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  1. The Amounts of As, Au, Br, Cu, Fe, Mo, Se and Zn in Normal and Uraemic Human whole Blood. A. Comparison by Means of Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative determination of the elements As, Au, Br, Cu, Fe, Mo, Se and Zn have been performed in normal and uraemic human whole blood by means of H2SO4 - H-O- digestion, distillation and ion exchange, combined with gamma-spectrometric analysis. The uraemic blood was found to contain about 10 times as much As and twice as much Mo as did the normal blood. As regards Fe, the uraemic blood contained slightly less than the normal blood. For the other elements there were no detectable difference

  2. TXRF and XRF techniques for the determination of K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb in some plant species and their infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, and Sr elements in some medicinal plants, including: A. herba-alba, T. officinale, M. officinalis, T. syeriacus, T. vulgaris, A. officinalis, R. officinalis, M. piperita, M. aquatica, Zea mays, G. glabra, A. vulgare, U. urens, C. aronica, H. officinalis, M. aurea, C. cyminum, was determined using TXRF technique. Concentrations of Pb upper the detection limits of TXRF method was determined only in A. herba-alba leaves with a mean value of 3.6 ppm. The accuracy and the precision of TXRF method were verified using Apple leaves, Peach leaves, and Hay Powder Standard Reference Materials (SRM) for the analysis of plant samples. The previously mentioned elements were accurately determined by TXRF, except Br. Errors obtained by Br determination may be obtained by the partial losses of element content during evaporation of sample on quartz carrier proposed for TXRF measurements. TXRF results for Ca, Mn, and Sr elements agreed well with these obtained by XRF method with standard relative error (SR) better than 10 %, while, these obtained for rest elements, except Br, were with SR ranging between 11 %-20 %. Br was not included in the determination of elements by TXRF. Transfer of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, and Sr from A. herba-alba, A. vulgare, Zea mays, M. aquatica, M. piperita, C. cyminum, G. glabra, M. officinalis, and R. officinalis plant materials to infusions at different temperatures were studied using XRF method. Data analyses were verified by Peach and Apple leaves of Standard Reference Materials. Potassium represented the dominant element in all studied plants, particularly, in roots of U. dioica plant with concentrations in the range of 59.3 g/Kg-90.8 g/Kg. Independently of brewing 5 temperature, potassium with a high ratio was transferred from plants to infusions. K transfer ratio was in a range from 57.2 % for A. vulgare leaves at 25 .C to 91 % for G. glabra at 55 .C. Although, Fe content in dry plant

  3. Photoinduced Br Desorption from CsBr Thin Films Grown on Cu(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliday, Matthew T.; Joly, Alan G.; Hess, Wayne P.; Shluger, AL

    2015-10-22

    Thin films of CsBr deposited onto metals such as copper are potential photocathode materials for light sources and other applications. We investigate desorption dynamics of Br atoms from CsBr films grown on insulator (KBr, LiF) and metal (Cu) substrates induced by sub-bandgap 6.4 eV laser pulses. The experimental results demonstrate that the peak kinetic energy of Br atoms desorbed from CsBr/Cu films is much lower than that for the hyperthermal desorption from CsBr/LiF films. Kelvin probe measurements indicate negative charge at the surface following Br desorption from CsBr/Cu films. Our ab initio calculations of excitons at CsBr surfaces demonstrate that this behavior can be explained by an exciton model of desorption including electron trapping at the CsBr surface. Trapped negative charges reduce the energy of surface excitons available for Br desorption. We examine the electron-trapping characteristics of low-coordinated sites at the surface, in particular, divacancies and kink sites. We also provide a model of cation desorption caused by Franck-Hertz excitation of F centers at the surface in the course of irradiation of CsBr/Cu films. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms of photoinduced structural evolution of alkali halide films on metal substrates and activation of metal photocathodes coated with CsBr.

  4. A mechanism of Cu work function reduction in CsBr/Cu photocathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliday, Matthew T.; Hess, Wayne P.; Shluger, AL

    2016-03-14

    Thin films of CsBr deposited on Cu(100) have been proposed as next-generation photocathode materials for applications in particle accelerators and free-electron lasers. However, the mechanisms underlying an improved photocathode performance remain poorly understood. We present density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations of the work function reduction following the application of CsBr thin film coatings to Cu photocathodes. The effects of structure and van der Waals forces are examined. Calculations suggest that CsBr films can reduce the work function by around 1.5 eV, which would explain the exponential increase in quantum efficiency (QE) of coated vs. uncoated photocathodes. A model explaining experimentally observed laser activation of photocathode is provided whereby the photo-induced creation of di-vacancies at the surface, and their subsequent diffusion throughout the lattice and segregation at the interface leads to a further increase in QE after a period of laser irradiation.

  5. GMI in FeCuNbSiB/Cu multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica, CCNE, UFSM, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: mmacorrea@gmail.com; Viegas, A.D.C. [Departamento de Fisica, CCNE, UFSM, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Silva, R.B. da [Departamento de Fisica, CCNE, UFSM, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Andrade, A.M.H. de [Departamento de Fisica, CCNE, UFSM, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Sommer, R.L. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2006-10-01

    Very high magnetoimpedance (MI) measured at frequencies up to 1.8 GHz in single and multilayered thin films with composition Fe{sub 73.5}Cu{sub 1}Nb{sub 3}Si{sub 13.5}B{sub 9} and (Fe{sub 73.5}Cu{sub 1}Nb{sub 3}Si{sub 13.5}B{sub 9}+Cu) are reported. The magnetic properties of both systems are also compared. MI ratio as high as 300% for the multilayered samples were obtained.

  6. {[Cu2Br3]n[Cu(H-Leof)2]·2H2O} where Leof is Levofloxacin%{[Cu2Br3]n[Cu(H-Leof)2]·2H2O}(Leof是左氟沙星)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锡森; 唐云志; 熊仁根

    2005-01-01

    The crystal structure of {[Cu2Br3]n[Cu(H-Leof)2]· 2H2O} (1) comprises of [Cu(H-Leof)2] + cations, [Cu2Br3]nanions and lattice water molecules. And anion is a 1-D chain formed through alternative Cu-Br dimer and triangular geometry. CCDC: 274841.

  7. RbCuFe(PO42

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mongi Ben Amara

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A new iron phosphate, rubidium copper(II iron(III bis(phosphate, RbCuFe(PO42, has been synthesized as single crystals by the flux method. This compound is isostructural with KCuFe(PO42 [Badri et al. (2011, J. Solid State Chem. 184, 937–944]. Its structure is built up from Cu2O8 units of edge-sharing CuO5 polyhedra, interconnected by FeO6 octahedra through common corners to form undulating chains that extend infinitely along the [011] and [01-1] directions. The linkage of such chains is ensured by the PO4 tetraedra and the resulting three-dimensional framework forms quasi-elliptic tunnels parallel to the [101] direction in which the Rb+ cations are located.

  8. Domain structure and magnetization process of a giant magnetoimpedance geometry FeNi/Cu/FeNi(Cu)FeNi/Cu/FeNi sensitive element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetization process and the magnetic domains of the FeNi (100 nm)/Cu (2.5 nm)/FeNi (100 nm)/Cu (480 nm)/FeNi (100 nm)/Cu (2.5 nm)/FeNi (100 nm) structure were studied. This geometry consists of two FeNi/Cu/FeNi trilayers with a thick in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the sensitive element and narrow in the direction of the flowing current Cu electrode in the centre. Ferromagnet/conductor/ferromagnet is the typical geometry of magnetoimpedance thin-film-based sensitive elements used to detect small magnetic fields. Multilayered structures were prepared by rf-sputtering in a magnetic field of 100 Oe applied perpendicular to the Cu electrode in order to induce transverse magnetic anisotropy. The magnetic measurements and magnetic domain structure observations were made in magnetic fields applied one at a time parallel or perpendicular to the Cu electrode. Different magnetization processes with non-homogeneous rotations in the first case and dominant multiple nucleation and merging of domains in the second one were observed

  9. Theoretical investigation of structural properties of CuCl, CuBr and CuI compounds under hydrostatic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louhibi-Fasla, S.; Djabri, H. Rekab; Achour, H. [Laboratoire de Micro et de Nanophysique LaMiN - ENP d' ORAN, BP 1523, El M' Naouer, 31000 (Algeria); Kefif, K. [Laboratoire de Physique des Couches Minces et Matériaux pour l' Electronique, Université d' ORAN, Es-senia (Algeria)

    2013-12-16

    We have applied a recent version of the full potential linear muffin-tin orbitals method (FPLMTO) to study the structural properties of copper halides CuX (X=Cl, Br, I) under high pressure using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the exchange and correlation potential by Perdew et al. Results are given for lattice parameters, bulk modulus and its first derivatives in the wurtzite(B4), zinc-blende (B3), CsCl (B2), rock-salt (B1), and PbO (B10) structures. The results of these calculations are compared with the available theoretical and experimental data.

  10. Modeling of Output Characteristics of a UV Cu+ Ne-CuBr Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezhana Georgieva Gocheva-Ilieva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines experiment data for a Ne-CuBr UV copper ion laser excited by longitudinal pulsed discharge emitting in multiline regime. The flexible multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARSs method has been used to develop nonparametric regression models describing the laser output power and service life of the devices. The models have been constructed as explicit functions of 9 basic input laser characteristics. The obtained models account for local nonlinearities of the relationships within the various multivariate subregions. The built best MARS models account for over 98% of data. The models are used to estimate the investigated output laser characteristics of existing UV lasers. The capabilities for using the models in predicting existing and future experiments have been demonstrated. Specific analyses have been presented comparing the models with actual experiments. The obtained results are applicable for guiding and planning the engineering experiment. The modeling methodology can be applied for a wide range of similar lasers and laser devices.

  11. A Comparative Kinetics Study between Cu/SSZ-13 and Fe/SSZ-13 SCR Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Feng; Wang, Yilin; Kollar, Marton; Washton, Nancy M.; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2015-11-09

    Cu- and Fe/SSZ-13 catalysts with the same Cu(Fe)/Al ratios are synthesized using the same parent SSZ-13 starting material. The catalytic performance for both fresh and hydrothermally aged catalysts is tested with NO and NH3 oxidation, and standard SCR reactions under steady-state conditions, and standard and fast SCR under temperature-programmed conditions. For standard SCR, Cu/SSZ-13 shows much better low-temperature performance which can be explained by NH3-inhibition of Fe/SSZ-13. During hydrothermal aging, both catalysts undergo dealumination but Fe/SSZ-13 dealuminates more severely. For aged catalysts, Cu/SSZ-13 gains oxidation activities due to formation of CuOx. However, Fe/SSZ-13 loses oxidation activities although formation of FeOx clusters and FeAlOx species also occur. Because of such physical properties differences, aged Cu/SSZ-13 loses while Fe/SSZ-13 maintains high-temperature SCR selectivities. A physical mixture of aged catalysts provides stable SCR performance in a wide temperature range and is able to decrease N2O formation at high reaction temperatures. This suggests that Fe/SSZ-13 can be used as a cocatalyst for Cu/SSZ-13 for transportation applications. During temperature-programmed SCR reactions, weak hysteresis is found during standard SCR due to NH3 inhibition. For fast SCR, hysteresis caused by NH4NO3 inhibition is much more significant. NH4NO3 deposition is greatly enhanced by Brønsted and Lewis acidity of the catalysts.

  12. Fe and Cu isotope mass balances in the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balter, V.; Albarede, F.; Jaouen, K.

    2011-12-01

    The ranges of the Fe and Cu isotope compositions in the human body are large, i.e. ~3% and ~2%, respectively. Both isotopic fractionations appear to be mainly controlled by redox conditions. The Fe and Cu isotope compositions of the tissues analyzed so far plot on a mixing hyperbolae between a reduced and an oxidized metals pools. The reduced metals pool is composed by erythrocytes, where Fe is bounded to hemoglobin as Fe(II) and Cu to superoxide-dismutase as Cu(I). The oxidized metals pool is composed by hepatocytes, where Fe and Cu are stored as Fe(III) ferritin and as Cu(II) ceruloplasmine, respectively. The position of each biological component in the δ56Fe-δ65Cu diagram therefore reflects the oxidation state of Fe and Cu of the predominant metal carrier protein and allows to quantify Fe and Cu fluxes between organs using mass balance calculations. For instance, serum and clot Fe and Cu isotope compositions show that current biological models of erythropoiesis violates mass conservation requirements, and suggest hidden Fe and Cu pathways during red blood cells synthesis. The results also show that a coupled Fe-Cu strong gender isotopic effect is observed in various organs. The isotopic difference between men and women is unlikely to be due to differential dietary uptake or endometrium loss, but rather reflects the effect of menstrual losses and a correlative solicitation of hepatic stores. We speculate that thorough studies of the metabolism of stable isotopes in normal conditions is a prerequisite for the understanding of the pathological dysregulations.

  13. Antiperovskite Chalco-Halides Ba3(FeS4)Cl, Ba3(FeS4)Br, and Ba3(FeSe4)Br with Spin Super-Super Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Xian Zhang; Kai Liu; Jian-Qiao He; Hui Wu; Qing-Zhen Huang; Jian-Hua Lin; Zhong-Yi Lu; Fu-Qiang Huang

    2015-01-01

    Perovskite-related materials have received increasing attention for their broad applications in photovoltaic solar cells and information technology due to their unique electrical and magnetic properties. Here we report three new antiperovskite chalco-halides: Ba3(FeS4)Cl, Ba3(FeS4)Br, and Ba3(FeSe4)Br. All of them were found to be good solar light absorbers. Remarkably, although the shortest Fe-Fe distance exceeds 6 Å, an unexpected anti-ferromagnetic phase transition near 100 K was observed ...

  14. Model of Fe Nanostripes on Cu(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G. [Florida State University; Lee, H. K. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Schulthess, Thomas C [ORNL; Ujfalussy, Balazs [ORNL; Stocks, George Malcolm [ORNL; Butler, William H [ORNL; Landau, David P [ORNL; Pierce, John Philip [ORNL; Shen, Jian [ORNL; Kirschner, Jurgen M [ORNL

    2002-01-01

    Magnetization as a function of temperature calculated with Monte Carlo techniques is compared to experimental results of Fe stripes grown on vicinal Cu(111) surfaces. The stripes are step decorations grown with molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), are 1-2 monolayers thick, and display perpendicular magnetization. The atomic parameters are determined from fully relativistic electronic structure calculations. The moments are found to be 2.57 {micro}{sub B}, with some variation due to film thickness, and uniaxial anisotropy of 40 {micro}Ry/atom for Fe atoms facing vacuum. The Heisenberg model extended to include crystalline anisotropy as well as dipole-dipole interactions is considered for two different values of the exchange constant: J = 20 and 2 meV. Under a large applied field (4000 G), the calculated saturation magnetization falls slowly from 507 emu/cm{sup 3} with an increase in temperature until it falls rapidly around 600 K, after which a more modest falloff with an increase in temperature is observed. For larger J the rapid change occurs for higher temperatures. The importance of disorder in the height and width of the stripes is investigated by generating stripe geometries with a model that incorporates nucleation and growth of Fe particles at step edges under the constraint of constant deposition from MBE. The primary effect of disorder in the stripes is to reduce the saturated magnetization at lower temperatures.

  15. Electrodeposited Ni,Fe,Co and Cu single and multilayer nanowire arrays on anodic aluminum oxide template

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bobomurod HAMRAKULOV; In-Soo KIM; M.G.LEE; B.H.PARK

    2009-01-01

    The Ni, Fe, Co and Cu single and multilayer nanowire arrays to make perpendicular magnetic recording media were fabricated with nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates from Watt solution and additives by the DC electrodeposition. The results show that the diameters of Ni, Fe, Co and Cu single and multilayer nanowires in AAO templates are 40-80 nm and the lengths are about 30 μm with the aspect ratio of 350-750. The magnetic properties of the prepared nanowires are different under different electrodepositing conditions. The remanences (Br) of Ni/Cu/Fe multilayer nanowires are lower than those of others multilayer nanowires, and coercivity (Hc) of Ni/Cu/Fe multilayer nanowires are lower than those of others multilayer nanowires. These are compatible with the required conditions of high density magnetic media devices that should have the low coercivity to easily success magnetization and high remanence to keep magnetization after removal of magnetic field.

  16. Microstructure of CuFeS{sub 2-{delta}}-CuInS{sub 2} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzun, B.V.; Fadzeyeva, A.A. [State Scientific and Production Association Scientific-Practical Materials Research Centre, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus); Kloess, G.; Bente, K. [Institut fuer Mineralogie, Kristallographie und Materialwissenschaft, Scharnhorststrasse 20, 04275 Leipzig (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    Two series of alloys of the (CuFeS{sub 2-{delta}}){sub 1-x}(CuInS{sub 2}){sub x} system with molar part of CuInS{sub 2} x = 0.01, 0.03, 0.125, 0.25, 0.375, 0.50, 0.625, 0.75, 0.95, 0.97 and 0.99 and {delta} being 0 and 0.10 were prepared from the CuFeS{sub 2-{delta}} and CuInS{sub 2} starting ternary compounds. The samples were investigated by micro structural optics using freshly-polished samples and XRPD. The studies confirmed two phase coexistences with microstructures dependent on the chemical composition. The geometric-oriented arrangement of the {alpha}-phase with the structure of CuInS{sub 2} is found in the (CuFeS{sub 2-{delta}}){sub 1-x}(CuInS{sub 2}){sub x} system up to x equalling 0.50. It was established that the solvus of CuFeS{sub 2-{delta}} exceeds 0.05 molar parts of CuInS{sub 2}, while the solvus of CuInS{sub 2} does not exceed 0.03 molar parts of CuFeS{sub 2-{delta}}. Additionally, stoichiometric composition of CuFeS{sub 2} exhibits a mixture of 3 coexisting phases of CuFeS{sub 2-{delta}}, with {delta} from 0.14 to 0.28, bornite Cu{sub 5}FeS{sub 4} and pyrrhotite Fe{sub 1-x}S. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Isotopic Evidence of Unaccounted for Fe and Cu Erythropoietic Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarede, F.; Telouk, P.; Lamboux, A.; Jaouen, K.; Balter, V.

    2011-12-01

    Despite its potential importance for understanding perturbations in the Fe-Cu homeostatic pathways, the natural isotopic variability of these metals in the human body remains unexplored. We measured the Fe, Cu, and Zn isotope compositions of total blood, serum, and red blood cells of ~50 young blood donors by multiple-collector ICP-MS after separation and purification by anion exchange chromatography. Zn is on average 0.2 permil heavier in erythrocytes (δ 66Zn=0.44±0.33 permil) with respect to serum but shows much less overall isotopic variability than Fe and Cu, which indicates that isotope fractionation depends more on redox conditions than on ligand coordination. On average, Fe in erythrocytes (δ 56Fe=-2.59±0.47 permil) is isotopically light by 1-2 permil with respect to serum, whereas Cu in erythrocytes (δ 65Cu=0.56±0.50 permil) is 0.8 percent heavier. Fe and Cu isotope compositions clearly separate erythrocytes of men and women. Fe and Cu from B-type men erythrocytes are visibly more fractionated than all the other blood types. Isotope compositions provide an original method for evaluating metal mass balance and homeostasis. Natural isotope variability shows that the current models of Fe and Cu erythropoiesis, which assume that erythropoiesis is restricted to bone marrow, violate mass balance requirements. It unveils unsuspected major pathways for Fe, with erythropoietic production of isotopically heavy ferritin and hemosiderin, and for Cu, with isotopically light Cu being largely channeled into blood and lymphatic circulation rather than into superoxide dismutase-laden erythrocytes. Iron isotopes provide an intrinsic measuring rod of the erythropoietic yield, while Cu isotopes seem to gauge the relative activity of erythropoiesis and lymphatics.

  18. Determination of Cu/Zn and Fe in human serum of patients with sickle cell anemia using radiation synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we analyzed serum samples from patients with Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA) using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence using Synchrotron Radiation (SRTXRF). The SRTXRF measurements were performed at the X-Ray Fluorescence Beamline at the Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). We studied forty-three patients aged 18–50 suffering from SCA and sixty healthy volunteers aged 18–60. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. Moreover, there are evidences of an association among Fe, Cu, Zn and Cu/Zn in the SCA pathogenesis process. The concentrations of Fe and Cu in the serum samples of patients with SCA were larger, 120% and 20%, respectively, when compared with the CG. The serum level Cu/Zn ratio was significantly higher (60%) in the serum samples from patients suffering from SCA than from the CG. Therefore, the Cu/Zn ratio can be used as an adjuvant index in enhancement for diagnosis of SCA. - Highlights: ► Serum samples from patients with Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA) were analyzed by SRTXRF. ► It was possible to determine the concentrations of the P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. ► There are evidences of an association among Fe, Cu, Zn and Cu/Zn in the SCA process. ► The results indicate that the Cu/Zn ratio can be used as an adjuvant index for diagnosis of SCA.

  19. Determination of Cu/Zn and Fe in human serum of patients with sickle cell anemia using radiation synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canellas, C.G.L. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21.941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Carvalho, S.M.F. [State Institute of Hematology Arthur de Siqueira Cavalcanti, 20.211-030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Anjos, M.J. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21.941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Physics Institute, State University of Rio de Janeiro, 20.559-900 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lopes, R.T., E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21.941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    In this work we analyzed serum samples from patients with Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA) using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence using Synchrotron Radiation (SRTXRF). The SRTXRF measurements were performed at the X-Ray Fluorescence Beamline at the Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). We studied forty-three patients aged 18-50 suffering from SCA and sixty healthy volunteers aged 18-60. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. Moreover, there are evidences of an association among Fe, Cu, Zn and Cu/Zn in the SCA pathogenesis process. The concentrations of Fe and Cu in the serum samples of patients with SCA were larger, 120% and 20%, respectively, when compared with the CG. The serum level Cu/Zn ratio was significantly higher (60%) in the serum samples from patients suffering from SCA than from the CG. Therefore, the Cu/Zn ratio can be used as an adjuvant index in enhancement for diagnosis of SCA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serum samples from patients with Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA) were analyzed by SRTXRF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was possible to determine the concentrations of the P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There are evidences of an association among Fe, Cu, Zn and Cu/Zn in the SCA process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results indicate that the Cu/Zn ratio can be used as an adjuvant index for diagnosis of SCA.

  20. Fabrication of oriented L10-FeCuPd and composite bcc-Fe/L10-FeCuPd nanoparticles: Alloy composition dependence of magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oriented and well-isolated L10-FeCuPd ternary alloy nanoparticles have been fabricated by electron-beam evaporation followed by postdeposition annealing. A single L10 phase was formed in the FeCuPd nanoparticles with (Fe+Cu) content lower than 48 at. %. A strong preferential c-axis orientation along the film normal direction was achieved by Cu addition, which leads to a strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Also, a lowering of the ordering temperature by 50 K compared to the binary L10-FePd nanoparticles was achieved by Cu addition. By contrast, composite particles composed of the bcc Fe and the L10-FeCuPd were formed when the (Fe+Cu) content was higher than 52 at. %. Coexistence of the bcc Fe and the L10-FeCuPd was confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and nanobeam electron diffraction. It was found that perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of the L10-FeCuPd nanoparticles on the NaCl substrate is sensitive to the alloy composition

  1. Charge transfer and relativistic effects in the low-lying electronic states of CuCl, CuBr and CuI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sousa, C; DeJong, WA; Broer, R; Nieuwpoort, WC; Jong, W.A. de

    1997-01-01

    The spectral transitions and the character of the low-lying excited states of the copper halides, CuX (X = Cl, Br, I) are studied by means of two different relativistic computational approaches. One is based on the CASSCF/CASPT2 approach with operators accounting for scalar relativistic effects eval

  2. Cu clustering stage before the crystallization in Fe-Si-B-Nb-Cu amorphous alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohnuma, M.; Hono, K.; Onodera, H.;

    1999-01-01

    The Cu clustering stage before the crystallization of Fe-Si-B-Nb-Cu amorphous alloys have been studied by three dimensional atom probe (3DAP) small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and high sensitive differential calorimetry (DSC). Cu clustering occurs prior to the onset of the primary...... crystallization reaction. The number of the clusters estimated by 3DAP is large enough to provide heterogeneous nucleation sites to all bcc/D0(3) Fe-Si crystals which appear at higher temperatures. This fact indicates that the distribution of nanocrystalline Fe-Si is strongly affected by that of the Cu......-enriched clusters. The average diameter and interparticle distance of the Cu-enriched clusters have also been estimated by SANS. An exothermic reaction is observed above the Curie Temperature in the DSC curves of the Fe-Si-B-Nb-Cu alloys. The onset temperature of the exothermic reaction is shifted to lower...

  3. Spin-current injection and detection in κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spin-current injection into an organic semiconductor κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br film induced by the spin pumping from an yttrium iron garnet (YIG) film. When magnetization dynamics in the YIG film is excited by ferromagnetic or spin-wave resonance, a voltage signal was found to appear in the κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br film. Magnetic-field-angle dependence measurements indicate that the voltage signal is governed by the inverse spin Hall effect in κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br. We found that the voltage signal in the κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br/YIG system is critically suppressed around 80 K, around which magnetic and/or glass transitions occur, implying that the efficiency of the spin-current injection is suppressed by fluctuations which critically enhanced near the transitions

  4. Spin-current injection and detection in κ-(BEDT-TTF2Cu[N(CN2]Br

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Qiu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Spin-current injection into an organic semiconductor κ-(BEDT-TTF2Cu[N(CN2]Br film induced by the spin pumping from an yttrium iron garnet (YIG film. When magnetization dynamics in the YIG film is excited by ferromagnetic or spin-wave resonance, a voltage signal was found to appear in the κ-(BEDT-TTF2Cu[N(CN2]Br film. Magnetic-field-angle dependence measurements indicate that the voltage signal is governed by the inverse spin Hall effect in κ-(BEDT-TTF2Cu[N(CN2]Br. We found that the voltage signal in the κ-(BEDT-TTF2Cu[N(CN2]Br/YIG system is critically suppressed around 80 K, around which magnetic and/or glass transitions occur, implying that the efficiency of the spin-current injection is suppressed by fluctuations which critically enhanced near the transitions.

  5. Measurement of thermoelectric power of Fe-Cu binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In INSS, non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of irradiation embrittlement of low alloy steel using thermoelectric power (TEP) measurement has been considered, as well as NDE of thermal aging of cast duplex stainless steel which has been studied in recent years. Material degradation is evaluated based on a relation between progress of the degradation and change in TEP due to change in material structure caused by the degradation event. So it is necessary for NDE of irradiation embrittlement to measure the change in TEP due to precipitation of Cu contained as an impurity, which is known as one of the reasons for the embrittlement. In this study, TEP of Fe-Cu binary alloys with different Cu content was measured for investigation of the relationship between TEP of the alloys and Cu content. In addition, appropriateness of measuring TEP of Fe-Cu binary alloy in the same way to measure TEP of duplex stainless steel was examined. It was found that increment of Cu contained in the alloys changed TEP in a negative direction and the rate was evaluated as -6.6μV/K/wt%Cu. There were the cases that it took 20 minutes for measurement values to become stable in measurement of Fe-Cu binary alloys. It was much longer than the time taken in measurement of duplex stainless steel. So the measurement time per a point was extended to 60 minutes in case of Fe-Cu binary alloys. (author)

  6. Crystallization behavior and magnetic properties in High Fe content FeBCSiCu alloy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High Fe content FeBCSiCu nanocrystalline alloys are prepared by annealing melt-spun amorphous ribbons with aim at increasing saturation magnetic flux density. Microstructures identified by XRD and TEM reveal that Cu addition inhibits the surface crystallization of Fe86B7C7 alloy and improve its glass-forming ability. Activation energy of crystallization calculated by Kissinger's equation indicates that both Cu and Si addition promotes the precipitation of α-Fe phase and improves the thermal stability. VSM and DC B–H loop tracer measurements show that the Fe85.5B7C6Si1Cu0.5 nanocrystalline alloy exhibits high saturation magnetic flux density of 1.8 T and low coercivity of 10 A/m, respectively. AC properties measured by AC B–H analyzer show this alloy exhibits low core loss of 0.35 W/kg at 1 T at 50 Hz. Low material cost and convenient productivity make the Fe85.5B7C6Si1Cu0.5 nanocrystalline alloy an economical application in industry. - Highlights: • Cu addition inhibits the surface crystallization and improves the GFA. • The competitive formation of Fe3C and α-Fe phase impedes the devitrification. • Fe85.5B7C6Si1Cu0.5 nanocrystalline alloy exhibits excellent magnetic properties. • The alloy system has an economical advantage and convenient productivity

  7. Superparamagnetism in CuFeInTe{sub 3} and CuFeGaTe{sub 3} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grima-Gallardo, P.; Alvarado, F.; Munoz, M.; Duran, S.; Quintero, M.; Nieves, L.; Quintero, E.; Tovar, R.; Morocoima, M. [Centro de Estudios en Semiconductores (CES), Fac. Ciencias, Dpto. Fisica, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela); Ramos, M.A. [Laboratorio de Difraccion y Fluorescencia de Rayos-X, Instituto Zuliano de Investigaciones Tecnologicas (INZIT), La Canada de Urdaneta, Estado Zulia (Venezuela)

    2012-06-15

    The temperature dependencies of DC magnetic susceptibilities, {chi}(T), of CuFeInTe{sub 3} and CuFeGaTe{sub 3} alloys were measured in a SQUID apparatus using the protocol of field cooling (FC) and zero FC (ZFC). The FC curves of both samples reflect a weak ferromagnetic (or ferrimagnetic) behavior with a nearly constant value of {chi}(T) in the measured temperature range (2-300 K) indicating that the critical temperatures (T{sub c}) are >300 K. The ZFC curves diverges from FC, showing irreversibility temperatures (T{sub irr}) of {proportional_to}250 K for CuFeInTe{sub 3} and >300 K for CuFeGaTe{sub 3}, suggesting that we are dealing with cluster-glass systems in a superparamagnetic state. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. A nanoglass alloying immiscible Fe and Cu at the nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Na; Wang, Di; Feng, Tao; Kruk, Robert; Yao, Ke-Fu; Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V; Hahn, Horst; Gleiter, Herbert

    2015-04-21

    Synthesized from ultrafine particles with a bottom-up approach, nanoglasses are of particular importance in pursuing unique properties. Here, we design a metallic nanoglass alloy from two components of ∼Cu64Sc36 and ∼Fe90Sc10 nanoglasses. With nanoalloying mutually immiscible Fe and Cu, the properties of the nanoglass alloys can be tuned by varying the proportions of the ∼Fe90Sc10 component. This offers opportunity to create novel metallic glass nanocomposites and sheds light on building a structure-property correlation for the nanoglass alloys. PMID:25792519

  9. Spin-wave resonance in the FeBr2 magnetic thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spin-wave resonance in the thin FeBr2 field-induced metamagnet in the paramagnetic phase with the (001) surfaces and at low temperatures is examined theoretically. It is found that the absorption spectrum is strongly affected by modifications of the surface exchange parameters, Also, the conditions for the appearance of various surface and bulk spin-wave features are discussed. (author)

  10. Heteropoly acid promoted Cu and Fe catalysts for the selective catalytic reduction of NO with ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putluru, Siva Sankar Reddy; Mossin, Susanne L.; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    were studied and compared with the catalytic activity for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with ammonia. The SCR activities and acidity values of heteropoly acid promoted catalysts were found to be much higher than unpromoted catalysts. The influence of potassium poisons on the SCR...... activity and acidity was lower for promoted catalysts than for unpromoted catalysts. In the heteropoly acid promoted catalysts the SCR active Cu and Fe metals were protected from potassium poisons by bonding of the potassium to the Brønsted acid centres. Thus heteropoly acid promoted catalysts might be...... suitable for biomass fired power plant SCR applications....

  11. Photoelectron diffraction of magnetic ultrathin films: Fe/Cu(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, J.G. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Wagner, M.K. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Dept. of Chemistry); Guo, X.Q.; Tong, S.Y. (Wisconsin Univ., Milwaukee, WI (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1991-01-03

    The preliminary results of an ongoing investigation of Fe/Cu(001) are presented here. Energy dependent photoelectron diffraction, including the spin-dependent variant using the multiplet split Fe3s state, is being used to investigate the nanoscale structures formed by near-monolayer deposits of Fe onto Cu(001). Core-level photoemission from the Fe3p and Fe3s states has been generated using synchrotron radiation as the tunable excitation source. Tentatively, a comparison of the experimental Fe3p cross section measurements with multiple scattering calculations indicates that the Fe is in a fourfold hollow site with a spacing of 3.6{Angstrom} between it and the atom directly beneath it, in the third layer. This is consistent with an FCC structure. The possibility of utilizing spin-dependent photoelectron diffraction to investigate magnetic ultrathin films will be demonstrated, using our preliminary spectra of the multiplet-split Fe3s os near-monolayer Fe/Cu(001). 18 refs., 10 figs.

  12. Magnetic behaviour investigation on symmetric spin valves of Co/Cu/NiFe and NiFe/Cu/Co

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铁; 沈鸿烈

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we have obtained and investigated the magnetic behaviours of the ferromagnetic layer in thesymmetric spin valves of Co/Cu/NiFe and NiFe/Cu/Co by measuring with a vibrating sample magnetometer andanalysing in terms of the multi-domain Ising models. It has been found that some magnetic layer can have quitedifferent magnetic behaviours in different structures of spin valves, depending on the properties of the under-layer. Inour investigation, we have found that the magnetic behaviour of a Co layer depends mainly on the magnetization of theunder-layer, whereas this is not the case for the NiFe layer.

  13. The Cu2FeTi3S8 and Cu2FeZr3S8 compounds: Crystal structure and electroanalytical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cu2FeTi3S8 and Cu2FeZr3S8 compounds were produced by solid-state synthesis. The crystal structure of the quaternary phases was investigated by X-ray powder method. The compounds are described in the thiospinel structure (space group Fd3-bar m) with the unit cell parameters a = 1.00099(1) nm (Cu2FeTi3S8) and a = 1.03837(2) nm (Cu2FeZr3S8). The atomic parameters were calculated in the isotropic approximation (RI = 0.0496 and RI = 0.0422 for Cu2FeTi3S8 and Cu2FeZr3S8, respectively). Iron(III)-selective electrodes were prepared using the chalcogenide compounds Cu2FeTi3S8 and Cu2FeZr3S8. The electrode function slopes are 52.7 mV/pC for Cu2FeTi3S8 and 66.2 mV/pC for Cu2FeZr3S8, the detection limits are 1 x 10-5 M and 2 x 10-5 M respectively. The prepared electrochemical sensors are not sensitive to Cd2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Mg2+, Cr3+, and Fe2+ ions, and were tested in the potentiometric titration of Fe(III) with EDTA solution.

  14. Crystallization behavior and magnetic properties in High Fe content FeBCSiCu alloy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, X.D., E-mail: fanxd@seu.edu.cn; Shen, B.L., E-mail: blshen@seu.edu.cn

    2015-07-01

    High Fe content FeBCSiCu nanocrystalline alloys are prepared by annealing melt-spun amorphous ribbons with aim at increasing saturation magnetic flux density. Microstructures identified by XRD and TEM reveal that Cu addition inhibits the surface crystallization of Fe{sub 86}B{sub 7}C{sub 7} alloy and improve its glass-forming ability. Activation energy of crystallization calculated by Kissinger's equation indicates that both Cu and Si addition promotes the precipitation of α-Fe phase and improves the thermal stability. VSM and DC B–H loop tracer measurements show that the Fe{sub 85.5}B{sub 7}C{sub 6}Si{sub 1}Cu{sub 0.5} nanocrystalline alloy exhibits high saturation magnetic flux density of 1.8 T and low coercivity of 10 A/m, respectively. AC properties measured by AC B–H analyzer show this alloy exhibits low core loss of 0.35 W/kg at 1 T at 50 Hz. Low material cost and convenient productivity make the Fe{sub 85.5}B{sub 7}C{sub 6}Si{sub 1}Cu{sub 0.5} nanocrystalline alloy an economical application in industry. - Highlights: • Cu addition inhibits the surface crystallization and improves the GFA. • The competitive formation of Fe{sub 3}C and α-Fe phase impedes the devitrification. • Fe{sub 85.5}B{sub 7}C{sub 6}Si{sub 1}Cu{sub 0.5} nanocrystalline alloy exhibits excellent magnetic properties. • The alloy system has an economical advantage and convenient productivity.

  15. Magnetic properties of nanostructured CuFe2O4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Goya, G.F.; Rechenberg, H.R.

    1999-01-01

    The structural evolution and magnetic properties of nanostructured copper ferrite, CuFe2O4, have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, Mossbauer spectroscopy, and magnetization measurements. Nanometre-sized CuFe2O4 particles with a partially inverted spinel structure were synthesized by high......-energy ball milling in an open container with grain sizes ranging from 9 to 61 nm. Superparamagnetic relaxation effects have been observed in milled samples at room temperature by Mossbauer and magnetization measurements. At 15 K, the average hyperfine field of CuFe2O4 decreases with decreasing average grain...... size while the coercive force, shift of the hysteresis loop, magnetic hardness, and saturation magnetization at 4.2 K increase with decreasing average grain size. At 295 K the coercive-field dependence on the average grain size is described, with particles showing superparamagnetic relaxation effects...

  16. Stress-impedance effects in layered FeSiB/Cu/FeSiB films with a meander line structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stress-impedance (SI) effects were realized in layered FeSiB/Cu/FeSiB films with a meander line structure by magnetron sputtering on thin glass substrate. The SI effects were studied in the frequency range of 1-40MHz for the layered FeSiB/Cu/FeSiB films with different film thickness of FeSiB film and Cu layer. Experimental results show that the values of SI ratio increase nearly linear with the deflection of the layered FeSiB/Cu/FeSiB films at high frequencies, and a large negative SI ratio of -18.3% at a frequency of 25MHz with the deflection of 1000μm is obtained in the layered FeSiB/Cu/FeSiB films with a thicker FeSiB film, which is very attractive for the applications of stress sensors

  17. Magnetic properties of nanostructured CuFe2O4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Goya, G.F.; Rechenberg, H.R.

    1999-01-01

    The structural evolution and magnetic properties of nanostructured copper ferrite, CuFe2O4, have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, Mossbauer spectroscopy, and magnetization measurements. Nanometre-sized CuFe2O4 particles with a partially inverted spinel structure were synthesized by high...... size while the coercive force, shift of the hysteresis loop, magnetic hardness, and saturation magnetization at 4.2 K increase with decreasing average grain size. At 295 K the coercive-field dependence on the average grain size is described, with particles showing superparamagnetic relaxation effects...

  18. Kinetic process of mechanical alloying in Fe50Cu50

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, J.Y.; Jiang, Jianzhong; Yasuda, H.;

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that mechanical alloying in the immiscible Fe-Cu system is governed by the atomic shear event and shear-induced diffusion process. We found that an alpha-to-gamma phase transformation, as evidenced by the Nishiyama-Wasserman orientation relationship, occurs by simultaneous shearing pr...... structures, until a complete fee Fe-Cu solid solution is formed. The results provide significant insight into the understanding of recent experiments showing that chemical mixing of immiscible elements can bd induced by mechanical alloying. [S0163-1829(98)51342-2]....

  19. Quantum-well states and induced magnetism in Fe/CuN/Fe bcc (001) trilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niklasson, A.M.N.; Mirbt, S.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt;

    1996-01-01

    profiles of two single Fe/Cu interfaces. The small deviations from this simple superposition are shown to be a consequence of quantum-well states confined within the paramagnetic spacer. This connection is confirmed by direct calculation of the state density. The results are of conceptual interest for the......We have used a first-principles Green's function technique to investigate the formation of magnetic moments in Fe/Cu-N/Fe bcc (001) trilayers. We show that the magnetic moment in the paramagnetic spacer material to a first approximation may be described as a linear superposition of the magnetic...

  20. Visible-light-driven photocatalytic inactivation of Escherichia coli by magnetic Fe2O3-AgBr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tsz Wai; Zhang, Lisha; Liu, Jianshe; Huang, Guocheng; Wang, Wei; Wong, Po Keung

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial inactivation by magnetic photocatalyst receives increasing interests for the ease recovery and reuse of photocatalysts. This study investigated bacterial inactivation by a magnetic photocatalysts, Fe2O3-AgBr, under the irradiation of a commercially available light emitting diode lamp. The effects of different factors on the inactivation of Escherichia coli were also evaluated, in term of the efficiency in inactivation. The results showed that Fe2O3-AgBr was able to inactivate both Gram negative (E. coli) and Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. Bacterial inactivation by Fe2O3-AgBr was more favorable under high temperature and alkaline pH. Presence of Ca(2+) promoted the bacterial inactivation while the presence of [Formula: see text] was inhibitory. The mechanisms of photocatalytic bacterial inactivation were systemically studied and the effects of the presence of various specific reactive species scavengers and argon suggest that Fe2O3-AgBr inactivate bacterial cells by the oxidation of H2O2 generated from the photo-generated electron and direct oxidation of photo-generated hole. The detection of different reactive species further supported the proposed mechanisms. The results provide information for the evaluation of bacterial inactivation performance of Fe2O3-AgBr under different conditions. More importantly, bacterial inactivation for five consecutive cycles demonstrated Fe2O3-AgBr exhibited highly stable bactericidal activity and suggest that the magnetic Fe2O3-AgBr has great potential for water disinfection. PMID:26724445

  1. Comparison of CsBr and KBr coated Cu photocathodes. Effects of laser irradiation and work function changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Weidong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); VilayurGanapathy, Subramanian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Joly, Alan G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Droubay, Timothy C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chambers, Scott A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maldonado, Juan R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Hess, Wayne P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-02-20

    Thin films (7 nm layers) of CsBr and KBr were deposited on Cu(100) to investigate photoemission properties of these potential photocathode materials. After thin film deposition and prolonged laser ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (266 nm picosecond laser) photoemission quantum efficiency increases by factors of 26 and 77 for KBr/Cu(100) and CsBr/Cu(100) photocathodes, respectively. Immediately following thin film deposition, a decrease in work function is observed, compared to bare Cu, in both cases. Quantum efficiency enhancements are attributed to the decrease in photocathode work function, due to the deposition of alkali halide thin films, and photo-induced processes, that introduce defect states into the alkali halide bandgap, induced by UV laser irradiation. It is possible that alkali metal formation occurs during UV irradiation and that this further contributes to photoemission enhancement. Our results suggest that KBr, a relatively stable alkali-halide, has potential for photocathode applications.

  2. Spin Excitations and Phonon Anomaly in Quasi-1D Spiral Magneti CuBr2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Wang, Chong; Yu, Daiwei; Wang, Lichen; Wang, Fa; Iida, Kazuki; Kamazawa, Kazuya; Wakimoto, Shuichi

    CuBr2 can be considered as a model quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) spin-1/2 magnet, in which the frustrating ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor and antiferromagnetic next-nearest-neighbor exchange interactions give rise to a cycloidal magnetic order below TN = 73 K. The removal of inversion symmetry by the magnetic order also makes the material a type-II multiferroic system with a remarkably simple crystal structure. Using time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering spectroscopy, we have determined the spin-wave as well as phonon spectra throughout the entire Brillouin zone. The spin-wave spectrum exhibits pronounced anisotropy and magnon damping, consistent with the material's quasi-1D nature and the non-colinear spin structure. The phonon spectrum exhibits dramatic discontinuities in the dispersion across the quasi-1D magnetic wave vector, indicative of strong magnetoelastic coupling and possibly of a spin-orbital texture that comes along with the spin correlations.

  3. Preparation and characterization of electrodeposited Fe and Fe/Cu nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, S.; Chassaing, E.; Duvail, J. L.; Piraux, L.; Waals, M. G.

    1999-09-01

    Fe and Fe/Cu multilayered nanowires with layer thicknesses in the 10nm range were successfully synthesized within the voids of nanoporous polycarbonate membranes and characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Magnetization measurements show that the shape anisotropy of individual Fe wires dominates the magnetic properties. Fe(8 nm)/Cu(10 nm) multilayered nanowires show CPP-GMR ratios as large as 12% at low temperature. The variations of the CPP-GMR as a function of the Cu layer thickness are consistent with the Valet-Fert model. Our data yield a value of about 0.3 for the bulk spin asymmetry coefficient β. Des nanofilaments constitués de Fe ou de multicouches Fe/Cu sont élaborés par dépôt électrochimique à l'intérieur des pores de membranes polycarbonate et caractérisés en microscopie électronique à transmission. Les propriétés magnétiques des nanofils de Fe sont très largement dominées par l'anisotropie de forme des fils. La magnéto-résistance géante (MRG) de multicouches Fe(8 nm)/Cu(10 nm) atteint 12 % à basse température tandis que la variation de la MRG est en bon accord avec le modèle de Valet-Fert. La valeur du coefficient d'asymétrie de spin β associé aux collisions au sein des couches de Fe est de l'ordre de 0.3.

  4. Pulsed-Field Ultrasonic Experiments in the Quasi-2D Antiferromagnet Cs2CuBr4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, B.; Cong, P. T.; Krüger, N.; Ritter, F.; Assmus, W.; Lang, M.

    2013-03-01

    The magnetic insulators Cs2CuCl4 and Cs2CuBr4 are model systems for a frustrated quasi-two-dimensional triangular-lattice spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet with a weak interlayer coupling. The quasi-two-dimensional character manifests itself in a broad maximum at T max in the magnetic susceptibility, which for Cs2CuCl4 has been found to mark the upper bound for a spin-liquid regime (R. Coldea et al. in Phys. Rev. B 68:134424, 2003). Motivated by the observation of characteristic B 2 dependencies in the elastic constants and ultrasound attenuation in the spin-liquid regime for this material, we look for corresponding signatures in the related Cs2CuBr4 compound at low temperatures T≤4.2 K and fields B≤50 T. We observe a softening of the elastic constant up to B s ˜32 T ( B∥ a) and a maximum in the sound attenuation at 0.86 B s . Both quantities exhibit the same characteristic B 2 dependence as found for Cs2CuCl4, suggesting the existence of a spin-liquid phase in Cs2CuBr4 as well.

  5. Cu and Fe chalcopyrite leach activation energies and the effect of added Fe 3+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplun, K.; Li, J.; Kawashima, N.; Gerson, A. R.

    2011-10-01

    The leaching kinetics of chalcopyrite (CuFeS 2) concentrate in sulfuric acid leach media with and without the initial addition of Fe 3+ under carefully controlled solution conditions ( Eh 750 mV SHE, pH 1) at various temperatures from 55 to 85 °C were measured. Kinetic analyses by (i) apparent rate (not surface area normalised), and rate dependence using (ii) a shrinking core model and (iii) a shrinking core model in conjunction with Fe 3+ activity, were performed to estimate the activation energies ( Ea) for Cu and Fe dissolution. The Ea values determined for Cu and Fe leaching in the absence of added Fe 3+ are within experimental error, 80 ± 10 kJ mol -1 and 84 ± 10 kJ mol -1, respectively (type iii analyses Ea are quoted unless stated otherwise), and are indicative of a chemical reaction controlled process. On addition of Fe 3+ the initial Cu leach rate (up to 10 h) was increased and Cu was released to solution preferentially over Fe, with the Ea value of 21 ± 5 kJ mol -1 (type ii analysis) suggestive of a transport controlled rate determining process. However, the rate of leaching rapidly decreased until it was consistently slower than for the equivalent leaches where Fe 3+ was not added. The resulting Ea value for this leach regime of 83 ± 10 kJ mol -1 is within experimental error of that determined in the absence of added Fe 3+. In contrast to Cu release, Fe release to solution was consistent with a chemical reaction controlled leach rate throughout. The Fe release Ea of 76 ± 10 kJ mol -1 is also within experimental error of that determined in the absence of added Fe 3+. Where type (ii) and (iii) analyses were both successfully carried out (in all cases except for Cu leaching with added Fe 3+, 10 h), as compared to in the absence of added Fe 3+, returned a considerably smaller pre-exponential factors for both Cu and Fe leach analyses commensurate with the considerably slower leach rate, suggestive of a more applicable kinetic analysis. XPS examination

  6. Time evolution of morphology in mechanically alloyed Fe-Cu

    KAUST Repository

    Wille, Catharina Gabriele

    2011-05-01

    Being widely accessible as well as already utilised in many applications, Fe-Cu acts as an ideal binary model alloy to elaborate the enforced nonequilibrium enhanced solubility in such a solution system that shows a limited regime of miscibility and characterised by a large positive heat of mixing. In addition to the detailed analysis of ball milled Fe-Cu powders by means of Atom Probe Tomography (APT), site specific structural analysis has been performed in this study using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).In this contribution results on powders with low Cu concentrations (2.5-10 at%) are presented. Combining a ductile element (Cu, fcc) and a brittle one (Fe, bcc), striking differences in morphology were expected and found on all length-scales, depending on the mixing ratio of the two elements. However, not only could the atomic mixing of Fe and Cu be evaluated, but also the distribution of impurities, mostly stemming from the fabrication procedure. The combination of APT and TEM enables a correlation between the structural evolution and the chemical mixing during the milling process. For the first time, a clear distinction can be drawn between the morphological evolution at the surface and in the interior of the powder particles. This became possible owing to the site specific sample preparation of TEM lamellae by Focussed Ion Beam (FIB). Surprisingly, the texture arising from the ball milling process can directly be related to the classical rolling texture of cold rolled Fe. In addition, full homogeneity can be achieved even on the nano-scale for this material as shown by APT, resulting in an extended miscibility region in comparison to the equilibrium phase diagram. Grain sizes were determined by means of XRD and TEM. The strain corrected XRD results are in very good agreement with the values derived by TEM, both confirming a truly nanocrystalline structure. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Nanophase stability in a granular FeRh-Cu system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Radhika; Jimenez-Villacorta, Felix; Shield, J. E.; Heiman, D.; Lewis, L. H.

    2013-05-01

    A granular system of FeRh-based nanoprecipitates (˜10-15 nm diameter) embedded in a rapidly solidified copper ribbon matrix was found to transit from a metastable tetragonal L10 (AuCu-1-type) structure to a stable B2 (CsCl-type) structure upon annealing-induced coarsening to ˜94 nm. The hysteretic magnetic transition observed at ˜100 K develops a gradual broadening that accompanies the L10 → B2 crystal structure transition. It is proposed that the Cu matrix influences the structural and magnetic properties of the FeRh-based nanoparticles through interfacial strain and chemical effects. These results emphasize the sensitivity of the magnetostructural response of FeRh to changes in the nanostructural scale, and provide pathways for tailoring the transition.

  8. Role of exciton-phonon interactions and disordering processes in the formation of the absorption edge in Cu6P(S1- x Sex)5Br crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studenyak, I. P.; Kranjcec, M.; Suslikov, L. M.; Kovacs, D. Sh.; Pan'ko, V. V.

    2002-04-01

    The absorption edge in Cu6P(S1- x Sex)5Br crystals has been studied for strong absorption in the temperature range of 77 330 K. The parameters of the Urbach absorption edge and exciton-phonon interactions in Cu6P(S1- x Sex)5Br crystals are determined and their effect on the composition disorder is studied.

  9. The wavelength dependence of the photodissociation cross-section of CH 3Br chemisorbed on Cu{111}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, C. L. A.; Conrad, H.; Bradshaw, A. M.

    1993-01-01

    The photodissociation of methylbromide adsorbed on Cu{111} has been investigated as a function of the photon energy between 2.6 and 6.0 eV using a Xe arc lamp. The photodissociation products remaining on the surface, identified using HREELS, are CH 3 (in a C 3v configuration) and Br. In subsequent thermal desorption CH 4, C 2H 4, H 2 and CuBr are detected. The cross-section curve as a function of the wavelength shows an onset at 2.6 eV and a maximum of 1.2 × 10 -20 cm 2 at 3.5 eV. The results are compared with those obtained on a Pt{111} surface and both sets of data are interpreted within the framework of a one-step charge transfer model involving electron excitation from the substrate d-band into the σ ∗ CBr antibonding orbital.

  10. Time evolution of morphology in mechanically alloyed Fe-Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Being widely accessible as well as already utilised in many applications, Fe-Cu acts as an ideal binary model alloy to elaborate the enforced nonequilibrium enhanced solubility in such a solution system that shows a limited regime of miscibility and characterised by a large positive heat of mixing. In addition to the detailed analysis of ball milled Fe-Cu powders by means of Atom Probe Tomography (APT), site specific structural analysis has been performed in this study using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). In this contribution results on powders with low Cu concentrations (2.5-10 at%) are presented. Combining a ductile element (Cu, fcc) and a brittle one (Fe, bcc), striking differences in morphology were expected and found on all length-scales, depending on the mixing ratio of the two elements. However, not only could the atomic mixing of Fe and Cu be evaluated, but also the distribution of impurities, mostly stemming from the fabrication procedure. The combination of APT and TEM enables a correlation between the structural evolution and the chemical mixing during the milling process. For the first time, a clear distinction can be drawn between the morphological evolution at the surface and in the interior of the powder particles. This became possible owing to the site specific sample preparation of TEM lamellae by Focussed Ion Beam (FIB). Surprisingly, the texture arising from the ball milling process can directly be related to the classical rolling texture of cold rolled Fe. In addition, full homogeneity can be achieved even on the nano-scale for this material as shown by APT, resulting in an extended miscibility region in comparison to the equilibrium phase diagram. Grain sizes were determined by means of XRD and TEM. The strain corrected XRD results are in very good agreement with the values derived by TEM, both confirming a truly nanocrystalline structure. -- Research highlights: → Morphology and homogeneity of ball milled Fe-Cu were followed by XRD

  11. The energetic and structural properties of bcc NiCu, FeCu alloys: a first-principles study

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Yao-Ping; Zhao, Shi-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Using special quasirandom structures (SQS's), we perform first-principles calculations studying the metastable bcc NiCu and FeCu alloys which occur in Fe-Cu-Ni alloy steels as precipitated second phase. The mixing enthalpies, density of state, and equilibrium lattice parameters of these alloys are reported. The results show that quasi-chemical approach and vegard rule can well predict the energetic and structural properties of FeCu alloys but fail to yield that of NiCu. The reason rests with ...

  12. Rapid thermal annealing of FePt and FePt/Cu thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brombacher, Christoph

    2011-01-10

    Chemically ordered FePt is one of the most promising materials to reach the ultimate limitations in storage density of future magnetic recording devices due to its high uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy and a corrosion resistance superior to rare-earth based magnets. In this study, FePt and FePt/Cu bilayers have been sputter deposited at room temperature onto thermally oxidized silicon wafers, glass substrates and self-assembled arrays of spherical SiO{sub 2} particles with diameters down to 10 nm. Millisecond flash lamp annealing, as well as conventional rapid thermal annealing was employed to induce the phase transformation from the chemically disordered A1 phase into the chemically ordered L1{sub 0} phase. The influence of the annealing temperature, annealing time and the film thickness on the ordering transformation and (001) texture evolution of FePt films with near equiatomic composition was studied. Whereas flash lamp annealed FePt films exhibit a polycrystalline morphology with high chemical L1{sub 0} order, rapid thermal annealing can lead to the formation of chemically ordered FePt films with (001) texture on amorphous SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates. The resultant high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and large coercivities up to 40 kOe are demonstrated. Simultaneously to the ordering transformation, rapid thermal annealing to temperatures exceeding 600 C leads to a break up of the continuous FePt film into separated islands. This dewetting behavior was utilized to create regular arrays of FePt nanostructures on SiO{sub 2} particle templates with periods down to 50 nm. The addition of Cu improves the (001) texture formation and chemical ordering for annealing temperatures T{sub a} {<=}600 C. In addition, the magnetic anisotropy and the coercivity of the ternary FePtCu alloy can be effectively tailored by adjusting the Cu content. The prospects of FePtCu based exchange spring media, as well as the magnetic properties of FePtCu nanostructures fabricated

  13. Fermi-surface topology of κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br at ambient pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambient pressure Fermi-surface measurements are reported for κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br. The single Shubnikov de Haas frequency that is detected (3798±5 T) corresponds to 100% of the Brillouin zone and can be attributed to the β orbit that results from magnetic breakdown. From the temperature dependence of the oscillations, it appears that κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br possesses a conventional Fermi-liquid ground state, although with a short mean free path, possibly due to the presence of Cu(II) ions. The effective mass as determined from the β-orbit oscillations is m*=5.4±0.1me. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  14. Exponentially decaying magnetic coupling in sputtered thin film FeNi/Cu/FeCo trilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic coupling in trilayer films of FeNi/Cu/FeCo deposited on Si/SiO2 substrates have been studied. While the thicknesses of the FeNi and FeCo layers were kept constant at 100 Å, the thickness of the Cu spacer was varied from 5 to 50 Å. Both hysteresis loop and ferromagnetic resonance results indicate that all films are ferromagnetically coupled. Micromagnetic simulations well reproduce the ferromagnetic resonance mode positions measured by experiments, enabling the extraction of the coupling constants. Films with a thin Cu spacer are found to be strongly coupled, with an effective coupling constant of 3 erg/cm2 for the sample with a 5 Å Cu spacer. The strong coupling strength is qualitatively understood within the framework of a combined effect of Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida and pinhole coupling, which is evidenced by transmission electron microscopy analysis. The magnetic coupling constant surprisingly decreases exponentially with increasing Cu spacer thickness, without showing an oscillatory thickness dependence. This is partially connected to the substantial interfacial roughness that washes away the oscillation. The results have implications on the design of multilayers for spintronic applications

  15. Exponentially decaying magnetic coupling in sputtered thin film FeNi/Cu/FeCo trilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Yajun, E-mail: yajun.wei@angstrom.uu.se; Akansel, Serkan; Thersleff, Thomas; Brucas, Rimantas; Lansaker, Pia; Leifer, Klaus; Svedlindh, Peter [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, 75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Harward, Ian; Celinski, Zbigniew [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80918 (United States); Ranjbar, Mojtaba; Dumas, Randy K. [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, 41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Jana, Somnath; Pogoryelov, Yevgen; Karis, Olof [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Åkerman, Johan [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, 41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Applied Physics and Microelectronics, Royal Institute of Technology, 10044 Kista (Sweden)

    2015-01-26

    Magnetic coupling in trilayer films of FeNi/Cu/FeCo deposited on Si/SiO{sub 2} substrates have been studied. While the thicknesses of the FeNi and FeCo layers were kept constant at 100 Å, the thickness of the Cu spacer was varied from 5 to 50 Å. Both hysteresis loop and ferromagnetic resonance results indicate that all films are ferromagnetically coupled. Micromagnetic simulations well reproduce the ferromagnetic resonance mode positions measured by experiments, enabling the extraction of the coupling constants. Films with a thin Cu spacer are found to be strongly coupled, with an effective coupling constant of 3 erg/cm{sup 2} for the sample with a 5 Å Cu spacer. The strong coupling strength is qualitatively understood within the framework of a combined effect of Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida and pinhole coupling, which is evidenced by transmission electron microscopy analysis. The magnetic coupling constant surprisingly decreases exponentially with increasing Cu spacer thickness, without showing an oscillatory thickness dependence. This is partially connected to the substantial interfacial roughness that washes away the oscillation. The results have implications on the design of multilayers for spintronic applications.

  16. Phase Transformations in Low-Fe Alloys of the Al-Cu-Fe System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liming Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Microstructure and phase transformation in the Al-Cu-Fe alloys of the approximate compositional range of 20 -50 at.% Cu and 2 - 10 Fe at.% have been investigated from samples quenched from their respective temperatures by means of different thermal analysis, magnetothermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe analysis and powder X-ray diffraction. Representative phase transformations categorized as polymorphic, discontinuous precipitation,quasi-binary eutectoid, and ternary transitional U-type phase transformation are presented. These phase transformations were found to have a common feature which consumes the β phase and appears the φ phase. A schematic diagram was proposed to demonstrate the transition processes with decreasing temperature.

  17. Magnetoresistive properties of multilayer film systems based on Fe/Cu and Fe/Cr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Synashenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetoresistive properties of multilayer film systems based on Fe and Cu or Cr were investigated at room temperature. Factors, which influence on the magnetoresistance (MR value change, were studied. In Fe/Cu film system, in which the individuality of separate layers holds, the substrate change from amorphous pyroceramic to monocrystalline Si(111 leads to the MR ratio increase by 35 %, that is connected with magnetic ordering in bottom epitaxial Fe layer. Thermal annealing of the samples to 700 K leads to vanishing of the odd effect in MR in perpendicular geometry and MR increase by two times in parallel geometries. Investigations of [Fe(dFe/Cr(1]10 system showed, that the Fe thickness changes from 0,31 to 1,5 nm, and this leads to the MR magnitude change from 0,03-0,05 % to 1-3 % subject to the different measurement geometries, which is interpreted by Fe granule formation in matrix of solid solution (Fe, Cr.

  18. Ionothermal synthesis and structural characterization of [Cu(C4H6N2)4]Br2 and [Ni(C4H6N2)4]Br2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hong Wang; Bin Lu; Jingxiang Zhao; Qinghai Cai

    2015-07-01

    The ionothermal synthesis and spectroscopic, thermal and structural characterization of two new compounds [Cu(C4H6N2)4]Br2 (1) and [Ni(C4H6N2)4]Br2 (2) [(C4H6N2) = N-methylimidazole] are reported. In both 1 and 2, the central metal Cu (or Ni) ion adopts a square planar geometry and is bonded to the N-atoms of four terminal N-methylimidazole ligands.

  19. Mechanical alloying in the Fe-Cu system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Gente, C.; Bormann, R.

    The studies of mechanical alloying on the Fe-Cu system, as a model system for those with positive heats of mixing, are reviewed. Several problems involved in the mechanical alloying process are discussed. For example, (1) whether alloying occurs on an atomic level; (2) what the solid solubility in...... the Fe-Cu system is; (3) where the positive energy is stored in the alloys; (4) what the decomposition process of the supersaturated alloys is; and (5) what type of magnetic properties the new materials have. The elucidation of these problems will shed light on the understanding of the mechanisms for...... the preparation of materials under highly non-equilibrium conditions in systems with positive heats of mixing by mechanical alloying....

  20. Structural properties of amorphous and nanocrystallized Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B and Fe-Gd-Cu-Nb-Si-B ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of Gd addition on the structural properties of Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B nanocrystallized and amorphous alloys is studied. The crystallization temperature increases and the microstructure of the annealed samples changes. Gd addition induces the formation of Gd-Fe-B phases. In fully crystallized Fe-Gd-Cu-Nb-Si-B alloys the α-Fe(Si), Fe-Nb-B, Gd3Fe62B14 and Gd1.1Fe4B4 phases are observed. The evolution of the microstructure is followed as a function of the cumulative effects of annealing time and temperature. The results suggest the transformation of the metastable Gd3Fe62B14 phase into Gd1.1Fe4B4 and α-Fe. The hyperfine parameters of the Gd3Fe62B14 Moessbauer contribution are reported. (orig.)

