*) meson was identified using the decay Ds -> phi pi where no attempt was made to distinguish Ds and Ds* states. The resulting measurement is Br(Bs -> Ds(*) Ds(*)) = 0.039 +0.019 -0.017 (stat) +0.016 -0.015 (syst). This was subsequently used to estimate the width difference Delta Gamma^{CP}_s in the Bs-Bsbar system: Delta Gamma^{CP}_s / Gamma_s = 0.079 +0.038 -0.035 (stat) +0.031 -0.030 (syst).

  5. Two new diterpenoids from Leonotis leonurus R. Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narukawa, Yuji; Komori, Miyuki; Niimura, Akiko; Noguchi, Hitomi; Kiuchi, Fumiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Two new diterpenoids, 14α-hydroxy-9α,13α-epoxylabd-5(6)-en-7-on-16,15-olide (1) and 13ξ-hydroxylabd-5(6),8(9)-dien-7-on-16,15-olide (2) along with six known diterpenoids were isolated from the aerial parts of Leonotis leonurus R. Br. These structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. Some of the isolated compounds showed weak to moderate estrogen sulfotransferase inhibitory activity.

  6. Low-spin structure of 51,35,86Br and 50,36,86Kr nuclei: The role of the g7 /2 neutron orbital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, W.; Sieja, K.; Materna, T.; Czerwiński, M.; Rząca-Urban, T.; Blanc, A.; Jentschel, M.; Mutti, P.; Köster, U.; Soldner, T.; de France, G.; Simpson, G. S.; Ur, C. A.; Bernards, C.; Fransen, C.; Jolie, J.; Regis, J.-M.; Thomas, T.; Warr, N.

    2016-10-01

    Low-spin excited levels in 51,35,86Br and 50,36,86Kr, populated following β- decay and the neutron-induced fission of 235U, were measured using the Lohengrin fission-fragment separator and the EXILL array of Ge detectors at the PF1B cold-neutron facility of the Institute Laue-Langevin Grenoble. Improved populations of excited levels in 86Br remove inconsistencies existing in the literature on this nucleus. Directional-linear-polarization correlations, analyzed using newly developed formulas, as well as precise angular correlations allowed the unique 1- and 2- spin and parity assignments to the ground state of 86Br and the 4016.3-keV level in 86Kr, respectively. Based on these results we propose that the Gamow-Teller β- decays of 86Se and 86Br involve the ν g7 /2→π g9 /2 transition in addition to the ν p3 /2→π p3 /2 transition proposed earlier. In 86Kr we have identified 11+, 23+, and 31+ levels, analogous to the mixed-symmetry states in 94Mo, which in 86Kr are from proton excitations, only. Large-scale, shell-model calculations with refined interactions reproduce well excitations in 86Br and 86Kr and support our interpretations.

  7. Optimized Control Rods of the BR2 Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalcheva, Silva; Koonen, E.

    2007-09-15

    At the present time the BR-2 reactor uses control elements with cadmium as neutron absorbing part. The lower section of the control element is a beryllium assembly cooled by light water. Due to the burn up of the lower end of the cadmium section during the reactor operation, the presently used rods for reactivity control of the BR-2 reactor have to be replaced by new ones. Considered are various types Control Rods with full active part of the following materials: cadmium (Cd), hafnium (Hf), europium oxide (Eu2O3) and gadolinium (Gd2O3). Options to decrease the burn up of the control rod material in the hot spot, such as use of stainless steel in the lower active part of the Control Rod are discussed. Comparison with the characteristics of the presently used Control Rods types is performed. The changing of the characteristics of different types Control Rods and the perturbation effects on the reactor neutronics during the BR-2 fuel cycle are investigated. The burn up of the Control Rod absorbing material, total and differential control rods worth, macroscopic and effective microscopic absorption cross sections, fuel and reactivity evolution are evaluated during approximately 30 operating cycles.

  8. Bréal, un antinaturalisme d’inspiration humboldtienne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Jean-Philippe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dans De la forme et de la fonction des mots, Bréal formulait, dès 1866, outre une critique générale du formalisme de la philologie comparative depuis Bopp, une thèse radicalement opposée à l’orientation naturaliste de l’évolutionnisme linguistique de Schleicher. Cette thèse, que nous prendrons le risque de définir comme thèse du primat de la fonction sur la forme linguistique, est au coeur de ce programme de linguistique générale pour lequel Bréal allait forger, quelques années plus tard, le mot de sémantique. Fortement marqué par la notion humboldtienne d’innere Sprachform, Bréal, contrairement à Saussure, n'abandonnera jamais le changement linguistique au hasard de l'histoire et maintiendra l'intelligence comme premier moteur des langues, quitte à poser la nécessité de repenser cette intelligence.

  9. ReBr(CO)5-Catalyzed Knoevenagel Condensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Wei-xiong; HUA Rui-mao; SUN Hong-bin

    2004-01-01

    Knoevenagel condensations are especially important reactions for the synthesis of alkene compounds having electron-withdrawing groups such as COR,CN,COOR,NO2 etc. Recently,transition metal hydride ruthenium1, hydride and polyhydride rhenium2, and polyhydride iridium complexes have been found to be the efficient catalysts for Knoevenagle condensation. However the mentioned-above transition metal hydride complexes are not easily prepared. In addition, all of them are oxygen and H2O-sensitive, unstable compands. Therefor the catalytic reactions are required to be carried out under an inert atmosphere, and using the prepurified reagent.In the paper, We wish to report the development of Knoevenagel condensation catalyzed by ReBr(CO)5 under an air atmosphere in the absence of solvent.All the experiments were carried out under 1atm, without solvent.The resuIts of the representative Knoevenagel condensations are summarized in Table 1.The Knoevenagel reaction with diethyl malonate can be catalyzed by ReBr(CO)5, while the present Knoevenagel reactions catalyzed by transition metal have at least one cyano group in active methylene compouds.A propose mechanism for present catalytic coupling dehydration reactions is also illustrated in the paper.Briefly, this paper reports the ReBr(CO)5-catalyzed Knoevenagel reaction. The reaction is a new method for the Konevenagel condensation.

  10. Predictable 'meta-mechanisms' emerge from feedbacks between transpiration and plant growth and cannot be simply deduced from short-term mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardieu, François; Parent, Boris

    2016-08-29

    Growth under water deficit is controlled by short-term mechanisms but, because of numerous feedbacks, the combination of these mechanisms over time often results in outputs that cannot be deduced from the simple inspection of individual mechanisms. It can be analysed with dynamic models in which causal relationships between variables are considered at each time-step, allowing calculation of outputs that are routed back to inputs for the next time-step and that can change the system itself. We first review physiological mechanisms involved in seven feedbacks of transpiration on plant growth, involving changes in tissue hydraulic conductance, stomatal conductance, plant architecture and underlying factors such as hormones or aquaporins. The combination of these mechanisms over time can result in non-straightforward conclusions as shown by examples of simulation outputs: 'over production of abscisic acid (ABA) can cause a lower concentration of ABA in the xylem sap ', 'decreasing root hydraulic conductance when evaporative demand is maximum can improve plant performance' and 'rapid root growth can decrease yield'. Systems of equations simulating feedbacks over numerous time-steps result in logical and reproducible emergent properties that can be viewed as 'meta-mechanisms' at plant level, which have similar roles as mechanisms at cell level.

  11. Adult Opisthorchis felineus major protein fractions deduced from transcripts: comparison with liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomaznoy, Mikhail; Tatkov, Sergey; Katokhin, Alexey; Afonnikov, Dmitry; Babenko, Vladimir; Furman, Dagmara; Brusentsov, Ilya; Belavin, Pavel; Najakshin, Alexandr; Guselnikov, Sergey; Vasiliev, Gennady; Sivkov, Anton; Prokhortchouk, Egor; Skryabin, Konstantin; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav

    2013-10-01

    The epidemiologically important liver flukes Opisthorchis felineus, Opisthorchis viverrini, and Clonorchis sinensis are of interest to health professionals, epidemiologists, pharmacologists, and molecular biologists. Recently the transcriptomes of the latter two species were intensively investigated. However our knowledge on molecular biology of O. felineus is scarce. We report the first results of the O. felineus transcriptome analysis. We isolated and annotated a total of 2560 expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences from adult O. felineus (deposited within the database of expressed sequence tags (dbEST), under accession numbers GenBank: JK624271-JK626790, JK006511-JK006547, JK649790-JK649792). Clustering and analysis resulted in the detection of 267 contigs. Of the protein sequences deduced from these, 82% had homologs in the NCBI (nr) protein database and 63% contained conserved domains, allowing the functions to be interpreted using the Gene Ontology terms. Comprehensive analysis of Opisthorchiidae- and Trematoda-specific substitutions within amino acid sequences deduced for the proteins myoglobin, vitelline precursor protein, cathepsin F, and 28kDa glutathione transferase was carried out. The gene set of the 32 ribosomal proteins for the three Opisthorchiidae species with the addition of available Schistosoma and Fasciola orthologs was created and is provided in the supplementary. The orthologous gene set created was used for inferring phylogeny within the Trematoda with special attention to interrelations within the Opisthorchiidae. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a closer relationship between C. sinensis and O. viverrini and some divergence of O. felineus from either O. viverrini or C. sinensis.

  12. Using Measurements of Fill Factor at High Irradiance to Deduce Heterobarrier Band Offsets: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, J. M.; Steiner, M. A.; Kanevce, A.

    2011-07-01

    Using a 2D device simulation tool, we examine the high irradiance behavior of a single junction, GaAs concentrator cell as a function of the doping in the back surface confinement layer. The confinement layer is designed to be a barrier for both holes and electrons in the base of the solar cell. For a p-type base we show that the FF of the cell at high concentrations is a strong function of both the magnitude of the valence band offset and the doping level in the barrier. In short, for a given valence band offset (VBO), there is a critical barrier doping, below which the FF drops rapidly with lower doping. This behavior is confirmed experimentally for a GaInP/GaAs double heterostructure solar cell where the critical doping concentration (at 500 suns) in the back surface confinement layer is ~1e18 cm-3 for a VBO of 300 meV.

  13. Transcriptome characteristics of filamentous fungi deduced using high-throughput analytical technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijueiro, Martha Lucía; Santoyo, Francisco; Ramírez, Lucía; Pisabarro, Antonio G

    2014-11-01

    Transcriptomes are the complete set of genome sequences transcribed at a given time point by a given organism, organ, tissue or cell. The availability of high-throughput analytical techniques and, especially, the democratization of the use of RNA sequencing using new platforms have made it possible to transform transcriptome analysis into a common study affordable by most laboratories. In many cases, however, there is a certain level of prevention toward the use of these technologies because of the lack of knowledge about what has been done, what can be done and how high-throughput sequencing can help us solve specific scientific questions. Here, we will try to answer some initial questions about fungal transcriptome analysis, provide some examples of fungal biology questions that have been addressed using this approach and extract some general conclusions about the transcriptome structure and dynamics in fungal systems.

  14. Electrical conductivity studies on CuBr containing Al2O3 particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubec, P. M.; Wagner, J. B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The conductivity of CuBr was studied and the role of a second phase, Al2O3, dispersed in CuBr was tested. CuBr melts at 493 C and exhibits three phases in the solid state. CuBr is a good ionic conductor with a transport number for copper ions of virtually unity with weighed proportions of the appropriate chemicals used. The CuBr materials were heated above melting point of CuBr, and the samples were sandwiched between copper electrodes. The ac conductivity, was determined at 1 kHz between 25 and 440 C depending on the sample. It was shown that at low temperatures, the conductivity for CuBr (Al2O3) increased by as much as 100, whereas in the beta phase the conductivity of CuBr containing Al2O3 decreased. The electrical conductivity studies are in agreement with earlier data.

  15. Role of Rom protein in copy number control of plasmid pBR322 at different growth rates in Escherichia coli K-12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tove, Atlung; Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Hansen, Flemming G.

    1999-01-01

    effect on the copy number of pBR322 rom(-) at fast growth, but it decreased its copy number at slow growth to the same level as found for pBR322, i.e., complemented the pBR322 rom(-) plasmid. The pACYC184 plasmid and its rom(+) derivatives showed copy numbers similar to those of pBR322 rom(-) and pBR322...... in slowly growing cells at least 2-fold when compared with the rom(-) plasmid. To study the effect of the rom gene in trans we cloned the gene into the compatible P15A-derived rom(-) plasmid pACYC184. In cells carrying both pACYC184 rein; and pBR322 rom(-) the presence of the rom gene in trans had little...... itself, respectively, at fast and slow growth. We conclude that the rom gene product-the Rom protein-is an important element in copy number control of Co1E1-type plasmids especially in slowly growing cells. (C) 1999 Academic Press....

  16. Shuyu Capsules Relieve Premenstrual Syndrome Depression by Reducing 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR Expression in the Rat Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Feng, Jizhen; Gao, Dongmei; Wang, Jieqiong; Song, Chunhong; Wei, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the Shuyu capsule on 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR expression in a rat model of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) depression and on 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR expression and hippocampal neuron 5-HT3 channel current were investigated, to elucidate its mechanism of action against PMS depression. PMS depression model rats were divided into depression and Shuyu- and fluoxetine-treated groups, which were compared to control rats for frontal lobe and hippocampal 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR expression and behavior. The depressed model rats displayed symptoms of depression, which were reduced in treated and normal control rats. Frontal lobe and hippocampal 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR levels were significantly higher in the model versus the control group and were significantly lower in the Shuyu group. As compared to control rats, the 5-HT3R channel current in the model group was significantly higher; the 5-HT3R channel current in hippocampal neurons treated with serum from Shuyu group rats was significantly lower than that in those treated with model group serum. Thus, PMS depression may be related to 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR expression and increased 5-HT3 channel current. Shuyu capsules rectified abnormal 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR expression and 5-HT3 channel current changes in a rat model; this finding may provide insight into treating PMS depression.

  17. Ustioni da fuoco / Burn injuries / Les brûlures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Copertino

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Severe burn injuries require high specialistic treatment. Burn injuries are common in disasters and war scenarios, so war medicine has been fundamental to improve treatment protocols for burn patients..Burn injuries are classified according to the etiopathogenetic agent (physical, chemical or radiation, that determines different anatomoisthologic aspects.An estimation of the depth and extension are fundamental for defining the gravity of the burn. Critical burn patients have to be transported in specialistic Centers. There they are treated by multispecialistic teams from the resuscitation phase to the reconstructive surgery and specialist rehabilitation.. This process can continue for two years with the objective to return patients to a quiet normal life. Les brûlures sont des lésions traumatiques qui requièrent un traitement spécialisé. Lors de catastrophes et de guerres, les brûlures sont des lésions très fréquentes et la médecine de guerre a contribué à faire avancer la science de manière importante, dans le traitement de cette pathologie.Les brûlures sont classées en fonction de l'agent étiopathogénique (agents physiques, chimiques ou radiations dont le mécanisme d'action qui provoque la lésion cause des aspects anatomohistologiques caractéristiques.Pour définir la sévérité d'une brûlure, il est aussi fondamental d'éstimer l'extension de la surface corporelle et la profondeur de l'épiderme, et éventuellement du derme, atteints. Les patients gravement brûlés doivent être hospitalisés dans des Centres Spécialisés où des équipes multispécialistes les suivent de la phase initiale de la réanimation aux phases de chirurgie reconstructive et au processus de réhabilitation. Ces dernières phases peuvent se prolonger pendant les deux années suivant le traumatisme avant qu'une réintégration dans une vie sociale acceptable ne puisse être faite.

  18. Moisture transport pathways into the American Southwest from multiple oceanic sources as deduced from hydrogen isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, M.; Sharp, Z. D.; Gutzler, D. S.

    2006-12-01

    There has been a long-standing controversy regarding the oceanic sources of atmospheric moisture over the southwestern US, especially during the summer monsoon circulation. Past arguments have been made for moisture sources in the Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of California, Eastern Pacific, or some combination thereof. To help resolve this problem, we are using hydrogen isotopes as a tracer to reconstruct the history of moisture being advected into central New Mexico. The hydrogen isotope composition (δD) of water vapor is dependent on many factors, including the temperature of the source ocean, rainout history, contributions from evapotranspiration over the continent, and mixing between air masses. Since April 1, 2005 we have been measuring δD of atmospheric water vapor (δDwv) at ground level 1 to 3 times per day. In addition, we periodically collect water vapor in ~300m vertical increments to ~3km above the surface using a light aircraft. We see significant temporal variations in δDwv on several different scales in the ground-level δDwv measurements. Lower δDwv values in the winter are consistent with moisture transport from the Pacific Ocean, while larger δDwv values in the summer imply moisture from a warmer body of water. During the fall, winter, and spring, large variations in δDwv (up to 80‰) can occur over the period of a few days to a few hours whereas during the summer monsoon season the δDwv values are much less variable. The relationship between δDwv and dew point also varies throughout the year; good correlations exist through portions of spring, fall, and winter, while at other times no correlation is apparent. During the summer monsoon season, a distinctive anticorrelation exists between dew point and δDwv. Using trajectory analyses, we have been able to demonstrate that many of the variations in δDwv can be explained by changes in moisture transport pathways. It appears that the source of the moisture being advected into central New Mexico can

  19. A Comprehensive Theoretical Investigation of the Molecular Properties of Methyl Bromide (CH3Br)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ang-Yang; Efil, Kürşat; Yang, Rui; Hu, Qing-Miao

    2015-12-01

    The properties of the ground and the lowest excited state of methyl bromide (CH3Br) have been studied with and without inclusion of the solvent effects in this work. The geometric parameters, energies, and frequencies of the ground state and the triplet state are calculated by using the MP2(full)/6-311++G** level of theory. The vertical excitation for the singlet state is also investigated. It is found that the theoretical results performed by the TDDFT/B3P86/6-311++G** method are in the best agreement with the experimental results. In addition, the dissociation energy of CH3Br molecule is computed at MP2(full)/6-311++G** level of theory for the gas phase and in water. The ionisation potential (IP), electron affinity (EA), electronegativity (χ), electrophilicity index (ω), hardness (η), softness (S), and chemical potential (μ) values are calculated from HOMO-LUMO energies both in the gas phase and in solvent (water). These theoretical results could serve as a guide for future experimental investigations.

  20. Origins of short gamma-ray bursts deduced from offsets in their host galaxies revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hong Cui; Shigehiro Nagataki; Junichi Aoi; Ren-Xin Xu

    2012-01-01

    The spatial distribution of short Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in their host galaxies provides us with an opportunity to investigate their origins.Based on the currently observed distribution of short GRBs relative to their host galaxies,we obtain the fraction of the component that traces the mergers of binary compact objects and the one that traces star formation rate (such as massive stars) in early- and late-type host galaxies.From the analysis of projected offset distribution and only based on population synthesis and massive star models,we find that the fraction of massive stars is 0.37+0.42-0.37 with an error at the lσ level for a sample with 22 short GRBs in the literature.From these results,it is hard to accept that the origin of short GRBs with observed statistics is well described by current models using only the offset distribution.The uncertainties in observational localizations of short GRBs also strongly affect the resulting fraction.

  1. Properties of post-shock solar wind deduced from geomagnetic indices responses after sudden impulses

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Interplanetary (IP) shock plays a key role in causing the global dynamic changes of the geospace environment. For the perspective of Solar-Terrestrial relationship, it will be of great importance to estimate the properties of post-shock solar wind simply and accurately. Motivated by this, we performed a statistical analysis of IP shocks during 1998-2008, focusing on the significantly different responses of two well-used geomagnetic indices (SYMH and AL) to the passive of two types of IP shocks. For the IP shocks with northward IMF (91 cases), the SYMH index keeps on the high level after the sudden impulses (SI) for a long time. Meanwhile, the change of AL index is relative small, with an mean value of only -29 nT. However, for the IP shocks with southward IMF (92 cases), the SYMH index suddenly decreases at a certain rate after SI, and the change of AL index is much significant, of -316 nT. Furthermore, the change rate of SYMH index after SI is found to be linearly correlated with the post-shock reconnection ...

  2. Reactivity of BrCl, Br₂, BrOCl, Br₂O, and HOBr toward dimethenamid in solutions of bromide + aqueous free chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivey, John D; Arey, J Samuel; Tentscher, Peter R; Roberts, A Lynn

    2013-02-01

    HOBr, formed via oxidation of bromide by free available chlorine (FAC), is frequently assumed to be the sole species responsible for generating brominated disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Our studies reveal that BrCl, Br(2), BrOCl, and Br(2)O can also serve as brominating agents of the herbicide dimethenamid in solutions of bromide to which FAC was added. Conditions affecting bromine speciation (pH, total free bromine concentration ([HOBr](T)), [Cl(-)], and [FAC](o)) were systematically varied, and rates of dimethenamid bromination were measured. Reaction orders in [HOBr](T) ranged from 1.09 (±0.17) to 1.67 (±0.16), reaching a maximum near the pK(a) of HOBr. This complex dependence on [HOBr](T) implicates Br(2)O as an active brominating agent. That bromination rates increased with increasing [Cl(-)], [FAC](o) (at constant [HOBr](T)), and excess bromide (where [Br(-)](o)>[FAC](o)) implicate BrCl, BrOCl, and Br(2), respectively, as brominating agents. As equilibrium constants for the formation of Br(2)O and BrOCl (aq) have not been previously reported, we have calculated these values (and their gas-phase analogues) using benchmark-quality quantum chemical methods [CCSD(T) up to CCSDTQ calculations plus solvation effects]. The results allow us to compute bromine speciation and hence second-order rate constants. Intrinsic brominating reactivity increased in the order: HOBr ≪ Br(2)O water and wastewater chlorination.

  3. "Brücke dreht sich um!". A Deconstructionist Reading of Kafka's "Die Brücke"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Hoffmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Franz Kafka's (1883-1924 "Die Brücke" is one of the less well-known texts by one of the most prolific authors of literary modernity. However, this short prose text embodies prevalent questions of literary modernity and philosophy as it reflects the crisis of language in regard of identity, communication, and literary production. Placed in the context of fin-de-siècle's discourse of language crisis, this article provides a dialogue between Kafka's "Die Brücke" and Hannah Arendt's (1906-1975 philosophy of thinking and speaking in The Life of the Mind. Contrary to Arendt's understanding of the metaphor as "a carrying over" between the mental activities of the solitude thinker and a reconciliation with the pluralistic world shared with others, this article argues for a deconstructionist reading of "Die Brücke" as a tool to reevaluate Arendt's notion of a shared human experience ensured through language and illustrates the advantages of poetic texts within philosophical discourses.

  4. BmBR-C Z4 is an upstream regulatory factor of BmPOUM2 controlling the pupal specific expression of BmWCP4 in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Huimin; Niu, Kangkang; Zhang, Jialing; Feng, Qili

    2015-11-01

    20-hydroxyecdysone (20E)-induced expression of the wing disc cuticle protein gene BmWCP4 was mediated by the transcription factor BmPOUM2, which binds to the cis-response elements (CREs) of BmWCP4 gene in Bombyx mori. In this study we report the regulation of BmPOUM2. RT-PCR analysis indicated that in response to 20E, BmPOUM2 was expressed at higher levels in the wing discs during the pre-pupal and mid-pupal stages than other stages and the expression pattern of BmBR-C Z1, BmBR-C Z2 and BmBR-C Z4 was in tandem with the expression of BmPOUM2. BmBR-C Z4 was induced by 20E in the wing discs, whereas BmBR-C Z1 and BmBR-C Z2 were not. Three potential BR-C Z4 cis-response elements (CREs) were identified in the promoter region of BmPOUM2. The expression of BmPOUM2 mRNA and protein was increased by the over-expression of BmBR-C Z4 in BmN cells, which acted at the promoter of BmPOUM2. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and the luciferase activity analysis under the control of wild-type and mutants of the BR-C Z4 CREs suggested that BmBR-C Z4 protein bound to the predicted BRC-Z4 CRE C (-684 ∼ -660). Taken together the data suggest that BmBR-C Z4 is a direct upstream regulator of BmPOUM2 and regulates the pupal-specific expression of BmWCP4 through BmPOUM2.

  5. File list: His.Brs.20.AllAg.SK-BR-3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Brs.20.AllAg.SK-BR-3 hg19 Histone Breast SK-BR-3 SRX750665,SRX750660,SRX469107,...SRX469108 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Brs.20.AllAg.SK-BR-3.bed ...

  6. File list: Oth.Brs.10.AllAg.SK-BR-3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: His.Brs.05.AllAg.SK-BR-3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: His.Brs.10.AllAg.SK-BR-3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. Kuidas mõõta brändi mõjukust! / Lauri Talve

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talve, Lauri

    2002-01-01

    Brändi väärtuse hindamise süsteem ning selle 4 fundamentaalset koostisosa; 9 võimalikku brändimustrit brändi hetkeolukorra hindamiseks. Artikli aluseks on peatükk autori ülikooli lõputööst. Skeemid

  13. Communication: Interaction of BrO radical with the surface of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chongqin; Gao, Yurui; Zhong, Jie; Huang, Yingying; Francisco, Joseph S.; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-12-01

    Solvation of a BrO radical in a slab of water is investigated using adaptive buffered force quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) dynamics simulations. The simulation results show that the BrO radical exhibits preference towards the water surface with respect to the interior region of the water slab, despite BrO's high affinity to water. Another important finding is the weakening of (BrO)Br⋯O(water) interaction at the water surface due to competitive interactions between (BrO)Br⋯O(water) and (water)H⋯O(water). As such, the BrO-water slab interaction is dominated by (BrO)O⋯H(water) interaction, contrary to that in the gas phase, suggesting that the reactive site for the BrO radical at the air/water surface is more likely the Br site. The conclusion from this study can offer deeper insight into the reactivity of the BrO radical at the air/water interface, with regard to atmospheric implications.

  14. High-frequency Earth rotation variations deduced from altimetry-based ocean tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzak, Matthias; Schindelegger, Michael; Böhm, Johannes; Bosch, Wolfgang; Hagedoorn, Jan

    2016-06-01

    A model of diurnal and semi-diurnal variations in Earth rotation parameters (ERP) is constructed based on altimetry-measured tidal heights from a multi-mission empirical ocean tide solution. Barotropic currents contributing to relative angular momentum changes are estimated for nine major tides in a global inversion algorithm that solves the two-dimensional momentum equations on a regular 0.5° grid with a heavily weighted continuity constraint. The influence of 19 minor tides is accounted for by linear admittance interpolation of ocean tidal angular momentum, although the assumption of smooth admittance variations with frequency appears to be a doubtful concept for semi-diurnal mass terms in particular. A validation of the newly derived model based on post-fit corrections to polar motion and universal time (Δ UT1) from the analysis of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations shows a variance reduction for semi-diurnal Δ UT1 residuals that is significant at the 0.05 level with respect to the conventional ERP model. Improvements are also evident for the explicitly modeled K_1 , Q_1 , and K_2 tides in individual ERP components, but large residuals of more than 15 μ as remain at the principal lunar frequencies of O_1 and M_2 . We attribute these shortcomings to uncertainties in the inverted relative angular momentum changes and, to a minor extent, to violation of mass conservation in the empirical ocean tide solution. Further dedicated hydrodynamic modeling efforts of these anomalous constituents are required to meet the accuracy standards of modern space geodesy.

  15. High-frequency Earth rotation variations deduced from altimetry-based ocean tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzak, Matthias; Schindelegger, Michael; Böhm, Johannes; Bosch, Wolfgang; Hagedoorn, Jan

    2016-11-01

    A model of diurnal and semi-diurnal variations in Earth rotation parameters (ERP) is constructed based on altimetry-measured tidal heights from a multi-mission empirical ocean tide solution. Barotropic currents contributing to relative angular momentum changes are estimated for nine major tides in a global inversion algorithm that solves the two-dimensional momentum equations on a regular 0.5° grid with a heavily weighted continuity constraint. The influence of 19 minor tides is accounted for by linear admittance interpolation of ocean tidal angular momentum, although the assumption of smooth admittance variations with frequency appears to be a doubtful concept for semi-diurnal mass terms in particular. A validation of the newly derived model based on post-fit corrections to polar motion and universal time (Δ UT1) from the analysis of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations shows a variance reduction for semi-diurnal Δ UT1 residuals that is significant at the 0.05 level with respect to the conventional ERP model. Improvements are also evident for the explicitly modeled K_1, Q_1, and K_2 tides in individual ERP components, but large residuals of more than 15 μ as remain at the principal lunar frequencies of O_1 and M_2. We attribute these shortcomings to uncertainties in the inverted relative angular momentum changes and, to a minor extent, to violation of mass conservation in the empirical ocean tide solution. Further dedicated hydrodynamic modeling efforts of these anomalous constituents are required to meet the accuracy standards of modern space geodesy.

  16. Concurrent validation of the MABC-2 Motor Tests and MABC-2 Checklist according to the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire-BR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Capistrano

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Movement Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd Ed (MABC-2, comprised of motor tests and a questionnaire (Checklist, has been used by several nationalities to identify problems in children's motor behavior. However, the level of agreement between the motor tests and the checklist has been questioned. So, this study aimed to test the level of competition between the MABC-2 motor test and MABC-2 Checklist, controlled by the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ-BR as the gold reference. Parents of 40 children and 16 teachers responded to the MABC-2 Checklist and the DCDQ-BR. Later 40 children were evaluated using the MABC-2 motor test. No significant congruence among a comparison of the MABC-2 motor tests, MABC-2 Checklist and DCDQ-BR was observed. The results indicated that there is no concurrent validity between the MABC-2 motor tests and the DCDQ-BR test, whereas the MABC-2 Checklist showed low levels of concurrent validity with the DCDQ-BR.

  17. Candidate of the member of three-phonon multiplet observed in the + +EC decay of 76Br

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shuifa Shen; Yongbo Chen

    2013-01-01

    The decay scheme of 76Br is established by the 76Br(1/2 = 16.2 h) $\\bate^{+}$/EC study. The 1791.31 keV level, which was identified initially by Müller $\\mathit{et al}$ with 76Se(, ′) reaction more than three decades ago, is reconfirmed. However, the spin and parity have not been assigned by Müller $\\mathit{et al}$. Now we consider it reasonable to assign the 1791.31 keV level as a new candidate of the three-phonon multiplet in 76Se. In addition, in order to study the deformation of 76Se which lies in transitional region between strongly deformed and spherical nuclei, we calculate the total Routhian surfaces (TRS) of positive-parity states by cranking shell model formalism.

  18. Effect of Trastuzumab on Notch-1 Signaling Pathway in Breast Cancer SK-BR3 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Han; Hua-yu Deng; Rong Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects and mechanisms of trastuzumab on Notch-1 pathway in breast cancer cells,recognizing the significance of Notch-1 signaling pathway in trastuzumab resistance.Methods:Immunocytochemistry staining and Western blotting were employed to justify the expression of Notch-1 protein in HER2-overexpressing SK-BR3 cells and HER2-non-overexpressing breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.Western blotting and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) were used to detect the activated Notch-1 and Notch-1 target gene HES-1 mRNA expression after SK-BR3 cells were treated with trastuzumab.Double immunofluorescence staining and co-immunoprecipitation were used to analyze the relationship of Notch-1 and HER2 proteins.Results:The level of Notch-1 nuclear localization and activated Notch-1 proteins in HER2-overexpressing cells were significantly lower than in HER2-non-overexpressing cells (P<0.01),and the expressions of activated Notch-1 and HES-1 mRNA were obviously increased after trastuzumab treatment (P<1.05),but HER2 expression did not change significantly for trastuzumab treating (P>0.05).Moreover,Notch-1 was discovered to co-localize and interact with HER2 in SK-BR3 cells.Conclusion:Overexpression of HER2 decreased Notch-1 activity by the formation of a HER2-Notch1 complex,and trastuzumab can restore the activity of Notch-1 signaling pathway,which could be associated with cell resistance to trastuzumab.

  19. Micropropagation of Araucaria excelsa R. Br. var. glauca Carrière from orthotropic stem explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmast, Mostafa Khoshhal; Salehi, Hassan; Khosh-Khui, Morteza

    2012-07-01

    The objectives of the present work were in vitro propagation of Araucaria excelsa R. Br. var. glauca Carrière (Norfolk Island pine) with focus on the evaluation of the mean number of shoots per explant (MNS/E) and mean length of shoots per explants (MLS/E) produced by different parts of the orthotropic stem of A. excelsa R. Br. var. glauca in response to plant growth regulators. Norfolk Island pine axillary meristems responded very well to the 2-iso-pentenyl adenine (2iP) and thidiazuron (TDZ) levels. Explants taken from stem upper segments in the media containing 2iP had a higher MNS/E (3.47) and MLS/E (6.27 mm) in comparison to those taken from stem lower segments, which were 0.71 and 0.51 mm, respectively. Using 0.045 μM TDZ in the MS medium not only resulted in 4.60 MNS/E with 7.08 mm MLS/E but proliferated shoots showed a good performance as well. Investigating the best position of stem explant on mother plant as well as the best concentrations of growth regulators were performed which were useful for efficient micropropagation of this plant. Thirty three percent of explants were rooted in the MS medium containing 3 % sucrose, supplemented with 7.5 μM of both NAA and IBA for 2 weeks before transferring to a half strength MS medium without any growth regulator. Plantlets obtained were acclimatized and transferred to the greenhouse with less than 20 % mortality. This procedure considered the first successful report for regeneration and acclimatization of A. excelsa R. Br. var. glauca plantlet through main stem explants.

  20. The effects of Br dopant on the photo-catalytic properties of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Yalei; Wei, Xiumei, E-mail: weixiumei@snnu.edu.cn; Guo, Shuangshuang; Huang, Yuhong; Zhu, Gangqiang; Zhang, Jianmin

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: The UV–vis absorbance spectra are shown in (a), while the calculated optical absorption spectra are shown in (b) as a contrast. The experimental result is consistent with the calculation, that is, red-shifts are generated for both of them, which suggests that the Br-doped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} is more effective in absorbing visible light and thus the photocatalytic activity under visible light will be enhanced by the doping. - Highlights: • The performance is significantly enhanced with Br doping for Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} powders. • The structural stability and electronic properties are studied by the first-principles method. • The photocatalytic mechanism is analyzed by the electronic structures. - Abstract: We present an experimental study on photocatalysis of pure and Br-doped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} powders, including photo-degradation of Rhodamine B, UV–vis absorption spectra and photo-luminescence spectrum. The obtained results indicate that Br-doped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} powders exhibit preferable photocatalytic activity than pure Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. Then, the structural stability and the electronic properties of Br-doped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} are studied by employing the first-principles method, and a promising improvement of photo-catalytic activity is found in the visible-light region after doping, which is consistent with the experimental results. The Br{sub II}-doped structure is found to be more preferred, nevertheless all the three types of doping can narrow the band gap of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} pronouncedly, and thus the availability of solar energy increases consequently with the doping. On the other hand, the doping of Br results to smaller electron effective mass and induces impurity levels in gap, which is in favor of the carrier's transfer and the decrease of electron-hole recombination respectively.

  1. Assessment of volatile compound profiles and the deduced sensory significance of virgin olive oils from the progeny of Picual×Arbequina cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Ana G; de la Rosa, Raúl; Pascual, Mar; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Romero-Segura, Carmen; León, Lorenzo; Sanz, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Volatile compounds are responsible for most of the sensory qualities of virgin olive oil and they are synthesized when enzymes and substrates come together as olive fruit is crushed during the industrial process to obtain the oil. Here we have studied the variability among the major volatile compounds in virgin olive oil prepared from the progeny of a cross of Picual and Arbequina olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.). The volatile compounds were isolated by SPME, and analyzed by HRGC-MS and HRGC-FID. Most of the volatile compounds found in the progeny's oil are produced by the enzymes in the so-called lipoxygenase pathway, and they may be clustered into different groups according to their chain length and polyunsaturated fatty acid origin (linoleic and linolenic acids). In addition, a group of compounds derived from amino acid metabolism and two terpenes also contributed significantly to the volatile fraction, some of which had significant odor values in most of the genotypes evaluated. The volatile compound content of the progeny was very varied, widely transgressing the progenitor levels, suggesting that in breeding programs it might be more effective to consider a larger number of individuals within the same cross than using different crosses with fewer individuals. Multivariate analysis allowed genotypes with particularly interesting volatile compositions to be identified and their flavor quality deduced.

  2. Submarine paleoseismology of the northern Hikurangi subduction margin of New Zealand as deduced from Turbidite record since 16 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouderoux, Hugo; Proust, Jean-Noël; Lamarche, Geoffroy

    2014-01-01

    Paleoseismic studies seek to characterise the signature of pre-historical earthquakes by deriving quantitative information from the geological record such as the source, magnitude and recurrence of moderate to large earthquakes. In this study, we provide a ˜16,000 yr-long paleo-earthquake record of the 200 km-long northern Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand, using cm-thick deep-sea turbidites identified in sediment cores. Cores were collected in strategic locations across the margin within three distinct morphological re-entrants - the Poverty, Ruatoria and Matakaoa re-entrants. The turbidite facies vary from muddy to sandy with evidence for rare hyperpycnites interbedded with hemipelagites and tephra. We use the Oxal probabilistic software to model the age of each turbidite, using the sedimentation rate of hemipelagite deduced from well-dated tephra layers and radiocarbon ages measurements on planktonic foraminifera.

  3. Intra-plasmaspheric wave power density deduced from long-term DEMETER measurements of terrestrial VLF transmitter wave amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauben, D.; Cohen, M.; Inan, U.

    2012-12-01

    We deduce the 3d intra-plasmaspheric distribution of VLF wave power between conjugate regions of strong VLF wave amplitudes as measured by DEMETER for high-power terrestrial VLF transmitters during its ~6-yr lifetime. We employ a mixed WKB/full-wave technique to solve for the primary and secondary electromagnetic and electrostatic waves which are transmitted and reflected from strong cold-plasma density gradients and posited irregularities, in order to match the respective end-point measured amplitude distributions. Energy arriving in the conjugate region and also escaping to other regions of the magnetosphere is note. The resulting 3d distribution allows improved estimates for the long-term average particle scattering induced by terrestrial VLF transmitters.

  4. Half-life Measurements of Excited Levels in Fission Products around Mass Number 150

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Y., E-mail: kojima.yasuaki@f.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Radioisotope Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Shima, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Hayashi, H. [Institute of Health Biosciences, the University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8509 (Japan); Taniguchi, A. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori 590-0494 (Japan); Shibata, M. [Radioisotope Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2014-06-15

    A spectrometer to measure nuclear level half-lives has been installed at the on-line isotope separator of the Kyoto University Reactor. This spectrometer consists of a LaBr3 scintillator, a thin plastic scintillator and an HPGe detector. Half-lives are deduced using the β-γ-γ delayed coincidence method. The prompt-time distribution curves measured with the spectrometer give a time resolution (FWHM) of 600 ps for 100-keV γ rays. This resolution means that half-lives down to the subnanosecond range or shorter can be measured. We reported recent measurements of the half-life of {sup 149}Pr and {sup 149}Nd. Some of the more interesting results include the first determination of the half-lives of {sup 149}Pr levels at 86.5 and 125.6 keV, which are 4.2(5) ns and 1.0(2) ns, respectively. In addition, the data indicate that the half-life of the 270.8-keV level in {sup 149}Nd is not 5.1(3) ns as reported previously, but 0.42(3) ns.

  5. Improved Growth Methods for LaBr3 Scintillation Radiation Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, Douglas S

    2011-05-01

    The objective is to develop advanced materials for deployment as high-resolution gamma ray detectors. Both LaBr3 and CeBr3 are advanced scintillation materials, and will be studied in this research. Prototype devices, in collaboration Sandia National Laboratories, will be demonstrated along with recommendations for mass production and deployment. It is anticipated that improved methods of crystal growth will yield larger single crystals of LaBr3 for deployable room-temperature operated gamma radiation spectrometers. The growth methods will be characterized. The LaBr3 and CeBr3 scintillation crystals will be characterized for light yield, spectral resolution, and for hardness.

  6. Thermodynamics limits the reactivity of BrHg radical with volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibble, Theodore S.; Schwid, Abraham C.

    2016-08-01

    Mercury emissions to the atmosphere primarily consist of Hg(0), which tends not to enter ecosystems until it is oxidized. Atomic bromine initiates oxidation of Hg(0) via the BrHg intermediate, but the further reactions of BrHg are just beginning to be explored. Here we use quantum chemistry to determine that hydrogen abstraction from hydrocarbons by BrHg is so endothermic as to be irrelevant. Bonds between BrHg and carbon atoms are so weak that BrHg addition to carbon-carbon double bonds atoms will be somewhat ineffective in leading to further reactions.

  7. Solution conformation and dynamics of a tetrasaccharide related to the Lewis{sup X} antigen deduced by NMR relaxation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poveda, Ana [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigacion (Spain); Asensio, Juan Luis; Martin-Pastor, Manuel; Jimenez-Barbero, Jesus [Instituto de Quimica Organica, CSIC, Grupo de Carbohidratos (Spain)

    1997-07-15

    {sup 1}H-NMR cross-relaxation rates and nonselective longitudinal relaxation times have been obtained at two magnetic fields (7.0 and 11.8 T) and at a variety of temperatures for the branched tetrasaccharide methyl 3-O-{alpha}-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl-{beta}-galactopyranosyl-(1{sup {yields}}4)[3-O-{alpha}-fucosyl] -glucopyranoside (1), an inhibitor of astrocyte growth. In addition, {sup 13}C-NMR relaxation data have also been recorded at both fields. The {sup 1}H-NMR relaxation data have been interpreted using different motional models to obtain proton-proton correlation times. The results indicate that the GalNAc and Fuc rings display more extensive local motion than the two inner Glc and Gal moieties, since those present significantly shorter local correlation times. The{sup 13}C-NMR relaxation parameters have been interpreted in terms of the Lipari-Szabo model-free approach. Thus, order parameters and internal motion correlation times have been deduced. As obtained for the{sup 1}H-NMR relaxation data, the two outer residues possess smaller order parameters than the two inner rings. Internal correlation times are in the order of 100 ps. The hydroxymethyl groups have also different behaviour,with the exocyclic carbon on the glucopyranoside unit showing the highestS{sup 2}. Molecular dynamics simulations using a solvated system have also been performed and internal motion correlation functions have been deduced from these calculations. Order parameters and interproton distances have been compared to those inferred from the NMR measurements. The obtained results are in fair agreement with the experimental data.

  8. Synthesis of cellulose dehydroabietate in ionic liquid [bmim]Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuetang; Duan, Wengui; Huang, Mei; Li, Guanghua

    2011-09-27

    A new type of cellulose derivative, cellulose dehydroabietate (CDA), was synthesized by the O-acylation reaction of cellulose with dehydroabietic acid chloride (DHAC) using ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([bmim]Br) as a solvent and 4-dimethyl-aminopyridine (DMAP) as a catalyst. The resulting CDA was characterized by means of FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and elemental analysis. Also, some properties of CDA were determined. These results showed that CDA has better solubility, water-repellency, and resistance to acids and bases than raw cellulose, and these properties increase with the DS of CDA.

  9. Refurbishment of BR2 (Phases 4 and 5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P.; Dekeyser, J.; Van Der Auwera, J

    1998-07-01

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. In phase 4 of the refurbishment programme, various activities were performed to allow reactor start-up. In phase 5, remaining refurbishment works were carried out as well as the extra studies and upgradings required by the licensing authorities. Major achievements in 1997 are described and discussed.

  10. PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF CHLOROPHYTUM LAXUM R. BR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Vishal Narayan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophytum laxum R. Br. belongs to family Liliaceae and is being used in the indigenous systems of medicine as a galactogogue and aphrodisiac. It is being sold in the market under the common name “safed musali”. The white tuberous roots of this plant are the medicinally useful parts. The tuberous roots of other species of Chlorophytum, Asparagus, Bombax and Orchids are also sometimes called safed musali leading to confusion. In order to ensure correct botanical standardization, the detailed pharmacognostic study on tuberous roots of Chlorophytum laxum has been carried out in this study.

  11. Brüssel enne Moskvat / Markus Meckel, Matthias Wissmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meckel, Markus

    2005-01-01

    Saksa liiduparlamendi sotsiaaldemokraatide fraktsiooni liikme Markus Meckeli ja Saksa liiduparlamendi Euroopa komisjoni esimehe Matthias Wissmanni avaldus, milles nad kutsuvad tunnistama Balti riikide ajalugu ja korraldama päev enne Moskvas toimuvat Teise maailmasõja lõppu tähistavat üritust Brüsselis sõja lõpu 60. aastapäeva mälestusürituse. Artikkel ilmus samaaegselt ajalehtedes International Herald Tribune, Die Welt, Die Presse, Le Figaro, Gazeta Wyborcza, Lietuvas rytas, Diena

  12. A Discharge-Excited SrBr2 Vapour Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘佰良; 姚志欣; 陈钢

    2002-01-01

    A new-style discharge tube for a metal vapour laser has been designed and built. SrBr2 was successfullyused to replace the metal strontium as a working medium. Multi-line laser oscillations from resonance tometastable transition of strontium atoms (6.45um), ions (1.03um/1.O9um) and from strontium ion recombi-nation (416.2nm/430.5nm) have been obtained through longitudinal pulsed discharge. The problem of an in-compatibility reaction between metallic strontium and the discharge tube in the strontium vapour laser has beensolved. Some proposals are presented for further developments of strontium halide lasers.

