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Sample records for br deduced levels

  1. Comparison of selection methods to deduce natural background levels for groundwater units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen, J.; Passier, H.F.; Klein, J.

    2008-01-01

    Establishment of natural background levels (NBL) for groundwater is commonly performed to serve as reference when assessing the contamination status of groundwater units. We compare various selection methods to establish NBLs using groundwater quality data forfour hydrogeologically different areas

  2. Perceptions of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) levels among a sample of bar patrons with BrAC values of 0.08% or higher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ryan J; Chaney, Beth H; Cremeens-Matthews, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen

    2016-09-01

    Breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) is a commonly used measure of alcohol intoxication. Because of the potential negative consequences of excessive alcohol consumption, it is important to examine how accurately intoxicated individuals can estimate their BrAC values, especially individuals over the legal BrAC driving threshold (i.e., 0.08%). To better understand perceptions of BrAC values among intoxicated individuals, this field study examined actual BrAC values and BrAC range estimates (0.08% and above, 0.02-0.07%, less than 0.02%) among a sample of bar patrons (N = 454) with BrAC levels at 0.08% or higher. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between actual BrAC values and perceived BrAC levels. We also examined whether the following demographic and drinking variables were associated with underestimating BrAC in this sample: gender, age, race, college student status, plans to get home, and hazardous drinking. Results indicated that the majority (60.4%) of participants underestimated their BrAC (i.e., less than 0.08%) and lower BrAC values correlated with underestimating BrAC ranges (p < .001, 95% CI[0.2, 0.6]). Further, females (p = .001, 95% CI[1.3, 3.3]) and participants under 21 (p = .039, 95% CI = 1.0, 2.6) were significantly more likely to estimate their BrAC to be less than 0.08%, which is concerning given that young (less than 21) intoxicated females are a group at high risk for sexual assault on college campuses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Alcohol-related injuries, hazardous drinking, and BrAC levels among a sample of bar patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ryan J; Brechbiel, Kerry; Chaney, Beth H; Cremeens-Matthews, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen

    2016-03-01

    Alcohol-related injuries are a serious public health issue and research has found that alcohol consumption is positively correlated with injury risk. To better understand the association between alcohol consumption and injury risk. We conducted four anonymous cross-sectional field studies among a sample of bar patrons (N = 917) to assess breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) levels, hazardous drinking levels (based on AUDIT-C score), and past year alcohol-related injuries in Fall 2014. Next, we conducted two logistic regression analyses to predict alcohol-related injuries: one model used hazardous drinking level as a predictor variable and the other model used BrAC. Among participants in our sample, the average BrAC% was .076 (SD =.055) and the average hazardous drinking score (based on the AUDIT-C) was 5.0 (SD = 2.6). The majority of participants indicated that they had not experienced an alcohol-related injury in the past year (859; 93.7%). Our regression analyses found that each incremental increase in a participants' hazardous drinking score increased the odds of experiencing a self-reported alcohol-related injury by 1.4 times and as BrAC increased one unit of change (percentage), the odds of a past-year alcohol related injury increased twofold (OR = 2.2). Other covariates (ie, age, gender, race, college student status) did not significantly predict alcohol-related injuries in either model. High-risk drinking behaviors, including higher BrAC levels, greatly influenced experiencing an alcohol-related injury. This is the first examination of BrAC levels and alcohol-related injuries in a primarily college student sample. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  4. On the influence of neutral turbulence on ambipolar diffusivities deduced from meteor trail expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Hall

    Full Text Available By measuring fading times of radar echoes from underdense meteor trails, it is possible to deduce the ambipolar diffusivities of the ions responsible for these radar echoes. It could be anticipated that these diffusivities increase monotonically with height akin to neutral viscosity. In practice, this is not always the case. Here, we investigate the capability of neutral turbulence to affect the meteor trail diffusion rate.<br>>Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; turbulence

  5. Deducing Underlying Mechanisms from Protein Recruitment Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurin Lengert

    Full Text Available By using fluorescent labelling techniques, the distribution and dynamics of proteins can be measured within living cells, allowing to study in vivo the response of cells to a triggering event, such as DNA damage. In order to evaluate the reaction rate constants and to identify the proteins and reactions that are essential for the investigated process, mechanistic models are used, which often contain many proteins and associated parameters and are therefore underdetermined by the data. In order to establish criteria for assessing the significance of a model, we present here a systematic investigation of the information that can be reliably deduced from protein recruitment data, assuming that the complete set of reactions that affect the data of the considered protein species is not known. To this purpose, we study in detail models where one or two proteins that influence each other are recruited to a substrate. We show that in many cases the kind of interaction between the proteins can be deduced by analyzing the shape of the recruitment curves of one protein. Furthermore, we discuss in general in which cases it is possible to discriminate between different models and in which cases it is impossible based on the data. Finally, we argue that if different models fit experimental data equally well, conducting experiments with different protein concentrations would allow discrimination between the alternative models in many cases.

  6. Deducing Underlying Mechanisms from Protein Recruitment Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengert, Laurin; Drossel, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    By using fluorescent labelling techniques, the distribution and dynamics of proteins can be measured within living cells, allowing to study in vivo the response of cells to a triggering event, such as DNA damage. In order to evaluate the reaction rate constants and to identify the proteins and reactions that are essential for the investigated process, mechanistic models are used, which often contain many proteins and associated parameters and are therefore underdetermined by the data. In order to establish criteria for assessing the significance of a model, we present here a systematic investigation of the information that can be reliably deduced from protein recruitment data, assuming that the complete set of reactions that affect the data of the considered protein species is not known. To this purpose, we study in detail models where one or two proteins that influence each other are recruited to a substrate. We show that in many cases the kind of interaction between the proteins can be deduced by analyzing the shape of the recruitment curves of one protein. Furthermore, we discuss in general in which cases it is possible to discriminate between different models and in which cases it is impossible based on the data. Finally, we argue that if different models fit experimental data equally well, conducting experiments with different protein concentrations would allow discrimination between the alternative models in many cases.

  7. Deducer: A Data Analysis GUI for R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Fellows

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available While R has proven itself to be a powerful and flexible tool for data exploration and analysis, it lacks the ease of use present in other software such as SPSS and Minitab. An easy to use graphical user interface (GUI can help new users accomplish tasks that would otherwise be out of their reach, and improves the efficiency of expert users by replacing fifty key strokes with five mouse clicks. With this in mind, Deducer presents dialogs that are understandable for the beginner, and yet contain all (or most of the options that an experienced statistician, performing the same task, would want. An Excel-like spreadsheet is included for easy data viewing and editing. Deducer is based on Java's Swing GUI library and can be used on any common operating system. The GUI is independent of the specific R console and can easily be used by calling a text-based menu system. Graphical menus are provided for the JGR console and the Windows R GUI.

  8. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Reveals Disordered Level-Crossing Physics in the Bose-Glass Regime of the Br-Doped Ni(Cl_{1-x}Br_{x})_{2}-4SC(NH_{2})_{2} Compound at a High Magnetic Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Anna; Blinder, Rémi; Kermarrec, Edwin; Dupont, Maxime; Laflorencie, Nicolas; Capponi, Sylvain; Mayaffre, Hadrien; Berthier, Claude; Paduan-Filho, Armando; Horvatić, Mladen

    2017-02-10

    By measuring the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) T_{1}^{-1} relaxation rate in the Br (bond) doped DTN compound, Ni(Cl_{1-x}Br_{x})_{2}-4SC(NH_{2})_{2}(DTNX), we show that the low-energy spin dynamics of its high magnetic field "Bose-glass" regime is dominated by a strong peak of spin fluctuations found at the nearly doping-independent position H^{*}≅13.6  T. From its temperature and field dependence, we conclude that this corresponds to a level crossing of the energy levels related to the doping-induced impurity states. Observation of the local NMR signal from the spin adjacent to the doped Br allowed us to fully characterize this impurity state. We have thus quantified a microscopic theoretical model that paves the way to better understanding of the Bose-glass physics in DTNX, as revealed in the related theoretical study [M. Dupont, S. Capponi, and N. Laflorencie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 067204 (2017).PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.118.067204].

  9. The BR eigenvalue algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Div.; Howell, G.W. [Florida Inst. of Tech., Melbourne, FL (United States). Dept. of Applied Mathematics; Watkins, D.S. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Pure and Applied Mathematics

    1997-11-01

    The BR algorithm, a new method for calculating the eigenvalues of an upper Hessenberg matrix, is introduced. It is a bulge-chasing algorithm like the QR algorithm, but, unlike the QR algorithm, it is well adapted to computing the eigenvalues of the narrowband, nearly tridiagonal matrices generated by the look-ahead Lanczos process. This paper describes the BR algorithm and gives numerical evidence that it works well in conjunction with the Lanczos process. On the biggest problems run so far, the BR algorithm beats the QR algorithm by a factor of 30--60 in computing time and a factor of over 100 in matrix storage space.

  10. Examination of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) levels, alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT-C) classification, and intended plans for getting home among bar-attending college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ryan J; Chaney, Beth H; Cremeens-Matthews, Jennifer

    2015-06-01

    The college student population is one of the heaviest drinking demographic groups in the US and impaired driving is a serious alcohol-related problem. The objective of this study is to better understand the relationship between alcohol-related behaviors and "plans to get home" among a sample of college students. We conducted four anonymous field studies to examine associations between breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) levels, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) classification, and plans for getting home among a sample of bar-attending college students (N = 713). The vast majority of participants in our sample (approximately 95%) were not intending to drive and the average BrAC% of those intending to drive was .041. Our one-way ANOVAs indicated that (1) participants classified by the AUDIT-C as not having an alcohol problem had a significantly lower BrAC% than those classified as having a potential problem and (2) participants planning to drive had a significantly lower BrAC% than those with a plan that did not involve them driving and those without a plan to get home. Although it is encouraging that most of our sample was not intending to drive, it is important to continue to attempt to reduce impaired driving in this population. This study helps college health professionals and administrators to better understand the relationship between alcohol-related behaviors and plans to get home among college students. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  11. High glucose enhances cAMP level and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in Chinese hamster ovary cell: Usage of Br-cAMP in foreign protein β-galactosidase expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiao-Hsien; Lee, Tsung-Yih; Liu, Ting-Wei; Tseng, Ching-Ping

    2017-07-01

    Glucose is a carbon source for Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell growth, while low growth rate is considered to enhance the production of recombinant proteins. The present study reveals that glucose concentrations higher than 1 g/L reduce the growth rate and substantially increase in cAMP (∼300%) at a high glucose concentration (10 g/L). High glucose also enhances the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p27 kip by Western blot analysis. To determine whether the phosphorylation of ERK is involved in the mechanism, a cyclic-AMP dependent protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor (H-8) or MEK (MAPKK) inhibitor (PD98059) was added to block ERK phosphorylation. We show that both the high glucose-induced ERK phosphorylation and growth rate return to baseline levels. These results suggest that the cAMP/PKA and MAP signaling pathways are involved in the abovementioned mechanism. Interestingly, the direct addition of 8-bromo-cAMP (Br-cAMP), a membrane-permeable cAMP analog, can mimic the similar effects produced by high glucose. Subsequently Br-cAMP could induce β-galactosidase (β-Gal) recombinant protein expression by 1.6-fold. Furthermore, Br-cAMP can additionally enhance the β-Gal production (from 2.8- to 4.5-fold) when CHO cells were stimulated with glycerol, thymidine, dimethyl sulfoxide, pentanoic acid, or sodium butyrate. Thus, Br-cAMP may be used as an alternative agent in promoting foreign protein expression for CHO cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna Mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coast of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Saiki, Mitiki; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: danyseo@uol.com.br, E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.br, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: mgcatharino@uol.com.br, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sousa, Eduinetty C.P.M. de, E-mail: edvinett@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IO/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico. Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia Marinha e Microfitobentos

    2013-07-01

    In this study the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V was evaluated in samples of Perna perna mussels collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos) subjected to anthropogenic contamination, to compare these values with those of mussels from reference site of Cocanha Beach (in Caraguatatuba). The mussels were collected seasonally from September 2008 to July 2009. They were cleaned, ground, homogenized, lyophilized and then analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The INAA procedure consisted in the irradiation of the samples and synthetic elemental standards for 8 and 10 s, under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. For quality control of analytical results, certified reference materials NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue and NIST 2876 Mussel Tissue were analyzed and their results indicated good accuracy. The ranges of concentrations (dry basis) of the elements obtained in mussels collected for the four seasons of the year were: 173.80 to 358.99 mg kg{sup -1} for Br; 45658 ± 1811 to 109166 ± 824 mg kg{sup -1} for Cl; 7043 ± 856 to 12506 ± 675 mg kg{sup -1} for K; 2774 ± 211 to 5691 ± 717 mg kg{sup -1} for Mg; 7.01 ± 0.30 to 29.74 ± 3.32 mg kg{sup -1} for Mn and 0.77 ± 0.02 to 3.43 ± 0.28 mg kg{sup -1} for V. The seasonal and spatial variations of these element concentrations were in this study. (author)

  13. The role of Br2 and BrCl in surface ozone destruction at polar sunrise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, K L; Plastridge, R A; Bottenheim, J W; Shepson, P B; Finlayson-Pitts, B J; Spicer, C W

    2001-01-19

    Bromine atoms are believed to play a central role in the depletion of surface-level ozone in the Arctic at polar sunrise. Br2, BrCl, and HOBr have been hypothesized as bromine atom precursors, and there is evidence for chlorine atom precursors as well, but these species have not been measured directly. We report here measurements of Br2, BrCl, and Cl2 made using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry at Alert, Nunavut, Canada. In addition to Br2 at mixing ratios up to approximately 25 parts per trillion, BrCl was found at levels as high as approximately 35 parts per trillion. Molecular chlorine was not observed, implying that BrCl is the dominant source of chlorine atoms during polar sunrise, consistent with recent modeling studies. Similar formation of bromine compounds and tropospheric ozone destruction may also occur at mid-latitudes but may not be as apparent owing to more efficient mixing in the boundary layer.

  14. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Reveals Disordered Level-Crossing Physics in the Bose-Glass Regime of the Br-Doped Ni (Cl1 -xBrx )2-4 SC (NH2 )2 Compound at a High Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Anna; Blinder, Rémi; Kermarrec, Edwin; Dupont, Maxime; Laflorencie, Nicolas; Capponi, Sylvain; Mayaffre, Hadrien; Berthier, Claude; Paduan-Filho, Armando; Horvatić, Mladen

    2017-02-01

    By measuring the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) T1-1 relaxation rate in the Br (bond) doped DTN compound, Ni (Cl1 -xBrx )2-4 SC (NH2 )2(DTN X ) , we show that the low-energy spin dynamics of its high magnetic field "Bose-glass" regime is dominated by a strong peak of spin fluctuations found at the nearly doping-independent position H*≅13.6 T . From its temperature and field dependence, we conclude that this corresponds to a level crossing of the energy levels related to the doping-induced impurity states. Observation of the local NMR signal from the spin adjacent to the doped Br allowed us to fully characterize this impurity state. We have thus quantified a microscopic theoretical model that paves the way to better understanding of the Bose-glass physics in DTN X , as revealed in the related theoretical study [M. Dupont, S. Capponi, and N. Laflorencie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 067204 (2017)., 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.067204].

  15. Growth patterns of fossil vertebrates as deduced from bone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    2009-10-20

    Ray S, Mukherjee D and S Bandyopadhyay S 2009 Growth patterns of fossil vertebrates as deduced from bone microstructure: case studies from. India; J. Biosci. ..... (sensu Smith-Gill 1983; Ray et al. 2004). This flexibility in.

  16. Hybridization of Single Nanocrystals of Cs4PbBr6 and CsPbBr3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Nanocrystals of all-inorganic cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I) feature high absorption and efficient narrow-band emission which renders them promising for future generation of photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices. Colloidal ensembles of these nanocrystals can be conveniently prepared by chemical synthesis. However, in the case of CsPbBr3, its synthesis can also yield nanocrystals of Cs4PbBr6 and the properties of the two are easily confused. Here, we investigate in detail the optical characteristics of simultaneously synthesized green-emitting CsPbBr3 and insulating Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals. We demonstrate that, in this case, the two materials inevitably hybridize, forming nanoparticles with a spherical shape. The actual amount of these Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals and nanohybrids increases for synthesis at lower temperatures, i.e., the condition typically used for the development of perovskite CsPbBr3 nanocrystals with smaller sizes. We use state-of-the-art electron energy loss spectroscopy to characterize nanoparticles at the single object level. This method allows distinguishing between optical characteristics of a pure Cs4PbBr6 and CsPbBr3 nanocrystal and their nanohybrid. In this way, we resolve some of the recent misconceptions concerning possible visible absorption and emission of Cs4PbBr6. Our method provides detailed structural characterization, and combined with modeling, we conclusively identify the nanospheres as CsPbBr3/Cs4PbBr6 hybrids. We show that the two phases are independent of each other’s presence and merge symbiotically. Herein, the optical characteristics of the parent materials are preserved, allowing for an increased absorption in the UV due to Cs4PbBr6, accompanied by the distinctive efficient green emission resulting from CsPbBr3. PMID:28919935

  17. Cooperative effects of noncovalent bonds to the Br atom of halogen-bonded H3N...BrZ and HCN...BrZ (Z = F, Br) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Sean A C; Joseph, Jerelle A

    2012-08-21

    A series of complexes formed between halogen-bonded H(3)N/HCN...BrZ (Z = Br, F) dimers and H(3)N/HCN...BrZ...XY (XY = HF, ClF, BeH(2), LiF) trimers were investigated at the MP2 and B3LYP levels of theory using a 6-31++G(d,p) basis set. Optimized structures, interaction energies, and other properties of interest were obtained. The addition of XY to the H(3)N/HCN...BrZ dyad leads to enhanced intermolecular binding with respect to the isolated monomers. This enhanced binding receives contributions from the electrostatic and inductive forces between the constituent pairs, with, in some instances, substantial three-body non-additive contributions to the binding energy. It was found that the XY = LiF interaction causes the greatest distortion of the H(3)N/HCN...BrZ halogen bond from the preferred linear orientation and also provides the strongest binding energy via the nonadditive energy.

  18. Pathways for the OH + Br2 → HOBr + Br and HOBr + Br → HBr + BrO Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyan; Qiu, Yudong; Schaefer, Henry F

    2016-02-11

    The OH radical reaction with Br2 and the subsequent reaction HOBr + Br are of exceptional importance to atmospheric chemistry and environmental chemistry. The entrance complex, transition state, and exit complex for both reactions have been determined using the coupled-cluster method with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations CCSD(T) with correlation consistent basis sets up to size cc-pV5Z and cc-pV5Z-PP. Coupled cluster effects with full triples (CCSDT) and full quadruples (CCSDTQ) are explicitly investigated. Scalar relativistic effects, spin-orbit coupling, and zero-point vibrational energy corrections are evaluated. The results from the all-electron basis sets are compared with those from the effective core potential (ECP) pseudopotential (PP) basis sets. The results are consistent. The OH + Br2 reaction is predicted to be exothermic 4.1 ± 0.5 kcal/mol, compared to experiment, 3.9 ± 0.2 kcal/mol. The entrance complex HO···BrBr is bound by 2.2 ± 0.2 kcal/mol. The transition state lies similarly well below the reactants OH + Br2. The exit complex HOBr···Br is bound by 2.7 ± 0.6 kcal/mol relative to separated HOBr + Br. The endothermicity of the reaction HOBr + Br → HBr + BrO is 9.6 ± 0.7 kcal/mol, compared with experiment 8.7 ± 0.3 kcal/mol. For the more important reverse (exothermic) HBr + BrO reaction, the entrance complex BrO···HBr is bound by 1.8 ± 0.6 kcal/mol. The barrier for the HBr + BrO reaction is 6.8 ± 0.9 kcal/mol. The exit complex (Br···HOBr) for the HBr + BrO reaction is bound by 1.9 ± 0.2 kcal/mol with respect to the products HOBr + Br.

  19. Determination of ultra-trace levels of priority PBDEs in water samples by isotope dilution GC(ECNI)MS using 81Br-labelled standards.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzales-Gago, A.; Brandsma, S.H.; Leonards, P.E.G.; de Boer, J.; Marchante-Gaijon, J.M.; Garcia-Alonso, J.I.

    2011-01-01

    A gas chromatography electron capture negative ionization mass spectrometry (GC(ECNI)MS) procedure for the determination of priority polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs; congeners 28, 47, 99, 100, 153 and 154) in water samples at regulatory EU levels has been developed. The method is based on the

  20. High-resolution infrared spectroscopy of the interacting v9, v5 + v6 and 3v6 levels of CH279BrF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visinoni, R.; Baldacci, A.; Larsen, R. Wugt

    2011-01-01

    induced by Coriolis coupling with v(5) + v(6), in turn exhibiting a predominant a-type structure. Several interactions connecting these levels and the dark state 3v(6) have been assessed. The whole data set is treated using Watson's A-reduced Hamiltonian in the 1(r) representation implemented with first...

  1. On the Enforceability of EU Agencies’ Soft Law at the National Level:>The Case of the European Securities and Markets Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marloes van Rijsbergen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The delegation of more and more soft regulatory powers to EU agencies occurs in an increasing number of policy areas, e.g. aviation, medicines and financial services. Although the growing scope of the delegation of public authority to agencies is said to be necessary to enhance the effectiveness of EU policies, it raises doubts concerning the legitimacy of agencies and their decisions at the same time. This article aims to contribute to the ongoing discussion on EU agencies’ regulatory powers by uncovering the problematic aspects which the application and enforcement of soft law rules of EU agencies may induce at the national level. Furthermore, it adds new elements to the wider reflection on the function and status of soft law within the EU. Ultimately, it argues that further procedural and good governance guarantees are required in order to ensure both the legitimacy and effectiveness of the soft regulatory powers of EU agencies. It does so by taking one of the European Supervisory Authorities (ESAs, namely the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA, as an illustrative example of how the establishing regulations of newer EU agencies proceed in the direction of the institutionalisation and proceduralisation of soft law rule-making.

  2. Deducing Reaction Mechanism: A Guide for Students, Researchers, and Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Simon J.; Pitman, Catherine L.; Miller, Alexander J. M.

    2016-01-01

    An introductory guide to deducing the mechanism of chemical reactions is presented. Following a typical workflow for probing reaction mechanism, the guide introduces a wide range of kinetic and mechanistic tools. In addition to serving as a broad introduction to mechanistic analysis for students and researchers, the guide has also been used by…

  3. Molecular characterization of BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 paralogous transcription factors involved in the regulation of aliphatic glucosinolate profiles in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskar, Venkidasamy; Park, Se Won

    2015-07-01

    Glucosinolates (GSL) are one of the major secondary metabolites of the Brassicaceae family. In the present study, we aim at characterizing the multiple paralogs of aliphatic GSL regulators, such as BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 genes in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis, by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis in different tissues and at various developmental stages. An overlapping gene expression pattern between the BrMYBs as well as their downstream genes (DSGs) was found at different developmental stages. Among the BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 paralogous genes, the BrMYB28.3 and BrMYB29.1 genes were dominantly expressed in most of the developmental stages, compared to the other paralogs of the BrMYB genes. Furthermore, the differential expression pattern of the BrMYBs was observed under various stress treatments. Interestingly, BrMYB28.2 showed the least expression in most developmental stages, while its expression was remarkably high in different stress conditions. More specifically, the BrMYB28.2, BrMYB28.3, and BrMYB29.1 genes were highly responsive to various abiotic and biotic stresses, further indicating their possible role in stress tolerance. Moreover, the in silico cis motif analysis in the upstream regulatory regions of BrMYBs showed the presence of various putative stress-specific motifs, which further indicated their responsiveness to biotic and abiotic stresses. These observations suggest that the dominantly expressed BrMYBs, both in different developmental stages and under various stress treatments (BrMYB28.3 and BrMYB29.1), may be potential candidate genes for altering the GSL level through genetic modification studies in B. rapa ssp. pekinensis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  4. Deducing Energy Consumer Behavior from Smart Meter Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebeid, Emad Samuel Malki; Heick, Rune; Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg

    2017-01-01

    The ongoing upgrade of electricity meters to smart ones has opened a new market of intelligent services to analyze the recorded meter data. This paper introduces an open architecture and a unified framework for deducing user behavior from its smart main electricity meter data and presenting the r...... the recognized home appliances. The framework uses open standard interfaces for exchanging data. The framework has been validated through comprehensive experiments that are related to an European Smart Grid project.......The ongoing upgrade of electricity meters to smart ones has opened a new market of intelligent services to analyze the recorded meter data. This paper introduces an open architecture and a unified framework for deducing user behavior from its smart main electricity meter data and presenting...

  5. Identification of Yellow Pigmentation Genes in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis Using Br300 Microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jeong Jung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The yellow color of inner leaves in Chinese cabbage depends on its lutein and carotene content. To identify responsible genes for yellow pigmentation in leaves, the transcriptome profiles of white (Kenshin and yellow leaves (Wheessen were examined using the Br300K oligomeric chip in Chinese cabbage. In yellow leaves, genes involved in carotene synthesis (BrPSY, BrPDS, BrCRTISO, and BrLCYE, lutein, and zeaxanthin synthesis (BrCYP97A3 and BrHYDB were upregulated, while those associated with carotene degradation (BrNCED3, BrNCED4, and BrNCED6 were downregulated. These expression patterns might support that the content of both lutein and total carotenoid was much higher in the yellow leaves than that in the white leaves. These results indicate that the yellow leaves accumulate high levels of both lutein and β-carotene due to stimulation of synthesis and that the degradation rate is inhibited. A large number of responsible genes as novel genes were specifically expressed in yellow inner leaves, suggesting the possible involvement in pigment synthesis. Finally, we identified three transcription factors (BrA20/AN1-like, BrBIM1, and BrZFP8 that are specifically expressed and confirmed their relatedness in carotenoid synthesis from Arabidopsis plants.

  6. Deduced elasticity of sp3-bonded amorphous diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballato, J.; Ballato, A.

    2017-11-01

    Amorphous diamond was recently synthesized using high temperature and pressure techniques [Z. Zeng, L. Yang, Q. Zeng, H. Lou, H. Sheng, J. Wen, D. J. Miller, Y. Meng, W. Yang, W. L. Mao, and H. K. Mao, Nat. Commun. 8, 322 (2017)]. Here, selected physical properties of this new phase of carbon are deduced using an extension of the Voigt-Reuss-Hill (VRHx) methodology whereby single crystal values are averaged over all orientations to yield values for the amorphous analog. Specifically, the elastic constants were deduced to be c11 = 1156.5 GPa, c12 = 87.6 GPa, and c44 = 534.5 GPa, whereas the Young's modulus, bulk modulus, and Poisson's ratio were also estimated to be 1144.2 GPa, 443.9 GPa, and 0.0704, respectively. These numbers are compared with experimental and theoretical literature values for other allotropic forms, specifically, Lonsdaleite, and two forms each of graphite and amorphous carbon. It is unknown at this time how the high temperature and pressure synthesis approach employed influences the structure, hence properties, of amorphous diamond at room temperature. However, the values provided herein constitute a baseline against which future structure/property/processing analyses can be compared.

  7. Deducing Energy Consumer Behavior from Smart Meter Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Ebeid

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing upgrade of electricity meters to smart ones has opened a new market of intelligent services to analyze the recorded meter data. This paper introduces an open architecture and a unified framework for deducing user behavior from its smart main electricity meter data and presenting the results in a natural language. The framework allows a fast exploration and integration of a variety of machine learning algorithms combined with data recovery mechanisms for improving the recognition’s accuracy. Consequently, the framework generates natural language reports of the user’s behavior from the recognized home appliances. The framework uses open standard interfaces for exchanging data. The framework has been validated through comprehensive experiments that are related to an European Smart Grid project.

  8. Stig Brøgger's Artists' Books

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania; Hvis Kromann, Thomas

    Introduction and presentation of the many artist's books made by the Danish artist Stig Brøgger......Introduction and presentation of the many artist's books made by the Danish artist Stig Brøgger...

  9. Brændeovn med autopilot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2013-01-01

    Ved at sætte brændeovnen på autopilot opnår man en bedre energiudnyttelse og en markant reduktion af luftforurenende stoffer. Automatisk styring af brændeovnen giver lige så lave emissioner hos forbrugeren som på testinstitutter, viser et forskningsprojekt mellem den jyske brændeovnproducent HWAM...

  10. Propiconazole is a specific and accessible brassinosteroid (BR biosynthesis inhibitor for Arabidopsis and maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hartwig

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BRs are steroidal hormones that play pivotal roles during plant development. In addition to the characterization of BR deficient mutants, specific BR biosynthesis inhibitors played an essential role in the elucidation of BR function in plants. However, high costs and limited availability of common BR biosynthetic inhibitors constrain their key advantage as a species-independent tool to investigate BR function. We studied propiconazole (Pcz as an alternative to the BR inhibitor brassinazole (Brz. Arabidopsis seedlings treated with Pcz phenocopied BR biosynthetic mutants. The steady state mRNA levels of BR, but not gibberellic acid (GA, regulated genes increased proportional to the concentrations of Pcz. Moreover, root inhibition and Pcz-induced expression of BR biosynthetic genes were rescued by 24epi-brassinolide, but not by GA(3 co-applications. Maize seedlings treated with Pcz showed impaired mesocotyl, coleoptile, and true leaf elongation. Interestingly, the genetic background strongly impacted the tissue specific sensitivity towards Pcz. Based on these findings we conclude that Pcz is a potent and specific inhibitor of BR biosynthesis and an alternative to Brz. The reduced cost and increased availability of Pcz, compared to Brz, opens new possibilities to study BR function in larger crop species.

  11. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos teores de Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn e V em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) coletados no litoral do estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele

    2012-07-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in Sao Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 37'S - 45 Degree-Sign 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 57'S - 46 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms

  12. Isolated ionospheric disturbances as deduced from global GPS network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Afraimovich

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate an unusual class of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances of the nonwave type, isolated ionospheric disturbances (IIDs that manifest themselves in total electron content (TEC variations in the form of single aperiodic negative TEC disturbances of a duration of about 10min (the total electron content spikes, TECS. The data were obtained using the technology of global detection of ionospheric disturbances using measurements of TEC variations from a global network of receivers of the GPS. For the first time, we present the TECS morphology for 170 days in 1998–2001. The total number of TEC series, with a duration of each series of about 2.3h (2h18m, exceeded 850000. It was found that TECS are observed in no more than 1–2% of the total number of TEC series mainly in the nighttime in the spring and autumn periods. The TECS amplitude exceeds the mean value of the "background" TEC variation amplitude by a factor of 5–10 as a minimum. TECS represent a local phenomenon with a typical radius of spatial correlation not larger than 500km. The IID-induced TEC variations are similar in their amplitude, form and duration to the TEC response to shock-acoustic waves (SAW generated during rocket launchings and earthquakes. However, the IID propagation velocity is less than the SAW velocity (800–1000m/s and are most likely to correspond to the velocity of background medium-scale acoustic-gravity waves, on the order of 100–200m/s.<br>> Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities, instruments and techniques - Radio science (ionospheric propagation

  13. Total Absorption Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy of 87Br, 88Br and 94Rb Beta-Delayed Neutron Emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Valencia, E; Algora, A; Agramunt, J; Rubio, B; Rice, S; Gelletly, W; Regan, P; Zakari-Issoufou, A -A; Fallot, M; Porta, A; Rissanen, J; Eronen, T; Aysto, J; Batist, L; Bowry, M; Bui, V M; Caballero-Folch, R; Cano-Ott, D; Elomaa, V -V; Estevez, E; Farrelly, G F; Garcia, A R; Gomez-Hornillos, B; Gorlychev, V; Hakala, J; Jordan, M D; Jokinen, A; Kolhinen, V S; Kondev, F G; Martinez, T; Mendoza, E; Moore, I; Penttila, H; Podolyak, Zs; Reponen, M; Sonnenschein, V; Sonzogni, A A

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the decay of 87Br, 88Br and 94Rb using total absorption gamma-ray spectroscopy. These important fission products are beta-delayed neutron emitters. Our data show considerable gamma-intensity, so far unobserved in high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, from states at high excitation energy. We also find significant differences with the beta intensity that can be deduced from existing measurements of the beta spectrum. We evaluate the impact of the present data on reactor decay heat using summation calculations. Although the effect is relatively small it helps to reduce the discrepancy between calculations and integral measurements of the photon component for 235U fission at cooling times in the range 1 to 100 s. We also use summation calculations to evaluate the impact of present data on reactor antineutrino spectra. We find a significant effect at antineutrino energies in the range of 5 to 9 MeV. In addition, we observe an unexpected strong probability for gamma emission from neutron unbound s...

  14. Erlotinib therapy after initial platinum doublet therapy in patients with EGFR wild type non-small cell lung cancer: results of a combined patient-level analysis of the NCIC CTG BR.21 and SATURN trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osarogiagbon, Raymond U; Cappuzzo, Federico; Ciuleanu, Tudor; Leon, Larry; Klughammer, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    The clinical benefit of erlotinib in treating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) wildtype non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been questioned. We examined the impact of erlotinib in confirmed EGFR wildtype patients in two placebo-controlled phase III trials: the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group BR.21 (BR.21) and Sequential Tarceva in Unresectable Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (SATURN) trials. Combined re-analysis of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with known wildtype EGFR, estimated by Kaplan-Meier curves and compared by two-sided log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) adjusted for potential confounders. Additional analyses assessed comparability of patients with known and unknown EGFR mutation status to determine generalizability of the two study populations. Mutation status was known in 25% (n=184 of 731) of the BR.21, and 49% (n=437 of 889) of the SATURN populations, of which 82% (n=150) and 89% (n=388) respectively had wildtype EGFR. HR for PFS was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.59-0.85; P<0.01) and for OS was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.59-0.88; P<0.01). Baseline characteristics and outcome (PFS and OS) distributions were similar for patients with known and unknown EGFR status, suggesting generalizability of the EGFR wildtype data. Erlotinib benefit was sustained in all clinical subsets. Erlotinib provided a consistent and significant improvement in survival for patients with EGFR wildtype NSCLC in both studies, individually and in combination. The benefit of erlotinib does not appear to be limited to patients with activating mutations of EGFR.

  15. Advance of the perihelion of Mercury deduced from QFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    I deduce the new gravitational formula from the variance in mass of QFT and GR (H05-0029-08, E15-0039 -08, E14-0032-08, D31-0054-10) in the partial differential: f (QFT) = f (GR) = delta∂ (m v)/delta∂ t = f _{P} + f _{C} , f _{P} = m delta∂ v / delta∂ t = - ( G m M /r (2) ) r / r, f _{C} = v delta∂ m / delta∂ t = - ( G m M / r (2) ) v / c (1), f (QFT) is the quasi-Casimir pressure of net virtual neutrinos nuν _{0} flux (after counteract contrary direction nuν _{0}). f (GR) is equivalent to Einstein’s equation, Eq. (1) is a new version of GR and can be solved exactly. Its core content is that the gravity produced by particles collide cannot linear addition, i.e., the nonlinearity of Einstein equation had been replaced by the nonlinearity caused by the variable mass in Eq.(1). Einstein equation can be inferred from Eq.(1) thereby from QFT, but QFT cannot be inferred from Eq.(1) or GR. f (QFT) is essential but f (GR) is phenomenological. Eq.(1) is obtained just by to absorb the essence of corpuscule collided gravitation origin ism proposed by Fatio in 1690 and 1920 Majorana’s experiment concept about gravitational shield effect again fuse with QFT. In my paper ‘QFT’S advance of the perihelion of Mercury, China Science &Technology Overview 125 88-90 (2011)’ QFT gravitational potential U = - G M /r is just the distribution density of net nuν _{0} flux, from SR we again get that: f (QFT) = f _{P} + f _{C}, f _{P} = - m ( delta∂ U / delta∂ r) r / r, f _{C} = - m ( delta∂U / delta∂ r) v / c (2), f _{ P} correspond the change rate of three-dimensional momentum p, f _{C} correspond the change rate of fourth dimensional momentum i m c which show directly as a dissipative force of mass change. According to Eq.(2) the circular motion is instability and elliptic motion is in the auto-stability state. In the fluctuation vacuum a particle with mass M neighbor another particle with mass m, the renormalization mass M and m will be less than that when

  16. Isolation and sequence analysis of a chalcone synthase cDNA of Matthiola incana R. Br. (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epping, B; Kittel, M; Ruhnau, B; Hemleben, V

    1990-06-01

    A cDNA clone (pcM12) of the chalcone synthase (CHS) of Matthiola incana R. Br. (Brassicaceae) was isolated from a cDNA library, sequenced and analysed. It comprises the complete coding sequence for the CHS and 5' and 3' untranslated regions. The deduced amino acid sequence shows that the Matthiola incana CHS consists of 394 amino acid residues. Comparison with CHS amino acid sequences of other plants indicates more than 82% homology.

  17. Ozone Depletion Potential of CH3Br

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Stanley P.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Sze, Nien Dak; Scott, Courtney; Rodriquez, Jose M.; Weisenstein, Debra K.

    1998-01-01

    The ozone depletion potential (ODP) of methyl bromide (CH3Br) can be determined by combining the model-calculated bromine efficiency factor (BEF) for CH3Br and its atmospheric lifetime. This paper examines how changes in several key kinetic data affect BEF. The key reactions highlighted in this study include the reaction of BrO + H02, the absorption cross section of HOBr, the absorption cross section and the photolysis products of BrON02, and the heterogeneous conversion of BrON02 to HOBR and HN03 on aerosol particles. By combining the calculated BEF with the latest estimate of 0.7 year for the atmospheric lifetime of CH3Br, the likely value of ODP for CH3Br is 0.39. The model-calculated concentration of HBr (approximately 0.3 pptv) in the lower stratosphere is substantially smaller than the reported measured value of about I pptv. Recent publications suggested models can reproduce the measured value if one assumes a yield for HBr from the reaction of BrO + OH or from the reaction of BrO + H02. Although the DeAlore et al. evaluation concluded any substantial yield of HBr from BrO + HO2 is unlikely, for completeness, we calculate the effects of these assumed yields on BEF for CH3Br. Our calculations show that the effects are minimal: practically no impact for an assumed 1.3% yield of HBr from BrO + OH and 10% smaller for an assumed 0.6% yield from BrO + H02.

  18. Airborne Measurements of BrO and the Sum of HOBr and Br2 over the Tropical West Pacific from 1 to 15 Km During the CONvective TRansport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dexian; Huey, L. Gregory; Tanner, David J.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Anderson, Daniel C.; Wales, Pamela A.; Pan, Laura L.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Apel, Eric C.; hide

    2016-01-01

    A chemical ionization mass spectrometer was used to measure BrO and HOBr + Br2 over the Tropical West Pacific Ocean within the altitude range of 1 to 15 km, during the CONvective TRansport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) campaign in 2014. Isolated episodes of elevated BrO (up to 6.6 pptv) and/or HOBr + Br2 (up to 7.3 pptv) were observed in the tropical free troposphere (TFT) and were associated with biomass burning. However, most of the time we did not observe significant BrO or HOBr + Br2 in the TFT and the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) above our limits of detection (LOD). The 1 min average LOD for BrO ranged from 0.6 to 1.6 pptv and for HOBr + Br2 ranged from 1.3 to 3.5 pptv. During one flight, BrO observations from the TTL to the extratropical lowermost stratosphere were used to infer a profile of inorganic bromine (Br(sub y)). Based on this profile, we estimated the product gas injection of bromine species into the stratosphere to be 2 pptv. Analysis of Br(sub y) partitioning further indicates that BrO levels are likely very low in the TFT environment and that future studies should target the measurement of HBr or atomic Br.

  19. Ab Initio Potential Energy Surfaces for Both the Ground (X̃1A′ and Excited (A∼1A′′ Electronic States of HSiBr and the Absorption and Emission Spectra of HSiBr/DSiBr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anyang Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ab initio potential energy surfaces for the ground (X̃1A′ and excited (A˜A′′1 electronic states of HSiBr were obtained by using the single and double excitation coupled-cluster theory with a noniterative perturbation treatment of triple excitations and the multireference configuration interaction with Davidson correction, respectively, employing an augmented correlation-consistent polarized valence quadruple zeta basis set. The calculated vibrational energy levels of HSiBr and DSiBr of the ground and excited electronic states are in excellent agreement with the available experimental band origins. In addition, the absorption and emission spectra of HSiBr and DSiBr were calculated using an efficient single Lanczos propagation method and are in good agreement with the available experimental observations.

  20. Atmospheric fate of CF sub 3 Br, CF sub 2 Br sub 2 , CF sub 2 ClBr, and CF sub 2 BrCF sub 2 Br

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkholder, J.B.; Wilson, R.R.; Gierczak, T.; Talukdar, R.; McKeen, S.A.; Orlando, J.J.; Vaghjiani, G.L.; Ravishankara, A.R. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (USA) Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (USA))

    1991-03-20

    The temperature dependent UV absorption cross sections of the haloalkanes CF{sub 3}Br, CF{sub 2}ClBr, CF{sub 2}Br{sub 2}, and CF{sub 2}BrCF{sub 2} are reported. The UV absorption cross sections were measured over the temperature range 210 to 296 K and the wavelength range 190 to 320 nm. Upper limits of the rate coefficients for the reactions of OH with CF{sub 3}Br, CF{sub 2}Br{sub 2}, CF{sub 2}ClBr, and CF{sub 2}BrCF{sub 2}Br were also determined using both pulsed photolysis and flow tube techniques. The rate coefficients at 296 K were found to be <1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}16}, <1.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}16}, <5.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}16}, and <1.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}16} cm{sup 3} molec{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} for CF{sub 3}Br, CF{sub 2}ClBr, CF{sub 2}BrCF{sub 2}Br, respectively. The UV absorption cross-section data and OH reaction rate coefficients of these species were combined with a one-dimensional model to yield atmospheric lifetimes of 65, 16, 3.2, and <20 years for CF{sub 3}Br, CF{sub 2}ClBr, CF{sub 2}Br{sub 2}, and CF{sub 2}BrCF{sub 2}Br, respectively.

  1. Cd4As2Br3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Kars

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of Cd4As2Br3 (tetracadmium biarsenide tribromide were grown by a chemical transport reaction. The structure is isotypic with the members of the cadmium and mercury pnictidohalides family with general formula M4A2X3 (M = Cd, Hg; A = P, As, Sb; X = Cl, Br, I and contains two independent As atoms on special positions with site symmetry -3 and two independent Cd atoms, of which one is on a special position with site symmetry -3. The Cd4As2Br3 structure consists of AsCd4 tetrahedra sharing vertices with isolated As2Cd6 octahedra that contain As–As dumbbells in the centre of the octahedron. The Br atoms are located in the voids of this three-dimensional arrangement and bridge the different polyhedra through Cd...Br contacts.

  2. Bromine in the tropical troposphere and stratosphere as derived from balloon-borne BrO observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dorf

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The first tropospheric and stratospheric (4 to 33 km BrO profile is presented for the inner tropics derived from balloon-borne DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy measurements. In combination with photochemical modelling, total stratospheric inorganic bromine (Bry is deduced to be (21.5±2.5 ppt in 4.5-year-old air, probed in 2005. We derive a total contribution of (5.2±2.5 ppt from brominated very short-lived substances and inorganic product gases to stratospheric Bry Tropospheric BrO was found to be <1 ppt. Our results are compared to two 3-D CTM SLIMCAT model runs, which differ in the lifetime of the bromine source gases, affecting the vertical distribution of Bry in the lower stratosphere. Bromine source gas measurements performed 10 days earlier Laube et al., 2008, indicate a lower Bry of (17.5±0.4 ppt. Potential reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  3. buFacile synthesis and characterization of CsPbBr3 and CsPb2Br5 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    65

    CsPb2Br5 powders show a white color. Based on the results of the XRD analysis, it can be seen that the Cs+/Pb2+ mole ratio has the effect on the phase of final product in this synthesis process. Generally speaking, there is a reaction occurring for the formation of CsPbBr3 by CsBr and. PbBr2: CsBr + PbBr2 → CsPbBr3. (1).

  4. Tuning growth cycles of Brassica crops via natural antisense transcripts of BrFLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaorong; Zhang, Shaofeng; Bai, Jinjuan; He, Yuke

    2016-03-01

    Several oilseed and vegetable crops of Brassica are biennials that require a prolonged winter cold for flowering, a process called vernalization. FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is a central repressor of flowering. Here, we report that the overexpression of natural antisense transcripts (NATs) of Brassica rapa FLC (BrFLC) greatly shortens plant growth cycles. In rapid-, medium- and slow-cycling crop types, there are four copies of the BrFLC genes, which show extensive variation in sequences and expression levels. In Bre, a biennial crop type that requires vernalization, five NATs derived from the BrFLC2 locus are rapidly induced under cold conditions, while all four BrFLC genes are gradually down-regulated. The transgenic Bre lines overexpressing a long NAT of BrFLC2 do not require vernalization, resulting in a gradient of shortened growth cycles. Among them, a subset of lines both flower and set seeds as early as Yellow sarson, an annual crop type in which all four BrFLC genes have non-sense mutations and are nonfunctional in flowering repression. Our results demonstrate that the growth cycles of biennial crops of Brassica can be altered by changing the expression levels of BrFLC2 NATs. Thus, BrFLC2 NATs and their transgenic lines are useful for the genetic manipulation of crop growth cycles. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Formation of brominated phenolic contaminants from natural manganese oxides-catalyzed oxidation of phenol in the presence of Br(.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kunde; Song, Lianghui; Zhou, Shiyang; Chen, Da; Gan, Jay

    2016-07-01

    Brominated phenolic compounds (BPCs) are a class of persistent and potentially toxic compounds ubiquitously present in the aquatic environment. However, the origin of BPCs is not clearly understood. In this study, we investigated the formation of BPCs from natural manganese oxides (MnOx)-catalyzed oxidation of phenol in the presence of Br(-). Experiments at ambient temperature clearly demonstrated that BPCs were readily produced via the oxidation of phenol by MnOx in the presence of Br(-). In the reaction of MnOx sand with 0.213 μmol/L phenol and 0.34 mmol/L Br(-) for 10 min, more than 60% of phenol and 56% of Br(-) were consumed to form BPCs. The yield of BPCs increased with increasing concentrations of phenol and Br(-). Overall, a total of 14 BPCs including simple bromophenols (4-bromophenol, 2,4-dibromophenol, and 2,4,6-tribromophenol), hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs), and hydroxylated polybrominated biphenyls (OH-PBBs) were identified. The production of BPCs increased with increasing concentrations of Br(-) or phenol. It was deduced that Br(-) was first oxidized to form active bromine, leading to the subsequent bromination of phenol to form bromophenols. The further oxidation of bromophenols by MnOx resulted in the formation of OH-PBDEs and OH-PBBs. In view of the ubiquity of phenol, Br(-), and MnOx in the environment, MnOx-mediated oxidation may play a role on the natural production of BPCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of soluble bromide measurements and a case study of BrO observations during ARCTAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A focus of the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS mission was examination of bromine photochemistry in the spring time high latitude troposphere based on aircraft and satellite measurements of bromine oxide (BrO and related species. The NASA DC-8 aircraft utilized a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS to measure BrO and a mist chamber (MC to measure soluble bromide. We have determined that the MC detection efficiency to molecular bromine (Br2, hypobromous acid (HOBr, bromine oxide (BrO, and hydrogen bromide (HBr as soluble bromide (Br was 0.9±0.1, 1.06+0.30/−0.35, 0.4±0.1, and 0.95±0.1, respectively. These efficiency factors were used to estimate soluble bromide levels along the DC-8 flight track of 17 April 2008 from photochemical calculations constrained to in situ BrO measured by CIMS. During this flight, the highest levels of soluble bromide and BrO were observed and atmospheric conditions were ideal for the space-borne observation of BrO. The good agreement (R2 = 0.76; slope = 0.95; intercept = −3.4 pmol mol−1 between modeled and observed soluble bromide, when BrO was above detection limit (>2 pmol mol−1 under unpolluted conditions (NO<10 pmol mol−1, indicates that the CIMS BrO measurements were consistent with the MC soluble bromide and that a well characterized MC can be used to derive mixing ratios of some reactive bromine compounds. Tropospheric BrO vertical column densities (BrOVCD derived from CIMS BrO observations compare well with BrOTROPVCD from OMI on 17 April 2008.

  7. Shell structure of potassium isotopes deduced from their magnetic moments

    CERN Document Server

    Papuga, J; Kreim, K; Barbieri, C; Blaum, K; De Rydt, M; Duguet, T; Garcia Ruiz, R F; Heylen, H; Kowalska, M; Neugart, R; Neyens, G; Nortershauser, W; Rajabali, M M; Sanchez, R; Smirnova, N; Soma, V; Yordanov, D T

    2014-01-01

    $\\textbf{Background:}$ Ground-state spins and magnetic moments are sensitive to the nuclear wave function, thus they are powerful probes to study the nuclear structure of isotopes far from stability. \\\\ \\\\ $\\textbf{Purpose:}$ Extend our knowledge about the evolution of the $1/2^+$ and $3/2^+$ states for K isotopes beyond the $N = 28$ shell gap. \\\\ \\\\ $\\textbf{Method:}$ High-resolution collinear laser spectroscopy on bunched atomic beams. \\\\ \\\\ $\\textbf{Results:}$ From measured hyperfine structure spectra of K isotopes, nuclear spins and magnetic moments of the ground states were obtained for isotopes from $N = 19$ up to $N = 32$. In order to draw conclusions about the composition of the wave functions and the occupation of the levels, the experimental data were compared to shell-model calculations using SDPF-NR and SDPF-U effective interactions. In addition, a detailed discussion about the evolution of the gap between proton $1d_{3/2}$ and $2s_{1/2}$ in the shell model and $\\textit{ab initio}$ framework is al...

  8. Rate constant for the reaction SO + BrO yields SO2 + Br

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunning, J.; Stief, L.

    1986-01-01

    The rate of the radical-radical reaction SO + BrO yields SO2 + Br has been determined at 298 K in a discharge flow system near 1 torr pressure with detection of SO and BrO via collision-free sampling mass spectrometry. The rate constant was determined using two different methods: measuring the decay of SO radicals in the presence of an excess of BrO and measuring the decay of BrO radicals in excess SO. The results from the two methods are in reasonable agreement and the simple mean of the two values gives the recommended rate constant at 298 K, k = (5.7 + or - 2.0) x 10 to the -11th cu cm/s. This represents the first determination of this rate constant and it is consistent with a previously derived lower limit based on SO2 formation. Comparison is made with other radical-radical reactions involving SO or BrO. The reaction SO + BrO yields SO2 + Br is of interest for models of the upper atmosphere of the earth and provides a potential coupling between atmospheric sulfur and bromine chemistry.

  9. Systematic hardness measurements on CsClxBr (and NH4ClxBr ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia. Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 25; Issue 1. Systematic hardness measurements on CsClBr(1–x) and NH4ClBr(1–x) mixed crystals. K G Subhadra E Balaiah D B Sirdeshmukh. Mechanical Properties Volume 25 Issue 1 February 2002 pp 31- ...

  10. mRNA and Protein Levels for GABA[subscript A][alpha]4, [alpha]5, [beta]1 and GABA[subscript B]R1 Receptors are Altered in Brains from Subjects with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, S. Hossein; Reutiman, Teri J.; Folsom, Timothy D.; Rooney, Robert J.; Patel, Diven H.; Thuras, Paul D.

    2010-01-01

    We have shown altered expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA[subscript A]) and gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABA[subscript B]) receptors in the brains of subjects with autism. In the current study, we sought to verify our western blotting data for GABBR1 via qRT-PCR and to expand our previous work to measure mRNA and protein levels of 3…

  11. Physics-based Inverse Problem to Deduce Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-07

    please find the Final Technical Report with SF 298 for Dr. Erin E. Hackett’s ONR grant entitled Physics -based Inverse Problem to Deduce Marine...From- To) 07/03/2017 Final Technica l Dec 2012- Dec 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Physics -based Inverse Problem to Deduce Marine...19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 843-349-4087 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Physics -Based Inverse Problem To

  12. A novel computational framework for deducing muscle synergies from experimental joint moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantharaman eGopalakrishnan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior experimental studies have hypothesized the existence of a ‘muscle synergy’ based control scheme for producing limb movements and locomotion in vertebrates. Such synergies have been suggested to consist of fixed muscle grouping schemes with the co-activation of all muscles in a synergy resulting in limb movement. Quantitative representations of these groupings (termed muscle weightings and their control signals (termed synergy controls have traditionally been derived by the factorization of experimentally measured EMG. This study presents a novel approach for deducing these weightings and controls from inverse dynamic joint moments that are computed from an alternative set of experimental measurements – movement kinematics and kinetics. This technique was applied to joint moments for healthy human walking at 0.7 and 1.7 m/s, and two sets of ‘simulated’ synergies were computed based on two different criteria (1 synergies were required to minimize errors between experimental and simulated joint moments in a musculoskeletal model (pure-synergy solution (2 along with minimizing joint moment errors, synergies also minimized muscle activation levels (optimal-synergy solution. On comparing the two solutions, it was observed that the introduction of optimality requirements (optimal-synergy to a control strategy solely aimed at reproducing the joint moments (pure-synergy did not necessitate major changes in the muscle grouping within synergies or the temporal profiles of synergy control signals. Synergies from both the simulated solutions exhibited many similarities to EMG derived synergies from a previously published study, thus implying that the analysis of the two different types of experimental data reveals similar, underlying synergy structures.

  13. CONSISTENT USE OF THE KALMAN FILTER IN CHEMICAL TRANSPORT MODELS (CTMS) FOR DEDUCING EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Past research has shown that emissions can be deduced using observed concentrations of a chemical, a Chemical Transport Model (CTM), and the Kalman filter in an inverse modeling application. An expression was derived for the relationship between the "observable" (i.e., the con...

  14. Complete amino acid sequence of human intestinal aminopeptidase N as deduced from cloned cDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowell, G M; Kønigshøfer, E; Danielsen, E M

    1988-01-01

    The complete primary structure (967 amino acids) of an intestinal human aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) was deduced from the sequence of a cDNA clone. Aminopeptidase N is anchored to the microvillar membrane via an uncleaved signal for membrane insertion. A domain constituting amino acid 250...

  15. Wildland fire probabilities estimated from weather model-deduced monthly mean fire danger indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush K. Preisler; Shyh-Chin Chen; Francis Fujioka; John W. Benoit; Anthony L. Westerling

    2008-01-01

    The National Fire Danger Rating System indices deduced from a regional simulation weather model were used to estimate probabilities and numbers of large fire events on monthly and 1-degree grid scales. The weather model simulations and forecasts are ongoing experimental products from the Experimental Climate Prediction Center at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography...

  16. Postsynthesis Transformation of Insulating Cs4PbBr6 Nanocrystals into Bright Perovskite CsPbBr3 through Physical and Chemical Extraction of CsBr

    OpenAIRE

    Palazon, Francisco; Urso, Carmine; De Trizio, Luca; Akkerman, Quinten; Marras, Sergio; Locardi, Federico; Nelli, Ilaria; Ferretti, Maurizio; Prato, Mirko; Manna, Liberato

    2017-01-01

    Perovskite-related Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals present a “zero-dimensional” crystalline structure where adjacent [PbBr6]4– octahedra do not share any corners. We show in this work that these nanocrystals can be converted into “three-dimensional” CsPbBr3 perovskites by extraction of CsBr. This conversion drastically changes the optoelectronic properties of the nanocrystals that become highly photoluminescent. The extraction of CsBr can be achieved either by thermal annealing (physical approach) or b...

  17. Elamusturundus: riigi brändimine ja Eesti bränd / Siiri Same

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Same, Siiri

    2015-01-01

    Artikli autor oma 2015. a. Tallinna Tehnikaülikoolis kaitstud doktoritööst "Conceptualization of experience marketing and country branding from a marketing management perspective" ("Elamusturunduse ja riigi brändimise kontseptualiseerimine turunduse juhtimise vaatenurgast")

  18. $^{80m}$Br/$^{80}$Br a new electron-$\\gamma$ - PAC Probe

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, J G; Araújo, J P; Marques, J G; Soares, J C; Melo, A A

    2001-01-01

    Conversion electron-$\\gamma$ PAC measurements of the 49 keV - 37 keV cascade in $^{80}$Br through the intermediate 2$^{-}$ state with T$_{1/2}$=7.4 ns were performed with a system of two magnetic lens spectrometers and two BaF$_{2}$ scintillation detectors. The parent $^{80m}$Br activity with half-life of 4.4 hrs was implanted into Ni, Zn and graphite at the ISOLDE separator at CERN. The observed interaction frequency in the nickel matrix is in good agreement with the known value of the hyperfine field for Br in Ni and the magnetic moment of the 2$^{-}$ state. From the measured quadrupole interaction in Zn and graphite the electric field gradients at Br were obtained.

  19. $^{80}$Br $^{80}$Br-a new electron-gamma PAC probe

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, J G; Araújo, J P; Marques, J G; Soares, J C; Melo, A A

    2001-01-01

    Conversion electron-gamma PAC measurements of the 49-37 keV cascade in /sup 80/Br through the intermediate 2/sup -/ state with T/sub 1/2 /=7.4 ns were performed with a system of two magnetic lens spectrometers and two BaF/sub 2/ scintillation detectors. The parent /sup 80m/Br activity with a halflife of 4.4 hrs was implanted into Ni, Zn and graphite at the ISOLDE separator at CERN. The observed interaction frequency in the nickel matrix is in good agreement with the known value of the hyperfine field for Br in Ni and the magnetic moment of the 2/sup -/ state. From the measured quadrupole interaction in Zn and graphite the electric field gradients at Br were obtained. (7 refs).

  20. {sup 80m}Br/{sup 80}Br - A New Electron-Gamma PAC Probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, J. G.; Haas, H. [CERN, EP Division (Switzerland); Araujo, J. P. [IFIMUP, Fac. Ciencias (Portugal); Marques, J. G.; Soares, J. C. [Inst. Tecnologico e Nuclear (Portugal); Melo, A. A. [CFNUL (Portugal)

    2001-11-15

    Conversion electron-gamma PAC measurements of the 49-37 keV cascade in {sup 80}Br through the intermediate 2{sup -} state with T{sub 1/2}=7.4 ns were performed with a system of two magnetic lens spectrometers and two BaF{sub 2} scintillation detectors. The parent {sup 80m}Br activity with a halflife of 4.4 hrs was implanted into Ni, Zn and graphite at the ISOLDE separator at CERN. The observed interaction frequency in the nickel matrix is in good agreement with the known value of the hyperfine field for Br in Ni and the magnetic moment of the 2{sup -} state. From the measured quadrupole interaction in Zn and graphite the electric field gradients at Br were obtained.

  1. Expression of BAFF and BR3 in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Duan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the expression of B cell activating factor (BAFF and BAFF receptor in patients with disease activity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Real-time RT-PCR was used to examine BAFF mRNA expression in peripheral blood monocytes of active and stable SLE patients and healthy controls. The percentage of BAFF receptor 3 (BR3 on B lymphocytes was measured by flow cytometry. Soluble BAFF levels in serum were assayed by ELISA. Microalbumin levels were assayed by an automatic immune analysis machine. BAFF mRNA and soluble BAFF levels were highest in the active SLE group, followed by the stable SLE group, and controls (P<0.01. The percentage of BR3 on B lymphocytes was downregulated in the active SLE group compared with the stable SLE group and controls (P<0.01. BAFF mRNA levels and soluble BAFF levels were higher in patients who were positive for proteinuria than in those who were negative (P<0.01. The percentage of BR3 on B lymphocytes was lower in patients who were positive for proteinuria than in those who were negative (P<0.01. The BAFF/BR3 axis may be over-activated in SLE patients. BAFF and BR3 levels may be useful parameters for evaluating treatment.

  2. Molecular Characterization of a Leaf Senescence-Related Transcription Factor BrWRKY75 of Chinese Flowering Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Tan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available WRKY is a plant-specific transcription factor (TF involved in the regulation of many biological processes; however, its role in leaf senescence of leafy vegetables remains unknown. In the present work, a WRKY TF, termed BrWRKY75 was isolated from Chinese flowering cabbage [Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis (L. Mokino var. utilis Tsen et Lee]. Analysis of deduced amino acid sequence and the phylogenetic tree showed that BrWRKY75 has high homology with WRKY75 from Brassica oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana, and belongs to the II c sub-group. Sub-cellular localization and transcriptional activity analysis revealed that BrWRKY75 is a nuclear protein with transcriptional repression activity, and was up-regulated during leaf senescence. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed that BrWRKY75 directly bound to the W-box (TTGAC cis-element. Collectively, these results provide a basis for further investigation of the transcriptional regulation of Chinese flowering cabbage leaf senescence.

  3. On the evolution of Dipodium R. Br.

    OpenAIRE

    Peter O'byrne

    2014-01-01

    Dipodium R. Br. (Orchidaceae), a genus of ca. 38 species, should be divided into an Australasian clade and a Malesian clade, based on morphological and geographic evidences. Dipodium section Dipodium and section Leopardanthus (Blume) O. Kuntze are re-defined to accommodate this change. An evolutionary scenario that explains this division is proposed. The lack of diversity of floral structure in the genus is probably caused by pollinator-specificity, while the diversity of plant form may be du...

  4. Endüstriyel Enformasyonun Kıbrıs Türk Endüstrisiyle Buluşması: Farkındalık ve Gereksinme Düzeyi = Confrontation of the Industrial Information with the Cyprus Turkish Industry: Awareness and the Level of Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktan, Ayşe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti (KKTC ekonomisine dayalı endüstri kuruluşları üzerine, onların enformasyon ihtiyaçlarının anlaşılmasına yönelik bir araştırma yapılmıştır. Bu bağlamda ilgili kurumların mevcut durumu ve gelişimi incelenmiştir. Bunun yanında endüstriyel enformasyonun önemi üzerinde durularak, KKTC’de genel imalat ve kâğıt ürünleri ile matbaa sanayisinde endüstriyel enformasyon üzerine olan farkındalık ile endüstriyel enformasyonun gereksinme düzeyleri tespit edilmeye çalışılmıştır. / Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus’s (TRNC economy based on the Cyprus Turkish industryand firms have been investigated in this study. The importance of industrial information also has been highlighted in the context of Cyprus Turkish industry. The awareness on general production for the paperwork industry in the frame of information industry tries to determine. Moreover, the level of information needs is determined on those sectors.

  5. A proof of the DBRF-MEGN method, an algorithm for deducing minimum equivalent gene networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baba Kotaro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously developed the DBRF-MEGN (difference-based regulation finding-minimum equivalent gene network method, which deduces the most parsimonious signed directed graphs (SDGs consistent with expression profiles of single-gene deletion mutants. However, until the present study, we have not presented the details of the method's algorithm or a proof of the algorithm. Results We describe in detail the algorithm of the DBRF-MEGN method and prove that the algorithm deduces all of the exact solutions of the most parsimonious SDGs consistent with expression profiles of gene deletion mutants. Conclusions The DBRF-MEGN method provides all of the exact solutions of the most parsimonious SDGs consistent with expression profiles of gene deletion mutants.

  6. A proof of the DBRF-MEGN method, an algorithm for deducing minimum equivalent gene networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoda, Koji; Baba, Kotaro; Kitano, Hiroaki; Onami, Shuichi

    2011-06-24

    We previously developed the DBRF-MEGN (difference-based regulation finding-minimum equivalent gene network) method, which deduces the most parsimonious signed directed graphs (SDGs) consistent with expression profiles of single-gene deletion mutants. However, until the present study, we have not presented the details of the method's algorithm or a proof of the algorithm. We describe in detail the algorithm of the DBRF-MEGN method and prove that the algorithm deduces all of the exact solutions of the most parsimonious SDGs consistent with expression profiles of gene deletion mutants. The DBRF-MEGN method provides all of the exact solutions of the most parsimonious SDGs consistent with expression profiles of gene deletion mutants.

  7. Experimental studies and nuclear model calculations on proton-induced reactions on (nat)Se, (76)Se and (77)Se with particular reference to the production of the medically interesting radionuclides (76)Br and (77)Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, H E; Qaim, S M; Shubin, Yu; Azzam, A; Morsy, M; Coenen, H H

    2004-06-01

    Excitation functions of the reactions (nat)Se(p,x)(75,76,77,82)Br, (76)Se(p,xn)(75,76)Br, (76)Se(p,x)(75)Se and (77)Se(p,xn)(76,77)Br were measured from their respective thresholds up to 40 MeV, with particular emphasis on data for the production of the medically important radionuclides (76)Br and (77)Br. The conventional stacked-foil technique was used. The samples were prepared by a sedimentation process. Irradiations were performed using the compact cyclotron CV 28 and the injector of COSY, both at the Research Centre Jülich. In order to validate the data, nuclear model calculations were performed using the code ALICE-IPPE which is based on the preequilibrium-evaporation model. Good agreement was found between the experimental and theoretical data, except in the high-energy region where the calculated data were somewhat higher. All the measured excitation curves were compared with the data available in the literature. From the experimental data the theoretical yields of all the investigated radionuclides were calculated and plotted as a function of proton energy. The calculated yield of (77)Br from the (nat)Se(p,x)(77)Br process over the energy range E(p)=25-->15 is 72.7 MBq/microAh and from the (77)Se(p,n)(77)Br reaction over E(p)=15-->6 MeV it is 86.2 MBq/microAh. The yield of (76)Br from the (76)Se(p,n)(76)Br reaction for E(p)=15-->8 is 360.1 MBq/microAh and from the (77)Se(p,2n)(76)Br reaction for E(p)=28-->18 MeV it is 879.2 MBq/microAh. The radionuclidic impurity levels are discussed.