  1. Thermal spikes in Ag/Fe and Cu/Fe ion beam mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion beam mixing has been studied since 1980, and since then a lot of experimental and theoretical work has been done and knowledge has been gathered. Nevertheless, there are still many fundamental aspects that need to be clarified and with that aim many experiments need to be performed. Copper and iron are miscible in the liquid state, while silver and iron are not. However, both systems are thermally immiscible in the solid state. In order to have an insight into the importance of mixing within thermal spikes during ion beam irradiation, we deposited Cu/Fe and Ag/Fe bilayers onto Si substrates and irradiated them at room temperature with 2 MeV Cu and 2.5 MeV Au ions. A combination of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to analyze the atomic transport at the interface and the morphology changes of the samples. From the element profiles at the interface we conclude a mixing efficiency, which is indeed larger than the prediction of the ballistic model in the Cu/Fe system and smaller in the Ag/Fe system. Since ballistic mixing is expected in any case, we argue that demixing and phase separation in the Ag/Fe system occur in the thermal spike phase of the cascade as a consequence of the positive heat of mixing. Further mixing does occur in the thermal spike in the Cu/Fe system and they remain mixed even at the solid state because of the high cooling rate. In addition, ion irradiation induces a large surface roughening of the Ag and Cu top layers as proven by AFM. This effect is important for the correct interpretation of the results. Furthermore, this recrystallization affects also the interface, producing a rough interface, that appears in the RBS spectra as an atomic 'diffusion' at the interface

  2. Structure and properties of CuFe2 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.M. Rdzawski

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this work was to investigate the changes taking place in the structure and properties of CuFe2 alloy caused by combined heat treatment and metal working. The objective of this paper was to describe phenomena related to the formation of functional properties CuFe2 strips, especially for obtaining hardness in 120-140 HV range and electrical conductivity above 35 MS/m.Design/methodology/approach: The investigated material consisted of two industrial melts of CuFe2. Systematic investigations of selected variants of heat treatment and plastic working operations were carried out. The investigations started with description of microstructure and properties in initial state, after quenching, after cold working, quenching and ageing, after quenching and ageing, after quenching, ageing and cold working and after cold working and annealing - omitting quenching and ageing process. Hardness test (HV and electrical conductivity were determined on strip samples. Typical tension tests and metallographic investigations were also carried out.Findings: Structure and properties of industrial CuFe2 alloy differs significantly from the literature descriptions, especially after quenching process. It could be assumed, that the dissolved in a melting process alloy additives (in this case a part of dissolved iron might be supersaturated, but some of them might be precipitated. This theory was confirmed by the results of investigation into mechanical properties, microstructure and electrical conductivity.Practical implications: The presented investigation results, besides their cognitive values, provide many useful information which might be implemented in a industrial practice.Originality/value: It was assumed that cold deformation with rolling reduction 70% and annealing at temperature 480oC for 12 hours provided possibilities to reach maximal electrical conductivity 37 MS/m and maximal hardness 136 HV.

  3. Magnetic torque measurements of TPP[Fe(Pc)Br2]2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic torque measurements of TPP[Fe(Pc)Br2]2 are reported. The torque curves for the magnetic field rotated within the ac plane exhibit a two-fold symmetry. The temperature dependences of the torque amplitudes divided by the square of the field strength (τφ=45/B2) exhibit a drastic field dependence below 12 K. This field dependence is attributable to the fluctuation in the spontaneous magnetization that appears below 4.5 K. The torque curves for the field rotated within the ab plane exhibit four-fold symmetry. The curves are sinusoidal above 18 K and exhibit saw-toothed shapes below ∼12 K and complicated shapes below 8 K. The complicated shapes suggest that both d-electrons and π-electrons form a magnetic order below 8 K.

  4. Model of Cu-Al-Fe-Ni Bronze Crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Pisarek

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the analysis of the current state of the knowledge shows that there is little information on the process of phase transformations that occur during the cooling Cu-Al-Fe-Ni hypo-eutectoid bronzes with additions of Cr, Mo and/or W, made additions individually or together, for the determination of: the type of crystallizing phases, crystallizing phases, order and place of their nucleation. On the basis of recorded using thermal and derivative analysis of thermal effects phases crystallization or their systems, analysis of the microstructure formed during crystallization - observed on the metallographic specimen casting ATD10-PŁ probe, analysis of the existing phase equilibrium diagrams forming elements tested Cu-Al-Fe-Ni bronze, with additions of Cr, Mo, W and/or Si developed an original model of crystallization and phase transformation in the solid state, the casting of high quality Cu-Al-Fe-Ni bronze comprising: crystallizing type phase, crystallizing phase sequence, place of nucleation.

  5. Synchrotron X-Ray Study on Structures of Ni80Fe20/Cu Superlattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ming; LUO Guang-Ming; CHAI Chun-Lin; YANG Tao; MAI Zhen-Hong; LAI Wu-Yan; WU Zhong-Hua; WANG De-Wu

    2001-01-01

    We have shown that, in contrast to the results in the literature, the Bragg peak intensity of Ni80Fe20/Cu superlattices is enhanced at the incident x-ray energy slightly higher than the absorption edge of the heavier element (Cu). The atomic density at Ni80Fe20/Cu interface was analysed by the diffraction anomalous fine structure technology with the incident angle of x-ray fixed at the first Bragg peak. Our results demonstrate the epitaxy growth of Ni80Fe20/Cu superlattices. Upon annealing, the epitaxity of Ni80Fe20/Cu multilayers becomes poor but the local crystallinity in each layer is improved.

  6. Enhancement of spin-Seebeck effect by inserting ultra-thin Fe70Cu30 interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the longitudinal spin-Seebeck effects (LSSEs) for Pt/Fe70Cu30/BiY2Fe5O12 (BiYIG) and Pt/BiYIG devices. The LSSE voltage was found to be enhanced by inserting an ultra-thin Fe70Cu30 interlayer. This enhancement decays sharply with increasing the Fe70Cu30 thickness, suggesting that it is not due to bulk phenomena, such as a superposition of conventional thermoelectric effects, but due to interface effects related to the Fe70Cu30 interlayer. Combined with control experiments using Pt/Fe70Cu30 devices, we conclude that the enhancement of the LSSE voltage in the Pt/Fe70Cu30/BiYIG devices is attributed to the improvement of the spin-mixing conductance at the Pt/BiYIG interfaces

  7. Low temperature penetration depth of κ-(ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, J. D.; Carrington, A.; Giannetta, R. W.; Schlueter, J.

    2007-03-01

    Several experimental results have suggested that the quasi-2D organic metal κ-(ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br is host to some form of unconventional superconductivity. The presence of gap nodes in the superconducting order parameter should be detectable through power law behavior in the penetration depth at low temperature. The most accurate measurements of the temperature dependent penetration depth to date show a fractional power law, λT^1.5. However, these measurements were not performed at sufficiently low temperatures to determine whether this was due to the combination of gap nodes and the effects of impurity scattering, or due to an intrinsic form of exotic pair excitation. Using a radio frequency (rf) tunnel diode technique in a dilution fridge we have extended these measurements to T ˜ 75 mK (˜0.006 Tc). Special care has been taken to eliminate heating effects at these temperatures due to the presence of the small applied rf field. Data at the lowest temperature are more consistent with a nodal state in the presence of impurities.

  8. Evaluation of Fe and Zn/Cu ratio in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Leitao, Roberta G.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: catarine@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear. Lab. de Instrumentaco Nuclear; Carvalho, Silvia M.F., E-mail: silvia@hemorio.rj.gov.b [State Institute of Hematology Arthur de Siqueira Cavalcanti (HEMORIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bellido, Alfredo Victor B., E-mail: alfredo@ien.gov.b [Federal Fluminense University (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Chemistry Inst.; Anjos, Marcelino J., E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.b [State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Physics Inst.

    2011-07-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a blood disorder that affects hemoglobin, the protein found in red blood cells that help carry oxygen throughout the body. In this work we have analyzed serum samples from patients with SCA by using total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). The SRTXRF measurements were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo using a polychromatic beam. We have studied forty-three patients aged 18-50 years old, suffering from SCA and Sixty healthy volunteers aged 18-60 years old. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. Student's t-test was applied in order to check whether the two populations (CG x SCA) had the same mean values. It was observed that elemental concentration of P, Cl, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br differed significantly ({alpha} = 0.05) between groups of healthy subjects and SCA. The concentrations of K, Fe and Cu in the serum samples of patients with SCA were larger 15%, 120 % and 20 %, respectively, when compared with the CG. On the other hand, the concentrations of P (-20 %), Cl (-6 %), Zn (-25 %) and Br (-22 %) were smaller than the values determined for the control group. The serum level Cu/Zn ratio was significantly higher (60%) in the serum samples of patients with SCA group than the CG. So, the Cu/Zn ratio can be used as an adjuvant index in enhancement for diagnosis of SCA. There are evidences of an association among Fe, Cu, Zn and Cu/Zn in the SCA pathogenesis process. (author)

  9. Evaluation of Fe and Zn/Cu ratio in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a blood disorder that affects hemoglobin, the protein found in red blood cells that help carry oxygen throughout the body. In this work we have analyzed serum samples from patients with SCA by using total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). The SRTXRF measurements were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo using a polychromatic beam. We have studied forty-three patients aged 18-50 years old, suffering from SCA and Sixty healthy volunteers aged 18-60 years old. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. Student's t-test was applied in order to check whether the two populations (CG x SCA) had the same mean values. It was observed that elemental concentration of P, Cl, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br differed significantly (α = 0.05) between groups of healthy subjects and SCA. The concentrations of K, Fe and Cu in the serum samples of patients with SCA were larger 15%, 120 % and 20 %, respectively, when compared with the CG. On the other hand, the concentrations of P (-20 %), Cl (-6 %), Zn (-25 %) and Br (-22 %) were smaller than the values determined for the control group. The serum level Cu/Zn ratio was significantly higher (60%) in the serum samples of patients with SCA group than the CG. So, the Cu/Zn ratio can be used as an adjuvant index in enhancement for diagnosis of SCA. There are evidences of an association among Fe, Cu, Zn and Cu/Zn in the SCA pathogenesis process. (author)

  10. Photocatalytic performances and activities of Ag-doped CuFe2O4 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CuFe2O4 nanocrystals were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. • Ag/CuFe2O4 catalyst was prepared by the wetness impregnation strategy. • The structural properties of Ag/CuFe2O4 were investigated by XRD, TEM, DRS, and XPS techniques. • Ag/CuFe2O4 has higher photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: In this work, CuFe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by a chemical co-precipitation route. The Ag/CuFe2O4 catalyst was prepared based on the CuFe2O4 nanoparticles by the incipient wetness impregnation strategy, which showed excellent photoelectric property and catalytic activity. The structural properties of these samples were systematically investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. The photo-induced charge separation in the samples was demonstrated by surface photovoltage (SPV) measurement. The photocatalytic degradation of 4-CP by the Ag/CuFe2O4 and CuFe2O4 samples were comparatively studied under xenon lamp irradiation. The results indicate that the Ag/CuFe2O4 sample exhibited the higher efficiency for the degradation of 4-CP

  11. Positron annihilation study of neutron irradiated pure Fe and Fe-Cu binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hardening and embrittlement of Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) steels is of great concern in the actual nuclear power plant life assessment. This embrittlement is caused by irradiation-induced damage, like vacancies, interstitials, solutes and their clusters. Fe-Cu binary alloys are often used to mimic the behaviour of such steels. Their study allows identifying some of the defects responsible of the hardening, especially when compared to pure iron or C-micro-alloyed iron. Owing to their self-seeking and selective trapping, positrons are used to determine the nature of these defects. Recently, at SCK.CEN, a new Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) setup has been built, calibrated and optimized to measure the Coincidence Doppler Broadening (CDB) and Lifetime (LT) of neutron irradiated materials. This set-up has been used to measure the CDB and LT of n-irradiated pure Fe and Fe-Cu alloys. It is found that the clustering of Cu take place at the very early stages of irradiation using the CDB while LT measurement are showing much more vacancy clustering for low Cu alloys than in the higher ones. Increasing the neutron dose up to 1.3 x 1020 n/m2, allows the follow up of the kinetic of Cu and V-clustering especially in Fe-Cu alloys. It is found that both copper and carbon decrease the size of vacancy-cluster, when added to iron. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Superconducting spin valve effect and triplet superconductivity in CoO$_x$/Fe1/Cu/Fe2/Cu/Pb multilayer

    OpenAIRE

    Leksin, P. V.; Garifyanov, N. N.; Kamashev, A. A.; Fominov, Ya. V.; Schumann, J.; Hess, C.; KATAEV V.; Buechner, B.; Garifullin, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    We report magnetic and superconducting properties of the modified spin valve system CoOx/Fe1/Cu/Fe2/Cu/Pb. Introduction of a Cu interlayer between Fe2 and Pb layers prevents material interdiffusion process, increases the Fe2/Pb interface transparency, stabilizes and enhances properties of the system. This allowed us to perform a comprehensive study of such heterostructures and to present theoretical description of the superconducting spin valve effect and of the manifestation of the long-rang...

  13. High spin polarization and the origin of unique ferromagnetic ground state in CuFeSb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirohi, Anshu; Singh, Chandan K.; Thakur, Gohil S.; Saha, Preetha; Gayen, Sirshendu; Gaurav, Abhishek; Jyotsna, Shubhra; Haque, Zeba; Gupta, L. C.; Kabir, Mukul; Ganguli, Ashok K.; Sheet, Goutam

    2016-06-01

    CuFeSb is isostructural to the ferro-pnictide and chalcogenide superconductors and it is one of the few materials in the family that are known to stabilize in a ferromagnetic ground state. Majority of the members of this family are either superconductors or antiferromagnets. Therefore, CuFeSb may be used as an ideal source of spin polarized current in spin-transport devices involving pnictide and the chalcogenide superconductors. However, for that the Fermi surface of CuFeSb needs to be sufficiently spin polarized. In this paper we report direct measurement of transport spin polarization in CuFeSb by spin-resolved Andreev reflection spectroscopy. From a number of measurements using multiple superconducting tips we found that the intrinsic transport spin polarization in CuFeSb is high (˜47%). In order to understand the unique ground state of CuFeSb and the origin of large spin polarization at the Fermi level, we have evaluated the spin-polarized band structure of CuFeSb through first principles calculations. Apart from supporting the observed 47% transport spin polarization, such calculations also indicate that the Sb-Fe-Sb angles and the height of Sb from the Fe plane are strikingly different for CuFeSb than the equivalent parameters in other members of the same family thereby explaining the origin of the unique ground state of CuFeSb.

  14. A route for recycling Nd from Nd-Fe-B magnets using Cu melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase evolutions in Nd-Fe-B magnet/Cu systems have been explored with regard to Nd recycling. It was demonstrated that large scale phase separation into a ferromagnetic Fe(B)-rich ingot core with α-Fe main phase and a non-magnetic (Cu,Nd)-rich ingot rim takes place upon arc melting with Cu fractions ≥ 21.5 wt.-%. The re-solidification of the Nd2Fe14B magnet main phase is suppressed. The rim consists of the Cu2Nd main phase and CuNd/Cu4Nd minority phases in which Al traces from the magnetic material are gathered. Induction melting of such Nd-Fe-B/Cu mixtures can support the separation of these phase regions with very sharp boundaries. Main features of liquid phase separation and microstructure evolution have been interpreted on the basis of Nd-Fe-Cu phase diagram data. The key advantage with respect to Nd recycling from Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet scrap is the substantial accumulation of Nd in the (Cu,Nd)-rich region of the phase separated solidified specimen, which can be easily detached from the Fe-rich part by mechanical-magnetic treatments. Such portions contained up to ∼44 wt.-% Nd (25 at.-%) in first lab-scale experiments. Nd recovery from the (Cu,Nd)-rich fractions is possible by exploiting the large chemical property differences between the reactive rare earths elements and Cu. - Highlights: • phase evolution analysis in Nd-Fe-B magnet/Cu systems with regard to Nd recycling. • Cu ≥ 21 wt.-%, large scale phase separation- Fe(B)-rich ingot core, (Cu,Nd)-rich rim. • high Nd content (∼44 wt.-%) of (Cu,Nd)-rich region, mechanical-magnetic treatments

  15. Nanostructured Ti-Fe2O3/Cu2O heterojunction photoelectrode for efficient hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanostructured thin films of pristine Fe2O3, Ti-doped Fe2O3, Cu2O, and Fe2O3/Cu2O, and Ti-doped Fe2O3/Cu2O heterojunction were deposited on tin-doped indium oxide (Sn:In2O3) glass substrate using spray pyrolysis method. Ti doping is done to improve photoelectric conversion efficiency and electrical conductivity of hematite thin films. Further enhanced photocurrent is achieved for Ti-Fe2O3/Cu2O heterojunction electrodes. All samples were characterized using X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and UV-Vis spectrometry. Photoelectrochemical properties were also investigated in a three-electrode cell system. UV-Vis absorption spectrum for pristine Fe2O3, Ti-Fe2O3, Cu2O, Fe2O3/Cu2O, and Ti-Fe2O3/Cu2O heterojunction thin films exhibited absorption in visible region. Nanostructured thin films as prepared were used as photoelectrode in the photoelectrochemical cell for water splitting reaction. Maximum photocurrent density of 2.60 mA/cm2 at 0.95 V/SCE was exhibited by 454 nm thick Ti-Fe2O3/Cu2O heterojunction photoelectrode. Increased photocurrent density and enhanced incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency, offered by the heterojunction thin films may be attributed to improved conductivity and efficient separation of the photogenerated charge carriers at the Ti-Fe2O3/Cu2O interface. - Highlights: • Heterojunction thin films were deposited using spray pyrolysis techniques. • Titanium doping in Fe2O3 played a significant role in PEC response. • Ti-Fe2O3/Cu2O heterojunction shows the absorption in visible range. • Improved charge separation and enhanced PEC response were achieved in Ti-Fe2O3/Cu2O

  16. Field induced order phenomena in the metamagnet Fe sub 1 sub - sub x Mg sub x Br sub 2

    CERN Document Server

    Petracic, O

    2000-01-01

    Metamagnets have been playing an important role as model systems in the physics of phase transitions for 30 years. Especially the isolating substances FeCl sub 2 and FeBr sub 2 have attracted much interest both in experimental and theoretical physics. In this thesis we focus on experimental investigations of Fe sub 1 sub - sub x Mg sub x Br sub 2 with x = 0 and 0.05. By SQUID-magnetometry, SQUID-susceptometry, elastic neutron scattering and calorimetry we studied the magnetic phase boundaries and especially the recently found new phase transition at H=H1(T) (Aruga Katori et al. 1996). Also we arrived to a physical understanding of the non-critical fluctuations at H=H-(T) in terms of a smeared 2-dimensional phase transition of the spin down sublattice.

  17. Status report on developing I-124, Pd-103, Tc-94m, Br-76 and Cu-64 radioisotopes at KIRAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decay characteristics of their radioisotopes such as I-124, Pd-103, Tc-94m, Br-76 and Cu-64 radionuclides produced by cyclotron have considered useful agents for diagnostic imaging or therapy. In order to increase the availability of the radionuclides, the investigation for the high capacity target design and simple procedures yielding high activities is being carried. Therefore, KIRAMS will lead researchers in nuclear medicine to access the feasibility of reliable production for enough quantities of several research radioisotopes using (p,xn) reactions. The quality and yield of products are evaluated theoretically from the excitation functions as a function of proton energies, target thickness, bombarding time, and growth time. Radionuclidic impurities are determined by gamma-spectrometer with high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector and the yields are read by ion chamber. Multi-millicuries of radioisotope I-124 (23% positron emission, half-life 4.2 days) is produced by 125-TeO2(p,2n)124-I reaction at the incident proton energy of 22 MeV. The production of carrier-free Pd-103 by the 103Rh(p,n)103Pd reaction with the 18 MeV proton beam. The electroplating method of Rh to Cu plate and recovery of rhodium from irradiated target fragments will be discussed. The thermal stability of Rh films on Cu plate will be tested for the mass production by increasing beam current up to 220uA with high-current cyclotron. For Cu-64, Tc-94m and Br-76 radionuclides, the target preparation and separating techniques are under developing. Our research project emphasis is in the development of routine methods for the production of Pd-103 radionuclide for brachytherapy seed and PET radionuclides, which include I-124, Tc-94m, Br-76 and Cu-64. In addition to the production of these radionuclides, we are developing novel radiopharmaceuticals utilizing these isotopes for both imaging and therapy

  18. Thermal Stability of CoFe/Cu/CoFe/IrMn Top Spin Valve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Guang-Hong; WANG Yin-Gang; QI Xian-Jin

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of thermal stability of the top spin valve with a structure of seed Ta (5nm)/Co75Fe25 (5nm)/Cu (2.5nm)/Co75Fe25n (5nm)/Ir20 Mn80 (12nm)/cap Ta (8nm) deposited at room temperature by magnetron sputtering. A vibrating sample magnetometer fixed with a heater was used to record the magnetic hysteresis loops at variational temperatures and x-ray diffraction was performed to characterize the structure of the multilayer.The exchange field Hex and the coercivity of the pinned CoFe layer Hcp decrease monotonically with increasing temperature.The coercivity of the free CoFe layer Hcf in the spin valve shows a maximum at 498K.The temperature dependences of Hex,Hcp and Hcf have also been discussed.

  19. Formation of an icosahedral phase in ion-irradiated Fe/Cu multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An icosahedral phase has been observed for the first time in the equilibrium immiscible Fe-Cu system. The new metastable phase was formed by directed xenon ion mixing of Fe/Cu multilayers at room temperature and without any amorphous-to-quasi-crystalline phase transition. The atomic concentration of this phase was determined by in situ energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to be around Fe60Cu40. (author)

  20. Interdiffusion coefficients and atomic mobilities in fcc Cu-Fe-Mn alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Li J; Liu T; Chen W; Wang S; Zhang L; Du Y.; Xu H

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, the interdiffusion coefficients in fcc Cu-Fe-Mn alloys were experimentally determined via a combination of solid/solid diffusion couples, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) technique and Matano-Kirkaldy method. Based on the reliable thermodynamic description of fcc phase in the Cu-Fe-Mn system available in the literature as well as the ternary diffusion coefficients measured in the present work, the atomic mobilities in fcc Cu-Fe-Mn al...

  1. Low-Temperature Studies of CuFe2 S3 and CuFeS2 by ^{63,65} Cu NMR in the Internal Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilenko, Andrey Nikolaevich; Pogoreltsev, Aleksandr Iliich; Matukhin, Vadim Leonidovich; Korzun, Barys Vasilyevich; Schmidt, Ekaterina Vadimovna; Sevastianov, Iliya Germanovich

    2016-02-01

    The resonance ^{63,65} Cu NMR spectra in the internal magnetic field in cubanite CuFe2 S3 and chalcopyrite CuFeS2 were studied experimentally at 77 K. Using a cluster approach, ab initio evaluation of the electric field gradient (EFG) at the nuclei of copper in both compounds was performed. The calculations were carried out by the self-consistent restricted method of Hartree-Fock with open shells (SCF-LCAO-ROHF). The largest clusters for which calculations were made had a formula of Cu7 Fe_{14} S_{29}^n for cubanite and Cu9 Fe_{10} S_{28}^n for chalcopyrite, where n is the cluster charge. The best-fit values of the quadrupole parameters (quadrupole frequency ν _Q and the asymmetry parameter of the EFG tensor η )—determined experimentally (ν _Q ≈ 7.30 MHz and η ≈ 0.82) and by calculation (ν _Q ≈ 7.38 MHz and η ≈ 0.87)—were obtained for a cluster Cu7 Fe_{14} S_{29}^{10} for cubanite. Similarly, the best-fit values of the quadrupole parameters—determined experimentally (ν _Q ≈ 1.29 MHz and η ≈ 0.34) and by calculation (ν _Q ≈ 1.40 MHz and η ≈ 0.50)—were obtained for a cluster Cu9 Fe_{10} S_{28}^{-4} for chalcopyrite. For these clusters, maps of the electron density distribution in the neighborhood of quadrupole nucleus of copper were built. Based on the analysis of the resulting electron density distribution, it is supposed that the bond in these compounds is not quite covalent. Evaluations of the hyperfine interaction constants were made and maps of the spin density distribution in the neighborhood of quadrupole nucleus of copper were built. The energy level diagram calculated in the high-spin ROHF approximation defined chalcopyrite as a compound with a very narrow LUMO-HOMO gap rather well and is consistent with the notion of this compound as a semiconductor.

  2. Synthesis and magnetic properties of multilayer Ni/Cu and NiFe/Cu nanowires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Liu; S C Chang; I Baginskiy; S F Hu; C Y Huang

    2006-07-01

    Highly ordered composite nanowires with multilayer Ni/Cu and NiFe/Cu have been fabricated by pulsed electrodeposition into nanoporous alumina membrane. The diameter of wires can be easily varied by pore size of alumina, ranging from 30 to 100 nm. The applied potential and the duration of each potential square pulse determine the thickness of the metal layers. The nanowires have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), magnetic force microscopy (MFM), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements. The MFM images indicate that every ferromagnetic layer separated by Cu layer was present as single isolated domain-like magnet. This technique has potential use in the measurement and application of magnetic nanodevices.

  3. Determination of Ca, Cu, Fe and Pb in sugarcane raw spirits by atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of Ca, Cu, Fe and Pb in sugarcane raw spirits by atomic absorption spectrophotometry was carried out. For 20 μL injected sample, calibration within the 0,5-25,0 mg. L-1 Ca; 0,25-5,0 mg. L-1 Cu, Pb and Cu intervals were established using the ratios Cu, Ca, Fe and Pb absorbance versus analyte concentration, respectively. Typical linear correlations of r = 0,999 were obtained. The proposed method was applied for the direct determination of Ca, Cu, Fe and Pb in sugar cane spirits, and in samples. The results obtained were in accordance to those obtained at 95% confidence level

  4. Atom probe study of Cu-segregation in thermal aging of binary Fe-Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fe-Cu binary alloy is commonly used as a prototype model alloy for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) pressure vessel steels, especially for the study of radiation damage. This is because of the fact that Cu is one of the main solutes, segregation of which is known to cause major embrittlement in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels under nuclear radiation. Interestingly, similar solute segregation is often noticed in case of radiation-free long-term thermal aging experiments as well. Therefore, thermal aging experiment which is considerably simpler can be effectively utilized to study the solute segregation behaviour and emulate radiation-induced damage. With this objective, a series of binary Fe-Cu alloys with Cu concentration varying from 0.1 at. % - 1.4 at. % were prepared by vacuum arc melting. They were subsequently cold-rolled, followed by homogenization at 800 C and water quenching. The homogenized samples were then aged at 500 C for the following different durations: 1, 3, 5, 8, 25, 50 and 100 h. 3DAP is an indispensable tool to study solute segregation at this length scale, and the current study will present the results of a detailed 3DAP investigation of the evolution of the thermal damage in these binary prototype alloys. (author)

  5. Template-grown NiFe/Cu/NiFe nanowires for spin transfer devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piraux, L.; Renard, K.; Guillemet, R.;

    2007-01-01

    method allows the electrical connection of one single nanowire in a large assembly of wires embedded in anodic porous alumina supported on Si substrate with diameters and periodicities to be controllable to a large extent. Both magnetic excitations and switching phenomena driven by a spin......-polarized current were clearly demonstrated in our electrodeposited NiFe/Cu/ NiFe trilayer nanowires. This novel approach promises to be of strong interest for subsequent fabrication of phase-locked arrays of spin transfer nano-oscillators with increased output power for microwave applications. © 2007 American...

  6. Thermophysical properties of liquid Cu-Fe-Ni alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Density and surface tension of liquid Cu-Fe-Ni alloys have been measured in an electromagnetic levitator over a wide temperature range, including the undercooled regime. Both properties are linear functions of temperature. Their concentration dependence, however, is highly non-linear. The fit of the density data requires an excess volume containing a substantial ternary contribution. The surface tension is correctly predicted by the Butler equation from the thermodynamic potentials of the binary phases alone. In addition, a simple model is proposed which describes the surface tension reasonably well and requires as input the surface tensions of the pure components only

  7. Expitaxial layers of fcc FE on Cu (001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastable films of fcc Fe epitaxed to Cu(001) show unusual ferromagnetic properties. Changes in the lattice volume occur with films thickness in the 1 to 5 monolayer range, reflecting change in the magnitude of the spin moments and the magnetic exchange coupling. The associated uniaxial strain is manifest in strong magnetic anisotropy, layer by layer lattice expansion, phonon softening, and surface layer atomic reconstructions. The authors present LEED results of a structural investigation, neutron reflectance measurements of the spin moments, surface magneto-optic Kerr effect studies of the magnetic anisotropy, and angle resolved photoemission of the electronic states

  8. Magnetoresistance of electrodeposited NiFeCu alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmaili, S., E-mail: esmaili@shirazu.ac.ir [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bahrololoom, M.E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Peter, L. [Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)

    2012-01-01

    NiFeCu alloy films were electrodeposited from baths containing nickel sulfate and/or nickel sulfamate. All samples were pulse plated in the potentiostatic mode. The room temperature magnetoresistances of the films were measured showing anisotropic magnetoresistances up to 1.5%. The anisotropic magnetoresistances increased with the addition of sulfamic acid to the sulfate bath. Samples deposited from the bath with high sulfamate concentration showed a giant magnetoresistance behavior. To characterize the films, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used.

  9. Induced anisotropy in nanocrystalline FeCuNbSiB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics of induced anisotropy Kind was studied in nanocrystalline Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9, as well as in the amorphous precursor and in amorphous Fe78B13Si9. The nanocrystalline alloy was produced from the precursor by annealing at 813 K for 1 h and possessed an average FeSi grain size of 13 nm, as determined from x-ray diffraction. Annealing in a 0.2 T field at 723--773 K, above Tc of the amorphous phase, resulted in low values of Kind. The data were compared to the micromagnetic theory of Kronmueller to determine activation energy spectra. Kind for the nanocrystalline alloy is well described by this theory, however, with an activation energy spectrum that is much narrower than for the amorphous alloys. The limiting value of the anisotropy is K∞ ∼ 13 J/m3 consistent with that expected for the anisotropy in Fe-20at%.Si with the DO3 structure

  10. Thermodynamic assessments of the Cu-Mn-X (X: Fe, Co) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermodynamic assessments of the Cu-Mn binary, Cu-Mn-Fe and Cu-Mn-Co ternary systems were carried out by using CALPHAD (calculation of phase diagrams) method on the basis of the experimental data including the thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria. The Gibbs free energies of the liquid, bcc, fcc, hcp (αMn) and (βMn) phases are described by the subregular solution model. The thermodynamic parameters of the Cu-Mn binary, Cu-Mn-Fe and Cu-Mn-Co ternary systems have been optimized for reproducing the experimental results in each system, respectively. An agreement between the calculated results and experimental data is obtained

  11. [Degradation of phenol with a Fe/cu-catalytic heterogeneous-Fenton process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue-Zhu; Li, Yu-Ping; Yang, Dao-Wu; Duan, Feng; Cao, Hong-Bin

    2013-07-01

    The catalysts of Fe/AC, Cu/AC and Fe-Cu/AC with active carbon as support were prepared by a wet impregnation method, and were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements; the catalytic heterogeneous-Fenton processes of phenol degradation with these catalysts were also investigated, and the degradation mechanism was discussed with analysis of intermediate products and electron spin resonance (ESR) measurement. The results showed that the active component states varied in different catalysts; CuO was the main state of Cu in Cu/AC and Fe exhibited various valence states in Fe/AC. The degradation rate of phenol with Fe/AC, Cu/AC and Fe-Cu/AC as catalyst in the initial 60 min reached 96.7%, 77.5% and 99%, respectively; the dissolution of a little active-component metal was found in Cu/AC and Fe-Cu/AC, but little Fe in Fe/AC was dissolved; the degradation of phenol was performed by heterogeneous Fe/AC instead of dissolved Fe, and the degradation rate was above 93% after Fe/AC was used for three cycle runs, showing a stable catalytic activity. Under the optimum conditions of pH = 3, T = 303 K, and 4.38 mmol x L(-1) H2O2, the removal of phenol and TOC in the Fe/AC-catalytic Fenton process could reach 97% and 53%, respectively, while little phenol was degraded without catalyst. The ESR results indicated that hydroxyl radical was produced in the catalytic decomposition of H2O2 with Fe/AC as catalyst, demonstrating that the degradation of phenol mainly followed an oxidation pathway of hydroxyl radical; intermediates such as hydroquinone, p-benzenequinone and catechol were obtained, and the results showed thatortho- and para-substitution reaction by hydroxyl might be the main mechanism of phenol oxidation. PMID:24027996

  12. Low temperature ordering and high (001) orientation of [Fe/Pt/Cu]18 multilayer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [Fe/Pt/Cu]18 multilayer films with different Cu thicknesses were prepared on thermally oxidized Si (111) substrates at room temperature using dc- and rf-magnetron sputtering. The magnetic properties and microstructure of [Fe/Pt/Cu]18 multilayer films annealed at various temperatures have been investigated. Compared with pure [Fe/Pt]18 multilayer films low-temperature ordering and (001) orientation in the annealed films with Cu volume concentration below 20% can be obtained. During annealing process Cu atoms diffused into FePt lattice which enhanced the diffusion of Fe and Pt atoms and the grain growth of the films. The perpendicular anisotropy and hard magnetic properties of the films deteriorated with increasing Cu volume concentration due to the formation of L10 FeCuPt2 phase. - Highlights: ► Low-temperature ordering and (001) orientation in [Fe/Pt/Cu]18 films were obtained. ► The perpendicular anisotropy deteriorated with increasing Cu volume concentration. ► The grain size increases in the same annealing condition with increasing Cu volume. ► Ordering temperature was lowered due to increasing the atom diffusion constants

  13. Corrosion behaviour of Al-Cu-Fe alloys containing a quasicrystalline phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen-Saarivirta, Elina; Tiainen, Tuomo

    2004-06-15

    Corrosion of quasicrystalline and related crystalline phases coexisting in Al-Cu-Fe alloys with the compositions of Al{sub 60}Cu{sub 27.5}Fe{sub 12.5}, Al{sub 62.5}Cu{sub 25}Fe{sub 12.5}, Al{sub 65}Cu{sub 20}Fe{sub 15} and Al{sub 67.5}Cu{sub 20}Fe{sub 12.5} was studied in saline, acidic, neutral and basic solutions. The corrosion behaviour of the alloys was explored by potentiodynamic polarisation experiments, while the microstructural studies by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy yielded information on the phase structure and its changes as a result of the polarisation experiments. The results of the study indicated that the composition and relative amount of phases present in Al-Cu-Fe alloys are the key parameters defining the corrosion behaviour of the alloy. In saline solutions, the corrosion potentials were in the range where a homogeneous dissolution of the alloy, followed by a redeposition of Cu, took place, the corrosion rate being mainly determined by the amount of Cu-rich phases present in the structure. In acidic solutions, the Cu-rich phases remained untouched by corrosion, whereas phases containing less Cu were susceptible to corrosion. In neutral and basic solutions, oxidation was the primary surface reaction. However, Cu was found to introduce pores into the oxide layer and Fe to inhibit the oxidation process. Therefore, in neutral and basic solutions, the quasicrystalline phase, with intermittent Cu and Fe contents with respect to other phases present in the Al-Cu-Fe alloys studied, showed the best corrosion performance.

  14. Corrosion behaviour of Al-Cu-Fe alloys containing a quasicrystalline phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion of quasicrystalline and related crystalline phases coexisting in Al-Cu-Fe alloys with the compositions of Al60Cu27.5Fe12.5, Al62.5Cu25Fe12.5, Al65Cu20Fe15 and Al67.5Cu20Fe12.5 was studied in saline, acidic, neutral and basic solutions. The corrosion behaviour of the alloys was explored by potentiodynamic polarisation experiments, while the microstructural studies by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy yielded information on the phase structure and its changes as a result of the polarisation experiments. The results of the study indicated that the composition and relative amount of phases present in Al-Cu-Fe alloys are the key parameters defining the corrosion behaviour of the alloy. In saline solutions, the corrosion potentials were in the range where a homogeneous dissolution of the alloy, followed by a redeposition of Cu, took place, the corrosion rate being mainly determined by the amount of Cu-rich phases present in the structure. In acidic solutions, the Cu-rich phases remained untouched by corrosion, whereas phases containing less Cu were susceptible to corrosion. In neutral and basic solutions, oxidation was the primary surface reaction. However, Cu was found to introduce pores into the oxide layer and Fe to inhibit the oxidation process. Therefore, in neutral and basic solutions, the quasicrystalline phase, with intermittent Cu and Fe contents with respect to other phases present in the Al-Cu-Fe alloys studied, showed the best corrosion performance

  15. The amidine based colorimetric sensor for Fe(3+), Fe (2+), and Cu (2+) in aqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandre, Jitendra; Patil, Samadhan; Patil, Prashant; Sahoo, Suban; Redshaw, Carl; Mahulikar, Pramod; Patil, Umesh

    2014-11-01

    An amidine based chemosensor AM-1 was synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic (FT-IR, (1)H-NMR and mass) data and elemental analyses. Sensor AM-1 exhibited high selectivity and sensitivity towards Fe(3+), Fe(2+) and Cu(2+) in the presence of other surveyed ions (such as Sr(2+), Cr(3+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+), Ag(+), Al(3+), Ba(2+), Ca(2+), Cd(2+), Cs(+), Hg(2+), K(+), Li(+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Na(+) and Pb(2+)) with a distinct naked-eye detectable color change and a shift in the absorption band. Moreover, the emission of AM-1 was quenched selectively only in the presence of Fe(3+). PMID:25209201

  16. The tunable quantum spin ladder Cu(Qnx)(Cl{sub (1−x)}Br{sub x}){sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povarov, K.Yu., E-mail: povarovk@phys.ethz.ch [Neutron Scattering and Magnetism, Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH Zürich (Switzerland); Lorenz, W.E.A. [Neutron Scattering and Magnetism, Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH Zürich (Switzerland); Xiao, F.; Landee, C.P. [Department of Physics, Clark University, Worcester, MA 01610 (United States); Krasnikova, Y. [P.L. Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems RAS, 119334, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute for Physics and Technology, 141700 Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Zheludev, A. [Neutron Scattering and Magnetism, Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH Zürich (Switzerland)

    2014-12-15

    We report magnetic, specific heat and ESR measurements on a series of S=1/2 spin ladder compounds Cu(Qnx)(Cl{sub (1−x)}Br{sub x}){sub 2}. Down to T=2 K all the observables can be described by the spin ladder model with about 1% of S=1/2 impurities in the background, which are present even in a nominally pure Cu(Qnx)Cl{sub 2} and Cu(Qnx)Br{sub 2}, for the whole range of 0≤x≤1. We extract ladder exchange constants J{sub l}(x) and J{sub r}(x) as well as the gap value Δ(x) by comparing the experimental data to quantum Monte-Carlo simulations. As the ESR measurements show the g-factor of impurities to be precisely equal to g-factor of the ladder spins, we suppose the impurities to be the consequence of structural defects resulting in broken ladder ends. - Highlights: • A family of isostructural spin-ladder compounds was investigated. • A variation in exchange parameters with the degree of chemical substitution was found. • A small amount of paramagnetic spins was attributed to structural defects in a ladder.

  17. Magnetic Torque Studies of π-d System κ-(BDH-TTP)2FeX4 (X = Br, Cl)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugii, Kaori; Takai, Kazuyuki; Tsuchiya, Satoshi; Uji, Shinya; Terashima, Taichi; Akutsu, Hiroki; Wada, Atsushi; Ichikawa, Shun; Yamada, Jun-ichi; Enoki, Toshiaki

    2014-02-01

    Systematic measurements of the magnetic torque of organic π-d conductors κ-(BDH-TTP)2FeX4 (X = Br, Cl) have been performed to investigate the magnetic properties. The Fe 3d spins of both salts show antiferromagnetic (AF) orders at low temperatures. A simple two-sublattice model is found to well reproduce the essential features of the torque data in the AF states. The exchange interaction and anisotropic parameter of the ligand field obtained by the simulations are consistent with previous experimental results.

  18. Microstructural and magnetic characterizations of CoFeCu electrodeposited in self-assembled mesoporous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self-assembled mesoporous silicon with quasi-regular pore arrangements has been fabricated by the electrochemical anodization process in hydrofluoric acid solution. CoFeCu was electrodeposited in this structure from a bath containing sodium acetate as a complexing agent with a pH value of 5. The effect of current density on the morphology, the structure and the magnetic properties of CoFeCu deposit was studied by SEM, EDS, DRX and VSM. It has been shown that the morphology and structure of samples were strongly influenced by the current density and etching duration. The micrographs show the vertical and branched nanowires and also a discontinuous growth of wires. Further, the growth of a thick layer from the grain boundaries of released CoFeCu wires is produced. The magnetic hysteresis loops demonstrate that the CoFeCu nanowires exhibit easy magnetic axis perpendicular to the PS channels axis when the current density varied from 3 to 10 mA/cm2. Nevertheless, they reveal a no magnetic anisotropy of CoFeCu nanostructures deposited only in the outside of porous silicon, probably due to the vanishing the shape anisotropy. - Highlights: • CoFeCu deposit has been electrodeposited on self assembled mesoporous silicon. • SEM observation shows that CoFeCu embedded in Porous silicon channels. • Magnetic measurements show the anisotropy magnetic behavior of CoFeCu nanostructures. • The growth rate of nanowires is enhanced with an increase of current density

  19. Compressibility of nanostructured Fe-Cu materials prepared by mechanical milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Olsen, J.S.; Gerward, Leif;

    1999-01-01

    The compressibility of nanostructured Fe-Cu materials prepared by mechanical milling has been investigated by in-situ high-pressure x-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. It is found that the bulk modulus of both fcc-Cu and bcc-Fe phases decreases with decreasing grain sizes. The unstable...

  20. Kinetic study of the annealing reactions in Cu-Ni-Fe alloys; Estudio cinetico de las reacciones de recocido en aleaciones de Cu-Ni-Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoso, E.

    2014-07-01

    The thermal aging of a Cu-45Ni-4Fe, Cu-34Ni-11Fe and Cu-33Ni-22Fe alloys tempered from 1173 K have been studied from Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and microhardness measurements. The analysis of DSC curves, from room temperature to 950 K, shows the presence of one exothermic reaction associated to the formation of FeNi{sub 3} phase nucleating from a modulate structure, and one endothermic peak attributed to dissolution of this phase. Kinetic parameters were obtained using the usual Avrami-Erofeev equation, modified Kissinger method and integrated kinetic functions. Microhardness measurements confirmed the formation and dissolution of the FeNi{sub 3} phase. (Author)

  1. Electronic structure of nanosized bcc Cu precipitates in Fe-Cu alloys studied by positron 2D-ACAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the finding with the use of the coincidence Doppler measurements that the nanosized Cu precipitates are coherently embedded in the Fe-Cu matrix alloy, taking a bcc structure and acting as efficient positron traps, we measured 2D-ACARs of carefully grown and heat treated single crystals of Fe-Cu. We found that the precipitates have a Fermi surface with 12 necks touching the {110} Bragg planes of the bcc Brillouin zone, which contrasts distinctly with that of the bulk Cu with 8 necks touching the {111} Bragg planes of the fcc Brillouin zone. The 3 dimensional momentum reconstruction of the 2D-ACAR data showed that the Fermi surface cutoff of the Cu precipitates is blurred considerably as compared with that of bulk fcc Cu, suggesting a marked size effect in the momentum distribution. (orig.)

  2. Structure and thermodynamic properties of a weakly-coupled antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 chain compound (C5H12N)CuBr3

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, B. Y.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, L J; Li, S. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Single crystals of a metal organic complex \\ce{(C5H12N)CuBr3} (\\ce{C5H12N} = piperidinium, pipH for short) have been synthesized and the structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. \\ce{(pipH)CuBr3} crystallizes in the monoclinic group $C$2/$c$. Edging-sharing \\ce{CuBr5} units link to form zigzag chains along the $c$ axis and the neighboring Cu(II) ions with spin-1/2 are bridged by bi-bromide ions. Magnetic susceptibility data down to 1.8 K can be well fitted by the Bonner-Fi...

  3. Penentuan Kualitas Aluminium Ingot Dengan Pengukuran Kadar Fe, Si Dan Cu, Menggunakan Optical Emission Spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Andika

    2012-01-01

    Based on the research results were found: for the first aluminum has a purity of Al =99,81% (Fe 0,1445%, Si 0,0473% and Cu 0,0003%), the second almunium has purity of Al = 99.92%, (Fe 0,0521%, Si 0,0335% and Cu 0,0002%),the third aluminum has purity of Al = 99.81%,(Fe 0,1475%, Si 0,0442% and Cu 0,0002%), the fourth alumunium has purity of Al = 99.91% , (Fe 0,0463%, Si 0,0373% and Cu = 0,0001%), the fifth aluminum has purity of Al = 99.82%, (Fe 0,1406%, Si 0,0421% and Cu 0,0003%), t...

  4. On the concentration and separation of the trace-elements fe, cu, zn, mn, pb, mo and co : Paper chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkelens, P.C. van

    1961-01-01

    Paper chromatographic separations are described by which the minor constituents of biological ashes are separated either into: (Pb) - Mn - Co - (Pb) - Cu - Fe, Mo, Zn; or into: Cu, Mn, Co - Pb - Fe - Mo - Zn.

  5. High Temperature Magnetic Properties of Indirect Exchange Spring FePt/M(Cu,C/Fe Trilayer Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabil Gayen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the investigation of temperature dependent magnetic properties of FePt and FePt(30/M(Cu,C/Fe(5 trilayer thin films prepared by using magnetron sputtering technique at ambient temperature and postannealed at different temperatures. L10 ordering, hard magnetic properties, and thermal stability of FePt films are improved with increasing postannealing temperature. In FePt/M/Fe trilayer, the formation of interlayer exchange coupling between magnetic layers depends on interlayer materials and interface morphology. In FePt/C/Fe trilayer, when the C interlayer thickness was about 0.5 nm, a strong interlayer exchange coupling between hard and soft layers was achieved, and saturation magnetization was enhanced considerably after using interlayer exchange coupling with Fe. In addition, incoherent magnetization reversal process observed in FePt/Fe films changes into coherent switching process in FePt/C/Fe films giving rise to a single hysteresis loop. High temperature magnetic studies up to 573 K reveal that the effective reduction in the coercivity decreases largely from 34 Oe/K for FePt/Fe film to 13 Oe/K for FePt/C(0.5/Fe film demonstrating that the interlayer exchange coupling seems to be a promising approach to improve the stability of hard magnetic properties at high temperatures, which is suitable for high-performance magnets and thermally assisted magnetic recording media.

  6. Cu(II) sensitizes pBR322 plasmid DNA to inactivation by UV-B (280-315 nm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copper (II), in the presence of UV-B radiation (280-315 nm), can generate single-strand breaks in the sugar-phosphate backbone of pBr322 plasmid DNA. A low level of single-strand backbone breaks occurs in the presence of Cu(II) alone, but UV-B irradiation increases the rate by the more than 100-fold. Concomitant with the damage to the DNA backbone is a loss of transforming activity. Oxygen is required for generation of the single-strand breaks but not for the loss of transforming activity. A DNA glycosylase (Fpg), which participates in the repair of certain DNA nitrogenous base damage, does not repair plasmid DNA damaged by Cu(II). The hydroxyl radical scavenging compound DMSO is only moderately radioprotective of DNA. (Author)

  7. Stripe-to-bubble transition of magnetic domains at the spin reorientation of (Fe/Ni)/Cu/Ni/Cu(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J.; Choi, J.; Won, C.; Wu, Y. Z.; Scholl, A.; Doran, A.; Hwang, Chanyong; Qiu, Z.

    2010-06-09

    Magnetic domain evolution at the spin reorientation transition (SRT) of (Fe/Ni)/Cu/Ni/Cu(001) is investigated using photoemission electron microscopy. While the (Fe/Ni) layer exhibits the SRT, the interlayer coupling of the perpendicularly magnetized Ni layer to the (Fe/Ni) layer serves as a virtual perpendicular magnetic field exerted on the (Fe/Ni) layer. We find that the perpendicular virtual magnetic field breaks the up-down symmetry of the (Fe/Ni) stripe domains to induce a net magnetization in the normal direction of the film. Moreover, as the virtual magnetic field increases to exceed a critical field, the stripe domain phase evolves into a bubble domain phase. Although the critical field depends on the Fe film thickness, we show that the area fraction of the minority domain exhibits a universal value that determines the stripe-to-bubble phase transition.

  8. Sliding Friction of Al-Cu-Fe-B Quasicrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiying ZHOU; Peiyao LI; Junming LUO; Shiqiang QIAN; Jianhua TONG

    2004-01-01

    Dry sliding friction between the Al59Cu25.5Fe12.5B3 quasicrystals (QCs)/coating of the diamond-like carbon (DLC) was carried out by self-made tribometer under different conditions. The influences of four parameters (temperature, sliding velocity, applied load, atmosphere) on friction and wear of quasicrystal surface were studied. Microstructure of quasicrystal, morphology of worn surface, and wear debris were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).The results showed that for QCs, the friction coefficient and roughness of worn surface were influenced by the parameters, especially greatly by the temperature. With rise of the applied load and sliding velocity, the friction coefficient decreased. The dominant wear mechanism at 350℃ was delamination for QCs. The cracks formed on the worn surface during the friction. Moreover, phase transformation was not observed on worn surface of QCs at 350℃. All the results are discussed and explained.

  9. Atomic level mixing induced by Kr irradiation of FeCo/Cu multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of Kr ion irradiation of FexCo1-x/Cu multilayers are investigated by means of magnetic and x-ray measurements. The irradiation was performed at room temperature with 600 keV of Kr, and the fluences were ranged from 1x1015 to 5x1015 ions/cm2. X-ray diffraction patterns show that the irradiation was able to produce a significant grain growth and, at the same time, it triggered a strain release. The x-ray absorption measurements around Fe K edge have shown that the FeCo environment changed from bcc, for the as-deposited multilayer, to fcc after appropriate fluence, depending on the Cu thickness and on the Fe/Co content. For 50 A of Cu, the phase transformation occurs even for the lowest fluence, regardless the Fe/Co concentration. For 25 A of Cu, it depends on the Fe/Co concentration. After irradiation, the saturation magnetization suffers a strong decrease, especially for 50 A of Cu. The temperature for the onset of irreversibility also decreases with irradiation, again being the effect stronger for 50 A of Cu. These data indicate that Kr irradiation induced mixing between Cu and FeCo, even though Cu is immiscible with Fe and Co in the equilibrium state

  10. Phase separation and rapid solidification of liquid Cu60Fe30Co10 ternary peritectic alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI FuPing; CAO ChongDe; WEI BingBo

    2007-01-01

    The metastable liquid phase separation and rapid solidification of Cu60Fe30Co10 ternary peritectic alloy were investigated by using the drop tube technique and the differential scanning calorimetry method. It was found that the critical temperature of metastable liquid phase separation in this alloy is 1623.5 K, and the two separated liquid phases solidify as Cu(Fe,Co) and Fe(Cu,Co) solid solutions, respectively. The undercooling and cooling rate of droplets processed in the drop tube increase with the decrease of their diameters. During the drop tube processing, the structural morphologies of undercooled droplets are strongly dependent on the cooling rate. With the increase of the cooling rate, Fe(Cu,Co) spheres are refined greatly and become uniformly dispersed in the Cu-rich matrix. The calculations of Marangoni migration velocity (VM) and Stokes motion velocity (VS) of Fe(Cu,Co) droplets indicated that Marangoni migration contributes more to the coarsening and congregation of the minor phase during free fall. At the same undercooling, the VM/VS ratio increases drastically as Fe(Cu,Co) droplet size decreases. On the other hand, a larger undercooling tends to increase the VM/VS value for Fe(Cu,Co) droplets with the same size.

  11. Comparative study of radiation damage accumulation in Cu and Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caturla, M. J.; Soneda, N.; Alonso, E.; Wirth, B. D.; Díaz de la Rubia, T.; Perlado, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    Bcc and fcc metals exhibit significant differences in behavior when exposed to neutron or heavy ion irradiation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations reveal that damage in the form of stacking fault tetrahedra (SFT) is visible in copper irradiated to very low doses, but that no damage is visible in iron irradiated to the same total dose. In order to understand and quantify this difference in behavior, we have simulated damage production and accumulation in fcc Cu and bcc Fe. We use 20 keV primary knock-on atoms (PKAs) at a homologous temperature of 0.25 of the melting point. The primary damage state was calculated using molecular dynamics (MD) with empirical, embedded-atom interatomic potentials. Damage accumulation was modeled using a kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) algorithm to follow the evolution of all defects produced in the cascades. The diffusivities and binding energies of defects are input data for this simulation and were either extracted from experiments, the literature, or calculated using MD. MD simulations reveal that vacancy clusters are produced within the cascade core in the case of copper. In iron, most of the vacancies do not cluster during cooling of the cascade core and are available for diffusion. In addition, self-interstitial atom (SIA) clusters are produced in copper cascades but those observed in iron are smaller in number and size. The combined MD/kMC simulations reveal that the visible cluster densities obtained as a function of dose are at least one order of magnitude lower in Fe than in Cu. We compare the results with experimental measurements of cluster density and find excellent agreement between the simulations and experiments when small interstitial clusters are considered to be mobile as suggested by recent MD simulations.

  12. A GREEN CHEMISTRY APPROACH TO PREPARATION OF CORE (FE OR CU)-SHELL (NOBLE METALS) NANOCOMPOSITES USING AQUEOUS ASCORBIC ACID

    Science.gov (United States)

    A greener method to fabricate novel core (Fe or Cu)-shell (noble metals) nanocomposites of transition metals such as Fe and Cu and noble metals such as Au, Pt, Pd, and Ag using aqueous ascorbic acid is described. Transition metal salts such as Cu and Fe were reduced using ascor...

  13. ACTIVITY AND PRESSURE OF MAGNESIUM STEAM IN ALLOYS Ni-Mg-Si-Fe and Cu-Mg-Si-Fe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Vlasov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of activity and pressure of magnesium vapour in melts Ni-Si-Mg-Fe and Cu-Si-Mg-Fe in metal systems at constant magnesium contents 6, 10, 14 и 18 mas.% and temperatures 1350 and 1450 °С is carried out in this work.

  14. A novel 3D Cu(I) coordination polymer based on Cu6Br2 and Cu2(CN)2 SBUs: in situ ligand formation and use as a naked-eye colorimetric sensor for NB and 2-NT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiang-Feng; Li, Yang; Zhou, Rui-Sha; Hu, Tuo-Ping; Wen, Yan-Liang; Shao, Jia; Cui, Xiao-Bing

    2016-01-14

    A novel coordination polymer with the chemical formula [Cu4Br(CN)(mtz)2]n (mtz = 5-methyl tetrazole) (), has been synthesized under solvothermal conditions and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Interestingly, the Cu(i), CN(-) and mtz(-) in compound are all generated from an in situ translation of the original precursors: Cu(2+), acetonitrile and 1-methyl-5-mercapto-1,2,3,4-tetrazole (Hmnt). The in situ ring-to-ring conversion of Hmnt into mtz(-) was found for the first time. Structural analysis reveals that compound is a novel 3D tetrazole-based Cu(i) coordination polymer, containing both metal halide cluster Cu6Br2 and metal pseudohalide cluster Cu2(CN)2 secondary building units (SBUs), which shows an unprecedented (3,6,10)-connected topology. Notably, a pseudo-porphyrin structure with 16-membered rings constructed by four mtz(-) anions and four copper(i) ions was observed in compound . The fluorescence properties of compound were investigated in the solid state and in various solvent emulsions, the results show that compound is a highly sensitive naked-eye colorimetric sensor for NB and 2-NT (NB = nitrobenzene and 2-NT = 2-nitrotoluene). PMID:26600452

  15. Nanometer Stripe Microstructure of Supersaturated Solid Solution in Fe-Cu Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Hui-ping; WANG Hai-yan; LIU Zong-chang; AN Zhi-guo

    2007-01-01

    Strengthening due to precipitation of Cu in the α-Fe matrix is an important phenomenon utilized in the design of HSLA steels. In the present work, the microstructure of supersaturated solid solution in Fe-1.18%Cu binary alloy was investigated by means of high resolution electron microscopy. The results indicated that the solid solution was heterogeneous, there were lots of Cu atom clusters, which consisted of diffractive stripe microstructure similar to twin crystal. Orientation deviation was observed between two (110)α planes in diffractive stripes, which results in light and shade contrast. Furthermore, formation mechanisms of the nanometre stripe microstructure were discussed in terms of the interaction of Cu and Fe atoms in the Fe-Cu binary alloys.

  16. Synchrotron X—Ray Study on Structures of Ni80Fe20/Cu Superlattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨涛; 麦振洪; 赖武彦; 吴忠华; 王德武; XUMing; 罗光明; 柴春林

    2001-01-01

    We have shown that,in contrast to the results in the literature,the Bragg peak intensity of Ni80Fe20/Cu superlattices is enhanced at the incident x-ray energy slightly higher than the absorption edge of the heavier element(Cu).The atomic density at Ni80Fe20/Cu interface was analysed by the diffraction anomalous fine structure technology with the incident angle of x-ray fixed at the first Bragg peak.Our results demonstrate the epitaxy growth of Ni80Fe20/Cu superlattices.Upon annealing,the epitaxity of Ni80Fe20/Cu multilayers becomes poor but the local crystallinity in each layer is improved.

  17. Investigation of magnetic structure on (C5H12N)CuBr3 system on the basis of DFT study and orbital interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changhoon; Hong, Jisook; Shim, Ji Hoon; Pohang Univ of Sci; Tech Team

    2015-03-01

    The (C5H12N)CuBr3 compound crystallizes in the monoclinic group C2/c. Magnetic susceptibility data down to 1.8 K can be well fitted for the antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 chain, giving the intrachain magnetic coupling constant Jintra ~ -17 K. At zero field, (pipH)CuBr3 shows 3D order below TN = 1.68 K. Calculated by the mean-field theory, the interchain coupling constant Jinter = - 0.91 K is obtained and the ordered magnetic moment is about 0.23 μB. However, the interchain interaction should be strong unlike experimental observation. From the analysis of local structure, the Jinter spin dimer show the possibility of good orbital overlap via Cu-O...O-Cu path in which angle for Cu-O...O-Cu is 161° indicating strong interchain interaction via Cu-O...O-Cu path. The magnetic structure of (C5H12N)CuBr3 system in terms of orbital interaction could anticipated by two-leg spin ladder which such spin ladders interact ferromagnetically to form ladder. In this study, we evaluated spin exchange interactions of (pipH)CuBr3 based on DFT calculations to find the magnetic structure of this system. As a consequence, the Jinter interaction is strong and the magnetic structure of this system, indeed, is described by two-leg spin ladder. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2013R1A1A2060341)

  18. Direct Measurement of the Metastable Liquid Miscibility Gap in Fe-Co-Cu Ternary Alloy System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Chong-De; Georg P.G(O)RLER

    2005-01-01

    @@ The metastable liquid-liquid phase separation in undercooled Fe-Co-Cu ternary alloy melts (XCu = 0.10-0.84;XCo:XFe = 1:3,1:1 and 3:1) is investigated by differential thermal analysis in combination with glass fluxing technique. In almost every case, the undercooling of the homogeneous alloy melt was sufficient to reach the boundary line of the submerged miscibility gap. The differential-thermal-analysis signals indicate that this separation into a (Fe, Co)-rich liquid phase L1 and a Cu-rich liquid L2 is exothermic and proceeds until the rapid solidification of the L1 phase occurs. At a given Cu concentration and with the increase of Co content, the phase separation temperatures decrease monotonically between the corresponding values of the boundary systems Fe-Cu and Co-Cu. The boundary lines of the miscibility gap, which are determined for the three quasi-binary cross-sections of the (Fe, Co)-Cu alloy system, show remarkably flat domes. The occurrence of the liquid phase separation shows an evident influence on the subsequent γ-Fe(Co, Cu)→α-Fe(Co, Cu) solid phase transformation.

  19. Electrochemical performance of the chalcopyrite CuFeS2 as cathode for lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalcopyrite CuFeS2 was synthesized by solvothermal process. It was used as active species to prepare cathode of lithium ion batteries together with some conducting materials. Electrochemical performance of the assembled Li/CuFeS2 batteries was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and discharging test. Our results proved that CuFeS2 as a new cathode material showed room-temperature specific discharging capacity of 1100 mAh g−1 at a current density of 14 mA g−1, and that its specific discharging capacity was higher than 500 mAh g−1 at a current density of 350 mA g−1. Different from what reported by Eda et al., the discharging curves presented two apparent plateaus, which were related to different cathode reactions, in the whole measured temperature range. -- Highlights: ► Chalcopyrite CuFeS2 in the form of hexagonal plate was synthesized by solvothermal method. ► The prepared CuFeS2 was used as the cathode active species for lithium-ion batteries. ► The CuFeS2 showed specific discharging capacity of 1100 mAh g−1 at room temperature. ► The CuFeS2 presented two apparent discharging plateaus in the whole measured temperature range.

  20. Structural evolutions of the mechanically alloyed Al70Cu20Fe10 powders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Musa Göğebakan; Bariş Avar

    2011-10-01

    Elemental mixtures of Al, Cu, Fe powders with the nominal composition of Al70Cu20Fe10 were mechanically alloyed in a planetary ball mill for 80 h. Subsequent annealing of the as-milled powders were performed at 600–800°C temperature range for 4 h. Structural characteristics of the mechanically alloyed Al70Cu20Fe10 powders with the milling time and the heat treatment were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Mechanical alloying of the Al70Cu20Fe10 did not result in the formation of icosahedral quasicrystalline phase (i-phase) and a long time milling resulted in the formation of -Al(Cu,Fe) solid solution phase (-phase). The i-phase was observed only for short-time milled powders after heat treatment above 600°C. The -phase was one of the major phases in the Al70Cu20Fe10 alloy. The w-Al7Cu2Fe1 phase (w-phase) was obtained only after heat treatment of the short-time milled and unmilled samples. The present investigation indicated that a suitable technique to obtain a large amount of quasicrystalline powders is to use a combination of short-time milling and subsequent annealing.

  1. Dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride by the catalyzed Fe-Cu process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wen-ying; GAO Ting-yao

    2007-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction characteristics of carbon tetrachloride (CT) were investigated using cyclic voltammetry in this study. In addition, the difference in reduction mechanisms of CT between Master Builders' iron and the catalyzed Fe-Cu process was discussed. The results showed that CT was reduced directly on the surface of copper rather than by atomic hydrogen produced at the cathode in the catalyzed Fe-Cu process. The reduction was realized largely by atomic hydrogen in Master Builders' iron. The entire CT in 350 ml aqueous solution with 320 mg/L was reduced to trichloromethane and dichloromethane in 2.25 h when 100 g of scrap iron with Fe/Cu ratio of 10:1 (w/w) were used. Moreover, the reduction rate slowed with time. CT could be reduced at acidic, neutral and alkaline pH from solution by Fe-Cu bimetallic media, but the mechanisms were different. The degradation rate was not significantly influenced by pH in the catalyzed Fe-Cu process; in Master Builders' iron it clearly increased with decreasing pH. The kinetics of the reductions followed pseudo-first order in both cases. Furthermore, the reductions under acidic conditions proceeded faster than that under the neutral and alkaline conditions. The catalyzed Fe-Cu process was superior to Master Builders' iron in treating CT-containing water and this advantage was particularly noticeable under alkaline conditions. The reduction was investigated in the cathode (Cu) and anode (Fe) compartments respectively, the results showed that the direct reduction pathway played an important role in the reduction by the catalyzed Fe-Cu process. The catalyzed Fe-Cu process is of practical value.

  2. Acetone Gas Sensing Properties of a Multiple-Networked Fe2O3-Functionalized CuO Nanorod Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Sunghoon Park; Hyejoon Kheel; Gun-Joo Sun; Taegyung Ko; Wan In Lee; Chongmu Lee

    2015-01-01

    Fe2O3-decorated CuO nanorods were prepared by Cu thermal oxidation followed by Fe2O3 decoration via a solvothermal route. The acetone gas sensing properties of multiple-networked pristine and Fe2O3-decorated CuO nanorod sensors were examined. The optimal operating temperature of the sensors was found to be 240°C. The pristine and Fe2O3-decorated CuO nanorod sensors showed responses of 586 and 1,090%, respectively, to 1,000 ppm of acetone at 240°C. The Fe2O3-decorated CuO nanorod sensor also s...

