Wild Wall Crossing and BPS Giants
Galakhov, Dmitry; Mainiero, Tom; Moore, Gregory W; Neitzke, Andrew
2013-01-01
We show that the BPS spectrum of pure SU(3) four-dimensional super Yang-Mills with N=2 supersymmetry exhibits a surprising phenomenon: there are regions of the Coulomb branch where the growth of the BPS degeneracies with the charge is exponential. We show this using spectral networks and independently using wall-crossing formulae and quiver methods. The computations using spectral networks provide a very nontrivial example of how these networks determine the four-dimensional BPS spectrum. We comment on some physical implications of the wild spectrum: for example, exponentially many field-theoretic BPS states with large charge are gigantic. Finally, we exhibit some surprising, thus far unexplained, regularities of the BPS spectrum.
Framed BPS States, Moduli Dynamics, and Wall-Crossing
Lee, Sungjay
2011-01-01
We formulate supersymmetric low energy dynamics for BPS dyons in strongly-coupled N=2 Seiberg-Witten theories, and derive wall-crossing formulae thereof. For BPS states made up of a heavy core state and n probe (halo) dyons around it, we derive a reliable supersymmetric moduli dynamics with 3n bosonic coordinates and 4n fermionic superpartners. Attractive interactions are captured via a set of supersymmetric potential terms, whose detail depends only on the charges and the special Kaehler data of the underlying N=2 theories. The small parameters that control the approximation are not electric couplings but the mass ratio between the core and the probe, as well as the distance to the marginal stability wall where the central charges of the probe and of the core align. Quantizing the dynamics, we construct BPS bound states and derive the primitive and the semi-primitive wall-crossing formulae from the first principle. We speculate on applications to line operators and Darboux coordinates, and also about extensi...
Framed BPS states, moduli dynamics, and wall-crossing
Lee, Sungjay; Yi, Piljin
2011-04-01
We formulate supersymmetric low energy dynamics for BPS dyons in strongly-coupled N = 2 Seiberg-Witten theories, and derive wall-crossing formulae thereof. For BPS states made up of a heavy core state and n probe (halo) dyons around it, we derive a reliable supersymmetric moduli dynamics with 3 n bosonic coordinates and 4 n fermionic superpartners. Attractive interactions are captured via a set of supersymmetric potential terms, whose detail depends only on the charges and the special Kähler data of the underlying N = 2 theories. The small parameters that control the approximation are not electric couplings but the mass ratio between the core and the probe, as well as the distance to the marginal stability wall where the central charges of the probe and of the core align. Quantizing the dynamics, we construct BPS bound states and derive the primitive and the semi-primitive wall-crossing formulae from the first principle. We speculate on applications to line operators and Darboux coordinates, and also about extension to supergravity setting.
BPS Spectra, Barcodes and Walls
Cirafici, Michele
2015-01-01
BPS spectra give important insights into the non-perturbative regimes of supersymmetric theories. Often from the study of BPS states one can infer properties of the geometrical or algebraic structures underlying such theories. In this paper we approach this problem from the perspective of persistent homology. Persistent homology is at the base of topological data analysis, which aims at extracting topological features out of a set of points. We use these techniques to investigate the topological properties which characterize the spectra of several supersymmetric models in field and string theory. We discuss how such features change upon crossing walls of marginal stability in a few examples. Then we look at the topological properties of the distributions of BPS invariants in string compactifications on compact threefolds, used to engineer black hole microstates. Finally we discuss the interplay between persistent homology and modularity by considering certain number theoretical functions used to count dyons i...