  13. [(Ph)3PBr][Br7], [(Bz)(Ph)3P]2[Br8], [(n-Bu)3MeN]2[Br20], [C4MPyr]2[Br20], and [(Ph)3PCl]2[Cl2I14]: extending the horizon of polyhalides via synthesis in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Michael; Okrut, Alexander; Feldmann, Claus

    2011-11-21

    The five polyhalides [(Ph)(3)PBr][Br(7)], [(Bz)(Ph)(3)P](2)[Br(8)], [(n-Bu)(3)MeN](2)[Br(20)], [C(4)MPyr](2)[Br(20)] ([C(4)MPyr] = N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium), and [(Ph)(3)PCl](2)[Cl(2)I(14)] were prepared by the reaction of dibromine and iodine monochloride in ionic liquids. The compounds [(Ph)(3)PBr][Br(7)] and [(Bz)(Ph)(3)P](2)[Br(8)] contain discrete pyramidal [Br(7)](-) and Z-shaped [Br(8)](2-) polybromide anions. [(n-Bu)(3)MeN](2)[Br(20)] and [C(4)MPyr](2)[Br(20)] exhibit new infinite two- and three-dimensional polybromide networks and contain the highest percentage of dibromine ever observed in a compound. [(Ph)(3)PCl](2)[Cl(2)I(14)] also consists of a three-dimensional network and is the first example of an infinite polyiodine chloride. All compounds were obtained from ionic liquids as the solvent that, on the one hand, guarantees for a high stability against strongly oxidizing Br(2) and ICl and that, on the other hand, reduces the high volatility of the molecular halogens.

  14. 海兔素对人乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞的抑制作用及机制研究%Effect of Aplysin on the Proliferation and Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer SK-BR-3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文龙; 梁惠; 刘颖

    2012-01-01

    本文阐述了海兔素(Aplysin)对人乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞增殖和凋亡的影响,并探讨了其可能的作用机制.分别采用CCK-8法和流式细胞术Annexin V-FITC/PI双染法测定不同剂量海兔素对SK-BR-3细胞的增殖抑制和凋亡诱导作用,并以Western blot测定SK-BR-3细胞中EGFR、Akt及ERK表达水平和磷酸化水平.结果发现,20、30、40、45、50、55、60 mg/L海兔素处理SK-BR-3细胞24 h后,细胞的生长增殖明显受到抑制,呈量效依赖性,其IC25和IC50值为分别为29.4和33.7 mg/L; IC25和IC50剂量海兔素可明显诱导细胞凋亡,并下调SK-BR-3细胞EGFR、Akt及ERK的磷酸化蛋白表达水平,但是不影响总蛋白表达水平.表明海兔素对人乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞具有抑制增殖和诱导凋亡的作用,其作用机制可能与海兔素抑制细胞中EGFR蛋白磷酸化,进而阻断下游效应分子Akt和ERK的活化有关.%The effects of aplysin, nature extract from Laurencia, on the proliferation and apoptosis on human breast cancer SK-BR-3 cells were investigated in this study. After treatment with aplysin at a serial of concentrations,cell proliferation was investigated by using Cell Counting Kit-8 and apoptosis was analyzed by Annexin V-FTTC/PI staining via flow cy-tometry.The total and phosphorylated proteins of EGFR.Akt,and ERK were detected by western blot. The results showed that aplysin was able to inhibit SK-BR-3 cell proliferation in a concentration dependent manner within the concentration range of 20,30,40,45,50,55,and 60 mg/L. Aplysin could induce significant apoptosis at the dose of IC25 and IC50. Phosphorylation levels of the receptor of EGFR and cytoplasmic protein of Akt and ERK were significantly down-regulated by aplysin at the dose of IC25 and IC50,while their total protein expression levels were not affected. The results indicated that aplysin could inhibit SK-BR-3 cell proliferation and induce apoptosis by blocking EGFR/Akt and EGFR/ERK signal pathways.

  15. Development of a BR-UASB-DHS system for natural rubber processing wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watari, Takahiro; Thanh, Nguyen Thi; Tsuruoka, Natsumi; Tanikawa, Daisuke; Kuroda, Kyohei; Huong, Nguyen Lan; Tan, Nguyen Minh; Hai, Huynh Trung; Hatamoto, Masashi; Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Fukuda, Masao; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2015-11-21

    Natural rubber processing wastewater contains high concentrations of organic compounds, nitrogen, and other contaminants. In this study, a treatment system composed of a baffled reactor (BR), an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, and a downflow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor was used to treat natural rubber processing wastewater in Vietnam. The BR showed good total suspended solids removal of 47.6%, as well as acidification of wastewater. The UASB reactor achieved a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 92.7% ± 2.3% and energy recovery in the form of methane with an organic loading rate of 12.2 ± 6.6 kg-COD·m(-3)·day(-1). The DHS reactor showed a high performance in residual organic matter removal from UASB effluent. In total, the system achieved high-level total COD removal of 98.6% ± 1.2% and total suspended solids removal of 98.0% ± 1.4%. Massive parallel 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the retained sludge in the UASB reactor showed the predominant microbial phyla to be Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, WWE1, and Euryarchaeota. Uncultured bacteria belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes and Phylum WWE1 were predominant in the UASB reactor. This microbial assemblage utilizes the organic compounds contained in natural rubber processing wastewater. In addition, the methane-producing archaea Methanosaeta sp. and Methanolinea sp. were detected.

  16. Histologia das brânquias de larvas da tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (L., de origem tailandesa, submetidas a diferentes níveis de vitamina C Histology of branchiae of larvae of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L. from Thailand, with different levels of vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Raquel Marçal Natali

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, foi avaliado o efeito da vitamina C sobre a integridade histológica branquial e morfologia das células mucosas, em larvas de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes, cichlidae de origem tailandesa, durante a fase de reversão sexual, em Maringá, Estado do Paraná. Larvas foram submetidas a três diferentes dietas sendo: T1- isenta de vitamina C, T2- 1.000 mg de vitamina C e T3- 2.000 mg por quilo de ração. As alterações histológicas foram classificadas por graus de severidade, numa escala de 1 a 3 unidades de Valor Médio de Alteração (V.M.A., tais como: elevação epitelial, hiperplasia de células dos filamentos, telangectasia e fusão lamelar, que foram significativamente mais freqüentes no T1 em relação ao T2 e T3. As análises morfométricas demonstraram significativo aumento no tamanho médio das células no T1, em relação às do T2 e do T3, (p The effect of vitamin C (ascorbic acid on the histological integrity and the morphology of mucous cells from gill structure of larvae of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes, cichlidae, from Thailand, during sex reversion process was evaluated. Assay was performed during 28 days in Maringá PR Brazil. Three diets were given to the larvae: vitamin C-free diet; and two diets with monophosphated vitamin C, or rather, T1 (0; T2 (1,000; T3 (2,000 mg of vitamin C per kilo of diet respectively. Histological changes were classified according to severity levels in a scale ranging from 1 to 3 unities of Mean Assessment Value (MAV. These were epithelial lifting, hyperplasia of filament cells, telangectasy, and lamellar fusion, significantly more frequent in T1 than in T2 and T3. Morphometrical analyses showed an increase in average size of cells in T1 when compared to those of T2 or T3 (p < 0.05. Number of mucous cells showed a higher significant frequency of cells in T1 filaments as a contrast to those of T2 and T3. Results indicate that best inclusion

  17. Interplay between solid state transitions, conductivity mechanisms, and electrical relaxations in a [PVBTMA] [Br]-b-PMB diblock copolymer membrane for electrochemical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Noto, Vito; Giffin, Guinevere A; Vezzù, Keti; Nawn, Graeme; Bertasi, Federico; Tsai, Tsung-han; Maes, Ashley M; Seifert, Soenke; Coughlin, E Bryan; Herring, Andrew M

    2015-12-14

    Understanding the structure-property relationships and the phenomena responsible for ion conduction is one of the keys in the design of novel ionomers with improved properties. In this report, the morphology and the mechanism of ion exchange in a model anion exchange membrane (AEM), poly(vinyl benzyl trimethyl ammonium bromide)-block-poly(methylbutylene) ([PVBTMA][Br]-b-PMB), is investigated with small angle X-ray scattering, high-resolution thermogravimetry, modulated differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, and broadband electrical spectroscopy. The hyper-morphology of the material consists of hydrophilic domains characterized by stacked sides of [PVBTMA][Br] which are sandwiched between "spaghetti-like" hydrophobic cylindrical parallel domains of the PMB block. The most important interactions in the hydrophilic domains occur between the dipoles of ammonium bromide ion pairs in the side chains of adjacent chains. A reordering of the ion pair dipoles is responsible for a disorder-order transition (Tδ) at high temperature, observed here for the first time in AEMs, which results in a dramatic decrease of the ionic conductivity. The overall mechanism of long range charge transfer, deduced from a congruent picture of all of the results, involves two distinct ion conduction pathways. In these pathways, hydration and the motion of the ionic side groups are crucial to the conductivity of the AEM. Unlike the typical perfluorinated sulfonated proton-conducting polymer, the segmental motion of the backbone is negligible.

  18. Ubiquitous production of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) in global marine environments: a new source indicator for brGDGTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wenjie; Wang, Yinghui; Zhou, Shangzhe; Hu, Limin; Yang, Huan; Xu, Yunping

    2016-10-01

    Presumed source specificity of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) from bacteria thriving in soil/peat and isoprenoid GDGTs (iGDGTs) from aquatic organisms led to the development of several biomarker proxies for biogeochemical cycle and paleoenvironmental reconstructions. However, recent studies reveal that brGDGTs are also produced in aquatic environments besides soils and peat. Here we examined three cores from the Bohai Sea, and found distinct difference in brGDGT compositions varying with the distance from the Yellow River mouth. We thus propose an abundance ratio of hexamethylated to pentamethylated brGDGT (IIIa / IIa) to evaluate brGDGT sources. The compilation of globally distributed 1354 marine sediments and 589 soils shows that the IIIa / IIa ratio is generally soils and 0.59-0.92 and > 0.92 in marine sediments with and without significant terrestrial inputs, respectively. Such disparity confirms the existence of two sources for brGDGTs, a terrestrial origin with lower IIIa / IIa and a marine origin with higher IIIa / IIa, which is likely attributed to a generally higher pH and the production of brGDGTs in cold deep water in marine waters. The application of the IIIa / IIa ratio to the East Siberian Arctic Shelf proves it to be a sensitive source indicator for brGDGTs, which is helpful for accurate estimation of organic carbon source and paleoclimates in marine settings.

  19. Measurement of the Ratio BR(B- --> D*0 K-)/BR(B- --> D*0 pi-) and of the CP Asymmetry of B- --> D*0(CP+) K- Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Gaillard, J M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, Michael T; Shelkov, V G; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Wilson, F F; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S M; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Smith, J G; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Chen, A; Harton, J L; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q L; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Dickopp, M; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schubert, J; Schubert, Klaus R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, C; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Taylor, G P; Charles, M J; Grenier, G J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Chavez, C A; Coleman, J P; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Mohanty, G B; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; Green, M G; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L M; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Fabozzi, F; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Allmendinger, T; Brau, B; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; La Vaissière, C de; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, P; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Anulli, F; Biasini, M; Peruzzi, I M; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martínez-Vidal, F; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lü, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B J; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Aleksan, Roy; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Langer, M; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmüller, O L; Claus, R; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; De Nardo, Gallieno; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Elsen, E E; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Vavra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Young, C C; Burchat, Patricia R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bóna, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R V; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Graham, M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mihályi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Rubin, A E; Sekula, S J; Tan, P; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Greene, M G; Neal, H

    2004-01-01

    We study the decays B- --> D*0 pi- and B- --> D*0 K-, where the D*0 decays into D0 pi0, with the D0 reconstructed in the CP-even (CP+) eigenstates K- K+ and pi- pi+ and in the (non-CP) channels K- pi+, K- pi+ pi+ pi-, and K- pi+ pi0. Using a sample of about 123 million BBbar pairs, we measure the ratios of decay rates R*(non-CP)=BR(B- --> D*0(non-CP) K-)/BR(B- --> D*0(non-CP) pi-) = 0.0813+-0.0040(stat)+0.0042-0.0031}(syst), and provide the first measurements of R*(CP+)= BR(B- --> D*0(CP+) K-)/BR(B- --> D*0(CP+) pi-) = 0.086+-0.021(stat)+-0. 007(syst), and of the CP asymmetry A*(CP+) = (BR(B- --> D*0(CP+) K-) - BR(B+ --> D*0(CP+) K+))/(BR(B- --> D*0(CP+) K-) + BR(B+ --> D*0(CP+) K+)) = -0.10+-0.23(stat)+0.03-0.04(syst).

  20. Persistence of singlet fluctuations in the coupled spin tetrahedra system Cu2Te2O5Br2 revealed by high-field magnetization, 79Br NQR, and 125Te NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, S.-H.; Choi, K.-Y.; Berger, H.; Büchner, B.; Grafe, H.-J.

    2012-11-01

    We present high-field magnetization and 79Br nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) and 125Te nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies in the weakly coupled Cu2+ (S=1/2) tetrahedral system Cu2Te2O5Br2. The field-induced level crossing effects were observed by the magnetization measurements in a long-ranged magnetically ordered state which was confirmed by a strong divergence of the spin-lattice relaxation rate T1-1 at T0=13.5 K. In the paramagnetic state, T1-1 reveals an effective singlet-triplet spin gap much larger than that observed by static bulk measurements. Our results imply that the inter- and the intratetrahedral interactions compete, but at the same time they cooperate strengthening effectively the local intratetrahedral exchange couplings. We discuss that the unusual feature originates from the frustrated intertetrahedral interactions.

  1. Building information deduced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Myrup Jensen, Morten; Beetz, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Building Information Models have become commonplace in building profession. The extensive use and increasing experience with BIM models offers new perspectives and potentials for design and planning. A recent stakeholder study conducted by the authors of this paper show...... of a model, differences in separate models or models from different point of time. Current BIM tools support both modes only in a rudimentary form. This paper discusses current modes of information query within and across BIM models, shows beneficial scenarios for building and planning practice through...... that in practice models are no longer solely observed as culmination of knowledge in a 3d representation of future built structures, but as a source of information in itself. Experienced users of BIM want to Find Information within a model or across a set of these and Compare models in order to evaluate states...

  2. Photocatalytic transformations of CCl{sub 3}Br, CBr{sub 3}F, CHCl{sub 2}Br and CH{sub 2}BrCl in aerobic and anaerobic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calza, P.; Minero, C.; Pelizzetti, E. [Dipartimento di Chimica Analitica, Universita di Torino, 10125 Torino (Italy); Hiskia, A.; Papaconstantinou, E. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, NCSR Demokritos, 15310 Athens (Greece)

    2001-01-01

    Phototransformations of halomethanes containing chlorine and bromine (CCl{sub 3}Br, CHCl{sub 2}Br, CH{sub 2}ClBr) or bromine and fluorine (CBr{sub 3}F) have been investigated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions both in homogeneous system and heterogeneous photocatalysis. For all of those compounds, the complete disappearance of the primary compound and the stoichiometric concentration of halides was achieved. Several halogenated intermediates and oxygenated compounds were identified, so that it was possible to predict the degradation pathways followed by such halomethanes. Whereas the reductive steps are predominant in the initial degradation of CCl{sub 3}Br and CBr{sub 3}F, the oxidative steps are predominant in the initial CH{sub 2}ClBr steps. The two pathways have comparable importance for CHCl{sub 2}Br degradation. Methanol, acting as a hole scavenger, strongly increases the rate of disappearance for CCl{sub 3}Br and CBr{sub 3}F.

  3. New results for the formation of a muoniated radical in the Mu + Br2 system: a van der Waals complex or evidence for vibrational bonding in Br-Mu-Br?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Donald G; Cottrell, Stephen P; McKenzie, Iain; Macrae, Roderick M

    2012-08-21

    New evidence is presented for the observation of a muoniated radical in the Mu + Br(2) system, from μSR longitudinal field (LF) repolarisation studies in the gas phase, at Br(2) concentrations of 0.1 bar in a Br(2)/N(2) mixture at 300 K and at 10 bar total pressure. The LF repolarisation curve, up to a field of 4.5 kG, reveals two paramagnetic components, one for the Mu atom, formed promptly during the slowing-down process of the positive muon, with a known Mu hyperfine coupling constant (hfcc) of 4463 MHz, and one for a muoniated radical formed by fast Mu addition. From model fits to the Br(2)/N(2) data, the radical component is found to have an unusually high muon hfcc, assessed to be ∼3300 MHz with an overall error due to systematics expected to exceed 10%. This high muon hfcc is taken as evidence for the observation of either the Br-Mu-Br radical, and hence of vibrational bonding in this H[combining low line]-L[combining low line]-H[combining low line] system, or of a MuBr(2) van der Waals complex formed in the entrance channel. Preliminary ab initio electronic structure calculations suggest the latter is more likely but fully rigorous calculations of the effect of dynamics on the hfcc for either system have yet to be carried out.

  4. Combustion instability investigations on the BR710 jet engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konrad, W.; Brehm, N.; Kameier, F. [BMW Rolls-Royce AeroEngines, Dahlewitz (Germany); Freeman, C. [Rolls-Royce PLC, Derby (United Kingdom). Advanced Propulsion Systems; Day, I.J. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Whittle Lab.

    1998-01-01

    During the development of the BR710 jet engine, audible combustor instabilities (termed rumble) occurred. Amplitudes measured with test cell microphones were up to 130 dB at around 100 Hz. Disturbances of this amplitude are clearly undesirable, even if only present during start-up, and a research program was initiated to eliminate the problem. Presented here is the methodical and structured approach used to identify, understand, and remove the instability. Some reference is made to theory, which was used for guidance, but the focus of the work is on the research done to find the cause of the problem and to correct it. The investigation followed two separate, but parallel, paths--one looking in detail at individual components of the engine to identify possible involvement in the instability and the other looking at the pressure signals from various parts of a complete engine to help pinpoint the source of the disturbance. The main cause of the BR710 combustor rumble was found to be a self-excited aerodynamic instability arising from the design of the fuel injector head. In the end, minor modifications lead to spray pattern changes, which greatly reduced the combustor noise. As a result of this work, new recommendation are made for reducing the risk of combustion instabilities in jet engines.

  5. Ionic pathway studies in fragmentation of the core-excited (CH sub 3) sub 3 SiBr molecule involving the Br(3d) and Si(2p) inner-shells in the range of 60-133 eV

    CERN Document Server

    Boo, B H

    2003-01-01

    Dissociative multiple photoionization of bromotrimethylsilane [(CH sub 3) sub 3 SiBr] has been probed in the valence, the Br(3d), and the Si(2p) core-level photoexcitation/photoionization regions by time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry and photoion-photoion coincidence (PIPICO) method together with linearly polarized synchrotron radiation. The inner-shell photoionization spectra are dominated by a huge resonance attributed to the diffusion of the outgoing photoelectrons by the centrifugal barrier for the Br(3d sup 9 epsilon f) outgoing channel. In addition to the giant resonance, discrete photoabsorption bands below the Br(3d sub 5 sub / sub 2) and Si(2p sub 3 sub / sub 2) thresholds have been observed in both the total photoion and PIPICO yield spectra. In the valence excitation/ionization region, single ionization leading to the formation of C sub n H sub p SiBr sup + (n=0-3), C sub n H sub p Si sup + (n=0-3), and CH sub 3 sup + prevails. Above the Br(3d) threshold including the Si(2p) region, however, de...

  6. A thermodynamic description of the KBr–EuBr{sub 2} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Weiping, E-mail: gwp@hzu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Electronic Functional Materials, Huizhou University, Huizhou 516001, Guangdong (China); Gaune-Escard, Marcelle [Ecole Polytechnique, Mecanique Energetique, Technopole De Chateau-Gombert, 5 Rue Enrico Fermi, 13453 Marseille Cedex 13 (France)

    2014-01-25

    Highlights: • CALPHAD method was used to derive thermodynamic parameters of the system. • Heat capacities of K{sub 2}EuBr{sub 4} and KEu{sub 2}Br{sub 5} were fitted to literature data. • Phase diagram of KBr–EuBr{sub 2} was calculated. • More investigations were necessary to check the stability of the compounds. -- Abstract: Critical thermodynamic description on KBr–EuBr{sub 2} system was carried out by CALPHAD method. The thermodynamic parameters of the pure KBr and EuBr{sub 2} compounds were taken from the SGTE recommended database and the authors’ previous assessment, respectively. A two-sublattice ionic solution model for the liquid, denoted as (K{sup +}){sub P}:(Br{sup −}, EuBr{sub 4}{sup -2}, EuBr{sub 2}){sub Q}, was employed to represent phase diagram and enthalpy of mixing data. To reach a self-consistent thermodynamic description for the constituent phases in the system, the experimental heat capacity data of the intermediate compounds K{sub 2}EuBr{sub 4} and KEu{sub 2}Br{sub 5} were evaluated.

  7. Relativistic and correlation effects on molecular properties .1. The dihalogens F-2, Cl-2, Br-2, I-2, and At-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, L; Dyall, K.G.

    1996-01-01

    A benchmark study of a number of relativistic correlation methods is presented. Bond lengths, harmonic frequencies, and dissociation energies of the molecules F-2, Cl-2, Br-2, I-2, and At-2 are calculated at various levels of theory, using both the Schrodinger and the Dirac-Coulomb-(Gaunt) Hamiltoni

  8. Inhibition effects of PMA/SbBr3 complex inhibitor on copper and copper-nickel alloy in LiBr solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xian-qi; LIANG Cheng-hao; HUANG Nai-bao

    2005-01-01

    The effects of PMA/SbBr3 inhibitor on copper and copper-nickel alloy in 55%LiBr solution were investigated by chemical immersion and electrochemical measurements. The results indicate that in boiling 55% LiBr solution containing PMA/SbBr3 inhibitor, corrosion rates of copper and copper-nickel alloy are 67.48 μm/a and 38. 14μm/a, respectively. Since both anodic and cathodic electrochemical reactions can be inhibited, PMA/SbBr3 belongs to complex inhibitor. PMA has the effect of inhibiting hydrogen evolution and [PMo12 O40]3- , the anion of PMA,has a strong oxidizing effect. Sb3+ also shows an oxidizing effect. It may exist in LiBr solutions stably with PMA.Because of the synergistic effect of PMA and Sb3+ , a protective film, comprising CuO, Cu2O and Sb, formed on copper and copper-nickel alloy surface may prevent Br- from diffusing to the surface of metals. As a result, the anticorrosion performance of copper and copper-nickel alloy may be improved.

  9. Pan-Balti bränding - müüt või tegelikkus? / Joel Volkov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Volkov, Joel, 1972-

    2006-01-01

    Brändil pole kodumaad, on keel ja päritolumaa. Lokaalsed brändid valivad suhtlemiseks kohalikega nende kodukeele, globaalsed brändid harilikult inglise keele. Üks suuremaid ja tugevamaid lokaalsest süsteemist kasvanud Pan-Balti brände on Hansapank. Lisa: Sulev Vedler. Hansast võib saada Swedbank

  10. Krüppel-like factor 4 induces apoptosis and inhibits tumorigenic progression in SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Zhao, Ming-Zhi; Cui, Nai-Peng; Lin, Dan-Dan; Zhang, An-Yi; Qin, Yan; Liu, Cai-Yun; Yan, Wei-Tao; Shi, Jian-Hong; Chen, Bao-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) functions as either a tumor suppressor or an oncogene in different tissues by regulating the expression of various genes. The aim of this study was to reveal the functions of KLF4 in regulating breast cancer apoptosis, proliferation, and tumorigenic progression. KLF4 expression levels in breast cancer tissues and breast cancer cell lines were found to be much lower than those in nontumorous tissues and a nontransformed mammary epithelial cell line. KLF4 was upregulated in the tumor necrosis factor-α-induced SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell apoptotic process. Overexpression of KLF4 promoted SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell apoptosis and suppressed SK-BR-3 cell tumorigenicity in vivo.

  11. Four new eudesmane-type sesquiterpenes from the basal leaves of Salvia plebeia R. Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yiqun; Liu, Li; Xie, Guoyong; Chen, Yujie; Qin, Xiaoying; Wang, Qi; Li, Jie; Qin, Minjian

    2014-04-01

    Four new eudesmane-type sesquiterpenes, named plebeiolide A-C (1-3) and plebeiafuran (4), together with a known eudesmanolide (5), were isolated from the basal leaves of Salvia plebeia R. Br. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR, HR-ESI-MS spectra. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray analysis and CD spectra. The inhibitory activity of isolated compounds toward NO production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 cells was evaluated and compounds 3 and 4 showed moderate inhibitory activity. In addition, the sesquiterpene lactones in Lamiaceae plants may possess some chemosystematic implications at intergeneric and intrageneric levels.

  12. Theoretical study of the interaction mechanism of single-electron halogen bond complexes H3C…Br-Y(Y=H,CN,NC,CCH,C2H3)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The characteristics and structures of single-electron halogen bond complexes H3C…Br-Y(Y = H,CCH,CN,NC,C2H3) have been investigated by theoretical calculation methods.The geometries were optimized and frequencies calculated at the B3LYP/6-311++G level.The interaction energies were corrected for basis set superposition error(BSSE) and the wavefunctions obtained by the natural bond orbital(NBO) and atom in molecule(AIM) analyses at the MP2/6-311++G level.For each H3C…Br-Y complex,a single-electron Br bond is formed between the unpaired electron of the CH3(electron donor) radical and the Br atom of Br-Y(electron acceptor);this kind of single-electron bromine bond also possesses the character of a"three-electron bond".Due to the formation of the single-electron Br bond,the C-H bonds of the CH3 radical bend away from the Br-Y moiety and the Br-Y bond elongates,giving red-shifted single-electron Br bond complexes.The effects of substituents,hybridization of the carbon atom,and solvent on the properties of the complexes have been investigated.The strengths of single-electron hydrogen bonds,single-electron halogen bonds and single-electron lithium bonds have been compared.In addition,the single-electron halogen bond system is discussed in the light of the first three criteria for hydrogen bonding proposed by Popelier.

  13. Multi-Agent-System till brädspel

    OpenAIRE

    Wahlström, Marco; Karlsson, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    För att ta reda på hur väl en Multi-Agent-Systems-bot kan stå sig mot andra, icke-MAS-bottar, så har vi implementerat en bot till brädspelet Arimaa. Botten är implementerad i C++ och den kan spela mot andra bottar, eller människor, genom Arimaas officiella hemsida. Syftet har varit att skapa en fullfjädrad bot som både klarar av att spela korrekt, och att spela bra. För att ta reda på om MAS är en bra designfilosofi för Arimaa så har vi utmanat ett antal av de bottar som andra människor skapa...

  14. Numerical modeling of incline plate LiBr absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Shahram; Farhanieh, Bijan

    2011-03-01

    Among major components of LiBr-H2O absorption chillers is the absorber, which has a direct effect on the chillier size and whose characteristics have significant effects on the overall efficiency of absorption machines. In this article, heat and mass transfer process in absorption of refrigerant vapor into a lithium bromide solution of water-cooled incline plate absorber in the Reynolds number range of 5 absorption. An analysis for linear distribution of wall temperature condition carries out to investigate the reliability of the present numerical method through comparing with previous investigation. The effect of plate angle on heat and mass transfer parameters is investigated and the results show that absorption mass flux and heat and mass transfer coefficient increase as the angle of the plate increase. The main parameters of absorber design, namely Nusselt and Sherwood numbers, are correlated as a function of Reynolds Number and the plate angle.

  15. Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone Supported Brønsted Acidic Catalyst for Esterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP supported Brønsted acidic catalyst ([PVPP-BS]HSO4 was prepared by coupling SO3H-functionalized polyvinylpolypyrrolidone with H2SO4 in this work. After the characterization through FT-IR, FESEM, TG, BET, and elemental analysis, it was found that 1,4-butane sultone (BS and sulfuric acid reacted with PVPP and were immobilized on PVPP surface. The prepared [PVPP-BS]HSO4 catalyst shows high catalytic activity for a series of esterification reactions and could be separated from the reacted mixture easily. Moreover, this catalyst could be recycled and reused for six times without significant loss of catalytic performance.

  16. Estimering af brændstofforbrug vha. GPS Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Lahrmann, Harry; Torp, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Det er simpelt og billigt at opsamle GPS målinger fra køretøjer. Når større mængder GPS data indsamles fra et passende antal køretøjer kan dataen bruges til at beregne f.eks. køretider. Det er ligeledes muligt ud fra GPS data at estimere miljøindikatorer så som, hvor aggressivt kører bilister og er...... der nogle vejstrækninger, der har en højere (negativ) miljø påvirkning end andre? I denne artikel præsenterer et forsøg, hvor GPS data anvendes til at estimere brændstofforbruget ved en enkelt tur og for vejnettet generelt. Dette gøres ved at opbygge en database med GPS data. Ud fra disse data gives...

  17. Deducing the 236Pu(n,f) and 237Pu(n,f) cross sections via the surrogate ratio method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, R. O.; Beausang, C. W.; Ross, T. J.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; McCleskey, M.; Cooper, N.; Escher, J. E.; Gell, K. B.; Good, E.; Humby, P.; Saastimoinen, A.; Tarlow, T. D.

    2013-10-01

    The short half-lives associated with certain minor actinide nuclei that are relevant to stockpile stewardship pursuits and the development of next-generation nuclear reactors make direct neutron measurements very challenging. In certain cases, a stable beam and target ``surrogate reaction'' can be used in lieu of the neutron-induced reaction, and the (n,f) cross section can then be deduced indirectly. Agreement between surrogate and direct measurements for (n,f) cross sections in actinide nuclei is usually within 10%. The present work reports on the measurement of the 236Pu(n,f) and 237Pu(n,f) cross sections via 239Pu(p,tf) and 239Pu(p,df) surrogate reactions, respectively. The experiment was performed at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron Facility using a 28.5 MeV proton beam to bombard 239Pu and 235U targets. Outgoing light ions were detected in coincidence with fission fragments using the STAR-LiTe detector array. Results of the analysis will be presented. This work was supported by DoE Grant Numbers: DE-FG52-09NA29454 and DE-FG02-05ER41379 (Richmond), DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL) and DE-FG52-09NA29467 (TAMU).

  18. Compressive stress field in the crust deduced from shear-wave anisotropy: an example in capital area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yuan; WU Jing

    2008-01-01

    The rocks in the crust are pervaded by stress-aligned fluid-saturated microcracks, and the complex fault tectonics and stress control the configuration of the microcracks, however shear-wave splitting could indicate this kind of characteristics. In this paper, Capital Area Seismograph Network (CASN), the widest scope and highest density of regional seismograph network presently in China, is adopted to deduce the principal compressive stress field distribution pattern from polarizations of fast shear-waves, based on shear-wave splitting analysis. The principal compressive stress in capital area of China is at NE85.7°±41.0° in this study. Compared with the results of principal compressive stress field in North China obtained from other methods, the results in this study are reliable in the principal com-pressive stress field distribution in capital area. The results show that it is an effective way, although it is the first time to directly obtain crustal stress field from seismic anisotropy. It is effectively applied to the zones with dense seismograph stations.

  19. Geomechanical log deduced from porosity and mineralogical content; Diagraphie geomecanique deduite de la porosite et de la composition mineralogique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemer, E.; Vincke, O.; Longuemare, P. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2004-07-01

    The 'geomechanical log' research project aims at estimating rock mechanical properties from a set of models, whose input data can be deduced from drilling logs and measurements on core samples (if these are available). The key point is to focus on defining relatively general and easy to handle models. In this paper, we propose various analytical models allowing one to estimate poroelastic and failure properties of limestones and sandstones directly from their porosity and, in the specific case of sandstone poroelastic characteristics, their mineralogical content. The properties obtained are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. The second step of the project will be to actually infer the input data for the models (here porosity and mineral content) from drilling logs and to compare the results obtained to tests on core samples. A geomechanical log could then be automatically created from standard logs and help to optimize drilling. We also intend to test the same approaches on rock plastic properties and shale behavior. (authors)

  20. Neutron spectrum and yield of the Hiroshima A-bomb deduced from radionuclide measurements at one location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühm, W; Kato, K; Korschinek, G; Morinaga, H; Nolte, E

    1995-07-01

    In this paper measurements of the radionuclides of 36Cl, 41Ca, 60Co, 152Eu and 154Eu in samples from Hiroshima, which were exposed to neutrons of the A-bomb explosion, are interpreted. In order to calculate the neutron spectrum at the sample site, neutron transport calculations using Monte Carlo techniques were carried out. Activation profiles in a granite mock-up irradiated with reactor neutrons could be reproduced by this method using DS86 input parameters. The calculated neutron spectrum at the sample site for non-thermal neutrons is identical to that obtained in DS86, but contains some 50% more thermal neutrons. The influence of parameters like soil composition, source terms and air humidity on the activation of these radioisotopes is discussed. The granite-covered earth at the sample site, for example, hardens the spectrum in comparison with DS86 values. Even when using a fission spectrum pointing downward and neglecting air humidity one cannot explain our 36Cl measurements. If the effective thermal neutron fluences, that have a similar ratio of resonance integral to thermal neutron capture cross sections obtained from 36Cl, 41Ca and 152Eu, are averaged, a bomb yield of about 16 kt is deduced in agreement with a bomb yield of (15 +/- 3) kt estimated in DS86.

  1. Transient resonance Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory investigation of iso-CHBr 2Cl and iso-CCl 3Br photoproducts produced following ultraviolet excitation of CHBr 2Cl and CCl 3Br

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, X; Lee, CW; Li, YL; Fang, WH; Phillips, DL

    2001-01-01

    Two polyhalomethanes that contain bromine and chlorine atoms (CHBr 2Cl and CCl 2Br) were studied. Transient resonance Raman spectra were obtained for the photoproducts produced after ultraviolet excitation of CHBr 2Cl and CCl 3Br in room temperature solutions and density functional theory calculations for species proposed to be products of the photodissociation reactions in the solution phase. It was found that the iso-CHBrCl-Br and iso-CHClBr-Br species are formed following ultraviolet excit...

  2. Research on immune effect of two gene vaccines containing brZPC' and brLDHC4' when in combined inoculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Li; Peng Jing-pian

    2012-01-01

    ZPC and LDHC4 play a key role in the process of recognition between sperm and egg or sperm movement,respectively.In this study,partial cDNA sequences of ZPC and LDH-C4 of Microtus branditi (brZPC' and brLDHC4',respectively) were cloned by RT PCR,and directly inserted into pCR3.1 vector to construct two gene vaccines (pCR3.1-brZPC' and pCR3.1-brLDHC4').pCR3.1-brZPC' and pCR3.1-brLDHC4' could express corresponding proteins in transiently transfected CHO cells.The adult female BALB/c mice were inoculated with the recombinant vaccine alone on in combination.The immunized mouse can produce specific antibody that recognizes the corresponding recombinant protein expressed by BL21 in vitro.Moreover,antibodies produced by combinedly immunized mouse were specific and direct,with no inhibitory effect between two vaccines observed when in combined inoculation.The test of cytokines indicated that the expression of IFNγ in pCR3.1-brZPC'-and combinedly inoculated mouse increased obviously and the expression of IL2 in pCR3.1-brLDHC4 '-and combinedly inoculated mouse increased obviously,while the expression of IL4 in pCR3.1-brZPC',pCR3.1-brLDHC4'and combinedly inoculated group increased obviously.It was suggested that the combined inoculation with pCR3.1-brZPC' and pCR3.1-brLDHC4 ' could induce both humoral immune response and CTL response.In some sense,the combined inoculation may achieve a better contraceptive effect.The results also showed that,when used alone or in combination,these two recombinant vaccines did not do much harm to the follicular development of immunized mouse.So the combined inoculation with these two recombinant vaccines could be a better way to immunocontraception.This study may provide a theoretical basis for the following tests on antifertility in vivo.

  3. File list: ALL.Brs.10.AllAg.SK-BR-3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Brs.10.AllAg.SK-BR-3 hg19 All antigens Breast SK-BR-3 SRX155755,SRX750670,SRX75...0675,SRX750660,SRX750665,SRX155756,SRX128102,SRX155754,SRX469109,SRX469108,SRX469107 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Brs.10.AllAg.SK-BR-3.bed ...

  4. File list: ALL.Brs.50.AllAg.SK-BR-3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Brs.50.AllAg.SK-BR-3 hg19 All antigens Breast SK-BR-3 SRX750670,SRX750665,SRX12...8102,SRX750660,SRX750675,SRX469109,SRX469107,SRX469108,SRX155755,SRX155756,SRX155754 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Brs.50.AllAg.SK-BR-3.bed ...

  5. File list: ALL.Brs.20.AllAg.SK-BR-3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Brs.20.AllAg.SK-BR-3 hg19 All antigens Breast SK-BR-3 SRX750670,SRX750665,SRX75...0675,SRX155755,SRX155756,SRX128102,SRX750660,SRX155754,SRX469109,SRX469107,SRX469108 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Brs.20.AllAg.SK-BR-3.bed ...

  6. File list: ALL.Brs.05.AllAg.SK-BR-3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Brs.05.AllAg.SK-BR-3 hg19 All antigens Breast SK-BR-3 SRX155754,SRX155755,SRX75...0670,SRX750660,SRX750675,SRX750665,SRX155756,SRX128102,SRX469109,SRX469108,SRX469107 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Brs.05.AllAg.SK-BR-3.bed ...

  7. Dehydroepiandrosterone and its Sulfate brJoint Statement by the German Society for Gynecological Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine [DGGEF] and the German Professional Association of Gynecologists [BVF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabe T

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA is the most frequent circulating steroid hormone in humans. It is formed in the reticular zone of the adrenal glands to 90– 95% and, to a lower extent in the gonads and the brain where DHEA acts as neuro-steroid. There is an interconversion of DHEA to DHEAS in both directions. DHEAS levels in the blood are approximately 300 times higher in comparison to free DHEA levels. The DHEA peak levels are reached in the early morning hours whereas DHEAS is not subject to a circadian rhythm. Hence, DHEAS is well suitable for analysis in serum. DHEA is a universal precursor for the formation of androgen and estrogen in peripheral tissues. They contain enzyme systems such as 3beta-HSDH for the formation of androstenedione, 17alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase for the synthesis of testosterone and aromatase for estrogen-synthesis. Maximum levels of DHEA/DHEAS are reached between 20 and 30 years of age. At the age of 70 or older DHEAS levels can be up to 75% lower.br Mode of action: DHEA acts predominantly as steroid precursor in the biosynthesis of androgenic and estrogenic sex steroids. There have been no DHEA/ DHEAS receptors identified yet. DHEA and DHEAS bind and activate several receptors including ER-alpha and ER-beta, peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors, PXR (pregnant-X-receptor, AUTO (constitutive androstane receptor and beyond that membrane receptors as neuro-steroids like NMDA receptors (N-methyl- D-aspartate, glutamate as positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor and negative allosteric modulator. DHEA/DHEAS has a variety of dose independent effects like immune-modulation, effects on haemostasis, the lipid- and carbohydrate metabolism, bone health and mental health.br Pharmacology: The pharmacokinetic of DHEA depends on gender, dosing (25–50, 100 or 300 mg/day oral, no further increase of DHEA or DHEAS concentrations, respectively, and the route of application (oral, transdermal, vaginal. The oral

  8. Phase diagram and enhanced electrical transport in KBr-NaBr mixed crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoravi, P. (Dept. of Physics, Indian Inst. of Tech., Kanpur (India)); Shahi, K. (Dept. of Physics, Indian Inst. of Tech., Kanpur (India) Material Science Program, Indian Inst. of Tech., Kanpur (India))

    1991-03-01

    Phase diagram and ionic conductivity of KBr-NaBr mixed crystals system have been studied over the entire composition and stable temperature range. A maximum conductivity enhancement by a factor of 25 with respect to pure KBr, and 8 with respect to pure NaBr, is obtained for the K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}Br solid solution at 500deg C. The conductivity values are found to follow the melting (solidus) temperature in a correlated manner. The minimum in the solidus curve of the phase diagram is observed between 43 and 72 mole% NaBr at 615deg C. (orig.).

  9. Stratospheric BrO abundance measured by a balloon-borne submillimeterwave radiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Stachnik

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of mixing ratio profiles of stratospheric bromine monoxide (BrO were made using observations of BrO otational line emission at 650.179 GHz by a balloon-borne SIS (superconductor-insulator-superconductor submillimeterwave heterodyne receiver. The balloon was launched from Ft. Sumner, New Mexico (34°N on 22 September 2011. Peak mid-day BrO abundance varied from 16 ± 2 ppt at 34 km to 6 ± 4 ppt at 16 km. Corresponding estimates of total inorganic bromine (Bry, derived from BrO vmr (volume mixing ratio using a photochemical box model, were 21 ± 3 ppt and 11 ± 5 ppt, respectively. Inferred Bry abundance exceeds that attributable solely to decomposition of long-lived methyl bromide and other halons, and is consistent with a contribution from bromine-containing very short lived substances, BryVSLS, of 4 ppt to 8 ppt. These results for BrO and Bry were compared with, and found to be in good agreement with, those of other recent balloon-borne and satellite instruments.

  10. [Oxidation of mercury by CuBr2 decomposition under controlled-release membrane catalysis condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lin-Gang; Qu, Zan; Yan, Nai-Qiang; Guo, Yong-Fu; Xie, Jiang-Kun; Jia, Jin-Ping

    2014-02-01

    CuBr2 in the multi-porous ceramic membrane can release Br2 at high temperature, which was employed as the oxidant for Hg0 oxidation. Hg0 oxidation efficiency was studied by a membrane catalysis device. Meanwhile, a reaction and in situ monitoring device was designed to avoid the impact of Br2 on the downstream pipe. The result showed that the MnO(x)/alpha-Al2O3 catalysis membrane had a considerable "controlled-release" effect on Br2 produced by CuBr2 decomposition. The adsorption and reaction of Hg0 and Br2 on the surface of catalysis membrane obeyed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. The removal efficiency of Hg0 increased with the rising of Br2 concentration. However, when Br2 reached a certain concentration, the removal efficiency was limited by adsorption rate and reaction rate of Hg0 and Br2 on the catalysis membrane. From 473 K to 573 K, the variation of Hg0 oxidation efficiency was relatively stable. SO2 in flue gas inhibited the oxidation of Hg0 while NO displayed no obvious effect.

  11. METCAM/MUC18 augments migration, invasion, and tumorigenicity of human breast cancer SK-BR-3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guofang; Cai, Shaoxi; Liu, Yuan; Wu, Guang-Jer

    2012-01-15

    Previous research has identified METCAM/MUC18, an integral membrane cell adhesion molecule (CAM) in the Ig-like gene super-family, as a promoter or a suppressor in the development of human breast cancer by MCF7, MDA-MB-231, and MDA-MB-468. To resolve these conflicting results we have investigated the role of this CAM in the progression of the three aforementioned cell lines plus one additional human breast cancer cell line, SK-BR-3. We transfected the SK-BR-3 cells with human METCAM/MUC18 cDNA to obtain G418-resistant clones, which expressed different levels of the protein and which were used to test the effect of human METCAM/MUC18 expression on in vitro motility, invasiveness, anchorage-independent colony formation in soft agar, disorganized growth in a 3D basement membrane culture assay, and in vivo tumorigenesis in athymic nude mice. Enforced METCAM/MUC18 expression increased in vitro motility, invasiveness, and anchorage-independent colony formation of SK-BR-3 cells and favored disorganized growth of the cells in 3D basement membrane culture. Enforced expression also increased tumorigenicity and final tumor weights of SK-BR-3 clones/cells after subcutaneous injection of the cells under the left third nipple of female athymic nude mice. To understand the mechanisms, we also determined the expression of several downstream key effectors in the tumors. Tumor cells from METCAM/MUC18 expressing clones exhibited elevated expression of an anti-apoptotic and survival index (Bcl2), an aerobic glycolysis index (LDH-A), and pro-angiogenesis indexes (VEGF and VAGFR2). We concluded that human METCAM/MUC18 promotes the development of breast cancer cells by increasing an anti-apoptosis and survival pathway and augmenting aerobic glycolysis and angiogenesis.

  12. Double-inversion mechanisms of the X⁻ + CH₃Y [X,Y = F, Cl, Br, I] SN2 reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, István; Czakó, Gábor

    2015-03-26

    The double-inversion and front-side attack transition states as well as the proton-abstraction channels of the X(-) + CH3Y [X,Y = F, Cl, Br, I] reactions are characterized by the explicitly correlated CCSD(T)-F12b/aug-cc-pVTZ(-PP) level of theory using small-core relativistic effective core potentials and the corresponding aug-cc-pVTZ-PP bases for Br and I. In the X = F case the double-inversion classical(adiabatic) barrier heights are 28.7(25.6), 15.8(13.4), 13.2(11.0), and 8.6(6.6) kcal mol(-1) for Y = F, Cl, Br, and I, respectively, whereas the barrier heights are in the 40-90 kcal mol(-1) range for the other 12 reactions. The abstraction channels are always above the double-inversion saddle points. For X = F, the front-side attack classical(adiabatic) barrier heights, 45.8(44.8), 31.0(30.3), 24.7(24.2), and 19.5(19.3) kcal mol(-1) for Y = F, Cl, Br, and I, respectively, are higher than the corresponding double-inversion ones, whereas for the other systems the front-side attack saddle points are in the 35-70 kcal mol(-1) range. The double-inversion transition states have XH···CH2Y(-) structures with Cs point-group symmetry, and the front-side attack saddle points have either Cs (X = F or X = Y) or C1 symmetry with XCY angles in the 78-88° range. On the basis of the previous reaction dynamics simulations and the minimum energy path computations along the inversion coordinate of selected XH···CH2Y(-) systems, we suggest that the double inversion may be a general mechanism for SN2 reactions.