  8. Behaviour of the Pleistocene marsupial lion deduced from claw marks in a southwestern Australian cave

    OpenAIRE

    Arman, Samuel D.; Prideaux, Gavin J.

    2016-01-01

    The marsupial lion, Thylacoleo carnifex, was the largest-ever marsupial carnivore, and is one of the most iconic extinct Australian vertebrates. With a highly-specialised dentition, powerful forelimbs and a robust build, its overall morphology is not approached by any other mammal. However, despite >150 years of attention, fundamental aspects of its biology remain unresolved. Here we analyse an assemblage of claw marks preserved on surfaces in a cave and deduce that they were generated by mar...

  9. Deducing lightning locations and charge moment change by ELF observations around Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, T.; Hobara, Y.; Hayakawa, M.; Shiokawa, K.

    2011-12-01

    The electromagnetic radiations from lightning discharges have been intensively studied for a long time by using different frequency ranges. Recent observations of electromagnetic radiations from lightning in the ELF frequency range so-called ELF transients are recognized as a powerful tool not only to deduce the global lightning distribution but also to obtain one of the most important properties of lightning discharges such as charge moment changes (Qds). Although accurate Qds for the lightning discharges can be deduced from the static electric field measurement by using e.g. electric field mill, the detection ranges of this equipment is significantly limited in space (typically within few decade of km). Therefore Qds distributions of local thunderstorm activities over the spatial scale of Japan (within few thousands km) have not been studied yet. In this paper, we report the initial results of local ELF network observations (i.e. multiple observations over Japan) to deduce the spatio-temporal lightning discharge distributions with a charge moment change of the thunderstorm activity around Japan. The statistical properties of the charge moment changes will be presented as well.

  10. Longpath DOAS observations of surface BrO at Summit, Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stutz

    2011-09-01

    on 4 July 2008, during which marine air from the Greenland east coast was rapidly transported to Summit, led to enhanced mixing ratios of BrO and a number of marine tracers. However, rapid transport of marine air from the Greenland east coast is rare and most likely not the main source of bromide in surface snow at Summit. The observed levels of BrO are predicted to influence NOx chemistry as well as impact HOx partitioning. However, impact of local snow photochemistry on HOx is smaller than previously suggested for Summit.

  11. Slice imaging of the UV photodissociation of CH2BrCl from the maximum of the first absorption band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicharro, D. V.; Marggi Poullain, S.; González-Vázquez, J.; Bañares, L.

    2017-07-01

    The photodissociation dynamics of bromochloromethane (CH2BrCl) have been investigated at the maximum of the first absorption band, at the excitation wavelengths 203 and 210 nm, using the slice imaging technique in combination with a probe detection of bromine-atom fragments, Br(2P3/2) and Br*(2P1/2), via (2 + 1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization. Translational energy distributions and angular distributions reported for both Br(2P3/2) and Br*(2P1/2) fragments show two contributions for the Br(2P3/2) channel and a single contribution for the Br*(2P1/2) channel. High level ab initio calculations have been performed in order to elucidate the dissociation mechanisms taking place. The computed absorption spectrum and potential energy curves indicate the main contribution of the populated 4A″, 5A', and 6A' excited states leading to a C-Br cleavage. Consistently with the results, the single contribution for the Br*(2P1/2) channel has been attributed to direct dissociation through the 6A' state as well as an indirect dissociation of the 5A' state requiring a 5A' → 4A' reverse non-adiabatic crossing. Similarly, a faster contribution for the Br(2P3/2) channel characterized by a similar energy partitioning and anisotropy than those for the Br*(2P1/2) channel is assigned to a direct dissociation through the 5A' state, while the slower component appears to be due to the direct dissociation on the 4A″ state.

  12. Octadecabromidobis(dicarbidodecadysprosium, [Dy10Br18(C22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Daub

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of [Dy10Br18(C22] were obtained during the reaction of DyBr3 with dysprosium metal and graphite in a sealed tantalum container. In the crystal structure, the Dy atoms form dimers of edge-sharing octahedra, each encapsulating a C2 unit. The metal atoms are surrounded by Br atoms above the cluster edges and vertices, respectively. The dimers are connected to each other by Br atoms, leading to a three-dimensional network. [Dy10Br18(C22] is isotypic with its iodido analogue [Dy10I18(C22].

  13. A comparative study of LaBr3(Ce(3+)) and CeBr3 based gamma-ray spectrometers for planetary remote sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, A; Mitrofanov, I; Owens, A; Quarati, F; Benkhoff, J; Bakhtin, B; Fedosov, F; Golovin, D; Litvak, M; Malakhov, A; Mokrousov, M; Nuzhdin, I; Sanin, A; Tretyakov, V; Vostrukhin, A; Timoshenko, G; Shvetsov, V; Granja, C; Slavicek, T; Pospisil, S

    2016-08-01

    The recent availability of large volume cerium bromide crystals raises the possibility of substantially improving gamma-ray spectrometer limiting flux sensitivities over current systems based on the lanthanum tri-halides, e.g., lanthanum bromide and lanthanum chloride, especially for remote sensing, low-level counting applications or any type of measurement characterized by poor signal to noise ratios. The Russian Space Research Institute has developed and manufactured a highly sensitive gamma-ray spectrometer for remote sensing observations of the planet Mercury from the Mercury Polar Orbiter (MPO), which forms part of ESA's BepiColombo mission. The Flight Model (FM) gamma-ray spectrometer is based on a 3-in. single crystal of LaBr3(Ce(3+)) produced in a separate crystal development programme specifically for this mission. During the spectrometers development, manufacturing, and qualification phases, large crystals of CeBr3 became available in a subsequent phase of the same crystal development programme. Consequently, the Flight Spare Model (FSM) gamma-ray spectrometer was retrofitted with a 3-in. CeBr3 crystal and qualified for space. Except for the crystals, the two systems are essentially identical. In this paper, we report on a comparative assessment of the two systems, in terms of their respective spectral properties, as well as their suitability for use in planetary mission with respect to radiation tolerance and their propensity for activation. We also contrast their performance with a Ge detector representative of that flown on MESSENGER and show that: (a) both LaBr3(Ce(3+)) and CeBr3 provide superior detection systems over HPGe in the context of minimally resourced spacecraft and (b) CeBr3 is a more attractive system than LaBr3(Ce(3+)) in terms of sensitivities at lower gamma fluxes. Based on the tests, the FM has now been replaced by the FSM on the BepiColombo spacecraft. Thus, CeBr3 now forms the central gamma-ray detection element on the MPO spacecraft.

  14. Dielectric properties of a CsPbBr3 quantum dot solution in the terahertz region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongsheng; Cheng, Xiangai; Liu, Yu; Shen, Chao; Xu, Zhongjie; Zheng, Xin; Jiang, Tian

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, CsPbBr3 quantum dots (QDs) have attracted much attention due to their bright prospects in solar cell studies. Dielectric properties are important for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. Here, the dielectric properties of a CsPbBr3 QD solution are investigated between 0.1 and 2.0 THz by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The measured frequency-dependent transmitted ratio is found to decrease from 0.96 to 0.80 in this range. By comparing different concentrations of the QD solution, the frequency-averaged absorption is linearly increased with the increase in QD concentration. After that, the frequency-dependent dielectric constant, including the complex refractive index, complex dielectric constant, and conductivity, is extracted by Fourier transform of the time-domain spectrum. An effective medium approach method is adopted to extract the complex dielectric constant of a CsPbBr3 QD inclusion, and a slight peak around 0.4 THz is found in the imaginary part of the dielectric constant. The result of Drude-Lorentz fitting shows that the phonon plays a dominant role in the dielectric properties of a CsPbBr3 QD solution. Moreover, the THz response of a CsPbBr3 QD is found to be unchanged when the test is conducted under illumination. We attribute this phenomenon to the discrete energy level of excitons in CsPbBr3 QDs due to quantum confinement, and design a comparative experiment to validate it. This study is significant for its deeper insight into the dielectric properties of CsPbBr3 QDs, and thus is helpful through its applications in optoelectronics.

  15. Thick-target yields of radioactive targets deduced from inverse kinematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aikawa, M., E-mail: aikawa@sci.hokudai.ac.jp [Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Ebata, S.; Imai, S. [Meme Media Laboratory, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    The thick-target yield (TTY) is a macroscopic quantity reflected by nuclear reactions and matter properties of targets. In order to evaluate TTYs on radioactive targets, we suggest a conversion method from inverse kinematics corresponding to the reaction of radioactive beams on stable targets. The method to deduce the TTY is theoretically derived from inverse kinematics. We apply the method to the {sup nat}Cu({sup 12}C,X){sup 24}Na reaction to confirm availability. In addition, it is applied to the {sup 137}Cs + {sup 12}C reaction as an example of a radioactive system and discussed a conversion coefficient of a TTY measurement.

  16. Postsynthesis Transformation of Insulating Cs4PbBr6 Nanocrystals into Bright Perovskite CsPbBr3 through Physical and Chemical Extraction of CsBr

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Perovskite-related Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals present a “zero-dimensional” crystalline structure where adjacent [PbBr6]4– octahedra do not share any corners. We show in this work that these nanocrystals can be converted into “three-dimensional” CsPbBr3 perovskites by extraction of CsBr. This conversion drastically changes the optoelectronic properties of the nanocrystals that become highly photoluminescent. The extraction of CsBr can be achieved either by thermal annealing (physical approach) or by chemical reaction with Prussian Blue (chemical approach). The former approach can be simply carried out on a dried film without addition of any chemicals but does not yield a full transformation. Instead, reaction with Prussian Blue in solution achieves a full transformation into the perovskite phase. This transformation was also verified on the iodide counterpart (Cs4PbI6). PMID:29285525

  17. Ozone Depletion Potential of CH3Br. Appendix H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Sze, Nien Dak; Scott, Courtney; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Sander, Stanley P.

    1998-01-01

    The ozone depletion potential (ODP) of methyl bromide (CH3Br) can be determined by combining the model-calculated bromine efficiency factor (BEF) for CH3Br and its atmospheric lifetime. This paper examines how changes in several key kinetic data affect BEF. The key reactions highlighted in this study include the reaction of BrO + HO2, the absorption cross section of HOBr, the absorption cross section and the photolysis products of BrONO2, and the heterogeneous conversion of BrONO2 to HOBr and HNO3 on aerosol particles. By combining the calculated BEF with the latest estimate of 0.7 year for the atmospheric lifetime of CH3Br, the likely value of ODP for CH3Br is 0.39. The model-calculated concentration of HBr (approx. 0.3 pptv) in the lower stratosphere is substantially smaller than the reported measured value of about 1 pptv. Recent publications suggested models can reproduce the measured value if one assumes a yield for HBr from the reaction of BrO + OH or from the reaction of BrO + HO2. Although the evaluation concluded any substantial yield of HBr from BrO + HO2 is unlikely, for completeness, we calculate the effects of these assumed yields on BEF for CH3Br. Our calculations show that the effects are minimal: practically no impact for an assumed 1.3% yield of HBr from BrO + OH and 10% smaller for an assumed 0.6% yield from BrO + HO2.

  18. Combgap Promotes Ovarian Niche Development and Chromatin Association of EcR-Binding Regions in BR-C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Hitrik

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of niches for tissue-specific stem cells is an important aspect of stem cell biology. Determination of niche size and niche numbers during organogenesis involves precise control of gene expression. How this is achieved in the context of a complex chromatin landscape is largely unknown. Here we show that the nuclear protein Combgap (Cg supports correct ovarian niche formation in Drosophila by controlling ecdysone-Receptor (EcR- mediated transcription and long-range chromatin contacts in the broad locus (BR-C. Both cg and BR-C promote ovarian growth and the development of niches for germ line stem cells. BR-C levels were lower when Combgap was either reduced or over-expressed, indicating an intricate regulation of the BR-C locus by Combgap. Polytene chromosome stains showed that Cg co-localizes with EcR, the major regulator of BR-C, at the BR-C locus and that EcR binding to chromatin was sensitive to changes in Cg levels. Proximity ligation assay indicated that the two proteins could reside in the same complex. Finally, chromatin conformation analysis revealed that EcR-bound regions within BR-C, which span ~30 KBs, contacted each other. Significantly, these contacts were stabilized in an ecdysone- and Combgap-dependent manner. Together, these results highlight Combgap as a novel regulator of chromatin structure that promotes transcription of ecdysone target genes and ovarian niche formation.

  19. Discharge flow kinetic study of the reactions of NO sub 3 with Br, BrO, HBr, and HCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellouki, A.; Poulet, G.; Le Bras, G. (C.N.R.S., Orleans (France)); Singer, R.; Burrows, J.P.; Moortgat, G.K. (Max-Planck Institut fuer Chemie, Mainz (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-11-30

    The reactions of NO{sub 3} with Br, BrO, HBr, and HCl have been studied at 298 K by using the discharge-flow EPR method. In the study of the reactions of NO{sub 3} with Br and BrO, where NO{sub 3} and Br or BrO were flowed separately in the presence of excess NO{sub 3}, the following rate constants were found: k{sub 1} = (1.6 {plus minus} 0.7) {times} 10{sup {minus}11} for NO{sub 3} + Br {yields} NO{sub 2} + BrO (1) and 0.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} {le} k{sub 3} {le} 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} for NO{sub 3} + BrO {yields} Br + NO{sub 2} + O{sub 2} (3). Units are cm{sup 3} molecule{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}. For the reactions NO{sub 3} + HCl {yields} products (6) and NO{sub 3} + HBr {yields} products (7), the upper limits k{sub 6} {le} 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}17} and k{sub 7} {le} 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}16} were obtained.

  20. A2BR adenosine receptor modulates sweet taste in circumvallate taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Kataoka

    Full Text Available In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3 on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate, but not anterior (fungiform, palate taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields.

  1. A2BR Adenosine Receptor Modulates Sweet Taste in Circumvallate Taste Buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dan; Shultz, Nicole; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Ravid, Katya; Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3) on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y) purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR) is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate), but not anterior (fungiform, palate) taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields. PMID:22253866

  2. R and D on fuzzy control applications to the BR1 research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, D.; Li, X. [Nuclear Research Center, Mol (Belgium)

    1998-12-31

    Fuzzy control applications in nuclear reactor operations present a tremendous challenge. The main reason for this is the public awareness of the risks of nuclear industry and the very strict safety regulations in force for nuclear power plants. The very same regulations prevent a researcher from quickly introducing novel fuzzy-logic methods into this field. On the other hand, the application of fuzzy logic has, despite the ominous sound of the word `fuzzy` to nuclear engineers, a number of very desirable advantages over classical methods, e.g., its robustness and the capability to include human experience into the controller. In this paper we report an on-going R and D project for controlling the power level of the Belgian Nuclear Reactor 1 (BR1) at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN). The project started in 1995 and aims to investigate the added value of fuzzy control for nuclear reactors. We first review some relevant literature on fuzzy logic control in nuclear reactors, then present the state-of-the-art of the BR1 project. After experimenting fuzzy logic control under off-line tests at the BR1 reactor, we now foresee a new development for a closed-loop fuzzy control as an on-line operation of the BR1 reactor. Finally, we present the new development for a closed-loop fuzzy logic control at BR1 with an understanding of the safety requirements for this real fuzzy logic control application in nuclear rectors. (author) 18 refs.

  3. Brüssel Euroopa pealinnaks? / Ülar Mark

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mark, Ülar, 1968-

    2009-01-01

    Brüsseli Euroopa kvartali planeerimisvõistlusest, mille peakorraldaja oli Brüsseli pealinna piirkond koos Brüsseli linna ja Euroopa Komisjoniga. Eestist osales žüriis arhitekt Ülar Mark. Meeskonna Atelier Christian de Portzamparc võidutööst ja teiste teise vooru pääsenud nelja meeskonna (JDS / Julien De Smedt Architects, OMA / Office for Metropolitan Architecture, Xaveer De Geyter Architect, Fletcher Priest Architects) töödest

  4. Spectral studies related to dissociation of HBr, HCl and BrO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    Concern over halogen catalyzed decomposition of O3 in the upper atmosphere has generated need for data on the atomic and molecular species X, HX and XO (where X is Cl and Br). Of special importance are Cl produced from freon decomposition and Cl and Br produced from natural processes and from other industrial and agricultural chemicals. Basic spectral data is provided on HCl, HBr, and BrO necessary to detect specific states and energy levels, to enable detailed modeling of the processes involving molecular dissociation, ionization, etc., and to help evaluate field experiments to check the validity of model calculations for these species in the upper atmosphere. Results contained in four published papers and two major spectral compilations are summarized together with other results obtained.

  5. DFT study on the mechanism of InBr3-catalyzed [2+2] cycloaddition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chemsci

    Abstract. Density functional theory calculations at the M06-2X level were done to study the reaction mech- anism and regioselectivity for the [2+2] cycloaddition of allyltrimethylsilane with alkynones using InBr3 as the catalyst. The solvent effect was described by the single-point calculations with SMD model in 1,2-.

  6. BrO measurements over the Eastern North-Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Platt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work presented here was to detect BrO in the marine boundary layer over the Eastern North-Atlantic by Multi AXis-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS of scattered sunlight. With this technique, information about the concentration and the vertical profile of trace gases in the atmosphere can be gained. BrO can be formed in the marine atmosphere by degradation of biogenic organohalogens or by oxidation of bromide in sea salt aerosol. BrO influences the chemistry in marine air in many ways, e.g. since it catalytically destroys ozone, changes the NO2/NO-ratio as well as the OH/HO2-ratio and oxidises DMS. However, the abundance and the significance of BrO in the marine atmosphere is not yet fully understood. <br>> We report on data collected during a ship cruise, which took place along the West African Coast in February 2007, within the framework of the Surface Ocean PRocesses in the ANthropocene project (SOPRAN. Tropospheric BrO could be detected during this cruise at peak mixing ratios of (10.2±3.7 ppt at an assumed layer height of 1 km on 18 February 2007. Furthermore, it was found that the mean BrO concentrations increased when cruising close to the African Coast suggesting that at least part of the BrO might have originated from there.

  7. Hurtigste versus mest brændstoføkonomiske ruter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Lahrmann, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Der er stort fokus på at forbedre brændstoføkonomien i transportbranchen generelt. I denne artikel anvendes brændstoftallene fra Controller Area Network Bus (CANBus) kombineret med GPS data til at skabe et digitalt vejkort, hvor det er muligt at sammenligne de hurtigste ruter med de mest...... brændstoføkonomiske ruter. Kortet er baseret på ca. 100 millioner CANBus observationer og ca. 2,1 milliarder GPS observationer. Hovedkonklusionen er, at CANBus data kan anvendes til at estimere brændstofforbruget for en rute. Sammenlignet med estimering af køretider er det mere kompliceret at estimere...

  8. Product vibrational distributions in CH 3Br photodissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escure, Christelle; Leininger, Thierry; Lepetit, Bruno

    2009-09-01

    We performed a theoretical study of the photodissociation dynamics of CH 3Br in the A˜ band using a wavepacket propagation technique on coupled ab initio potential energy surfaces corresponding to the 3Q 1 and 1Q 1 states correlated at large distance with the Br ground spin-orbit state, as well as the 3Q 0 and 4E states correlated to the excited one. The methyl umbrella vibrational product state distributions are found in very good agreement with experimental results. They are hotter for Br than for Br ∗, and this is related to the shapes of the 3Q 0 and 1Q 1 potentials.

  9. Deducing hybrid performance from parental metabolic profiles of young primary roots of maize by using a multivariate diallel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feher, Kristen; Lisec, Jan; Römisch-Margl, Lilla; Selbig, Joachim; Gierl, Alfons; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Nikoloski, Zoran; Willmitzer, Lothar

    2014-01-01

    Heterosis, the greater vigor of hybrids compared to their parents, has been exploited in maize breeding for more than 100 years to produce ever better performing elite hybrids of increased yield. Despite extensive research, the underlying mechanisms shaping the extent of heterosis are not well understood, rendering the process of selecting an optimal set of parental lines tedious. This study is based on a dataset consisting of 112 metabolite levels in young roots of four parental maize inbred lines and their corresponding twelve hybrids, along with the roots' biomass as a heterotic trait. Because the parental biomass is a poor predictor for hybrid biomass, we established a model framework to deduce the biomass of the hybrid from metabolite profiles of its parental lines. In the proposed framework, the hybrid metabolite levels are expressed relative to the parental levels by incorporating the standard concept of additivity/dominance, which we name the Combined Relative Level (CRL). Our modeling strategy includes a feature selection step on the parental levels which are demonstrated to be predictive of CRL across many hybrid metabolites. We demonstrate that these selected parental metabolites are further predictive of hybrid biomass. Our approach directly employs the diallel structure in a multivariate fashion, whereby we attempt to not only predict macroscopic phenotype (biomass), but also molecular phenotype (metabolite profiles). Therefore, our study provides the first steps for further investigations of the genetic determinants to metabolism and, ultimately, growth. Finally, our success on the small-scale experiments implies a valid strategy for large-scale experiments, where parental metabolite profiles may be used together with profiles of selected hybrids as a training set to predict biomass of all possible hybrids.

  10. Deducing hybrid performance from parental metabolic profiles of young primary roots of maize by using a multivariate diallel approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Feher

    Full Text Available Heterosis, the greater vigor of hybrids compared to their parents, has been exploited in maize breeding for more than 100 years to produce ever better performing elite hybrids of increased yield. Despite extensive research, the underlying mechanisms shaping the extent of heterosis are not well understood, rendering the process of selecting an optimal set of parental lines tedious. This study is based on a dataset consisting of 112 metabolite levels in young roots of four parental maize inbred lines and their corresponding twelve hybrids, along with the roots' biomass as a heterotic trait. Because the parental biomass is a poor predictor for hybrid biomass, we established a model framework to deduce the biomass of the hybrid from metabolite profiles of its parental lines. In the proposed framework, the hybrid metabolite levels are expressed relative to the parental levels by incorporating the standard concept of additivity/dominance, which we name the Combined Relative Level (CRL. Our modeling strategy includes a feature selection step on the parental levels which are demonstrated to be predictive of CRL across many hybrid metabolites. We demonstrate that these selected parental metabolites are further predictive of hybrid biomass. Our approach directly employs the diallel structure in a multivariate fashion, whereby we attempt to not only predict macroscopic phenotype (biomass, but also molecular phenotype (metabolite profiles. Therefore, our study provides the first steps for further investigations of the genetic determinants to metabolism and, ultimately, growth. Finally, our success on the small-scale experiments implies a valid strategy for large-scale experiments, where parental metabolite profiles may be used together with profiles of selected hybrids as a training set to predict biomass of all possible hybrids.

  11. In situ Spectroscopy of Solid-State Chemical Reaction in PbBr2-Deposited CsBr Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Shin-ichi; Matsunaga, Toshihiro; Saito, Tadaaki; Asada, Hiroshi

    2003-09-01

    It is possible to measure the fundamental optical absorption spectra of CsPbBr3 and Cs4PbBr6, whose stability is predicted by the study of phase diagram in the binary system CsBr-PbBr2, by means of in situ optical absorption and reflection spectroscopy of thermally induced solid-state chemical reaction in PbBr2-deposited CsBr crystals. On heavy annealing of the crystals, the Pb2+ ions are uniformly dispersed in the crystal matrix. The present experiment provides a novel method for measuring intrinsic optical absorption of ternary metal halides and also for in situ monitoring of doping metal halide crystal with impurities (metal ions or halogen ions).

  12. Determination of nuclear cross-section of 81Br (n,,,) Br82 reaction by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... flux of 4.2 x 1013 n cm-2 s-1. The BaBr2 was chemically processed and measured as Hydrogen Bromide (HBr82). The value of nuclear cross-section was determined to be 2.1 0.2 barns, which falls within the range of values as previously reported elsewhere. (Journal of Applied Science and Technology: 2001 6(1-2): 4-6) ...

  13. Crystal-chemistry insight into the photocatalytic activity of BiOCl x Br1- x nanoplate solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huan-Yan; Han, Xu; Tan, Qu; Wu, Ke-Jia; Qi, Shu-Yan

    2017-06-01

    In this study, a facile alcoholysis method was developed to synthesize BiOCl x Br1- x nanoplates at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. In this route, strong acid or alkaline environment was absolutely avoided to realize the high exposure of {001} crystal facets. The regular changes in XRD peaks and cell parameters as a function of the Br content strongly declared that the obtained BiOCl x Br1- x products belonged to a group of solid solutions. The 2D nanosheets with in-plane wrinkles were clearly observed in TEM images. Interestingly, as the Br content increased, band gaps of BiOCl x Br1- x solid solutions gradually decreased. The photocatalytic degradation of RhB under simulated sunlight irradiation indicated that BiOCl0.5Br0.5 had the best photocatalytic activity. From the viewpoint of crystal chemistry, the photocatalytic activity of BiOCl x Br1- x solid solutions was closely related with the exposure amount of {001} facets, interlayer spacing of (001) plane and energy-level position of valence band.

  14. The obesity-induced transcriptional regulator TRIP-Br2 mediates visceral fat endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang, Guifen; Kong, Hyerim Whang; Fang, Difeng; McCann, Maximilian; Yang, Xiuying; Du, Guanhua; Bl?her, Matthias; Zhu, Jinfang; Liew, Chong Wee

    2016-01-01

    The intimate link between location of fat accumulation and metabolic disease risk and depot-specific differences is well established, but how these differences between depots are regulated at the molecular level remains largely unclear. Here we show that TRIP-Br2 mediates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced inflammatory responses in visceral fat. Using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo approaches, we demonstrate that obesity-induced circulating factors upregulate TRIP-Br2 specifically in vi...

  15. Exploring Polaronic, Excitonic Structures and Luminescence in Cs4PbBr6/CsPbBr3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byungkyun; Biswas, Koushik

    2018-02-15

    Among the important family of halide perovskites, one particular case of all-inorganic, 0-D Cs 4 PbBr 6 and 3-D CsPbBr 3 -based nanostructures and thin films is witnessing intense activity due to ultrafast luminescence with high quantum yield. To understand their emissive behavior, we use hybrid density functional calculations to first compare the ground-state electronic structure of the two prospective compounds. The dispersive band edges of CsPbBr 3 do not support self-trapped carriers, which agrees with reports of weak exciton binding energy and high photocurrent. The larger gap 0-D material Cs 4 PbBr 6 , however, reveals polaronic and excitonic features. We show that those lattice-coupled carriers are likely responsible for observed ultraviolet emission around ∼375 nm, reported in bulk Cs 4 PbBr 6 and Cs 4 PbBr 6 /CsPbBr 3 composites. Ionization potential calculations and estimates of type-I band alignment support the notion of quantum confinement leading to fast, green emission from CsPbBr 3 nanostructures embedded in Cs 4 PbBr 6 .

  16. Synthesis and infrared characterization of Br-HBr and Br-DBr entrance channel complexes in solid parahydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettwich, Sharon C; Pinelo, Laura F; Anderson, David T

    2008-09-28

    We report high resolution vibrational spectra in the HBr (2560 cm(-1)) and DBr (1840 cm(-1)) stretching regions for Br-HBr and Br-DBr entrance channel complexes isolated in solid parahydrogen (pH2). The Br-HBr complexes are generated by synthesizing solid pH2 crystals doped with trace amounts of HBr/Br2 mixtures followed by 355 nm in situ photodissociation of Br2 to form Br atoms. After photolysis is complete, the solid is warmed from 2 to 4.3 K resulting in the irreversible formation of Br-HBr complexes. The large 36.63 cm(-1) HBr monomer-to-complex induced vibrational shift to lower energy measured in these studies is consistent with the linear Br-HBr hydrogen bonded structure predicted from theory. The 0.02 cm(-1) Br-HBr absorption linewidths indicate a 1 ns vibrational excited state lifetime for these entrance channel complexes in solid pH2.

  17. Elimination of nonspecific radioactivity from [{sup 76}Br]bromide in PET study with [{sup 76}Br]bromodeoxyuridine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Lu; Bergstroem, Mats E-mail: Mats.Bergstroem@pet.uu.se; Fasth, Karl-Johan; Wu Feng; Eriksson, Barbro; Laangstroem, Bengt

    1999-10-01

    [{sup 76}Br]Bromodeoxyuridine ([{sup 76}Br]BrdU) might allow a determination of proliferation in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET), but only with consideration of organ nonspecific radioactivity constituted by [{sup 76}Br]bromide. A first study assessed the potential of diuretics to eliminate [{sup 76}Br]bromide. [{sup 76}Br]Bromide was injected in the vein of rats and different diuretic combinations were given. Urine was collected and radioactivity measured. Torasemide plus sodium chloride gave better {sup 76}Br elimination than the other diuretics. In a second experiment, rats were given [{sup 76}Br]BrdU. After the radioactivity injection, the rats of the treatment group were given torasemide plus NaCl. At 44 h after the radioactivity injection, the radioactivity concentration and the fraction incorporated into DNA were measured in different organs. Using diuretics, the elimination of [{sup 76}Br]bromide was increased. The radioactivity decreased 30-50% in most of the organs but the highest radioactivity uptake was found in the organs with more active DNA synthesis. This method may facilitate the use of [{sup 76}Br]BrdU as a tracer for DNA synthesis using PET.

  18. Vortex magnetic structure in circularly magnetized microwires as deduced from magneto-optical Kerr measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2014-02-14

    The magneto-optic Kerr effect has been employed to determine the magnetization process and estimate the domain structure of microwires with circular magnetic anisotropy. The diameter of microwires was 8 μm, and pieces 2 cm long were selected for measurements. The analysis of the local surface longitudinal and transverse hysteresis loops has allowed us to deduce a vortex magnetic structure with axial core and circular external shell. Moreover, a bamboo-like surface domain structure is confirmed with wave length of around 10 to 15 μm and alternating chirality in adjacent circular domains. The width of the domain wall is estimated to be less than 3 μm. Finally, closure domain structures with significant helical magnetization component are observed extending up to around 1000 μm from the end of the microwire.

  19. Deducing fast electron density changes in randomly orientated uncrystallized biomolecules in a pump-probe experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, K; Schwander, P; Schmidt, M; Saldin, D K

    2014-07-17

    We propose a method for deducing time-resolved structural changes in uncrystallized biomolecules in solution. The method relies on measuring the angular correlations of the intensities, when averaged over a large number of diffraction patterns from randomly oriented biomolecules in solution in a liquid solvent. The experiment is somewhat like a pump-probe version of an experiment on small angle X-ray scattering, except that the data expected by the algorithm are not just the radial variation of the averaged intensities. The differences of these correlation functions as measured from a photoexcited and dark structure enable the direct calculation of the difference electron density with a knowledge of only the dark structure. We exploit a linear relation we derive between the difference in these correlation functions and the difference electron density, applicable for small structural changes.

  20. Theoretical model to deduce a PDF with a power law tail using Extreme Physical Information

    CERN Document Server

    Bonilla, Ricardo; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    The theory of Extreme Physical Information (EPI) is used to deduce a probability density function (PDF) of a system that exhibits a power law tail. The computed PDF is useful to study and fit several observed distributions in complex systems. This new approach permits to describe extreme and rare events in the tail, and also the frequent events in the distribution head. Using EPI an information functional is constructed, and minimized using Euler-Lagrange equations. As a solution a second order differential equation is derived. By solving this equation a family of functions is calculated. These functions allow describing the system in terms of a eigenstates. A dissipative term is introduced into the model, as a relevant term to study open systems. One of the main results is a mathematical relation between the scaling parameter of the power law observed in the tail and the shape of the head.

  1. Electron density increases due to Lightning activity as deduced from LWPC code and VLF signal perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samir, Nait Amor; Bouderba, Yasmina

    VLF signal perturbations in association with thunderstorm activity appear as changes in the signal amplitude and phase. Several papers reported on the characteristics of thus perturbations and their connection to the lightning strokes amplitude and polarity. In this contribution, we quantified the electrons density increases due to lightning activity by the use of the LWPC code and VLF signal perturbations parameters. The method is similar to what people did in studying the solar eruptions effect. the results showed that the reference height (h') decreased to lower altitudes (between 70 and 80 km). From the LWPC code results the maximum of the electron density was then deduced. Therefore, a numerical simulation of the atmospheric species times dependences was performed to study the recovery times of the electrons density at different heights. The results showed that the recovery time last for several minutes and explain the observation of long recovery Early signal perturbations.

  2. On the evolution of Dipodium R. Br.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter O'byrne

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dipodium R. Br. (Orchidaceae, a genus of ca. 38 species, should be divided into an Australasian clade and a Malesian clade, based on morphological and geographic evidences. Dipodium section Dipodium and section Leopardanthus (Blume O. Kuntze are re-defined to accommodate this change. An evolutionary scenario that explains this division is proposed. The lack of diversity of floral structure in the genus is probably caused by pollinator-specificity, while the diversity of plant form may be due to long-term environmental factors. An evolutionary explanation is suggested for the complex between Dipodium fevrellii J. J. Sm. and the hybrid D. pandanum Bailey in New Guinea. The complex in Java involving          D. pictum (Lindl. Rchb. f. and D. scandens (Bl. J. J. Sm. is discussed, and the presence of a hybrid noted. In Borneo, the complex taxonomic situation caused by repeated inter-breeding of populations is noted. 

  3. A major protein precursor of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) byssus: deduced sequence and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K E; Waite, J H

    1998-04-01

    The zebra mussel is a nonindigenous invader of North American lakes and rivers and one of the few freshwater bivalve molluscs having a byssus--a sclerotized organ used by the mussel for opportunistic attachment to hard surfaces. We have sequenced a foot-specific cDNA whose composite protein sequence was deduced from a series of overlapping but occasionally nonidentical cDNA fragments. The overall deduced sequence matches tryptic peptides from a major byssal precursor protein--Dreissena polymorpha foot protein 1 (Dpfp1). The calculated mass of Dpfp1 is 49 kDa; but this is known to be extensively hydroxylated and O-glycosylated during maturation. Purified native Dpfp1 analyzed using matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization mass spectrometry with time-of-flight indicates that the protein occurs as at least two size variants with masses of 48.6 and 54.5 kDa. In all probability, the sequence variants reported in this study are related to the larger mass variant. Dpfp1 has a block copolymer-like structure defined by two consensus motifs that are sharply segregated into domains. The N-terminal side of Dpfp1 has 22 tandem repeats of a heptapeptide consensus (P-[V/E]-Y-P-[T/S/delta]-[K/Q]-X); the C-terminal side has 16 repeats of a tridecapeptide motif (K-P-G-P-Y-D-Y-D-G-P-Y-D-K). Both consensus repeats are unique, with some limited homology to other proteins functioning in tension: marine mussel adhesives, plant extensins, titin, and trematode eggshell precursors.

  4. Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by Brahma Rasayana (BR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangapazham, Rajesh L; Sharma, Anuj; Gaddipati, Jaya P; Singh, Anoop K; Maheshwari, Radha K

    2006-01-01

    The current therapy for prostate cancer includes radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy and hormonal ablation. Chemotherapy also provides beneficial results for some patients with advanced prostate cancer but with several harmful side effects. Hence there is a need to identify and develop alternate therapies, which can reduce the disease progression with minimal or few side effects. Earlier studies from our laboratory have shown that a Polyherbal mixture, Brahma Rasayna (BR) rich in anti-oxidant principles has a potential to be an anti-tumor agent. BR treatment of MAT-LyLu cell inoculated Copenhagen rats resulted in a decrease of palpable tumor incidence, delay in tumor occurrence and lower mean tumor volumes. Also, a significant reduction in tumor weight and lung metastasis was observed in BR treated animals in comparison to untreated controls. In the present study, we focused to examine the effect of BR on angiogenesis and regulation of molecular markers involved in angiogenesis using in-vivo and in-vitro models. BR treatment showed a significant reduction in Factor VIII expression compared to control indicating reduced angiogenesis. BR treated tumor specimens showed a decrease in the pro-angiogenic factors like VEGF, MMP-9 and MMP-2. Methanolic extract of BR was found to inhibit the proliferation, tube formation, cell migration and attachment of HUVEC on matrigel in a dose dependant manner. These findings suggest the possible mechanism(s) of action of BR in the reduction of tumor growth and metastatic spread.

  5. BrEPS 2.0: Optimization of sequence pattern prediction for enzyme annotation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian-Alexander Dudek

    Full Text Available The prediction of gene functions is crucial for a large number of different life science areas. Faster high throughput sequencing techniques generate more and larger datasets. The manual annotation by classical wet-lab experiments is not suitable for these large amounts of data. We showed earlier that the automatic sequence pattern-based BrEPS protocol, based on manually curated sequences, can be used for the prediction of enzymatic functions of genes. The growing sequence databases provide the opportunity for more reliable patterns, but are also a challenge for the implementation of automatic protocols. We reimplemented and optimized the BrEPS pattern generation to be applicable for larger datasets in an acceptable timescale. Primary improvement of the new BrEPS protocol is the enhanced data selection step. Manually curated annotations from Swiss-Prot are used as reliable source for function prediction of enzymes observed on protein level. The pool of sequences is extended by highly similar sequences from TrEMBL and SwissProt. This allows us to restrict the selection of Swiss-Prot entries, without losing the diversity of sequences needed to generate significant patterns. Additionally, a supporting pattern type was introduced by extending the patterns at semi-conserved positions with highly similar amino acids. Extended patterns have an increased complexity, increasing the chance to match more sequences, without losing the essential structural information of the pattern. To enhance the usability of the database, we introduced enzyme function prediction based on consensus EC numbers and IUBMB enzyme nomenclature. BrEPS is part of the Braunschweig Enzyme Database (BRENDA and is available on a completely redesigned website and as download. The database can be downloaded and used with the BrEPScmd command line tool for large scale sequence analysis. The BrEPS website and downloads for the database creation tool, command line tool and database are

  6. Corrosion inhibition performance of a ionic liquid surfactant Br

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing LIU

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the novel green organic mercury-substituting inhibitors, the ionic liquid surfactant 1-methyl-3-dodecyl imidazole bromide ( Br is synthesized with N-methyl imidazole and 1-bromodecane as raw materials. The corrosion inhibition of Br for zinc in zinc-manganese batteries is investigated using electrochemical methods and weight loss methods. The results show that corrosion inhibition efficiency increases with the increase of the concentration of Br, and when the concentration is higher than 8×10-3 mol/L, the inhibition efficiency tends to be stable. The polarization curve shows that Br belongs to mixed-type corrosion inhibitor. The thermodynamic parameters show that Br is spontaneously adsorbed on the zinc surface, forming a monomolecular adsorption layer, which fits with Langmuir adsorption isotherm with physical and chemical adsorption mechanism.

  7. A High Resolution Phoswich Detector: LaBr3(Ce) Coupled With LaCl3(Ce)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Gallardo, M.; Borge, M. J. G.; Briz, J. A.; Gugliermina, V.; Perea, A.; Tengblad, O.; Turrión, M.

    2010-04-01

    An innovative solution for the forward end-cap CALIFA calorimeter of R3B is under investigation consisting of two scintillation crystals, LaBr3 and LaCl3, stacked together in a phoswich configuration with one readout only. This dispositive should be capable of a good determination of the energy of protons and gamma radiation. This composite detector allows to deduce the initial energy of charged particles by ΔE1+ΔE2 identification. For gammas, the simulations show that there is a high probability that the first interaction occurs inside the scintillator at few centimeters, with a second layer, the rest of the energy is absorbed, or it can be used as veto event in case of no deposition in the first layer. One such a detector has been tested at the Centro de MicroAnálisis de Materiales (CMAM) in Madrid. Good resolution and time signal separation have been achieved.

  8. Alocação de linhagens de milho derivadas das populações BR-105 e BR-106 em grupos heteróticos Allocation of maize lines from BR-105 and BR-106 populations to heterotic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério de Melo Costa Pinto

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Os grupos heteróticos são importantes no melhoramento de milho, pois permitem o uso mais eficiente do germoplasma. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi alocar linhagens de milho em grupos heteróticos a partir de estimativas da capacidade específica de combinação. Oito linhagens S3 da população BR-105 e dez da BR-106, foram cruzadas ao nível interpopulacional seguindo um sistema dialélico. Oitenta híbridos simples foram obtidos e avaliados em látices em três ambientes. Foram avaliados os caracteres produção de grãos (PG, altura da planta (AP e altura da espiga (AE. As estimativas das capacidades geral (CGC e específica (CEC de combinação foram obtidas segundo o método 4, modelo I de Griffing. A partir das estimativas de CEC, as linhagens foram alocadas aos respectivos grupos heteróticos utilizando-se o método UPGMA (média aritmética não ponderada para a construção do dendrograma e a dispersão gráfica pelo método das coordenadas principais. Para PG, as linhagens foram alocadas em quatro grupos heteróticos, sendo dois grupos em cada população. Para AP e AE, o uso das estimativas de CEC não foi eficiente para alocar as linhagens em grupos heteróticos. As análises de agrupamento e de coordenadas principais foram eficientes na alocação das linhagens em grupos heteróticos para PG. Então, como a produção de grãos é a principal característica para o melhoramento de milho, com a alocação das linhagens em quatro grupos heteróticos, os cruzamentos serão direcionados e o processo de melhoramento se tornará mais eficiente, evitando a obtenção e a avaliação de cruzamentos (híbridos desnecessários.The heterotic groups are important in maize breeding programs because they allow the most efficient use of the germoplasm. The objective of this research was to allocate maize lines to heterotic groups from estimates of specific combining ability (SCA. Eight and ten S3 lines derived from populations BR-105 and BR

  9. Study of Br, Zn, Cu and Fe concentrations in healthy and cancer breast tissues by TXRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, T.; Becker, M.; Carvalho, M. L.; von Bohlen, A.

    2008-12-01

    Tissue samples of fifteen breasts were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry in order to compare the elemental concentration in healthy and carcinoma regions of the same individual. Five women were from Germany and ten from Portugal living in big cities. The elemental distribution of P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu and Br present in both normal and cancerous breast tissues were studied. Several contiguous thin sections (up to 10 μm thickness) of each tissue were analyzed by TXRF in order to study the homogeneity in the elemental concentration along each tissue. Correlations between elemental concentrations were established. The main goal of this study was to demonstrate the presence of Br which is assumed to play an important role in breast carcinoma development. A similar pattern for almost all the analyzed tissues was obtained: levels of P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br increased in carcinoma tissues when compared with the corresponding healthy ones. Contrarily to the findings of this study, those of early studies showed decreased Br levels for different carcinoma tissues, unlike to most other heavy elements.

  10. Growth, structure and optical properties of Tl{sub 4}HgBr{sub 6} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khyzhun, O.Y., E-mail: khyzhun@ipms.kiev.ua [Frantsevych Institute for Problems of Materials Science, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 3 Krzhyzhanivsky Street, 03142 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kityk, I.V. [Electrical Engineering Department, Częstochowa University of Technology, Armii Krajowej 17, PL-42-217 Częstochowa (Poland); Piasecki, M. [Institute of Physics, J. Dlugosz University Częstochowa, Armii Krajowej 13/15, Częstochowa (Poland); Fedorchuk, A.O. [Department of Inorganic and Organic Chemistry, Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, 50 Pekarska Street, 79010 Lviv (Ukraine); Levkovets, S.I. [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Eastern European National University, 13 Voli Avenue, 43025 Lutsk (Ukraine); Fochuk, P.M. [Yuriy Fed’kovych Chernivtsi National University, 2 Kotziubynskoho Street, 58012 Chernivtsi (Ukraine); Myronchuk, G.L. [Department of Solid State Physics, Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University, 13 Voli Avenue, 43025 Lutsk (Ukraine); Parasyuk, O.V. [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Eastern European National University, 13 Voli Avenue, 43025 Lutsk (Ukraine)

    2015-12-15

    Tl{sub 4}HgBr{sub 6} single crystals were grown using solution-fusion method. The crystal structure of the ternary bromide was refined. Tl{sub 4}HgBr{sub 6} crystallizes in the non-centrosymmetric space group P4nc with the lattice parameters a=8.9539(8) Å and c=8.7884(8) Å and it is isostructural to the Tl{sub 4}HgI{sub 6} compound. The non-centrosymmetric structure of the Tl{sub 4}HgBr{sub 6} compound was also confirmed by the existence of a modest second harmonic generation effect (0.4–0.5 pm/V) and by the value of piezoelectric coefficient (0.9 pm/V). The electronic structure of Tl{sub 4}HgBr{sub 6} was explored using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES). In particular, for the Tl{sub 4}HgBr{sub 6} crystal, we have measured XPS core-level and valence-band spectra for both pristine and Ar{sup +} ion-bombarded surfaces. The XPS data reveal low hygroscopicity of Tl{sub 4}HgBr{sub 6}, the property that is very important when handling this material in optoelectronic devices working at ambient conditions. The present XPS data indicate that the Tl{sub 4}HgBr{sub 6} single crystal surface is rather sensitive with respect to Ar{sup +} ion-bombardment: such a treatment reduces significantly mercury content in the topmost surface layers. Comparison on a common energy scale of the XPS valence-band spectrum of Tl{sub 4}HgBr{sub 6} and the XE Br Kβ{sub 2} band, representing peculiarities of the energy distribution of the Br 4 p states, reveals that the main contribution of the valence Br p states occurs in the upper portion of the valence band, with also their significant contributions in other valence band regions. The measurements of spectral distribution of the absorption coefficient indicate that the Tl{sub 4}HgBr{sub 6} compound is a semiconductor with the bandgap energy value of 2.43 eV at 300 K, and the bandgap energy increases up to 2.48 eV when temperature decreases to 100 K.

  11. Brändikäsikirjan toteutus Yritys X:n brändin rakentamisen tueksi

    OpenAIRE

    Ahokas, Riikka

    2017-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli luoda toimeksiantajayritykselle yhdenmukainen ja kilpailijoista erottuva brändi. Tarkoituksena oli siis selvittää, minkälainen brändi kuvaa yritystä parhaiten sekä eroaa riittävästi yrityksen kilpailijoista. Tämän lisäksi selvitettiin, millainen on hyvä brändikäsikirja. Toimeksiantajayrityksen on tarkoitus käyttää brändikäsikirjaa henkilöstönsä perehdytyksessä. Teoreettisessa viitekehyksessä käsitellään brändiä, sen tärkeimpiä tehtäviä sekä sen merkitys...

  12. Equilibrium reconstruction in the TCA/Br tokamak; Reconstrucao do equilibrio no tokamak TCA/BR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa, Wanderley Pires de

    1996-12-31

    The accurate and rapid determination of the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium configuration in tokamaks is a subject for the magnetic confinement of the plasma. With the knowledge of characteristic plasma MHD equilibrium parameters it is possible to control the plasma position during its formation using feed-back techniques. It is also necessary an on-line analysis between successive discharges to program external parameters for the subsequent discharges. In this work it is investigated the MHD equilibrium configuration reconstruction of the TCA/BR tokamak from external magnetic measurements, using a method that is able to fast determine the main parameters of discharge. The thesis has two parts. Firstly it is presented the development of an equilibrium code that solves de Grad-Shafranov equation for the TCA/BR tokamak geometry. Secondly it is presented the MHD equilibrium reconstruction process from external magnetic field and flux measurements using the Function Parametrization FP method. this method. This method is based on the statistical analysis of a database of simulated equilibrium configurations, with the goal of obtaining a simple relationship between the parameters that characterize the equilibrium and the measurements. The results from FP are compared with conventional methods. (author) 68 refs., 31 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. La Alpaca -vaatemerkin brändäys

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtinen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee brändin vahvistamista ja brändiohjeiston luomista vaa-tealan yritykselle La Alpacalle. La Alpaca on suomalainen vaatemerkki, joka suunnit-telee, tuottaa ja myy alpakanvillasta valmistettuja tuotteita. Materiaalin ainutlaatuisuus ja hienous ovat olleet osa yrityksen identiteettiä alusta asti. Brändin lisäksi työssä on tutkittu kaupankäynnin rakenteellista muuttumista perinteisestä myymälätoiminnasta verkkomyyntiin. Työn tavoitteena on ollut luoda materiaalin tun...

  14. On the strength of the hydrogen-carbon interaction as deduced from physisorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T X; Bae, J-S; Wang, Y; Bhatia, S K

    2009-04-21

    We deduce a new value for the potential well depth for the C-H2 interaction on the basis of experimental validations of isotherms of H2 and D2 predicted using independently characterized microstructural parameters. We use two carbons, one an activated carbon fiber whose structure has been recently characterized by us (Nguyen, T. X.; cohaut, N.; Bae, J.-S.; Bhatia, S. K. Langmuir 2008, 24, 7912) using hybrid reverse Monte Carlo simulation (HRMC) and the other the commercial Takeda 3A carbon molecular sieve whose pore size distribution is determined here from the 273 K CO2 adsorption isotherm. The conventional grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation technique incorporating a semiclassical Feynman and Hibbs (FH) potential approximation (FHGCMC) as well as path integral Monte Carlo calculations is employed to determine theoretical adsorption isotherms. It is found that curvature enhances the well depth for the LJ C-H2 interaction by a factor of 1.134 over that for a flat graphite surface, consistent with our recent study (Nguyen, T. X.; cohaut, N.; Bae, J.-S.; Bhatia, S. K. Langmuir 2008, 24, 7912). A value of the C-C well depth of 37.26 K, used for estimating the C-H2 well depth in conjunction with the Berthelot rules, with the Steele C-C well depth used for interaction with heavier gases (Ar, CO2 and CH4), leads to excellent agreement with experimental isotherms in all cases.

  15. Deducing the 237U(n,f) cross-section using the Surrogate Ratio Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, J T; Bernstein, L A; Escher, J; Ahle, L; Church, J A; Dietrich, F; Moody, K J; Norman, E B; Phair, L W; Fallon, P; Clark, R; Delaplanque, M; Descovich, M; Cromaz, M; Lee, I Y; Macchiavelli, A O; McMahan, M A; Moretto, L G; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E; Stephens, F S

    2005-08-16

    The authors have deduced the {sup 237}U(n,f) cross-section over an equivalent neutron energy range of 0 to 20 MeV using the Surrogate Ratio method. A 55 MeV {sup 4}He{sup 2+} beam from the 88 Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was used to induce fission in the following reactions {sup 238}U({alpha},{alpha}'f) and {sup 236}U({alpha},{alpha}'f). The {sup 238}U reaction was a surrogate for {sup 237}U(n,f) and the {sup 236}U reaction was used as a surrogate for {sup 235}U(n,f). The energies of the scattered alpha particles were detected in a fully depleted segmented silicon telescope array (STARS) over an angle range of 35{sup o} to 60{sup o} with respect to the beam axis. The fission fragments were detected in a third independent silicon detector located at backward angles between 106{sup o} to 131{sup o}.

  16. Plate coupling across the northern Manila subduction zone deduced from mantle lithosphere buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chung-Liang; Doo, Wen-Bin; Kuo-Chen, Hao; Hsu, Shu-Kun

    2017-12-01

    The Manila subduction zone is located at the plate boundary where the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) moves northwestward toward the Eurasian plate (EU) with a high convergence rate. However, historically, no large earthquakes greater than Mw7 have been observed across the northern Manila subduction zone. The poorly understood plate interaction between these two plates in this region creates significant issues for evaluating the seismic hazard. Therefore, the variation of mantle lithospheric buoyancy is calculated to evaluate the plate coupling status across the northern Manila subduction zone, based on recently published forward gravity modeling constrained by the results of the P-wave seismic crustal structure of the TAIGER (Taiwan Integrated Geodynamic Research) project. The results indicate weak plate coupling between the PSP and EU, which could be related to the release of the overriding PSP from the descending EU's dragging force, which was deduced from the higher elevation of the Luzon arc and the fore-arc basin northward toward the Taiwan orogen. Moreover, serpentinized peridotite is present above the plate boundary and is distributed more widely and thickly closer to offshore southern Taiwan orogen. We suggest that low plate coupling may facilitate the uplifting of serpentinized mantle material up to the plate boundary.

  17. Geoelectrical Structure of Ulleung Island, Korea Deduced from 3D MT Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T. J.; Kim, M. S.; Park, I. H.; Song, Y.

    2016-12-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) magnetotelluric (MT) survey has been carried out to delineate subsurface structures and possible fractures for geothermal development in Ulleung Island, Korea. Quite good quality of MT data could be obtained throughout the survey region by locating the remote reference in Sawauchi, Japan, which is approximately 900 km from the centre of the field site. 3D modelling and inversion are performed taking into account the sea effect in MT measurements near the seashore. The modelling results showed that seawater surrounding the Ulleung Island affected MT data at frequencies below 10 Hz, depending on the distance from the seashore. Two kinds of 3D inversion have been performed with the MT data observed from the area; ordinary 3D inversion, and inversion including the sea as a constraint. The sea-effect constraint inversion gave more reasonable and reliable results and showed clear E-W trend of conductive anomaly along the connection line between the test boreholes GH-1 and GH-2, which showed very high geothermal gradients of about 100 °/km. Comparing the gradients of the other two boreholes in north and south directions are of about 70 °/km, one can deduce that the deep circulation of convective water through the deeply connected fractures, say E-W trends conductive anomaly, carries the heat from the deep to near the surface. This can explain the big gradient differences from site to site in this small island.

  18. The Seismic risk perception in Italy deduced by a statistical sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Pessina, Vera; Peruzza, Laura; Cerbara, Loredana; Crescimbene, Cristiana

    2015-04-01

    In 2014 EGU Assembly we presented the results of a web a survey on the perception of seismic risk in Italy. The data were derived from over 8,500 questionnaires coming from all Italian regions. Our questionnaire was built by using the semantic differential method (Osgood et al. 1957) with a seven points Likert scale. The questionnaire is inspired the main theoretical approaches of risk perception (psychometric paradigm, cultural theory, etc.) .The results were promising and seem to clearly indicate an underestimation of seismic risk by the italian population. Based on these promising results, the DPC has funded our research for the second year. In 2015 EGU Assembly we present the results of a new survey deduced by an italian statistical sample. The importance of statistical significance at national scale was also suggested by ISTAT (Italian Statistic Institute), considering the study as of national interest, accepted the "project on the perception of seismic risk" as a pilot study inside the National Statistical System (SISTAN), encouraging our RU to proceed in this direction. The survey was conducted by a company specialised in population surveys using the CATI method (computer assisted telephone interview). Preliminary results will be discussed. The statistical support was provided by the research partner CNR-IRPPS. This research is funded by Italian Civil Protection Department (DPC).

  19. F-region Pedersen conductivity deduced using the TIMED/GUVI limb retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kil

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available As a proxy of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth rate for equatorial plasma bubbles, we investigate the flux-tube integrated F-region Pedersen conductivity (ΣPF using the electron density profiles (EDPs provided by the Global Ultraviolet Imager (GUVI on board the Thermosphere Ionosphere and Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED satellite. The investigation is conducted using the EDPs obtained in the Atlantic sector at 19:00-22:00 LT during 4–17 August and 6-16 December 2002. The seasonal difference of the strength and location of the equatorial ionization anomalies (EIAs induces a significant difference in the deduced ΣPF. Much stronger EIAs are created at higher altitudes and latitudes in December rather than in August. At 19:00–20:00 LT, the peak value of the ΣPF has 23 mhos at 1100 km apex height during 14–16 December and 18mhos at 600 km during 15–17 August. The ΣPF decreases as local time progresses. Therefore, ΣPF provides a preferred condition for the growth of bubbles to higher altitudes at 19:00-20:00 LT than at later hours, in December rather than in August in the Atlantic sector.

  20. Supercritical fluid in the mantle transition zone deduced from H-D interdiffusion of wadsleyite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Yoshino, Takashi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2018-02-01

    Knowledge of the distribution of water in the Earth's mantle is key to understanding the mantle convection and geochemical evolution of the Earth. As wadsleyite and ringwoodite can incorporate large amounts of water in their crystal structures, proton conduction has been invoked to account for the widespread conductive anomalies observed in the mantle wedge, where descending slab stagnates at the transition zone. However, there is a lot of controversy on whether proton conduction by itself is able to explain such anomalies, because of large discrepancy in the extent of the water effect deduced from previous electrical conductivity measurements on hydrous polycrystalline wadsleyite and ringwoodite. Here we report the hydrogen self-diffusion coefficient obtained from H-D interdiffusion experiments in wadsleyite single-crystal couples. Our results demonstrate that the effect of water on the electrical conductivity of wadsleyite is limited and hydrous wadsleyite by itself is unable to explain conductive anomalies in the transition zone. In contrast, the expected hydrogen effective diffusion does not allow the wide propagation of water between the stagnant slab and surrounding mantle, probably leading to persistence of local water saturation and continuous release of supercritical fluids at the stagnant slab roof on geological time scales. This phenomenon provides an alternative explanation for both the high-conductivity and seismic-velocity anomalies observed in the mantle wedge at the transition-zone depth.

  1. Mutual neutralization of atomic rare-gas cations (Ne(+), Ar(+), Kr(+), Xe(+)) with atomic halide anions (Cl(-), Br(-), I(-)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Nicholas S; Miller, Thomas M; Johnsen, Rainer; Viggiano, Albert A

    2014-01-28

    We report thermal rate coefficients for 12 reactions of rare gas cations (Ne(+), Ar(+), Kr(+), Xe(+)) with halide anions (Cl(-), Br(-), I(-)), comprising both mutual neutralization (MN) and transfer ionization. No rate coefficients have been previously reported for these reactions; however, the development of the Variable Electron and Neutral Density Attachment Mass Spectrometry technique makes it possible to measure the difference of the rate coefficients for pairs of parallel reactions in a Flowing Afterglow-Langmuir Probe apparatus. Measurements of 18 such combinations of competing reaction pairs yield an over-determined data set from which a consistent set of rate coefficients of the 12 MN reactions can be deduced. Unlike rate coefficients of MN reactions involving at least one polyatomic ion, which vary by at most a factor of ∼3, those of the atom-atom reactions vary by at least a factor 60 depending on the species. It is found that the rate coefficients involving light rare-gas ions are larger than those for the heavier rare-gas ions, but the opposite trend is observed in the progression from Cl(-) to I(-). The largest rate coefficient is 6.5 × 10(-8) cm(3) s(-1) for Ne(+) with I(-). Rate coefficients for Ar(+), Kr(+), and Xe(+) reacting with Br2 (-) are also reported.

  2. Hybridization of Single Nanocrystals of Cs4PbBr6 and CsPbBr3

    OpenAIRE

    Weerd, Chris de; Lin, Junhao; Gomez, Leyre; Fujiwara, Yasufumi; Suenaga, Kazutomo; Gregorkiewicz, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Nanocrystals of all-inorganic cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I) feature high absorption and efficient narrow-band emission which renders them promising for future generation of photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices. Colloidal ensembles of these nanocrystals can be conveniently prepared by chemical synthesis. However, in the case of CsPbBr3, its synthesis can also yield nanocrystals of Cs4PbBr6 and the properties of the two are easily confused. Here, we investigate in de...

  3. Elu Brüsselis - teisem kui siin / Juune Holvandus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Holvandus, Juune

    2000-01-01

    Brüsseli kesklinnas elavast noorpaarist ja nende kodust. Veronique Mägi (isa eestlane) on tõlk. Ettevõtja Frederic Flamand on õppinud antiigindust. 1996. a. elati Eestis. Inimsuhetest Eestis ja Belgias. 11 ill.

  4. GMO konverents Brüsselis / Nastja Pertsjonok

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pertsjonok, Nastja

    2007-01-01

    Brüsselis toimunud GMO-vabade piirkondade konverentsist, kus räägiti GMO-vabade piirkondade liikumisest, GMO-de lubamisest ja keelamisest ning hoiakutest nende suhtes Euroopa Liidus ja mujal maailmas

  5. Kan lignin omdannes til flydende brændstof?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joachim Bachmann; Jensen, Anders; Felby, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Ved en solvolytisk omdannelse af plantematerialet lignin til et flydende brændstof behandles det ved høj temperatur og højt tryk i et passende opløsningsmiddel. En sådan proces kan gennemføres ikke-katalytisk og være med til at skabe flydende brændsler baseret på vedvarende energikilder. Her...

  6. Saltindhold i brød og morgenmadscerealier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Saxholt, Erling; Knuthsen, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Saltindholdet i hvedebrød og rugbrød på de danske supermarkedshylder er faldet fra 2009 til 2014. En tilsvarende trend er ikke registreret i brød fra bagerbutikker. Udviklingen betyder, at en større andel af industrielt fremstillede brød end bagerbrød indsamlet i 2014 overholder Nøglehulsmærkets ...... overstiger Nøglehulsmærkets saltkrav. Saltindholdet er dog faldet i forhold til tidligere....

  7. Stability and Performance of CsPbI2Br Thin Films and Solar Cell Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Silvia; Hutter, Oliver S; Phillips, Laurie J; Yates, Peter J; Kundu, Biswajit; Durose, Ken

    2018-01-18

    In this manuscript, the inorganic perovskite CsPbI2Br is investigated as a photovoltaic material that offers higher stability than the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials. It is demonstrated that CsPbI2Br does not irreversibly degrade to its component salts as in the case of methylammonium lead iodide but instead is induced (by water vapor) to transform from its metastable brown cubic (1.92 eV band gap) phase to a yellow phase having a higher band gap (2.85 eV). This is easily reversed by heating to 350 °C in a dry environment. Similarly, exposure of unencapsulated photovoltaic devices to water vapor causes current (JSC) loss as the absorber transforms to its more transparent (yellow) form, but this is also reversible by moderate heating, with over 100% recovery of the original device performance. NMR and thermal analysis show that the high band gap yellow phase does not contain detectable levels of water, implying that water induces the transformation but is not incorporated as a major component. Performances of devices with best efficiencies of 9.08% (VOC = 1.05 V, JSC = 12.7 mA cm-2 and FF = 68.4%) using a device structure comprising glass/ITO/c-TiO2/CsPbI2Br/Spiro-OMeTAD/Au are presented, and further results demonstrating the dependence of the performance on the preparation temperature of the solution processed CsPbI2Br films are shown. We conclude that encapsulation of CsPbI2Br to exclude water vapor should be sufficient to stabilize the cubic brown phase, making the material of interest for use in practical PV devices.

  8. Enhanced tropospheric BrO over Antarctic sea ice in mid winter observed by MAX-DOAS on board the research vessel Polarstern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wagner

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We present Multi AXis-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS observations of tropospheric BrO carried out on board the German research vessel Polarstern during the Antarctic winter 2006. Polarstern entered the area of first year sea ice around Antarctica on 24 June 2006 and stayed within this area until 15 August 2006. For the period when the ship cruised inside the first year sea ice belt, enhanced BrO concentrations were almost continuously observed. Outside the first year sea ice belt, typically low BrO concentrations were found. Based on back trajectory calculations we find a positive correlation between the observed BrO differential slant column densities (ΔSCDs and the duration for which the air masses had been in contact with the sea ice surface prior to the measurement. While we can not completely rule out that in several cases the highest BrO concentrations might be located close to the ground, our observations indicate that the maximum BrO concentrations might typically exist in a (possibly extended layer around the upper edge of the boundary layer. Besides the effect of a decreasing pH of sea salt aerosol with altitude and therefore an increase of BrO with height, this finding might be also related to vertical mixing of air from the free troposphere with the boundary layer, probably caused by convection over the warm ocean surface at polynyas and cracks in the ice. Strong vertical gradients of BrO and O3 could also explain why we found enhanced BrO levels almost continuously for the observations within the sea ice. Based on our estimated BrO profiles we derive BrO mixing ratios of several ten ppt, which is slightly higher than many existing observations. Our observations indicate that enhanced BrO concentrations around Antarctica exist about one month earlier than observed by satellite instruments. From detailed radiative transfer simulations we find that MAX-DOAS observations are up to about one order of

  9. Nematocid effects of watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Zahradníková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br. is often grown as a forced leaf vegetable rich in vitamins and minerals. Its specific taste and curative effects result from the presence of mustard glycosides (glucosinolates that may also show nematocidic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of watercress eluate and juice on tomato plants inoculated with the northern root-knot nematode (NRKN Meloidogyne hapla. It was found out that after the treatment of plants with solutions derived from watercress the yield of fruit was highly significantly increased. The highest yield increase (by 96 % to 165 % was observed in the variant with the highest concentration of watercress extracts (macerate + 200 ml of juice. Although at lower concentrations of watercress solution the increase in yields was also reduced (by 57–118 %, the difference was still statistically highly significant. The effect of this treatment on the content of vitamin C was similar and the increase was also highly significant and ranged from 24 to 67 %. When evaluating the occurrence of nematodes on roots of tomato plants, the presence of pathogens was equal to zero percent in all treated variants. The treatment with this phyto-solution corroborated not only a nematocidic effect of watercress but also its positive influence on the yield and level of vitamin C in dependence on increasing concentrations of the effective agent. It can be therefore concluded that the watercress solution showed a promoting effect on tomato plants.

  10. A catalytic, Brønsted base strategy for intermolecular allylic C-H amination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sean A; Mazzotti, Anthony R; White, M Christina

    2009-08-26

    A Brønsted base activation mode for oxidative, Pd(II)/sulfoxide-catalyzed, intermolecular C-H allylic amination is reported. N,N-diisopropylethylamine was found to promote amination of unactivated terminal olefins, forming the corresponding linear allylic amine products with high levels of stereo-, regio-, and chemoselectivity. The predictable and high selectivity of this C-H oxidation method enables late-stage incorporation of nitrogen into advanced synthetic intermediates and natural products.