  3. Nanocrystallization of soft magnetic Fe(Co)-Zr-B-Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fe88Zr7B4Cu1 and Fe44Co44Zr7B4Cu1 alloys have been melt spun to produce amorphous ribbons. Crystallization behaviour of the amorphous phase has been investigated using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Addition of Co in Fe-Zr-B-Cu alloy reduces the stability of the amorphous phase leading to the formation of nanocrystallites at a lower temperature. A dispersion of the nanocrystalline phase in the amorphous matrix is achieved by controlled heat treatment for optimization of magnetic properties. Coercivity, saturation magnetization and Curie temperature are found to increase on addition of Co

  4. Conversion of syngas to higher alcohols over Cu-Fe-Zr catalysts induced by ethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongtao Zhang; Xiaomei Yang; Lipeng Zhou; Yunlai Su; Zhongmin Liu

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol induced method was applied to prepare Cu-Fe-Zr catalysts for conversion of syngas to higher alcohols. The catalytic performance of the catalysts induced by ethanol was superior to that of the catalyst prepared by the conventional precipitation method. Among various procedures for ethanol induced method,it was found that incorporation of ethanol in the precipitation process was the better. After incorporation of ethanol,the crystal size of CuO decreased and the reduction of copper species became easier. The better activity of Cu-Fe-Zr catalysts prepared by ethanol induced procedures was probably caused by the higher dispersion of Cu species.

  5. Ammonia synthesis on Au modified Fe(111) and Ag and Cu modified Fe(100) surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lytken, Ole; Waltenburg, Hanne Neergaard; Chorkendorff, Ib

    In order to investigate any influence of steps and possible positive effects of making surface alloys the ammonia synthesis has been investigated over Au modified Fe(111) and Ag and Cu modified Fe(100) single crystals in the temperature range 603-773 K, using a system combining ultra-high vacuum...... and a high-pressure cell. Ammonia was synthesized from a stoichiometric (N-2:3H(2)) gas mixture at a pressure of 2 bar. By deposition of small amounts of An, the ammonia production activity of the Fe(1 1 1) surface can be enhanced. More important, for the gold modified surface, the reaction order in...... ammonia pressure is less negative. The activity goes through a maximum as the An coverage increases, and then to zero as the coverage approaches 1 ML. At 713 K and 400 ppm NH3, a maximum enhancement of 50% is observed at 0.04 ML An. Based on features in the TPD spectra, the enhancement is suggested to be...

  6. Effect of Applied Current Density on Morphological and Structural Properties of Electrodeposited Fe-Cu Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Umut Sarac; M. Celalettin Baykul

    2012-01-01

    A detailed study has been carried out to investigate the effect of applied current density on the composition, crystallographic structure, grain size, and surface morphology of Fe-Cu films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that the films consist of a mixture of face-centered cubic (fcc) Cu and body centered cubic (bcc) ~-Fe phases. The average crystalline size of both Fe and Cu particles decreases as the applied current density becomes more negative. Compositional analysis of Fe-Cu films indicates that the Fe content within the films increases with decreasing current density towards more negative values. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used to investigate the surface morphology of Fe-Cu films. It is observed that the surface morphology of the films changes from dendritic structure to a cauliflower structure as the applied current density becomes more negative. The surface roughness and grain size of the Fe-Cu films decrease with decreasing applied current density towards more negative values.

  7. X-ray diffraction study of chalcopyrite CuFeS2, pentlandite (Fe,Ni)9S8 and Pyrrhotite Fe1-xS obtained from Cu-Ni orebodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X-ray Diffraction (XRD) technique is applied to study five samples of Cu-Ni orebodies, and it is shown that they contain chalcopyrite CuFeS2 as the source of Cu, pentlandite (Fe,Ni)9S8 as the source of Ni and pyrrhotite Fe1-xS as a dominant compound. There are also other less dominant compounds such as bunsenite NiO, chalcocite Cu2S, penrosite (Ni, Cu)Se2 and magnetite Fe3O4. Using the obtained XRD data, we obtain the lattice parameters for tetragonal chalcopyrite as a=b=5.3069A and c=10.3836A, cubic pentlandite as a=b=c=10.0487A, and hexagonal pyrrhotite as a=b=6.8820A and c=22.8037A. (author)

  8. Crystal Structure and Physical Properties of π--d System κ-(BDH-TTP)2FeBr4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugii, Kaori; Takai, Kazuyuki; Uji, Shinya; Terashima, Taichi; Akutsu, Hiroki; Wada, Atsushi; Ichikawa, Shun; Yamada, Jun-ichi; Mori, Takehiko; Enoki, Toshiaki

    2013-05-01

    The structure and physical properties of metallic magnetic conductor κ-(BDH-TTP)2FeBr4 (BDH-TTP: 2,5-bis(1,3-dithiolan-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene) are investigated. It has a layered structure of BDH-TTP donor sheets extended along the ac-plane, which are sandwiched by FeBr4 anion sheets. The π electrons on the BDH-TTP sheets show simple metallic behavior down to 30 mK. The magnetic susceptibility obeys the Curie--Weiss law mainly associated with the Fe3+ d spins (S = 5/2), and indicates the presence of an anitiferromagnetic (AF) transition at TN = 3.9 K. In the AF state, a steep S-shaped increase of the magnetization at 1.5 T (HSF) in the field parallel to the a-axis (H\\parallel a) is found, which is ascribed to a spin-flop transition. In addition, the magnetization curves for H\\parallel b and H\\parallel c show an inflection point at Hc = 3.1 T, suggesting the spin canting configuration in the bc-plane. A possible AF spin structure based on the magnetization data and molecular orbital calculations features triangular lattice consisting of the Fe d electron spins and the donor π electron spins. Possible origins responsible for the spin canting, Dzyaloshinskii--Moriya interaction, spin frustration effect, and anisotropy of the ligand field, are discussed. A steep decrease of the magnetoresistance in the AF state observed at HSF for H\\parallel a proves that the strong π--d interaction seriously affects the electron transport in the donor system. An anomalous broadening of the ESR linewidth in the critical region above TN is suggestive of the development of a magnetic short range order, for which the low-dimensionality in the spin system is responsible.

  9. Photocatalytic Characterization of Fe- and Cu-Doped ZnO Nanorods Synthesized by Cohydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Rang Uhm

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe- and Cu-doped ZnO nanorods have been synthesized by a novel process employing a hydrolysis of metal powders. Zn, Fe, and Cu nanopowders were used as starting materials and incorporated into distilled water. The solution was refluxed at 60°C for 24 h to obtain the precipitates from the hydrolysis of Zn and dopants (Cu and Fe. The TEM results for ZnO with and without metal doping showed that the produced powders had a rod-like shape. The rod shape was attributable to the zinc oxide from the hydrolysis of Zn. With an increasing doping content, the UV-vis spectra were shifted to a long wavelength and this result indicates that the band gap was changed by the metal doping. The values of phenol degrading Fe- and Cu-doped ZnO by a solar simulator were measured to be 60 and 75%, respectively.

  10. Moessbauer studies of 57Fe substitution of Cu ions in superconducting oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the discovery of high-Tc superconductivity in YBa2Cu3O7 oxides several studies of metal ions substitutions were reported. The observed depression on Tc without a systematic correlation with the charge and magnetic moment of Cu substituents claims for more detailed information about its local properties as can be revealed by 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. The results for different iron concentrations combined with modifications of the superconducting transition are discussed concerning the presence of magnetic moments on the Fe ions and the preferential occupation of Cu(1) sites, recently confirmed by neutron and electron diffraction experiments. The oxygen coordination for the different iron species are proposed on the basis of their dependence on Fe concentration, their behavior at high temperatures as well as the electron diffraction and electron microscopy measurements reported for Fe: YBa2Cu3O7 samples. (author)

  11. Partial and integral enthalpies of mixing of Cu-Fe-Ti melts at 1873 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulov, A. R.; Dreval', L. A.; Agraval, P. G.; Turchanin, M. A.

    2009-10-01

    The partial enthalpy of mixing of titanium in Cu-Fe-Ti melts are studied by high-temperature isoperibolic calorimetry at 1873 K in the composition range x Ti = 0-0.6 along three sections with a ratio x Fe / x Cu = 1/3, 1, and 3. The integral enthalpy of mixing of the ternary melts is calculated by integrating the Gibbs-Duhem equation and is described in terms of the Redlich-Kister-Muggianu model. Function Δ H demonstrates negative values over a wide concentration range. The contribution of a ternary interaction to the enthalpy of mixing of Cu-Fe-Ti melts is mainly positive. The first partial enthalpies of mixing of Al, Sn, Si, Y, Zr, Hf, and Ni with Cu-Fe-Ti melts are negative and indicate an increase of the thermodynamic stability of the liquid phase upon the dissolution of these additions.

  12. Efficient degradation of carbamazepine by easily recyclable microscaled CuFeO2 mediated heterogeneous activation of peroxymonosulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yaobin; Tang, Hebin; Zhang, Shenghua; Wang, Songbo; Tang, Heqing

    2016-11-01

    Microscaled CuFeO2 particles (micro-CuFeO2) were rapidly prepared via a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that the micro-CuFeO2 was of pure phase and a rhombohedral structure with size in the range of 2.8±0.6μm. The micro-CuFeO2 efficiently catalyzed the activation of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) to generate sulfate radicals (SO4-), causing the fast degradation of carbamazepine (CBZ). The catalytic activity of micro-CuFeO2 was observed to be 6.9 and 25.3 times that of micro-Cu2O and micro-Fe2O3, respectively. The enhanced activity of micro-CuFeO2 for the activation of PMS was confirmed to be attributed to synergistic effect of surface bonded Cu(I) and Fe(III). Sulfate radical was the primary radical species responsible for the CBZ degradation. As a microscaled catalyst, micro-CuFeO2 can be easily recovered by gravity settlement and exhibited improved catalytic stability compared with micro-Cu2O during five successive degradation cycles. Oxidative degradation of CBZ by the couple of PMS/CuFeO2 was effective in the studied actual aqueous environmental systems. PMID:27329789

  13. Structural and magnetic properties of Cu-alloyed FePd films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multilayer films [Cu(d Å)/Fe(9 Å)/Pd(11 Å)]5 were deposited at room temperature on Si(001)/SiO2(400 nm) substrates. In order to induce chemical L10 ordering, the as-deposited samples were post-annealed by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 600 °C for 90 s followed additionally by heating in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) at 700 °C up to several hours. In this study the impact of post-annealing on the structural and magnetic properties of FePdCu alloy films in dependence on the Cu content was investigated. It was found that the addition of Cu to the FePd alloy has a strong influence on the chemical ordering process and the (001) texture formation. After the RTA treatment only an isotropic distribution of the easy axis of magnetization with coercive fields in the range of a few hundred mT was observed. In contrast, samples which were additionally heated for 1 h at 700 °C revealed an out-of-plane easy axis of magnetization with an effective magnetic anisotropy of about 2×105 J/m3 for the sample containing 10 at% of Cu. - Highlights: • Fabrication by two-step annealing of FePdCu thin alloy films. • The impact of post-annealing on the structural and magnetic properties of FePdCu alloy films. • The addition of Cu to the FePd alloy has a strong influence on the chemical ordering process and the (001) texture formation. • Importance of texture in polycrystalline L10 FePdCu alloy for perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

  14. Structural and magnetic properties of Cu-alloyed FePd films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polit, A., E-mail: aleksander.polit@gmail.com [The H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-348 Krakow (Poland); Makarov, D., E-mail: d.makarov@ifw-dresden.de [Chemnitz University of Technology, Institute of Physics, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Brombacher, C., E-mail: Christoph.Brombacher@vacuumschmelze.com [Chemnitz University of Technology, Institute of Physics, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Krupinski, M., E-mail: michal.krupinski@ifj.edu.pl [The H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-348 Krakow (Poland); Perzanowski, M., E-mail: marcin.perzanowski@ifj.edu.pl [The H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-348 Krakow (Poland); Zabila, Y., E-mail: yevhen.zabila@ifj.edu.pl [The H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-348 Krakow (Poland); Albrecht, M., E-mail: manfred.albrecht@physik.uni-augsburg.de [Chemnitz University of Technology, Institute of Physics, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Marszałek, M., E-mail: marta.marszalek@ifj.edu.pl [The H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-348 Krakow (Poland)

    2015-05-01

    Multilayer films [Cu(d Å)/Fe(9 Å)/Pd(11 Å)]{sub 5} were deposited at room temperature on Si(001)/SiO{sub 2}(400 nm) substrates. In order to induce chemical L1{sub 0} ordering, the as-deposited samples were post-annealed by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 600 °C for 90 s followed additionally by heating in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) at 700 °C up to several hours. In this study the impact of post-annealing on the structural and magnetic properties of FePdCu alloy films in dependence on the Cu content was investigated. It was found that the addition of Cu to the FePd alloy has a strong influence on the chemical ordering process and the (001) texture formation. After the RTA treatment only an isotropic distribution of the easy axis of magnetization with coercive fields in the range of a few hundred mT was observed. In contrast, samples which were additionally heated for 1 h at 700 °C revealed an out-of-plane easy axis of magnetization with an effective magnetic anisotropy of about 2×10{sup 5} J/m{sup 3} for the sample containing 10 at% of Cu. - Highlights: • Fabrication by two-step annealing of FePdCu thin alloy films. • The impact of post-annealing on the structural and magnetic properties of FePdCu alloy films. • The addition of Cu to the FePd alloy has a strong influence on the chemical ordering process and the (001) texture formation. • Importance of texture in polycrystalline L1{sub 0} FePdCu alloy for perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

  15. Effects of interfacial transition layers on the electrical properties of individual Fe 30 Co 61 Cu 9 /Cu multilayer nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Hongbin

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we accurately measure the electrical properties of individual Fe30Co61Cu9/Cu multilayered nanowires using nanomanipulators in in situ scanning electron microscopy to reveal that interfacial transition layers are influential in determining their transport behaviors. We investigate the morphology, crystal structure and chemistry of the Fe30Co61Cu9/Cu multilayered nanowires to characterize them at the nanoscale. We also compare the transport properties of these multilayered nanowires to those of individual pure Cu nanowires and to those of alloy Fe30Co61Cu9 nanowires. The multilayered nanowires with a 50 nm diameter had a remarkable resistivity of approximately 5.41 × 10-7 Ω m and a failure current density of 1.54 × 1011 A m-2. Detailed analysis of the electrical data reveals that interfacial transition layers influence the electrical properties of multilayered nanowires and are likely to have a strong impact on the life of nanodevices. This work contributes to a basic understanding of the electrical parameters of individual magnetic multilayered nanowires for their application as functional building blocks and interconnecting leads in nanodevices and nanoelectronics, and also provides a clear physical picture of a single multilayered nanowire which explains its electrical resistance and its source of giant magnetoresistance. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  16. Microstructural and magnetic characterizations of CoFeCu electrodeposited in self-assembled mesoporous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortas, G., E-mail: g.fortas@gmail.com [Centre de Recherche en Technologie des Semi-conducteur pour l’Energétique, Bd. 2 Frantz Fanon, les sept merveilles B.P.140, Alger (Algeria); Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, Faculté des Physique, BP 32 El Alia 16111 Bab Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Haine, N. [Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, Faculté des Physique, BP 32 El Alia 16111 Bab Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Sam, S.; Gabouze, N. [Centre de Recherche en Technologie des Semi-conducteur pour l’Energétique, Bd. 2 Frantz Fanon, les sept merveilles B.P.140, Alger (Algeria); Saifi, A. [Université Mouloud Mammeri, laboratoire de physique et de chimie quantique, BP No. 17 RP Hasnaoua Tizi-Ouzou 15000 (Algeria); Ouir, S. [Université Said SDB, Route De Soumaa BP 270, Blida (Algeria); Menari, H. [Centre de Recherche en Technologie des Semi-conducteur pour l’Energétique, Bd. 2 Frantz Fanon, les sept merveilles B.P.140, Alger (Algeria)

    2015-03-15

    Self-assembled mesoporous silicon with quasi-regular pore arrangements has been fabricated by the electrochemical anodization process in hydrofluoric acid solution. CoFeCu was electrodeposited in this structure from a bath containing sodium acetate as a complexing agent with a pH value of 5. The effect of current density on the morphology, the structure and the magnetic properties of CoFeCu deposit was studied by SEM, EDS, DRX and VSM. It has been shown that the morphology and structure of samples were strongly influenced by the current density and etching duration. The micrographs show the vertical and branched nanowires and also a discontinuous growth of wires. Further, the growth of a thick layer from the grain boundaries of released CoFeCu wires is produced. The magnetic hysteresis loops demonstrate that the CoFeCu nanowires exhibit easy magnetic axis perpendicular to the PS channels axis when the current density varied from 3 to 10 mA/cm{sup 2}. Nevertheless, they reveal a no magnetic anisotropy of CoFeCu nanostructures deposited only in the outside of porous silicon, probably due to the vanishing the shape anisotropy. - Highlights: • CoFeCu deposit has been electrodeposited on self assembled mesoporous silicon. • SEM observation shows that CoFeCu embedded in Porous silicon channels. • Magnetic measurements show the anisotropy magnetic behavior of CoFeCu nanostructures. • The growth rate of nanowires is enhanced with an increase of current density.

  17. Sequestration of chelated copper by structural Fe(II): Reductive decomplexation and transformation of Cu(II)-EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongping; Wu, Deli; Zhao, Linghui; Luo, Cong; Dai, Chaomeng; Zhang, Yalei

    2016-05-15

    Chelated coppers, such as Cu(II)-EDTA, are characteristically refractory and difficult to break down because of their high stability and solubility. Cu(II)-EDTA sequestration by structural Fe(II) (Fe(II)) was investigated intensively in this study. Up to 101.21mgCu(II)/gFe(II) was obtained by Fe(II) in chelated copper sequestration under near neutral pH condition (pH 7.70). The mechanism of Cu(II)-EDTA sequestration by Fe(II) was concluded as follows: 3Cu(II)-EDTA+7Fe(II)+9H2O → Cu(0)↓+ Cu2O↓(the major product)+2Fe2O3·H2O↓+3Fe(II)-EDTA +14H(+) Novel results strongly indicate that Cu(II) reductive transformation induced by surface Fe(II) was mainly responsible for chelated copper sequestration. Cu(0) generation was initially facilitated, and subsequent reduction of Cu(II) into Cu(I) was closely combined with the gradual increase of ORP (Oxidation-Reduction Potential). Cu-containing products were inherently stable, but Cu2O would be reoxidized to Cu(II) with extra-aeration, resulting in the release of copper, which was beneficial to Cu reclamation. Concentration diminution of Cu(II)-EDTA within the electric double layer and competitive adsorption were responsible for the negative effects of Ca(2+), Mg(2+). By generating vivianite, PO4(3-) was found to decrease surface Fe(II) content. This study is among the first ones to identify the indispensible role of reductive decomplexation in chelated copper sequestration. Given the high feasibility and reactivity, Fe(II) may provide a potential alternative in chelated metals pollution controlling. PMID:26878707

  18. Effect of Boron and Cerium on Corrosion Resistance of Cu -Fe -P Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jin; Lu, Lei; Lu, De-ping; Liu, Ke-Ming; Chen, Zhi-bao; Zhai, Qi-jie

    2016-03-01

    The effects of B and Ce on the corrosion resistance of Cu-0.22Fe-0.06P alloy were investigated by salt spray and electrochemical tests. The corrosion morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The corrosion products were characterized by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis. The impurity content was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The conductivity was measured using an eddy current conductivity meter. The grains of Cu-0.22Fe-0.06P alloy were refined by the addition of B and Ce. The electrochemical corrosion process of alloy is retarded due to purification effect of B and Ce. After the addition of a trace amount of B, the corrosion resistance of the alloy decreased. The corrosion resistance of Cu-0.22Fe-0.06P-0.025B-0.05Ce was better than that of Cu-0.22Fe-0.06P-0.025B due to the fact that the purification effect of Ce is better than that of B. The main corrosion products of the Cu-Fe-P alloys in a NaCl solution are Cu2Cl(OH)3 and Cu2O. The addition of trace amounts of B and Ce did not change the components of the corrosion product.

  19. Fe and Co nanostructures embedded into the Cu(100) surface: Self-Organization and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The self-organization and magnetic properties of small iron and cobalt nanostructures embedded into the first layer of a Cu(100) surface are investigated using the self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo method and density functional theory. The similarities and differences between the Fe/Cu(100) and the Co/Cu(100) are underlined. The time evolution of magnetic properties of a copper monolayer with embedded magnetic atoms at 380 K is discussed

  20. Fe and Co nanostructures embedded into the Cu(100) surface: Self-Organization and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolesnikov, S. V., E-mail: kolesnikov@physics.msu.ru; Klavsyuk, A. L.; Saletsky, A. M. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    The self-organization and magnetic properties of small iron and cobalt nanostructures embedded into the first layer of a Cu(100) surface are investigated using the self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo method and density functional theory. The similarities and differences between the Fe/Cu(100) and the Co/Cu(100) are underlined. The time evolution of magnetic properties of a copper monolayer with embedded magnetic atoms at 380 K is discussed.

  1. Fe and Co nanostructures embedded into the Cu(100) surface: Self-Organization and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, S. V.; Klavsyuk, A. L.; Saletsky, A. M.

    2015-10-01

    The self-organization and magnetic properties of small iron and cobalt nanostructures embedded into the first layer of a Cu(100) surface are investigated using the self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo method and density functional theory. The similarities and differences between the Fe/Cu(100) and the Co/Cu(100) are underlined. The time evolution of magnetic properties of a copper monolayer with embedded magnetic atoms at 380 K is discussed.

  2. Transport of 125I in compacted GMZ bentonite containing Fe-oxides, Fe-minerals or Cu2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic investigation of the transport of 125I in compacted GMZ bentonite containing Fe-Oxides, Fe-minerals or Cu2O additive was carried out by through diffusion method. The obtained results indicate that all of the additives have positive effects on retarding the 125I diffusion in compacted GMZ bentonite. Especially for the Cu2O additive, the corresponding effective diffusion coefficient is greatly reduced. It is mainly attributed to the particular interactions between the metal ions introduced by additives and iodide ions. (author)

  3. Overlapping solid solubility in mechanically alloyed Fe-Ni and Fe-Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, P. J.; Palshin, V.; Tittsworth, R. C.; He, J. H.; Ma, E.

    2003-12-01

    Solid solutions formed by mechanical alloying in the negative heat of mixing Fe-Ni system and the positive heat of mixing Fe-Cu system were studied. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy data were analyzed to obtain the phase fractions and phase compositions for various overall compositions across the bcc/fcc two-phase region. For both systems, at each nominal composition of the powder mixture, the two solutions formed both have the same composition as the overall alloy. It is concluded that the two-phase coexistence represents an extended region of overlapping solubility for the two phases, rather than the usual two-phase region or a clear switchover at the concentration where the two phases have the same free energy. In terms of these features, the two binary systems, one with negative heat of mixing and one with positive heat of mixing, behave the same way. The external forcing action of mechanical alloying at low temperatures drives the system toward composition homogenization. There is no stable or metastable equilibrium, and the common tangent construction and lever rule are not applicable. What results is a novel two-phase coexistence which is defined by a region of overlapping solubility, rather than the normal solubility gap. That there can be two polymorphs at each composition even after the long ball-milling treatment represents a new type of steady-state two-phase coexistence that is completely different from the normal two-phase region dictated by thermodynamics.

  4. Overlapping solid solubility in mechanically alloyed Fe-Ni and Fe-Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid solutions formed by mechanical alloying in the negative heat of mixing Fe-Ni system and the positive heat of mixing Fe-Cu system were studied. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy data were analyzed to obtain the phase fractions and phase compositions for various overall compositions across the bcc/fcc two-phase region. For both systems, at each nominal composition of the powder mixture, the two solutions formed both have the same composition as the overall alloy. It is concluded that the two-phase coexistence represents an extended region of overlapping solubility for the two phases, rather than the usual two-phase region or a clear switchover at the concentration where the two phases have the same free energy. In terms of these features, the two binary systems, one with negative heat of mixing and one with positive heat of mixing, behave the same way. The external forcing action of mechanical alloying at low temperatures drives the system toward composition homogenization. There is no stable or metastable equilibrium, and the common tangent construction and lever rule are not applicable. What results is a novel two-phase coexistence which is defined by a region of overlapping solubility, rather than the normal solubility gap. That there can be two polymorphs at each composition even after the long ball-milling treatment represents a new type of steady-state two-phase coexistence that is completely different from the normal two-phase region dictated by thermodynamics

  5. Cu-doping effect on structure and magnetic properties of Fe-doped ZnO powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Huilian [Institute of Condensed State Physics, Jilin Normal University, Siping 136000 (China); Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Physics and Chemistry (Jilin Normal University), Ministry of Education, Siping 136000 (China); Yang Jinghai, E-mail: jhyang1@jlnu.edu.cn [Institute of Condensed State Physics, Jilin Normal University, Siping 136000 (China); Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Physics and Chemistry (Jilin Normal University), Ministry of Education, Siping 136000 (China); Hua Zhong; Liu Yang; Yang Lili; Zhang Yongjun; Cao Jian [Institute of Condensed State Physics, Jilin Normal University, Siping 136000 (China); Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Physics and Chemistry (Jilin Normal University), Ministry of Education, Siping 136000 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Both Fe-doped and Cu, Fe co-doped ZnO DMS powder samples were successfully synthesized by sol-gel method. {yields} We have introduced the 'decomposing citrate technique' and 'the reaction mechanism' in details. {yields} Comparison with the results of the XRD and EXAFS spectra, we can further testify that Fe atoms have already dissolved into the ZnO lattice without forming iron oxide. {yields} The analysis results revealed that the ferromagnetism of the Zn0.97Fe0.03O in this study was itself property of Fe-doped ZnO and not originated from the secondary phase. The incorporation of Cu reduced the saturation magnetization of Fe-doped ZnO diluted magnetic semiconductors. - Abstract: Fe-doped and Cu, Fe co-doped ZnO diluted magnetic semiconductors powders were synthesized by sol-gel method. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that Zn{sub 0.97-x}Fe{sub 0.03}Cu{sub x}O (x {<=} 0.02) samples were single phase with the ZnO-like wurtzite structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} existed in Zn{sub 0.97}Fe{sub 0.03}O, while Fe{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+}and Cu{sup +}, Cu{sup 2+} were found in Zn{sub 0.95}Fe{sub 0.03}Cu{sub 0.02}O. Both Zn{sub 0.97}Fe{sub 0.03}O and Zn{sub 0.95}Fe{sub 0.03}Cu{sub 0.02}O exhibited ferromagnetic performance at room temperature. But the Cu incorporation reduced the saturation magnetization of Fe-doped ZnO diluted magnetic semiconductors.

  6. [Cu2R2BrLi(thf)3], R = Si(SiMe3)3–a complex containing five-coordinate silicon in a three-centre two-electron bond (thf = tetrahydrofuran)

    OpenAIRE

    Heine, Andreas; Herbst-Irmer, Regine; Stalke, Dietmar

    1993-01-01

    The title compound is obtained from the reaction of (Me3Si)3SiLi(thf)3 with CuBr in n-hexane and structurally characterised by X-ray diffraction; in [Cu2R2BrLi(thf)3], R = Si(SiMe3)3 one silyl ligand is bridging a very short Cu–Cu bond, resulting in a three-centre two-electron bond, while the second is terminally bound to copper; the other copper atom is linked to a lithium atom via a Cu Br Li bridge.

  7. Geomaterials related to photovoltaics: a nanostructured Fe-bearing kuramite, Cu3SnS4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Benedetto, Francesco; Bencistà, Ilaria; D'Acapito, Francesco; Frizzera, Silvia; Caneschi, Andrea; Innocenti, Massimo; Lavacchi, Alessandro; Montegrossi, Giordano; Oberhauser, Werner; Romanelli, Maurizio; Dittrich, Herbert; Pardi, Luca A.; Tippelt, Gerold; Amthauer, Georg

    2016-05-01

    The successful synthesis of nanoparticles of Fe-bearing kuramite, (Cu,Fe)3SnS4, is reported in this study. Nanocrystalline powders were obtained through a mild, environmentally friendly and scalable solvothermal approach, in a single run. The sample was the object of a multidisciplinary investigation, including X-ray diffraction and absorption, scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis, electron paramagnetic resonance, diffuse reflectance and Mössbauer spectroscopy as well as SQUID magnetometry. The nanoparticles consist of pure Fe-bearing kuramite, exhibiting tetragonal structure. The valence state of the metal cations was assessed to be Cu+, Sn4+ and Fe3+. The material presents a band gap value of 1.6 eV, which is fully compatible with solar cell applications. The uptake of Fe by nanokuramite opens a compositional field where the physical properties can be tuned. We thus foster the application of Fe-bearing nanokuramite for photovoltaics and energy storage purposes.

  8. Magnetic analysis of a melt-spun Fe-dilute Cu60Ag35Fe5 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic properties of a melt-spun Fe-dilute Cu60Ag35Fe5 alloy are examined by X-ray diffraction, magnetic measurements, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The X-ray diffraction patterns show that the as-spun and annealed (773 K×36 ks) samples contain Cu and Ag phases and no Fe phases; thus, most Fe atoms are dispersed as clusters. Magnetic measurements indicate that the as-spun and annealed samples exhibit superparamagnetic behavior at 300 K, whereas ferromagnetic and superparamagnetic behaviors coexist at 4.2 K. The magnetic moments of small clusters at 300 K are determined by the nonlinear least squares method as 5148 and 4671 μB for as-spun and annealed samples, respectively, whereas those at 300 K are experimentally determined as 3500 and 3200 μB. This decrease in magnetic moments may imply the formation of anti-ferromagnetic coupling by annealing. TEM observation of the melt-spun sample suggests that there are three regions with different compositions: Cu-rich, Ag-rich, and Fe-rich with no precipitation in the matrix. In addition, these regions have obscure interfaces. The magnetic clusters are attributed to the Fe-rich regions

  9. The anomaly Cu doping effects on LiFeAs superconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, L. Y.; Miao, H.; X.C. Wang; Ma, J.; Liu, Q. Q.; Deng, Z; Ding, H.; Jin, C. Q.

    2014-01-01

    The Cu substitution effect on the superconductivity of LiFeAs has been studied in comparison with Co/Ni substitution. It is found that the shrinking rate of the lattice parameter c for Cu substitution is much smaller than that of Co/Ni substitution. This is in conjugation with the observation of ARPES that shows almost the same electron and hole Fermi surfaces (FSs) size for undoped and Cu substituted LiFeAs sample except for a very small hole band sinking below Fermi level with doping, indic...

  10. Interfacial magnetism and exchange coupling in BiFeO3–CuO nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferromagnetic BiFeO3 nanocrystals of average size 9 nm were used to form a composite with antiferromagnetic CuO nanosheets, with the composition (x)BiFeO3/(100−x)CuO, x = 0, 20, 40, 50, 60, 80 and 100. The dispersion of BiFeO3 nanocrystals into the CuO matrix was confirmed by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The ferromagnetic ordering as observed in pure BiFeO3 occurs mainly due to the reduction in the particle size as compared to the wavelength (62 nm) of the spiral modulated spin structure of the bulk BiFeO3. Surface spin disorder of BiFeO3 nanocrystals gives rise to an exponential behavior of magnetization with temperature. Strong magnetic exchange coupling between the BiFeO3 nanocrystal and the CuO matrix induces an interfacial superparamagnetic phase with a blocking temperature of about 80 K. Zero field and field cooled magnetizations are analyzed by a ferromagnetic core and disordered spin shell model. The temperature dependence of the calculated saturation magnetization exhibits three magnetic contributions in three temperature regimes. The BiFeO3/CuO nanocomposites reveal an exchange bias effect below 170 K. The maximum exchange bias field HEB is 1841 Oe for x = 50 at 5 K under field cooling of 50 kOe. The exchange bias coupling results in an increase of coercivity of 1934 Oe at 5 K. Blocked spins within an interfacial region give rise to a remarkable exchange bias effect in the nanocomposite due to strong magnetic exchange coupling between the BiFeO3 nanocrystals and the CuO nanosheets. (paper)

  11. Atomic-partial vibrational density of states of i-AlCuFe quasicrystals

    CERN Document Server

    Parshin, P P; Brand, R A; Dianoux, A J; Calvayrac, Y

    2002-01-01

    We present new results on the separation of the atomic-partial vibrational density of states for the ternary quasicrystal i-Al sub 6 sub 2 Cu sub 2 sub 5 sub . sub 5 Fe sub 1 sub 2 sub . sub 5. The decomposition into three atomic-partial functions, Al-, Cu- and Fe-g(E), has been performed self-consistently with the calculation of the multi-phonon contributions. The results show the surprising result that both Cu- and Fe-g(E) are strongly peaked. The low-energy regions of Al- and Cu-g(E) show strong deviations from Debye behaviour due to the presence of non-propagating low-energy vibrational states. (orig.)

  12. Study on the structure, morphology and properties of Fe-doped Cu3N films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fe-doped Cu3N films were prepared by cylindrical magnetron sputtering equipment at room temperature. The doping of Fe with the proper concentration results in a change in the preferred growth orientation from the Cu-rich plane (1 1 1) to the N-rich plane (1 0 0), which relates to the evolution of the surface grain shape from pyramid to sphere. Excessive doping of Fe is not favourable for the crystallization of Cu3N films. The cross-sections of the doped films with preferred growth orientations of [1 0 0] exhibit regular columnar grains. The variation between the lattice constant and the XPS results reveals that Fe probably replaces the position of Cu atoms in the lattice or is segregated in the grain boundaries. Weaker bonding of Cu–N results in a reduction of thermal stability for Fe-doped Cu3N films. And the incorporation of Fe can effectively modify the energy gap. According to the variations in the mean grain size, the peak of N1s and the energy gap, it is inferred that a doping limitation exists around 2.0 at%. (paper)

  13. Structure and magnetic properties of Fe63.5Co10Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 alloy

    OpenAIRE

    D. Szewieczek; T. Raszka

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: In this paper results of experience of influence a structure (amorphous, amorphous after structuralrelaxation and nanocrystal) and influence a corrosion medium, which was 1 M solution NaCl, on magneticproperties (initial magnetic permeability μp, relative magnetic permeability μw, coercive field Hc, remanenceBr and saturation magnetisation Bs) on Fe63.5Co10Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 alloy have been presented.Design/methodology/approach: The material was obtained by the method of rapid cooling fr...

  14. TEM study of microstructural development during heating in a nanolaminated amorphous ZrAlCuFe/crystalline CuCoFeNi composite structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Microstructural transformation in amorphous/crystalline structure was studied. • Amorphous/crystalline structure was stable during heating up to 600 °C. • Transformation of the amorphous/crystalline structure occurred at temperatures above 600 °C. • Heating of the non-equilibrium multicomponent system produced complex patterns. • Heating at 900 °C produced a new morphologically complex nanocomposite structure. - Abstract: A nanolaminated amorphous/crystalline composite structure with a mean lamellar thickness of around 10 nm was fabricated on a Cu plate. The crystalline phase was a multicomponent non-equilibrium face-centered cubic (fcc) Cu(CoFeNi) solid solution, and the amorphous phase was a Zr-based compound containing Al, Cu, and Fe. The composite’s thermal stability and microstructural transformation was studied over the temperature range of 200–900 °C. The lamellae maintained their shape during heating up to 600 °C. Transformation of the structure began with separation of the elements inside the crystalline lamellae. In early stages of the transformation, hardening occurred. At 600 °C, an interconnected CoFe phase started to appear with an ordered body-centered cubic (bcc) crystal structure. When the temperature was increased further, the nanolaminated structure degraded and the bcc CoFe phase grew. At 750 °C, the bcc CoFe phase formed a complex network that surrounded the formerly amorphous regions, and the bcc CoFe phase started transforming to the fcc configuration. The Cu atoms segregated to the grain boundaries of the fcc CoFe(Ni) phase. The amorphous phase gradually crystallized into nanometer-sized polycrystalline grains that were attributed to the Zr(Al)O2 phase. As a result of these transformations, heating at 900 °C produced a morphologically complex nanocomposite structure consisting of branched grains of Zr(Al)O2 and fcc CoFe(Ni) with Cu inclusions. When the nanolaminated structure had completely transformed

  15. TEM study of microstructural development during heating in a nanolaminated amorphous ZrAlCuFe/crystalline CuCoFeNi composite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romankov, S., E-mail: romankovs@mail.ru [Chonbuk National University, 664-14 Duckjin-dong, Jeonju 561756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Y.C., E-mail: parkyc@nnfc.re.kr [National Nanofab Center, 53-3 Eoeun-dong, Daejeon 305806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Microstructural transformation in amorphous/crystalline structure was studied. • Amorphous/crystalline structure was stable during heating up to 600 °C. • Transformation of the amorphous/crystalline structure occurred at temperatures above 600 °C. • Heating of the non-equilibrium multicomponent system produced complex patterns. • Heating at 900 °C produced a new morphologically complex nanocomposite structure. - Abstract: A nanolaminated amorphous/crystalline composite structure with a mean lamellar thickness of around 10 nm was fabricated on a Cu plate. The crystalline phase was a multicomponent non-equilibrium face-centered cubic (fcc) Cu(CoFeNi) solid solution, and the amorphous phase was a Zr-based compound containing Al, Cu, and Fe. The composite’s thermal stability and microstructural transformation was studied over the temperature range of 200–900 °C. The lamellae maintained their shape during heating up to 600 °C. Transformation of the structure began with separation of the elements inside the crystalline lamellae. In early stages of the transformation, hardening occurred. At 600 °C, an interconnected CoFe phase started to appear with an ordered body-centered cubic (bcc) crystal structure. When the temperature was increased further, the nanolaminated structure degraded and the bcc CoFe phase grew. At 750 °C, the bcc CoFe phase formed a complex network that surrounded the formerly amorphous regions, and the bcc CoFe phase started transforming to the fcc configuration. The Cu atoms segregated to the grain boundaries of the fcc CoFe(Ni) phase. The amorphous phase gradually crystallized into nanometer-sized polycrystalline grains that were attributed to the Zr(Al)O{sub 2} phase. As a result of these transformations, heating at 900 °C produced a morphologically complex nanocomposite structure consisting of branched grains of Zr(Al)O{sub 2} and fcc CoFe(Ni) with Cu inclusions. When the nanolaminated structure had completely

  16. The lattice structure of nanocrystalline Fe-Cu-Si-B alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X. D.; Lu, K.; Ding, B. Z.; Hu, Z. Q.; Zhu, J.; Jiang, J.

    1994-02-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe-Cu-Si-B alloys with different grain sizes were synthesized by crystallization of an amorphous alloy. Two nanophases, α-Fe(Se) and Fe 2B, were noticed in all samples. XRD results reveal that the lattice constant of the α-Fe(Si) phase increases; the a-axis is elongated and the c-axis is shortened in the Fe 2B phase upon reducing the grain size. Based on the thermodynamic analysis, the changes in the lattice parameters were attributed to the solution of vacancies in the above two phases. Owing to the lattice distortion of the α-Fe(Si) and Fe 2B phases, the crystallite with small size is found to exhibit a disordered character to some extent, which is manifested by large values of the half linewidth (HLW) and isomer shift (IS) of various Fe configurations in the Mössbauer parameters.

  17. The microstructure of liquid immiscible Fe-Cu-based in situ formed amorphous/crystalline composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the microstructures of slowly and rapidly cooled liquid of the immiscible alloy Fe30Cu32Ni10Si13Sn4B9Y2 two distinct regions were observed following arc melting and slow cooling, confirming that liquid/liquid phase separation had occurred. Rapid cooling from a temperature within the liquid immiscibility gap, melt spinning, resulted in an amorphous/crystalline composite, formed from the previously melted Fe- and Cu-rich regions, respectively. Transmission electron microscopic studies of this melt-spun ribbon revealed the glassy nature of the Fe-rich matrix, as well as of the Fe-rich spheres formed within the previously existing Cu-rich liquid

  18. Changes in the real structure and magnetoresistance of Co90Fe10/Cu and Co90Fe10/Cu85Ag10Au5 multilayers after annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annealing of the (1.1 nm Co90Fe10/2.2 nm Cu)x20 and (1.1 nm Co90Fe10/2.2 nm Cu85Ag10Au5)x20 multilayers at 235 deg. C improved their magnetoresistance as compared to the virgin samples. Annealing at higher temperatures resulted in degradation of the magnetoresistance effect. This observation raised the motivation of a detailed structural study using small-angle X-ray scattering, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, electron diffraction and transmission electron microscopy with the aim to link the structural changes in the system to the changes in the magnetoresistance. The structure studies have shown that the maximum of the magnetoresistance observed after annealing at 235 deg. C is related to the separation of Co90Fe10 and Cu, which are partly intermixed at interfaces after the deposition process. The decay of the GMR effect at higher annealing temperatures is caused by an increase of the interface roughness, which led in the Co90Fe10/Cu multilayers to occurrence of non-continuous interfaces and to short-circuiting of magnetic layers. In the Cu85Ag10Au5 multilayers, the combination of small-angle X-ray scattering and wide-angle X-ray diffraction has shown that Cu85Ag10Au5 did not form an alloy with the nominal composition: Only a part of Au and Ag was dissolved in the copper structure; the remainder of Ag and Au formed precipitates

  19. Enhanced UV Photocatalytic Performance of Magnetic Fe3O4/CuO/ZnO/NGP Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tju, Hendry; Taufik, Ardiansyah; Saleh, Rosari

    2016-04-01

    Fe3O4/CuO/ZnO/nanographene platelets (Fe3O4/CuO/ZnO/NGP) with varied ZnO loadings have been synthesized using a sol-gel method followed by hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) confirmed the formation of the Fe3O4/CuO/ZnO/NGP composites. All of the samples showed the presence of graphene nanoplatelets incorporating Fe3O4, CuO and ZnO structures and exhibited ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. The composites showed photocatalytic activity under UV irradiation, which was used to affect the degradation of methylene blue. The Fe3O4/CuO/ZnO/NGP composites showed superior photocatalytic activity than the Fe3O4/CuO/ZnO materials.

  20. Magnetism and phase transformation of Cu-Fe composite oxides prepared by the sol-gel route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Z. H.; Jin, S. H. [Dalian University of Technology, Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering (China); Wang, J. H. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Moessbauer Effect Data Center, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (China); Liang, C. H., E-mail: changhai@dlut.edu.cn [Dalian University of Technology, Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering (China)

    2013-04-15

    The Cu-Fe composite oxides were prepared by an epoxide assisted sol-gel route. The structural and magnetic properties of Cu-Fe composite oxides calcinated at different temperatures were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Moessbauer spectroscopy measurements, and magnetic measurements. These results indicated that CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was only formed as calcination temperature increased to 500 Degree-Sign C, and a crystalline phase transformation from c-CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} to t-CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} occurred in elevating calcination temperature above it. All Cu-Fe oxides had ferromagnetic nature, and the significant superparamagnetic behavior was observed in the results of magnetic and Moessbauer spectroscopy measurements.

  1. Cu-doping effect on structure and magnetic properties of Fe-doped ZnO powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Both Fe-doped and Cu, Fe co-doped ZnO DMS powder samples were successfully synthesized by sol-gel method. → We have introduced the 'decomposing citrate technique' and 'the reaction mechanism' in details. → Comparison with the results of the XRD and EXAFS spectra, we can further testify that Fe atoms have already dissolved into the ZnO lattice without forming iron oxide. → The analysis results revealed that the ferromagnetism of the Zn0.97Fe0.03O in this study was itself property of Fe-doped ZnO and not originated from the secondary phase. The incorporation of Cu reduced the saturation magnetization of Fe-doped ZnO diluted magnetic semiconductors. - Abstract: Fe-doped and Cu, Fe co-doped ZnO diluted magnetic semiconductors powders were synthesized by sol-gel method. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that Zn0.97-xFe0.03CuxO (x ≤ 0.02) samples were single phase with the ZnO-like wurtzite structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that Fe2+ and Fe3+ existed in Zn0.97Fe0.03O, while Fe2+, Fe3+and Cu+, Cu2+ were found in Zn0.95Fe0.03Cu0.02O. Both Zn0.97Fe0.03O and Zn0.95Fe0.03Cu0.02O exhibited ferromagnetic performance at room temperature. But the Cu incorporation reduced the saturation magnetization of Fe-doped ZnO diluted magnetic semiconductors.

  2. Fabrication of Ag, FeNi, Cu Thin Film for Magnetic Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been fabricated a Ag, FeNi, Cu thin film by sputtering method. The thin film material is deposited on the glass substrate heated from 100 oC to 400 oC having dimensions of 2.5 x 1 cm2. The sputtering time of Ag, FeNi and Cu materials are 10 minutes respectively operating voltage is 2.5 kV and electrode distance 2.5 cm. The FeNi material is alloy having ratio 70% : 30%, that is the best composition formed by previous observer. On the glass substrate, there are four layers such as: the first is FeNi, second Cu, third FeNi, and the fourth, Ag. During the sputtering process the power was 40 Watts (2 kV, 20 mA). The thin film Ag, FeNi, CuFeNi was varied for variation of sputtering to get the optimum conditions of parameter process. From the sputtering result, it was produced thin films having resistivity Ro in range of 5 to 48 Ohm (magnetron operating varied magnetic field). To measure resistance influenced the external magnetic field the thin film yields was put on the external magnetic field included four points probe system. The result showed that there was some changes of the resistances (Ro - R)/ Ro % between 10 to 14 % with error 7 - 10 %. (author)

  3. Structural and magnetic investigation of In2Fe2−xGaxCuO7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solid solution of In2Fe2−xGaxCuO7 (space group P63/mmc) was synthesized and investigated through X-ray diffraction and magnetic susceptibility studies. Limited changes to the lattice parameters were observed as a result of the similar ionic radii for Fe3+ and Ga3+ in the trigonal bipyramidal (TBP) crystallographic site. An increase in the Weiss temperature, along with spin glass behavior are observed from x=0 to x=2, but irregularities in the trend are apparent for x=0.75 and 1. With the highest concentration in magnetic ions, In2Fe2CuO7 appears to have competing nearest neighbor interactions that produce a suppression of the Curie tail and the experimental magnetic moment. In comparison to InFe1−xGaxCuO4, both solid solutions show an invariable progression of the lattice parameters, but the magnetic properties are greatly affected by the distinct TBP layering schemes. - Graphical abstract: Solid solution of In2Fe2−xGaxCuO7 has been synthesized and analyzed with powder X-ray diffraction and DC magnetic susceptibility studies. The magnetic ground state has been investigated through cation substitution and compared to that of InFe1−xGaxCuO4. Highlights: • The complete solid solution of In2Fe2−xGaxCuO7 has been synthesized. • Limited changes in the lattice parameters were observed through XRD refinements. • Spin glass magnetic interactions were found to depend on Fe3+ content. • The layering of the TBP greatly affects the observed magnetic interactions

  4. High-quality Ni-Fe/Cu multilayer films with antiferromagnetic coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report structural and magnetic properties of Ni83Fe17/Cu multilayer films with various buffer layer and sublayer thicknesses of copper dCu and Permalloy dPy deposited by face-to-face sputtering. The following features prove a good quality of our films: a wall-layered structure, complete antiferromagnetic coupling with a low coupling strength (2 x 10-5 J/m2 for dCu = 1 nm and 10-6 J/m2 for dCu = 2.1 nm) and a low coercive field with make them attractive for possible applications as giant magnetoresistance sensors. (author)

  5. Facile synthesis and excellent recyclable photocatalytic activity of pine cone-like Fe3O4@Cu2O/Cu porous nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haisheng; Hu, Yongan; Jiang, Yang; Qiu, Lingguang; Wu, Haibin; Guo, Ben; Shen, Yuhua; Wang, Yang; Zhu, Ling; Xie, Anjian

    2013-04-14

    L-Cys-modified Fe3O4 was first prepared by a one-step partially-reduced method under mild conditions. Then, novel pine cone-like Fe3O4@Cu2O/Cu nanocomposites (NCs) with photomagnetic difunction were successfully synthesized via a one-pot solvothermal method on Fe3O4 without any additional linker or reducer. The average diameter of the as-synthesized products was about 4 μm, and the products were orderly assembled into many sheets with an average thickness of ~100 nm, possessing a porous structure. A possible formation mechanism of Fe3O4@Cu2O/Cu NCs involving interfacial recognization of ions, nucleation, aggregation, in situ transformation from Cu2O to Cu and Ostwald ripening process is proposed. The pine cone-like porous composites show excellent photocatalytic activity such that MO degradation efficiency is about 96% at an irradiation time of 20 min under visible light. Also, the composites present higher stability than Fe3O4@Cu2O and do not exhibit any significant loss after five recycles for the photodegradation of MO. The above results demonstrate that Cu could improve the photocatalytic activity of NCs and also inhibit the photocorrosion behavior of NCs. These novel Fe3O4@Cu2O/Cu composite materials are ideal candidates in water treatment and environmental cleaning as well as in magnetic applications, etc. PMID:23380894

  6. Assessment of Post-eutectic Reactions in Multicomponent Al-Si Foundry Alloys Containing Cu, Mg, and Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidani, Mousa; Larouche, Daniel; Grant Chen, X.

    2015-07-01

    Post-eutectic reactions occurring in Al-Si hypoeutectic alloys containing different proportions of Cu, Mg, and Fe were thoroughly investigated in the current study. As-cast microstructures were initially studied by optical and electron microscopy to investigate the microconstituents of each alloy. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was then used to examine the phase transformations occurring during the heating and cooling processes. Thermodynamic calculations were carried out to assess the phase formation under equilibrium and in nonequilibrium conditions. The Q-Al5Cu2Mg8Si6 phase was predicted to precipitate from the liquid phase, either at the same temperature or earlier than the θ-Al2Cu phase depending on the Cu content of the alloy. The AlCuFe-intermetallic, which was hardly observed in the as-cast microstructure, significantly increased after the solution heat treatment in the alloys containing high Cu and Fe contents following a solid-state transformation of the β-Al5FeSi phase. After the solution heat treatment, the AlCuFe-intermetallics were mostly identified with the stoichiometry of the Al7Cu2Fe phase. Thermodynamic calculations and microstructure analysis helped in determining the DSC peak corresponding to the melting temperature of the N-Al7Cu2Fe phase. The effect of Cu content on the formation temperature of π-Al8Mg3FeSi6 is also discussed.

  7. TPR and TPD studies of effects of Cu and Ca promotion on Fe-Zn-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Olusola O James; Biswajit Chowdhury; Sudip Maity

    2013-05-01

    Temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) were used to study the effects of Cu and Ca promotion on Fe-Zn-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. The reduction temperature for Fe2O3 → Fe3O4 was unaffected by Ca addition but decreased when promoted with Cu. Fe-Zn promoted with Cu and Ca showed even much lower reduction temperature for Fe2O3→Fe3O4. Ca promotion enhances carburization and increases surface acidity and basicity of the Fe-Zn oxide precursor. While Cu inhibits carburization and decreases the surface acidity and basicity of the Fe-Zn oxide precursor. The implications of these effects on the application of catalysts for FT are discussed.

  8. Acetone Gas Sensing Properties of a Multiple-Networked Fe2O3-Functionalized CuO Nanorod Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunghoon Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe2O3-decorated CuO nanorods were prepared by Cu thermal oxidation followed by Fe2O3 decoration via a solvothermal route. The acetone gas sensing properties of multiple-networked pristine and Fe2O3-decorated CuO nanorod sensors were examined. The optimal operating temperature of the sensors was found to be 240°C. The pristine and Fe2O3-decorated CuO nanorod sensors showed responses of 586 and 1,090%, respectively, to 1,000 ppm of acetone at 240°C. The Fe2O3-decorated CuO nanorod sensor also showed faster response and recovery than the latter sensor. The acetone gas sensing mechanism of the Fe2O3-decorated CuO nanorod sensor is discussed in detail. The origin of the enhanced sensing performance of the multiple-networked Fe2O3-decorated CuO nanorod sensor to acetone gas was explained by modulation of the potential barrier at the Fe2O3-CuO interface, highly catalytic activity of Fe2O3 for acetone oxidation, and the creation of active adsorption sites by Fe2O3 nanoparticles.

  9. Effect of foliar applied (Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn) in citrus production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the impact of micronutrients (Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn) on sweet orange (Citrus Sinensis L.), blood red var., on farmer's orchard at Khanpur, district Haripur, NWFP, during 2002-03. Micronutrients were applied in foliar sprays over the canopy of each tree. The main effects and interactions of Zinc sulphate (Zn), iron sulphate (Fe), Copper Sulphate (Cu) and Manganese Sulphate (Mn) were studied in factorial combinations. A basal dose of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was applied at the rate 1.5, 1 and 1 kg tree/sup -1/. Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn were applied alone and in various combinations at the rate 0.115, 0.057, 0.05 and 0.13 kg in 100 liters of water. Application of micronutrients significantly increased Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn concentrations in leaves, compared with control. Zn treatments significantly increased the yield, number of fruit and total sugar. Manganese treatments significantly increased the total soluble solids and reduced the acidity of fruit juice. Other quality parameters, including fruit size, percent peel, percent pulp, sugar as well as total soluble solids, were improved with the application of Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn. (author)

  10. Magnetically Recyclable Fe3O4@His@Cu Nanocatalyst for Degradation of Azo Dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtan, U; Amir, Md; Baykal, A; Sözeri, H; Toprak, M S

    2016-03-01

    Fe3O4@His@Cu magnetic recyclable nanocatalyst (MRCs) was synthesized by reflux method using L-histidine as linker. The composition, structure and magnetic property of the product were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). Powder XRD, FT-IR and EDAX results confirmed that the as-synthesized products has Fe3O4 with spinel structure and Cu nanoparticles with moderate crystallinity without any other impurities. The surface of the Fe3O4@His nanocomposite was covered by tiny Cu nanoparticles. We examine the catalytic activity of Fe3O4@His@Cu MRCs for the degradation of two azo dyes, methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB) as well as their mixture. The reusability of the nanocatalyst was good and sustained even after 3 cycles. Therefore this innovated Fe3O4@His@Cu MRCs has a potential to be used for purification of waste water. PMID:27455668

  11. Alternative synthesis of CuFeSe2 nanocrystals with magnetic and photoelectric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenliang; Jiang, Jun; Ding, Tao; Wang, Chunde; Zuo, Jian; Yang, Qing

    2015-02-01

    Monodisperse CuFeSe2 nanocrystals of high quality have been successfully synthesized for the first time using a hot-solution injection method from the reaction of metallic acetylacetonates with diphenyl diselenide (Ph2Se2) in oleylamine with addition of oleic acid at 255 °C for 90 min. The characterizations of X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and compositional analysis reveal that the resulting CuFeSe2 nanocrystals are of tetragonal phase with a stoichiometric composition. The CuFeSe2 nanocrystals exhibit well-defined quasi-cubic shape with an average size of ∼18 nm, and their shape can be tuned from quasi-cubes to quasi-spheres by adjusting the reaction parameters. Magnetic measurement reveals that the as-synthesized CuFeSe2 nanocrystals are ferromagnetic and paramagnetic at 4 and 300 K, respectively. Additionally, the current-voltage (I-V) behavior of the CuFeSe2 nanocrystals suggests that they are promising candidates for application in optoelectronics and solar energy conversion. PMID:25562289

  12. Synthesis, Structure and Photoluminescent Properties of the 2D Coordination Polymers Based on Cu2Br2 Unit with Flexible Thioether%基于柔性硫醚与Cu2Br2单元二维配位聚合物的合成、结构和荧光性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬青; 时文娟

    2009-01-01

    A complex [Cu2Br2(L)2]2 (1) (L=bis (2-pyrimidinylthio)methane) has been synthesized and structurally characterized. Complex 1 contains dinuclear Cu2Br2 units, which are linked by ditopic L to form a 2D layer structure with a 36-membered macrometallocycle. The adjacent layers are further connected through interpyrimidyl rings C-H strong green solid-state photoluminescence, due to metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) at room temperature. CCDC: 711434.

  13. Spark plasma sintering of a nanocrystalline Al-Cu-Mg-Fe-Ni-Sc alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga, Alejandro; Ajdelsztajn, Leonardo; Lavernia, Enrique J.

    2006-04-01

    The microstructure and aging behavior of a nanocrystalline Al-Cu-Mg-Fe-Ni-Sc alloy was studied. The nanocrystalline powders were produced by milling at liquid nitrogen temperature and then consolidated using spark plasma sintering (SPS). The microstructure after SPS consisted of a bimodal aluminum grain structure (coarse-grained and fine-grained regions), along with Al9FeNi and Al2CuMg particles dispersed throughout. The microstructure observed in the as-consolidated sample is rationalized on the basis of high current densities that are generated during sintering. Solution treatment and aging of the SPS Al-Cu-Mg-Fe-Ni-Sc sample resulted in softening instead of hardening. This observation can be explained by the reduced amount of Cu, Mg, and Si in solid solution available to form S' Al2CuMg due to the precipitation of Al7FeCu2 and Si-rich particles, and by the fact that rodlike S' Al2CuMg particles could only precipitate out in the coarse-grained regions, greatly decreasing their influence on the hardness. This lack of precipitation in the fine-grained region is argued to represent a new physical observation and is rationalized on the basis of physical and thermodynamic effects. The nanocrystalline SPS Al-Cu-Mg-Fe-Ni-Sc sample was also extremely thermally stable, retaining a fine-grained structure even after solution treatment at 530°C for 5 h. The observed thermal stability is rationalized on the basis of solute drag and Zener pinning caused by the impurities introduced during the cryomilling process.

  14. Post-irradiation annealing behavior of neutron-irradiated FeCu, FeMnNi and FeMnNiCu model alloys investigated by means of small-angle neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergner, F. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, POB 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Ulbricht, A., E-mail: a.ulbricht@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, POB 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Lindner, P. [Institut Laue-Langevin Grenoble, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Keiderling, U. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Malerba, L. [SCK-CEN Mol, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-11-15

    Neutron irradiation of reactor pressure vessel steels gives rise to the formation of thermodynamically stable and unstable nano-features. The present work is focused on the stability of Cu-, Mn- and Ni-containing solute clusters in model alloys exposed to post-irradiation annealing. Fe0.1Cu, Fe1.2Mn0.7Ni and Fe1.2Mn0.7Ni0.1Cu (wt%) model alloys irradiated up to neutron exposures of 0.1 and 0.19 dpa (displacements per atom) were annealed at stepwise increasing temperatures in the range from 300 °C (i.e. near irradiation temperature) to 500 °C and characterized by means of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). We have found characteristic differences in the annealing behavior of the alloys. In particular, there is a non-trivial (synergistic–antagonistic) interplay of Mn/Ni and Cu.

  15. Distribution of Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in primary colorectal cancer and secondary colorectal liver metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ebraheem, A. [Department of Radiography, City Community and Health Sciences, City University, London, EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Mersov, A. [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. West. Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4L8 (Canada); Gurusamy, K. [HPB and Liver Transplant Surgery, Royal Free and University College School of Medicine, UCL and Royal Free NHS trust, London (United Kingdom); Farquharson, M.J., E-mail: farquhm@mcmaster.c [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. West. Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4L8 (Canada)

    2010-07-21

    A microbeam synchrotron X-ray fluorescence ({mu}SRXRF) technique has been used to determine the localization and the relative concentrations of Zn, Cu, Fe and Ca in primary colorectal cancer and secondary colorectal liver metastases. 24 colon and 23 liver samples were examined, all of which were formalin fixed tissues arranged as microarrays of 1.0 mm diameter and 10 {mu}m thickness. The distribution of these metals was compared with light transmission images of adjacent sections that were H and E stained to reveal the location of the cancer cells. Histological details were provided for each sample which enable concentrations of all elements in different tissue types to be compared. In the case of liver, significant differences have been found for all elements when comparing tumour, normal, necrotic, fibrotic, and blood vessel tissues (Kruskal Wallis Test, P<0.0001). The concentrations of all elements have also been found to be significantly different among tumour, necrotic, fibrotic, and mucin tissues in the colon samples (Kruskal Wallis Test, P<0.0001). The concentrations of all elements have been compared between primary colorectal samples and colorectal liver metastases. Concentration of Zn, Cu, Fe and Ca are higher in all types of liver tissues compared to those in the colon tissues. Comparing liver tumour and colon tumour samples, significant differences have been found for all elements (Mann Whitney, P<0.0001). For necrotic tissues, significant increase has been found for Zn, Ca, Cu and Fe (Mann Whitney, P<0.0001 for Fe and Zn, 0.014 for Ca, and 0.001 for Cu). The liver fibrotic levels of Zn, Ca, Cu and Fe were higher than the fibrotic colon areas (independent T test, P=0.007 for Zn and Mann Whitney test P<0.0001 for Cu, Fe and Ca). For the blood vessel tissue, the analysis revealed that the difference was only significant for Fe (P=0.009) from independent T test.

  16. Preparation of Fe/Ni-Zn-Cu ferrite stacked films by aerosol deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composite or stacked films composed of Fe and Ni-Zn-Cu ferrite were prepared by aerosol deposition (AD) method, and the relationship between magnetic properties and microstructure was investigated. Aiming to control the microstructure, two aerosol chambers and double nozzles, from which each powder ejected independently, were used in the AD system. With increase in the vibration frequency of Fe aerosol chamber (V Fe) or the deposition time of Fe powder (t Fe), the Fe content in the films increased, which was resulted in the increase of saturation magnetization and permeability. The composite or stacked films also showed relatively high-noise suppression effect (ΔP loss/P in=∼0.58). Microstructural analyses revealed that the stacked film consisted of Fe and ferrite layers with thickness of 1 and 15 μm, respectively

  17. The effect of magnetic layer thickness on magnetic properties of Fe/Cu multilayer nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almasi-Kashi, M., E-mail: almac@kashanu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramazani, A. [Department of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kheyri, F.; Jafari-Khamse, E. [Department of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-01

    Fe/Cu multilayer nanowires were ac-pulse electrodeposited into the anodic aluminum oxide templates prepared by a two-step mild anodization technique. Transmission electron microscopy images showed the distinct layers with a relatively high contrast. A highly pure layer (∼99%) was achieved by tuning the proper ions ratio and optimizing the off-time between pulses of each layer in the single electrodeposition bath. Fe/Cu multilayer nanowires with 38 nm diameter were obtained. The effect of reducing the Fe layer thickness on the magnetic properties of Fe/Cu multilayer nanowires was investigated. It was seen that reducing the Fe layer thickness, thereby variation of rode- to disc-like multilayer nanowires, caused to rotate the magnetic easy axis from parallel to perpendicular to the wires axis. - Highlights: • Changing off-time and ac voltage enables control in segments of multilayer nanowire. • As TEM images show thickness of alternative layers was adjustable by pulse numbers. • A new technique was introduced to grow compositionally-modulated multilayer nanowire. • Two distinct Fe and Cu diffraction peaks indicates formation of two distinct phases. • Identical coercivity in IP and OOP configurations ascribed vanishing shape anisotropy.

  18. The effect of magnetic layer thickness on magnetic properties of Fe/Cu multilayer nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fe/Cu multilayer nanowires were ac-pulse electrodeposited into the anodic aluminum oxide templates prepared by a two-step mild anodization technique. Transmission electron microscopy images showed the distinct layers with a relatively high contrast. A highly pure layer (∼99%) was achieved by tuning the proper ions ratio and optimizing the off-time between pulses of each layer in the single electrodeposition bath. Fe/Cu multilayer nanowires with 38 nm diameter were obtained. The effect of reducing the Fe layer thickness on the magnetic properties of Fe/Cu multilayer nanowires was investigated. It was seen that reducing the Fe layer thickness, thereby variation of rode- to disc-like multilayer nanowires, caused to rotate the magnetic easy axis from parallel to perpendicular to the wires axis. - Highlights: • Changing off-time and ac voltage enables control in segments of multilayer nanowire. • As TEM images show thickness of alternative layers was adjustable by pulse numbers. • A new technique was introduced to grow compositionally-modulated multilayer nanowire. • Two distinct Fe and Cu diffraction peaks indicates formation of two distinct phases. • Identical coercivity in IP and OOP configurations ascribed vanishing shape anisotropy

  19. Interfacial tension studies between Fe-Cu-Ni sulfide and halo-norilsk basalt slag system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU; Shangguo

    2005-01-01

    The interfacial tension of the matte/halo-Norilsk basalt slag systems of FeS-Cu2S-Ni3S2 and FeO-FeS were investigated using the sessile drop technique. The results indicate that interfacial tension decreases with increasing copper and nickel contents in the matte of FeS-Cu2S-Ni3S2 system while it increases with increasing oxygen content in the matte of FeO-FeS system. It is inferred from these results that two conditions are critical for the formation of giant Cu-Ni sulfide deposits. One is that mafic-ultramafic parent magma of sulfide deposits should be rich in copper and nickel where due to the low interfacial tension, it is difficult to form sulfide droplet in the early stage of magma evolution. In other words, sulfide liquid conglomeration occurs more difficultly. The other condition is that the magma emplacement should be shallow; and a lot of faults occur in the magma emplacement field. Since oxygen content is high in the environment, interfacial tension is high, which helps sulfide liquid conglomeration and consequently Cu-Ni sulfide deposits form.