  13. New molecular species of potential interest to atmospheric chemistry: isomers on the [H, S2, Br] potential energy surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira-Filho, Antonio Gustavo S; Aoto, Yuri Alexandre; Ornellas, Fernando R

    2009-02-19

    This work reports a state-of-the-art theoretical characterization of four new sulfur-bromine species and five transition states on the [H, S(2), Br] potential energy surface. Our highest level theoretical approach employed the method coupled cluster singles and doubles with perturbative contributions of connected triples, CCSD(T), along with the series of correlation-consistent basis sets and with extrapolation to the complete basis set (CBS) limit in the optimization of the geometrical parameters and to quantify the energetic quantities. The structural and vibrational frequencies here reported are unique and represent the most accurate investigation to date of these species. The global minimum corresponds to a skewed structure HSSBr with a disulfide bond; this is followed by a pyramidal-like structure, SSHBr, 18.85 kcal/mol above the minimum. Much higher in energy, we found another skewed structure, HSBrS (50.29 kcal/mol), with one S-Br dative-type bond, and another pyramidal-like one, HBrSS (109.80 kcal/mol), with two S-Br dative-type bonds. The interconversion of HSSBr into SSHBr can occur via a transfer of either the hydrogen or the bromine atom but involves a very high barrier of about 43 kcal/mol. These molecules are potentially a new route of coupling the sulfur and bromine chemistry in the atmosphere, and conditions of high concentration of H(2)S like in volcanic eruptions might contribute to their formation. We note that HSSBr can act as a reservoir molecule for the reaction between the radicals HSS and Br. Also, an assessment of the methods DFT/B3LYP/CBS and MP2/CBS relative to CCSD(T)/CBS provides insights on the expected performance of these methods on the characterization of polysulfides and also of more complex systems containing disulfide bridges.

  14. Field-aligned currents and ionospheric parameters deduced from EISCAT radar measurements in the post-midnight sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sugino

    above 110 km. Using auroral images, this region was identified as a dark spot with a spatial scale of over 150 × 150 km. The dark spot and the electron depletion were likely in existence for a limited time of a few minutes.<br>>Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; electric fields and currents; particle precipitation

  15. Cloning and Characterization of a Genic Male Sterility-related Gene BrLTP1 in Chinese Cabbage%大白菜核雄性不育相关基因BrLTP1的克隆及特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志勇; 叶雪凌; 李承彧; 冯辉

    2011-01-01

    利用cDNA-AFLP技术分析大白菜核雄性不育两用系'AB02'可育株(msms)和不育株(Msms)花蕾的基因表达谱,在可育株混合花蕾cDNA中扩增出1条特异条带TDF-25,通过RACE和RT-PCR技术克隆了该基因的全长cDNA序列.序列分析表明,该基因编码脂质转移蛋白,命名为BrLTP1.BrLTP1全长cDNA序列为750 bp,推测编码1个包含183个氨基酸残基的前体蛋白.BrLTP1蛋白含有典型的脂质转移蛋白N端信号肽,保守的AAI结构域和半胱氨酸位点.预测BrLTP1蛋白含有多种修饰性位点,包括1个PKC磷酸化位点,2个N-糖基化位点和10个N-端豆蔻酰基化位点.基因表达模式表明,BrLTP1在两用系不育株花蕾中受到强烈抑制,在可育株的大花蕾、成熟花药以及花瓣中高水平表达.%The gene differential expression analysis was performed by cDNA-AFLP in the genic male sterile line ‘AB02' of Chinese cabbage, and a differentially expressed cDNA fragment, TDF-25, was only found in fertile plants. The full-length cDNA of BrLTPl, coding lipid transfer protein in Chinese cabbage, was amplified by RACE and RT-PCR. The BrLTPl gene was 750 bp long in cDNA and hypothetical protein BrLTPl included 183 amino acids with a signal peptide of 22 amino acids. Sequence analysis revealed that the BrLTPl protein has ten N-myristoylation sites, two N-myristoylation sites, and one PKC phosphorylation site. Gene expression characteristics indicated that BrLTPl was highly expressed in big flower buds and mature anthers of fertile plants, with a extremely low expression level in sterile buds.

  16. Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of the Massive LMC Multiple Systems Sk-6718 (Br+.1667em5 and HD+.1667em36402 (Br+.1667em31

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Koenigsberger

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Reportamos los resultados de observaciones en el UV de dos sistemas binarios cercanos, ubicados en la Nube Mayor de Magallanes, Br 5 y Br 31. Detectamos variabilidad espectral en Br 31 producida por eclipses atmosféricos, así como variaciones en la velocidad radial de algunas de sus líneas, con el periodo de 3.033 días. El espectro UV de este sistema es consistente con la presencia de 3 estrellas calientes en el sistema. En contraste, no podemos confirmar la presencia de más de 2 estrellas calientes en el sistema Br 5, y la debilidad de Si IV 1400 contradice la presencia de una supergigante O-tardía o B-temprana. Detectamos variaciones de velocidad radial consistentes con el movimiento orbital de la componente O3 If*.

  17. Br NQR relaxation and successive phase transitions of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}HgBr{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niki, H., E-mail: niki@sci.u-ryukyu.ac.jp; Higa, K.; Okada, Y.; Oshiro, M.; Yogi, M. [University of the Ryukyus, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science (Japan); Terao, H. [Tokushima University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    The measurement of {sup 81}Br NQR in CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}HgBr{sub 3} has been carried out in the temperature range between 80 and 300 K using a pulse NQR method. The temperature dependence of {sup 81}Br NQR frequencies in CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}HgBr{sub 3} has revealed that it undergoes three characteristic successive phase transitions at T = 123, 184 and 239 K. The phase transition temperature at T = 239 K is the second-order type, whereas those at T = 184 and 123 K are the first-order nature of the phase transitions. Each phase transition seems to be closely related to the motions of methyl ammonium cation as a partial or whole. The enhancement of 1/T{sub 1} at T = 239 K indicates the onset of the molecular motion of the cation as a whole with increasing temperatures.

  18. Systematic hardness measurements on CsClBr(1–x) and NH4ClBr(1–x) mixed crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K G Subhadra; E Balaiah; D B Sirdeshmukh

    2002-02-01

    Vickers hardness measurements have been made on polycrystalline blanks of CsClBr(1–x) and single crystals of NH4ClBr(1–x). The composition dependence of hardness is highly nonlinear in both systems and follows an empirical model that includes a lattice contribution and a disorder contribution. The Gilman–Chin parameter (/44) has been calculated and its significance discussed.

  19. KLF5在 TNFα诱导的 SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞凋亡中的作用%Roles of KLF5 in inhibition TNFα-induced SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史建红; 刘彩云; 张安易; 崔乃鹏; 王冰; 陈保平; 马振峰

    2014-01-01

    目的探讨肿瘤坏死因子α( TNFα)对 SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞中 Krüppel 样因子5(KLF5)表达的影响,明确KLF5在TNFα诱导SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞凋亡中的作用。方法用不同浓度TNFα(0、1、5、10、20μg/L)刺激SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞不同时间(0、6、12、24、36 h),采用Western印迹方法检测KLF5表达水平;用实时定量PCR( qRT-PCR)检测TNFα刺激对SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞凋亡基因表达的影响, qRT-PCR和流式细胞术观察过表达KLF5对SK-BR-3乳腺癌凋亡的影响。结果TNFα刺激SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞后,随着刺激浓度的增高,KLF5表达水平呈剂量和时间依赖性逐渐降低。 qRT-PCR结果显示,TNFα可上调SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞凋亡基因cascpase3、caspase9和bax表达,并下调bcl-2表达水平。构建pAd-GFP和pAd-GFP-KLF5腺病毒表达载体,在SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞中过表达GFP或GFP-KLF5,再给予TNFα刺激,qRT-PCR和流式细胞术观察结果显示,过表达外源性KLF5可抑制TNFα诱导的SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞凋亡。结论 TNFα可抑制SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞中KLF5表达,KLF5参与了TNFα诱导的SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞凋亡过程。%Objective To explore the expression levels and roles of Kr üpple-like factor 5 ( KLF5 ) in tumor necrosis factor α( TNFα)-induced SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells.Methods SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells were stimulated by TNFαat different concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10, 20 μg/L) for specified durations (0, 6, 12, 24, 36 h).Western blot was performed to detect KLF 5 protein levels.Then Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR ( qRT-PCR) were used to detect the expression levels of apoptosis genes.Flow cytometry and qRT-PCR were used to observe the effects of exogenous KLF 5 on TNFα-induced apoptosis of SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell.Results KLF5 expression levels significantly decreased in TNFα-stimulated SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells in a concentration-and time-dependent manner.Quantitative RT

  20. 可换BR0代数的刻画和性质%Characterizations and properties of commutative BR0-algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌雪岷; 徐罗山

    2012-01-01

    为了得到基础R0代数(简称BR0代数)的更多表示和性质,利用蕴涵算子给出了可换BR0代数的两种形式更为简单的刻画;证明了可换BR0代数与有界可换BCK代数之间的等价性;证明了满足Heyting性质(HP条件)的可换BR0代数与正则Heyting型FI代数(即HFI代数)等价.%In order to obtain more properties and representations of basic Ro-algebras (in short, Bro-algebras), in this paper, two new characterizations of commutative BR0-algebras are given in terms of implication operators. It is proved that commutative Bro-algebras and bounded commutative BCK-algebras are equivalent. It is also proved that commutative BR0 -algebras satisfying the Heyting property (or, HP condition) are equivalent to regular Heyting type Fl-algebras (in short, HFI-algebras).

  1. Coastal evolution of a Holocene barrier spit (Bug peninsula/NW-Rügen deduced from geological structure and relative sea-level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Naumann

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Die an der südwestlichen Ostseeküste gelegene Halbinsel Bug/NW Rügen wurde untersucht, um die Entwicklung von Haken und Nehrungen unter dem Einfluss des holozänen Meeresspiegelanstiegs zu studieren. Als Datengrundlage dienten 25 Sedimentkerne, sowie sieben Georadar- und sechs Sedimentecholotprofile, aus denen sechs Lithofaziestypen abgeleitet wurden. Danach besteht die Nehrung aus einer durchschnittlich 10 m mächtigen holozänen Sedimentfolge, die auf pleistozäner Basis aus Geschiebemergel und (glazi-fluviolimnischen Feinsanden lagert. Obwohl keine absoluten Altersdaten gewonnen wurden, kann die Sedimentabfolge mit der lokalen relativen Meeresspiegelkurve problemlos korreliert und eine Modellvorstellung für die Nehrungsentwicklung geschlussfolgert werden. Die marine Inundation des Untersuchungsgebietes erfolgte um 7.000 BC während der Littorina-Transgression. In diesem Stadium stieg der Meeresspiegel rapide an und generierte einen schnell wachsenden Akkumulationsraum, in dem feinklastisches Material an oder unter der Wellenbasis akkumulierte und zu einem Reliefausgleich beitrug. Akkumulative Küstenformen bildeten sich nur in geringem Maße, da der Akkumulationsraum schneller wuchs als er durch das aus der Küstenerosion stammende Material aufgefüllt werden konnte. In dem Maße, indem der Meeresspiegelanstieg sich verlangsamte, gewann die Akkumulation an Bedeutung und der Hauptteil der Nehrung wurde innerhalb von rund zweitausend Jahren landfest. Entsprechend dem Verlauf von Strandwällen auf seiner heutigen Oberfläche lassen sich zwei Entwicklungsphasen aushalten, die von unterschiedlichen wellenenergetischen, erosiven und overwash-Prozessen bestimmt werden. Gegenwärtig besitzt die Nehrung ein Volumen von 66,4 Mio m³, woraus sich auf einen Rückgang des benachbarten Kliffs von rund 2000 m schließen lässt. Obwohl die Nehrung entwicklungsmäßig in ihrem Reifestadium angelangt zu sein scheint, deuten einige Merkmale auf zunehmende Instabilität hin. Im nördlichen Bereich verhindern Küstenschutzmaßnahmen einen Nehrungsdurchbruch und beginnende Auflösung. Im Süden haben Fahrwasserbaggerungen eine weitere Längenzunahme und das Zusammenwachsen mit Haken von Hiddensee verhindert. Ohne diese Maßnahmen würde die Nehrung durch Seegattbildung und zunehmende Erosion im Norden und Seegattschließung und zunehmende Uferprogradation im Süden eine neue Gestalt annehmen.

  2. One-step surgical placement of Brånemark implants: a prospective multicenter clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, W; Becker, B E; Israelson, H; Lucchini, J P; Handelsman, M; Ammons, W; Rosenberg, E; Rose, L; Tucker, L M; Lekholm, U

    1997-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal multicenter study evaluated the clinical outcomes after placement and restoration of one-step Brånemark implants into the maxillae and mandibles of completely and partially edentulous patients. Six surgical treatment centers participated in this study, in which 135 implants were placed into 63 adult patients. All implants were stable after placement. The majority of implants were placed into type B bone with minimal jaw resorption and type 2 bone quality. After implant placement, standard transmucosal healing abutments were firmly placed. The average amount of time between implant placement and prosthetic abutment connection was 170 days in the maxillae and 147 days in the mandibles. To evaluate crestal bone changes caused by implant placement, a periodontal probe was used to measure midbuccally from the top of the implant cylinder to the alveolar crest; in 29 patients, 54 midbuccal bone crest sites were remeasured following prosthetic abutment connection. Crestal bone changes in mandibles and maxillae were statistically and clinically insignificant. Six implants were lost prior to loading and one implant has not been restored. No implants or restorations were lost after loading. At 1 year, the implant success rate was 95.6%. Mesiodistal radiographic measurements from 34 patients were averaged, and changes from prosthetic abutment connection to, on average, 12 months follow-up were compared. The radiographs, which were digitalized, measured from the bottom of the implant cylinder to the most coronal bone in contact with implant thread. For mandibular implants, the mean radiographic bone level at prosthetic abutment connection was 1.07 mm; after loading, it was 1.35 mm. For maxillary implants, the mean radiographic bone height at prosthetic abutment connection was 1.16 mm; after loading, it was 1.36 mm. These changes were not statistically significant. The 1-year outcomes from this patient series indicate that one-step Br

  3. Analysis of {sup 76}Br-BrdU in DNA of brain tumors after a PET study does not support its use as a proliferation marker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudjonssona, Olafur E-mail: olafur.gudjonsson@neurokir.uu.se; Bergstroem, Mats; Kristjansson, Stefan; Wu, Feng; Nyberg, Gunnar; Fasth, Karl-Johan; Laangstroem, Bengt

    2001-01-01

    {sup 76}Br-bromodeoxyuridine has previously been suggested as a PET tracer to characterize proliferation potential. However, in animal studies a large fraction of the tissue radioactivity is due to {sup 76}Br-bromide, which remains extracellular for extensive periods and contributes significantly to the level of radioactivity. The present project aimed at investigating whether in human brain tumors, sufficient amounts of {sup 76}Br-bromodeoxyuridine would be incorporated into DNA, to motivate further attempts with this tracer. Eight patients with brain tumors: 3 meningiomas, 2 astrocytoma grade IV, 1 astrocytoma olicodendroglioma grade II-IV and 2 metastases, were examined with PET and {sup 76}Br-BrdU on three occasions: immediately after injection of the tracer, at 4-6, and at 18-20 hours after administration. After the first PET study, diuresis was introduced and maintained for about 12 hours. About 20 hours after tracer administration, 200 mg/m{sup 2} bromodeoxyuridine was administered to 7 patients median 5.8 (range 1-22) hours prior to operation allowing the immunohistochemical analysis of the proliferation potential. During the operation, tumor samples were taken and radioactivity in DNA extracted and measured. The uptake of radioactivity was higher in the tumors than in brain parenchyma. However, in the operative samples only 1-27% (average: 9%) of the radioactivity was found in the DNA fraction. The plasma radioactivity remained high throughout the study with only minimal signs of elimination by the diuresis. {sup 76}Br-BrdU is extensively metabolized to {sup 76}Br-bromide, and only a minor fraction of the radioactivity is found in the DNA fraction, making it unlikely that this tracer can be used for assessment of proliferation potential.

  4. Image quality assessment of LaBr{sub 3}-based whole-body 3D PET scanners: a Monte Carlo evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surti, S [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Karp, J S [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Muehllehner, G [Philips Medical Systems, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2004-10-07

    The main thrust for this work is the investigation and design of a whole-body PET scanner based on new lanthanum bromide scintillators. We use Monte Carlo simulations to generate data for a 3D PET scanner based on LaBr{sub 3} detectors, and to assess the count-rate capability and the reconstructed image quality of phantoms with hot and cold spheres using contrast and noise parameters. Previously we have shown that LaBr{sub 3} has very high light output, excellent energy resolution and fast timing properties which can lead to the design of a time-of-flight (TOF) whole-body PET camera. The data presented here illustrate the performance of LaBr{sub 3} without the additional benefit of TOF information, although our intention is to develop a scanner with TOF measurement capability. The only drawbacks of LaBr{sub 3} are the lower stopping power and photo-fraction which affect both sensitivity and spatial resolution. However, in 3D PET imaging where energy resolution is very important for reducing scattered coincidences in the reconstructed image, the image quality attained in a non-TOF LaBr{sub 3} scanner can potentially equal or surpass that achieved with other high sensitivity scanners. Our results show that there is a gain in NEC arising from the reduced scatter and random fractions in a LaBr{sub 3} scanner. The reconstructed image resolution is slightly worse than a high-Z scintillator, but at increased count-rates, reduced pulse pileup leads to an image resolution similar to that of LSO. Image quality simulations predict reduced contrast for small hot spheres compared to an LSO scanner, but improved noise characteristics at similar clinical activity levels.

  5. An Exergy Analysis of LiBr-Water Absorption Refrigerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Hitoshi; Fujii, Terushige; Wang, Xiao; Origane, Takafumi; Katayama, Masatoshi; Inoue, Umeo

    Absorption refrigerators are very efficient as a heat recovery unit in a co-generation system.In order to design an absorption refrigerator for an arbitrary heat source properly, it is important to consider not only quantity but also quality of heat flow. The evaluation of exergy loss in each component is also effective for the improvement of system. This paper deals with the exergy analysis on a LiBr-water absorption refrigerator consisted of a single-and a double-effect cycle driven by the exhaust gas of the micro gas turbine with the output power of about 30 kW. Moreover, exergy loss in absorption process was eva1uated. As a result, it was shown that 80% of the exergy loss in an absorber was caused in absorption process, and the exergy loss decreased with decreasing the change in solution concentration in absorber. In these calculated results,the maximum cooling load of 77.8 kW was obtained from the exhaust gas with the temperature of 2900°C by utilizing both a single-and a double-effect cycles in combination. The energy and exergy efficiency of the system was 88.0% and 25.6%, respectively.

  6. Inhibition of hydrogen oxidation by HBr and Br2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixon-Lewis, Graham; Marshall, Paul; Ruscic, Branko;

    2012-01-01

    The high-temperature bromine chemistry was updated and the inhibition mechanisms involving HBr and Br2 were re-examined. The thermochemistry of the bromine species was obtained using the Active Thermochemical Tables (ATcT) approach, resulting in improved data for, among others, Br, HBr, HOBr and ...

  7. Electrochemical Characterization of Benzoyl Formic Acid at Glassy Carbon Electrode in Ionic Liquid: [emim]Br

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鹏; 孙茜; 王欢; 陆嘉星; 何鸣元

    2005-01-01

    The direct electrochemical reduction of benzoyl formic acid was investigated in ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bromide ([emim]Br), using cyclic voltammetry and chronocoulometry. The diffusion coefficient (D) and the transfer coefficient (α) of benzoyl formic acid in [emim]Br were obtained.

  8. Limit on Br(b --> sg) in two Higgs doublet models

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, C Q; Hou Wei Shu; Chao-Qiang Geng; Paul Turcotte; Wei-Shu Hou

    1994-01-01

    Using the recent CLEO measurement of Br(b\\to s \\gamma), we find that the branching ratio of b\\to s g cannot be larger than 10\\% in two Higgs doublet models. The small experimental value of Br(b\\to e\\bar{\

  9. Resonance Raman Spectra of the Transient Cl2 and Br2 Radical Anions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilbrandt, Robert Walter; Jensen, Niels-Henrik; Sillesen, Alfred Hegaard

    1984-01-01

    The resonance Raman spectra of the short-lived radical anions ClImage 2− and BrImage − in aqueous solution are reported. The observed wavenumbers of 279 cm−1 for ClImage − and 177 cm−1 for BrImage − are about 10% higher than those published for the corresponding species isolated in solid argon...

  10. [The effect of 1-p-bromphenyl-5-mercapto-1,2,3,4-tetrazole (Br FMT) on thyroid gland function in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedvídková, J; Stolba, P; Strbák, V; Vanzura, J; Hrabálek, A; Vinsová, J

    1991-04-01

    The effects of the novel potential thyrostatic agent 1-p-bromphenyl-5- mercapto-1,2,3,4-tetrazole (Br-FMT) on the serum levels of thyroxine, thyrotropic hormone (TSH), the content of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in the thyroid gland, the body weight and the weight of the thyroid gland in liver transaminases and the white blood picture in Wistar strain rats were investigated. The effect of Br-FMT was compared with the effect of the well-known thyrostatic agent and goitrogen ethylester of 3-methyl-2-thio-4-imidazoline-1- carboxylic acid, carbimazole (Spofa) and with the control group, which received placebo only. The drugs tested were administered to animals in the dose do 7.5 mumol/animal via a gastric tube for the period of one month. Br-FMT and carbimazole decreased the level of serum thyroxine in a statistically significant manner. The serum level of TSH was evidently decreased after Br-FMT; it was not changed after administration of carbimazole in the given dose. The content of cAMP in the thyroid gland was significantly increased only after carbimazole. The weight of the thyroid gland was not significantly changed in any group under study, though after carbimazole the mean value was higher by a quarter as compared with the control group. The body weight and white blood picture were not significantly changed in all groups under study. ALT and AST values were evidently lower after carbimazole and Br-FMT, most probably due to the hypothyroid state of the animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Current deformation in Central Afar and triple junction kinematics deduced from GPS and InSAR measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubre, Cécile; Déprez, Aline; Masson, Frédéric; Socquet, Anne; Lewi, Elias; Grandin, Raphaël; Nercessian, Alexandre; Ulrich, Patrice; De Chabalier, Jean-Bernard; Saad, Ibrahim; Abayazid, Ahmadine; Peltzer, Gilles; Delorme, Arthur; Calais, Eric; Wright, Tim

    2017-02-01

    Kinematics of divergent boundaries and Rift-Rift-Rift junctions are classically studied using long-term geodetic observations. Since significant magma-related displacements are expected, short-term deformation provides important constraints on the crustal mechanisms involved both in active rifting and in transfer of extensional deformation between spreading axes. Using InSAR and GPS data, we analyse the surface deformation in the whole Central Afar region in detail, focusing on both the extensional deformation across the Quaternary magmato-tectonic rift segments, and on the zones of deformation transfer between active segments and spreading axes. The largest deformation occurs across the two recently activated Asal-Ghoubbet (AG) and Manda Hararo-Dabbahu (MH-D) magmato-tectonic segments with very high strain rates, whereas the other Quaternary active segments do not concentrate any large strain, suggesting that these rifts are either sealed during interdyking periods or not mature enough to remain a plate boundary. Outside of these segments, the GPS horizontal velocity field shows a regular gradient following a clockwise rotation of the displacements from the Southeast to the East of Afar, with respect to Nubia. Very few shallow creeping structures can be identified as well in the InSAR data. However, using these data together with the strain rate tensor and the rotations rates deduced from GPS baselines, the present-day strain field over Central Afar is consistent with the main tectonic structures, and therefore with the long-term deformation. We investigate the current kinematics of the triple junction included in our GPS data set by building simple block models. The deformation in Central Afar can be described by adding a central microblock evolving separately from the three surrounding plates. In this model, the northern block boundary corresponds to a deep EW-trending trans-tensional dislocation, locked from the surface to 10-13 km and joining at depth the

  12. SIMMAX: A modern analog technique to deduce Atlantic sea surface temperatures from planktonic foraminifera in deep-sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflaumann, Uwe; Duprat, Josette; Pujol, Claude; Labeyrie, Laurent D.

    1996-02-01

    leave the system.) (Paper 95PA01743,SIMMAX: A modern analog technique to deduce Atlantic sea surfacetemperatures from planktonic foraminifera in deep-sea sediments, UwePflaumann, Josette Duprat, Claude Pujol, and Laurent D. Labeyrie).Diskette may be ordered from American Geophysical Union, 2000Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20009; Payment mustaccompany order.

  13. 电动势法测定混合电解质CsBr+NaBr+H2O体系的活度系数%Electromotiye force measurements of activity coefficients for the ternary system (CsBr + NaBr + H2O)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢培培; 李淑妮; 翟全国; 蒋育澄; 胡满成

    2013-01-01

    Activity coefficients of the ternary system (CsBr + NaBr + H2O) were determined by electromotive force (EMF) measurements using the cell: Cs-ion selective electrode(ISE) | CsBr (mA), NaBr (mB) | Br-ion selective electrode (ISE) at 298. 15 K, and over total ionic strengths from range 0. 01 to 1. 0 mol/kg for different ionic strength fractions (0. 25, 0. 5 and 0. 75). The experimental data were satisfactorily described via the Pitzer and Harned models. The Pitzer binary and ternary ionic interaction parameters and the Harned parameters have also been calculated.%采用电池Cs-ISE | CsBr(mA),NaBr (mB)| Br-ISE测定了298.15 K温度下CsBr+NaBr+H2O体系在离子强度I=0.01~1.00 mol/kg范围内,离子强度分数yB=0,0.25,0.50和0.75时的电动势,实验结果分别用Pitzer方程和Harned经验公式进行拟合,得到该体系的Pitzer二离子、三离子相互作用参数和Harned参数.拟合结果表明,Pitzer方程和Harned经验公式均能理想地适用于该三元盐水体系.

  14. Self- and N2-broadening of CH3Br ro-vibrational lines in the ν2 band: The J and K dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussetta, Z.; Kwabia Tchana, F.; Aroui, H.

    2015-02-01

    Methyl bromide (CH3Br) is the major source of inorganic bromine in the atmosphere and contributes significantly to ozone depletion. Indeed, CH3Br is dissociated by UV radiation, producing Br radicals that catalyze the destruction of ozone. In this paper, we report measured Lorentz self- and N2-broadening coefficients of CH3Br in the ν2 fundamental band using a mono-spectrum non-linear least squares fitting of Voigt profiles which appeared to properly model the observed molecular line shapes within the noise level. These measurements were made by analyzing 12 laboratory absorption spectra recorded at high resolution (0.005, 0.003 or 0.002 cm-1) using the Fourier transform spectrometer Bruker IF125HR located at the LISA facility in Créteil. The spectra were obtained at room temperature using a White-type multipass cell with an optical path of 0.849 m and various pressures. We have been able to determine the self- and N2-broadening coefficients of 948 ν2 transitions with quantum numbers as high as J = 49 and K = 10. The measured self-broadening coefficients range from 0.1542 to 0.4930 cm-1 atm-1 and the N2-broadening coefficients range from 0.0737 to 0.1284 cm-1 atm-1 at 295 K. The accuracy of the broadening coefficients measured in this work is between 4% and 8%, depending on the studied transition. Comparisons with measurements taken in the ν5 and ν6 bands of CH3Br did not show any clear vibrational dependence. The J and K dependences of the self- and N2-broadening coefficients have been observed and the rotational K dependence has been modeled using empirical polynomial expression. On average, the empirical expression reproduce the measured broadening coefficients to within 6%. The data obtained represent a significant contribution to the determination of broadening coefficients of CH3Br useful for atmospheric remote sensing and applications. Note: The assignment column gives the isotopologue (79 for CH379Br and 81 for CH381Br) for which the transition is

  15. Localisation of gamma-ray interaction points in thick monolithic CeBr3 and LaBr3:Ce scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyanov, Alexei; Morris, Oran; Roberts, Oliver J.; Tobin, Isaac; Hanlon, Lorraine; McBreen, Sheila; Murphy, David; Nelms, Nick; Shortt, Brian

    2017-02-01

    Localisation of gamma-ray interaction points in monolithic scintillator crystals can simplify the design and improve the performance of a future Compton telescope for gamma-ray astronomy. In this paper we compare the position resolution of three monolithic scintillators: a 28×28×20 mm3 (length×breadth × thickness) LaBr3:Ce crystal, a 25×25×20 mm3 CeBr3 crystal and a 25×25×10 mm3 CeBr3 crystal. Each crystal was encapsulated and coupled to an array of 4×4 silicon photomultipliers through an optical window. The measurements were conducted using 81 keV and 356 keV gamma-rays from a collimated 133Ba source. The 3D position reconstruction of interaction points was performed using artificial neural networks trained with experimental data. Although the position resolution was significantly better for the thinner crystal, the 20 mm thick CeBr3 crystal showed an acceptable resolution of about 5.4 mm FWHM for the x and y coordinates, and 7.8 mm FWHM for the z-coordinate (crystal depth) at 356 keV. These values were obtained from the full position scans of the crystal sides. The position resolution of the LaBr3:Ce crystal was found to be considerably worse, presumably due to the highly diffusive optical interface between the crystal and the optical window of the enclosure. The energy resolution (FWHM) measured for 662 keV gamma-rays was 4.0% for LaBr3:Ce and 5.5% for CeBr3. The same crystals equipped with a PMT (Hamamatsu R6322-100) gave an energy resolution of 3.0% and 4.7%, respectively.

  16. Satellite observations of long range transport of a large BrO plume in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Begoin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ozone Depletion Events (ODE during polar springtime are a well known phenomenon in the Arctic and Antarctic boundary layer. They are caused by the catalytic destruction of ozone by halogens producing reactive halogen oxides like bromine monoxide (BrO. The key halogen bromine can be rapidly transferred into the gas phase in an autocatalytic process – the so called "Bromine Explosion". However, the exact mechanism, which leads to an initial bromine release as well as the influence of transport and chemical processes on BrO, is still not clearly understood. <br>> In this study, BrO measurements from the satellite instrument GOME-2 are used together with model calculations with the dispersion model FLEXPART to study an arctic BrO event in March 2007, which could be tracked over several days and a large area. Full BrO activation was observed within one day east of Siberia with subsequent transport to Hudson Bay. The event was linked to a cyclone with very high surface wind speeds, which could have been involved in the production and lifting of aerosols or blowing snow. Considering the short life time of BrO, transported aerosols or snow can also provide the surface for BrO recycling within the plume for several days. The evolution of the BrO plume could be reproduced by FLEXPART simulations of a passive tracer indicating that the activated air mass was transported all the way from Siberia to Hudson Bay. To localise the most probable transport height, model runs initialised in different heights have been performed showing similar transport patterns throughout the troposphere but best agreement with the measurements between the surface and 3 km. The influence of changes in tropopause height on measured BrO values has been considered, but cannot completely explain the observed high BrO values. Backward trajectories from the area of BrO initialisation show upward lifting from the surface up to 3 km and no indication for intrusion of stratospheric

  17. Br...Br and van der Waals interactions along a homologous series: crystal packing of 1,2-dibromo-4,5-dialkoxybenzenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Sebastián A; Muller, Federico; Gutiérrez Suburu, Matías E; Fonrouge, Ana; Baggio, Ricardo F; Cukiernik, Fabio D

    2016-10-01

    The crystalline structures of four homologues of the 1,2-dibromo-4,5-dialkoxybenzene series [Br2C6H2(OCnH2n + 1)2 for n = 2, 12, 14 and 18] have been solved by means of single-crystal crystallography. Comparison along the series, including the previously reported n = 10 and n = 16 derivatives, shows a clear metric trend (b and c essentially fixed along the series and a growing linearly with n), in spite of some subtle differences in space groups and/or packing modes. A uniform packing pattern for the aliphatic chains has been found for the n = 12 to 18 homologues, which slightly differs from that of the n = 10 derivative. The crystalline structures of all the higher homologues (n = 10-18) seem to arise from van der Waals interchain interactions and, to a lesser extent, type II Br...Br interactions. The dominant role of interchain interactions provides direct structural support for the usual interpretation of melting point trends like that found along this series. Atoms in Molecules (AIM) analysis allows a comparison of the relative magnitude of the interchain and Br...Br interactions, an analysis validated by the measured melting enthalpies.

  18. Synthesis, purification, and characterization of perovskite semiconductor CsPbBr3 as a new candidate for y-ray detector(Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Duck Young; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Meng, Fang; Malliakas, Christos D.

    2016-09-01

    CsPbBr3 has direct band gap (orange color, 2.25 eV), high density (4.85 g/cm3), attenuation coefficient comparable to CZT, and high resistivity 10^9 ohm•cm. These fundamental physical properties of CsPbBr3well meet the requirements for gamma-ray detector materials. CsPbBr3 exhibits the carrier mobility-lifetime product in the order of 10^-4 cm2/V promising enough to be further developed for practical applications. The major challenge in the process to further enhance the detection performance is the carrier traps present at a deep level of the energy gap which should be minimized. We report the synthesis, purification, crystal growth and physical characterization of the CsPbBr3 crystals obtained by new processes we developed for highly pure materials with reduced carrier traps. The starting binary materials were prepared by reaction of Cs2CO3/HBr and Pb(ac)2/HBr in aqueous solution. Purification of materials was performed by sublimation, bromination with HBr gas, and filtration of molten materials. Large single crystals were grown by the vertical Bridgman and EelectroDynamic Gradient method and cut to the dimensions appropriate for assessment of the material for gamma-ray detector applications. All characterization including optical characteristics, charge transport properties, photoconductivity, and gamma-ray spectroscopy from the new single crystals of CsPbBr3 will be presented. In addition, the charge carrier traps profile has been studied for this compound by Deep-Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS), Thermally Stimulated Luminescence (TSL), and Photoluminescence (PL) and will be presented.

  19. Computational study on thermochemical properties for perhalogenated methanols (CX3OH) (X = F, Cl, Br).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrawashdeh, Ahmad I; Poirier, Raymond A

    2015-04-16

    The perhalogenated methanols (CX3OH; X = F, Cl, and Br) are found in the atmosphere as products of the degradation of halocarbons. The thermochemical properties for these molecules have been calculated at the HF, MP2, and B3LYP levels of theories in conjunction with six different basis sets as well as at G3MP2 and CBS-QB3. Calculated properties include the gas-phase enthalpies of formation (ΔfH(0)), gas-phase acidities (ΔacidG(0)), gas-phase proton affinity, and bond dissociation energies of the C-O and O-H bonds of CX3OH. Excellent agreement is found between the results obtained using G3MP2 and CBS-QB3 methods and the available experimental data. The results obtained using MP2 are more consistent with the experimental, G3MP2, and CBS-QB3 values than those computed at B3LYP. In general, the 6-311+G(d,p) basis set when combined with the HF or MP2 level of theory produced better results than other basis sets considered in this study.

  20. Engineering Interfacial Charge Transfer in CsPbBr3 Perovskite Nanocrystals by Heterovalent Doping

    KAUST Repository

    Begum, Raihana

    2016-12-17

    Since compelling device efficiencies of perovskite solar cells have been achieved, investigative efforts have turned to understand other key challenges in these systems, such as engineering interfacial energy-level alignment and charge transfer (CT). However, these types of studies on perovskite thin-film devices are impeded by the morphological and compositional heterogeneity of the films and their ill-defined surfaces. Here, we use well-defined ligand-protected perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) as model systems to elucidate the role of heterovalent doping on charge-carrier dynamics and energy level alignment at the interface of perovskite NCs with molecular acceptors. More specifically, we develop an in situ doping approach for colloidal CsPbBr3 perovskite NCs with heterovalent Bi3+ ions by hot injection to precisely tune their band structure and excited-state dynamics. This synthetic method allowed us to map the impact of doping on CT from the NCs to different molecular acceptors. Using time-resolved spectroscopy with broadband capability, we clearly demonstrate that CT at the interface of NCs can be tuned and promoted by metal ion doping. We found that doping increases the energy difference between states of the molecular acceptor and the donor moieties, subsequently facilitating the interfacial CT process. This work highlights the key variable components not only for promoting interfacial CT in perovskites, but also for establishing a higher degree of precision and control over the surface and the interface of perovskite molecular acceptors.

  1. Electronic structure and optical properties of RbPb2Br5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentyev, A. A.; Gabrelian, B. V.; Vu, V. T.; Denysyuk, N. M.; Shkumat, P. N.; Tarasova, A. Y.; Isaenko, L. I.; Khyzhun, O. Y.

    2016-04-01

    We report on density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the total and partial densities of states of rubidium dilead pentabromide, RbPb2Br5, employing the augmented plane wave+local orbitals (APW+lo) method as incorporated in the WIEN2k package. The calculations indicate that the Pb 6s and Br 4p states are the dominant contributors to the valence band: their main contributions are found to occur at the bottom and at the top of the band, respectively. Our calculations reveal that the bottom of the conduction band is formed predominantly from contributions of the unoccupied Pb 6p states. Data of total DOS derived in the present DFT calculations are found to be in agreement with the experimental X-ray photoelectron valence-band spectrum of this compound. The predominant contributions of the Br 4p states at the top of the valence band of rubidium dilead pentabromide are confirmed by comparison on a common energy scale of the X-ray emission band representing the energy distribution of the valence Br p states and the X-ray photoelectron valence-band spectrum of the RbPb2Br5 single crystal. Main optical characteristics of RbPb2Br5, such as dispersion of the absorption coefficient, real and imaginary parts of dielectric function, electron energy-loss spectrum, refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical reflectivity are explored for RbPb2Br5 by the DFT calculations.

  2. BR1: A new ultrasonographic contrast agent based on sulfur hexafluoride-filled microbubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheider, M.; Arditi, M.; Barrau, M.B.

    1995-08-01

    Rationale and objectives. The basic characteristics of BR1, a novel echo contrast agent based on stabilized sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) microbubbles have been evaluated. Methods. The authors determined the physicochemical properties (bubble concentration, bubble size distribution, resistance to pressure, and stability) and the acoustic properties (backscatter and attenuation coefficients) of BR1. The diagnostic value of BR1 was evaluated further in minipigs. Left heart images were recorded before and after injection of different doses of BR1. Results. BR1 is formulated as a lyophilized products, which after addition of saline, provides a suspension containing 2 X 10{sup 8} SF{sub 6} microbubbles/mL with a number mean diameter of 2.5 {mu}m. More than 90% of the bubbles are below 8 {mu}m. The use of SF{sub 6} rather than air provides an improved resistance to pressure increases such as the ones occuring in the left heart during systole. After reconstitution, the echogenicity and the bubble characteristics are unchanged for more than 8 hours. The high echogenicity remains almost constant over the entire medical frequency range (1-10 MH{sub Z}). BR1 injections in animals resulted in a homogenous, dose-dependent opacification of the left heart. Conclusions. Considering its high echogenicity, outstanding stability, and resistance to pressure changes, BR1 is a very promising ultrasound contrast agent. 14 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Studies on Ca2+-Doped CeBr3 Scintillating Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guss, P. [NSTec; Foster, M. E. [SNL; Wong, B. M. [SNL; Doty, F. P. [SNL; Shah, K. [RMD; Squillante, M. [RMD; Glodo, J. [RMD; Yuan, D. [NSTec

    2013-07-03

    Despite the outstanding scintillation performance characteristics of cerium tribromide (CeBr3) and cerium-activated lanthanum tribromide (LaBr3:Ce), their commercial availability and application is limited due to the difficulties of growing large, crack-free single crystals from these fragile materials. The objective of this investigation was to employ aliovalent doping to increase crystal strength while maintaining the optical properties of the crystal. One divalent dopant (Ca2+) was investigated as a dopant to strengthen CeBr3 without negatively impacting scintillation performance. Ingots containing nominal concentrations of 1.9% of the Ca2+ dopant were grown. Preliminary scintillation measurements are presented for this aliovalently doped scintillator. Ca2+-doped CeBr3 exhibited little or no change in the peak fluorescence emission for 371 nm optical excitation for CeBr3. The structural, electronic, and optical properties of CeBr3 crystals were investigated using the density functional theory within generalized gradient approximation. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data. The energy band structures and density of states were obtained. The optical properties of CeBr3, including the dielectric function, were calculated.

  4. Comparative study of antimicrobial activity of AgBr and Ag nanoparticles (NPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchomel, Petr; Kvitek, Libor; Panacek, Ales; Prucek, Robert; Hrbac, Jan; Vecerova, Renata; Zboril, Radek

    2015-01-01

    The diverse mechanism of antimicrobial activity of Ag and AgBr nanoparticles against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and also against several strains of candida was explored in this study. The AgBr nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by simple precipitation of silver nitrate by potassium bromide in the presence of stabilizing polymers. The used polymers (PEG, PVP, PVA, and HEC) influence significantly the size of the prepared AgBr NPs dependently on the mode of interaction of polymer with Ag+ ions. Small NPs (diameter of about 60-70 nm) were formed in the presence of the polymer with low interaction as are PEG and HEC, the polymers which interact with Ag+ strongly produce nearly two times bigger NPs (120-130 nm). The prepared AgBr NPs were transformed to Ag NPs by the reduction using NaBH4. The sizes of the produced Ag NPs followed the same trends--the smallest NPs were produced in the presence of PEG and HEC polymers. Prepared AgBr and Ag NPs dispersions were tested for their biological activity. The obtained results of antimicrobial activity of AgBr and Ag NPs are discussed in terms of possible mechanism of the action of these NPs against tested microbial strains. The AgBr NPs are more effective against gram-negative bacteria and tested yeast strains while Ag NPs show the best antibacterial action against gram-positive bacteria strains.

  5. Studies on Ca2+-Doped CeBr3 Scintillating Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guss, P. [NSTec; Foster, M. E. [SNL; Wong, B. M. [SNL; Doty, F. P. [SNL; Shah, K. [RMD; Squillante, M. R. [RMD; Shirwadkar, U. [RMD; Hawrami, R. [RMD; Tower, J. [RMD; Yuan, D. [NSTec

    2013-09-01

    Despite the outstanding scintillation performance characteristics of cerium tribromide (CeBr3) and cerium-activated lanthanum tribromide (LaBr3:Ce), their commercial availability and application is limited due to the difficulties of growing large, crack-free single crystals from these fragile materials. The objective of this investigation was to employ aliovalent doping to increase crystal strength while maintaining the optical properties of the crystal. One divalent dopant (Ca2+) was investigated as a dopant to strengthen CeBr3 without negatively impacting scintillation performance. Ingots containing nominal concentrations of 1.9% of the Ca2+ dopant were grown. Preliminary scintillation measurements are presented for this aliovalently doped scintillator. Ca2+-doped CeBr3 exhibited little or no change in the peak fluorescence emission for 371 nm optical excitation for CeBr3. The structural, electronic, and optical properties of CeBr3 crystals were investigated using the density functional theory within generalized gradient approximation. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data. The energy band structures and density of states were obtained. The optical properties of CeBr3, including the dielectric function, were calculated.

  6. Pure Cs4PbBr6: Highly Luminescent Zero-Dimensional Perovskite Solids

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.

    2016-09-26

    So-called zero-dimensional perovskites, such as Cs4PbBr6, promise outstanding emissive properties. However, Cs4PbBr6 is mostly prepared by melting of precursors that usually leads to a coformation of undesired phases. Here, we report a simple low-temperature solution-processed synthesis of pure Cs4PbBr6 with remarkable emission properties. We found that pure Cs4PbBr6 in solid form exhibits a 45% photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY), in contrast to its three-dimensional counterpart, CsPbBr3, which exhibits more than 2 orders of magnitude lower PLQY. Such a PLQY of Cs4PbBr6 is significantly higher than that of other solid forms of lower-dimensional metal halide perovskite derivatives and perovskite nanocrystals. We attribute this dramatic increase in PL to the high exciton binding energy, which we estimate to be ∼353 meV, likely induced by the unique Bergerhoff–Schmitz–Dumont-type crystal structure of Cs4PbBr6, in which metal-halide-comprised octahedra are spatially confined. Our findings bring this class of perovskite derivatives to the forefront of color-converting and light-emitting applications.

  7. Global significance of a sub-Moho boundary layer (SMBL) deduced from high-resolution seismic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, K.; Tittgemeyer, M.; Ryberg, T.; Wenzel, F.; Mooney, W.