BPS state counting using wall-crossing, holomorphic anomalies and modularity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wotschke, Thomas
2013-05-15
In this thesis we examine the counting of BPS states using wall-crossing, holomorphic anomalies and modularity. We count BPS states that arise in two setups: multiple M5-branes wrapping P x T{sup 2}, where P denotes a divisor inside a Calabi-Yau threefold and topological string theory on elliptic Calabi-Yau threefolds. The first setup has a dual description as type IIA string theory via a D4-D2-D0 brane system. Furthermore it leads to two descriptions depending on the size of P and T{sup 2} relative to each other. For the case of a small divisor P this setup is described by the (0,4) Maldacena-Strominger-Witten conformal field theory of a black hole in M-theory and for the case of small T{sup 2} the setup can by described by N=4 topological Yang-Mills theory on P. The BPS states are counted by the modified elliptic genus, which can be decomposed into a vector-valued modular form that provides the generating function for the BPS invariants and a Siegel-Narain theta function. In the first part we discuss the holomorphic anomaly of the modified elliptic genus for the case of two M5-branes and divisors with b{sup +}{sub 2}(P)=1. Due to the wall-crossing effect the change in the generating function is captured by an indefinite theta function, which is a mock modular form. We use the Kontsevich-Soibelman wall-crossing formula to determine the jumps in the modified elliptic genus. Using the regularisation procedure for mock modular forms of Zwegers, modularity can be restored at the cost of holomorphicity. We show that the non-holomorphic completion is due to bound states of single M5-branes. At the attractor point in the moduli space we prove the holomorphic anomaly equation, which is compatible with the holomorphic anomaly equations observed in the context of N=4 Yang-Mills theory on P{sup 2} and E-strings on a del Pezzo surface. We calculate the generating functions of BPS invariants for the divisors P{sup 2}, F{sub 0}, F{sub 1} and the del Pezzo surface dP{sub 8} and
BPS state counting using wall-crossing, holomorphic anomalies and modularity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this thesis we examine the counting of BPS states using wall-crossing, holomorphic anomalies and modularity. We count BPS states that arise in two setups: multiple M5-branes wrapping P x T2, where P denotes a divisor inside a Calabi-Yau threefold and topological string theory on elliptic Calabi-Yau threefolds. The first setup has a dual description as type IIA string theory via a D4-D2-D0 brane system. Furthermore it leads to two descriptions depending on the size of P and T2 relative to each other. For the case of a small divisor P this setup is described by the (0,4) Maldacena-Strominger-Witten conformal field theory of a black hole in M-theory and for the case of small T2 the setup can by described by N=4 topological Yang-Mills theory on P. The BPS states are counted by the modified elliptic genus, which can be decomposed into a vector-valued modular form that provides the generating function for the BPS invariants and a Siegel-Narain theta function. In the first part we discuss the holomorphic anomaly of the modified elliptic genus for the case of two M5-branes and divisors with b+2(P)=1. Due to the wall-crossing effect the change in the generating function is captured by an indefinite theta function, which is a mock modular form. We use the Kontsevich-Soibelman wall-crossing formula to determine the jumps in the modified elliptic genus. Using the regularisation procedure for mock modular forms of Zwegers, modularity can be restored at the cost of holomorphicity. We show that the non-holomorphic completion is due to bound states of single M5-branes. At the attractor point in the moduli space we prove the holomorphic anomaly equation, which is compatible with the holomorphic anomaly equations observed in the context of N=4 Yang-Mills theory on P2 and E-strings on a del Pezzo surface. We calculate the generating functions of BPS invariants for the divisors P2, F0, F1 and the del Pezzo surface dP8 and dP9 ((1)/(2) K3). In the second part we study the quantum
BPS domain walls from backreacted orientifolds
Blåbäck, Johan; Van Riet, Thomas; Vercnocke, Bert
2013-01-01
Compactifications with D-brane and orientifold sources lead to standard gauged supergravity theories if the sources are smeared over the internal directions. It is therefore of interest to find how the solutions described by the gauged supergravity are altered by properly localising the sources. In this paper we analyse this for BPS domain wall solutions in the seven-dimensional gauged supergravity obtained from an O6 toroidal orientifold compactification in massive IIA supergravity. This is one of the simplest no-scale supergravities that can be constructed and analysed in full detail. We find and discuss the BPS domain walls both when the O6 planes are smeared and localised. When the O6 planes are localised the domain wall solutions live in a warped compactification. In order to get explicit expressions we also consider the non-compact versions of the solutions for which the O6 planes have been traded for D6 branes. Through T-duality we obtain partially localised solutions for compactifications to four dime...