  20. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe-Cu-Sn sintered alloy%Fe-Cu-Sn烧结体的显微组织与力学性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何娟; 王日初; 彭超群; 郑虎春

    2011-01-01

    分别采用水雾化Fe-30%Cu合金粉末和单质Sn、Fe、Cu元素粉末为原料制备Fe-Cu-Sn合金,研究原料粉末和Sn含量(质量分数)对Fe-Cu-Sn烧结体致密度、冲击韧性、硬度和抗弯强度的影响.结果表明:与采用元素混合粉末相比,采用合金化程度较高的Fe-30%Cu(质量分数,下同)合金粉末为原料能大幅提高850℃烧结的Fe-Cu-5%Sn合金的致密度和力学性能,其致密度由82.8%提高到94.3%,硬度、冲击韧性和抗弯强度分别提高52%、84%和109%:当Sn的质量分数w(Sn)为3%-15%时,随着Sn质量分数增加,合金的硬度增大,冲击韧性和抗弯强度先增加后减小,其中w(Sn)为5%时,其抗弯强度和冲击韧性都较高,分别为977 MPa和11.6 J/cm2.当烧结体为"双重结构"组织时,其力学性能显著提高.

  1. Microstructure in Fe-1.5wt% Cu alloy after thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of Cu-rich precipitates and defects in reactor pressure vessel steels (RPVS) has been considered as a key factor to induce embrittlement, and been investigated extensively. In this study, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the positron annihilation spectroscopy were used to study the effect of thermal cycles on the Cu-rich precipitates and defects. It was found show that the defects in Fe-1.5 wt% Cu alloy recovered after 2 h high-vacuum annealing at 1173 K, while part of the Cu atoms aggregated to form nano-particles, which attracted and captured thermal positrons. The SEM images showed that density of the Cu nano-particles reduced with increasing annealing temperatures, demonstrated by changes in the W parameters. It was also found that the alloy still contained a small amount of Cu nano-particles even at annealing temperature of 1473 K. (authors)

  2. EPR study of Fe-doped La sub 1. 85 Sr sub. 15 CuO sub 4. [La-Sr-Cu-Fe-O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sienkiewicz, A.; Cieplak, M.Z. (Inst. of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)); Gang Xiao (Dept. of Physics, Brown Univ., Providence, RI (USA)); Chien, C.L. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1990-10-15

    We study EPR of Fe-doped La{sub 1.85}Sr{sub 0.15}CuO{sub 4} for the dopant content from 0 to 10 at.%. The g-factor of the Fe{sup 3+} resonance line decreases rapidly in the low temperature region and then remains constant. Depending on temperature and impurity content the linewidth displays two distinct behaviors. We associate the low temperature behavior with the occurrence of a spin-glass phase due to Fe-Fe dipole-dipole interactions. Correlation of the EPR and transport properties at high temperatures suggests the presence of RKKY mechanism which is strongly influenced by localization of free carriers. (orig.).

  3. Preparation and characterization of epitaxial thin films and patterned nanostructures of Ni/Cu and Fe/Cu

    OpenAIRE

    Corredor, Edna C.

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo realizado en esta tesis titulada: Preparation and magnetic characterization of epitaxial thin films and patterned nanostructures of Ni/Cu and Fe/Cu es establecer relaciones entre las propiedades magnéticas de sistemas nanoestructurados y sus dimensiones físicas o factores estructurales que aparecen al reducirse la dimensión espacial a dos, en el caso de películas delgadas, y a una en el caso de elementos patronados. Los sistemas objeto de estudio se caracterizan por se...

  4. Preparation and characterization of epitaxial thin films and patterned nanostructures of Ni/Cu and Fe/Cu

    OpenAIRE

    Corredor Vega, Edna Consuelo; Ciria Remacha, Miguel Ángel; Arnaudas Pontaque, José Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo realizado en esta tesis titulada: Preparation and magnetic characterization of epitaxial thin films and patterned nanostructures of Ni/Cu and Fe/Cu es establecer relaciones entre las propiedades magnéticas de sistemas nanoestructurados y sus dimensiones físicas o factores estructurales que aparecen al reducirse la dimensión espacial a dos, en el caso de películas delgadas, y a una en el caso de elementos patronados. Los sistemas objeto de estudio se caracterizan por se...

  5. Effect of Fe and Cu Dopant and Annealing on the Growth and Spectral Properties of YAP Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Jian-Yu, TANG Qiang, DONG Qin, DING Yu-Chong, ZHAO Guang-Jun

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available High optical quality 0.2at% Fe doped YAP and 0.5at% Cu doped YAP single crystals were grown successfully by Czochralski method respectively. The separation coefficients of Fe ion in 0.2at% Fe doped YAP and Cu ion in 0.5at% Cu doped YAP crystals determined by ICP-AES method were 0.13 and 0.28 respectively. The absorption spectra and X-ray excitation luminescence spectra of the Fe:YAP and Cu:YAP crystals annealed in reduction/oxidation atmosphere were measured at room temperature. Microcosmic mechanisms of the spectra characteristics and the effects of anneal on crystals were analyzed. Finally, the thermoluminescence spectra of Fe:YAP and Cu:YAP crystals were also studied. It is found that Cu:YAP crystal is a prospective dosimetry material.

  6. 快淬态纳米晶Fe-Cu-Ta-Si-B软磁金属薄带的制备%Preparation of As-quenched Nanocrystalline Fe-Cu-Ta-Si-B Soft Magnetic Ribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡季帆; 李波; 秦宏伟

    2009-01-01

    Fe-Cu-Ta-Si-B纳米晶金属薄带可以通过快淬技术直接制备,而无需退火过程.对比Fe-Cu-Ta-Si-B快淬纳米晶薄带,发现相同Cu含量下,a-Fe(Si)更易在Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B快淬态薄带中析出.在快淬态Fe-Cu-Ta-Si-B金属薄带中,适当高的Cu含量有利于α-Fe(Si)的成核;但过高的Cu含量反而弱化了纳米晶化,这是由于团簇效应粗化了Cu颗粒的尺寸,却减少了a-Fe(Si)的有效成核位置.

  7. Quantum Monte Carlo simulation of antiferromagnetic spin ladder (C5H12N)2CuBr4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Augusto S.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper I present a Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) study of the magnetic properties of an antiferromagnetic spin ladder (C5H12N)2CuBr4. This compound is the prototype of the Heisenberg model for a two leg spin ladder in the presence of an external magnetic field. The susceptibility phase diagram has a rounded peak in the vicinity of T=7.4 K, obeys Troyer's law for low temperatures, and Curie's law for high temperatures. I also study the susceptibility diagram in low temperatures and I found the spin gap Δ=9.26 K, in good concordance with the experimental value, 9.5 K. In high field, I present a diagram of magnetization as a function of temperature. In the vicinity of a critical field, Hci, the magnetization scales with T1/2 and this result was found also in the QMC simulation. In all the results, there is a very good concordance with the experimental data. I also show in this paper that the spin gap is null and the susceptibility is proportional to T for low temperatures when relatively high values of the ladders' coupling is taken in account.

  8. Electron spin resonance insight into broadband absorption of the Cu3Bi(SeO32O2Br metamagnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zorko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Metamagnets, which exhibit a transition from a low-magnetization to a high-magnetization state induced by the applied magnetic field, have recently been highlighted as promising materials for controllable broadband absorption. Here we show results of a multifrequency electron spin resonance (ESR investigation of the Cu3Bi(SeO32O2Br planar metamagnet on the kagome lattice. Its mixed antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic phase is stabilized in a finite range of applied fields around 0.8 T at low temperatures and is characterized by enhanced microwave absorption. The absorption signal is non-resonant and its boundaries correspond to two critical fields that determine the mixed phase. With decreasing temperature these increase like the sublattice magnetization of the antiferromagnetic phase and show no frequency dependence between 100 and 480 GHz. On the contrary, we find that the critical fields depend on the magnetic-field sweeping direction. In particular, the higher critical field, which corresponds to the transition from the mixed to the ferromagnetic phase, shows a pronounced hysteresis effect, while such a hysteresis is absent for the lower critical field. The observed hysteresis is enhanced at lower temperatures, which suggests that thermal fluctuations play an important role in destabilizing the highly absorbing mixed phase.

  9. Rietveld refinement of the mixed boracite Fe(1.59)Zn(1.41)B(7)O(13)Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa-Godínez, Sandra; Rosales, Ivonne; Bucio, Lauro; Farías, Mario H; Campa-Molina, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    The structural characterization of the new iron-zinc hepta-borate bromide with composition Fe(1.59)Zn(1.41)B(7)O(13)Br, prepared by chemical transport is reported. A rigid-body model with constrained generalized coordinates was defined in order to hold the positions of the B atoms at reasonable inter-atomic distances that typically would reach unacceptable values because of the weak scattering power of boron. There are three independent sites for the B atoms of which two are tetra-hedrally coordinated. The bond-valence sum around the third B atom, located on a threefold rotation axis, was calculated considering two cases of coordination of boron with oxygens: trigonal-planar and tetrahedral. The contribution of the fourth O atom to the bond-valence sum was found to be only 0.06 v.u., indicating the presence of a very weak bond in the right position to have a distorted tetra-hedral coordination in favour of the trigonal-planar coordination for the third B atom. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used to determinate the Fe/Zn ratio. PMID:21578040

  10. Facile synthesis of Fe-incorporated CuO nanoarrays with enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium ion full batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CuO nanoarrays (CNAs) and Fe-incorporated CuO nanoarrays (FCNAs) were fabricated by hydrothermal method. Addition of Fe salt to the reaction mixture allowed the introduction of iron oxide onto the CNAs surface, which was characterized by XPS and HRTEM. Introducing Fe ion into reaction precursor significantly affected not only the morphologies of as-prepared products but also their electrochemical performance as anode for lithium ion full battery. The FCNAs electrodes showed higher specific capacity and better capacity retention at different current densities than that of CNAs. - Highlights: • Fe-incorporated CuO nanoarrays were fabricated by hydrothermal method. • Fe salt in reaction mixture leads to iron oxides forming on the surface of CuO. • Fe-incorporating improves the lithium ion battery performance of CuO anodes

  11. Facile synthesis of Fe-incorporated CuO nanoarrays with enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium ion full batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heng, Bojun [Institute of Nano-science and Technology, Central-China Normal University, Wuhan, 430079 (China); Department of Applied Physics, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430065 (China); Qing, Chen; Wang, Hai; Sun, Daming; Wang, Bixiao [Institute of Nano-science and Technology, Central-China Normal University, Wuhan, 430079 (China); Tang, Yiwen, E-mail: ywtang@phy.ccnu.edu.cn [Institute of Nano-science and Technology, Central-China Normal University, Wuhan, 430079 (China)

    2015-11-15

    CuO nanoarrays (CNAs) and Fe-incorporated CuO nanoarrays (FCNAs) were fabricated by hydrothermal method. Addition of Fe salt to the reaction mixture allowed the introduction of iron oxide onto the CNAs surface, which was characterized by XPS and HRTEM. Introducing Fe ion into reaction precursor significantly affected not only the morphologies of as-prepared products but also their electrochemical performance as anode for lithium ion full battery. The FCNAs electrodes showed higher specific capacity and better capacity retention at different current densities than that of CNAs. - Highlights: • Fe-incorporated CuO nanoarrays were fabricated by hydrothermal method. • Fe salt in reaction mixture leads to iron oxides forming on the surface of CuO. • Fe-incorporating improves the lithium ion battery performance of CuO anodes.

  12. Synthesis of higher alcohols over highly dispersed Cu-Fe based catalysts derived from layered double hydroxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xinyou; Fang, Kegong; Zhou, Juan; Zhao, Lu; Sun, Yuhan

    2016-05-15

    Highly dispersed Cu-Fe based catalysts with Fe/Cu molar ratios ranging from 0.2 to 1 were prepared via thermal decomposition of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) precursors and tested for higher alcohol synthesis (HAS) via CO hydrogenation. The catalysts were characterized using different techniques such as XRD, TEM, XPS, and H2-TPR. It was demonstrated that the Cu and Fe ions were highly dispersed in the brucite-like layers of the LDHs. With increased Fe/Cu atomic ratio, the tetrahedrally coordinated Cu ion content, Cu reduction temperatures, and the spacing of layers initially increase until the Fe/Cu ratio reaches 0.5 and then decrease. In addition to the catalytic evaluation for CO hydrogenation and catalyst characterization, the relationships between the physical-chemical properties of the catalysts and their catalytic performances were also investigated. It was also found that the alcohols/hydrocarbons ratios correlate linearly with the tetrahedrally coordinated Cu ion content. Moreover, higher reduction temperatures of Cu species as well as larger spacing between the layers in the catalyst are favorable for the synthesis of alcohols. The incorporation of a suitable amount of Fe is beneficial for the production of higher alcohols, with the best catalytic performance (alcohol selectivity of 20.77% and C2+ alcohol selectivity of 48.06%) obtained from a Fe/Cu atomic ratio of 0.5. PMID:26943001

  13. Protein-mediated adhesion of the dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Shewanella alga BrY to hydrous ferric oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caccavo, F. Jr.

    1999-11-01

    The rate and extent of bacterial Fe(III) mineral reduction are governed by molecular-scale interactions between the bacterial cell surface and the mineral surface. These interactions are poorly understood. This study examined the role of surface proteins in the adhesion of Shewanella alga BrY to hydrous ferric oxide (HFO). Enzymatic degradation of cell surface polysaccharides had no effect on cell adhesion to HFO. The proteolytic enzymes Streptomyces griseus protease and chymotrypsin inhibited the adhesion of S. alga BrY cells to HFO through catalytic degradation of surface proteins. Trypsin inhibited S. alga BrY adhesion solely through surface-coating effects. Protease and chymotrypsin also mediated desorption of adhered S. alga BrY cells from HFO while trypsin did not mediate cell desorption. Protease removed a single peptide band that represented a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 50 kDa. Chymotrypsin removed two peptide bands that represented proteins with apparent molecular masses of 60 and 31 kDa. These proteins represent putative HGO adhesion molecules. A. alga BrY adhesion was inhibited by up to 46% when cells were cultured at sub-MICs of chloramphenicol, suggesting that protein synthesis is necessary for adhesion. Proteins extracted from the surface of S. alga BrY cells inhibited adhesion to HFO by up to 41%. A number of these proteins bound specifically to HFO, suggesting that a complex system of surface proteins mediates S. alga BrY adhesion to HFO.

  14. Interdiffusion coefficients and atomic mobilities in fcc Cu-Fe-Mn alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the interdiffusion coefficients in fcc Cu-Fe-Mn alloys were experimentally determined via a combination of solid/solid diffusion couples, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA technique and Matano-Kirkaldy method. Based on the reliable thermodynamic description of fcc phase in the Cu-Fe-Mn system available in the literature as well as the ternary diffusion coefficients measured in the present work, the atomic mobilities in fcc Cu-Fe-Mn alloys were assessed by utilizing the DICTRA (Diffusion Controlled TRAnsformation software package. The calculated interdiffusion coefficients based on the assessed atomic mobilities agree well with most of the experimental data. The comprehensive comparison between various model-predicted diffusion properties and the measured data, including the concentration penetration profiles, interdiffusion flux profile, and diffusion paths, further verify the reliability of the presently obtained atomic mobilities.

  15. Role of the third element in accelerating Fe diffusivities in Cu from first principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Fe diffusion in Cu systems effect by allay elements have been computed. • The five frequency model was employed to determine impurity diffusion coefficients. • The eight frequency model was employed to investigate the Fe diffusivities. - Abstract: Iron diffusion in face-centered cubic (fcc) copper affected by a third element have been computed from first principles using density-functional theory (DFT). The five frequency model was employed to determine impurity diffusion coefficients through atomistic structure calculations. The self-diffusion coefficient of Cu and impurity diffusion coefficients in Cu agreed well with experimental measurements available. Specifically, an eight frequency model was built based on the five frequency model to investigate the changes in Fe diffusivities, both the diffusion pre-factor D0 and the activation energy after adding the third element were calculated. The results showed that 9 potential elements may accelerate significantly iron diffusion in copper

  16. Investigation of magnetism in Fe and Cu ion implanted indium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diluted magnetic semiconductor based on indium oxide has been prepared by transition metal ion implantation. Fe and Cu ions have been implanted into pulsed laser deposition prepared pure In2O3 films by metal vapor vacuum arc source with doses from 5 × 1015 cm−2 to 1 × 1017 cm−2, respectively. The implanted samples are annealed in the air subsequently. The structure of In2O3 films is characterized by X-ray diffraction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements are applied to confirm the electronic state of the implanted ions. Superconducting quantum interference device measurements at room temperature disclose that the diamagnetic In2O3 films turned to be ferromagnetic after Fe and Cu ion implantation. The correlation between ferromagnetism and implantation conditions is tested. The ferromagnetism is attributed to the bound magnetic polarons formed by Fe, Cu ion implantation

  17. Precipitation behavior of B2-like particles in Fe-Cu binary alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The precipitation behavior in Fe-Cu binary alloy was investigated under transmission electron microscope (TEM) during aging at 650℃ for the time range of to 300 h. In addition to the zones with higher copper content and -Cu were observed, a metastable phase with B2-like structure was found in the early stage of the precipitation process, which is quite different from the equilibrium copper phase shown inthe Fe-Cu binary phase diagram and has perfect coherent relationship to the -Fe matrix. The appearance of B2-like structure is very important concerning the mechanism of aging strengthening effect and mechanical properties of corresponding engineering steels and alloys containing copper.

  18. Role of the third element in accelerating Fe diffusivities in Cu from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yufei [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Gao, Haiyan, E-mail: gaohaiyan@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Han, Yanfeng; Dai, Yongbing [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang, Jun; Sun, Baode [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced High-temperature Materials and Precision Forming, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-08-05

    Highlights: • Fe diffusion in Cu systems effect by allay elements have been computed. • The five frequency model was employed to determine impurity diffusion coefficients. • The eight frequency model was employed to investigate the Fe diffusivities. - Abstract: Iron diffusion in face-centered cubic (fcc) copper affected by a third element have been computed from first principles using density-functional theory (DFT). The five frequency model was employed to determine impurity diffusion coefficients through atomistic structure calculations. The self-diffusion coefficient of Cu and impurity diffusion coefficients in Cu agreed well with experimental measurements available. Specifically, an eight frequency model was built based on the five frequency model to investigate the changes in Fe diffusivities, both the diffusion pre-factor D{sub 0} and the activation energy after adding the third element were calculated. The results showed that 9 potential elements may accelerate significantly iron diffusion in copper.

  19. In Vitro Evaluation of Cu, Fe, and Zn Bioaccessibility in the Presence of Babassu Mesocarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioroto, Alexandre Minami; Nascimento, Angerson Nogueria; Oliveira, Pedro Vitoriano

    2015-07-22

    In vitro gastrointestinal digestion of babassu mesocarp in the absence and presence of milk and lignin was performed to evaluate the bioaccessibility of Cu, Fe, and Zn. Extractions using NaOH solutions (pH 7 and 12) were carried out to evaluate the interactions of Cu(II), Fe(III), and Zn(II) with the extracted compounds and with the washed mesocarp. Studies using reference solutions showed a decrease in the free concentration of the elements in the presence of mesocarp. Phytate, a component present in the mesocarp, can be the main compound responsible for the elements' interactions with mesocarp. Lignin increases the elements' soluble fractions; however, the elements' concentrations in the dialyzed fractions, representing the bioaccessible portion, were very low. On the other hand, Cu, Fe, and Zn bioaccessibility in milk was not influenced by the mesocarp. PMID:26134249

  20. Investigation of the bainitic reaction in a CuAlNiMnFe shape memory alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benke M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite their favorable properties, brittle nature of the CuAlNi shape memory alloys limits their suitability. To increase their ductility, Mn and Fe were added to the base CuAlNi alloy. To reveal the applicability of the developed CuAlNiMn and CuAlNiMnFe alloys as functional materials, the effect of ageing on the thermoelastic martensitic transformation was investigated. During the first heating of the aged samples the thermoelastic γ’ → β transformation occurred, which was followed by a bainitic transformation. This transformation inhibited the further thermoelastic martensitic transformations. The present paper covers heat flux DSC, SEM, and TEM investigations of the bainitic transformation. A feasible mechanism of the bainitic transformation in these alloys is suggested based on the results of the examinations.

  1. Surface segregation and surface tension in liquid Fe-Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple statistical mechanics model has been used to study the temperature dependence of the surface properties of Fe-Cu liquid alloys. The calculated values for the composition dependence of surface segregation indicates that Cu atoms segregate to the surface and, in addition, that the surface tension in Fe-Cu alloys decreases with increasing copper content. Furthermore, our formalism is able to predict the temperature dependence of the surface properties for the liquid alloy based only on knowledge of the results at the melting point. This illustrates that the model used provides a simple recipe to extract information in the undercooled region about the dependence of surface properties in liquid binary alloys. In addition, close to the decomposition temperature, the surface concentration of Cu increases sharply in the undercooled region. (orig.)

  2. Relation between Charpy impact properties and magnetism in thermally aged Fe-Cu model alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study demonstrates the possibility of applying magnetic methods to pressure vessel surveillance for irradiation embrittlement at nuclear power plants. Charpy impact test and magnetic hesteresis measurement were preformed on thermally aged Fe-1.0wt%Cu model alloys with and without pre-deformation. DBTT increased with increasing aging time. However, magnetic hysteresis parameters showed nonmonotonical changes. The phenomena are discussed in terms of Cu precipitation behavior and dislocation structure. (author)

  3. High-energy sintered Nd-Dy-Fe-B magnets with Co and Cu additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simultaneous Co and Cu additions to sintered Nd-Dy-Fe-B magnets refine the microstructure and improve the energy density. This is due to the replacement of the conventional Nd-rich constituents by RE-(Co,Cu) phases with low melting points, such as RECu or RE3Co. A remanence of 1.41 T and an energy density of 383 kJ/m3 could be achieved. (orig.)

  4. Environmental impact and potential utilization of historical Cu-Fe-Co slags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselská, Veronika; Majzlan, Juraj

    2016-04-01

    Historical slags from the past Fe and Cu-Co production were investigated in order to evaluate either their potential for utilization or their long-term environmental risk for unsupervised old smelting areas. Here, we studied ferrous slags produced during the recovery of Fe from siderite-Cu ores in Slovakia and two different types of non-ferrous slags produced during the recovery of Cu and Co from Kupferschiefer ores in Germany. The glassy character, rare occurrence of primary silicate phases, and the lack of secondary phases in Cu slags indicate their stability for a prolonged period of time. Electron microprobe analytical work showed that the metals and metalloids (Cu, Co, Fe, Zn, Pb, As) are largely encased in droplets of matte and metal alloys and remain protected by the glassy matrix with its low weathering rate. Fe and Co slags are composed of high-temperature silicates such as wollastonite, cristobalite, as well as olivine, feldspar, quartz, leucite, pyroxene, and pyroxenoids. The presence of secondary phases attests to a certain degree metal release owing to weathering. Assuming minimal contents of metals in slags after a treatment with dilute H2SO4, slags could be used as pozzolanas for addition to cement. PMID:26681328

  5. Mogućnost uklanjanja olova iz industrijske Cu-Pb-Fe legure injektiranjem argonom

    OpenAIRE

    B. Oleksiak

    2009-01-01

    Mogućnost uklanjanja olova iz industrijske CU-Pb-Fe legure injektiranjem argonom. Članak daje rezultate istraživanja uklanjanja olova iz industrijske Cu-PB-Fe legure primjenom injektiranja argonom. Opiti su provedeni na pogonskoj leguri u Tvornici bakra "Glogow II". Kao temeljna oprema rabljena je pećna cijev, koja omogućava zagrijavanje uzorka iznad temperature 1773 K. Sva istraživanja su provedena na temperaturama 1473 K, 1523 K, 1573 K i strujom plina 5,55×10-6, 6,94×10-6, 8,33×10-6, 9,72×...

  6. Oxygen formation in gamma-ray irradiation of Fe2+ -Cu2+ solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbakke, Erling; Hart, E.J.

    1971-01-01

    The mechanism of O2 formation has been studied in 60 Co γ-ray-irradiated Fe(II) + Cu(II) solutions at 0.01 N HClO4 and at 0.01, 0.08, and 0.80 N H2 SO4. In the H2 SO4 system, ${\\rm G}({\\rm O}_{2})$ rises to plateau levels near 0.02 as the ${\\rm CuSO}_{4}/{\\rm FeSO}_{4}$ ratio increases. The plateau...

  7. Chemical effect on the K shell fluorescence yield of Fe, Mn, Co, Cr and Cu compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U Turgut

    2004-11-01

    Chemical effects on the K shell fluorescence yields of Fe, Mn, Co, Cr and Cu compounds were investigated. Samples were excited using 59.5 keV energy photons from a 241Am radioisotope source. K X-rays emitted by samples were counted by a Si(Li) detector with a resolution 160 eV at 5.9 keV. Chemical effects on the K shell fluorescence yields (K) for Fe, Mn, Co, Cr and Cu compounds were observed. The values are compared with theoretical, semiempirical fit and experimental ones for the pure elements.

  8. Ab initio and DFT analysis of the low-lying electronic states of metal dihalides: quantum chemical calculations on the neutral BrMCl (M = Cu, Ag, Au).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsumi, Michiko; Lindh, Roland; González, Leticia; Gourlaouen, Christophe; Daniel, Chantal

    2013-07-01

    The electronic configuration of the electronic ground and low-lying doublet excited states of neutral metal dihalides BrMCl (M = Cu, Ag, Au) has been investigated on the basis of CASSCF/CASPT2 methods taking into account scalar relativistic effects. A preliminary study of the electronic problem in BrAgCl, based on DFT and CASSCF/CASPT2 approaches and using various basis sets, namely relativistic all-electron basis sets, effective core potentials and ab initio model potentials (AIMP), as well as non-relativistic AIMP is discussed. It is shown that single-determinant methods are not flexible enough to describe the bonding of the neutral species in the electronic ground state regardless of the basis set. The failure to allocate the single electron of BrAgCl correlates with a wrong charge distribution within the complex, which is more accentuated when using pseudopotential basis sets. The inclusion of static and dynamic correlation effects by means of CASSCF/CASPT2 methods using large relativistic all-electron basis sets provides a correct qualitative picture of the electronic structure of the BrMCl series (M = Cu, Ag, Au). The spin unrestricted KS-DFT approach leads to a reasonable description of the degenerate electronic ground state ((2)Σ/(2)Π) bonding in these complexes with negligible spin contamination providing comparative spin densities in the series of molecules under investigation. PMID:23632776

  9. Cu(2+) and Fe(2+) mediated photodegradation studies of soil-incorporated chlorpyrifos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Nazia; Tariq, Saadia R; Ahad, Karam; Taj, Touqeer

    2016-03-01

    The influences of Cu(2+) and Fe(2+) on the photodegradation of soil-incorporated chlorpyrifos were investigated in the present study. The soil samples spiked with chlorpyrifos and selected metal ions were irradiated with UV light for different intervals of time and analyzed by HPLC. The unsterile and sterile control soil samples amended with pesticides and selected metals were incubated in the dark at 25 °C for the same time intervals. The results of the study evidenced that photodegradation of chlorpyrifos followed the first-order kinetics. The dissipation t0.5 of chlorpyrifos was found to decrease from 41 to 20 days under UV irradiation. The rate of chlorpyrifos photodegradation was increased in the presence of both metals, i.e., Cu(2+) and Fe(2+). Thus, initially observed t0.5 of 19.8 days was decreased to 4.39 days in the case of Cu(+2) and 19.25 days for Fe(+2). Copper was found to increase the rate of photodegradation by 4.5 orders of magnitude while the microbial degradation of chlorpyrifos was increased only twofold. The microbial degradation of chlorpyrifos was only negligibly affected by Fe(2+) amendment. The studied trace metals also affected the abiotic degradation of the pesticide in the order Cu(2+) > Fe(2+). PMID:26507736

  10. Crystal and Electronic Study of Neodymium-Substituted CuFeO2 Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkendir, Osman Murat

    2016-06-01

    Neodymium-substituted CuFeO2 samples were investigated according to their crystal and electronic properties via the general formula Nd x Cu1- x FeO2. The crystal structure analysis results revealed polycrystalline formations in the sample and a change in crystalline sizes with the substituted heavy fermion "Nd." Increasing the Nd amount in the sample was determined to cause a disturbance on the Cu-Fe planes that supports the formation of crystal structures with low crystal symmetries such as monoclinic or triclinic geometries. To obtain the background mechanisms of the crystal properties, the X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy technique was used to study the electronic properties of the samples. Prominent changes in the crystal structures due to 4 f electrons' contributions from the substituted Nd atoms as the main "role player" in the phase transitions were determined. The Nd atoms were observed as the key element guiding the entire phenomenon as a result of their large size and narrow 4 f levels. Also, magnetic properties of the samples were tested at room temperature and without an applied magnetic field by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism study due to previous studies that reported the parent oxide CuFeO2 to have magnetic ordering at T N = 11 K (-262 °C). Except the sample for x = 1.0 (NdFeO3), no magnetic ordering was observed at room temperature; i.e., all of the samples showed paramagnetic behaviors.

  11. Crystal structure of the quaternary compounds CuFe2AlSe4 and CuFe2GaSe4 from X-ray powder diffraction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G E Delgado; A J Mora; P Grima-Gallardo; M Muñoz; S Durán; M Quintero; J M Briceño

    2015-08-01

    The crystal structure of the quaternary compounds CuFe2AlSe4 and CuFe2GaSe4, belonging to the system I–II2–III–VI4, were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction data. Both compounds crystallize in the tetragonal space group I42m (No. 121), = 2, with unit cell parameters = 5.609(1) Å, = 10.963(2) Å for CuFe2AlSe4 and = 5.6165(3) Å, = 11.075(1) Å for CuFe2GaSe4. These compounds are isostructural with CuFe2InSe4, and have a normal adamantane stannite structure.

  12. Neutron diffraction study of magnetic ordering in PrCu2Si2, PrCu2Ge2, PrFe2Ge2 and NdFe2Ge2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutron diffraction study of polycrystalline PrCu2Si2, PrCu2Ge2, PrFe2Ge2 and NdFe2Ge2 intermetallics carried out at liquid helium temperature shows the presence of a collinear antiferromagnetic order below Tsub(N). Magnetic moment, parallel to the c-axis is localized on RE ions only. The magnetic structure of these compounds consists of ferromagnetic layers perpendicular to the c-axis coupled antiferromagnetically with sequence +-+- for PrCu2Si2 and PrCu2Ge2 and +--+ for PrFe2Ge2 and NdFe2Ge2. The RE moments amount close to the free ion values for Fe containing compounds but are smaller in those containing Cu suggesting a fairly strong influence of crystal field. (author)

  13. Effect of alloying on the electronic structure and magnetic properties of AgFe, AuFe and CuFe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use the self-consistent, augmented space recursion technique to study the electronic structure and magnetic properties of alloys of the transition metal Fe with the noble metals Cu, Ag and Au. We analyze the effect of hybridization between the constituent bands on the electronic and magnetic properties. (author)

  14. Electrical resistivity of nanocrystals in Fe-Al-Ga-P-B-Si-Cu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In new supercooled Fe74Al4Ga2P11B4Si4Cu1 alloy the 10 nm size α-Fe(Si) nanocrystals are precipitated. Thermal stability is analyzed by the electron transport and magnetization measurements. Temperature variation of electrical resistivity of nanocrystals is determined and discussed for alloys with different initial crystalline fraction. Possible mechanism inhibiting the grain growth is presented

  15. A GREENER SYNTHESIS OF CORE (FE, CU)-SHELL (AU, PT, PD AND AG) NANOCRYSTALS USING AQUEOUS VITAMIN C

    Science.gov (United States)

    A greener method to fabricate the novel core (Fe and Cu)-shell (noble metals) metal nanocrystals using aqueous ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is described. Transition metal salts such as Cu and Fe were reduced using ascorbic acid, a benign naturally available antioxidant, and then add...

  16. Charge compensation and magnetic properties in Sr and Cu doped La-Fe perovskites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Julián Fernández C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthorhombic lanthanum orthoferrites La0.8Sr0.2Fe1-yCuyO3-w (y = 0 and 0.10 have been studied using X-rays and neutron powder diffraction (XRPD and NPD, magnetization measurements and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. Rietveld refinements on XRPD and NPD data show that they adopt an orthorhombic ABO3 perovskite symmetry with La/Sr and Fe/Cu atoms randomly distributed on crystal A and B sites, respectively. The magnetic structure at room temperature is antiferromagnetic, with the Fe/Cu magnetic moments aligned along the a axis. Magnetization curves versus temperature show that the compounds exhibit an overall antiferromagnetic and a weak ferromagnetic behaviour in the range 5-298 K. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements indicate that Fe3+ and Fe5+ ions coexist in both compounds, and the relative percentage of Fe5+ is almost the same at 77 and 170 K, rejecting a charge disproportion mechanism.

  17. Delafossite CuFeO2 thin films electrochemically grown from a DMSO based solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A detailed electrochemical study about the electrodeposition of CuFeO2 from DMSO solution is presented. • The use of a precise quantity of chloride ion as complexing agent is decisive in order to obtain stoichiometric compounds (Cu:Fe ratio 1:1). • As-grown compounds were amorphous. Thus, a thermal treatment was required in order to obtain crystalline CuFeO2 with delafossite structure. • The formation of CuFeO2 was confirmed by XRD and XPS analyses. • Through optical measurements, four absorption in different spectrum regions were characterized: A IR absorption (Eg(IR) = 1.64 eV), two visible absorptions (Egdir(vis) = 2.35 eV, and Egind(vis) = 2.03 eV) and an UV absorption (Egind(UV) = 3.37 eV). - Abstract: This study shows the results obtained in the direct electrodeposition of CuFeO2 thin films from a DMSO based solution. First, a detailed electrochemical study was carried out in order to determinate the best condition for the CuFeO2 electrodeposition. The films were obtained potentiostatically from a 0.01 M CuCl2 + 0.005 M Fe(ClO4)3 + 0.1 M LiClO4 solution in the presence of molecular oxygen at 50 °C onto FTO/glass substrates. In all cases, the time of electrodeposition was 1000 s. The grown films presented a yellow-reddish color and exhibit an homogeneous aspect. Analyses of composition carried out through EDS, shown that a stoichiometric composition (atomic relation Cu:Fe = 1:1) is obtained at a potential of –0.6 V. However, as-grown films analyzed through XRD experiences did not evidence the presence of CuFeO2 compound presumably because it is amorphous. An annealing treatment at 650° C for 30 minutes in an argon atmosphere was necessary to transform the solid phase of the as grown films in crystalline CuFeO2. Furthermore, the presence of CuFeO2 has been confirmed through XPS analyses. UV-vis analyzes shown a ladder-like appearance due to the presence of several absorption edges from the IR to the UV spectrum region. The most

  18. Magnetic behavior of the oxygen deficient perovskite PrBaCuFeO5+y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article concerns the class of compounds RBaCuMO5 where R is a rare earth (Y or Pr) and M is a transition metal (Fe or Co). The magnetic structure is associated with the Cu and M atoms which are surrounded by five oxygens. The dominant interaction is superexchange which results in antiferromagnetic ordering within bilayers. The interaction between bilayers is believed to be much weaker than the intralayer coupling. Neutron diffraction experiments determine the magnetic structure of these materials and also give evidence that the introduction of extra oxygen (e.g., PrBaCuFeO5+y) destroys the magnetic ordering if R=Pr. It is believed that these extra oxygen atoms tend to go into the plane of the rare earth atoms; they provide an interlayer bridge between the Cu/M planes and most likely stronger coupling than in the compounds free of extra oxygen. We introduce a model based on competition between weak ferromagnetic interlayer coupling and strong antiferromagnetic coupling induced by the presence of the oxygen defects. Monte Carlo simulations are used to investigate the conditions under which magnetic long range order (LRO) is destroyed. We find that different values of Cu endash Cu, M endash M, and Cu endash M interactions are important if LRO is to disappear over a wide range of y. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  19. Effects of aging time and temperature of Fe-1wt.%Cu on magnetic Barkhausen noise and FORC

    OpenAIRE

    Muad Saleh; Yue Cao; Edwards, Danny J; Pradeep Ramuhalli; Johnson, Bradley R.; McCloy, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN), hysteresis measurements, first order reversal curves (FORC), Vickers microhardness, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analyses were performed on Fe-1wt.%Cu (Fe-Cu) samples isothermally aged at 700°C for 0.5 – 25 hours to obtain samples with different sized Cu precipitates and dislocation structures. Fe-Cu is used to simulate the thermal and irradiation-induced defects in copper-containing nuclear reactor materials such as cooling system pipes and pres...

  20. Study of structural and magnetic properties of (Co–Cu)Fe2O4/PANI composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nanocomposites of the polyaniline and Co1−xCuxFe2O4 (PANI/CoCuFe) were prepared by in-situ oxidative polymerization of aniline. Prepared nanocomposites samples were characterized by using various experimental techniques like X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), Mössbauer spectroscopy and ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry (UV–VIS). The elemental analysis as obtained from the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) measurement is in close agreement with the expected composition from the stoichiometry of the reactant solutions. XRD result confirms that all the samples have the single phase cubic spinel structure. Unit cell parameter ‘a’ is found to decrease with the increase in copper ion substitution. The crystallite size was investigated by using the Debye–Scherer formula and it was found in the range of ∼28–37 nm. FE-SEM confirmed the homogeneous and well defined surface morphology of the synthesized samples. FT-IR study showed the main absorption bands corresponding to the spinel structure those arose due to the tetrahedral and octahedral stretching vibrations. Cation distribution was estimated using XRD data. Hysteresis measurements revealed that the saturation magnetization decreased with increase in Cu2+ substitution. Magnetic environment of 57Fe in Cu-doped cobalt ferrite was investigated by using Mössbauer spectroscopy. Mössbauer study evidenced the ferrimagnetic behavior of the synthesized samples. - Highlights: • Crystallite size decreases with increasing Cu2+ substitution. • The prepared samples show the formation of single phase cubic spinel structure. • Cation distribution shows that Cu and Co ions shows strong preference toward octahedral B site. • Magnetization decreases with increasing Cu2+ substitution. • Mössbauer study shows ferrimagnetic behavior of the samples. - Graphical

  1. Adsorption of arsenate on Cu/Mg/Fe/La layered double hydroxide from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yanwei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhu, Zhiliang, E-mail: zzl@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Qiu, Yanling [Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhao, Jianfu [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel layered double hydroxide containing lanthanum (Cu/Mg/Fe/La-LDH) has been synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average pore size of the materials with about 16 nm indicated that the mesoporous structures existed in the Cu/Mg/Fe/La-LDHs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorption capacity of As(V) increased with the increment of La{sup 3+} content in the LDH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The maximum adsorption capacity of the synthesized Cu/Mg/Fe/La-LDH for arsenate was 43.5 mg/g. - Abstract: A novel layered double hydroxide containing lanthanum (Cu/Mg/Fe/La-LDH) has been synthesized and used for the removal of arsenate from aqueous solutions. The purpose of incorporation of La{sup 3+} into LDHs was tried to enhance the uptake efficiency of arsenate and broaden the application field of LDHs functional materials. Effects of various physico-chemical factors such as solution pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and initial arsenate concentrations on the adsorption of arsenate onto Cu/Mg/Fe/La-LDH were investigated. Results showed that the removal efficiency of arsenate increased with the increment of the lanthanum content in Cu/Mg/Fe/La-LDH adsorbents, and the optimized lanthanum content was 20% of the total trivalent metals composition (Fe{sup 3+} and La{sup 3+}). The adsorption isotherms can be well described by Langmuir equation, and the adsorption kinetics of arsenate followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Coexistent ions such as HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Cl{sup -} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} exhibited obvious competition with arsenate for the adsorption on Cu/Mg/Fe/La-LDH. The solution pH significantly affected the removal efficiency, which was closely related to the change of arsenate species distribution under different pH conditions. The predominant adsorption mechanism can be mainly attributed to the processes including ion exchange and layer ligand exchange.

  2. Comparative investigation of CuFe2O4 nano and microstructures for structural, morphological, optical and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, G.; Gopinath, S.; Raj, R. Azhagu; Shukla, Arun K.; Alhoshan, Mansour S.; Sivakumar, K.

    2016-09-01

    CuFe2O4 nanocrystals were synthesized by the sol-gel method (SGM) and microwave method (MM) by using sucrose as a fuel. The structural, morphological, optical and magnetic properties of the products were determined and characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The XRD results confirmed the formation of cubic phase CuFe2O4. The formation of CuFe2O4 nano and microstructures were confirmed by HR-SEM. Photoluminescence emissions were determined by PL spectra, respectively. The relatively high saturation magnetization (78.22 emu/g) of CuFe2O4-MM shows that it is ferromagnetic and low saturation magnetization (35.98 emu/g) of CuFe2O4O-SGM confirms the super paramagnetic behavior.

  3. Comparison study of Cu-Fe-Ti and Co-Fe-Ti oxide catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Zhong, Zhaoping; Yang, Han; Wang, Chunhua

    2016-09-15

    In this paper, a series of Cu-Fe-Ti and Co-Fe-Ti oxide catalysts were prepared by sol gel method. Cu-Fe-Ti and Co-Fe-Ti oxide catalysts showed the moderate catalytic activity for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH3 at low temperature. The catalysts with the molar ratio as 4:1:10 (M:Fe:Ti) were selected as the representatives for comparison of reaction properties and H2O resistance, which were denoted as Cu-Fe/TiO2 and Co-Fe/TiO2 respectively. The characterization results manifested Co-Fe/TiO2 owned more adsorption capacity of the reactants and Cu-Fe/TiO2 had better redox ability. The in situ DRIFTS experiments indicated that adsorbed NH3 species and nitrate species both exhibited reaction activity for Co-Fe/TiO2, while nitric oxide was only be reduced by adsorbed NH3 species through Eley-Rideal mechanism for Cu-Fe/TiO2 at 150°C. Co-Fe/TiO2 exhibited the better resistance to H2O and its temperature window shifted towards the higher temperature in presence of 10vol% H2O, while the SCR activity of Cu-Fe/TiO2 was inhibited significantly in the whole temperature range investigated. The suppression of adsorption and activation for NH3 and NOx might be the reasons for the reversible inactivation, which was confirmed by the inhibitation of catalytic activities for separation NH3 and NO oxidation under the wet condition. We speculated that different thermal stability of adsorbed species and redox capacity of catalysts leaded to the different SCR behavior in absence and presence of H2O. PMID:27280535

  4. High lithium electroactivity of electrospun CuFe2O4 nanofibers as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Electrospun CuFe2O4 nanofibers were used as anode material for lithium-ion batteries for the first time. - Highlights: • We successfully synthesized electrospun CuFe2O4 nanofibers anode material for lithium-ion batteries for the first time. • The as-prepared CuFe2O4 nanofibers calcined at 800 °C exhibited a high initial discharge capacity of 1226.0 mAh g−1, and maintained a stable capacity of 572.4 mAh g−1 after 50 cycles. • The as-prepared CuFe2O4 nanofibers calcined at 800 °C also showed high capacity at higher discharge and charge rate. - Abstract: In this study, copper ferrite (CuFe2O4) nanofibers were successfully fabricated by a combination of electrospinning and calcination process. The crystal structure was investigated by X-ray diffractomentry, and the results show only peaks of CuFe2O4 could be observed from the product obtained at 800 °C, indicating the formation of pure compound. SEM and TEM images showed the as-spun CuFe2O4 nanofibers possessed good continuous fiber morphology with an average diameter of about 66 nm. The electrochemical properties of electrospun CuFe2O4 nanofibers as anode material for lithium-ion batteries were discussed for the first time. The results demonstrated that the electrospun CuFe2O4 nanofibers anode exhibited a high initial discharge capacity of 1226.0 mAh g−1, and maintained a stable capacity of 572.4 mAh g−1 after 50 cycles. Meanwhile, the electrodes showed high capacity at higher discharge and charge rate. The excellent electrochemical properties of electrospun CuFe2O4 nanofibers anode were attributed to the high crystallinity, as well as the unique mesoporous and fibrous structures

  5. Photocatalytic performances and activities of Ag-doped CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Zhengru, E-mail: zhengruzhu@gmail.com [Research Center of Hydrology and Water Source, School of Urban and Environment, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, 116029 (China); State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Li, Xinyong; Zhao, Qidong [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Li, Yonghua; Sun, Caizhi; Cao, Yongqiang [Research Center of Hydrology and Water Source, School of Urban and Environment, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, 116029 (China)

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. • Ag/CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} catalyst was prepared by the wetness impregnation strategy. • The structural properties of Ag/CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were investigated by XRD, TEM, DRS, and XPS techniques. • Ag/CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} has higher photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: In this work, CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were synthesized by a chemical co-precipitation route. The Ag/CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} catalyst was prepared based on the CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles by the incipient wetness impregnation strategy, which showed excellent photoelectric property and catalytic activity. The structural properties of these samples were systematically investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. The photo-induced charge separation in the samples was demonstrated by surface photovoltage (SPV) measurement. The photocatalytic degradation of 4-CP by the Ag/CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples were comparatively studied under xenon lamp irradiation. The results indicate that the Ag/CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sample exhibited the higher efficiency for the degradation of 4-CP.

  6. Effects of ultrasonic field in pulse electrodeposition of NiFe film on Cu substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NiFe film was pulse electrodeposited on conductive Cu substrate under galvanostatic mode in the presence of an ultrasonic field. The NiFe film electrodeposited was subjected to structural and surface analyses by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, surface profiling and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results show that the ultrasonic field has significantly improved the surface roughness, reduced the spherical grain size in the range from 490-575 nm to 90-150 nm, and increased the Ni content from 76.08% to 79.74% in the NiFe film electrodeposited.

  7. Coil-less fluxgate effect in CoNiFe/Cu wire electrodeposited under torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Co19Ni49.6Fe31.4 layer was electrodeposited onto a twisted Cu wire and helical anisotropy was induced in the magnetic Co19Ni49.6Fe31.4 shell. The magnetic and coil-less fluxgate (CF) properties are presented. The Co19Ni49.6Fe31.4/Cu wire, produced at zero torsional strain, shows a CF output of nearly zero. The samples produced under torsional strains of 29.5π and 59π rad/m show a linear change in CF output in the low-frequency range. At higher frequencies the CF output shows two linear ranges. A maximum sensitivity of 150V/T is observed at 20 kHz driving-current frequency and 67 mA driving current for a wire produced under 59π rad/m torsional strain. It is also found that the slope of the CF curve depends on the direction of induced anisotropy. - Highlights: → Co19Ni49.6Fe31.4/Cu composite wire with helical anisotropy was produced by applying torsion to Cu wire during the electrodeposition process. → Sensitivity of coil-less fluxgate sensor increases with increasing torsion. → The slope of the coil-less fluxgate curve depends on the direction of induced anisotropy.

  8. Experimental study of the formation process of the Al64Cu23Fe13 quasicrystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we propose a model to explain the formation process of the icosahedral Al64Cu23Fe13 quasicrystal based on experimental results of scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as x-ray diffraction. The measurements were carry out on samples prepared in an arc furnace where the formation process of the alloy was abruptly interrupted. (author)

  9. PVP assisted solvothermal synthesis of uniform Cu2FeSnS4 nanospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: TEM image of CFTS nanospheres synthesized with 0.2 g PVP and 40 ml EG at 180 °C for 24 h. - Highlights: • Cu2FeSnS4 nanospheres were synthesized by solvothermal method. • PVP improved dispersibility and morphology of Cu2FeSnS4 nanospheres greatly. • Optoelectronic properties of Cu2FeSnS4 were enhanced after annealing process. - Abstract: Well dispersed Cu2FeSnS4 (CFTS) nanospheres were firstly synthesized by a facile solvothermal method using ethylene glycol (EG) as the reaction medium and PVP as the surface ligand. The structural, morphological, chemical composition and optical properties of as-synthesized CFTS nanospheres were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The average particle sizes of the nanospheres were in the range of 0.4-0.6 μm. Time dependent SEM, XRD and EDS were measured to investigate the mechanism of the morphological evolution of CFTS nanospheres. The band-gap of the as-synthesized CFTS nanospheres was estimated to be about 1.33 eV from the UV-Vis absorption spectra. Photoresponses of CFTS nanospheres were confirmed by IV measurements under dark and light illumination. All these indicated their potential solar cell applications

  10. Adsorption of pentane isomers on metal-organic frameworks Cu-BTC and Fe-BTC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zukal, Arnošt; Opanasenko, Maksym; Rubeš, M.; Nachtigall, P.; Jagiello, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 243, APR 2014 (2015), s. 69-75. ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-07101S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Cu-BTC * Fe-BTC * adsorption Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.893, year: 2014

  11. The geochemical profile of Mn, Co, Cu and Fe in Kerteh Mangrove Forest, Terengganu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geochemical profile of Kerteh mangrove sediments was analyzed for the vertical and horizontal distribution. The 100 cm core sediment sample and 15 surface sediments samples were taken from the field. The geochemical elements of Mn, Co, Cu and Fe of the sediments were analyzed. Geochemical proxy of Mn, Co, Cu and Fe were analyzed by using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The mean concentrations of Mn, Co, Cu and Fe for the vertical distribution were 210.18 μg/ g, 15.55 μg/ g, 43.65 μg/ g and 1.88 μg/ g respectively. on the other hand, the mean concentrations of the geochemical elements for horizontal distributions were 230.50 μg/ g for Mn, 17.57 μg/ g for Co, 43.381 μg/ g for Cu and 2.93 μg/ g for Fe. Enrichment factor and normalization was used to point out the level of pollution. The EF and the normalization indicated that all the geochemical elements were from the natural sources. (author)

  12. Fine-particle magnetism in nanocrystalline Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic interactions between the nanocrystalline particles in FeCuNbSiB are studied above the Curie temperature of the intergranular amorphous phase. It is shown that with increasing volume fraction of nanocrystalline particles, the interparticle interaction increasingly suppresses superparamagnetic fluctuations and the transition to superferromagnetic behavior is observed. ((orig.))

  13. The structure and magnetic properties of a powder FeCuNbSiB material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the influence of milling on the structure and magnetic properties of Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 alloy as a function of milling time. We found that with an increase of milling time the size of the powder decreases and both the coercivity and the volume fraction of the crystalline phase increase

  14. Microwave absorbing properties and enhanced infrared reflectance of Fe/Cu composites prepared by chemical plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fe/Cu composite samples with Cu particles depositing on carbonyl iron sheets were prepared by chemical plating. Cu additions were uniformly distributed on the grain boundaries of the flaky carbonyl iron while keeping the internal structure of iron. Meanwhile, we found that the chemical plating time made a key point on both the microwave absorbing properties and infrared emissivity. With the growth of chemical plating time, the value of reflection loss gives a linear decrease and the infrared emissivity is reduced with a tendency of index reduction. When the plating time is less than 30 min, the reflection loss of the samples maintains above −20 GHz, moreover, prolonging the plating time more than 30 min, the infrared emissivity of the samples is reduced to 0.50 or less. It can be concluded that both the microwave absorbing and infrared properties are excellent at the optimal plating time of 30 min. - Highlights: • The Fe/Cu composites have been prepared by flake carbonyl iron as substrate. • The Fe/Cu composites exhibit enhanced Infrared characteristics. • The samples hold the most of the absorbing capacity and possess low infrared emissivity by controlling plating time

  15. Structural and magnetic properties of Cu-alloyed FePd films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polit, A.; Makarov, D.; Brombacher, C.; Krupinski, M.; Perzanowski, M.; Zabila, Y.; Albrecht, M.; Marszałek, M.

    2015-05-01

    Multilayer films [Cu(d Å)/Fe(9 Å)/Pd(11 Å)]5 were deposited at room temperature on Si(001)/SiO2(400 nm) substrates. In order to induce chemical L10 ordering, the as-deposited samples were post-annealed by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 600 °C for 90 s followed additionally by heating in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) at 700 °C up to several hours. In this study the impact of post-annealing on the structural and magnetic properties of FePdCu alloy films in dependence on the Cu content was investigated. It was found that the addition of Cu to the FePd alloy has a strong influence on the chemical ordering process and the (001) texture formation. After the RTA treatment only an isotropic distribution of the easy axis of magnetization with coercive fields in the range of a few hundred mT was observed. In contrast, samples which were additionally heated for 1 h at 700 °C revealed an out-of-plane easy axis of magnetization with an effective magnetic anisotropy of about 2×105 J/m3 for the sample containing 10 at% of Cu.

  16. Effects of Si/Al Ratio on Cu/SSZ-13 NH3-SCR Catalysts: Implications for the active Cu species and the Roles of Brønsted Acidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Feng; Washton, Nancy M.; Wang, Yilin; Kollar, Marton; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2015-09-03

    Cu/SSZ-13 catalysts with three Si/Al ratios of 6, 12 and 35 were synthesized with Cu incorporation via solution ion exchange. The implications of varying Si/Al ratios on the nature of the multiple Cu species that can be present in the SSZ-13 zeolite are a major focus of this work, as highlighted by the results of a variety of catalyst characterization and reaction kinetics measurements. Specifically, catalysts were characterized with surface area/pore volume measurements, temperature programmed reduction by H2 (H2-TPR), NH3 temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD), and DRIFTS and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies. Catalytic properties were examined using NO oxidation, ammonia oxidation, and standard ammonia selective catalytic reduction (NH3-SCR) reactions on selected catalysts under differential conditions. Besides indicating possible variably active multiple Cu species for these reactions, the measurements are also used to untangle some of the complexities caused by the interplay between redox of Cu ion centers and Brønsted acidity. All three reactions appear to follow a redox reaction mechanism, yet the roles of Brønsted acidity are quite different. For NO oxidation, increasing Si/Al ratio lowers Cu redox barriers, thus enhancing reaction rates. Brønsted acidity appears to play essentially no role for this reaction. For standard NH3-SCR, residual Brønsted acidity plays a significant beneficial role at both low- and high-temperature regimes. For NH3 oxidation, no clear trend is observed suggesting both Cu ion center redox and Brønsted acidity play important and perhaps competing roles. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of

  17. 'Venus trapped, Mars transits': Cu and Fe redox chemistry, cellular topography and in situ ligand binding in terrestrial isopod hepatopancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kille, P; Morgan, A J; Powell, K; Mosselmans, J F W; Hart, D; Gunning, P; Hayes, A; Scarborough, D; McDonald, I; Charnock, J M

    2016-03-01

    Woodlice efficiently sequester copper (Cu) in 'cuprosomes' within hepatopancreatic 'S' cells. Binuclear 'B' cells in the hepatopancreas form iron (Fe) deposits; these cells apparently undergo an apocrine secretory diurnal cycle linked to nocturnal feeding. Synchrotron-based µ-focus X-ray spectroscopy undertaken on thin sections was used to characterize the ligands binding Cu and Fe in S and B cells of Oniscus asellus (Isopoda). Main findings were: (i) morphometry confirmed a diurnal B-cell apocrine cycle; (ii) X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping indicated that Cu was co-distributed with sulfur (mainly in S cells), and Fe was co-distributed with phosphate (mainly in B cells); (iii) XRF mapping revealed an intimate morphological relationship between the basal regions of adjacent S and B cells; (iv) molecular modelling and Fourier transform analyses indicated that Cu in the reduced Cu(+) state is mainly coordinated to thiol-rich ligands (Cu-S bond length 2.3 Å) in both cell types, while Fe in the oxidized Fe(3+) state is predominantly oxygen coordinated (estimated Fe-O bond length of approx. 2 Å), with an outer shell of Fe scatterers at approximately 3.05 Å; and (v) no significant differences occur in Cu or Fe speciation at key nodes in the apocrine cycle. Findings imply that S and B cells form integrated unit-pairs; a functional role for secretions from these cellular units in the digestion of recalcitrant dietary components is hypothesized. PMID:26935951

  18. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Novel Mixed Nido-like and Half-open Cubane-like Cluster [(n-Bu)4N]3[MoS4Cu5Br6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU,Quai(刘泉); XU,Qing-Feng(徐庆锋); ZHANG,Yong(张勇); CHEN,Jin-Xiang(陈金香); ZHOU,Zhi-Feng(周志峰); LANG,Jian-Ping(郎建平)

    2002-01-01

    Reaction of (NH4)2MoS4 with [Cu(MeCN)4] (BF4) and (nBu)4NBr in CH2Cl2 afforded a new hexanuclear cluster [ ( nBu)4N]3[MoS4Cu5Br6] (1). 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P21/c, with lattice parameters a =1.17383(4) nm, b = 2.40136(4) nm, c = 2.64112(5) nm,β =94.2020(5)°, V=7.4247(5) nm3andZ=4. The structure of the [MoS4Cu5Br6]3- trianion of 1 is composed of one nidolike [MoS3Cu3] core and one half-open cubane-like [MoS3Cu3Br] core, which are interconnected by sharing the of 0.2622(6)-0.2692(5) nm.

  19. More Cu, more problems: Decreased CO2 conversion ability by Cu-doped La0.75Sr0.25FeO3 perovskite oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza, Yolanda A.; Maiti, Debtanu; Hare, Bryan J.; Bhethanabotla, Venkat R.; Kuhn, John N.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of Cu doping on the conversion of CO2 to CO was investigated on H2-reduced La0.75Sr0.25FeO3 perovskite oxides. Six La0.75Sr0.25Fe1 -YCuYO3 perovskites, labeled Cu100*Y (with Y = 0, 0.10, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1) were synthesized and characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed oxygen vacancy formation, and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR). The incorporation of Cu facilitates the formation of oxygen vacancies at lower temperatures but also increased the instability of the perovskite. DFT simulations suggested that the Cu10 sample is favored to produce oxygen vacancies compared to Cu0 and Cu25 samples, which was consistent with experimental oxygen vacancy formation results. For the Cu0, Cu10, and Cu25 samples, temperature-programmed CO2 conversion (TPO-CO2) after isothermal H2-reduction at 450 °C and post-reduction XRD were performed to evaluate the ability of the materials to convert CO2 at low temperatures and to identify the crystalline phases active in the reaction. The peak conversion of CO2 to CO was achieved 30 °C lower on the Cu10 sample versus the Cu0, but less CO was produced, due to a decreased re-oxidation activity of the Cu-doped samples. CO production was inhibited in the Cu25 sample, likely due to a combined effect of poor CO2 dissociative chemisorption energies on metallic Cu and increased thermodynamic stability of the oxygen vacant perovskites. Control experiments (Cu deposited onto La0.75Sr0.25FeO3) indicated the stability of the copper-containing perovskite oxides phases was the primary limiting factor preventing CO formation from CO2.

  20. The magnetic structure of FeMn layers across Cu spacer in the (001) and (111) crystallographic faces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the convincing experimental evidence of oscillatory exchange interaction between antiferromagnetic FeMn layers across a Cu spacer recently found by Cai et al., we have performed ab-initio spin-polarized density-functional-theory calculations on (FeMn)n/Cu/(FeMn)n with n = 1, 2, 3 in the (001) and (111) crystallographic faces. (i) In the case of (001) crystallographic face, for n = 1 we have investigated all possible magnetic configurations in the self-consistent procedure and we end up with five solutions. The ground state is found to be of ferromagnetic type with an intrinsic ferromagnetic configuration in the FeMn plane and a ferromagnetic coupling between the two FeMn planes separated by the Cu spacer. At 20.17 mRyd/cell a solution with complex magnetic behavior is observed: ferromagnetic coupling between Fe and Mn, in one FeMn plane, and antiferromagnetic coupling between Fe and Mn in the second FeMn plane separated by Cu. Another solution at 41.26 mRyd above the ferromagnetic ground state presents in-plane antiferromagnetic configurations in each FeMn layer. For n = 2 the ground state presents in-plane ferromagnetism for the two FeMn layers adjacent to Cu; the other two FeMn layers are clearly of in-plane antiferromagnetic type. Contrary to n = 1, the ferromagnetic coupling through the Cu spacer is now absent. We report on this ground state and various metastable states with small differences of energy with the ground state. For n = 3 the magnetic map is more complex. (ii) In the case of (111) crystallographic face, the ground state presents for n = 1 in-plane antiferromagnetism for the two FeMn layers adjacent to Cu whereas the magnetic map is more complex for n = 2 . Explanation of the experimental results of Cai et al. is tentatively made. (author)

  1. Phase-field simulation of phase transformation in Fe-Cu-Mu-Ni quaternary alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phase decomposition in α(bcc) phase and the subsequent structural phase transformation from α to γ(fcc) phase during isothermal aging of an Fe-Cu-Mn-Ni quaternary alloy, which is a base alloy of the light-water reactor pressure vessel, have been simulated by the phase-field method. At the early stage of spinodal decomposition, Cu-rich α phase is formed, and the Mn and Ni, which are minor components, are partitioned to the Cu-rich phase. As the Cu composition in the precipitate is increased, the Ni atoms inside the precipitates move to the interface region between the precipitate and matrix, but Mn atoms remain inside the Cu particles. When the Cu-rich particles eventually transform to the fcc structure, the Mn atoms also move to the interface region, which results in the shell structure of the fcc Cu precipitates, where each particle is surrounded by a thin layer enriched in Mn and Ni. This microstructural change can be reasonably explained by considering the local equilibrium at the surface region of the Cu-rich particles. (author)

  2. Characterizing As, Cu, Fe and U solubilization by natural waters

    OpenAIRE

    Noubactep, C.; Schöner, A.; Schubert, M

    2008-01-01

    The effects of carbonate concentration and the presence of in-situ generated iron oxide and hydroxide phases (iron oxyhydroxides) on arsenic (As), copper (Cu), and uranium (U) release from natural rocks were investigated under oxic conditions and in the pH range from 6 to 9. For this purpose non-disturbed batch experiments were conducted with a constant amount of each contaminant bearing rock/mineral and different types of water (deionised, mineral, spring, and tap water). For comparison para...

  3. Anomalous grain growth in nanocrystalline Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Su13.5B9 alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong

    1997-01-01

    The grain growth of the FeSi phase during the crystallization process of the amorphous Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 alloy was studied using transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffractometry. An anomalous grain growth behaviour of the FeSi phase in the samples annealed in temperature range from 74...

  4. Magnetic properties and evidence for lattice instabilities of the frustrated 2D s=1/2 systems (CuCl)LaNb2O7 and (CuBr)LaNb2O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the magnetic properties and raman scattering data of the double-layered perovskites (CuBr)LaNb2O7 and (CuCl)LaNb2O7 with a square lattice of s=21 prepared by topotactic ion-exchange reactions. Evidence for competing ferro- and antiferromagnetic exchange pathes connecting nearest and second-nearest-neighbors, respectively, exist. Despite nearly identical structural parameters of the two compounds there is a different magnetic ground state. Work supported by DFG and ESF-HFM. (orig.)