    2002-01-01

    an on-going processes; nevertheless, the derived quantitative estimates of the SMBL properties provide important constraints for any hypothesis on scale-forming processes. Models to be tested by future numerical and field experiments are, for example, repeated subduction-convection stretching of oceanic lithosphere (marble-cake model) and schlieren formation at mid-ocean ridges. It is also proposed that the modeling of the observed blocking of Sn and Pn propagation at active plate margins offers a new tool to study the depth range of tectonics below the crust-mantle boundary. Finally, the deduced schlieren structure of the SMBL closes an important scale gap of three to four orders of magnitude between structural dimensions studied in petrological analysis of mantle samples (xenoliths or outcrop of oceanic lithosphere) and those imaged in classical seismological studies of the lithosphere.

  8. Comparison of GOME tropospheric NO2 columns with NO2 profiles deduced from ground-based in situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Schaub

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 vertical tropospheric column densities (VTCs retrieved from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME are compared to coincident ground-based tropospheric NO2 columns. The ground-based columns are deduced from in situ measurements at different altitudes in the Alps for 1997 to June 2003, yielding a unique long-term comparison of GOME NO2 VTC data retrieved by a collaboration of KNMI (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute and BIRA/IASB (Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy with independently derived tropospheric NO2 profiles. A first comparison relates the GOME retrieved tropospheric columns to the tropospheric columns obtained by integrating the ground-based NO2 measurements. For a second comparison, the tropospheric profiles constructed from the ground-based measurements are first multiplied with the averaging kernel (AK of the GOME retrieval. The second approach makes the comparison independent from the a priori NO2 profile used in the GOME retrieval. This allows splitting the total difference between the column data sets into two contributions: one that is due to differences between the a priori and the ground-based NO2 profile shapes, and another that can be attributed to uncertainties in both the remaining retrieval parameters (such as, e.g., surface albedo or aerosol concentration and the ground-based in situ NO2 profiles. For anticyclonic clear sky conditions the comparison indicates a good agreement between the columns (n=157, R=0.70/0.74 for the first/second comparison approach, respectively. The mean relative difference (with respect to the ground-based columns is −7% with a standard deviation of 40% and GOME on average slightly underestimating the ground-based columns. Both data sets show a similar seasonal behaviour with a distinct maximum of spring NO2 VTCs. Further analysis indicates small GOME columns being systematically smaller than the ground-based ones. The influence of different shapes in the a

  9. Interaction of pepsin-[C16mim]Br system: interfacial dilational rheology and conformational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tian; Cao, Chong; Liu, Zi-lin; Li, Yang; Du, Feng-pei

    2014-09-21

    The interfacial rheological property is closely related to the stabilities of foams and emulsions, yet there have been limited studies on the interaction between proteins with ionic liquid-type imidazolium surfactants at the decane-water interface as well as in the bulk. Herein, we investigated the interfacial and bulk properties of pepsin (PEP) and an ionic liquid (IL), 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, [C(16)mim]Br. The interfacial pressure and dilational rheology studies were performed to describe the formation of [C(16)mim]Br-pepsin complexes. The influence of the oscillating frequency and the bulk concentration of [C(16)mim]Br on the dilational properties were explored. The conformational changes were studied by monitoring the fluorescence and far UV-CD spectra. The results reveal that the globular structure of pepsin is one of the decisive factors controlling the nature of the interfacial film. The monotonous increase in the dilational elastic modulus of pepsin-[C(16)mim]Br solutions with the surface age indicates that no loops and tails had formed. Interestingly, with an increase in the concentration of [C(16)mim]Br, the εd-c curve first passes through a plateau value due to steric hindrance and the electrostatic barrier of already absorbed tenacious pepsin-[C(16)mim]Br complexes. With the further addition of [C(16)mim]Br, the remarkable decrease in dilational elastic modulus indicates that the compact structure is destroyed gradually. The results of the fluorescence spectra and far UV-CD spectra confirm that [C(16)mim]Br did not produce perceptible changes in pepsin at the concentrations studied in the dilational experiment. Possible schematic programs of the pepsin-[C(16)mim]Br interaction model at the interface and in bulk phase are proposed.

  10. Max Brödel: his art, legacy, and contributions to neurosurgery through medical illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Smruti K; Couldwell, William T; Liu, James K

    2011-07-01

    Max Brödel is considered the father of modern medical illustration. This report reviews his contributions to neurosurgery as a medical illustrator. Max Brödel, a young artist from Leipzig, Germany, was hired at Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1894, where he illustrated an operative textbook of gynecology for Howard A. Kelly. Although Brödel did not have any formal medical training, he quickly acquired knowledge of anatomy, pathology, physiology, and surgery. Brödel's extraordinary illustrations were characterized by an aerial perspective that conveyed the surgeon's operative viewpoint and precise surgical anatomy. He masterfully incorporated tissue realism with cross-sectional anatomy to accentuate concepts while maintaining topographical accuracy. Brödel's reputation spread quickly and resulted in collaborations with prominent surgeons, such as Cushing, Halsted, and Dandy. Cushing, who also possessed artistic talent, became a pupil of Brödel and remained a very close friend. In 1911, Brödel was appointed the director of the Department of Art as Applied to Medicine at Johns Hopkins, the first academic department of its kind in the world. For the next several decades, he trained generations of renowned medical illustrators. Just as Osler, Halsted, and Cushing passed their skills and knowledge to future leaders of medicine and surgery, Brödel did the same for the field of medical illustration. The advancement of neurosurgical education has been greatly facilitated by Max Brödel's artistic contributions. His unique ability to synthesize art and medicine resulted in timeless illustrations that remain indispensable to surgeons. The art produced by his legacy of illustrators continues to flourish in neurosurgical literature today.

  11. Investigations of the Rg-BrCl (Rg = He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) binary van der Waals complexes: ab initio intermolecular potential energy surfaces, vibrational states and predicted pure rotational transition frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Zheng, Rui; Chen, Shan-Jun; Chen, Yan; Chen, Peng

    2017-03-01

    The intermolecular potential energy surfaces (PESs) of the ground electronic state for the Rg-BrCl (Rg = He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) van der Waals complexes have been constructed by using the coupled-cluster method in combination with the augmented quadruple-zeta correlation-consistent basis sets supplemented with an additional set of bond functions. The features of the anisotropic PESs for these complexes are remarkably similar, which are characterized by three minima and two saddle points between them. The global minimum corresponds to a collinear Rg-Br-Cl configuration. Two local minima, correlate with an anti-linear Rg-Cl-Br geometry and a nearly T-shaped structure, can also be located on each PES. The quantum bound state calculations enable us to investigate intermolecular vibrational states and rotational energy levels of the complexes. The transition frequencies are predicted and are fitted to obtain their corresponding spectroscopic constants. In general, the periodic trends are observed for this complex family. Comparisons with available experimental data for the collinear isomer of Ar-BrCl demonstrate reliability of our theoretical predictions, and our results for the other two isomers of Ar-BrCl as well as for other members of the complex family are also anticipated to be trustable. Except for the collinear isomer of Ar-BrCl, the data presented in this paper would be beneficial to improve our knowledge for these experimentally unknown species.

  12. Investigations of the Rg-BrCl (Rg=He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) binary van der Waals complexes: ab initio intermolecular potential energy surfaces, vibrational states and predicted pure rotational transition frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Zheng, Rui; Chen, Shan-Jun; Chen, Yan; Chen, Peng

    2017-03-05

    The intermolecular potential energy surfaces (PESs) of the ground electronic state for the Rg-BrCl (Rg=He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) van der Waals complexes have been constructed by using the coupled-cluster method in combination with the augmented quadruple-zeta correlation-consistent basis sets supplemented with an additional set of bond functions. The features of the anisotropic PESs for these complexes are remarkably similar, which are characterized by three minima and two saddle points between them. The global minimum corresponds to a collinear Rg-Br-Cl configuration. Two local minima, correlate with an anti-linear Rg-Cl-Br geometry and a nearly T-shaped structure, can also be located on each PES. The quantum bound state calculations enable us to investigate intermolecular vibrational states and rotational energy levels of the complexes. The transition frequencies are predicted and are fitted to obtain their corresponding spectroscopic constants. In general, the periodic trends are observed for this complex family. Comparisons with available experimental data for the collinear isomer of Ar-BrCl demonstrate reliability of our theoretical predictions, and our results for the other two isomers of Ar-BrCl as well as for other members of the complex family are also anticipated to be trustable. Except for the collinear isomer of Ar-BrCl, the data presented in this paper would be beneficial to improve our knowledge for these experimentally unknown species.

  13. La mémoire en jeu vidéo dans Level five (1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaut Garcia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract (E: The theory of digital arts today is almost always articulated around the dichotomy<br />real/virtual. The universe of video games is generally perceived as a parallel reality, the time of play as<br />time that can be reversed. In Level five, Chris Marker uses computer techniques highlighting their<br />dimension of memory rather than their “virtuality”: preserving the complete memory of the past, the<br />video game about the battle of Okinawa returns the player to his own ineffaceable memory and to the<br />inescapable character of what, in reality, “is played” once and for all. The computer memory becomes<br />the double of the human memory.<br />Abstract (F: Aujourd’hui, la théorie des arts numériques s’articule presque toujours autour de la<br />dichotomie réel/virtuel. L’univers des jeux vidéo est généralement perçu comme une réalité parallèle,<br />le temps du jeu comme un temps réversible. Dans Level five, Chris Marker utilise les techniques<br />informatiques en mettant en avant leur dimension « mémorielle » plutôt que « virtuelle » : conservant<br />toute la mémoire du passé, le jeu vidéo sur la bataille d’Okinawa renvoie le joueur à sa propre<br />mémoire ineffaçable et au caractère inéluctable de ce qui, dans la réalité, est « joué » une fois pour<br />toutes. La mémoire informatique devient le double de la mémoire humaine.

  14. Variations of the BrO/SO2 ratios from Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnach, Simon; Lübcke, Peter; Dinger, Florian; Bobrowski, Nicole; Hidalgo, Silvana; Arellano, Santiago; Battaglia, Jean; Galle, Bo; Hörmann, Christoph; Ruiz, Mario; Vogel, Leif; Wagner, Thomas; Platt, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    The amount and composition of volcanic gas emissions can yield information about magmatic processes. Apart from the SO2 emission rate, which is used as a widespread tool in monitoring volcanoes, the molar ratio of BrO/SO2 in a volcanic plume has shown the potential for interpreting volcanic activity. The evaluation of long-term spectral data collected with UV-scanning spectrometers through the Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change (NOVAC) using the DOAS technique can help to obtain a better understanding of the BrO/SO2 molar ratio and its correlation to magmatic processes. BrO and SO2 emissions as well as the BrO/SO2 ratio have been successfully retrieved from NOVAC data at Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia), where a decrease of the BrO/SO2 ratio was observed prior to a large eruption. We apply this evaluation algorithm to determine the plume composition of Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador, which is part of NOVAC since 2007. Different from Nevado del Ruiz the retrieved column densities of SO2 and BrO at Tungurahua are typically more than a factor of two lower during the respective period of observation. In addition, changes in the volcanic activity appear on a smaller timescale, as Tungurahua displays a succession of activity and quiescence phases. In order to still obtain robust BrO/SO2 ratios at Tungurahua, it is necessary to improve the data evaluation as well as applying a more sophisticated scheme to calculate the BrO/SO2 ratio. By combining both methods we create a time series of the BrO/SO2 ratio for several eruptive phases between 2007 and 2014. The ratio shows values between 2 and 8 × 10-5. The variation of the BrO/SO2 ratio during these eruptive phases is compared to seismic data and volcanological phenomenological observations as well as satellite and ground based SO2 measurements. During several eruptive phases we observe an increase in the BrO/SO2 ratio on the transition from high explosive activity to low explosive activity. During the

  15. Nuclear import of transcription factor BR-C is mediated by its interaction with RACK1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daojun Cheng

    Full Text Available The transcription factor Broad Complex (BR-C is an early ecdysone response gene in insects and contains two types of domains: two zinc finger domains for the activation of gene transcription and a Bric-a-brac/Tramtrack/Broad complex (BTB domain for protein-protein interaction. Although the mechanism of zinc finger-mediated gene transcription is well studied, the partners interacting with the BTB domain of BR-C has not been elucidated until now. Here, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using the BTB domain of silkworm BR-C as bait and identified the receptor for activated C-kinase 1 (RACK1, a scaffolding/anchoring protein, as the novel partner capable of interacting with BR-C. The interaction between BR-C and RACK1 was further confirmed by far-western blotting and pull-down assays. Importantly, the disruption of this interaction, via RNAi against the endogenous RACK1 gene or deletion of the BTB domain, abolished the nuclear import of BR-C in BmN4 cells. In addition, RNAi against the endogenous PKC gene as well as phosphorylation-deficient mutation of the predicted PKC phosphorylation sites at either Ser373 or Thr406 in BR-C phenocopied RACK1 RNAi and altered the nuclear localization of BR-C. However, when BTB domain was deleted, phosphorylation mimics of either Ser373 or Thr406 had no effect on the nuclear import of BR-C. Moreover, mutating the PKC phosphorylation sites at Ser373 and Thr406 or deleting the BTB domain significantly decreased the transcriptional activation of a BR-C target gene. Given that RACK1 is necessary for recruiting PKC to close and phosphorylate target proteins, we suggest that the PKC-mediated phosphorylation and nuclear import of BR-C is determined by its interaction with RACK1. This novel finding will be helpful for further deciphering the mechanism underlying the role of BR-C proteins during insect development.

  16. Lyoluminescence in Ce3+ activated (KNa)Br phosphor for ionizing radiation dosimetry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P M Bhujbal; S J Dhoble

    2012-06-01

    The lyoluminescence (LL) in -ray irradiated (KNa)Br : Ce3+ phosphors are reported in this paper. LL of (KNa)Br : Ce3+ have been recorded for different -ray doses. The nature of variations of LL peak intensities is found to be linear with -ray irradiation dose and LL peak intensity is found to be dependent on concentrations (0.1–10 mol%) of added Ce3+ ions in the (KNa)Br host lattice. Negligible fading in the prepared sample is observed.

  17. Phase topology of a NR/BR elastomer blend with active filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plavšić Milenko B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The relations between the structure and mechanical properties of a polymer blend of natural (NR and polybutadiene (BR rubber (i.e. a NR/BR blend with the weight ratio of the components 70/30 filled with active carbon black were analysed. The properties of the individual phases in the blend were resolved by modeling the stress-strain relationship according to the Bauer procedure for high extensions. The obtained results indicated that BR is the dispersed phase, having a higher modulus, which was also confirmed by the much better fit of the experimental data to the series type of phase coupling according to the Takanayagy theory.

  18. Identité culturelle et identité nationale au Brésil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isaura Pereira de Queiroz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Dans cette étude de sociologie de la connaissance, l’auteure aborde en perspective historique la question de l'identité culturelle du Brésil, question posée dès les premiers travaux de sciences sociales réalisés dans ce pays. Au xixe siècle, la reconnaissance de la diversité des héritages culturels brésiliens est opérée, mais elle achoppe au plan théorique sur le postulat de l’homogénéité culturelle et au plan idéologique sur le bioracisme latent des élites. Au début de xxe siècle, en même temps que s’opère un travail théorique de reformulation de la notion de culture comme synthèse syncrétique, se répand dans les métropoles du Sud-Est une nouvelle religion afro-brésilienne, la reformulation théorique et la nouvelle religion présentant une homologie de structure et de fonction. L’auteure met en lumière les liens entre les transformations de la société brésilienne d’un côté, les productions culturelles, intellectuelles ou religieuses de l’autre. Elle montre ensuite que si, en Europe, sous l’effet de la construction des États-nations, identité culturelle et identité nationale désignent deux réalités différentes, au Brésil l’identité culturelle est le fondement de l’identité nationale.Cultural identity and national identity in BrazilIn this study of knowledge sociology, the author deals with the question of cultural identity in Brazil in a historical perspective. In the 19th century, the variety of cultural Brazilian inheritances is recognized, but it stumbles – at a theoretical level – over the postulate of cultural homogeneity and – at an ideological level – over the latent bioracism of the elites. In the early 20th century, while a theoretical work of reformulation of the notion of culture as a synthesis of several influences is being processed, a new Afro-Brazilian religion is spreading in S.E. cities, those two presenting a similarity of structure and function. The

  19. First observation of the decay Bs --> Ds K and measurement of the ratio of branching fractions Br(Bs --> DsK)/Br(Bs --> Ds pi)

    CERN Document Server

    Abulencia, A; Adelman, J; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzurri, P; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P H; Bedeschi, F; Bednar, P; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bölla, G; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, Yu; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calancha, C; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca-Almenar, C; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; De Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Derwent, P F; di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernández, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; García, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Genser, K; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Gessler, A; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gómez, G; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grundler, U; Guimarães da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Han, B Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Höcker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Koay, S A; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kurata, M; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C S; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lovas, L; Lu, R S; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Luci, C; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Mäki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martinez-Ballarin, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtälä, P; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlok, J; Movilla-Fernández, P A; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Müller, T; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Österberg, K; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, Aldo L; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P B; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodríguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salto, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T G; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shiraishi, S; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakian, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Saint-Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Tourneur, S; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Vallecorsa, S; Van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Volobuev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wagner, W; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Xie, S; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zheng, Y; Zucchelli, S

    2008-01-01

    A combined mass and particle identification fit is used to make the first observation of the decay Bs --> Ds K and measure the branching fraction of Bs --> Ds K relative to Bs --> Ds pi. This analysis uses 1.2 fb^-1 integrated luminosity of pbar-p collisions at sqrt(s) = 1.96 TeV collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We observe a Bs --> Ds K signal with a statistical significance of 8.1 sigma and measure Br(Bs --> Ds K)/Br(Bs --> Ds pi) = 0.097 +- 0.018(stat) +- 0.009(sys).

  20. File list: InP.Brs.10.AllAg.SK-BR-3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Brs.10.AllAg.SK-BR-3 hg19 Input control Breast SK-BR-3 SRX750675,SRX155756,SRX4...69109 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Brs.10.AllAg.SK-BR-3.bed ...

  1. File list: InP.Brs.20.AllAg.SK-BR-3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Brs.20.AllAg.SK-BR-3 hg19 Input control Breast SK-BR-3 SRX750675,SRX155756,SRX4...69109 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Brs.20.AllAg.SK-BR-3.bed ...

  2. File list: InP.Brs.05.AllAg.SK-BR-3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Brs.05.AllAg.SK-BR-3 hg19 Input control Breast SK-BR-3 SRX750675,SRX155756,SRX4...69109 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Brs.05.AllAg.SK-BR-3.bed ...

  3. File list: InP.Brs.50.AllAg.SK-BR-3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Brs.50.AllAg.SK-BR-3 hg19 Input control Breast SK-BR-3 SRX750675,SRX469109,SRX1...55756 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Brs.50.AllAg.SK-BR-3.bed ...

  4. Analysis of satellite-derived Arctic tropospheric BrO columns in conjunction with aircraft measurements during ARCTAS and ARCPAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Choi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We derive estimates of tropospheric BrO column amounts during two Arctic field campaigns in 2008 using information from the satellite UV nadir sensors Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI and the second Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2 as well as estimates of stratospheric BrO columns from a model simulation. The sensitivity of the satellite-derived tropospheric BrO columns to various parameters is investigated using a radiative transfer model. We conduct a comprehensive analysis of satellite-derived tropospheric BrO columns including a detailed comparison with aircraft in-situ observations of BrO and related species obtained during the field campaigns. In contrast to prior expectation, tropospheric BrO, when present, existed over a broad range of altitudes. Our results show reasonable agreement between tropospheric BrO columns derived from the satellite observations and columns found using aircraft in-situ BrO. After accounting for the stratospheric contribution to total BrO column, several events of rapid BrO activation due to surface processes in the Arctic are apparent in both the OMI and GOME-2 based tropospheric columns. The wide orbital swath of OMI allows examination of the evolution of tropospheric BrO on about hourly time intervals near the pole. Low pressure systems, strong surface winds, and high planetary boundary layer heights are associated with the observed tropospheric BrO activation events.

  5. Clomiphene citrate challenge test and serum anti-MĂźllerian hormone levels in women with menstrual irregularities and/or infertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Krzysiek

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM<br />Evaluation of CCCT results and anti-MĂźllerian hormone (AMH plasma levels in women with menstrual cycle irregularities and/or infertility.<br /><br />PATIENTS AND METHODS<br />70 patients with menstrual cycle disturbances were recruited to the study. Clomiphene citrate challenge test (CCCT was carried out in each patient enrolled. At day 3 of the cycle plasma basic levels of FSH, estradiol, progesterone, IGFBP-1, TSH, prolactin, DHEAS and anti-MĂźllerian hormone were measured. At day 10 of the cycle plasma levels of FSH and estradiol were evaluated. Plasma levels of hormones were measured by commercially available ELISA kits.<br /><br />RESULTS<br />50 women with normal result of CCCT (group A had higher mean plasma level of AMH compared to 20 women with abnormal result of CCCT (group B. Mean plasma FSH level at day 3 of the cycle was lower in group A compared to group B. There were no other statistically significant differences in mean values of assessed parameters between groups A and B. Taking into account all patients enrolled to the study AMH correlated significantly with patients' age and plasma levels of FSH at day 3 and day 10 of the cycle. Basic AMH plasma levels in group A correlated negatively with plasma levels of FSH at day 3 and day 10. In group B plasma levels of FSH at day 10 of the cycle also correlated with basic AMH plasma levels. Plasma levels of estradiol at day 10 of the cycle were related inversely with basic AMH plasma levels in group A, but directly in group B.<br /><br />CONCLUSION<br />It should be recommended to perform the CCCT before infertility treatment. Evaluation of the anti-MĂźllerian hormone plasma level reflects the results of the CCCT.<br /><br />

  6. Isolation of a human anti-haemophilic factor IX cDNA clone using a unique 52-base synthetic oligonucleotide probe deduced from the amino acid sequence of bovine factor IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaye, M; de la Salle, H; Schamber, F; Balland, A; Kohli, V; Findeli, A; Tolstoshev, P; Lecocq, J P

    1983-04-25

    A unique 52mer oligonucleotide deduced from the amino acid sequence of bovine Factor IX was synthesized and used as a probe to screen a human liver cDNA bank. The Factor IX clone isolated shows 5 differences in nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence as compared to a previously isolated clone. In addition, precisely one codon has been deleted.Images

  7. Nomenclatural notes on the Eurytomids (Chalcidoidea: Eurytomidae) described by Jean Brèthes housed in Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Michael W

    2014-04-16

    Ten Eurytomidae (Hymenoptera) parasitic wasp species described by Jean Brèthes and deposited in the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales in Buenos Aires are treated and their nomenclature stabilized. The condition of the type material is described. Lectotypes are designated for Decatoma cecidosiphaga Brèthes, Prodecatoma parodii Brèthes, Eudecatoma opposita Brèthes, and Eurytoma caridei Brèthes. One new generic synonymy, Xanthosomodes Brèthes with Tetramesa Walker, n. syn., and five new combinations are proposed: Tetramesa albiangulata (Brèthes), n. comb.; Phylloxeroxenus caridei (Brèthes), n. comb.; Aximopsis vulgata (Brèthes), n. comb.; Proseurytoma parodii (Brèthes), n. comb.; and Bruchophagus opposita (Brèthes), n. comb. Sycophila paranensis Brèthes is declared incertae sedis.

  8. Photodegradation of Acid Violet 7 with AgBr-ZnO under highly alkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, B; Swaminathan, M

    2012-12-01

    The photocatalytic activity of AgBr-ZnO was investigated for the degradation of Acid Violet 7 (AV 7) in aqueous solution using UV-A light. AgBr-ZnO is found to be more efficient than commercial ZnO and prepared ZnO at pH 12 for the mineralization of AV 7. The effects of operational parameters such as the amount of photocatalyst, dye concentration, initial pH on photo mineralization have been analyzed. Expect oxone, other oxidants decrease the degradation efficiency. Addition of metal ions and anions decrease the degradation efficiency of AgBr-ZnO significantly. The mineralization of AV 7 has also been confirmed by COD measurements. The mechanism of degradation by AgBr-ZnO is proposed to explain its higher activity under UV light. The catalyst is found to be reusable.

  9. Eesti ajaloo kotkaperspektiivist : minu vaidlus Brüggermanniga / Jaan Undusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Undusk, Jaan, 1958-

    2002-01-01

    Märkusi Jaan Unduski "metahistooriliste" zhestide kohta, varasema eestikeelse kirjanduse seotusest baltisaksa kirjandusega. Artiklist - Brüggemann, Karl. Rahvusliku vaenlasekuju demontaazhist ehk Carl Schirren kui Eesti iseseisvuse rajaja? // Tuna, 2002, nr. 3, lk. 93-98

  10. Characteristic of Absorption Heat Transfer using LiBr+LiI Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimori, Atsushi; Ozaki, Eiichi; Nakao, Kazushige

    LiBr-H20 absorption chiller is widely used in Japan, and many research have been made for absorption characteristic in terms of enhancing heat transfer. Another study have been performed for widening working range with higher crystallization limits, and it was reported that adding LiI salt to LiBr-H20 working fluid provide about 5 [mass%] higher crystallization limit under the condition of absorption pressure range. It is necessary to reveal absorption heat transfer performance to utilize this working fluid pair for absorption chiller. In this study absorption heat transfer characteristic was investigated for horizontal and vertical tube. As a result, it was found that heat transfer coefficient increased as mass flow rate of solution increased and mass concentration of solution decrease and that these characteristic were almost the same as LiBr solution, though this solution gave slightly less heat transfer coefficient than LiBr solution.

  11. [Memel als Brücke zu den baltischen Ländern] / Ralph Tuchtenhagen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuchtenhagen, Ralph, 1961-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Memel als Brücke zu den baltischen Ländern. Kulturgeschichte Klaipedas vom Mittelalter bis ins 20. Jahrhundert. (Tagungsberichte der Historischen Kommission für ost- und westpreussische Landesforschung. Bd. 26)

  12. Kallas valmistus Brüsselis voliniku tööks / Ahto Lobjakas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobjakas, Ahto, 1970-

    2004-01-01

    Siim Kallas kohtus Brüsselis Euroopa Komisjoni presidendi Romano Prodi ning komisjoni volinikega. Suure tõenäosusega saab Kallas oma juhendajaks ettevõtluse ja infoühiskonna valdkonnaga tegeleva Erkki Liikaneni

  13. Estudo comparativo das uniões bráquete-resina-esmalte; bráquete-resina-cobre-alumínio; bráquete-resina-níquel-cromo; bráquete-resina-porcelana, mediante testes de cisalhamento utilizando as resinas enforce e concise

    OpenAIRE

    Nícolas Zaragoza Velásquez

    1998-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência às uniões bráquete-resina-esmalte, bráquete-resina-níquel-cromo, bráquete-resina-cobre-alumínio e bráquete-resina-porcelana utilizando o Sistema Adesivo Universal EnForce e a resina Concise Ortodôntico, através de ensaios de cisalhamento. Para tanto, foram confeccionados corpos de prova nas ligas de níquel-cromo, cobre-alumínio, porcelana, e como grupo controle foram utilizados 20 pré-molares. Estes receberam condicionamento com ácido fosfór...

  14. Muotinäytöksestä brändiksi? : Aurelian kasvutarina

    OpenAIRE

    Antikainen, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä käsiteltiin Savonia-ammattikorkeakoulun vaatetusmuotoilun opiskelijoiden Aurelia-muotinäytöksen brändäämistä ja markkinointia vaatetusmuotoilun opiskelijan näkökulmasta. Työssä käsiteltiin brändäyksen keskeisiä käsitteitä ja brändin rakennuksen vaiheita, sekä analysoitiin muotinäytös Aurelia-brändiä näiden pohjalta. Työssä myös analysoitiin vuosien 2012-2015 näytösprojekteja käyttäen apuna sisällön analyysiä sekä haastatteluja. Asiantuntijapalautetta opinnäytetyöstä pyydettiin...

  15. The calculation of some gamma shielding parameters for semiconductor CsPbBr3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oto, Berna; Gulebaglan, Sinem Erden; Kanberoglu, Gulsah Saydan

    2017-02-01

    Recently, researchers produced perovskites structures used in optoelectronic devices as substrates, sensors. CsPbBr3 crystal is found in the cubic perovskite structure and its space group is Pm-3m. CsPbBr3 is a developing material for detection of X- and γ-ray radiations and the knowledge of the attenuation parameters of CsPbBr3 crystal is important. In this study, some photon shielding parameters such as mass attenuation coefficient (μρ), effective atomic number (Zeff) and electron density (Nel) have been investigated for CsPbBr3 compound. The theoretical values of μρ have been calculated in the energy range from 1 keV to 100 GeV using WinXCom computer code and these values have been used in order to calculate the values of Zeff and Nel in the same energy range.

  16. Best Western - tuntud ja tunnustatud ülemaailmne hotelliketi bränd

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    1946. aastal Californias M. K. Guertini poolt asutatud Best Western hotelliketist, mis pakub just sõltumatutele hotellipidajatele ühtset turundus- ja müügistrateegiat, brändi- ja teeninduskontseptsiooni

  17. Brüsselis kõneldi GMO vastu / Nastja Pertsjonok

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pertsjonok, Nastja

    2005-01-01

    Brüsselis toimunud konverentsil nõudsid Euroopa Liidu maade regionaalministrid ja Europarlamendi liikmed õigust otsustada geneetiliselt muundatud põllukultuuride keelamise üle piirkondlikul tasandil

  18. Synthesis of 2-Ethylhexyl Stearate Using Brönsted Acidic Ionic Liquid as Catalyst%Brönsted酸性离子液体催化合成硬脂酸异辛酯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴之; 左臣盛; 宋燊; 曹淑云; 孙宏月; 刘丹; 刘道胜; 桂建舟

    2014-01-01

    以硬脂酸和异辛醇为原料,Brönsted酸性离子液体为催化剂,合成硬脂酸异辛酯,考察反应条件和催化剂重复使用情况。结果表明,在反应温度150℃,反应时间6 h,酸醇物质的量比1∶1.4,离子液体与硬脂酸物质的量比为1∶25时,酯化率高达96.9%,产品酸值小于0.5 mg(KOH)/g。反应结束后,产物和催化剂分层,通过简单的倾倒即可分离,Brönsted酸性离子液体经真空干燥回收后可重复使用,且循环使用6次后,催化活性基本不变。%2-Ethylhexyl stearate was synthesized by esterification of stearic acid with 2-ethylhexanol using Brönsted acidic ionic liquid as catalyst.The conditions of the synthesis and the recycling capability of the catalyst were investigated.The results indicated that Brönsted acidic ionic liquid possessed high catalytic activity for the esterification reaction.The optimal synthesis conditions were as follows:the reaction temperaturewas at 150 ℃,the reaction time was 6 h,the molar ratio of stearic acid to 2-ethylhexanol was 1∶1.4,and the molar ratio of catalyst to stearic acid was 1∶25.On this condition,the conversion rate was up to 96.9% and the acid value of the product was smaller than 0.5 mg(KOH)/g.After the reaction,the ester could be simply decanted out from the ionic liquid,and the ionic liquid could be reused after removal of water under vacuum.The activity of the catalyst remained at a high level after reuse of six cycles.

  19. Satellite observations of long range transport of a large BrO cloud in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Begoin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Ozone Depletion Events (ODE during polar springtime are a well known phenomenon in the Arctic and Antarctic boundary layer. They are caused by the catalytic destruction of ozone by halogens producing reactive halogen oxides like bromine monoxide (BrO. The key halogen bromine can be rapidly transferred into the gas phase in an autocatalytic process – the so called "Bromine Explosion". However, the exact mechanism, which leads to an initial bromine release as well as the influence of transport and chemical processes on BrO, is still not clearly understood. In this study, BrO measurements from the satellite instrument GOME-2 are used together with model calculations with the dispersion model FLEXPART and Potential Frost Flowers (PFF maps to study a special arctic BrO event in March/April 2007, which could be tracked over many days and large areas. Full BrO activation was observed within one day east of Siberia with subsequent transport to the Hudson Bay. The event was linked to a cyclone with very high surface wind speeds which could have been involved in the production and the sustaining of aerosols providing the surface for BrO recycling within the plume. The evolution of the BrO plume could be well reproduced by FLEXPART calculations for a passive tracer indicating that the activated air mass was transported all the way from Siberia to the Hudson Bay without further activation at the surface. No direct link could be made to frost flower occurrence and BrO activation but enhanced PFF were observed a few days before the event in the source regions.

  20. Rapport fra forbedringsaktivitet: Software udviklingsmodel, Brüel & Kjær CMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbjerg, Jacob; Vinter, Otto

    1999-01-01

    Final report from a software process improvement initiative at Brüel & Kjær CMS. The initiative aimed to develop and obtain practical experience with a software development model based on incremental development and timeboxing.......Final report from a software process improvement initiative at Brüel & Kjær CMS. The initiative aimed to develop and obtain practical experience with a software development model based on incremental development and timeboxing....

  1. Structural and electronic properties of silicene on MgX2 (X = Cl, Br, and I)

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie

    2014-07-23

    Silicene is a monolayer of Si atoms in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice, being expected to be compatible with current Si-based nanoelectronics. The behavior of silicene is strongly influenced by the substrate. In this context, its structural and electronic properties on MgX2 (X = Cl, Br, and I) have been investigated using first-principles calculations. Different locations of the Si atoms are found to be energetically degenerate because of the weak van der Waals interaction with the substrates. The Si buckling height is below 0.55 Å, which is close to the value of free-standing silicene (0.49 Å). Importantly, the Dirac cone of silicene is well preserved on MgX2 (located slightly above the Fermi level), and the band gaps induced by the substrate are less than 0.1 eV. Application of an external electric field and stacking can be used to increase the band gap. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  2. La politique du terrain brûlé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Vienne

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available L’article entend évoquer à partir d’une ethnographie d’un « terrain miné » dans une école de relégation, quelques pièges ethnographiques et dilemmes éthiques du chercheur « pris » dans le réseau social qu’il étudie, comme l’indiquait Everett C. Hughes. Inséré par une observation participante dans des rôles d’enseignant remplaçant ou d’éducateur stagiaire au sein du personnel de cette école, le chercheur est amené à connaître les incidents que les élèves imposent au jeune membre du personnel pour le « tester », ainsi que les tensions et conflits au sein même du personnel. L’arrière-plan moral et psychologique de conditions d’observation basées sur la tension et la confrontation conduisent le chercheur à une « politique du terrain brûlé » examinée en comparaison d’expériences ethnographiques similaires.The paper, based on an ethnography of a « mined field » in a school of relegation, deals about some ethnographical traps and ethical dilemmas of the searcher « trapped » in the social network he’s studying, as Everett C. Hughes suggested. Put in the schoof staff in substitute teacher roles or trainee educator by a participant observation, the searcher is induced to know the incidents that the students impose to the young staff member to « test » him, so as the tensions and conflicts inside the staff. The moral and psychological background of observation conditions based on tension and confrontation lead the searcher to a kind of « scorched field policy » examined from similar fieldwork experiences.El objetivo de este articulo es el de resaltar, centrandose el autor en el estudio etnográfico de una escuela situada en una zona socialmente coflictiva, las dificultades de caracter etnográfico y los dilemas éticos que surgen ante el investigador implicado inevitablemente en el contexto social analizado, problemas ya señalados por Everett C. Hughes. Adoptando el m

  3. Investigation of iron metabolism in mice expressing a mutant Menke's copper transporting ATPase (Atp7a protein with diminished activity (Brindled; Mo (Br (/y .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukru Gulec

    Full Text Available During iron deficiency, perturbations in copper homeostasis have frequently been documented. Previous studies in iron-deprived rats demonstrated that enterocyte and hepatic copper levels increase and a copper transporter (the Menkes Copper ATPase; Atp7a is induced in the duodenal epithelium in parallel to iron transport-related genes (e.g. Dmt1, Dcytb, Fpn1. Moreover, two ferroxidase proteins involved in iron homeostasis, hephaestin expressed in enterocytes and ceruloplasmin, produced and secreted into blood by the liver, are copper-dependent enzymes. We thus aimed to test the hypothesis that Atp7a function is important for the copper-related compensatory response of the intestinal epithelium to iron deficiency. Accordingly, iron homeostasis was studied for the first time in mice expressing a mutant Atp7a protein with minimal activity (Brindled [Mo (Br (/y ]. Mutant mice were rescued by perinatal copper injections, and, after a 7-8 week recovery period, were deprived of dietary iron for 3 weeks (along with WT littermates. Adult Mo (Br (/y mice displayed copper-deficiency anemia but had normal iron status; in contrast, iron-deprived Mo (Br (/y mice were iron deficient and more severely anemic with partial amelioration of the copper-deficient phenotype. Intestinal iron absorption in both genotypes (WT and Mo (Br (/y increased ∼3-fold when mice consumed a low-iron diet and ∼6-fold when mice were concurrently bled. WT mice exhibited no alterations in copper homeostasis in response to iron deprivation or phlebotomy. Conversely, upregulation of iron absorption was associated with increased enterocyte and liver copper levels and serum ferroxidase (ceruloplasmin activity in Mo (Br (/y mice, typifying the response to iron deprivation in many mammalian species. We thus speculate that a copper threshold exists that is necessary to allow appropriate regulate of iron absorption. In summary, Mo (Br (/y mice were able to adequately regulate iron absorption

  4. Production of no carrier added 80mBr for investigation of Auger electron toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mease, R C; DeJesus, O T; Gatley, S J; Harper, P V; Desombre, E R; Friedman, A M

    1991-01-01

    80mBr (half-life = 4.43 h) is an Auger electron emitting nuclide with convenient properties for investigating Auger electron cytotoxicity and with potential for labeling in vivo radiotherapeutic agents. We have investigated three cyclotron target systems capable of generating 80mBr of sufficiently high specific radioactivity (no carrier added) for biomedical experiments. A 83Kr gas target irradiated with 21.5 MeV deuterons made 80mBr at a production yield of 1.6 +/- 0.2 mCi/muAh at saturation. A five-fold increase in 80mBr yield was obtained from 15 MeV proton irradiation of thin elemental Se enriched in 80Se targets although technical improvements are expected to further raise this production yield. This route is therefore superior for current medical cyclotrons. Irradiation of a reusable 80Se copper selenide target also yielded multi-millicurie amounts of 80mBr, and recovery of radiobromine by dry distillation is faster and more convenient than in the elemental Se target, but an optimum copper selenide target for 80mBr production has not yet been built.

  5. AgBr/nanoAlMCM-41 visible light photocatalyst for degradation of methylene blue dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourahmad, A; Sohrabnezhad, Sh; Kashefian, E

    2010-12-01

    A novel photocatalytic material was synthesized by dispersion of AgBr in nanoAlMCM-41 material. The AgBr/nanoAlMCM-41 sample shows strong absorption in the visible region because of the plasmon resonance of Ag nanoparticles in AgBr/nanoAlMCM-41. The catalysts were characterized using XRD (X-ray diffraction), UV-visible diffused reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic activity and stability of the synthesized catalysts were evaluated for methylene blue (MB) degradation in aqueous solution in the presence of 200 W tungsten filament Philips lamp. Several parameters were examined, catalyst amount, pH and initial concentration of MB, AgBr loading. The effect of dosage of photocatalyst was studied in the range 0.05-1.00 g/L. It was seen that 0.1 g/L of photocatalyst is an optimum value for the dosage of photocatalyst. The support size was obtained about 9-100 nm. In the same way, the average size of AgBr nanoparticles was about 10nm before visible radiation. After visible radiation the average size of AgBr nanoparticles was about 25 nm.

  6. Inhibition Performance of Enhanced-Mo Inhibitor for Carbon Steel in 55% LiBr Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Cheng-hao; HU Xian-qi

    2008-01-01

    The inhibition performance of enhanced-Mo inhibitor for carbon steel in 55% LiBr solution was measured by means of chemical immersion, electrochemical measurements, and physical detection technologies. Results indicated that enhanced-Mo inhibitor showed excellent inhibition performance of carbon steel in 55% LiBr solution, especially at high temperature. With increasing the temperature of solution from 160 ℃ to 240 ℃, the corrosion rates of carbon steel increased from 17.67 μm/a to 33.07 μm/a. Enhanced-Mo inhibitor might improve the anodic polarization performance of carbon steel and widen the passive potential region of carbon steel in 55% LiBr solution. Enhanced-Mo inhibitor belongs to anodic inhibitor. In 55% LiBr solution, the relationship between corrosion current density icorr and corrosion potential Ecorr of carbon steel accorded with the equation lgicorr=-2.66-3.54Ecorr, and the value of cathodic Tafel constant βc for the H2 reaction was 282 mVSCE. When 55% LiBr solution contained enhanced-Mo inhibitor, a passive film comprising Fe3O4 and MoO2 was formed on the carbon steel surface by electrochemical reactions. The corrosion of carbon steel might be retarded by this protective film, and the anticorrosion performance of carbon steel in 55% LiBr solution might be improved by enhanced-Mo inhibitor.

  7. Precision measurement of the ratio BR($K_{S} \\to \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}e^{+}e^{-}$)/BR($K_{L} \\to \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{0}_{D}$)

    CERN Document Server

    Batley, J R; Lazzeroni, C; Munday, D J; Patel, M; Slater, M W; Wotton, S A; Arcidiacono, R; Bocquet, G; Ceccucci, A; Cundy, D; Doble, N; Falaleev, V; Gatignon, L; Gonidec, A; Grafström, P; Kubischta, W; Marchetto, F; Mikulec, I; Norton, A; Panzer-Steindel, B; Rubin, P; Wahl, H; Goudzovski, E; Hristov, P; Kekelidze, V; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Madigozhin, D; Molokanova, N; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Stoynev, S; Zinchenko, A; Monnier, E; Swallow, E C; Winston, R; Sacco, R; Walker, A; Baldini, W; Dalpiaz, P; Frabetti, P L; Gianoli, A; Martini, M; Petrucci, F; Scarpa, M; Savrié, M; Bizzeti, A; Calvetti, M; Collazuol, E; Iacopini, E; Lenti, M; Ruggiero, G; Veltri, M; Behler, M; Eppard, K; Eppard, M; Hirstius, A; Kleinknecht, K; Koch, U; Marouelli, P; Masetti, L; Moosbrugger, U; Morales Morales, C; Peters, A; Wanke, R; Winhart, A; Dabrowski, A; Fonseca Martin, T; Szleper, M; Velasco, M; Anzivino, G; Cenci, P; Imbergamo, E; Lamanna, G; Lubrano, P; Michetti, A; Nappi, A; Pepe, M; Petrucci, M C; Piccini, M; Valdata, M; Cerri, C; Costantini, F; Fantechi, R; Fiorini, L; Giudici, S; Mannelli, I; Pierazzini, G; Sozzi, M; Cheshkov, C; Chèze, J B; De Beer, M; Debu, P; Gouge, G; Marel, G; Mazzucato, E; Peyaud, B; Vallage, B; Holder, M; Maier, A; Ziolkowski, M; Biino, C; Cartiglia, N; Clemencic, M; Goy Lopez, S; Menichetti, E; Pastrone, N; Wislicki, W; Dibon, H; Jeitler, M; Markytan, M; Neuhofer, G; Widhalm, L

    2011-01-01

    The $K_{S} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}e^{+}e^{-}$ decay mode was investigated using the data collected in 2002 by the NA48/1 collaboration. With about 23,k $K_{S} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}e^{+}e^{-}$ events and 59,k $K_{L} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{0}_{D}$ normalization decays, the $K_{S} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}e^{+}e^{-}$ branching ratio relative to the $K_{L}\\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{0}_{D}$ one was determined to be BR($K_{S} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}e^{+}e^{-}$)/BR($K_{L} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{0}_{D}$) = $ (3.28 \\pm 0.06_{stat}\\pm 0.04_{syst})\\times 10^{-2}$. This result was used to set the upper limit $|g_{E1}/g_{BR}| \\lt 3.0$ at $90%$ CL on the presence, in the decay amplitude, of an E1 direct emission ($g_{E1}$) term relative to the dominant inner bremsstrahlung ($g_{BR}$) term. The CP-violating asymmetry ${cal A}_{\\phi}$ in the sin$\\phi$,cos$\\phi$ distribution of $K_{S} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}e^{+}e^{-}$ events, where $\\phi$ is the angle between the $\\pi^{+} \\pi^{-}$ and the $...

  8. Predominance of Procedural Knowledge and Between-Operation Interference as Deduced from Fraction Errors of Preservice Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amancio L. Cantoria, Jr.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of fractions in Philippine mathematics curriculum starts as early as first grade. In spite of the regular rehearsal of this mathematical topic through secondary school level, many students reach college without showing adequate skills in fraction. This study determined the performance and analyzed the errors of preservice teachers in dealing with fractions. Findings revealed that preservice teachers’ performance in solving fractions reached an unacceptable level. Prevalent errors were demonstrated when adding dissimilar fractions, adding a mixed number and a fraction, and multiplying a mixed number by a fraction, because the dominant procedural knowledge in fraction addition interferes with their knowledge of fraction multiplication, and vice versa. Moreover, preservice teachers exhibit low level of content knowledge of fractions as shown in their inability to add common fractions and their failure to translate mixed numbers into equivalent fractions.