Exact BPS domain walls at finite gauge coupling
Blaschke, Filip
2016-01-01
Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield solitons in models with spontaneously broken gauge symmetry have been intensively studied at infinite gauge coupling limit, where the governing equation -- so-called master equation -- is exactly solvable. Except of handful of special solutions, the standing impression is that analytic results at finite coupling are generally unavailable. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate, using domain walls in Abelian-Higgs models as a simplest example, that exact solitons at finite gauge coupling can be readily obtained, if the number of Higgs fields ($N_F$) is large enough. In particular, we present a family of exact solutions, describing $N$ domain walls at arbitrary positions in models with at least $N_F \\geq 2N+1$. We have also found that adding together any pair of solution can produce a new exact solution, if the combined tension is below certain limit.
Pioline, Boris
2015-01-01
In $D=4,N=2$ theories on $R^{3,1}$, the index receives contributions not only from single-particle BPS states, counted by the BPS indices, but also from multi-particle states made of BPS constituents. In a recent work [arXiv:1406.2360], a general formula expressing the index in terms of the BPS indices was proposed, which is smooth across walls of marginal stability and reproduces the expected single-particle contributions. In this note, I analyze the two-particle contributions predicted by this formula, and show agreement with the spectral asymmetry of the continuum of scattering states in the supersymmetric quantum mechanics of two non-relativistic, mutually non-local dyons. This provides a physical justification for the error function profile used in the mathematics literature on indefinite theta series, and in the physics literature on black hole partition functions.
Wall-Crossing Invariants from Spectral Networks
Longhi, Pietro
2016-01-01
A new construction of BPS monodromies for 4d ${\\mathcal N}=2$ theories of class S is introduced. A novel feature of this construction is its manifest invariance under Kontsevich-Soibelman wall crossing, in the sense that no information on the 4d BPS spectrum is employed. The BPS monodromy is encoded by topological data of a finite graph, embedded into the UV curve $C$ of the theory. The graph arises from a degenerate limit of spectral networks, constructed at maximal intersections of walls of marginal stability in the Coulomb branch of the gauge theory. The topology of the graph, together with a notion of framing, encode equations that determine the monodromy. We develop an algorithmic technique for solving the equations, and compute the monodromy in several examples. The graph manifestly encodes the symmetries of the monodromy, providing some support for conjectural relations to specializations of the superconformal index. For $A_1$-type theories, the graphs encoding the monodromy are "dessins d'enfants" on ...
Semiclassical framed BPS states
Moore, Gregory W.; Royston, Andrew B.; Van den Bleeken, Dieter
2016-07-01
We provide a semiclassical description of framed BPS states in four-dimensional {N}=2 super Yang-Mills theories probed by 't Hooft defects, in terms of a supersymmetric quantum mechanics on the moduli space of singular monopoles. Framed BPS states, like their ordinary counterparts in the theory without defects, are associated with the L 2 kernel of certain Dirac operators on moduli space, or equivalently with the L 2 cohomology of related Dolbeault operators. The Dirac/Dolbeault operators depend on two Cartan-valued Higgs vevs. We conjecture a map between these vevs and the Seiberg-Witten special coordinates, consistent with a one-loop analysis and checked in examples. The map incorporates all perturbative and nonperturbative corrections that are relevant for the semiclassical construction of BPS states, over a suitably defined weak coupling regime of the Coulomb branch. We use this map to translate wall crossing formulae and the no-exotics theorem to statements about the Dirac/Dolbeault operators. The no-exotics theorem, concerning the absence of nontrivial SU(2) R representations in the BPS spectrum, implies that the kernel of the Dirac operator is chiral, and further translates into a statement that all L 2 cohomology of the Dolbeault operator is concentrated in the middle degree. Wall crossing formulae lead to detailed predictions for where the Dirac operators fail to be Fredholm and how their kernels jump. We explore these predictions in nontrivial examples. This paper explains the background and arguments behind the results announced in the short note [1].