  11. Atmospheric lifetimes and ozone depletion potentials of methyl bromide (CH3Br) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellouki, A.; Talukdar, R.K.; Schmoltner, A.; Gierczak, T.; Mills, M.J.; Solomon, S.; Ravishankara, A.R. (NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States))

    1992-10-01

    The rate coefficients for the reactions of OH radical with CH3Br and CH2Br2 were measured as functions of temperature using the laser photolysis - laser induced fluorescence method. This data was incorporated into a semiempirical model (Solomon et al., 1992) and a 2D model to calculate the steady-state ozone depletion potentials (ODP) and atmospheri lifetimes, tau, with greatly improved accuracy as compared to earlier studies. The calculated ODPs and tau are 0.65 and 1.7 years and 0.17 and 0.41 years for CH3Br and CH2Br2, respectively, using the semiempirical model. These lifetimes agree well with those calculated using a 2D model. This study better quantifies the ODPs and tau of these species which are needed inputs for discussion of possible regulation of human emissions currently under international considerations. 29 refs.

  12. Br2 production from the heterogeneous reaction of gas-phase OH with aqueous salt solutions: Impacts of acidity, halide concentration, and organic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frinak, Elizabeth K; Abbatt, Jonathan P D

    2006-09-07

    This study reports the first laboratory measurement of gas-phase Br2 production from the reaction between gas-phase hydroxyl radicals and aqueous salt solutions. Experiments were conducted at 269 K in a rotating wetted-wall flow tube coupled to a chemical-ionization mass spectrometer for analysis of gas-phase components. From both pure NaBr solutions and mixed NaCl/NaBr solutions, the amount of Br2 released was found to increase with increasing acidity, whereas it was found to vary little with increasing concentration of bromide ions in the sample. For mixed NaCl/NaBr solutions, Br2 was formed preferentially over Cl2 unless the Br- levels in the solution were significantly depleted by OH oxidation, at which point Cl2 formation was observed. Presence of a surfactant in solution, sodium dodecyl sulfate, significantly suppressed the formation of Br2; this is the first indication that an organic surfactant can affect the rate of interfacial mass transfer of OH to an aqueous surface. The OH-mediated oxidation of bromide may serve as a source of active bromine in the troposphere and contribute to the subsequent destruction of ozone that proceeds in marine-influenced regions of the troposphere.

  13. Characteristics of Turbulent Airflow Deduced from Rapid Surface Thermal Fluctuations: An Infrared Surface Anemometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminzadeh, Milad; Breitenstein, Daniel; Or, Dani

    2017-12-01

    The intermittent nature of turbulent airflow interacting with the surface is readily observable in fluctuations of the surface temperature resulting from the thermal imprints of eddies sweeping the surface. Rapid infrared thermography has recently been used to quantify characteristics of the near-surface turbulent airflow interacting with the evaporating surfaces. We aim to extend this technique by using single-point rapid infrared measurements to quantify properties of a turbulent flow, including surface exchange processes, with a view towards the development of an infrared surface anemometer. The parameters for the surface-eddy renewal (α and β ) are inferred from infrared measurements of a single-point on the surface of a heat plate placed in a wind tunnel with prescribed wind speeds and constant mean temperatures of the surface. Thermally-deduced parameters are in agreement with values obtained from standard three-dimensional ultrasonic anemometer measurements close to the plate surface (e.g., α = 3 and β = 1/26 (ms)^{-1} for the infrared, and α = 3 and β = 1/19 (ms)^{-1} for the sonic-anemometer measurements). The infrared-based turbulence parameters provide new insights into the role of surface temperature and buoyancy on the inherent characteristics of interacting eddies. The link between the eddy-spectrum shape parameter α and the infrared window size representing the infrared field of view is investigated. The results resemble the effect of the sampling height above the ground in sonic anemometer measurements, which enables the detection of larger eddies with higher values of α . The physical basis and tests of the proposed method support the potential for remote quantification of the near-surface momentum field, as well as scalar-flux measurements in the immediate vicinity of the surface.

  14. BR-SIPP: PETROBRAS Integrated Scheduling System; BR-SIPP: Sistema Integrado de Progamacao de Producao da PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Cristiane S.; Joly, Marcel; Hassimotto, Marcelo K.; Magalhaes, Marcus Vinicius O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The lack of a computational aided technology to support short-term scheduling activity in the oil and petrochemical sector has been identified as one of the major obstacles to the harmonic integration of production objectives subsequent to the implementation of the advanced control systems and the consolidation of important benefits at the process unit level. Such technology refers to an analytical tool able to capture plant operational information consistent with the scheduling layer demands, modeling the production system economic performance, and providing mechanisms to consider commercial, operation and technological uncertainties. In this context, PETROBRAS has continuously dedicated effort to develop, implement and enhance its own refinery scheduling solution. Nowadays at its second version, the PETROBRAS Integrated Scheduling System (BR-SIPP - INPI grant 00067400) has become the focus of corporate care, given its critical role on the link between planning objectives and plant operations, according to the hierarchical decision strategy currently adopted by PETROBRAS. This paper presents an overview of the tool and illustrates some real-world applications and main realized benefits. (author)

  15. Finding the Missing Stratospheric Br(sub y): A Global Modeling Study of CHBr3 and CH2Br2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Q.; Stolarski, R. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Nielsen, J. E.; Douglass, A. R.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Blake, D. R.; Atlas, E. L.; Ott, L. E.

    2010-01-01

    Recent in situ and satellite measurements suggest a contribution of 5 pptv to stratospheric inorganic bromine from short-lived bromocarbons. We conduct a modeling study of the two most important short-lived bromocarbons, bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), with the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOS CCM) to account for this missing stratospheric bromine. We derive a "top-down" emission estimate of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 using airborne measurements in the Pacific and North American troposphere and lower stratosphere obtained during previous NASA aircraft campaigns. Our emission estimate suggests that to reproduce the observed concentrations in the free troposphere, a global oceanic emission of 425 Gg Br yr(exp -1) for CHBr3 and 57 Gg Br yr(exp -l) for CH2Br2 is needed, with 60% of emissions from open ocean and 40% from coastal regions. Although our simple emission scheme assumes no seasonal variations, the model reproduces the observed seasonal variations of the short-lived bromocarbons with high concentrations in winter and low concentrations in summer. This indicates that the seasonality of short-lived bromocarbons is largely due to seasonality in their chemical loss and transport. The inclusion of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 contributes 5 pptv bromine throughout the stratosphere. Both the source gases and inorganic bromine produced from source gas degradation (BrSLS) in the troposphere are transported into the stratosphere, and are equally important. Inorganic bromine accounts for half (2.5 pptv) of the bromine from the inclusion of CHBr3 and CHzBr2 near the tropical tropopause and its contribution rapidly increases to 100% as altitude increases. More than 85% of the wet scavenging of Br(sub y)(sup VSLS) occurs in large-scale precipitation below 500 hPa. Our sensitivity study with wet scavenging in convective updrafts switched off suggests that Br(sub y)(sup SLS) in the stratosphere is not sensitive to convection. Convective scavenging only

  16. Modeling study of vibrational photochemical isotope enrichment. [HBr + Cl/sub 2/; HCl + Br/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badcock, C.C.; Hwang, W.C.; Kalsch, J.F.

    1978-09-29

    Chemical kinetic modeling studies of vibrational-photochemical isotope enrichment have been performed on two systems: Model (I), H/sup 79/Br(H/sup 81/Br) + Cl/sub 2/ and, Model (II), H/sup 37/Cl(H/sup 35/Cl) + Br. Pulsed laser excitation was modeled to the first excited vibrational level of H/sup 79/Br in Model I and the first and second excited vibrational levels of both HCl isotopes in Model II. These are prototype systems of exoergic (Model I) and endoergic (Model II) reactions. The effects on enrichment of varying the external parameters (pressure, laser intensity) and the internal parameters (rate constants for V-V exchange and excited-state reactions) were examined. Studies of these prototype systems indicate that a favorable reaction for enrichment, with isotopically-specific excitation and a significantly accelerated vibrationally-excited-state reaction should have the following properties: the reaction from v = 0 should be only moderately exoergic, and the most favorable coreactant should be a polyatomic species, such as alkyl radical. Direct excitation of the reacting vibrational level is at least an order of magnitude more favorable for enrichment than is population by energy transfer. Enrichment of the minor isotope by these processes is more effective than is major isotope enrichment. Within limits, increased laser intensity is beneficial. However, for sequential excitation of a second vibrational level, major isotope enrichment can be diminished by high populations of the first vibrational level.

  17. Comparison of BR3 Surveillance and Vessel Plates to the Surrogate Plates Representative of the Yankee Rowe PWR Vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabry, A.; Chaouadi, R.; Puzzolante, J.L.; Van de Velde, J.; Biemiller, E.C.; Rosinski, S.T.; Carter, R.G

    1998-07-01

    The sister pressure vessels at the BR3 and Yankee Rowe PWR plants were operated at lower-than-usual temperature ( 260 degrees Celsius) and their plates were austenitized a higher-than-usual temperature (970 degrees Celsius) - a heat treatment leading to a coarser microstructure than is typical for the fine grain plates considered in development of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.99. The surveillance programs provided by Westinghouse for the two plants were limited to the same A302-B plate representative of the Rowe vessel upper shell plate; this material displayed outlier behaviour characterized by a 41 J Charpy-V Notch shift significantly larger than predicted by Regulatory Guide 1.99. Because lower irradiation temperature and nickel alloying are generally considered detrimental to irradiation sensitivity, there was a major concern that the nickel-modified lower Rate plate and the nickel-modified BR3 plate may become too embrittled to satisfy the toughness requirements embodied in the PTS screening criterion. This paper compares free complementary studies undertaken to clarify these uncertainties: (1) The accelerated irradiation and test program launched in 1990 by Yankee Atomic Electric Company using typical vessel plate materials containing 0.24% copper at two nickel levels: YA1, 0.63 % (A533-B) and YA9, 0.19 (A302-B). These were heat-treated to produce the coarse and fine grain microstructures representative of the Yankee/BR3 and the Regulatory Guide plates, respectively; (2) The BR3 surveillance and vessel testing program: this vessel was wet-annealed in 1984, relicensed for operation till the plant shutdown in 1987, and was trepanned in early 1995; (3) The accelerated irradiations in the Belgian test reactor BR2 of the Yankee coarse grain plates YA1 and YA9 together with BR3 vessel specimens extracted at nozzle elevation, a location with negligible radiation exposure. It is contended that the PTS screening criterion was never attained by the BR3 and Rowe plates, and

  18. DEDUCE Clinical Text: An Ontology-based Module to Support Self-Service Clinical Notes Exploration and Cohort Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Christopher; Rusincovitch, Shelley A; Horvath, Monica M; Brinson, Stephanie; Evans, Steve; Shang, Howard C; Ferranti, Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Large amounts of information, as well as opportunities for informing research, education, and operations, are contained within clinical text such as radiology reports and pathology reports. However, this content is less accessible and harder to leverage than structured, discrete data. We report on an extension to the Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE), a self-service query tool developed to provide clinicians and researchers with access to data within the Duke Medicine Enterprise Data Warehouse (EDW). The DEDUCE Clinical Text module supports ontology-based text searching, enhanced filtering capabilities based on document attributes, and integration of clinical text with structured data and cohort development. The module is implemented with open-source tools extensible to other institutions, including a Java-based search engine (Apache Solr) with complementary full-text indexing library (Lucene) employed with a negation engine (NegEx) modified by clinical users to include to local domain-specific negation phrases.

  19. Phase Control of BR/SBR Blends by Silica Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inai, Motoyuki; Aizawa, Seiji; Ito, Masayoshi

    A phase control of butadiene rubber (BR)/styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) blends was examined by using silica particles. The phase structure of the blends was qualitatively evaluated from transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation and temperature dependence of mechanical tanδ. It was found that the temperature dependence of tanδ was dependent on the size of agglomerate formed by silica particles in the blend. The vulcanized blends with small agglomerates showed a single tanδ peak suggesting a pseudo-miscible state. The vulcanized blends with large agglomerates showed two tanδ peaks corresponding to the Tgs of BR and SBR. The mutual dissolution of BR and SBR phases above the UCST line where the vulcanization was carried out might be disturbed by large agglomerates formed by silica particles in the blends.

  20. General Principles of Transnationalised Criminal Justice?<br>Exploratory Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne L. Wade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to explore the premise of general principles in what is labelled transnationalised criminal justice (encompassing the substantive and procedural law as well as the institutions of transnational criminal law and European criminal law. Whilst there can be no denying that these are diverse and divergent areas of law in many ways, their fundamental common denominator of seeking to convict individuals whilst subjecting these to arrest, detention and deprivation of other rights across borders, is taken as a baseline around which certain general principles may gravitate. The current state of executive over-reach within transnationalised criminal justice structures is studied, particularly in relation to the European criminal justice context. This over-reach is explored utilising the theoretical framework of social contract theory. It is suggested that the transfer of investigative and prosecutorial powers to transnationalised contexts undertaken by the relevant executives without seeking to temper this assignment with mechanisms to secure the rights of individuals which counter-balance these, as required by the constitutional traditions of their country, can be regarded as in breach of the social contract. Using this thought experiment, this article provides a framework with which to identify the deficits of transnationalised criminal law.  The way in which such deficits undermine the legitimacy of the institutions created by states to operate the mechanisms of transnationalised criminal justice as well as the fundamental values of their own constitutions is, however, demonstrated as concrete. The latter are identified as mechanisms for deducing the general principles of transnationalised criminal justice (albeit via difficult international negotiation. If the supranationalisation of criminal justice powers is not to be regarded as a tool undermining constitutional values and effectively allowing executives acting in an

  1. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements: comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dorf

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, results of four stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM. Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY satellite instrument. The balloon observations include (a balloon-borne in situ resonance fluorescence detection of BrO (Triple, (b balloon-borne solar occultation DOAS measurements (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy of BrO in the UV, and (c BrO profiling from the solar occultation SAOZ (Systeme d'Analyse par Observation Zenithale balloon instrument. Since stratospheric BrO is subject to considerable diurnal variation and none of the measurements are performed close enough in time and space for a direct comparison, all balloon observations are considered with reference to outputs from the 3-D CTM. The referencing is performed by forward and backward air mass trajectory calculations to match the balloon with the satellite observations. The diurnal variation of BrO is considered by 1-D photochemical model calculation along the trajectories. The 1-D photochemical model is initialised with output data of the 3-D model with additional constraints on the vertical transport, the total amount and photochemistry of stratospheric bromine as given by the various balloon observations. Total [Bry]=(20.1±2.5 pptv obtained from DOAS BrO observations at mid-latitudes in 2003, serves as an upper limit of the comparison. Most of the balloon observations agree with the photochemical model predictions within their given error estimates. First retrieval exercises of BrO limb profiling from the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument on average agree to around 20% with the photochemically-corrected balloon observations of the remote sensing instruments (SAOZ

  2. Stratospheric BrONO2 observed by MIPAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fischer

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The first measurements of stratospheric bromine nitrate (BrONO2 are reported. Bromine nitrate has been clearly identified in atmospheric infrared emission spectra recorded with the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS aboard the European Envisat satellite, and stratospheric concentration profiles have been determined for different conditions (day and night, different latitudes. The BrONO2 concentrations show strong day/night variations, with much lower concentrations during the day. Maximum volume mixing ratios observed during night are 20 to 25 pptv. The observed concentration profiles are in agreement with estimations from photochemical models and show that the current understanding of stratospheric bromine chemistry is generally correct.

  3. Skandaalin vaikutus brändin imagoon - Case Audi

    OpenAIRE

    Puntalo, Ville-Veikko

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin Volkswagenin päästöhuijausskandaalin vaikutusta Audi-brändin imagoon. Tutkimuksessa pyrittiin selvittämään onko ennakoitavissa mahdollisia myyntitulosten muutoksia ja johtuivatko ne kyseisestä skandaalista. Opinnäytetyön teoriaosuudessa perehdyttiin ostokäyttäytymisen prosessiin, brändin rakentumiseen, positiivisen maineen saavuttamiseen ja tunnettuihin yritysmaailman skandaaleihin. Lisäksi käytiin läpi Volkswagen päästöskandaalin taustaa sekä sen seurauksia. ...

  4. Atmospheric test of the J(BrONO2/kBrO+NO2 ratio: implications for total stratospheric Bry and bromine-mediated ozone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kreycy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on time-dependent O3, NO2 and BrO profiles measured by limb observations of scattered skylight in the stratosphere over Kiruna (67.9° N, 22.1° E on 7 and 8 September 2009 during the autumn circulation turn-over. The observations are complemented by simultaneous direct solar occultation measurements around sunset and sunrise performed aboard the same stratospheric balloon payload. Supporting radiative transfer and photochemical modelling indicate that the measurements can be used to constrain the ratio J(BrONO2/kBrO+NO2, for which at T = 220 ± 5 K an overall 1.7 (+0.4 −0.2 larger ratio is found than recommended by the most recent Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL compilation (Sander et al., 2011. Sensitivity studies reveal the major reasons are likely to be (1 a larger BrONO2 absorption cross-section σBrONO2, primarily for wavelengths larger than 300 nm, and (2 a smaller kBrO+NO2 at 220 K than given by Sander et al. (2011. Other factors, e.g. the actinic flux and quantum yield for the dissociation of BrONO2, can be ruled out. The observations also have consequences for total inorganic stratospheric bromine (Bry estimated from stratospheric BrO measurements at high NOx loadings, since the ratio J(BrONO2/kBrO+NO2 largely determines the stratospheric BrO/Bry ratio during daylight. Using the revised J(BrONO2/kBrO+NO2 ratio, total stratospheric Bry is likely to be 1.4 ppt smaller than previously estimated from BrO profile measurements at high NOx loadings. This would bring estimates of Bry inferred from organic source gas measurements (e.g. CH3Br, the halons, CH2Br2, CHBr3, etc. into closer agreement with estimates based on BrO observations (inorganic method. The consequences for stratospheric ozone due to the revised J(BrONO2/kBrO+NO2 ratio are small (maximum −0.8%, since at high NOx (for which most Bry assessments are made the enhanced ozone loss by overestimating Bry is compensated for by the suppressed ozone loss due to the

  5. 75 FR 51693 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Models BR700-710A1-10; BR700-710A2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Models BR700-710A1-10; BR700-710A2-20; and BR700-710C4-11...-2251. Contact Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG, Eschenweg 11, Dahlewitz, 15827 Blankenfelde-Mahlow..., notified us that an unsafe condition may exist on Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Models BR700-710A1-10...

  6. Staining of fluid-catalytic cracking catalysts: Localising Brønsted acidity within a single catalyst particle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurmans, I.L.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31406592X; Ruiz Martinez, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341386405; van Leeuwen, S.L.; van der Beek, D.; Bergwerff, J.A.; Knowles, W.V.; Vogt, Eelco|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073717398; Weckhuysen, B.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397

    2012-01-01

    A time-resolved in situ micro-spectroscopic approach has been used to investigate the Brønsted acidic properties of fluid-catalytic-cracking (FCC) catalysts at the single particle level by applying the acid-catalysed styrene oligomerisation probe reaction. The reactivity of individual FCC components

  7. Product analysis and kinetics of Br-initiated gas-phase oxidation of dimethyl sulphide; Produktanalyse und Kinetik der Br-initiierten Gasphasenoxidation von Dimethylsulfid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K.H.; Maurer, T.

    1996-07-01

    High Br concentrations in maritime environments may render the reaction between Br radicals and dimethyl sulphide an important process. According to the literature this system has as yet not been studied with a mind to clarifying the reaction mechanisms and performing a product analysis. Thus, for example, the decomposition of the DMS-Br adduct remains to be clarified. The purpose of the present study was therefore to examine the reaction between dimethyl sulphide and Br radicals and so gain information on the decomposition mechanism. This implied a determination of the velocity constant and a product analysis of the reaction between Br radicals and dimethyl sulphide. In addition the velocity constant of the reaction between Br radicals and dimethylsulphoxide (a consequent product of DMS oxidation) was to be determined. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hohe Br-Konzentrationen in maritimen Gebieten machen die Reaktion von Br-Radikalen mit Dimethylsulfid moeglicherweise zu einem wichtigen Prozess. In der Literatur fehlen eingehende Untersuchungen dieses Systems hinsichtlich der Aufklaerung der Reaktionsmechanismen und der Produktanalyse. So ist zum Beispiel der Zerfall des DMS-Br-Adduktes nicht aufgeklaert. Aus diesen Gruenden soll im Rahmen dieser Arbeit die Reaktion von Dimethylsulfid mit Br-Radikalen untersucht werden, um Informationen ueber den Abbaumechanismus zu erhalten. Darunter fallen die Bestimmung der Geschwindigkeitskonstanten und die Produktanalyse der Reaktion von Br-Radikalen mit Dimethylsulfid. Zusaetzlich soll die Geschwindigkeitskonstante der Reaktion vom Br-Radikalen mit Dimethylsulfoxid (einem Folgeprodukt der DMS-Oxidation) bestimmt werden. (orig.)

  8. Aagesta-BR3 Decommissioning Cost. Comparison and Benchmarking Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Geoff [NAC International, Henley on Thames (United Kingdom)

    2002-11-01

    This report presents the results of decommissioning cost analyses focusing on discrete working packages within the decommissioning program of the BR3 reactor in Mol, Belgium and comparison of them with cost estimate data for the Aagesta research reactor in Sweden. The specific BR3 work packages analysed were: Primary coolant piping decontamination; Primary coolant piping dismantling; Vulcain reactor internals dismantling; Westinghouse reactor internals dismantling; Reactor vessel dismantling. The main conclusions to be drawn from the analyses are that: The fixed costs related to decontamination and dismantling activities generally are a very important part of the overall resources needed to execute the work, with the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) seemingly being significantly more demanding than other major components. Cutting activities tend to need something like 150 to 200 labour hours per m{sup 2} of reactor equipment dismantled. Fixed investment costs to set up the equipment needed to cut up major vessels or internals appear to be in the range of MSEK 4 to 8. Consumables costs vary according to the nature of the equipment being dismantled. The thicker the metal being cut, the higher the attrition rate for things such as cutting blades. The range of consumables costs at BR3 have been in the range of MSEK 0.1 to 0.2/m{sup 2} dismantled. The extent of detailed information available in the 1996 Aagesta estimate is not sufficient to enable a full comparison with the BR3 decommissioning results. A global first comparison has been attempted by summing the resources expended on the BR3 work packages described in this report with the combined dismantling data presented in the 1996 Aagesta cost estimate report. Very broadly the cost of decontamination plus dismantling of the main process equipment at Aagesta appears to be in the order of MSEK 70, of which MSEK 4 is labour on preparatory/planning work, MSEK 40 is labour on actual decontamination and dismantling and MSEK

  9. Dental Management Survey Brazil (DMS-BR): creation and validation of a management instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Paola Sampaio; Martins, Ismar Eduardo; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye; Silva, Paulo Roberto da; Michel-Crosato, Edgard

    2017-04-10

    Questionnaires for the assessment of knowledge and self-perception can be useful to diagnose what a dentist knows about management and administration. The aim of the present study was to create and validate the Dental Management Survey Brazil (DMS-BR) scale, based on meetings with experts in the field. After having elaborated the first version, 10 audits were performed in dental offices in order to produce the final version, which included nine dimensions: location, patient, finance, marketing, competition, quality, staff, career, and productivity. The accuracy of the instrument was measured by intrarater and interrater reliability. In the validation phase, 247 Brazilian dentists answered a web-based questionnaire. The data were processed using Stata 13.0 and the significance level was set at 95%. The instrument had intrarater and interrater reliability (ICC-0.93 and 0.94). The overall average of respondents for the DMS-BR scale was 3.77 (SD = 0.45). Skewness and kurtosis were below absolute values 3 and 7, respectively. Internal validity measured by Cronbach's alpha was 0.925 and the correlation of each dimension with the final result of the DMS-BR ranged between 0.606 and 0.810. Correlation with the job satisfaction scale was 0.661. The SEM data ranged between 0.80 and 0.56. The questionnaire presented satisfactory indicators of dentists' self-perception about management and administration activities.

  10. Fabrication of graphene oxide enwrapped Z-scheme Ag2SO3/AgBr nanoparticles with enhanced visible-light photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yujuan; Liang, Chunyan; Xia, Yue; Huang, Wei; Li, Zelin

    2017-02-01

    A novel graphene oxide (GO) enwrapped Ag2SO3/AgBr (GO/Ag2SO3/AgBr) composite was fabricated through a facile solution approach via electrostatic interaction and precipitation transformation reaction for the first time. The results of XRD, Raman, SEM, TEM and XPS confirmed the structure, morphology and composition of the GO/Ag2SO3/AgBr composite very well. The Ag2SO3/AgBr nanoparticles were found to be encapsulated by GO sheets. The photocatalytic activity of the composite was investigated by the degradation of methyl orange (MO), rhodamine B (RhB) and methylene blue (MB) in water under visible light. The incorporation of GO sheets not only significantly enhanced the photocatalytic activity but also improved the reusability of Ag2SO3/AgBr nanoparticles. The photocatalytic ability of GO/Ag2SO3/AgBr can be maintained at a high level for 4 times cycle experiments. The trapping experiments confirmed that holes and superoxide ion radicals were the main active species responsible for the degradation reaction. A plasmonic Z-scheme photocatalytic mechanism was proposed to illustrate the possible transferred and separated behavior of electron-hole pairs among Ag, Ag2SO3, AgBr and GO quaternary system under visible light irradiation.

  11. Redetermination of the Crystal Structure of Al2Br6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.; Poulsen, Finn W.; Nielsen, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    . In accordance with previous results, the structure belongs to the monoclinic space group P2(1)/a, no. 14, C-2h(5), with a = 10.301(4), b = 7.095(2), c = 7.525(3) Angstrom, and beta = 96.44(3)degrees, and with two Al2Br6 molecules per unit cell. The single crystal was refined to R = 0.0746. Rather similar......The structure of aluminium bromide has been reinvestigated by X-ray diffraction in three different ways: (a) on a single crystal grown in a glass capillary, (b) on powder in a Debye-Scherrer glass capillary and (c) on an area of powder placed in a protective container for Bragg-Brentano geometry...... structural results were obtained from full-profile Rietveld refinements of powder data [goodness of fit = 1.38 and 2.54 for (b) and (c), respectively]. The Al2Br6 molecule consists of two edge-sharing, almost regular AlBr4 tetrahedra. The Al-Br bond distances are in the range 2.21-2.42 Angstrom...

  12. Fragment production in 16 O· 80 Br reaction within dynamical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia. Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 59; Issue 1. Fragment production in 16O + 80Br reaction within dynamical microscopic theory. Rajeev K Puri Jaivir Singh Suneel Kumar. Research Articles Volume 59 Issue 1 July 2002 pp 19-31 ...

  13. (KNa)Br phosphor for ionizing radiation dosimetry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lyoluminescence; γ-ray dose; radiation dosimetry; phosphor; (KNa)Br. 1. Introduction. The measurement of radiation dose has become a science of ever increasing importance due to the estimation of risk and benefits inherent to the uses and to the exposure of ionizing radiation. When strongly energized, crystals are ...

  14. Overexpression of BrSAC1 encoding a phosphoinositide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The full length gene (BrSAC1; GenBank accession no., GU434275) contained 1999 base pairs (bp), with an open reading frame of 1785 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 594 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 65 kDa, including a putative N-terminal signal peptide (the signal peptide counted within the 594 ...

  15. Monika Elisabeth Bründl, Lexikalische Dynamik – Kognitiv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Technology

    Key concepts are the mental lexicon, metaphor and metonymy as central processes in the creation of new lexical units (as defined by Cruse 1986: 77), and iconicity as the cognitive answer to the structural tenet of the arbitrariness of the linguistic sign. Bründl argues that the cognitive approach so far has been mainly applied.

  16. Narva kant vajab oma brändi / Esko Passila

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Passila, Esko

    2007-01-01

    Autor leiab, et Ida-Virumaa peaks looma ühtse tugeva brändi, mille alusel tulevikuotsuseid teha. See peaks tooma välja soodsa asukoha eelised, võimalused, tööjõu kättesaadavuse, kasutusvalmid maa-alad, hinnad jne.

  17. Overexpression of BrSAC1 encoding a phosphoinositide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-10

    Apr 10, 2013 ... Key words: Abiotic stress, Brassica rapa, phosphoinositide phosphatase, transgenic plant. INTRODUCTION. Plant growth is strongly ... specific primers for the analysis of BrSAC1 expression in germinating seeds were: ..... Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries,. Republic of Korea and 2012 ...

  18. Steering dissociation of Br2 molecules with two femtosecond pulses via wave packet interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yong-Chang; Yuan, Kai-Jun; Hu, Wen-Hui; Yan, Tian-Min; Cong, Shu-Lin

    2008-04-07

    The dissociation dynamics of Br2 molecules induced by two femtosecond pump pulses are studied based on the calculation of time-dependent quantum wave packet. Perpendicular transition from X 1Sigma g+ to A 3Pi 1u+ and 1Pi 1u+ and parallel transition from X 1Sigma g+ to B 3Pi 0u+, involving two product channels Br (2P3/2)+Br (2P3/2) and Br (2P3/2)+Br* (2P1/2), respectively, are taken into account. Two pump pulses create dissociating wave packets interfering with each other. By varying laser parameters, the interference of dissociating wave packets can be controlled, and the dissociation probabilities of Br2 molecules on the three excited states can be changed to different degrees. The branching ratio of Br*/(Br+Br*) is calculated as a function of pulse delay time and phase difference.

  19. Obtaining continuous BrAC/BAC estimates in the field: A hybrid system integrating transdermal alcohol biosensor, Intellidrink smartphone app, and BrAC Estimator software tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Susan E; Hawkins, Ashley L; Dai, Zheng; Wichmann, Raphael; Wang, Chunming; Rosen, I Gary

    2017-12-02

    Biosensors have been developed to measure transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC), but converting TAC into interpretable indices of blood/breath alcohol concentration (BAC/BrAC) is difficult because of variations that occur in TAC across individuals, drinking episodes, and devices. We have developed mathematical models and the BrAC Estimator software for calibrating and inverting TAC into quantifiable BrAC estimates (eBrAC). The calibration protocol to determine the individualized parameters for a specific individual wearing a specific device requires a drinking session in which BrAC and TAC measurements are obtained simultaneously. This calibration protocol was originally conducted in the laboratory with breath analyzers used to produce the BrAC data. Here we develop and test an alternative calibration protocol using drinking diary data collected in the field with the smartphone app Intellidrink to produce the BrAC calibration data. We compared BrAC Estimator software results for 11 drinking episodes collected by an expert user when using Intellidrink versus breath analyzer measurements as BrAC calibration data. Inversion phase results indicated the Intellidrink calibration protocol produced similar eBrAC curves and captured peak eBrAC to within 0.0003%, time of peak eBrAC to within 18min, and area under the eBrAC curve to within 0.025% alcohol-hours as the breath analyzer calibration protocol. This study provides evidence that drinking diary data can be used in place of breath analyzer data in the BrAC Estimator software calibration procedure, which can reduce participant and researcher burden and expand the potential software user pool beyond researchers studying participants who can drink in the laboratory. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. A comparative study of LaBr{sub 3}(Ce{sup 3+}) and CeBr{sub 3} based gamma-ray spectrometers for planetary remote sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyrev, A., E-mail: kozyrev@mx.iki.rssi.ru; Mitrofanov, I.; Bakhtin, B.; Fedosov, F.; Golovin, D.; Litvak, M.; Malakhov, A.; Mokrousov, M.; Nuzhdin, I.; Sanin, A.; Tretyakov, V.; Vostrukhin, A. [Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IKI), 84/32 Profsoyuznaya St., Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Owens, A.; Benkhoff, J. [European Space Agency, ESTEC, Keplerlaan, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Quarati, F. [AP, RST, FAME, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Gonitec BV, J. Bildersstraat 60, 2596 EJ Den Haag (Netherlands); Timoshenko, G.; Shvetsov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, Dubna, Moscow Region 141980 (Russian Federation); Granja, C.; Slavicek, T.; Pospisil, S. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2016-08-15

    The recent availability of large volume cerium bromide crystals raises the possibility of substantially improving gamma-ray spectrometer limiting flux sensitivities over current systems based on the lanthanum tri-halides, e.g., lanthanum bromide and lanthanum chloride, especially for remote sensing, low-level counting applications or any type of measurement characterized by poor signal to noise ratios. The Russian Space Research Institute has developed and manufactured a highly sensitive gamma-ray spectrometer for remote sensing observations of the planet Mercury from the Mercury Polar Orbiter (MPO), which forms part of ESA’s BepiColombo mission. The Flight Model (FM) gamma-ray spectrometer is based on a 3-in. single crystal of LaBr{sub 3}(Ce{sup 3+}) produced in a separate crystal development programme specifically for this mission. During the spectrometers development, manufacturing, and qualification phases, large crystals of CeBr{sub 3} became available in a subsequent phase of the same crystal development programme. Consequently, the Flight Spare Model (FSM) gamma-ray spectrometer was retrofitted with a 3-in. CeBr{sub 3} crystal and qualified for space. Except for the crystals, the two systems are essentially identical. In this paper, we report on a comparative assessment of the two systems, in terms of their respective spectral properties, as well as their suitability for use in planetary mission with respect to radiation tolerance and their propensity for activation. We also contrast their performance with a Ge detector representative of that flown on MESSENGER and show that: (a) both LaBr{sub 3}(Ce{sup 3+}) and CeBr{sub 3} provide superior detection systems over HPGe in the context of minimally resourced spacecraft and (b) CeBr{sub 3} is a more attractive system than LaBr{sub 3}(Ce{sup 3+}) in terms of sensitivities at lower gamma fluxes. Based on the tests, the FM has now been replaced by the FSM on the BepiColombo spacecraft. Thus, CeBr{sub 3} now forms

  1. Molecular structure of CH(GeBr 3) 3 determined by gas electron diffraction and ab initio calculations: steric congestion in tri- and tetra-germylmethanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaland, A.; Shorokhov, D. J.; Volden, H. V.; McMurran, J.; Kouvetakis, J.

    1999-10-01

    The molecular structure of CH(GeBr 3) 3 has been determined by gas electron diffraction (GED) and ab initio calculation at the HF/6-31G ∗ level. The calculations indicate that the equilibrium structure has C 3 symmetry. The most important bond distances are (GED/HF-MO); Ge-C=199.5(10)/193.6 pm, Ge-Br (mean)=228.1(2)/228.0 pm, and valence angles Br (mean)=111.4(3)/110.8°. The GeBr 3 groups are rotated 31.8(6)/22.4° away from the staggered orientation.

  2. The four hexamerin genes in the honey bee: structure, molecular evolution and function deduced from expression patterns in queens, workers and drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Juliana R; Nunes, Francis M F; Cristino, Alexandre S; Simões, Zilá L P; Bitondi, Márcia M G

    2010-03-26

    Hexamerins are hemocyanin-derived proteins that have lost the ability to bind copper ions and transport oxygen; instead, they became storage proteins. The current study aimed to broaden our knowledge on the hexamerin genes found in the honey bee genome by exploring their structural characteristics, expression profiles, evolution, and functions in the life cycle of workers, drones and queens. The hexamerin genes of the honey bee (hex 70a, hex 70b, hex 70c and hex 110) diverge considerably in structure, so that the overall amino acid identity shared among their deduced protein subunits varies from 30 to 42%. Bioinformatics search for motifs in the respective upstream control regions (UCRs) revealed six overrepresented motifs including a potential binding site for Ultraspiracle (Usp), a target of juvenile hormone (JH). The expression of these genes was induced by topical application of JH on worker larvae. The four genes are highly transcribed by the larval fat body, although with significant differences in transcript levels, but only hex 110 and hex 70a are re-induced in the adult fat body in a caste- and sex-specific fashion, workers showing the highest expression. Transcripts for hex 110, hex 70a and hex70b were detected in developing ovaries and testes, and hex 110 was highly transcribed in the ovaries of egg-laying queens. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that HEX 110 is located at the most basal position among the holometabola hexamerins, and like HEX 70a and HEX 70c, it shares potential orthology relationship with hexamerins from other hymenopteran species. Striking differences were found in the structure and developmental expression of the four hexamerin genes in the honey bee. The presence of a potential binding site for Usp in the respective 5' UCRs, and the results of experiments on JH level manipulation in vivo support the hypothesis of regulation by JH. Transcript levels and patterns in the fat body and gonads suggest that, in addition to their primary

  3. The four hexamerin genes in the honey bee: structure, molecular evolution and function deduced from expression patterns in queens, workers and drones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Juliana R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hexamerins are hemocyanin-derived proteins that have lost the ability to bind copper ions and transport oxygen; instead, they became storage proteins. The current study aimed to broaden our knowledge on the hexamerin genes found in the honey bee genome by exploring their structural characteristics, expression profiles, evolution, and functions in the life cycle of workers, drones and queens. Results The hexamerin genes of the honey bee (hex 70a, hex 70b, hex 70c and hex 110 diverge considerably in structure, so that the overall amino acid identity shared among their deduced protein subunits varies from 30 to 42%. Bioinformatics search for motifs in the respective upstream control regions (UCRs revealed six overrepresented motifs including a potential binding site for Ultraspiracle (Usp, a target of juvenile hormone (JH. The expression of these genes was induced by topical application of JH on worker larvae. The four genes are highly transcribed by the larval fat body, although with significant differences in transcript levels, but only hex 110 and hex 70a are re-induced in the adult fat body in a caste- and sex-specific fashion, workers showing the highest expression. Transcripts for hex 110, hex 70a and hex70b were detected in developing ovaries and testes, and hex 110 was highly transcribed in the ovaries of egg-laying queens. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that HEX 110 is located at the most basal position among the holometabola hexamerins, and like HEX 70a and HEX 70c, it shares potential orthology relationship with hexamerins from other hymenopteran species. Conclusions Striking differences were found in the structure and developmental expression of the four hexamerin genes in the honey bee. The presence of a potential binding site for Usp in the respective 5' UCRs, and the results of experiments on JH level manipulation in vivo support the hypothesis of regulation by JH. Transcript levels and patterns in the fat body

  4. The obesity-induced transcriptional regulator TRIP-Br2 mediates visceral fat endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Guifen; Kong, Hyerim Whang; Fang, Difeng; McCann, Maximilian; Yang, Xiuying; Du, Guanhua; Blüher, Matthias; Zhu, Jinfang; Liew, Chong Wee

    2016-04-25

    The intimate link between location of fat accumulation and metabolic disease risk and depot-specific differences is well established, but how these differences between depots are regulated at the molecular level remains largely unclear. Here we show that TRIP-Br2 mediates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced inflammatory responses in visceral fat. Using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo approaches, we demonstrate that obesity-induced circulating factors upregulate TRIP-Br2 specifically in visceral fat via the ER stress pathway. We find that ablation of TRIP-Br2 ameliorates both chemical and physiological ER stress-induced inflammatory and acute phase response in adipocytes, leading to lower circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines. Using promoter assays, as well as molecular and pharmacological experiments, we show that the transcription factor GATA3 is responsible for the ER stress-induced TRIP-Br2 expression in visceral fat. Taken together, our study identifies molecular regulators of inflammatory response in visceral fat that-given that these pathways are conserved in humans-might serve as potential therapeutic targets in obesity.

  5. High gradient rf gun studies of CsBr photocathodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore Vecchione

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available CsBr photocathodes have 10 times higher quantum efficiency with only 3 times larger intrinsic transverse emittance than copper. They are robust and can withstand 80  MV/m fields without breaking down or emitting dark current. They can operate in 2×10^{−9}  torr vacuum and survive exposure to air. They are well suited for generating high pulse charge in rf guns without a photocathode transfer system.

  6. Four-dimensional quantum study on exothermic complex-forming reactions: Cl- + CH3Br-->ClCH3+Br-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Carsten; Schmatz, Stefan

    2005-06-15

    The exothermic gas-phase bimolecular nucleophilic substitution (S(N)2) reaction Cl(-)+CH(3)Br (upsilon1',upsilon2',upsilon3')-->ClCH(3) (upsilon1,upsilon2,upsilon3)+Br- and the corresponding endothermic reverse reaction have been studied by time-independent quantum scattering calculations in hyperspherical coordinates on a coupled-cluster potential-energy surface. The dimensionality-reduced model takes four degrees of freedom into account [Cl-C and C-Br stretching modes (quantum numbers upsilon3' and upsilon3); totally symmetric modes of the methyl group, i.e., C-H stretching (upsilon1' and upsilon1) and umbrella bending vibrations (upsilon2' and upsilon2)]. Diagonalization of the Hamiltonian was performed employing the Lanczos algorithm with a variation of partial reorthogonalization. A narrow grid in the total energy was employed so that long-living resonance states could be resolved and extracted. While excitation of the reactant umbrella bending mode already leads to a considerable enhancement of the reaction probability, its combination with vibrational excitation of the broken C-Br bond, (0, 1, 1), results in a strong synergic effect that can be rationalized by the similarity with the classical transitional normal mode. Exciting the C-H stretch has a non-negligible effect on the reaction probability, while for larger translational energies this mode follows the expected spectatorlike behavior. Combination of C-Br stretch and symmetric C-H, (1,0,1), stretch does not show a cooperative effect. Contrary to the spectator mode concept, energy originally stored in the C-H stretching mode is by no means conserved, but almost completely released in other modes of the reaction products. Products are most likely formed in states with a high degree of excitation in the new C-Cl bond, while the internal modes of the methyl group are less important. Reactants with combined umbrella/C-Br stretch excitation, (0, 1, 1), may yield products with two quanta in the umbrella mode.

  7. Optimized Control Rods of the BR2 Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalcheva, Silva; Koonen, E.

    2007-09-15

    At the present time the BR-2 reactor uses control elements with cadmium as neutron absorbing part. The lower section of the control element is a beryllium assembly cooled by light water. Due to the burn up of the lower end of the cadmium section during the reactor operation, the presently used rods for reactivity control of the BR-2 reactor have to be replaced by new ones. Considered are various types Control Rods with full active part of the following materials: cadmium (Cd), hafnium (Hf), europium oxide (Eu2O3) and gadolinium (Gd2O3). Options to decrease the burn up of the control rod material in the hot spot, such as use of stainless steel in the lower active part of the Control Rod are discussed. Comparison with the characteristics of the presently used Control Rods types is performed. The changing of the characteristics of different types Control Rods and the perturbation effects on the reactor neutronics during the BR-2 fuel cycle are investigated. The burn up of the Control Rod absorbing material, total and differential control rods worth, macroscopic and effective microscopic absorption cross sections, fuel and reactivity evolution are evaluated during approximately 30 operating cycles.

  8. Bréal, un antinaturalisme d’inspiration humboldtienne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Jean-Philippe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dans De la forme et de la fonction des mots, Bréal formulait, dès 1866, outre une critique générale du formalisme de la philologie comparative depuis Bopp, une thèse radicalement opposée à l’orientation naturaliste de l’évolutionnisme linguistique de Schleicher. Cette thèse, que nous prendrons le risque de définir comme thèse du primat de la fonction sur la forme linguistique, est au coeur de ce programme de linguistique générale pour lequel Bréal allait forger, quelques années plus tard, le mot de sémantique. Fortement marqué par la notion humboldtienne d’innere Sprachform, Bréal, contrairement à Saussure, n'abandonnera jamais le changement linguistique au hasard de l'histoire et maintiendra l'intelligence comme premier moteur des langues, quitte à poser la nécessité de repenser cette intelligence.

  9. Ustioni da fuoco / Burn injuries / Les brûlures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Copertino

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Severe burn injuries require high specialistic treatment. Burn injuries are common in disasters and war scenarios, so war medicine has been fundamental to improve treatment protocols for burn patients..Burn injuries are classified according to the etiopathogenetic agent (physical, chemical or radiation, that determines different anatomoisthologic aspects.An estimation of the depth and extension are fundamental for defining the gravity of the burn. Critical burn patients have to be transported in specialistic Centers. There they are treated by multispecialistic teams from the resuscitation phase to the reconstructive surgery and specialist rehabilitation.. This process can continue for two years with the objective to return patients to a quiet normal life. Les brûlures sont des lésions traumatiques qui requièrent un traitement spécialisé. Lors de catastrophes et de guerres, les brûlures sont des lésions très fréquentes et la médecine de guerre a contribué à faire avancer la science de manière importante, dans le traitement de cette pathologie.Les brûlures sont classées en fonction de l'agent étiopathogénique (agents physiques, chimiques ou radiations dont le mécanisme d'action qui provoque la lésion cause des aspects anatomohistologiques caractéristiques.Pour définir la sévérité d'une brûlure, il est aussi fondamental d'éstimer l'extension de la surface corporelle et la profondeur de l'épiderme, et éventuellement du derme, atteints. Les patients gravement brûlés doivent être hospitalisés dans des Centres Spécialisés où des équipes multispécialistes les suivent de la phase initiale de la réanimation aux phases de chirurgie reconstructive et au processus de réhabilitation. Ces dernières phases peuvent se prolonger pendant les deux années suivant le traumatisme avant qu'une réintégration dans une vie sociale acceptable ne puisse être faite.

  10. The Ionospheric Bubble Index deduced from magnetic field and plasma observations onboard Swarm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Jaeheung; Noja, Max; Stolle, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    In the post-sunset tropical ionospheric F-region plasma density often exhibits depletions, which are usually called equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs). In this paper we give an overview of the Swarm Level 2 Ionospheric Bubble Index (IBI), which is a standard scientific data of the Swarm mission....... This product called L2-IBI is generated from magnetic field and plasma observations onboard Swarm, and gives information as to whether a Swarm magnetic field observation is affected by EPBs. We validate the performance of the L2-IBI product by using magnetic field and plasma measurements from the CHAMP...

  11. "Brücke dreht sich um!". A Deconstructionist Reading of Kafka's "Die Brücke"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Hoffmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Franz Kafka's (1883-1924 "Die Brücke" is one of the less well-known texts by one of the most prolific authors of literary modernity. However, this short prose text embodies prevalent questions of literary modernity and philosophy as it reflects the crisis of language in regard of identity, communication, and literary production. Placed in the context of fin-de-siècle's discourse of language crisis, this article provides a dialogue between Kafka's "Die Brücke" and Hannah Arendt's (1906-1975 philosophy of thinking and speaking in The Life of the Mind. Contrary to Arendt's understanding of the metaphor as "a carrying over" between the mental activities of the solitude thinker and a reconciliation with the pluralistic world shared with others, this article argues for a deconstructionist reading of "Die Brücke" as a tool to reevaluate Arendt's notion of a shared human experience ensured through language and illustrates the advantages of poetic texts within philosophical discourses.

  12. Fabrication of graphene oxide enwrapped Z-scheme Ag{sub 2}SO{sub 3}/AgBr nanoparticles with enhanced visible-light photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Yujuan; Liang, Chunyan; Xia, Yue, E-mail: xiayue_chem@126.com; Huang, Wei; Li, Zelin

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A novel GO/Ag{sub 2}SO{sub 3}/AgBr composite was prepared via a solution method. • It showed enhanced photocatalytic performance to degrade dyes under visible light irradiation. • Its photocatalytic ability was effectively maintained for 4 cycles without sacrificial reagents. - Abstract: A novel graphene oxide (GO) enwrapped Ag{sub 2}SO{sub 3}/AgBr (GO/Ag{sub 2}SO{sub 3}/AgBr) composite was fabricated through a facile solution approach via electrostatic interaction and precipitation transformation reaction for the first time. The results of XRD, Raman, SEM, TEM and XPS confirmed the structure, morphology and composition of the GO/Ag{sub 2}SO{sub 3}/AgBr composite very well. The Ag{sub 2}SO{sub 3}/AgBr nanoparticles were found to be encapsulated by GO sheets. The photocatalytic activity of the composite was investigated by the degradation of methyl orange (MO), rhodamine B (RhB) and methylene blue (MB) in water under visible light. The incorporation of GO sheets not only significantly enhanced the photocatalytic activity but also improved the reusability of Ag{sub 2}SO{sub 3}/AgBr nanoparticles. The photocatalytic ability of GO/Ag{sub 2}SO{sub 3}/AgBr can be maintained at a high level for 4 times cycle experiments. The trapping experiments confirmed that holes and superoxide ion radicals were the main active species responsible for the degradation reaction. A plasmonic Z-scheme photocatalytic mechanism was proposed to illustrate the possible transferred and separated behavior of electron-hole pairs among Ag, Ag{sub 2}SO{sub 3}, AgBr and GO quaternary system under visible light irradiation.

  13. 75 FR 76624 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Models BR700-710A1-10; BR700-710A2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Models BR700-710A1-10; BR700-710A2-20; and BR700-710C4-11 Turbofan Engines AGENCY....13 by adding the following new AD: 2010-25-05 Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (formerly Rolls-Royce Deutschland GmbH, formerly BMW Rolls-Royce GmbH): Amendment 39- 16538. Docket No. FAA-2010-0614...

  14. BmBR-C Z4 is an upstream regulatory factor of BmPOUM2 controlling the pupal specific expression of BmWCP4 in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Huimin; Niu, Kangkang; Zhang, Jialing; Feng, Qili

    2015-11-01

    20-hydroxyecdysone (20E)-induced expression of the wing disc cuticle protein gene BmWCP4 was mediated by the transcription factor BmPOUM2, which binds to the cis-response elements (CREs) of BmWCP4 gene in Bombyx mori. In this study we report the regulation of BmPOUM2. RT-PCR analysis indicated that in response to 20E, BmPOUM2 was expressed at higher levels in the wing discs during the pre-pupal and mid-pupal stages than other stages and the expression pattern of BmBR-C Z1, BmBR-C Z2 and BmBR-C Z4 was in tandem with the expression of BmPOUM2. BmBR-C Z4 was induced by 20E in the wing discs, whereas BmBR-C Z1 and BmBR-C Z2 were not. Three potential BR-C Z4 cis-response elements (CREs) were identified in the promoter region of BmPOUM2. The expression of BmPOUM2 mRNA and protein was increased by the over-expression of BmBR-C Z4 in BmN cells, which acted at the promoter of BmPOUM2. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and the luciferase activity analysis under the control of wild-type and mutants of the BR-C Z4 CREs suggested that BmBR-C Z4 protein bound to the predicted BRC-Z4 CRE C (-684 ∼ -660). Taken together the data suggest that BmBR-C Z4 is a direct upstream regulator of BmPOUM2 and regulates the pupal-specific expression of BmWCP4 through BmPOUM2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanism for starch granule ghost formation deduced from structural and enzyme digestion properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Dhital, Sushil; Flanagan, Bernadine M; Gidley, Michael J

    2014-01-22

    After heating in excess water under little or no shear, starch granules do not dissolve completely but persist as highly swollen fragile forms, commonly termed granule "ghosts". The macromolecular architecture of these ghosts has not been defined, despite their importance in determining characteristic properties of starches. In this study, amylase digestion of isolated granule ghosts from maize and potato starches is used as a probe to study the mechanism of ghost formation, through microstructural, mesoscopic, and molecular scale analyses of structure before and after digestion. Digestion profiles showed that neither integral nor surface proteins/lipids were crucial for control of either ghost digestion or integrity. On the basis of the molecular composition and conformation of enzyme-resistant fractions, it was concluded that the condensed polymeric surface structure of ghost particles is mainly composed of nonordered but entangled amylopectin (and some amylose) molecules, with limited reinforcement through partially ordered enzyme-resistant structures based on amylose (for maize starch; V-type order) or amylopectin (for potato starch; B-type order). The high level of branching and large molecular size of amylopectin is proposed to be the origin for the unusual stability of a solid structure based primarily on temporary entanglements.

  16. Properties of post-shock solar wind deduced from geomagnetic indices responses after sudden impulses

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Interplanetary (IP) shock plays a key role in causing the global dynamic changes of the geospace environment. For the perspective of Solar-Terrestrial relationship, it will be of great importance to estimate the properties of post-shock solar wind simply and accurately. Motivated by this, we performed a statistical analysis of IP shocks during 1998-2008, focusing on the significantly different responses of two well-used geomagnetic indices (SYMH and AL) to the passive of two types of IP shocks. For the IP shocks with northward IMF (91 cases), the SYMH index keeps on the high level after the sudden impulses (SI) for a long time. Meanwhile, the change of AL index is relative small, with an mean value of only -29 nT. However, for the IP shocks with southward IMF (92 cases), the SYMH index suddenly decreases at a certain rate after SI, and the change of AL index is much significant, of -316 nT. Furthermore, the change rate of SYMH index after SI is found to be linearly correlated with the post-shock reconnection ...

  17. Structural and functional characterization of hBD-1(Ser35), a peptide deduced from a DEFB1 polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circo, Raffaella; Skerlavaj, Barbara; Gennaro, Renato; Amoroso, Antonio; Zanetti, Margherita

    2002-04-26

    beta-Defensins are mammalian antimicrobial peptides that share a unique disulfide-bonding motif of six conserved cysteines. An intragenic polymorphism of the DEFB1 gene that changes a highly conserved Cys to Ser in the peptide coding region has recently been described. The deduced peptide cannot form three disulfide bonds, as one of the cysteines is unpaired. We have determined the cysteine connectivities of a corresponding synthetic hBD-1(Ser35) peptide, investigated the structure by circular dichroism spectroscopy, and assayed the in vitro antimicrobial activity. Despite a different arrangement of the disulfides, hBD-1(Ser35) proved as active as hBD-1 against the microorganisms tested. This activity likely depends on the ability of hBD-1(Ser35) to adopt an amphipathic conformation in hydrophobic environment, similar to the wild type peptide, as suggested by CD spectroscopy.

  18. Long-term midlatitude mesopause region temperature trend deduced from quarter century (1990–2014 Na lidar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-Y. She

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The long-term midlatitude temperature trend between 85 and 105 km is deduced from 25 years (March 1990–December 2014 of Na Lidar observations. With a strong warming episode in the 1990s, the time series was least-square fitted to an 11-parameter nonlinear function. This yields a cooling trend starting from an insignificant value of 0.64 ± 0.99 K decade−1 at 85 km, increasing to a maximum of 2.8 ± 0.58 K decade−1 between 91 and 93 km, and then decreasing to a warming trend above 103 km. The geographic altitude dependence of the trend is in general agreement with model predictions. To shed light on the nature of the warming episode, we show that the recently reported prolonged global surface temperature cooling after the Mt Pinatubo eruption can also be very well represented by the same response function.

  19. Solution conformation and dynamics of a tetrasaccharide related to the Lewis{sup X} antigen deduced by NMR relaxation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poveda, Ana [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigacion (Spain); Asensio, Juan Luis; Martin-Pastor, Manuel; Jimenez-Barbero, Jesus [Instituto de Quimica Organica, CSIC, Grupo de Carbohidratos (Spain)

    1997-07-15

    {sup 1}H-NMR cross-relaxation rates and nonselective longitudinal relaxation times have been obtained at two magnetic fields (7.0 and 11.8 T) and at a variety of temperatures for the branched tetrasaccharide methyl 3-O-{alpha}-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl-{beta}-galactopyranosyl-(1{sup {yields}}4)[3-O-{alpha}-fucosyl] -glucopyranoside (1), an inhibitor of astrocyte growth. In addition, {sup 13}C-NMR relaxation data have also been recorded at both fields. The {sup 1}H-NMR relaxation data have been interpreted using different motional models to obtain proton-proton correlation times. The results indicate that the GalNAc and Fuc rings display more extensive local motion than the two inner Glc and Gal moieties, since those present significantly shorter local correlation times. The{sup 13}C-NMR relaxation parameters have been interpreted in terms of the Lipari-Szabo model-free approach. Thus, order parameters and internal motion correlation times have been deduced. As obtained for the{sup 1}H-NMR relaxation data, the two outer residues possess smaller order parameters than the two inner rings. Internal correlation times are in the order of 100 ps. The hydroxymethyl groups have also different behaviour,with the exocyclic carbon on the glucopyranoside unit showing the highestS{sup 2}. Molecular dynamics simulations using a solvated system have also been performed and internal motion correlation functions have been deduced from these calculations. Order parameters and interproton distances have been compared to those inferred from the NMR measurements. The obtained results are in fair agreement with the experimental data.

  20. Deducing the distribution of terminal electron-accepting processes in hydrologically diverse groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Francis H.; McMahon, Peter B.; Dubrovsky, Neil M.; Fujii, Roger F.; Oaksford, Edward T.; Vroblesky, Don A.

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of microbially mediated terminal electron-accepting processes (TEAPs( was investigated in four hydrologically diverse groundwater systems by considering patterns of electron acceptor (nitrate, sulfate) consumption, intermediate product (hydrogen (H2)) concentrations, and final product (ferrous iron, sulfide, and methane) production. In each hydrologic system a determination of predominant TEAPs could be arrived at, but the level of confidence appropriate for each determination differed. In a portion of the lacustrine aquifer of the San Joaquin Valley, for example, all three indicators (sulfate concentrations decreasing, H2concentrations in the 1–2 nmol range, and sulfide concentrations increasing along flow paths identified sulfate reduction as the predominant TEAP, leading to a high degree of confidence in the determination. In portions of the Floridan aquifer and a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer, sulfate reduction and methanogenesis are indicated by production of sulfide and methane, and hydrogen oncentrations in the 1–4 nmol and 5–14 nmol range, respectively. However, because electron acceptor consumption could not be documented in these systems, less confidence is warranted in the TEAP determination. In the Black Creek aquifer, no pattern of sulfate consumption and sulfide production were observed, but H2 concentrations indicated sulfate reduction as the predominant TEAP. In this case, where just a single line of evidence is available, the least confidence in the TEAP diagnosis is justified. Because this methodology is based on measurable water chemistry parameters and upon the physiology of microbial electron transfer processes, it provides a better description of predominant redox processes in groundwater systems than more traditional Eh-based methods.

  1. Improved Growth Methods for LaBr3 Scintillation Radiation Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, Douglas S

    2011-05-01

    The objective is to develop advanced materials for deployment as high-resolution gamma ray detectors. Both LaBr3 and CeBr3 are advanced scintillation materials, and will be studied in this research. Prototype devices, in collaboration Sandia National Laboratories, will be demonstrated along with recommendations for mass production and deployment. It is anticipated that improved methods of crystal growth will yield larger single crystals of LaBr3 for deployable room-temperature operated gamma radiation spectrometers. The growth methods will be characterized. The LaBr3 and CeBr3 scintillation crystals will be characterized for light yield, spectral resolution, and for hardness.

  2. Unge kontanthjælpsmodtagere i Brøndby

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkelsen, Caroline; Buus, Anniqa Kristine; Larsen, Jonas; Larsen, Andreas Peter

    2013-01-01

    Welfare recipients in Brøndby are categorized into groups based on social- psychologically factors and their ability to work. This project will examine why youths are placed in group 2 and 3. In doing so, the project look at the different groups and analyze them in relation to the municipality’s policies on welfare. In its analysis, the project focuses on the social and economic dimensions but this is interplayed with the politics of the municipality. The project is orientated by its case stu...

  3. High-speed CuBr brightness amplifier beam profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evtushenko, G. S.; Torgaev, S. N.; Trigub, M. V.; Shiyanov, D. V.; Evtushenko, T. G.; Kulagin, A. E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the experimental study of the beam profile of the CuBr brightness amplifier operating at a wide range of pulse repetition frequencies. The use of a medium-size gas discharge tube (2 cm) ensures the operation of the brightness amplifier both at typical PRFs (520 kHz) and at higher PRFs (up to 100 kHz), either with or without HBr additive. The effect of the active additive on the beam profile is demonstrated. The testing results on kinetic modeling of radial processes in the laser (brightness amplifier) plasma are also discussed.

  4. Brüssel enne Moskvat / Markus Meckel, Matthias Wissmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meckel, Markus

    2005-01-01

    Saksa liiduparlamendi sotsiaaldemokraatide fraktsiooni liikme Markus Meckeli ja Saksa liiduparlamendi Euroopa komisjoni esimehe Matthias Wissmanni avaldus, milles nad kutsuvad tunnistama Balti riikide ajalugu ja korraldama päev enne Moskvas toimuvat Teise maailmasõja lõppu tähistavat üritust Brüsselis sõja lõpu 60. aastapäeva mälestusürituse. Artikkel ilmus samaaegselt ajalehtedes International Herald Tribune, Die Welt, Die Presse, Le Figaro, Gazeta Wyborcza, Lietuvas rytas, Diena

  5. Brújula electrónica basada en magnetoimpedancia

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Aguilar, Héctor

    2013-01-01

    Se desarrollara un prototipo funcional de brújula electronica utilizando un sensor de campo magnético de alta sensibilidad basado en el fenómeno de Magneto-Impedancia Gigante (GMI). El trabajo es eminentemente práctico y el alumno utilizará equipamiento científico disponible en los grupos de investigación del Departamento. Tiene componentes relacionadas con los materiales magnéticos, el diseño de circuitos electromagnéticos y la instrumentación y control.

  6. Adidas Suomi Oy: Brändikuvan rakentaminen markkinoinnin keinoin

    OpenAIRE

    Leinonen, Miira

    2015-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö tehtiin toimeksiantona Adidas Suomi Oy:lle syksyllä 2014. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää muotialan mielipidevaikuttajien mielikuvat Adidaksesta ja sen merkittävimmistä kilpailijoista. Vertailtaviksi brändeiksi valittiin kuusi tärkeintä kilpailijaa, jotka ovat Converse, Karhu, New Balance, Nike, Puma ja Reebok. Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantaja Adidas Suomi Oy on osa kansainvälistä Adidas Group konsernia. Yritys on yksi maailman tunnetuimmista urheilumerkeistä ja toim...

  7. Taxonomic revision of Asian genus Glyptopetalum Thwaites (Celastraceae R. Br.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan A. Savinov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic survey of Asian genus Glyptopetalum Thwaites (Celastraceae R. Br. is presented. Thirty five species taxa of Glyptopetalum are accepted, including one new species, G.  vidalii I. Savinov (Laos, Thailand, a new record for China, G. tonkinense Pitard (SE Yunnan and a new record for Cambodia,               G. quadrangulare Prain ex King, a new record for Indonesia – G. euonymoides Merr. and a new record for Philippines, Mindanao island – G. loheri Merr. 

  8. New Eudesmane Sesquiterpenoids from Salvia plebeia R. Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lie-Feng; Wang, Peng-Fei; Wang, Ji-Dong; Tong, Xiang-Min; Shan, Wei-Guang; Zhang, Hui; Zhan, Zha-Jun

    2017-08-01

    Three new sesquiterpenoids, salplebeones A - C (1 - 3), were isolated from the ethanol-soluble extract of the aerial part of Salvia plebeia R. Br. Their structures were established by detailed analysis of NMR and MS spectra. Salplebeone A was an eudesmane lactone, while salplebeones B and C were rare eudesmane sesquiterpenoids, containing 12,8-lactam groups. Antiproliferative activities of salplebeones A - C to myeloid leukemia cell lines were evaluated. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  9. Deoxyribonucleic Acid-Ribonucleic Acid Hybridization Studies on the l-Arabinose Operon of Escherichia coli B/r

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Gary; Singer, Judith; Heffernan, Laurel

    1971-01-01

    An increase in the rate of synthesis of ara-specific messenger ribonucleic acid as measured by deoxyribonucleic acid-ribonucleic acid hybridization has been detected in the induced wild-type (ara+) strain of Escherichia coli B/r as compared with the uninduced control, thus providing evidence that regulation of the positively controlled l-arabinose operon is at the level of transcription. PMID:4941555

  10. Deoxyribonucleic acid-ribonucleic acid hybridization studies on the L-Arabinose operon of Escherichia coli B-r.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, G; Singer, J; Heffernan, L

    1971-10-01

    An increase in the rate of synthesis of ara-specific messenger ribonucleic acid as measured by deoxyribonucleic acid-ribonucleic acid hybridization has been detected in the induced wild-type (ara(+)) strain of Escherichia coli B/r as compared with the uninduced control, thus providing evidence that regulation of the positively controlled l-arabinose operon is at the level of transcription.

  11. Natural Organobromine in Marine Sediments: New Evidence of Biogeochemical Br Cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A Leri; J Hakala; M Marcus; A Lanzirotti; C Reddy; S Myneni

    2011-12-31

    Organobromine (Br{sub org}) compounds, commonly recognized as persistent, toxic anthropogenic pollutants, are also produced naturally in terrestrial and marine systems. Several enzymatic and abiotic bromination mechanisms have been identified, as well as an array of natural Br{sub org} molecules associated with various marine organisms. The fate of the carbon-bromine functionality in the marine environment, however, remains largely unexplored. Oceanographic studies have noted an association between bromine (Br) and organic carbon (C{sub org}) in marine sediments. Even so, there has been no direct chemical evidence that Br in the sediments exists in a stable form apart from inorganic bromide (Br{sub inorg}), which is widely presumed conservative in marine systems. To investigate the scope of natural Br{sub org} production and its fate in the environment, we probed Br distribution and speciation in estuarine and marine sediments using in situ X-ray spectroscopy and spectromicroscopy. We show that Br{sub org} is ubiquitous throughout diverse sedimentary environments, occurring in correlation with C{sub org} and metals such as Fe, Ca, and Zn. Analysis of sinking particulate carbon from the seawater column links the Br{sub org} observed in sediments to biologically produced Br{sub org} compounds that persist through humification of natural organic matter (NOM). Br speciation varies with sediment depth, revealing biogeochemical cycling of Br between organic and inorganic forms as part of the burial and degradation of NOM. These findings illuminate the chemistry behind the association of Br with Corg in marine sediments and cast doubt on the paradigmatic classification of Br as a conservative element in seawater systems.