  9. Measurement of BR(Bu to phi K)/BR(Bu to J/psi K) at the collider detector at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napora, Robert A. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This thesis presents evidence for the decay mode B± → ΦK± in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV using (120 ± 7)pb-1 of data collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). This signal is then used to measure the branching ratio relative to the decay mode B± → J/ΨK±. The measurement starts from reconstructing the two decay modes: B± → ΦK±, where Φ → K+K- and B± → J/ΨK±, where J/Ψ → μ+μ-. The measurement yielded 23 ± 7 B± → ΦK± events, and 406 ± 26 B± → J/ΨK± events. The fraction of B± → J/ΨK± events where the J/Ψ subsequently decayed to two muons (as opposed to two electrons) was found to be fμμ = 0.839 ± 0.066. The relative branching ratio of the two decays is then calculated based on the equation: BR(B± → ΦK±)/BR(B± → J/ΨK±) = N ΦK/NΨK • fμμ BR(J/Ψ → μ+μ-)/BR(Φ → K+K-) ϵμμK/ϵKKK R(ϵiso). The measurement finds BR(B± → ΦK±)/BR(B± → J/ΨK±) = 0.0068 ± 0.0021(stat.) ± 0.0007(syst.). The B± → ΦK± branching ratio is then found to be BR(B± → ΦK±) = [6.9 ± 2.1(stat.) ± 0.8(syst.)] x 10-6. This value is consistent with similar measurements reported by the e+e- collider experiments BaBar[1], Belle[2], and CLEO[3].

  10. Measurement of BR(Bu to phi K)/BR(Bu to J/psi K) at the collider detector at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napora, Robert A

    2004-10-01

    This thesis presents evidence for the decay mode B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}} in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using (120 {+-} 7)pb{sup -1} of data collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). This signal is then used to measure the branching ratio relative to the decay mode B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup {+-}}. The measurement starts from reconstructing the two decay modes: B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}}, where {phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -} and B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup {+-}}, where J/{psi} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}. The measurement yielded 23 {+-} 7 B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}} events, and 406 {+-} 26 B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup {+-}} events. The fraction of B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup {+-}} events where the J/{psi} subsequently decayed to two muons (as opposed to two electrons) was found to be f{sub {mu}{mu}} = 0.839 {+-} 0.066. The relative branching ratio of the two decays is then calculated based on the equation: BR(B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}})/BR(B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup {+-}}) = N{sub {phi}K}/N{sub {psi}K} {center_dot}f{sub {mu}{mu}} BR(J/{psi} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -})/BR({phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}) {epsilon}{sub {mu}{mu}}K/{epsilon}KKK R({epsilon}{sub iso}). The measurement finds BR(B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}})/BR(B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup {+-}}) = 0.0068 {+-} 0.0021(stat.) {+-} 0.0007(syst.). The B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}} branching ratio is then found to be BR(B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}}) = [6.9 {+-} 2.1(stat.) {+-} 0.8(syst.)] x 10{sup -6}. This value is consistent with similar measurements reported by the e{sup +}e{sup -} collider experiments BaBar[1], Belle[2], and CLEO[3].

  11. Determination of Br in blood of amateur runners using NAA and ITS correlation with adopted physical training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, Luciana; Zamboni, Cibele B., E-mail: lukovacs@gmail.com, E-mail: czamboni@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nunes, Lazaro A.S.; Lourenco, Thiago F.; Macedo, Denise V., E-mail: lazaroalessandro@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: thiago_fl@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: denivevm@unicamp.br [Universidade de Campinas (LABEX/UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Bioquimica do Exercicio

    2013-07-01

    Bromine (Br) is one of the most abundant trace elements in the biosphere, in the human body is present in blood (as bromide), lungs, liver and hair. There is no evidence in humans of bromide concentration in any particular organ that might indicate a specific physiological function and not enough information is available on bromine metabolism but, some studies report its use by eosinophilic leukocytes for immune defense and electrolytic balance. In this study the Br levels were determined in Brazilian amateur athlete's blood that performing physical exercise at (Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio (LABEX/UNICAMP-Brazil). The samples were collected from twenty six male athletes, ranging from 18 to 26 years old, at rest. The blood samples were irradiated in the nuclear reactor (IEA-R1, 3-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/Sao Paulo - Brazil and were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA) technique. These results were compared with the control group (subjects of same age but not involved with physical activities). The range established at rest for amateur runner (0.0040 - 0.0096 gL{sup -1}) when compared with control group (0.0074 - 0.0306 gL{sup -1}) suggests that there is a dependency of these limits in the function of the adopted physical training. (author)

  12. Annealing effects and DLTS study on PNP silicon bipolar junction transistors irradiated by 20 MeV Br ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaoming; Li, Xingji; Yang, Jianqun; Bollmann, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Isochronal anneal sequences have been carried out on 3CG130 silicon PNP bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) irradiated with 20 MeV bromine (Br) heavy ions. The Gummel curve was utilized to characterize the annealing behavior of defects in both the emitter-base depletion region and the neutral base. The results show that the base current (IB) decreases with the increasing annealing temperature, while the collector current (IC) keeps invariably. The current gain varies slightly, when the annealing temperature (TA) is lower than 500 K, while varies rapidly at TA>550 K, and the current gain of the 3CG130 BJT annealing at 700 K almost restore to that of the pre-radiation transistor. The deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) data was used to assign the relative magnitude of each of the important defects. Based on the in situ electrical measurement and DLTS spectra, it is clear that the V2(+/0) trap is the main contribution to the degradation of current gain after the 20 MeV Br ions irradiation. The V2(+/0) peak has many characteristics expected for the current gain degradation.

  13. Annealing effects and DLTS study on PNP silicon bipolar junction transistors irradiated by 20 MeV Br ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chaoming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Li, Xingji, E-mail: lxj0218@hit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Yang, Jianqun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Bollmann, Joachim [Institute of Electronics and Sensor Materials, TU Bergakademie, Freiberg 71691 (Germany)

    2014-01-21

    Isochronal anneal sequences have been carried out on 3CG130 silicon PNP bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) irradiated with 20 MeV bromine (Br) heavy ions. The Gummel curve was utilized to characterize the annealing behavior of defects in both the emitter-base depletion region and the neutral base. The results show that the base current (I{sub B}) decreases with the increasing annealing temperature, while the collector current (I{sub C}) keeps invariably. The current gain varies slightly, when the annealing temperature (T{sub A}) is lower than 500 K, while varies rapidly at T{sub A}>550 K, and the current gain of the 3CG130 BJT annealing at 700 K almost restore to that of the pre-radiation transistor. The deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) data was used to assign the relative magnitude of each of the important defects. Based on the in situ electrical measurement and DLTS spectra, it is clear that the V{sub 2}(+/0) trap is the main contribution to the degradation of current gain after the 20 MeV Br ions irradiation. The V{sub 2}(+/0) peak has many characteristics expected for the current gain degradation.

  14. Is truffle brûlé a case of perturbational niche construction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Bragato

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: in the context of niche construction theory, the investigation was aimed at assessing if truffle brûlé is a case of niche construction by testing if the disappearance of grasses in the brûlé induces a non-arbitrary perturbation in the soil physical environment and, in that case, which are the physical processes involved.Area of study: a natural truffle bed located in the Italian Apennines inside an experimental truffle-producing area of the University of Perugia.Material and methods: Three aggregate size classes in the soil of a brûlé and of the neighbouring grass-covered area were determined with the wet-sieving technique in accordance with international standards. In the first part of the investigation, the area was sampled according to a systematic sampling design and the spatial patterns of aggregate size classes in the brûlé and in the neighbouring grass-covered area were compared by means of geostatistics. In the second part, the suppression of grasses in the brûlé was mimicked in the laboratory by removing roots from a sample collected in the grass-covered area and the effect of freeze-thaw cycles was tested by comparing a control treatment to other four treatments consisting in sub-samples equilibrated at a water tension of -2.5, -5, -10 and -20 kPa. Samples were submitted to a number of freeze-thaw cycles equal to those recorded in the area, analysed for aggregate size distribution and compared with univariate ANOVA.Main results: The aggregate size classes larger than 0.25mm displayed a spatial pattern comparable to that of the brûlé, with sharp changes along the boundaries of the brûlé itself. The laboratory experiment showed that such changes are attributable to freeze-thaw cycles that in one winter season may produce a significant decrease in aggregate size compared to the grass-covered area. Both results indicate that the disappearance of grasses in the brûlé fulfils the requirement of perturbational

  15. 三元体系NaBr-Na2SO4-H2O 和 NaBr-KBr-H2O 373 K相平衡%Phase Equilibria of Two Ternary Systems NaBr-Na2SO4-H2O and NaBr-KBr-H2O at 373 K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑世华; 崔瑞芝; 胡咏霞

    2014-01-01

    针对川西盆地富硼钾溴地下卤水组成,采用等温溶解平衡法研究了三元体系 NaBr-Na2SO4-H2O 和NaBr-KBr-H2O在373 K时的相平衡,测定了373 K条件下平衡溶液的溶解度和密度,根据实验数据绘制相应的相图和密度图。研究发现:两个三元体系在373 K条件下均属于简单共饱和型,无复盐及固溶体生成。相图中均有一个共饱和点,2个平衡固相结晶区和2条单变量曲线。在三元体系NaBr-Na2SO4-H2O中,平衡固相分别为:NaBr和Na2SO4,三元体系NaBr-KBr-H2O相应的平衡固相分别为:NaBr和KBr。并简单讨论了密度的变化规律。%Phase equilibria of two ternary systems NaBr-Na2SO4-H2O and NaBr-KBr-H2O at 373 K were studied by an isothermal solution saturation method. The solubility and density of these systems were determined experimentally and related phase diagrams were obtained. The results show that the two systems are both of simple type with no complex salts or solid solutions formed. Both of the phase diagrams show that they have one eutectic point, two univariant curves and two regions of crystallization. The solid phase in NaBr-Na2SO4-H2O is cpmposited of sodium bromide(NaBr) and sodium sulfate(Na2SO4), while sodium bromide(NaBr) and potassium bromide(KBr) are the components of the solid phase of NaBr-KBr-H2O. Density change of the two systems was discussed.

  16. A synergistic antiproliferation effect of curcumin and docosahexaenoic acid in SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells: unique signaling not explained by the effects of either compound alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Davisson V

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is a collection of diseases in which molecular phenotypes can act as both indicators and mediators of therapeutic strategy. Therefore, candidate therapeutics must be assessed in the context of multiple cell lines with known molecular phenotypes. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and curcumin (CCM are dietary compounds known to antagonize breast cancer cell proliferation. We report that these compounds in combination exert a variable antiproliferative effect across multiple breast cell lines, which is synergistic in SK-BR-3 cells and triggers cell signaling events not predicted by the activity of either compound alone. Methods Dose response curves for CCM and DHA were generated for five breast cell lines. Effects of the DHA+ CCM combination on cell proliferation were evaluated using varying concentrations, at a fixed ratio, of CCM and DHA based on their individual ED50. Detection of synergy was performed using nonlinear regression of a sigmoid dose response model and Combination Index approaches. Cell molecular network responses were investigated through whole genome microarray analysis of transcript level changes. Gene expression results were validated by RT-PCR, and western blot analysis was performed for potential signaling mediators. Cellular curcumin uptake, with and without DHA, was analyzed via flow cytometry and HPLC. Results CCM+DHA had an antiproliferative effect in SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-361, MCF7 and MCF10AT cells. The effect was synergistic for SK-BR-3 (ER- PR- Her2+ relative to the two compounds individually. A whole genome microarray approach was used to investigate changes in gene expression for the synergistic effects of CCM+DHA in SK-BR-3 cells lines. CCM+DHA triggered transcript-level responses, in disease-relevant functional categories, that were largely non-overlapping with changes caused by CCM or DHA individually. Genes involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, inhibition of metastasis, and

  17. Effect of aqueous extract of Leonotis leonurus (L.) R. Br. leaves in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedemi, S O; Yakubu, M T; Afolayan, A J

    2010-05-01

    The aqueous extract of the leaves of Leonotis leonurus (L.) R. Br. at the doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight was investigated for toxicity in male rats following administration on daily basis for 21 days. The extract did not significantly (p > .05) alter the levels of haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, red cell distribution width, basophils, total protein, phosphorus, calcium and chloride ions of the animals. Whereas the levels of lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes, triacylglycerol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, albumin as well as alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyl transferase activity were decreased by the extract, those of neutrophil, magnesium, total and conjugated bilirubin, alanine and aspartate aminotransferase as well as liver and kidney body weight ratios increased. There was decrease in the mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and cholesterol only at the 500 mg/kg body weight of the extract, whereas the large unstained cells, sodium ions, white blood cells and uric acid increased only at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively. The urea, creatinine and potassium increased only at 125 mg/kg body weight of the extract while the globulin content was elevated only at 500 mg/kg body weight of the extract. The doses did not produce any definite pattern of effect on the red blood cells and platelets. These alterations by the aqueous extract of L. leonurus leaves on the haematological together with the liver and kidney functional indices suggests parameter and dose-selective effects of the extract and will have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the blood system, kidney and liver of the animals. The extract is also unlikely to predispose the animals to cardiovascular risk when repeatedly consumed on daily basis at the doses investigated for 21 days. Therefore, the aqueous extract of L. leonurus

  18. Concentrations of carbonyl sulfide and hydrogen cyanide in the free upper troposphere and lower stratosphere deduced from ATMOS/Spacelab 3 infrared solar occultation spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, R.; Rinsland, C. P.; Russell, J. M., III; Farmer, C. B.; Norton, R. H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results on the volume mixing ratio profiles of carbonyl sulfide and hydrogen cyanide, deduced from the spectroscopic analysis of IR solar absorption spectra obtained in the occultation mode with the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) instrument during its mission aboard Spacelab 3. A comparison of the ATMOS measurements for both northern and southern latitudes with previous field investigations at low midlatitudes shows a relatively good agreement. Southern Hemisphere volume mixing ratio profiles for both molecules were obtained for the first time, as were the profiles for the Northern Hemisphere covering the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere simultaneously.

  19. Synthesis of Br-doped TiO2 hollow spheres with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianqian; Zhu, Shengli; Liang, Yanqin; Cui, Zhenduo; Yang, Xianjin; Liang, Chunyong; Inoue, Akihisa

    2017-02-01

    The Br-doped hollow TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared by a simple hydrothermal process on the carbon sphere template following with calcination at 400 °C. The structure and properties of photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrum, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, N2 desorption-adsorption, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The TiO2 hollow spheres are in diameter of 500 nm with shell thickness of 50 nm. The shell is composed of small anatase nanoparticles with size of about 10 nm. The TiO2 hollow spheres exhibit high crystalline and high surface area of 89.208 m2/g. With increasing content of Br doping, the band gap of TiO2 hollow spheres decreased from 2.85 to 1.75 eV. The formation of impurity band in the band gap would narrow the band gap and result in the red shift of absorption edge from 395 to 517 nm, which further enhances the photocatalytic activity. The appropriate Br doping improves the photocatlytic activity significantly. The TiO2 hollow spheres with 1.55% Br doping (0.5Br-TiO2) exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity under full light. More than 98% of RhB, MO, and MB can be photodegraded using 0.5Br-TiO2 with concentration of 10 mg/L in 40, 30, and 30 min, respectively. The degradation rate of Br-doped photocatalysts was 40% faster than undoped ones.

  20. BMP9 inhibits proliferation and metastasis of HER2-positive SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells through ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ren

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9, a member of TGF-β superfamily, is reported to inhibit the growth and migration of prostate cancer, osteosarcoma and triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. However, little is known about the effect of on the biological behaviors of HER2-positive SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate the effects of BMP9 on the proliferation and metastasis of SK-BR-3 cells with BMP9 over-expression or BMP9 down-regulated expression. Results indicated that exogenously expressed BMP9 inhibited the proliferation and metastasis of SK-BR-3 cells while decreased endogenous BMP9 expression in SK-BR-3 cells promoted the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In SK-BR-3 cells with BMP9 over-expression, the phosphorylation of HER2, ERK1/2 and AKT was markedly suppressed and the HER2 expression decreased at both mRNA and protein levels, while opposite results were observed in SK-BR-3 cells with BMP9 knock down. When the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT was inhibited by PD98059 and LY294002, respectively, the decreased proliferation and invasion induced by BMP9 knock down were eliminated. These findings suggest that BMP9 can inhibit the proliferation and metastasis of SK-BR-3 cells via inactivating ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. Thus, BMP9 may serve as a useful agent in the treatment of HER-2 positive breast cancer.

  1. BMP9 inhibits proliferation and metastasis of HER2-positive SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells through ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei; Liu, Yuehong; Wan, Shaoheng; Fei, Chang; Wang, Wei; Chen, Yingying; Zhang, Zhihui; Wang, Ting; Wang, Jinshu; Zhou, Lan; Weng, Yaguang; He, Tongchuan; Zhang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9), a member of TGF-β superfamily, is reported to inhibit the growth and migration of prostate cancer, osteosarcoma and triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. However, little is known about the effect of on the biological behaviors of HER2-positive SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate the effects of BMP9 on the proliferation and metastasis of SK-BR-3 cells with BMP9 over-expression or BMP9 down-regulated expression. Results indicated that exogenously expressed BMP9 inhibited the proliferation and metastasis of SK-BR-3 cells while decreased endogenous BMP9 expression in SK-BR-3 cells promoted the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In SK-BR-3 cells with BMP9 over-expression, the phosphorylation of HER2, ERK1/2 and AKT was markedly suppressed and the HER2 expression decreased at both mRNA and protein levels, while opposite results were observed in SK-BR-3 cells with BMP9 knock down. When the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT was inhibited by PD98059 and LY294002, respectively, the decreased proliferation and invasion induced by BMP9 knock down were eliminated. These findings suggest that BMP9 can inhibit the proliferation and metastasis of SK-BR-3 cells via inactivating ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. Thus, BMP9 may serve as a useful agent in the treatment of HER-2 positive breast cancer.

  2. Linearity for Ca2+-Doped CeBr3 Scintillating Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guss, Paul [NSTec

    2014-02-03

    The Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) developed an aliovalently calcium-doped cerium tribromide (CeBr3:Ca2+) crystal with 3.2% resolution. RSL completed a crystal assessment, and Sandia National Laboratories calculated the predictive performance and physical characteristics using proven density functional theory (DFT) formalism. Results are reported for the work done to map the detector performance, characteristics, calcium doping concentration, and crystal strength. Preliminary scintillation measurements for this aliovalently calcium-doped CeBr3 scintillator exhibit a slight blue shift in fluorescence emission at 371 nm excitation for CeBr3. The structural, electronic, and optical properties of CeBr3 crystals were investigated using DFT within generalized gradient approximation. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data. The energy band structures and density of states were obtained. The optical properties of CeBr3, including the dielectric function, were calculated. Specifically, we report excellent linearity with the aliovalently calcium-doped CeBr3 crystal. Proportionality of light yield is one area of performance in which Ce-doped and Ce-based lanthanide halides excel. Maintaining proportionality is key to producing a strong, high-performance scintillator. Relative light yield proportionality was measured for both doped and undoped samples of CeBr3 to ensure no loss in performance was incurred during doping. The light output and proportionality, however, appear to be similar to CeBr3. There was a reduced yield at low energy. Relative light yield proportionality measurements suggest that dopants do not significantly affect proportionality at higher energies. RSL completed additional testing and evaluation of the new crystal and assessed benchmark spectroscopy measurements. Results, which present energy resolution as a function of energy, are summarized. Typical spectroscopy results using a 137Cs radiation source are shown

  3. Analysis of Satellite-Derived Arctic Tropospheric BrO Columns in Conjunction with Aircraft Measurements During ARCTAS and ARCPAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S.; Wang, Y.; Salawitch, R. J.; Canty, T.; Joiner, J.; Zeng, T.; Kurosu, T. P.; Chance, K.; Richter, A.; Huey, L. G.; Liao, J.; Neuman, J. A.; Nowak, J. B.; Dibb, J. E.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Diskin, G.; Ryerson, T. B.; da Silva, A.; Curry, J.; Kinnison, D.; Tilmes, S.; Levelt, P. F.

    2012-01-01

    We derive tropospheric column BrO during the ARCTAS and ARCPAC field campaigns in spring 2008 using retrievals of total column BrO from the satellite UV nadir sensors OMI and GOME-2 using a radiative transfer model and stratospheric column BrO from a photochemical simulation. We conduct a comprehensive comparison of satellite-derived tropospheric BrO column to aircraft in-situ observations ofBrO and related species. The aircraft profiles reveal that tropospheric BrO, when present during April 2008, was distributed over a broad range of altitudes rather than being confined to the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Perturbations to the total column resulting from tropospheric BrO are the same magnitude as perturbations due to longitudinal variations in the stratospheric component, so proper accounting of the stratospheric signal is essential for accurate determination of satellite-derived tropospheric BrO. We find reasonably good agreement between satellite-derived tropospheric BrO and columns found using aircraft in-situ BrO profiles, particularly when satellite radiances were obtained over bright surfaces (albedo> 0.7), for solar zenith angle < 80 and clear sky conditions. The rapid activation of BrO due to surface processes (the bromine explosion) is apparent in both the OMI and GOME-2 based tropospheric columns. The wide orbital swath of OMI allows examination of the evolution of tropospheric BrO on about hourly time intervals near the pole. Low surface pressure, strong wind, and high PBL height are associated with an observed BrO activation event, supporting the notion of bromine activation by high winds over snow.

  4. Tropospheric BrO column densities in the Arctic derived from satellite: retrieval and comparison to ground-based measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sihler

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available During polar spring, halogen radicals like bromine monoxide (BrO play an important role in the chemistry of tropospheric ozone destruction. Satellite measurements of the BrO distribution have become a particularly useful tool to investigate this probably natural phenomenon, but the separation of stratospheric and tropospheric partial columns of BrO is challenging. In this study, an algorithm was developed to retrieve tropospheric vertical column densities of BrO from data of high-resolution spectroscopic satellite instruments such as the second Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2. Unlike recently published approaches, the presented algorithm is capable of separating the fraction of BrO in the activated troposphere from the total BrO column solely based on remotely measured properties. The presented algorithm furthermore allows to estimate a realistic measurement error of the tropospheric BrO column. The sensitivity of each satellite pixel to BrO in the boundary layer is quantified using the measured UV radiance and the column density of the oxygen collision complex O4. A comparison of the sensitivities with CALIPSO LIDAR observations demonstrates that clouds shielding near-surface trace-gas columns can be reliably detected even over ice and snow. Retrieved tropospheric BrO columns are then compared to ground-based BrO measurements from two Arctic field campaigns in the Amundsen Gulf and at Barrow in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Our algorithm was found to be capable of retrieving enhanced near-surface BrO during both campaigns in good agreement with ground-based data. Some differences between ground-based and satellite measurements observed at Barrow can be explained by both elevated and shallow surface layers of BrO. The observations strongly suggest that surface release processes are the dominating source of BrO and that boundary layer meteorology influences the vertical distribution.

  5. Analysis of satellite-derived Arctic tropospheric BrO columns in conjunction with aircraft measurements during ARCTAS and ARCPAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Choi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We derive tropospheric column BrO during the ARCTAS and ARCPAC field campaigns in spring 2008 using retrievals of total column BrO from the satellite UV nadir sensors OMI and GOME-2 using a radiative transfer model and stratospheric column BrO from a photochemical simulation. We conduct a comprehensive comparison of satellite-derived tropospheric BrO column to aircraft in-situ observations of BrO and related species. The aircraft profiles reveal that tropospheric BrO, when present during April 2008, was distributed over a broad range of altitudes rather than being confined to the planetary boundary layer (PBL. Perturbations to the total column resulting from tropospheric BrO are the same magnitude as perturbations due to longitudinal variations in the stratospheric component, so proper accounting of the stratospheric signal is essential for accurate determination of satellite-derived tropospheric BrO. We find reasonably good agreement between satellite-derived tropospheric BrO and columns found using aircraft in-situ BrO profiles, particularly when satellite radiances were obtained over bright surfaces (albedo >0.7, for solar zenith angle <80° and clear sky conditions. The rapid activation of BrO due to surface processes (the bromine explosion is apparent in both the OMI and GOME-2 based tropospheric columns. The wide orbital swath of OMI allows examination of the evolution of tropospheric BrO on about hourly time intervals near the pole. Low surface pressure, strong wind, and high PBL height are associated with an observed BrO activation event, supporting the notion of bromine activation by high winds over snow.

  6. Fast-neutron induced background in LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiener, J., E-mail: Jurgen.Kiener@csnsm.in2p3.fr [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière (CSNSM), CNRS-IN2P3 et Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Campus Orsay (France); Tatischeff, V.; Deloncle, I. [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière (CSNSM), CNRS-IN2P3 et Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Campus Orsay (France); Séréville, N. de [Institut de Physique Nucléaire d' Orsay, CNRS-IN2P3 and Université Paris-Sud, 91406 Orsay (France); Laurent, P. [CEA/IRFU Service d' Astrophysique, Orme des Merisiers, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Laboratoire Astroparticules et Cosmologie (APC), 10, rue A. Domon et L. Duquet, 75205 Paris (France); Blondel, C. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/IRFU, Orme des Merisiers, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chabot, M. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire d' Orsay, CNRS-IN2P3 and Université Paris-Sud, 91406 Orsay (France); Chipaux, R. [CEA/DMS/IRFU/SEDI, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Coc, A. [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière (CSNSM), CNRS-IN2P3 et Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Campus Orsay (France); Dubos, S. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/IRFU, Orme des Merisiers, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gostojic, A. [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière (CSNSM), CNRS-IN2P3 et Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Campus Orsay (France); and others

    2015-10-21

    The response of a scintillation detector with a cylindrical 1.5-in. LaBr{sub 3}:Ce crystal to incident neutrons has been measured in the energy range E{sub n} = 2–12 MeV. Neutrons were produced by proton irradiation of a Li target at E{sub p} = 5–14.6 MeV with pulsed proton beams. Using the time-of-flight information between target and detector, energy spectra of the LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detector resulting from fast neutron interactions have been obtained at 4 different neutron energies. Neutron-induced γ rays emitted by the LaBr{sub 3}:Ce crystal were also measured in a nearby Ge detector at the lowest proton beam energy. In addition, we obtained data for neutron irradiation of a large-volume high-purity Ge detector and of a NE-213 liquid scintillator detector, both serving as monitor detectors in the experiment. Monte-Carlo type simulations for neutron interactions in the liquid scintillator, the Ge and LaBr{sub 3}:Ce crystals have been performed and compared with measured data. Good agreement being obtained with the data, we present the results of simulations to predict the response of LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detectors for a range of crystal sizes to neutron irradiation in the energy range E{sub n} = 0.5–10 MeV.

  7. Response of LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillators to 14 MeV fusion neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzaniga, C., E-mail: carlo.cazzaniga@mib.infn.it [University of Milano Bicocca, Departement of Physics, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano 20125 (Italy); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, via Roberto Cozzi 53, Milano 20125 (Italy); Nocente, M. [University of Milano Bicocca, Departement of Physics, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano 20125 (Italy); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, via Roberto Cozzi 53, Milano 20125 (Italy); Tardocchi, M. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, via Roberto Cozzi 53, Milano 20125 (Italy); Rebai, M. [University of Milano Bicocca, Departement of Physics, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano 20125 (Italy); Pillon, M. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione ENEA C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi, 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Camera, F.; Giaz, A.; Pellegri, L. [University of Milano, Departement of Physics, Via Celoria 16, Milano 1-20133 (Italy); Gorini, G. [University of Milano Bicocca, Departement of Physics, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano 20125 (Italy); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, via Roberto Cozzi 53, Milano 20125 (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    The response of a 3″×3″ LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillator to 14 MeV neutron irradiation has been measured at the Frascati Neutron Generator and simulated by means of a dedicated MCNP model. Several reactions are found to contribute to the measured response, with a key role played by neutron inelastic scattering and (n,2n) reactions on {sup 79}Br, {sup 81}Br and {sup 139}La isotopes. An overall 43% efficiency to 14 MeV neutron detection above an experimental threshold of 0.35 MeV is calculated and confirmed by measurements. Post irradiation activation of the crystal has been also observed and is explained in terms of nuclear decays from the short lived {sup 78}Br and {sup 80}Br isotopes produced in (n,2n) reactions. The results presented in this paper are of relevance for the design of γ-ray detectors in burning plasma fusion experiments of the next generation, such as ITER, where capability to perform measurements in an intense 14 MeV neutron flux is required.

  8. S···X halogen bonds and H···X hydrogen bonds in H2CS-XY (XY = FF, ClF, ClCl, BrF, BrCl, and BrBr) complexes: cooperativity and solvent effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingzhong; Li, Ran; Zhou, Zhongjun; Li, Wenzuo; Cheng, Jianbo

    2012-01-07

    Using ab initio calculations, we have studied the structures, properties, and nature of halogen bonds in H(2)CS-XY (XY = FF, ClF, ClCl, BrF, BrCl, and BrBr) complexes. The results show that the ring-shaped complexes are formed by a halogen bond (S···X) and a secondary hydrogen bond (H···X). We also analyzed the H(2)CS-ClF-ClF and FCl-H(2)CS-ClF complexes to investigate the cooperative and diminutive halogen bonding. The cooperative effect of halogen bonding is found in the former, while the diminutive effect is present in the latter. We finally considered the solvent effect on the halogen bond in H(2)CS-BrCl complex and found that the solvent has a prominent enhancing effect on it. The complexes have also been analyzed with natural bond orbital, atoms in molecules, and symmetry adapted perturbation theory method.

  9. CsPbBr3 nanocrystal saturable absorber for mode-locking ytterbium fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Hu, Zhiping; Li, Yue; Xu, Jianqiu; Tang, Xiaosheng; Tang, Yulong

    2016-06-01

    Cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I) have been reported as efficient light-harvesting and light-emitting semiconductor materials, but their nonlinear optical properties have been seldom touched upon. In this paper, we prepare layered CsPbBr3 nanocrystal films and characterize their physical properties. Broadband linear absorption from ˜0.8 to over 2.2 μm and nonlinear optical absorption at the 1-μm wavelength region are measured. The CsPbBr3 saturable absorber (SA), manufactured by drop-casting of colloidal CsPbBr3 liquid solution on a gold mirror, shows modulation depth and saturation intensity of 13.1% and 10.7 MW/cm2, respectively. With this SA, mode-locking operation of a polarization-maintained ytterbium fiber laser produces single pulses with duration of ˜216 ps, maximum average output power of 10.5 mW, and the laser spectrum is centered at ˜1076 nm. This work shows that CsPbBr3 films can be efficient SA candidates for fiber lasers and also have great potential to become broadband linear and nonlinear optical materials for photonics and optoelectronics.

  10. Emission Spectra of Working Mixtures of a HgBr/HgCl Excimer Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinin, A. N.; Guĭvan, N. N.; Shimon, L. L.

    2000-12-01

    A study of emission spectra of a gas-discharge plasma produced in a HgBr/HgCl excimer lamp, which is filled with multicomponent working mixtures at atmospheric pressure (HgBr2 and HgCl2 with additions of molecular nitrogen and xenon), are reported. A gas-discharge plasma was produced by high-frequency (pulses ˜100 ns long with a repetition rate of up to 2000 Hz) barrier and surface discharges, which took place simultaneously. Emission of HgBr* and HgCl* excimer molecules, the second positive system of molecular oxygen, and helium and xenon lines in the UV, visible, and IR spectral regions was observed. The strongest emission of HgBr* and HgCl* molecules (the emission intensities were in the ratio 10:1) was observed in the HgBr2: HgCl2: N2: He mixture. Regularities in spectral and integrated characteristics of gas-discharge plasma emission are discussed.

  11. Influence of LiBr on photoluminescence properties of porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimassi, W., E-mail: dimassi_inrst@yahoo.f [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie, Technopole de Borj-Cedria, BP 95 Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Haddadi, I.; Bousbih, R.; Slama, S.; Ali Kanzari, M.; Bouaicha, M.; Ezzaouia, H. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie, Technopole de Borj-Cedria, BP 95 Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2011-05-15

    A new method has been developed to improve the photoluminescence intensity of porous silicon (PS), which is first time that LiBr is used for passivation of PS. Immersion of the PS in a LiBr solution, followed by a thermal treatment at 100 {sup o}C for 30 min under nitrogen, leads to a nine fold increase in the intensity of the photoluminescence. The atomic force microscope (AFM) shows an increase of the nanoparticle dimension compared to the initial dimension of the PS nanostructure. The LiBr covers the nanoparticles of silicon without changing the wavelength distribution of the optical excitation and emission spectra. Moreover, a significant decrease of reflectivity was observed for the wavelength in the range of 350-500 nm. - Research highlights: {yields} A new method based on the use of LiBr was developed to enhance nine times the photoluminescence of porous silicon. {yields} The LiBr covers the silicon nanoparticles without changing in the optical excitation and emission spectra. {yields} We observed a significant decrease of the reflectivity in the 350-500 nm spectral range.

  12. Stratospheric BrO abundance measured by a balloon-borne submillimeterwave radiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Stachnik

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of mixing ratio profiles of stratospheric bromine monoxide (BrO were made using observations of BrO rotational line emission at 650.179 GHz by a balloon-borne SIS (superconductor-insulator-superconductor submillimeterwave heterodyne limb sounder (SLS. The balloon was launched from Ft. Sumner, New Mexico (34° N on 22 September 2011. Peak mid-day BrO abundance varied from 16 ± 2 ppt at 34 km to 6 ± 4 ppt at 16 km. Corresponding estimates of total inorganic bromine (Bry, derived from BrO vmr (volume mixing ratio using a photochemical box model, were 21 ± 3 ppt and 11 ± 5 ppt, respectively. Inferred Bry abundance exceeds that attributable solely to decomposition of long-lived methyl bromide and other halons, and is consistent with a contribution from bromine-containing very short lived substances, BryVSLS, of 4 ppt to 8 ppt. These results for BrO and Bry were compared with, and found to be in good agreement with, those of other recent balloon-borne and satellite instruments.

  13. Optical properties and electronic structure of BiTeCl and BiTeBr compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhnev, A. A.; Nomerovannaya, L. V.; Kuznetsova, T. V.; Tereshchenko, O. E.; Kokh, K. A.

    2016-09-01

    Optical properties of BiTeCl and BiTeBr compounds with a strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling are studied in the 0.08-5.0 eV range using the optical ellipsometry method. Fundamental characteristics of the electronic structure are obtained. Similarly to BiTeI, spectra of the imaginary part of dielectric permittivity constant ɛ2( E) in the energy interval between the plasma edge and the threshold of an intense interband absorption (0.7 eV in BiTeCl and 0.6 eV in BiTeBr) display a fine structure of electronic transitions at 0.25 and 0.55 eV in BiTeCl and 0.20 and 0.50 eV in BiTeBr. These features are assigned to electronic transitions between the bulk conduction zones split by the Rashba spin-orbit interaction. The parameters of the electronic structure of BiTeCl and BiTeBr are compared with the BiTeI compound that was studied earlier. In the BiTeCl-BiTeBr-BiTeI row, the absorption edge and main features of the fundamental absorption exhibit a shift to low energies.

  14. Highly efficient visible light plasmonic photocatalyst Ag@Ag(Br,I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Huang, Baibiao; Zhang, Qianqian; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Qin, Xiaoyan; Dai, Ying; Zhan, Jie; Yu, Jiaoxian; Liu, Haixia; Lou, Zaizhu

    2010-09-03

    The new plasmonic photocatalyst Ag@Ag(Br,I) was synthesized by the ion-exchange process between the silver bromide and potassium iodide, then by reducing some Ag(+) ions in the surface region of Ag(Br,I) particles to Ag(0) species. Ag nanoparticles are formed from Ag(Br,I) by the light-induced chemical reduction reaction. The Ag@Ag(Br,I) particles have irregular shapes with their sizes varying from 83 nm to 1 mum. The as-grown plasmonic photocatalyst shows strong absorption in the visible light region because of the plasmon resonance of Ag nanoparticles. The ability of this compound to reduce Cr(VI) under visible light was compared with those of other reference photocatalyst. The plasmonic photocatalyst is shown to be highly efficient under visible light. The stability of the photocatalyst was examined by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The XRD pattern and XPS spectra prove the stability of the plasmonic photocatalyst Ag@Ag(Br,I).

  15. A Hypothesis: Life Initiated from Two Genes, as Deduced from the RNA World Hypothesis and the Characteristics of Life-Like Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kunio

    2016-08-02

    RNA played a central role in the emergence of the first life-like system on primitive Earth since RNA molecules contain both genetic information and catalytic activity. However, there are several drawbacks regarding the RNA world hypothesis. Here, I briefly discuss the feasibility of the RNA world hypothesis to deduce the RNA functions that are essential for forming a life-like system. At the same time, I have conducted a conceptual analysis of the characteristics of biosystems as a useful approach to deduce a realistic life-like system in relation to the definition of life. For instance, an RNA-based life-like system should possess enough stability to resist environmental perturbations, by developing a cell-like compartment, for instance. Here, a conceptual viewpoint is summarized to provide a realistic life-like system that is compatible with the primitive Earth environment and the capabilities of RNA molecules. According to the empirical and conceptual analysis, I propose the hypothesis that the first life-like system could have initiated from only two genes.

  16. A Hypothesis: Life Initiated from Two Genes, as Deduced from the RNA World Hypothesis and the Characteristics of Life-Like Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Kawamura

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available RNA played a central role in the emergence of the first life-like system on primitive Earth since RNA molecules contain both genetic information and catalytic activity. However, there are several drawbacks regarding the RNA world hypothesis. Here, I briefly discuss the feasibility of the RNA world hypothesis to deduce the RNA functions that are essential for forming a life-like system. At the same time, I have conducted a conceptual analysis of the characteristics of biosystems as a useful approach to deduce a realistic life-like system in relation to the definition of life. For instance, an RNA-based life-like system should possess enough stability to resist environmental perturbations, by developing a cell-like compartment, for instance. Here, a conceptual viewpoint is summarized to provide a realistic life-like system that is compatible with the primitive Earth environment and the capabilities of RNA molecules. According to the empirical and conceptual analysis, I propose the hypothesis that the first life-like system could have initiated from only two genes.

  17. Evolutionary Steps in the Emergence of Life Deduced from the Bottom-Up Approach and GADV Hypothesis (Top-Down Approach).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehara, Kenji

    2016-01-26

    It is no doubt quite difficult to solve the riddle of the origin of life. So, firstly, I would like to point out the kinds of obstacles there are in solving this riddle and how we should tackle these difficult problems, reviewing the studies that have been conducted so far. After that, I will propose that the consecutive evolutionary steps in a timeline can be rationally deduced by using a common event as a juncture, which is obtained by two counter-directional approaches: one is the bottom-up approach through which many researchers have studied the origin of life, and the other is the top-down approach, through which I established the [GADV]-protein world hypothesis or GADV hypothesis on the origin of life starting from a study on the formation of entirely new genes in extant microorganisms. Last, I will describe the probable evolutionary process from the formation of Earth to the emergence of life, which was deduced by using a common event-the establishment of the first genetic code encoding [GADV]-amino acids-as a juncture for the results obtained from the two approaches.

  18. Evolutionary Steps in the Emergence of Life Deduced from the Bottom-Up Approach and GADV Hypothesis (Top-Down Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Ikehara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is no doubt quite difficult to solve the riddle of the origin of life. So, firstly, I would like to point out the kinds of obstacles there are in solving this riddle and how we should tackle these difficult problems, reviewing the studies that have been conducted so far. After that, I will propose that the consecutive evolutionary steps in a timeline can be rationally deduced by using a common event as a juncture, which is obtained by two counter-directional approaches: one is the bottom-up approach through which many researchers have studied the origin of life, and the other is the top-down approach, through which I established the [GADV]-protein world hypothesis or GADV hypothesis on the origin of life starting from a study on the formation of entirely new genes in extant microorganisms. Last, I will describe the probable evolutionary process from the formation of Earth to the emergence of life, which was deduced by using a common event—the establishment of the first genetic code encoding [GADV]-amino acids—as a juncture for the results obtained from the two approaches.

  19. Ionospheric Response to the Total Solar Eclipse of 22 July 2009 as Deduced from VLBI and GPS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L.; Shu, F. C.; Zheng, W. M.; Kondo, T.; Ichikawa, R.; Hasegawa, S.; Sekido, M.

    2010-01-01

    A total solar eclipse occurred over China at latitudes of about 30 N on the morning of 22 July 2009, providing a unique opportunity to investigate the influence of the sun on the earth's upper ionosphere. GPS observations from Shanghai GPS Local Network and VLBI observations from stations Shanghai, Urumqi, and Kashima were used to observe the response of TEC to the total solar eclipse. From the GPS data reduction, the sudden decrease of TEC at the time of the eclipse, amounting to 2.8 TECU, and gradual increase of TEC after the eclipse were found by analyzing the diurnal variations. More distinctly, the variations of TEC were studied along individual satellite passes. The delay in reaching the minimum level of TEC with the maximum phase of eclipse was 5-10 min. Besides, we also compared the ionospheric activity derived from different VLBI stations with the GPS results and found a strong correlation between them.

  20. Nanocrystalline tin oxide: Possible origin of its weak ferromagnetism deduced from nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Lian, Yadong; Gu, Min; Yu, Ji; Tang, Tong B.; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Weiyi

    2016-09-01

    Nanocrystalline tin oxide was fabricated, with molar ratio O/Sn determined as 1.40, 1.55, 1.79, 1.92 and 1.96 from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. They displayed weak ferromagnetism, the sample with O/Sn = 1.55 showing the maximum saturation magnetization reaching almost 8 ×10-3 emu /g at room temperature. 119Sn nuclear magnetic resonance allowed the deduction, based on four resolved resonance peaks, that their Sn ions had four possible coordination numbers, namely 3, 4, 5 and 6. The relative fraction of 4-coordinated cations was the one found to bear positive linear correlation with saturation magnetization of the sample. It is surmised that magnetism in tin oxide results mainly from 4-coordination Sn ions, of valance about +3, as estimated from the binding energies of their 3d photoelectron emission levels.

  1. Land Deformation at the Thessaloniki - Giannitsa Plain (Greece) Deduced from 20- years Radar Observations using Persistent Scatterers Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svigkas, N.; Papoutsis, I.; Loupasakis, K.; Kiratzi, A. A.; Kontoes, C.

    2015-12-01

    We present the detected deformation and interpret the results in the light of ground-truth hydrological data, for the Thessaloniki-Giannitsa plain, the largest deltaic plain in Greece, encircled by Mounts Vermio, Paiko and Pieria. The contemporary morphology was gradually developed from the tectonic variations of the upper Pleistocene. The area has been subjected to many changes due to both natural causes and to human intervention. ERS-1, 2 and Envisat data provided from the European Space Agency were analysed to produce a time-series analysis based on Persistent Scatterer techniques. The mass processing of the 81 satellite images led to the creation of more than 250 Interferograms. The broader area of interest consists primarily of agricultural lands, leading to limited Interferometric coherence, and therefore careful Interferogram filtering and phase unwrapping of the input stack was crucial for reliable velocity generation. Our results show a strong deformation signal in regions of significant lifelines, as the railway and road network. Moreover, the satellite imagery revealed two significantly deforming sites: Kalochori and Sindos. The broader Kalochori region, the locus of the industrial activity of the city of Thessaloniki, is located below sea level. Both sites are suffering from land subsidence for more than 50 years, with several marine invasions reported in the past. Interestingly enough the two datasets -that represent two decades- show a reversed deformation pattern: The period in-between 1993 to 2000 is characterized by subsidence up to 34 mm/y, whereas from 2002 to 2010 there is an uplifting trend (more than 20 mm/yr). This result is crosschecked with hydrogeological data; the interpretation depicts that at Kalochori and Sindos the human factor (i.e. over pumping) is the dominant driver of these surface displacements. Although this was an assumption of previous studies, here we present for the first time, systematic proof that the detected uplift of

  2. The disordered magnetic structure in the triangular-lattice XY-antiferromagnet CsMnBr{sub 3} derived from the zero-field spectrum of Br nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xun; Okada, Kunihide; Fujii, Muneaki [Department of Physics, Kumamoto University, Kurokami 2-39-1, Kumamoto 860 (Japan); Kubo, Takeji [Department of Physics, Nara Education University, Takabatake, Nara 613 (Japan); Ajiro, Yoshitami [Department of Applied Physics, Fukui University, Bunkyo 3-9-1, Fukui 910 (Japan)

    1996-05-27

    The Br NMR in the triangular-lattice antiferromagnetic CsMnBr{sub 3} is investigated in the ordered state at low temperatures. Two distinct peaks of the Br NMR spin-echo spectrum were observed at 36.0 {+-} 0.5 MHz and 43.0 {+-} 0.5 MHz accompanied by a broad signal ranging from 34 to 55 MHz in zero field. The peak frequencies are independent of temperature and the ratio of the frequencies is the same as that of the quadrupole moments of {sup 81}Br and {sup 79}Br. This suggests that the quadrupole resonance of Br is perturbed by the distribution of the internal magnetic field. Theoretical results obtained under the assumption that the Mn spins have disordered structure in the c-plane due to the frustration effect agree with the experimental data. (author)

  3. Elastic properties of Cs{sub 2}HgBr{sub 4} and Cs{sub 2}CdBr{sub 4} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kityk, A.V.; Zadorozhna, A.V.; Shchur, Y.I.; Martynyuk-Lototska, Y.I.; Burak, Y.; Vlokh, O.G. [Institute of Physical Optics, Lvov (Ukraine)

    1998-12-31

    Using ultrasonic velocity measurements, all components of the elastic constant matrix C{sub ij} , elastic compliances matrix S{sub ij}, and linear compressibility constants matrix K{sub ij} of orthorhombic Cs{sub 2}HgBr{sub 4} and Cs{sub 2}CdBr{sub 4} crystals have been determined over a wide temperature range, including the region of the phase transition from the normal to the incommensurate phase. Results obtained are considered within the framework of the phenomenological theory. Preliminary analysis of the acoustical properties at room temperature clearly indicates that both crystals are relatively important materials for acousto-optical applications. Copyright (1998) CSIRO Australia 16 refs., 1 tab. 8 figs. The URL for the electronic version of this article is http://www.publish.csiro.au/journals/ajp/electronic.html

  4. TlBr 探测器的发展与现状%The Development and Current Status of TlBr detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丽霞; 郝晓勇

    2015-01-01

    TlBr is a promising detector material for X-ray and γ-rays due to its high atomic number, high density, large band-gap and low ionization energy.The properties of TlBr detector are high detection efficien-cy and excellent energy resolution.It can be easily fabricated or compacted in small size,it also can be operated at room temperature.So the TlBr detector is a priority selection for nuclear material inspection and safeguards property, national security, spatial and high energy physics researches.The paper shows the principle of TlBr detector, its development and current status.The detectors'electrode structure with signals collection and pro-cessing are introduced in detail.Lastly, there are some original ideas for component optimizing design, signal analysis method.%TlBr晶体是一种理想的的X射线和γ射线探测器材料,其原子序数高、密度大、禁带宽和电离能小,TlBr探测器具有探测效率高、能量分辨性能优异和体积小易集成等特点,可以在室温条件下使用,是核材料核查与核保障、国土安全、空间及高能物理实验的较佳选择。文章介绍了TlBr探测器工作原理及其发展与现状,对探测器结构设计及信号收集处理方法作了详细介绍,提出了TlBr探测器发展及开发工艺的建议。

  5. New Holland公司BR7000系列新型圆捆打捆机%BR7000 Series New Round Bales Baler of New Holland Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷锡林; 吴清分

    2014-01-01

    简要介绍了New Holland公司的BR7000系列新型圆捆打捆机各主要机构的技术性能和结构特点,为我国农机行业各有关企业和研究部门进一步研究和开发草料打捆机新产品提供了参考.