  5. Changes of microstructure and magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets by doping Al-Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni Junjie [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252000 (China); Ma Tianyu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yan Mi, E-mail: mse_yanmi@zju.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2011-11-15

    The microstructural and magnetic properties of Al{sub 100-x}Cu{sub x} (15at%{<=}x{<=}45 at%) doped Nd-Fe-B magnets were studied. The distribution and alloying effects of Cu or Al on the intergranular microstructure were investigated by thermodynamic analysis, differential scanning calorimetery and microscopy techniques. It was observed that when the Cu content of Al{sub 100x}Cu{sub x} exceeds to 25 at%, the (Pr, Nd)Cu and CuAl{sub 2} phases form in these magnets. The formation of (Pr, Nd)Cu phase depends on the negative formation enthalpy of (Pr, Nd)Cu and the exclusive distribution of Cu in the intergranular regions. The eutectic reaction between (Pr, Nd)Cu phase and (Pr, Nd) occurs at 480 deg. C, which forms the liquid phase that dissolves the (Pr, Nd){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B surface irregularities and thus increases the quantities of (Pr, Nd)-rich phase at the grain boundaries. These changes benefit the grain boundary microstructure, especially the distribution of (Pr, Nd)-rich phase, which effectively improves the intrinsic coercivity {sub i}H{sub c} due to the decreases of exchange coupling between the (Pr, Nd){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains. - Highlights: > Cu/Al effects on Nd-Fe-B structure depend on their distribution/alloying behaviors. > Cu exclusively distributes in grain boundaries different from Al and has negative mixing heat with Nd. > (Pr,Nd)Cu phase besides CuAl{sub 2} forms in grain boundaries with Cu content increase. > (Pr,Nd)Cu phases optimize microstructure and increase magnetic properties.

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of binary Fe85B15 to quinary Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloys for primary crystallizations of α-Fe in nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, A.; Zhang, Y.; Takenaka, K.; Makino, A.

    2015-05-01

    Fe-based Fe85B15, Fe84B15Cu1, Fe82Si2B15Cu1, Fe85Si2B12Cu1, and Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 (NANOMET®) alloys were experimental and computational analyzed to clarify the features of NANOMET that exhibits high saturation magnetic flux density (Bs) nearly 1.9 T and low core loss than conventional nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys. The X-ray diffraction analysis for ribbon specimens produced experimentally by melt spinning from melts revealed that the samples were almost formed into an amorphous single phase. Then, the as-quenched samples were analyzed with differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) experimentally for exothermic enthalpies of the primary and secondary crystallizations (ΔHx1 and ΔHx2) and their crystallization temperatures (Tx1 and Tx2), respectively. The ratio ΔHx1/ΔHx2 measured by DSC experimentally tended to be extremely high for the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy, and this tendency was reproduced by the analysis with commercial software, Thermo-Calc, with database for Fe-based alloys, TCFE7 for Gibbs free energy (G) assessments. The calculations exhibit that a volume fraction (Vf) of α-Fe tends to increase from 0.56 for the Fe85B15 to 0.75 for the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy. The computational analysis of the alloys for G of α-Fe and amorphous phases (Gα-Fe and Gamor) shows that a relationship Gα-Fe ˜ Gamor holds for the Fe85Si2B12Cu1, whereas Gα-Fe Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy at Tx1 and that an extremely high Vf = 0.75 was achieved for the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy by including 2.8 at. % Si and 4.5 at. % P into α-Fe. These computational results indicate that the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy barely forms amorphous phase, which, in turn, leads to high Vf and resultant high Bs.

  7. Effect of small additions of Cu and Cr on crystallization of Fe80B9Si11 amorphous alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of differential thermal and X-ray structure analyses, as well as, by measurement of microstrength one studied the effect of small additions of chromium and copper on the peculiarities of crystallization of Fe80B9Si11 amorphous alloy (Fe79Cr1B9Si11 and Fe79Cu1B9Si11). Chromium was determined to stabilize Fe3B nonequilibrium phase the formation of which resulted in eutectic type of crystallization at early stages while copper was determined to enable formation of α-Fe and Fe2B equilibrium phases and primary crystallization with precipitation of α-Fe primary crystals

  8. Study of Cu-doping effects on magnetic properties of Fe-doped ZnO by first principle calculations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A El Amiri; H Lassri; M Abid; E K Hlil

    2014-06-01

    Using ab initio calculations on Zn0.975–Fe0.025CuO ( = 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.05), we study the variations of magnetic moments vs Cu concentration. The electronic structure is calculated by using the Korringa–Kohn–Rostoker (KKR) method combined with coherent potential approximation (CPA). We show that the total magnetic moment and magnetic moment of Fe increase on increasing Cu content. From the density of state (DOS) analysis, we show that Cu-induced impurity bands can assure, by two mechanisms, the enhancement of Fe magnetic moment in Zn0.975–Fe0.025CuO.

  9. Jahn-Teller calculations for CuO4 and FeO4 clusters in the Nd1.85Ce0.15Cu0.99Fe0.01O4-δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Jahn-Teller distortion mechanism in the Nd2-xCexCuO4 is analyzed. This analysis is based on a quasi-molecular model for the CuO4 cluster having D4h symmetry. In order to compare with experimental Moessbauer measurements in the doped Nd1.85Ce0.15Cu0.99Fe0.01O4-δ superconductor, the FeO4 cluster is also analyzed for the case of Fe2+ in the high spin state. The results show not evidence of a Jahn-Teller effect in these superconductors. (orig.)

  10. Note: Resonance magnetoelectric interactions in laminate of FeCuNbSiB and multilayer piezoelectric stack for magnetic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianqiang; Lu, Caijiang; Xu, Changbao; Zhong, Ming

    2015-09-01

    This paper develops a simple miniature magnetoelectric (ME) laminate FeCuNbSiB/PZT-stack made up of magnetostrictive Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 (FeCuNbSiB) foils and piezoelectric Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) multilayer stack vibrator. Resonant ME interactions of FeCuNbSiB/PZT-stack with different layers of FeCuNbSiB foil (L) are investigated in detail. The experimental results show that the ME voltage coefficient reaches maximum value of 141.5 (V/cm Oe) for FeCuNbSiB/PZT-stack with L = 6. The AC-magnetic sensitivities can reach 524.29 mV/Oe and 1.8 mV/Oe under resonance 91.6 kHz and off-resonance 1 kHz, respectively. The FeCuNbSiB/PZT-stack can distinguish small dc-magnetic field of ˜9 nT. The results indicate that the proposed ME composites are very promising for the cheap room-temperature magnetic field sensing technology.

  11. Formation of Cu precipitates in a high-energy-particle-irradiated and thermally aged Fe-0.6%Cu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stability of Cu precipitates in thermally aged Fe-Cu alloys after high-energy particle irradiation was investigated using a mono-energetic positron beam apparatus. The S-parameters did not change with increasing incident positron energy above 15 keV, which means positron annihilation at the surface does not influence the Doppler broadening (DB) spectra. In a non-aged sample, the S-parameter increased, while the W-parameter did not change upon ion irradiation at above 10 keV. By contrast, in the thermally aged sample, the S-parameter increased, while the W-parameter decreased upon ion irradiation. The DB spectra of thermally aged and non-aged samples have nealy the same shape after high-energy particle irradiation. In both thermally aged and non-aged samples, almost all positrons annihilate with electrons in Cu, and vacancy clusters covered with Cu atoms are formed upon neutron irradiation. This agrees with the results of previous studies. However, the defect growth process may be different in aged and non-aged samples.

  12. Structural evolution and the kinetics of Cu clustering in the amorphous phase of Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, P.; Gupta, A.; Shukla, A.; Ganguli, Tapas; Sinha, A. K.; Principi, G.; Maddalena, A.

    2011-08-01

    An attempt has been made to investigate the evolution of the structure of the amorphous phase of Fe73.9 Cu0.9 Nb3.1 Si13.2 B8.9 (finemet) alloy by a combination of wide-angle x-ray scattering, small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy on the supposition that they would provide complementary information. Before the onset of nanocrystallization, the amorphous phase undergoes a structural relaxation resulting in small increase in the hyperfine field and a decrease in the width of the first diffraction maxima. There is an increase in the topological ordering in the system, though chemical inhomogeneity sets-in due to the clustering of Cu atoms in the pure amorphous state of this alloy. Annealing at 400 °C (well below the crystallization temperature) for different time durations results in occurrence of Cu clusters having fcc structure. Kinetics of Cu clustering is studied using SAXS. The incubation time for the clustering at 400 °C is ˜120 min. With further annealing, the average cluster size gradually increases from the initial value of ˜0.4 nm, reaching a value of ˜0.6 nm after annealing for 720 min. Cluster size exhibits a t1/2 dependence, suggesting a diffusion controlled growth.

  13. Heat content of liquid Fe-Cu-Si alloys formed in the melting treatment process of domestic waste incineration residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some new melting processes for the ash have been developed to solve the problems on increasing volume of ash generated from municipal waste incinerators. The metal phase formed in this melting process generally consists of Fe-Cu-Si-P-C containing a small amount of other heavy metals, but their phase equilibria and physico-chemical properties are unknown. The present work aimed at determining the thermochemical properties of liquid Fe-Cu-Si alloys, which establish the basic system in this melting process. The heat contents of liquid Fe, Fe-Cu and Fe-Cu-Si alloys have been directly measured with a drop calorimeter at mainly 2073 K in the present work. The observed heat content and the enthalpy of mixing of the alloys were assessed by a thermodynamic model. The input energy which should be supplied to melt the metal phase in the new melting treatment process was also discussed. (orig.)

  14. A study of mixtures of nanometer sized Fe and Cu crystallites by anomalous small angle X-ray scattering (ASAXS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixtures of Fe crystallites and Cu crystallites with diameters of about 6-14 nm, have been prepared by inert gas condensation and subsequent compaction of the crystallites. Small angle X-ray scattering experiments using synchrotron radiation have been carried out to study the microstructure of the compacts on a nanometer scale. By variation of the atomic scattering factors near the K absorption edge of Fe, partial intensities have been obtained which provide separate information about the environment of the Fe or the Cu atoms, respectively. The partial intensities are interpreted in terms of scattering contributions of particles with different sizes. The resulting size distribution functions not only indicate the presence of Fe and Cu crystallites but also give evidence for correlations between the crystallites. These correlations between Fe and Cu crystals are interpreted in terms of a mixture of the chemically different crystallites on a nanometer scale. (orig.)

  15. Heat content of liquid Fe-Cu-Si alloys formed in the melting treatment process of domestic waste incineration residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washizu, T. [Nippon Steel Corp., Ohita (Japan). Ohita Works; Nagasaka, T.; Hino, M. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Metallurgy

    2002-04-01

    Some new melting processes for the ash have been developed to solve the problems on increasing volume of ash generated from municipal waste incinerators. The metal phase formed in this melting process generally consists of Fe-Cu-Si-P-C containing a small amount of other heavy metals, but their phase equilibria and physico-chemical properties are unknown. The present work aimed at determining the thermochemical properties of liquid Fe-Cu-Si alloys, which establish the basic system in this melting process. The heat contents of liquid Fe, Fe-Cu and Fe-Cu-Si alloys have been directly measured with a drop calorimeter at mainly 2073 K in the present work. The observed heat content and the enthalpy of mixing of the alloys were assessed by a thermodynamic model. The input energy which should be supplied to melt the metal phase in the new melting treatment process was also discussed. (orig.)

  16. Comparing XMCD and DFT with STM spin excitation spectroscopy for Fe and Co adatoms on Cu2N /Cu (100 )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzkorn, M.; Hirjibehedin, C. F.; Lehnert, A.; Ouazi, S.; Rusponi, S.; Stepanow, S.; Gambardella, P.; Tieg, C.; Thakur, P.; Lichtenstein, A. I.; Shick, A. B.; Loth, S.; Heinrich, A. J.; Brune, H.

    2015-11-01

    We report on the magnetic properties of Fe and Co adatoms on a Cu2N /Cu(100 ) -c (2 ×2 ) surface investigated by x-ray magnetic dichroism measurements and density functional theory (DFT) calculations including the local coulomb interaction. We compare these results with properties formerly deduced from STM spin excitation spectroscopy (SES) performed on the individual adatoms. In particular we focus on the values of the local magnetic moments determined by XMCD compared to the expectation values derived from the description of the SES data. The angular dependence of the projected magnetic moments along the magnetic field, as measured by XMCD, can be understood on the basis of the SES Hamiltonian. In agreement with DFT, the XMCD measurements show large orbital contributions to the total magnetic moment for both magnetic adatoms.

  17. Bandgap narrowing in the layered oxysulfide semiconductor Ba3Fe2O5Cu2S2: Role of FeO2 layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhang; Shifeng, Jin; Liwei, Guo; Shijie, Shen; Zhiping, Lin; Xiaolong, Chen

    2016-02-01

    A new layered Cu-based oxychalcogenide Ba3Fe2O5Cu2S2 has been synthesized and its magnetic and electronic properties were revealed. Ba3Fe2O5Cu2S2 is built up by alternatively stacking [Cu2S2]2- layers and iron perovskite oxide [(FeO2)(BaO)(FeO2)]2- layers along the c axis that are separated by barium ions with Fe3+ fivefold coordinated by a square-pyramidal arrangement of oxygen. From the bond valence arguments, we inferred that in layered CuCh-based (Ch = S, Se, Te) compounds the +3 cation in perovskite oxide sheet prefers a square pyramidal site, while the lower valence cation prefers the square planar sites. The studies on susceptibility, transport, and optical reflectivity indicate that Ba3Fe2O5Cu2S2 is an antiferromagnetic semiconductor with a Néel temperature of 121 K and an optical bandgap of 1.03 eV. The measurement of heat capacity from 10 K to room temperature shows no anomaly at 121 K. The Debye temperature is determined to be 113 K. Theoretical calculations indicate that the conduction band minimum is predominantly contributed by O 2p and 3d states of Fe ions that antiferromagnetically arranged in FeO2 layers. The Fe 3d states are located at lower energy and result in a narrow bandgap in comparison with that of the isostructural Sr3Sc2O5Cu2S2. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51472266, 51202286, and 91422303), the Strategic Priority Research Program (B) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB07020100) and the ICDD.

  18. The CU ground MAX-DOAS instrument: characterization of RMS noise limitations and first measurements near Pensacola, FL of BrO, IO, and CHOCHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Coburn

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We designed and assembled the University of Colorado Ground Multi AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU GMAX-DOAS instrument to retrieve bromine oxide (BrO, iodine oxide (IO, formaldehyde (HCHO, glyoxal (CHOCHO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and the oxygen dimer (O4 in the coastal atmosphere of the Gulf of Mexico. The detection sensitivity of DOAS measurements is proportional to the root mean square (RMS of the residual spectrum that remains after all absorbers have been subtracted. Here we describe the CU GMAX-DOAS instrument and demonstrate that the hardware is capable of attaining RMS of ∼6 × 10−6 from solar stray light noise tests using high photon count spectra (compatible within a factor of two with photon shot noise. <br>> Laboratory tests revealed two critical instrument properties that, in practice, can limit the RMS: (1 detector non-linearity noise, RMSNLin, and (2 temperature fluctuations that cause variations in optical resolution (full width at half the maximum, FWHM, of atomic emission lines and give rise to optical resolution noise, RMSFWHM. The non-linearity of our detector is low (∼10−2 yet – unless actively controlled – is sufficiently large to create RMSNLin of up to 2 × 10−4. The optical resolution is sensitive to temperature changes (0.03 detector pixels °C−1 at 334 nm, and temperature variations of 0.1°C can cause RMSFWHM of ~1 × 10−4. Both factors were actively addressed in the design of the CU GMAX-DOAS instrument. With an integration time of 60 s the instrument can reach RMS noise of 3 × 10−5, and typical RMS in field measurements ranged from 6 × 10−5 to 1.4 × 10−4. <br>> The CU GMAX-DOAS was set up at a coastal site near Pensacola, Florida, where we detected BrO, IO and CHOCHO in the marine boundary layer (MBL, with daytime

  19. Development and characterization of the CU ground MAX-DOAS instrument: lowering RMS noise and first measurements of BrO, IO, and CHOCHO near Pensacola, FL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Coburn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We designed and assembled the University of Colorado Ground Multi AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU GMAX-DOAS instrument to retrieve bromine oxide (BrO, iodine oxide (IO, formaldehyde (HCHO, glyoxal (CHOCHO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and the oxygen dimer O4 in the coastal atmosphere of the Gulf of Mexico. The detection sensitivity of DOAS measurements is directly proportional to the root mean square (RMS of the residual spectrum that remains after all absorbers have been subtracted. Here we describe the CU GMAX-DOAS instrument and demonstrate that the hardware is capable of attaining RMS values of ~6 × 10-6 without apparent limitations other than photon shot noise. <br>> Laboratory tests revealed two factors that, in practice, limit the RMS: (1 detector non-linearity noise, RMSNLin, and (2 temperature fluctuations that cause variations in optical resolution (full width at half the maximum, FWHM, of atomic emission lines and give rise to optical resolution noise, RMSFWHM. The non-linearity of our detector is low (~10−3 yet – unless actively controlled – is sufficiently large to create a RMSNLin limit of up to 1.4 × 10-4. The optical resolution is sensitive to temperature changes (0.03 detector pixels/°C at 334 nm, and temperature variations of 0.1 °C can cause residual RMSFWHM of ~1 × 10-4. Both factors were actively addressed in the design of the CU GMAX-DOAS instrument. <br>> The CU GMAX-DOAS was set up at a coastal site near Pensacola, FL, where we detected BrO, IO and CHOCHO in the marine boundary layer (MBL, with daytime average tropospheric vertical column densities, VCDs, of ~2 × 1013 molec cm−2, 8 × 1012 molec cm−2 and 4 × 1014 molec cm−2, respectively. HCHO and NO2 were also detected with typical MBL VCDs of 1

  20. Magnetic properties of R2Fe14-xMxB, R = Y, Gd, M = Si, Cr, Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural and magnetic properties of R2Fe14-xMxB systems (R = Y, Gd, M = Si, Cr, Cu) are investigated. These compounds crystallize in a tetragonal system at P42/mnm-type for a Si content up to x = 2, Cr content up to x = 3 and for Cu concentration up to x = 1.5. The Curie temperature increases when Fe is substituted by Si and Cu, decreases when Fe is replaced by Cr. The saturation magnetization decreases with increasing content of a M element

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of binary Fe85B15 to quinary Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloys for primary crystallizations of α-Fe in nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fe-based Fe85B15, Fe84B15Cu1, Fe82Si2B15Cu1, Fe85Si2B12Cu1, and Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 (NANOMET®) alloys were experimental and computational analyzed to clarify the features of NANOMET that exhibits high saturation magnetic flux density (Bs) nearly 1.9 T and low core loss than conventional nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys. The X-ray diffraction analysis for ribbon specimens produced experimentally by melt spinning from melts revealed that the samples were almost formed into an amorphous single phase. Then, the as-quenched samples were analyzed with differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) experimentally for exothermic enthalpies of the primary and secondary crystallizations (ΔHx1 and ΔHx2) and their crystallization temperatures (Tx1 and Tx2), respectively. The ratio ΔHx1/ΔHx2 measured by DSC experimentally tended to be extremely high for the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy, and this tendency was reproduced by the analysis with commercial software, Thermo-Calc, with database for Fe-based alloys, TCFE7 for Gibbs free energy (G) assessments. The calculations exhibit that a volume fraction (Vf) of α-Fe tends to increase from 0.56 for the Fe85B15 to 0.75 for the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy. The computational analysis of the alloys for G of α-Fe and amorphous phases (Gα-Fe and Gamor) shows that a relationship Gα-Fe ∼ Gamor holds for the Fe85Si2B12Cu1, whereas Gα-Fe < Gamor for the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy at Tx1 and that an extremely high Vf = 0.75 was achieved for the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy by including 2.8 at. % Si and 4.5 at. % P into α-Fe. These computational results indicate that the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy barely forms amorphous phase, which, in turn, leads to high Vf and resultant high Bs

  2. Non-injection synthesis of monodisperse Cu-Fe-S nanocrystals and their size dependent properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabka, Grzegorz; Bujak, Piotr; Żukrowski, Jan; Zabost, Damian; Kotwica, Kamil; Malinowska, Karolina; Ostrowski, Andrzej; Wielgus, Ireneusz; Lisowski, Wojciech; Sobczak, Janusz W; Przybylski, Marek; Pron, Adam

    2016-06-01

    It is demonstrated that ternary Cu-Fe-S nanocrystals differing in composition (from Cu-rich to Fe-rich), structure (chalcopyrite or high bornite) and size can be obtained from a mixture of CuCl, FeCl3, thiourea and oleic acid (OA) in oleylamine (OLA) using the heating up procedure. This new preparation method yields the smallest Cu-Fe-S nanocrystals ever reported to date (1.5 nm for the high bornite structure and 2.7 nm for the chalcopyrite structure). A comparative study of nanocrystals of the same composition (Cu1.6Fe1.0S2.0) but different in size (2.7 nm and 9.3 nm) revealed a pronounced quantum confinement effect, confirmed by three different techniques: UV-vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The optical band gap increased from 0.60 eV in the bulk material to 0.69 eV in the nanocrystals of 9.3 nm size and to 1.39 eV in nanocrystals of 2.7 nm size. The same trend was observed in the electrochemical band gaps, derived from cyclic voltammetry studies (band gaps of 0.74 eV and 1.54 eV). The quantum effect was also manifested in Mössbauer spectroscopy by an abrupt change in the spectrum from a quadrupole doublet to a Zeeman sextet below 10 K, which could be interpreted in terms of the well defined energy states in these nanoparticles, resulting from quantum confinement. The Mössbauer spectroscopic data confirmed, in addition to the results of XPS spectroscopy, the co-existence of Fe(iii) and Fe(ii) in the synthesized nanocrystals. The organic shell composition was investigated by NMR (after dissolution of the inorganic core) and IR spectroscopy. Both methods identified oleylamine (OLA) and 1-octadecene (ODE) as surfacial ligands, the latter being formed in situ via an elimination-hydrogenation reaction occurring between OLA and the nanocrystal surface. PMID:27197089

  3. Discovery of Cu-Ni-Zn-Sn-Fe intermetallic compounds and S-bearing alloys in the Zhaishang gold deposit, southern Gansu Province and its geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Examination of ores by optical microscope and EPMA from the Zhaishang gold deposit, southern Gansu Province, has revealed an abundance of rare minerals. These include native metals, Cu-Ni-Zn-Sn-Fe polymetallic compounds and S-bearing alloys of Ni, Fe, Zn, Cu and Sn, occurring as native nickel, Zn-Cu alloy, Ni-Zn-Cu alloy, Sn-Zn-Ni-Cu alloy, Zn-Cu-Ni alloy, Zn-Fe-Cu-Sn-Ni alloy, Fe-Ni-S alloy, Sn-Fe-Ni-S alloy, Fe-Zn-Cu-Ni-S alloy, Zn-Ni-Cu-Fe-S alloy and others. Compared with the Zn-Cu alloy minerals discovered previously, these Zn-Cu minerals fall in the α or α+β portion in Zn-Cu alloy phase diagram, and the α portion has higher Cu content. Cu-Ni-Zn-Sn-Fe intermetallic compounds and S-bearing alloy minerals have not been previously reported in the literature. These rare alloys formed in a strongly reducing environment with absent oxygen and low sulfur activities.

  4. Fabrication and mechanical properties of AlCoNiCrFe high-entropy alloy particle reinforced Cu matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jian, E-mail: chenjian@xatu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Xi' an Technological University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710021 (China); Niu, Pengyun; Wei, Ting [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Xi' an Technological University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710021 (China); Hao, Liang [College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Xi' an University of Science and Technology, Xi' an 710054 (China); Liu, Yunzi [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Xi' an Technological University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710021 (China); Wang, Xianhui, E-mail: xhwang693@xaut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710048 (China); Peng, Yuli [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Xi' an Technological University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710021 (China)

    2015-11-15

    The AlCoNiCrFe high-entropy alloy was prepared by mechanical alloying and the AlCoNiCrFe high-entropy alloy reinforced Cu matrix composites were subsequently fabricated by powder metallurgy. The phase constituents and morphology of the alloying powders were characterized by X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscope, the microstructures of the Cu base composites were characterized by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope, and the compression tests were made as well. The results show that the AlCoNiCrFe high-entropy alloy can form after milling for 24 h. During sintering process, no grain growth occurs and no intermetallic phases present in the AlCoNiCrFe high-entropy alloy in the Cu base composite. Compression tests show that the AlCoNiCrFe high-entropy alloy has a better strengthening effect than metallic glasses and the yield strength of the Cu matrix composite reinforced with the AlCoNiCrFe high-entropy alloy is close to the value predicted by the Voigt model based on the equal strain assumption. - Graphical abstract: AlCoNiCrFe HEA has a better strengthening effect than metallic glasses for particulate reinforced metal matrix composites. The yield strength of the Cu base composite reinforced with the AlCoNiCrFe HEA is close to the upper bound calculated by Voigt model. - Highlights: • AlCoNiCrFe high-entropy alloy was prepared by mechanical alloying. • A novel Cu base composite reinforced with AlCoNiCrFe was fabricated. • No grain growth and no intermetallic phase present in AlCoNiCrFe during sintering. • AlCoNiCrFe has a better strengthening effect than metallic glassy in composites.

  5. Fabrication and mechanical properties of AlCoNiCrFe high-entropy alloy particle reinforced Cu matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AlCoNiCrFe high-entropy alloy was prepared by mechanical alloying and the AlCoNiCrFe high-entropy alloy reinforced Cu matrix composites were subsequently fabricated by powder metallurgy. The phase constituents and morphology of the alloying powders were characterized by X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscope, the microstructures of the Cu base composites were characterized by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope, and the compression tests were made as well. The results show that the AlCoNiCrFe high-entropy alloy can form after milling for 24 h. During sintering process, no grain growth occurs and no intermetallic phases present in the AlCoNiCrFe high-entropy alloy in the Cu base composite. Compression tests show that the AlCoNiCrFe high-entropy alloy has a better strengthening effect than metallic glasses and the yield strength of the Cu matrix composite reinforced with the AlCoNiCrFe high-entropy alloy is close to the value predicted by the Voigt model based on the equal strain assumption. - Graphical abstract: AlCoNiCrFe HEA has a better strengthening effect than metallic glasses for particulate reinforced metal matrix composites. The yield strength of the Cu base composite reinforced with the AlCoNiCrFe HEA is close to the upper bound calculated by Voigt model. - Highlights: • AlCoNiCrFe high-entropy alloy was prepared by mechanical alloying. • A novel Cu base composite reinforced with AlCoNiCrFe was fabricated. • No grain growth and no intermetallic phase present in AlCoNiCrFe during sintering. • AlCoNiCrFe has a better strengthening effect than metallic glassy in composites

  6. Soft magnetic properties of nanocrystalline bcc Fe-Zr-B and Fe-M-B-Cu (M=transition metal) alloys with high saturation magnetization (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mostly single bcc phase with nanoscale grain sizes of 10 to 20 nm was found to form by annealing amorphous Fe-Zr-B, Fe-Hf-B, and Fe-M-B-Cu(M=Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb, and Ta) alloys for 3.6 ks in the range of 723 to 923 K. The high permeability (μe) above 10 000 at 1 kHz combined with high saturation magnetization (Bs) above 1.5 T was obtained for the bcc alloys. The highest μe and Bs values reach 14 000 and 1.7 T for Fe91Zr7B2, 20 000 and 1.55 T for Fe87Zr7B5Cu1, and 48 000 and 1.52 T for Fe86Zr7B6Cu1. Magnetostriction (λs) decreases significantly by the phase transition from amorphous to bcc phase and is measured to be 1 x 10-6 for the bcc Fe86Zr7B6Cu1 alloy. The small λs as well as the small grain size is concluded to be the reason for the good soft magnetic properties. The lattice parameter of this bcc phase is 0.2870 nm being larger than that of pure α-Fe. The small λs seems to be achieved by the dissolution of solute elements above an equilibrium solubility limit. The bcc Fe86Zr7B6Cu1 alloy also shows the low core loss of 0.066 W/kg at 1 T and 50 Hz, which is considerably smaller than that of amorphous Fe78Si9B13 and bcc Fe-3.5mass%Si alloys in practical uses as core materials in transformer

  7. Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure on Superconductivity in kappa-[(BEDT-TTF)1-X(Bedse-TTF)X]2Cu[N(CN)2]Br

    OpenAIRE

    Sushko, Y. V.; Leontsev, S. O.; Korneta, O. B.; Kawamoto, A

    2005-01-01

    Static susceptibility of kappa-[(BEDT-TTF)1-x(BEDSe-TTF)x]2Cu[N(CN)2]Br alloys with the BEDSe-TTF content near the border-line of ambient pressure superconductivity (x~0.3) has been measured as a function of temperature, magnetic field, and pressure. A non-monotonic pressure dependence is observed for both the superconducting critical temperature and superconducting volume fraction, with both quantities showing growth under pressure in the initial pressure range P < 0.3 kbar. The results are ...

  8. Disorder-induced gap in the normal density of states of the organic superconductor κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Sandra; Methfessel, Torsten; Tutsch, Ulrich; Müller, Jens; Lang, Michael; Huth, Michael; Jourdan, Martin; Elmers, Hans-Joachim

    2015-07-01

    The local density of states (DOS) of the organic superconductor κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br, measured by scanning tunneling spectroscopy on in situ cleaved surfaces, reveals a logarithmic suppression near the Fermi edge persisting above the critical temperature T(c). The experimentally observed suppression of the DOS is in excellent agreement with a soft Hubbard gap as predicted by the Anderson-Hubbard model for systems with disorder. The electronic disorder also explains the diminished coherence peaks of the quasi-particle DOS below T(c). PMID:26076168

  9. Fe3O4/CuO/ZnO/Nano graphene platelets (Fe3O4/CuO/ZnO/NGP) composites prepared by sol-gel method with enhanced sonocatalytic activity for the removal of dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Tju; Taufik, Ardiansyah; Saleh, Rosari

    2016-04-01

    In this study, an attempt has been made to synthesize nanographene platelets coupled with Fe3O4/CuO/ZnO (Fe3O4/CuO/ZnO/NGP) with various ZnO loadings using a two step methods, sol-gel followed by hydrothermal method. Characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. The sonocatalytic performance was evaluated by degradation of methylene blue under ultrasonic irradiation.The Fe3O4/CuO/ZnO/NGP showed superior sonocatalytic activity than the Fe3O4/CuO/ZnO materials. They also showed high stability and can be easily separated from the reaction system for recycling process.

  10. Study of polyaniline coated CuFe2O4 nanoparticles and their application in biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Uma Shankar; Shah, Rashmi

    2016-05-01

    Polyaniline coated with nanoferrite particles has attractive application in enzyme less biosensor. In this paper, we have reported the synthesis of copper ferrite by Chemical Coprecipitation method and polymerization of polyaniline by oxidation method. The polyaniline-ferrite composite was characterized by different techniques such as XRD and VSM. The XRD pattern confirmed the presence of cubic phase and particles size in nano scale. The magnetic properties were studied by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) technique at room temperature. The higher values of saturation magnetization attributed to the cation distribution change from normal to spinel structure. Some Fe3+ ions drifted from octahedral site to tetrahedral site through the conversion of some Fe2+ ions to Fe3+ ions with super-exchange interactions and gives rise to saturation magnetization. The saturation magnetization of polyaniline coated CuFe2O4 using ammonium nitrate is much less than by polyaniline coated CuFe2O4 using ammonium peroxidisulphate. The saturation magnetization Ms of the nanocomposite is dependent on the volume fraction of the magnetic ferrite particles and on the contribution of the non-magnetic polyaniline coated layer. Polyaniline worked as an immobilization layer in the enzyme less biosensor because enzyme less biosensor is not affected by environmental factor.

  11. Microstructural evolution and the magnetic properties of melt-spun Sm-Co-Cu-B and Sm-Co-Fe-Cu-B ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt has been made to obtain nanocomposite from Sm-Co-Cu-based alloys. Sm12Co60Cu26B2 and Sm16.7Co48.3Fe25Cu8.3B1.7 alloys were selected by considering the two-phase region of the Sm-Co-Cu ternary phase diagram and the phase equilibria of Sm-Co-Fe. Sm12Co60Cu26B2 melt-spun ribbon transformed from TbCu7 (1:7 H) type to Th2Ni17 (2:17 H)-type phase on annealing at 600 deg. C for 10 min and exhibited coercivity (iHc) of ∼8.0 kOe. Co23B6 precipitates were found either within the grains or at the grain boundary of the hard magnetic phase, and recoil curves in the demagnetization curve indicated exchange coupling between the two phases. Sm16.7Co48.3Fe25Cu8.3B1.7 melt-spun ribbon showed an intermediate value of coercivity (iHc∼3-5 kOe). (FeCo)-B precipitates were found at the grain boundaries of SmCo5 hard magnetic phase

  12. Electron-density distribution in CuFeS2 as determined by 63,65Cu NMR in an internal magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogoreltsev, A. I.; Gavrilenko, A. N.; Matukhin, V. L.; Korzun, B. V.; Schmidt, E. V.

    2013-07-01

    NMR spectra of 63,65Cu in an internal magnetic field were studied experimentally. The electric field gradient (EFG) at Cu nuclei in chalcopyrite CuFeS2 was evaluated ab initio by using a cluster approach. Calculations were carried out in the framework of the self-consistent field restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock method (SCF-LCAO-ROHF). The largest cluster for which calculations were carried out had the formula Cu9Fe10S28 n ( R ~ 6 Å, 47 atoms), where n is the cluster charge. The best agreement of the quadrupole parameters (quadrupole frequency νQ and EFG tensor asymmetry parameter η) that were determined experimentally (νQ = 1.29 MHz, η = 0.34) and were calculated (νQ = 1.40 MHz, η = 0.50) was obtained for the cluster Cu9Fe10S28 -4. Maps of electron-density distribution in the neighborhood of the Cu quadrupolar nucleus were built for the cluster Cu9Fe10S28 -4. It was suggested based on an analysis of the obtained electron-density distribution that the bond in chalcopyrite is not covalent. The energy-level diagram that was calculated in the ROHF high-spin approximation defined rather well chalcopyrite as a semiconductor with a very narrow LUMO-HOMO gap and was consistent with the notion of chalcopyrite as a gapless semiconductor.

  13. Influences of post-annealing conditions on the formation of delafossite-CuFeO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Ying; Fu, Guan-Wei

    2014-01-01

    In this study, post-annealing conditions, the partial oxygen pressures (pO2) and temperatures, influence on the formation of delafossite-CuFeO2 thin films is studied. The sol-gel derived films were annealed at 500 °C in air and post-annealed at 500-850 °C in pO2 = 10-2 to pO2 = 5 × 10-5 atm. The CuO and CuFe2O4 phases appeared when the sol-gel derived films were post-annealed below 800 °C for 2 h in pO2 = 10-2 atm, 650 °C for 2 h in pO2 = 10-3 atm, and 550 °C for 2 h in pO2 = 5 × 10-5 atm. Pure delafossite-CuFeO2 phase was detected as specimens were post-annealed above 800 °C for 12 h in pO2 = 10-2 atm, 650 °C for 12 h in pO2 = 10-3 atm, and 550 °C for 12 h in pO2 = 5 × 10-5 atm. The surface of post-annealed thin films exhibited a nanoparticle-like morphology when the specimens exhibited CuO and CuFe2O4 phases. However, the surface revealed granular features caused by the formation of the delafossite-CuFeO2 phase. The formation of the delafossite-CuFeO2 phase, which resulted from the chemical reaction of the CuO and CuFe2O4 phases in the post-annealing process, is consistent with thermodynamics. The optical bandgaps of delafossite-CuFeO2 thin films prepared using post-annealing ranged between 3.1 and 3.2 eV. The electrical conductivities of delafossite-CuFeO2 thin films were (1.62-6.37) × 10-1 S cm-1 and the carrier concentrations were (1.52-8.84) × 1017 cm-3. The pO2 and temperatures in the post-annealing process played primary roles in the formation of delafossite-CuFeO2 thin films in this study.

  14. Al-Si-Cu-Fe Alloys -relationship between the spacing of dendritic branches and the size of the intermetallic phase Beta-Al5FeSi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work analyzes the effect of copper on the morphological parameters that the Fe-rich intermetallic phases acquire in Al-Si-Cu alloys. Alloys with Cu content of 1% and 3% were studied and in both cases the percentages of Fe used were 0.7%. The sheet sizes of β-Al5FeSi were measured for the different experimental conditions using an image analysis system. Results obtained until now indicate that for lower percentages of Cu, the size of the intermetallic phase of Fe (β-Al5FeSi) decreases, because the inter dendritic canals become smaller. Based on these results, a correlation was made of the effect that the modification of the dendritic arm spacing, DAS, as a result of the presence of Cu, has on the binary eutectic reactions (Liq1 →Alp + β-Al5FeSi + Liq2) and ternary eutectic (Liq1→Alp + β-Al5FeSi + Si +Liq2) which promote the presence of the + β-Al5FeSi phase (CW)

  15. 新型六核双网兜状簇合物[MoS4Cu5Br3(Py)7]的合成与晶体结构%Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Novel Twin Nido-like Hexanulcear Cluster[MoS4Cu5Br3(Py)7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金香; 魏振宏; 徐庆锋; 李红喜; 郎建平

    2004-01-01

    以(NH4)2[Mo2S12]·2H2O与过量CuBr在吡啶溶液中反应,得到了一个新型六核Mo/Cu/S簇合物[MoS4Cu5Br3(Py)7].X-射线单晶结构分析表明它属于三斜晶系,空间群为PīC35H35Br3Cu5MoN7S4,Mr=1335.37,a=11.6274(4),b=12.0127(4),c=18.8872(5)A,α=82.46(2),β=73.25(2),γ=62.800(13)°,V=2246.8(2)A3,Z=2,F(000)=1300.0,Dc=1.974g/cm3,μ=5.482 mm-1,5718个独立可观察点(I>3?(I)),最终偏离因子R和Rw分别为0.042和0.048.标题化合物是由2个相似的网兜状MoS3Cu3簇核通过共用MoSCuS平面形成的双网兜状结构,Mo…Cu距离在2.6830(11)~2.741(2)A之间.

  16. Enhancement of spin-Seebeck effect by inserting ultra-thin Fe{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, D., E-mail: d.kikuchi@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Spin Quantum Rectification Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ishida, M.; Murakami, T. [Spin Quantum Rectification Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Smart Energy Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation, Tsukuba 305-8501 (Japan); Uchida, K. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Spin Quantum Rectification Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Qiu, Z. [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Spin Quantum Rectification Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Saitoh, E. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Spin Quantum Rectification Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai 319-1195 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo 102-0076 (Japan)

    2015-02-23

    We report the longitudinal spin-Seebeck effects (LSSEs) for Pt/Fe{sub 70}Cu{sub 30}/BiY{sub 2}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} (BiYIG) and Pt/BiYIG devices. The LSSE voltage was found to be enhanced by inserting an ultra-thin Fe{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} interlayer. This enhancement decays sharply with increasing the Fe{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} thickness, suggesting that it is not due to bulk phenomena, such as a superposition of conventional thermoelectric effects, but due to interface effects related to the Fe{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} interlayer. Combined with control experiments using Pt/Fe{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} devices, we conclude that the enhancement of the LSSE voltage in the Pt/Fe{sub 70}Cu{sub 30}/BiYIG devices is attributed to the improvement of the spin-mixing conductance at the Pt/BiYIG interfaces.

  17. Electronic structure and bonding in metal porphyrins, metal=Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, M.-S.; Scheiner, Steve

    2002-01-01

    A systematic theoretical study of the electronic structure and bonding in metal meso-tetraphenyl porphines MTPP, M=Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn has been carried out using a density functional theory method. The calculations provide a clear elucidation of the ground states for the MTPPs and for a series of [MTPP]x ions (x = 2+, 1+, 1−, 2−, 3−, 4−), which aids in understanding a number of observed electronic properties. The calculation supports the experimental assignment of unligated FeTPP as 3A2g,...

  18. Preparation of Cu, Ag, Fe and Al nanoparticles by the exploding wire technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Sen; Joyee Ghosh; Alqudami Abdullah; Prashant Kumar; Vandana

    2003-10-01

    We describe a novel process for the production of nanoparticles of Cu, Ag, Fe and Al which involves exploding their respective wires, triggered by large current densities in the wires. The particles are characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Particle sizes in the range 20-100nm were obtained employing this technique. The XRD results reveal that the nanoparticles continue to retain lattice periodicity at reduced particle sizes, displaying in some cases evidence of lattice strain and preferential orientation. In the case of Fe, Mossbauer spectroscopy reveals loss of ferromagnetism as a result of the reduced size of the particles.

  19. A New ZrCuSiAs-Type Superconductor: ThFeAsN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cao; Wang, Zhi-Cheng; Mei, Yu-Xue; Li, Yu-Ke; Li, Lin; Tang, Zhang-Tu; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Pan; Zhai, Hui-Fei; Xu, Zhu-An; Cao, Guang-Han

    2016-02-24

    We report the first nitrogen-containing iron-pnictide superconductor ThFeAsN, which is synthesized by a solid-state reaction in an evacuated container. The compound crystallizes in a ZrCuSiAs-type structure with the space group P4/nmm and lattice parameters a = 4.0367(1) Å and c = 8.5262(2) Å at 300 K. The electrical resistivity and dc magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate superconductivity at 30 K for the nominally undoped ThFeAsN. PMID:26853632

  20. Phase and particle size distribution in magnetoresistive Fe-Cu granular alloys investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, M. S.; Pereira de Azevedo, M. M.; Sousa, J. B.

    1996-11-01

    The size distribution of ferromagnetic particles in granular Fe-Cu alloys is derived from the hyperfine field distribution of e57Fe Mössbauer spectra, on the grounds of collective magnetic excitations associated with the spectral line broadening. A good agreement with the X-ray diffraction results is found for the average particle size estimated from the Mössbauer data. The magnetoresistance of a splat-cooled Fe25Cu75 alloy reaches a maximum of 3% after appropriate annealing and its evolution is correlated with the various Fe phases (ferro, para and superparamagnetic) and particle sizes identified by the Mössbauer data.

  1. Moessbauer study of 3d-ion-substituted YBa2(Cu, Fe, M)3Osub(7-δ), M=V, Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    57Fe Moessbauer investigations at 300 K have been carried out on V, Mn substituted YBa2Cu3Osub(7-δ) system. Preliminary studies show that for small concentration of V (4%), Fe occupies preferentially the Cu(1) site whereas for the same concentration of Mn, Fe prefers the Cu(2) site. It is suggested that for low concentrations V has a preference for Cu(2) site in the 1-2-3 lattice. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  2. Doping effects of Fe ion on magnetic anisotropy of YBa2Cu3Oy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •We clarified orientation effects of Fe-doped Y123 in modulated rotating fields. •Y123 showed two different hard magnetic axes due to twin microstructures. •The two hard magnetic axes in Fe-doped Y123 were [1 0 0] and [1 1 0] directions. •Magnetic anisotropy of the [1 1 0] grain was higher than that of the [1 0 0] grain. -- Abstract: We report magnetic alignment of YBa2(Cu1−xFex)3Oy (Fe-doped Y123, x = 0–0.1) powders under modulated rotation magnetic fields (MRFs) and roles of Fe ion as a determination factor of magnetic anisotropy in Y123. The Fe-free and Fe-doped Y123 powder samples aligned in the MRF of 10 T showed two different orientation types of the hard axis in Y123 grains. From an X-ray rocking curve measurement for the magnetically aligned powder samples of the Fe-doped Y123, inplane magnetic anisotropy for Y123 grains with the hard axis parallel to the [1 1 0] direction was found to be higher than that for Y123 grains with the hard axis parallel to the [0 1 0] direction

  3. Magnetoresistance peak in the mixed state of the organic superconductor κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this letter, the authors report transport measurements with field and current parallel to the b axis (perpendicular to the conducting plane) in the organic superconductor κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br. The isothermal magnetoresistance R(H) displays a peak effect as a function of field. The peak resistance is substantially larger than that in large fields. The results are in sharp contrast to the conventional dissipation mechanisms in the mixed state of anisotropic superconductors, as in the case of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8. Comparison with Hc2(T) obtained from magnetic measurements shows that the peak effect in R(H) occurs in the mixed state. Analysis of the data suggests a much larger Josephson junction resistance in the mixed state than that in the normal state, indicative of a new charge transport scattering mechanism in the presence of vortices

  4. O K and Cu LIII edge study of itinerant holes in I2-, HgI2- and HgBr2- intercalated BSCCO(2212) single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intercalation effect on BSCCO (2212) system, although it increases the interlayer distance and the c-axis remarkably, produces only a small change in the transition temperature. Thus, amongst other things, intercalation provides an effective method to investigate the influence of the interblock coupling. Electrons are transferred from the host Cu-O2 layers to the guest molecules I2, HgBr2, HgI2 leading to evolution of the Tc. For this we have made high resolution XANES study on the O K and Cu L3 edges to estimate the density of the doping holes. We attempt on basis of our and earlier results the evolution of Tc in these as also the much larger decrease produced in Tc for I2-intercalation for which the increase in basal spacing is the smallest of the three halides. (au)

  5. Enthalpy of formation of quasicrystalline phase and ternary solid solutions in the Al-Fe-Cu system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.A. Tomilin; S.D. Kaloshkin; V. V. Tcherdyntsev

    2006-01-01

    Standard enthalpies of formation of quasicrystalline phase and the ternary solid solutions in the Al-Fe-Cu system and the intermetallic compound FeAl were determined by the means of solution calorimetry. The quasicrystalline phase was prepared using two different methods. The first method (Ⅰ) consisted of ball milling the mixture of powders of pure aluminum copper and iron in a planetary mill with subsequent compacting by hot pressing and annealing. The second method (Ⅱ) consisted of arc melting of the components in argon atmosphere followed by annealing. The latter method was used for preparing the compound FeAl and the solid solutions. The phases were identified using the XRD method. The enthalpy of the formation was determined for the quasicrystalline phase of the composition Al62Cu25.5Fe12.5 and the ternary BCC solid solutions Al35Cu14Fe51, Al40Cu17Fe43, and Al50.4Cu19.6Fe30. The measured enthalpy of formation of the intermetallic com pound FeAl is in good agreement with the earlier published data. The enthaipies of formation of the quasicrystalline phases prepared using two different methods are close to each other, namely, -22.7±3.4 (method Ⅰ) and -21.3±2.1 (method Ⅱ)k J/mol.

  6. Studying the magnetic anisotropy in CuFeO2 by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The compound CuFeO2 has a delafossite structure where triangular layers of magnetic Fe3+ are separated by non-magnetic Cu1+ and O2- layers. CuFeO2 orders in a collinear four sublattice structure below TN2=11K. Moreover, associated with TN2 is a first order structural transition from hexagonal to orthorhombic. The explanation for the collinear magnetic structure remains unclear for CuFeO2, since it requires a 2D Ising model type, which is difficult to conciliate with the spherical Fe3+ ion. However, structural distortions around the Fe3+ ion and/or charge transfer could lead to a non-zero orbital magnetic moment. This might explain the puzzling strong magnetic anisotropy in CuFeO2. We present x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) data extracting separately the orbital and spin moments of the Fe3+ ions. These results are discussed in the context to the observed magnetic anisotropy. (author)

  7. Selective hydrogen gas sensor using CuFe2O4 nanoparticle based thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haija, Mohammad Abu; Ayesh, Ahmad I.; Ahmed, Sadiqa; Katsiotis, Marios S.

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen gas sensors based on CuFe2O4 nanoparticle thin films are presented in this work. Each gas sensor was prepared by depositing CuFe2O4 thin film on a glass substrate by dc sputtering inside a high vacuum chamber. Argon inert gas was used to sputter the material from a composite sputtering target. Interdigitated metal electrodes were deposited on top of the thin films by thermal evaporation and shadow masking. The produced sensors were tested against hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, and ethylene gases where they were found to be selective for hydrogen. The sensitivity of the produced sensors was maximum for hydrogen gas at 50 °C. In addition, the produced sensors exhibit linear response signal for hydrogen gas with concentrations up to 5%. Those sensors have potential to be used for industrial applications because of their low power requirement, functionality at low temperatures, and low production cost.

  8. Atomic structure of Fe thin-films on Cu(0 0 1) studied with stereoscopic photography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Azusa N. [Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Fujikado, M. [Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Uchida, T. [Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Okamoto, S. [Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Fukumoto, K. [Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Guo, F.Z. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Kouto, Mikazuki, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Matsui, F. [Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (Japan); Nakatani, K. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Kouto, Mikazuki, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Matsushita, T. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Kouto, Mikazuki, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hattori, K. [Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (Japan); Daimon, H. [Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (Japan)

    2004-10-15

    The complex magnetic properties of Fe films epitaxially grown on Cu(0 0 1) have been discussed in relation to their atomic structure. We have studied the Fe films on Cu(0 0 1) by a new direct method for three-dimensional (3D) atomic structure analysis, so-called 'stereoscopic photography'. The forward-focusing peaks in the photoelectron angular distribution pattern excited by the circularly polarized light rotate around the light axis in either clockwise or counterclockwise direction depending on the light helicity. By using a display-type spherical mirror analyzer for this phenomenon, we can obtain stereoscopic photographs of atomic structure. The photographs revealed that the iron structure changes from bcc to fcc and almost bcc structure with increasing iron film thickness.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of hardened Cu-Fe-Ni-P alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brovč

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the manufacturing industry of electrical contacts, the prohibition of the use of toxic metals (Cd, Be, and desire to avoid the alloying with precious metals (Ag has created a need for new alloys with good electrical conductivity and high mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. As a potentially useful material for this purpose, we have analyzed the continuously cast Cu-Fe-Ni-P alloy in various heat treatment conditions. Sequence of phase transformations during heat treatment was followed by 4 point D.C. electrical resistivity measuring method, and analyzed by scanning (SEM and transmission (TEM electron microscopy. Measurements of Vickers hardness and electrical conductivity after various heat treatment procedures indicate on high potential of Cu-Fe-Ni-P alloys as a material for electrical contacts.

  10. Surfactant-assisted epitaxial growth and magnetism of Fe films on Cu(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nino, M A; Camarero, J; Miguel, J J de; Miranda, R [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales ' Nicolas Cabrera' , Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049-Madrid (Spain); Gomez, L [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, IngenierIa y Agrimensura, Instituto de Fisica Rosario, 2000-Rosario (Argentina); Ferron, J [Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica (CONICET-UNL), Departamento de Materiales, Facultad de IngenierIa Quimica, UNL, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2008-07-02

    The magnetic properties of thin epitaxial layers of Fe grown on Cu(111) depend sensitively on the films' structure and morphology. A combination of experiments and numerical simulations reveals that the use of a surfactant monolayer (ML) of Pb during molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth at room temperature reduces the amount of interdiffusion at the Cu-Fe interface, retards the fcc-to-bcc transformation by about 2 ML and substantially increases the films' coercivity. The origin of all these alterations to the magnetic behavior can be traced back to the structural modifications provoked by the surfactant during the early growth stages. These results open the way for the controlled fabrication of custom-designed materials with specific magnetic characteristics.

  11. The formation of quasicrystal phase in Al-Cu-Fe system by mechanical alloying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilermando Nagle Travessa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain quasicrystalline (QC phase by mechanical alloying (MA in the Al-Cu-Fe system, mixtures of elementary Al, Cu and Fe in the proportion of 65-20-15 (at. % were produced by high energy ball milling (HEBM. A very high energy type mill (spex and short milling times (up to 5 hours were employed. The resulting powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. QC phase was not directly formed by milling under the conditions employed in this work. However, phase transformations identified by DSC analysis reveals that annealing after HEBM possibly results in the formation of the ψ QC phase.

  12. Synthesis and Magnetic Properties of CuFe2O4 Nanotube Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hua; GAO Daqiang; ZHANG Jing; YANG Guijin; ZHANG Jinlin; SHI Zhenhua; XUE Desheng

    2012-01-01

    CuFe2O4 nanotube arrays with different outer diameters were synthesized in anodic aluminum oxide templates through sol-gel techniques followed by heating treatment processes.The morphology of the nanotube arrays was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscopy,suggesting that the nanotube arrays are ordered and uniform.The X-ray diffraction results indicate that the crystal structure of the nanotube arrays is polycrystalline with a spinel-type structure.The measurements of magnetic properties indicate that CuFe2O4 nanotube arrays with outer diameter of 200 nm exhibit magnetic anisotropy with easy magnetization direction along the axis of nanotubes.

  13. Heavy metal (Cu, Cr, Zn, and Fe) concentration on coralreef in panjang island coastal, Jepara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observation on the accumulation of Cu, Cr, Zn, and Fe heavy metals in coral tissue were carried out in Panjang island, Jepara by NAA method. The purpose of this research is to determine the concentration of heavy metals on coral reef tissue in order to update environmental data to support site licensing and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). The result indicated that the concentration of Zn is 1,78 - 42,34 ppm, Cu is undetected - 0,41 ppm, Cr is 0,03 - 0,35 ppm and Fe is 5,25 - 30,56 ppm. The data shows that the accumulation of heavy metals in the coral reef tissue is higher than environmental threshold value, especially for marine biota life referring to the Environmental Ministry Decree Number 51 year 2004. (author)

  14. Study of structural and optical properties of Fe doped CuO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Poonam; Gupta, Ankita; Kaur, Sarabjeet; Singh, Vishal; Kumar, Sacheen; Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-05-01

    Iron doped Copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by the co-precipitation method at different concentration (3%, 6%, 9%) at 300-400° C with Copper Acetate and Ferric Chloride as precursors in presence of Polyethylene Glycol and Sodium Hydroxide as stabilizing agent. Effect of doping on the structural and optical properties is studied. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction and UV-Visible Spectroscopy for examining the size and the band gap respectively. The X-Ray Diffraction plots confirmed the monoclinic structure of Copper oxide suggesting the Cu atoms replaced by Fe atoms and no secondary phase was detected. The indirect band gap of Fe doped CuO nanoparticles is 2.4eV and increases to 3.4eV as the concentration of dopant increases. The majority of particle size is in range 8 nm to 35.55 nm investigated by X-ray diffractometer.

  15. Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor Cu2FeSnS4 Nanocrystals with a Novel Zincblende Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Liang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diluted magnetic semiconductor Cu2FeSnS4 nanocrystals with a novel zincblende structure have been successfully synthesized by a hot-injection approach. Cu+, Fe2+, and Sn4+ ions occupy the same position in the zincblende unit cell, and their occupancy possibilities are 1/2, 1/4, and 1/4, respectively. The nanocrystals were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, selected area electron diffraction (SAED, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and UV-vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy. The nanocrystals have an average size of 7.5 nm and a band gap of 1.1 eV and show a weak ferromagnetic behavior at low temperature.

  16. Sonocatalytic Methylene Blue in The Presence of Fe3O4-CuO-TiO2 Nanocomposites Heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzian, Malleo; Jalaludin, Shofianina; Taufik, Ardiansyah; Saleh, Rosari

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the emphasis was mainly placed on investigating the sonocatalytic activity of Fe3O4-CuO-TiO2 nanocomposites heterostructure. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) Surface Area Analysis. Methylene blue dye was selected to examine the sonocatalytic activity of Fe3O4-CuO-TiO2 nanocomposites heterostructure. The degradation reaction processes were monitored by UV-vis spectrophotometer. The influence on the activity of the Fe3O4-CuO-TiO2 nanocomposites heterostructure such as TiO2 loading was studied. The sonocatalyst Fe3O4-CuO-TiO2 with molar ratio of 1:1:5 showed the highest sonocatalytic activity. At last, the experiment also indicated that holes are the main reactive species in the photodegradation mechanism in methylene blue.

  17. The effect of production conditions on superparamagnetic properties of the FeCrMoCuNbSiB alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this investigation was to choose the chemical composition and to determine the heat treatment conditions for the nanocrystalline Fe72.5-xCrxMo1Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 (x = 4 or 6) and Fe65Cr7Mo1Cu1Nb3Si12B10.5 alloys in order to get the lowest possible temperature of transition (TC) from the ferromagnetic to superparamagnetic state. On the basis of magnetic and Moessbauer measurements it was found that the temperatures of transition from ferromagnetic to superparamagnetic state in Fe66.5Cr6Mo1Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 and Fe65.5Cr7Mo1Cu1Nb3Si12B10.5 alloys were 450 K and 424 K, respectively. (author)

  18. Determination of Fe, Cu and Zn in sugar-cane spirits commercialized in Southeastern Brazil by TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was used to determine simultaneously the concentration of Cu, Fe and Zn in seven sugar-cane spirit samples ('aguardente'), a processed alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation and distillation of sugar-cane juice. The limits of detection ranged from 35 to 8 ng x ml-1 for V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As and Se. Excluding Fe, Cu and Zn, the concentrations were below their limits. Two samples showed Cu concentrations higher than the value allowed by Brazilian legislation (5 μg x ml-1), and concerning Fe and Zn, no sample were above the limits permitted by WHO for drinking water (2 and 3 μg x ml-1, respectively). (author)

  19. Synthesis of copper–ferrous (CuFe) nanowires via electrochemical method and its investigations as a fluid sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saleem Khan; Sandeep Arya; Parveen Lehana; Suresh Kumar

    2014-06-01

    The special behaviour of nanowires with respect to electrical conductivity makes them suitable for sensing application. In this paper, we present a copper–ferrous (CuFe) nanowires based sensor for detection of chemicals. CuFe nanowires were synthesized by template-assisted electrochemical method. By optimizing the deposition parameters, continuous nanowires on a copper substrate were synthesized. The morphological and structural studies of the synthesized CuFe nanowires were carried out using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Substrates containing CuFe nanowires were moulded to form a capacitor. Different chemicals were used as dielectric in the capacitor which showed that the capacitance was a nonlinear function of the dielectric constant of fluid unlike the linear relation shown by conventional capacitors. This unique property of the nanowires based capacitors may be utilized for developing fluid sensors with improved sensitivity.

  20. Si Nano-crystallites embedded in Cu-Al-Fe matrix as an anode for Li secondary batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si nanocrystallites embedded in Cu-Al-Fe matrix were developed using arc melting followed by a rapid quenching method which could produce a large scale at one time. Si nanocrystallites of approximately 100 nm were dispersed in matrix composed of Al4Cu9 and AlFe phases. To identify the reaction mechanism, the ex situ XRD and HRTEM analyses were employed. Only Si reacted with Li forming a Li15Si4 phase as the final product while the Al4Cu9 and AlFe phases acted as inactive matrix during the first discharge. The Si/Cu-Al-Fe composite showed a good cycle performance with 836 mAh g−1 over 50 cycles. This indicated that inactive matrices not only endured the stress caused by volume expansion of Li-Si alloy but also provided a good electron path as a conductor

  1. Giant magneto impedance in electroplated NiFeMo/Cu microwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electroplated soft magnetic FeNiMo alloy films on Cu mircrowires show magneto impedance effects larger than 1000%. The magnetic anisotropy generated by the axial deposition of the alloy seems to be an important factor for the achievement of magnetoimpedance. The extent of this effect also increases with the layer thickness. Furthermore, the impedance is markedly improved after the annealing of the coating under an external magnetic field

  2. Density Of The Copper-Rich Cu-Pb-Fe Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Sak T.; Kucharski M.

    2015-01-01

    Density of the copper-rich corner of the ternary Cu-Pb-Fe alloys was determined with the dilatometric method. Investigated alloys had constant copper content equal to 0.9, 0.8 and 0.7 mole fraction, and varied iron concentration up to 0.1 mole fraction. A model predicting the density of ternary solution from knowledge of density of pure component and the excess of molar volume for limiting binaries is proposed.

  3. Structural ordering of laser-processed FePdCu thin alloy films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cu/Fe/Pd multilayers were transformed into L10-ordered FePdCu alloy by pulsed laser annealing. The initial multilayers were irradiated with 1, 10, 100, and 1000 laser pulses with duration time of 10 ns and energy density of 235 mJ/cm2. The gradual change of the number of laser pulses allowed to investigate the structural and magnetic properties at early stages of the transformation and L10-ordering processes. The measurements were carried out using X-Ray Diffraction, SQUID magnetometry, and Magnetic Force Microscopy. We found that L10 FePdCu (111)-oriented nanograins are formed by ordering of the coherent domains present in the as-deposited multilayer. The irradiation does not change the vertical size of the (111) crystallites. The L10 (002)-oriented grains appear at the later stages of the transformation and their size increases with the number of applied laser pulses. Additionally, the laser annealing induces the magnetic ordering of the irradiated material, which was observed as an increase of the saturation magnetisation and the Curie temperature with the rising number of pulses. We also observed, that irradiation with 1000 pulses leads to the loss of order, which is reflected in the drop of the Curie temperature. - Highlights: • L10-ordered FePdCu alloy successfully fabricated by laser annealing. • The mechanism of (111) and (002) nanocrystallite formation was different. • Gradual change of annealing conditions showed early stages of transformation. • Saturation magnetisation and Curie temperature increased with the number of pulses

  4. Synthesis and characterization of hardened Cu-Fe-Ni-P alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Brovč, G.; Dražič, G.; B. Karpe; Djordjević, I.; Lojen, G.; B. Kosec; M. Bizjak

    2015-01-01

    In the manufacturing industry of electrical contacts, the prohibition of the use of toxic metals (Cd, Be), and desire to avoid the alloying with precious metals (Ag) has created a need for new alloys with good electrical conductivity and high mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. As a potentially useful material for this purpose, we have analyzed the continuously cast Cu-Fe-Ni-P alloy in various heat treatment conditions. Sequence of phase transformations during heat treatment was f...

  5. Pressure stress-impedance effect in FeCuNbSiB amorphours ribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The stress-impedance effect in Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 (at%) ribbons is measured to investigate the influences of vacuum annealing and pressure stress. The results can be explained by the influence of induced anisotropy in the magnetization processes at the chosen drive current frequency of 90 MHz. The maximum SI% value of the ribbon annealed at 300 ℃ is 2.52%.

  6. Domain wall pinning in FeCoCu bamboo-like nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Berganza, Eider; Bran, Cristina; Vazquez, Manuel; Asenjo, Agustina

    2015-01-01

    The pinning effect of the periodic diameter modulations on the domain wall propagation in FeCoCu individual nanowires is determined by Magnetic Force Microscopy, MFM. A main bistable magnetic configuration is firstly concluded from MFM images characterized by the spin reversal between two nearly single domain states with opposite axial magnetization. Complementary micromagnetic simulations confirm a vortex mediated magnetization reversal process. A refined MFM imaging procedure under variable...

  7. Comparison of laser induced plasma and arc discharge emission spectra of Al, Fe, Cu and C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emission spectra of laser induced plasma and arc discharge were measured and compared for Al, Fe, Cu and C. Such a comparison shows a higher presence of ionized transitions, but also a higher background in the emission spectra of laser induced plasma than in arc discharge. It can be concluded that in general it is not possible to predict laser induced plasma for material analysis purposes, calibration by reference laser induced plasma spectra of pure elements in vacuum will be necessary. (Authors)

  8. Submillimeter wave ESR study on triangular lattice antiferromagnet CuFeO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first submillimeter wave ESR on triangular lattice antiferromagnet, CuFeO2 has been performed in frequencies up to 762 GHz. The changes of AFMR modes were observed for H parallel c, corresponding to the metamagnetic transition which occurred below TN2. In a phase between TN1 and TN2, we observed an easy-plane type AFMR mode which could not explain a partially disordered model suggested by neutron diffraction experiments

  9. Nanoindentation deformation of a bi-phase AlCrCuFeNi2 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The AlCrCuFeNi2 HEA consisted of BCC solid solution and FCC solid solution. • The indentation hardness of the BCC crystals is larger than the FCC crystals. • The contact modulus of the FCC crystals is larger than the BCC crystals. - Abstract: High-entropy alloys (HEA) are multicomponent alloys with lattice structures, which have unique mechanical properties. Using X-ray diffraction, the structure of as cast AlCrCuFeNi2 HEA was characterized. The AlCrCuFeNi2 HEA consisted of body centered-cubic (BCC) solid solution and face centered-cubic (FCC) solid solution. Nanoindentation was used to characterize the indentation deformation of the FCC and BCC crystals in the AlCrCuFeNi2 HEA. Both the indentation hardness and the contact modulus of the FCC and BCC crystals decreased slightly with the increase in the indentation load and became constant for large indentation loads. For the indentation load larger than 500 μN, the contact modulus and the indentation hardness of the BCC crystals are 146 and 4.6 GPa, respectively, and the contact modulus and the indentation hardness of the FCC crystals are 207 and 2.8 GPa, respectively. The plastic energy dissipated in the nanoindentation increased with the indentation load and was proportional to the 1.77 and 1.88 power of the indentation load for the FCC and BCC crystals, respectively. The ratio of the dissipated plastic energy to the total energy in the indentations was a linear function of the ratio of the residual indentation depth to the corresponding maximum indentation depth. The slope of the energy ratio verse the indentation depth ratio for the BCC crystals is larger than that for the FCC crystals

  10. Magnetic and mechanical properties in FeXSiB (X = Cu, Zr, Co) amorphous alloys

    OpenAIRE

    P. Kwapuliński; Rasek, J.; Z. Stokłosa; G. Badura; B. Kostrubiec; Haneczok, G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The idea of the paper is to study the influence of different alloying additions (Cu, Zr, Nb) on structuralrelaxation, crystallization, and improvement of soft magnetic properties in amorphous alloys of the type FeXSiBobtained by melt spinning technique.Design/methodology/approach: Magnetic and electric characteristics of the as quenched and successivelyannealed samples were determined at room temperature. Experiments were carried out by applying magneticpermeability measurements (Max...