  12. Magnetopause boundary structure deduced from the high-time resolution particle experiment on the Equator-S spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Parks

    Full Text Available An electrostatic analyser (ESA onboard the Equator-S spacecraft operating in coordination with a potential control device (PCD has obtained the first accurate electron energy spectrum with energies ≈7 eV–100 eV in the vicinity of the magnetopause. On 8 January, 1998, a solar wind pressure increase pushed the magnetopause inward, leaving the Equator-S spacecraft in the magnetosheath. On the return into the magnetosphere approximately 80 min later, the magnetopause was observed by the ESA and the solid state telescopes (the SSTs detected electrons and ions with energies ≈20–300 keV. The high time resolution (3 s data from ESA and SST show the boundary region contains of multiple plasma sources that appear to evolve in space and time. We show that electrons with energies ≈7 eV–100 eV permeate the outer regions of the magnetosphere, from the magnetopause to ≈6Re. Pitch-angle distributions of ≈20–300 keV electrons show the electrons travel in both directions along the magnetic field with a peak at 90° indicating a trapped configuration. The IMF during this interval was dominated by Bx and By components with a small Bz.<br>>Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause · cusp · and boundary layers; magnetospheric configuration and dynamics; solar wind · magnetosphere interactions

  13. Measurement of the ratio of branching fractions BR( B 0→K*γ BR( B s 0→ϕγ ${{BR({B^0} o K*gamma } over {BR(B_s^0 o phi gamma }}$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Savrina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The interest to the rare radiative decays of the B-mesons at LHCb is mostly aroused due to the measurement of the photon polarization in the Bs0 → ϕγ decay, which may provide a sensitive probe for the Standard Model. The LHCb experiment has started to take data at the energy of √s = 7 TeV in 2010 and the current paper presents the result of the studies of the two rare radiative decays B0 → K*γ and Bs0 → ϕγ with 340 pb−1 of data taken in the first half of 2011. With this data we have a preliminary measurement of BR(B0→K*γBR(Bs0→ϕγ ${{BRleft({{B^0} o K*gamma} ight} over {BRleft({B_s^0 o phi gamma} ight}}$ = 1.52±0.14(stat.±0.10(syst.±0.12(fs/fd and assuming the measured value of B $mathcal{B}$ (B0 → K*γ = (4.33 ± 0.15 × 10.5 we infer B $mathcal{B}$ (Bs0 → ϕγ = (2.8 ± 0.5 × 10−5 [1

  14. Water-resistant, monodispersed and stably luminescent CsPbBr3/CsPb2Br5 core-shell-like structure lead halide perovskite nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Bo; Song, Pengjie; Cao, Jingyue; Zhao, Suling; Shen, Zhaohui; Gao, Di; Liang, Zhiqin; Xu, Zheng; Song, Dandan; Xu, Xurong

    2017-11-01

    Lead halide perovskite materials are thriving in optoelectronic applications due to their excellent properties, while their instability due to the fact that they are easily hydrolyzed is still a bottleneck for their potential application. In this work, water-resistant, monodispersed and stably luminescent cesium lead bromine perovskite nanocrystals coated with CsPb2Br5 were obtained using a modified non-stoichiometric solution-phase method. CsPb2Br5 2D layers were coated on the surface of CsPbBr3 nanocrystals and formed a core-shell-like structure in the synthetic processes. The stability of the luminescence of the CsPbBr3 nanocrystals in water and ethanol atmosphere was greatly enhanced by the photoluminescence-inactive CsPb2Br5 coating with a wide bandgap. The water-stable enhanced nanocrystals are suitable for long-term stable optoelectronic applications in the atmosphere.

  15. Building information deduced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Myrup Jensen, Morten; Beetz, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Building Information Models have become commonplace in building profession. The extensive use and increasing experience with BIM models offers new perspectives and potentials for design and planning. A recent stakeholder study conducted by the authors of this paper show...... of a model, differences in separate models or models from different point of time. Current BIM tools support both modes only in a rudimentary form. This paper discusses current modes of information query within and across BIM models, shows beneficial scenarios for building and planning practice through...... that in practice models are no longer solely observed as culmination of knowledge in a 3d representation of future built structures, but as a source of information in itself. Experienced users of BIM want to Find Information within a model or across a set of these and Compare models in order to evaluate states...

  16. Precision measurement of the ratio BR(K→π+π-e+e-)/BR(K→π+π-πD0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    NA48/1 Collaboration; Batley, J. R.; Kalmus, G. E.; Lazzeroni, C.; Munday, D. J.; Patel, M.; Slater, M. W.; Wotton, S. A.; Arcidiacono, R.; Bocquet, G.; Ceccucci, A.; Cundy, D.; Doble, N.; Falaleev, V.; Gatignon, L.; Gonidec, A.; Grafström, P.; Kubischta, W.; Marchetto, F.; Mikulec, I.; Norton, A.; Panzer-Steindel, B.; Rubin, P.; Wahl, H.; Goudzovski, E.; Hristov, P.; Kekelidze, V.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Madigozhin, D.; Molokanova, N.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Stoynev, S.; Zinchenko, A.; Monnier, E.; Swallow, E. C.; Winston, R.; Sacco, R.; Walker, A.; Baldini, W.; Dalpiaz, P.; Frabetti, P. L.; Gianoli, A.; Martini, M.; Petrucci, F.; Savrié, M.; Scarpa, M.; Calvetti, M.; Collazuol, G.; Iacopini, E.; Ruggiero, G.; Bizzeti, A.; Lenti, M.; Veltri, M.; Behler, M.; Eppard, K.; Eppard, M.; Hirstius, A.; Kleinknecht, K.; Koch, U.; Marouelli, P.; Masetti, L.; Moosbrugger, U.; Morales Morales, C.; Peters, A.; Wanke, R.; Winhart, A.; Dabrowski, A.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Szleper, M.; Velasco, M.; Anzivino, G.; Imbergamo, E.; Lamanna, G.; Lubrano, P.; Michetti, A.; Nappi, A.; Piccini, M.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Cenci, P.; Pepe, M.; Petrucci, M. C.; Cerri, C.; Fantechi, R.; Mannelli, I.; Costantini, F.; Fiorini, L.; Giudici, S.; Pierazzini, G.; Sozzi, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Chèze, J. B.; de Beer, M.; Debu, P.; Gouge, G.; Marel, G.; Mazzucato, E.; Peyaud, B.; Vallage, B.; Holder, M.; Maier, A.; Ziolkowski, M.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Clemencic, M.; Lopez, S. Goy; Menichetti, E.; Pastrone, N.; Wislicki, W.; Dibon, H.; Jeitler, M.; Markytan, M.; Neuhofer, G.; Widhalm, L.

    2011-01-01

    The K→π+π-e+e- decay mode was investigated using the data collected in 2002 by the NA48/1 Collaboration. With about 23 k K→π+π-e+e- events and 59 k K→π+π-πD0 normalization decays, the K→π+π-e+e- branching ratio relative to the K→π+π-πD0 one was determined to be BR(K→π+π-e+e-)/BR(K→π+π-πD0)=(3.28±0.06±0.04)×10-2. This result was used to set the upper limit |g/g|<3.0 at 90% CL on the presence, in the decay amplitude, of an E1 direct emission (g) term relative to the dominant inner bremsstrahlung (g) term. The CP-violating asymmetry A in the sinϕcosϕ distribution of K→π+π-e+e- events, where ϕ is the angle between the π+π- and the e+e- decay planes in the kaon centre of mass, was found to be A=(-0.4±0.8)%, consistent with zero. These results are in good agreement with a description of the K→π+π-e+e- decay amplitude dominated by the CP-even inner bremsstrahlung process.

  17. Estimating Stratospheric and Tropospheric BrO columns using GEOSCCM and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Q.; Chance, K.; Suleiman, R. M.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric BrO is an important gas - despite its very low abundance of parts per trillion, and it plays an important chemical role in the destruction of ozone in the troposphere and the stratosphere. The current atmospheric BrO abundance estimates are highly uncertain due to significant uncertainties in the contribution of very-short-lived (VSL) bromocarbons, in contrast to the well-quantified contribution from the long-lived bromine-containing compounds, i.e. Halons and CH3Br. This is particularly true in the troposphere with various measurements suggesting the presence of a global background BrO from 0.5 ppt to 2 ppt, and, locally, BrO can be as high as 30 ppt in the Arctic and Antarctic marine boundary layer. We will run a 10-year model simulation between 2001-2010 using the NASA GEOS Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM) V2 which contains a detailed stratospheric chemistry coupled with an interactive VSL bromocarbon chemistry. BrO in the troposphere will be relaxed to monthly mean BrO fields previously archived during a GEOS-Chem full chemistry simulation. The simulated VSL bromocarbons and BrO from both models have been extensively evaluated and compare well with aircraft, balloon-borne and GOME-2 satellite observations. We will analyze the model simulated BrO together with satellite BrO measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to address the following three questions: 1) How much BrO is present in the stratosphere and the troposphere? 2) What is the relative contribution of the stratosphere and the troposphere to total atmospheric BrO column abundance? 3) What drives the seasonal and geographical variability of stratospheric and tropospheric BrO columns?

  18. Nutrition chez le brûlé

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perro, G.

    2016-01-01

    Summary La nutrition est un challenge chez le brûlé, paradigme de l’agressé. Les points importants sont les apports entéraux précoces par sonde gastrique voire post pyloriques, la position proclive > 30°, la surveillance du transit et sa régulation par gastro ou entéro-kinétiques, la surveillance du poids, la quantification des apports avec supplémentation parentérale en cas de retard protéino énergétique. Chez l’enfant, l’adhésion à l’alimentation est difficile, de même que chez le senior, où une évaluation nutritionnelle initiale dépiste souvent une dénutrition préexistante. Les compléments alimentaires seront largement prescrits chez les patients de gravité intermédiaire. Les obèses bénéficieront d’un régime hypocalorique et hyperprotidique. Chez l’insuffisant rénal non dialysé il convient de limiter les apports en potassium. En cas brûlure périnéale, on peut proposer soit une constipation de courte durée, soit la mise en place d’un entéro-collecteur, les indications de colostomie étant devenues rares. Les apports entéraux sont difficiles à gérer en cas de décubitus ventral pour SDRA. Chez le brûlé grave de réanimation, l’accent doit plus être mis sur la qualité des nutriments que sur leur quantité. Les anciennes formules d’estimation calorique conduisaient à une surnutrition difficile à administrer et en général mal tolérée; la quantification mesurée par calorimétrie indirecte ou estimée par la formule de Toronto est bien plus adaptée. Plus récemment, l’instauration d’une immunonutrition (supplémentation en vitamines et oligo-éléments, glutamine, arginine, acide Ω 3 et contrôle raisonné de la glycémie) a été proposée pour réduire le stress oxydatif et l’inflammation provoqués par l’accident. PMID:27857647

  19. Estimering af brændstofforbrug vha. GPS Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Lahrmann, Harry; Torp, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Det er simpelt og billigt at opsamle GPS målinger fra køretøjer. Når større mængder GPS data indsamles fra et passende antal køretøjer kan dataen bruges til at beregne f.eks. køretider. Det er ligeledes muligt ud fra GPS data at estimere miljøindikatorer så som, hvor aggressivt kører bilister og er...... der nogle vejstrækninger, der har en højere (negativ) miljø påvirkning end andre? I denne artikel præsenterer et forsøg, hvor GPS data anvendes til at estimere brændstofforbruget ved en enkelt tur og for vejnettet generelt. Dette gøres ved at opbygge en database med GPS data. Ud fra disse data gives...

  20. Bovins et humains au Brésil en 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Théry

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available On recherche 35 millions de bovins… Selon les données récemment publiées par l’IBGE (Censo Agropecuário 2006, Resultados preliminares le Brésil comptait en 2006 un peu moins de 170 millions de têtes de bétail, alors que selon la Pesquisa Pecuária Municipal, du même IBGE et à la même date, le pays en comptait alors près de 206 millions.Sans chercher pour le moment la cause de cette différence – de méthodologie, très probablement – et en se rappelant que l’IBGE avertit que ces données provisoi...

  1. Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone Supported Brønsted Acidic Catalyst for Esterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP supported Brønsted acidic catalyst ([PVPP-BS]HSO4 was prepared by coupling SO3H-functionalized polyvinylpolypyrrolidone with H2SO4 in this work. After the characterization through FT-IR, FESEM, TG, BET, and elemental analysis, it was found that 1,4-butane sultone (BS and sulfuric acid reacted with PVPP and were immobilized on PVPP surface. The prepared [PVPP-BS]HSO4 catalyst shows high catalytic activity for a series of esterification reactions and could be separated from the reacted mixture easily. Moreover, this catalyst could be recycled and reused for six times without significant loss of catalytic performance.

  2. (C5H12NCu2Br3: A Piperidinium Copper(I Bromide with [Cu2Br3]− Ladders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl W. Krämer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Piperidinium copper(I bromide, (C5H12NCu2Br3, was obtained from a solution of CuBr2, piperidine, and HBr in ethanol. At 60 °C ethanol slowly reduces copper(II to copper(I. Colorless plates of (C5H12NCu2Br3 crystallize in the triclinic space group P-1 with lattice parameters of a = 6.2948(10 Å, b = 8.2624(14 Å, c = 10.7612(17 Å, α = 75.964(19°, β = 89.232(19°, γ = 84.072(19°, and Z = 2 at 173 K. [CuBr4] tetrahedra share edges and form [Cu2Br3]− ladders parallel to the a-axis. (C5H12N+ ions adopt a chair conformation and connect the [Cu2Br3]− ladders via H-bonding. The (C5H12NCu2Br3 structure is related to the mineral rasvumite, KFe2S3, space group Cmcm, which is isostructural to several alkali copper(I halides.

  3. Longitudinal (UT effect in the onset of auroral disturbances over two solar cycles as deduced from the AE-index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Hajkowicz

    Full Text Available Statistical study on the universal time variations in the mean hourly auroral electrojet index (AE-index has been undertaken for a 21 y period over two solar cycles (1957–1968 and 1978–1986. The analysis, applied to isolated auroral substorm onsets (inferred from rapid variations in the AE-index and to the bulk of the AE data, indicates that the maximum in auroral activity is largely confined to 09–18 UT, with a distinct minimum at 03–06 UT. The diurnal effect was clearly present throughout all seasons in the first cycle but was mainly limited to northern winter in the second cycle. Severe storms (AE > 1000 nT tended to occur between 9–18 UT irrespective of the seasons whereas all larger magnetic disturbances (AE > 500 nT tended to occur in this time interval mostly in winter. On the whole the diurnal trend was strong in winter, intermediate at equinox and weak in summer. The implication of this study is that Eastern Siberia, Japan and Australia are mostly at night, during the period of maximum auroral activity whereas Europe and Eastern America are then mostly at daytime. The minimum of auroral activity coincides with near-midnight conditions in Eastern America. It appears that the diurnal UT distribution in the AE-index reflects a diurnal change between interplanetary magnetic field orientation and the Earth's magnetic dipole inclination.<br>>Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere · Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; storms and substorms.

  4. Cationic P-S-X cages (X=Br, I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsior, Marcin; Krossing, Ingo; Matern, Eberhard

    2006-02-08

    The first condensed-phase preparation of ternary P-Ch-X cations (Ch=O-Te, X=F-I) is reported: [P5S3X2]+, [P5S2X2]+, and [P4S4X]+ (X=Br, I). [P5S3X2]+ is formed from the reaction of the Ag+/PX3 reagent with P4S3. The [P5S3X2]+ ions have a structure that is related to P4S5 by replacing P=S by P+--X and S in the four-membered ring by P(X). We provide evidence that the active ingredient of the Ag+/PX3 reagent is the (H2CCl2)Ag-X-PX2+ cation. The latter likely reacts with the HOMO of P4S3 in a concerted HOMO-LUMO addition to give the P5S3X2+ ion as the first species visible in situ in the low-temperature 31P NMR spectrum. The [P5S3X2]+ ions are metastable at -78 degrees C and disproportionate at slightly higher temperatures to give [P5S2X2]+ and [P4S4X]+, probably with the extrusion of 1/n (PX)n (X=Br, I). All six new cage compounds have been characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and, in part, by IR or Raman spectroscopy. The [P5S2X2]+ salts have a nortricyclane skeleton and were also characterized by X-ray crystallography. The structure of the [P4S4X]+ ion is related to that of P4S5 in that the exo-cage P=S bond is replaced by an isoelectronic P+--X moiety.

  5. Pan-Balti bränding - müüt või tegelikkus? / Joel Volkov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Volkov, Joel, 1972-

    2006-01-01

    Brändil pole kodumaad, on keel ja päritolumaa. Lokaalsed brändid valivad suhtlemiseks kohalikega nende kodukeele, globaalsed brändid harilikult inglise keele. Üks suuremaid ja tugevamaid lokaalsest süsteemist kasvanud Pan-Balti brände on Hansapank. Lisa: Sulev Vedler. Hansast võib saada Swedbank

  6. Deducing receptor signaling parameters from in vivo analysis: LuxN/AI-1 quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swem, Lee R.; Swem, Danielle L.; Wingreen, Ned S.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Quorum sensing, a process of bacterial cell-cell communication, relies on production, detection, and response to autoinducer signaling molecules. Here we focus on LuxN, a nine transmembrane domain protein from Vibrio harveyi, and the founding example of membrane-bound receptors for acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) autoinducers. Previously, nothing was known about signal recognition by membrane-bound AHL receptors. We used mutagenesis and suppressor analyses to identify the AHL-binding domain of LuxN, and discovered LuxN mutants that confer decreased and increased AHL sensitivity. Our analysis of dose-response curves of multiple LuxN mutants pins these inverse phenotypes on quantifiable opposing shifts in the free-energy bias of LuxN for its kinase and phosphatase states. To extract signaling parameters, we exploited a strong LuxN antagonist, one of fifteen small-molecule antagonists we identified. We find that quorum-sensing-mediated communication can be manipulated positively and negatively to control bacterial behavior, and that signaling parameters can be deduced from in vivo data. PMID:18692469

  7. Geomechanical log deduced from porosity and mineralogical content; Diagraphie geomecanique deduite de la porosite et de la composition mineralogique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemer, E.; Vincke, O.; Longuemare, P. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2004-07-01

    The 'geomechanical log' research project aims at estimating rock mechanical properties from a set of models, whose input data can be deduced from drilling logs and measurements on core samples (if these are available). The key point is to focus on defining relatively general and easy to handle models. In this paper, we propose various analytical models allowing one to estimate poroelastic and failure properties of limestones and sandstones directly from their porosity and, in the specific case of sandstone poroelastic characteristics, their mineralogical content. The properties obtained are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. The second step of the project will be to actually infer the input data for the models (here porosity and mineral content) from drilling logs and to compare the results obtained to tests on core samples. A geomechanical log could then be automatically created from standard logs and help to optimize drilling. We also intend to test the same approaches on rock plastic properties and shale behavior. (authors)

  8. CsPb2Br5 Single Crystals: Synthesis and Characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Dursun, Ibrahim

    2017-08-02

    CsPb2Br5 is a ternary halogen-plumbate material with close characteristics to well-reported halide perovskites. Due to its unconventional two-dimensional structure, CsPb2Br5 is being looked at broadly for potential applications in optoelectronics. CsPb2Br5 investigations are currently limited to nanostructures and powder forms of the material, which present unclear and conflicting optical properties. In this study, we present the synthesis and characterization of CsPb2Br5 bulk single crystals, which enabled us to finally clarify the material\\'s optical features. Our CsPb2Br5 crystal has a two-dimensional structure with Pb2Br5- layers spaced by Cs+ cations, and exhibits a ~3.1 eV indirect bandgap with no emission in the visible spectrum.

  9. Inhibition of hydrogen oxidation by HBr and Br2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixon-Lewis, Graham; Marshall, Paul; Ruscic, Branko

    2012-01-01

    O. Ab initio calculations were used to obtain rate coefficients for selected reactions of HBr and HOBr, and the hydrogen/bromine/oxygen reaction mechanism was updated. The resulting model was validated against selected experimental data from the literature and used to analyze the effect of HBr and Br2......The high-temperature bromine chemistry was updated and the inhibition mechanisms involving HBr and Br2 were re-examined. The thermochemistry of the bromine species was obtained using the Active Thermochemical Tables (ATcT) approach, resulting in improved data for, among others, Br, HBr, HOBr and Br...... on laminar, premixed hydrogen flames. Our work shows that hydrogen bromide and molecular bromine act differently as inhibitors in flames. For HBr, the reaction HBr+H⇌H2+Br (R2) is rapidly equilibrated, depleting HBr in favor of atomic Br, which is the major bromine species throughout the reaction zone...

  10. The superacid HBr/AlBr(3) : protonation of benzene and ordered crystal structure of [C(6)H(7)](+)[Al(2)Br(7)](-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Franziska; Himmel, Daniel; Eisele, Lea; Unkrig, Wiebke; Krossing, Ingo

    2014-02-03

    Crystalline and properly ordered protonated benzene as the [C6 H7 ](+) [Al2 Br7 ](-) ⋅(C6 H6 ) salt 1 are obtained by the combination of solid AlBr3 , benzene, and HBr gas. Compound 1 was characterized and verified by NMR, Raman and X-Ray spectroscopy. This unexpected simple and straight forward access shows that HBr/AlBr3 is an underestimated superacid that should be used more frequently. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Critères de gravité des brûlures: à propos de 337 cas de brûlés au ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'objectif était d'étudier les critères de gravité des brûlures chez des patients brûlés hospitalisés à l'hôpital militaire d'instruction Mohamed V de Rabat. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective qui concernait 337 patients hospitalisés de 2004 à 2010. Les variables étudiés sont: l'âge, la surface corporelle brûlée, la profondeur, ...

  12. Solvent dependent branching between C-I and C-Br bond cleavage following 266 nm excitation of CH2BrI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christopher P.; Spears, Kenneth G.; Wilson, Kaitlynn R.; Sension, Roseanne J.

    2013-11-01

    It is well known that ultraviolet photoexcitation of halomethanes results in halogen-carbon bond cleavage. Each halogen-carbon bond has a dominant ultraviolet (UV) absorption that promotes an electron from a nonbonding halogen orbital (nX) to a carbon-halogen antibonding orbital (σ*C-X). UV absorption into specific transitions in the gas phase results primarily in selective cleavage of the corresponding carbon-halogen bond. In the present work, broadband ultrafast UV-visible transient absorption studies of CH2BrI reveal a more complex photochemistry in solution. Transient absorption spectra are reported spanning the range from 275 nm to 750 nm and 300 fs to 3 ns following excitation of CH2BrI at 266 nm in acetonitrile, 2-butanol, and cyclohexane. Channels involving formation of CH2Br + I radical pairs, iso-CH2Br-I, and iso-CH2I-Br are identified. The solvent environment has a significant influence on the branching ratios, and on the formation and stability of iso-CH2Br-I. Both iso-CH2Br-I and iso-CH2I-Br are observed in cyclohexane with a ratio of ˜2.8:1. In acetonitrile this ratio is 7:1 or larger. The observation of formation of iso-CH2I-Br photoproduct as well as iso-CH2Br-I following 266 nm excitation is a novel result that suggests complexity in the dissociation mechanism. We also report a solvent and concentration dependent lifetime of iso-CH2Br-I. At low concentrations the lifetime is >4 ns in acetonitrile, 1.9 ns in 2-butanol and ˜1.4 ns in cyclohexane. These lifetimes decrease with higher initial concentrations of CH2BrI. The concentration dependence highlights the role that intermolecular interactions can play in the quenching of unstable isomers of dihalomethanes.

  13. Effect of phytohormones on the growth of Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp. Bréh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Tatkowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were made an the effect of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, gibberellic acid (GA, kinetin (Kin, and various combinations of these substances upon dry matter increments, soluble protein content, and chlorophyll levels in the cultures of Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp. Bréb. It was found that all these phytohormones, added separately to the medium, stimulated dry matter increment and protein content, although their effect depended on the concentration and the duration of culture. Addition of various combinations of the substances under study into the medium resulted in a less pronounced increment of dry matter, whereas the content of soluble protein significantly increased. The results reflect positive reaction of Scenedesmus quadricauda to the addition of phytohormones into the medium. They also suggest some differences in the action of particular hormones.

  14. On forge des partenariats au Brésil | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    9 mai 2011 ... La collaboration entre les différents établissements brésiliens reconnus dans leur champ d'expertise donne du poids aux arguments quand il s'agit de s'adresser aux décideurs, conclut Mme Padua. Instituto de Pesquisas Ecologicas, Brésil Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Brésil Faculté de médecine ...

  15. Photochromic conversions of the Br/sub 2//sup -/ radical ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plyusnin, V.F.

    The photolysis of frozen solutions of HBr, containing complexes of FeBr/sub 3/ or CuBr/sub 4//sup 2 -/, is discussed. The primary product of the photoreduction of complexes is the radical ion Br/sub 2//sup -/. Irradiation in the absorption band of this particle leads to its disappearance. However, it can be regulated by photolysis of the sample in a shorter-wave region of the spectrum. The processes leading to this photochrome conversion are discussed.

  16. Babcock and Wilcox BR-100 100-ton rail/barge spent fuel shipping cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-02-01

    This Preliminary Design Report (PDR) provides a detailed description of the design, analyses, and testing programs for the BR-100 cask. The BR-100 is a Type B(U) cask designed for transport by rail or barge. This report presents the preliminary analyses and tests which have been performed for the BR-100 and outlines the confirmatory analyses and tests which will be performed.

  17. Link between Enhanced Arctic tropospheric BrO observed by Aura OMI and meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S.; Joiner, J.; Theys, N.; Salawitch, R. J.; Wales, P.; Canty, T. P.; Chance, K.; Suleiman, R. M.; Palm, S. P.; Cullather, R. I.; Darmenov, A.; da Silva, A.; Kurosu, T. P.

    2015-12-01

    Bromine radicals (Br + BrO) are important species owing to the ability to destroy ozone catalytically. They may also impact oxidative pathways of many trace gases including dimethylsulfide (DMS) and mercury. Bromine monoxide (BrO) is the most commonly observed bromine radical species. Since it absorbs ultraviolet (UV) radiation, it can be observed using remote sensing technique including Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). Previous studies have reported rapid enhancements tropospheric BrO (so called "bromine explosion") connected to near-surface ozone depletion events during springtime in the Arctic. Space-based observation of BrO through Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is an excellent tool for studying bromine chemistry particularly for the Arctic due to its frequent observations at high latitudes. We derive tropospheric columns BrO by subtracting estimates of stratospheric column BrO from OMI total column BrO and air mass factor (AMF) correction, and analyze the tropospheric columns BrO in conjunction with Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Application (MERRA) meteorological fields provided by NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) in order to investigate a link between bromine explosion and near-surface meteorological factors.

  18. [Oxidation of mercury by CuBr2 decomposition under controlled-release membrane catalysis condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lin-Gang; Qu, Zan; Yan, Nai-Qiang; Guo, Yong-Fu; Xie, Jiang-Kun; Jia, Jin-Ping

    2014-02-01

    CuBr2 in the multi-porous ceramic membrane can release Br2 at high temperature, which was employed as the oxidant for Hg0 oxidation. Hg0 oxidation efficiency was studied by a membrane catalysis device. Meanwhile, a reaction and in situ monitoring device was designed to avoid the impact of Br2 on the downstream pipe. The result showed that the MnO(x)/alpha-Al2O3 catalysis membrane had a considerable "controlled-release" effect on Br2 produced by CuBr2 decomposition. The adsorption and reaction of Hg0 and Br2 on the surface of catalysis membrane obeyed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. The removal efficiency of Hg0 increased with the rising of Br2 concentration. However, when Br2 reached a certain concentration, the removal efficiency was limited by adsorption rate and reaction rate of Hg0 and Br2 on the catalysis membrane. From 473 K to 573 K, the variation of Hg0 oxidation efficiency was relatively stable. SO2 in flue gas inhibited the oxidation of Hg0 while NO displayed no obvious effect.

  19. The nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequence of the cytochrome cL gene of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1, a novel class of c-type cytochrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Nunn, D N; Anthony, C

    1988-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequence of the cytochrome cL of Methylobacterium extorquens (Pseudomonas AM1; Methylobacterium AM1) shows that this cytochrome c is completely different, except for its haem-binding site, from all other cytochromes.

  20. Staining of fluid-catalytic-cracking catalysts: localising Brønsted acidity within a single catalyst particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buurmans, Inge L C; Ruiz-Martínez, Javier; van Leeuwen, Sanne L; van der Beek, David; Bergwerff, Jaap A; Knowles, William V; Vogt, Eelco T C; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2012-01-23

    A time-resolved in situ micro-spectroscopic approach has been used to investigate the Brønsted acidic properties of fluid-catalytic-cracking (FCC) catalysts at the single particle level by applying the acid-catalysed styrene oligomerisation probe reaction. The reactivity of individual FCC components (zeolite, clay, alumina and silica) was monitored by UV/Vis micro-spectroscopy and showed that only clay and zeolites (Y and ZSM-5) contain Brønsted acid sites that are strong enough to catalyse the conversion of 4-fluorostyrene into carbocationic species. By applying the same approach to complete FCC catalyst particles, it has been found that the fingerprint of the zeolitic UV/Vis spectra is clearly recognisable. This almost exclusive zeolitic activity is confirmed by the fact that hardly any reactivity is observed for FCC particles that contain no zeolite. Confocal fluorescence microscopy images of FCC catalyst particles reveal inhomogeneously distributed micron-sized zeolite domains with a highly fluorescent signal upon reaction. By examining laboratory deactivated FCC catalyst particles in a statistical approach, a clear trend of decreasing fluorescence intensity, and thus Brønsted acidity, of the zeolite domains is observed with increasing severity of the deactivation method. By comparing the average fluorescence intensities obtained with two styrenes that differ in reactivity, it has been found that the Brønsted acid site strength within FCC catalyst particles containing ZSM-5 is more uniform than within those containing zeolite Y, as confirmed with temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Nqrs Data for Al2BrH6LiO6 [Al2LiBr(OH)6] (Subst. No. 0056)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for Al2BrH6LiO6 [Al2LiBr(OH)6] (Subst. No. 0056)

  2. NY-BR-1 Antigen Expression and anti-NY-BR-1 IgG in Egyptian Breast Cancer Patients: Clinicopathological and Prognostic Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Nazar, Salma Y; Ghazy, Amany A; Ghoneim, Hossam E; Zoheir, Malak; Ahmed, Ahmed S; Sorour, Sally S; Abouelella, Amira M

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common gynecological malignancy in the world. In Egypt, it ranks the first among female malignancies with incidence of 37.7%. Over the last decades, the integration of prognostic and predictive markers in treatment decisions has led to more individualized and optimized therapy. NY-BR-1 antigen has been shown to be frequently expressed in breast cancers. The study aimed to assess the tissue expression of NY-BR-1 antigen and serum IgG antibody to this antigen in Egyptian breast cancer females. The study was conducted on 60 females (10 healthy, 10 having benign breast lesions, 40 with malignant breast cancer). NY-BR-1 Ag expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and anti-NY-BR-1 IgG was assessed by ELISA. Results revealed a significant difference in NY-BR-1 Ag expression between benign and malignant breast cancer patients. There was a significant correlation between NY-BR-1 antigen expression and estrogen receptor's status (P = 0.019), stage of the disease (P = 0.008), menopausal status (P = 0.008), lymph node involvement (P = 0.022) and anti-NY-BR-1 IgG (P = 0.032) among the studied individuals. In addition, there was a statistically significant increase in anti-NY-BR-1 IgG O.D. results among malignant breast cancer group. It is correlated with tumor type (P 1) and progesterone receptor status (P = 0.038). In conclusion, our work may represent a step towards identification of a new prognostic marker specific for breast cancer.

  3. Field-aligned currents and ionospheric parameters deduced from EISCAT radar measurements in the post-midnight sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sugino

    above 110 km. Using auroral images, this region was identified as a dark spot with a spatial scale of over 150 × 150 km. The dark spot and the electron depletion were likely in existence for a limited time of a few minutes.<br>>Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; electric fields and currents; particle precipitation

  4. MLS/Aura Level 2 Bromine Monoxide (BrO) Mixing Ratio V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2BRO is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) standard product for bromine monoxide derived from radiances measured by the 640 GHz radiometer. The current...

  5. Seasonal variability of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) in a temperate lake system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Shannon E.; Russell, James M.; Heureux, Ana M.; D'Andrea, William J.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2014-11-01

    Quantitative climate reconstructions are crucial for understanding the magnitude of and mechanisms behind natural and anthropogenic climate change, yet there are few proxies that can reliably reconstruct terrestrial temperature. Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are bacterial membrane lipids that are increasingly used to reconstruct paleotemperature from lake sediments, but despite their potential, we have a poor understanding of (1) autochthonous vs. allochthonous sources of brGDGTs in lakes and (2) the seasonality of and environmental controls on brGDGT production within lakes. To investigate these factors, we examined water column suspended particulate matter (SPM) and settling particles from a sediment trap collected on a biweekly to monthly basis over a period of three years at Lower King Pond, a small kettle lake in northern Vermont, USA. We also compared the concentration and fractional abundances of brGDGTs in SPM and settling particles with those of catchment soils, river sediments, and lake surface sediments to constrain the relative importance of brGDGTs derived from the landscape versus brGDGTs produced within the lake itself. We find significant differences in concentrations and fractional abundances of brGDGTs between soil and river sediment samples from the catchment and lake sediments, indicating a mostly autochthonous source for lacustrine brGDGTs. BrGDGT concentrations, fluxes, and fractional abundances in SPM vary over the annual cycle, indicating that brGDGTs are produced throughout the year and respond to changes within the water column. The total annual flux of brGDGTs settling through the water column is comparable to the brGDGT accumulation rates in surface sediments, indicating that in this lake brGDGTs are mostly produced within the water column, not in the sediment itself. While brGDGTs are produced in all seasons within the water column, the flux to the sediments is highest during periods of spring and fall

  6. New cross section measurements for production of the positron emitters {sup 75}Br and {sup 76}Br via intermediate energy proton induced reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spahn, I.; Coenen, H.H.; Qaim, S.M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich (DE). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Biophysik - Nuklearchemie (INB 4); Steyn, G.F.; Vermeulen, C. [Radionuclide Production Group, iThemba LABS, Somerset West (South Africa); Kovacs, Z.; Szelecsenyi, F. [Cyclotron Dept., Inst. of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary)

    2009-07-01

    The radionuclides {sup 75}Br and {sup 76}Br are of considerable interest for application in Position Emission Tomography (PET). For their production so far mostly low-energy or low-yield production processes have been employed. In this work the production of both isotopes was investigated using intermediate energy proton induced reactions and enriched target materials. Cross section data of the {sup 77,78,80}Se(p, xn){sup 75}Br processes were measured up to 66 MeV and those of the {sup 77,78,80}Se(p, xn){sup 76}Br processes up to 85 MeV. The measured excitation functions were compared with calculated results of the nuclear model code ALICE-IPPE. From the experimental excitation curves, thick target yields were calculated. They are fairly high over the investigated intermediate energy ranges. The production possibilities of {sup 75}Br and {sup 76}Br via various routes and the radionuclidic impurities associated with them are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Numerical modeling of incline plate LiBr absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Shahram; Farhanieh, Bijan

    2011-03-01

    Among major components of LiBr-H2O absorption chillers is the absorber, which has a direct effect on the chillier size and whose characteristics have significant effects on the overall efficiency of absorption machines. In this article, heat and mass transfer process in absorption of refrigerant vapor into a lithium bromide solution of water-cooled incline plate absorber in the Reynolds number range of 5 lithium bromide aqueous properties to the temperature and concentration is employed as well as dependence of film thickness to vapor absorption. An analysis for linear distribution of wall temperature condition carries out to investigate the reliability of the present numerical method through comparing with previous investigation. The effect of plate angle on heat and mass transfer parameters is investigated and the results show that absorption mass flux and heat and mass transfer coefficient increase as the angle of the plate increase. The main parameters of absorber design, namely Nusselt and Sherwood numbers, are correlated as a function of Reynolds Number and the plate angle.

  8. Systematic hardness measurements on CsClxBr(1–x) and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Vickers hardness measurements have been made on polycrystalline blanks of CsClxBr(1–x) and single crystals of NH4ClxBr(1–x). The composition dependence of hardness is highly nonlinear in both systems and follows an empirical model that includes a lattice contribution and a disorder contribution.

  9. Diagnostics of low-pressure discharges containing InBr studied for lighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefi, S.; Fantz, U.

    2013-10-01

    The utilization of InBr in low-pressure rare-gas plasmas for lighting applications may serve as an efficient alternative to hazardous mercury, which is used in common fluorescent lamps as a radiator. In order to perform systematic investigations of these discharges, diagnostic methods are required to gain insight into the relevant plasma parameters. This goal can be achieved by using white light absorption and optical emission spectroscopy supported by an extended corona model of the indium atom and a simulation of the relative intensity of the InBr emission. The set of diagnostic methods is exemplarily applied to measurements on an inductively coupled argon discharge at 100 W power with varying InBr content. The plasma parameters are derived and the processes determining their changes with varying InBr density are identified. Increasing the InBr density results in a decrease in Te but an increase in ne, which can be explained by considering the ionization and power balance. The relevant population processes for the rovibrational states of InBr are inelastic collisions with heavy particles with an increasing importance of electron impact excitation at a higher InBr density. The radiated power is maximal at a cold spot temperature between 210 and 220 °C as reabsorption occurs at a high InBr density.

  10. LaBr3 gamma?ray spectrometers for space applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quarati, F.G.A.

    2013-01-01

    LaBr3 has been developed into large volume scintillator detectors within an ESA and TU Delft programme during this thesis work. The programme, which aimed at the space applications of LaBr3, also led to extensive experiments within a collaborative framework which included representatives for all the

  11. X-ray imaging plate using CsBr:Eu phosphors for computed radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanto, H.; Nishimura, A.; Kuroda, M.; Takei, Y.; Nakano, Y.; Shoji, T.; Yanagita, T.; Kasai, S.

    2007-09-01

    It is shown that X-ray-irradiated Eu-doped CsBr (CsBr:Eu) exhibits intense photostimulated luminescence (PSL). The peak wavelengths of PSL emission and stimulation spectra of CsBr:Eu phosphor ceramic samples are 450 and 690 nm, respectively. The dependence of PSL properties on preparing conditions of phosphor ceramic samples, such as Eu concentration, sintering temperature and sintering time, is studied. It is found that the PSL intensity of CsBr:Eu phosphor ceramics fabricated under optimum preparation condition is higher than that of commercially available imaging plates (IP) using BaFBr:Eu and BaFI:Eu. The image quality of the IP using CsBr:Eu phosphor film is better than that of commercially available IP.

  12. The carcinogenicity of 1-methyl-3(p-bromophenyl)-1-nitrosourea (Br-MPNU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzok, R; Martin, J; Mendel, J; Thust, R; Schwarz, H

    1983-01-01

    In long-term experiments with Hooded rats the carcinogenic potential of 1-methyl-3(p-bromophenyl)-1-nitrosourea (Br-MPNU) could be demonstrated for the first time. Br-MPNU is formed also endogenously after combined administration of 1-methyl-3(p-bromophenyl)-urea (Br-MPU) and sodium nitrite. After repeated intragastric administration of 0.33 mmol Br-MPU and 0.73 mmol NaNO2 per kg b.w. papillomas and carcinomas of the forestomach developed in 83%. After repeated administration of 0.28 mmol Br-MPNU per kg b.w. these neoplasms were observed in 88%. The comparison of results obtained in similar experiments with 1-methyl-3-phenyl-1-nitrosourea shows that bromine substitution led to a reduction of the carcinogenic activity. The present paper is part of a complex program studying the interrelationships between structure, physico-chemical properties, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of nitrosoureas.

  13. Rupture planes of the Gazli earthquakes deduced from local stress tensor calculation and geodetic data inversion: Geotectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    AmorèSe, D.; Grasso, J.-R.

    1996-05-01

    -ESE strike of σ1 and the NNE-SSW strike of σ2 deduced from this study for the Kyzylkum Desert can be explained at once by the interaction of the regional plate boundary motions.

  14. Localisation of gamma-ray interaction points in thick monolithic CeBr3 and LaBr3:Ce scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyanov, Alexei; Morris, Oran; Roberts, Oliver J.; Tobin, Isaac; Hanlon, Lorraine; McBreen, Sheila; Murphy, David; Nelms, Nick; Shortt, Brian

    2017-02-01

    Localisation of gamma-ray interaction points in monolithic scintillator crystals can simplify the design and improve the performance of a future Compton telescope for gamma-ray astronomy. In this paper we compare the position resolution of three monolithic scintillators: a 28×28×20 mm3 (length×breadth × thickness) LaBr3:Ce crystal, a 25×25×20 mm3 CeBr3 crystal and a 25×25×10 mm3 CeBr3 crystal. Each crystal was encapsulated and coupled to an array of 4×4 silicon photomultipliers through an optical window. The measurements were conducted using 81 keV and 356 keV gamma-rays from a collimated 133Ba source. The 3D position reconstruction of interaction points was performed using artificial neural networks trained with experimental data. Although the position resolution was significantly better for the thinner crystal, the 20 mm thick CeBr3 crystal showed an acceptable resolution of about 5.4 mm FWHM for the x and y coordinates, and 7.8 mm FWHM for the z-coordinate (crystal depth) at 356 keV. These values were obtained from the full position scans of the crystal sides. The position resolution of the LaBr3:Ce crystal was found to be considerably worse, presumably due to the highly diffusive optical interface between the crystal and the optical window of the enclosure. The energy resolution (FWHM) measured for 662 keV gamma-rays was 4.0% for LaBr3:Ce and 5.5% for CeBr3. The same crystals equipped with a PMT (Hamamatsu R6322-100) gave an energy resolution of 3.0% and 4.7%, respectively.

  15. Alkaline hydrothermal treatment of brominated high impact polystyrene (HIPS-Br) for bromine and bromine-free plastic recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Brebu, Mihai; Bhaskar, Thallada; Muto, Akinori; Sakata, Yusaku

    2006-01-01

    A method to recover both Br and Br-free plastic from brominated flame retardant high impact polystyrene (HIPS-Br) was proposed. HIPS-Br containing 15% Br was treated in autoclave at 280℃ using water or KOH solution of various amounts and concentrations. Hydrothermal treatment (30 ml water) leads to 90% debromination of 1 g HIPS-Br but plastic is strongly degraded and could not be recovered. previous termAlkalinenext term hydrothermal treatment (45 ml or 60 ml KOH 1 M) showed similar debromina...

  16. Embrittlement and annealing of reactor pressure vessel steels: comparison of BR3 surveillance and vessel plates to the surrogate plates representative of the Yankee Rowe vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabry, A.; Chaouadi, T.; Puzzolante, J.L.; Van de Velde, J. [Centre de l``Etude de l``Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium); Biemiller, E.C. [Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Bolton (United States); Rossinski, S.T.; Carter, R.G. [Electric Power Research Institute, Charlotte (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The sister pressure vessels at the BR3 and Rowe Yankee PWR plants were operated at a lower-than-usual temperature (260 degrees Celsius) and their plates were austenitized at higher-than-usual temperature (970 degrees Celsius). A heat tratemement leading to a coarser microstructure than typical for the fine grain plates that are considered in development of USNRC Regulatory guide 1.99. This material displayed outlier behaviour charackterized by a 41J CVN-shift significantly larger than predicted by Regulatory Guide 1.99. Because lower radiation temperature and nickell alloying are generally considered detrimental to irradiation sensitivity, there was a major concern that the nickel-modified lower Rowe plate and the nickel-modified BR3 plate may become too embrittled to satisfy the toughness requirements enbodied in the PTS screening criterion. This paper compares three complementary studies undertaken to clarify these uncertainties: 1) the accelerated irradiation and test program launched in 1990 by Yankee Atomic Electric Company using typical vessel plate materials containing 0.24% copper at two nickel levels: YA1, 0.63% (A533-B) and YA9, 0.19% (A302-B). These were heat-treated to produce the coarse and fine grain microstructures representative of the Yankee/BR3 and the Regulatory Guide plates, respectively, 2) the BR3 surveillance and vessel testing program: this vessel was wet-annealed in 1984, relicensed for operation till the plant shutdown in 1987, ANCL was trepanned in early 1995, 3) the accelerated irradiations in the Belgian BR2 test reactor of the Yankee coarse grain plates YA1 and YA9 together with BR3 vessel specimens extracted at nozzle elevation, a location with negligible radiation exposure. It is shown that the PTS screening criterion was never attained by the BR3 and Rowe plates, and that the BR3 vessel anneal was neither necessary nor sufficient. Finally, the sensitivity of embrittlement, annealing and post-annealing reembrittlement to irradiation

  17. Vertebrados silvestres atropelados na BR 158, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela da Silva Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n4p229   Entre os problemas que ameaçam a fauna silvestre, o atropelamento de animais é uma importante causa de mortalidade para várias espécies. O presente estudo visou identificar as espécies vitimadas por atropelamento em 98km da rodovia BR 158, entre o município de Cruz Alta e o distrito de Val de Serra, município de Júlio de Castilhos, RS e analisar as variações mensais nas taxas de atropelamento e sua correlação com o volume mensal de chuvas. Foram realizadas expedições mensais, entre os meses de abril a setembro de 2007, onde se registrou 61 animais atropelados pertencentes a 15 espécies, com uma taxa de atropelamento de 0,10 ind./km/mês. As espécies com maior número de atropelamentos foram o zorrilho (Conepatus chinga, com 17 indivíduos (28%, seguida pelo graxaim-do-campo (Lycalopex gymnocercus, com sete (11% e o graxaim-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous, com cinco (8%. Não foi encontrada diferença nas taxas de atropelamento entre os meses amostrados, contudo, o mês com maior registro de atropelamentos foi setembro (n=18. Também não foi verificada correlação entre os atropelamentos e a precipitação mensal, no entanto, há uma tendência entre a ocorrência dos atropelamentos com um volume maior de chuvas.

  18. Satellite observations of long range transport of a large BrO plume in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Begoin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ozone Depletion Events (ODE during polar springtime are a well known phenomenon in the Arctic and Antarctic boundary layer. They are caused by the catalytic destruction of ozone by halogens producing reactive halogen oxides like bromine monoxide (BrO. The key halogen bromine can be rapidly transferred into the gas phase in an autocatalytic process – the so called "Bromine Explosion". However, the exact mechanism, which leads to an initial bromine release as well as the influence of transport and chemical processes on BrO, is still not clearly understood. <br>> In this study, BrO measurements from the satellite instrument GOME-2 are used together with model calculations with the dispersion model FLEXPART to study an arctic BrO event in March 2007, which could be tracked over several days and a large area. Full BrO activation was observed within one day east of Siberia with subsequent transport to Hudson Bay. The event was linked to a cyclone with very high surface wind speeds, which could have been involved in the production and lifting of aerosols or blowing snow. Considering the short life time of BrO, transported aerosols or snow can also provide the surface for BrO recycling within the plume for several days. The evolution of the BrO plume could be reproduced by FLEXPART simulations of a passive tracer indicating that the activated air mass was transported all the way from Siberia to Hudson Bay. To localise the most probable transport height, model runs initialised in different heights have been performed showing similar transport patterns throughout the troposphere but best agreement with the measurements between the surface and 3 km. The influence of changes in tropopause height on measured BrO values has been considered, but cannot completely explain the observed high BrO values. Backward trajectories from the area of BrO initialisation show upward lifting from the surface up to 3 km and no indication for intrusion of stratospheric

  19. Modular design, application architecture, and usage of a self-service model for enterprise data delivery: the Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Monica M; Rusincovitch, Shelley A; Brinson, Stephanie; Shang, Howard C; Evans, Steve; Ferranti, Jeffrey M

    2014-12-01

    Data generated in the care of patients are widely used to support clinical research and quality improvement, which has hastened the development of self-service query tools. User interface design for such tools, execution of query activity, and underlying application architecture have not been widely reported, and existing tools reflect a wide heterogeneity of methods and technical frameworks. We describe the design, application architecture, and use of a self-service model for enterprise data delivery within Duke Medicine. Our query platform, the Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE), supports enhanced data exploration, cohort identification, and data extraction from our enterprise data warehouse (EDW) using a series of modular environments that interact with a central keystone module, Cohort Manager (CM). A data-driven application architecture is implemented through three components: an application data dictionary, the concept of "smart dimensions", and dynamically-generated user interfaces. DEDUCE CM allows flexible hierarchies of EDW queries within a grid-like workspace. A cohort "join" functionality allows switching between filters based on criteria occurring within or across patient encounters. To date, 674 users have been trained and activated in DEDUCE, and logon activity shows a steady increase, with variability between months. A comparison of filter conditions and export criteria shows that these activities have different patterns of usage across subject areas. Organizations with sophisticated EDWs may find that users benefit from development of advanced query functionality, complimentary to the user interfaces and infrastructure used in other well-published models. Driven by its EDW context, the DEDUCE application architecture was also designed to be responsive to source data and to allow modification through alterations in metadata rather than programming, allowing an agile response to source system changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  20. Modular design, application architecture, and usage of a self-service model for enterprise data delivery: The Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Monica M.; Rusincovitch, Shelley A.; Brinson, Stephanie; Shang, Howard C.; Evans, Steve; Ferranti, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Data generated in the care of patients are widely used to support clinical research and quality improvement, which has hastened the development of self-service query tools. User interface design for such tools, execution of query activity, and underlying application architecture have not been widely reported, and existing tools reflect a wide heterogeneity of methods and technical frameworks. We describe the design, application architecture, and use of a self-service model for enterprise data delivery within Duke Medicine. Methods Our query platform, the Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE), supports enhanced data exploration, cohort identification, and data extraction from our enterprise data warehouse (EDW) using a series of modular environments that interact with a central keystone module, Cohort Manager (CM). A data-driven application architecture is implemented through three components: an application data dictionary, the concept of “smart dimensions”, and dynamically-generated user interfaces. Results DEDUCE CM allows flexible hierarchies of EDW queries within a grid-like workspace. A cohort “join” functionality allows switching between filters based on criteria occurring within or across patient encounters. To date, 674 users have been trained and activated in DEDUCE, and logon activity shows a steady increase, with variability between months. A comparison of filter conditions and export criteria shows that these activities have different patterns of usage across subject areas. Conclusions Organizations with sophisticated EDWs may find that users benefit from development of advanced query functionality, complimentary to the user interfaces and infrastructure used in other well-published models. Driven by its EDW context, the DEDUCE application architecture was also designed to be responsive to source data and to allow modification through alterations in metadata rather than programming, allowing an agile response to source

  1. AgBr-Coupled TiO2: A Visible Heterostructured Photocatalyst for Degrading Dye Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of AgBr/TiO2 visible photocatalysts with heterojunction structure was synthesized using Ti(OC4H94, KBr, and AgNO3 as precursors. The phase composition, particle morphology and size, microstructures, and absorbance of these photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope (TEM, high-resolution TEM, and UV-vis spectra. It was found that the coupled AgBr/TiO2 was an effective photocatalyst to degrade the methylene blue under visible light irradiation, compared with the other noncoupled photocatalysts of AgBr, AgBr/P25, and P25. The photocatalytic activities of AgBr/TiO2 increase first and then decrease with increasing the mass ratio of mAgNO3/mTiO2 and the photocatalyst with the mass ratio of 3.35 has the highest photocatalytic activity. The results showed that the coupled photocatalyst has the particle size of about 15 nm with homogeneous dispersion and has the strongest absorption in whole UV-vis light region (250∼800 nm originated from the synergetic effect of heterostructured AgBr/TiO2. The coupled AgBr/TiO2 photocatalyst can keep stable photocatalytic activity after five-circle runs.

  2. Novel x-ray image sensor using CsBr:Eu phosphor for computed radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanto, H.; Takei, Y.; Nishimura, A.; Nakano, Y.; Shouji, T.; Yanagita, T.; Kasai, S.

    2006-03-01

    CsBr phosphor ceramics doped with different luminescence center such as In IIO 3, Eu IIO 3, EuCl 3, SmCl 3, TbCl 3, GdCl 3 or NdCl 3 as a candidate of a new photosimulable phosphor for medical x-ray imaging sensor are prepared using a conventional ceramic fabrication process. It is found that x-ray-irradiated Eu-doped CsBr (CsBr:Eu) exhibits intense photostimulated luminescence (PSL). The peak wavelength of the PSL emission and stimulation spectra of CsBr:Eu phosphor ceramic sample is 450 nm and 690 nm, respectively. The dependence of PSL properties on preparing conditions of phosphor ceramic samples, such as Eu concentration, sintering temperature and sintering time, is studied and the optimum preparing condition is also studied. It is found that the PSL intensity of CsBr:Eu phosphor ceramics fabricated under optimum preparation condition is higher than that of commercially available imaging plate (IP) using BafBr:Eu. The image quality of the IP using CsBr:Eu phosphor film is better than that of commercially available IP.

  3. Pure Cs4PbBr6: Highly Luminescent Zero-Dimensional Perovskite Solids

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.

    2016-09-26

    So-called zero-dimensional perovskites, such as Cs4PbBr6, promise outstanding emissive properties. However, Cs4PbBr6 is mostly prepared by melting of precursors that usually leads to a coformation of undesired phases. Here, we report a simple low-temperature solution-processed synthesis of pure Cs4PbBr6 with remarkable emission properties. We found that pure Cs4PbBr6 in solid form exhibits a 45% photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY), in contrast to its three-dimensional counterpart, CsPbBr3, which exhibits more than 2 orders of magnitude lower PLQY. Such a PLQY of Cs4PbBr6 is significantly higher than that of other solid forms of lower-dimensional metal halide perovskite derivatives and perovskite nanocrystals. We attribute this dramatic increase in PL to the high exciton binding energy, which we estimate to be ∼353 meV, likely induced by the unique Bergerhoff–Schmitz–Dumont-type crystal structure of Cs4PbBr6, in which metal-halide-comprised octahedra are spatially confined. Our findings bring this class of perovskite derivatives to the forefront of color-converting and light-emitting applications.

  4. Thinning CsPb2Br5 perovskite down to monolayers: Cs-dependent stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyikanat, F.; Sari, E.; Sahin, H.

    2017-10-01

    Using first-principles density functional theory calculations, we systematically investigate the structural, electronic, and vibrational properties of bulk and potential single-layer structures of perovskitelike CsPb2Br5 crystal. It is found that while Cs atoms have no effect on the electronic structure, their presence is essential for the formation of stable CsPb2Br5 crystals. The calculated vibrational spectra of the crystal reveal that not only the bulk form but also the single-layer forms of CsPb2Br5 are dynamically stable. Predicted single-layer forms can exhibit either semiconducting or metallic character. Moreover, the modification of the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of single-layer CsPb2Br5 upon formation of vacancy defects is investigated. It is found that the formation of Br vacancy (i) has the lowest formation energy, (ii) significantly changes the electronic structure, and (iii) leads to ferromagnetic ground state in the single-layer CsPb2Br5 . However, the formation of Pb and Cs vacancies leads to p -type doping of the single-layer structure. Results reported herein reveal that the single-layer CsPb2Br5 crystal is a novel stable perovskite with enhanced functionality and a promising candidate for nanodevice applications.

  5. Studies on Ca2+-Doped CeBr3 Scintillating Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guss, P. [NSTec; Foster, M. E. [SNL; Wong, B. M. [SNL; Doty, F. P. [SNL; Shah, K. [RMD; Squillante, M. [RMD; Glodo, J. [RMD; Yuan, D. [NSTec

    2013-07-03

    Despite the outstanding scintillation performance characteristics of cerium tribromide (CeBr3) and cerium-activated lanthanum tribromide (LaBr3:Ce), their commercial availability and application is limited due to the difficulties of growing large, crack-free single crystals from these fragile materials. The objective of this investigation was to employ aliovalent doping to increase crystal strength while maintaining the optical properties of the crystal. One divalent dopant (Ca2+) was investigated as a dopant to strengthen CeBr3 without negatively impacting scintillation performance. Ingots containing nominal concentrations of 1.9% of the Ca2+ dopant were grown. Preliminary scintillation measurements are presented for this aliovalently doped scintillator. Ca2+-doped CeBr3 exhibited little or no change in the peak fluorescence emission for 371 nm optical excitation for CeBr3. The structural, electronic, and optical properties of CeBr3 crystals were investigated using the density functional theory within generalized gradient approximation. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data. The energy band structures and density of states were obtained. The optical properties of CeBr3, including the dielectric function, were calculated.

  6. Max Brödel: his art, legacy, and contributions to neurosurgery through medical illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Smruti K; Couldwell, William T; Liu, James K

    2011-07-01

    Max Brödel is considered the father of modern medical illustration. This report reviews his contributions to neurosurgery as a medical illustrator. Max Brödel, a young artist from Leipzig, Germany, was hired at Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1894, where he illustrated an operative textbook of gynecology for Howard A. Kelly. Although Brödel did not have any formal medical training, he quickly acquired knowledge of anatomy, pathology, physiology, and surgery. Brödel's extraordinary illustrations were characterized by an aerial perspective that conveyed the surgeon's operative viewpoint and precise surgical anatomy. He masterfully incorporated tissue realism with cross-sectional anatomy to accentuate concepts while maintaining topographical accuracy. Brödel's reputation spread quickly and resulted in collaborations with prominent surgeons, such as Cushing, Halsted, and Dandy. Cushing, who also possessed artistic talent, became a pupil of Brödel and remained a very close friend. In 1911, Brödel was appointed the director of the Department of Art as Applied to Medicine at Johns Hopkins, the first academic department of its kind in the world. For the next several decades, he trained generations of renowned medical illustrators. Just as Osler, Halsted, and Cushing passed their skills and knowledge to future leaders of medicine and surgery, Brödel did the same for the field of medical illustration. The advancement of neurosurgical education has been greatly facilitated by Max Brödel's artistic contributions. His unique ability to synthesize art and medicine resulted in timeless illustrations that remain indispensable to surgeons. The art produced by his legacy of illustrators continues to flourish in neurosurgical literature today.

  7. Global significance of a sub-Moho boundary layer (SMBL) deduced from high-resolution seismic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, K.; Tittgemeyer, M.; Ryberg, T.; Wenzel, F.; Mooney, W.

    2002-01-01

    an on-going processes; nevertheless, the derived quantitative estimates of the SMBL properties provide important constraints for any hypothesis on scale-forming processes. Models to be tested by future numerical and field experiments are, for example, repeated subduction-convection stretching of oceanic lithosphere (marble-cake model) and schlieren formation at mid-ocean ridges. It is also proposed that the modeling of the observed blocking of Sn and Pn propagation at active plate margins offers a new tool to study the depth range of tectonics below the crust-mantle boundary. Finally, the deduced schlieren structure of the SMBL closes an important scale gap of three to four orders of magnitude between structural dimensions studied in petrological analysis of mantle samples (xenoliths or outcrop of oceanic lithosphere) and those imaged in classical seismological studies of the lithosphere.

  8. New ab initio potential energy surface for BrH2 and rate constants for the H + HBr → H2 + Br abstraction reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Xie, Changjian; Xie, Daiqian

    2011-03-21

    A global potential energy surface (PES) for the electronic ground state of the BrH(2) system was constructed based on the multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) method including the Davidson's correction using a large basis set. In addition, the spin-orbit correction were computed using the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian and the unperturbed MRCI wavefunctions in the Br + H(2) channel and the transition state region. Adding the correction to the ground state potential, the lowest spin-orbit correlated adiabatic potential was obtained. The characters of the new potential are discussed. Accurate initial state specified rate constants for the H + HBr → H(2) + Br abstraction reaction were calculated using a time-dependent wave packet method. The predicted rate constants were found to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental values and much better than those obtained from a previous PES.

  9. Analysis of satellite-derived Arctic tropospheric BrO columns in conjunction with aircraft measurements during ARCTAS and ARCPAC

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Choi, S; Wang, Y Yuanyue; Salawitch, RJ; Canty, T; Joiner, J; Zeng, T; Kurosu, TP; Chance, K; Richter, A; Huey, LG; Liao, J; Neuman, JA; Nowak, JB; Dibb, JE; Weinheimer, AJ; Diskin, G; Ryerson, TB; Silva, A da; Curry, J; Kinnison, D; Tilmes, S; Levelt, PF Pieternel

    2012-01-01

    We derive tropospheric column BrO during the ARCTAS and ARCPAC field campaigns in spring 2008 using retrievals of total column BrO from the satellite UV nadir sensors OMI and GOME-2 using a radiative...

  10. Engineering Interfacial Charge Transfer in CsPbBr3 Perovskite Nanocrystals by Heterovalent Doping

    KAUST Repository

    Begum, Raihana

    2016-12-17

    Since compelling device efficiencies of perovskite solar cells have been achieved, investigative efforts have turned to understand other key challenges in these systems, such as engineering interfacial energy-level alignment and charge transfer (CT). However, these types of studies on perovskite thin-film devices are impeded by the morphological and compositional heterogeneity of the films and their ill-defined surfaces. Here, we use well-defined ligand-protected perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) as model systems to elucidate the role of heterovalent doping on charge-carrier dynamics and energy level alignment at the interface of perovskite NCs with molecular acceptors. More specifically, we develop an in situ doping approach for colloidal CsPbBr3 perovskite NCs with heterovalent Bi3+ ions by hot injection to precisely tune their band structure and excited-state dynamics. This synthetic method allowed us to map the impact of doping on CT from the NCs to different molecular acceptors. Using time-resolved spectroscopy with broadband capability, we clearly demonstrate that CT at the interface of NCs can be tuned and promoted by metal ion doping. We found that doping increases the energy difference between states of the molecular acceptor and the donor moieties, subsequently facilitating the interfacial CT process. This work highlights the key variable components not only for promoting interfacial CT in perovskites, but also for establishing a higher degree of precision and control over the surface and the interface of perovskite molecular acceptors.

  11. Effects of lead on the activities of antioxidant enzymes in watercress, Nasturtium officinale R. Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Gonca; Saygideger, Saadet

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the oxidative effects of lead with increased concentrations by the determination of antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and ascorbate peroxidase (AP)) and lipid peroxidation levels in the stem and leaves of watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) which was exposed to lead acetate, Pb (CH3COOH)2 regime with concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 200, 250, and 500 mg/L Pb in a hydroponic culture. After 14 days, accumulation of lipid peroxidation in stems and leaves and changes in activity of antioxidant enzymes were determined spectrophotometrically. The maximum accumulation was observed in the highest concentration group. In this group, lipid peroxidation levels were three times higher than the control group in the stem and leaves. The highest induction in SOD and GR activities were determined at 200 mg/L Pb group in stem, whereas CAT and AP activities were higher than other groups at the concentration of 250 and 100 mg/L Pb, respectively. The increase in CAT activity was found to be greater than GR, SOD, and AP activities in stems of watercress under Pb treatment. Both lead accumulation and antioxidant enzyme responses were higher in stems than in leaves. The results of the present study suggested that the induction in antioxidant responses could be occurring as an adaptive mechanism to the oxidative potential of lead accumulation.

  12. Validation of EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 questionnaires in the measurement of quality of life of breast cancer patients in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Leng Tan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To validate EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-BR23 questionnaires and to measure the health-related quality of life (HRQOL of women with breast cancer in Singapore during their first 4 years of post-diagnosis and treatments. Methods: A quantitative and cross-descriptive sectional study. All of 170 subjects were recruited in a Singapore tertiary cancer center. The European Organization for Research and Treatment-QOL questionnaire and breast cancer specific module (EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 were used to measure the HRQOL among women with breast cancer. All statistical tests were performed using SPSS Version 18. The reliability of the EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 questionnaires was examined using Cronbach′s alpha test. EORTC QLQ-C30 was validated against EuroQol Group′s 5-domain questionnaires (EQ5D by examining its concurrent validity using Pearson Product Moment Correlation to calculate the total scores. Results: The Cronbach′s alpha coefficient results for EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ BR-23 were 0.846 and 0.873 respectively which suggested relatively good internal consistency. The correlation between EORTC QLQ-C30 and EQ5D QOL instruments demonstrated a modest linear relationship (r=0.597; P<0.001 that indicated a moderately strong correlation between the two measures. The study showed that Singaporean women with breast cancer had enjoyed high levels of HRQOL during their first 4 years of survivorship but they had significant concern over the financial impact of breast cancer. One of the key findings was younger women had experienced more physical and psychosocial concerns than older women. Conclusion: The EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 questionnaires are feasible and promising instruments to measure the levels of HRQOL in Singaporean women with breast cancer in future studies.

  13. Optical properties of Pb-based aggregated phases in CsBr crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voloshinovskii, A. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 8 Kyryla i Mefodiya Str., 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Myagkota, S. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 8 Kyryla i Mefodiya Str., 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Garapyn, I. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 8 Kyryla i Mefodiya Str., 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Stryganyuk, G. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 8 Kyryla i Mefodiya Str., 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Rodnyi, P. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 29 Polyteknicheskaya Str., 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Eijk, C.W.E. van [Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)]. E-mail: vaneijk@iri.tudelft.nl

    2005-01-01

    The emission and excitation spectra as well as luminescence decay kinetics of a CsBr:Pb (1.0mol%) crystal have been measured under pulsed synchrotron radiation excitation. The heat-treated ({approx}200 deg. C) crystal shows evidence of single lead centres and aggregated phases such as CsPbBr3 nanocrystals. The latter have been identified from comparison of the spectral-kinetic characteristics of the CsPbBr3 aggregated phases and single crystals. The process of energy transfer from the host to the aggregates is considered.