  6. Leptin inhibits glycogen catabolism but does not modify acutely the suppressive effect of insulin on glucose production and glycogenolysis stimulated by 8-Br-cAMP in rat liver perfused in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo, Eledir Silveira; Bassoli, Bruna Kempfer; Cassolla, Priscila; Borba-Murad, Glaucia Regina; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa; De Souza, Helenir Medri

    2009-03-01

    Leptin, a hormone secreted by the adipocytes, plays a central role in glucose metabolism and the action of insulin. Here we assessed, by means of rat-liver perfusion, the direct influence of physiological (10 ng/ml) and supraphysiological (50 or 100 ng/ml) concentrations of leptin on the suppressive effect of insulin on the glucose production and glycogenolysis stimulated by 8-bromoadenosine-3':5'-monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP). Portal infusion of insulin (20 microU/ml) or leptin (10 ng/ml) reduced (pglycogenolysis induced by 8-Br-cAMP (0.3 microM). However, portal infusion of physiological (10 ng/ml) and supraphysiological (50 or 100 ng/ml) concentrations of leptin together with the insulin did not modify the suppressive effect of the latter on the glucose production and glycogenolysis stimulated by 8-Br-cAMP. Moreover, prolonging the period of leptin infusion from 20 to 40 min also failed to influence the liver response to insulin. Thus, we conclude that: (a) leptin, at physiological levels, has a direct and acute effect, inhibiting the glucose production and glycogenolysis stimulated by 8-Br-cAMP; (b) leptin, at either physiological or supraphysiological concentrations, has no short-term influence on the suppressive effect of insulin on glycogen catabolism stimulated by 8-Br-cAMP.

  7. C-Reactive Protein Levels in the Brugada Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimé Bonny

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inflammation in the Brugada syndrome (BrS and its clinical implication have been little studied. Aims. To assess the level of inflammation in BrS patients. Methods. All studied BrS patients underwent blood samples drawn for C-reactive protein (CRP levels at admission, prior to any invasive intervention. Patients with a previous ICD placement were controlled to exclude those with a recent (<14 days shock. We divided subjects into symptomatic (syncope or aborted sudden death and asymptomatic groups. In a multivariable analysis, we adjusted for significant variables (age, CRP ≥ 2 mg/L. Results. Fifty-four subjects were studied (mean age 45 ± 13 years, 49 (91% male. Twenty (37% were symptomatic. Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. Mean CRP level was 1,4 ± 0,9 mg/L in asymptomatic and 2,4 ± 1,4 mg/L in symptomatic groups (P = .003. In the multivariate model, CRP concentrations ≥ 2 mg/L remained an independent marker for being symptomatic (P = .018; 95% CI: 1.3 to 19.3. Conclusion. Inflammation seems to be more active in symptomatic BrS. C-reactive protein concentrations ≥ 2 mg/L might be associated with the previous symptoms in BrS. The value of inflammation as a risk factor of arrhythmic events in BrS needs to be studied.

  8. Mechanism of antibacterial action of the alcoholic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild.), Plumbago zeylanica L., and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult

    OpenAIRE

    Saritha, Kongari; Rajesh, Angireddy; Manjulatha, Khanapur; Setty, Oruganti H.; Yenugu, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Herbal products derived from Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild.), Plumbago zeylanica L., and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult. are widely used in traditional medicine. Though the extracts of these plants were found to be antimicrobial in nature and have the potential to be used in clinics, the mechanism of action of is not reported. The ethanolic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Hemidesmus indicus ethanolic extract (HIEE), Leucas aspera ...

  9. On the Attosecond charge migration in Cl.....N, Cl.....O, Br.....N and Br.....O Halogen-bonded clusters: Effect of donor, acceptor, vibration, rotation, and electron correlation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SANKHABRATA CHANDRA; MOHAMMED MUSTHAFA IQBAL; ATANU BHATTACHARYA

    2016-08-01

    The electron-electron relaxation and correlation-driven charge migration process, which features pure electronic aspect of ultrafast charge migration phenomenon, occurs on a very short timescale in ionized molecules and molecular clusters, prior to the onset of nuclear motion. In this article, we have presented natureof ultrafast pure electronic charge migration dynamics through Cl.....N, Cl.....O, Br.....N, and Br.....O halogen bonds, explored using density functional theory. We have explored the role of donor, acceptor, electron correlation, vibration and rotation in charge migration dynamics through these halogen bonds. For this work, we have selected ClF, Cl₂, ClOH, ClCN, BrF, BrCl, BrOH, and BrCN molecules paired with either NH₃ or H₂O. We have found that the timescale for pure electron-electron relaxation and correlation-driven charge migration through the Cl.....N, Br.....N, Cl.....O, and Br.....O halogen bonds falls in the range of 300–600 attosecond. The primary driving force behind the attosecond charge migration through the Cl.....N, Br.....N, Cl.....O, and Br.....O halogen bonds is the energy difference (∆E) between two stationary cationic orbitals (LUMO-β and HOMO-β), which together represents the initial hole density immediately following vertical ionization. We have also predicted that the strength of electron correlation has significant effect on the charge migration timescale in Cl.....N, Br.....N, Cl.....O, and Br.....O halogen bonded clusters. Vibration and rotation are also found to exhibit profound effect on attosecond charge migration dynamics through halogen bonds.

  10. Effect of non-graphitized carbon electrodes on the electrochemical characteristics of a thermocell with a Br 2/Br - redox couple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, Kazuhiko; Arakawa, Masayasu; Hirai, Toshiro

    Electrodes made from a non-graphitized carbon (Maxsorb) sheet with a large specific surface area greatly improved the electrochemical characteristics of thermocells with a bromine/bromide-ion redox couple and a KBr aqueous electrolyte saturated with Br 2. The Maxsorb electrodes provide a higher open-circuit voltage than graphite (Perma Foil) electrodes and the maximum discharge current density is 2.4 mA/cm 2 until the voltage reaches 0 V. The Maxsorb electrodes generate 5.68 mV/°C of thermoelectric power at a temperature difference greater than 40°C, which is 2.5 times the power reported previously. The Maxsorb electrodes also improve the cathodic polarization in the presence of a gas-liquid-solid interface in Br 2-free electrolyte, while the graphite electrodes do not. Nevertheless, this improvement is insufficient to observe when the KBr electrolyte is saturated with Br 2. An experimental cell with Maxsorb electrodes maintains a stable voltage up to 2.0 mA/cm 2 for over 450 h, even though the cell configuration has still to be optimized.

  11. BrCl production in NaBr/NaCl/HNO3/O3 solutions representative of sea-salt aerosols in the marine boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disselkamp, R. S.; Chapman, E. G.; Barchet, W. R.; Colson, S. D.; Howd, C. D.

    Atomic bromine and chlorine liberated from sea-salt aerosol is thought to play an important role in chemistry of the marine boundary layer. Despite numerous modeling studies, no prior experimental investigations of the oxidation of halide species contained in simulated, or actual, sea-salt solutions have been performed. We present laboratory data that examines chemistry in NaBr/NaCl/HNO3/O3 solutions at 290 K. Ozonation experiments were performed by flowing ozone in air through a nitric acid/salt solution and monitoring pH with time using an ion-sensitive electrode. The rate of oxidation was observed to be first order in ozone concentration and to have a non-first order bromide concentration dependence. Ion Chromatography was used to measure both bromide disappearance as well as oxidation products formed during the course of the reactions studied. Our measurements of the oxidation rate versus ion concentration indicate that the high ionic strength present in sea-salt aerosol will possess unique kinetics different from dilute solution behavior. In addition, our results are consistent with the reaction sequence O3 + H+ + Br- → O2 + HOBr and HOBr + Cl- + H+ → BrCl + H2O. These observations support the HOBr mediated Cl- oxidation process proposed previously (Vogt et al., 1996).

  12. Development of a 16 kHz repetition rate, 110 W average power copper HyBrID laser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Biswal; P K Agrawal; G K Mishra; S V Nakhe; S K Dixit; J K Mittal

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents the design and performance analysis of an indigenously developed 110 W average output power copper HyBrID laser operating at 16 kHz pulse repetition rate. The laser active medium was confined within a fused silica tube of ∼ 6 cm diameter and ∼ 200 cm active length. An in-house developed high-power (∼ 10 kW) solid-state pulser was used as the electrical excitation source. A simple estimation of deposited electrical power, at the laser head, was carried out and based on it, the laser tube efficiency was found to be 2.9% at 70 W and 2.2% at 110 W laser power levels.

  13. Kinetics of Schottky defect formation and annihilation in single crystal TlBr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Sean R; Tuller, Harry L; Kuhn, Melanie; Ciampi, Guido; Higgins, William; Shah, Kanai S

    2013-07-28

    The kinetics for Schottky defect (Tl and Br vacancy pair) formation and annihilation in ionically conducting TlBr are characterized through a temperature induced conductivity relaxation technique. Near room temperature, defect generation-annihilation was found to take on the order of hours before equilibrium was reached after a step change in temperature, and that mechanical damage imparted on the sample rapidly increases this rate. The rate limiting step to Schottky defect formation-annihilation is identified as being the migration of lower mobility Tl (versus Br), with an estimate for source-sink density derived from calculated diffusion lengths. This study represents one of the first investigations of Schottky defect generation-annihilation kinetics and demonstrates its utility in quantifying detrimental mechanical damage in radiation detector materials.

  14. A measurement of the semileptonic branching ratio BR(b-baryon $\\rightarrow p l\\overline{\

    CERN Document Server

    Barate, R; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Nief, J Y; Pietrzyk, B; Boix, G; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Graugès-Pous, E; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Merino, G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Park, I C; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Alemany, R; Becker, U; Bright-Thomas, P G; Casper, David William; Cattaneo, M; Cerutti, F; Ciulli, V; Dissertori, G; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Hansen, J B; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Lehraus, Ivan; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Moneta, L; Pacheco, A; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rolandi, Luigi; Rousseau, D; Schlatter, W D; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Teubert, F; Tomalin, I R; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Badaud, F; Chazelle, G; Deschamps, O; Falvard, A; Ferdi, C; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rosnet, P; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Daskalakis, G; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Boccali, T; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Zachariadou, K; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Lynch, J G; Negus, P; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Thomson, F; Buchmüller, O L; Dhamotharan, S; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Girone, M; Goodsir, S M; Martin, E B; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Spagnolo, P; Williams, M D; Ghete, V M; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Betteridge, A P; Bowdery, C K; Buck, P G; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Jones, R W L; Williams, M I; Giehl, I; Greene, A M; Hoffmann, C; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Carr, J; Coyle, P; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Leroy, O; Motsch, F; Payre, P; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Aleppo, M; Antonelli, M; Ragusa, F; Berlich, R; Blum, Walter; Büscher, V; Dietl, H; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Mannert, C; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Stenzel, H; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Chen, S; Choi, Y; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Höcker, A; Jacholkowska, A; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Schune, M H; Tournefier, E; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Zerwas, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Chambers, J T; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Konstantinidis, N P; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Kelly, M S; Lehto, M H; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Affholderbach, K; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Grupen, Claus; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Charles, E; Elmer, P; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y; González, S; Greening, T C; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, J; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zobernig, G

    1998-01-01

    Inclusive pi^+/-, K^+/- (p,pbar) production is investigated using data recorded by the ALEPH detector between 1992 and 1994. The momentum spectra and multiplicities are measured separately in Z -->bbar, Z-->ccbar and Z-->uubar,ddbar,ssbar decays. The number of protons found in b-hadron decays is used to estimate the fraction of b-baryons in b-events to be (10.2 +/- 0.7 +/- 2.7)%. From an additional study of proton-lepton correlations in b events the branching ratio Br(b-baryon --> plnuX) = (4.63 +/- 0.72 +/- 0.98)% is obtained. The ratio Br(b-baryon --> plnuX)/ Br(b-baryon --> pX) is found to be 0.080 +/- 0.012 +/- 0.014.

  15. Study on time-resolved fluorescence dynamics of cyanine dye sensitizing AgBr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The fluorescence spectra of three different dyes adsorbed on the tabular and cubic AgBr microcrystals are obtained by the picosecond time-resolved streak camera technique. The dependence of the ultrafast electron transferring from dye-aggre-gates to the conduction band of AgBr and the efficiency of spectral sensitization on different kinds of dyes with different concentrations is analyzed. Further more,the microcosmic mechanism of the sensitization process is discussed. It is found that the fluorescence decay curves are fitted very well by the double exponential func-tion,consisting of a slow component and a fast one with large amplitude. We con-sider this fast one mainly attributable to the electron transfer from dye J-aggre-gates to the conduction band of AgBr.

  16. Pressure-induced structural changes in NH{sub 4}Br

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yanping; Huang, Xiaoli; Li, Wenbo; Wang, Lu; Wu, Gang; Zhao, Zhonglong; Duan, Defang; Bao, Kuo; Zhou, Qiang; Liu, Bingbing; Cui, Tian, E-mail: cuitian@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2015-08-14

    We report angle dispersive X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements and Raman spectroscopy on NH{sub 4}Br up to 70.0 GPa at room temperature. Three thermodynamically stable phases (phases II, IV, and V) are confirmed and a new possible phase (phase VI) of P2{sub 1}/m symmetry is proposed whose structure was established from Rietveld refinement of synchrotron XRD data for the first time. The phase sequence observed in NH{sub 4}Br is in accordance with phase II → IV → V → VI. Phase V transforms into phase VI at about 57.8 GPa with a huge volume reduction of 30%. Still, the intramolecular distances are analyzed to better understand the nature of structures. The H–H interactions become markedly more important as the N–Br distances are compacted, which is probably the reason of the kink of symmetric stretching band (ν{sub 1}) at the transition pressure.

  17. Chromospheric evaporation flows and density changes deduced from Hinode/EIS during an M1.6 flare

    CERN Document Server

    Gömöry, P; Su, Y; Temmer, M; Thalmann, J K

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed high-cadence sit-and-stare observations acquired with the Hinode/EIS spectrometer and HXR measurements acquired with RHESSI during an M-class flare. During the flare impulsive phase, we observe no significant flows in the cooler Fe XIII line but strong upflows, up to 80-150 km/s, in the hotter Fe XVI line. The largest Doppler shifts observed in the Fe XVI line were co-temporal with the sharp intensity peak. The electron density obtained from a Fe XIII line pair ratio exhibited fast increase (within two minutes) from the pre-flare level of 5.01x10^(9) cm^(-3) to 3.16x10^(10) cm^(-3) during the flare peak. The nonthermal energy flux density deposited from the coronal acceleration site to the lower atmospheric layers during the flare peak was found to be 1.34x10^(10) erg/s/cm^(2) for a low-energy cut-off that was estimated to be 16 keV. During the decline flare phase, we found a secondary intensity and density peak of lower amplitude that was preceded by upflows of 15 km/s that were detected in both ...

  18. Low altitude energetic electron lifetimes after enhanced magnetic activity as deduced from SAC-C and DEMETER data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Benck

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available When flux enhancements of energetic electrons are produced as a consequence of geomagnetic storm occurrence, they tend to vanish gradually when the magnetic activity calms down and the fluxes decay to quiet-time levels. We use SAC-C and DEMETER low altitude observations to estimate the energetic electron lifetimes (E=0.16–1.4 MeV, L=1.6–5, B=0.22–0.46 G and compare the decay rates to those observed at high altitude. While crossing the radiation belts at high latitude, the SAC-C and DEMETER instruments sample particles with small equatorial pitch angles (αeq<18° for L>2.5 whereas the comparison is done with other satellite data measured mainly in the equatorial plane (for αeq>75°. While in the inner belt and in the slot region no significant lifetime differences are observed from the data sets with different αeq, in the outer belt, for the least energetic electrons (<500 keV, the lifetimes are up to ~3 times larger for the electrons with the equatorial pitch-angle close to the loss cone than for those mirroring near the equator. The difference decreases with increasing energy and vanishes for energies of about 1 MeV.

  19. BR 08-3 MANAGEMENT OF DYSLIPIDEMIA IN HYPERTENSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, V V

    2016-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease burden is increasing all over the world. The diagnosis of hypertension is considered when a person has persistently elevated BP (Systolic BP more than 140 mmHg and/or Diastolic BP more than 90 mmHg). Dyslipidemia denotes abnormal levels of lipids in the blood (Total Cholesterol >200 mg%, Low density lipoprotein (LDL) >100 mg%, Triglycerides (TGL) >150 mg% and High density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolic syndrome as per the definition of NCEP Guidelines-Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III). The prevalence of the co-existence of hypertension and dyslipidemia is in the range of 15-31%. The co-existence of these two risk factors has more than the additive effect for endothelial dysfunction resulting in enhanced atherosclerosis leading to CVD. The term dyslipidemic hypertension (DH) was used in the context of familial DH. Non-familial forms of DH are more common than familial form. Some authors name this combination as Lipitension for easy understanding. Framingham Heart study shows that the majority of hypertension population have more than one risk factor predominantly atherogenic in nature. Dyslipidemia causes endothelial damage and loss of vasomotor activity. The damage may manifest as elevated BP. MRFIT study reveals that mild to moderate elevation of BP and Dyslipidemia can lead to multiplicative adverse impact on CVD. Framingham study results also reveal that moderately elevated BP and cholesterol had a similar risk.RAAS promotes atherogenesis. Angiotensin II promotes atherogenesis through stimulation AT1 receptor, which increases lipid uptake in cells, vasoconstriction and free radical production to foster both hypertension and atherosclerosis. Hypertension damages vascular endothelium through altered shear stress and oxidative stress resulting in increased synthesis of collagen and fibronectin, reduced nitric oxide-dependent vascular relaxation and increased permeability to lipoproteins. Hypertension is also associated with up regulation of

  20. Observation of Enhanced Hole Extraction in Br Concentration Gradient Perovskite Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Cheol; Kim, Byeong Jo; Son, Dae-Yong; Park, Nam-Gyu; Jung, Hyun Suk; Choi, Mansoo

    2016-09-14

    Enhancing hole extraction inside the perovskite layer is the key factor for boosting photovoltaic performance. Realization of halide concentration gradient perovskite materials has been expected to exhibit rapid hole extraction due to the precise bandgap tuning. Moreover, a formation of Br-rich region on the tri-iodide perovskite layer is expected to enhance moisture stability without a loss of current density. However, conventional synthetic techniques of perovskite materials such as the solution process have not achieved the realization of halide concentration gradient perovskite materials. In this report, we demonstrate the fabrication of Br concentration gradient mixed halide perovskite materials using a novel and facile halide conversion method based on vaporized hydrobromic acid. Accelerated hole extraction and enhanced lifetime due to Br gradient was verified by observing photoluminescence properties. Through the combination of secondary ion mass spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, the diffusion behavior of Br ions in perovskite materials was investigated. The Br-gradient was found to be eventually converted into a homogeneous mixed halide layer after undergoing an intermixing process. Br-substituted perovskite solar cells exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 18.94% due to an increase in open circuit voltage from 1.08 to 1.11 V and an advance in fill-factor from 0.71 to 0.74. Long-term stability was also dramatically enhanced after the conversion process, i.e., the power conversion efficiency of the post-treated device has remained over 97% of the initial value under high humid conditions (40-90%) without any encapsulation for 4 weeks.

  1. Prévention de la maladie thromboembolique veineuse chez le brûlé

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siah, S.; El Farouki, A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Les complications thromboemboliques sont considérées comme rares chez le patient brûlé. Leur incidence varie selon les études réalisées. Les patients brûlés présentent de nombreux facteurs de risque favorisant la survenue de ces complications. Le diagnostic clinique de la thrombose veineuse profonde et de l’embolie pulmonaire reste difficile vu leur évolution infraclinique et la non spécificité des signes cliniques. L’échodoppler veineux et l’angioscanner thoracique constituent les éléments clés dans la stratégie diagnostique de la thrombose veineuse profonde et de l’embolie pulmonaire chez les patients brûlés. Le traitement ne diffère pas de celui administré aux autres patients non brûlés et victimes de la thrombose veineuse profonde et de l’embolie pulmonaire. La prophylaxie controversée entre les auteurs, est un sujet d’actualité. Plusieurs praticiens et organismes recommandent son utilisation de routine chez les patients brûlés à risque. Elle reste le seul moyen capable d’empêcher la survenue de la maladie thromboembolique veineuse capable d’engager le pronostic vital chez ces patients. Nous rapportons 6 observations de patients brûlés ayant développé une maladie thromboembolique veineuse. PMID:26170780

  2. Supplemental Thermal-Hydraulic Transient Analyses of BR2 in Support of Conversion to LEU Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dionne, B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sikik, E. [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium); Van den Branden, G. [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium); Koonen, E. [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium)

    2016-01-01

    Belgian Reactor 2 (BR2) is a research and test reactor located in Mol, Belgium and is primarily used for radioisotope production and materials testing. The Materials Management and Minimization (M3) Reactor Conversion Program of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is supporting the conversion of the BR2 reactor from Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel to Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel. The RELAP5/Mod 3.3 code has been used to perform transient thermal-hydraulic safety analyses of the BR2 reactor to support reactor conversion. A RELAP5 model of BR2 has been validated against select transient BR2 reactor experiments performed in 1963 by showing agreement with measured cladding temperatures. Following the validation, the RELAP5 model was then updated to represent the current use of the reactor; taking into account core configuration, neutronic parameters, trip settings, component changes, etc. Simulations of the 1963 experiments were repeated with this updated model to re-evaluate the boiling risks associated with the currently allowed maximum heat flux limit of 470 W/cm2 and temporary heat flux limit of 600 W/cm2. This document provides analysis of additional transient simulations that are required as part of a modern BR2 safety analysis report (SAR). The additional simulations included in this report are effect of pool temperature, reduced steady-state flow rate, in-pool loss of coolant accidents, and loss of external cooling. The simulations described in this document have been performed for both an HEU- and LEU-fueled core.

  3. Relationship between surface and subsurface structures of the northern Atlas foreland of Tunisia deduced from regional gravity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frifita, N.; Arfaoui, M. S.; Zargouni, F.

    2016-08-01

    Gravity data were analyzed in the northern Atlas of Tunisia in order to identify the deep structures of the region and their relationship to the geological outcrop. The analysis based on the Bouguer gravity maps related to upward continuation at 1, 2, 4, 6, 10 and 12 km. The lineaments obtained by the horizontal gradient method were interpreted as deep faults with two global directions NE-SW and NW-SE related to major tectonic corridors. These lineaments were confirmed by the automatic estimation of depth solutions using the Euler deconvolution technique. By separation between the gravity anomaly bodies in different levels, it shows that almost all of the lineaments are oriented in NE-SW and NW-SE directions. The NW-SE-trending lineaments are related to deep faults and the NE-SW-oriented lineaments define the global direction of the surface, and they are related to shallow structures. 2.5D gravity modeling was used to improve the results obtained by the Maxima and the Euler deconvolution techniques. The 2.5D model points out the variation of depths of the NE-SW-trending major faults. In this study, we demonstrate the relationship between the NE-SW and the NW-SE directions. These two major sets of faults have been determined by the statistical study of the lineaments. This study confirms some faults already recognized or supposed by the classical geological studies, and it also detects a new deep fault masked in the surface, and gives information about major fault depths and the relation between different structures.

  4. Effect of UV absorbers on UV-induced mutagenesis in E. coli B/r

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoi, Kayoko; Nakamura, Yoshiyuki; Tomita, Isao

    1988-01-01

    Effects of cosmetic UV absorbers on UV-induced mutagenesis in E. coli B/r strains were studied. Among 8 substances tested, cinoxate (2-ethoxyethyl p-methoxycinnamate) enhanced UV (254 nm)-induced mutation at non-lethal toxic doses. This adverse effect was also observed when the mid and near-UV (295 nm - 400 nm) irradiated cells of WP2 were used. This effect, however, was not observed in WP2s uvrA, a DNA excision repair deficient strain of E. coli B/r. It is thus assumed that cinoxate inhibited DNA excision repair system and consequently increased UV-induced mutation.

  5. Holographic Properties of BR-D96N Film and Its Application in Hologram Aberration Correction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yuan(郑媛); YAO Bao-Li(姚保利); WANG Ying-Li(王英利); MENKE Neimule(门克内木乐); LEI Ming(雷铭); CHEN Guo-Fu(陈国夫); Norbert HAMPP

    2003-01-01

    A biophotochromic material, i.e., genetic mutant bacteriorhodopsin (BR-D96N), was experimentally studied on its holographic recording properties. The saturation absorption curve and the diffraction efficiency curve were measured respectively. As holographic storage application, reflection type polarization holograms were recorded on the BR-D96N film. The 173° configuration between the object and reference beams proves that the spatial resolution of the film is over 6000 lines/mm. By using phase conjugate wave of reference beam as reconstruction beam, the distorted object image introduced by the optical components and the defects in the recording medium can be well corrected.

  6. Very fast doped LaBr.sub.3 scintillators and time-of-flight PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kanai S.

    2006-10-31

    The present invention concerns very fast scintillator materials capable of resolving the position of an annihilation event within a portion of a human body cross-section. In one embodiment, the scintillator material comprises LaBr.sub.3 doped with cerium. Particular attention is drawn to LaBr.sub.3 doped with a quantity of Ce that is chosen for improving the timing properties, in particular the rise time and resultant timing resolution of the scintillator, and locational capabilities of the scintillator.

  7. Interview de l'astrophysicienne brésilienne Luciana da Cunha Ferreira

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN video productions

    2011-01-01

    En septembre 2011, le CERN a recu Luciana da Cunha Ferreira, une astrophysicienne brésilienne, pour un programme de formation à l'enseignement d'une semaine. Luciana est la première personne originaire de l'Amazonie à visiter le CERN et elle a l'intention de partager ses connaissances nouvellement acquises sur le LHC avec d'autres habitants de cette région du monde une fois de retour au Brésil.

  8. Generation of nanosecond pulses in a barrier-discharge XeBr excimer lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdeev, S. M.; Kostyrya, I. D.; Sosnin, É. A.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2006-07-01

    The subject of investigation is the coaxial two-barrier short-pulse excimer lamp based on XeBr* molecules (λ = 282 nm). When the working mixture (Xe: Br2 = 70: 1) is excited by a high-voltage pulsed nanosecond discharge at a pressure of 1 atm, the peak power of the generated radiation is on the order of 100 kW at an FWHM of 4.5 ns. If the gap between the barriers is small, a train of pulses with an FWHM of 20 ns and a repetition rate of 200 kHz may be obtained.

  9. Coeficientes de desarrollo del cultivo de brócoli con riego por goteo

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador Villalobos-Reyes; Javier Z. Castellanos-Ramos; Leonardo Tijerina-Chávez; Guillermo Crespo-Pichardo

    2005-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar los coeficientes de desarrollo del cultivo de brócoli en condiciones de riego por goteo para la región central de México. El estudio se realizó en un Vertisol. El 8 de enero de 2000 se trasplantó brócoli cultivar Patriot a doble hilera en surcos separados a 1 m, con una distancia entre hileras de 25 cm y de 30 cm entre plantas. Se tuvieron seis tratamientos de tensión de humedad del suelo en un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones: ...

  10. International Trade of Agricultural Products in the Context of "B&R" Initiative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijing WU; Shuhua XIE

    2016-01-01

    At present,China’s agricultural product trade is facing the development dilemma. The trade deficit is expanding,market and product structure is irrational,and the Chinese agriculture products often encounter trade barriers. " B&R" initiative provides a rare opportunity for the development of agricultural products in China. It is necessary to seize this opportunity to change idea and innovate upon mechanism so as to increase the added value of exported agricultural products through various channels. There is also a need to develop electronic commerce,and make full use of interconnectivity and trade facilitation in " B&R" initiative to develop the international trade of agricultural products.

  11. Optical characterization of TlBr single crystals for radiation detection applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Joon Ho; Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Han Soo; Lee, Seung Hee; Ha, Jang Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    TlBr is of considerable technological importance for radiation detection applications where detecting high-energy photons such as X-rays and γ-rays are of prime importance. However, there were few reports on investigating optical properties of TlBr itself for deeper understandings of this material and for making better radiation detection devices. Thus, in this paper, we report on the optical characterizations of TlBr single crystals. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements at RT were performed for this work. A 2-inch TlBr single crystalline ingot was grown by using the vertical Bridgman furnace. SE measurements were performed at RT within the photon energy range from 1.1 to 6.5 eV. PL measurements were performed at RT by using a home-made PL system equipped with a 266 nm-laser and a spectrometer. Dielectric responses from SE analysis were shown to be slightly different among the different samples possibly due to the different structural/optical properties. Also from the PL measurements, it was observed that the peak intensities of the middle samples were significantly higher than those of the other two samples. With the given values for permittivity of free space (ε0 = 8.854x10{sup -1}2 F·m{sup -1}), thickness (d = 1 mm), and area (A = 10x10 mm{sup 2}) of the TlBr sample, capacitances of TlBr were 6.9 pF (at hν = 3 eV) and 4.4 pF (at hν = 6 eV), respectively. SE and PL measurement and analysis were performed to characterize TlBr samples from the optical perspective. It was observed that dielectric responses of different TlBr samples were slightly different due to the different material properties. PL measurements showed that the middle sample exhibited much stronger PL emission peaks due to the better material quality. From the SE analysis, optical, dielectric constants were extracted, and calculated capacitances were in the few pF range.

  12. Active and passive CT for waste assay using LaBr3(Ce) detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tushar; More, M. R.; Ratheesh, Jilju; Sinha, Amar

    2017-01-01

    An active and passive computed tomography system has been developed that localizes and quantifies 239Pu in a waste drum. The active (transmission) measurement uses an external gamma source and LaBr3(Ce) detector to determine the attenuation map of waste drum contents at different selected energies. The passive (emission) measurement uses multiple LaBr3(Ce) detectors to record the spectra of gamma-rays emitted from within the drum. The active and passive data sets are then coupled to quantitatively assay drum contents for 239Pu.

  13. Metal triflates as alternative catalytic promoters to Brønsted acids in carbonylation chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Ph.D. (Chemistry) The thesis presented here is focussed on the methoxycarbonylation reaction. The reaction requires a catalyst (most of often palladium), a co-catalyst (typically Brønsted acids), ligand, methanol and carbon monoxide to afford esters that find use in both industrial and medical application. The focus given here in this thesis is specifically targeted to the co-catalyst. When the Brønsted acid co-catalyst is changed, two variables in the reaction are altered, namely the acid...

  14. Turbo på udvikling af 3. generations SOFC brændselsceller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderberg Petersen, L.

    2006-01-01

    Højteknologifonden har bevilliget 30 mio. kr. til et projekt Risø skal gennemføre sammen med Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S, Amminex A/S og DTU. Målet er at udvikle 3. generations SOFC brændselscellesystemer.......Højteknologifonden har bevilliget 30 mio. kr. til et projekt Risø skal gennemføre sammen med Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S, Amminex A/S og DTU. Målet er at udvikle 3. generations SOFC brændselscellesystemer....

  15. Preparation of fructone catalyzed by water-soluble Br(φ)nsted acid ionic liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yuan Wang; Rong Wang; Liang Chun Wu; Li Yi Dai

    2007-01-01

    Fructone (2-methyl-2-ethylacetoacetate-1,3-dioxolane), a flavouring material, has been synthesized from ethyl acetoacetate and glycol using five water-soluble Br(φ)nsted acid ionic liquids as catalysts for the first time. The used Br(φ)nsted acid ionic liquids include [Hmim]Tfa, [Hmim]Tsa, [Hmim]BF4, [Bmim]HSO4, [Bmim]H2PO4, and [Hmim]BF4 showed the highest catalytic activity for the preparation of fructone. After reaction, the product could be isolated from the reaction system automatically, and the ionic liquid could be directly reused without dehydration.

  16. Quadrupole antishielding factors for F-, Cl-, and Br- using Ξa theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, A. Annapoorna; Sen, K. D.

    1988-10-01

    It is shown that the use of the self-interaction-corrected Ξa method leads to the values of the Sternheimer quadrupole antishielding factor γ∞ for F-, Cl-, and Br- as -25, -65, and -146, respectively, which provide a significant improvement over the corresponding values of -41, -82, and -195 derived from the Xα wave functions. The Hartree-Fock estimates of γ∞ as given by -22, -55, and -155 for F-, Cl-, and Br-, respectively, are therefore approximated quite well by means of the Ξa wave functions.

  17. Sarcoide equino associado ao papilomavírus bovino BR-UEL-4 Equine sarcoid associated with bovine papillomavirus BR-UEL-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Leite dos Anjos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Um equino, sem raça definida, macho com três anos de idade apresentou múltiplos nódulos na pele, em diversas regiões do corpo. As lesões localizavam-se predominantemente nos lábios, nas bochechas, na região submandibular e na região inguinal direita. Os tumores caracterizavam-se como sarcoides dos tipos misto, fibroblástico, verrucoso e oculto. Histologicamente apresentaram proliferação de fibroblastos dérmicos, muitas vezes ulcerado, com ou sem hiperplasia pseudoepiteliomatosa da epiderme e formação de pequenos grupos isolados de fibroblastos neoplásicos na derme superficial. Três amostras de tecido foram submetidas à extração de DNA e amplificação por PCR com oligonucleotídeos iniciadores genéricos direcionados para uma região interna do gene L1 dos papilomavírus. Os produtos resultantes da amplificação de duas amostras foram sequenciados e demonstraram identidade de 99% com o papilomavírus bovino (BPV BR-UEL-4. Essa é a primeira descrição da infecção de equinos, bem como de sua associação com sarcoide pelo BPV BR-UEL-4, um suposto novo tipo de BPV identificado recentemente no Brasil a partir de papilomas cutâneos em bovinos.A 3-year-old, mixed breed, male horse showed multiple nodules in different areas of the skin. Lesions occurred predominantly on the lips, cheeks, and submandibular and right inguinal regions. The nodules were characterized as mixed, fibroblastic, verrucous and occult types of sarcoid. Histologically there was proliferation of dermal fibroblasts, with or without pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia of the epidermis (frequently ulcerated, and formation of small isolated groups of neoplastic fibroblasts in the superficial dermis. Three tissue samples were submitted to DNA extraction and PCR amplification with generic primers for the internal region of the papillomavirus L1 gene. The amplified products from two samples were sequenced and showed 99% identity with the bovine papillomavirus (BPV

  18. Degradation Characteristics of Organophosphate-degradation Microorganism BR13%菌株BR13降解有机磷农药的特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴翔; 康纪婷; 甘炳成; 彭卫红

    2011-01-01

    从农药厂污水处理池的活性污泥中分离得到一株降解有机磷农药的假单胞菌株BR13,该菌对浓度为0.4%的有机磷农药草甘膦的最高降解率为64%,研究了该菌的降解特性.结果表明农药浓度是0.4%时该菌能旺盛生长,其遗传稳定性较好,在第3天的降解率最佳且较稳定;该菌最有利于降解有机磷的条件如下:接种量4%、浓度为2%的蔗糖作碳源、浓度为0.15%的草酸铵作氮源、pH值为7、温度为30℃、摇床转速为150 r/min;正交实验优化四因素的最佳配比为蔗糖2.5%,草酸铵0.1%,培养温度28℃,摇床转速180 r/min.%Microorganism BR13 which can decompose organophosphorus pesticides was isolated from activated sludge in a purification tank for liquid waste of an insecticide factory, with its degradation rate in 0.4% glyphosate liquid medium as 64%, and the degradation character was investigated. Results showed that BR13 could grow well when concentration of organophosphorus pesticides was 0.4%, it had long term gene ticstability and on the third day the efficiency of BR13 in degrading was the best. The conditions made for BR13 degradation of organophosphorus pesticides are inoculation size 4%, medium containing 2% sucrose as sole carbon source and 0.15% ammonium oxalate as sole nitrogen source, pH 7, culture temperature 30℃ and shaker revolution 150 r/min. Results of orthogonal tests showed that the optimal combination for fermentation was as medium containing 2.5% sucrose as sole carbon source and 0.1% ammonium oxalate as sole nitrogen source, culture temperature 28 t and shaker revolution 180r/min.

  19. Tropospheric BrO column densities in the Arctic from satellite: retrieval and comparison to ground-based measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sihler

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available During polar spring, halogen radicals like bromine monoxide (BrO play an important role in the chemistry of tropospheric ozone destruction. Satellite measurements of the BrO-distribution have become a particularly useful tool to investigate this probably natural phenomenon, but the separation of stratospheric and tropospheric partial columns of BrO is challenging. In this study, an algorithm was developed to retrieve tropospheric vertical column densities of BrO from data of high-resolution spectroscopic satellite instruments such as the second Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2. Unlike recently published approaches, the presented algorithm is capable of separating the fraction of BrO in the activated troposphere from the total BrO column solely based on remotely measured properties. The sensitivity of each satellite pixel to BrO in the boundary-layer is quantified using the measured UV-radiance and the column density of the oxygen collision complex O4. A comparison of the sensitivities with CALIPSO LIDAR observations demonstrates that clouds shielding near-surface trace-gas columns can be reliably detected even over ice and snow. Retrieved tropospheric BrO columns are then compared to ground-based BrO measurements from two Arctic field campaigns in the Amundsen Gulf and at Barrow in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Our algorithm was found to be capable of retrieving enhanced near-surface BrO during both campaigns in good agreement to ground-based data. Some differences between ground-based and satellite measurements observed at Barrow can be explained by both, elevated and shallow surface layers of BrO. The observations strongly suggest that surface release processes are the dominating source of BrO and that boundary-layer meteorology influences the vertical distribution.

  20. Local and Catchment-Scale Water Storage Changes in Northern Benin Deduced from Gravity Monitoring at Various Time-Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinderer, J.; Hector, B.; Séguis, L.; Descloitres, M.; Cohard, J.; Boy, J.; Calvo, M.; Rosat, S.; Riccardi, U.; Galle, S.

    2013-12-01

    Water storage changes (WSC) are investigated by the mean of gravity monitoring in Djougou, northern Benin, in the frame of the GHYRAF (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa) project. In this area, WSC are 1) part of the control system for evapotranspiration (ET) processes, a key variable of the West-African monsoon cycle and 2) the state variable for resource management, a critical issue in storage-poor hard rock basement contexts such as in northern Benin. We show the advantages of gravity monitoring for analyzing different processes in the water cycle involved at various time and space scales, using the main gravity sensors available today (FG5 absolute gravimeter, superconducting gravimeter -SG- and CG5 micro-gravimeter). The study area is also part of the long-term observing system AMMA-Catch, and thus under intense hydro-meteorological monitoring (rain, soil moisture, water table level, ET ...). Gravity-derived WSC are compared at all frequencies to hydrological data and to hydrological models calibrated on these data. Discrepancies are analyzed to discuss the pros and cons of each approach. Fast gravity changes (a few hours) are significant when rain events occur, and involve different contributions: rainfall itself, runoff, fast subsurface water redistribution, screening effect of the gravimeter building and local topography. We investigate these effects and present the statistical results of a set of rain events recorded with the SG installed in Djougou since July 2010. The intermediate time scale of gravity changes (a few days) is caused by ET and both vertical and horizontal water redistribution. The integrative nature of gravity measurements does not allow to separate these different contributions, and the screening from the shelter reduces our ability to retrieve ET values. Also, atmospheric corrections are critical at such frequencies, and deserve some specific attention. However, a quick analysis of gravity changes following rain events shows that the

  1. siRNA干扰人BMP9重组腺病毒载体的构建及其促进乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞增殖%Construction of recombinant adenovirus vector interfering the expression of human BMP9 and promoting the proliferation of breast cancer SK-BR-3 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘月红; 王科; 孙笑笑; 万绍恒; 王维; 陈莹莹; 张彦

    2013-01-01

    目的 筛选特异性干扰人BMP9基因的siRNA序列并制备重组腺病毒AdsiBMP9,探讨RNAi人BMP9基因后对乳腺癌SK-BR-3细胞增殖能力的影响.方法 设计制备3对干扰人BMP9的双链DNA序列,亚克隆至Pses-Hus质粒中获得Pses-Hus-siBMP9质粒,脂质体转染乳腺上皮细胞HBL-100筛选有效干扰质粒,构建重组腺病毒并感染SK-BR-3细胞,RT-PCR,Western blot检测BMP9表达,MTT检测细胞增殖能力.结果 成功构建并筛选出针对人BMP9基因的有效干扰质粒并包装成腺病毒,病毒滴度为1×1010IU/mL,感染SK-BR-3细胞显示BMP9在转录水平和翻译水平表达量显著低于对照组和空白组(P<0.05),第5天AdsiBMP9组细胞的增殖率显著高于AdsiNC组(P<0.05).结论 成功构建特异性沉默人BMP9基因的siRNA腺病毒载体,可有效抑制SK-BR-3细胞中BMP9基因的表达从而促进该细胞增殖.%Objective To screen specific small interfering RNA(siRNA) target human BMP9 gene and to prepare recombinant adenovirus vector AdsiBMP9 for investigation of its effects on the proliferation of breast cancer SK-BR-3 cells. Methods Three pairs of double-stranded DNA fragments for silencing human BMP9 were designed and synthesized, then subcloned into the shuttle plasmid Pses-Hus. The recombinant plasmids Pses-Hus-siBMP9 were transfected into the breast epithelial cells HBL-100 by lipofectamine transfection reagent, screened the effective interfering plasmid, constructed AdsiBMP9 and infected SK-BR-3 cells. The expression level of BMP9 mRNA and protein were detected by RT-PCR and western blot. The proliferation of SK-BR-3 cells were observed with MTT assay. Results The recombinant plasmid Pses-Hus-siBMP9 and recombinant adenovirus AdsiBMP9 were successfully constructed and its titer was 1 × 1010 IU/mL. Compared to the negative and non-infected controls, the expres- sion of BMP9 gene was significantly inhibited after the SK-BR-3 cells were infected by AdsiBMP9. SK-BR-3 cells infected with

  2. Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 transactivates ErbB family receptors via the activation of Src in SK-BR-3 human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yun Jung; Lee, Hansoo; Lee, Jeong-Hyung

    2010-02-01

    The function of macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1) in cancer remains controversial, and its signaling pathways remain poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that MIC-1 induces the transactivation of EGFR, ErbB2, and ErbB3 through the activation of c-Src in SK-BR-3 breast cells. MIC-1 induced significant phosphorylation of EGFR at Tyr845, ErbB2 at Tyr877, and ErbB3 at Tyr1289 as well as Akt and p38, Erk1/2, and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Treatment of SK-BR-3 cells with MIC-1 increased the phosphorylation level of Src at Tyr416, and induced invasiveness of those cells. Inhibition of c-Src activity resulted in the complete abolition of MIC-1-induced phosphorylation of the EGFR, ErbB2, and ErbB3, as well as invasiveness and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 expression in SK-BR-3 cells. Collectively, these results show that MIC-1 may participate in the malignant progression of certain cancer cells through the activation of c-Src, which in turn may transactivate ErbB-family receptors.