Semiclassical framed BPS states
Moore, Gregory W; Bleeken, Dieter Van den
2015-01-01
We provide a semiclassical description of framed BPS states in four-dimensional N = 2 super Yang-Mills theories probed by 't Hooft defects, in terms of a supersymmetric quantum mechanics on the moduli space of singular monopoles. Framed BPS states, like their ordinary counterparts in the theory without defects, are associated with the L^2 kernel of certain Dirac operators on moduli space, or equivalently with the L^2 cohomology of related Dolbeault operators. The Dirac/Dolbeault operators depend on two Cartan-valued Higgs vevs. We conjecture a map between these vevs and the Seiberg-Witten special coordinates, consistent with a one-loop analysis and checked in examples. The map incorporates all perturbative and nonperturbative corrections that are relevant for the semiclassical construction of BPS states, over a suitably defined weak coupling regime of the Coulomb branch. We use this map to translate wall crossing formulae and the no exotics theorem to statements about the Dirac/Dolbeault operators. The no exo...
Corfu lectures on wall-crossing, multi-centered black holes, and quiver invariants
Pioline, Boris
2013-01-01
The BPS state spectrum in four-dimensional gauge theories or string vacua with N=2 supersymmetries is well known to depend on the values of the parameters or moduli at spatial infinity. The BPS index is locally constant, but discontinuous across real codimension-one walls where some of the BPS states decay. By postulating that BPS states are bound states of more elementary constituents carrying their own degrees of freedom and interacting via supersymmetric quantum mechanics, we provide a physically transparent derivation of the universal wall-crossing formula which governs the jump of the index. The same physical picture suggests that at any point in moduli space, the total index can be written as a sum of contributions from all possible bound states of elementary, absolutely stable constituents with the same total charge. For D-brane bound states described by quivers, this `Coulomb branch formula' predicts that the cohomology of quiver moduli spaces is uniquely determined by certain `pure-Higgs' invariants,...
Wall Crossing from Boltzmann Black Hole Halos
Manschot, Jan; Sen, Ashoke
2010-01-01
A key question in the study of N=2 supersymmetric string or field theories is to understand the decay of BPS bound states across walls of marginal stability in the space of parameters or vacua. By representing the potentially unstable bound states as multi-centered black hole solutions in N=2 supergravity, we provide two fully general and explicit formulae for the change in the (refined) index across the wall. The first, "Higgs branch" formula relies on Reineke's results for invariants of quivers without oriented loops, specialized to the Abelian case. The second, "Coulomb branch" formula results from evaluating an integral over the classical phase space of multi-centered solutions by localization. We provide extensive evidence that these new formulae agree with each other and with the mathematical results of Kontsevich and Soibelman (KS) and Joyce and Song (JS). The main physical insight behind our results is that the Bose-Fermi statistics of individual black holes participating in the bound state can be tra...
Crossing Walls to Date Girls in Zhaba
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2004-01-01
In Zhaba, whenever a boy falls in love with a girl, no ceremony is necessary. The boy only has to cross the 10-meter-high wall of the girl's house to spend the night with her. Children born in this way are brought up by the mothers; the fathers are exempt from responsibility, but make some efforts in terms of support under obligation. In their own maternal families,males play assisting roles in bringing up their sisters' children.
Knots, BPS States, and Algebraic Curves
Garoufalidis, Stavros; Kucharski, Piotr; Sułkowski, Piotr
2016-08-01
We analyze relations between BPS degeneracies related to Labastida-Mariño-Ooguri-Vafa (LMOV) invariants and algebraic curves associated to knots. We introduce a new class of such curves, which we call extremal A-polynomials, discuss their special properties, and determine exact and asymptotic formulas for the corresponding (extremal) BPS degeneracies. These formulas lead to nontrivial integrality statements in number theory, as well as to an improved integrality conjecture, which is stronger than the known M-theory integrality predictions. Furthermore, we determine the BPS degeneracies encoded in augmentation polynomials and show their consistency with known colored HOMFLY polynomials. Finally, we consider refined BPS degeneracies for knots, determine them from the knowledge of super-A-polynomials, and verify their integrality. We illustrate our results with twist knots, torus knots, and various other knots with up to 10 crossings.