  14. Nuclear import of transcription factor BR-C is mediated by its interaction with RACK1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daojun Cheng

    Full Text Available The transcription factor Broad Complex (BR-C is an early ecdysone response gene in insects and contains two types of domains: two zinc finger domains for the activation of gene transcription and a Bric-a-brac/Tramtrack/Broad complex (BTB domain for protein-protein interaction. Although the mechanism of zinc finger-mediated gene transcription is well studied, the partners interacting with the BTB domain of BR-C has not been elucidated until now. Here, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using the BTB domain of silkworm BR-C as bait and identified the receptor for activated C-kinase 1 (RACK1, a scaffolding/anchoring protein, as the novel partner capable of interacting with BR-C. The interaction between BR-C and RACK1 was further confirmed by far-western blotting and pull-down assays. Importantly, the disruption of this interaction, via RNAi against the endogenous RACK1 gene or deletion of the BTB domain, abolished the nuclear import of BR-C in BmN4 cells. In addition, RNAi against the endogenous PKC gene as well as phosphorylation-deficient mutation of the predicted PKC phosphorylation sites at either Ser373 or Thr406 in BR-C phenocopied RACK1 RNAi and altered the nuclear localization of BR-C. However, when BTB domain was deleted, phosphorylation mimics of either Ser373 or Thr406 had no effect on the nuclear import of BR-C. Moreover, mutating the PKC phosphorylation sites at Ser373 and Thr406 or deleting the BTB domain significantly decreased the transcriptional activation of a BR-C target gene. Given that RACK1 is necessary for recruiting PKC to close and phosphorylate target proteins, we suggest that the PKC-mediated phosphorylation and nuclear import of BR-C is determined by its interaction with RACK1. This novel finding will be helpful for further deciphering the mechanism underlying the role of BR-C proteins during insect development.

  15. Brändin johtamisen ja siirtohinnoittelun haasteet : case: Battery® Energy Drink

    OpenAIRE

    Tuominen, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee brändin johtamisen ja siirtohinnoittelun haasteita Oy Sinebrychoff Ab:n Battery® Energy Drink –energiajuoman kannalta. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on selvittää Battery® Energy Drink -brändin johtamiseen ja siirtohinnoitteluun liittyviä sekä konsernin sisäisiä että konsernin ulkopuolisia haasteita. Opinnäytetyö tehdään Oy Sinebrychoff Ab:n vientiosastolle toimeksiantona. Tutkimuksen teoriaosuudessa perehdytään brändin johtamisen eri näkökulmiin ja siirtohinnoittelu...

  16. Phase topology of a NR/BR elastomer blend with active filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plavšić Milenko B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The relations between the structure and mechanical properties of a polymer blend of natural (NR and polybutadiene (BR rubber (i.e. a NR/BR blend with the weight ratio of the components 70/30 filled with active carbon black were analysed. The properties of the individual phases in the blend were resolved by modeling the stress-strain relationship according to the Bauer procedure for high extensions. The obtained results indicated that BR is the dispersed phase, having a higher modulus, which was also confirmed by the much better fit of the experimental data to the series type of phase coupling according to the Takanayagy theory.

  17. Time dependence of the luminescence intensity in CdBr2: AgCl,PbBr2 crystals under N2-laser excitation at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolesta, I. M.; Kalivoshka, B. M.; Karbovnyk, I. D.; Lesivtsiv, V. M.; Novosad, I. S.; Novosad, S. S.; Rovetskyy, I. M.; Velgosh, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Results of optical-luminescence studies of polydoped photochromic CdBr2: AgCl,PbBr2 crystals are presented. It is shown that the luminescence decrease vs. time under N2-laser excitation in the range of A-band of Pb2+ absorption is due to photochemical reactions. The empirical model describing the decrease of the luminescence related to silver impurities due to photochemical processes is suggested. Model parameters (trapping cross-section — σ — and the amount of centres destroyed by irradiation — β) were determined using the comparative analysis of experimental and calculated luminescence decay curves.

  18. Crystal growth and characterization of mixed lead halides PbCl2xBr2(1-x)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lumbreras, M.; Protas, J.; Jebbari, S.; Dirksen, G.J.; Schoonman, J.

    1985-01-01

    Single crystals of PbCl2-type solid solutions PbCl2xBr2(1−x) have been grown using the Bridgeman technique. XRD measurements reveal preferential site occupancy for Cl and Br, while the anion array of PbClBr is completely ordered. The temperature and composition dependence of the ionic conductivity

  19. Nanosecond lifetime measurements of Iπ=9/2- intrinsic excited states and low-lying B(E1) strengths in 183Re using combined HPGe-LaBr3 coincidence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgi, L. A.; Regan, P. H.; Daniel, T.; Podolyák, Zs.; Bruce, A. M.; Mason, P. J. R.; Mǎrginean, N.; Mǎrginean, R.; Werner, V.; Alharbi, T.; Alkhomashi, N.; Bajoga, A. D.; Britton, R.; Cǎta-Danil, I.; Carroll, R. J.; Deleanu, D.; Bucurescu, D.; Florea, N.; Gheorghe, I.; Ghita, D. G.; Glodariu, T.; Lice, R.; Mihai, C.; Mulholland, K. F.; Negret, A.; Olacel, A.; Roberts, O. J.; Sava, T.; Söderström, P.-A.; Stroe, L.; Suvaila, R.; Toma, S.; Wilson, E.; Wood, R. T.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents precision measurements of electromagnetic decay probabilities associated with electric dipole transitions in the prolate-deformed nucleus 183Re. The nucleus of interest was formed using the fusion evaporation reaction 180Hf(7Li,4n)183Re at a beam energy of 30 MeV at the tandem accelerator at the HH-IFIN Institute, Bucharest Romania. Coincident decay gamma rays from near-yrast cascades were detected using the combined HPGe-LaBr3 detector array ROSPHERE. The time differences between cascade gamma rays were measured using the LaBr3 detectors to determine the half-lives of the two lowest lying spin-parity 9/2- states at excitation energies of 496 and 617 keV to be 5.65(5) and 2.08(3) ns respectively. The deduced E1 transition rates from these two states are discussed in terms of the K-hindrance between the low-lying structures in this prolate-deformed nucleus.

  20. Parasiticidal effect of 16alpha-bromoepiandrosterone (EpiBr) in amoebiasis and cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrero, Julio César; Cervantes-Rebolledo, Claudia; Vargas-Villavicencio, José Antonio; Hernández-Bello, Romel; Dowding, Charles; Frincke, James; Reading, Chris; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2010-08-01

    The effect of the dehydroepiandrosterone analog 16alpha-bromoepiandrosterone (EpiBr) was tested on the tapeworm Taenia crassiceps and the protist Entamoeba histolytica, both in vivo and in vitro. Administration of EpiBr prior to infection with cysticerci in mice reduced the parasite load by 50% compared with controls. EpiBr treatment induced 20% reduction on the development of amoebic liver abscesses in hamsters. In vitro treatment of T. crassiceps and E. histolytica cultures with EpiBr, reduced reproduction, motility and viability in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. These results leave open the possibility of assessing the potential of this hormonal analog as a possible anti-parasite drug, including cysticercosis and amoebiasis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Best Western - tuntud ja tunnustatud ülemaailmne hotelliketi bränd

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    1946. aastal Californias M. K. Guertini poolt asutatud Best Western hotelliketist, mis pakub just sõltumatutele hotellipidajatele ühtset turundus- ja müügistrateegiat, brändi- ja teeninduskontseptsiooni

  2. Atmospheric lifetime of CHF sub 2 Br, a proposed substitute for halons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukdar, R.; Mellouki, A.; Gierczak, T.; Burkholder, J.B.; McKeen, S.A.; Ravishankara, A.R. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States) Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States))

    1991-05-03

    The rate coefficients, k{sub 1}, for the reaction of OH with CHF{sub 2}Br have been measured using pulsed photolysis and discharge flow techniques at temperatures (T) between 233 and 432 K to be k{sub 1} = (7.4 {plus minus} 1.6) {times} 10{sup {minus}13} exp({minus}(1,300 {plus minus} 100)/T) cubic centimeters per molecule per second. The ultraviolet absorption cross sections, {sigma}, of this molecule between 190 and 280 nanometers were measured at 296 K. The k{sub 1} and {sigma} values were used in a one-dimensional model to obtain an atmospheric lifetime of approximately 7 years for CHF{sub 2}Br. This lifetime is shorter by approximately factors of 10 and 2 than those for CF{sub 3}Br and CF{sub 2}ClBr, respectively. The ozone depletion potentials of the three compounds will reflect these lifetimes.

  3. Eesti ajaloo kotkaperspektiivist : minu vaidlus Brüggermanniga / Jaan Undusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Undusk, Jaan, 1958-

    2002-01-01

    Märkusi Jaan Unduski "metahistooriliste" zhestide kohta, varasema eestikeelse kirjanduse seotusest baltisaksa kirjandusega. Artiklist - Brüggemann, Karl. Rahvusliku vaenlasekuju demontaazhist ehk Carl Schirren kui Eesti iseseisvuse rajaja? // Tuna, 2002, nr. 3, lk. 93-98

  4. Kallas valmistus Brüsselis voliniku tööks / Ahto Lobjakas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobjakas, Ahto, 1970-

    2004-01-01

    Siim Kallas kohtus Brüsselis Euroopa Komisjoni presidendi Romano Prodi ning komisjoni volinikega. Suure tõenäosusega saab Kallas oma juhendajaks ettevõtluse ja infoühiskonna valdkonnaga tegeleva Erkki Liikaneni

  5. Coulomb-explosion imaging of concurrent CH2BrI photodissociation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Michael; Boll, Rebecca; Lee, Jason W. L.; Amini, Kasra; Köckert, Hansjochen; Vallance, Claire; Gentleman, Alexander S.; Mackenzie, Stuart R.; Bari, Sadia; Bomme, Cédric; Düsterer, Stefan; Erk, Benjamin; Manschwetus, Bastian; Müller, Erland; Rompotis, Dimitrios; Savelyev, Evgeny; Schirmel, Nora; Techert, Simone; Treusch, Rolf; Küpper, Jochen; Trippel, Sebastian; Wiese, Joss; Stapelfeldt, Henrik; de Miranda, Barbara Cunha; Guillemin, Renaud; Ismail, Iyas; Journel, Loïc; Marchenko, Tatiana; Palaudoux, Jérôme; Penent, Francis; Piancastelli, Maria Novella; Simon, Marc; Travnikova, Oksana; Brausse, Felix; Goldsztejn, Gildas; Rouzée, Arnaud; Géléoc, Marie; Geneaux, Romain; Ruchon, Thierry; Underwood, Jonathan; Holland, David M. P.; Mereshchenko, Andrey S.; Olshin, Pavel K.; Johnsson, Per; Maclot, Sylvain; Lahl, Jan; Rudenko, Artem; Ziaee, Farzaneh; Brouard, Mark; Rolles, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    The dynamics following laser-induced molecular photodissociation of gas-phase CH2BrI at 271.6 nm were investigated by time-resolved Coulomb-explosion imaging using intense near-IR femtosecond laser pulses. The observed delay-dependent photofragment momenta reveal that CH2BrI undergoes C-I cleavage, depositing 65.6% of the available energy into internal product states, and that absorption of a second UV photon breaks the C-Br bond of CH2Br . Simulations confirm that this mechanism is consistent with previous data recorded at 248 nm, demonstrating the sensitivity of Coulomb-explosion imaging as a real-time probe of chemical dynamics.

  6. Kuidas eristavad ostjad Eesti brände? / Lele Aak, Aivar Voog

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aak, Lele

    2003-01-01

    Eesti Konverentsikeskuse ja Emori koostöös läbi viidud uuringust eesmärgiga selgitada välja Eesti turundusspetsialistide arvamus brändide eristumisekohta Diagrammid. Kommenteerib Endrik Randoja.

  7. BrO vertical distributions from SCIAMACHY limb measurements: comparison of algorithms and retrieval results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rozanov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents two scientific and one operational retrieval algorithms used to obtain vertical distributions of bromine monoxide (BrO from observations of the scattered solar light performed by the SCIAMACHY instrument in limb viewing geometry. The study begins with a discussion of the theoretical basis of all algorithms followed by an investigation of the retrieval sensitivity. Simulations with three different radiative transfer models allow us to analyze influence of the forward model implementation upon the retrieval results. By means of synthetic retrievals we analyze major sources of uncertainties in the resulting BrO profiles such as different BrO cross sections, their temperature dependence, and stratospheric aerosols. Finally, the reliability of SCIAMACHY BrO profile retrievals is demonstrated comparing results from different algorithms to each other and to balloon-borne observations.

  8. [Memel als Brücke zu den baltischen Ländern] / Ralph Tuchtenhagen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuchtenhagen, Ralph, 1961-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Memel als Brücke zu den baltischen Ländern. Kulturgeschichte Klaipedas vom Mittelalter bis ins 20. Jahrhundert. (Tagungsberichte der Historischen Kommission für ost- und westpreussische Landesforschung. Bd. 26)

  9. Brüsselis kõneldi GMO vastu / Nastja Pertsjonok

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pertsjonok, Nastja

    2005-01-01

    Brüsselis toimunud konverentsil nõudsid Euroopa Liidu maade regionaalministrid ja Europarlamendi liikmed õigust otsustada geneetiliselt muundatud põllukultuuride keelamise üle piirkondlikul tasandil

  10. High yield direct 76Br-bromination of monoclonal antibodies using chloramine-T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundin, J; Tolmachev, V; Koziorowski, J; Carlsson, J; Lundqvist, H; Welt, S; Larson, S; Sundin, A

    1999-11-01

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) A33 was labeled with the positron emitter 76Br (T(1/2) = 16.2 h). Direct labeling was done using the conventional chloramine-T method. After optimization of the labeling conditions, a maximum yield (mean +/- max error) of 77 +/- 2% was obtained at pH 6.8. In vitro binding of 76Br-A33 to SW1222 colonic cancer cells showed that the immunoreactivity was retained. Also, the MAbs 38S1 and 3S193 and the peptide hEGF were 76Br-labeled, resulting in labeling yields (mean +/- max error) of 75 +/- 3%, 63 +/- 4%, and 73 +/- 0.1%, respectively. We conclude that antibodies and peptides can be labeled conveniently with 76Br for the purpose of whole-body tumour imaging by positron emission tomography.

  11. SoLid: Search for Oscillations with Lithium-6 Detector at the SCK-CEN BR2 reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, G.; Beaumont, W.; Buhour, J. M.; Coupé, B.; Cucoanes, A. S.; D'Hondt, J.; Durand, D.; Fallot, M.; Fresneau, S.; Giot, L.; Guillon, B.; Guilloux, G.; Janssen, X.; Kalcheva, S.; Koonen, E.; Labare, M.; Moortgat, C.; Pronost, G.; Raes, L.; Ryckbosch, D.; Ryder, N.; Shitov, Y.; Vacheret, A.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Weber, A.; Yermia, F.

    2016-04-01

    Sterile neutrinos have been considered as a possible explanation for the recent reactor and Gallium anomalies arising from reanalysis of reactor flux and calibration data of previous neutrino experiments. A way to test this hypothesis is to look for distortions of the anti-neutrino energy caused by oscillation from active to sterile neutrino at close stand-off (˜ 6- 8m) of a compact reactor core. Due to the low rate of anti-neutrino interactions the main challenge in such measurement is to control the high level of gamma rays and neutron background. The SoLid experiment is a proposal to search for active-to-sterile anti-neutrino oscillation at very short baseline of the SCK•CEN BR2 research reactor. This experiment uses a novel approach to detect anti-neutrino with a highly segmented detector based on Lithium-6. With the combination of high granularity, high neutron-gamma discrimination using 6LiF:ZnS(Ag) and precise localization of the Inverse Beta Decay products, a better experimental sensitivity can be achieved compared to other state-of-the-art technology. This compact system requires minimum passive shielding allowing for very close stand off to the reactor. The experimental set up of the SoLid experiment and the BR2 reactor will be presented. The new principle of neutrino detection and the detector design with expected performance will be described. The expected sensitivity to new oscillations of the SoLid detector as well as the first measurements made with the 8 kg prototype detector deployed at the BR2 reactor in 2013-2014 will be reported.

  12. Cross-cultural adaptation of the assistive technology device - Predisposition assessment (ATD PA) for use in Brazil (ATD PA Br).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Ana Cristina de Jesus; Matsukura, Thelma Simões; Scherer, Marcia J

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to conduct a cross-cultural adaptation of the Assistive Technology Device Predisposition Assessment (ATD PA) for use in Brazil. The selection of the Assistive Technology Device Predisposition Assessment (ATD PA) was determined by previous literature reviews of articles published in 2014 and 2016 in six databases with the terms "assistive device" or "assistive technology" or "self-help device" combined with "evidence-based practice" or "framework" or "measurement scale" or "model and outcome assessment". This review indicated that the conceptual model of Assistive Technology (AT) most discussed in the literature was the Matching Person and Technology (MPT) model, and this finding determined the selection of ATD PA as an assessment within the MPT portfolio of measures. The procedures for cross-cultural adaptation were as follows: Equivalence of Concept, Semantic and Operational. Five experts were asked to translate 725 items and these translations were evaluated and a high level of agreement was demonstrated. The Portuguese version, Avaliação de Tecnologia Assistiva - Predisposição ao Uso - ATD PA Br, was derived from the original version in English (ATD PA). The ATD PA Br will support professionals and people with disabilities in Brazil to better select AT devices according to the clients' needs. Implications for rehabilitation Provides a systematic way of selecting assistive technology devices for the use of individuals with disabilities according to the Brazilian reality. A systematic way of selecting the assistive technology that can help decrease the abandonment of the assistive technology use. The use of the Matching Person and Technology theorical model and of the assessment ATD PA Br is essential to guide the researches and clinical practice in Brazil.

  13. Nomenclatural notes on the Eurytomids (Chalcidoidea: Eurytomidae) described by Jean Brèthes housed in Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Michael W

    2014-04-16

    Ten Eurytomidae (Hymenoptera) parasitic wasp species described by Jean Brèthes and deposited in the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales in Buenos Aires are treated and their nomenclature stabilized. The condition of the type material is described. Lectotypes are designated for Decatoma cecidosiphaga Brèthes, Prodecatoma parodii Brèthes, Eudecatoma opposita Brèthes, and Eurytoma caridei Brèthes. One new generic synonymy, Xanthosomodes Brèthes with Tetramesa Walker, n. syn., and five new combinations are proposed: Tetramesa albiangulata (Brèthes), n. comb.; Phylloxeroxenus caridei (Brèthes), n. comb.; Aximopsis vulgata (Brèthes), n. comb.; Proseurytoma parodii (Brèthes), n. comb.; and Bruchophagus opposita (Brèthes), n. comb. Sycophila paranensis Brèthes is declared incertae sedis.

  14. Direct conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons using AlBr3-HBr superacid catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasireddy, Sivakumar; Ganguly, Sreemoyee; Sauer, Joe; Cook, Wyndham; Spivey, James J

    2011-01-14

    The direct gas phase catalytic oligomerization of methane at temperatures ≤673 K has been demonstrated using AlBr(3)-HBr superacid. The reaction produces C(2)+ hydrocarbons and hydrogen in a single step at 1 atm in a continuous flow reactor at a nominal residence time of 60 s. The essentially complete conversion of methane appears to be due to protolytic activation of methane in the presence of H(+)AlBr(4)(-).

  15. Thermogalvanic effects on the corrosion of copper in heavy brine LiBr solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Domene, Ramón Manuel; Blasco Tamarit, María Encarnación; García García, Dionisio Miguel; García Antón, José

    2012-01-01

    Thermogalvanic corrosion of copper in heavy brine LiBr solutions has been investigated using a zero-resistance ammeter (ZRA). The temperature gradients between copper electrodes immersed in the same LiBr solution result in the formation of thermogalvanic cells with hot anodes, leading to high and sustained thermogalvanic currents. Copper loss rates, calculated using Faraday's law, substantially exceed 0.025mmyear -1, a value regarded as the threshold of low corrosion rates. The effects of the...

  16. Thermodynamic and structural properties of high temperature solid and liquid EuBr2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rycerz, L.; Gadzuric, S.; Ingier-Stocka, E.

    2005-01-01

    Heat capacity of solid and liq. EuBr2 was measured by differential scanning calorimetry in the temp. range 300-1100 K. The temp. and enthalpy of fusion were also detd. exptl. By combination of these results with the literature data on the entropy at 298.15 K, S(o,m) (EuBr2, s, 298.15 K) , and the...

  17. Super-high photocatalytic activity, stability and improved photocatalytic mechanism of monodisperse AgBr doped with In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Limin, E-mail: songlmnk@sohu.com [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering & State Key Laboratory of Hollow-Fiber Membrane Materials and Membrane Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Zhang, Shujuan, E-mail: zhangshujuan@tust.edu.cn [College of Science, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Zhang, Shuna [College of Textile Engineering, Zhejiang Industry Polytechnic College, Shaoxing 312000 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • In(III)-AgBr with higher photodegradation ability was synthesized successfully. • ·OH radicals and Br{sup 0} were the main active species in the oxidation of MO. • In(III) substantially reduced the recombination rate of photon-generated carriers. - Abstract: Monodisperse In{sup 3+} doped AgBr (In-AgBr) nanoparticles were synthesized by a hydrothermal route. The pure AgBr and In-AgBr samples were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, measurement of total organic carbon, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry. In-AgBr was more photocatalytically active than pure AgBr in photodegradation of 20 mg/L methyl orange under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). The 0.05 mol/L In-AgBr sample showed the highest photodegradation efficiency and high stability. The doped In{sup 3+} expanded the light absorption range, reduced the band gap of AgBr and improved the utilization of photons. The additional In{sup 3+} can inhibit the formation of Ag particles on the surface of AgBr, which can further stabilize AgBr. The doped In{sup 3+} in AgBr served as a temporary site for trapping of photoinduced electrons, and thereby obviously restrained the recombination of photoinduced electron-hole pairs on the surface of AgBr. The enhanced photocatalytic ability of In-AgBr may be mainly attributed to the improved separation efficiency of photogenerated charges.

  18. Shell-model calculations for the semi-magic nucleus 85Br and systematic features of the N = 50 odd-A isotones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui-Ju; Li, Zhi-Quan; Liu, Chen; Tian, Yong-He; Wang, Shou-Yu

    2017-08-01

    Level structures of 85Br have been investigated using the shell-model code nushellx within a large model space containing the neutron-core excitations across the N = 50 closed shell. The calculated results have been compared with the available experimental data. Reasonable agreement between the experimental and calculated values is obtained, which indicates that the neutron-core excitations are essential to reproduce the level structures of 85Br. The systematic features of neutron-core excitations in the N = 50 isotones are investigated. Supported by Natural Science Foundation of China (11622540, 11461141001, U1432119) and Computations were Carried Out on an HP Proliant DL785G6 Server Hosted by the Institute of Space Science of Shandong University

  19. Total absorption γ -ray spectroscopy of the β -delayed neutron emitters Br87 , Br88 , and Rb94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valencia, E.; Tain, J. L.; Algora, A.; Agramunt, J.; Estevez, E.; Jordan, M. D.; Rubio, B.; Rice, S.; Regan, P.; Gelletly, W.; Podolyák, Z.; Bowry, M.; Mason, P.; Farrelly, G. F.; Zakari-Issoufou, A.; Fallot, M.; Porta, A.; Bui, V. M.; Rissanen, J.; Eronen, T.; Moore, I.; Penttilä, H.; Äystö, J.; Elomaa, V. -V.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Reponen, M.; Sonnenschein, V.; Cano-Ott, D.; Garcia, A. R.; Martínez, T.; Mendoza, E.; Caballero-Folch, R.; Gomez-Hornillos, B.; Gorlichev, V.; Kondev, F. G.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Batist, L.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the decay of Br-87,Br-88 and Rb-94 using total absorption gamma-ray spectroscopy. These important fission products are beta-delayed neutron emitters. Our data show considerable beta gamma intensity, so far unobserved in high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, from states at high excitation energy. We also find significant differences with the beta intensity that can be deduced from existing measurements of the beta spectrum. We evaluate the impact of the present data on reactor decay heat using summation calculations. Although the effect is relatively small it helps to reduce the discrepancy between calculations and integral measurements of the photon component for U-235 fission at cooling times in the range 1-100 s. We also use summation calculations to evaluate the impact of present data on reactor antineutrino spectra. We find a significant effect at antineutrino energies in the range of 5 to 9 MeV. In addition, we observe an unexpected strong probability for. emission from neutron unbound states populated in the daughter nucleus. The. branching is compared to Hauser-Feshbach calculations, which allow one to explain the large value for bromine isotopes as due to nuclear structure. However the branching for Rb-94, although much smaller, hints of the need to increase the radiative width gamma by one order of magnitude. This increase in gamma would lead to a similar increase in the calculated (n, gamma) cross section for this very neutron-rich nucleus with a potential impact on r process abundance calculations.

  20. Effect of antiorthostatic BedRest (BR) on GastroIntestinal Motility (GIM) of normal subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putcha, L.; Hunter, R. P.; Tietze, K. J.; Cintron, N. M.

    1992-01-01

    The combined effects of postural changes, fluid shifts and diuresis associated with the absence of the gravity vector may decrease gastrointestinal motility (GIM) during space flight. GIM can be estimated from the mouth to cecum transit time (MCTT) of orally administered lactulose (LAC); this test is used to assess changes in GIM in normal subjects and in patients with GI pathology and related disease conditions. Since bedrest (BR) mimics some of the physiological changes that occur during space flight, the effect of ten days of BR on GIM was evaluated from the MCTT of LAC. Methods: Subjects were 12 nonsmoking males between the ages of 35 and 50. After an 8-10 hour fast, subjects ingested Cephulac (registered) (20 g solution) with a low-fiber breakfast on four different days (45, 30, 25, and 20) before BR and on three separate days (4, 7, and 10) during BR. Breath-H2 concentrations were measured before and at 10 minute intervals for 4 hours after breakfast using a Quintron breathalyzer and MCTT was determined from these data. Results: MCTT ranged between 10 and 122 minutes during ambulation and 80 to 120 minutes during BR with means of 79 minutes and 122 minutes respectively. Conclusion: Mean MCTT during BR was 54 percent longer than during ambulation, suggesting that absorption and availability of orally administered medications and nutrients may be delayed or impaired as a result of decreased GIM during bedrest.

  1. Enriching Glucoraphanin in Brassica rapa Through Replacement of BrAOP2.2/BrAOP2.3 with Non-functional Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sulforaphane, the hydrolytic product of glucoraphanin glucosinolate, is a potent anticarcinogen that reduces the risk of several human cancers. However, in most B. rapa vegetables, glucoraphanin is undetectable or only present in trace amounts, since the glucoraphanin that is present is converted to gluconapin by three functional BrAOP2 genes. In this study, to enrich beneficial glucoraphanin content in B. rapa, the functional BrAOP2 alleles were replaced by non-functional counterparts through marker-assisted backcrossing (MAB. We identified non-functional mutations of two BrAOP2 genes from B. rapa. The backcross progenies with introgression of both non-functional braop2.2 and braop2.3 alleles significantly increased the glucoraphanin content by 18 times relative to the recurrent parent. In contrast, replacement or introgression of single non-functional braop2.2 or braop2.3 locus did not change glucoraphanin content. Our results suggest that replacement of these two functional BrAOP2 genes with non-functional alleles has the potential for producing improved Brassica crops with enriched beneficial glucoraphanin content.

  2. Precision measurement of the ratio BR($K_{S} \\to \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}e^{+}e^{-}$)/BR($K_{L} \\to \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{0}_{D}$)

    CERN Document Server

    Batley, J R; Lazzeroni, C; Munday, D J; Patel, M; Slater, M W; Wotton, S A; Arcidiacono, R; Bocquet, G; Ceccucci, A; Cundy, D; Doble, N; Falaleev, V; Gatignon, L; Gonidec, A; Grafström, P; Kubischta, W; Marchetto, F; Mikulec, I; Norton, A; Panzer-Steindel, B; Rubin, P; Wahl, H; Goudzovski, E; Hristov, P; Kekelidze, V; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Madigozhin, D; Molokanova, N; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Stoynev, S; Zinchenko, A; Monnier, E; Swallow, E C; Winston, R; Sacco, R; Walker, A; Baldini, W; Dalpiaz, P; Frabetti, P L; Gianoli, A; Martini, M; Petrucci, F; Scarpa, M; Savrié, M; Bizzeti, A; Calvetti, M; Collazuol, E; Iacopini, E; Lenti, M; Ruggiero, G; Veltri, M; Behler, M; Eppard, K; Eppard, M; Hirstius, A; Kleinknecht, K; Koch, U; Marouelli, P; Masetti, L; Moosbrugger, U; Morales Morales, C; Peters, A; Wanke, R; Winhart, A; Dabrowski, A; Fonseca Martin, T; Szleper, M; Velasco, M; Anzivino, G; Cenci, P; Imbergamo, E; Lamanna, G; Lubrano, P; Michetti, A; Nappi, A; Pepe, M; Petrucci, M C; Piccini, M; Valdata, M; Cerri, C; Costantini, F; Fantechi, R; Fiorini, L; Giudici, S; Mannelli, I; Pierazzini, G; Sozzi, M; Cheshkov, C; Chèze, J B; De Beer, M; Debu, P; Gouge, G; Marel, G; Mazzucato, E; Peyaud, B; Vallage, B; Holder, M; Maier, A; Ziolkowski, M; Biino, C; Cartiglia, N; Clemencic, M; Goy Lopez, S; Menichetti, E; Pastrone, N; Wislicki, W; Dibon, H; Jeitler, M; Markytan, M; Neuhofer, G; Widhalm, L

    2011-01-01

    The $K_{S} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}e^{+}e^{-}$ decay mode was investigated using the data collected in 2002 by the NA48/1 collaboration. With about 23,k $K_{S} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}e^{+}e^{-}$ events and 59,k $K_{L} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{0}_{D}$ normalization decays, the $K_{S} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}e^{+}e^{-}$ branching ratio relative to the $K_{L}\\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{0}_{D}$ one was determined to be BR($K_{S} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}e^{+}e^{-}$)/BR($K_{L} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{0}_{D}$) = $ (3.28 \\pm 0.06_{stat}\\pm 0.04_{syst})\\times 10^{-2}$. This result was used to set the upper limit $|g_{E1}/g_{BR}| \\lt 3.0$ at $90%$ CL on the presence, in the decay amplitude, of an E1 direct emission ($g_{E1}$) term relative to the dominant inner bremsstrahlung ($g_{BR}$) term. The CP-violating asymmetry ${cal A}_{\\phi}$ in the sin$\\phi$,cos$\\phi$ distribution of $K_{S} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}e^{+}e^{-}$ events, where $\\phi$ is the angle between the $\\pi^{+} \\pi^{-}$ and the $...

  3. Precision measurement of the ratio BR (KS →π+π-e+e-) / BR (KL →π+π-πD0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batley, J. R.; Kalmus, G. E.; Lazzeroni, C.; Munday, D. J.; Patel, M.; Slater, M. W.; Wotton, S. A.; Arcidiacono, R.; Bocquet, G.; Ceccucci, A.; Cundy, D.; Doble, N.; Falaleev, V.; Gatignon, L.; Gonidec, A.; Grafström, P.; Kubischta, W.; Marchetto, F.; Mikulec, I.; Norton, A.; Panzer-Steindel, B.; Rubin, P.; Wahl, H.; Goudzovski, E.; Hristov, P.; Kekelidze, V.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Madigozhin, D.; Molokanova, N.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Stoynev, S.; Zinchenko, A.; Monnier, E.; Swallow, E. C.; Winston, R.; Sacco, R.; Walker, A.; Baldini, W.; Dalpiaz, P.; Frabetti, P. L.; Gianoli, A.; Martini, M.; Petrucci, F.; Savrié, M.; Scarpa, M.; Calvetti, M.; Collazuol, G.; Iacopini, E.; Ruggiero, G.; Bizzeti, A.; Lenti, M.; Veltri, M.; Behler, M.; Eppard, K.; Eppard, M.; Hirstius, A.; Kleinknecht, K.; Koch, U.; Marouelli, P.; Masetti, L.; Moosbrugger, U.; Morales Morales, C.; Peters, A.; Wanke, R.; Winhart, A.; Dabrowski, A.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Szleper, M.; Velasco, M.; Anzivino, G.; Imbergamo, E.; Lamanna, G.; Lubrano, P.; Michetti, A.; Nappi, A.; Piccini, M.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Cenci, P.; Pepe, M.; Petrucci, M. C.; Cerri, C.; Fantechi, R.; Mannelli, I.; Costantini, F.; Fiorini, L.; Giudici, S.; Pierazzini, G.; Sozzi, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Chèze, J. B.; De Beer, M.; Debu, P.; Gouge, G.; Marel, G.; Mazzucato, E.; Peyaud, B.; Vallage, B.; Holder, M.; Maier, A.; Ziolkowski, M.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Clemencic, M.; Lopez, S. Goy; Menichetti, E.; Pastrone, N.; Wislicki, W.; Dibon, H.; Jeitler, M.; Markytan, M.; Neuhofer, G.; Widhalm, L.; NA48/1 Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The KS →π+π-e+e- decay mode was investigated using the data collected in 2002 by the NA48/1 Collaboration. With about 23 k KS →π+π-e+e- events and 59 k KL →π+π-πD0 normalization decays, the KS →π+π-e+e- branching ratio relative to the KL →π+π-πD0 one was determined to be BR (KS →π+π-e+e-) / BR (KL →π+π-πD0) = (3.28 ±0.06stat ±0.04syst) ×10-2. This result was used to set the upper limit |gE1 /gBR | < 3.0 at 90% CL on the presence, in the decay amplitude, of an E1 direct emission (gE1) term relative to the dominant inner bremsstrahlung (gBR) term. The CP-violating asymmetry Aϕ in the sin ϕcos ϕ distribution of KS →π+π-e+e- events, where ϕ is the angle between the π+π- and the e+e- decay planes in the kaon centre of mass, was found to be Aϕ = (- 0.4 ± 0.8)%, consistent with zero. These results are in good agreement with a description of the KS →π+π-e+e- decay amplitude dominated by the CP-even inner bremsstrahlung process.

  4. The Hong Kong Bridge Protocol. Immediate loading of mandibular Brånemark fixtures using a fixed provisional prosthesis: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, J; Hui, E; Liu, J; Li, D; Wat, P; Li, W; Yau, Y K; Law, H

    2001-01-01

    The Brånemark System Classic is well documented for its successful and predictable results in dental implant rehabilitation. However, the classic two-stage protocol is associated with problems, such as long treatment time and high treatment cost. To overcome these problems, new developments, including early functional loading protocol and Brånemark System Novum, have been introduced by various groups of researchers. In Hong Kong, a protocol has been developed to immediately load the Brånemark System fixtures with a fixed provisional prosthesis. The goal of this prospective study was to present the Hong Kong Bridge protocol and report the short-term evaluation of this protocol in a group of patients who had undergone dental implant treatment for their edentulous mandibles. Twenty-seven consecutive patients being treated at the Hong Kong Osseointegration Implant Centre between June 1998 and December 2000 were included in this study. A total of 123 Brånemark System fixtures were installed and regularly followed up for 3 to 30 months. The prosthesis stability and the marginal bone level were regularly evaluated clinically and radiographically, respectively, after the implant surgery. Fifteen of the 27 patients had been followed up for 1 year or longer. Two patients with eight fixtures were withdrawn from the study. Two of the 115 remaining fixtures failed, resulting in an overall implant survival rate of 98.3%. The mean marginal bone change was reported on 49 fixtures that had passed the 1-year review. The mean marginal bone loss was 0.60 mm (p < .05) after 1 year of functional loading. To load the mandibular Brånemark System fixtures immediately according to the Hong Kong Bridge protocol was a predictable and simple method with good results during this preliminary study period.

  5. Abyssnian pea (Lathyrus schaeferi Kosterin pro Pisum abyssinicum A. Br. – a problematic taxon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Kosterin

    2017-12-01

    have taken place under cultivation, in Yemen or Afar Depression. A representative of P. sativum subsp. elatius was revealed, the F1 hybrids of which with the Abyssinian pea as a seed parent had fully fertile pollen. P. abyssinicum × P. fulvum crosses provide the best hybrid seed outcome among remote crosses conducted, so that P. abyssinicum can be used as a ‘bridge’ for gene introgression from P. fulvum to P. sativum. Rather a high level of reproductive isolation of the Abyssinian pea from other representatives of the genus conforms the biological species concept, however the disposition of P. abyssinicum accessions as a small cluster among accessions of P. sativum subsp. elatius on molecular phylogeny reconstructions violates the phylogenetic species concept. Most authors assume the Abyssinian pea as a species, Pisum abyssinicum, some as a subspecies, P. sativum subsp. abyssinicum (A. Br. Berger. Perhaps it would be most correct to consider it as a hybridogenic species. Because of the recent subsuming of the genus Pisum L. into the genus Lathyrus and with respect to the existing name Lathyrus abyssinicus A. Br. (a synonym of L. sativus L., the Abyssinian pea was given a new name Lathyrus schaeferi (A. Braun Kosterin (Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding 21: 167. 2017 (pro Pisum abyssinicum A. Braun, in honour of Hanno Schaefer, who substantiated the revision of tribe Fabeae by molecular reconstruction of its phylogeny. The paper here translated contained new combinations of Lathyrus sectio Pisum (L. Kosterin (Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding 21: 168. 2017 and Lathurus fulvus (Sibthrop et Smith Kosterin (Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding 21: 168. 2017.

  6. Structural and electronic properties of silicene on MgX2 (X = Cl, Br, and I)

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie

    2014-07-23

    Silicene is a monolayer of Si atoms in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice, being expected to be compatible with current Si-based nanoelectronics. The behavior of silicene is strongly influenced by the substrate. In this context, its structural and electronic properties on MgX2 (X = Cl, Br, and I) have been investigated using first-principles calculations. Different locations of the Si atoms are found to be energetically degenerate because of the weak van der Waals interaction with the substrates. The Si buckling height is below 0.55 Å, which is close to the value of free-standing silicene (0.49 Å). Importantly, the Dirac cone of silicene is well preserved on MgX2 (located slightly above the Fermi level), and the band gaps induced by the substrate are less than 0.1 eV. Application of an external electric field and stacking can be used to increase the band gap. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  7. NMR Spectroscopic Characterization of Charge Assisted Strong Hydrogen Bonds in Brønsted Acid Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen bonding plays a crucial role in Brønsted acid catalysis. However, the hydrogen bond properties responsible for the activation of the substrate are still under debate. Here, we report an in depth study of the properties and geometries of the hydrogen bonds in (R)-TRIP imine complexes (TRIP: 3,3′-Bis(2,4,6-triisopropylphenyl)-1,1′-binaphthyl-2,2′-diylhydrogen phosphate). From NMR spectroscopic investigations 1H and 15N chemical shifts, a Steiner–Limbach correlation, a deuterium isotope effect as well as quantitative values of 1JNH,2hJPH and 3hJPN were used to determine atomic distances (rOH, rNH, rNO) and geometry information. Calculations at SCS-MP2/CBS//TPSS-D3/def2-SVP-level of theory provided potential surfaces, atomic distances and angles. In addition, scalar coupling constants were computed at TPSS-D3/IGLO-III. The combined experimental and theoretical data reveal mainly ion pair complexes providing strong hydrogen bonds with an asymmetric single well potential. The geometries of the hydrogen bonds are not affected by varying the steric or electronic properties of the aromatic imines. Hence, the strong hydrogen bond reduces the degree of freedom of the substrate and acts as a structural anchor in the (R)-TRIP imine complex. PMID:27936674

  8. Measurement of BR(Bu to phi K)/BR(Bu to J/psi K) at the collider detector at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napora, Robert A. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This thesis presents evidence for the decay mode B± → ΦK± in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV using (120 ± 7)pb-1 of data collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). This signal is then used to measure the branching ratio relative to the decay mode B± → J/ΨK±. The measurement starts from reconstructing the two decay modes: B± → ΦK±, where Φ → K+K- and B± → J/ΨK±, where J/Ψ → μ+μ-. The measurement yielded 23 ± 7 B± → ΦK± events, and 406 ± 26 B± → J/ΨK± events. The fraction of B± → J/ΨK± events where the J/Ψ subsequently decayed to two muons (as opposed to two electrons) was found to be fμμ = 0.839 ± 0.066. The relative branching ratio of the two decays is then calculated based on the equation: BR(B± → ΦK±)/BR(B± → J/ΨK±) = N ΦK/NΨK • fμμ BR(J/Ψ → μ+μ-)/BR(Φ → K+K-) ϵμμK/ϵKKK R(ϵiso). The measurement finds BR(B± → ΦK±)/BR(B± → J/ΨK±) = 0.0068 ± 0.0021(stat.) ± 0.0007(syst.). The B± → ΦK± branching ratio is then found to be BR(B± → ΦK±) = [6.9 ± 2.1(stat.) ± 0.8(syst.)] x 10-6. This value is consistent with similar measurements reported by the e+e- collider experiments BaBar[1], Belle[2], and CLEO[3].

  9. Investigation of iron metabolism in mice expressing a mutant Menke's copper transporting ATPase (Atp7a protein with diminished activity (Brindled; Mo (Br (/y .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukru Gulec

    Full Text Available During iron deficiency, perturbations in copper homeostasis have frequently been documented. Previous studies in iron-deprived rats demonstrated that enterocyte and hepatic copper levels increase and a copper transporter (the Menkes Copper ATPase; Atp7a is induced in the duodenal epithelium in parallel to iron transport-related genes (e.g. Dmt1, Dcytb, Fpn1. Moreover, two ferroxidase proteins involved in iron homeostasis, hephaestin expressed in enterocytes and ceruloplasmin, produced and secreted into blood by the liver, are copper-dependent enzymes. We thus aimed to test the hypothesis that Atp7a function is important for the copper-related compensatory response of the intestinal epithelium to iron deficiency. Accordingly, iron homeostasis was studied for the first time in mice expressing a mutant Atp7a protein with minimal activity (Brindled [Mo (Br (/y ]. Mutant mice were rescued by perinatal copper injections, and, after a 7-8 week recovery period, were deprived of dietary iron for 3 weeks (along with WT littermates. Adult Mo (Br (/y mice displayed copper-deficiency anemia but had normal iron status; in contrast, iron-deprived Mo (Br (/y mice were iron deficient and more severely anemic with partial amelioration of the copper-deficient phenotype. Intestinal iron absorption in both genotypes (WT and Mo (Br (/y increased ∼3-fold when mice consumed a low-iron diet and ∼6-fold when mice were concurrently bled. WT mice exhibited no alterations in copper homeostasis in response to iron deprivation or phlebotomy. Conversely, upregulation of iron absorption was associated with increased enterocyte and liver copper levels and serum ferroxidase (ceruloplasmin activity in Mo (Br (/y mice, typifying the response to iron deprivation in many mammalian species. We thus speculate that a copper threshold exists that is necessary to allow appropriate regulate of iron absorption. In summary, Mo (Br (/y mice were able to adequately regulate iron absorption

  10. New retrieval of BrO from SCIAMACHY limb: an estimate of the stratospheric bromine loading during April 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Parrella

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a new retrieval of stratospheric BrO (bromine monoxide from channel 2 SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY limb observations. Retrievals are shown to agree with independent balloon observations to within one standard deviation of the retrieval noise. We retrieve BrO profiles for all of April 2008, and apply simulated [BrO]/[Bry] (bromine monoxide : stratospheric inorganic bromine ratios to estimate the stratospheric Bry loading. We find 23.5 ± 6 ppt Br, suggesting 7 ppt Br from short-lived bromocarbons to be at the high end of the current best estimate (3–8 ppt. The 6 ppt Br uncertainty estimate is dominated by the 21% uncertainty in the simulated [BrO] / [Bry] ratio due to propagation of errors from the underlying chemical kinetics.

  11. La mémoire en jeu vidéo dans Level five (1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaut Garcia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract (E: The theory of digital arts today is almost always articulated around the dichotomy<br />real/virtual. The universe of video games is generally perceived as a parallel reality, the time of play as<br />time that can be reversed. In Level five, Chris Marker uses computer techniques highlighting their<br />dimension of memory rather than their “virtuality”: preserving the complete memory of the past, the<br />video game about the battle of Okinawa returns the player to his own ineffaceable memory and to the<br />inescapable character of what, in reality, “is played” once and for all. The computer memory becomes<br />the double of the human memory.<br />Abstract (F: Aujourd’hui, la théorie des arts numériques s’articule presque toujours autour de la<br />dichotomie réel/virtuel. L’univers des jeux vidéo est généralement perçu comme une réalité parallèle,<br />le temps du jeu comme un temps réversible. Dans Level five, Chris Marker utilise les techniques<br />informatiques en mettant en avant leur dimension « mémorielle » plutôt que « virtuelle » : conservant<br />toute la mémoire du passé, le jeu vidéo sur la bataille d’Okinawa renvoie le joueur à sa propre<br />mémoire ineffaçable et au caractère inéluctable de ce qui, dans la réalité, est « joué » une fois pour<br />toutes. La mémoire informatique devient le double de la mémoire humaine.

  12. Nucleotide sequence of Phaseolus vulgaris L. alcohol dehydrogenase encoding cDNA and three-dimensional structure prediction of the deduced protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelia, Kassim; Khor, Chin Yin; Shah, Farida Habib; Bhore, Subhash J

    2015-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are widely consumed as a source of proteins and natural products. However, its yield needs to be increased. In line with the agenda of Phaseomics (an international consortium), work of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) generation from bean pods was initiated. Altogether, 5972 ESTs have been isolated. Alcohol dehydrogenase (AD) encoding gene cDNA was a noticeable transcript among the generated ESTs. This AD is an important enzyme; therefore, to understand more about it this study was undertaken. The objective of this study was to elucidate P. vulgaris L. AD (PvAD) gene cDNA sequence and to predict the three-dimensional (3D) structure of deduced protein. positive and negative strands of the PvAD cDNA clone were sequenced using M13 forward and M13 reverse primers to elucidate the nucleotide sequence. Deduced PvAD cDNA and protein sequence was analyzed for their basic features using online bioinformatics tools. Sequence comparison was carried out using bl2seq program, and tree-view program was used to construct a phylogenetic tree. The secondary structures and 3D structure of PvAD protein were predicted by using the PHYRE automatic fold recognition server. The sequencing results analysis showed that PvAD cDNA is 1294 bp in length. It's open reading frame encodes for a protein that contains 371 amino acids. Deduced protein sequence analysis showed the presence of putative substrate binding, catalytic Zn binding, and NAD binding sites. Results indicate that the predicted 3D structure of PvAD protein is analogous to the experimentally determined crystal structure of s-nitrosoglutathione reductase from an Arabidopsis species. The 1294 bp long PvAD cDNA encodes for 371 amino acid long protein that contains conserved domains required for biological functions of AD. The predicted deduced PvAD protein's 3D structure reflects the analogy with the crystal structure of Arabidopsis thaliana s-nitrosoglutathione reductase. Further study is required

  13. Annealing effects and DLTS study on PNP silicon bipolar junction transistors irradiated by 20 MeV Br ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaoming; Li, Xingji; Yang, Jianqun; Bollmann, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Isochronal anneal sequences have been carried out on 3CG130 silicon PNP bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) irradiated with 20 MeV bromine (Br) heavy ions. The Gummel curve was utilized to characterize the annealing behavior of defects in both the emitter-base depletion region and the neutral base. The results show that the base current (IB) decreases with the increasing annealing temperature, while the collector current (IC) keeps invariably. The current gain varies slightly, when the annealing temperature (TA) is lower than 500 K, while varies rapidly at TA>550 K, and the current gain of the 3CG130 BJT annealing at 700 K almost restore to that of the pre-radiation transistor. The deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) data was used to assign the relative magnitude of each of the important defects. Based on the in situ electrical measurement and DLTS spectra, it is clear that the V2(+/0) trap is the main contribution to the degradation of current gain after the 20 MeV Br ions irradiation. The V2(+/0) peak has many characteristics expected for the current gain degradation.

  14. Annealing effects and DLTS study on PNP silicon bipolar junction transistors irradiated by 20 MeV Br ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chaoming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Li, Xingji, E-mail: lxj0218@hit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Yang, Jianqun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Bollmann, Joachim [Institute of Electronics and Sensor Materials, TU Bergakademie, Freiberg 71691 (Germany)

    2014-01-21

    Isochronal anneal sequences have been carried out on 3CG130 silicon PNP bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) irradiated with 20 MeV bromine (Br) heavy ions. The Gummel curve was utilized to characterize the annealing behavior of defects in both the emitter-base depletion region and the neutral base. The results show that the base current (I{sub B}) decreases with the increasing annealing temperature, while the collector current (I{sub C}) keeps invariably. The current gain varies slightly, when the annealing temperature (T{sub A}) is lower than 500 K, while varies rapidly at T{sub A}>550 K, and the current gain of the 3CG130 BJT annealing at 700 K almost restore to that of the pre-radiation transistor. The deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) data was used to assign the relative magnitude of each of the important defects. Based on the in situ electrical measurement and DLTS spectra, it is clear that the V{sub 2}(+/0) trap is the main contribution to the degradation of current gain after the 20 MeV Br ions irradiation. The V{sub 2}(+/0) peak has many characteristics expected for the current gain degradation.

  15. Determination of Br in blood of amateur runners using NAA and ITS correlation with adopted physical training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, Luciana; Zamboni, Cibele B., E-mail: lukovacs@gmail.com, E-mail: czamboni@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nunes, Lazaro A.S.; Lourenco, Thiago F.; Macedo, Denise V., E-mail: lazaroalessandro@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: thiago_fl@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: denivevm@unicamp.br [Universidade de Campinas (LABEX/UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Bioquimica do Exercicio

    2013-07-01

    Bromine (Br) is one of the most abundant trace elements in the biosphere, in the human body is present in blood (as bromide), lungs, liver and hair. There is no evidence in humans of bromide concentration in any particular organ that might indicate a specific physiological function and not enough information is available on bromine metabolism but, some studies report its use by eosinophilic leukocytes for immune defense and electrolytic balance. In this study the Br levels were determined in Brazilian amateur athlete's blood that performing physical exercise at (Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio (LABEX/UNICAMP-Brazil). The samples were collected from twenty six male athletes, ranging from 18 to 26 years old, at rest. The blood samples were irradiated in the nuclear reactor (IEA-R1, 3-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/Sao Paulo - Brazil and were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA) technique. These results were compared with the control group (subjects of same age but not involved with physical activities). The range established at rest for amateur runner (0.0040 - 0.0096 gL{sup -1}) when compared with control group (0.0074 - 0.0306 gL{sup -1}) suggests that there is a dependency of these limits in the function of the adopted physical training. (author)

  16. Predominance of Procedural Knowledge and Between-Operation Interference as Deduced from Fraction Errors of Preservice Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amancio L. Cantoria, Jr.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of fractions in Philippine mathematics curriculum starts as early as first grade. In spite of the regular rehearsal of this mathematical topic through secondary school level, many students reach college without showing adequate skills in fraction. This study determined the performance and analyzed the errors of preservice teachers in dealing with fractions. Findings revealed that preservice teachers’ performance in solving fractions reached an unacceptable level. Prevalent errors were demonstrated when adding dissimilar fractions, adding a mixed number and a fraction, and multiplying a mixed number by a fraction, because the dominant procedural knowledge in fraction addition interferes with their knowledge of fraction multiplication, and vice versa. Moreover, preservice teachers exhibit low level of content knowledge of fractions as shown in their inability to add common fractions and their failure to translate mixed numbers into equivalent fractions.

  17. Synthesis and single crystal growth of perovskite semiconductor CsPbBr3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingzhi; Zheng, Zhiping; Fu, Qiuyun; Chen, Zheng; He, Jianle; Zhang, Sen; Chen, Cheng; Luo, Wei

    2018-02-01

    As a typical representative of all-inorganic lead halide perovskites, cesium lead bromine (CsPbBr3) has attracted significant attention in recent years. The direct band gap semiconductor CsPbBr3 has a wide band gap of 2.25 eV and high average atomic number (Cs: 55, Pb: 82 and Br: 35), which meet most of the requirements for detection of X- and γ-ray radiation, such as high attenuation, high resistivity, and significant photoconductivity response. However, the growth of large volume CsPbBr3 single crystals remains a challenge. In this paper, the synthesis of CsPbBr3 polycrystalline powders by a chemical co-precipitation method was investigated and the optimum synthesis conditions were obtained. A large CsPbBr3 single crystal of 8 mm diameter and 60 mm length was obtained by a creative electronic dynamic gradient (EDG) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and X-ray rocking curve showed that the CsPbBr3 crystal preferentially oriented in the (1 1 0) direction and had a low dislocation density and small residual stress in the crystal. The IR and UV-Vis transmittance and temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectra showed the crystal had a good basic optical performance. The almost linear current-voltage (I-V) curves implied good ohmic contact between the electrodes and crystal surfaces. The resistivity of the crystal was calculated 109-1010 Ω cm. The above results showed that the quality of the obtained crystal had met the demand of optoelectronic applications.

  18. A synergistic antiproliferation effect of curcumin and docosahexaenoic acid in SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells: unique signaling not explained by the effects of either compound alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Davisson V

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is a collection of diseases in which molecular phenotypes can act as both indicators and mediators of therapeutic strategy. Therefore, candidate therapeutics must be assessed in the context of multiple cell lines with known molecular phenotypes. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and curcumin (CCM are dietary compounds known to antagonize breast cancer cell proliferation. We report that these compounds in combination exert a variable antiproliferative effect across multiple breast cell lines, which is synergistic in SK-BR-3 cells and triggers cell signaling events not predicted by the activity of either compound alone. Methods Dose response curves for CCM and DHA were generated for five breast cell lines. Effects of the DHA+ CCM combination on cell proliferation were evaluated using varying concentrations, at a fixed ratio, of CCM and DHA based on their individual ED50. Detection of synergy was performed using nonlinear regression of a sigmoid dose response model and Combination Index approaches. Cell molecular network responses were investigated through whole genome microarray analysis of transcript level changes. Gene expression results were validated by RT-PCR, and western blot analysis was performed for potential signaling mediators. Cellular curcumin uptake, with and without DHA, was analyzed via flow cytometry and HPLC. Results CCM+DHA had an antiproliferative effect in SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-361, MCF7 and MCF10AT cells. The effect was synergistic for SK-BR-3 (ER- PR- Her2+ relative to the two compounds individually. A whole genome microarray approach was used to investigate changes in gene expression for the synergistic effects of CCM+DHA in SK-BR-3 cells lines. CCM+DHA triggered transcript-level responses, in disease-relevant functional categories, that were largely non-overlapping with changes caused by CCM or DHA individually. Genes involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, inhibition of metastasis, and

  19. Evolutionary Steps in the Emergence of Life Deduced from the Bottom-Up Approach and GADV Hypothesis (Top-Down Approach)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehara, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    It is no doubt quite difficult to solve the riddle of the origin of life. So, firstly, I would like to point out the kinds of obstacles there are in solving this riddle and how we should tackle these difficult problems, reviewing the studies that have been conducted so far. After that, I will propose that the consecutive evolutionary steps in a timeline can be rationally deduced by using a common event as a juncture, which is obtained by two counter-directional approaches: one is the bottom-up approach through which many researchers have studied the origin of life, and the other is the top-down approach, through which I established the [GADV]-protein world hypothesis or GADV hypothesis on the origin of life starting from a study on the formation of entirely new genes in extant microorganisms. Last, I will describe the probable evolutionary process from the formation of Earth to the emergence of life, which was deduced by using a common event—the establishment of the first genetic code encoding [GADV]-amino acids—as a juncture for the results obtained from the two approaches. PMID:26821048

  20. Evolutionary Steps in the Emergence of Life Deduced from the Bottom-Up Approach and GADV Hypothesis (Top-Down Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Ikehara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is no doubt quite difficult to solve the riddle of the origin of life. So, firstly, I would like to point out the kinds of obstacles there are in solving this riddle and how we should tackle these difficult problems, reviewing the studies that have been conducted so far. After that, I will propose that the consecutive evolutionary steps in a timeline can be rationally deduced by using a common event as a juncture, which is obtained by two counter-directional approaches: one is the bottom-up approach through which many researchers have studied the origin of life, and the other is the top-down approach, through which I established the [GADV]-protein world hypothesis or GADV hypothesis on the origin of life starting from a study on the formation of entirely new genes in extant microorganisms. Last, I will describe the probable evolutionary process from the formation of Earth to the emergence of life, which was deduced by using a common event—the establishment of the first genetic code encoding [GADV]-amino acids—as a juncture for the results obtained from the two approaches.

  1. Linearity for Ca2+-Doped CeBr3 Scintillating Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guss, Paul [NSTec

    2014-02-03

    The Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) developed an aliovalently calcium-doped cerium tribromide (CeBr3:Ca2+) crystal with 3.2% resolution. RSL completed a crystal assessment, and Sandia National Laboratories calculated the predictive performance and physical characteristics using proven density functional theory (DFT) formalism. Results are reported for the work done to map the detector performance, characteristics, calcium doping concentration, and crystal strength. Preliminary scintillation measurements for this aliovalently calcium-doped CeBr3 scintillator exhibit a slight blue shift in fluorescence emission at 371 nm excitation for CeBr3. The structural, electronic, and optical properties of CeBr3 crystals were investigated using DFT within generalized gradient approximation. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data. The energy band structures and density of states were obtained. The optical properties of CeBr3, including the dielectric function, were calculated. Specifically, we report excellent linearity with the aliovalently calcium-doped CeBr3 crystal. Proportionality of light yield is one area of performance in which Ce-doped and Ce-based lanthanide halides excel. Maintaining proportionality is key to producing a strong, high-performance scintillator. Relative light yield proportionality was measured for both doped and undoped samples of CeBr3 to ensure no loss in performance was incurred during doping. The light output and proportionality, however, appear to be similar to CeBr3. There was a reduced yield at low energy. Relative light yield proportionality measurements suggest that dopants do not significantly affect proportionality at higher energies. RSL completed additional testing and evaluation of the new crystal and assessed benchmark spectroscopy measurements. Results, which present energy resolution as a function of energy, are summarized. Typical spectroscopy results using a 137Cs radiation source are shown

  2. CsPbBr{sub 3} nanocrystal saturable absorber for mode-locking ytterbium fiber laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yan; Li, Yue; Xu, Jianqiu; Tang, Yulong, E-mail: yulong@sjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (MOE), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Hu, Zhiping; Tang, Xiaosheng [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and Systems of the Education Ministry of China, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2016-06-27

    Cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (CsPbX{sub 3}, X = Cl, Br, I) have been reported as efficient light-harvesting and light-emitting semiconductor materials, but their nonlinear optical properties have been seldom touched upon. In this paper, we prepare layered CsPbBr{sub 3} nanocrystal films and characterize their physical properties. Broadband linear absorption from ∼0.8 to over 2.2 μm and nonlinear optical absorption at the 1-μm wavelength region are measured. The CsPbBr{sub 3} saturable absorber (SA), manufactured by drop-casting of colloidal CsPbBr{sub 3} liquid solution on a gold mirror, shows modulation depth and saturation intensity of 13.1% and 10.7 MW/cm{sup 2}, respectively. With this SA, mode-locking operation of a polarization-maintained ytterbium fiber laser produces single pulses with duration of ∼216 ps, maximum average output power of 10.5 mW, and the laser spectrum is centered at ∼1076 nm. This work shows that CsPbBr{sub 3} films can be efficient SA candidates for fiber lasers and also have great potential to become broadband linear and nonlinear optical materials for photonics and optoelectronics.

  3. Intrinsic Lead Ion Emissions in Zero-Dimensional Cs4PbBr6 Nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Yin, Jun

    2017-11-07

    We investigate the intrinsic lead ion (Pb2+) emissions in zero-dimensional (0D) perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) using a combination of experimental and theoretical approaches. The temperature-dependent photoluminescence experiments for both “nonemissive” (highly suppressed green emission) and emissive (bright green emission) Cs4PbBr6 NCs show a splitting of emission spectra into high- and low-energy transitions in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral range. In the nonemissive case, we attribute the high-energy UV emission at approximately 350 nm to the allowed optical transition of 3P1 to 1S0 in Pb2+ ions and the low-energy UV emission at approximately 400 nm to the charge-transfer state involved in the 0D NC host lattice (D-state). In the emissive Cs4PbBr6 NCs, in addition to the broad UV emission, we demonstrate that energy transfer occurs from Pb2+ ions to green luminescent centers. The optical phonon modes in Cs4PbBr6 NCs can be assigned to both Pb–Br stretching and rocking motions from density functional theory calculations. Our results address the origin of the dual broadband Pb2+ ion emissions observed in Cs4PbBr6 NCs and provide insights into the mechanism of ionic exciton–optical phonon interactions in these 0D perovskites.

  4. Structure of ^69Br and the rp-process in X-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesaraja, Caroline; Smith, Michael

    2010-02-01

    The long (35.5 sec.) positron decay lifetime of ^68Se, coupled with the low estimated probability of proton capture into ^69Br, make ^68Se a waiting point in the rp-process powering explosions in X-ray binaries. The thermonuclear reaction flow in X-ray bursts (XRB) depends sensitively on the properties of ^69Br, especially whether or not the ground state is proton bound [1]. Recent studies of the mass of ^68Se and the decay of ^69Br prompt a reassessment of the ^69Br properties relevant for rp-process burning in XRB. In our current project to evaluate the structure of nuclei with mass 69, we will focus on ^69Br. Our assessment, which will be included in the ENSDF database at the U.S. National Nuclear Data Center, will be used to generate a new reaction rate for proton capture on ^68Se, and subsequently for new X-ray burst nucleosynthesis calculations. [4pt] [1] H.Schatz et al., Phys. Rep. 294, 167 (1988) )

  5. Stratospheric BrO abundance measured by a balloon-borne submillimeterwave radiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Stachnik

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of mixing ratio profiles of stratospheric bromine monoxide (BrO were made using observations of BrO rotational line emission at 650.179 GHz by a balloon-borne SIS (superconductor-insulator-superconductor submillimeterwave heterodyne limb sounder (SLS. The balloon was launched from Ft. Sumner, New Mexico (34° N on 22 September 2011. Peak mid-day BrO abundance varied from 16 ± 2 ppt at 34 km to 6 ± 4 ppt at 16 km. Corresponding estimates of total inorganic bromine (Bry, derived from BrO vmr (volume mixing ratio using a photochemical box model, were 21 ± 3 ppt and 11 ± 5 ppt, respectively. Inferred Bry abundance exceeds that attributable solely to decomposition of long-lived methyl bromide and other halons, and is consistent with a contribution from bromine-containing very short lived substances, BryVSLS, of 4 ppt to 8 ppt. These results for BrO and Bry were compared with, and found to be in good agreement with, those of other recent balloon-borne and satellite instruments.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of Ag/AgBrO{sub 3} photocatalyst with high photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Limin, E-mail: songlmnk@sohu.com [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering & State Key Laboratory of Hollow-Fiber Membrane Materials and Membrane Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin, 300387 (China); Li, Tongtong [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering & State Key Laboratory of Hollow-Fiber Membrane Materials and Membrane Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin, 300387 (China); Zhang, Shujuan [College of Science, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin, 300457 (China)

    2016-10-01

    A new Ag/AgBrO{sub 3} photocatalyst was prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of AgNO{sub 3} and NaBrO{sub 3}. The catalyst’s structure and performance were investigated with X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The UV–vis absorption spectrum of Ag/AgBrO{sub 3} exhibits a band gap of 3.97 eV. The results show that the Ag/AgBrO{sub 3} semiconductor can be excited by ultraviolet–visible light. The photodegradation of Rhodamine B displayed much higher photocatalytic activity than that of N-doped TiO{sub 2} under the same experimental conditions. Moreover, ·OH and ·O{sub 2}{sup −} generated in the photocatalysis played a key role of the photodegradation of Rhodamine B. - Highlights: • Ag/AgBrO{sub 3} with higher photodegradation ability was synthesized. • ·OH and ·O{sub 2}{sup −} radicals were the main active species in the oxidation of RhB. • The possible reaction mechanism was discussed in details.

  7. CsPbBr3 nanocrystal saturable absorber for mode-locking ytterbium fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Hu, Zhiping; Li, Yue; Xu, Jianqiu; Tang, Xiaosheng; Tang, Yulong

    2016-06-01

    Cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I) have been reported as efficient light-harvesting and light-emitting semiconductor materials, but their nonlinear optical properties have been seldom touched upon. In this paper, we prepare layered CsPbBr3 nanocrystal films and characterize their physical properties. Broadband linear absorption from ˜0.8 to over 2.2 μm and nonlinear optical absorption at the 1-μm wavelength region are measured. The CsPbBr3 saturable absorber (SA), manufactured by drop-casting of colloidal CsPbBr3 liquid solution on a gold mirror, shows modulation depth and saturation intensity of 13.1% and 10.7 MW/cm2, respectively. With this SA, mode-locking operation of a polarization-maintained ytterbium fiber laser produces single pulses with duration of ˜216 ps, maximum average output power of 10.5 mW, and the laser spectrum is centered at ˜1076 nm. This work shows that CsPbBr3 films can be efficient SA candidates for fiber lasers and also have great potential to become broadband linear and nonlinear optical materials for photonics and optoelectronics.