  3. A theoretical study on structures, energetics, and spectra of Br-.nCO2 clusters: towards bridging the gap between micro-domain and macro-domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Arup Kumar

    2012-06-21

    Structures, energetics, and spectra of Br(-).nCO(2) (n = 1-8) clusters are studied based on ab initio electronic structure theory. The geometry of each size of clusters is evaluated by employing second-order Moller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation theory. It is observed that the solvent CO(2) molecules approach the bromide moiety from one side in an asymmetric fashion except for the Br(-).8CO(2) cluster. Simple electrostatic model for charge-quadrupole interactions is valid for the Br(-).nCO(2) clusters. Reduced variational space based energy decomposition method shows that the electrostatic interaction is the major component and polarization and charge transfer energies are the other significant components of the total interaction energy. Both adiabatic and vertical electron detachment energies and solvation energies are calculated at MP2 level of theory. We have observed an excellent agreement between theory and experiment for the vertical detachment and solvation energies. Calculated quantities based on the analytical expression which connects the finite domain to macroscopic one are found to be very good in agreement with the available experimental results. The present study reveals a 2.6 eV increase in the detachment energy of bromide anion due to the solvation effect of CO(2), which is relatively small compared to that of the corresponding 4.7 eV increase in detachment energy in water.

  4. Heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag plasmonic photocatalyst with enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wan-Sheng; Du, Hong; Wang, Rui-Xia; Wen, Tao; Xu, An-Wu

    2013-03-01

    A heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag plasmonic photocatalyst was prepared by a rational in situ ion exchange reaction between Ag3PO4 micro-cubes and Br- in aqueous solution followed by photoreduction. The photocatalytic activities of obtained photocatalysts were measured by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation (λ >= 400 nm). Compared to AgBr/Ag, Ag3PO4/AgBr heterocrystals and pure Ag3PO4 crystals, the heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag plasmonic photocatalysts exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity and stability. This enhanced photocatalytic activity suggests that the synergetic effects of the heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag and the strong SPR of Ag NPs on the surface result in the high efficiencies of the photocatalytic activity and the improved stability. With the assistance of Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag heterostructures, only 8 min and 12 min are taken to completely decompose MO and MB molecules under visible-light irradiation, respectively. Furthermore, the photodegradation rate does not show an obvious decrease during ten successive cycles, indicating that our heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag plasmonic photocatalysts are extremely stable under visible-light irradiation.A heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag plasmonic photocatalyst was prepared by a rational in situ ion exchange reaction between Ag3PO4 micro-cubes and Br- in aqueous solution followed by photoreduction. The photocatalytic activities of obtained photocatalysts were measured by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation (λ >= 400 nm). Compared to AgBr/Ag, Ag3PO4/AgBr heterocrystals and pure Ag3PO4 crystals, the heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag plasmonic photocatalysts exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity and stability. This enhanced photocatalytic activity suggests that the synergetic effects of the heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag and the strong SPR of Ag NPs on the surface result in the high

  5. Effects of SbBr3 addition to CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Takeo; Ohishi, Yuya; Suzuki, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    TiO2/CH3NH3Pb1-xSbxI3-2xBr3x-based photovoltaic devices were fabricated, and effects of SbBr3 addition to CH3NH3PbI3 precursor solutions on the photovoltaic properties were investigated. The short-circuit current densities and photoconversion efficiencies were improved by adding a small amount of SbBr3 to the perovskite phase, which would be due to a doping effect of Sb or Br atoms at the Pb or I sites.

  6. Crystal structure, hydrogen bonding, and {sup 81}Br NQR of low-temperature phase of 4-aminopyridinium tetrabromoantimonate (3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Masao [Kobe Univ., Faculty of Science, Dept. of Chemistry, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Terao, Hiromitsu [Tokushima Univ., Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Dept. of Chemistry, Tokushima (Japan); Fuess, Hartmut; Svoboda, Ingrid; Ehrenberg, Helmut [Darmstadt Univ. of Technology, Inst. for Materials Science, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2003-04-01

    The crystal structure of the low-temperature phase (LTP) of the title compound was determined at 220 K (monoclinic, P2{sub 1/c}). The 4-aminopyridinium cations (4-NH{sub 2}C{sub 5}H{sub 4}NH{sup +}) were found to be ordered in LTP, while being severely disordered in the room-temperature phase (monoclinic, C2/c). The tetrabromoantimonate anions (SbBr{sub 4}{sup -}) were incorporated into the infinite polyanion chains of irregular SbBr{sub 6} octahedra with two-edges sharing. The trans-Br-Sb-Br moiety in the SbBr{sub 4}{sup -} anion was approximately symmetric differing from the asymmetric Br-Sb{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot}Br moiety found in LTP of pyridinium tetrabromoantimonate (3). The N-H moieties in both of the pyridine ring and the amino (-NH{sub 2}) group participate in the formation of N-H{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot}Br hydrogen bonds. It was shown that the {sup 81}Br NQR spectrum of LTP is closely related to the anion structure and the hydrogen bonds. The distinctive anion structures, as well as the different types of phase transitions, exhibited by the PyH and 4-APyH salts, seemed to be attributable to the difference in the hydrogen bond scheme between them. (author)

  7. New constraints on the rupture process of the 1999 August 17 Izmit earthquake deduced from estimates of stress glut rate moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clévédé, E.; Bouin, M.-P.; Bukchin, B.; Mostinskiy, A.; Patau, G.

    2004-12-01

    This paper illustrates the use of integral estimates given by the stress glut rate moments of total degree 2 for constraining the rupture scenario of a large earthquake in the particular case of the 1999 Izmit mainshock. We determine the integral estimates of the geometry, source duration and rupture propagation given by the stress glut rate moments of total degree 2 by inverting long-period surface wave (LPSW) amplitude spectra. Kinematic and static models of the Izmit earthquake published in the literature are quite different from one another. In order to extract the characteristic features of this event, we calculate the same integral estimates directly from those models and compare them with those deduced from our inversion. While the equivalent rupture zone and the eastward directivity are consistent among all models, the LPSW solution displays a strong unilateral character of the rupture associated with a short rupture duration that is not compatible with the solutions deduced from the published models. With the aim of understand this discrepancy, we use simple equivalent kinematic models to reproduce the integral estimates of the considered rupture processes (including ours) by adjusting a few free parameters controlling the western and eastern parts of the rupture. We show that the joint analysis of the LPSW solution and source tomographies allows us to elucidate the scattering of source processes published for this earthquake and to discriminate between the models. Our results strongly suggest that (1) there was significant moment released on the eastern segment of the activated fault system during the Izmit earthquake; (2) the apparent rupture velocity decreases on this segment.

  8. Styrene oligomerization as a molecular probe reaction for Brønsted acidity at the nanoscale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aramburo Corrales, Luis; Wirick, Sue; Miedema, P.S.; Buurmans, I.L.C.; de Groot, F.M.F.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Brønsted acid-catalyzed oligomerization of 4-fluorostyrene has been studied on a series ofH-ZSM-5 zeolite powders, steamed under different conditions, with a combination of UV-Vismicro-spectroscopy and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM). UV-Vis microspectroscopyand STXM have been used

  9. Note on Penck and Brückner's diagram of the fluvio-glacial series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuenen, Ph.H.

    1926-01-01

    In their classical studies on the Alpine glaciation Penck and Brückner gave a small blockdiagram to illustrate the arrangement and shape of the deposits at the lower end of a former glacier: the fluvioglacial series. This diagram has been reproduced in so many text-books, that it may be worth-while

  10. Inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis in human lung cancer cells by Br-oxph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koleva Vanya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at evaluating apoptotic potential of Br-oxph (4-bromoN,N-diethyl-5,5-dimethyl-2,5-dihydro-1,2-oxaphosphol-2-amine 2-oxide in vitro. The dose response effect of Br-oxph (dose range 1-3 mg/ml, for 48 h on SK-MES-1 cells viability was determined by means of WST-1 cell proliferation assay. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (ІС50 value was determined - 1.8 mg/ml. The ability of the compound tested to induce apoptosis was tested by ELISA to detect cellular DNA fragmentation. We provided a quantitative assessment of the apoptotic potential of Br-oxph in human lung carcinoma cells at concentrations corresponding to ІС50 and 2хІС50 for 3 hours. Treatment with 2хІС50 significantly increased the amount of cytoplasmic DNA-fragments. Results obtained from the present study confirm that Br-oxph target the cancerous cells towards apoptosis.

  11. Træfacader - udvendige bræddebeklædninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjørn; Thomassen, Thomas

    Bogen vejleder om træbeklædningers opbygning og beskyttelse mod vejrliget, samt om gældende materialekrav og udvalgte træarter egnethed. Bogen handler om de mest anvendte former for bræddebeklædninger både til træskelethuse og som beklædning på huse af andre materialer....

  12. Brüssel ootab Eestilt rahastamisgarantiid / Maria-Elisa Rannajõe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rannajõe, Maria-Elisa

    2007-01-01

    Seirekomisjon "Euroopa kultuuripealinn 2011" ootab Eesti valitsuselt kinnitust kultuuripealinna projekti rahastamislubaduse kehtivusele. Projekti rahastab ühe kolmandiku ulatuses Tallinn, ühe kolmandiku osas Eesti riik, ühe kolmandiku moodustab sihtasutuse Tallinn 2011 omatulu. Komisjoni kohtumisest Brüsselis

  13. ANTIMONY HALIDES AND HgX2 (X = Cl, Br AMINE ADDUCTS: SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NDONGO GUEYE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight new SbF3, SbCl5 and HgX2 (X = Cl, Br amine adducts have been synthesized and their infrared study carried out. Discrete structures have been suggested on the basis of elemental analysis and infrared data, the coordination number of antimony varying from five to nine, while the environment around Hg is tetrahedral.

  14. Reductive Deoxygenation of Carbonyl to Methylene by LiAlH4/InBr3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Yan FU; Xue Mei ZHAO; Yao Feng YUAN; Ji Tao WANG

    2003-01-01

    The reductive deoxygenation of aldehydes and ketones into the corresponding alkanes isaccomplished by LiA1H4 in the presence of Lewis acid InBr3. It provides a convenient method tocomplete the transformation from carbonyl compounds to alkanes.

  15. Temporal Characteristics of Emission of Working Mixtures of a HgBr/HgCl Excimer Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinin, A. N.; Guĭvan, N. N.; Shimon, L. L.; Polyak, A. V.; Zubrilin, N. G.; Shchedrin, A. I.

    2001-12-01

    Results of a study of temporal characteristics of the emission of gas-discharge plasma of atmospheric pressure in multicomponent mixtures (mercury dibromide and dichloride with helium and additions of molecular nitrogen and xenon) of working media of HgBr/HgCl excimer lamps are presented. Gas-discharge plasma was produced and components of the working mixture were excited by high-frequency barrier and surface discharges occurring simultaneously. The repetition rate of the pumping pulse and its duration are 1000 Hz and ˜100 ns, respectively. It is found that the amplitude and the length of emission pulses and their trailing edge are modified in HgBr2: HgCl2: Xe: He and HgBr2: HgCl2: N2: He mixtures when xenon and molecular nitrogen are added, as compared to a HgBr2: HgCl2: He mixture. Regularities observed in temporal characteristics of gas-discharge plasma emission are discussed.

  16. Brønsted acid-surfactant (BAS catalysed cyclotrimerization of aryl methyl ketone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Phatangare

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A brønsted acid-surfactant catalysed and simple, mild, metal catalyst free and chemo-selective method has been developed for synthesis of 1, 3, 5-triaryl benzenes from aryl methyl ketones. The advantages of this protocol subsume green and sustainable reaction medium, mild reaction conditions, easy product recovery and its good yields.

  17. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of [Ca(DMF)6][Mo6Br8Cl6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xi; CAI Li-Zhen; GUO Guo-Cong; LI Qiang; HUANG Jin-Shun

    2006-01-01

    The reaction of MoBr2 with CaCl2 in DMF (N, N'-dimethylformamide) gives the cluster complex [Ca(DMF)6][Mo6Br8Cl6] 1 by using standard Schlenk techniques. This cluster complex crystallizes in triclinic, space group (P1) with a = 10.329(4), b = 10.349(4), c = 12.510(5) (A), α = 103.793(5), β = 98.562(3), γ = 98.268(5)°, V = 1261.5(9)(A)3, Dc = 2.509 g/cm3, Z = 1, C18H42Br8CaCl6Mo6N6O6, Mr = 1906.28, μ = 8.236 mm-1, λ(MoKα) = 0.71073(A)and F(000) = 894. The final R = 0.0589 and wR = 0.1458 for 2759 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I). The structure is composed of isolated octahedral coordination cations and discrete cluster anions, and these two kinds of ions connect each other to form a 3-D framework with similar packing patterns as CsCl through weak C-H…X (X = Br, Cl) hydrogen bonds.

  18. Approche d'un grand espace: la maille municipale des Cerrados brésiliens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe WANIEZ

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available L'espace des Cerrados brésiliens est en cours de colonisation. Le système d'information SISECSO facilite l'analyse des transformations économiques et sociales de ce territoire. Le film de la formation de la maille municipale est une première approche originale.

  19. The imaging performance of a LaBr{sub 3}-based PET scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daube-Witherspoon, M E; Surti, S; Kyba, C C M; Wiener, R; Werner, M E; Kulp, R; Karp, J S [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, 423 Guardian Drive, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Perkins, A [Philips Healthcare (United States)], E-mail: daubewit@mail.med.upenn.edu

    2010-01-07

    A prototype time-of-flight (TOF) PET scanner based on cerium-doped lanthanum bromide [LaBr{sub 3} (5% Ce)] has been developed. LaBr{sub 3} has a high light output, excellent energy resolution and fast timing properties that have been predicted to lead to good image quality. Intrinsic performance measurements of spatial resolution, sensitivity and scatter fraction demonstrate good conventional PET performance; the results agree with previous simulation studies. Phantom measurements show the excellent image quality achievable with the prototype system. Phantom measurements and corresponding simulations show a faster and more uniform convergence rate, as well as more uniform quantification, for TOF reconstruction of the data, which have 375 ps intrinsic timing resolution, compared to non-TOF images. Measurements and simulations of a hot and cold sphere phantom show that the 7% energy resolution helps to mitigate residual errors in the scatter estimate because a high energy threshold (>480 keV) can be used to restrict the amount of scatter accepted without a loss of true events. Preliminary results with incorporation of a model of detector blurring in the iterative reconstruction algorithm not only show improved contrast recovery but also point out the importance of an accurate resolution model of the tails of LaBr{sub 3}'s point spread function. The LaBr{sub 3} TOF-PET scanner demonstrated the impact of superior timing and energy resolutions on image quality.

  20. Graafikakeskuse külaline Brüsselist / Loit Jõekalda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõekalda, Loit

    2000-01-01

    14.-24. II Tallinnas viibinud Brüsseli kunstiakadeemia professoril Charles van Gisbergenil valmisid Tallinna graafikakeskuses Tallinna-ainelised tööd. Samas oli väljas valik tema töödest. Mais sõidavad Masereeli graafikakeskusesse stazheerima Virge Jõekalda, Mall Nukke, kellel on võimalus eksponeerida oma töid Kasterlees.

  1. On the behavior of Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi relations for transition metal oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vojvodic, Aleksandra; Vallejo, Federico Calle; Guo, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Versatile Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relations are found from density functional theory for a wide range of transition metal oxides including rutiles and perovskites. For oxides, the relation depends on the type of oxide, the active site, and the dissociating molecule. The slope of the BEP...

  2. Maleic-anhydride grafted EPM as compatibilising agent in NR/BR/EPDM blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, H.; Datta, R.N.; Talma, A.G.; Noordermeer, J.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Incorporation of approximately 30 phr Ethylene–Propylene–Diene rubber (EPDM) into natural rubber (NR)/butadiene rubber (BR) is a means to achieve non-staining ozone resistance for tire sidewall applications. However, due to incompatibility of the elastomers and heterogeneous filler distribution in e

  3. Photochromic kinetic spectra and intermediates of BR-D96N

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG; Yuan(郑媛); YAO; Baoli(姚保利); WANG; Yingli(王英利); LEI; Ming(雷铭); CHEN; Guofu(陈国夫); Norbert; Hampp

    2003-01-01

    BR-D96N is a kind of genetically site-specific mutant of bacteriorhodopsin (BR) with obvious photochromic effect. Compared to the wild type BR, the lifetime of M state of BR-D96N is prolonged to several minutes so that the photochromic kinetics and the intermediates formation can be studied by the conventional spectra analysis. In the experiment, the absorption spectra of the sample at different time after light illumination are measured with spectrophotometer. By fitting and analyzing the variation of the spectra, we suppose there are three main states in the photochromic process, i.e. B state (light-adapted state), M state and D state (dark-adapted state). The absorption spectra of the B state, M state and D state are extracted from the experimental data based on this three-state model and the spectra at various time are fitted with the least square method. So, the variations of population percentages of the M state, B state and D state are obtained and the M state and B state lifetimes are estimated. In another way, from measuring the absorption dynamics at 407 nm and 568 nm, the M state and B state lifetimes are also obtained by two exponential data fitting, which give coincident results with those of the spectra analysis.

  4. Thermodynamic Properties of Compressed CuX (X = Cl, Br) Compounds: Ab Initio Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioud, Nadhira; Kassali, Kamel; Bouarissa, Nadir

    2017-04-01

    A pseudopotential plane wave method based on the density functional theory has been employed to study some thermodynamic properties of copper chloride (CuCl) and copper bromide (CuBr) compounds under the effect of temperature and pressure. The phase transition pressure, the unit cell volume, the isothermal bulk modulus, the constant volume heat capacity, the entropy, the Debye temperature, the Grüneisen parameter and the volumetric thermal expansion coefficient are studied in the pressure range 0-10 GPa, and for temperatures ranging from 0 K up to 650 K and 750 K for CuCl and CuBr, respectively. The phase transition pressure is found to be around 7.8 and 6.95 GPa for CuCI and CuBr, respectively. These values are respectively in reasonably good agreement with the experimental ones of 8.2 GPa and 6.8 GPa reported in the literature. Moreover, at room temperature and zero pressure, the heat capacity at constant volume and the Grüneisen parameter of both compounds of interest are found to be in good agreement with the available experimental and theoretical data. The information gathered from the present investigation may be useful for the study of the behavior of the fundamental properties of CuCI and CuBr under the influence of high temperature and pressure.

  5. Fast-neutron induced background in LaBr3:Ce detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kiener, J; Deloncle, I; de Séréville, N; Laurent, P; Blondel, C; Chabot, M; Chipaux, R; Coc, A; Dubos, S; Gostojic, A; Goutev, N; Hamadache, C; Hammache, F; Horeau, B; Limousin, O; Ouichaoui, S; Prévot, G; Rodríguez-Gasén, R; Yavahchova, M S

    2015-01-01

    The response of a scintillation detector with a cylindrical 1.5-inch LaBr3:Ce crystal to incident neutrons has been measured in the energy range En = 2-12 MeV. Neutrons were produced by proton irradiation of a Li target at Ep = 5-14.6 MeV with pulsed proton beams. Using the time-of-flight information between target and detector, energy spectra of the LaBr3:Ce detector resulting from fast neutron interactions have been obtained at 4 different neutron energies. Neutron-induced gamma rays emitted by the LaBr3:Ce crystal were also measured in a nearby Ge detector at the lowest proton beam energy. In addition, we obtained data for neutron irradiation of a large-volume high-purity Ge detector and of a NE-213 liquid scintillator detector, both serving as monitor detectors in the experiment. Monte-Carlo type simulations for neutron interactions in the liquid scintillator, the Ge and LaBr3:Ce crystals have been performed and compared with measured data. Good agreement being obtained with the data, we present the resul...

  6. Nueva cita de Utricularia australis R. Br. en el País Vasco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGLESIAS-CARRASCO, M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha descubierto una nueva población de la especie Utricularia australis R. Br., catalogada como “en peligro de extinción” en el Catálogo Vasco de Especies Amenazadas. La población, situada en el Alto Nervión, superará, seguramente, el millar de ejemplares.

  7. Radiopurity of a CeBr{sub 3} crystal used as scintillation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutter, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.lutter@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, DG JRC, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, 2440 Geel (Belgium); Hult, Mikael [European Commission, DG JRC, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, 2440 Geel (Belgium); Billnert, Robert [European Commission, DG JRC, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, 2440 Geel (Belgium); Fundamental Fysik, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, 41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Oberstedt, Andreas [Fundamental Fysik, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, 41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Oberstedt, Stephan; Andreotti, Erica; Marissens, Gerd; Rosengård, Ulf; Tzika, Faidra [European Commission, DG JRC, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, 2440 Geel (Belgium)

    2013-03-01

    Cerium bromide (CeBr{sub 3}) has recently been shown to exhibit several properties making it a suitable material as a scintillation detector in nuclear physics applications. The intrinsic activity of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in a 38.1 mm×38.1 mm (diameter×height) crystal of CeBr{sub 3} was investigated. The measurements were carried out in the HADES underground laboratory located 225 m underground. Two primordial radionuclides were detected; {sup 227}Ac (and its daughters) with massic activity of 0.30±0.02 Bq/kg and {sup 138}La with massic activity of 7.4±1.0 mBq/kg. Two activation products were also detected; {sup 139}Ce and {sup 82}Br. Their massic activities (assuming a homogeneous distribution in the crystal) just before taking the CeBr{sub 3} crystal underground were 4.3±0.3 mBq/kg and 18±4 mBq/kg correspondingly. None of the other common primordial radionuclides ({sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, and {sup 235}U) were detected and their detection limits were below 2 mBq/kg except for {sup 238}U for which the upper limit was 135 mBq/kg and {sup 210}Pb with an upper limit of 600 mBq/kg.

  8. Role of Brønsted acid in selective production of furfural in biomass pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Liu, Xuejun; Lu, Meizhen; Hu, Xinyue; Lu, Leigang; Tian, Xiaoning; Ji, Jianbing

    2014-10-01

    In this work, the role of Brønsted acid for furfural production in biomass pyrolysis on supported sulfates catalysts was investigated. The introduction of Brønsted acid was shown to improve the degradation of polysaccharides to intermediates for furfural, which did not work well when only Lewis acids were used in the process. Experimental results showed that CuSO4/HZSM-5 catalyst exhibited the best performance for furfural (28% yield), which was much higher than individual HZSM-5 (5%) and CuSO4 (6%). The optimum reaction conditions called for the mass ratio of CuSO4/HZSM-5 to be 0.4 and the catalyst/biomass mass ratio to be 0.5. The recycled catalyst exhibited low productivity (9%). Analysis of the catalysts by Py-IR revealed that the CuSO4/HZSM-5 owned a stronger Brønsted acid intensity than HZSM-5 or the recycled CuSO4/HZSM-5. Therefore, the existence of Brønsted acid is necessary to achieve a more productive degradation of biomass for furfural.

  9. TRIP-Br2 promotes oncogenesis in nude mice and is frequently overexpressed in multiple human tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peh Bee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the TRIP-Br/SERTAD family of mammalian transcriptional coregulators have recently been implicated in E2F-mediated cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis. We, herein, focus on the detailed functional characterization of the least understood member of the TRIP-Br/SERTAD protein family, TRIP-Br2 (SERTAD2. Methods Oncogenic potential of TRIP-Br2 was demonstrated by (1 inoculation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts, which were engineered to stably overexpress ectopic TRIP-Br2, into athymic nude mice for tumor induction and (2 comprehensive immunohistochemical high-throughput screening of TRIP-Br2 protein expression in multiple human tumor cell lines and human tumor tissue microarrays (TMAs. Clinicopathologic analysis was conducted to assess the potential of TRIP-Br2 as a novel prognostic marker of human cancer. RNA interference of TRIP-Br2 expression in HCT-116 colorectal carcinoma cells was performed to determine the potential of TRIP-Br2 as a novel chemotherapeutic drug target. Results Overexpression of TRIP-Br2 is sufficient to transform murine fibroblasts and promotes tumorigenesis in nude mice. The transformed phenotype is characterized by deregulation of the E2F/DP-transcriptional pathway through upregulation of the key E2F-responsive genes CYCLIN E, CYCLIN A2, CDC6 and DHFR. TRIP-Br2 is frequently overexpressed in both cancer cell lines and multiple human tumors. Clinicopathologic correlation indicates that overexpression of TRIP-Br2 in hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with a worse clinical outcome by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Small interfering RNA-mediated (siRNA knockdown of TRIP-Br2 was sufficient to inhibit cell-autonomous growth of HCT-116 cells in vitro. Conclusion This study identifies TRIP-Br2 as a bona-fide protooncogene and supports the potential for TRIP-Br2 as a novel prognostic marker and a chemotherapeutic drug target in human cancer.

  10. Breast cancer 1 (BrCa1 may be behind decreased lipogenesis in adipose tissue from obese subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Ortega

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Expression and activity of the main lipogenic enzymes is paradoxically decreased in obesity, but the mechanisms behind these findings are poorly known. Breast Cancer 1 (BrCa1 interacts with acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC reducing the rate of fatty acid biosynthesis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate BrCa1 in human adipose tissue according to obesity and insulin resistance, and in vitro cultured adipocytes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: BrCa1 gene expression, total and phosphorylated (P- BrCa1, and ACC were analyzed in adipose tissue samples obtained from a total sample of 133 subjects. BrCa1 expression was also evaluated during in vitro differentiation of human adipocytes and 3T3-L1 cells. RESULTS: BrCa1 gene expression was significantly up-regulated in both omental (OM; 1.36-fold, p = 0.002 and subcutaneous (SC; 1.49-fold, p = 0.001 adipose tissue from obese subjects. In parallel with increased BrCa1 mRNA, P-ACC was also up-regulated in SC (p = 0.007 as well as in OM (p = 0.010 fat from obese subjects. Consistent with its role limiting fatty acid biosynthesis, both BrCa1 mRNA (3.5-fold, p<0.0001 and protein (1.2-fold, p = 0.001 were increased in pre-adipocytes, and decreased during in vitro adipogenesis, while P-ACC decreased during differentiation of human adipocytes (p = 0.005 allowing lipid biosynthesis. Interestingly, BrCa1 gene expression in mature adipocytes was restored by inflammatory stimuli (macrophage conditioned medium, whereas lipogenic genes significantly decreased. CONCLUSIONS: The specular findings of BrCa1 and lipogenic enzymes in adipose tissue and adipocytes reported here suggest that BrCa1 might help to control fatty acid biosynthesis in adipocytes and adipose tissue from obese subjects.

  11. The Brazilian INPE-UFSM NANOSATC-BR CubeSat Development Capacity Building Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Cupertino Durao, Otavio S.

    The Brazilian INPE-UFSM NANOSATC-BR CubeSat Development Capacity Building Program (CBP) and the results of the NANOSATC-BR1, the first Brazilian CubeSat launching, expected for 2014's first semester, are presented. The CBP consists of two CubeSats, NANOSATC-BR 1 (1U) & 2 (2U) and is expected operate in orbit for at least 12 months each, with capacity building in space science, engineering and computer sciences for the development of space technologies using CubeSats satellites. The INPE-UFSM’s CBP Cooperation is basically among: (i) the Southern Regional Space Research Center (CRS), from the Brazilian INPE/MCTI, where acts the Program's General Coordinator and Projects NANOSATC-BR 1 & 2 Manager, having technical collaboration and management of the Mission’s General Coordinator for Engineering and Space Technology at INPE’s Headquarter (HQ), in São José dos Campos, São Paulo; (ii) the Santa Maria Space Science Laboratory (LACESM/CT) from the Federal University of Santa Maria - (UFSM); (iii) the Santa Maria Design House (SMDH); (iv) the Graduate Program in Microelectronics from the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (MG/II/UFRGS); and (v) the Aeronautic Institute of Technology (ITA/DCTA/CA-MD). The INPE-UFSM’s CBP has the involvement of UFSM' undergraduate students and graduate students from: INPE/MCTI, MG/II/UFRGS and ITA/DCTA/CA-MD. The NANOSATC-BR 1 & 2 Projects Ground Stations (GS) capacity building operation with VHF/UHF band and S-band antennas, are described in two specific papers at this COSPAR-2014. This paper focuses on the development of NANOSATC-BR 1 & 2 and on the launching of NANOSATC-BR1. The Projects' concepts were developed to: i) monitor, in real time, the Geospace, the Ionosphere, the energetic particle precipitation and the disturbances at the Earth's Magnetosphere over the Brazilian Territory, and ii) the determination of their effects on regions such as the South American Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA) and the Brazilian sector of the

  12. Measurement of the Ratio BR(B- --> D*0 K-)/BR(B- --> D*0 pi-) and the CP-asymmetry of B- --> D*0(CP+) K- decays with the BABAR detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Abrams, G S; Adye, T; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Albert, J; Aleksan, Roy; Allison, J; Allmendinger, T; Altenburg, D; Andreotti, M; Angelini, C; Anulli, F; Aston, D; Azzolini, V; Baak, M; Back, J J; Bailey, S; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Band, H R; Banerjee, Sw; Barate, R; Bard, D J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Barrett, M; Bartoldus, R; Batignani, G; Bauer, J M; Beck, T W; Behera, P K; Bellini, F; Benayoun, M; Berger, N; Bernard, D; Berryhill, J W; Best, D; Bettarini, S; Bettoni, D; Bevan, A J; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, F; Biasini, M; Blanc, F; Blaylock, G; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Bloom, P; Bóna, M; Bondioli, M; Bonneaud, G R; Borgland, A W; Bosisio, L; Boutigny, D; Bowerman, D A; Boyarski, A M; Boyd, J T; Bozzi, C; Brandenburg, G; Brandt, T; Brau, J E; Breon, A B; Briand, H; Brochard, F; Brose, J; Brown, C L; Brown, C M; Brown, D; Brown, D N; Bruinsma, M; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Buchanan, C; Buchmüller, O L; Bugg, W; Bulten, H; Burchat, Patricia R; Button-Shafer, J; Buzzo, A; Côté, D; Cahn, R N; Calabrese, R; Calcaterra, A; Calderini, G; Campagnari, C; Capra, R; Carpinelli, M; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; Cavoto, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Chao, M; Charles, E; Charles, M J; Chauveau, J; Chavez, C A; Chen, A; Chen, E; Chen, J C; Chen, S; Cheng, B; Cheng, C H; Chevalier, N; Christ, S; Cibinetto, G; Clark, P J; Claus, R; Cochran, J; Colecchia, F; Coleman, J P; Contri, R; Convery, M R; Cormack, C M; Cossutti, F; Cottingham, W N; Couderc, F; Covarelli, R; Cowan, G; Cowan, R; Crawley, H B; Cremaldi, L M; Cristinziani, M; Crosetti, G; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Dahmes, B; Dallapiccola, C; Danielson, N; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Dauncey, P D; David, P; Davier, M; Davis, C L; Day, C T; De Groot, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; Del Buono, L; Della Ricca, G; Di Lodovico, F; Dickopp, M; Dittongo, S; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dorigo, A; Druzhinin, V P; Dubitzky, R S; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Dvoretskii, A; Eckmann, R; Edwards, A J; Egede, U; Eichenbaum, A M; Eigen, G; Eisner, A M; Elmer, P; Elsen, E E; Emery, S; Ernst, J A; Eschenburg, V; Eschrich, I; Fabozzi, F; Faccini, R; Fan, S; Farbin, A; Feltresi, E; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Field, R C; Finocchiaro, G; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; Flood, K T; Ford, K E; Ford, W T; Forster, I J; Forti, F; Fortin, D; Foulkes, S D; Franek, B J; Frey, R; Fritsch, M; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gaidot, A; Gaillard, J M; Gaillard, J R; Galeazzi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Gamet, R; Gan, K K; Ganzhur, S F; Gary, J W; Gaspero, M; Gatto, C; Geddes, N I; Gill, M S; Giorgi, M A; Giraud, P F; Giroux, X; Gladney, L; Glanzman, T; Godang, R; Goetzen, K; Golubev, V B; Gopal, G P; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M; Grancagnolo, S; Green, M G; Greene, M G; Grenier, G J; Grenier, P; Gritsan, A V; Grosdidier, G; Groysman, Y; Guo, Q H; Hadavand, H K; Hadig, T; Haire, M; Halyo, V; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Hamon, O; Harrison, P F; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hart, P A; Hartfiel, B L; Harton, J L; Hast, C; Hauke, A; Hawkes, C M; Hearty, C; Held, T; Hertzbach, S S; Heusch, C A; Hicheur, A; Hill, E J; Hitlin, D G; Höcker, A; Hodgkinson, M C; Hollar, J J; Honscheid, K; Hrynóva, T; Hufnagel, D; Hulsbergen, W D; Hutchcroft, D E; Igonkina, O; Innes, W R; Ivanchenko, V N; Izen, J M; Jackson, P D; Jackson, P S; Jacobsen, R G; Jawahery, A; Jayatilleke, S M; Jessop, C P; John, M J J; Johnson, J R; Judd, D; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kagan, H; Karyotakis, Yu; Kass, R; Kelly, M P; Kelsey, M H; Kerth, L T; Khan, A; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kirkby, D; Kitayama, I; Knecht, N S; Koch, H; Kocian, M L; Kofler, R; Kolomensky, Yu G; Koptchev, V B; Kovalskyi, D; Kowalewski, R V; Kozanecki, Witold; Kravchenko, E A; Krishnamurthy, M; Kroeger, R; Kroseberg, J; Kukartsev, G; Kutter, P E; Kyberd, P; Lacker, H M; Lae, C K; Lafferty, G D; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lange, D J; Langenegger, U; Lankford, A J; Laplace, S; Latham, T E; Lau, Y P; Lavin, D; Lazzaro, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lees, J P; Legendre, M; Leith, D W G S; Lepeltier, V; Leruste, P; Lewandowski, B; Li Gioi, L; Li, H; Libby, J; Lillard, V; Lista, L; Liu, R; LoSecco, J M; Lo Vetere, M; Lockman, W S; Lombardo, V; London, G W; Long, O; Lou, X C; Lu, A; Lü, C; Luitz, S; Luppi, E; Lusiani, A; Lüth, V; Lutz, A M; Lynch, G; Lynch, H L; Lyon, A J; MacFarlane, D B; Macri, M; Malcles, J; Mallik, U; Mancinelli, G; Mandelkern, M A; Manfredi, P F; Mangeol, D J J; Marchiori, G; Margoni, M; Marsiske, H; Martínez-Vidal, F; Mattison, T S; Mayer, B; Mazur, M A; Mazzoni, M A; McKenna, J A; McMahon, T R; Meadows, B T; Messner, R; Meyer, T I; Meyer, W T; Miftakov, V; Mihályi, A; Mir, L M; Mohanty, G B; Mohapatra, A K; Mommsen, R K; Monge, M R; Monorchio, D; Moore, T B; Morandin, M; Morgan, S E; Morganti, M; Morganti, S; Morii, M; Morton, G W; Muheim, F; Müller, D R; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Narsky, I; Nash, J A; Nauenberg, U; Neal, H; Negrini, M; Neri, N; Nesom, G; Nicholson, H; Nikolich, M B; Nogowski, R; O'Grady, C P; Ocariz, J; Oddone, P J; Ofte, I; Olaiya, E O; Olivas, A; Olsen, J; Onuchin, A P; Orimoto, T J; Otto, S; Ozcan, V E; Paar, H P; Paick, K; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Pan, Y; Panetta, J; Panvini, R S; Paoloni, E; Paolucci, P; Parry, R J; Passaggio, S; Patel, P M; Patrignani, C; Patteri, P; Payne, D J; Pelizaeus, M; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Peruzzi, I M; Petersen, B A; Petersen, T C; Petrak, S; Petzold, A; Piatenko, T; Piccolo, D; Piccolo, M; Piemontese, L; Pierini, M; Pioppi, M; Piredda, G; Pivk, M; Plaszczynski, S; Playfer, S; Pompili, A; Poropat, P; Porter, F C; Posocco, M; Potter, C T; Prell, S; Prepost, R; Pripstein, M; Pulliam, T; Purohit, M V; Qi, N D; Rahatlou, S; Rahimi, A M; Rama, M; Rankin, P; Ratcliff, B N; Raven, G; Re, V; Reidy, J; Ricciardi, S; Richman, J D; Ritchie, J L; Rizzo, G; Roat, C; Roberts, D A; Robertson, S H; Robutti, E; Roe, N A; Röthel, W; Ronan, Michael T; Roney, J M; Rong, G; Roodman, A; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rotondo, M; Rubin, A E; Ryd, A; Saeed, M A; Safai-Tehrani, F; Saleem, M; Salnikov, A A; Salvatore, F; Samuel, A; Sanders, D A; Sandrelli, F; Santroni, A; Saremi, S; Sarti, A; Satpathy, A; Schalk, T; Schindler, R H; Schott, G; Schrenk, S; Schubert, J; Schubert, Klaus R; Schumm, B A; Schune, M H; Schwiening, J; Schwierz, R; Schwitters, R F; Sciacca, C; Sciolla, G; Seiden, A; Sekula, S J; Serednyakov, S I; Sharma, V; Shelkov, V G; Shen, B C; Simani, M C; Simi, G; Simonetto, F; Sinev, N B; Skovpen, Yu I; Sloane, R J; Smith, A J S; Smith, J G; Snoek, H L; Snyder, A; Sobie, R J; Soffer, A; Soha, A; Sokoloff, M D; Solodov, E P; Spaan, B; Spanier, S M; Spradlin, P; Stängle, H; Steinke, M; Stelzer, J; Stoker, D P; Stroili, R; Strom, D; Stugu, B; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Summers, D J; Sundermann, J E; T'Jampens, S; Tan, P; Tantot, L; Taras, P; Taylor, F; Taylor, G P; Telnov, A V; Teodorescu, L; Ter-Antonian, R; Therin, G; Thiebaux, C; Thiessen, D; Tiozzo, G; Tisserand, V; Toki, W H; Torrence, E; Tosi, S; Touramanis, C; Treadwell, E; Vasileiadis, G; Vasseur, G; Vavra, J; Verderi, M; Verkerke, W; Vitale, L; Voci, C; Voena, C; Vuagnin, G; Wagner, G; Wagner, S R; Wagoner, D E; Waldi, R; Walsh, J; Wang, K; Wang, P; Wappler, F R; Watson, A T; Weaver, M; Weidemann, A W; Weinstein, A J R; Wenzel, W A; Wilden, L; Williams, D C; Williams, J C; Willocq, S; Wilson, F F; Wilson, J R; Wilson, M G; Wilson, R J; Winter, M A; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Won, E; Wong, Q K; Wormser, G; Wright, D H; Wright, D M; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Xie, Y; Yamamoto, R K; Yang, S; Yarritu, A K; Ye, S; Yéche, C; Yi, J; Young, C C; Yu, Z; Yumiceva, F X; Yushkov, A N; Zallo, A; Zeng, Q; Zghiche, A; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, H W; Zhu, Y S; Zito, M; De Sangro, R; Del Re, D; La Vaissière, C de

    2004-01-01

    We present a study of the decays B- --> D*0 pi- and B- --> D*0 K-, where the D*0 decays into D0 pi0, with the D0 reconstructed in the CP eigenstates K- K+ and pi- pi+ and in the (non-CP) channels K- pi+, K- pi+ pi+ pi-, and K- pi+ pi0. We use an unbinned maximum likelihood fit to measure the signal yields. Using a sample of about 123 million Y(4S) decays into B anti-B pairs, we measure the ratios of decay rates R*(CP+)=BR(B- --> D*0(CP+) K-)/BR(B- --> D*0(CP+) pi-) = 0.088+-0.021(stat)+0.007-0.005(syst), and provide the first measurements of R*(non-CP) = BR(B- --> D*0(non-CP) K-)/BR(B- --> D*0(non-CP) pi-) = 0.0805+-0.0040(stat)+0.0039-0.0032(syst), and of the CP asymmetry A*(CP+) = (BR(B- --> D*0(CP+) K-)-BR(B+ --> D*0(CP+) K+))/(BR(B- --> D*0(CP+) K-)+BR(B+ --> D*0(CP+) K+)) = -0.02+-0.24(stat)\\+-0.05(syst). These results are preliminary.

  13. Fabrication of a dye-sensitized solar cell containing a Mg-doped TiO2 electrode and a Br3(-)/Br- redox mediator with a high open-circuit photovoltage of 1.21 V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakiage, Kenji; Tokutome, Toru; Iwamoto, Shinji; Kyomen, Toru; Hanaya, Minoru

    2013-01-07

    A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) fabricated by using a Mg(2+)-doped anatase-TiO(2) electrode with an alkoxysilyl dye and a Br(3)(-)/Br(-) electrolyte solution exhibited successfully a remarkably high open-circuit photovoltage over 1.2 V, demonstrating a new possibility of DSSCs as practical photovoltaic devices.

  14. Ecotoxicity of glyphosate and aterbane® br surfactant on guaru (Phalloceros caudimaculatus = Ecotoxicologia do glifosato e surfactante aterbane® br para guaru (Phalloceros caudimaculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Sayuri Shiogiri

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic macrophytes are important components of aquatic ecosystems, but these plants have become a problem due to their occurrence in different regions. Some studies aimed to demonstrate the effectiveness of herbicides to control these macrophytes; however, fewstudies report the possible ecotoxicological effects. The objective of this study was to estimate the acute toxicity (LC (I50;96h and assess water quality variables for glyphosate in the Rodeo® formulation, Aterbane® BR surfactant and mixtures of glyphosate + 0.5% and 1.0% of surfactant, for the guaru fish (Phallocerus caudimaculatus. The guaru was exposed to increasing concentrationsof glyphosate and a mixture of glyphosate + 0.5 and 1.0% of surfactant. The mixture of glyphosate and glyphosate + 0.5 and 1.0% of surfactant showed (LC (I50;96h > 975.0 mg L-1. For the surfactant, the rate was 5.81 mg L-1. The glyphosate and mixtures of glyphosate + 0.5% and 1.0% of surfactant caused a decrease in pH and dissolved oxygen and increased the electrical conductivity of water. Glyphosate in the Rodeo® formulation and the mixtures with surfactantAterbane® BR can be classified as practically nontoxic, whereas surfactant Aterbane® BR can be considered as moderately toxic to guaru.As macrófitas aquáticas são importantes componentes dos ecossistemas, porém elas têm se tornado um problema pela sua ocorrência em diversas regiões. Alguns estudos visam comprovar a eficácia dos herbicidas no controle dessas macrófitas, porém, poucos trabalhos relatam os possíveis efeitos ecotoxicológicos. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a toxicidade aguda (LC (I50;96h e avaliar as variáveis de qualidade de água para o glifosato na formulação Rodeo®, o surfactante Aterbane® BR e das misturas de glifosato + 0,5 e 1,0% do surfactante, para o peixe guaru (Phallocerus caudimaculatus. Para tanto, o guaru foi exposto a concentrações de glifosato e da mistura do glifosato + 0,5 e 1,0% do

  15. Batch and column studies of adsorption of Li, Ni and Br by a reference sand for contaminant transport experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigel, M.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ward, D.B.; Bryan, C.R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    A processed quartz sand (Wedron 510), mined from the St. Peter sandstone, has been characterized by a variety of chemical and physical methods for use as a reference porous media in transport model validation experiments. Wedron 510 sand was used in an intermediate-scale experiment involving migration of Ni, Li and Br through a 6-m high x 3-m diameter caisson. Ni and Li adsorption/desorption, and Li/Ni site-competition experiments yielded information on the importance of the trace mineral phases to adsorption of Li and Ni by the sand. The presence of an iron hydroxide coating similar to goethite on the sand grains is suggested by visual observation and leaching experiments. Kaolinite was identified by SEM and XRD as a significant trace mineral phase in the sand and occurs as small particles coating the sand grains. Quartz, the predominant constituent of the sand by weight, does not appear to contribute significantly to the adsorption properties of the sand. Qualitatively, the adsorption properties of the sand can be adequately modeled as a two-mineral system (goethite and kaolinite). The studies described in this report should provide a basis for understanding transport of Ni, Li and Br through porous media similar to the reference sand. Techniques were developed for obtaining parameter values for surface complexation and kinetic adsorption models for the sand and its mineral components. These constants can be used directly in coupled hydrogeochemical transport codes. The techniques should be useful for characterization of other natural materials and elements in high-level nuclear waste in support of coupled hydrogeochemical transport calculations for Yucca Mountain.