  11. Relaxation process of Fe(CuNb)SiB amorphous alloys investigated by dynamical calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic differential scanning calorimetry were used to analyze the relaxation process of Fe(CuNb)SiB amorphous alloys. The Curie temperature (TC) evolution of the amorphous phase during relaxation as a function of heating rate, time and pre-annealing temperature were measured. Two distinct relaxation processes are observed, consequent with topological and chemical short range order changes. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  12. Chemical probes of metal cluster structure--Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical reactivity is one of the few methods currently available for investigating the geometrical structure of isolated transition metal clusters. In this paper we summarize what is currently known about the structures of clusters of four transition metals, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu, in the size range from 13 to 180 atoms. Chemical probes used to determine structural information include reactions with H2(D2), H20, NH3 and N2. Measurements at both low coverage and at saturation are discussed

  13. Structural ordering of laser-processed FePdCu thin alloy films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perzanowski, Marcin, E-mail: Marcin.Perzanowski@ifj.edu.pl; Krupinski, Michal; Zarzycki, Arkadiusz; Zabila, Yevhen; Marszalek, Marta

    2015-10-15

    The Cu/Fe/Pd multilayers were transformed into L1{sub 0}-ordered FePdCu alloy by pulsed laser annealing. The initial multilayers were irradiated with 1, 10, 100, and 1000 laser pulses with duration time of 10 ns and energy density of 235 mJ/cm{sup 2}. The gradual change of the number of laser pulses allowed to investigate the structural and magnetic properties at early stages of the transformation and L1{sub 0}-ordering processes. The measurements were carried out using X-Ray Diffraction, SQUID magnetometry, and Magnetic Force Microscopy. We found that L1{sub 0} FePdCu (111)-oriented nanograins are formed by ordering of the coherent domains present in the as-deposited multilayer. The irradiation does not change the vertical size of the (111) crystallites. The L1{sub 0} (002)-oriented grains appear at the later stages of the transformation and their size increases with the number of applied laser pulses. Additionally, the laser annealing induces the magnetic ordering of the irradiated material, which was observed as an increase of the saturation magnetisation and the Curie temperature with the rising number of pulses. We also observed, that irradiation with 1000 pulses leads to the loss of order, which is reflected in the drop of the Curie temperature. - Highlights: • L1{sub 0}-ordered FePdCu alloy successfully fabricated by laser annealing. • The mechanism of (111) and (002) nanocrystallite formation was different. • Gradual change of annealing conditions showed early stages of transformation. • Saturation magnetisation and Curie temperature increased with the number of pulses.

  14. FMR Investigation of the nanocrystalline FeCuNbSiB glass-covered wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of magnetic anisotropy and magnetization mechanisms during nanocrystalline phase formation and crystallization of Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 glass-covered wires are studied by ferromagnetic resonance. The modifications of the magnetic anisotropy due to structural changes are determined from the main resonance peaks. Changes in the magnetization processes are revealed by the low field peaks detected for all samples

  15. The Use of Al, Cu, and Fe in an Integrated Electrocoagulation-Ozonation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos E. Barrera Díaz; Nelly González-Rivas

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the effect of supplying electrochemically generated metallic ions (Al, Cu, and Fe) during an ozonation process for treating industrial wastewater. The pollutant removal efficiencies of the electrocoagulation (EC), ozonation, and coupled EC-ozonation processes were examined by the decrease in chemical oxygen demand (COD) as a function of treatment time. The EC was performed in a raw industrial wastewater, which has contributions from 39 chemical, 34 metal finishing, 22 text...

  16. Relaxation process of Fe(CuNb)SiB amorphous alloys investigated by dynamical calorimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, J.; Clavaguera-Mora, M. T.; Clavaguera, N.

    1997-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic differential scanning calorimetry were used to analyze the relaxation process of Fe(CuNb)SiB amorphous alloys. The Curie temperature(TC) evolution of the amorphous phase during relaxation as a function of heating rate, time and pre-annealing temperature were measured. Two distinct relaxation processes are observed, consequent with topological and chemical short range order changes.

  17. Hot extrusion for Al-Si-(Fe, Cu) hyper-eutectic cast alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, Hisanaga; Umezawa, Osamu; Nagai, Kotobu; Kokubo, Kunio

    1999-01-01

    For hyper-eutectic Al-Si-(Fe, Cu) cast materials in large scale ingots, we have studied microstructural modification by thermomechanical treatment to produce a heavily deformable material. Cast materials contained coarse primary Si crystals in a few hundred micron diameter or acicular intermetallic compound in several hundred micron length. Even by multiple-step cold-rolling, sample fracture of the cast alloys occurred with more extrusion step to the cast materials. A novel process, repeated ...

  18. Mechanical properties of thermomechanical treated hyper-eutectic Al-Si-(Fe, Mn, Cu) materials

    OpenAIRE

    Umezawa, Osamu

    2005-01-01

    Tensile and high-cycle fatigue behavior of thermomechanical treated hyper-eutectic Al-Si-(Fe, Mn, Cu) materials were studied. Through the repeated thermomechanical treatment (RTMT) which is a repeat of the multi steps cold-working followed by heat treatment, Si crystals and/or intermetallic compounds were broken into some fragments and dispersed in the aluminum matrix. Fine dispersion of the second phase particles exhibited good ductility, since early fracture was overcome. A few large Si cry...

  19. Influence of ligands on the electronic and magnetic properties of Fe porphyrin in gas phase and on Cu(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brena, Barbara; Herper, Heike C., E-mail: heike.herper@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-05-07

    A study of the adsorption of different axial ligands on Fe porphyrin (FeP), both isolated and adsorbed on Cu(001), was performed by means of Density Functional Theory. The electronic and magnetic properties of the adsorbed FeP resulted to be strongly influenced by the axial ligands considered, Cl and O. Cl induces an enhancement of the overall molecular magnetic moment of 3.0 μ{sub B} while O or O{sub 2} leave the spin state of the molecule unchanged. The influence of the Cl in the electronic states was moreover studied by means of theoretical NEXAFS N K-edge, where the spectra of isolated FeP and FeP with Cl ligand were calculated. The adsorption of the FeP molecules on Cu(001) leads in case of Cl to a further increase of the magnetic moment due to strong deformation of the Fe-N bond.

  20. Identification of Extra-Framework Species on Fe/ZSM-5 and Cu/ZSM-5 Catalysts Typical Microporous Molecular Sieves with Zeolitic Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Urquieta-González E.A.; Martins L; Peguin R.P.S.; Batista M.S.

    2002-01-01

    Cu and Fe species formed during the preparation of Cu/ and Fe/ZSM-5 catalysts by ion exchange were studied. XRD, SEM, H2-TPR, DRS-UV-VIS, EPR, Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MÖSS) and chemical analysis (AAS) were used to sample characterization. Cu/ZSM-5 catalysts, irrespective of their Si/Al ratio and Cu content, showed a reduction peak at around 210°C, which was attributed to the reduction of Cu+2 to Cu+1. The reduction peak of Cu+1 to Cu0 shifted to higher temperatures with the increase of Si/Al ...

  1. The enhanced spontaneous dielectric polarization in Ga doped CuFeO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic and dielectric polarization properties of the single crystal samples of CuFe1−xGaxO2 (x = 0 and 0.02) are investigated. Experimental results show that the magnetization and dielectric polarizations are anisotropy and coupled together. Compared with pure CuFeO2, in the case with the magnetic field parallel to the c axis, a field-induced phase transition with a hysteresis is clearly observed between the five-sublattice (5SL) and three-sublattice (3SL) phases. Specially, an obvious spontaneous dielectric polarization is observed in CuFe0.98Ga0.02O2 in a lower magnetic field region, indicating that the Ga doping has an effect on the enhancement of spontaneous dielectric polarization. Based on the dilution effect, change of exchange interaction, and partial release of the spin frustration due to the structural modulation of the Ga ion dopant, the origin of the magnetization, and spontaneous polarization characteristics are discussed and the complete dielectric polarization diagrams are assumed.

  2. Industrialization of nanocrystalline Fe-Si-B-P-Cu alloys for high magnetic flux density cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Kana; Setyawan, Albertus D.; Sharma, Parmanand; Nishiyama, Nobuyuki; Makino, Akihiro

    2016-03-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe-Si-B-P-Cu alloys exhibit high saturation magnetic flux density (Bs) and extremely low magnetic core loss (W), simultaneously. Low amorphous-forming ability of these alloys hinders their application potential in power transformers and motors. Here we report a solution to this problem. Minor addition of C is found to be effective in increasing the amorphous-forming ability of Fe-Si-B-P-Cu alloys. It allows fabrication of 120 mm wide ribbons (which was limited to less than 40 mm) without noticeable degradation in magnetic properties. The nanocrystalline (Fe85.7Si0.5B9.5P3.5Cu0.8)99C1 ribbons exhibit low coercivity (Hc)~4.5 A/m, high Bs~1.83 T and low W~0.27 W/kg (@ 1.5 T and 50 Hz). Success in fabrication of long (60-100 m) and wide (~120 mm) ribbons, which are made up of low cost elements is promising for mass production of energy efficient high power transformers and motors

  3. Artificial intelligence applied to atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo simulations in Fe-Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacancy migration energies as functions of the local atomic configuration (LAC) in Fe-Cu alloys have been systematically tabulated using an appropriate interatomic potential for the alloy of interest. Subsets of these tabulations have been used to train an artificial neural network (ANN) to predict all vacancy migration energies depending on the LAC. The error in the prediction of the ANN has been evaluated by a fuzzy logic system (FLS), allowing a feedback to be introduced for further training, to improve the ANN prediction. This artificial intelligence (AI) system is used to develop a novel approach to atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo (AKMC) simulations, aimed at providing a better description of the kinetic path followed by the system through diffusion of solute atoms in the alloy via vacancy mechanism. Fe-Cu has been chosen because of the importance of Cu precipitation in Fe in connection with the embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels of existing nuclear power plants. In this paper the method is described in some detail and the first results of its application are presented and briefly discussed

  4. Fe Moessbauer effect in YxPr1-xBa2(Cu0.98Fe0.02)3O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    57Fe Moessbauer effect and magnetic-susceptibility measurements were performed on Y0.2Pr0.8Ba2(Cu0.98Fe0.02)3O7-δ and Y0.8Pr0.2Ba2(Cu0.98Fe0.02)3O7-δ, where δ∼0. The insulating 80% Pr compound showed susceptibility anomalies and a large hyperfine field distribution at low temperatures in addition to a hyperfine field spectrum for Fe on the Cu(2) sites. The superconducting 20% Pr compound displayed none of these effects at any temperature. After examining the alternatives, it is postulated that magnetic ordering of the Pr ions and an enhanced rare-earth transition-metal interaction due to f-electron admixture is responsible for these observations

  5. Effects of Cu substitution for Fe on the glass-forming ability and soft magnetic properties for Fe-based bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of Cu substitution for Fe on the glass-forming ability (GFA) and soft magnetic properties for Fe72−xCuxB20Si4Nb4 (x=0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0) bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are investigated. It is found that the investigated BMGs exhibit large GFA as well as excellent soft magnetic properties, and proper substitution of Fe by Cu improves the saturation magnetization, coercive force, and effective permeability without obvious deterioration of the GFA. - Highlights: • Fully glassy rods of Fe72−xCuxB20Si4Nb4 BMGs were produced above 1 mm in diameter. • Investigated BMGs exhibit large glass-forming ability and excellent soft magnetic properties. • Proper Cu substitution improves magnetic properties without obvious deterioration of glass-forming ability

  6. Microstructure and solidification behavior of multicomponent CoCrCu{sub x}FeMoNi high-entropy alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, P.H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212003 (China); Liu, N., E-mail: lnlynn@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212003 (China); Yang, W. [School of Aeronautical Manufacturing Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330063 (China); Zhu, Z.X. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212003 (China); Lu, Y.P. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang, X.J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212003 (China)

    2015-08-26

    (Fe, Co, Ni) rich dendrites nucleate primarily in CoCrFeMoNi and CoCrCu{sub 0.1}FeMoNi alloys, followed by peritetic and eutectic reactions. The quasi-peritectic reaction occurs between the primary Mo-rich dendrites and liquids in the CoCrCu{sub 0.3}FeMoNi melts, and transfers to a eutectic coupled-growth at the edge of the quasi-peritectic structure. Subsequently, eutectic reaction happens in the remnant liquids. Liquid-phase separations have occurred in CoCrCu{sub x}FeMoNi alloys when x≥0.5. Meanwhile, some nanoscale precipitates are obtained in the Cu-rich region. Two crystal structures, FCC and BCC, are identified in CoCrCu{sub x}FeMoNi high entropy alloys. Amazingly, a pretty high plastic strain (51.6%) is achieved in CoCrCu{sub 0.1}FeMoNi alloy when the compressive strength reaches to 3012 Mpa. With the increase of Cu content, atomic size difference (ΔR) and electro-negativity difference (ΔX) decrease while valence electron concentration (VEC), mixing enthalpy (ΔH) and mixing entropy (ΔS) increase. Consequently, the valence electron concentration (VEC) values range for the formation of mixture of FCC and BCC structures can be enlarged to 6.87–8.35 based on the study of this paper. It is the positive enthalpies of mixing that causes the liquid-phase separation in CoCrCu{sub x}FeMoNi high entropy alloys.

  7. Short-range ferromagnetism in alloy ribbons of Fe-Cr-Si-Nb-(Ag, Cu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the magnetic properties of two amorphous alloy ribbons Fe72Cr6Si4Nb5B12Ag1 (FCSNB-Ag) and Fe72Cr6Si4Nb5B12Cu1 (FCSNB-Cu), prepared by using a melt-spinning technique. Magnetization (M) measurements for various temperatures (T) and magnetic fields (H) indicate that ferromagnetic-paramagnetic (FM-PM) phase transitions take place in FCSNB-Ag and FCSNB-Cu at Curie temperatures (TC ) of about 308.3 K and 322.5 K, respectively. Analyses of M - H data at different temperatures in the vicinity of the FM-PM phase transition based on the modified Arrott plot method and scaling hypothesis yielded the exponent values of β = 0.369 ± 0.005, γ = 1.359 ± 0.005 and δ = 4.7 ± 0.1 for FCSNB-Ag, and β = 0.376 ± 0.002, γ = 1.315 ± 0.006 and δ = 4.5 ± 0.1 for FCSNB-Cu. Compared with the values from theoretical models, these values are close to those expected for the 3D Heisenberg model, demonstrating the existence of short-range FM order in the amorphous alloy ribbons.

  8. Short-range Ferromagnetism in Alloy Ribbons of Fe-Cr-Si-Nb-(Ag, Cu)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thanh, P. Q.; Hoa, N. Q.; Chau, N.;

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the magnetic properties of two amorphous alloy ribbons Fe72Cr6Si4Nb5B12Ag1 (FCSNB-Ag) and Fe72Cr6Si4Nb5B12Cu1 (FCSNB-Cu), prepared by using a melt-spinning technique. Magnetization (M) measurements for various temperatures (T) and magnetic fields (H) indicate that ferromagnetic......-paramagnetic (FM-PM) phase transitions take place in FCSNB-Ag and FCSNB-Cu at Curie temperatures (TC) of about 308.3 K and 322.5 K, respectively. Analyses of M - H data at different temperatures in the vicinity of the FM-PM phase transition based on the modified Arrott plot method and scaling hypothesis yielded...... the exponent values of beta = 0.369 +/- 0.005, gamma = 1.359 +/- 0.005 and delta = 4.7 +/- 0.1 for FCSNB-Ag, and beta = 0.376 +/- 0.002, gamma = 1.315 +/- 0.006 and delta = 4.5 +/- 0.1 for FCSNB-Cu. Compared with the values from theoretical models, these values are close to those expected for the 3D...

  9. Effects of Fe content on the microstructure and properties of CuNi10FeMn1 alloy tubes fabricated by HCCM horizontal continuous casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan-bin; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xin-hua; Xie, Jian-xin

    2016-04-01

    Heating-cooling combined mold (HCCM) horizontal continuous casting technology developed by our research group was used to produce high axial columnar-grained CuNi10FeMn1 alloy tubes with different Fe contents. The effects of Fe content (1.08wt%-2.01wt%) on the microstructure, segregation, and flushing corrosion resistance in simulated flowing seawater as well as the mechanical properties of the alloy tubes were investigated. The results show that when the Fe content is increased from 1.08wt% to 2.01wt%, the segregation degree of Ni and Fe elements increases, and the segregation coefficient of Ni and Fe elements falls from 0.92 to 0.70 and from 0.92 to 0.63, respectively. With increasing Fe content, the corrosion rate of the alloy decreases initially and then increases. When the Fe content is 1.83wt%, the corrosion rate approaches the minimum and dense, less-defect corrosion films, which contain rich Ni and Fe elements, form on the surface of the alloy; these films effectively protect the α-matrix and reduce the corrosion rate. When the Fe content is increased from 1.08wt% to 2.01wt%, the tensile strength of the alloy tube increases from 204 MPa to 236 MPa, while the elongation to failure changes slightly about 46%, indicating the excellent workability of the CuNi10FeMn1 alloy tubes.

  10. X-ray emission spectra and gaps of CuFeO2 with the modified Becke–Johnson potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the electronic structures of CuFeO2 by using Tran and Blaha's modified Becke and Johnson exchange potential. The calculated X-ray emission spectra of CuFeO2 for O–K and Fe–L are quite compatible with experimental data. The calculated energy band gap and optical band gap are 0.15 eV and 1.03 eV, respectively, and the theoretical magnetic moment for Fe atom is 4.11μB, which is very close to experimental value 4.2±0.1μB. - Highlights: • Calculated electronic structures show CuFeO2 as a narrow gap semiconductor. • Calculated X-ray emission spectra for O–K and Fe–L are quite compatible with experimental data. • Calculated magnetic moment of the Fe ion agrees well with reported experimental value

  11. Preliminary Evaluation of the Thermally Affected Metallurgical Condition of Extruded and Drawn CuFe2P Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazopoulos, George; Toulfatzis, Anagnostis; Zormalia, Sylvia; Vazdirvanidis, Athanasios; Skarmoutsos, Dionysios

    2012-10-01

    The influence of heat treatment conditions on the mechanical behavior and microstructure of CuFe2P (ASTM C19400) in comparison to deoxidized-high-phosphorus (DHP-Cu/ASTM C12200) tubes was investigated. The aim of this study was the enhancement of understanding of microstructure/thermal treatment/strength relationships which could be further utilized for the manufacturing of components exhibiting superior performance and reliability for refrigeration and heat exchanger applications. Microstructural examination employing optical metallography and scanning electron microscopy is used for the evaluation of the recrystallization progress and grain growth processes. In addition, tensile testing was conducted to CuFe2P and DHP tubes following the application of heat treatment cycles, in accordance to the EN 10002-1 specifications. Mechanical properties and microstructure evaluation showed that CuFe2P material is fully recrystallized at 740 °C and DHP at 400 °C for 20 min. Recrystallization initiation varies within the range of 640-660 °C for CuFe2P and below 400 °C for DHP tubes. The tensile strength of the CuFe2P tube decreased from 513 to 367 MPa, the hardness was reduced from 144 to 126 HV, while tensile elongation was significantly improved from 3 to 17%. At 640 °C, only isolated recrystallized areas were evident mainly at the Fe-based intermetallic particle/copper matrix interface areas.

  12. Structural and dynamical heterogeneity of undercooled Fe{sub 75}Cu{sub 25} melts with miscibility gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Yu; Wang, Li; Wang, Shenghai, E-mail: shenghaiw@163.com; Li, Xuelian; Cui, Wenchao

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • We simulate the undercooled Fe{sub 75}Cu{sub 25} melts with miscibility gap at atomic level. • Fe{sub 75}Cu{sub 25} melts separate into Cu-rich and Fe-rich liquid upon relaxation. • The process is controlled by the nucleation and grows mechanism. • Both PPCFs and CN confirm that L–L phase separation is a successive process. - Abstract: Molecular dynamics simulation (MD) based upon the developed embedded atom method (EAM) has been performed to explore the structural and dynamical heterogeneity of Fe{sub 75}Cu{sub 25} melts. The results show that the melts separate into Cu-rich droplets surround by the Fe-rich matrix controlled by nucleation and growth mechanism. The larger undercoolings suggest the higher nucleation rate and growth rate of droplets. The growth of droplet is achieved by the aggregation and coagulation of neighbor droplet with the characteristics of collective movement for homogeneous atoms. A sharp increase of S{sub CC} (q = 0) is found at all simulated temperature, which means concentration fluctuation on large length scales are much pronounced. Both partial pair correlation functions (PPCFs) and coordination number (CN) confirm that liquid–liquid (L–L) phase separation is a successive process with a stronger interaction of homogeneous pairs than that of heterogeneous pairs in Fe{sub 75}Cu{sub 25} melts. The studies above characterize the phase separation of metal melts on the atomic scale.

  13. Structure and thermodynamic properties of (C5H12N)CuBr3: a new weakly coupled antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 chain complex lying in the 1D-3D dimensional cross-over regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bingying; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Shiyan

    2014-04-01

    Single crystals of a metal organic complex (C5H12N)CuBr3 (C5H12N = piperidinium, pipH for short) have been synthesized, and the structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. (pipH)CuBr3 crystallizes in the monoclinic group C2/c. Edging-sharing CuBr5 units link to form zigzag chains along the c axis, and the neighboring Cu(II) ions with spin-1/2 are bridged by bibromide ions. Magnetic susceptibility data down to 1.8 K can be well fitted by the Bonner-Fisher formula for the antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 chain, giving the intrachain magnetic coupling constant J ≈ -17 K. At zero field, (pipH)CuBr3 shows three-dimensional (3D) order below TN = 1.68 K. Calculated by the mean-field theory, the interchain coupling constant J' = -0.91 K is obtained and the ordered magnetic moment m0 is about 0.23 μB. This value of m0 makes (pipH)CuBr3 a rare compound suitable to study the 1D-3D dimensional cross-over problem in magnetism, since both 3D order and one-dimensional (1D) quantum fluctuations are prominent. In addition, specific heat measurements reveal two successive magnetic transitions with lowering temperature when external field μ0H ≥ 3 T is applied along the a' axis. The μ0H-T phase diagram of (pipH)CuBr3 is roughly constructed. PMID:24617285

  14. Estudio cinético de las reacciones de recocido en aleaciones de Cu-Ni-Fe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donoso, Eduardo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal aging of a Cu-45Ni-4Fe, Cu-34Ni-11Fe and Cu-33Ni-22Fe alloys tempered from 1173 K have been studied from Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and microhardness measurements. The analysis of DSC curves, from room temperature to 950 K, shows the presence of one exothermic reaction associated to the formation of FeNi3 phase nucleating from a modulate structure, and one endothermic peak attributed to dissolution of this phase. Kinetic parameters were obtained using the usual Avrami-Erofeev equation, modified Kissinger method and integrated kinetic functions. Microhardness measurements confirmed the formation and dissolution of the FeNi3 phase.Mediante Calorimetría Diferencial de Barrido (DSC y medidas de microdureza Vickers se ha estudiado el comportamiento durante el recocido de las aleaciones Cu-45Ni-4Fe, Cu-34Ni-11Fe y Cu-33Ni-22Fe templadas desde 1173 K. El análisis de las curvas DSC, desde temperatura ambiente hasta los 950 K, muestran la presencia de una reacción exotérmica asociada a la formación de la fase FeNi3 que nuclea a partir de una estructura modulada, y una reacción endotérmica que correspondería a la disolución de esta fase. Los parámetros cinéticos se calcularon a partir de la ecuación usual de Avrami-Erofeev, Kissinger modificado y funciones cinéticas integradas. Medidas de microdureza Vickers corroboraron la formación y disolución de fase FeNi3.

  15. Degradation of high energetic and insensitive munitions compounds by Fe/Cu bimetal reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Bimetal iron–copper particles are highly effective for treating waste streams containing energetic components such as RDX, TNT, HMX, NTO, and DNAN. ► First report ever on the degradation of NTO and DNAN from real industrial wastewater using bimetallic particles. ► Assessment of pH effect on NTO degradation by bimetal. ► Nitroaromatic structure of TNT exhibits a high preference for the metal surface and faster degradation. - Abstract: A reductive technology based on a completely mixed two-phase reactor (bimetallic particles and aqueous stream) was developed for the treatment of aqueous effluents contaminated with nitramines and nitro-substituted energetic materials. Experimental degradation studies were performed using solutions of three high energetics (RDX, HMX, TNT) and three insensitive-munitions components (NTO, NQ, DNAN). The study shows that, on laboratory scale, these energetic compounds are easily degraded in solution by suspensions of bimetallic particles (Fe/Ni and Fe/Cu) prepared by electro-less deposition. The type of bimetal pair (Fe/Cu or Fe/Ni) does not appear to affect the degradation kinetics of RDX, HMX, and TNT. The degradation of all components followed apparent first-order kinetics. The half-lives of all compounds except NTO were under 10 min. Additional parameters affecting the degradation processes were solids loading and initial pH.

  16. Probing structure-property relationships in perpendicularly magnetized Fe/Cu(001) using MXLD and XPD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, T.R.; Waddill, G.D. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States); Goodman, K.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Magnetic X-ray Linear Dichroism (MXLD) in Photoelectron Spectroscopy and X-Ray Photoelectron Diffraction (XPD) of the Fe 3p core level have been used to probe the magnetic structure-property relationships of perpendicularly magnetized Fe/Cu(001), in an element-specific fashion. A strong MEXLD effect was observed in the high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy of the Fe 3p at {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} emission and was used to follow the loss of perpendicular ferromagnetic ordering as the temperature was raised toward room temperature. In parallel with this, {open_quotes}Forward Focussing{close_quotes} in XPD was used as a direct measure of geometric structure in the overlayer. These results and the implications of their correlation will be discussed. Additionally, an investigation of the effect of Mn doping of the Fe/Cu(001) will be described. These measurements were performed at the Spectromicroscopy Facility (Beamline 7.0.1) of the Advanced Light Source.

  17. Effect of Cu addition on the GFA, structure and properties of Fe-Co-based alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lesz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the paper was investigation of the effect of Cu addition on GFA (Glass Forming Ability, structure, magnetic and mechanical properties of amorphous Fe-Co-B-Si-Nb alloy.Design/methodology/approach: The following experimental techniques were used: differential thermal analysis (DTA, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD method, measurements of magnetic properties (VSM method, Vickers microhardness (HV.Findings: It was shown that when Cu is added to the Fe-Co-based alloy, increase of the GFA and change of the magnetic properties was obtained.Research limitations/implications: The results can give more details to understand the relationship between structure, magnetic and mechanical properties. Thus can be useful for practical application of these alloys.Practical implications: The (Fe36Co36B19Si5Nb4100-xCux (x=0 and 0.6 metallic glasses due to their excellent soft magnetic properties have shown great industrial value for commercial application. Many products consisting of these kinds of metallic glasses have been widely used, for example anti-theft labels, precision sensor material, and high efficient magnetic transformers in electronic industry.Originality/value: The applied investigation methods are suitable to determine the changes of GFA and structure combined with magnetic and mechanical properties of (Fe36Co36B19Si5Nb4100-xCux (x=0 and 0.6 metallic glasses.

  18. Soft magnetic amorphous Fe-Zr-Si(Cu) boron-free alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Amorphous Fe-Zr-Si(Cu) boron-free alloys were prepared by melt quenching. → Soft magnetic properties were investigated by the specialized rf-Moessbauer technique. → Dependence of coercivity and magnetization on alloy compositions was determined. - Abstract: Amorphous Fe80ZrxSi20-x-yCuy boron-free alloys, in which boron was completely replaced by silicon as a glass forming element, have been prepared in the form of ribbons by using the melt quenching technique. X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy measurements revealed that the as-quenched ribbons with the compositions with x = 6-10 at.% and y = 0, 1 at.% are fully or predominantly amorphous. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements allowed the estimation of crystallization temperatures of the amorphous alloys. Soft magnetic properties have been studied by the specialized rf-Moessbauer technique. Since the rf-collapse effect observed is very sensitive to the local anisotropy fields it was possible to evaluate the soft magnetic properties of the amorphous alloys studied. The rf-Moessbauer studies were accompanied by conventional measurements of hysteresis loops from which the magnetization and coercive fields were estimated. It was found that amorphous Fe-Zr-Si(Cu) alloys are magnetically very soft, comparable with those of the conventional amorphous B-containing Fe-based alloys.

  19. Rapid solidification and dendrite growth of ternary Fe-Sn-Ge and Cu-Pb-Ge monotectic alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The phase separation and dendrite growth characteristics of ternary Fe-43.9%Sn- 10%Ge and Cu-35.5%Pb-5%Ge monotectic alloys were studied systematically by the glass fluxing method under substantial undercooling conditions. The maximum undercoolings obtained in this work are 245 and 257 K, respectively, for these two alloys. All of the solidified samples exhibit serious macrosegregation, indicating that the homogenous alloy melt is separated into two liquid phases prior to rapid solidification. The solidification structures consist of four phases including α-Fe, (Sn), FeSn and FeSn2 in Fe-43.9%Sn-10%Ge ternary alloy, whereas only (Cu) and (Pb) solid solution phases in Cu-35.5%Pb-5%Ge alloy under different undercool- ings. In the process of rapid monotectic solidification, α-Fe and (Cu) phases grow in a dendritic mode, and the transition "dendrite→monotectic cell" happens when alloy undercoolings become sufficiently large. The dendrite growth velocities of α-Fe and (Cu) phases are found to increase with undercooling according to an exponential relation.

  20. Eutectic Al-Si-Cu-Fe-Mn alloys with enhanced mechanical properties at room and elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Fabricated a kind of high performance Al-Si alloy with low production costs. → Clarified two different morphologies of α-Fe and corresponding crystal structures. → Analyzed the crystallography of Cu-rich phases before and after T6 treatment. → Fracture mechanism of precipitates in experimental alloys during tensile process. -- Abstract: In this paper, we report a novel kind of eutectic Al-Si-Cu-Fe-Mn alloy with ultimate tensile strength up to 336 MPa and 144.3 MPa at room temperature and 300 oC, respectively. This kind of alloy was prepared by metal mold casting followed by T6 treatment. The microstructure is composed of eutectic and primary Si, α-Fe, Al2Cu and α-Al phases. Iron-rich phases, which were identified as BCC type of α-Fe (Al15(Fe,Mn)3Si2), exist in blocky and dendrite forms. Tiny blocky Al2Cu crystals disperse in α-Fe dendrites or at the grain boundaries of α-Al. During T6 treatment, Cu atoms aggregate from the super-saturation solid solution to form GP zones, θ'' or θ'. Further analysis found that the enhanced mechanical properties of the experimental alloy are mainly attributed to the formation of α-Fe and copper-rich phases.

  1. Superferromagnetism in mechanically alloyed fcc Fe23Cu77 with bimodal cluster size distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic measurements, x-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy were used to characterize a nanostructured fcc Fe23Cu77 at.% alloy prepared by high-energy ball-milling, addressing in particular the effect of clustering on the nature of the interacting magnetic entities. The interpretation of magnetization measurements leads to the conclusion that grains, whose mean size is ∼16 nm, contain two populations of magnetic Fe-rich nanoclusters with a bimodal size distribution. These two sets of clusters contain about 14 and 400 Fe atoms and have magnetic moments of 30 μB and 860 μB, respectively. The inter-cluster ferromagnetic interactions that lead to superferromagnetism with a Curie temperature TC∼220 K can be described by a mean field determined by the smaller clusters only, which account for 90% of the magnetization.

  2. Fabrication of magnetically recyclable Fe3O4@Cu nanocomposites with high catalytic performance for the reduction of organic dyes and 4-nitrophenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A facile and efficient approach to synthesize Fe3O4@Cu nanocomposites using L-Lysine as a linker was developed. The morphology, composition and crystallinity of the Fe3O4@Cu nanocomposites were characterized by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction. In addition, the magnetic properties were determined with vibrating sample magnetometer. The surface of the Fe3O4 contained many small Cu nanoparticles with sizes of about 3 nm. It was found that the Fe3O4@Cu nanocomposites could catalyze the degradation of organic dyes. The catalytic activities of the Fe3O4@Cu nanocomposites for the reduction of nitrophenol were also studied. The Fe3O4@Cu nanocomposites are more efficient catalysts compared with Cu nanoparticles and can easily be recovered from the reaction mixture with magnet. The cost effective and recyclable Fe3O4@Cu nanocomposites provide an exciting new material for environmental protection applications. - Highlights: • Cu nanoparticles as small as 3 nm are synthesized. • Low cost Fe3O4@Cu magnetical nanoparticles show catalytic activity for organic dyes and 4-nitrophenol. • The Fe3O4@Cu display high catalytic activity after 13 cycles

  3. Fabrication of magnetically recyclable Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Cu nanocomposites with high catalytic performance for the reduction of organic dyes and 4-nitrophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Mingyi, E-mail: mingyitjucu@163.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134 (China); Zhang, Sai; Li, Xianxian; Pang, Xiaobo [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134 (China); Qiu, Haixia [School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2014-12-15

    A facile and efficient approach to synthesize Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Cu nanocomposites using L-Lysine as a linker was developed. The morphology, composition and crystallinity of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Cu nanocomposites were characterized by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction. In addition, the magnetic properties were determined with vibrating sample magnetometer. The surface of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} contained many small Cu nanoparticles with sizes of about 3 nm. It was found that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Cu nanocomposites could catalyze the degradation of organic dyes. The catalytic activities of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Cu nanocomposites for the reduction of nitrophenol were also studied. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Cu nanocomposites are more efficient catalysts compared with Cu nanoparticles and can easily be recovered from the reaction mixture with magnet. The cost effective and recyclable Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Cu nanocomposites provide an exciting new material for environmental protection applications. - Highlights: • Cu nanoparticles as small as 3 nm are synthesized. • Low cost Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Cu magnetical nanoparticles show catalytic activity for organic dyes and 4-nitrophenol. • The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Cu display high catalytic activity after 13 cycles.

  4. Study of Fe Zr U B and Fe Zr U Cu B nanocrystalline alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sólyom, A.; Petrovič, P.; Marko, P.; Kováč, J.; Konczos, G.

    2000-06-01

    The influence of uranium and copper additives on the crystallization process and magnetic properties was studied in Fe 87Zr 7B 6 amorphous alloys. The addition of copper resulted in homogeneous nanocrystalline precipitates and improvement of soft magnetic properties. The alloying with uranium led to the formation of inhomogeneous microstructure and increase in coercive force.

  5. Study of Fe-Zr-U-B and Fe-Zr-U-Cu-B nanocrystalline alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of uranium and copper additives on the crystallization process and magnetic properties was studied in Fe87Zr7B6 amorphous alloys. The addition of copper resulted in homogeneous nanocrystalline precipitates and improvement of soft magnetic properties. The alloying with uranium led to the formation of inhomogeneous microstructure and increase in coercive force

  6. Current-induced domain wall motion and magnetization dynamics in CoFeB/Cu/Co nanostripes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current-induced domain wall motion and magnetization dynamics in the CoFeB layer of CoFeB/Cu/Co nanostripes were studied using photoemission electron microscopy combined with x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD-PEEM). Quasi-static measurements show that current-induced domain wall motion in the CoFeB layer is similar to the one observed in the NiFe layer of NiFe/Cu/Co trilayers, although the threshold current densities for domain wall depinning are lower. Time-resolved XMCD-PEEM measurements are used as an efficient probe of domain wall depinning statistics. They also reveal that, during the application of current pulses, the CoFeB magnetization rotates in the direction transverse to the nanostripe. The corresponding tilt angles have been quantified and compared to analytical and micromagnetic calculations, highlighting the influence of magnetostatic interactions between the two magnetic layers on the magnetization rotation. (paper)

  7. The influence of cooling rate and Fe/Cr content on the evolution of Fe-rich compounds in a secondary Al-Si-Cu diecasting alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizi, A.; Timelli, G.

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the morphological evolution of primary α-Al(Fe,Mn,Cr)Si phase in a secondary Al-Si-Cu alloy with respect to the initial Fe and Cr contents as well as to the cooling rate. The solidification experiments have been designed in order to cover a wide range of cooling rates, and the Fe and Cr contents have been varied over two levels. Metallographic and image analysis techniques have been used to quantitatively examine the microstructural changes occurring at different experimental conditions. The morphological evolution of the α-Fe phase has been also analysed by observing deep etched samples. By changing the cooling rate, α-Al15(Fe,Mn,Cr)3Si2 dodecahedron crystals, as well as Chinese- script, branched structures and dendrites form, while primary coarse β-Al5(Fe,Mn)Si needles appear in the alloy with the highest Fe content at low cooling rates.

  8. Crystallographic and Low Frequency Conductivity Studies of the Spinel Systems CuFe2O4 and Cu1-xZnxGa0.1Fe1.9O4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.M. Hashhash; N.N. Nikitenkov; I.P. Chernov; Yu.I. Tyurin

    2010-01-01

    Spinel solid solutions of CuFe2O4 and Cu1-xZnxGa0.1Fe1.9O4 with (0.0≤x≤0.5) are synthesized. Crystallographic phase transformation from tetragonal-to-cubic occurred at x=0.2. The derived structural parameters manifest that Zn occupies the tetrahedral A-site while Cu and Ga occupy the octahedral B-site and Fe distributes among A- and B-sites. Electrical conductivity measurements of these materials as a function of temperature and frequency revealed semiconducting behavior except CuFe2O4 sample, which has a metallic behavior at low frequency and at high frequency, metallic -to- semiconductor transition occurred as temperature increases. The metallic behavior in this sample is attributed to cation-cation interactions at B-site while, the semiconductor behavior in Cu1-xZnxGa0.1Fe1.9O4 compounds is due to the cation- anion -cation interactions at the same site in the spinel lattice. All compositions exhibit transition with change in the slope of conductivity versus temperature curve. This transition temperature (Tc) decreases linearly with increasing Zn content x. The relation of the universal exponent s with temperature gives evidence that over large polaron OLP and correlated barrier hopping CBH conduction mechanisms are presented in CuFe2O4 and Cu1-xZnxGa0.1Fe1.9O4 compounds respectively.

  9. Precipitation of coherent FeRh nanoparticles with highly suppressed magnetostructural transition temperatures in rapidly solidified (FeRh)5Cu95 alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Radhika; Jiang, Xiujuan; Shield, Jeff; Heiman, Don; Lewis, Laura

    2012-02-01

    Magnetostructural phase transitions have the capability of delivering large functional effects in response to small excursions in magnetic field, temperature and strain; this potential might be amplified in nanostructured systems by virtue of large surface:volume ratios. Nanoprecipitates (˜10nm) of FeRh, a well-known magnetostructural material, were studied with structural and magnetic probes in a rapidly solidified phase-separated system of (FeRh)5Cu95. Magnetization studies indicate a dramatic reduction in the magnetostructural phase transition temperature (Tt) of the nanoscaled FeRh phase relative to the bulk value (δT=Tt,Bulk - Tt,Nano = 220 K). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) reveals a coherent orientational relationship between the FeRh (aFeRh = 3.09 å)and Cu (aCu = 3.78 å) phases. At the matrix/precipitate interface a constrained misfit strain of ɛ = 0.18 is observed. The reduction of the magnetostructural phase transition temperature and evolution of the magnetic properties with system annealing is analyzed in the context of the strain between the FeRh nanoparticles and the Cu matrix.

  10. Influence of Al7Cu2Fe intermetallic particles on the localized corrosion of high strength aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The corrosion on new aerospace aluminum alloy is studied. • Al7Cu2Fe precipitate was detected in the 7475-T7351 and 7081 T73511 alloy by scanning electron microscopy. • Al7Cu2Fe particles have different morphologies depending on the forming process. • Corrosion pitting occurs around Al7Cu2Fe precipitates in 7475-T7351 and 7081-T73511 alloys. - Abstract: The development of aluminum alloys of the Al–Zn–Mg–Cu system is the primary factor that enabled the evolution of aircraft. However, it has been shown that these alloys tend to undergo pitting corrosion due to the presence of elements such as iron, copper and silicon. Thus, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the behavior of the Al7Cu2Fe precipitate in 7475-T7351 and 7081-T73511 alloys based on microstructural characterization and polarization tests. The corrosion and pitting potentials were found to be very similar, and matrix dissolution occurred around the Al7Cu2Fe precipitate in both alloys, revealing the anodic behavior of the matrix

  11. Preparation and properties of 4. 25Cu-0.75Ni/NiFe2O4 cermet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; ZHANG Gang; LAI Yan-qing; TIAN Zhong-liang; QIN Qing-wei

    2005-01-01

    4.25Cu-0.75Ni/NiFe2 O4 cermets were prepared by doping NiFe2 O4 ceramic matrix with the mixed powders of Cu and Ni or Cu-Ni alloy powder as the electrical conducting metallic elements. The effects of technological parameters, such as the adding modes of metallic elements, the ball milling time, the sintering time and the sintering temperature, on the relative density and resistivity of the cermets were studied. The results show that the resistivity of 4.25Cu-0.75Ni/NiFe2 O4 cermets decreases with increasing temperature, and has a turning point at 590 ℃, which is similar to that of NiFe2 O4 ceramic. The sintering temperature and adding modes of metallic elements have a great influence on the properties of 4. 25Cu-0. 75Ni/NiFe2O4 cermets. When the sintering temperature increases from 1 200 ℃ to 1 300 ℃, the relative density increases from 89.86% to 95.33 %0, and the resistivity at 960 ℃ decreases and Ni, the cermets of finely and uniformly dispersed metallic phase, high density and electric conductivity are obples sintered at 1 200 ℃ for 2 h, which are both better than those of the cermets prepared under the same technique conditions but with the metallic elements added as 85Cu-15Ni alloy powders.

  12. Optimization of the microstructure and properties of Co-substituted Fe-Si-B-Nb-Cu nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuma, M.; Ping, D. H.; Abe, T.; Onodera, H.; Hono, K.; Yoshizawa, Y.

    2003-06-01

    The effect of Co replacement for Fe on the microstructure and soft magnetic properties of Fe78.8-xCoxNb2.6Si9B9Cu0.6 (x=5-60) nanocrystalline alloys has been studied for improving the soft magnetic properties of Fe-Si-B-Nb-Cu type alloys at a high frequency range. The magnetic anisotropy constant increases with x, but the coercivity increases when x exceeds 20, indicating that magnetic softness is degraded by replacing Fe with Co. Three-dimensional atom-probe observations have revealed that the number density of Cu-enriched clusters decreases with x, thereby decreasing the number density of the heterogeneous nucleation sites for bcc-Fe primary crystals. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry measurements show that the Cu clustering temperature shifts to a higher temperature with increasing x, suggesting that the kinetics for the Cu clustering decreases as Co content. These experimental results are discussed from the thermodynamical point of view, and the optimized Cu composition to achieve a low coercivity with 40 at % Co has been found. 2003 American Institute of Physics.

  13. Cobalt Substitution in CuFe$_{2}$O$_{4}$ spinel and its influence on the crystal structure and phonons

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, M. D. P.; F. C. Silva; Sinfrônio, F. S. M.; Paschoal, Alexandre Rocha; Silva, E. N.; Paschoal, Carlos William de Araujo

    2013-01-01

    In this work nanometric spinel Co${}_{1-x}$Cu${}_{x}$Fe${}_{2}$O${}_{4}$ powders were obtained by polymeric precursors method at several annealing temperatures between 700 and 1200 ${}^\\circ$C. The samples were characterized by means of X-ray powder diffraction, confirming the ideal inverse spinel structure for CoFe${}_{2}$O${}_{4}$ sample and the tetragonal distorted inverse spinel structure for CuFe${}_{2}$O${}_{4}$ sample. Based on FWHM evaluation, we estimated that crystallite sizes varie...

  14. Optimisation the magnetic properties of the (Fe1-xCox)73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 (X=10;30;40) alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Olszewski, J.; T. Raszka; D. Szewieczek

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: In this paper results of experience of influence a structure (amorphous and amorphous after structuralrelaxation) on the magnetic properties (the initial magnetic permeability μp, the magnetic permeability μin function magnetic field H, the coercive field Hc, the remanence Br and the saturation induction Bs)on (Fe1-XCoX)73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 (X=10;30;40) alloys have been presented.Design/methodology/approach: The material was obtained by the method of rapid cooling from liquid phase.The...

  15. Influence of composition on hyperfine interactions in FeMoCuB nanocrystalline alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influence of varying Fe/B ratio upon hyperfine interactions is investigated in the Fe91-xMo8Cu1Bx rapidly quenched alloy. The latter is studied both in the as quenched (amorphous) state as well as after one-hour annealing at different temperatures ranging from 330 grad C up to 650 grad C. Such heat treatment causes significant structural changes featuring formation of nanocrystalline bcc-Fe grains during the first crystallization step. At higher annealing, grain-growth of bcc-Fe and occurrence of additional crystalline phases is observed. Relative fraction of crystalline phase governs the development of magnetic hyperfine fields in the residual amorphous matrix even if this was fully paramagnetic in the as-quenched state. The development of hyperfine interactions is discussed as a function of annealing temperature and composition of the measured alloys. 57Fe Moessbauer spectrometry was used as a principal analytical method. Additional information related to structural arrangement is obtained from X-ray diffractometry. It is shown that in the as-quenched state the relative fraction of magnetic hyperfine interactions increases as the amount of B rises. In partially crystalline samples, the contribution of magnetic hyperfine interactions inside the retained amorphous matrix increases with annealing temperature even though the relative fraction of amorphous magnetic regions decreases. (authors)

  16. Experimental Investigation and Thermodynamic Reassessment of the Cu-Fe-Si System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingrui; Zhang, Lijun; Du, Yong; Xu, Honghui; Liang, Jianlie; Huang, Baiyun

    2009-08-01

    Based on a critical evaluation of experimental data available in the literature, the isothermal section at 1023 K of the Cu-Fe-Si system was measured using a combination of X-ray analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, and electroprobe microanalysis (EPMA). In addition, fifteen alloys along two vertical sections at 30 and 70 at. pct Cu were subjected to differential thermal analysis (DTA), in order to provide new phase-transition temperatures. A thermodynamic modeling for the Cu-Fe-Si system was then conducted by considering reliable experimental data from the literature and the present work. All the calculated phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties agree well with the experimental ones. It is noteworthy that a stable liquid miscibility gap appears in the computed ternary phase diagrams, even though it is metastable in the three-boundary binaries. Significant improvements have been made compared with the previous assessments. The presently obtained parameters were also successfully applied to two technical cases in material design.

  17. Microstructure and the properties of FeCoCuNiSnx high entropy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Based on a new alloying design idea, new FeCoCuNiSnx alloys are prepared. ► The crystal structure of alloys is a single FCC solution when Sn content is small. ► The elongation strain and tensile strength of the alloy reach 19.8% and 633 MPa. - Abstract: FeCoCuNiSnx high-entropy alloys (x denotes the adding the elements amount in atomic percentage) are prepared by an arc furnace. Their microstructure and mechanical properties are investigated. The results show that the alloys have a single FCC solution when Sn content is small, the microstructure of the alloys with increasing Sn content is FCC solution and Cu81Sn22 intermetallic compounds. The alloys possess the high strength and the plasticity. When Sn content is between 0.05 and 0.07, the maximum elongation strain and the maximum tensile strength can reach 19.8% and 633 MPa, respectively. The adding of Sn leads to the increase of tensile strength.

  18. Giant magnetoresistance, structural and magnetic properties of glass-coated Fe-Ni-Cu microwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass-coated Fe-Ni-Cu microwires prepared by Taylor's technique exhibit negative magnetoresistance (MR) of 8.15% at 77 K and 6.35% at 300 K in a magnetic field of 9.0 T. The MR is of the same origin found in the granular giant magnetoresistance (GMR) materials and is distinguishable from the giant magnetoimpedance (MI) commonly seen in soft magnetic microwires. MI displays a peak at zero field for RF currents with frequencies less than 20 MHz and it crosses over to a sharp dip at higher frequencies. This crossover is ascribed to the skin-depth-limited response primarily governed by the field dependence of the permeability. Micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (micro-XANES) spectroscopy data were collected at the K edges of Cu, Ni and Fe and revealed that the Fe atoms in the as-cast sample are in FCC configuration and they remain in the FCC phase throughout the annealing processes. The MR decreases to ∼2.5% as the annealing temperature increases to 500 deg. C. The loss of GMR upon annealing is attributed to the growth of FCC Fe-Ni-rich magnetic particles. The increase in the Fe-Ni particle size also results in higher room temperature coercivity. When the annealing temperature is increased to 500 deg. C, a wasp-waisted hysteresis loop is observed which arises from the locking-in of the domain walls by the directional order of atoms due to diffusion under the influence of the local magnetic field. A magnetically hard glass-coated microwire with coercivity of 600 Oe is obtained after annealing at 700 deg. C for 1 h

  19. A hybrid-exchange density functional study of the bonding and electronic structure in bulk CuFeS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Casado, Ruth; Chen, Vincent H.-Y.; Mallia, Giuseppe; Harrison, Nicholas M.

    2016-05-01

    The geometric, electronic, and magnetic properties of bulk chalcopyrite CuFeS2 have been investigated using hybrid-exchange density functional theory calculations. The results are compared with available theoretical and experimental data. The theoretical description of the bonding and electronic structure in CuFeS2 is analyzed in detail and compared to those computed for chalcocite (CuS2) and greigite (Fe3S4). In particular, the behavior of the 3d electrons of Fe3+ is discussed in terms of the Hubbard-Anderson model in the strongly correlated regime and found to be similarly described in both materials by an on-site Coulomb repulsion (U) of ˜8.9 eV and a transfer integral (t) of ˜0.3 eV.

  20. Experimental investigation of inhomogeneities, nanoscopic phase separation, and magnetism in arc melted Fe-Cu metals with equal atomic ratio of the constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassnain Jaffari, G.; Aftab, M.; Anjum, D. H.; Cha, Dongkyu; Poirier, Gerald; Ismat Shah, S.

    2015-12-01

    Composition gradient and phase separation at the nanoscale have been investigated for arc-melted and solidified with equiatomic Fe-Cu. Diffraction studies revealed that Fe and Cu exhibited phase separation with no trace of any mixing. Microscopy studies revealed that immiscible Fe-Cu form dense bulk nanocomposite. The spatial distribution of Fe and Cu showed existence of two distinct regions, i.e., Fe-rich and Cu-rich regions. Fe-rich regions have Cu precipitates of various sizes and different shapes, with Fe forming meshes or channels greater than 100 nm in size. On the other hand, the matrix of Cu-rich regions formed strips with fine strands of nanosized Fe. Macromagnetic response of the system showed ferromagnetic behavior with a magnetic moment being equal to about 2.13 μB/ Fe atom and a bulk like negligible value of coercivity over the temperature range of 5-300 K. Anisotropy constant has been calculated from various laws of approach to saturation, and its value is extracted to be equal to 1350 J/m3. Inhomogeneous strain within the Cu and Fe crystallites has been calculated for the (unannealed) sample solidified after arc-melting. Annealed sample also exhibited local inhomogeneity with removal of inhomogeneous strain and no appreciable change in magnetic character. However, for the annealed sample phase separated Fe exhibited homogenous strain.

  1. Experimental investigation of inhomogeneities, nanoscopic phase separation, and magnetism in arc melted Fe-Cu metals with equal atomic ratio of the constituents

    KAUST Repository

    Hassnain Jaffari, G.

    2015-12-16

    Composition gradient and phase separation at the nanoscale have been investigated for arc-melted and solidified with equiatomic Fe-Cu. Diffraction studies revealed that Fe and Cu exhibited phase separation with no trace of any mixing. Microscopy studies revealed that immiscible Fe-Cu form dense bulk nanocomposite. The spatial distribution of Fe and Cu showed existence of two distinct regions, i.e., Fe-rich and Cu-rich regions. Fe-rich regions have Cu precipitates of various sizes and different shapes, with Fe forming meshes or channels greater than 100 nm in size. On the other hand, the matrix of Cu-rich regions formed strips with fine strands of nanosized Fe. Macromagnetic response of the system showed ferromagnetic behavior with a magnetic moment being equal to about 2.13 μB/Fe atom and a bulk like negligible value of coercivity over the temperature range of 5–300 K. Anisotropy constant has been calculated from various laws of approach to saturation, and its value is extracted to be equal to 1350 J/m3. Inhomogeneous strain within the Cu and Fe crystallites has been calculated for the (unannealed) sample solidified after arc-melting. Annealed sample also exhibited local inhomogeneity with removal of inhomogeneous strain and no appreciable change in magnetic character. However, for the annealed sample phase separated Fe exhibited homogenous strain.

  2. Nanostructuration of i-Al64Cu23Fe13 quasicrystals produced by arc-furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Al46Cu23Fe13 quasicrystal phase, prepared by arc-melting and nanostructured using high energy ball milling technique, was studied employing X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, ferromagnetic resonance and electric transport measurements. Fe local environments were studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The resistivity ratio R(4.2 K)/R(300 K) is within the expected values commonly observed in an icosahedral phase. In general, the experimental results show that an appropriate heat treatment of the as-cast alloy prepared by arc-melting makes possible to obtain good quasicrystal samples. On the other hand, for milling time longer than five hours, the average grain-size of quasicrystal phase reduces, but it preserves Fe local atomic orders. It is also observed that the quasicrystalline sample decomposes in an iron rich nano-quasicrystalline phase and a ε-Al2Cu3 phase. Electric transport measurements show that at low temperatures the nano-quasicrystalline samples behave strongly different to their solid counterparts, an effect attributed to a long-range order reduction and an increasing of grain boundary regions. The presence of local magnetic moments in the nanostructured sample is also discussed.

  3. Development of FeSiBNbCu Nanocrystalline Soft Magnetic Alloys with High B s and Good Manufacturability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Fangpei; He, Aina; Zhang, Jianhua; Song, Jiancheng; Wang, Anding; Chang, Chuntao; Wang, Xinmin

    2016-06-01

    In order to develop Fe-based nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys with high saturation magnetic flux density (B s) and good manufacturability, the effect of the Nb content on the thermal stability, microstructural evolution and soft magnetic properties of Fe78-x Si13B8Nb x Cu1 (x = 0, 1, 2 and 3) alloys were investigated. It is found that proper Nb addition is effective in widening the optimum annealing temperature range and refining the α-Fe grain in addition to enhancing the soft magnetic properties. For the representative Fe76 Si13B8Nb2Cu1 alloy, the effective annealing time can be over 60 min in the optimal temperature range of 500-600°C. FeSiBNbCu nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys with desirable soft magnetic properties including high B s of 1.39 T, low coercivity (H c) of 1.5 A/m and high effective permeability (μ e) of 21,500 at 1 kHz have been developed. The enhanced soft magnetic performance and manufacturability of the FeSiBNbCu nanocrystalline alloys are attributed to the high activated energy for the precipitation of α-Fe(Si) and the second phase. These alloys with excellent performance have promising applications in electromagnetic fields like inductors.

  4. Effect of Ag micro-alloying on the microstructure and properties of Cu-14Fe in situ composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studied Ag micro-alloying in the deformation-processed Cu-14Fe in situ composite, by a comparison of Cu-14Fe and Cu-14Fe-0.06Ag. Each alloy was prepared by casting and processed into an in situ composite by hot and cold working. The microstructures were documented using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties were measured with a tensile-testing machine. The electrical conductivity was measured with a micro-ohmmeter. For both alloys, the as-cast microstructure consisted of a Cu matrix and Fe dendrites; after hot and cold working the microstructure consisted of a Cu matrix containing Fe fibres elongated in the working direction. The as-cast Ag-containing alloy contained finer Fe dendrites. The Ag-containing in situ composite had thinner Fe fibres, higher tensile strength, higher ductility, and higher conductivity. The cold worked Cu-14Fe-0.06Ag in situ composite with cumulative cold deformation strain η = 7.8 (where η = ln(A0/A) and A0 and A are the original and final cross-section areas, respectively), achieved a tensile strength of 930 MPa and a conductivity of 56%IACS (International Annealed Copper Standard; 17.241 nΩ m is defined as 100%IACS). The Ag micro-alloyed in situ composite had a combination of properties comparable to that of a much more expensive alloy containing much more Ag. After 1 h heat treatment at 300 deg. C, the tensile strength was increased to 950 MPa and the conductivity was increased to 56.4%IACS.

  5. Room temperature deposition of amorphous p-type CuFeO$_2$ and fabrication of CuFeO$_2$/n-Si heterojunction by RF sputtering method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TAO ZHU; ZANHONG DENG; XIAODONG FANG; WEIWEI DONG; JINGZHEN SHAO; RUHUA TAO; SHIMAO WANG

    2016-06-01

    Transparent conducting amorphous p-type CuFeO$_2$ (CFO) thin film was prepared by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method at room temperature using polycrystalline CuFeO$_2$ target. Amorphous structureof as-deposited film was confirmed by XRD. XPS analysis convinced that the chemical state of Cu$^{+}$ and Fe$^{3+}$ in the film, and the chemical composition of the thin films is close to the stoichiometry of CuFeO$^2$. Surface morphology of the film was analysed by SEM studies. p-type nature and concentration of carriers was investigated by Hall effect measurement. The p–n heterojunction in the structure of Al/n-Si/p-CuFeO$_2$/Al showed good rectifying behaviour with a forward and reverse currents ratio of 555 at 2 V. The turn-on voltage and reverse leakage current values were found to be 0.9 V and 4 $\\mu$A at $−$2 V. Further, the conduction mechanism of forward bias voltage was controlled by thermionic emission (TE) and trap-space charge limited current (TCLC) mechanisms.

  6. Epitaxial Cu(001) films grown on a Cr/Ag/Fe/GaAs(001) buffer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a procedure to prepare single-crystalline, high-purity Cu(001) films (templates) suitable as substrates for subsequent epitaxial thin-film growth. The template films were grown in a dedicated molecular-beam epitaxy system on a Cr/Ag/Fe/GaAs(001) buffer layer system. Low-energy electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction were applied to determine the surface orientation and the epitaxial relationship between all layers of the stack. Post-annealing at moderate temperatures enhances the quality of the film as shown by low-energy electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. X-ray photoemission and Auger electron spectroscopy confirm that no atoms of the buffer layers diffuse into the Cu film during the initial preparation and the post-annealing treatment. The completed Cu(001) template system can be exposed to air and afterwards refurbished by Ar+-ion bombardment and annealing, enabling the transfer between vacuum systems. The procedure provides suitable conductive thin film templates for studies of epitaxial thin films, e.g. on the magnetic and magnetotransport properties of Co and Ni based films and multilayers. - Highlights: • Preparation of epitaxial Cu(001) template films on an insulating substrate • Characterization of template structure, orientation, cleanness, and roughness • Template films can be exposed to air and refurbished in different vacuum system. • Template films are suitable for further thin film growth at up to 570 K

  7. Moessbauer Studies of Nanosize CuFe2O4 Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanocrystalline CuFe2O4 particles are prepared by wet chemical method. The particles of various sizes are obtained by heat treatment in the temperature range 773-1073 K. The room temperature Moessbauer spectrum for all samples shows the presence of both sextet and doublet indicating the presence of superparamagnetic fractions. The isomer shift, quadrupole splitting and hyperfine field values are found to change with particle size. However, these changes in Moessbauer parameters may also be due to the Jahn-Teller effect that essentially arises due to the migration of Cu2+ from tetrahedral sites to octahedral sites resulting in crystal structure change from cubic to tetragonal system. These aspects are studied by using Moessbauer spectroscopy and are correlated to the X-ray diffraction data.

  8. Oxidation of Refractory Benzothiazoles with PMS/CuFe2O4: Kinetics and Transformation Intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Chen, Yin; Leiknes, TorOve

    2016-06-01

    Benzothiazole (BTH) and its derivatives 2-(methylthio)bezothiazole (MTBT), 2-benzothiazolsulfonate (BTSA), and 2-hydroxybenzothiazole (OHBT) are refractory pollutants ubiquitously existing in urban runoff at relatively high concentrations. Here, we report their oxidation by CuFe2O4-activated peroxomonosulfate (PMS/CuFe2O4), focusing on kinetics and transformation intermediates. These benzothiazoles can be efficiently degraded by this oxidation process, which is confirmed to generate mainly sulfate radicals (with negligible hydroxyl-radical formation) under slightly acidic to neutral pH conditions. The molar exposure ratio of sulfate radical to residual PMS (i.e., Rct) for this process is a constant that is related to the reaction condition and can be easily determined. The reaction rate constants of these benzothiazoles toward sulfate radical are (3.3 ± 0.3) × 10(9), (1.4 ± 0.3) × 10(9), (1.5 ± 0.1) × 10(9), and (4.7 ± 0.5) × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1), respectively (pH 7 and 20 °C). On the basis of Rct and these rate constants, their degradation in the presence of organic matter can be well-predicted. A number of transformation products were detected and tentatively identified using triple-quadruple/linear ion trap MS/MS and high-resolution MS. It appears that sulfate radicals attack BTH, MTBT, and BTSA on their benzo ring via electron transfer, generating multiple hydroxylated intermediates that are reactive toward common oxidants. For OHBT oxidation, the thiazole ring is preferentially broken down. Due to competitions of the transformation intermediates, a minimum PMS/pollutant molar ratio of 10-20 is required for effective degradation. The flexible PMS/CuFe2O4 could be a useful process to remove the benzothiazoles from low dissolved organic carbon waters like urban runoff or polluted groundwater. PMID:27144396

  9. Oxidation of Refractory Benzothiazoles with PMS/CuFe2O4: Kinetics and Transformation Intermediates

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tao

    2016-05-04

    Benzothiazole (BTH) and its derivatives, 2-(methylthio)bezothiazole (MTBT), 2-benzothiazolsulfonate (BTSA) and 2-hydroxybenzothiazole (OHBT), are refractory pollutants ubiquitously existing in urban runoff at relatively high concentrations. Here, we report their oxidation by CuFe2O4-activated peroxomonosulfate (PMS/CuFe2O4), focusing on kinetics and transformation intermediates. These benzothiazoles can be efficiently degraded by this oxidation process which is confirmed to generate mainly sulfate radicals (with negligible hydroxyl-radical formation) under slightly acidic to neutral pH conditions. The molar exposure ratio of sulfate radical to residual PMS (i.e. Rct) of this process is a constant which is related to reaction condition and can be easily determined. Reaction rate constants of these benzothiazoles towards sulfate radical are (3.3 ± 0.3) × 109, (1.4 ± 0.3) × 109, (1.5 ± 0.1) × 109 and (4.7 ± 0.5) × 109 M-1s-1, respectively (pH 7 and 20 oC). Based on Rct and these rate constants, their degradation in the presence of organic matter can be well predicted. A number of transformation products were detected and tentatively identified using triple-quadruple/linear ion trap MS/MS and high-resolution MS. It appears that sulfate radicals attack BTH, MTBT and BTSA on their benzo ring via electron transfer, generating multiple hydroxylated intermediates which are reactive towards common oxidants. For OHBT oxidation, it prefers to break down the thiazole ring. Due to competitions of the transformation intermediates, a minimum PMS/pollutant molar ratio of 10-20 is required for effective degradation. The flexible PMS/CuFe2O4 could be a useful process to remove the benzothiazoles from low DOC waters like urban runoff or polluted groundwater.