Gukov, Sergei; Saberi, Ingmar; Stosic, Marko; Sulkowski, Piotr
2015-01-01
This paper provides both a detailed study of color-dependence of link homologies, as realized in physics as certain spaces of BPS states, and a broad study of the behavior of BPS states in general. We consider how the spectrum of BPS states varies as continuous parameters of a theory are perturbed. This question can be posed in a wide variety of physical contexts, and we answer it by proposing that the relationship between unperturbed and perturbed BPS spectra is described by a spectral sequence. These general considerations unify previous applications of spectral sequence techniques to physics, and explain from a physical standpoint the appearance of many spectral sequences relating various link homology theories to one another. We also study structural properties of colored HOMFLY homology for links and evaluate Poincar\\'e polynomials in numerous examples. Among these structural properties is a novel "sliding" property, which can be explained by using (refined) modular $S$-matrix. This leads to the identifi...
Seo, Jihye
2012-01-01
N=2 Seiberg-Witten theories allow an interesting interplay between the Argyres-Douglas loci, singularity structures and wall-crossing formulae. In this paper we investigate this connection by first studying the singularity structures of hyper-elliptic Seiberg-Witten curves for pure N=2 gauge theories with SU(r+1) and Sp(2r) gauge groups, and propose new methods to locate the Argyres-Douglas loci in the moduli space, where multiple mutually non-local BPS states become massless. In a region of the moduli space, we compute dyon charges for all 2r+2 and 2r+1 massless dyons for SU(r+1) and Sp(2r) gauge groups respectively for rank r>1. From here we elucidate the connection to the wall-crossing phenomena for pure Sp(4) Seiberg-Witten theory near the Argyres-Douglas loci, despite our emphasis being only at the massless sector of the BPS spectra. We also present 2r-1 candidates for the maximal Argyres-Douglas points for pure SO(2r+1) Seiberg-Witten theory.
Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Sawado, Nobuyuki
2015-01-01
The BPS Skyrme model has many exact analytic solutions in flat space. We generalize the model to a curved space or spacetime and find that the solutions can only be BPS for a constant time-time component of the metric tensor. We find exact solutions on the curved spaces: a 3-sphere and a 3-hyperboloid; and we further find an analytic gravitating Skyrmion on the 3-sphere. For the case of a nontrivial time-time component of the metric, we suggest a potential for which we find analytic solutions on anti-de Sitter and de Sitter spacetimes in the limit of no gravitational backreaction. We take the gravitational coupling into account in numerical solutions and show that they are well approximated by the analytic solutions for weak gravitational coupling.
Ioannidou, Theodora
2016-01-01
An extended version of the BPS Skyrme model that admits time-dependent solutions is discussed. Initially, by introducing a power law at the original potential term of the BPS Skyrme model the existence, stability and structure of the corresponding solutions is investigated. Then, the frequencies and half-lifes of the radial oscillations of the constructed time-dependent solutions are determined.
Mutation Symmetries in BPS Quiver Theories: Building the BPS Spectra
Saidi, El Hassan
2012-01-01
We study the basic features of BPS quiver mutations in 4D $\\mathcal{N}=2$ supersymmetric quantum field theory with $G=ADE$ gauge symmetries. We show, for these gauge symmetries, that the set of quiver mutations form a discrete group $\\mathcal{G}_{Mut}^{G}$ capturing all information about the BPS spectra. In the strong coupling limit, it is shown that the corresponding discrete groups $\\mathcal{G}_{strong}^{G}$ are isomorphic to the discrete dihedral groups $Dih_{2h_{G}}$ contained in Coxeter(G) with $h_{G}$ the Coxeter number of G. These discrete groups allow to determine the BPS spectrum of the strong coupling chamber; and give another way to count the total number of BPS and anti-BPS states of $\\mathcal{N}=2$ gauge theories. We also build the matrix realization of these mutation groups $% \\mathcal{G}_{strong}^{G}$ from which we read directly the electric-magnetic charges of the BPS and anti-BPS states of $\\mathcal{N}=2$ QFT$_{4}$ as well as their matrix intersections. We study as well the quiver mutation sy...