  8. XeBr excilamp based on a non-toxic component mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelman, V A; Shpenik, Yu O; Zhmenyak, Yu V, E-mail: mironkle@rambler.ru [Institute of Electron Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Universitetska 21, 88017 Uzhgorod (Ukraine)

    2011-06-29

    This paper presents the results of experimental studies on obtaining UV luminescence of XeBr* molecules at the excitation of a non-toxic Xe-CsBr gas-vapour mixture by a longitudinal pulse-periodic discharge. Effective UV emission yield of the exciplex XeBr* molecules (spectral maximum at 282 nm) is observed within a wide range of excitation conditions. The spectral distribution in the UV emission under the optimal excitation conditions does not differ essentially from that in other XeBr excilamps based on toxic components. The emission of the B {yields} X band of the XeBr* molecules provides the main contribution to the total power of the discharge UV emission. The determined average power of the UV emission for the experimental discharge tube is 12 W at an efficiency of 1%. Spectral, power-related and time-dependent parameters of the laboratory excilamp are presented for a wide range of excitation parameters. A new mechanism of exciplex molecule formation at the excitation of a rare gas/alkali halide vapour mixture is discussed.

  9. Photostriction of CH3NH3PbBr3 Perovskite Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Tzu-Chiao

    2017-07-17

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials exhibit a variety of physical properties. Pronounced coupling between phonon, organic cations, and the inorganic framework suggest that these materials exhibit strong light-matter interactions. The photoinduced strain of CH3 NH3 PbBr3 is investigated using high-resolution and contactless in situ Raman spectroscopy. Under illumination, the material exhibits large blue shifts in its Raman spectra that indicate significant structural deformations (i.e., photostriction). From these shifts, the photostrictive coefficient of CH3 NH3 PbBr3 is calculated as 2.08 × 10-8 m2 W-1 at room temperature under visible light illumination. The significant photostriction of CH3 NH3 PbBr3 is attributed to a combination of the photovoltaic effect and translational symmetry loss of the molecular configuration via strong translation-rotation coupling. Unlike CH3 NH3 PbI3 , it is noted that the photostriction of CH3 NH3 PbBr3 is extremely stable, demonstrating no signs of optical decay for at least 30 d. These results suggest the potential of CH3 NH3 PbBr3 for applications in next-generation optical micro-electromechanical devices.

  10. Photostriction of CH3 NH3 PbBr3 Perovskite Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tzu-Chiao; Wang, Hsin-Ping; Li, Ting-You; Lin, Chun-Ho; Hsieh, Ying-Hui; Chu, Ying-Hao; He, Jr-Hau

    2017-09-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials exhibit a variety of physical properties. Pronounced coupling between phonon, organic cations, and the inorganic framework suggest that these materials exhibit strong light-matter interactions. The photoinduced strain of CH3 NH3 PbBr3 is investigated using high-resolution and contactless in situ Raman spectroscopy. Under illumination, the material exhibits large blue shifts in its Raman spectra that indicate significant structural deformations (i.e., photostriction). From these shifts, the photostrictive coefficient of CH3 NH3 PbBr3 is calculated as 2.08 × 10-8 m2 W-1 at room temperature under visible light illumination. The significant photostriction of CH3 NH3 PbBr3 is attributed to a combination of the photovoltaic effect and translational symmetry loss of the molecular configuration via strong translation-rotation coupling. Unlike CH3 NH3 PbI3 , it is noted that the photostriction of CH3 NH3 PbBr3 is extremely stable, demonstrating no signs of optical decay for at least 30 d. These results suggest the potential of CH3 NH3 PbBr3 for applications in next-generation optical micro-electromechanical devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Intrinsic ferromagnetism and quantum anomalous Hall effect in a CoBr2 monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Zou, Jin-Yu; Liu, Bang-Gui

    2017-05-31

    The electronic, magnetic, and topological properties of a CoBr2 monolayer are studied in the framework of density-functional theory (DFT) combined with tight-binding (TB) modeling in terms of the Wannier basis. Our DFT investigation and Monte Carlo simulation show that there exists intrinsic two-dimensional ferromagnetism in the CoBr2 monolayer, thanks to the large out-of-plane magnetocrystalline anisotropic energy. Our further study indicates that the spin-orbit coupling makes it become a topologically nontrivial insulator with a quantum anomalous Hall effect and topological Chern number [script C] = 4 and its edge states can be manipulated by changing the width of its nanoribbons and applying strains. The CoBr2 monolayer can be exfoliated from the layered CoBr2 bulk material because its exfoliation energy is between those of graphene and the MoS2 monolayer and it is dynamically stable. These results make us believe that the CoBr2 monolayer can make a promising spintronic material for future high-performance devices.

  12. Fast-neutron induced background in LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiener, J., E-mail: Jurgen.Kiener@csnsm.in2p3.fr [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière (CSNSM), CNRS-IN2P3 et Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Campus Orsay (France); Tatischeff, V.; Deloncle, I. [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière (CSNSM), CNRS-IN2P3 et Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Campus Orsay (France); Séréville, N. de [Institut de Physique Nucléaire d' Orsay, CNRS-IN2P3 and Université Paris-Sud, 91406 Orsay (France); Laurent, P. [CEA/IRFU Service d' Astrophysique, Orme des Merisiers, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Laboratoire Astroparticules et Cosmologie (APC), 10, rue A. Domon et L. Duquet, 75205 Paris (France); Blondel, C. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/IRFU, Orme des Merisiers, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chabot, M. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire d' Orsay, CNRS-IN2P3 and Université Paris-Sud, 91406 Orsay (France); Chipaux, R. [CEA/DMS/IRFU/SEDI, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Coc, A. [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière (CSNSM), CNRS-IN2P3 et Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Campus Orsay (France); Dubos, S. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/IRFU, Orme des Merisiers, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gostojic, A. [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière (CSNSM), CNRS-IN2P3 et Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Campus Orsay (France); and others

    2015-10-21

    The response of a scintillation detector with a cylindrical 1.5-in. LaBr{sub 3}:Ce crystal to incident neutrons has been measured in the energy range E{sub n} = 2–12 MeV. Neutrons were produced by proton irradiation of a Li target at E{sub p} = 5–14.6 MeV with pulsed proton beams. Using the time-of-flight information between target and detector, energy spectra of the LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detector resulting from fast neutron interactions have been obtained at 4 different neutron energies. Neutron-induced γ rays emitted by the LaBr{sub 3}:Ce crystal were also measured in a nearby Ge detector at the lowest proton beam energy. In addition, we obtained data for neutron irradiation of a large-volume high-purity Ge detector and of a NE-213 liquid scintillator detector, both serving as monitor detectors in the experiment. Monte-Carlo type simulations for neutron interactions in the liquid scintillator, the Ge and LaBr{sub 3}:Ce crystals have been performed and compared with measured data. Good agreement being obtained with the data, we present the results of simulations to predict the response of LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detectors for a range of crystal sizes to neutron irradiation in the energy range E{sub n} = 0.5–10 MeV.

  13. Climate change in the Turkana basin as deduced from a 4000 year long δO 18 record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, R. D.; Johnson, T. C.

    1996-07-01

    A model of the oxygen isotopic composition of Lake Turkana waters sheds insight into the paleoclimatic interpretation of a δ 18O profile of inorganic calcite from a core taken from the lake. The model indicates that high frequency fluctuations seen in the isotopic record are probably due to shifts in lake level, while the long term increase of 1.4‰ seen from 4 to 2 kyr BP cannot be due solely to lake level change. It must be due to changes in other climatic parameters, such as the isotopic composition of the inflow. These findings suggests that the abrupt change observed in Lake Turkana (and many other African lakes) at 4 ka was the precursor to a 2000 year long adjustment in the climate over the Ethiopian Plateau. The isotopic record from Lake Turkana agrees with other paleoclimate records from the basin, including the diatom stratigraphy and radiocarbon dates on exposed shoreline deposits.

  14. Tropospheric BrO column densities in the Arctic derived from satellite: retrieval and comparison to ground-based measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sihler

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available During polar spring, halogen radicals like bromine monoxide (BrO play an important role in the chemistry of tropospheric ozone destruction. Satellite measurements of the BrO distribution have become a particularly useful tool to investigate this probably natural phenomenon, but the separation of stratospheric and tropospheric partial columns of BrO is challenging. In this study, an algorithm was developed to retrieve tropospheric vertical column densities of BrO from data of high-resolution spectroscopic satellite instruments such as the second Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2. Unlike recently published approaches, the presented algorithm is capable of separating the fraction of BrO in the activated troposphere from the total BrO column solely based on remotely measured properties. The presented algorithm furthermore allows to estimate a realistic measurement error of the tropospheric BrO column. The sensitivity of each satellite pixel to BrO in the boundary layer is quantified using the measured UV radiance and the column density of the oxygen collision complex O4. A comparison of the sensitivities with CALIPSO LIDAR observations demonstrates that clouds shielding near-surface trace-gas columns can be reliably detected even over ice and snow. Retrieved tropospheric BrO columns are then compared to ground-based BrO measurements from two Arctic field campaigns in the Amundsen Gulf and at Barrow in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Our algorithm was found to be capable of retrieving enhanced near-surface BrO during both campaigns in good agreement with ground-based data. Some differences between ground-based and satellite measurements observed at Barrow can be explained by both elevated and shallow surface layers of BrO. The observations strongly suggest that surface release processes are the dominating source of BrO and that boundary layer meteorology influences the vertical distribution.

  15. Analysis of satellite-derived Arctic tropospheric BrO columns in conjunction with aircraft measurements during ARCTAS and ARCPAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Choi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We derive tropospheric column BrO during the ARCTAS and ARCPAC field campaigns in spring 2008 using retrievals of total column BrO from the satellite UV nadir sensors OMI and GOME-2 using a radiative transfer model and stratospheric column BrO from a photochemical simulation. We conduct a comprehensive comparison of satellite-derived tropospheric BrO column to aircraft in-situ observations of BrO and related species. The aircraft profiles reveal that tropospheric BrO, when present during April 2008, was distributed over a broad range of altitudes rather than being confined to the planetary boundary layer (PBL. Perturbations to the total column resulting from tropospheric BrO are the same magnitude as perturbations due to longitudinal variations in the stratospheric component, so proper accounting of the stratospheric signal is essential for accurate determination of satellite-derived tropospheric BrO. We find reasonably good agreement between satellite-derived tropospheric BrO and columns found using aircraft in-situ BrO profiles, particularly when satellite radiances were obtained over bright surfaces (albedo >0.7, for solar zenith angle <80° and clear sky conditions. The rapid activation of BrO due to surface processes (the bromine explosion is apparent in both the OMI and GOME-2 based tropospheric columns. The wide orbital swath of OMI allows examination of the evolution of tropospheric BrO on about hourly time intervals near the pole. Low surface pressure, strong wind, and high PBL height are associated with an observed BrO activation event, supporting the notion of bromine activation by high winds over snow.

  16. A Measurement of the Relative Branching Ratio $BR(B^- \\to D^0 K^-) / BR(B^- \\to D^0 \\pi^-)$ in Three $D^0$ Decay Modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Hung-Chung [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Using 1.3 fb-1 of data from p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron, we have measured the relative branching ratio $BR(B^- \\to D^0 K^-) / BR(B^- \\to D^0 \\pi^-)$ in Three $D^0$ and its charge conjugate in the D0 flavor decay mode D$0\\atop{f}$ → K-π+ and the CP-even decay modes D0 → K-K+ and D0 → π-π+

  17. High temperature infrared spectra and vibrational analysis of GaBr 3 and AlBr 3NH 3 in the vapour phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytter, E.; Einarsrud, M.-A.; Sjøgren, Carl E.

    The i.r. vapour spectra of monomeric and dimeric gallium bromide and of tribromoammine aluminium at 523-723 K were recorded in the 50-1800 and 2300-3500 cm -1 regions. An evacuable nickel cell equipped with a type IIa diamond window and sealed with a gold O-ring was employed. With the exception of the dimer ring puckering, all i.r. active gallium bromide fundamentals were observed. The monomer spectra were found to be consistent with a planar D3 h structure. All i.r. active modes of tribromoammine aluminium, except the symmetric NH stretch and AlBr 3 rock vibrations, were assigned. The interpretation was supported by normal coordinate analyses. An attempt was made to correlate the valence stretching force constants of several MX 3, M 2X 6, M 2X -7 (M = Al, Ga; X  Cl, Br, I) compounds with the MX bond lengths.

  18. Alternative antibody for the detection of CA15-3 antigen: a European multicenter study for the evaluation of the analytical and clinical performance of the Access BR Monitor assay on the UniCel Dxl 800 Immunoassay System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Rafael; Gion, Massimo; Gressner, Axel; Troalen, Frédéric; Auge, Jose Maria; Holdenrieder, Stefan; Zancan, Matelda; Wycislo, Matthias; Stieber, Petra

    2008-01-01

    Cancer antigen CA15-3 antigen is known as a valuable marker for the management of breast cancer. The analytical and clinical performance of the Access BR Monitor Immunoassay System (Beckman Coulter) was evaluated at five different European sites and compared with a reference system, defined as CA15-3 on the Elecsys System (Roche Diagnostics). Total imprecision (% CV) of the BR Monitor ranged between 5.5% and 11.7%, and inter-laboratory reproducibility between 3.4% and 5.1%. Linearity upon dilution showed a mean recovery of 98.5% (SD + 9.1%). Endogenous interferents had no influence on BR Monitor levels (mean recoveries: hemoglobin 112%, bilirubin 111%, triglycerides 108%). There was no high-dose hook effect up to 13,540 kU/L. Clinical performance investigated in sera from individuals showed a general correlation between the Access BR Monitor and Elecsys CA15-3 (R = 0.797), with a slope of 1.383. CA15-3 serum levels, as measured by the BR Monitor, were low in healthy individuals (n = 267, median = 11.9 kU/L, 95th percentile = 23.5 kU/L), higher in individuals with various benign diseases (n = 549, medians = 11.3-15.6 kU/L, 95th percentiles = 21.6-54.6 kU/L) and even higher in individuals suffering from various cancers (n = 995, medians = 11.2-22.8 kU/L, 95th percentiles = 30.0-429.7 kU/L). Best diagnostic accuracy for cancer detection against the relevant benign control group by the BR Monitor was found for locoregional and metastatic breast cancer, as well as for ovarian cancer [area under the curve (AUC) 0.619, 0.897 and 0.774]. Results for the reference CA15-3 assay were comparable (AUC 0.611, 0.887 and 0.818). The Access BR Monitor provides accurate methodological characteristics and demonstrates an analytical and clinical correlation with Elecsys CA15-3. Best diagnostic accuracy for the BR Monitor was found in breast and ovarian cancer. Our results also suggest a clinical value of the BR Monitor in other cancers.

  19. The reaction ensemble method for the computer simulation of chemical and phase equilibria. II. The Br2+Cl2+BrCl system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lísal, Martin; Nezbeda, Ivo; Smith, William R.

    1999-05-01

    The reaction ensemble Monte Carlo (REMC) method [W. R. Smith and B. Třı´ska, J. Chem. Phys. 100, 3019 (1994)] is used to study combined reaction and vapor-liquid equilibrium of the Br2+Cl2+BrCl system. The substances are modeled as nonpolar and dipolar two-site Lennard-Jones molecules with Lorentz-Berthelot mixing rules for unlike atoms. No parameters were fitted to any mixture properties in our calculations. The simulated data are compared with experimental results, and with previous simulation data for the mixture obtained by an indirect semigrand ensemble approach. The REMC method efficiently calculates the complete phase compositions, whereas only a limited subset is available experimentally. The agreement of the simulations with experiment is good. In the course of this work, we used the Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo method (which may be regarded as a special case of the REMC method) to calculate the vapor-liquid equilibrium properties of pure BrCl; since this compound is chemically unstable, such data is experimentally inaccessible.

  20. Pyomelanin is produced by Shewanella algae BrY and affected by exogenous iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turick, Charles E; Caccavo, Frank; Tisa, Louis S

    2008-04-01

    Melanin production by Shewanella algae BrY occurred during late- and (or) post-exponential growth in lactate basal salts liquid medium supplemented with tyrosine or phenylalanine. The antioxidant ascorbate inhibited melanin production but not production of the melanin precursor homogentisic acid. In the absence of ascorbate, melanin production was inhibited by the 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase inhibitor sulcotrione and by concentrations of Fe >or= 0.38 mmol L(-1). These data support the hypothesis that pigment production by S. algae BrY was a result of the conversion of tyrosine or phenylalanine to homogentisic acid, which was excreted, auto-oxidized, and self-polymerized to form pyomelanin. Pyomelanin production by S. algae BrY may play an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of Fe in the environment.

  1. Localized optical absorption in Cs{sub 4}PbBr{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, S.; Amaya, K.; Saito, T. [Research Center for Development of Far-Infrared Region, Fukui University, Bunkyo, Fukui (Japan)

    2002-03-04

    The fundamental optical absorption of Cs{sub 4}PbBr{sub 6} crystals, which are built up of nearly regular Pb{sup 2+}(Br{sup -}){sub 6} octahedra mutually bound by Cs{sup +} ions, exhibits novel features: despite the crystalline entity of Cs{sub 4}PbBr{sub 6}, it shows oscillator-like absorption peaks and a wide window just above the first peak. The Cs{sup +} ions prevent the Pb{sup 2+} 6s and 6p states from taking part in the construction of extended states. These states form a set of localized states confined to within respective octahedra, similar to the case of isolated Pb{sup 2+} ions doped in face-centred cubic alkali halide crystals. (author)

  2. A measurement of the semileptonic branching ratio BR(b-baryon $\\rightarrow p l\\overline{\

    CERN Document Server

    Barate, R; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Nief, J Y; Pietrzyk, B; Boix, G; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Graugès-Pous, E; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Merino, G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Park, I C; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Alemany, R; Becker, U; Bright-Thomas, P G; Casper, David William; Cattaneo, M; Cerutti, F; Ciulli, V; Dissertori, G; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Hansen, J B; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Lehraus, Ivan; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Moneta, L; Pacheco, A; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rolandi, Luigi; Rousseau, D; Schlatter, W D; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Teubert, F; Tomalin, I R; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Badaud, F; Chazelle, G; Deschamps, O; Falvard, A; Ferdi, C; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rosnet, P; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Daskalakis, G; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Boccali, T; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Zachariadou, K; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Lynch, J G; Negus, P; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Thomson, F; Buchmüller, O L; Dhamotharan, S; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Girone, M; Goodsir, S M; Martin, E B; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Spagnolo, P; Williams, M D; Ghete, V M; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Betteridge, A P; Bowdery, C K; Buck, P G; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Jones, R W L; Williams, M I; Giehl, I; Greene, A M; Hoffmann, C; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Carr, J; Coyle, P; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Leroy, O; Motsch, F; Payre, P; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Aleppo, M; Antonelli, M; Ragusa, F; Berlich, R; Blum, Walter; Büscher, V; Dietl, H; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Mannert, C; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Stenzel, H; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Chen, S; Choi, Y; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Höcker, A; Jacholkowska, A; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Schune, M H; Tournefier, E; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Zerwas, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Chambers, J T; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Konstantinidis, N P; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Kelly, M S; Lehto, M H; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Affholderbach, K; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Grupen, Claus; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Charles, E; Elmer, P; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y; González, S; Greening, T C; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, J; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zobernig, G

    1998-01-01

    Inclusive pi^+/-, K^+/- (p,pbar) production is investigated using data recorded by the ALEPH detector between 1992 and 1994. The momentum spectra and multiplicities are measured separately in Z -->bbar, Z-->ccbar and Z-->uubar,ddbar,ssbar decays. The number of protons found in b-hadron decays is used to estimate the fraction of b-baryons in b-events to be (10.2 +/- 0.7 +/- 2.7)%. From an additional study of proton-lepton correlations in b events the branching ratio Br(b-baryon --> plnuX) = (4.63 +/- 0.72 +/- 0.98)% is obtained. The ratio Br(b-baryon --> plnuX)/ Br(b-baryon --> pX) is found to be 0.080 +/- 0.012 +/- 0.014.

  3. Energy-Dependent Peak Shifts in LaBr3 Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinnett, Jacob [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vo, Duc Ta [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-28

    Significant peak shifts were noted in a laboratory LaBr3 detector. To investigate these issues, three LaBr3 detectors were used to collect spectra of Cs-137 with either Co-57, Co-60, or no secondary source included. The cobalt source locations were varied to control the deadtime, while the Cs-137 source remained in a fixed position relative to the detectors. Each setup was measured with a 0.8 μs and a 3.2 μs shaping time. All spectra were measured for a 100 second live time. All three LaBr3 detectors were experienced peak-shifting as a function of deadtime and gamma-ray energies. However, the first detector (Detector A, described below) had significantly more severe peakshifting which was also affected by the shaping time.

  4. Novel Ge-Ga-Te-CsBr glass system with ultrahigh resolvability of halide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ci; Wang, Xunsi; Xu, Tiefeng; Zhu, Qingde; Sun, Lihong; Pan, Zhanghao; Nie, Qiuhua; Zhang, Peiqing; Wu, Yuehao; Dai, Shixun; Shen, Xiang; Zhang, Xianghua

    2015-11-05

    CO2 molecule, one of the main molecules to create new life, should be probed accurately to detect the existence of life in exoplanets. The primary signature of CO2 molecule is approximately 15 μm, and traditional S- and Se-based glass fibers are unsuitable. Thus, Te-based glass is the only ideal candidate glass for far-infrared detection. In this study, a new kind of Te-based chalcohalide glass system was discovered with relatively stable and large optical band gap. A traditional melt-quenching method was adopted to prepare a series of (Ge15Ga10Te75)100-x (CsBr)x chalcogenide glass samples. Experiment results indicate that the glass-forming ability and thermal properties of glass samples were improved when CsBr was added in the host of Ge-Ga-Te glass. Ge-Ga-Te glass could remarkably dissolve CsBr content as much as 85 at.%, which is the highest halide content in all reports for Te-based chalcohalide glasses. Moreover, ΔT values of these glass samples were all above 100 °C. The glass sample (Ge15Ga10Te75)65 (CsBr)35 with ΔT of 119 °C was the largest, which was 7 °C larger than that of Ge15Ga10Te75 host glass. The infrared transmission spectra of these glasses show that the far-infrared cut-off wavelengths of (Ge15Ga10Te75)100-x (CsBr)x chalcogenide glasses were all beyond 25 μm. In conclusion, (Ge15Ga10Te75)100-x (CsBr)x chalcogenide glasses are potential materials for far-infrared optical application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Observation of Enhanced Hole Extraction in Br Concentration Gradient Perovskite Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Cheol; Kim, Byeong Jo; Son, Dae-Yong; Park, Nam-Gyu; Jung, Hyun Suk; Choi, Mansoo

    2016-09-14

    Enhancing hole extraction inside the perovskite layer is the key factor for boosting photovoltaic performance. Realization of halide concentration gradient perovskite materials has been expected to exhibit rapid hole extraction due to the precise bandgap tuning. Moreover, a formation of Br-rich region on the tri-iodide perovskite layer is expected to enhance moisture stability without a loss of current density. However, conventional synthetic techniques of perovskite materials such as the solution process have not achieved the realization of halide concentration gradient perovskite materials. In this report, we demonstrate the fabrication of Br concentration gradient mixed halide perovskite materials using a novel and facile halide conversion method based on vaporized hydrobromic acid. Accelerated hole extraction and enhanced lifetime due to Br gradient was verified by observing photoluminescence properties. Through the combination of secondary ion mass spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, the diffusion behavior of Br ions in perovskite materials was investigated. The Br-gradient was found to be eventually converted into a homogeneous mixed halide layer after undergoing an intermixing process. Br-substituted perovskite solar cells exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 18.94% due to an increase in open circuit voltage from 1.08 to 1.11 V and an advance in fill-factor from 0.71 to 0.74. Long-term stability was also dramatically enhanced after the conversion process, i.e., the power conversion efficiency of the post-treated device has remained over 97% of the initial value under high humid conditions (40-90%) without any encapsulation for 4 weeks.

  6. Temperature dependence of the rate constant and product channels for the BrO + ClO reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Hills, AJ; Cicerone, RJ; Calvert, JG; Birks, JW

    1988-01-01

    We have measured the rate constant for the reactions BrO + ClO → Br + OClO (6a), BrO + ClO → Br + Cl + O 2 (6b), and BrO + ClO → BrCl + O 2 (6c) over the temperature range 241-408 K and found k 6 = (8.2 ± 1.0) × 10 -12 cm 3 molecule -1 s independent of temperature. Measurement of the individual product branching ratios yielded values for channels 6a, 6b, and 6c equal to 0.55 ± 0.10, 0.45 ± 0.10, and < 0.02, respectively. Measurements of ozone in the stratosphere over Antarctica have s...

  7. Theoretical electronic structure of the cadmium monohalide molecules CdX (X = F, Cl, Br, I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badreddine, Khalil; Korek, Mahmoud

    2017-10-01

    The potential energy and dipole moment curves for the lowest electronic states in the representation 2s+1Λ(±) of CdX (X = F, Cl, Br, I) molecules are investigated via complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) and multi-reference configuration interaction MRCI (single and double excitation with Davidson correction). For the bound states of CdX diatomic molecules the bond distances Re, the vibrational harmonic frequencies ωe, the rotational constants Be, the electronic energies relative to the ground state Te, and the permanent and transition dipole moments have been computed. The dissociation energy limits of the atomic levels of CdX compounds are also calculated. The transition dipole moment between the ground state X2Σ+ and (2)2Σ+ is investigated. Consequently, the transition dipole moment values of the upper state at its equilibrium position |μ21 |, the emission angular frequency ω21, the Einstein coefficients of spontaneous and induced emissions (A21 and B21ω), the spontaneous radiative lifetime τspon, the emission cross section σ0, the line strength and the emission oscillator strength f21 are calculated along with the ionicity of the X2Σ+ and (2)2Σ+ states. The eigenvalues Ev, the rotational constants Bv, the centrifugal distortion constants Dv and the abscissas of the turning points Rmin and Rmax of X2Σ+ states of the CdX diatomics are computed. The comparison of the results with those available in literature shows a very good agreement.

  8. De novo transcriptome analysis and glucosinolate profiling in watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jin; Bong, Sun Ju; Park, Jong Seok; Park, Young-Kyu; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Park, Sang Un

    2017-05-23

    Watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) is an aquatic herb species that is a rich source of secondary metabolites such as glucosinolates. Among these glucosinolates, watercress contains high amounts of gluconasturtiin (2-phenethyl glucosinolate) and its hydrolysis product, 2-phennethyl isothiocyanate, which plays a role in suppressing tumor growth. However, the use of N. officinale as a source of herbal medicines is currently limited due to insufficient genomic and physiological information. To acquire precise information on glucosinolate biosynthesis in N. officinale, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome of different organs of N. officinale. Transcriptome analysis of N. officinale seedlings yielded 69,570,892 raw reads. These reads were assembled into 69,635 transcripts, 64,876 of which were annotated to transcripts in public databases. On the basis of the functional annotation of N. officinale, we identified 33 candidate genes encoding enzymes related to glucosinolate biosynthetic pathways and analyzed the expression of these genes in the leaves, stems, roots, flowers, and seeds of N. officinale. The expression of NoMYB28 and NoMYB29, the main regulators of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis, was highest in the stems, whereas the key regulators of indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis, such as NoDof1.1, NoMYB34, NoMYB51, and NoMYB122, were strongly expressed in the roots. Most glucosinolate biosynthetic genes were highly expressed in the flowers. HPLC analysis enabled us to detect eight glucosinolates in the different organs of N. officinale. Among these glucosinolates, the level of gluconasturtiin was considerably higher than any other glucosinolate in individual organs, and the amount of total glucosinolates was highest in the flower. This study has enhanced our understanding of functional genomics of N. officinale, including the glucosinolate biosynthetic pathways of this plant. Ultimately, our data will be helpful for

  9. The Mechanism Underlying the Brückner Effect Studied with an Automated, High-Resolution, Continuously Scanning Brückner Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Matthijs J; van der Helm, Frans C T; Simonsz, Huib J

    2015-01-01

    When an eye is illuminated by a light coaxial with the observing eye or camera, the light is reflected by the back of the eye and a red reflex will be observed through the pupil. The intensity of this red reflex varies with the angle of eccentric gaze. The red reflex darkens as the eye fixates at the light source. Brückner described this principle in 1962. Although this effect has been used as a screening test for strabismus ever since, the mechanism that causes this effect is only partly known. None of the current explanations are accepted as conclusively proven. We developed an automated, high-resolution, continuously scanning Brückner device to study the mechanisms underlying the Brückner effect. The right eyes of 6 subjects, students aged 22-31 years, were measured. A subject sat in front of a camera at a distance of about 0.75 m. The luminance of the red fundus reflex and the eye movements were measured continuously while the subject followed a fixation target that moved in two dimensions. Eye movement was also recorded objectively and in the analysis this was used in addition to the position of the fixation target. The eyes were illuminated coaxially using an infrared light source and a beam splitter. By using two methods to record eye rotation and relating this to the continuously measured pupillary luminous intensity and pupillary area, we were able to construct 2-dimensional maps of pupillary luminance. All 6 subjects showed the expected general darkening of the pupil as fixation changed from eccentric fixation to foveal fixation at the center of the camera. However, there were many local fluctuations. The global minimum in pupillary luminance, the "dark spot," was often roughly circle-shaped with a radius of about 1°. The pupillary luminance kept increasing beyond 2° eccentricity. We measured the Brückner effect continuously in two dimensions. Brückner's original explanation--absorption by the macular pigment--cannot explain our findings as the

  10. Ionospheric Response to the Total Solar Eclipse of 22 July 2009 as Deduced from VLBI and GPS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L.; Shu, F. C.; Zheng, W. M.; Kondo, T.; Ichikawa, R.; Hasegawa, S.; Sekido, M.

    2010-01-01

    A total solar eclipse occurred over China at latitudes of about 30 N on the morning of 22 July 2009, providing a unique opportunity to investigate the influence of the sun on the earth's upper ionosphere. GPS observations from Shanghai GPS Local Network and VLBI observations from stations Shanghai, Urumqi, and Kashima were used to observe the response of TEC to the total solar eclipse. From the GPS data reduction, the sudden decrease of TEC at the time of the eclipse, amounting to 2.8 TECU, and gradual increase of TEC after the eclipse were found by analyzing the diurnal variations. More distinctly, the variations of TEC were studied along individual satellite passes. The delay in reaching the minimum level of TEC with the maximum phase of eclipse was 5-10 min. Besides, we also compared the ionospheric activity derived from different VLBI stations with the GPS results and found a strong correlation between them.

  11. Futebol et hiérarchies urbaines au Brésil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Théry

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Le football n’est pas seulement la passion nationale du Brésil, il peut être aussi un bon indicateur des hiérarchies urbaines du pays. Les classements disponibles sur le site de la fédération brésilienne de futebol peuvent être mis en rapport avec d’autres données pour vérifier la corrélation entre les performances sportives des clubs et le degré de centralité des villes où ils sont basés.

  12. Optical characterization of TlBr single crystals for radiation detection applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Joon Ho; Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Han Soo; Lee, Seung Hee; Ha, Jang Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    TlBr is of considerable technological importance for radiation detection applications where detecting high-energy photons such as X-rays and γ-rays are of prime importance. However, there were few reports on investigating optical properties of TlBr itself for deeper understandings of this material and for making better radiation detection devices. Thus, in this paper, we report on the optical characterizations of TlBr single crystals. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements at RT were performed for this work. A 2-inch TlBr single crystalline ingot was grown by using the vertical Bridgman furnace. SE measurements were performed at RT within the photon energy range from 1.1 to 6.5 eV. PL measurements were performed at RT by using a home-made PL system equipped with a 266 nm-laser and a spectrometer. Dielectric responses from SE analysis were shown to be slightly different among the different samples possibly due to the different structural/optical properties. Also from the PL measurements, it was observed that the peak intensities of the middle samples were significantly higher than those of the other two samples. With the given values for permittivity of free space (ε0 = 8.854x10{sup -1}2 F·m{sup -1}), thickness (d = 1 mm), and area (A = 10x10 mm{sup 2}) of the TlBr sample, capacitances of TlBr were 6.9 pF (at hν = 3 eV) and 4.4 pF (at hν = 6 eV), respectively. SE and PL measurement and analysis were performed to characterize TlBr samples from the optical perspective. It was observed that dielectric responses of different TlBr samples were slightly different due to the different material properties. PL measurements showed that the middle sample exhibited much stronger PL emission peaks due to the better material quality. From the SE analysis, optical, dielectric constants were extracted, and calculated capacitances were in the few pF range.

  13. Observations of BrO Using Limb Scanning DOAS During the 2013 NOMADSS Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, J.; Stutz, J.; Tsai, J. Y.; Spolaor, M.; Zhou, X.; Ye, C.; Jaffe, D. A.; Gratz, L.; Ambrose, J. L., II; Jaegle, L.; Shah, V.; Selin, N. E.; Song, S.

    2014-12-01

    Bromine monoxide (BrO) is an important atmospheric constituent, participating in the destruction of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone and the oxidation of gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) to form reactive Hg (RM). During the Nitrogen, Oxidants, Mercury and Aerosol Distributions, Sources and Sinks (NOMADSS) campaign in the summer of 2013, our group operated a limb-scanning Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument onboard the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft with the goal of quantifying BrO, formaldehyde (HCHO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and other trace gases. Here we present observations of Differential Slant Column Densities (DSCD) obtained in the limb derived using the DOAS analysis technique. A radiative transfer model (McArtim [Deutschmann et al., 2011]), constrained by in-situ measurement on the aircraft or from published literature, was utilized to simulate the DSCDs and to derive BrO mixing ratios at flight altitude. BrO mixing ratios were typically below our 2σ detection limit (ranging from 0.5 - 1 ppt) with the exception of a high altitude (~7km asl) portion of a flight over Central and West Texas (RF 6), and a marine boundary layer (~0.2km asl) flight leg off the coast of South Carolina (RF 16). Around 1.9 ± 0.25 ppt of BrO was detected for about 1.5 hours in the high altitude flight, and around 1.0 ±0.5 ppt of BrO was detected in the marine boundary layer. Several features were present in the higher altitude air-mass with detectable BrO: O3 and humidity were significantly depressed relative to other flight legs at the same altitude and large concentrations of RM were simultaneously observed. We will present possible sources for the anomalously high BrO mixing ratios in the sampled air mass and discuss the implications of our knowledge on free-tropospheric bromine chemistry and its effects on GEM oxidation.

  14. Investigation of the PGNAA using the LaBr{sub 3} scintillation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favalli, A. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of Citizen, TP800, Via E. Fermi, 21027 Ispra (Italy)], E-mail: andrea.dr.favalli@gmail.com; Mehner, H-C.; Ciriello, V.; Pedersen, B. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of Citizen, TP800, Via E. Fermi, 21027 Ispra (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission develops instrumentation for detection of hazardous materials. In relation to this a new experimental facility was constructed for research into methods applying the detection of characteristic gamma rays subsequent to neutron irradiation. This includes the detection of prompt gamma rays from neutron inelastic scattering and neutron capture. For this purpose the device employs LaBr{sub 3} scintillation detectors. The paper investigates the applicability of the LaBr{sub 3} scintillation detector to PGNAA.

  15. BR(Bs to mu+ mu-) as an electroweak precision test

    CERN Document Server

    Guadagnoli, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Using an effective-theory approach, we analyze the impact of BR(Bs to mu+ mu-) in constraining new-physics models that predict modifications of the Z-boson couplings to down-type quarks. Under motivated assumptions about the flavor structure of the effective theory, we show that the bounds presently derived from BR(Bs to mu+ mu-) on the effective Z-boson couplings are comparable (in the case of minimal flavor violation) or significantly more stringent (in the case of generic partial compositeness) with respect to those derived from observables at the Z peak.

  16. Land Deformation at the Thessaloniki - Giannitsa Plain (Greece) Deduced from 20- years Radar Observations using Persistent Scatterers Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svigkas, N.; Papoutsis, I.; Loupasakis, K.; Kiratzi, A. A.; Kontoes, C.

    2015-12-01

    We present the detected deformation and interpret the results in the light of ground-truth hydrological data, for the Thessaloniki-Giannitsa plain, the largest deltaic plain in Greece, encircled by Mounts Vermio, Paiko and Pieria. The contemporary morphology was gradually developed from the tectonic variations of the upper Pleistocene. The area has been subjected to many changes due to both natural causes and to human intervention. ERS-1, 2 and Envisat data provided from the European Space Agency were analysed to produce a time-series analysis based on Persistent Scatterer techniques. The mass processing of the 81 satellite images led to the creation of more than 250 Interferograms. The broader area of interest consists primarily of agricultural lands, leading to limited Interferometric coherence, and therefore careful Interferogram filtering and phase unwrapping of the input stack was crucial for reliable velocity generation. Our results show a strong deformation signal in regions of significant lifelines, as the railway and road network. Moreover, the satellite imagery revealed two significantly deforming sites: Kalochori and Sindos. The broader Kalochori region, the locus of the industrial activity of the city of Thessaloniki, is located below sea level. Both sites are suffering from land subsidence for more than 50 years, with several marine invasions reported in the past. Interestingly enough the two datasets -that represent two decades- show a reversed deformation pattern: The period in-between 1993 to 2000 is characterized by subsidence up to 34 mm/y, whereas from 2002 to 2010 there is an uplifting trend (more than 20 mm/yr). This result is crosschecked with hydrogeological data; the interpretation depicts that at Kalochori and Sindos the human factor (i.e. over pumping) is the dominant driver of these surface displacements. Although this was an assumption of previous studies, here we present for the first time, systematic proof that the detected uplift of

  17. Quasi-classical trajectories study of Ne2Br2(B) vibrational predissociation: Kinetics and product distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Arbelo-González, Wilmer; Reed, Stewart K; Rubayo-Soneira, Jesús; Shalashilin, Dmitrii V

    2011-01-01

    The vibrational predissociation of the Ne2Br2(B) van der Waals complex has been investigated using the quasi-classical trajectory method (QCT), in the range of vibrational levels v' = 16-23. Extensive comparison is made with the most recent experimental observations [Pio et al., J. Chem. Phys. 133, 014305 (2010)], molecular dynamics with quantum transitions (MDQT) simulations [Miguel et al., Faraday Discuss. 118, 257 (2001)], and preliminary results from 24-dimensional Cartesian coupled coherent state (CCCS) calculations. A sequential mechanism is found to accurately describe the theoretical dynamical evolution of intermediate and final product populations, and both QCT and CCCS provide very good estimates for the dissociation lifetimes. The capabilities of QCT in the description of the fragmentation kinetics is analyzed in detail by using reduced-dimensionality models of the complexes and concepts from phase-space transport theory. The problem of fast decoupling of the different coherent states in CCCS simul...

  18. Lectures from the 5th de Brún Workshop on Probabilistic Group Theory, Combinatorics, and Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Flannery, Dane; O'Brien, Eamonn

    2013-01-01

    Probabilistic Group Theory, Combinatorics, and Computing is based on lecture courses held at the Fifth de Brún Workshop in Galway, Ireland in April 2011. Each course discusses computational and algorithmic aspects that have recently emerged at the interface of group theory and combinatorics, with a strong focus on probabilistic methods and results. The courses served as a forum for devising new strategic approaches and for discussing the main open problems to be solved in the further development of each area. The book represents a valuable resource for advanced lecture courses. Researchers at all levels are introduced to the main methods and the state-of-the-art, leading up to the very latest developments. One primary aim of the book’s approach and design is to enable postgraduate students to make immediate use of the material presented.

  19. The complex story of a simple Brønsted acid: unusual speciation of HBr in an ionic liquid medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Gordon W; Mutikainen, Ilpo

    2011-11-07

    Crystalline solids, co-existing in equilibrium with the 3-methyl-1H-imidazolium bromohydrogenates(I) ionic liquid, have been characterised by X-ray diffraction analysis. The Brønsted acidic, homo-conjugate [H(2)Br(3)](-) anions presented are discussed in terms of their structure and reactivity, in efforts to advance the understanding of Brønsted acidity in ionic liquid media.

  20. Microhardness studies on as-grown faces of NaClO3 and NaBrO3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The hardness studies point out that NaBrO3 is harder than NaClO3 ( ≈ 100 kg/mm2), this could be due to strong inter ionic forces acting between Na–Br in NaBrO3 crystals. Using Gilman's empirical relation, hardness values are calculated from the values of elastic constants (44) and are found to be close to the ...

  1. An efficient visible-light photocatalyst prepared by modifying AgBr particles with a small amount of activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Desong, E-mail: dswang06@126.com; Zhao, Mangmang; Luo, Qingzhi; Yin, Rong; An, Jing; Li, Xueyan

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • An efficient visible-light photocatalyst was prepared by modifying AgBr particles. • A small amount of activated carbon was used to modify AgBr particles. • The modified AgBr exhibited improved visible-light photocatalytic performances. - Abstract: An efficient visible-light photocatalyst was successfully prepared by modifying AgBr particles with a small amount of activated carbon (AC) via a simple chemical precipitation approach. The AC/AgBr composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, UV–vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic performances of the AC/AgBr composite were investigated by evaluating photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) and phenol under visible light irradiation, and the effects of the AC content in the composite, concentrations of AC/AgBr composite and MO, carrier scavengers on MO photodegradation rate were systematically investigated. The results indicated that the modification of AC can hardly change the crystalline and crystal size of AgBr particles, while significantly improve their specific surface areas, visible-light absorption and separation efficiency of photogenerated electron–hole pairs. Compared with pure AgBr, the AC/AgBr composite exhibited drastically enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity and stability. The photogenerated electrons and holes, hydroxyl radicals are responsible to the photodegradation of organic pollutants, and the photogenerated holes are the main active species. On the basis of the results and the properties of AC and AgBr, the visible-light photocatalytic mechanism of the AC/AgBr composite was discussed.

  2. A new method of preparation of AgBr/TiO{sub 2} composites and investigation of their photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing Yangyang; Li Rui; Li Qiuye, E-mail: lqybys@yahoo.com.cn; Yang Jianjun [Henan University, Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials (China)

    2012-12-15

    Silver bromide/titanium dioxide composites were first prepared using titanic acid nanobelts (TAN) as the TiO{sub 2} source. First, TAN reacted with AgNO{sub 3} to prepare Ag-incorporated TAN by the ion-exchange method, and then AgBr/TAN was obtained after adding NaBr. Finally, AgBr/TAN was transformed to AgBr/TiO{sub 2} composites by calcination. The post-treated calcination would not only convert TAN to TiO{sub 2} (H{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 2} {yields} 2H{sub 2}O + 2TiO{sub 2}), but also increase the effective contact between AgBr and TiO{sub 2}, further to improve the separation of photo-generated electron-holes. The advantage of this preparation method is the small particle size (ca. 10-20 nm) and well dispersion of AgBr on the surface of TiO{sub 2}, and close contact between AgBr and TiO{sub 2}. The effect of the different calcination temperature on the morphology, structure, and properties of AgBr/TiO{sub 2} composites was investigated in detail. The AgBr/TiO{sub 2} composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-Vis DRS). Comparing with pure TAN, AgBr, and AgBr/P25 mixture, the AgBr/TiO{sub 2} composites exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity in decomposition of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation.

  3. Br anchiopoda and Copepoda (Crustacea in Mongolian Saline Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alonso

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Thi s paper presents a very complete inventory of the branchiopods and copepods that inhabit the salt lakes (salinity >3‰ of Mongolia. The inventory was based on samples collected from 108 salt lakes over the course of seven limnological expeditions in most of the Mongolian territory between 2005 and 2009. The salinity of the lakes ranged from 3.4 to 76‰ S. A total of 43 taxa were identifi ed: 7 Anostraca, 1 Spinicaudata, 1 Notostraca, 1 Leptodoridae, 1 Ctenopoda, 15 Anomopoda and 17 Copepoda. Thirteen taxa are limited to the Asiatic portion and the rest are known throughout the Palearctic region. One taxon, Phallocryptus sp. has not yet been described in scientifi c literature. The taxonomic position of Artemia sp. in Mongolia has still not been clarifi ed. All of the species are eurysaline and, except for Artemia sp. and Cletocamptus retrogressus , which are the most halophile, they can live in waters with less than 10‰ S. Thirty-three species appear only in mesosaline waters (3–20‰ S, fi ve do not exceed the mesosaline level (50‰ S and fi ve can live in hypersaline waters (>50‰ S.

  4. Genetic makeup of the Corynebacterium glutamicum LexA regulon deduced from comparative transcriptomics and in vitro DNA band shift assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochmann, Nina; Kurze, Anna-Katharina; Czaja, Lisa F; Brinkrolf, Karina; Brune, Iris; Hüser, Andrea T; Hansmeier, Nicole; Pühler, Alfred; Borovok, Ilya; Tauch, Andreas

    2009-05-01

    The lexA gene of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 was deleted to create the mutant strain C. glutamicum NJ2114, which has an elongated cell morphology and an increased doubling time. To characterize the SOS regulon in C. glutamicum, the transcriptomes of NJ2114 and a DNA-damage-induced wild-type strain were compared with that of a wild-type control using DNA microarray hybridization. The expression data were combined with bioinformatic pattern searches for LexA binding sites, leading to the detection of 46 potential SOS boxes located upstream of differentially expressed transcription units. Binding of a hexahistidyl-tagged LexA protein to 40 double-stranded oligonucleotides containing the potential SOS boxes was demonstrated in vitro by DNA band shift assays. It turned out that LexA binds not only to SOS boxes in the promoter-operator region of upregulated genes, but also to SOS boxes detected upstream of downregulated genes. These results demonstrated that LexA controls directly the expression of at least 48 SOS genes organized in 36 transcription units. The deduced genes encode a variety of physiological functions, many of them involved in DNA repair and survival after DNA damage, but nearly half of them have hitherto unknown functions. Alignment of the LexA binding sites allowed the corynebacterial SOS box consensus sequence TcGAA(a/c)AnnTGTtCGA to be deduced. Furthermore, the common intergenic region of lexA and the differentially expressed divS-nrdR operon, encoding a cell division suppressor and a regulator of deoxyribonucleotide biosynthesis, was characterized in detail. Promoter mapping revealed differences in divS-nrdR expression during SOS response and normal growth conditions. One of the four LexA binding sites detected in the intergenic region is involved in regulating divS-nrdR transcription, whereas the other sites are apparently used for negative autoregulation of lexA expression.

  5. New constraints on the rupture process of the 1999 August 17 Izmit earthquake deduced from estimates of stress glut rate moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clévédé, E.; Bouin, M.-P.; Bukchin, B.; Mostinskiy, A.; Patau, G.

    2004-12-01

    This paper illustrates the use of integral estimates given by the stress glut rate moments of total degree 2 for constraining the rupture scenario of a large earthquake in the particular case of the 1999 Izmit mainshock. We determine the integral estimates of the geometry, source duration and rupture propagation given by the stress glut rate moments of total degree 2 by inverting long-period surface wave (LPSW) amplitude spectra. Kinematic and static models of the Izmit earthquake published in the literature are quite different from one another. In order to extract the characteristic features of this event, we calculate the same integral estimates directly from those models and compare them with those deduced from our inversion. While the equivalent rupture zone and the eastward directivity are consistent among all models, the LPSW solution displays a strong unilateral character of the rupture associated with a short rupture duration that is not compatible with the solutions deduced from the published models. With the aim of understand this discrepancy, we use simple equivalent kinematic models to reproduce the integral estimates of the considered rupture processes (including ours) by adjusting a few free parameters controlling the western and eastern parts of the rupture. We show that the joint analysis of the LPSW solution and source tomographies allows us to elucidate the scattering of source processes published for this earthquake and to discriminate between the models. Our results strongly suggest that (1) there was significant moment released on the eastern segment of the activated fault system during the Izmit earthquake; (2) the apparent rupture velocity decreases on this segment.

  6. Rotational Dependence of Intramolecular Dynamics in Acetylene at Low Vibrational Excitation as Deduced from High Resolution Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, David S.; Miller, Anthony; Amyay, B.; Fayt, A.; Herman, M.

    2010-06-01

    The link between energy-resolved spectra and time-resolved dynamics is explored quantitatively for acetylene (12C2H2), X1Σg+ with up to 8,600 wn of vibrational energy. This comparison is based on the extensive knowledge of the vibration-rotation energy levels and on the model Hamiltonian used to fit them to high precision. Simulated intensity borrowing features in high resolution absorption spectra and predicted survival probabilities for intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR) are first investigated for the ν4+ν5 and ν3 bright states, for J = 2, 30 and 100. The dependence of the results on the rotational quantum number and on the choice of vibrational bright state reflects the interplay of three kinds of off-diagonal resonances: anharmonic, rotational l-type, and Coriolis. The dynamical quantities used to characterize the calculated time-dependent dynamics are the dilution factor φd, the IVR lifetime τIVR, and the recurrence time τrec. For the two bright states ν3+2ν4 and 7ν4, the collisionless dynamics for thermally averaged rotational distributions at T = 27, 270 and 500 K were calculated from the available spectroscopic data. For the 7ν4 bright state, an apparent irreversible decay of is found. In all cases, the model Hamiltonian allows a detailed calculation of the energy flow among all of the coupled zeroth-order vibration-rotation states. B. Amyay, S. Robert, M. Herman, A. Fayt, B. Raghavendra, A. Moudens, J. Thiévin, B. Rowe, and R. Georges, J. Chem. Phys., 131, 114301 (2009).

  7. Structure and stability of noble gas bound EX3+ compounds (E = C, Ge, Sn, Pb; X = H, F, Cl, Br).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Sudip; Moreno, Diego; Ghosh, Sreyan; Chattaraj, Pratim K; Merino, Gabriel

    2016-01-15

    It has been analyzed at the MP2/def2-QZVPPD level whether EX3+ (E = C-Pb; X = H, F-Br) can bind noble gas atoms. Geometrical and electronic structures, dissociation energy values, thermochemical parameters, natural bond order, electron density, and energy decomposition analyses highlight the possibility of such noble gas bound EX3+ compounds. Except He and Ne, the other heavier congeners of this family make quite strong bonds with E. In fact, the dissociations of Ar-Rn bound analogues turn out to be endergonic in nature at 298 K, except in the cases of ArGe Cl3+, Ar/KrGeBr3+, and ArSnBr3+. GeH3+ and EF3+ (E = Ge-Pb) can even bind two Ng atoms with reasonably high dissociation energy. As the pz orbital of the E center in EX3+ plays a crucial role in its binding with the noble gas atoms, the effect of the π back-bonding causing X → E electron transfer ought to be properly understood. Due to the larger back-donation, the Ng binding ability of EX3+ gradually decreases along F to Br. EH2+ and the global minimum HE(+…) H2 (E = Sn, Pb) complexes are also able to bind Ar-Rn atoms quite effectively. The NgE bonds in Ar-Rn bound CH3+, GeH3+, and EF3+ (E = Ge-Pb) and Xe/RnE bonds in NgECl3+ and NgEBr3+ (E = Ge, Sn) are mainly of covalent type. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Cross-cultural adaptation, reliability and construct validity of the Tampa scale for kinesiophobia for temporomandibular disorders (TSK/TMD-Br) into Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, A S; Bataglion, C; Visscher, C M; Bevilaqua Grossi, D; Chaves, T C

    2017-07-01

    Fear of movement (kinesiophobia) seems to play an important role in the development of chronic pain. However, for temporomandibular disorders (TMD), there is a scarcity of studies about this topic. The Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia for TMD (TSK/TMD) is the most widely used instrument to measure fear of movement and it is not available in Brazilian Portuguese. The purpose of this study was to culturally adapt the TSK/TMD to Brazilian Portuguese and to assess its psychometric properties regarding internal consistency, reliability, and construct and structural validity. A total of 100 female patients with chronic TMD participated in the validation process of the TSK/TMD-Br. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used for statistical analysis of reliability (test-retest), Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency, Spearman's rank correlation for construct validity and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for structural validity. CFA endorsed the pre-specified model with two domains and 12-items (Activity Avoidance - AA/Somatic Focus - SF) and all items obtained a loading factor greater than 0·4. Acceptable levels of reliability were found (ICC > 0·75) for all questions and domains of the TSK/TMD-Br. For internal consistency, Cronbach's α of 0·78 for both domains were found. Moderate correlations (0·40 < r < 0.60) were observed for 84% of the analyses conducted between TSK/TMD-Br scores versus catastrophising, depression and jaw functional limitation. TSK/TMD-Br 12 items and two-factor demonstrated sound psychometric properties (transcultural validity, reliability, internal consistency and structural validity). In such a way, the instrument can be used in clinical settings and for research purposes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Annotated Bibliography of Relative Sea Level Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    where, by drilling, relic sediment, peat deposit, and mollusc shell fossils have been obtained, and their dates are deduced through measurement of...Relative Sea-Level Change, Port au Port area, West Newfoundland ," Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol 22, No. 7, pp 1039-1047. Based on pollen and...foraminifera analyses and radiocarbon dates from two cores taken from salt-marsh deposits bordering Port au Port Bay, southwestern Newfoundland

  10. ANTIMONY HALIDES AND HgX2 (X = Cl, Br AMINE ADDUCTS: SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NDONGO GUEYE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight new SbF3, SbCl5 and HgX2 (X = Cl, Br amine adducts have been synthesized and their infrared study carried out. Discrete structures have been suggested on the basis of elemental analysis and infrared data, the coordination number of antimony varying from five to nine, while the environment around Hg is tetrahedral.

  11. Eesti moos jõudis Brüsselisse / Ahto Lobjakas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobjakas, Ahto, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    23. märtsil jõudis Brüsselisse Euroopa Parlamenti 150 purki eestlaste keedetud moosi. Ettevõtmise eesmärk oli selle eestvedaja Jaan Sõrra sõnul vähendada Eestile määratud suhkrutrahvi poole võrra. Lisa: Suhkrutrahv

  12. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity of Anisopus mannii N.E. Br ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity of Anisopus mannii N.E. Br. AB Aliyu, H Ibrahim, AM Musa, MA Ibrahim, AO Oyewale, JO Amupitan. Abstract. Anisopus mannii (Asclepiadaceae) –a plant widely used as an anti-diabetic agent in Northern Nigerian traditional medicine, was subjected to antioxidant evaluation.

  13. Photo-stability of CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum dots for optoelectronic application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Junsheng; Liu, Dongzhou; Al-Marri, Mohammed J.; Nuuttila, Lauri; Lehtivuori, Heli; Zheng, Kaibo

    Due to their superior photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) and tunable optical band gap, all-inorganic CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum dots (QDs) have attracted intensive attention for the application in solar cells, light emitting diodes (LED), photodetectors and laser devices. In this scenario,

  14. Palladium(II)/Brønsted Acid-Catalyzed Enantioselective Oxidative Carbocyclization–Borylation of Enallenes**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tuo; Bartholomeyzik, Teresa; Mazuela, Javier; Willersinn, Jochen; Bäckvall, Jan-E

    2015-01-01

    An enantioselective oxidative carbocyclization–borylation of enallenes that is catalyzed by palladium(II) and a Brønsted acid was developed. Biphenol-type chiral phosphoric acids were superior co-catalysts for inducing the enantioselective cyclization. A number of chiral borylated carbocycles were synthesized in high enantiomeric excess. PMID:25808996

  15. Analytical potential energy function for the Br + H{sub 2} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosaki, Yuzuru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kizu, Kyoto (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment

    2001-10-01

    Analytical functions with a many-body expansion for the ground and first-excited-state potential energy surfaces for the Br+H{sub 2} system are newly presented in this work. These functions describe the abstraction and exchange reactions qualitatively well, although it has been found that the function for the ground-state potential surface is still quantitatively unsatisfactory. (author)

  16. ÉTUDE DE CAS — Brésil : La contamination par le mercure en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    11 janv. 2011 ... Leishmaniose : maladie sans frontières. Une mouche porteuse d'un parasite mortel hante la jungle des chutes d'Iguazu, qui marque la triple frontière entre le Brésil, l'Argentine et le. Voir davantageLeishmaniose : maladie sans frontières ...

  17. Thiothionyl bromide (S dbnd SBr 2): The elusive isomer of dibromodisulfane (BrSSBr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornellas, Fernando R.

    2008-02-01

    CCSD(T) with a series of correlation consistent basis up to quadruple-zeta is used to investigate the structures, vibrational spectra, relative stability, heats of formation, and barrier to isomerization of S dbnd SBr 2 and BrSSBr. It represents the most accurate and detailed characterization of these molecules to date. We show that the frequency mode at 302 cm -1, detected in various studies and assigned to impurities by some authors, and to the anti-symmetric SBr stretch in BrSSBr by others, thus in fact corresponds to the anti-symmetric SBr stretch in the elusive S dbnd SBr 2 species; it thus corroborates and complements an earlier partial IR spectra study attributable to S dbnd SBr 2. Including corrections for relativistic and core-valence correlation effects, we also predict 26.33 (12.74) kcal/mol for Δ Hf (298.15 K) of S dbnd SBr 2 (BrSSBr). For the S dbnd SBr 2 → BrSSBr reaction, our best estimates for the Gibbs free energy and the enthalpy of the reaction at 298.15 K are -13.71 and -13.44 kcal/mol, respectively. For a value of Δ G# equal to 23.52 kcal/mol, we estimate a TST rate constant, at 298.15 K, of 3.57 × 10 -5 s -1.

  18. Strong pionic intermittency in 'cold'events in 12C–AgBr interactions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper intermittent behaviour of the pions from `cold' and `hot' classes of events from 12C–AgBr interactions at 4.5 A GeV has been studied, separately. The results reveal strong intermittent pattern in case of `cold' class of events.

  19. http://www.bioline.org.br/js Childhood Bone and Soft Tissue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    www

    http://www.bioline.org.br/js. East and Central African Journal of Surgery. Volume 13 Number 1 œ March / April 2008. Childhood Bone and Soft Tissue Tumours: A review of 43 Treated at two University. Teaching Hospitals in Rwanda (CHUB and CHUK) in RWANDA. M. Makanga, J.P. Majyambere, I. Kakande. Department of ...

  20. [H 2 -Cryptand 222] 2+ (Br 3 – ) 2 as a Tribromide-Type Catalyst for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A stable organic tribromide, [H2-cryptand 222]2+(Br3–)2 was utilized as an active catalyst for the trimethylsilylation/tetrahydropyranylation of alcohols. The method is general for the preparation of OH-protected aliphatic (acyclic and cyclic), aromatic, primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols. Keywords: [H2-cryptand ...

  1. Approche d'un grand espace: la maille municipale des Cerrados brésiliens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe WANIEZ

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available L'espace des Cerrados brésiliens est en cours de colonisation. Le système d'information SISECSO facilite l'analyse des transformations économiques et sociales de ce territoire. Le film de la formation de la maille municipale est une première approche originale.

  2. Foliar anatomy and the delimitation of the genus Triodia R. Br

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burbidge, Nancy Tyson

    1946-01-01

    Peculiarities in leaf anatomy support the opinion that the name Triodia R. Br. should be confined to the Australian species. The leaves of species of Plectrachne Henr. are quite different from those of Triraphis mollis, though formerly included in this genus, but are remarkably similar to those of

  3. Understanding the Relationship among Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry, and Lewis Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Seoung-Hey

    2015-01-01

    Many studies suggest that students have difficulties in learning acid-base concepts. This study presents some conflicts in the textbook descriptions of these concepts and proposes these to be the cause of the students' difficulties. This is especially true regarding the description of the relationship among the Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry, and Lewis…

  4. Berit Teeäär - meie mees Brüsselis / Teet Korsten

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Korsten, Teet

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje : Subbota 20. sept. lk. 2. Endine Riigikogu aseesimehe abi, praegune Eesti esindaja Euroopa Parlamendi kristlik-demokraatide ja konservatiivsete erakondade fraktsioonis Berit Teeäär räägib oma elust Brüsselis

  5. Protective effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Bacopa floribunda (r.br ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacopa floribunda (R.Br.) Wettst (Scrophulariaceae) leaf is used in traditional African and Ayurvedic medicine as a brain tonic for promoting memory and psychological disorders. Hence this study was designed to investigate effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Bacopa floribunda (HeBF) on memory impairment and oxidative ...

  6. L’Île Brésil: la force d’un mythe cartographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enali de Biaggi

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Sur de nombreuses cartes européennes des XVIe et XVIIe siècles, le Brésil apparaît comme une île. Cette représentation a incontestablement servi à la formation du plus grand pays d’Amérique latine.

  7. Hydrothermal Preparation of Visible-Light-Driven N-Br-Codoped TiO2 Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a facile hydrothermal method, N-Br-codoped TiO2 photocatalyst that had intense absorption in visible region was prepared at low temperature (100°C, through a direct reaction between nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 solution and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS showed the existence of N-Ti-N, O-Ti-N-R, Ti3+ (attribute to the doped Br atoms by charge compensation, and TiOxNy species, indicating the successful codoping of N and Br atoms, which were substituted for lattice oxygen without any influence on the crystalline phase of TiO2. In contrast to the N-doped sample, the N-Br-codoped TiO2 photocatalyst could more readily photodegrade methylene blue (MB under visible-light irradiation. The visible-light catalytic activity of thus-prepared photocatalyst resulted from the synergetic effect of the doped nitrogen and bromine, which not only gave high absorbance in the visible-light range, but also reduced electron-hole recombination rate.

  8. On the behavior of Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi relations for transition metal oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vojvodic, Aleksandra; Vallejo, Federico Calle; Guo, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Versatile Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relations are found from density functional theory for a wide range of transition metal oxides including rutiles and perovskites. For oxides, the relation depends on the type of oxide, the active site, and the dissociating molecule. The slope of the BEP...

  9. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of an unprecedented phosphinine-Cu4Br4 cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roesch, Philipp; Nitsch, Jörn; Lutz, Martin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304828971; Wiecko, Jelena; Steffen, Andreas; Müller, Christian

    2014-01-01

    A hitherto unprecedented polynuclear phosphinine-Cu(I) complex has been prepared and crystallographically characterized. The molecular structure in the crystal verifies the presence of the heterocubanetype tetrameric cluster [LCuBr]4 (L = 2,4-diphenyl-5-methyl-6-(2,3- dimethylphenyl)phosphinine),

  10. Translation, Adaptation, and Validation of the Brazilian Version of the Dickman Impulsivity Inventory (Br-DII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Áurea K. V.; Diniz, Leandro F. M.; Lage, Guilherme M.; de Miranda, Débora M.; de Paula, Jonas J.; Costa, Danielle; Albuquerque, Maicon R.

    2017-01-01

    Impulsivity has mainly been described as a negative or dysfunctional characteristic associated with several disorders. However, impulsivity is not only related to dysfunctional outcomes and may explain individual differences in optimal human functioning as well. The Dickman Impulsivity Inventory (DII) is a self-report instrument measuring both the dysfunctional and the functional aspects of impulsivity. In this study, we performed the translation and cultural adaptation of the DII to the Brazilian context and analyzed its psychometric properties. Translation and cultural adaptation followed a rigorous process, which relied on an expert panel in the cross-cultural adaptation of psychological instruments. Data from 405 undergraduate students were obtained for the Brazilian version of the DII (Br-DII). The 23 items of the Br-DII was considered unsuitable according to model fit indices of the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (both for Oblique and Orthogonal models). Exploratory Factor Analysis showed an 18 items version of the Br-DII to be suitable (CFI = 0.92; TLI = 0.90, and RMSEA = 0.057). The DII’s 18 items version also showed adequate Cronbach’s alpha, intraclass correlation coefficient, and convergent and discriminant validity with the BIS-11. Therefore, the Br-DII demonstrated reliability and validity in the measurement of functional and dysfunctional impulsivity. PMID:29209247

  11. Woodsia ilvensis (L.) R.Br. (Roestbruine wimpervaren) nieuw voor de Benelux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den Louis-Jan; Linde, te Benno

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 is Woodsia ilvensis (L.) R.Br. voor het eerst in Nederland gevonden. Het enige exemplaar groeide op een 60 jaar oud laag bakstenen muurtje in Doetinchem. De dichtst nabij gelegen groeiplaats van deze kleine varensoort ligt in de Harz in Duitsland op zo’n 330 km afstand van deze stad. In 2008

  12. East and Central African Journal of Surgery http://www.bioline.org.br ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patrick

    http://www.bioline.org.br/js 142. Gastric Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment guidelines 2008: Uganda Cancer Working Group. M. Galukande M, A. Luwaga2, J. Jombwe1, J. Fualal1, J. Kigula-Mugamba2, A. Kanyike2,. A. Gakwaya1. 1Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Makerere University. 2Radiotherapy department ...

  13. Revisiting Max Brödel's 1939 classic coronal illustration of the ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackler, Robert K; Gralapp, Christine L; Mudry, Albert

    2014-03-01

    To create an anatomically more accurate coronal schematic illustration of the ear. Analysis of Max Brödel's 1939 classic coronal depiction of the ear including the story of its creation. Utilization of high-resolution CT images and 3D digital models of the temporal bone to create an updated and more anatomically accurate illustration. For nearly 7 decades, Brödel's beautiful illustration has served as the inspiration for innumerable textbook and article illustrations. In his design, the artist intentionally choose to diverge from literal anatomy in that he distorted some structures (such as the cochlea and posterior semicircular canal) to bring them into greater prominence and clarity and eliminated others (such as the carotid artery) to avoid a cluttered image. Numerous anatomic errors exist such as a 180-degree reversal of the incus and a markedly foreshortened internal auditory canal. Brödel's illustration has been routinely imitated by subsequent illustrators (in collaboration with otologists) and virtually all have faithfully reproduced Brödel's artistic distortions and inadvertent errors in their depictions--often with the assumption that they represented actual anatomy rather than an artistic interpretation. It is hoped that adoption of a more anatomically accurate standard coronal schematic of the ear will enhance the clarity and precision of future illustrations in the otologic literature.