  10. Study on ethyl groups with two different orientations in [N(C2H5)4]2CuBr4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ae Ran

    2016-06-01

    The crystal structure and phase transition temperature of [N(C2H5)4]2CuBr4 are studied using X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC); measurements revealed a tetragonal structure and the two phase transition temperatures TC of 204 K and 255.5 K. The structural geometry near TC is discussed in terms of the chemical shifts for 1H magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 13C cross-polarization (CP)/MAS NMR. The two inequivalent ethyl groups are distinguishable by the 13C NMR spectrum. The molecular motions are discussed in terms of the spin-lattice relaxation times T1ρ in the rotating frame for 1H MAS NMR and 13C CP/MAS NMR. The T1ρ results reveal that the ethyl groups undergo tumbling motion, and furthermore that the ethyl groups are highly mobile.

  11. Kinetics of lead removal from the Cu-Pb-Fe alloy by barbotage with inert gases

    OpenAIRE

    B. Oleksiak; L. Blacha

    2011-01-01

    Discussion of the kinetics of lead removal from the Cu-Pb-Fe alloy by barbotage with argon and helium. The values of the mass penetration coefficient for the liquid and solid phase as well as the mass transfer coefficient were calculated for the temperatures of 1 473 K and 1 548 K, and for the gas flow rate of 5,55 • 10-6, 6,94 • 10-6, 8,33 • 10-6 and 9,72 • 10-6 m • s-1.

  12. Possibilities of removing lead from industrial Cu-Pb-Fe alloy with of argon barbortage

    OpenAIRE

    B. Oleksiak

    2009-01-01

    In this article results of research on removal of the lead from industrial Cu-Pb-Fe alloy by means of argon barbotage are presented. The examinations was performed on an industrial alloy from the “Glogow II” Copperworks. As a basic research equipment a pipe resistance furnace enabling heating of a sample up to 1773 K temperature was used. All researches were conducted at 1473 K, 1523 K, 1573 K temperature and with gas flow 5,55×10-6, 6,94×10-6, 8,33×10-6, 9,72×10-6 m3/s.

  13. Removal of lead from the industrial and synthetic Cu-Pb-Fe alloy with argon barbotage

    OpenAIRE

    B. Oleksiak; G. Siwiec

    2012-01-01

    Results of research on removal of lead from synthetic and industrial Cu-Pb-Fe alloy with argon barbotage are presented. For examinations was taken a synthetic alloy and industrial alloy coming “Glogow II” Copperworks. As basic research equipment was used a pipe resistance furnace enabling heating of samples up to 1 473 K. Examinations were made in 2 test series. The 1 series was performed on the synthetic alloy, while in 2 series was used an industrial alloy. All series were conducted at 1 47...

  14. Study on Electromagnetorheological Fluid Containing CuPc-Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Electromagnetorheological(EMR) fluids containing CuPc-Fe3O4 nanopareticles composite were prepared and their properties were studied.The results show that Δτ of this kind of EMR fluids increases with the increments of applied electric field, magnetic field and volume fraction of the nanoparticles composite. Δτ has an approximate linear relationship with γ.When an electric and magnetic field are applied simultaneously,the EMR fluids have a synergistic effect. The EMR fluids have a good long-term stability.

  15. Cu, Mn, Fe, and Zn Levels in Soils of Shika Area, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. A. MASHI; S. A. YARO; A. S. HAIBA

    2004-01-01

    Heavy metals presented in toxic amounts can become injurious to human health. In areas where there is a high level of human activities on soils (such as agriculture and grazing) studies are therefore required from time to time to monitor levels of such metals in the soils in order to identify the point in time when toxicity problems become real. The 英文摘要: of this paper is to determine the concentrations of some trace metals (Cu, Mn, Fe, and Zn) in soils under cultivation and grazing practices in Shika, a rural area of Kaduna state of Nigeria. Method In this study, soil samples collected from three different categories of locations (cultivated, grazed, and uncultivated/non- grazed serving as a control) across Shika area, Nigeria, were analysed for some trace metal levels (Cu, Mn, Fe, and Zn) using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. For each category, multiple sites were chosen to accommodate all possible intra-category variations, especially in terms of land use and management history and topographic characteristics. Topsoil (0-15 cm) and subsoil (20-30 cm) samples were collected from every site and analysed for the above metals. Averaged values of the metals for the three categories revealed that Zn is the most abundant metal, followed by Fe, then Mn and Cu the least. Results The results obtained indicate that the cultivation practices, and to a lesser extent grazing, in the area result in higher levels of all the metals than in the control, suggesting that crop immobilization of the metals from soils of the area is low, and that their systematic accumulation is taking place in cultivated soils of the area. Prospects of having elevated soil levels of the metals due to cultivation practices in the area therefore seem quite high. Conclusion On the basis of the results obtained, it was concluded that grazing and cultivation practices have in general caused some significant elevations in the bioavailable (i.e the plant available forms) levels of Zn, Fe, Mn

  16. First-order reversal curve analysis of graded anisotropy FePtCu films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanni, Valentina; Fang, Yeyu; Dumas, Randy K.; Zha, Chaolin; Bonetti, Stefano; Nogués, Josep; Åkerman, Johan

    2010-11-01

    The reversal mechanisms of graded anisotropy FePtCu films have been investigated by alternating gradient magnetometer (AGM) and magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) measurements with first-order reversal curve (FORC) techniques. The AGM-FORC analysis, which clearly shows the presence of soft and hard components, is unable to resolve how these phases are distributed throughout the film thickness. MOKE-FORC measurements, which preferentially probe the surface of the film, reveal that the soft components are indeed located toward the top surface. Combining AGM-FORC with the inherent surface sensitivity of MOKE-FORC analysis allows for a comprehensive analysis of heterogeneous systems such as graded materials.

  17. Multiscale twin hierarchy in NiMnGa shape memory alloys with Fe and Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray microdiffraction and scanning electron microscopy studies reveal 10 M martensitic structure with a highly correlated multiscale twin hierarchy organization in NiMnGaFeCu shape memory alloys. High compatibility is found at the twin interfaces resulting in a highly correlated twinned lattice orientation across several laminate levels. The lattice unit cell is described as monoclinic I-centered with a = 4.28 Å, b = 4.27 Å, c = 5.40 Å, γ = 78.5°. The modulation is found parallel to the b axis. Thin tapered needle-like lamellae and branching are observed near the twin boundaries

  18. Mechanical alloying in Fe2O3-MO (M: Zn, Ni, Cu, Mg) systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Gerward, Leif; Mørup, Steen

    1999-01-01

    Mechanical alloying processes in four Fe2O3MO (M: Zn, Ni, Cu, Mg) systems by high-energy ball milling from simple oxide powder mixtures in both open and closed tungsten carbide containers have been investigated by x-ray powder diffraction and Mossbauer spectroscopy. Mechanisms for the formation of......-energy ball milling under the conditions used here. The dominant alloying mechanism depends on the interdiffusion at relatively low temperatures. The experimental results may also be explained by the crystal structures of the reactants and the ferrites....

  19. Field-induced lattice staircase in a frustrated antiferromagnet CuFeO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of synchrotron x-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements on a triangular lattice antiferromagnet CuFeO2 subjected to a pulsed high magnetic field are reported. We find the lattice constant, b, contracts stepwise with increasing magnetic field in coincidence with the multistep magnetization changes. These changes in the lattice constant scale with the magnetization changes. We argue that the competition among the ferromagnetic direct and antiferromagnetic superexchange interactions is a main source for this phenomenon. With the changes of the magnetic structure under an applied magnetic field, the number of up spins increases and the lattice contracts to gain the former exchange energy

  20. Pile oscillator measurements of thermal absorption cross sections of Al, Mg, Fe and Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phase oscillation technique used at ZOE has the property of reducing of a marked factor the effect of neutron scattering by the sample. The absorption cross sections of poorly absorbing and highly scattering materials have been measured; for neutrons of 2,200 m/s, the following values are obtained: 229 ± 3 mb for Al; 64.2 ± 1.5 mb for Mg, 2.53 ± 0.03 b for Fe and 3.74 ± 0.04 b for Cu. (authors)

  1. Effect of biquadratic coupling on current induced magnetization switching in Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravinthan, D.; Sabareesan, P.; Daniel, M.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of biquadratic coupling on spin current induced magnetization switching in a Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar device is investigated by solving the free layer magnetization switching dynamics governed by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski (LLGS) equation. The LLGS equation is numerically solved by using Runge-Kutta fourth order procedure for an applied current density of 5 × 1012 Am-2. Presence of biquadratic coupling in the ferromagnetic layers reduces the magnetization switching time of the nanopillar device from 61 ps to 49 ps.

  2. An investigation on microwave sintering of Fe, Fe–Cu and Fe–Cu–C alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raja Annamalai; Anish Upadhyaya; Dinesh Agrawal

    2013-06-01

    The powder characteristics of metallic powders play a key role during sintering. Densification and mechanical properties were also influenced by it. The current study examines the effect of heating mode on densification, microstructure, phase compositions and properties of Fe, Fe–2Cu and Fe–2Cu–0.8C systems. The compacts were heated in 2.45 GHz microwave sintering furnaces under forming gas (95%N2–5%H2) at 1120 °C for 60 min. Results of densification, mechanical properties and microstructural development of the microwave-sintered samples were reported and critically analysed in terms of various powder processing steps.

  3. Simulation of ion-beam channeling in icosahedral Al63Cu25Fe12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo simulations of channeling on the icosahedral quasicrystal Al63Cu25Fe12 were made, using an experimentally determined structure model for this phase. The channeling effect was found to be nearly as good as for a normal, periodic crystal. Dip widths are in agreement with experimental values, but minimum yields are not. The minimum yield is inversely proportional to the beam energy at low energy. Future experiments to be done are proton-induced-x-ray-channeling experiments and Rutherford-backscattering-channeling experiments at low energy

  4. Kinetics of lead removal from the Cu-Pb-Fe alloy by barbotage with inert gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Oleksiak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Discussion of the kinetics of lead removal from the Cu-Pb-Fe alloy by barbotage with argon and helium. The values of the mass penetration coefficient for the liquid and solid phase as well as the mass transfer coefficient were calculated for the temperatures of 1 473 K and 1 548 K, and for the gas flow rate of 5,55 • 10-6, 6,94 • 10-6, 8,33 • 10-6 and 9,72 • 10-6 m • s-1.

  5. Structure of Sm-Co-Cu-Fe-Zr alloys for permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linetskij, Ya.L.; Savich, A.N.; Knizhnik, E.G.; Menushenkova, N.V.; Polunin, V.V.; Korovyatskaya, M.V. (Moskovskij Inst. Stali i Splavov (USSR))

    1982-02-01

    Structure changes in the 25 Sm - 50 Co - (10-15) Fe - (8-12) Cu - 2 Zr alloys during their processing for the state with high magnetic properties are investigated by means of optical, electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Dendrite non-uniformity is removed during the alloy sintering and the Th/sub 2/Zn/sub 17/ type phase turns to be the basic structural constituent. Tempering at 800 deg C results in transformation of solid solution in the result of which canted cellular and banded structures are formed.

  6. Magnetic response of FeNbCuBSi RQ ribbons to bi-axial strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanocrystalline strip samples of the FeNbCuBSi class that are macroscopically heterogeneous due to surface /volume differences have been investigated. This heterogeneity is found to be a general property of the class. It represents a base for mutual force influence between the surface and the majority volume beneath. The bi-axial in-plane stress exerted by the ribbon surfaces on the volume is demonstrated first of all by a magnetoelastic anisotropy. The contribution of the creep-induced anisotropy, which can build up under the surface stress at post-treatment temperature, is also found possible

  7. Permeability spectra of neutron-irradiated and annealed amorphous FeCuNbSiB ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron irradiation effects of soft magnetic properties in the as-quenched and the annealed amorphous Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 alloys were studied by complex permeability spectra measurement. The annealing at 823 K caused the decrease of permeability from irreversible domain wall motion but increase the permeability from reversible magnetization, compared to the as-quenched sample. The neutron irradiation in the as-quenched sample increases the permeability from both irreversible and reversible magnetization processes. The neutron irradiation in the annealed sample showed the increase of permeability from irreversible domain wall motion, but decrease of permeability from reversible magnetization

  8. Microstructure and tensile properties of FeMnNiCuCoSnx high entropy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We develop a new high entropy alloy system. ► The alloys have good plasticity that can do tensile testing at room temperature. ► The maximum tensile strain can reach to 16.9%. -- Abstract: High-entropy FeMnNiCuCoSnx (x denotes the atomic fraction of Sn) alloys with good plasticity have been developed. The systematical investigation demonstrates that the concentration of Sn element plays a significant role in the microstructure and tensile properties. As 0.03 5.6Sn) in the interdendritic regions forms, which degrades the ductility of alloys.

  9. Superparamagnetic Relaxation in Nanocrystalline Fe80Zr7B12Cu1 Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanocrystalline Fe80Zr7B12Cu1 alloys with different amounts and sizes of bcc precipitates were prepared by appropriate annealing of amorphous ribbons. The 6-10 nm ferromagnetic bcc granules are embedded in a residual amorphous tissue with a thickness at least 4 nm. Above room temperature superparamagnetic relaxation characteristic for small magnetic particles was observed with increasing temperature, as indicated by a significant increase in the width of the Moessbauer lines belonging to the bcc precipitates. It shows the absence of magnetic coupling which is stronger than the dipole-dipole interaction between the ferromagnetic nanoparticles.

  10. Effect Of Ni-Additions In NANOCRYSTALLIZED FeNiNbCuSiB Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structure and magnetic properties of Fe73.5-xNixNb3Cu1 Si13.5B9 ( x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 at.% ) amorphous and nanocrystalline alloys were investigated. For studying the magnetic behaviour upon changes of Ni and Fe concentration X-ray, Moessbauer measurements as well as thermomagnetic analyses were performed. The first crystallization temperature at about 545 deg C was nearly independent on the Ni concentrations. The temperature of the second crystallization stage decreases when Ni content increases. Additions of Ni cause a small change of the Curie temperature. After annealing at 550 deg C for 1 h a nanocrystalline state was formed which leads to magnetic softening of the sample for smaller additions of Ni (x = 0 - 15). The nanocrystalline structure was not observed for higher Ni contents (x = 20, 25).(Authors)

  11. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INFRARED RADIATION AND CRYSTAL STRUCTURE IN Fe-Mn-Co-Cu-O SPINELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. Zhang; D.J. Wen

    2008-01-01

    Ni3+ and Cr3+ doped Fe-Mn-Co-Cu-O spinels have been prepared by solid phase sinfeting. The valence states and distribution of transition ions in the spinel crystals are inferred by the consideration of thermodynamic principle and crystalline field theory. The microstructure and performance of those are studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and IRE-2 infrared radiant instrument. Ni3+ and Cr3+ occupy the vacancies or substitute the other ions in the spinel structures and form diverse spinel structures, which exhibit infrared integral emissivities of 0.93 in the whole band, and 0.94 in the band within 14-25 um too. The content of Fe2O3 and MnO2 in the spinel crystals changes, maybe it induces infrared radiativity of spinels differently.

  12. Macroscopic heterogeneity effects in FeNiNbCuBSi ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of Ni substitution on the magnetic response to macroscopic heterogeneity has been investigated on (FeNi)73.5Nb3Cu1B9Si13.5 ribbons. 10, 20 and 30 at% of Ni was alloyed to the detriment of Fe. No significant change was observed as to the bias to build heterogeneity in a non-protective annealing ambience. Instead, the favorable insensitivity of magnetic properties to the heterogeneity, as known for the standard Finemet, gets lost with Ni substitution and serious magnetic hardening takes place for higher Ni percentage. These changes are mainly due to the changed intrinsic properties of the Ni-substituted alloys, as high magnetostriction and the occurrence of a Ni-containing phase, if the alloy is nanocrystallized

  13. Characterization of pillared clays containing Fe{sup 3+} and Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Vidal, H.; Custodio-Garcia, E.; Morales-Hidalgo, J. [Division Academica de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Juarez Autonoma de Tabasco, Km 1.5 Carretera Cunduacan-Jalpa, CP. 86690, Cunduacan, Tabasco (Mexico); Lopez-Alejandro, E.; Frias-Marquez, D.M. [Division Academica de Ingenieria y Arquitectura, Universidad Juarez Autonoma de Tabasco, Km 1.5 Carretera Cunduacan-Jalpa, CP. 86690, Cunduacan, Tabasco (Mexico)

    2006-04-14

    We report the synthesis of pillared clays from natural Mexican bentonites and pillared solutions as a support for Cu and Fe{sup 3+} catalyst. The study shows a favorable cationic exchange capacity on the clays. This is observed with a change of the specific areas: from 66m{sup 2}/g for the natural clay to 202m{sup 2}/g for the pillared clay. The molar relation of 4.91 for the Si/Al structure in the natural clay and 3.72 for the pillared clay shows the entrance of aluminum as pillaring ion. We were able to increase the microporosity on the catalytic material observed through a porous volume variation (0.1-0.8cm{sup 3}/g) at different Fe{sup 3+} concentrations. We obtained an increase on the specific area of more than 200% over the natural clay. (author)

  14. Formation dynamics of FeN thin films on Cu(100)

    KAUST Repository

    Heryadi, Dodi

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the structural and magnetic properties of thin films of FeN we have performed ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of their formation on Cu(100) substrates. The iron nitride layers exhibit a p4gm(2 × 2) reconstruction and order ferromagnetically in agreement with experiment. We establish the dynamics and time scale of the film formation as a function of the film thickness. The process is split in two phases: formation of almost flat FeN layers and optimization of the distance to the substrate. Our calculated magnetic moments are 1.67 μ B, 2.14 μ B, and 2.21 μ B for one, two, and three monolayers of iron nitride. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of Extra-Framework Species on Fe/ZSM-5 and Cu/ZSM-5 Catalysts Typical Microporous Molecular Sieves with Zeolitic Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Urquieta-González

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Cu and Fe species formed during the preparation of Cu/ and Fe/ZSM-5 catalysts by ion exchange were studied. XRD, SEM, H2-TPR, DRS-UV-VIS, EPR, Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MÖSS and chemical analysis (AAS were used to sample characterization. Cu/ZSM-5 catalysts, irrespective of their Si/Al ratio and Cu content, showed a reduction peak at around 210°C, which was attributed to the reduction of Cu+2 to Cu+1. The reduction peak of Cu+1 to Cu0 shifted to higher temperatures with the increase of Si/Al ratio or with the diminution of Cu/Al ratio, evidencing that isolated Cu cations present a higher interaction with the zeolite structure. The MÖSS data showed the presence of Fe+3 species in charge-compensation sites and a higher content of hematite (Fe2O3 in the catalysts prepared in aqueous medium. The EPR analysis also evidenced the Cu+2 and Fe+3 presence in Cu and Fe/ZSM-5 catalysts, respectively.

  16. Density functional study of the structural and energetic properties of Cu12A (A=Fe, Co, Ni) clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Started from the non-compact low symmetric ground-state geometry of Cu13 and four types 13- atom high-symmetric (Ih, Oh, D5h, D3h) close-packed structures, by replacing a doping atom in the un-equivalent position, the structural and energetic properties of the mixed Cu12A(A=Fe, Co, Ni) clusters are systematically studied by using the density-functional theory. Our results show that: For Cu12A(A= Fe, Co) clusters, each prefers to the Ih-replacing geometry as the ground-state structure, and with replacing the central atom to form a high-symmetric structure, but for CU12Ni, its ground-state structure is a non-compact low symmetric one similar to that of Cu13. The stability sequences of those structures from replacing the unequivalent positions of the ground-state geometry of Cu13 are nearly same for all these doping atoms (Fe, Co and Ni), and the center-replacing doping structures are all superior to the surface- replacing doping structures when replacing the four high-symmetric structures (Fe and Co are all stronger than Ni). There is no obvious isomerism for the ground-state of all these doping clusters. (authors)

  17. Electrospun CuFe2O4 nanotubes as anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengjie Peng; Linlin Li; Madhavi Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we report on the synthesis and lithium storage properties of electrospun one-dimensional (1D) CuFe2O4 nanomaterials. 1D CuFe2O4 nanotubes and nanorods were fabricated by a single spinneret electrospinning method followed by thermal decomposition for removal of polymers from the precursor fibers. The as-prepared CuFe2O4 nanotubes with wall thickness of∼50 nm presented diameters of∼150 nm and lengths up to several millimeters. It was found that phase separation between the electrospun composite materials occured during the electrospinning process, while the as-spun precursor nanofibers composed of polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and metal salts might possess a core-shell structure (PAN as the core and PVP/metal salts composite as the shell) and then transformed to a hollow structure after calcination. Moreover, as a demonstration of the functional properties of the 1D nanostructure, CuFe2 O4 nanotubes and nanorods were investigated as anodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). It was demonstrated that CuFe2O4 nanotubes not only delivered a high reversible capacity of ∼816 mAh·g-1 at a current density of 200 mA·g-1 over 50 cycles, but also showed superior rate capability with respect to counterpart nanorods. Probably, the enhanced electrochemical performance can be attributed to its high specific surface areas as well as the unique hollow structure.

  18. Effects of aging time and temperature of Fe-1wt.%Cu on magnetic Barkhausen noise and FORC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muad Saleh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN, hysteresis measurements, first order reversal curves (FORC, Vickers microhardness, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM analyses were performed on Fe-1wt.%Cu (Fe-Cu samples isothermally aged at 700°C for 0.5 – 25 hours to obtain samples with different sized Cu precipitates and dislocation structures. Fe-Cu is used to simulate the thermal and irradiation-induced defects in copper-containing nuclear reactor materials such as cooling system pipes and pressure vessel materials. The sample series showed an initial increase followed by a decrease in hardness and coercivity with aging time, which is explained by Cu precipitates formation and growth as observed by TEM measurements. Further, the MBN envelope showed a continuous decrease in its magnitude and the appearance of a second peak with aging. Also, FORC diagrams showed multiple peaks whose intensity and location changed for different aging time. The changes in FORC diagrams are attributed to combined changes of the magnetic behavior due to Cu precipitate characteristics and dislocation structure. A second series of samples aged at 850°C, which is above the solid solution temperature of Fe-Cu, was studied to isolate the effects of dislocations. These samples showed a continuous decrease in MBN amplitude with aging time although the coercivity and hardness did not change significantly. The decrease of MBN amplitude and the appearance of the second MBN envelope peak are attributed to the changes in dislocation density and structure. This study shows that the effect of dislocations on MBN and FORC of Fe-Cu materials can vary significantly and should be considered in interpreting magnetic signatures.

  19. Effects of aging time and temperature of Fe-1wt.%Cu on magnetic Barkhausen noise and FORC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Muad; Cao, Yue; Edwards, Danny J.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Johnson, Bradley R.; McCloy, John S.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN), hysteresis measurements, first order reversal curves (FORC), Vickers microhardness, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analyses were performed on Fe-1wt.%Cu (Fe-Cu) samples isothermally aged at 700°C for 0.5 - 25 hours to obtain samples with different sized Cu precipitates and dislocation structures. Fe-Cu is used to simulate the thermal and irradiation-induced defects in copper-containing nuclear reactor materials such as cooling system pipes and pressure vessel materials. The sample series showed an initial increase followed by a decrease in hardness and coercivity with aging time, which is explained by Cu precipitates formation and growth as observed by TEM measurements. Further, the MBN envelope showed a continuous decrease in its magnitude and the appearance of a second peak with aging. Also, FORC diagrams showed multiple peaks whose intensity and location changed for different aging time. The changes in FORC diagrams are attributed to combined changes of the magnetic behavior due to Cu precipitate characteristics and dislocation structure. A second series of samples aged at 850°C, which is above the solid solution temperature of Fe-Cu, was studied to isolate the effects of dislocations. These samples showed a continuous decrease in MBN amplitude with aging time although the coercivity and hardness did not change significantly. The decrease of MBN amplitude and the appearance of the second MBN envelope peak are attributed to the changes in dislocation density and structure. This study shows that the effect of dislocations on MBN and FORC of Fe-Cu materials can vary significantly and should be considered in interpreting magnetic signatures.

  20. Phase selection and nanocrystallization in Cu-free soft magnetic FeSiNbB amorphous alloy upon rapid annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsdorf, L.; Pradeep, K. G.; Herzer, G.; Kovács, A.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.; Povstugar, I.; Konygin, G.; Choi, P.; Raabe, D.

    2016-03-01

    Nucleation of soft magnetic Fe3Si nanocrystals in Cu-free Fe74.5Si15.5Nb3B7 alloy, upon rapid (10 s) and conventional (30 min) annealing, was investigated using x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and atom probe tomography. By employing rapid annealing, preferential nucleation of Fe3Si nanocrystals was achieved, whereas otherwise there is simultaneous nucleation of both Fe3Si and undesired Fe-B compound phases. Analysis revealed that the enhanced Nb diffusivity, achieved during rapid annealing, facilitates homogeneous nucleation of Fe3Si nanocrystals while shifting the secondary Fe-B crystallization to higher temperatures resulting in pure soft magnetic nanocrystallization with very low coercivities of ˜10 A/m.

  1. Low-temperature heat capacity and entropy of chalcopyrite (CuFeS2): estimates of the standard molar enthalpy and Gibbs free energy of formation of chalcopyrite and bornite (Cu5FeS4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robie, R.A.; Wiggins, L.B.; Barton, P.B., Jr.; Hemingway, B.S.

    1985-01-01

    The heat capacity of CuFeS2 (chalcopyrite) was measured between 6.3 and 303.5 K. At 298.15 K, Cp,mo and Smo(T) are (95.67??0.14) J??K-1??mol-1 and (124.9??0.2) J??K-1??mol-1, respectively. From a consideration of the results of two sets of equilibrium measurements we conclude that ??fHmo(CuFeS2, cr, 298.15 K) = -(193.6??1.6) kJ??mol-1 and that the recent bomb-calorimetric determination by Johnson and Steele (J. Chem. Thermodynamics 1981, 13, 991) is in error. The standard molar Gibbs free energy of formation of bornite (Cu5FeS4) is -(444.9??2.1) kJ??mol-1 at 748 K. ?? 1985.

  2. S, Zn, Cr, Cu and Fe changes during fluvial sediments oxidation Transformaciones del S, Zn, Cr, Cu y Fe en sedimentos fluviales durante el proceso de secado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pía Di Nanno

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Acidification of dredged sediments which have been disposed on land is highly dependent on redox shifts. The aim of the present work was to assess changes in sulphur, metal speciation (Zn, Fe, Cr y Cu and acidity caused by a polluted sediment oxidation event. Sediments were dessicated under controlled conditions and sulphide compounds (acid volatile sulphides-AVS- and sulphate, pH and neutralization potential were measured through time during 36 days. Zinc, Cu, Cr and Fe speciation (BCR metal sequential extraction procedure were measured at the beginning of the experiment and at day 22. An acid-base equilibrium method based on the BCR procedure was employed to assess the sediment acidification risk. Some of the re-suspension experiments were inoculated with an Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain to assess biological catalysis on sulphide oxidation. Acid-base equilibrium results indicated the sediment sample had a significant acidification potential. Oxidation increased sulphate levels (56 to 2300 mg S kg-¹ in the desiccation experiment with a temporal evolution adjusted by a logistic model, and a 2100 to 3000 mg SO4 -² L-¹ increase for the resuspension experiments. Sulphide oxidation rates varied between 0 to 3.1.10-9 mg O2 kg-¹ s-¹ for the drying sediment. Zinc changes could be explained partially by ZnS conversion to ZnSO4 during oxidation. Iron reduction could be attributed to an increase in Fe oxides crystallinity. Acid-base equilibrium for the sample indicated it was a potentially acid-generating material. Zinc increased its bioavailability during drying and was the only metal that appeared in significant amounts in solution during re-suspension. Land-filling with dredged sediments could present increased metals bioavailability problems despite having an important and effective neutralization potential.La evaluación de los riesgos de acidificación por deposición de sedimentos dragados en superficie es muy dependiente de los

  3. Simultanous removal of VOCs and Nox by oxides of Mg, Cu, Al, and Fe, derivatives of hydrotalicites compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of Mg(Cu)-AlFe mixed oxides derived from Hydrotalcites-Like compounds has been prepared. These solids were characterized by various physico-chemical methods and their catalytic performances were tested towards the catalytic oxidation of propene and the simultaneous elimination of propene and NOx. X-Ray Diffraction of the calcined samples, revealed the existence of oxide and spinel phases such as MgO, CuO,-Fe2O3 and/or Fe3O4, MgFe2O4or CuFe2O4. Moreover, the temperature programmed reduction showed that copper and iron oxide species are easily reducible. The catalytic performances of the catalysts towards propene oxidation showed a better activity for Cu2Mg2Fe2500 due to a better dispersion of copper species in this solid. On the other hand, samples with low copper and iron contents presented a better activity towards the simultaneous elimination of propene and NO. (author)

  4. Spray pyrolytically deposited Fe-doped Cu2O thin films for solar hydrogen generation: Experiments & first-principles analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present here a combined study on photocatalysis by Fe-doped Cu2O thin films using first-principles density functional theory (DFT) based calculations and experiments. The results of DFT calculations show that the top of the valence band and bottom of the conduction band of undoped Cu2O lies at the Γ point of Brillouin zone, suggesting that pure Cu2O a direct band gap material. However, there is an appearance of a sharp peak at the fermi energy level in the total density of states of Fe-doped Cu2O that essentially comes from Fe 3d states, keeping it still a direct band gap material. To validate the theoretical results, experiments were carried out by preparing thin films of Cu2O doped with 0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 & 5.0 atom % Fe via spray pyrolysis method and characterized with X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD), Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), UV–Vis Spectroscopy and Photoelectrochemical measurements. The results exhibited that 2 atom % Fe-doped Cu2O sample produces significant photocurrent of 1.86 mAcm−2 at 0.8 V/SCE as compared to undoped Cu2O samples of 0.62 mAcm2 at 0.8 V/SCE with an experimental band-gap value of 2.21 and 2.50 eV respectively. The observed change in the experimental band gap and that estimated by first-principles calculations compare well, thus suggesting that such calculations have the potential to be used in screening various dopants before performing the experiments thereby saving precious chemicals, time and energy. - Highlights: • Cu2O thin films have been successfully prepared using spray pyrolysis method. • DFT calculations show an appearance of sharp peak at fermi level in Fe-doped Cu2O. • Our theoretical & experimental results complimented each other. • Maximum value of IPCE of 6.0% was obtained for 2 atom % Fe-doped sample at 450 nm

  5. FeMnCuO4复合氧化物的光热转换%SOLAR THERMAL CONVERSION OF FeMnCuO4 COMPOUND OXIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华林; 余锡宾

    1999-01-01

    选用铁、锰、铜的硝酸盐,以共沉淀法合成了尖晶石结构的FeMnCuO4复合氧化物,并对其结构进行表征.研究了温度、溶液pH值等因素对FeMnCuO4复合氧化物的产率、粒径及光学性能的影响.

  6. Energy Parameters of Interfacial Layers in Composite Systems: Graphene – (Si, Cu, Fe, Co, Au, Ag, Al, Ru, Hf, Pb and Semiconductor (Si,Ge – (Fe, Co, Cu, Al, Au, Cr, W, Pb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Koman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the non-equilibrium thermodynamics relations and the surface physics phenomena we calculate adhesion and energy parameters to characterize the interfacial interactions in graphene – (Si, Cu, Fe, Co, Au, Ag, Al, Ru, Hf, Pb and semiconductor (Si, Ge – (Fe, Co, Cu, Al, Au, Cr, W, Pb systems. We analyze trends of the interfacial energy, interfacial tension, work of adhesion and the energy of adhesive bonds on the contacting element’s atomic number in the periodic table and on the electronegativity difference of interacting elements. Thus, this work provides theoretical basis for the development of new composite materials.

  7. Influence of Dy and Cu doping on the room temperature multiferroic properties of BiFeO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, A. Sathiya; Banu, I. B. Shameem; Anwar, Shahid

    2016-03-01

    A series of Bi1-xDyxFe0.98Cu0.02O3 (x=1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%) nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that the undoped and doped samples crystallize in rhombohedral structure. Enhanced magnetic properties are observed for the doped nanoparticles as compared to undoped BiFeO3 (BFO) and when Dy substitution to Bi site is increased, the saturation magnetization (Ms) and remnant magnetization (Mr) show a remarkable increase. The Dy and Cu doping has improved the ferroelectric properties of the BFO. The measured magnetoelectric effect shows remarkable enhancement for the doped BFO as compared to the undoped BFO. The measured magnetic and ferroelectric properties of the doped samples has demonstrated that Dy and Cu doping can significantly improve the multiferroic properties of BiFeO3.

  8. Giant magneto-impedance effect of magnetron sputtered Ni80Fe20/SiO2/Cu composite wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, Ni80Fe20/Cu and Ni80Fe20/SiO2/Cu composite wires of Cu core 100 μm in diameter and coated with a layer of Ni80Fe20 were produced by RF magnetron sputtering. In order to obtain a uniform coating, the wires were spun during sputtering. The influences of the magnetic coating and insulator thickness on the GMI effect of the composite wires were investigated. The results showed that the film thickness has a significant effect on the magnitude and the optimum frequency of the GMI effect. After the addition of an insulator layer, the MI ratio of the composite wires was observed to change with varying thickness of the insulator layer. This observed trend was attributed to the interaction between the conductive layer and the high-permeability magnetic coating

  9. Structural and magnetic properties of epitaxial delafossite CuFeO{sub 2} thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Toyanath; Senty, Tess R.; Trappen, Robbyn; Zhou, Jinling; Borisov, Pavel; Holcomb, Mikel B.; Bristow, Alan D.; Lederman, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States); Chen, Song; Song, Xueyan [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6070 (United States); Ferrari, Piero; Cabrera, Alejandro L. [Pontificia Universidad Catolica, Instituto de Física, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-01-07

    Growth of pure phase delafossite CuFeO{sub 2} thin films on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (00.1) substrates by pulsed laser deposition was systematically investigated as a function of growth temperature and oxygen pressure. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman scattering, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy confirmed the existence of the delafossite phase. Infrared reflectivity spectra determined a band edge at 1.15 eV, in agreement with the bulk delafossite data. Magnetization measurements on CuFeO{sub 2} films demonstrated a phase transition at T{sub C} ≈ 15 ± 1 K, which agrees with the first antiferromagnetic transition at 14 K in the bulk CuFeO{sub 2}. Low temperature magnetic phase is best described by commensurate, weak ferromagnetic spin ordering along the c-axis.

  10. Crystallization and Hardness of Melt Spun Fe73Si13B9Nb4Cu1 Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.I.Akhter; M.Iqbal; M.Siddique; M.Abmad; M.A.Haq; M.A.Shaikh; Z.Q.Hu

    2009-01-01

    An alloy having composition Fe73Si13B9Nb4Cu1 was synthesized by melt spinning to investigate the kinetics of crystallization. Techniques of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mossbauer spectroscopy were employed to characterize the phases produced due to annealing at various temperatures. High temperature DSC revealed two stage crystallization reactions. First stage, crystallization occurs at temperature around 514℃ with the production of α-Fe (bcc) and Fe3Si phases. In the second stage, Fe2B and α-Fe (Si,Nb) phases were produced. Mossbauer results revealed the formation of Fe3Si, Fe13Si3 and Fe7Si1 in the first stage and Fe3Si, Fe13Si3, Fe2B and α-Fe (Si,Nb) phases in the second stage of crystallization. An abrupt change in average internal magnetic field was observed at 500℃. The maximum hardness value was found for the sample heat-treated at 500℃.

  11. Correlation between zirconium oxide impedance and corrosion behavior of Zr-Nb-Sn-Fe-Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the correlation of Zr oxide impedance and corrosion behavior of Zr-Nb-Sn-Fe-Cu alloys, the corrosion behavior of the alloys was tested in the autoclave containing 70 ppm LiOH solution at 360 .deg. C. The characteristics of the oxide on the alloys were investigated by using the electrochemical impedance spectrosocpy (EIS) method. The corrosion resistance of the alloys was evaluated from the corrosion rate determined as a function of the concentration of Nb. The equivalent circuit of the oxide was composed on the base of the spectrum from EIS measurements on the oxide layers that had formed at pre-and post-transition regions on the curve of corrosion rate. By using the capacitance characteristics of the equivalent circuit, the thickness of impervious layer, it's electrical resistance and characteristics of space charge layer were evaluated. The corrosion characteristics of the Zr-Nb-Sn-Fe-Cu alloys were successfully explained by applying the EIS test results

  12. Thermodynamics of Fe-Cu alloys as described by a classic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fe-Cu system is of relevance to the nuclear industry because of the deleterious consequences of Cu precipitates in the mechanical properties of Fe. Several sets of classical potentials are used in molecular dynamics simulations studies of this system, in particular that proposed by Ludwig et al. [M. Ludwig, D. Farkas, D. Pedraza, S. Schmauder, Model. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 6 (1998) 19]. In this work we extract thermodynamic information from this interatomic potential. We obtain equilibrium phase diagram and find a reasonable agreement with the experimental phases in the regions of relevance to radiation damage studies. We compare the results with the predicted phase diagram based on other potential, as calculated in previous work. We discuss the disagreements found between the phase diagram calculated here and experimental results, focusing on the pure components and discuss the applicability of these potentials. Improved potentials, primarily for the pure components, should be developed to account for proper phase stability in the solid phase up to melting. Finally we suggest an approach to improve existing potentials for this system

  13. Impact of biogenic nanoscale metals Fe, Cu, Zn and Se on reproductive LV chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiem Nguyen, Quy; Dieu Nguyen, Duy; Kien Nguyen, Van; Thinh Nguyen, Khac; Chau Nguyen, Hoai; Tin Tran, Xuan; Nguyen, Huu Cuong; Tien Phung, Duc

    2015-09-01

    Using biogenic nanoscale metals (Fe, Cu, ZnO, Se) to supplement into diet premix of reproductive LV (a Vietnamese Luong Phuong chicken breed) chickens resulted in certain improvement of poultry farming. The experimental data obtained showed that the farming indices depend mainly on the quantity of nanocrystalline metals which replaced the inorganic mineral component in the feed premix. All four experimental groups with different quantities of the replacement nano component grew and developed normally with livability reaching 91 to 94%, hen’s bodyweight at 38 weeks of age and egg weight ranged from 2.53-2.60 kg/hen and 50.86-51.55 g/egg, respectively. All these farming indices together with laying rate, egg productivity and chick hatchability peaked at group 5 with 25% of nanoscale metals compared to the standard inorganic mineral supplement, while feed consumption was lowest. The results also confirmed that nanocrystalline metals Fe, Cu, ZnO and Se supplemented to chicken feed were able to decrease inorganic minerals in the diet premixes at least four times, allowing animals to more effectively absorb feed minerals, consequently decreasing environmental pollution risks.

  14. Radical loss in the atmosphere from Cu-Fe redox coupling in aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J.; Fan, S.; Jacob, D. J.; Travis, K. R.

    2013-01-01

    The hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) is a major precursor of OH and tropospheric ozone. OH is the main atmospheric oxidant, while tropospheric ozone is an important surface pollutant and greenhouse gas. Standard gas-phase models for atmospheric chemistry tend to overestimate observed HO2 concentrations, and this has been tentatively attributed to heterogeneous uptake by aerosol particles. It is generally assumed that HO2 uptake by aerosol involves conversion to H2O2, but this is of limited efficacy as an HO2 sink because H2O2 can photolyze to regenerate OH and from there HO2. Joint atmospheric observations of HO2 and H2O2 suggest that HO2 uptake by aerosols may in fact not produce H2O2. Here we propose a catalytic mechanism involving coupling of the transition metal ions Cu(I)/Cu(II) and Fe(II)/Fe(III) to rapidly convert HO2 to H2O in aqueous aerosols. The implied HO2 uptake and conversion to H2O significantly affects global model predictions of tropospheric OH, ozone, carbon monoxide (CO) and other species, improving comparisons to observations in the GEOS-Chem model. It represents a previously unrecognized positive radiative forcing of aerosols through the effects on the chemical budgets of major greenhouse gases including methane and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).

  15. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Studies of Surface Structures of Icosahedral Al-Cu-Fe Quasicrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanhong Cai

    2002-12-31

    Three papers are included in this dissertation. The first paper: ''Structural aspects of the fivefold quasicrystalline Al-Cu-Fe surface from STM and dynamical LEED studies'', is in press with ''Surface Science''. The second paper: ''An STM study of the atomic structure of the icosahedral Al-Cu-Fe fivefold surface'' is submitted to ''Physical Review B, Rapid Communication''. The third paper: ''Pseudomorphic starfish: arrangement of extrinsic metal atoms on a quasicrystalline substrate'' is submitted to ''Nature''. Following the third paper are general conclusions and appendices that document the published paper ''Structural aspects of the three-fold surface of icosahedral Al-Pd-Mn'' (appearing in volume 461, issue 1-3 of ''Surface Science'' on page L521-L527, 2000), the design as well as the specifications of the aluminum evaporator used in the aluminum deposition study in this dissertation, an extended discussion of the aluminum deposition on the quasicrystalline surface, and the STM database.

  16. Radical loss in the atmosphere from Cu-Fe redox coupling in aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The hydroperoxyl radical (HO2 is a major precursor of OH and tropospheric ozone. OH is the main atmospheric oxidant, while tropospheric ozone is an important surface pollutant and greenhouse gas. Standard gas-phase models for atmospheric chemistry tend to overestimate observed HO2 concentrations, and this has been tentatively attributed to heterogeneous uptake by aerosol particles. It is generally assumed that HO2 uptake by aerosol involve conversion to H2O2, but this is of limited efficacy as an HO2 sink because H2O2 can photolyze to regenerate OH and from there HO2. Joint atmospheric observations of HO2 and H2O2 suggest that HO2 uptake by aerosols may in fact not produce H2O2. Here we propose a catalytic mechanism involving coupling of the transition metal ions (TMI Cu(I/Cu(II and Fe(II/Fe(III to rapidly convert HO2 to H2O in aerosols. The implied HO2 uptake significantly affects global model predictions of tropospheric OH, ozone, and other species, improving comparisons to observations, and may have a major and previously unrecognized impact on atmospheric oxidant chemistry.

  17. REE and Trace Element Geochemistry of Yinachang Fe-Cu-REE Deposit, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨耀民; 涂光炽; 胡瑞忠

    2004-01-01

    REE and other trace elements in ores, wall rocks, alkaline volcanic rocks and diabase dikes have been determined in the Yinachang Fe-Cu-REE deposit. Comparative studies of REE and trace element geochemical characteristics of these geological bodies indicate that the ores and alkaline volcanic rocks contain abundant REE and Y (65.9-4633)×10-6, with higher abundances of As, Mo, Nb, Co and U than those of the crust. Their chondrite-normalized patterns show a strong enrichment of LREE and a positive Eu anomaly, in contrast to those of the dolomites which are characterized by slight LREE enrichment and moderate negative Eu anomaly. The REE patterns of ores are similar to those of hydrothermal sediment cores in the East Pacific Rise, whereas the REE patterns of dolomites are similar to those of PAAS (Post-Archean Average Shale). In combination with the geological setting of the deposit, the primary ore-forming fluids might have higher REE and volatile elements, and might have been derived from mantle degassing, or the alkaline volcanic magmas. The Yinachang Fe-Cu-REE ore deposit is considered to be of volcanic exhalation-hydrothermal sedimentary origin.

  18. Ne, Ar, Fe, and Cu Auger-electron production at National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energetic K and L Auger electrons produced by focussed, filtered, broad-band synchrotron radiation have been measured at the x-ray ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The x-ray beam was used to study inner-shell photoionization of Ne and Ar gas and Fe and Cu solid film targets. The Auger electrons were analyzed by means of a semi-hemispherical electrostatic electron spectrometer at the energy resolution of ∼ 3 %. The electrons were detected at both 90 degree and 0 degree with respect to the photon beam direction. Broad distributions of the inner-shell photoelectrons were also observed, reflecting the incoming photon flux distribution. The Fe and Cu K Auger electron spectra were found to be very similar to the Ar K Auger electron spectra. This was expected, since deep inner-shell Auger processes are not affected by the outer valence electrons. Above 3 keV in electron energy, there have been few previous Auger electron measurements. 2 figs., 13 refs

  19. DETERMINATION OF Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn AND FREE FATTY ACIDS IN PEQUI OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida M. S. Mimura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb., a typical fruit of the Brazilian Cerrado, is an important source of micronutrients and fatty acids. In this work, a new approach for the acid digestion (using H2SO4, HNO3 and H2O2 of pequi oil samples and the determination of Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F AAS was employed. Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE was used for free fatty acid (FFA determination after simple and fast extraction with heated ethanol. Good results regarding precision (RSD < 10%, in most cases, sensitivity and adequate LOD and LOQ values were obtained. The accuracy was evaluated using spike tests and the recoveries were from 97 to 107%. The analytes were investigated in four different pequi oil samples. Fe was the trace element with the highest concentration (from 1.99 to 10.3 mg/100 g, followed by Zn, Mn and Cu (1.15 to 3.19, 0.42 to 0.91 and 0.31 to 0.56 mg/100 g, respectively. The main FFA found were oleic acid and palmitic acid (1.61 to 10.7 and 0.82 to 2.69 g/100 g, respectively, while linoleic acid (0.50 g/100 g was detected in only one sample. The pequi oil chemical composition showed good characteristics to be used as a food additive, in cosmetic formulations and for traditional medicine.

  20. Specific heat and related thermophysical properties of liquid Fe-Cu-Mo alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HaiPeng; LUO BingChi; CHANG Jian; WEI BingBo

    2007-01-01

    The specific heat and related thermophysical properties of liquid Fe77.5Cu13Mo9.5 monotectic alloy were investigated by an electromagnetic levitation drop calorimeter over a wide temperature range from 1482 to 1818 K. A maximum undercooling of 221 K (0.13 Tm) was achieved and the specific heat was determined as 44.71 J·mol-1·K-1. The excess specific heat, enthalpy change, entropy change and Gibbs free energy difference of this alloy were calculated on the basis of experimental results. It was found that the calculated results by traditional estimating methods can only describe the solidification process under low undercooling conditions. Only the experimental results can reflect the reality under high undercooling conditions. Meanwhile, the thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity, and sound speed were derived from the present experimental results. Furthermore, the solidified microstructural morphology was examined, which consists of (Fe) and (Cu) phases. The calculated interface energy was applied to exploring the correlation between competitive nucleation and solidification microstructure within monotectic alloy.

  1. Specific heat and related thermophysical properties of liquid Fe-Cu-Mo alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The specific heat and related thermophysical properties of liquid Fe77.5Cu13Mo9.5 monotectic alloy were investigated by an electromagnetic levitation drop calo-rimeter over a wide temperature range from 1482 to 1818 K.A maximum under-cooling of 221 K(0.13 Tm)was achieved and the specific heat was determined as 44.71 J·mol1·K1.The excess specific heat,enthalpy change,entropy change and Gibbs free energy difference of this alloy were calculated on the basis of experimental results.It was found that the calculated results by traditional esti-mating methods can only describe the solidification process under low under-cooling conditions.Only the experimental results can reflect the reality under high undercooling conditions.Meanwhile,the thermal diffusivity,thermal conductivity,and sound speed were derived from the present experimental results.Furthermore,the solidified microstructural morphology was examined,which consists of(Fe)and(Cu)phases.The calculated interface energy was applied to exploring the correlation between competitive nucleation and solidification microstructure within monotectic alloy.

  2. Icosahedral Phase Formation In Al-Cu-Fe-Tm (Tm=Si, Mg, B) Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discovery of quasicrystals is considered to be one of the most significant discoveries in material science in last over fifteen years. To date, both stable and metastable quasicrystalline phases investigated in a great number of binary, ternary and multicomponent metallic systems. In the present investigation, the effect of forth element (TM=Si, Mg, B) on the formation of quasicrystal structure in mechanically alloyed Al65Cu20Fe10TM5 alloys was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). It was found that icosahedral quasicrystalline phase (i-phase) was formed directly by mechanical alloying of crystalline elemental powders. The present investigation showed that the i-phase was unstable with long time milling and transformed into crystalline β-Al(Cu,Fe) solid solution phase (β-phase). DTA traces obtained from the powders during heating, up to 1200 degree, showed an exothermic peak around 840 degree and an endothermic peak around 1000 degree. The exothermic peak corresponded to the formation of i-phase and the endothermic effect corresponded to melting of the alloys. The results of the present investigation are discussed in light of the current understanding of the phase stability in complex systems.

  3. Research on magnetic performance of Nd13Fe80.1-xTixB6.5Zr0.1Cu0.3 permanent magnetic alloy%Nd13Fe80.1-xTixB6.5Zr0.1Cu0.3永磁合金磁性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤俊华; 连法增; 赵康军; 王继杰; 裴文利; 李庆达

    2008-01-01

    HDDR(氢化-歧化-脱氢-再结合)工艺是制备各向异性Nd2Fe14B基磁粉的有效方法.主要研究了改进的d-HDDR工艺及添加合金元素Ti对Nd13Fe80.1-xTixB6.5Zr0.1Cu0.3(x=0、1.0、2.0)合金磁性能的影响规律.结果表明,d-HDDR工艺中吸氢氢压和歧化时间是促使材料产生磁各向异性的#合金经d-HDDR工艺处理,其最佳磁性能为:Br=1.39T;iHc=1006kA/m;(BH)max=169.66kJ/m3;DOA=0.797.关键;合金元素Ti使NdFeB合金矫顽力显著提高,其作用主要体现在两方面:一方面是在晶界间形成低熔物,抑制晶粒长大、细化晶粒,改善富Nd相的组织结构,使富Nd相沿边界更加均匀地分布;另外,Ti元素使Nd2Fe14B晶界平直而清晰,主相晶粒表面各向异性提高,反磁化畴难以形核,从而使矫顽力提高,其最佳添加量为1.0%(原子分数).成分为Nd13Fe79.1Ti1.0B6.5Zr0.1Cu0.3 的2#合金经d-HDDR工艺处理,其最佳磁性能为:"Br=1.39T;iHc=1006kA/m;(BH)max=169.66kJ/m3;DOA=0.797.

  4. Preparation and neutron diffraction study of polycrystalline Cu-Zn-Fe materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycrystalline oxides Cu1-xZnxFe2O4 (0.0≤x≤0.05) have been successfully prepared by a simple combustion method using citrate-nitrate precursors. The nature of structural transition in inverse spinels and ferrimagnetic behavior of the materials have been investigated by the neutron diffraction technique. At room temperature neutron diffraction study confirms the presence of a single-phase structure, where tetragonal unit cell with c/a>1 is observed. In these distorted spinel ferrites it is found that tetragonal → cubic transformation is attributed to the decrease of the concentration of Jahn-Teller ions Cu2+ (d9) in the host structure at the octahedral sites as a result of zinc substitution. The introduction of non-magnetic ion in place of Cu2+ in the spinel unit cell results in the reduction of intersublattice contributions, this in turn decreases temperature of the magnetic ordering (Curie point) in these diluted ferrimagnets.

  5. POTENSI DAN KANDUNGAN LOGAM BERAT TEMBAGA (Cu) dan BESI (Fe) pada KERANG  DARAH (Anadara granosa) di KABUPATEN NUNUKAN

    OpenAIRE

    Heppi Iromo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this Research is to investigate heavy metal content in meet darah shell (Anadara granosa). Method to collecting of primary data is method survey with direct interview technique and analysed in laboratory. It were analysed heavy metal such as; Fe, and Cu, by used AAS. The result test laboratory for darah shell (Anadara granosa) with AAS is it can consumed because it have not contain dangerous heavy metal like  Cu but it detected contain little heavy metal Fe.

  6. Elastic properties of fcc Fe-Mn-X (X=Cr, Co, Ni, Cu) alloys from first-principles calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Reeh, S; Music, D; Ekholm, Marcus; Abrikosov, Igor; Schneider, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of the valence electron concentration of X in fcc Fe-Mn-X (X=Cr, Co, Ni, Cu) alloys on the elastic and magnetic properties has been studied by means of ab initio calculations for alloy element concentrations of up to 8 at. % X. We observe that Cu increases the bulk-to-shear modulus (B/G) ratio by 19.2%. Simultaneously magnetic moments of Fe and Mn increase strongly. The other alloying elements induce less significant changes in B/G. The trends in B/G may be understood by conside...

  7. Catalytic Synthesis of α-Aminonitriles Using Nano Copper Ferrite CuFe2O4 under Green Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Gharib; Nader Noroozi Pesyan; Leila Vojdani Fard; Mina Roshani

    2014-01-01

    Copper ferrite nanomaterial CuFe2O4 as reusable heterogeneous initiator in the synthesis of α-aminonitriles. The nanocatalyst is easily recovered and its reusability is recorded. Synthesis of α-aminonitriles derivatives by one-pot reaction of different aldehydes with amines and trimethylsilyl cyanides has been developed using nano copper ferrite CuFe2O4 catalyst under room temperature and green solvent (water as solvent) conditions. α-aminonitriles are important in preparing a wide variety of...

  8. Heterogeneous UV/Fenton catalytic degradation of wastewater containing phenol with Fe-Cu-Mn-Y catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑展望; 雷乐成; 徐生娟; 岑沛霖

    2004-01-01

    The heterogeneous UV/Fenton process with the appropriate amount of Fe-Mn-Cu-Y as catalyst was developed and various operation conditions for the degradation of phenol were evaluated. The results indicated that by using the heterogeneous UV/Fenton process, the CODcr removal rate reached almost 100% for wastewater containing phenol. Compared with the homogeneous process, the developed catalyst could be used at wider pH range in the UV/Fenton process. Comparison of various heterogeneous process showed that heterogeneous UV/Fenton process was best. The heterogeneous UV/Fenton process with Fe-Mn-Cu-Y catalyst is highly efficient in degrading various organic pollutants.

  9. Identical spin fluctuations in Cu- and Co-doped BaFe2As2 independent of electron doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafe, H.-J.; Gräfe, U.; Dioguardi, A. P.; Curro, N. J.; Aswartham, S.; Wurmehl, S.; Büchner, B.

    2014-09-01

    We present As75 nuclear magnetic resonance measurements on single crystals of BaFe2As2, BaFe1.8Co0.2As2, and BaFe1.82Cu0.18As2. While only Co doping induces bulk superconductivity on a broad doping range, the spin fluctuations probed by the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate (T1T )-1 are identical for both dopings down to Tc. Below this temperature, (T1T)-1 of the Cu-doped sample continues to rise, proving that (a) there is a quantum critical point below the superconducting dome, and (b) adding electrons does not affect the spin fluctuations. Consequently, we analyze the Knight shift data in terms of a two-component scenario, with one hyperfine coupling to an itinerant degree of freedom and the other to Fe moments.

  10. Effect of chelated mineral supplementation on the absorption of Cu, Fe, K, Mn and Zn in horse hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The supplement effect of Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn and Zn chelated with glycine on the absorption of these elements by animals was evaluated. The evaluation was carried out by comparing the mineral concentrations found in hair of the animals before and after 47 days of supplementation with a combination of glycine-mineral chelates. Five horses known to be clinically well were used for this study. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to the determination of Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn and Zn concentrations in the horse hair samples. It was observed that the supplementation helps the Fe, K and Zn absorption by the animal organism. The data obtained suggest that the hair is a suitable material to investigate Fe, K and Zn in mineral metabolism in the animal organism. (author)

  11. Effect of substitutions on 3d magnetism in Gd2Fe14-xMxC compounds, with M=Ni, Si, Cu or V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of magnetic measurements and 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy performed on Gd2Fe14-xMxC compounds, with M=Ni, Si, Cu or V are presented. As M is substituted for Fe, the six crystallographically inequivalent iron sites split into seven inequivalent sites for M=Si, Cu, V, or eight for M=Ni. The analysis of the hyperfine fields and relative intensities supports a preferential distribution of the substitutional elements on the Fe lattice sites. The effects of the substitutional elements on Curie temperatures and anisotropy fields as well as on Fe hyperfine parameters are discussed on the grounds of the preferential Fe site occupancy. (orig.)

  12. An insight into the metal coordination and spectroscopic properties of artistic Fe and Fe/Cu logwood inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronzato, Maddalena; Zoleo, Alfonso; Biondi, Barbara; Centeno, Silvia A.

    2016-01-01

    Fe- and Fe/Cu-based logwood inks were synthesized following recipes in nineteenth and early twentieth century manuals and were characterized by EPR, ESI-MS, FTIR, and Raman spectroscopies. This multi-technique approach allowed us to shed light on the structures of the complexes responsible for the inks' colors and to obtain vibrational signatures that can be used to identify the different inks in works of art and in historic documents. Information on the nature and chemical properties of the complexes formed between a dye and a mordant is important as these determine, at least in part, their lightfastness. EPR permitted to determine the coordination environment of the metallic ions. The results of the ESI-MS analysis demonstrated, for the first time, the breakdown of the hematein molecule during the ink preparation, and that the colorants are formed by the complexation of the metallic ions by hematein breakdown products, mainly catechol and/or bicyclic compounds. The FTIR spectra obtained were found to be dominated by bands due to the binding medium and sulfates used as reagents. The Raman analysis showed that the characteristic features for the different inks studied depend on the historic recipe used, attesting to the challenges that their identification and characterization in works of art present. In the Raman spectra of the inks applied on paper, broadening of bands in the 750-400 cm- 1 range are observed when compared to the spectra of the inks' powders, possibly due to the interaction of the compounds with the cellulose in the substrate.

  13. An insight into the metal coordination and spectroscopic properties of artistic Fe and Fe/Cu logwood inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronzato, Maddalena; Zoleo, Alfonso; Biondi, Barbara; Centeno, Silvia A

    2016-01-15

    Fe- and Fe/Cu-based logwood inks were synthesized following recipes in nineteenth and early twentieth century manuals and were characterized by EPR, ESI-MS, FTIR, and Raman spectroscopies. This multi-technique approach allowed us to shed light on the structures of the complexes responsible for the inks' colors and to obtain vibrational signatures that can be used to identify the different inks in works of art and in historic documents. Information on the nature and chemical properties of the complexes formed between a dye and a mordant is important as these determine, at least in part, their lightfastness. EPR permitted to determine the coordination environment of the metallic ions. The results of the ESI-MS analysis demonstrated, for the first time, the breakdown of the hematein molecule during the ink preparation, and that the colorants are formed by the complexation of the metallic ions by hematein breakdown products, mainly catechol and/or bicyclic compounds. The FTIR spectra obtained were found to be dominated by bands due to the binding medium and sulfates used as reagents. The Raman analysis showed that the characteristic features for the different inks studied depend on the historic recipe used, attesting to the challenges that their identification and characterization in works of art present. In the Raman spectra of the inks applied on paper, broadening of bands in the 750-400 cm(-1) range are observed when compared to the spectra of the inks' powders, possibly due to the interaction of the compounds with the cellulose in the substrate. PMID:26414555

  14. AFM and Moessbauer spectrometry investigation of crystallization process in Fe-Mo-Cu-B alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation, the effect of temperature annealing on the development of surface nano-crystallization of the Fe79Mo8Cu1B12 alloy is investigated. The surface morphology is examined using tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results are compared with those obtained by means of transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy, CEMS and XRD. It was found that the sample is not fully amorphous even in the as-quenched state. Minor amounts of bcc-Fe grains were detected. AFM results indicate large variations in morphology of density and size of surface protrusions. They are different at the top- (air side) and bottom-(wheel) side of the ribbon. The amount and size of nanocrystals increases with annealing temperature. The onset of the first crystallization is observed after annealing at 410 grad C when bcc-Fe nanograins (ca. 15 nm in size) are much better developed. More intense growth is evidenced at higher temperatures. The second crystallization which is characterized by occurrence of additional crystalline phases appears after annealing at 650 grad C. (authors)

  15. Magnetic studies of CuFe2O4 nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subha, A.; Shalini, M. Govindaraj; Sahoo, Subasa C.

    2016-05-01

    Cu-ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation method and were annealed at different temperatures ranging from 400 to l000°C in air for 4 hours. The as-prepared sample and the sample annealed at 400°C showed small peaks of cubic Cu-ferrite in X-ray diffraction studies. For the intermediate temperature 600°C, some additional peaks of α-Fe2O3 were observed. As the annealing temperature increased further only tetragonal Cu-ferrite peaks were observed. In all the samples some traces of CuO was noted. Grain size was increased from 2lnm for the as prepared sample to 42nm for the sample annealed at l000°C. Spontaneous magnetization value was found to be very small for the as prepared sample and it was increased monotonically with the increase in annealing temperature. Maximum magnetization of 29.7emu/g was observed at 300K for the sample annealed at l000°C. The remanent magnetization was increased with the increase in annealing temperature up to 900°C and then decreased whereas for the coercivity a peak was observed for the sample annealed at 800°C. The highest coercivity of l402 Oe was observed at 300K for the sample annealed at 800°C. As the measurement temperature decreased from 300K to 60K, magnetization and coercivity values were increased. The observed magnetic behaviour may be understood on the basis of phase transformation, grain growth with the increase in annealing temperature and reduced thermal energy at low measurement temperature.

  16. Synthesis of Cu-Fe3O4@graphene composite: A magnetically separable and efficient catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The Cu-Fe3O4@GE composite was prepared by one-step solvent–thermal method. • The Cu-Fe3O4@GE composite exhibited the highest catalytic activity with excellent stability. • The Cu-Fe3O4@GE composite was magnetically separable. - Abstract: In this work, the Cu-Fe3O4@GE composite was prepared easily by a one-step solvent–thermal method, which achieved the formation of Cu nanoparticles (Cu NPs), Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) and reduction of GO simultaneously. The morphology and structure of the composite was fully characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The time-dependent adsorption spectra of the reaction mixture was measured by UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that the Cu NPs and Fe3O4 NPs were densely and evenly deposited on the graphene (GE) sheets. It was found that the Cu-Fe3O4@GE composite exhibited high catalytic activities on the reduction of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol. Furthermore, the composite catalyst can be easily recovered due to its magnetic separability and high stability

  17. The metal-rich portions of the phase system Cu-Fe-Pd-S at 100°c, 900°c and 725°c

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup-Møller, Sven; Makovicky, Emil; Barnes, Sarah-Jane

    2008-01-01

    The sulphur-poor portions of the dry condensed Cu-Fe-Pd-S system were studied at 1000°C, 900°C and 725°C by synthesis in evacuated silicate glass tubes, along with textural observations and electron microprobe analyses of equilibrated reaction products. Sulphide melt coexists with Cu-Fe-Pd alloys...

  18. Synthesis of Cu-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@graphene composite: A magnetically separable and efficient catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ran [Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu Province 213164 (China); Bi, Huiping, E-mail: hpbi@njust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); He, Guangyu [Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu Province 213164 (China); Zhu, Junwu [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Chen, Haiqun, E-mail: hqchenyf@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu Province 213164 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • The Cu-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GE composite was prepared by one-step solvent–thermal method. • The Cu-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GE composite exhibited the highest catalytic activity with excellent stability. • The Cu-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GE composite was magnetically separable. - Abstract: In this work, the Cu-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GE composite was prepared easily by a one-step solvent–thermal method, which achieved the formation of Cu nanoparticles (Cu NPs), Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs) and reduction of GO simultaneously. The morphology and structure of the composite was fully characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The time-dependent adsorption spectra of the reaction mixture was measured by UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that the Cu NPs and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs were densely and evenly deposited on the graphene (GE) sheets. It was found that the Cu-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GE composite exhibited high catalytic activities on the reduction of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol. Furthermore, the composite catalyst can be easily recovered due to its magnetic separability and high stability.