  16. Global impacts of tropospheric halogens (Cl, Br, I) on oxidants and composition in GEOS-Chem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwen, Tomás; Schmidt, Johan A.; Evans, Mat J.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Großmann, Katja; Eastham, Sebastian D.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Dix, Barbara; Koenig, Theodore K.; Sinreich, Roman; Ortega, Ivan; Volkamer, Rainer; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Prados-Roman, Cristina; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Ordóñez, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    We present a simulation of the global present-day composition of the troposphere which includes the chemistry of halogens (Cl, Br, I). Building on previous work within the GEOS-Chem model we include emissions of inorganic iodine from the oceans, anthropogenic and biogenic sources of halogenated gases, gas phase chemistry, and a parameterised approach to heterogeneous halogen chemistry. Consistent with Schmidt et al. (2016) we do not include sea-salt debromination. Observations of halogen radicals (BrO, IO) are sparse but the model has some skill in reproducing these. Modelled IO shows both high and low biases when compared to different datasets, but BrO concentrations appear to be modelled low. Comparisons to the very sparse observations dataset of reactive Cl species suggest the model represents a lower limit of the impacts of these species, likely due to underestimates in emissions and therefore burdens. Inclusion of Cl, Br, and I results in a general improvement in simulation of ozone (O3) concentrations, except in polar regions where the model now underestimates O3 concentrations. Halogen chemistry reduces the global tropospheric O3 burden by 18.6 %, with the O3 lifetime reducing from 26 to 22 days. Global mean OH concentrations of 1.28 × 106 molecules cm-3 are 8.2 % lower than in a simulation without halogens, leading to an increase in the CH4 lifetime (10.8 %) due to OH oxidation from 7.47 to 8.28 years. Oxidation of CH4 by Cl is small (˜ 2 %) but Cl oxidation of other VOCs (ethane, acetone, and propane) can be significant (˜ 15-27 %). Oxidation of VOCs by Br is smaller, representing 3.9 % of the loss of acetaldehyde and 0.9 % of the loss of formaldehyde.

  17. Suppression of Rapidly Progressive Mouse Glomerulonephritis with the Non-Steroidal Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonist BR-4628.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Y Ma

    Full Text Available Steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs are effective in the treatment of kidney disease; however, the side effect of hyperkalaemia, particularly in the context of renal impairment, is a major limitation to their clinical use. Recently developed non-steroidal MRAs have distinct characteristics suggesting that they may be superior to steroidal MRAs. Therefore, we explored the benefits of a non-steroidal MRA in a model of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis.Accelerated anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM glomerulonephritis was induced in groups of C57BL/6J mice which received no treatment, vehicle or a non-steroidal MRA (BR-4628, 5mg/kg/bid from day 0 until being killed on day 15 of disease. Mice were examined for renal injury.Mice with anti-GBM glomerulonephritis which received no treatment or vehicle developed similar disease with severe albuminuria, impaired renal function, glomerular tuft damage and crescents in 40% of glomeruli. In comparison, mice which received BR-4628 displayed similar albuminuria, but had improved renal function, reduced severity of glomerular tuft lesions and a 50% reduction in crescents. The protection seen in BR-4628 treated mice was associated with a marked reduction in glomerular macrophages and T-cells and reduced kidney gene expression of proinflammatory (CCL2, TNF-α, IFN-γ and profibrotic molecules (collagen I, fibronectin. In addition, treatment with BR-4626 did not cause hyperkalaemia or increase urine Na+/K+ excretion (a marker of tubular dysfunction.The non-steroidal MRA (BR-4628 provided substantial suppression of mouse crescentic glomerulonephritis without causing tubular dysfunction. This finding warrants further investigation of non-steroidal MRAs as a therapy for inflammatory kidney diseases.

  18. Rapid Formation of Molecular Bromine from Deliquesced NaBr Aerosol in the Presence of Ozone and UV Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    The formation of gas-phase bromine from aqueous sodium bromide aerosols is investigated through a combination of chamber experiments and chemical kinetics modeling. Experiments show that Br2(g) is produced rapidly from deliquesced NaBr aerosols in the presence of OH radicals prod...

  19. Synthesis and characterization of graphene oxide modified AgBr nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Du; Tang, Hua; Wang, Yuqi; Wu, Kongqiang; Huang, Hong; Tang, Guogang; Yang, Jin

    2014-11-01

    Novel visible-light-driven graphene oxide (GO)/AgBr nanocomposites were synthesized by a facile solution method. The GO/AgBr nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), and Raman spectra. The results indicated that AgBr nanoparticles were evenly distributed on the surface of GO and the heterostructures were formed. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared nanocomposites was evaluated by using Rhodamine B (RhB), Methylene blue (MB) and Methyl orange (MO) as target organic pollutants. The nanocomposites exhibit excellent photocatalytic activity for all of three dyes. Compared with bare AgBr particles, the GO/AgBr nanocomposites show better photocatalytic properties toward RhB pollutants. Additionally, the radical scavengers experiment indicated that O2rad - radicals was the main reactive species for the RhB degradation under visible light. The increased photocatalytic activity of the GO/AgBr nanocomposites was attributed to the strong coupling between GO and AgBr, which facilitated interfacial charge transfer and inhibited electron-hole recombination. A photocatalytic mechanism of GO/AgBr nanocomposites was also proposed.

  20. Relative reactivities of halogen-substituted substrates (R-Br, R-Cl) toward the halophilic attack by a carbanion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Relative reactivities of bromine-substituted substrates (R-Br) or chlorine-substituted substrates (R-Cl) toward bromophilic or chlorophilic attack by a carbanion have been evaluated by the intermolecular competition kinetics. Relative reactivity orders are CF3CFBr2 >CF3CBr3≥CBr4>CHBr3>CF3CFBrCF2Br>CF2Br2>BrCF2CF2Br>BrCH2CO2Et≥BrCF2CFHBr>CH2Br2 > BrCH2CH2Br, and Cl3CNO2>Cl3CCN>Cl3CCOPh >cyclo-C5Cl6>Cl3CCOCl>CCl3CF2Cl>CCl3CF3≥CCl4>CCl3CCl3≥CCl3(CF2)2Cl>Cl3CCOCCl3>CCl3(CF2)6Cl>Cl3CCO2Et>Cl3CF >Cl3CPh>Cl3CCH2O2CCH3.

  1. Blending of NR/BR/EPDM by reactive processing for tire sidewall applications. I. Preparation, cure characteristics and mechanical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahakaro, Kannika; Naskar, Nityananda; Datta, Rabin N.; Noordermeer, Jacques W.M.

    2007-01-01

    EPDM incorporated into blends of natural rubber/butadiene rubber (NR/BR) improves ozone resistance. In this work, the inferior mechanical properties of NR/BR/EPDM blends generally obtained by conventional straight mixing are overcome by utilizing a reactive processing technique. The entire amount of

  2. Structure determination of K[sub 2]ZnBr[sub 4] at 291 and 144 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabry, J. (Dept. de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencias, Univ. del Pais Vasco, Bilbao (Spain)); Breczewski, T. (Dept. de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencias, Univ. del Pais Vasco, Bilbao (Spain)); Zuniga, F.J. (Dept. de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencias, Univ. del Pais Vasco, Bilbao (Spain)); Arnaiz, A.R. (Dept. de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Univ. del Pais Vasco, Bilbao (Spain))

    1993-05-15

    The room-temperature phase of K[sub 2]ZnBr[sub 4] is isomorphous with Sr[sub 2]GeS[sub 4] (P2[sub 1]/m) while the low-temperature structure (P2[sub 1]) is slightly distorted [the phase transition occurs at 155 K]. Both structures contain highly deformed tetrahedral [ZnBr[sub 4

  3. Tartu ülikooli Vene ajaloo professor Alexander Brückner (1834-1896) / Tiit Rosenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rosenberg, Tiit, 1946-

    2004-01-01

    Alexander Brückneri elust, vaadetest, loomingust ja perekonnast. Alexander Brücknerist kui Õpetatud Eesti Seltsi liikmest. Tartu Ülikooli vene ajaloo õppejõududest. Lühidalt Tartust pärit vene ajaloo uurijast Ernst Adolf Herrmannist

  4. Silencing livin gene by siRNA leads to apoptosis induction, cell cycle arrest, and proliferation inhibition in malignant melanoma LiBr cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao WANG; Sheng-shun TAN; Xin-yang WANG; Dong-hua LIU; Chun-shui YU; Zhuan-li BAI; Da-lin HE; Jun ZHAO

    2007-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of silencing the livin gene by small interfering RNA (siRNA) on the expression of livin and the effects on apoptosis, cell cycle, and proliferation in human malignant melanoma LiBr cells. Methods: Three chemically-synthetic siRNA duplexes targeting livin were transiently transfected into the LiBr cells, and the effects on livin expression were detected both at the mRNA level by real-time RT-PCR and at the protein level by Western blotting. Apoptosis was evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated digoxigenin-dUTP nick-end labeling assay, flow cytometric analysis, and the expression of procaspase-3 and activated caspase-3 analysis by Western blotting. Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. Cell proliferation was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. Results: One of the 3 designed siRNA could effectively knock down the livin expression both at the mRNA and protein levels in dose- and time-dependent manners; 100 nmol/L with maximum downregulation on mRNA at 48 h, and on the protein at 72 h after transfection. Silencing livin could significantly induce apoptosis, arrest cell cycle at the GJG1 phase, and inhibit proliferation in LiBr cells. Meanwhile, caspase-3 was activated. Conclusion: The livin gene could serve as a potential molecular target for gene therapy by siRNA for malignant melanoma.

  5. Vulnerable areas and adapation measures for sea level rise along the coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Menezes, A.A.A.; Jagtap, T.G.; Suneethi, J.; Furtado, R.

    to the global climatic changes, the available historical mean sea level data between 1920-1999 at 10 locations was evaluated. There is a large contrast in the deduced sea level changes. The sea level rise along the Gulf of Kachchh and the coast of West Bengal...

  6. Environmentally friendly microwave ionic liquids synthesis of hybrids from cellulose and AgX (X=Cl, Br).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan-Yan; He, Jing; Sun, Shao-Long; Ma, Ming-Guo; Fu, Lian-Hua; Sun, Run-Cang

    2013-10-15

    The purpose of this article was to explore an environmentally friendly strategy to synthesis of biomass-based hybrids. Herein, microwave-assisted ionic liquids method was applied to fabricate the hybrids from cellulose and AgX (X=Cl, Br) using cellulose and AgNO3. The ionic liquids act simultaneously as a solvent, a microwave absorber, and a reactant. Ionic liquids provided Cl(-) or Br(-) to the synthesis of AgCl or AgBr crystals; thus no additional reactant is needed. The products are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The cellulose-Ag/AgCl hybrid and cellulose-Ag/AgBr hybrid were also obtained by using cellulose-AgCl and cellulose-AgBr hybrids as precursors. This environmentally friendly microwave-assisted ionic liquids method is beneficial to the hybrids with high dispersion.

  7. Preparation of AgBr@SiO{sub 2} core@shell hybrid nanoparticles and their bactericidal activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuanyuan [Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Yang, Lisu [Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Henna Sports School, Zhengzhou 450045 (China); Zhao, Yanbao, E-mail: yanbaozhao@126.com [Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Li, Binjie; Sun, Lei; Luo, Huajuan [Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2013-04-01

    AgBr@SiO{sub 2} core@shell hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully prepared by sol-gel method. Their morphology and structure were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The hybrid NPs are predominantly spherical in shape, with an average diameter of 180–200 nm, and each NP contains one inorganic core. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the hybrid NPs were examined against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Escherichia coli (E. coli), respectively. Results indicated that the AgBr@SiO{sub 2} NPs had excellent antibacterial activity. - Highlights: ► Presents a novel antibacterial agent “AgBr@ SiO{sub 2} NPs”. ► AgBr@SiO{sub 2} hybrid NPs could provide long-term antimicrobial effect. ► AgBr@SiO{sub 2} hybrid NPs have excellent antibacterial activity.

  8. Fabrication and characterization of CH3NH3(Cs)Pb(Sn)I3(Br) perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueoka, Naoki; Ohishi, Yuya; Shirahata, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Atsushi; Oku, Takeo

    2017-01-01

    Perovskite-type CH3NH3(MA)PbI3-based photovoltaic devices were fabricated and characterized. Doping effects of cesium iodide (CsI), cesium bromide (CsBr) and tin bromide (SnBr2) on the photovoltaic properties and surface microstructures of the perovskite phase were investigated. Short-circuit current densities, open-circuit voltages and fill factors increased by CsI and SnBr2 addition. The surface coverage of the perovskite crystals was also improved by SnBr2 doping, which resulted in improvement of the fill factor. The cell prepared by a starting composition of MA0.95Cs0.05Pb0.95Sn0.05I2.90Br0.10 showed the best photovoltaic performance in the present work.

  9. Topological studies of electron density on the interaction between N2O and HX (X=F, Cl, Br)%N2O与HX(X=F,Cl,Br)分子间作用的电子密度拓扑研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏玲; 孟令鹏; 郑世钧; 曾艳丽

    2011-01-01

    运用量子化学微扰理论MP2方法和密度泛函B3LYP方法,采用6-311++G(d,p)基组,对N2O分子与HX(X=F,Cl,Br)分子形成的氢键复合物进行构型优化和能量计算.利用电子密度拓扑分析方法对氢键复合物的拓扑性质进行了分析,探讨了分子间氢键作用的本质.研究结果表明,N2O分子与HX(X=F,Cl,Br)分子间可形成O…H-X和N…H-X 2类氢键;形成氢键后,作为电子受体的HX(X=F,Cl,Br)分子中的H-X键键长增加振动频率减小;氢键作用能按照NNO…HF、NNO…HCl、NNO…HBr 和ONN…HF、ONN…HCl、ONN…HBr的顺序递减;氢键形成过程中存在从电子给体到电子受体的电荷转移.复合物体系中的氢键作用介于共价键和离子键之间,并且以静电作用为主.%The full geometry optimization and energy calculation of N2O…HX (X= F, Cl, Br) hydrogen bonding system were carried out using MP2 and B3LYP methods at 6-311 ++G(d, p) level. The topological properties of these hydrogen bonding complexes were investigated through topological analysis of electron density. The results indicated that there were two sorts of hydrogen bonds which existed in N2O…HX (X= F, Cl, Br) hydrogen bonding system. One was O…H-X, and the other was N…H-X. After the formation of the hydrogen bond, the H-X bond in the HX (X= F, Cl, Br)molecule was elongated and the vibrational frequencies of this bond was decreased. The energy of the hydrogen bond followed this pattern:NNO…HF > NNO…HCl > NNO…HBr and ONN…HF > ONN…HCl > ONN…HBr. Besides, charge transfer from donor atoms to acceptor atoms was observed during the hydrogen bonding formation process. The character of this hydrogen bond was between covalent and ionic interactions, with static interaction being dominant.

  10. Measurement of the ratio of branching fractions $\\frac{\\mathcal{BR}(B^0\\to K^*\\gamma)}{\\mathcal{BR}(B_s^0\\to\\phi\\gamma)}$

    CERN Document Server

    Daria, Savrina

    2012-01-01

    The interest to the rare radiative decays of the B-mesons at LHCb is mostly aroused due to the measurement of the photon polarization in the $B_s^0\\to\\phi\\gamma$ decay, which may provide a sensitive probe for the Standard Model. The LHCb experiment has started to take data at the energy of $\\sqrt{s} = 7 TeV$ in 2010 and the current paper presents the result of the studies of the two rare radiative decays $B^0\\to K^*\\gamma$ and $B_s^0\\to\\phi\\gamma$ with $340 pb^{-1}$ of data taken in the first half of 2011. With this data we have a preliminary measurement of $\\frac{\\mathcal{BR}(B^0\\to K^*\\gamma)}{\\mathcal{BR}(B_s^0\\to\\phi\\gamma)} = 1.52\\pm0.14(stat.)\\pm0.10(syst.)\\pm0.12(f_s/f_d)$ and assuming the measured value of $\\mathcal{B}(B^0\\to K^*\\gamma) = (4.33 \\pm 0.15)\\times10^{-5}$ we infer $\\mathcal{B}(B_s^0\\to \\phi\\gamma) = (2.8\\pm0.5)\\times10^{-5}$ \\cite{bib:conf}.

  11. Characterization of LaBr{sub 3}:Ce and CeBr{sub 3} calorimeter modules for 3D imaging in gamma-ray astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gostojić, A., E-mail: aleksandar.gostojic@csnsm.in2p3.fr [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France); Tatischeff, V.; Kiener, J.; Hamadache, C.; Peyré, J.; Karkour, N.; Linget, D.; Gibelin, L.; Lafay, X.; Grave, X.; Dosme, N.; Legay, E. [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France); Blin, S. [OMEGA, École Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Barrillon, P. [LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Saclay, 91898 Orsay (France)

    2016-10-01

    For the purpose of future space instrumentation for γ-ray astronomy, we developed a small prototype of a Compton telescope and studied novel detector modules aimed for Compton imaging. We assembled and tested 2 modules, one with a cerium-doped lanthanum(III) bromide (LaBr{sub 3}:Ce) crystal and the other with cerium(III) bromide (CeBr{sub 3}). Both crystals measure 5×5 cm{sup 2} in area and are 1 cm thick. They are coupled to and read out by 64-channel multi-anode PMTs. Our goals are to obtain the best possible energy resolution and position resolution in 3D on the first impact of an incident γ-ray within the detector. Both information are vital for successful reconstruction of a Compton image with the telescope prototype. We developed a test bench to experimentally study both modules and have utilized a customized readout electronics and data acquisition system. Furthermore, we have written a detailed Geant4 simulation of the experiment, and utilize simulated data to train an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm to create a simplified 3D impact position reconstruction method. We give experimental test results obtained by both modules and present detailed parametrization and results from the Geant4 simulation and from the ANN. We compare and discuss the performance of the modules and conclude by giving a brief overview of the future prospects for using such modules in γ-ray astronomy.

  12. Characterization of LaBr3:Ce and CeBr3 calorimeter modules for 3D imaging in gamma-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostojić, A.; Tatischeff, V.; Kiener, J.; Hamadache, C.; Peyré, J.; Karkour, N.; Linget, D.; Gibelin, L.; Lafay, X.; Grave, X.; Dosme, N.; Legay, E.; Blin, S.; Barrillon, P.

    2016-10-01

    For the purpose of future space instrumentation for γ-ray astronomy, we developed a small prototype of a Compton telescope and studied novel detector modules aimed for Compton imaging. We assembled and tested 2 modules, one with a cerium-doped lanthanum(III) bromide (LaBr3:Ce) crystal and the other with cerium(III) bromide (CeBr3). Both crystals measure 5×5 cm2 in area and are 1 cm thick. They are coupled to and read out by 64-channel multi-anode PMTs. Our goals are to obtain the best possible energy resolution and position resolution in 3D on the first impact of an incident γ-ray within the detector. Both information are vital for successful reconstruction of a Compton image with the telescope prototype. We developed a test bench to experimentally study both modules and have utilized a customized readout electronics and data acquisition system. Furthermore, we have written a detailed Geant4 simulation of the experiment, and utilize simulated data to train an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm to create a simplified 3D impact position reconstruction method. We give experimental test results obtained by both modules and present detailed parametrization and results from the Geant4 simulation and from the ANN. We compare and discuss the performance of the modules and conclude by giving a brief overview of the future prospects for using such modules in γ-ray astronomy.

  13. Spectral intensities in coordination compounds of the transition metals: applications to systems type Cs{sub 2}SnBr{sub 6}: OsBr{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo, R.; Munoz, G. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile, Beauchef 850, Casilla 2777, Santiago (Chile); Meruane, T. [Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias y Educacion, Av. Jose Pedro Alessandri 774, Casilla 147-C Santiago (Chile)

    2001-07-01

    The luminescence spectrum of the Cs{sub 2}SnBr{sub 6}: OsBr{sub 6} system is examined utilizing a generalized vibronic formalisms. For illustrative purposes we have chosen the most characteristic excitations, which show up a rich and unexpected vibronic structures. These absorptions are tackled with emphasis on both the electronic and the vibrational factors which are responsible for both the overall and the relative vibronic intensities associated with generic transitions of the {gamma}{sub m} = {gamma}{sub l} + v{sub k} (k = 3, 4, 6) type. The advantages and disadvantages of the calculation models as well as a critical studies of the experimental data available are discussed. Relevant conclusions are drawn out in connection with the intensity spectral mechanism as well as the eventual influence on the calculated intensities due to the coupling among the internal and the external vibrations and some suggestions for improvement are put forward to advance the state of the art in the vibronic coupling theory. (Author)

  14. An Empirical Approach to Determining the Boundary Layer Bromine Monoxide (BrO) Abundance from Satellite Total Column Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, W. R.; Donohoue, D.; Carlson, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    Unique chemistry in the Arctic boundary layer during springtime liberates bromine from sea salt, producing reactive halogen gases (e.g. atomic bromine and bromine monoxide radicals) that then drastically alter atmospheric oxidation pathways. This phenomenon causes ozone depletion events and affects mercury deposition to the snowpack. Satellite remote sensing (e.g. OMI and GOME2 observations) techniques can detect the total column abundance of BrO, which is generally the primary species of the reactive bromine family. However, BrO is also present in the stratosphere, so it is necessary to partition the satellite-observed BrO column abundance into boundary layer and non-boundary layer (primarily stratospheric) partial columns to be able to infer boundary layer abundances and hence chemical affects near the Earth's surface (i.e. ozone and mercury impacts). In this presentation, we describe an empirical method for partitioning the BrO total column and apply it globally during spring 2008. The method indicates that some BrO total column enhancements ("hotspots") are not actually enhancements in the boundary layer BrO abundance but occur aloft. Movies and a statistical analysis of the inferred boundary layer BrO abundance are presented. The method has been tested and performs well at the Barrow field site. However, in areas that lack routine ground truth BrO measurements (e.g. Hudson Bay, Canada), large tropospheric BrO abundances are indicated. It is not clear if these inferred boundary layer BrO events are real or if the simple empirical method described here is failing in those locations. Verification of this method over large spatial regions of the Arctic is needed.

  15. High-Resolution Infrared Fourier-Transform Spectroscopy and Rotational Constants of the ν 4Band of BrNO 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orphal, J.; Frenzel, A.; Grothe, H.; Redlich, B.; Scheffler, D.; Willner, H.; Zetzsch, C.

    1998-09-01

    For the first time, high-resolution infrared gas-phase absorption spectra of the BrNO2molecule were recorded using a Fourier-transform spectrometer. In this paper, the ν4bands of the79BrNO2and81BrNO2isotopomers around 1670 cm-1are investigated. Although the spectra are highly congested, rotational and centrifugal distortion constants for the ground andv4= 1 states of79BrNO2and81BrNO2were determined. The results show that BrNO2is a planar molecule ofC2νsymmetry and confirm predictions from a recentab initiostudy.

  16. Y 盒结合蛋白1在 SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞增殖中的作用%Roles of Y box-binding protein 1 in SK-BR-3 breast cancer proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史建红; 吕心瑞; 王冰; 林丹丹; 王亚婻; 步玉辉; 马振峰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the roles of Y box-binding protein 1 (YB-1) in breast cancer cell proliferation.Methods Twenty cases of surgical removal of breast cancer tissue ( diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma , stage Ⅱ, by postoperative paraffin pathology ) and normal breast tissues adjacent to carcinoma were collected during June 2013 to August 2013.Quantitative real-time PCR ( qRT-PCR ) was performed to detect the YB1 mRNA levels.Cultured mammary epithelial cells (HBL-100) and breast cancer cells (MCF7, MDA-MB-231 &SK-BR-3 cells) were harvested and qRT-PCR was performed to detect the YB1 mRNA levels.SK-BR-3 cells were stimulated with various concentrations of PDGF-BB and YB1 expression levels were detected by qRT-PCR.Down-regulation or over-expression of YB1 by si-YB1 or Ad-GFP-YB1 was detected in SK-BR-3 cells.And MTS cell proliferation assay kit was used to detect cell proliferation.Results YB1 mRNA levels were significantly higher in breast cancer tissues and MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell lines than that in adjacent normal breast tissues and HBL -100 mammary epithelial cells respectively ( P<0.05 ).YB1 expression levels increased in PDGF-BB stimulated SK-BR-3 cells in a dose-dependent manner.Conclusion A down-regulation of endogenous YB 1 decreases and an over-expression of exogenous YB 1 promotes the proliferation activity in SK-BR-3 cells.%目的:探讨Y盒结合蛋白1(YB1)在乳腺癌细胞增殖中的作用。方法收集河北大学附属医院2013年6-8月的乳腺浸润性导管癌及癌旁正常乳腺组织标本,实时定量PCR( qRT-PCR)分析YB1基因的mRNA水平;培养乳腺上皮细胞HBL-100和乳腺癌细胞MCF-7、MDA-MB-231和SK-BR-3,qRT-PCR 观察 YB1的表达水平, MTS 法分析细胞增殖活力;血小板源性生长因子 BB ( PDGF-BB)刺激SK-BR-3细胞,观察YB1的表达水平;应用特异性小干扰RNA敲低内源性YB1或应用GFP-YB1腺病毒载体过表达外源性GFP-YB1,MTS

  17. Study on the effect of PDGF-D shRNA on proliferation and invasion of breast cancer SK-BR-3 cells%PDGF-D 稳定沉默后对乳腺癌细胞 SK-BR-3生物学功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红昌; 冯雯; 陈亚峰; 梅怡; 蔡含; 蒋一鸣; 陈腾; 殷佩浩; 奉典旭

    2016-01-01

    of BRCA cells. Methods RT - PCR and Western - blot were used to detect PDGF -D expression profiles in 5 different BrCa cell lines,in order to confirm the target cell line. In vitro,the lentiviral vector was constructed to silence PDGF - D expression in SK - BR - 3 cells. Then,the MTT and soft agar assay were used to detect cell proliferation. Additionally,cell apoptosis and cell migration after knockdown of PDGF - D were measured by the method of flow cytometry and transwell assay respectively. Results The expression of PDGF - D in protein and mRNA level in different cell lines of breast cancer were detected,among which the highly metastatic MDA- MB - 231,SK - BR - 3 cell lines showed higher PDGF - D expression than that in low metastatic MCF7 cell lines( t = 3. 880,P < 0. 05). After PDGF - D gene silencing by the lentivirus vector,the ability of growth and colony formation had been significantly decreased( F = 75. 23, P < 0. 001),together with an induction of apoptosis effect on SK - BR - 3 cells( F = 84. 44,P < 0. 001). Moreover,SK - BR - 3 cells with si-lenced PDGF - D diminished significantly aggressive potential in migration and invasion than other tested cells( F = 155. 9,P < 0. 001). Con-clusion PDGF - D may be closely associated with the proliferation,apoptosis as well as migration of BRCA cells,which indicate that it plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of BRCA.

  18. Novel Co(III)/Co(II) mixed valence compound [Co(bapen)Br2]2[CoBr4] (bapen = N,N‧-bis(3-aminopropyl)ethane-1,2-diamine): Synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolko, Lukáš; Černák, Juraj; Kuchár, Juraj; Miklovič, Jozef; Boča, Roman

    2016-09-01

    Green crystals of Co(III)/Co(II) mixed valence compound [Co(bapen)Br2]2[CoBr4] (bapen = N,N‧-bis(3-aminopropyl)ethane-1,2-diamine) were isolated from the aqueous system CoBr2 - bapen - HBr, crystallographically studied and characterized by elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy. Its ionic crystal structure is built up of [Co(bapen)Br2]+ cations and [CoBr4]2- anions. The Co(III) central atoms within the complex cations are hexacoordinated (donor set trans-N4Br2) with bromido ligands placed in the axial positions. The Co(II) atoms exhibit distorted tetrahedral coordination. Beside ionic forces weak Nsbnd H⋯Br intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions contribute to the stability of the structure. Temperature variable magnetic measurements confirm the S = 3/2 behavior with the zero-field splitting of an intermediate strength: D/hc = 8.7 cm-1.

  19. Brønsted Acid-Catalyzed Direct Substitution of 2-Ethoxytetrahydrofuran with Trifluoroborate Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla M. Fisher

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Metal-free transformations of organotrifluoroborates are advantageous since they avoid the use of frequently expensive and sensitive transition metals. Lewis acid-catalyzed reactions involving potassium trifluoroborate salts have emerged as an alternative to metal-catalyzed protocols. However, the drawbacks to these methods are that they rely on the generation of unstable boron dihalide species, thereby resulting in low functional group tolerance. Recently, we discovered that in the presence of a Brønsted acid, trifluoroborate salts react rapidly with in situ generated oxocarbenium ions. Here, we report Brønsted acid-catalyzed direct substitution of 2-ethoxytetrahydrofuran using potassium trifluoroborate salts. The reaction occurs when tetrafluoroboric acid is used as a catalyst to afford functionalized furans in moderate to excellent yields. A variety of alkenyl- and alkynyltrifluoroborate salts readily participate in this transformation.

  20. Engineering BiOX (X = Cl, Br, I) nanostructures for highly efficient photocatalytic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefeng; Huang, Baibiao; Dai, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis that employs photo-excited semiconductor materials to reduce water and oxidize toxic pollutants upon solar light irradiation holds great prospects for renewable energy substitutes and environmental protection. To utilize solar light effectively, the quest for highly active photocatalysts working under visible light has always been the research focus. Layered BiOX (X = Cl, Br, I) are a kind of newly exploited efficient photocatalysts, and their light response can be tuned from UV to visible light range. The properties of semiconductors are dependent on their morphologies and compositions as well as structures, and this also offers the guidelines for design of highly-efficient photocatalysts. In this review, recent advances and emerging strategies in tailoring BiOX (X = Cl, Br, I) nanostructures to boost their photocatalytic properties are surveyed.

  1. Synergistic effect of Brønsted acid and platinum on purification of automobile exhaust gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei; Li, Xin-Hao; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wei, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic purification of automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx and hydrocarbons) is one of the most practiced conversion processes used to lower the emissions and to reduce the air pollution. Nevertheless, the good performance of exhaust gas purification catalysts often requires the high consumption of noble metals such as platinum. Here we report that the Brønsted acid sites on the external surface of a microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) act as a promoter for exhaust gas purification, effectively cutting the loading amount of platinum in the catalyst without sacrifice of performance. It is revealed that in the Pt-loaded SAPO-CHA catalyst, there exists a remarkable synergistic effect between the Brønsted acid sites and the Pt nanoparticles, the former helping to adsorb and activate the hydrocarbon molecules for NO reduction during the catalytic process. The thermal stability of SAPO-CHA also makes the composite catalyst stable and reusable without activity decay.

  2. Plasmonic Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes Based on the Ag-CsPbBr3 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Xu, Bing; Wang, Weigao; Liu, Sheng; Zheng, Yuanjin; Chen, Shuming; Wang, Kai; Sun, Xiao Wei

    2017-02-08

    The enhanced luminescence through semiconductor-metal interactions suggests the great potential of device performance improvement via properly tailored plasmonic nanostructures. Surface plasmon enhanced electroluminescence in an all-inorganic CsPbBr3 perovskite light-emitting diode (LED) is fabricated by decorating the hole transport layer with the synthesized Ag nanorods. An increase of 42% and 43.3% in the luminance and efficiency is demonstrated for devices incorporated with Ag nanorods. The device with Ag introduction indicates identical optoelectronic properties to the controlled device without Ag nanostructures. The increased spontaneous emission rate caused by the Ag-induced plasmonic near-field effect is responsible for the performance enhancement. Therefore, the plasmonic Ag-CsPbBr3 nanostructure studied here provides a novel strategy on the road to the future development of perovskite LEDs.

  3. Photocatalytic properties of BiOX (X=Cl, Br, and I)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Huizhong; DU Yi; WANG Tianmin; WANG Cong; HAO Weichang; ZHANG Junying

    2008-01-01

    A novel series of photocatalysts, bismuth oxyhalide (BiOX, X=Cl, Br, and I), were synthesized by a hydrolysis method. The powder samples were characterized by the use of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope, and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The XRD pattern showed that all the BiOX were well crystallized in the tetragonal structure. The band gaps of the sheet-shaped compounds BiOX (X=Cl, Br, and I) were 3.44, 2.76, and 1.85 eV, respectively. BiOBr showed the highest photocatalytic activity in degrading rhodamine B (RhB) and evolving O2 for its proper valence band (VB). BiOI has no photocatalytic activity. BiOCl showed the highest activity in decomposing isopropanol because of electron-hole pair separation through trapping electrons by oxygen vacancies.

  4. Matrix-isolated infrared absorption spectrum of CH2BrOO radical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Sander, Stanley P.; Cheng, Lan; Thimmakondu, Venkatesan S.; Stanton, John F.

    2016-07-01

    The bromomethylperoxy radical, CH2BrOO, has been generated in cryogenic matrices. Six fundamental bands for CH2BrOO have been observed in an argon matrix at 5 K. The experimental frequencies (cm-1) are: ν4 = 1274.3, ν5 = 1229.4, ν6 = 1086.7, ν7 = 961.8, ν8 = 879.9, and ν10 = 515.4, two of which are detected for the first time. Ab initio calculations have been performed employing coupled-cluster methods. The experimental frequencies are shown to be in good agreement with the computation as well as the four bands (ν4, ν6, ν7 and ν8) observed by Huang and Lee in the gas phase.

  5. Sócrates sofista, Brás Cubas filósofo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Lara Martins

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nosso objetivo é comparar as estratégias argumentativas de Sócrates e Brás Cubas, tais como ironia e aporia. Consideramos a estrutura ficcional machadiana como condição para a expressão cética, que ao desconfiar da realidade ou do que dela se supõe saber, instaura uma nova perspectiva, ou seja, outro nível de realidade que prescinde dos valores dogmáticos como Verdade e Essência. A justificativa geral para esse tipo de abordagem é que as questões ali descritas são encorpadas por situações ficcionais, gerando um ceticismo que se expressa numa obra de ficção. Brás Cubas e Sócrates esboçam conjecturas que descrevem as relações paradoxais do ser humano.

  6. Influence of Impurities on the Radiation Response of the TlBr Semiconductor Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Alves dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two commercially available TlBr salts were used as the raw material for crystal growths to be used as radiation detectors. Previously, TlBr salts were purified once, twice, and three times by the repeated Bridgman method. The purification efficiency was evaluated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS, after each purification process. A compartmental model was proposed to fit the impurity concentration as a function of the repetition number of the Bridgman growths, as well as determine the segregation coefficients of impurities in the crystals. The crystalline structure, the stoichiometry, and the surface morphology of the crystals were evaluated, systematically, for the crystals grown with different purification numbers. To evaluate the crystal as a radiation semiconductor detector, measurements of its resistivity and gamma-ray spectroscopy were carried out, using 241Am and 133Ba sources. A significant improvement of the radiation response was observed in function of the crystal purity.

  7. Room temperature three-photon pumped CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite microlasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yisheng; Wang, Shuai; Huang, Can; Yi, Ningbo; Wang, Kaiyang; Xiao, Shumin; Song, Qinghai

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid lead halide perovskites have made great strides in next-generation light-harvesting and light emitting devices. Recently, they have also shown great potentials in nonlinear optical materials. Two-photon absorption and two-photon light emission have been thoroughly studied in past two years. However, the three-photon processes are rarely explored, especially for the laser emissions. Here we synthesized high quality CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite microstructures with solution processed precipitation method and studied their optical properties. When the microstructures are pumped with intense 1240 nm lasers, we have observed clear optical limit effect and the band-to-band photoluminescence at 540 nm. By increasing the pumping density, whispering-gallery-mode based microlasers have been achieved from CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite microplate and microrod for the first time. This work demonstrates the potentials of hybrid lead halide perovskites in nonlinear photonic devices.

  8. The neutron standard fields at the BR1 reactor at SCK.CEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagemans, J.; Malambu, E.; Borms, L. [SCKCEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2011-07-01

    The BR1 research reactor at SCK-CEN is characterized by a wide variety of irradiation possibilities, a large reactor core, and strong flexibility in its operation. A full MCNP model of BR1 has been recently developed in order to complement the results that can be obtained from activation dosimetry. After a general presentation of the reactor, this paper pays particular attention to its standard {sup 235}U(n,f) fast neutron field MARK III. This irradiation field is a useful tool for integral measurements and for detector calibrations. With the support of MCNP calculations, irradiations in MARK III can be directly referred to the pure {sup 235}U(n,f) fast neutron spectrum. (authors)

  9. Structural, vibrational, and electrical study of compressed BiTeBr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sans, J. A.; Manjón, F. J.; Pereira, A. L. J.; Vilaplana, R.; Gomis, O.; Segura, A.; Muñoz, A.; Rodríguez-Hernández, P.; Popescu, C.; Drasar, C.; Ruleova, P.

    2016-01-01

    Compresed BiTeBr has been studied from a joint experimental and theoretical perspective. Room-temperature x-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, and transport measurements at high pressures have been performed in this layered semiconductor and interpreted with the help of ab initio calculations. A reversible first-order phase transition has been observed above 6-7 GPa, but changes in structural, vibrational, and electrical properties have also been noted near 2 GPa. Structural and vibrational changes are likely due to the hardening of interlayer forces rather than to a second-order isostructural phase transition while electrical changes are mainly attributed to changes in the electron mobility. The possibility of a pressure-induced electronic topological transition and of a pressure-induced quantum topological phase transition in BiTeBr and other bismuth tellurohalides, like BiTeI, is also discussed.

  10. Brφnsted Acidic Ionic Liquids as Efficient Reaction Medium for Cyclodehydration of Diethylene Glycol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuan-Yuan; LI Wei; DAI Li-Yi

    2008-01-01

    Cyclodehydration of diethylene glycol using various Brφnsted acidic ionic liquids as dual solvent-catalysts was studied for the first time. Better results were obtained in the presence of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate ([SPmim]HSO4) than other Brφnsted acidic ionic liquids. The effects of reaction conditions such as reaction temperature, reaction time and molar ratio of ionic liquid/diethylene glycol were investigated. Good conversion rate and high selectivity were obtained in ionic liquid [SPmim]HSO4 under the optimum conditions. A Hammett method was used to determine the acidity order of these ionic liquids and the results were consistent with the catalytic ac-tivities observed in the cyclodehydration reaction.

  11. 掺杂 Nd3+离子 CsCdBr3晶体光谱的理论分析%Theoretical Analysis of Spectra for Nd3 + Ions in CsCdBr 3 Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏萍; 李邦兴

    2015-01-01

    运用稀土自由离子理论和晶体场理论,通过对掺杂 Nd3+离子的 CsCdBr3晶体的发光光谱的计算分析,分别拟合了实验光谱数据中的28、47和65条能级,得出理论晶场能级与实验值的标准差分别为3.83,12.367和25.852 cm -1。该结果比已有的拟合结果小得多,表明此计算结果与实验光谱吻合得较好,说明拟合过程和方法是合理的。同时得到了合理的自由离子参量和晶场参量,为进一步研究稀土离子在晶体材料中受到晶体场作用的各种物理机制打下基础。%The optical spectra of Nd3 + in CsCdBr3 were calculated by using the free rare earth ion the-ory and crystal field theory. Respectively,28,47,65 experimental crystal field levels were fitted, with the standard deviations of 3. 83 cm - 1 ,12. 367 cm - 1 ,25. 852 cm - 1 . These deviations are signif-icantly smaller than those in previous work. The calculated energy levels fit better with the experimen-tal data,which shows that the calculation process and the method are reasonable. Through this fitting procedure,the reasonable free-ion and crystal-field parameters have been obtained. It is beneficial for further research on the physical mechanisms of crystal field of rare earth ions in crystals.

  12. cDNA and deduced primary structure of basic phospholipase A2 with neurotoxic activity from the venom secretion of the Crotalus durissus collilineatus rattlesnake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.H.R. Fagundes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To illustrate the construction of precursor complementary DNAs, we isolated mRNAs from whole venom samples. After reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, we amplified the cDNA coding for a neurotoxic protein, phospholipase A2 D49 (PLA2 D49, from the venom of Crotalus durissus collilineatus (Cdc PLA2. The cDNA encoding Cdc PLA2 from whole venom was sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of this cDNA has high overall sequence identity with the group II PLA2 protein family. Cdc PLA2 has 14 cysteine residues capable of forming seven disulfide bonds that characterize this group of PLA2 enzymes. Cdc PLA2 was isolated using conventional Sephadex G75 column chromatography and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. The molecular mass was estimated using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. We tested the neuromuscular blocking activities on chick biventer cervicis neuromuscular tissue. Phylogenetic analysis of Cdc PLA2 showed the existence of two lines of N6-PLA2, denominated F24 and S24. Apparently, the sequences of the New World’s N6-F24-PLA2 are similar to those of the agkistrodotoxin from the Asian genus Gloydius. The sequences of N6-S24-PLA2 are similar to the sequence of trimucrotoxin from the genus Protobothrops, found in the Old World.

  13. Deduced sequences of the membrane fusion and attachment proteins of canine distemper viruses isolated from dogs and wild animals in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Chae-Wun; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Nak-Hyung; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kang, Young-Sun; Park, Choi-Kyu; Choi, In-Soo

    2013-08-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes highly contagious respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological diseases in wild and domestic animal species. Despite a broad vaccination campaign, the disease is still a serious problem worldwide. In this study, six field CDV strains were isolated from three dogs, two raccoon dogs, and one badger in Korea. The full sequence of the genes encoding fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) proteins were compared with those of other CDVs including field and vaccine strains. The phylogenetic analysis for the F and H genes indicated that the two CDV strains isolated from dogs were most closely related to Chinese strains in the Asia-1 genotype. Another four strains were closely related to Japanese strains in the Asia-2 genotype. The six currently isolated strains shared 90.2-92.1% and 88.2-91.8% identities with eight commercial vaccine strains in their nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the F protein, respectively. They also showed 90.1-91.4% and 87.8-90.7% identities with the same vaccine strains in their nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the H protein, respectively. Different N-linked glycosylation sites were identified in the F and H genes of the six isolates from the prototype vaccine strain Onderstepoort. Collectively, these results demonstrate that at least two different CDV genotypes currently exist in Korea. The considerable genetic differences between the vaccine strains and wild-type isolates would be a major factor of the incomplete protection of dogs from CDV infections.

  14. Electrochemical Synthesis of Dendritic Polyaniline in BrФnsted Acid Ionic Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宝友; 许丹倩; 徐振元

    2005-01-01

    BrФnsted acid ionic liquids were successfully applied to the electrochemical synthesis of polyaniline films on platinum electrode surfaces by using cyclic voltammetry. The scanning electron micrographs showed distinct changes in morphological structures. The films exhibited quite dense packing and good ordering of polymer dendrite as compared with those prepared using conventional hydrochloric acid, indicating that Bronsting acid ionic liquids might be promising alternatives to dual medium-dopants in the synthesis of conducting polymers.

  15. Transition strengths and signature inversion in odd-odd 74Br

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bermúdez, G.; Cardona, M. A.; Filevich, A.; Ribas, R. V.; Somacal, H.; Szybisz, L.

    1999-04-01

    Lifetimes of states in 74Br produced by the 60Ni(16O,np) reaction at 50 MeV have been measured by using the recoil-distance method. From these experiments several reduced transition strengths for the low energy states have also been determined. The results show that the alternating pattern in the B(M1) strengths of the yrast positive parity band is preserved across the signature inversion region.

  16. Thermodynamic modelling of a double-effect LiBr-H2O absorption refrigeration cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranmanesh, A.; Mehrabian, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this paper is to estimate the conductance of components required to achieve the approach temperatures, and gain insights into a double-effect absorption chiller using LiBr-H2O solution as the working fluid. An in-house computer program is developed to simulate the cycle. Conductance of all components is evaluated based on the approach temperatures assumed as input parameters. The effect of input data on the cycle performance and the exergetic efficiency are investigated.

  17. Türgi valmistus solvunult Brüsselile selga keerama / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2005-01-01

    Kreeka otsustas toetada Türgi liitumist EL-iga, samal ajal kui Austria nõudis liitumiskõneluste tingimuste karmistamist. Türgi pealinnas toimus meeleavaldus EL-i vastu, 54 % türklastest ootas valitsuse lahkumist Brüsselis toimuvatelt kõnelustelt, 72% keeldus pidamast genotsiidiks armeenlaste kohtlemist I maailmasõja ajal. 60% türklastest on siiski EL-iga liitumise poolt

  18. Decommissioning of the BR3 PWR[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaut, V.

    1998-07-01

    The dismantling and the decommissioning of nuclear installations at the end of their life-cycle is a new challenge to the nuclear industry. Different techniques and procedures for the dismantling of a nuclear power plant on an existing installation, the BR-3 pressurized-water reactor, are described. The scientific program, objectives, achievements in this research area at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN for 1997 are summarized.

  19. On the Brønsted acid-catalyzed homogeneous hydrolysis of furans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikbin, Nima; Caratzoulas, Stavros; Vlachos, Dionisios G

    2013-11-01

    Furan affairs: Electronic structure calculations of the homogeneous Brønsted acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of 2,5-dimethylfuran show that proton transfer to the β-position is rate-limiting and provides support that the hydrolysis follows general acid catalysis. By means of projected Fukui indices, we show this to be the case for unsubstituted, 2-, and 2,5-substituted furans with electron-donating groups.

  20. Inhibition of Ps Formation in Benzene and Cyclohexane by CH3CI and CH3Br

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikander, G.; Mogensen, O. E.; Pedersen, Niels Jørgen

    1983-01-01

    of the inhibition of Ps formation by CH3Br was ten times that of CH3Cl in cyclohexane, because the CH3Br− anion debrominates rapidly, while CH3Cl− is long-lived (= 30 ns) compared to the maximum time of Ps formation of 400–500 ps. as shown in radiation chemistry. The positron can pick off the electron from the CH3X...