  14. Role of Brønsted acid in selective production of furfural in biomass pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Liu, Xuejun; Lu, Meizhen; Hu, Xinyue; Lu, Leigang; Tian, Xiaoning; Ji, Jianbing

    2014-10-01

    In this work, the role of Brønsted acid for furfural production in biomass pyrolysis on supported sulfates catalysts was investigated. The introduction of Brønsted acid was shown to improve the degradation of polysaccharides to intermediates for furfural, which did not work well when only Lewis acids were used in the process. Experimental results showed that CuSO4/HZSM-5 catalyst exhibited the best performance for furfural (28% yield), which was much higher than individual HZSM-5 (5%) and CuSO4 (6%). The optimum reaction conditions called for the mass ratio of CuSO4/HZSM-5 to be 0.4 and the catalyst/biomass mass ratio to be 0.5. The recycled catalyst exhibited low productivity (9%). Analysis of the catalysts by Py-IR revealed that the CuSO4/HZSM-5 owned a stronger Brønsted acid intensity than HZSM-5 or the recycled CuSO4/HZSM-5. Therefore, the existence of Brønsted acid is necessary to achieve a more productive degradation of biomass for furfural. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental and theoretical excitation functions for natBr(p,x) reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Dawid; Nortier, Meiring; Richter, Werner

    2002-12-01

    The excitation functions for protons incident on natBr were measured from threshold up to 100 MeV by means of the stacked-foil technique. Where applicable, the measured cross-section values are compared with previously published values. Theoretical cross-sections were also calculated by means of the computer code ALICE (IPPE) for comparison purposes.

  16. Use of Energy Method to Simulate the Performance of LiBr/H 2 O ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Absorption refrigeration system provides large potential for reducing heat pollution of the environment. In this paper, a model has been developed for description of a simple LiBr / H2O absorption system in a climatic setting that is amenable to change. The fundamental characteristics and performance index of the system ...

  17. Excess Enthalpies of Mixing of Binary Mixtures of NaCl, KCl, NaBr ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    2004-07-01

    Jul 1, 2004 ... Excess enthalpies of mixing for six possible binary combinations of solutions of NaCl, KCl, NaBr and KBr in mixed ternary solvents composed of ... practical interest for industrial and geochemical applications. Interest in ... Pitzer,11–16 where the excess Gibbs energy of the system is repre- sented by a ...

  18. Chemical Composition of Salvia plebeian R.Br. Essential Oil and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Salvia plebeian R.Br. (Labiatae) aerial parts against the larvae of Aedes aegypti L. Methods: The essential oil of S. plebeian aerial parts was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ...

  19. Synthesis and crystal structure determination of Br2SeIBr ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Indian Academy of Sciences. 223. Synthesis and crystal structure determination of Br2SeIBr polyhalogen–chalcogen. A A ALEMI* and E SOLAIMANI†. Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Iran. †Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Shahrood, Shahrood, Iran.

  20. http://www.bioline.org.br/js 73 Road Traffic Injuries at Kigali ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    Page 1. East and Central African Journal of Surgery http://www.bioline.org.br/js. East and Central African Journal of Surgery. Volume 13 Number 1 – March / April 2008. 73. Road Traffic Injuries at Kigali University Central Teaching Hospital, Rwanda. E. Twagirayezu, R. Teteli, A. Bonane, E. Rugwizangoga,. Kigali University ...

  1. Vegetation stability in the Southeastern Brazilian coastal area from 5500 to 1400 14C yr BP deduced from charcoal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel-Ybert

    2000-06-01

    spectra relate to the mangrove vegetation. Two relatively humid episodes (recorded from ca. 5500 to 4900/4500 and from ca. 2300 to 2000 14C yr BP), intercalated by two episodes of increased dryness with increased lagoon salinity (from ca. 4900/4500 to 2300 and from ca. 2000 to 1400 14C yr BP) were recorded in the Cabo Frio region. The changes in mangrove vegetation cannot be attributed to sea-level variations, for the three regressive and the two transgressive episodes identified for the Brazilian coast during this period are not in phase with the development of mangroves. The stability of the mainland vegetation ecosystem is probably due to the edaphic character of the coastal environments, which makes coastal formations much more resistant to climatic variations and less sensitive to climatic change. We propose that this environmental stability was a decisive factor in the maintenance of the fisher-gatherer-hunter sociocultural system.

  2. The Brazilian INPE-UFSM NANOSATC-BR CubeSat Development Capacity Building Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Cupertino Durao, Otavio S.

    The Brazilian INPE-UFSM NANOSATC-BR CubeSat Development Capacity Building Program (CBP) and the results of the NANOSATC-BR1, the first Brazilian CubeSat launching, expected for 2014's first semester, are presented. The CBP consists of two CubeSats, NANOSATC-BR 1 (1U) & 2 (2U) and is expected operate in orbit for at least 12 months each, with capacity building in space science, engineering and computer sciences for the development of space technologies using CubeSats satellites. The INPE-UFSM’s CBP Cooperation is basically among: (i) the Southern Regional Space Research Center (CRS), from the Brazilian INPE/MCTI, where acts the Program's General Coordinator and Projects NANOSATC-BR 1 & 2 Manager, having technical collaboration and management of the Mission’s General Coordinator for Engineering and Space Technology at INPE’s Headquarter (HQ), in São José dos Campos, São Paulo; (ii) the Santa Maria Space Science Laboratory (LACESM/CT) from the Federal University of Santa Maria - (UFSM); (iii) the Santa Maria Design House (SMDH); (iv) the Graduate Program in Microelectronics from the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (MG/II/UFRGS); and (v) the Aeronautic Institute of Technology (ITA/DCTA/CA-MD). The INPE-UFSM’s CBP has the involvement of UFSM' undergraduate students and graduate students from: INPE/MCTI, MG/II/UFRGS and ITA/DCTA/CA-MD. The NANOSATC-BR 1 & 2 Projects Ground Stations (GS) capacity building operation with VHF/UHF band and S-band antennas, are described in two specific papers at this COSPAR-2014. This paper focuses on the development of NANOSATC-BR 1 & 2 and on the launching of NANOSATC-BR1. The Projects' concepts were developed to: i) monitor, in real time, the Geospace, the Ionosphere, the energetic particle precipitation and the disturbances at the Earth's Magnetosphere over the Brazilian Territory, and ii) the determination of their effects on regions such as the South American Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA) and the Brazilian sector of the

  3. Breast cancer 1 (BrCa1 may be behind decreased lipogenesis in adipose tissue from obese subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Ortega

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Expression and activity of the main lipogenic enzymes is paradoxically decreased in obesity, but the mechanisms behind these findings are poorly known. Breast Cancer 1 (BrCa1 interacts with acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC reducing the rate of fatty acid biosynthesis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate BrCa1 in human adipose tissue according to obesity and insulin resistance, and in vitro cultured adipocytes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: BrCa1 gene expression, total and phosphorylated (P- BrCa1, and ACC were analyzed in adipose tissue samples obtained from a total sample of 133 subjects. BrCa1 expression was also evaluated during in vitro differentiation of human adipocytes and 3T3-L1 cells. RESULTS: BrCa1 gene expression was significantly up-regulated in both omental (OM; 1.36-fold, p = 0.002 and subcutaneous (SC; 1.49-fold, p = 0.001 adipose tissue from obese subjects. In parallel with increased BrCa1 mRNA, P-ACC was also up-regulated in SC (p = 0.007 as well as in OM (p = 0.010 fat from obese subjects. Consistent with its role limiting fatty acid biosynthesis, both BrCa1 mRNA (3.5-fold, p<0.0001 and protein (1.2-fold, p = 0.001 were increased in pre-adipocytes, and decreased during in vitro adipogenesis, while P-ACC decreased during differentiation of human adipocytes (p = 0.005 allowing lipid biosynthesis. Interestingly, BrCa1 gene expression in mature adipocytes was restored by inflammatory stimuli (macrophage conditioned medium, whereas lipogenic genes significantly decreased. CONCLUSIONS: The specular findings of BrCa1 and lipogenic enzymes in adipose tissue and adipocytes reported here suggest that BrCa1 might help to control fatty acid biosynthesis in adipocytes and adipose tissue from obese subjects.

  4. Diurnal variations of BrONO2 observed by MIPAS-B at midlatitudes and in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wetzel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The first stratospheric measurements of the diurnal variation in the inorganic bromine (Bry reservoir species BrONO2 around sunrise and sunset are reported. Arctic flights of the balloon-borne Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS-B were carried out from Kiruna (68° N, Sweden in January 2010 and March 2011 inside the stratospheric polar vortices where diurnal variations of BrONO2 around sunrise have been observed. High nighttime BrONO2 volume mixing ratios of up to 21 pptv (parts per trillion by volume were detected in late winter 2011 in the absence of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs. In contrast, the amount of measured BrONO2 was significantly lower in January 2010 due to low available NO2 amounts (for the build-up of BrONO2, the heterogeneous destruction of BrONO2 on PSC particles, and the gas-phase interaction of BrO (the source to form BrONO2 with ClO. A further balloon flight took place at midlatitudes from Timmins (49° N, Canada in September 2014. Mean BrONO2 mixing ratios of 22 pptv were observed after sunset in the altitude region between 21 and 29 km. Measurements are compared and discussed with the results of a multi-year simulation performed with the chemistry climate model ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC. The calculated temporal variation in BrONO2 largely reproduces the balloon-borne observations. Using the nighttime simulated ratio between BrONO2 and Bry, the amount of Bry observed by MIPAS-B was estimated to be about 21–25 pptv in the lower stratosphere.

  5. Ecotoxicity of glyphosate and aterbane® br surfactant on guaru (Phalloceros caudimaculatus = Ecotoxicologia do glifosato e surfactante aterbane® br para guaru (Phalloceros caudimaculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Sayuri Shiogiri

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic macrophytes are important components of aquatic ecosystems, but these plants have become a problem due to their occurrence in different regions. Some studies aimed to demonstrate the effectiveness of herbicides to control these macrophytes; however, fewstudies report the possible ecotoxicological effects. The objective of this study was to estimate the acute toxicity (LC (I50;96h and assess water quality variables for glyphosate in the Rodeo® formulation, Aterbane® BR surfactant and mixtures of glyphosate + 0.5% and 1.0% of surfactant, for the guaru fish (Phallocerus caudimaculatus. The guaru was exposed to increasing concentrationsof glyphosate and a mixture of glyphosate + 0.5 and 1.0% of surfactant. The mixture of glyphosate and glyphosate + 0.5 and 1.0% of surfactant showed (LC (I50;96h > 975.0 mg L-1. For the surfactant, the rate was 5.81 mg L-1. The glyphosate and mixtures of glyphosate + 0.5% and 1.0% of surfactant caused a decrease in pH and dissolved oxygen and increased the electrical conductivity of water. Glyphosate in the Rodeo® formulation and the mixtures with surfactantAterbane® BR can be classified as practically nontoxic, whereas surfactant Aterbane® BR can be considered as moderately toxic to guaru.As macrófitas aquáticas são importantes componentes dos ecossistemas, porém elas têm se tornado um problema pela sua ocorrência em diversas regiões. Alguns estudos visam comprovar a eficácia dos herbicidas no controle dessas macrófitas, porém, poucos trabalhos relatam os possíveis efeitos ecotoxicológicos. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a toxicidade aguda (LC (I50;96h e avaliar as variáveis de qualidade de água para o glifosato na formulação Rodeo®, o surfactante Aterbane® BR e das misturas de glifosato + 0,5 e 1,0% do surfactante, para o peixe guaru (Phallocerus caudimaculatus. Para tanto, o guaru foi exposto a concentrações de glifosato e da mistura do glifosato + 0,5 e 1,0% do

  6. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of two contrasting Brassica rapa doubled haploid lines under cold-stresses using Br135K oligomeric chip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jeong Jung

    Full Text Available Genome wide transcription analysis in response to stresses is important to provide a basis of effective engineering strategies to improve stress tolerance in crop plants. We assembled a Brassica rapa oligomeric microarray (Br135K microarray using sequence information from 41,173 unigenes and analyzed the transcription profiles of two contrasting doubled haploid (DH lines, Chiifu and Kenshin, under cold-treatments. The two DH lines showed great differences in electrolyte leakage below -4°C, but similar patterns from 4°C to -2°C. Cold-treatments induced 885 and 858 genes in Chiifu and Kenshin, respectively. Overall, 134, and 56 genes showed an intrinsic difference in expression in Chiifu and Kenshin, respectively. Among 5,349 genes that showed no hit found (NHF in public databases, 61 and 24 were specifically expressed in Chiifu and Kenshin, respectively. Many transcription factor genes (TFs also showed various characteristics of expression. BrMYB12, BrMYBL2, BrbHLHs, BrbHLH038, a C2H2, a WRKY, BrDREB19 and a integrase-type TF were induced in a Chiifu-specific fashion, while a bHLH (Bra001826/AT3G21330, bHLH, cycling Dof factor and two Dof type TFs were Kenshin specific. Similar to previous studies, a large number of genes were differently induced or regulated among the two genotypes, but many genes, including NHFs, were specifically or intrinsically expressed with genotype specificity. Expression patterns of known-cold responsive genes in plants resulted in discrepancy to membrane leakage in the two DH lines, indicating that timing of gene expression is more important to conferring freezing tolerance rather than expression levels. Otherwise, the tolerance will be related to the levels of transcripts before cold-treatment or regulated by other mechanisms. Overall, these results indicate common signaling pathways and various transcriptional regulatory mechanisms are working together during cold-treatment of B. rapa. Our newly developed Br135K

  7. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of two contrasting Brassica rapa doubled haploid lines under cold-stresses using Br135K oligomeric chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hee-Jeong; Dong, Xiangshu; Park, Jong-In; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Lee, Sang Sook; Kim, Yeon-Ki; Lim, Yong-Pyo; Nou, Ill-Sup; Hur, Yoonkang

    2014-01-01

    Genome wide transcription analysis in response to stresses is important to provide a basis of effective engineering strategies to improve stress tolerance in crop plants. We assembled a Brassica rapa oligomeric microarray (Br135K microarray) using sequence information from 41,173 unigenes and analyzed the transcription profiles of two contrasting doubled haploid (DH) lines, Chiifu and Kenshin, under cold-treatments. The two DH lines showed great differences in electrolyte leakage below -4°C, but similar patterns from 4°C to -2°C. Cold-treatments induced 885 and 858 genes in Chiifu and Kenshin, respectively. Overall, 134, and 56 genes showed an intrinsic difference in expression in Chiifu and Kenshin, respectively. Among 5,349 genes that showed no hit found (NHF) in public databases, 61 and 24 were specifically expressed in Chiifu and Kenshin, respectively. Many transcription factor genes (TFs) also showed various characteristics of expression. BrMYB12, BrMYBL2, BrbHLHs, BrbHLH038, a C2H2, a WRKY, BrDREB19 and a integrase-type TF were induced in a Chiifu-specific fashion, while a bHLH (Bra001826/AT3G21330), bHLH, cycling Dof factor and two Dof type TFs were Kenshin specific. Similar to previous studies, a large number of genes were differently induced or regulated among the two genotypes, but many genes, including NHFs, were specifically or intrinsically expressed with genotype specificity. Expression patterns of known-cold responsive genes in plants resulted in discrepancy to membrane leakage in the two DH lines, indicating that timing of gene expression is more important to conferring freezing tolerance rather than expression levels. Otherwise, the tolerance will be related to the levels of transcripts before cold-treatment or regulated by other mechanisms. Overall, these results indicate common signaling pathways and various transcriptional regulatory mechanisms are working together during cold-treatment of B. rapa. Our newly developed Br135K oligomeric

  8. Isotope fractionation in aqua-gas systems: Cl(2)-HCl-Cl(-), Br(2)-HBr-Br(-) and H(2)S-S(2-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnacki, Maciej; Hałas, Stanisław

    2012-01-01

    We report calculated values of isotope fractionation factors between chlorine, bromine and sulphide hydrated anions and respective gaseous compounds: hydrogen chloride, hydrogen bromide, molecular chlorine and bromine and hydrogen sulphide. For the calculation of the reduced partition function ratios (β-factors) of hydrated Cl(-), Br(-) and S(2-) anions, we used a model of a cluster composed of the considered ion surrounded by two shells of H(2)O molecules. Only the electrostatic interaction between ion and water molecules treated as electric dipoles was taken into account. The β-factors for the gaseous compounds (HCl, Cl(2), HBr, Br(2) and H(2)S) were calculated from vibrational frequencies reported by Urey and Greiff [Isotopic Exchange Equilibria, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 57, 321 (1935)] and Schauble et al. [Theoretical Estimates Equilibrium Chlorine-Isotope Fractionation, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 67, 3267 (2003)]. Low-temperature isotope fractionation between chlorine-hydrated anion and hydrogen chloride attains 1.55-1.68‰ (this work), which is in good agreement with experimental data (1.4-1.8‰) [Z.D. Sharp, J.D. Barnes, T.P. Fischer and M. Halick, An Experimental Determination of Chlorine Isotope Fractionation in Acid Systems and Applications to Volcanic Fumaroles, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 264 (2010)]. The predicted isotope fractionations for hydrated bromine and HBr, Br(2) gases are very small, 1000 ln α, do not exceed 0.8‰; thus, the expected variations of bromine isotope composition in aqua-gas systems will require enhanced precision for their detection. In contrast, the sulphur isotope fractionation between H(2)S( gas ) and S(2-) attains 6.0‰ at room temperature and drops nearly linearly to 3.1‰ at 350°C.

  9. MONTE CARLO SIMULATION OF I-, Br-, AND Cl- IN WATER USING AB INITIO PAIR POTENSIAL FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harno Dwi Pranowo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Monte Carlo simulations were performed for I-, Br- and Cl-, in water using ab initio pair potential. The systems consisting of one anion in 215 solvent molecules have been simulated at 298 K. Anion-water pair potentials have been newly developed based on ab initio calculations of split valence basis set plus polarization quality. The structure of the solvated ion is discussed in terms of radial distribution functions, coordination number and pair potential distribution. Structural properties were investigated by means of radial distribution functions and their running integration numbers, leading for the first solvation shell to an average 12.60 H2O around I- with I--O distance of 3.74 Å and I--H distance of 2.86 Å, 11.84 H2O around Br- with Br--O distance of 3.40 Å and Br--H distance of 2.42 Å, and 10.68 H2O around Cl- with Cl--O distance of 3.20 Å and Cl--H distance of 2.24 Å, respectively. The structure of the water-anion complexes are agreed with dipole orientation. Pair energy distribution of hydrated anions showed that the pair interaction energy are increase from I-, Cl-, to Br-, namely, -6.28, -9.98 and -13.67 kcal/mol, respectively. The coordination number distribution analysis for the first solvation shell of the all hydrated anions indicated a high exchange rate for the first solvation shell ligands.   Keywords: Monte Carlo simulation, halogen anion, ab initio

  10. Room-temperature synthesis of pure perovskite-related Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals and their ligand-mediated evolution into highly luminescent CsPbBr3 nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Li, Dongmei; Wang, Cong; Yao, Wei; Wang, Hao; Huang, Kaixiang

    2017-07-01

    Currently, all-inorganic cesium lead-halide perovskite nanocrystals have attracted enormous attentions owing to their excellent optical performances. While great efforts have been devoted to CsPbBr3 nanocrystals, the perovskite-related Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals, which were newly reported, still remained poorly understood. Here, we reported a novel room-temperature reaction strategy to synthesize pure perovskite-related Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals. Size of the products could be adjusted through altering the amount of ligands, simply. A mixture of two good solvents with different polarity was innovatively used as precursor solvent, being one key to the high-yield Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals synthesis. Other two keys were Cs+ precursor concentration and surface ligands. Ingenious experiments were designed to reveal the underlying reaction mechanism. No excitonic emission was observed from the prepared Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals in our work. We considered the green emission which was observed in other reports originated from the avoidless transformation of Cs4PbBr6 into CsPbBr3 nanocrystals. Indeed, the new-prepared Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals could transform into CsPbBr3 nanosheets with surface ligands mediated. The new-transformed two-dimensional CsPbBr3 nanosheets could evolve into large-size nanosheets. The influences of surface ligand density on the fluorescent intensity and stability of transformed CsPbBr3 nanosheets were also explained. Notably, the photoluminescence quantum yield of the as-transformed CsPbBr3 nanosheets could reach as high as 61.6% in the form of thin film. The fast large-scale synthesis of Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals and their ligand-mediated transformation into high-fluorescent CsPbBr3 nanosheets will be beneficial to the future optoelectronic applications. Our work provides new approaches to understand the structural evolution and light-emitting principle of perovskite nanocrystals. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. Batch and column studies of adsorption of Li, Ni and Br by a reference sand for contaminant transport experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigel, M.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ward, D.B.; Bryan, C.R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    A processed quartz sand (Wedron 510), mined from the St. Peter sandstone, has been characterized by a variety of chemical and physical methods for use as a reference porous media in transport model validation experiments. Wedron 510 sand was used in an intermediate-scale experiment involving migration of Ni, Li and Br through a 6-m high x 3-m diameter caisson. Ni and Li adsorption/desorption, and Li/Ni site-competition experiments yielded information on the importance of the trace mineral phases to adsorption of Li and Ni by the sand. The presence of an iron hydroxide coating similar to goethite on the sand grains is suggested by visual observation and leaching experiments. Kaolinite was identified by SEM and XRD as a significant trace mineral phase in the sand and occurs as small particles coating the sand grains. Quartz, the predominant constituent of the sand by weight, does not appear to contribute significantly to the adsorption properties of the sand. Qualitatively, the adsorption properties of the sand can be adequately modeled as a two-mineral system (goethite and kaolinite). The studies described in this report should provide a basis for understanding transport of Ni, Li and Br through porous media similar to the reference sand. Techniques were developed for obtaining parameter values for surface complexation and kinetic adsorption models for the sand and its mineral components. These constants can be used directly in coupled hydrogeochemical transport codes. The techniques should be useful for characterization of other natural materials and elements in high-level nuclear waste in support of coupled hydrogeochemical transport calculations for Yucca Mountain.

  12. Vulnerable areas and adapation measures for sea level rise along the coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Menezes, A.A.A.; Jagtap, T.G.; Suneethi, J.; Furtado, R.

    to the global climatic changes, the available historical mean sea level data between 1920-1999 at 10 locations was evaluated. There is a large contrast in the deduced sea level changes. The sea level rise along the Gulf of Kachchh and the coast of West Bengal...

  13. The binuclear dual emitter [Br(CO)3Re(PN)(NP)Re(CO)3Br] (PN): 3-chloro-6-(4-diphenylphosphinyl)butoxypyridazine, a new bridging P,N-bidentate ligand resulting from the ring opening of tetrahydrofuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldías, Marianela; Manzur, Jorge; Palacios, Rodrigo E; Gómez, María L; Fuente, Julio De La; Günther, Germán; Pizarro, Nancy; Vega, Andrés

    2017-01-31

    Lithium diphenylphosphide unexpectedly provokes the ring-opening of tetrahydrofuran (THF) and by reaction with 3,6-dichloropyridazine leads to the formation of the ligand 3-chloro-6-(4-diphenylphosphinyl)butoxypyridazine (P⋯N), which was isolated. The reaction of this ligand with the (Re(CO)3(THF)Br)2 dimer yields the novel complex [Br(CO)3Re(μ-3-chloro-6-(4-diphenylphosphinyl)butoxypyridazine)2Re(CO)3Br] (BrRe(P⋯N)(N⋯P)ReBr), which was crystallized in the form of a chloroform solvate, (C46H40Br2Cl2N4O8P2Re2)·(CHCl3). The monoclinic crystal (P21/n) displays a bimetallic cage structure with a symmetry inversion centre in the middle of the rhenium to rhenium line. The molecule shows two oxidation signals occurring at +1.50 V and +1.76 V which were assigned to the Re(I)/Re(II) and Re(II)/Re(III) metal-centered couples, respectively, while signals observed at -1.38 V and -1.68 V were assigned to ligand centered reductions. Experimental and DFT/TDDFT results indicate that the UV-Vis absorption maximum of BrRe(P⋯N)(N⋯P)ReBr occurring near 380 nm displays a metal to ligand charge transfer (MLCT) character, which is consistent with CV results. Upon excitation at this wavelength, a weak emission (Φem P⋯N ligand's long carbon chain. Measurements in a frozen solvent at 77 K, where vibrational deactivation is hindered, show intense emission associated with the (3)MLCT state. These results demonstrate that BrRe(P⋯N)(N⋯P)ReBr preserves the dual emitting nature previously reported for the mononuclear complex RePNBr, with emission associated with and states.

  14. Ab initio treatment of the chemical reaction precursor complex Br(2P)-HCN. 1. Adiabatic and diabatic potential surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fishchuk, A.V.; Merritt, J.M.; Avoird, A. van der

    2007-01-01

    The three adiabatic potential surfaces of the Br(P-2)-HCN complex that correlate to the P-2 ground state of the Br atom were calculated ab initio. With the aid of a geometry-dependent diabatic mixing angle, also calculated ab initio, these adiabatic potential surfaces were transformed into a set of

  15. Manganese dioxide causes spurious gold values in flame atomic-absorption readings from HBr-Br2 digestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    False readings, apparently caused by the presence of high concentrations of manganese dioxide, have been observed in our current flame atomic-absorption procedure for the determination of gold. After a hydrobromic acid (HBr)-bromine (Br2) leach, simply heating the sample to boiling to remove excess Br2 prior to extraction with methyl-isobutyl-ketone (MIBK) eliminates these false readings. ?? 1981.

  16. Photocatalytic activity of novel AgBr/WO3 composite photocatalyst under visible light irradiation for methyl orange degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jing; Luo, Bangde; Lin, Haili; Chen, Shifu

    2011-06-15

    A novel AgBr/WO(3) composite photocatalyst was synthesized by loading AgBr on WO(3) substrate via deposition-precipitation method and characterized by XRD, SEM and DRS. The as-prepared AgBr/WO(3) was composed of monoclinic WO(3) substrate and face-centered cubic AgBr nanoparticles with crystalline sizes less than 56.8 nm. AgBr/WO(3) had absorption edge at about 470 nm in the visible light region. The optical AgBr content in AgBr/WO(3) was 0.30:1 (Ag/W) at the corresponding apparent rate, k(app), of 0.0160 min(-1) for MO degradation. The highest k(app) was 0.0216 min(-1) for 4 g/L catalyst. The OH acted as active species. Addition of H(2)O(2) within 0.020 mmol/L can efficiently trap electrons to generate more OH and further improved photocatalytic activity of AgBr/WO(3). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid Formation of Molecular Bromine from Deliquesced NaBr Aerosol in the Presence of Ozone and UV Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    The formation of gas-phase bromine from aqueous sodium bromide aerosols is investigated through a combination of chamber experiments and chemical kinetics modeling. Experiments show that Br2(g) is produced rapidly from deliquesced NaBr aerosols in the presence of OH radicals prod...

  18. Alkaline hydrothermal treatment of brominated high impact polystyrene (HIPS-Br) for bromine and bromine-free plastic recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brebu, Mihai; Bhaskar, Thallada; Muto, Akinori; Sakata, Yusaku

    2006-08-01

    A method to recover both Br and Br-free plastic from brominated flame retardant high impact polystyrene (HIPS-Br) was proposed. HIPS-Br containing 15% Br was treated in autoclave at 280 degrees C using water or KOH solution of various amounts and concentrations. Hydrothermal treatment (30 ml water) leads to 90% debromination of 1g HIPS-Br but plastic is strongly degraded and could not be recovered. Alkaline hydrothermal treatment (45 ml or 60 ml KOH 1M) showed similar debromination for up to 12 g HIPS-Br and plastic was recovered as pellets with molecular weight distribution close to that of the initial material. Debromination occurs at melt plastic/KOH solution interface when liquid/vapour equilibrium is attained inside autoclave (280 degrees C and 7 MPa in our experimental conditions) and depends on the plastic amount/KOH volume ratio. The antimony oxide synergist from HIPS-Br remains in recovered plastic during treatment. A pictorial imagination of the proposed debromination process is presented.

  19. Tartu ülikooli Vene ajaloo professor Alexander Brückner (1834-1896) / Tiit Rosenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rosenberg, Tiit, 1946-

    2004-01-01

    Alexander Brückneri elust, vaadetest, loomingust ja perekonnast. Alexander Brücknerist kui Õpetatud Eesti Seltsi liikmest. Tartu Ülikooli vene ajaloo õppejõududest. Lühidalt Tartust pärit vene ajaloo uurijast Ernst Adolf Herrmannist

  20. C-Reactive Protein Levels in the Brugada Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimé Bonny

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inflammation in the Brugada syndrome (BrS and its clinical implication have been little studied. Aims. To assess the level of inflammation in BrS patients. Methods. All studied BrS patients underwent blood samples drawn for C-reactive protein (CRP levels at admission, prior to any invasive intervention. Patients with a previous ICD placement were controlled to exclude those with a recent (<14 days shock. We divided subjects into symptomatic (syncope or aborted sudden death and asymptomatic groups. In a multivariable analysis, we adjusted for significant variables (age, CRP ≥ 2 mg/L. Results. Fifty-four subjects were studied (mean age 45 ± 13 years, 49 (91% male. Twenty (37% were symptomatic. Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. Mean CRP level was 1,4 ± 0,9 mg/L in asymptomatic and 2,4 ± 1,4 mg/L in symptomatic groups (P = .003. In the multivariate model, CRP concentrations ≥ 2 mg/L remained an independent marker for being symptomatic (P = .018; 95% CI: 1.3 to 19.3. Conclusion. Inflammation seems to be more active in symptomatic BrS. C-reactive protein concentrations ≥ 2 mg/L might be associated with the previous symptoms in BrS. The value of inflammation as a risk factor of arrhythmic events in BrS needs to be studied.

  1. Optical properties of Pb2 -based aggregated phases in CsBr Thin film and single crystal matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikl, M.; Nitsch, K.; Mihokova, E.; Polak, K.; Fabeni, P.; Pazzi, G. P.; Gurioli, M.; Phani, R.; Santucci, S.; Scacco, A.; Somma, F.

    Emission characteristics of CsPbBr3 and Cs4PbBr6 aggregates in CsBr bulk and thin film matrices are reported. The emission of the former aggregated phase is peaking about 520-560 nm. It shows small Stokes shift (50 meV) related to narrow free exciton emission line of sub-nanosecond decay times. Quantum size effect was evidenced for the aggregates of 6-7 nm in diameter. The Cs4PbBr6 aggregates show emission peak at 375 nm and overall emission characteristics are similar to those of KBr: Pb, which is explained by very close local arrangement of emission centres-(PbBr6)4- octahedra-in both structures.

  2. Characterization of LaBr{sub 3}:Ce and CeBr{sub 3} calorimeter modules for 3D imaging in gamma-ray astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gostojić, A., E-mail: aleksandar.gostojic@csnsm.in2p3.fr [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France); Tatischeff, V.; Kiener, J.; Hamadache, C.; Peyré, J.; Karkour, N.; Linget, D.; Gibelin, L.; Lafay, X.; Grave, X.; Dosme, N.; Legay, E. [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France); Blin, S. [OMEGA, École Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Barrillon, P. [LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Saclay, 91898 Orsay (France)

    2016-10-01

    For the purpose of future space instrumentation for γ-ray astronomy, we developed a small prototype of a Compton telescope and studied novel detector modules aimed for Compton imaging. We assembled and tested 2 modules, one with a cerium-doped lanthanum(III) bromide (LaBr{sub 3}:Ce) crystal and the other with cerium(III) bromide (CeBr{sub 3}). Both crystals measure 5×5 cm{sup 2} in area and are 1 cm thick. They are coupled to and read out by 64-channel multi-anode PMTs. Our goals are to obtain the best possible energy resolution and position resolution in 3D on the first impact of an incident γ-ray within the detector. Both information are vital for successful reconstruction of a Compton image with the telescope prototype. We developed a test bench to experimentally study both modules and have utilized a customized readout electronics and data acquisition system. Furthermore, we have written a detailed Geant4 simulation of the experiment, and utilize simulated data to train an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm to create a simplified 3D impact position reconstruction method. We give experimental test results obtained by both modules and present detailed parametrization and results from the Geant4 simulation and from the ANN. We compare and discuss the performance of the modules and conclude by giving a brief overview of the future prospects for using such modules in γ-ray astronomy.

  3. Interplay between halogen bonds and hydrogen bonds in OH/SH···HOX···HY (X = Cl, Br; Y = F, Cl, Br) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenjie; Zeng, Yanli; Li, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xueying; Zheng, Shijun; Meng, Lingpeng

    2013-03-01

    The character of the cooperativity between the HOX···OH/SH halogen bond (XB) and the Y-H···(H)OX hydrogen bond (HB) in OH/SH···HOX···HY (X = Cl, Br; Y = F, Cl, Br) complexes has been investigated by means of second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) calculations and "quantum theory of atoms in molecules" (QTAIM) studies. The geometries of the complexes have been determined from the most negative electrostatic potentials (V (S,min)) and the most positive electrostatic potentials (V (S,max)) on the electron density contours of the individual species. The greater the V (S,max) values of HY, the larger the interaction energies of halogen-bonded HOX···OH/SH in the termolecular complexes, indicating that the ability of cooperative effect of hydrogen bond on halogen bond are determined by V (S,max) of HY. The interaction energies, binding distances, infrared vibrational frequencies, and electron densities ρ at the BCPs of the hydrogen bonds and halogen bonds prove that there is positive cooperativity between these bonds. The potentiation of hydrogen bonds on halogen bonds is greater than that of halogen bonds on hydrogen bonds. QTAIM studies have shown that the halogen bonds and hydrogen bonds are closed-shell noncovalent interactions, and both have greater electrostatic character in the termolecular species compared with the bimolecular species.

  4. Spectral intensities in coordination compounds of the transition metals: applications to systems type Cs{sub 2}SnBr{sub 6}: OsBr{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo, R.; Munoz, G. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile, Beauchef 850, Casilla 2777, Santiago (Chile); Meruane, T. [Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias y Educacion, Av. Jose Pedro Alessandri 774, Casilla 147-C Santiago (Chile)

    2001-07-01

    The luminescence spectrum of the Cs{sub 2}SnBr{sub 6}: OsBr{sub 6} system is examined utilizing a generalized vibronic formalisms. For illustrative purposes we have chosen the most characteristic excitations, which show up a rich and unexpected vibronic structures. These absorptions are tackled with emphasis on both the electronic and the vibrational factors which are responsible for both the overall and the relative vibronic intensities associated with generic transitions of the {gamma}{sub m} = {gamma}{sub l} + v{sub k} (k = 3, 4, 6) type. The advantages and disadvantages of the calculation models as well as a critical studies of the experimental data available are discussed. Relevant conclusions are drawn out in connection with the intensity spectral mechanism as well as the eventual influence on the calculated intensities due to the coupling among the internal and the external vibrations and some suggestions for improvement are put forward to advance the state of the art in the vibronic coupling theory. (Author)

  5. Laser-induced UV photodissociation of 2-bromo-2-nitropropane: dynamics of OH and Br formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Ankur; Kawade, Monali; Upadhyaya, Hari P; Kumar, Awadhesh; Naik, Prakash D

    2011-01-28

    Photoexcitation of 2-bromo-2-nitropropane (BNP) at 248 and 193 nm generates OH, Br, and NO(2) among other products. The OH fragment is detected by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, and its translational and internal state distributions (vibration, rotation, spin-orbit, and Λ-doubling components) are probed. At both 248 and 193 nm, the OH fragment is produced translationally hot with the energy of 10.8 and 17.2 kcal∕mol, respectively. It is produced vibrationally cold (v" = 0) at 248 nm, and excited (v" = 1) at 193 nm with a vibrational temperature of 1870 ± 150 K. It is also generated with rotational excitation, rotational populations of OH(v" = 0) being characterized by a temperature of 550 ± 50 and 925 ± 100 K at 248 and 193 nm excitation of BNP, respectively. The spin-orbit components of OH(X(2)Π) are not in equilibrium on excitation at 193 nm, but the Λ-doublets are almost in equilibrium, implying no preference for its π lobe with respect to the plane of rotation. The NO(2) product is produced electronically excited, as detected by measuring UV-visible fluorescence, at 193 nm and mostly in the ground electronic state at 248 nm. The Br product is detected employing resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization with time-of-flight mass spectrometer for better understanding of the dynamics of dissociation. The forward convolution analysis of the experimental data has provided translational energy distributions and anisotropy parameters for both Br((2)P(3∕2)) and Br∗((2)P(1∕2)). The average translational energies for the Br and Br∗ channels are 5.0 ± 1.0 and 6.0 ± 1.5 kcal∕mol. No recoil anisotropies were observed for these products. Most plausible mechanisms of OH and Br formation are discussed based on both the experimental and the theoretical results. Results suggest that the electronically excited BNP molecules at 248 and 234 nm relax to the ground state, and subsequently dissociate to produce OH and Br through different channels. The

  6. Theoretical study on the rate constants for the C2H5 + HBr --> C2H6 + Br reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Li; Li, Ze-Sheng; Liu, Jing-Yao; Xiao, Jing-Fa; Sun, Chia-Chung

    2004-02-01

    The reaction C(2)H(5) + HBr --> C(2)H(6) + Br has been theoretically studied over the temperature range from 200 to 1400 K. The electronic structure information is calculated at the BHLYP/6-311+G(d,p) and QCISD/6-31+G(d) levels. With the aid of intrinsic reaction coordinate theory, the minimum energy paths (MEPs) are obtained at the both levels, and the energies along the MEP are further refined by performing the single-point calculations at the PMP4(SDTQ)/6-311+G(3df,2p)//BHLYP and QCISD(T)/6-311++G(2df,2pd)//QCISD levels. The calculated ICVT/SCT rate constants are in good agreement with available experimental values, and the calculate results further indicate that the C(2)H(5) + HBr reaction has negative temperature dependence at T 850 K. The current work predicts that the kinetic isotope effect for the title reaction is inverse in the temperature range from 200 to 482 K, i.e., k(HBr)/k(DBr) < 1. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Theoretical study of noncovalent interactions in XCN···YO2H (X = F, Cl, Br, I; Y = P, As, Sb) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiang

    2017-06-01

    Noncovalent interactions in XCN···YO2H (X = F, Cl, Br, I; Y = P, As, Sb) complexes were investigated using ab initio calculations at the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory. There are four different configurations of these complexes, and the complexes are formed via hydrogen bonds, halogen bonds, π-hole interactions, or dual interactions. An examination of binding distances and interaction energies suggested that π-hole bonds are more stable than the other interactions. Molecular electrostatic potentials, electron densities, second-order stabilization energies, and electron density differences were computed to study the character of these interactions.

  8. L’infection bactérienne chez le patient brûlé

    OpenAIRE

    Le Floch, R.; Naux, E.; Arnould, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    La mort d’un patient brûlé est le plus souvent causée par une infection, bactérienne dans la grande majorité des cas. La perte de la barrière cutanée, les dispositifs invasifs et l’immunodépression liée à la brûlure sont trois mécanismes concourant à la survenue de ces infections. Chez un patient inflammatoire, les signes infectieux généraux d’infection sont peu discriminants. Du fait de la gravité des infections chez ce patient, leur prévention est un paramètre essentiel de la prise en charg...

  9. Modulation of Charge Recombination in CsPbBr3 Perovskite Films with Electrochemical Bias

    KAUST Repository

    Scheidt, Rebecca A

    2017-11-13

    The charging of mesoscopic TiO2 layer in a metal halide perovskite solar cell can influence the overall power conversion efficiency. By employing CsPbBr3 films deposited on a mesoscopic TiO2 film, we have succeeded in probing the influence of electrochemical bias on the charge carrier recombination process. The transient absorption spectroscopy experiments conducted at different applied potentials indicate a decrease in the charge carrier lifetimes of CsPbBr3 as we increase the potential from -0.6 V to + 0.6 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The charge carrier lifetime increased upon reversing the applied bias, thus indicating the reversibility of the photoresponse to charging effects. The ultrafast spectroelectrochemical experiments described here offer a convenient approach to probe the charging effects in perovskite solar cells.

  10. Novel Ionic Liquid with Both Lewis and Brønsted Acid Sites for Michael Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runpu Shen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquid with both Lewis and Brønsted acid sites has been synthesized and its catalytic activities for Michael addition were carefully studied. The novel ionic liquid was stable to water and could be used in aqueous solution. The molar ratio of the Lewis and Brønsted acid sites could be adjusted to match different reactions. The results showed that the novel ionic liquid was very efficient for Michael addition with good to excellent yields within several min. Operational simplicity, high stability to water and air, small amount used, low cost of the catalyst used, high yields, chemoselectivity, applicability to large-scale reactions and reusability are the key features of this methodology, which indicated that this novel ionic liquid also holds great potential for environmentally friendly processes.

  11. Surface modification of graphene using HBC-6ImBr in solution-processed OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tsung-Chin; Ku, Ting-An; Huang, Kuo-You; Chou, Ang-Sheng; Chang, Po-Han; Chang, Chao-Chen; Yue, Cheng-Feng; Liu, Chia-Wei; Wang, Po-Han; Wong, Ken-Tsung; Wu, Chih-I.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we report a simple method for solution-processed organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), where single-layer graphene acts as the anode and the hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene exfoliating agent (HBC-6ImBr) provides surface modification. In SEM images, the PEDOT:PSS solution fully covered the graphene electrode after coating with HBC-6ImBr. The fabricated solution-processed OLEDs with a single-layer graphene anode showed outstanding brightness at 3182 cd/m2 and current efficiency up to 6 cd/A which is comparable to that of indium tin oxide films, and the OLED device brightness performance increases six times compared to tri-layer graphene treated with UV-Ozone at the same driving voltage. This method can be used in a wide variety of solution-processed organic optoelectronics on surface-modified graphene anodes.

  12. Inhibition of Ps Formation in Benzene and Cyclohexane by CH3CI and CH3Br

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikander, G.; Mogensen, O. E.; Pedersen, Niels Jørgen

    1983-01-01

    Positron-annihilation lifetime spectra have been measured for mixtures of CH3Cl and CH3Br in cyclohexane and of CH3Cl in benzene. The ortho-positronium (Ps) yield decreased monotonically from 38% and 43% in cyclohexane and benzene respectively to 11% in pure CH3Cl and 6% in pure CH3Br. The strength......− anions to form Ps. while it forms a bound state with the halides. X−. CH3Cl was a roughly three times weaker Ps inhibitor in benzene than in cyclohexane, which shows that CH3Cl− does not dechlorinate in times comparable to or shorter than 400–500 ps in benzene. An improved model for the explanation of Ps...

  13. Influence of Impurities on the Radiation Response of the TlBr Semiconductor Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Alves dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two commercially available TlBr salts were used as the raw material for crystal growths to be used as radiation detectors. Previously, TlBr salts were purified once, twice, and three times by the repeated Bridgman method. The purification efficiency was evaluated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS, after each purification process. A compartmental model was proposed to fit the impurity concentration as a function of the repetition number of the Bridgman growths, as well as determine the segregation coefficients of impurities in the crystals. The crystalline structure, the stoichiometry, and the surface morphology of the crystals were evaluated, systematically, for the crystals grown with different purification numbers. To evaluate the crystal as a radiation semiconductor detector, measurements of its resistivity and gamma-ray spectroscopy were carried out, using 241Am and 133Ba sources. A significant improvement of the radiation response was observed in function of the crystal purity.

  14. Mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) vid bröstcancer : - en litteraturöversikt

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Elin; Bertling, Frida

    2017-01-01

    Bakgrund: Mindfulness är ett nytt koncept inom omvårdnad. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) är ett program som utvecklats från mindfulness inom vården. MBSR har studerats i samband med olika sjukdomar däribland cancer. Bröstcancer är den vanligaste maligna cancern hos kvinnor världen över och att få en cancerdiagnos medför både fysiska och psykiska svårigheter. Syfte: Att beskriva effekter av MBSR på personer med bröstcancer. Metod: Litteraturöversikt baserad på RCT-studier (randomise...

  15. Ion-Association Reaction of Rb+ and Br- in 2-Methylpropan-2-ol + Water Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Vesna; Tomaš, Renato; Bošković, Perica

    2012-12-01

    The molar conductivity of RbBr solutions in 2-methylpropan-2-ol (tert-butanol) + water mixtures at alcohol mass fractions of 0.70, 0.80 and 0.90 was measured at temperatures from 288.15 to 308.15 K at 5 K intervals. The limiting molar conductivity (Δo) and the ion-pair formation constant (KoA) were determined by the Lee-Wheaton conductivity equation. Thermodynamic quantities, Gibbs energy (ΔGo), enthalpy (ΔHo) and entropy (ΔSo), for the ion-association reaction were derived from the temperature dependence of KoA; the activation energy of the ionic movement (ΔH*) was derived from the temperature dependence of Λo. These values were compared with those obtained earlier for HBr and NaBr in the same mixtures.

  16. Combined Lewis acid and Brønsted acid-mediated reactivity of glycosyl trichloroacetimidate donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Nathan D; Liana Allen, C; Nam, Brandon C; Schepartz, Alanna; Miller, Scott J

    2013-12-15

    Biomimetic conditions for a synthetic glycosylation reaction, inspired by the highly conserved functionality of carbohydrate active enzymes, were explored. At the outset, we sought to generate proof of principle for this approach to developing catalytic systems for glycosylation. However, control reactions and subsequent kinetic studies showed that a stoichiometric, irreversible reaction of the catalyst and glycosyl donor was occurring, with a remarkable rate variance depending upon the structure of the carboxylic acid. It was subsequently found that a combination of Brønsted acid (carboxylic acid) and Lewis acid (MgBr2) was unique in catalyzing the desired glycosylation reaction. Thus, it was concluded that the two acids act synergistically to catalyze the desired transformation. The role of the catalytic components was tested with a number of control reactions and based on these studies a mechanism is proposed herein. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hemispheric Asymmetry in Transition from Equatorial Plasma Bubble to Blob as Deduced from 630.0 nm Airglow Observations at Low Latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaeheung; Martinis, Carlos R.; Luehr, Hermann; Pfaff, Robert F.; Kwak, Young-Sil

    2016-01-01

    Transitions from depletions to enhancements of 630.0 nm nighttime airglow have been observed at Arecibo. Numerical simulations by Krall et al. (2009) predicted that they should occur only in one hemisphere, which has not yet been confirmed observationally. In this study we investigate the hemispheric conjugacy of the depletion-to-enhancement transition using multiple instruments. We focus on one event observed in the American longitude sector on 22 December 2014: 630.0 nm airglow depletions evolved into enhancements in the Northern Hemisphere while the evolution did not occur in the conjugate location in the Southern Hemisphere. Concurrent plasma density measured by low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites and 777.4 nm airglow images support that the depletions and enhancements of 630.0 nm night time airglow reflect plasma density decreases and increases (blobs), respectively. Characteristics of the airglow depletions, in the context of the LEO satellite data, further suggest that the plasma density depletion deduced from the airglow data represents equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) rather than medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances from midlatitudes. Hence, the event in this study can be interpreted as EPB-to-blob transition.

  18. cDNA and deduced primary structure of basic phospholipase A2 with neurotoxic activity from the venom secretion of the Crotalus durissus collilineatus rattlesnake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.H.R. Fagundes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To illustrate the construction of precursor complementary DNAs, we isolated mRNAs from whole venom samples. After reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, we amplified the cDNA coding for a neurotoxic protein, phospholipase A2 D49 (PLA2 D49, from the venom of Crotalus durissus collilineatus (Cdc PLA2. The cDNA encoding Cdc PLA2 from whole venom was sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of this cDNA has high overall sequence identity with the group II PLA2 protein family. Cdc PLA2 has 14 cysteine residues capable of forming seven disulfide bonds that characterize this group of PLA2 enzymes. Cdc PLA2 was isolated using conventional Sephadex G75 column chromatography and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. The molecular mass was estimated using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. We tested the neuromuscular blocking activities on chick biventer cervicis neuromuscular tissue. Phylogenetic analysis of Cdc PLA2 showed the existence of two lines of N6-PLA2, denominated F24 and S24. Apparently, the sequences of the New World’s N6-F24-PLA2 are similar to those of the agkistrodotoxin from the Asian genus Gloydius. The sequences of N6-S24-PLA2 are similar to the sequence of trimucrotoxin from the genus Protobothrops, found in the Old World.

  19. The thermal history of the Acapulco meteorite and its parent body deduced from U/Pb systematics in mineral separates and bulk rock fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göpel, Christa; Manhès, Gérard

    2010-01-01

    U/Pb systematics of the Acapulco meteorite have been determined on phosphate and feldspar separates and on grain size fractions of bulk material. The latter show an enrichment of U and Th with respect to CI chondrites and a low (˜1) Th/U ratio. This is consistent with the model that the majority of U and Th was added early by a low temperature melt to the Acapulco precursor. The feldspar exhibits a Pb isotope composition that is close to the primordial Pb composition. Mineral separates and bulk fractions define a 207Pb/ 206Pb isochron. The age corresponds to 4555.9 ± 0.6 Ma. This age anchors the thermal evolution of the Acapulco parent body into an absolute time scale. Evaluation of the Hf/W and U/Pb records with the cooling rates deduced from mineralogical investigations confirms the idea that the Acapulco parent body was fragmented during its cooling. The U/Pb system precisely dates this break-up at 4556 ± 1 Ma.

  20. Convex-PL: a novel knowledge-based potential for protein-ligand interactions deduced from structural databases using convex optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadukova, Maria; Grudinin, Sergei

    2017-10-01

    We present a novel optimization approach to train a free-shape distance-dependent protein-ligand scoring function called Convex-PL. We do not impose any functional form of the scoring function. Instead, we decompose it into a polynomial basis and deduce the expansion coefficients from the structural knowledge base using a convex formulation of the optimization problem. Also, for the training set we do not generate false poses with molecular docking packages, but use constant RMSD rigid-body deformations of the ligands inside the binding pockets. This allows the obtained scoring function to be generally applicable to scoring of structural ensembles generated with different docking methods. We assess the Convex-PL scoring function using data from D3R Grand Challenge 2 submissions and the docking test of the CASF 2013 study. We demonstrate that our results outperform the other 20 methods previously assessed in CASF 2013. The method is available at http://team.inria.fr/nano-d/software/Convex-PL/.

  1. Nucleotide sequence of the gene for alkaline phosphatase of Thermus caldophilus GK24 and characteristics of the deduced primary structure of the enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, T; Lee, J H; Kim, H K; Hoe, H S; Kwon, S T

    1999-11-15

    The gene encoding Thermus caldophilus GK24 (Tca) alkaline phosphatase was cloned into Escherichia coli. The primary structure of Tca alkaline phosphatase was deduced from its nucleotide sequence. The Tca alkaline phosphatase precursor, including the signal peptide sequence, was comprised of 501 amino acid residues. Its molecular mass was determined to be 54¿ omitted¿760 Da. On the alignment of the amino acid sequence, Tca alkaline phosphatase showed sequence homology with the microbial alkaline phosphatases, 20% identity with E. coli alkaline phosphatase and 22% Bacillus subtilis (Bsu) alkaline phosphatases. High sequence identity was observed in the regions containing the Ser-102 residue of the active site, the zinc and magnesium binding sites of E. coli alkaline phosphatase. Comparison of Tca alkaline phosphatase and E. coli alkaline phosphatase structures suggests that the reduced activity of the Tca alkaline phosphatase, in the presence of zinc, is directly involved in some of the different metal binding sites. Heat-stable Tca alkaline phosphatase activity was detected in E. coli YK537, harboring pJRAP.

  2. Experimental and data analysis techniques for deducing collision-induced forces from photographic histories of engine rotor fragment impact/interaction with a containment ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeghiayan, R. P.; Leech, J. W.; Witmer, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis method termed TEJ-JET is described whereby measured transient elastic and inelastic deformations of an engine-rotor fragment-impacted structural ring are analyzed to deduce the transient external forces experienced by that ring as a result of fragment impact and interaction with the ring. Although the theoretical feasibility of the TEJ-JET concept was established, its practical feasibility when utilizing experimental measurements of limited precision and accuracy remains to be established. The experimental equipment and the techniques (high-speed motion photography) employed to measure the transient deformations of fragment-impacted rings are described. Sources of error and data uncertainties are identified. Techniques employed to reduce data reading uncertainties and to correct the data for optical-distortion effects are discussed. These procedures, including spatial smoothing of the deformed ring shape by Fourier series and timewise smoothing by Gram polynomials, are applied illustratively to recent measurements involving the impact of a single T58 turbine rotor blade against an aluminum containment ring. Plausible predictions of the fragment-ring impact/interaction forces are obtained by one branch of this TEJ-JET method; however, a second branch of this method, which provides an independent estimate of these forces, remains to be evaluated.

  3. Deduced sequences of the membrane fusion and attachment proteins of canine distemper viruses isolated from dogs and wild animals in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Chae-Wun; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Nak-Hyung; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kang, Young-Sun; Park, Choi-Kyu; Choi, In-Soo

    2013-08-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes highly contagious respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological diseases in wild and domestic animal species. Despite a broad vaccination campaign, the disease is still a serious problem worldwide. In this study, six field CDV strains were isolated from three dogs, two raccoon dogs, and one badger in Korea. The full sequence of the genes encoding fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) proteins were compared with those of other CDVs including field and vaccine strains. The phylogenetic analysis for the F and H genes indicated that the two CDV strains isolated from dogs were most closely related to Chinese strains in the Asia-1 genotype. Another four strains were closely related to Japanese strains in the Asia-2 genotype. The six currently isolated strains shared 90.2-92.1% and 88.2-91.8% identities with eight commercial vaccine strains in their nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the F protein, respectively. They also showed 90.1-91.4% and 87.8-90.7% identities with the same vaccine strains in their nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the H protein, respectively. Different N-linked glycosylation sites were identified in the F and H genes of the six isolates from the prototype vaccine strain Onderstepoort. Collectively, these results demonstrate that at least two different CDV genotypes currently exist in Korea. The considerable genetic differences between the vaccine strains and wild-type isolates would be a major factor of the incomplete protection of dogs from CDV infections.

  4. Convex-PL: a novel knowledge-based potential for protein-ligand interactions deduced from structural databases using convex optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadukova, Maria; Grudinin, Sergei

    2017-09-01

    We present a novel optimization approach to train a free-shape distance-dependent protein-ligand scoring function called Convex-PL. We do not impose any functional form of the scoring function. Instead, we decompose it into a polynomial basis and deduce the expansion coefficients from the structural knowledge base using a convex formulation of the optimization problem. Also, for the training set we do not generate false poses with molecular docking packages, but use constant RMSD rigid-body deformations of the ligands inside the binding pockets. This allows the obtained scoring function to be generally applicable to scoring of structural ensembles generated with different docking methods. We assess the Convex-PL scoring function using data from D3R Grand Challenge 2 submissions and the docking test of the CASF 2013 study. We demonstrate that our results outperform the other 20 methods previously assessed in CASF 2013. The method is available at http://team.inria.fr/nano-d/software/Convex-PL/.

  5. Phytochemical Screening and TLC Profile of Fruits and Flowers of Alstonia venenata R. Br.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas SK; George RE; Kunjumon M; Thankamani VI

    2016-01-01

    Alstonia venenata R. Br. belonging to the family Apocynaceae is a tall evergreen shrub distributed throughout Peninsular India. Stem-bark, root-bark, fruits and leaves are used by many tribal communities and also in Ayurveda. The study investigates the phytochemical composition of hexane, butanol, methanol and water extracts of Alstonia venenata fruits and flowers as well as the TLC profile of hexane extracts of fruits and flowers. Quantitative data of the wet and dry weight, yields from diff...

  6. Theoretical study on O $\\cdots $ Br and O $\\cdots $ Cl halogen ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this work, theoretical calculations were carried out using B3LYP/6-31++G∗∗, MP2/6-31++G∗∗ and MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ methods on a series of O ⋯ X halogen bonds between CH2O andCH3CHO as halogen bond acceptor with X-Y (X = Cl, Br; Y = CF3, CF2 H, CFH2, CN, CCH, CCCN) as halogen bond donors.

  7. Page 1 PRODUCTION OF THE JOSHI-EFFECT IN Br, AND H. AND ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the Joshi-Effect is found as a result of extensive work in these laboratories to occur also in a number of other gases, both elemental and compound, and their mixtures, e.g., Br, I, air, N, O, S, Se, NO, HCl and metallic vapours such as Hg, K and Na." Detailed investigations of Deo and others on chlorine have shown that, under ...

  8. PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES OF TELOSMA AFRICANUM (N.E.Br) COLVILLE LEAF AND STEM

    OpenAIRE

    Fred-Jaiyesimi Adediwura* and Adisa Ayotunde

    2012-01-01

    Telosma africanum (N.E.Br) Colville (Ascelpiadaceae) is a slender riverine and deciduous climber used traditionally in the treatment of venereal diseases. Using standard procedures, the pharmacognostic studies, fluorescence analysis and phytochemical screening were carried out. This study revealed the presence of combined Anthraquinone, Saponin, Cardiac glycoside, alkaloids in the leaf and stem. Flavonoid as well as uniseriate trichomes and anisocytic type of stomata were present in the leaf.

  9. Factorial moments of $^{28}Si$ induced interactions with Ag(Br) nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Adamovich, M I; Andreeva, N P; Badyal, S K; Bakich, A M; Basova, E S; Bhalla, K B; Bhasin, A; Bhatia, V S; Bradnova, V; Bubnov, V I; Cai, X; Chen, G M; El-Chenawi, K F; Chernyavsky, M M; Dhamija, S; Felea, D; Gaitinov, A S; Ganssauge, E R; Garpman, S; Gerassimov, S G; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Gulamov, K G; Gupta, S K; Gupta, V K; Haiduc, M; Hasegan, D; Jakobsson, B; Just, L; Kanygina, E K; Kharlamov, S P; Kim, I C; Kovalenko, A D; Krasnov, S A; Kravcakova, A; Kumar, V; Larionova, V G; Lepekhin, F G; Lebedev, I A; Lee, C G; Lee, Y L; Levitskaya, O V; Li, Y X; Liu, H; Liu, L S; Liu, Z G; Lokanatan, S; Lord, J J; Lu, Y; Lukicheva, N S; Luo, S B; Mangotra, L K; Manhas, I; Mittra, I S; Musaeva, A K; Nasyrov, S Z; Navontny, V S; Nystrand, J; Orlova, G I; Otterlund, I; Peak, L S; Peresadko, N G; Philippova, L N; Plyushchev, V A; Qian, W Y; Qin, Y M; Raniwala, R; Rao, N K; Rhee, J T; Rusakova, V V; Saidkhanov, N; Salmanova, N A; Seitimbetov, A M; Sethi, R; Simonov, B B; Singh, B; Skelding, D; Söderström, K; Stenlund, E; Tawfik, A M; Tretyakova, M I; Trofimova, T P; Vashisht, V; Vokal, S; Vrláková, J; Wang, H Q; Wang, H S; Wang, X R; Wang, J G; Weng, Z Q; Wilkes, R J; Yang, C B; Yang, H Y; Yin, Z B; Yu, L Z; Yung, S Y; Zarubin, P I; Zgura, I S; Zhang, D H; Zheng, P Y; Zhokhova, S I; Zhou, D C; Zhou Dai Mei

    2001-01-01

    Scaled factorial moment analysis for the multiplicity distributions of shower particles in the pseudorapidity phase space has been done. An evidence for the presence of dynamical fluctuations has been shown for the non-peripheral interactions of /sup 28/Si+Ag(Br) at 14.6 A Ge V/c and 4.5 A GeV/c. The results have been compared with the values obtained from data sample calculated by cascade-evaporation model. (9 refs).

  10. Brésil | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le développement ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les recherches subventionnées par le CRDI au Brésil ont permis d'éclairer les débats sur nombre de questions, dont la démocratie, la croissance économique, la santé, les services sociaux, l'innovation, la foresterie et l'eau. Pendant la dictature militaire, qui a pris fin en 1985, le CRDI s'est employé à assurer la survie de la ...

  11. Excess Enthalpies of Mixing of Binary Mixtures of NaCl, KCl, NaBr ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    2004-07-01

    Jul 1, 2004 ... bDepartment of Chemical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749, Korea. ... interactions play a key role in the solution chemistry of solutes.1–6 ..... I = 1.000 mol kg–1. KBr (1) + KCl (2). NaBr (1) + NaCl (2). KBr (1) + NaCl (2). 0.1093. 22. 0.1208. 10. 0.1128. 19. 0.1582. 36. 0.2118. 14. 0.1818. 28.

  12. Brändin ja mainonnan vaikutusten tutkiminen : Case: Kauppakeskus Tullintori

    OpenAIRE

    Kuusela, Evita

    2017-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tutkia kauppakeskus Tullintorin brändiä. Lisäksi tutkittiin Tullintorin mainonnan vaikutuksia ja Tullintoriin liitettäviä mielikuvia. Kauppakeskus Tullintori on Tampereen ydinkeskustassa sijaitseva erikoisliikkeiden kauppakeskus. Tullintori on avannut ovensa jo vuonna 1991, mutta kauppakeskusta on uudistettu viime vuosina. Tutkimuksessa selvitettiin, onko tehdyillä uudistuksilla ollut vaikutusta kuluttajien mielikuviin kauppakeskuksesta. Lisäksi tutkittii...

  13. A LiBr-H2O Absorption Refrigerator Incorporating a Thermally Activated Solution Pumping Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Ian W. Eames

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an illustrated description of a proposed LiBr-H2O vapour absorption refrigerator which uses a thermally activated solution pumping mechanism that combines controlled variations in generator vapour pressure with changes it produces in static-head pressure difference to circulate the absorbent solution between the generator and absorber vessels. The proposed system is different and potentially more efficient than a bubble pump system previously proposed and avoids the need f...

  14. Türgi valmistus solvunult Brüsselile selga keerama / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2005-01-01

    Kreeka otsustas toetada Türgi liitumist EL-iga, samal ajal kui Austria nõudis liitumiskõneluste tingimuste karmistamist. Türgi pealinnas toimus meeleavaldus EL-i vastu, 54 % türklastest ootas valitsuse lahkumist Brüsselis toimuvatelt kõnelustelt, 72% keeldus pidamast genotsiidiks armeenlaste kohtlemist I maailmasõja ajal. 60% türklastest on siiski EL-iga liitumise poolt

  15. Magnetism of CuX2 frustrated chains (X = F, Cl, Br): Role of covalency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebernegg, S.; Schmitt, M.; Tsirlin, A. A.; Janson, O.; Rosner, H.

    2013-04-01

    Periodic and cluster density functional theory (DFT) calculations, including DFT+U and hybrid functionals, are applied to study magnetostructural correlations in spin-(1)/(2) frustrated chain compounds CuX2: CuCl2, CuBr2, and a fictitious chain structure of CuF2. The nearest-neighbor and second-neighbor exchange integrals J1 and J2 are evaluated as a function of the Cu-X-Cu bridging angle θ in the physically relevant range 80∘-110∘. In the ionic CuF2, J1 is ferromagnetic for θ≤100∘. For larger angles, the antiferromagnetic superexchange contribution becomes dominant, in accord with the Goodenough-Kanamori-Anderson rules. However, both CuCl2 and CuBr2 feature ferromagnetic J1 in the whole angular range studied. This surprising behavior is ascribed to the increased covalency in the Cl and Br compounds, which amplifies the contribution from Hund's exchange on the ligand atoms and renders J1 ferromagnetic. At the same time, the larger spatial extent of X orbitals enhances the antiferromagnetic J2, which is realized via the long-range Cu-X-X-Cu paths. Both periodic and cluster approaches supply a consistent description of the magnetic behavior which is in good agreement with the experimental data for CuCl2 and CuBr2. Thus, owing to their simplicity, cluster calculations have excellent potential to study magnetic correlations in more involved spin lattices, and facilitate application of quantum-chemical methods.

  16. Thermogalvanic corrosion of Alloy 31 in different heavy brine LiBr solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Domene, Ramón Manuel; Blasco Tamarit, María Encarnación; García García, Dionisio Miguel; García Antón, José

    2012-01-01

    Thermogalvanic corrosion generated between two electrodes of Alloy 31, a highly-alloyed austenitic stainless steel (UNS N08031), has been investigated imposing different temperature gradients in three deaerated LiBr solutions, under open circuit conditions by using a zero-resistance ammeter (ZRA). Besides EIS spectra were acquired in order to explain the obtained results. On the whole, cold Alloy 31 electrodes were anodic to hot Alloy 31 electrodes, since an increase in temperature favoured t...

  17. L’infection bactérienne chez le patient brûlé

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Floch, R.; Naux, E.; Arnould, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary La mort d’un patient brûlé est le plus souvent causée par une infection, bactérienne dans la grande majorité des cas. La perte de la barrière cutanée, les dispositifs invasifs et l’immunodépression liée à la brûlure sont trois mécanismes concourant à la survenue de ces infections. Chez un patient inflammatoire, les signes infectieux généraux d’infection sont peu discriminants. Du fait de la gravité des infections chez ce patient, leur prévention est un paramètre essentiel de la prise en charge. En raison des particularités pharmacocinétiques des brûlés, les posologies d’antibiotiques doivent être adaptés et les dosages sanguins doivent être systématiques. A l’heure où les résistances deviennent préoccupantes, les recherches sur les thérapeutiques sur les alternatives thérapeutiques parmi lesquels les inhibiteurs de facteurs de virulence, les peptides antimicrobiens, les polyphénols, l’immunothérapie…) deviennent cruciales. L’une des possibilités thérapeutiques les plus prometteuses semble être la phagothérapie. PMID:27252607

  18. Computational Investigation on Fully Developed Periodic Laminar Flow Structure in Baffled Circular Tube with Various BR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Withada Jedsadaratanachai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a 3D numerical analysis of fully developed periodic laminar flow in a circular tube fitted with 45° inclined baffles with inline arrangement. The computations are based on a finite volume method, and the SIMPLE algorithm has been implemented. The characteristics of fluid flow are presented for Reynolds number, Re = 100–1000, based on the hydraulic diameter (D of the tube. The angled baffles were repeatedly inserted at the middle of the test tube with inline arrangement to generate vortex flows over the tested tube. Effects of different Reynolds numbers and blockage ratios (b/D, BR with a single pitch ratio of 1 on flow structure in the tested tube were emphasized. The flows in baffled tube show periodic flow at x/D ≈ 2-3, and become a fully developed periodic flow profiles at x/D ≈ 6-7, depending on Re, BR and transverse plane positions. The computational results reveal that the higher of BR and closer position of turbulators, the faster of fully developed periodic flow profiles.