  19. Microstructural study of nanocrystalline Fe-(Cu-Nb)-Si-B ribbons obtained by a nitriding thermochemical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystallization process of amorphous Fe74Si14B12, Fe73.5Cu1Si13.5B12, Fe74Nb3Si14B9 and Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 ribbons was investigated by annealing the ribbons under vacuum at 520 deg. C for 6 h. Only Nb containing samples show a nanocrystalline state consisting of α-Fe(Si) nanograins embedded in a remaining amorphous phase. The amorphous ribbons were then submitted to a nitriding thermochemical treatment at 520 deg. C for 6 and 18 h under ammonia. It is observed that crystallization occurs prior to nitrogenation. Upon nitrogenation, a reactive diffusion process of nitrogen is observed, which appears to be slower in the partially crystallized ribbons, due to the presence of a remaining amorphous phase. In the crystalline regions, the α-Fe(Si) phase is disproportionated into α-Fe and probably Si-N precipitates. Then Fe4N is formed when nitrogenation proceeds further

  20. Teores de Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni E Co em solos de referência de Pernambuco Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni and Co in benchmark soils of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Miranda Biondi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Metais pesados formam um grupo de elementos com particularidades relevantes e de ocorrência natural no ambiente, como elementos acessórios na constituição de rochas. Esses elementos, apesar de associados à toxidez, exigem tratamento diferenciado em relação aos xenobióticos, uma vez que diversos metais possuem essencialidade (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn e Ni e benefício (Co comprovados para as plantas. Nesse contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar os teores naturais dos metais Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu e Co nos solos de referência de Pernambuco. Foram coletadas amostras de solo nas três regiões fisiográficas (Zona da Mata, Agreste e Sertão, dos dois primeiros horizontes dos 35 solos de referência do Estado de Pernambuco. A digestão das amostras baseou-se no método 3051A (USEPA, 1998, e a determinação foi efetuada em ICP-OES. Correlações significativas foram estabelecidas entre os metais e entre estes e a fração argila do solo, em ambos os horizontes, indicando a associação comum da maioria dos metais com solos mais argilosos. A maioria dos solos apresentou teores de Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni e Co menores que os de solos de outras regiões do País, com litologia mais máfica, o que corrobora o fato de que os teores desses elementos são mais diretamente relacionados aos minerais Fe-magnesianos. Os resultados indicam baixo potencial dos solos de Pernambuco em liberar Cu, Co e Ni para plantas, enquanto deficiências de Zn, Fe e Mn são menos prováveis. Os teores naturais de Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni e Co determinados podem ser utilizados como base para definição dos Valores de Referência de Qualidade para os solos de Pernambuco, de acordo com o preconizado pela legislação nacional.Heavy metals are a group of elements with specific features and natural occurrence in the environment, representing an accessory in the formation of rocks. These elements, although associated with toxicity, must be treated different from xenobiotics, since many

  1. Characterization of products emanating from conventional and microwave energy roasting of chalcopyrite (CuFeS{sub 2}) concentrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulaba-Bafubiandi, Antoine F., E-mail: Mulaba@twr.ac.za [University of Johannesburg, Extraction Metallurgy Department, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment (South Africa)

    2006-02-15

    Chalcopyrite concentrate (83% CuFeS{sub 2}, 3% FeS{sub 2} and 14% ZnS) which is a typical feed to the matte smelting process for copper extraction via pyro metallurgical route has been roasted with microwaves. Comparison of mineralogical phases obtained was made with the case of conventional roasting. Resulting calcines were characterised with Moessbauer spectroscopy and XRD. It was observed that complete oxidation (dead roasting) of the chalcopyrite was achieved after 10 min with microwaves while 20 min were required in the conventional route. The mineralogical phases found in the dead-roasted calcines produced from microwave roasting of this chalcopyrite concentrate were the hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), franklinite (ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}), copper-rich ferrite (Cu{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, x {<=} 0.5), and copper ferrite (CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}). The findings of this work indicated that it was technologically feasible to oxidize the chalcopyrite with microwaves using a 2.45 GHz multimode applicator.

  2. Characterization of products emanating from conventional and microwave energy roasting of chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalcopyrite concentrate (83% CuFeS2, 3% FeS2 and 14% ZnS) which is a typical feed to the matte smelting process for copper extraction via pyro metallurgical route has been roasted with microwaves. Comparison of mineralogical phases obtained was made with the case of conventional roasting. Resulting calcines were characterised with Moessbauer spectroscopy and XRD. It was observed that complete oxidation (dead roasting) of the chalcopyrite was achieved after 10 min with microwaves while 20 min were required in the conventional route. The mineralogical phases found in the dead-roasted calcines produced from microwave roasting of this chalcopyrite concentrate were the hematite (Fe2O3), franklinite (ZnFe2O4), copper-rich ferrite (Cu1-xZnxFe2O4, x ≤ 0.5), and copper ferrite (CuFe2O4). The findings of this work indicated that it was technologically feasible to oxidize the chalcopyrite with microwaves using a 2.45 GHz multimode applicator.

  3. Suppression of spin pumping between Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} and Cu by a graphene interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gannett, Will; Keller, Mark W., E-mail: mark.keller@nist.gov; Nembach, Hans T.; Silva, Thomas J.; Chiaramonti, Ann N. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

    2015-06-07

    We compare ferromagnetic resonance measurements of Permalloy Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} (Py) films sputtered onto Cu(111) films with and without a graphene (Gr) interlayer grown by chemical vapor deposition before Py deposition. A two-angle sputtering method ensured that neither Gr nor Py was degraded by the sample preparation process. We find the expected damping enhancement from spin pumping for the Py/Cu case and no detectable enhancement for the Py/Gr/Cu case. Since damping is sensitive to effects other than spin pumping, we used magnetometry to verify that differences in Py magnetostatic properties are not responsible for the difference in damping. We attribute the suppression of spin pumping in Py/Gr/Cu to the large contact resistance of the Gr/Cu interface.

  4. Thermo-Exfoliated Graphite Containing CuO/Cu2(OH3NO3:(Co2+/Fe3+ Composites: Preparation, Characterization and Catalytic Performance in CO Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladyslav V. Lisnyak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermo-exfoliated graphite (TEG/CuO/Cu2(OH3NO3:(Co2+/Fe3+ composites were prepared using a wet impregnation method and subsequent thermal treatment. The physicochemical characterization of the composites was carried out by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Ar temperature-desorption techniques. The catalytic efficiency toward CO conversion to CO2 was examined under atmospheric pressure. Characterization of species adsorbed over the composites taken after the activity tests were performed by means of temperature programmed desorption massspectrometry (TPD MS. (TEG/CuO/Cu2(OH3NO3:(Co2+/Fe3+ composites show superior performance results if lower temperatures and extra treatment with H2SO4 or HNO3 are used at the preparation stages. The catalytic properties enhancements can be related to the Cu2(OH3NO3 phase providing reaction centers for the CO conversion. It has been found that prevalence of low-temperature states of desorbed CO2 over high-temperature ones in the TPD MS spectra is characteristic of the most active composite catalysts.

  5. 磷含量对Cu-Fe-P合金组织与性能的影响%Effect of P content on microstructure and property of Cu-Fe-P alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董琦祎; 汪明朴; 贾延琳; 陈畅; 夏承东

    2013-01-01

    Microstructure of cold roiled and aged Cu-2.3Fe-0.6P-0.2Zn alloy were observed by OM and SEM,and compared with that of Cu-2.3Fe-0.05P-0.2Zn(C194) alloy.The hardness and relative electrical conductivity of the alloys were measured.The results show that Fe2P phase is the main form of P in the as-cast alloy,a part of Fe2P is solid-solutioned in matrix,and the rest up to 10μm are dispersed in the alloy,which can not be eliminated by subsequent heat treatment.The performance of rolled Cu-2.3Fe-0.6P-0.2Zn alloy is better than the C194 alloy,but its conductivity improvement rate is slower than C194 alloy during aging,due to the low concentration of solute atoms and low driving force of precipitation.The micron Fe2P particles will stimulate recrystallization,and worsen the heat resistance of Cu-2.3Fe-0.6P-0.2Zn alloy.Consequently,the P content of C194 alloy should be controlled.%通过显微硬度及相对电导率测试、光学显微镜和扫描电镜观察,研究了Cu-2.3Fe-0.05P-0.2Zn (C194)合金与Cu-2.3Fe-0.6P-0.2Zn合金冷轧态与时效态的组织与性能.结果表明:添加0.6%P元素,铜合金内部形成大量Fe2P相,一部分固溶到基体,一部分以颗粒形式弥散存在于合金内,尺寸可达10μm,后续热处理难以消除;Cu-2.3 Fe-0.6P-0.2Zn合金的初始加工态性能优于C194合金,但基体中Fe溶质原子的浓度低,电导率上升速率变低;微米级Fe2P颗粒会激发再结晶,再结晶软化作用使得Cu-2.3Fe-0.6P-0.2Zn合金耐热性能低于C194合金.对于C194合金,P不宜过量.

  6. Magnetic properties and EXAFS study of nanocrystalline Fe2Mn0.5Cu0.5Al synthesized using mechanical alloying technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanocrystalline Fe2Mn0.5Cu0.5Al has been synthesized by the mechanical alloying technique and studied as a function of milling time. Alloy nature of Fe2Mn0.5Cu0.5Al was observed in a sample milled for 96 h. The magnetic saturation is 4.0 μB/f.u., which coincidently follows Slater–Pauling rule at 5 K. Nanocrystalline Fe2Mn0.5Cu0.5Al has enhanced saturate magnetization compared to any other fabrication of Fe2MnAl reported. Cu element plays an important role in site competes with other elements and may result in the enhancement of saturate magnetization. In accordance to the magnetic results and EXAFS pattern, it was revealed that the dynamics of magnetic properties were confirmed as structural changes of nanocrystalline Fe2Mn0.5Cu0.5Al

  7. High-sensitivity planar Hall sensor based on simple gaint magneto resistance NiFe/Cu/NiFe structure for biochip application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The planar Hall effect (PHE) sensor based on a simple giant magneto resistance (GMR) trilayer structure NiFe/Cu/NiFe has been designed and fabricated successfully using conventional clean room fabrication methods. The PHE sensor is integrated by 24 sensor patterns with dimensions of 50 × 50 μm. Influence of individual layer thickness to sensitivity of sensor has been investigated. Sensitivity and planar Hall voltage increases with the decrease of Cu-layer thickness. The results are discussed in terms of the reinforcement of the antiferromagnetic interaction between NiFe layers and shunting current through the layer Cu. The optimum configuration has been found in the structure with the Cu-layer of 1 nm. In this case a single planar Hall effect sensor exhibits a high sensitivity of about 8 μV Oe−1 and a maximal of the signal change as large as ▵V ∼ 55 μV. These values are comparable to those of the typical PHE sensor based on complex GMR spin-valve structure. With a high sensitivity and simple structure, this sensor is very promising for practical detection of magnetic beads and identifying multiple biological agents in the environment. (paper)

  8. Fe Moessbauer effect in Y sub x Pr sub 1 minus x Ba sub 2 (Cu sub 0. 98 Fe sub 0. 02 ) sub 3 O sub 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, M. (US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D. C. 20375 (USA)); Swartzendruber, L.J.; Bennett, L.H.; Ritter, J.J. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (USA)); Atzmony, U. (Nuclear Research Center-Negev, Beersheva (Israel))

    1990-05-01

    {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer effect and magnetic-susceptibility measurements were performed on Y{sub 0.2}Pr{sub 0.8}Ba{sub 2}(Cu{sub 0.98}Fe{sub 0.02}){sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} and Y{sub 0.8}Pr{sub 0.2}Ba{sub 2}(Cu{sub 0.98}Fe{sub 0.02}){sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}}, where {delta}{approx}0. The insulating 80% Pr compound showed susceptibility anomalies and a large hyperfine field distribution at low temperatures in addition to a hyperfine field spectrum for Fe on the Cu(2) sites. The superconducting 20% Pr compound displayed none of these effects at any temperature. After examining the alternatives, it is postulated that magnetic ordering of the Pr ions and an enhanced rare-earth transition-metal interaction due to {ital f}-electron admixture is responsible for these observations.

  9. Monitoring of Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn in wastewater during treatment in a horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiner, Michaela; Rezić, Tonci; Santek, Bozidar

    2010-02-01

    The most appropriate systems for treatment of metal-contaminated waters are bioreactors with microbial biofilms. A horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB) was studied for its applicability for removing copper, iron, nickel, and zinc (Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn) from wastewater. Monitoring of the concentrations of Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn by a fast, simple, onsite method was needed to make decisions for further optimization. The UV-VIS spectrophotometric quantification of Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn using sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, 1,10-phenathroline, dimethylglyoxime, and 2-{[alpha-(2-Hydroxy-5-sulfophenylazo)-benzylidene]-hydrazino}-benzoic acid monosodium salt (=zincon monosodium salt) as reagents, respectively, was optimized and validated. The limits of quantification were 0.14, 0.12, 0.21, and 0.03 mg/L for Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn, respectively. The recovery for all elements was between 98 and 104%, the uncertainty of measurement was less than 6%. Depending on the reactor parameters applied, metal removals from 40 to more than 90% could be obtained. PMID:20183985

  10. Grain boundary character distribution of CuNiSi and FeNi alloys processed by severe plastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzeddine, H.; Baudin, T.; Helbert, A. L.; Brisset, F.; Larbi, F. Hadj; Tirsatine, K.; Kawasaki, M.; Bradai, D.; Langdon, T. G.

    2015-04-01

    In this work the Grain Boundary Character Distribution (GBCD) in general and the relative proportion of low-Σ CSL (Coincidence Site Lattice) grain boundaries are determined through EBSD in Cu-2.5Ni-0.6Si (wt.%) and Fe-36Ni (wt.%) alloys after processing by high-pressure torsion, equal- channel angular pressing and accumulative roll bonding.

  11. Influence of quench rates on the properties of rapidly solidified FeNbCuSiB alloy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Panda; I Chattoraj; S Basu; A Mitra

    2002-11-01

    FeNbCuSiB based materials were produced in the form of ribbons by rapid solidification techniques. The crystallization, magnetic, mechanical and corrosion behaviour were studied for the prepared materials as a function of quenching rate from liquid to the solid state. Higher quench rates produced a more amorphous structure exhibiting superior soft magnetic properties with improved corrosion resistance.

  12. The effect of grain size and phase constitution on the magnetic properties of Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorphous Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B ribbons were annealed between 525 and 700 C. Crystallization processes were studied using X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy so as to follow the effect of crystallite size, alloy composition and phase constitution on the magnetic properties. ((orig.))

  13. Príprava Cu/FeS nanočastíc mechanochemickou redukciou sulfidu medi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baláž, P.; Takacs, L.; Jiang, J.; Luxová, M.; Godočíková, E.; Bastl, Zdeněk; Briančin, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 4 (2002), s. 268-280. ISSN 0023-432X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : mechanochemical reduction * Cu/FeS nanoparticles Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.493, year: 2002

  14. Lattice rotation during severe local shear in a fully hardened Al-4%Cu-0.1%Fe single crystal alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron backscatter diffraction revealed that the shear bands developed in fully hardened Al-4%Cu-0.1%Fe single crystals are formed by dense arrays of low angle boundaries (<3 deg.), parallel to the band, originated by local lattice rotations due to slip on the conjugate system. When traversing the band, the tensile axis swings repeatedly at discrete steps

  15. PVP assisted solvothermal synthesis of uniform Cu{sub 2}FeSnS{sub 4} nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Meng; Li, Chao; Zhang, Binlei; Huang, Jian, E-mail: jianhuang@shu.edu.cn; Wang, Linjun; Shen, Yue, E-mail: yueshen@staff.shu.edu.cn

    2015-02-15

    Graphical abstract: TEM image of CFTS nanospheres synthesized with 0.2 g PVP and 40 ml EG at 180 °C for 24 h. - Highlights: • Cu{sub 2}FeSnS{sub 4} nanospheres were synthesized by solvothermal method. • PVP improved dispersibility and morphology of Cu{sub 2}FeSnS{sub 4} nanospheres greatly. • Optoelectronic properties of Cu{sub 2}FeSnS{sub 4} were enhanced after annealing process. - Abstract: Well dispersed Cu{sub 2}FeSnS{sub 4} (CFTS) nanospheres were firstly synthesized by a facile solvothermal method using ethylene glycol (EG) as the reaction medium and PVP as the surface ligand. The structural, morphological, chemical composition and optical properties of as-synthesized CFTS nanospheres were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The average particle sizes of the nanospheres were in the range of 0.4-0.6 μm. Time dependent SEM, XRD and EDS were measured to investigate the mechanism of the morphological evolution of CFTS nanospheres. The band-gap of the as-synthesized CFTS nanospheres was estimated to be about 1.33 eV from the UV-Vis absorption spectra. Photoresponses of CFTS nanospheres were confirmed by IV measurements under dark and light illumination. All these indicated their potential solar cell applications.

  16. Mossbauer studies of amorphous Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports a Mossbauer study of amorphous Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 alloy between 10 and 673 K. The Curie temperature Tc is found to be 620-+ 1 K. The temperature dependence of the reduced average hyperfine field can be explained on the basis of Handrich's model of amorphous ferromagnetism, in...

  17. EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS AL, CD, CU, FE(II), NI, AND ZN ON PB IMMOBILIZATION BY HYDROXYAPATITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of aqueous Al, Cd, Cu, Fe(II), Ni, or Zn on Pb immobilization by hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4),(OH)2) were studied. ead was removed mainly via hydroxyapatite dissolution and hydroxypyromorphite (Pb10(PO4)6(OH)2) precipitation in the presence of these metals with a Pb remo...

  18. Determination of grain shape of laser-irradiated FePdCu thin alloy films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation with the 10 ns pulsed infrared Nd:YAG laser was applied to transform FePdCu multilayers into chemically ordered L10 phase. The X-ray diffraction methods (θ/2θ scan, ψ-scan, ω-scan) were used to trace the presence of L10 phase after laser annealing with different number of pulses. The size and shape of crystallites was determined depending on their orientation with respect to film plane. The (1 1 1) oriented crystallites of constituent metals were built as coherent domains spreading through multilayers during deposition of films. Laser annealing induced the transformation of multilayers to alloy, and the ordering of (1 1 1) oriented crystallites. Simultaneously, the (0 0 2) oriented crystallites appeared confirming the transformation to L10 alloy.

  19. Regulatory Effects of Cu, Zn, and Ca on Fe Absorption: The Intricate Play between Nutrient Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Scheers

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential nutrient for almost every living organism because it is required in a number of biological processes that serve to maintain life. In humans, recycling of senescent erythrocytes provides most of the daily requirement of iron. In addition, we need to absorb another 1–2 mg Fe from the diet each day to compensate for losses due to epithelial sloughing, perspiration, and bleeding. Iron absorption in the intestine is mainly regulated on the enterocyte level by effectors in the diet and systemic regulators accessing the enterocyte through the basal lamina. Recently, a complex meshwork of interactions between several trace metals and regulatory proteins was revealed. This review focuses on advances in our understanding of Cu, Zn, and Ca in the regulation of iron absorption. Ascorbate as an important player is also considered.

  20. Temperature evolution of magnetic properties for (Cu/Co)60/Fe multilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the magnetic properties by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) techniques, (Cu/Co)60/Fe multilayer on Si(001) substrate has been prepared by conventional sputtering. Evolution of the FMR spectra with temperature, resonance field, and magnetization curve has been calculated using the Landau–Lifshitz equation of motion for magnetization with the Bloch–Bloembergen type damping term. An almost linear evolution of frequency of resonance field has been shown for x-, k- and q-band spectra. By the analysis of the resonance field–frequency relation, the effect of the internal field is refined and thus the spectroscopic g-value and internal field were calculated. The magnetostatic signal originated from the magnetostatic anisotropy energy has been determined to be opposed by the decreasing exchange and dipolar energies. - Highlights: • Multilayer is investigated in this paper. • This multilayer is observed evolution of magnetic properties with temperature. • Frequency evolution of the resonance field values is plotted

  1. Sintered Fe-Ni-Cu-Sn-C Alloys Made of Ball-Milled Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romański A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper was to perform sinterability studies of ball-milled Fe-12%Ni-6.4%Cu-1.6%Sn-0.6%C powders. A mixture of precisely weighed amounts of elemental iron, nickel and graphite, and pre-alloyed 80/20 bronze powders was ball-milled for 8, 30 and 120 hours. After cold-pressing at 400 MPa the specimens were sintered at 900oC for 30 minutes in a reducing atmosphere and subsequently tested for density and hardness as well as subjected to structural studies using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis.

  2. Magnetic Properties Of Amorphous And Nanocrystalline FeNiZrCuB Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coercive fields Hc, saturation magnetizations Js and magnetostrictions λs of the amorphous Fe86-xNixZr7Cu1B6 alloys different contents of Ni(0-86 at.%) were investigated at room temperature. Thermomagnetic analyses by means of initial AC permeability and resistivity at the amorphous and nanocrystalline states of the investigated alloys were performed up to 5500 C. It was found that additions of Ni up to x = 33 at.% cause an increase of Hc, Js, λs. Additions of Ni (x = 0 - 43) cause drastic increase of the Curie temperature from 71 deg C for x 0at.% to 373 deg C for x = 43at.% of Ni. Higher concentration of Ni causes a decrease of Hc, Js, λs and Tc. (Authors)

  3. Double negative electromagnetic properties of percolated Fe53Ni47/Cu granular composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutaoka, Takanori; Massango, Herieta; Kasagi, Teruhiro; Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Hatakeyama, Kenichi

    2016-05-01

    Electromagnetic properties of hybrid composite materials containing copper and permalloy (Fe53Ni47 alloy) particles have been investigated in the RF to microwave frequency range up to 20 GHz. Double negative permittivity and permeability spectra have been observed in the percolated state of the hybrid composite material. The negative permittivity spectra in this composite can be attributed to the low frequency plasmonic state produced by the percolated Cu and permalloy cluster chains as well as the dielectric resonance of the isolated metal clusters. The refractive index spectra which were calculated from the measured permittivity and permeability data indicated the negative refraction from 200 MHz to 1.8 GHz. The near zero or zero refractive index state can be obtained near the two zero crossing frequencies in the refractive index spectra.

  4. Intragranular flux pinning mechanism in Fe and Ni doped YBa2Cu3O7-δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intragranular pinning properties of polycrystalline YBa2(Cu1-xMx)37-gd with M = Fe,Ni and x = 0.05 are determined by magnetization measurements. The volume pinning force is interpreted in terms of flux-line shear, i.e., Fp is related to the on-set of dissipative flux-flow within weakly pinning channels in the superconductor. A quantitative analysis of the authors' data yields a channel width comparable to the flux-line spacing a0. This indicates that single rows of flux-lines seem to move once the Lorentz force exceeds the flow stress of the flux-line lattice. Experimental evidence is given that the pinning of the flux lines outside the channels cannot be caused by twin boundaries

  5. Spin-engineering in the Co75Fe25/Cu(1 1 0) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results on the growth and magnetic anisotropies of Co75Fe25 films grown on a Cu(1 1 0) single crystal. Angular dependent MOKE measurements show a thickness dependent, in-plane rotation of the easy axis of magnetisation of up to 60o from the [0 0 1] direction (towards [-1 1 0]). For a film thickness of 5 ML, just greater than that required for the onset of ferromagnetism, uniaxial anisotropy is observed with the easy axis along the [0 0 1] direction. As the film thickness increases this is seen to rotate in-plane towards the [-1 1 0] direction as the contribution from the cubic anisotropy constant grows. At a film thickness of 9 ML there is predominantly cubic anisotropy and at 10 ML the easy axis is rotated to 150o with respect to the [1 -1 0] axis, where it is stabilised.

  6. Annealing effects on the microwave linewidth broadening of FeCuNbSiB ferromagnetic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We systematically investigate the annealing effects on the microwave linewidth broadening of FeCuNbSiB ferromagnetic films with thickness of 100 nm. We correlate the non-uniform residual stress obtained from grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements with the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) linewidth due to effective field inhomogeneities measured from broadband ferromagnetic resonance absorption measurements. We also estimate the annealing temperature effect on the Gilbert and two-magnon scattering contributions to the total ferromagnetic resonance FMR linewidth. We show that the effective field inhomogeneities constitute the main contribution to the microwave linewidth, while this contribution is related to the non-uniform residual stress in the films which is reduced by thermal annealing

  7. Intragranular flux pinning mechanism in Fe and Ni doped YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wördenweber, R.; Heinemann, K.; Sastry, G. V. S.; Freyhardt, H. C.

    1989-12-01

    The intragranular pinning properties of polycrystalline YBa 2(Cu 1-xM x) 3O 7-gd with M=Fe,Ni and x=0.05 are determined by magnetization measurements. The volume pinning force is interpreted in terms of flux-line shear, i.e. F p is related to the on-set of dissipative flux-flow within weakly pinning channels in the superconductor. A quantitative analysis of our data yields a channel width comparable to the flux-line spacing a o. This indicates that single rows of flux-lines seem to move once the Lorentz force exceeds the flow stress of the flux-line lattice. Experimental evidence is given that the pinning of the flux lines outside the channels cannot be caused by twin boundaries.

  8. Domain wall pinning in FeCoCu bamboo-like nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berganza, Eider; Bran, Cristina; Jaafar, Miriam; Vázquez, Manuel; Asenjo, Agustina

    2016-01-01

    The three dimensional nature of cylindrical magnetic nanowires has opened a new way to control the domain configuration as well as the magnetization reversal process. The pinning effect of the periodic diameter modulations on the domain wall propagation in FeCoCu individual nanowires is determined by Magnetic Force Microscopy, MFM. A main bistable magnetic configuration is firstly concluded from MFM images characterized by the spin reversal between two nearly single domain states with opposite axial magnetization. Complementary micromagnetic simulations confirm a vortex mediated magnetization reversal process. A non-standard variable field MFM imaging procedure allows us to observe metastable magnetic states where the propagating domain wall is pinned at certain positions with enlarged diameter. Moreover, it is demonstrated that it is possible to control the position of the pinned domain walls by an external magnetic field. PMID:27406891

  9. Low energy Cu clusters slow deposition on a Fe (001) surface investigated by molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We study the deposition of low energy Cu clusters on Fe (001) surface by molecular dynamics. • The interaction between low energy cluster and substrate can be divided to the landing and the thermal diffusion phases. • The phenomenon of contact epitaxy of cluster occurred. • The thermal diffusion of cluster atoms was analyzed. - Abstract: The slow deposition of low energy Cu clusters on a Fe (001) surface was investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. A many-body potential based on Finnis–Sinclair model was used to describe the interactions among atoms. Three clusters comprising of 13, 55 and 147 atoms, respectively, were deposited with incident energies ranging from 0.0 to 1.0 eV/atom at various substrate temperatures (0, 300 and 800 K). The rearrangement and the diffusion of cluster can occur, only when the cluster atoms are activated and obtained enough migration energy. The interaction between low energy cluster and substrate can be divided to the landing and the thermal diffusion phases. In the former, the migration energy originates from the latent heat of binding energy for the soft deposition regime and primarily comes from the incident energy of cluster for the energetic cluster deposition regime. In the latter, the thermal vibration would result in some cluster atoms activated again at medium and high substrate temperatures. Also, the effects of incident energy, cluster size and substrate temperature on the interaction potential energy between cluster and substrate, the final deposition morphology of cluster, the spreading index and the structure parameter of cluster are analyzed

  10. Magnetic properties of a new vanadate Cu13Fe4V10O44

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new double vanadate, Cu13Fe4V10O44, obtained by standard solid-state reaction method, has been studied by magnetic susceptibility and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. Measurements of dc susceptibility in ZFC and FC modes in 2-300 K temperature range as well as magnetization in magnetic fields up to 70 kOe have revealed complex magnetic behavior and transition to the antiferromagnetic phase below 2.7 K. The value of the effective magnetic moment calculated from static magnetization measurements was significantly smaller than expected from nominal valences of iron and copper ions indicating strong antiferromagnetic correlations and interactions in clusters or chains of magnetic ions even at high temperature. Although the paramagnetic phase covers a broad temperature range (3–300 K) it differs in many aspects at low and high temperatures. Temperature dependence of EPR parameters (g-factor, linewidth, integrated intensity) obtained by fitting the experimental spectrum with Lorentzian lineshape point to the presence of antiferromagnetic dimers in the high-temperature range, strong antiferromagnetic correlations in the paramagnetic phase and critical slowing down of the spin fluctuations on approaching Neel temperature as well as the appearance of magnetically isolated iron ions in the antiferromagnetic phase. - Highlights: • Magnetization and EPR study of Cu13Fe4V10O44 has been made in 2–300 K range. • Antiferromagnetic transition at 2.7 K has been revealed. • Magnetically silent copper and iron ions were inferred. • Complex and inhomogeneous magnetic structure were detected

  11. Radical loss in the atmosphere from Cu-Fe redox coupling in aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydroperoxyl radical (HO2 is a major precursor of OH and tropospheric ozone. OH is the main atmospheric oxidant, while tropospheric ozone is an important surface pollutant and greenhouse gas. Standard gas-phase models for atmospheric chemistry tend to overestimate observed HO2 concentrations, and this has been tentatively attributed to heterogeneous uptake by aerosol particles. It is generally assumed that HO2 uptake by aerosol involves conversion to H2O2, but this is of limited efficacy as an HO2 sink because H2O2 can photolyze to regenerate OH and from there HO2. Joint atmospheric observations of HO2 and H2O2 suggest that HO2 uptake by aerosols may in fact not produce H2O2. Here we propose a catalytic mechanism involving coupling of the transition metal ions Cu(I/Cu(II and Fe(II/Fe(III to rapidly convert HO2 to H2O in aqueous aerosols. The implied HO2 uptake and conversion to H2O significantly affects global model predictions of tropospheric OH, ozone, carbon monoxide (CO and other species, improving comparisons to observations in the GEOS-Chem model. It represents a previously unrecognized positive radiative forcing of aerosols through the effects on the chemical budgets of major greenhouse gases including methane and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs.

  12. Production of coercive as-forged Pr Fe B Cu magnets using multiple hot deformation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloys of Pr Fe B Cu have been used to produce permanent magnets by hot deformation at 750 deg C under vacuum. Blocks of alloy were cut and placed in copper tubes with boron nitride coated stainless steel over the ends. It was fount that the size of the block used was critical as the tube split if the block was too large. It was also necessary to have the ends of the block parallel to avoid buckling of the sample during pressing. Permanent magnetic properties were achieved without the need for heat treatment by controlling the deformation rate during hot pressing. The best properties achieved were: maximum energy product = 176 k J m-3, remanence = 980 m T and intrinsic coercivity = 815 k Am-1, for an alloy of Pr17.5 Fe76 Cu1.5 B5 (atomic%) pressed at a rate of 1.75 x 10-2 s-1 up to 60% height reduction and then 4.7 x 10-2 s-1 up to 89%. The slower height reduction rate for the first stage of deformation seemed to give improved crystal alignment leading to an increase remanence and maximum energy product. Using a total height reduction of ∼85% it was found that the highest Pr content alloy gave the best remanence, maximum energy product and squareness, whereas the lowest Pr content gave the best intrinsic coercivity. This is believed to be due to the higher proportion of liquid phase during pressing, giving improved crystal alignment but not letting the grains crack to give a grain refinement and an increased intrinsic coercivity. (author)

  13. Magnetic properties of iron-based amorphous and nanocrystalline Fe-Zr-X-B (X: Cu, Al) alloy films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal stability and magnetic properties of thin films, of a few Fe-based amorphous and nanocrystalline alloys, have been studied. The alloys belong to the class Fe-M-B, whose representatives are Fe87Zr4CuB8, Fe87Zr7B6, and Fe87Zr7AlB5 and are of particular interest because of their wide variety of magnetic properties. The films were prepared by flash evaporation onto liquid nitrogen cooled substrates. Measurements of the Kerr effect, the Hall effect, and ferromagnetic resonance in the films were carried out as functions of the annealing temperature. It was found that the changes in the coercive field Hc, resonance linewidth ΔHpp, effective magnetization Meff, Hall parameters, and resistance were correlated with the structural changes in the studied films. (author)

  14. Synthesis of magnetic porous Fe3O4/C/Cu2O composite as an excellent photo-Fenton catalyst under neutral condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Fanfan; Li, Keyan; Song, Chunshan; Guo, Xinwen

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic porous Fe3O4/C/Cu2O composites were prepared by a simple two-step process. Porous Fe3O4/C was synthesized via calcining iron tartrate precursor and then Cu2O was composited with Fe3O4/C by a precipitation-reduction method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) elemental mapping. Results show that Fe3O4/C has porous nanorod structure, which is composed of numerous small nanoparticles of about 50nm. Fe3O4 and carbon are uniformly distributed in the Fe3O4/C/Cu2O composite and Cu2O is dispersed on the surface of Fe3O4/C. Fe3O4/C/Cu2O composite exhibits excellent photo-Fenton catalytic performance for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation and neutral pH conditions, and MB (100mg/L) could be almost completely removed within 60min. The composite shows good recyclability and could be conveniently separated by an applied magnetic field. These results demonstrate that the Fe3O4/C/Cu2O composite is a powerful Fenton-like catalyst for degradation of organic pollutants from wastewater. PMID:27161809

  15. First order reversal curve investigation of the hard and soft magnetic phases of annealed CoFeCu nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (CoFe)1−xCux (x=0.12–0.84) nanowire arrays were ac-pulse electrodeposited into anodic aluminum oxide templates. The electrodeposition was performed in a constant electrolyte while Cu content was controlled by off-time between pulses. Nanowires with 30 nm diameter and the certain lengths with the both bcc-CoFe and fcc-Cu phases were obtained. Magnetization and coercivity of the nanowires decreased with increasing the Cu content. Annealing improved the coercivity and a remarkable increase in magnetization of nanowires with high Cu contents was observed. A two-phase treatment was seen for annealed samples with high Cu contents. First order reversal curves showed a hard magnetic phase with almost constant magnetic properties and coercivity of ∼2500 Oe. The results showed that main source of the various magnetic behaviors of the samples may be attributed to increase in soft magnetic phase. A single domain treatment with a narrow interacting field and coercive field distributions was also observed for the annealed samples with high Cu content

  16. An assessment of the homogeneity of nano-crystalline Fe-Cu powders as studied by means of APT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this contribution the homogeneity of mechanically alloyed Fe-Cu powders for two different compositions (Fe-10 and Fe-2.5 at%Cu) has been systematically characterised by atom probe tomography. Since Fe-Cu exhibits the Invar effect, it is among the most attractive systems for technical application. Furthermore, this system is immiscible and characterised by a large positive heat of mixing. In combination with the widespread application and accessibility, this predestines Fe-Cu as a binary model alloy to elaborate the enforced nonequilibrium enhanced solubility for immiscible systems. Depending on the parameters composition and milling time, results on the extension of the solubility limit and on the homogeneity of the alloy are presented, discussed and compared to earlier works. Only for the alloy with lower Cu content and for the prolonged milling time of 50 h, chemical homogeneity of the sample as measured by the atom probe was fully reached on the nano-scale. For all other parameter combinations homogeneity could not be achieved, even for long milling times and for those samples that appear to be homogeneous via X-ray analysis. Moreover, impurities were determined, mostly stemming from the fabrication procedure. The arrangement and homogeneity of the most common impurity, oxygen, was evaluated from atom probe data for different samples. Thus, the local concentration, segregation effects and the distribution of impurities could be quantified on the nano-scale, depending on the different nominal compositions and processing parameters. Additionally, structural information could be gained employing transmission electron microscopy and diffraction measurements.

  17. Efficiency of Chitosan for the Removal of Pb (II, Fe (II and Cu (II Ions from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Sobhanardakani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heavy metals have been recognized as harmful environmental pollutant known to produce highly toxic effects on different organs and systems of both humans and animals. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the adsorption potential of chitosan for the removal of Pb(II, Fe(II and Cu(II ions from aqueous solutions. Methods: This study was conducted in laboratory scale. In this paper chitosan has been used as an adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II, Fe(II and Cu(II from aqueous solution. In batch tests, the effects of parameters like pH solution (1.0-8.0, initial metal concentrations (100-1000 mgL-1, contact time (5.0-150 min and adsorbent dose (1.0-7.0 g on the adsorption process were studied. Results: The results showed that the adsorption of Pb(II, Fe(II and Cu(II ions on chitosan strongly depends on pH. The experimental isothermal data were analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich equations and it was found that the removal process followed the Langmuir isotherm and maximum adsorption capacity for the adsorption of Pb(II, Fe(II and Cu(II ions by the chitosan were 55.5mg g−1, 71.4 mg g−1 and 59 mg g−1, respectively, under equilibrium conditions at 25±1 ºC. The adsorption process was found to be well described by the pseudo-second-order rate model. Conclusion: The obtained results showed that chitosan is a readily, available, economic adsorbent and was found suitable for removing Pb(II, Fe(II and Cu(II ions from aqueous solution.

  18. Hybridization and magnetism in small FePt alloy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic properties of small, mass selected, Fe and FePt alloy clusters deposited on a remanently magnetized Ni/Cu(001) substrate have been investigated using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. Strong size- and stoichiometry-dependent magnetic properties of Fe and FePt clusters are found, together with enhanced orbital moments compared to bulk and nanoparticles. Compared to pure Fe clusters, FePt alloy clusters have lower orbital and higher spin moments. In addition, they show a higher branching ratio of Br = L3/(L2 + L3) due to stronger spin–orbital coupling and hybridization. (paper)

  19. Microstructure Evolution in a Rapidly Solidified Cu85Fe15 Alloy Undercooled into the Metastable Miscibility Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie HE; Jiuzhou ZHAO

    2005-01-01

    A model has been developed to describe the microstructure evolution in the atomized droplets of Cu-Fe alloy during cooling through the metastable miscibility gap. Calculations have been performed for Cu85Fe15 alloy to investigate the process of liquid-liquid phase transformation. The numerical results indicate that the minority phase droplets are nucleated in a temperature region around the peak of the supersaturation. The average radius of the Fe-rich droplets decreases and the number density of the minority phase droplets increases with decreasing the atomized droplet size.The simulated results were compared with the experimental ones. The kinetic process of the liquid-liquid phase transformation was discussed in detail.

  20. Electronic structure and bonding in metal porphyrins, metal=Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Meng-Sheng; Scheiner, Steve

    2002-07-01

    A systematic theoretical study of the electronic structure and bonding in metal meso-tetraphenyl porphines MTPP, M=Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn has been carried out using a density functional theory method. The calculations provide a clear elucidation of the ground states for the MTPPs and for a series of MTPPx ions (x=2+, 1+, 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-), which aids in understanding a number of observed electronic properties. The calculation supports the experimental assignment of unligated FeTPP as 3A2g, which arises from the configuration (dxy)2(dz2)2 (dxz)1(dyz)1. The calculated M-TPP binding energies, ionization potentials, and electron affinities are in good agreement with available experimental data. The influence of axial ligands and peripheral substitution by fluorine are in accord with the experimental observation that not only half-wave potentials (E1/2) of electrode reactions, but also the site of oxidation/reduction, may be dependent on the porphyrin basicity and the type of axial ligand coordination.

  1. Scattering of atomic and molecular ions from single crystal surfaces of Cu, Ag and Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with analysis of crystal surfaces of Cu, Ag and Fe with Low Energy Ion scattering Spectroscopy (LEIS). Different atomic and molecular ions with fixed energies below 7 keV are scattered by a metal single crystal (with adsorbates). The energy and direction of the scattered particles are analysed for different selected charge states. In that way information can be obtained concerning the composition and atomic and electronic structure of the single crystal surface. Energy spectra contain information on the composition of the surface, while structural atomic information is obtained by direction measurements (photograms). In Ch.1 a description is given of the experimental equipment, in Ch.2 a characterization of the LEIS method. Ch.3 deals with the neutralization of keV-ions in surface scattering. Two different ways of data interpretation are presented. First a model is treated in which the observed directional dependence of neutralization action of the first atom layer of the surface is presented by a laterally varying thickness of the neutralizing layer. Secondly it is shown that the data can be reproduced by a more realistic, physical model based on atomic transition matrix elements. In Ch.4 the low energy hydrogen scattering is described. The study of the dissociation of H2+ at an Ag surface r0230ted in a model based on electronic dissociation, initialized by electron capture into a repulsive (molecular) state. In Ch.5 finally the method is applied to the investigation of the surface structure of oxidized Fe. (Auth.)

  2. Magnetostatic coupling of 90 domain walls in FeNi/Cu/Co trilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurde, Julia; Miguel, Jorge; Kuch, Wolfgang [Freie Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Bayer, Daniela; Aeschlimann, Martin [Technische Universitaet, Kaiserslautern (Germany); Sanchez-Barriga, Jaime; Kronast, Florian; Duerr, Herrmann A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The magnetic interlayer coupling of FeNi/Cu/Co trilayered microstructures has been studied by means of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism in combination with photoelectron emission microscopy (XMCD-PEEM). We find that a parallel coupling between magnetic domains coexists with a non-parallel coupling between magnetic domain walls of each ferromagnetic layer. We attribute the non-parallel coupling of the two magnetic layers to local magnetic stray fields arising at domain walls in the magnetically harder Co layer. In the magnetically softer FeNi layer non-ordinary domain walls such as 270 and 90 domain walls with overshoot of the magnetization either inwards or outwards relative to the turning direction of the Co magnetization are identified. Micromagnetic simulations reveal that in the absence of magnetocrystalline anisotropy, both types of overshooting domain walls are energetically equivalent. However, if a uniaxial in-plane anisotropy is present, the relative orientation of the domain walls with respect to the anisotropy axis determines which of these domain walls is energetically favorable.

  3. Magnetic properties of Fe nanoclusters on Cu(111) studied with X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauth, Kai [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); MPI for Metals Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Ballentine, Greg E. [MPI for Metals Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Praetorius, Christian [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Kleibert, Armin; Wilken, Norman; Voitkans, Andris; Meiwes-Broer, Karl-Heinz [Institute of Physics, University of Rostock (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    The magnetisation and magnetic response of Fe nanoclusters are studied by temperature and density dependent in situ X-ray magnetic circular dichroism after deposition onto Cu(111). The nanoclusters possess enhanced spin magnetic moments at low temperature, whereas no enhancement is found for the orbital moments. The analysis of magnetisation curves and the temperature dependent remnant magnetisation reveals that the individual magnetic anisotropy energies are distributed over a wide range of values, ranging from below to far above the value of bulk {alpha}-Fe. As a result, ferromagnetic response is obtained at ambient temperature, even though the nanocluster densities range well below percolation threshold. At higher cluster densities agglomeration and substrate mediated interaction increase the mean blocking temperature in the particle ensemble. The observed macroscopic magnetic in-plane anisotropy derives from the average dipolar interactions between the nanoclusters. Single particle properties, substrate mediated coupling and dipolar interactions thus independently contribute to magnetic characteristics on equal footing. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Influence of Fe-rich intermetallics on solidification defects in Al–Si–Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To better understand the influence of Fe-rich intermetallics on solidification defect formation, fast in situ synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy experiments were performed on a commercial A319 alloy (Al–7.5Si–3.5Cu, wt.%) with 0.2 and 0.6 wt.% Fe. Real-time observations during solidification and semi-solid deformation experiments reveal that β-intermetallics contribute via several different mechanisms to porosity formation and hot tearing susceptibility. While β-intermetallics were not observed to nucleate porosity directly, they do block interdendritic channels, thereby reducing the shrinkage feeding, and increasing pore tortuosity. Pores also grow preferentially along the surface of the β-intermetallics, suggesting that the β-phase has a lower gas–solid interfacial energy than α-Al, thus assisting in increasing pore volume. During uniaxial tension experiments, the ductile failure of the semi-solid, intermetallic-poor, base alloy transitions to a brittle-like failure when a large amount of β-intermetallics are present. In all post-failure microstructures, internal damage was preferentially orientated perpendicular to the loading direction, agreeing with prior experimental and numerical studies

  5. Static and dynamic interaction between π and d electrons in organic superconductor β″-(BEDT-TTF)4[(H3O ) Fe (C2O4)3] .C6H5Br studied by 13C NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Y.; Futami, Y.; Kawamoto, A.; Matsui, K.; Goto, T.; Sasaki, T.; Benmansour, S.; Gómez-García, C. J.

    2016-08-01

    We present the results of 13C NMR experiments in an organic superconductor with localized Fe spins β″-(BEDT-TTF) 4[(H3O ) Fe (C2O4)3] .C6H5Br . We reveal the antiferromagnetic coupling between Fe d spins and π spins, which creates an exchange field antiparallel to the external field direction at the π electrons. In addition to the static effects of Fe spins, we show from the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate measurement that the magnetic fluctuations generated by Fe spins are suppressed at low temperatures and high magnetic fields. These conditions are suitable to stabilize the field-induced superconductivity by the field compensation mechanism. After the suppression of Fe-spin dynamics by a magnetic field of 19 T, we observed the underlying π -electron contribution. We discuss a possible anomaly in the π -electron system.

  6. Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions using Fe3O4, ZnO, and CuO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the removal of Cd2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, and Pb2+ from aqueous solutions with novel nanoparticle sorbents (Fe3O4, ZnO, and CuO) using a range of experimental approaches, including, pH, competing ions, sorbent masses, contact time, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The images showed that Fe3O4, ZnO, and CuO particles had mean diameters of about 50 nm (spheroid), 25 nm (rod shape), and 75 nm (spheroid), respectively. Tests were performed under batch conditions to determine the adsorption rate and uptake at equilibrium from single and multiple component solutions. The maximum uptake values (sum of four metals) in multiple component solutions were 360.6, 114.5, and 73.0 mg g−1, for ZnO, CuO, and Fe3O4, respectively. Based on the average metal removal by the three nanoparticles, the following order was determined for single component solutions: Cd2+ > Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Ni2+, while the following order was determined in multiple component solutions: Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+ > Ni2+. Sorption equilibrium isotherms could be described using the Freundlich model in some cases, whereas other isotherms did not follow this model. Furthermore, a pseudo-second order kinetic model was found to correctly describe the experimental data for all nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray before and after metal sorption, and soil solution saturation indices showed that the main mechanism of sorption for Cd2+ and Pb2+ was adsorption, whereas both Cu2+ and Ni2+ sorption were due to adsorption and precipitation. These nanoparticles have potential for use as efficient sorbents for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions and ZnO nanoparticles were identified as the most promising sorbent due to their high metal uptake.

  7. Effects of Fe-deficiency on magnetic properties and Brillouin function characteristics for NiCuZn ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polycrystalline Ni0.56Cu0.10Zn0.34Fe2−xO4−3/2x (x=0.00~0.14) ferrites have been prepared by conventional oxide ceramics process. The effects of Fe-deficiency content on magnetic properties and Brillouin function characteristics for NiCuZn ferrites have been investigated in details. With the increase of Fe-deficiency content, the opposite variation trend are observed for the saturation magntic induction Bs and the coercivity Hc. More importantly, based on the Néel molecular field theory, for the spinel ferrites which do not only contain Fe3+ but also some other multiple magnetic ions (Ni2+ and Cu2+), the molecular field coefficients ωaa, ωbb and ωab=ωba are calculated by non-linear fitting method, and the Curie temperature Tc formula has been modified. With the increase of Fe-deficiency content, the values of ωaa and ωbb increase gradually, however, the value of ωab=ωba has a contrary trend which results in the decrease of the Curie temperature. In addition, the fitting Curie temperatures values are coincided well with the Curie temperatures calculated by the modified formula. - Highlights: • Néel molecular field theory model of multi-magnetic ions (Fe3+, Ni2+, Cu2+) is completed and the correlation formula of Curie temperature has been derived. • The calculating for the molecular field coefficients has been completed from absolute zero degree to Curie temperature. • The corresponding values and variation trend of molecular field coefficients have been completely investigated

  8. Structure, grain connectivity and pinning of as-deformed commercial MgB2 powder in Cu and Fe/Cu sheaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-core MgB2 wires and tapes have been made by the powder-in-tube (PIT) method using commercial MgB2 powder (Alfa Aesar). Composites have been made using the two-axial rolling process in Cu and/or Fe/Cu sheaths. Alternative deformations by wire drawing, rotary swaging and cold isostatic pressing have been applied to PIT wires and tapes. Current-voltage characteristics and transport current densities in the self-field and in the external field were measured. It was found that the grain connectivity of ex situ MgB2 is affected by the applied sheath and the mode of deformation. Two-axial rolling has generated the highest powder density resulting in the best grain connectivity. The highest transport current densities of 8700 A cm-2 and 55 830 A cm-2 were measured for Cu and Fe/Cu sheathed square wires, respectively. Cold isostatic pressing at 1.5 GPa has increased current density and n-exponent, which suggests an improvement in grain connectivity. It was found that the external pressure improves the inter-grain connectivity but decreases the pinning in MgB2 cores. (author)

  9. Investigation of exchange bias in 0.1MFe2O4/0.9BiFeO3 (M=Co, Cu, Ni) nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 0.1MFe2O4/0.9BiFeO3 (M=Co, Cu, Ni) nanocomposite samples were synthesized by the sol–gel method. Phase composition analysis was carried out, which showed that these bulk samples were composed of a ferrimagnetic MFe2O4 (M=Co, Cu, Ni) and a ferroelectric antiferromagnet (FEAF) BiFeO3 phases, respectively. The magnetic properties of all the samples were investigated by measuring their magnetization as a function of temperature and magnetic field. These results indicated that the magnetic hysteresis loops of 0.1CuFe2O4/0.9BiFeO3 sample sintered in air atmosphere at 550 °C for 3 h exhibited a negative shift and an enhanced coercivity at low temperature ascribed to strong exchange coupling between the BiFeO3 and CuFe2O4 grains. However, there were no magnetic hysteresis loops in both the 0.1CoFe2O4/0.9BiFeO3 sample and the 0.1NiFe2O4/0.9BiFeO3 sample. In view of these results, we tend to think the CuFe2O4/BiFeO3 nanocomposite system may be a useful multifunctional material. - Highlights: ► Exchange bias effect in ferroelectric antiferromagnet (FEAF)/ferromagnet (FM) nanocomposites. ► Exchange bias effect is only observed in the 0.1CuFe2O4/0.9BiFeO3 nanocomposite. ► Lower saturation magnetization is important for producing exchange bias in FEAF/FM system.

  10. A novel reusable nanocomposite adsorbent, xanthated Fe3O4-chitosan grafted onto graphene oxide, for removing Cu(II) from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinshui; Liu, Wenxiu; Wang, Yiru; Xu, Meijiao; Wang, Bin

    2016-03-01

    Novel nanocomposites of xanthated Fe3O4-chitosan grafted onto graphene oxide (xanthated Fe3O4-CS-GO) were successfully synthesized for the first time using an amidation reaction. The xanthated Fe3O4-CS-GO was used to remove Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. The xanthated Fe3O4-CS-GO was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The Cu(II) adsorption isotherms for the xanthated Fe3O4-CS-GO fitted the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum Cu(II) adsorption capacity of the xanthated Fe3O4-CS-GO was 426.8 mg g-1, which is much higher than the maximum adsorption capacities of other adsorbents that have been described in the literature. This was attributed to xanthated Fe3O4-CS-GO having abundant functional groups. The xanthated Fe3O4-CS-GO could be regenerated using ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid, and could easily be removed from a liquid using an external magnetic field. These features would allow secondary pollution of the environment to be avoided more easily than is the case for other adsorbents. Cu(II) was adsorbed from aqueous solutions quickly and efficiently by the xanthated Fe3O4-CS-GO complex, suggesting that xanthated Fe3O4-CS-GO may be an ideal candidate for removing Cu(II) from wastewater.

  11. Study of Fe-Cu/ZSM-5 and its amination catalytic property%Fe-Cu/ZSM-5催化剂及其胺化催化性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵锋伟; 淡保松; 王伟; 杨建明; 吕剑

    2009-01-01

    制备了一种Fe-Cu/ZSM-5胺化催化剂,考察其在乙醇胺选择性合成哌嗪、三乙烯二胺反应中的催化活性.结果表明,随着Fe、Cu负载量的增加,催化剂表面酸性逐渐向强酸方向位移,总酸量增加,反应转化率提高;Cu负载量对反应转化率及乙二胺选择性的影响相对较弱,但对哌嗪的生成有明显的促进作用;催化反应性能不仅受催化剂酸性的影响,还与负载组分的性质及负载组分与载体间的相互作用有关.%The synthesis of piperazine(PIP) and triethylene diamine (TEDA)from ethanolamine (MEA) with ammonia over Fe-Cu/ZSM-5 catalyst was investigated.The results showed that when Fe,Cu contents increased,the acid properties were raised,the acid amount and the conversion of MEA increased.The effective in conversion of MEA by Cu content was weaker,but evident to promte synthesis of piperazine.The reaction properties were not only influenced by the surface acid but also influenced by the properties of Fe,Cu.

  12. Cu_xFe_(1-x)O·Fe_2O_3磁流体纳米微粒的制备与性能分析%Preparation of nano-Cu_xFe_(1-x)O·Fe_2O_3 magnetic particles and performance analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季业; 邵慧萍; 林涛; 郭志猛

    2011-01-01

    为增强磁流体在肿瘤治疗中的靶向性,本研究在制备磁流体过程中加入Cu2+,利用超声乳化法制备纳米CuxFe1-xO.Fe2O3颗粒,采用壳聚糖作为表面活性剂制备出分散均匀、稳定性好的水基磁流体,研究了不同的Cu2+加入量和不同的壳聚糖用量对磁流体磁性能的影响.结果表明:壳聚糖成功包覆于磁性CuxFe1-xO.Fe2 O3颗粒的表面;不同Cu2+加入量制得的粉末同属立方晶系;当实验原理方程式中的x=0.1、壳聚糖溶液用量为20 mL(每50 mL质量分数为1%的CuxFe1-xO.Fe2 O3溶液)时进行表面改性制得的纳米磁流体具有较高的比饱和磁化强度及稳定性,静置30 d后,无明显沉降及分层现象,其比饱和磁化强度为56.43 A.m2.kg-1.%In order to increase the magnetic fluid in target-based in cancer treatment,the Cu2+ was studied in the preparation procedure.Nano-CuxFe1-xO·Fe2O3 magnetic particles were prepared by means of ultrasonic emulsion method,and then dispersed into water with chitosan as surfactants to make CuxFe1-xO·Fe2O3 magnetic fluid.The influence of Cu2+ addition and chitosan on the magnetic properties was studied.The results show that the surface of CuxFe1-xO·Fe2O3 nanoparticle is wrapped with chitosan.The CuxFe1-xO·Fe2O3 nanoparticles with different of the Cu2+ addition are cubic system.It is conducive to obtain the CuxFe1-xO·Fe2O3 magnetic fluid with a high saturation magnetization and stability when the condition for x=0.1 and chitosan solution dosage is 20 ml(every 50 ml of the CuxFe1-xO·Fe2O3 solution(1 % by weight)).Rest for 30 days,there is no obvious phenomenon of settled and stratified,and the saturation magnetization is 56.43 A·m2·kg-1.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of the 1:1 adducts of copper(I) halides with bidentate N,N′-bis(benzophenone)-1,2-diiminoethane Schiff base: Crystal structures of [Cu(bz2en)2][CuX2] (X = Br, I) complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kia, Reza; Mirkhani, Valiollah; Harkema, Sybolt; Hummel, van Gerrit J.

    2007-01-01

    1:1 adducts of N,N′-bis(benzophenone)-1,2-diiminoethane (bz2en) with copper(I) chloride, bromide and iodide, [Cu(bz2en)2][CuX2] (X = Cl, Br, and I), have been synthesized and the structures of the solid bromide and iodide adducts were determined by X-ray crystallography from single-crystal data. The

  14. Photocatalytic activity evaluation of tetragonal CuFe2O4 nanoparticles for the H2 evolution under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copper ferrite (CuFe2O4) nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized via a citric acid-assisted sol-gel method. For comparison, CuFe2O4 materials were also fabricated by solid-state reaction and co-precipitation method. Techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (UV-vis DRS) have been employed to characterize the as-synthesized CuFe2O4 products. The CuFe2O4 sample prepared by sol-gel approach is composed of almost uniform nanoparticles with a grain size of about 80 nm and crystallized in a tetragonal crystal phase structure. Moreover, the photocatalytic activity of the as-obtained CuFe2O4 has been evaluated based on the H2 evolution from aqueous oxalic acid solution under visible light irradiation. The effects of preparation routes, photocatalyst mass concentration, initial sacrificial reagent concentration and the durability of the as-obtained CuFe2O4 have been investigated in detail. The best result of the photocatalytic H2 evolution activity (1.72 mmol h-1 gcat-1) was obtained over the sol-gel synthesized CuFe2O4 nanoparticles when the photocatalyst concentration is 1.0 g l-1 and the oxalic acid concentration is 0.05 M.

  15. Preparation of polypyrrole-coated CuFe2O4 and their improved electrochemical performance as lithium-ion anodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huayun Xu; Yunpo Wang; Long Zheng; Xinhui Duan; Lihui Wang; Jian Yang; Yitai Qian

    2014-01-01

    CuFe2O4 network, prepared via the electrostatic spray deposition technique, with high reversible capacity and long cycle lifetime for lithium ion battery anode material has been reported. The reversible capacity can be further enhanced by coating high electronic conductive polypyrrole (PPy). At the current density of 100 mA·g-1, Li/CuFe2O4 electrode delivers a reversible capacity of 842.9 mAh·g-1 while the reversible capac-ity of Li/PPy-coated CuFe2O4 electrode increases up to 1106.7 mAh·g-1. A high capacity of 640.7 mAh·g-1 for the Li/PPy-coated CuFe2O4 electrode is maintained in contrast of 398.9 mAh·g-1 for Li/CuFe2O4 electrode after 60 cycles, which demonstrates good electrochemical performance of the composite due to the increase of electronic conductivity. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) further reveals that the Li/PPy-coated CuFe2O4 electrode has a lower charge transfer resistance than the Li/CuFe2O4 electrode.

  16. The relationship between the crystallization process and the soft magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe endash M endash B endash Cu (M=Zr, Nb) alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between the crystallization process and the soft magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe84Nb3.5Zr3.5B8Cu1 alloy has been studied by comparison with that of Fe73.5Si13.5B9Nb3Cu1 alloy. When the annealing temperature Ta is slightly above the crystallization temperature, high permeability can only be obtained for Fe endash Nb endash Zr endash B endash Cu after annealing for very short times. The Ta dependence of the coercive force of Fe endash Nb endash Zr endash B endash Cu cannot be explained by the change of the grain size of the bcc phase. The soft magnetic properties of Fe endash Nb endash Zr endash B endash Cu is dominated by not only the grain size but also the Curie temperature of the intergranular amorphous phase. It is concluded that the magnetic softness of Fe endash Nb endash Zr endash B endash Cu is related directly to the degree of the reduction in the apparent anisotropy, while that of Fe endash Si endash B endash Nb endash Cu is strongly affected by the Si content of the bcc phase. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  17. Spin polarized low energy electron microscopy of quantum well resonances in Fe films on the Cu-covered W(110) surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang; Altman, M S

    2013-07-01

    Spin polarized low energy electron microscopy has been used to investigate the quantum size effect (QSE) in electron reflectivity from Fe films grown on a pseudomorphic Cu layer on a W(110) surface. Intensity oscillations caused by the QSE as functions of Fe film thickness and incident electron energy identify quantum well resonance conditions in the film. Evaluation of these intensity oscillations using the phase accumulation model provides information on the unoccupied spin polarized band structure in the Fe film above the vacuum level. We also find evidence that the presence of the non-magnetic Cu layer shifts spin polarized quantum well resonances in the Fe layer uniformly downward in energy by 1.1eV compared to Fe/W(110) films without an interface Cu layer, suggesting that the Cu layer gives a small degree of control over the quantum well resonances. PMID:23628648

  18. Facile synthesis, characterization and magnetic property of CuFe12O19 nanostructures via a sol-gel auto-combustion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Fatemeh; Sobhani, Azam; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud

    2016-03-01

    Copper hexaferrite (CuFe12O19) nanostructures were prepared by a simple route utilizing maltose-assisted sol-gel process. The morphology, phase structure, composition and purity of nanostructures can be controlled by type of surfactant and also adjusting the Cu:surfactant, Cu:Fe and Cu:reductant ratios. The bean-shape structures are formed in the absence of the surfactant when the molar ratio of Cu:Fe and Cu:reductant are 1:12 and 1:26, respectively. The agglomerated spherical nanoparticles with diameters ranging from 7 to 20 nm are obtained in the presence of triplex, when ratio of Cu:reductant is 1:26. In the absence of surfactant and also in the presence of triplex, the samples are found to be CuFe12O19. When polymer is used, there are still the peaks of CuFe12O19 and also some boad peaks in XRD patterns, because of the small size and encapsulation of nanostructures with polymer. Magnetic measurments show superparamagnetic behavior for the all samples. The Ms for the samples obtained in the presence of polymer shows that the coating of magnetic nanostructures does not always increase Ms. FT-IR frequency bands in the range 463-626, 607 and 542 cm-1 correspond to the formation of metal oxides in ferrites.

  19. Nanostructured Ti-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu{sub 2}O heterojunction photoelectrode for efficient hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Dipika; Upadhyay, Sumant; Verma, Anuradha [Department of Chemistry, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra-282 110 India (India); Satsangi, Vibha R. [Department of Physics Computer Sciences, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra-282 110 India (India); Shrivastav, Rohit [Department of Chemistry, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra-282 110 India (India); Dass, Sahab, E-mail: drsahabdas@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra-282 110 India (India)

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured thin films of pristine Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ti-doped Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Cu{sub 2}O, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu{sub 2}O, and Ti-doped Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu{sub 2}O heterojunction were deposited on tin-doped indium oxide (Sn:In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) glass substrate using spray pyrolysis method. Ti doping is done to improve photoelectric conversion efficiency and electrical conductivity of hematite thin films. Further enhanced photocurrent is achieved for Ti-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu{sub 2}O heterojunction electrodes. All samples were characterized using X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and UV-Vis spectrometry. Photoelectrochemical properties were also investigated in a three-electrode cell system. UV-Vis absorption spectrum for pristine Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ti-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Cu{sub 2}O, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu{sub 2}O, and Ti-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu{sub 2}O heterojunction thin films exhibited absorption in visible region. Nanostructured thin films as prepared were used as photoelectrode in the photoelectrochemical cell for water splitting reaction. Maximum photocurrent density of 2.60 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0.95 V/SCE was exhibited by 454 nm thick Ti-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu{sub 2}O heterojunction photoelectrode. Increased photocurrent density and enhanced incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency, offered by the heterojunction thin films may be attributed to improved conductivity and efficient separation of the photogenerated charge carriers at the Ti-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu{sub 2}O interface. - Highlights: • Heterojunction thin films were deposited using spray pyrolysis techniques. • Titanium doping in Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} played a significant role in PEC response. • Ti-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu{sub 2}O heterojunction shows the absorption in visible range. • Improved charge separation and enhanced PEC response were achieved in Ti-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu{sub 2}O.

  20. Phase Equilibria Studies of the Cu-Fe-O-Si System in Equilibrium with Air and with Metallic Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Taufiq; Henao, Hector M.; Hayes, Peter C.; Jak, Evgueni

    2012-10-01

    Phase equilibria of the Cu-Fe-O-Si system have been investigated in equilibrium: (1) with air atmosphere at temperatures between 1373 K and 1673 K (1100 °C and 1400 °C) and (2) with metallic copper at temperatures between 1373 K and 1573 K (1100 °C and 1300 °C). High-temperature equilibration/quenching/electron-probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) techniques have been used to accurately determine the compositions of the phases in equilibrium in the system. The new experimental results are presented in the form of "Cu2O"-"Fe2O3"-SiO2 ternary sections. The relationships between the activity of CuO0.5(l) and the composition of slag in equilibrium with metallic copper are discussed. The phase equilibria information of the Cu-Fe-O-Si system is of practical importance for industrial copper production processes and for the improvement of the existing thermodynamic database of copper-containing slag systems.