  19. An impedance spectroscopy investigation of nanocrystalline CsPbBr{sub 3} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale, G. [Department of Electronic Engineering and INFM, University of Rome ' Roma Tre' , Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); Conte, G. [Department of Electronic Engineering and INFM, University of Rome ' Roma Tre' , Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: gconte@ele.uniroma3.it; Aloe, P. [Department of Physics and INFM, University of Rome ' Roma Tre' , Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); Somma, F. [Department of Physics and INFM, University of Rome ' Roma Tre' , Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy)

    2005-12-15

    Thin films of CsPbBr{sub 3} were prepared by co-evaporation of CsBr and PbBr{sub 2} powders. Deposited materials are constituted by nanometer-sized crystals as evidenced by atomic force microscopy and X ray diffraction. Impedance spectroscopy measurements, aimed to study the dielectric relaxation processes and transport mechanisms at grain boundary and grain interior, reveal a complex response of the material both on the frequency and on the temperature variations. DC current voltage curves are ohmic for applied electric field strength up to 2 x 10{sup 6} V/cm. The DC conductivity Arrhenius plot gives a value of the activation energy equal to 0.85 eV, smaller then that expected for an intrinsic semiconductor. On the other hand, impedance measurements on a wide frequency range and at different temperatures can be reduced to a single master curve addressing hopping transport mechanism and dielectric relaxation processes being active. Finally, a simple model based on multiple Voigt's elements has been used to fit the impedance spectroscopy data and to evaluate relevant material parameters.

  20. Ab initio study of the Br(2P)-HBr van der Waals complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toboła, R; Chałasiński, G; Kłos, J; Szcześniak, M M

    2009-05-14

    This study reports an ab initio characterization of a prereactive van der Waals complex between an open-shell atom Br((2)P) and a closed shell molecule HBr. The three adiabatic potential surfaces 1 (2)A('), 2 (2)A('), and 1 (2)A("), which result from the splitting of degenerate P state of Br are obtained from coupled cluster calculations. The coupling between same-symmetry states is calculated by multireference configuration-interaction method. A transformation to a diabatic representation and inclusion of the spin-orbit coupling effects on the interactions are also discussed. Bound states are calculated using an adiabatic bender model. The global minimum on the lowest adiabatic potential surface corresponds to a T-shaped geometry and has a well depth of D(e)=762.5 cm(-1) at R(e)=3.22 A. A secondary minimum occurs for a hydrogen-bonded geometry with D(e)=445.3 cm(-1) at R(e)=4.24 A. Upon inclusion of spin-orbit coupling the hydrogen-bonded minimum remains at the same depth, but the T-shaped minimum washes out to less than half of its spin-free value. The lowest bound state is localized in the linear minimum. The spin-orbit coupling plays a very important role in shaping of the potential energy surfaces of Br-HBr.

  1. Anomaly observed in Moessbauer spectra near the neel temperature of FeBr sub 2

    CERN Document Server

    Naili Di

    2003-01-01

    In several decades, iron(II) bromide (FeBr sub 2) has been investigated as a typical Ising-type antiferromagnet by several kinds of experimental techniques. By the Moessbauer measurements, it was normally observed that only the magnetic spectrum appeared just below Neel temperature in FeBr sub 2. However, we found the anomalous spectra, in which paramagnetic component coexisted with magnetic one near Neel temperature. For two kinds of single crystal FeBr sub 2 samples, IM and IIM, we determined the Moessbauer parameters of the observed spectra by the computer analyses: the relative absorption intensity I sub p of the paramagnetic component to the total absorption area of the best fitting spectrum and the value of the hyperfine field H sub h sub f of the magnetic component and values of the quadrupole splitting 1/2 centre dot e sup 2 qQ of the magnetic and the paramagnetic components. The temperature variation of H sub h sub f is unique and the same as that observed for the sample in which the anomaly was not ...

  2. Estimation of LiBr-H2O Using Multimode Interference (MMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Antúnez-Cerón

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We use multimode interference (MMI as an alternative optical technique to estimate lithium bromide (LiBr concentration, of the work pair LiBr-H2O, in absorption heat pumps (AHP. The sensing element is a singlemode-multimode-singlemode (SMS fiber optic structure. This is fabricated by splicing a precisely dimensioned multimode fiber (MMF section between two singlemode fibers (SMFs. The operation principle is based on the multimode interference (MMI effect occurring in the MMF section. For that purpose, different concentrations of the mixture were prepared (from 44.30% to 60.69% to study their optical response. The input field profile entering the sensing element, which is the naked (no cladding MMF section of the SMS fiber structure, produced different transmitted intensity responses for each of these concentrations. Thus the optical characterization of the mixture was used to establish a mathematical relation to estimate the LiBr concentration. A linear fit for solutions with concentrations ranging from 43.30% to 50.87% and refractive indices between 1.421 and 1.439 is demonstrated.

  3. $\\beta$-delayed neutrons from oriented $^{137,139}$I and $^{87,89}$Br nuclei

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose a world-first measurement of the angular distribution of $\\beta$‐delayed n and $\\gamma$-radiation from oriented $^{137, 139}$I and $^{87,89}$Br nuclei, polarised at low temperature at the NICOLE facility. $\\beta$­-delayed neutron emission is an increasingly important decay mechanism as the drip line is approached and its detailed understanding is essential to phenomena as fundamental as the r‐process and practical as the safe operation of nuclear power reactors. The experiments offer sensitive tests of theoretical input concerning the allowed and first­‐forbidden $\\beta$‐decay strength, the spin-density of neutron emitting states and the partial wave barrier penetration as a function of nuclear deformation. In $^{137}$I and $^{87}$Br the decay feeds predominantly the ground state of the daughters $^{136}$Xe and $^{86}$Kr whereas in $^{139}$I and $^{89}$Br we will explore the use of n-$\\gamma$- coincidence to study neutron transitions to the first and second excited states in the daughters...

  4. $\\beta$-delayed neutrons from oriented $^{137,139}$I and $^{87,89}$Br nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Grzywacz, Robert; Stone, Nicholas; Köster, Ulli; Singh, Barlaj; Bingham, Carrol; Gaulard, S; Kolos, Karolina; Madurga, Miguel; Nikolov, J; Otsubo, T; Roccia, S; Veskovic, Miroslav; Walker, Phil; Walters, William

    2013-01-01

    We propose a world-­‐first measurement of the angular distribution of $\\beta$-­‐delayed n and $\\gamma$- radiation from oriented $^{137, 139}$I and $^{87,89}$Br nuclei, polarised at low temperature at the NICOLE facility. $\\beta$-­‐delayed neutron emission is an increasingly important decay mechanism as the drip line is approached and its detailed understanding is essential to phenomena as fundamental as the r‐process and practical as the safe operation of nuclear power reactors. The experiments offer sensitive tests of theoretical input concerning the allowed and first-­‐forbidden $\\beta$‐decay strength, the spin-­‐density of neutron emitting states and the partial wave barrier penetration as a function of nuclear deformation. In $^{137}$I and $^{87}$Br the decay feeds predominantly the ground state of the daughters $^{136}$Xe and $^{86}$Kr whereas in $^{139}$I and $^{89}$Br we will explore the use of n-$\\gamma$- coincidence to study neutron transitions to the first and second excited state...

  5. Mechanical Properties of Dynamically Vulcanized Thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU/Polybutadiene Rubber (BR Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hoo Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To obtain thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU with low hardness, dynamically vulcanized TPU/polybutadiene rubber(BR(70/30 blends were prepared. The effect of dicumyl peroxide (DCP content and stabilizers on the tensile strength and elongation at break of the dynamically vulcanized blends was examined. The tensile strength and elongation at break of the dynamically vulcanized blends decrease with increasing content of DCP. The addition of optimal content of stabilizer leads to the improvement of tensile strength and elongation at break of the blends. Also, the effect of sulfur cure systems and accelerators on the tensile strength and elongation of the blends was investigated. The tensile strength and elongation at break of all the dynamically vulcanized TPU/BR (70/30 blends using 1-step processing are not higher than those of simple TPU/BR (70/30 blends. However, the tensile strength and elongation of the dynamically vulcanized blends prepared at 8 min (mixing time using 2-step processing are higher than those of the simple blends.

  6. Magnetically separable Ag/AgBr/NiFe2O4 composite as a highly efficient visible light plasmonic photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ming; Liu, Wei; Hu, Xin-Rong; Li, Zhen-Lu

    2017-10-01

    A magnetic Ag/AgBr/NiFe2O4 plasmonic photocatalyst was firstly prepared by coupling a hydrothermal route with a solvothermal method. The as-synthesized Ag/AgBr/NiFe2O4 was characterized by XRD, XPS, FE-SEM, UV-vis DRS, PL and BET surface area. Under visible light irradiation, the resulting Ag/AgBr/NiFe2O4 exhibited a higher photocatalytic activity for rhodamine B (RhB) degradation compared with Ag/AgBr, which was ascribed to the heterostructured Ag/AgBr/NiFe2O4 and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of Ag nanoparticles. Moreover, the Ag/AgBr/NiFe2O4 plasmonic photocatalyst can be recovered and recycled by a magnetic field along with good stability. A plausible mechanism is also proposed via active species trapping experiments, which indicating that the superoxide radicals (O2-•) are the main reactive oxygen species for RhB degradation in Ag/AgBr/NiFe2O4 suspension under visible light.

  7. Biological treatment of a synthetic space mission wastewater using a membrane-aerated, membrane-coupled bioreactor (M2BR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruoyu D; Semmens, Michael J; LaPara, Timothy M

    2008-06-01

    This paper describes the membrane-aerated, membrane-coupled bioreactor (M2BR), which was developed for wastewater treatment during long-term space missions because it achieves aeration and biomass separation using components that are compatible with microgravity conditions. In the experiments described herein, the M2BR was used to treat a synthetic wastewater formulated by NASA to simulate the wastewater typically collected during space missions. The M2BR was able to achieve more than 90% removal of both chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen when it was fed a modified NASA wastewater that had a 4:1 COD to nitrogen ratio. When the full-strength synthetic wastewater was fed to the M2BR (COD:N=1), however, the nitrogenous pollutant removal efficiency was adversely affected because of either insufficient oxygen transfer to support nitrification (an air-fed M2BR) or insufficient electron donor to support denitrification (an oxygen-fed M2BR). In conclusion, the M2BR provides considerable promise for wastewater treatment during long-term space missions, although additional research is needed to identify the best approach to treat the space mission wastewater, which poses a unique challenge because of its low COD:N ratio.

  8. Preparation and Characterization of Highly Efficient and Stable Visible-Light-Responsive Photocatalyst AgBr/Ag3PO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jinfeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AgBr/Ag3PO4 photocatalyst was synthesized using a facile coprecipitation method. The photocatalyst was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface areas, and photoluminescence (PL technique. The activity of the photocatalyst was evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange (MO and rhodamine B (RhB. The results showed that the prepared AgBr/Ag3PO4 exhibited excellent performance and much higher photocatalytic activity than the single one under visible-light irradiation. The optimum mole ratio of Br/P in AgBr/Ag3PO4 samples is 0.3. The prepared AgBr/Ag3PO4 photocatalyst was transformed to Ag/AgBr/Ag3PO4 system with excellent property and good stability in the photocatalytic process. The possible mechanisms of the enhanced photocatalytic activity for the AgBr/Ag3PO4 were also discussed in detail.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of graphene oxide modified AgBr nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Du [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Tang, Hua, E-mail: tanghua@mail.ujs.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Wang, Yuqi; Wu, Kongqiang; Huang, Hong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Tang, Guogang [Department of Chemical Engineering, Zhenjiang College, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212003 (China); Yang, Jin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • GO/AgBr nanocomposites were prepared successfully. • There exists some synergistic effect between components in the composites. • The composites show high photocatalytic activity toward RhB, MB and MO degradation under visible light. - Abstract: Novel visible-light-driven graphene oxide (GO)/AgBr nanocomposites were synthesized by a facile solution method. The GO/AgBr nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), and Raman spectra. The results indicated that AgBr nanoparticles were evenly distributed on the surface of GO and the heterostructures were formed. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared nanocomposites was evaluated by using Rhodamine B (RhB), Methylene blue (MB) and Methyl orange (MO) as target organic pollutants. The nanocomposites exhibit excellent photocatalytic activity for all of three dyes. Compared with bare AgBr particles, the GO/AgBr nanocomposites show better photocatalytic properties toward RhB pollutants. Additionally, the radical scavengers experiment indicated that O{sub 2}·{sup −} radicals was the main reactive species for the RhB degradation under visible light. The increased photocatalytic activity of the GO/AgBr nanocomposites was attributed to the strong coupling between GO and AgBr, which facilitated interfacial charge transfer and inhibited electron-hole recombination. A photocatalytic mechanism of GO/AgBr nanocomposites was also proposed.

  10. Sonosynthesis of an Ag/AgBr/Graphene-oxide nanocomposite as a solar photocatalyst for efficient degradation of methyl orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, A; Entezari, M H

    2016-03-15

    In this study, a new method has developed for the synthesis of Ag/AgBr/Graphene-oxide (Ag/AgBr/GO) nanocomposite with high adsorption capacity and high photocatalytic activity in degradation of methyl orange (MO). In this method, ultrasound was applied in the synthesis and it was facilitated the process. The samples prepared under ultrasound were shown as Ag/AgBr/GO-U, and the samples under conventional method as Ag/AgBr/GO-C. The results of FT-IR, XRD, Raman, DRS and SEM confirmed the structure of the nanocomposites very well. Ultrasound played a key role in the formation of nanocomposite with smaller size of GO sheets and particles. Different amount of GO was used in the nanocomposite composition and their photocatalytic activities were compared. The MO in solution was completely degraded in 15 min, 30 min, and 45 min with Ag/AgBr/GO-U-1 that contained 1 mg mL(-1) GO, Ag/AgBr/GO-U-0.5 that contained 0.5 mg mL(-1) GO and Ag/AgBr/GO-C-0.5 that contained 0.5 mg mL(-1) GO, respectively. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements displayed a complete mineralization in 30 min for Ag/AgBr/GO-U-0.5. The data obtained from the degradation experiments were fitted to the first-order kinetics and the adsorption obeyed the Langmuir model. The nanocatalyst did not exhibit significant loss of activity even after four cycles of successive uses. To determine the mechanism of photocatalytic degradation of MO, different scavengers were used. Based on the results, the superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and hole had a key role in the degradation process. The Ag/AgBr/GO-U-1 nanocomposite exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity due to its high adsorption capacity and enhanced charge transfer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel mesoporous graphitic carbon nitride modified PbBiO2Br porous microspheres with enhanced photocatalytic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Di, Jun; Liu, Gaopeng; Yin, Sheng; Xia, Jiexiang; Zhang, Qi; Li, Huaming

    2017-12-01

    Sustainable mesoporous graphitic carbon nitride (mpg-C 3 N 4 ) modified PbBiO 2 Br porous microsphere (mpg-C 3 N 4 /PbBiO 2 Br) had been successfully synthesized via solvothermal process. Multiple techniques were applied to explore the structure, morphology, optical and electronic properties of the as-prepared photocatalysts. It could be found that the mpg-C 3 N 4 was uniformly distributed on the surface of the PbBiO 2 Br porous microsphere. Compared with the pure PbBiO 2 Br, the mpg-C 3 N 4 /PbBiO 2 Br exhibited superior photocatalytic activity for the degradation of organic pollutants under visible light irradiation. When the mass fraction of mpg-C 3 N 4 was 3%, the mpg-C 3 N 4 /PbBiO 2 Br composite materials exhibited the highest photocatalytic performance. The results indicated that the introduction of mpg-C 3 N 4 could effectively enhance the electron mobility to promote the catalytic activity. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the mpg-C 3 N 4 /PbBiO 2 Br materials can be attributed to the stronger optical trapping capability and the more effective separation efficiency of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. During the process of photocatalysis, the main active species of the photocatalysts were determined to be the and hole under visible light irradiation. Based on the relative band positions of mpg-C 3 N 4 and PbBiO 2 Br, a possible photocatalytic mechanism of mpg-C 3 N 4 /PbBiO 2 Br composite catalyst was proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Airborne I-DOAS measurements at Mt. Etna: BrO and OClO evolution in the plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    S., General; Bobrowski, N.; Pöhler, D.; Weber, K.; Fischer, C.; Platt, U.

    2015-07-01

    Spatial distributions of bromine monoxide (BrO), chlorine dioxide (OClO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were determined in the volcanic emissions of Mt. Etna on 8th and 9th of July 2011 by Airborne Imaging Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (AI-DOAS). Slant column densities (SCDs in units of molec/cm2) of up to 4.2 × 1014 for BrO, 1.5 × 1014 for OClO and 4.6 × 1018 for SO2 were detected. Assuming SO2 to be a stable tracer to overcome dilution effects, measurements of BrO/SO2 and OClO/SO2 ratios from distances of 1-19 km to the summit crater region were used to investigate the evolution of BrO and OClO within corresponding plume ages of 2-34 min. Along the centerline of the plume relatively constant BrO/SO2 ratios of 1.4 × 10- 4 and 2.0 × 10- 4 were detected on 8th and 9th of July 2011, respectively. Furthermore the BrO/SO2 ratio was investigated along several cross-sections of the volcanic plume. On both days significant increases by a factor of 2-3 in the BrO/SO2 ratio from the center to the edge of the plume were seen. From simultaneous measurements of BrO and OClO the mixing ratios of ClO could be inferred to range from about 80 to 300 ppt. In addition, decreases in the BrO/SO2 ratio with time could be observed by measurements three to four hours before the culmination of a paroxysm at Mt. Etna on 9th July 2011.

  13. Morphology Evolution and Degradation of CsPbBr3 Nanocrystals under Blue Light-Emitting Diode Illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shouqiang; Li, Zhichun; Wang, Bo; Zhu, Nanwen; Zhang, Congyang; Kong, Long; Zhang, Qi; Shan, Aidang; Li, Liang

    2017-03-01

    Under illumination of light-emitting diode (LED) or sunlight, the green color of all-inorganic CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals (CPB-NCs) often quickly changes to yellow, followed by large photoluminescence (PL) loss. To figure out what is happening on CPB-NCs during the color change process, the morphology, structure, and PL evolutions are systematically investigated by varying the influence factors of illumination, moisture, oxygen, and temperature. We find that the yellow color is mainly originated from the large CPB crystals formed in the illumination process. With maximized isolation of oxygen for the sandwiched film or the uncovered film stored in nitrogen, the color change can be dramatically slowed down whether there is water vapor or not. Under dark condition, the PL emissions are not significantly influenced by the varied relative humidity (RH) levels and temperatures up to 60 °C. Under the precondition of oxygen or air, color change and PL loss become more obvious when increasing the illumination power or RH level, and the large-sized cubic CPB crystals are further evolved into the oval-shaped crystals. We confirm that oxygen is the crucial factor to drive the color change, which has the strong synergistic effect with the illumination and moisture for the degradation of the CPB film. Meanwhile, the surface decomposition and the increased charge trap states occurred in the formed large CPB crystals play important roles for the PL loss.

  14. Optical and structural properties of Eu 2 + doped BaBrI and BaClI crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendrik, R.; Shalaev, A. A.; Myasnikova, A. S.; Bogdanov, A.; Kaneva, E.; Rusakov, A.; Vasilkovskyi, A.

    2017-12-01

    The work is necessitated by search for new materials to detect ionizing radiation. The rare-earth ions doped with ternary alkali earth-halide systems are promising scintillators showing high efficiency and energy resolution. Some aspects of crystal growth and data on the structural and luminescence properties of BaBrI and BaClI doped with low concentrations of $\\mathrm{Eu^{2+}}$ ions are reported. The crystals are grown by the vertical Bridgman method in sealed quartz ampoule. New crystallography data for BaClI single crystal obtained by single crystal X-ray diffraction method are presented in this paper. Emission, excitation and optical absorption spectra as well as luminescence decay kinetics are studied under excitation by X-ray, vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet radiation. The energies of the first 4f-5d transition in $\\mathrm{Eu^{2+}}$ and band gap of the crystals have been obtained. We have calculated the electronic band structure of the crystals using density functional theory as implemented in the \\latin{Ab Initio}. Calculated band gap energies are in accord with the experimental estimates. The energy of gaps between the occupied Eu$^{2+}$ 4f level and the valence band top are predicted. In addition, positions of lanthanide energy levels in relation to valence band have been constructed using the chemical shift model.

  15. Estudo da modificação química de polidienos do tipo SBR e BR Study of chemical modification of SBR and BR polydiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana L. A. C. Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de modificações químicas de polidienos comerciais tem sido estudada como um meio alternativo à síntese de novos polímeros, para otimização das propriedades finais destes materiais através da introdução de diferentes grupamentos reativos na cadeia polimérica. A modificação química pode ser feita através de diferentes métodos, os quais podem ser realizados tanto em solução como em massa, onde podem ser destacadas as reações de epoxidação, sulfonação, maleinização, carboxilação, etc. Neste trabalho foi estudado o método de epoxidação de borrachas do tipo SBR e BR. Foi possível observar que mesmo pequenos graus de modificação química causam mudanças marcantes nas propriedades finais dos polímeros, como determinado para a temperatura de transição vítrea.Chemical modification of polydiene has been studied as an alternative route to obtain modified polymers with improved final properties. This improvement is due to the introduction of different kinds of reactive groups into a polymer chain, and it can be done in solution as well as in bulk. The chemical modification can be carried out by different methods such as epoxidation, maleination, carboxylation, sulfonation etc. In this work we show that in the epoxidation of SBR and BR even a small degree of modification can change the final properties of the polymer, as it occurred for the glass transition temperature.

  16. Association of Seafood Consumption, Brain Mercury Level, and APOEε4 Status With Brain Neuropathology in OlderAdults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morris, Martha Clare; Brockman, John; Schneider, J.; Wang, Yamin; Bennett, D.; Tangney, Christy; Rest, van de O.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Seafood consumption is promoted for its many health benefits even though its contamination by mercury, a known neurotoxin, is a growing concern.<br/>/>Objective To determine whether seafood consumption is correlated with increased brain mercury levels and also whether seafood

  17. Characterization of the quasi-one-dimensional compounds δ-(EDT-TTF-CONMe{sub 2}){sub 2}X, X=AsF{sub 6} and Br by vibrational spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterseim, Tobias; Dressel, Martin [1. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Antal, Ágnes [1. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Batail, Patrick [Laboratoire MOLTECH, UMR 6200 CNRS-Université d' Angers, Bt. K, UFR Sciences, 2 Boulevard Lavoisier, F-49045 Angers (France); Drichko, Natalia [1. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    2014-02-14

    We have investigated the infrared spectra of the quarter-filled charge-ordered insulators δ-(EDT-TTF-CONMe{sub 2}){sub 2}X (X= AsF{sub 6}, Br) along all three crystallographic directions in the temperature range from 300 to 10 K. DFT-assisted normal mode analysis of the neutral and ionic EDT-TTF-CONMe{sub 2} molecule allows us to assign the experimentally observed intramolecular modes and to obtain relevant information on the charge ordering and intramolecular interactions. From frequencies of charge-sensitive vibrations we deduce that the charge-ordered state is already present at room temperature and does not change on cooling, in agreement with previous NMR measurements. The spectra taken along the stacking direction clearly show features of vibrational overtones excited due to the anharmonic electronic molecule potential caused by the large charge disproportionation between the molecular sites. The shift of certain vibrational modes indicates the onset of the structural transition below 200 K.

  18. Estenose benigna dos brônquios principais Bilateral benign mainstem bronchus stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANOEL XIMENES-NETTO

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available É descrito o caso de uma paciente de 37 anos de idade atendida em virtude de dispnéia progressiva com duração de 18 meses. O diagnóstico inicial foi de asma brônquica. Teve 10 episódios de pneumonia envolvendo principalmente a língula nos últimos sete anos. Dezessete anos antes da admissão foi submetida a intubação orotraqueal por 15 dias, devido a coma por meningite meningocócica. A broncofibroscopia revelou alargamento da carina e estenose dos brônquios principais, confirmado pela broncoscopia virtual. A estenose era mais acentuada e curta à direita (1cm e menos cerrada e mais longa à esquerda (2cm. Foi submetida a ressecção da carina e anastomose do brônquio principal direito à traquéia e do brônquio principal esquerdo ao brônquio intermediário. Quinze meses depois do procedimento a paciente apresenta boa evolução clínica, radiológica e funcional.We report on a 37-year-old female patient who was first seen on account of a progressive dyspnea of 18 month's duration. Admission diagnosis was bronchial asthma. Over the past seven years, the patient has had seven pneumonia episodes involving mainly the lingular segment. Seventeen years prior to admission (1982 she was orally intubated for 15 days due to meningococcus meningitis and coma. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed marked widening of the carina and stenosis of the main bronchi, confirmed by virtual bronchoscopy. The stenosis was shorter and more severe to the right side (1 cm and longer and less severe on the left side (2 cm. The patient was submitted to carina resection and anastomosis of the right mainstem bronchus to the trachea and the left main bronchus to the bronchus intermedius. Fifteen months after surgery the patient shows good clinical, radiological and functional evolution.

  19. Communications: Photoinitiated bond dissociation of bromoiodomethane in solution: Comparison of one-photon and two-photon excitations and the formation of iso-CH2Br-I and iso-CH2I-Br

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kuo-Chun; Peng, Jian; Spears, Kenneth G.; Sension, Roseanne J.

    2010-04-01

    Broadband UV-visible femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy was used to monitor the excited state photochemistry of CH2BrI following one-photon excitation at 266 or 271 nm and two-photon excitation at 395 or 405 nm in 2-butanol. The results for one-photon excitation agree with earlier studies in acetonitrile, showing clear formation of iso-CH2Br-I following cleavage of the C-I bond. In contrast, two-photon excitation at 395 nm results in the appearance of a blueshifted photoproduct absorption band assigned to formation of iso-CH2I-Br following cleavage of the C-Br bond. The results are discussed in the context of prior experimental and theoretical work and the prospects for optical control of bond cleavage.

  20. MLS/Aura Level 3 Bromine Monoxide (BrO) Daily 10deg Lat Zonal Mean V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML3DZMBRO is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) daily zonal mean product for bromine monoxide derived from radiances measured by the 640 GHz radiometer. The...

  1. MLS/Aura Level 2 Bromine Monoxide (BrO) Mixing Ratio V004 (ML2BRO) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2BRO is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) standard product for bromine monoxide derived from radiances measured by the 640 GHz radiometer. The data version...

  2. Épidémiologie des brûlures de la main chez les enfants vus dans le Centre National des Brûlés et de Chirurgie Plastique de Casablanca, Maroc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafik, A.; Lahlou, M.; Diouri, M.; Bahechar, N.; Chlihi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Les brûlures de la main chez l’enfant constituent une source de séquelles invalidantes. A cet régard, la conservation et la restauration complète de la fonction de la main demeurent le but primordial de la prise en charge. Afin de répertorier les caractéristiques épidémiologiques, cliniques et évolutives des mains brûlées, nous avons réalisé une étude rétrospective étalée sur 4 ans, de janvier 2011 à janvier 2015. Cette étude a permis de colliger les cas de 313 enfants atteints de brûlure de la main vus dans le Centre National des Brulés et de Chirurgie Plastique du CHU Ibn Rochd de Casablanca. La majorité des brûlures touche les enfants de 3 à 6 ans (70% des cas), avec une légère prédominance masculine. La principale cause des brûlures survenant à cet âge est l’ébouillantement. Les brûlures par flamme représentent 33% des cas, celles par électricité 4,5%. Les brûlures chimiques et par contact sont anecdotiques (1 cas chacune). L’accident survient le plus souvent à domicile. Soixante douze pour cent des brûlures ont guéri spontanément. Afin de diminuer l’incidence de ces accidents, une approche préventive faite de sensibilisation et d’éducation devrait faire partie du cursus scolaire. PMID:27777543

  3. Upper Mantle Seismic Anisotropy Patterns around the La Réunion Hotspot deduced from SKS-splitting measurements: Plate, Plume and Ridges signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, John-Robert; Barruol, Guilhem; Fontaine, Fabrice R.; Mazzullo, Alessandro; Montagner, Jean-Paul; Stutzmann, Eléonore; Sigloch, Karin

    2017-04-01

    We present results of upper mantle seismic anisotropy in the Southwest Indian Ocean around the hotspot of La Réunion, deduced from SKS splitting measurements using the 'SplitLab' toolbox. Data analysed in this study were recorded by 20 terrestrial and 57 ocean-bottom three-component seismometers installed in the framework of the RHUM-RUM project (www.rhum-rum.net). Broad-band and wide-band ocean-bottom instruments were deployed around the La Réunion Island and along the Central and Southwest Indian Ridges (deployment: R/V Marion Dufresne, 2012, MD192 - recovery: R/V Meteor, 2013, M101), and recorded for 8 to 13 months. We discuss the anisotropy signatures that are potentially induced by the absolute motion of the African Plate, by the spreading of the Central and Southwest Indian Mid-Ocean Ridges (CIR & SWIR), and by the interaction of the ascending plume with the overlying lithosphere and the neighbouring CIR and SWIR. The observed pattern displays a ridge-parallel anisotropy beneath the SWIR that suggests an along-axis upper mantle flow controlled by the thick and cold lithosphere on both sides of the ridge. We furthermore observe a coherent regional anisotropy pattern between La Réunion and the CIR. Both body and surface wave analysis suggest that this dominant flow is located at asthenospheric depths and could be consistent with a preserved feeding of the ridge by the mantle upwelling associated with the Réunion hotspot, as first proposed by Morgan (1978). Finally, we quantitatively compare the azimuthal anisotropy derived from SKS splitting with those from surface wave data.

  4. A numerical study of the effect of various reactions, pressure and gas mixture ratio on the density distribution of etchant species (H, Br, Br{sup +}, and HBr{sup +}) in HBr/He plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gul, Banat, E-mail: banatgul@gmail.com; Aman-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan)

    2016-04-15

    In this study, a fluid model has been used to study the effect of gas mixing ratio and pressure on the density distribution of important etchant species, i.e., hydrogen (H), bromine (Br), Br{sup +}, and HBr{sup +} in HBr/He plasma. Our simulation results show that the densities of active etchant species H, Br, and HBr{sup +} increase with the increase in pressure as well as the HBr fraction in HBr/He mixture. On the contrary, the density of Br{sup +} decreases with the increase in He percentage in HBr/He mixture and with the increase in the pressure. Time averaged reaction rates (of the reactions involved in the production and consumption of these species) have been calculated to study the effect of these reactions on the density distribution of these species. The spatial distribution of these species is explained with the help of the time averaged reaction rates. Important reactions have been identified that contribute considerably to the production and consumption of these active species. The code has been optimized by identifying 26 reactions (out of 40 reactions which contribute in the production and consumption of these species) that have insignificant effect on the densities of H, Br, Br{sup +}, and HBr{sup +}. This shows that out of 40 reactions, only 14 reactions can be used to calculate the density and distribution of the important species in HBr/He plasma discharge.

  5. A numerical study of the effect of various reactions, pressure and gas mixture ratio on the density distribution of etchant species (H, Br, Br+, and HBr+) in HBr/He plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Banat; Aman-ur-Rehman

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a fluid model has been used to study the effect of gas mixing ratio and pressure on the density distribution of important etchant species, i.e., hydrogen (H), bromine (Br), Br+, and HBr+ in HBr/He plasma. Our simulation results show that the densities of active etchant species H, Br, and HBr+ increase with the increase in pressure as well as the HBr fraction in HBr/He mixture. On the contrary, the density of Br+ decreases with the increase in He percentage in HBr/He mixture and with the increase in the pressure. Time averaged reaction rates (of the reactions involved in the production and consumption of these species) have been calculated to study the effect of these reactions on the density distribution of these species. The spatial distribution of these species is explained with the help of the time averaged reaction rates. Important reactions have been identified that contribute considerably to the production and consumption of these active species. The code has been optimized by identifying 26 reactions (out of 40 reactions which contribute in the production and consumption of these species) that have insignificant effect on the densities of H, Br, Br+, and HBr+. This shows that out of 40 reactions, only 14 reactions can be used to calculate the density and distribution of the important species in HBr/He plasma discharge.

  6. Significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity of visible light responsive AgBr/Bi2Sn2O7 heterostructured composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chaohao; Zhuang, Jing; Zhong, Liansheng; Zhong, Yan; Wang, Dianhui; Zhou, Huaiying

    2017-12-01

    Heterostructured AgBr/Bi2Sn2O7 photocatalysts were synthesized successfully via the ultrasonic-assisted chemical precipitation method. XRD, FT-IR, FE-SEM, TEM, XPS, UV-vis-DRS and PL spectroscopy were used to characterize the phase structure, morphology, chemical composition, oxidation state, and optical properties of AgBr/Bi2Sn2O7 heterojunction. The photocatalytic activity of as-prepared catalysts was evaluated by the degradation of RhB under visible light irradiation. The obtained AgBr/Bi2Sn2O7 composite with the 1:1 molar ratio exhibited significantly enhanced photocatalytic performance. Further first-principles calculations indicated that the hybridization interaction between Ag and O atoms at AgBr/Bi2Sn2O7 interface is expected to be beneficial for enhancing the charge transfer and improving the photocatalytic activity of heterostructured composites.

  7. Raw Knudsen 320B/R CHIRP Subbottom Profiler - CHIRP Subbottom Profiler data for the Arctic Ocean ECS survey.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Knudsen 320B/R CHIRP Subbottom Profiler - CHIRP Subbottom Profiler data were collected in Raw Knudsen SEG-Y Datagram format.

  8. Comparison of the Properties of SnCl(3)(-) and SnBr(3)(-) Complexes of Platinum(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, John H.; Wilson, William L.; Cary, Lewis W.; Alcock, Nathaniel W.; Clase, Howard J.; Jas, Gouri S.; Ramsey-Tassin, Lori; Kenney, John W.

    1996-02-14

    The complexes M(3)[Pt(SnX(3))(5)] (M = Bu(4)N(+), PhCH(2)PPh(3)(+); X = Cl, Br), cis-M(2)[PtX(2)(SnX(3))(2)] (M = Bu(4)N(+), PhCH(2)PPh(3)(+), CH(3)PPh(3)(+), Pr(4)N(+); X = Cl, Br), and [PhCH(2)PPh(3)](2)[PtBr(3)(SnBr(3))] have been prepared and characterized by (119)Sn and (195)Pt NMR, far-infrared, and electronic absorption and emission spectroscopies. In acetone solutions the [Pt(SnX(3))(5)](3)(-) ions retain their trigonal bipyramidal structures but are stereochemically nonrigid as evidenced by (119)Sn and (195)Pt NMR spectroscopy. For [Pt(SnCl(3))(5)](3)(-) spin correlation is preserved between 183 and 363 K establishing that the nonrigidity is due to intramolecular tin site exchange, probably via Berry pseudorotation. Whereas, [Pt(SnCl(3))(5)](3)(-) does not undergo loss of SnCl(3)(-) or SnCl(2) to form either [Pt(SnCl(3))(4)](2)(-) or [PtCl(2)(SnCl(3))(2)](2)(-), [Pt(SnBr(3))(5)](3)(-) is not stable in acetone solution in the absence of excess SnBr(2) and forms [PtBr(2)(SnBr(3))(2)](2)(-) and [PtBr(3)(SnBr(3))](2)(-) by loss of SnBr(2). Similarly, [PtCl(2)(SnCl(3))(2)](2)(-) is stable in acetone at ambient temperatures but disproportionates at elevated temperatures and [PtBr(2)(SnBr(3))(2)](2)(-) loses SnBr(2) in acetone to form [PtBr(3)(SnBr(3))](2)(-). The crystal structures of methyltriphenylphosphonium cis-dibromobis(tribromostannyl)platinate(II) and benzyltriphenylphosphonium tribromo(tribromostannyl)platinate(II) have been determined. Both compounds crystallize in the triclinic space group P&onemacr; in unit cells with a = 12.293(16) Å, b = 12.868(6) Å, c = 25.047(8) Å, alpha = 96.11(3) degrees, beta = 91.06(3) degrees, gamma = 116.53(3) degrees, rho(calc) = 2.30 g cm(-)(3), Z = 3 and with a = 11.046(7) Å, b = 14.164(9) Å, c = 22.549(10) Å, alpha = 89.44(4) degrees, beta = 83.32(5) degrees, gamma = 68.31(5) degrees, rho(calc) = 1.893 g cm(-)(3), Z = 2, respectively. Least-squares refinements converged at R = 0.057 and 0.099 for 4048 and 4666

  9. CH3NH3PbBr3 is not pyroelectric, excluding ferroelectric-enhanced photovoltaic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeny Rakita

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To experimentally (disprove ferroelectric effects on the properties of lead-halide perovskites and of solar cells, based on them, we used second-harmonic-generation spectroscopy and the periodic temperature change (Chynoweth technique to detect the polar nature of methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3. We find that MAPbBr3 is probably centrosymmetric and definitely non-polar; thus, it cannot be ferroelectric. Whenever pyroelectric-like signals were detected, they could be shown to be due to trapped charges, likely at the interface between the metal electrode and the MAPbBr3 semiconductor. These results indicate that the ferroelectric effects do not affect steady-state performance of MAPbBr3 solar cells.

  10. Improved performance of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite solar cells utilizing PbI2 precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Taiyang; Tian, Hongxiang; Zhao, Zhiguo; Qin, Xiaojun; Wu, Junbo

    2017-11-01

    High-quality CH3NH3PbBr3 films have been made utilizing the PbI2 precursor via a two-step sequential deposition method. The use of the PbI2 precursor has significantly improved the film quality. UV-Vis results show that the PbI2 precursor leads to moderately enhanced absorptions. XRD and SEM characterizations suggest that compact and uniform films with large grain sizes and high crystallinity can be obtained utilizing PbI2. The power conversion efficiency of the FTO/compact-TiO2/MAPbBr3/Spiro-OMeTAD/Ag device increased from 5.3% to 7.6% after changing the PbBr2 precursor to PbI2. The reaction between PbI2 and excess MABr generated MAPbBr3 through halide anion exchange.

  11. Parts sõdib Brüsselis põlevkivielektri eest / Juhan Parts ; interv. Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Parts, Juhan, 1966-

    2008-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts sõidab Brüsselisse Euroopa Liidu energeetikaministrite kohtumisele. Valitsus tahab, et Eesti saaks tulevikuski tasuta heitmekvoote ning soovitakse piiranguid Vene elektri impordile. Vt. samas: Elektri hind

  12. Amino-functionalized (methacryl polymers by use of a solvent-polarity sensitive protecting group (Br-t-BOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Ritter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe the synthesis of bromo-tert-butyloxycarbonyl (Br-t-BOC-amino-protected monomers 2-((1-bromo-2-methylpropan-2-yloxycarbonylaminoethyl (methacrylate 3a,b. For this purpose, 2-isocyanatoethyl (methacrylate 1a,b was reacted with 1-bromo-2-methylpropan-2-ol (2a. The free radical polymerization of (Br-t-BOC-aminoethyl (methacrylates 3a,b yielded poly((Br-t-BOC-aminoethyl (methacrylate 6a,b bearing protected amino side groups. The subsequent solvolysis of the Br-t-BOC function led to the new polymers poly(2-aminoethyl (methacrylate 8a,b with protonated free amino groups. The monomers and the resulting polymers were thoroughly characterized by 1H NMR, IR, GPC and DSC methods. The kinetics of the deprotection step was followed by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The solvent polarity and neighboring group effects on the kinetics of deprotection are discussed.

  13. Raw Knudsen Chirp 320BR subbottom profiler - Knudsen subbottom profile data for the Chukchi Cap and Arctic Ocean.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Knudsen Chirp 320BR subbottom profiler - Knudsen subbottom profile data were collected in Raw Knudsen SEG-Y Datagram format.

  14. In situ TEM observation of novel chemical evolution of MnBr2 catalyzed by Cu under electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Bai, Xianwei; Guan, Xiangxiang; Shen, Xi; Yao, Yuan; Wang, Yanguo; Zou, Bingsuo; Yu, Richeng

    2017-10-01

    Manganese bromide has attracted enormous attention for its applications in the syntheses of organic-inorganic hybrid compounds. A complete understanding of structural and chemical stabilities of MnBr2 is important for controlling its properties. Here, we focus on the irradiation resistance of MnBr2. The chief purpose of this research is reached by in situ transmission electron microscopy. It is demonstrated that the deliquescent MnBr2 powder is prone to adsorb the vapor in air, and the hydrous MnBr2 can be decomposed under its continuous exposure to electron beam, indicated by a transmission electron microscope via the catalysis of Cu grid at room temperature.

  15. Kinetics and product studies of the BrO + ClO reaction - Implications for Antarctic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Stanley P.; Friedl, Randall R.

    1988-01-01

    Discharge flow-mass spectrometry and flash photolysis-UV spectrometry were used to investigate the reaction of ClO with BrO over the temperature range of 220-400 K and the pressure range of 1-760 Torr. Rate constants were determined for: (1) Br + ClOO, (2) Br + OClO, and (3) BrCl + O2. It is found that the rate constants for the overall reaction and each reaction branch are inversely dependent on temperature and independent of pressure. For temperatures found in the Antarctic stratosphere, the rate coefficients for the channels yielding ClOO and OClO are a factor of 2-3 larger than previously estimated.

  16. Natural production of Tuber aestivum in central Spain: Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp. brûlés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis G. Garcia-Montero

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Tuber aestivum is the most widespread edible truffle, with increasing commercial interest. This species can produce carpophores with conifer hosts, in contrast with the inability of Pinus spp. to induce fruiting in other truffle species such as Tuber melanosporum. Therefore the objective is to compare the characteristics and carpophore production of T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp.Area of study: We studied the natural habitats of T. aestivum in the Alto Tajo Nature Reserve in central Spain.Material and methods: During 5 years, we monitored the production of carpophores and brûlé size of 145 T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris and Quercus ilex subsp. ballota and Q. faginea hosts. Statistical treatment was performed using the Statistica Program v. 6.Main Results: The size of brûlés associated with Pinus was significantly smaller than that of brûlés associated with Quercus. However, carpophore production per brûlé, and especially for brûlés of similar size, was greater when the host plant was a pine. After accounting for brûlé size, the production of brûlés associated with Pinus spp. was 2.23 (95% CI, between 1.35 and 3.69 and 1.61 (95% CI, between 1.02 and 2.54 times greater than the production of brûlés associated with Quercus faginea and Q. ilex subsp. ballota, respectively.Research highlights: The considerable ability of Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris to form effective brûlés and to produce carpophores of Tuber aestivum in natural conditions was clearly demonstrated, and suggest that those species can be of use in the culture of T. aestivum.Key words: Summer truffle; Tuber aestivum; truffle culture; truffle ecology; Pinus spp.; Quercus spp.

  17. Translation, cultural adaptation to Brazil and validation of the venous leg ulcer quality of life questionnaire (VLU-QoL-Br

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Boldrin de Araújo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: translating the Venous leg ulcer quality of life questionnaire (VLU-QoL, and culturally adapting it to Brazilian Portuguese and validate it with patients at the Hospital das Clínicas of the Botucatu Medical School - Unesp. Methods: the questionnaire was translated by a professional translator and two dermatologists specialized in the area of venous ulcers (VU, reformulated in a meeting of the three translators. The construct (VLU-QoL-Br was submitted to pre-interviews with ten VU patients for adaptation of the language. Subsequently, it was applied to patients at the HC-Unesp, and for test-retest reliability for verification of its reproducibility. Results: 82 patients were evaluated, with 56 (68% women. The age average was 67.3 years. The questionnaire was translated, adapted and applied to the patients. The construct presented high internal consistency (alpha = 0.94 and adequate item-total correlation. When the 32 retests were evaluated, an intra-class correlation was noted for concordance of 0.78 (p<0.01, indicating good reproducibility of the construct. The confirmatory factor analysis corroborated the dimensions of the original questionnaire: activities, psychologies, and symptoms. VLU-QoL-Br scores were associated, independently, to the total area of the ulcers and a lower education level of the subjects (p<0.01. Conclusion: the translation, adaptation and validation of the VLU-QoL-Br questionnaire were concluded, demonstrating good psychometric performance, and enabling its clinical use in Brazil. It is important to evaluate its performance in other regions and different samples of individuals.

  18. Enantioselective Direct Mannich-Type Reactions Catalyzed by Frustrated Lewis Acid/Brønsted Base Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ming; Cao, Min; Wang, Qifan; Wasa, Masayuki

    2017-10-16

    An enantioselective direct Mannich-type reaction catalyzed by a sterically frustrated Lewis acid/Brønsted base complex is disclosed. Cooperative functioning of the chiral Lewis acid and achiral Brønsted base components gives rise to in situ enolate generation from monocarbonyl compounds. Subsequent reaction with hydrogen-bond-activated aldimines delivers β-aminocarbonyl compounds with high enantiomeric purity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Growth mechanism of NaClO3 and NaBrO3 crystals from aqueous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. A study of growth rates of NaClO3 and NaBrO3 has been carried out using a small growth cell by in situ observation. Normal growth rates of {100} faces of NaClO3 and {111} faces of NaBrO3 along 〈110〉 direction are measured under relatively high supersaturation ranging from 3–8%. In the initial stages of growth, ...

  20. Microhardness studies on as-grown faces of NaClO3 and NaBrO3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    studies are made on as-grown faces of these crystals at various loads. Typical cracks are observed at the corners of the impressions in NaClO3 whereas in addition to the cracks at the corners microcracks also appeared in NaBrO3 crystals around the impressions. The impressions formed in NaBrO3 are not very clear.

  1. Structure and dynamics of room temperature ionic liquids with bromide anion: results from 81Br NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Takatsugu; Imanari, Mamoru; Hidaka, Yuki; Seki, Hiroko; Nishikawa, Keiko; Sen, Sabyasachi

    2015-05-01

    We report the results of a comprehensive (81)Br NMR spectroscopic study of the structure and dynamics of two room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C(4)mim]Br) and 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bromide ([C(4)C(1)mim]Br), in both liquid and crystalline states. NMR parameters in the gas phase are also simulated for stable ion pairs using quantum chemical calculations. The combination of (81)Br spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation measurements in the motionally narrowed region of the stable liquid state provides information on the correlation time of the translational motion of the cation. (81) Br quadrupolar coupling constants (C(Q)) of the two RTILs were estimated to be 6.22 and 6.52 MHz in the crystalline state which were reduced by nearly 50% in the liquid state, although in the gas phase, the values are higher and span the range of 7-53 MHz depending on ion pair structure. The C(Q) can be correlated with the distance between the cation-anion pairs in all the three states. The (81)Br C(Q) values of the bromide anion in the liquid state indicate the presence of some structural order in these RTILs, the degree of which decreases with increasing temperature. On the other hand, the ionicity of these RTILs is estimated from the combined knowledge of the isotropic chemical shift and the appropriate mean energy of the excited state. [C(4)C(1)mim]Br has higher ionicity than [C(4)mim]Br in the gas phase, while the situation is reverse for the liquid and the crystalline states. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Solid-liquid equilibria in the ternary system NaBr-KBr-H2O at 398 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Rui-Zhi; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Wang, Wei; Sang, Shi-Hua

    2017-09-01

    The solubilities of the ternary system NaBr-KBr-H2O were investigated by isothermal method at 398 K. On the basis of the experimental data, the phase diagram was plotted. In the phase diagram of ternary system NaBr-KBr-H2O at 398 K, no complex salt or solid solution was found. It belongs to simple co-saturation type. There are only one invariant point, two univariant curves, and two crystallization fields corresponding to NaBr and KBr. Using the equilibrium solubilities data of the ternary system at 398 K, mixing ioninteraction parameter ΨNa,K,Br of Pitzer's equation was fitted by multiple linear regression method. Based on the Pitzer model and its extended Harvie-Weare (HW) model, the solubilities of phase equilibrium in the ternary system NaBr-KBr-H2O at 398 K were calculated. The phase diagram of the ternary system was plotted. The results show that calculated values have a good agreement with measured experimental data. It can demonstrate the accuracy of the experimental data, and it also shows that reasonable parameters of the Pitzer model can be used in ternary system NaBr-KBr-H2O at 398 K.

  3. New insight into daylight photocatalysis of AgBr@Ag: synergistic effect between semiconductor photocatalysis and plasmonic photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Li, Hao; Zhang, Lizhi

    2012-05-14

    Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) are often used as electron scavengers in conventional semiconductor photocatalysis to suppress electron-hole (e(-)-h(+) ) recombination and promote interfacial charge transfer, and thus enhance photocatalytic activity of semiconductors. In this contribution, it is demonstrated that noble metal NPs such as Ag NPs function as visible-light harvesting and electron-generating centers during the daylight photocatalysis of AgBr@Ag. Novel Ag plasmonic photocatalysis could cooperate with the conventional AgBr semiconductor photocatalysis to enhance the overall daylight activity of AgBr@Ag greatly because of an interesting synergistic effect. After a systematic investigation of the daylight photocatalysis mechanism of AgBr@Ag, the synergistic effect was attributed to surface plasmon resonance induced local electric field enhancement on Ag, which can accelerate the generation of e(-)-h(+) pairs in AgBr, so that more electrons are produced in the conduction band of AgBr under daylight irradiation. This study provides new insight into the photocatalytic mechanism of noble metal/semiconductor systems as well as the design and fabrication of novel plasmonic photocatalysts. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. The toxicity of cationic surfactant HDTMA-Br, desorbed from surfactant modified zeolite, towards faecal indicator and environmental microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Peter J; Fallowfield, Howard J

    2017-10-05

    Surfactant Modified Zeolite (SMZ) represents a versatile, cost-effective permeable reactive material, capable of treating multiple classes of contaminants. The potential for HDTMA-Br, a cationic surfactant commonly used to modify zeolite, to desorb from the zeolite surface has been identified as a potential issue for the ongoing use of SMZ in water remediation contexts. This paper investigates the toxicity of HDTMA-Br towards enteric virus surrogates, F-RNA bacteriophage MS2 and E. coli, Bacillus subtilis, and soil microflora. The concentration of surfactant desorbing from SMZ was quantified through a bioassay using E. coli. Results showed HDTMA-Br concentrations of ≥10-5M were toxic to MS2, ≥10-4M were toxic to E. coli and ≥10-6M were toxic to B. subtilis. No toxic relationship was established between HDTMA-Br and soil microflora. Desorption of ≥10-4M of HDTMA-Br was shown for the two SMZ samples under the mixing conditions used. Effects of this surfactant on total soil microflora were ambiguous since no toxic relationship could be established, however, HDTMA-Br, at concentrations desorbing from SMZ, were shown to impact the soil bacterium B. subtilis. Further research is required to determine the effect of this surfactant on microbial populations and species diversity in soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Disability assessment scale for dementia – long version (DADL-BR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Boaro Fernandez Canon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are no functional assessment tools for elderly with dementia available in the literature that will assess all occupations. Objective: To develop a Long Version of Disability Assessment for Dementia Scale (DADL-Br, covering all occupations provided by the American Association of Occupational Therapy (AOTA and the activities that compose them and evaluate its content validity. Method: With the permission of the original version main author (DAD, Isabelle Gélinas PhD, the new items of the Long Version (DADL-Br were developed based on the classification proposed by AOTA for occupations, considering the gaps in the original instrument. We reviewed the Cultural and Conceptual Equivalence by the Expert Committee and Multidisciplinary Committee. The suggestions of the Committees were accepted and the process followed for the pre-test and author analysis. Results: The first version of the instrument received 10 new fields and 64 new items, which after seven reviews of Cultural Equivalence (average concordance 89.2%, six reviews of Conceptual Equivalence (average concordance 81.2%, tree pre-tests and analysis of the original version main author, has resulted in the development of five versions, addition of twelve items and exclusion of seven items, and the final version consists of 20 fields and 109 items, being 10 new fields and 69 new items. Conclusion: This process conferred the content validity of DADL-Br, which includes all occupations proposed by AOTA and can be a useful tool to evaluate the profile of occupational performance of elderly with dementia.

  6. Ag-AgBr/TiO2/RGO nanocomposite: Synthesis, characterization, photocatalytic activity and aggregation evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Penghua

    2017-06-01

    Ag-AgBr/TiO2 supported on reduced graphene oxide (Ag-AgBr/TiO2/RGO) with different mass ratios of grapheme oxide (GO) to TiO2 were synthesized via a facile solvothermal-photo reduction method. Compared to the single-, two- and three-component nanocomposites, the four-component nanocomposite, Ag-AgBr/TiO2/RGO-1 with mass ratio of GO to TiO2 at 1%, exhibited a much higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of penicillin G (PG) under white light-emitting diode (LED-W) irradiation. The PG degradation efficiency increased with the increase of mass ratio of GO to TiO2 from 0.2% to 1%, then it decreased with the increase of mass ratio of GO to TiO2 from 1% to 5%. The zeta potentials of RGO-nanocomposites became more negative with the presence of humic acid (HA) due to the negatively charged HA adsorption, resulting in the shift of points of zero charge to lower values of pH. The aggregations of nanocomposites were more significant due to the bridging effect of HA. Furthermore, the aggregated particle sizes were larger for RGO-nanocomposites compared to other nanoparticles, due to the bindings of the carboxylic and phenolic functional groups in HA with the oxygen-containing functional groups in the RGO-nanocomposites. The microfiltration (MF) membrane was effective for the nanocomposites separation. In the continuous flow through submerged membrane photoreactor (sMPR) system, backwashing operation could efficiently reduce membrane fouling and recover TiO2, and thus indirectly facilitate the PG removal. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. The Lowest Triplet of Tetracyanoquinodimethane via UV-vis Absorption Spectroscopy with Br-Containing Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvostenko, Olga G; Kinzyabulatov, Renat R; Khatymova, Laysan Z; Tseplin, Evgeniy E

    2017-10-05

    This study was undertaken to find the previously unknown lowest triplet of the isolated molecule of tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), which is a widely used organic semiconductor. The problem is topical because the triplet excitation of this compound is involved in some processes which occur in electronic devices incorporating TCNQ and its derivatives, and information on the TCNQ triplet is needed for better understanding of these processes. The lowest triplet of TCNQ was obtained at 1.96 eV using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy with Br-containing solvents. Production of the triplet band with sufficient intensity in the spectra was provided by the capacity of the Br atom to augment the triplet excitation and through using a 100 mm cuvette. The assignment of the corresponding spectral band to the triplet transition was made by observation that this band appeared only in the spectra recorded in Br-containing solvents but not in spectra recorded in other solvents. Additional support for the triplet assignment came from the overall UV-vis absorption spectra of TCNQ recorded in various solvents, using a 10 mm cuvette, in the 1.38-6.5 eV energy range. Singlet transitions of the neutral TCNQ(o) molecule and doublet transitions of the TCNQ(¯) negative ion were identified in these overall spectra and were assigned with TD B3LYP/6-31G calculations. Determination of the lowest triplet of TCNQ attained in this work may be useful for theoretical studies and practical applications of this important compound.

  8. Avaliação protéica de uma nova multimistura com base no milho QPM BR 473 Protein evaluation of a nutritional supplement based on QPM BR 473 maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enara Cristina Silva Glória

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A multimistura tem sido utilizada no Brasil pela Pastoral da Criança, em parceria com governos municipais, a fim de reduzir a desnutrição infantil. Não obstante, a eficácia deste suplemento tem sido constantemente arguida, devido à possível presença de fatores antinutricionais. No presente trabalho descrevemos a avaliação biológica de um suplemento contendo milho QPM BR473. Trinta e seis ratos Wistar machos, com 21-23 dias de idade, foram divididos em seis grupos de seis animais cada e alimentados com dietas de caseína contendo multimistura pura, com QPM BR473, láctea (contendo leite em pó, láctea contendo QPM BR473 ou a multimistura proposta (contendo QPM BR473, farinhas de aveia, soja e banana e açúcar mascavo. Mediu-se a Retenção Protéica Líquida. A condição microbiológica dos suplementos e seu custo foram também determinados. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o QPM BR473 pode ser usado em suplementos nutricionais, com alto valor nutritivo, expresso por sua qualidade protéica, e com baixa relação custo/benefício.Nutritional supplements, known as "multimisturas", prepared with low cost ingredients have been distributed in Brazil by municipal governments, in partnership with non-governmental organizations, in order to reduce infant malnutrition. Nevertheless the efficacy of these supplements has been constantly argued, due to the possible presence of anti-nutritional factors. The present work describes the biological evaluation of a supplement containing Quality Protein Maize BR 473. Thirty six 21-23-day old male Wistar rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. The groups were fed casein diets, each containing respectively: "multimistura", "multimistura" with QPM BR 473, "multimistura" with powdered milk, "multimistura" with powderedmilk and QPM BR 473 or the proposed new supplement (containing QPM BR 473 flour, oat meal, soybean flour, brown sugar and banana meal. Net protein retention was measured

  9. Brändin kehittäminen Pinterestin avulla : Pinterest markkinoinnin työkaluna

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtimäki, Noora

    2015-01-01

    Pinterestin käyttäjämäärät ovat kasvaneet nopeasti ja se on yksi suosituimmista sosiaalisen median kanavista, joten Pinterestin hyödyntämiselle mainoskanavana on kysyntää. Pinterestin kautta yritys voi tavoittaa jokaisella pinnauksella näkyvyyttä, liikennettä verkkosivuilleen sekä uusia potentiaalisia asiakkaita. Opinnäytetyöni tehtiin toimeksiantona Minna Parikka Shoes Ltd:lle. Opinnäytetyöni tarkoituksena oli tutkia, miten voidaan lisätä Minna Parikan brändin tunnettuutta Pinterestissä ...

  10. GEOTECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SOFT CLAY FROM BR 101 HIGHWAY IN SANTA CATARINA

    OpenAIRE

    NEWTON FAGUNDES DE CARVALHO

    2000-01-01

    O presente trabalho apresenta um estudo sobre a argila mole da rodovia BR 101 em Santa Catarina, no qual são pesquisadas suas características geotécnicas a partir de ensaios de campo e laboratório. Os ensaios de campo realizados foram os de palheta, dilatométricos e de piezocone. O programa experimental de laboratório envolveu ensaios de caracterização, de adensamento e triaxiais consolidados não drenados (CIU). O solo foi caracterizado como argila mole flúvio-...

  11. A novel Br-substituted diarylethene: Synthesis, crystal structure, and solvent dependent acidichromism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chunhong; Fan, Congbin; Pu, Shouzhi; Chen, Bing; Chen, Ben

    2016-11-01

    A novel Br-substituted diarylethene was synthesized, and its structure has been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Its photochemical property in solution, a PMMA film, and single crystalline phase was studied. In solution, the absorption maximum of its closed-ring isomer shifted dramatically to shorter wavelengths with notable color change from violet to yellow upon the stimulation of trifluoroacetic acid. Moreover, the acidichromism showed obviously solvent-dependence. With enhancement of solvent polarity, the protonation-induced absorption maxima (Δλmax) and the response time became longer.

  12. Direct Mannich-Type Reactions Promoted by Frustrated Lewis Acid/Brønsted Base Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jessica Z; Yao, Wenzhi; Hastings, Brian T; Lok, Charles K; Wasa, Masayuki

    2016-10-24

    Direct Mannich-type reactions that afford both α- and β-amino esters by the reaction of a broad range of carbonyl compounds and aldimines are disclosed. The transformation is promoted by a sterically frustrated Lewis acid/Brønsted base pair, which is proposed to operate cooperatively: Within the catalyst complex, an enolate is generated that then reacts with a hydrogen-bond-activated imine. Noncovalent interactions between reactants and the catalyst provide selectivity and new opportunities for future catalyst design. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Certification environnementale et durabilité au Brésil

    OpenAIRE

    Piketty, Marie-Gabrielle; Martins De Souza, Maria-Célia; Garcia Drigo, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Au Brésil, les préoccupations environnementales sont croissantes du fait des impacts négatifs d’une croissance agricole accélérée sur l’environnement et les ressources naturelles. Face à ce contexte, la certification environnementale de divers produits issus de l’usage des terres agricoles et forestières augmente. Cet article analyse et compare les cas du bois issu de l’exploitation communautaire en Amazonie et du café bio. La mise en place de ces certifications est-elle à même de concilier e...

  14. LiBr absorption systems integrated with high–efficiency IGSG plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Bellomare, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years, the energy demand for cooling systems is increasing; different solutions in fact have been proposed in order to minimize the energetic and environmental impact of this trend. In this direction, absorption cooling systems are recognized as a valid alternative to traditional...... vapor compression inverse cycles; waste heat from other systems can in fact be used as an efficient input instead of electrical energy. The opportunity to integrate Li-Br absorption systems with a high-efficiency energy plant was studied; rejected heat from a Municipal Solid Waste Gasification Plant...

  15. Evaluation of (o)-(77Br)bromohippuran as renal tubular function agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Aswegen, A.; van Wyk, A.J.; Roodt, J.P.; Pieters, H.; Herbst, C.P.; Otto, A.C.; Loetter, M.G.H.; Haasbroek, F.J.; Minnaar, P.C.; Fourie, P.J.

    1985-09-01

    (o)-(77Br)bromohippuran (BHIP) was developed as renal tubular function agent due to its favourable chemical and physical properties and compared to (o)-(131I)iodohippuran (IHIP). Renograms obtained from baboons were compared and absorbed radiation dose calculations performed. Although BHIP showed a delayed kidney uptake and washout pattern, good kidney clearance of the radionuclide was obtained after 30 min. Radiation dose values for BHIP were markedly lower than for IHIP indicating that larger activities of BHIP could be administered to increase counting statistics. BHIP imaging in normal volunteers did however not substantiate the favourable behaviour obtained in the primate.

  16. Evaluation of (o)-[77Br]bromohippuran as renal tubular function agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aswegen, A; van Wyk, A J; Roodt, J P; Pieters, H; Herbst, C P; Otto, A C; Lötter, M G; Haasbroek, F J; Minnaar, P C; Fourie, P J

    1985-09-01

    (o)-[77Br]bromohippuran (BHIP) was developed as renal tubular function agent due to its favourable chemical and physical properties and compared to (o)-[131I]iodohippuran (IHIP). Renograms obtained from baboons were compared and absorbed radiation dose calculations performed. Although BHIP showed a delayed kidney uptake and washout pattern, good kidney clearance of the radionuclide was obtained after 30 min. Radiation dose values for BHIP were markedly lower than for IHIP indicating that larger activities of BHIP could be administered to increase counting statistics. BHIP imaging in normal volunteers did however not substantiate the favourable behaviour obtained in the primate.

  17. Layer-by-layer deposition of nanostructured CsPbBr3 perovskite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnikova, A. A.; Matyushkin, L. B.; Andronov, A. A.; Sokolov, V. S.; Aleksandrova, O. A.; Moshnikov, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    Layer-by-layer deposition of nanostructured perovskites cesium lead halide thin films is described. The method of deposition is based on alternate immersion of the substrate in the precursor solutions or colloidal solution of nanocrystals and methyl acetate/lead nitrate solution using the device for deposition of films by SILAR and dip-coating techniques. An example of obtaining a photosensitive structure based on nanostructures of ZnO nanowires and layers of CsBbBr3 nanocrystals is also shown.

  18. Calidad del aceite de las brásicas cultivadas en Galicia

    OpenAIRE

    Cartea González, María Elena; Vilar Iglesias, Marta; Francisco Candeira, Marta; Haro Bailón, Antonio de

    2009-01-01

    Los cultivos de brásicas utilizados para la obtención de aceite son la colza (Brassica napus), la nabina (B. rapa) y las mostazas (B.carinata y B. juncea). Entre todos ellos, el cultivo de colza es el más importante. Estas especies son a nivel mundial una de las fuentes más importantes de aceites vegetales, tanto para uso alimenticio como industrial. La calidad del aceite depende fundamentalmente de su contenido cualitativo y cuantitativo en los ácidos grasos que lo componen. En este senti...

  19. Institut brésilien pour la recherche écologique : L'enseignement et l ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    En faisant un retour sur son expérience au FIE 2008, la Dre Suzana Padua, présidente de l'Institut pour la recherche écologique (IPE) du Brésil a déclaré ce qui suit : « Quand on comprend plus l'interconnexion de tout ce qui vit sur la planète, on ne pas faire autrement que d'être touchée d'une certaine façon », a dit la Dre ...

  20. Passive and transpassive behaviour of Alloy 31 in a heavy brine LiBr solution

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Domene, Ramón Manuel; Blasco Tamarit, María Encarnación; García García, Dionisio Miguel; García Antón, José

    2013-01-01

    The passive and transpassive behaviour of Alloy 31, a highly alloyed austenitic stainless steel (UNS N08031), has been investigated in a LiBr heavy brine solution (400 g/l) at 25 °C using potentiostatic polarisation combined with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Mott–Schottky analysis. The passive film formed on Alloy 31 has been found to be p-type and/or n-type in electronic character, depending on the film formation potential. The thickness of the film formed at potentials within ...