Non-perturbative effects and wall-crossing from topological strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We argue that the Gopakumar-Vafa interpretation of the topological string partition function can be used to compute and resum certain non-perturbative brane instanton effects of type II CY compactifications. In particular the topological string A-model encodes the non-perturbative corrections to the hypermultiplet moduli space metric from general D1/D(-1)-brane instantons in 4d N = 2 IIB models. We also discuss the reduction to 4d N = 1 by fluxes and/or orientifolds and/or D-branes, and the prospects to resum brane instanton contributions to non-perturbative superpotentials. We argue that the connection between non-perturbative effects and the topological string underlies the continuity of non-perturbative effects across lines of BPS stability. We also confirm this statement in mirror B-model matrix model examples, relating matrix model instantons to non-perturbative D-brane instantons. The computation of non-perturbative effects from the topological string requires a 3d circle compactification and T-duality, relating effects from particles and instantons, reminiscent of that involved in the physical derivation of the Kontsevich-Soibelmann wall-crossing formula.
Superfluid properties of BPS monopoles
Lantsman, L
2006-01-01
This paper is devoted to demonstrating manifest superfluid properties of the Minkowskian Higgs model with vacuum BPS monopole solutions at assuming the "continuous" $\\sim S^2$ vacuum geometry in that model. It will be also argued that point hedgehog topological defects are present in the Minkowskian Higgs model with BPS monopoles. It turns out, and we show this, that the enumerated phenomena are compatible with the Faddeev-Popov "heuristic" quantization of the Minkowskian Higgs model with vacuum BPS monopoles, coming to fixing the Weyl (temporal) gauge $A_0=0$ for gauge fields $A$ in the Faddeev-Popov path integral.
Refined BPS invariants, Chern-Simons theory, and the quantum dilogarithm
Dimofte, Tudor Dan
In this thesis, we consider two main subjects: the refined BPS invariants of Calabi-Yau threefolds, and three-dimensional Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group. We study the wall-crossing behavior of refined BPS invariants using a variety of techniques, including a four-dimensional supergravity analysis, statistical-mechanical melting crystal models, and relations to new mathematical invariants. We conjecture an equivalence between refined invariants and the motivic Donaldson-Thomas invariants of Kontsevich and Soibelman. We then consider perturbative Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group, combining traditional and novel approaches to the theory (including a new state integral model) to obtain exact results for perturbative partition functions. We thus obtain a new class of topological invariants, which are not of finite type, defined in the background of genuinely nonabelian flat connections. The two main topics, BPS invariants and Chern-Simons theory, are connected at both a formal and (we believe) deeper conceptual level by the striking central role that the quantum dilogarithm function plays in each.
Adam, C.; C. Naya; Sanchez-Guillen, J.; Wereszczynski, A.
2012-01-01
We analyze the vector meson formulation of the BPS Skyrme model in (3+1) dimensions, where the term of sixth power in first derivatives characteristic for the original, integrable BPS Skyrme model (the topological or baryon current squared) is replaced by a coupling between the vector meson $\\omega_\\mu$ and the baryon current. We find that the model remains integrable in the sense of generalized integrability and almost solvable (reducible to a set of two first order ODEs) for any value of th...
Radial vibrations of BPS skyrmions
Adam, C; Romanczukiewicz, T; Wereszczynski, A
2016-01-01
We study radial vibrations of spherically symmetric skyrmions in the BPS Skyrme model. Concretely, we numerically solve the linearised field equations for small fluctuations in a skyrmion background, both for linearly stable oscillations and for (unstable) resonances. This is complemented by numerical solutions of the full nonlinear system, which confirm all the results of the linear analysis. In all cases, the resulting fundamental excitation provides a rather accurate value for the Roper resonance, supporting the hypothesis that the BPS Skyrme model already gives a reasonable approximate description of this resonance.
Gravitating BPS dyons witout a dilaton
Lee, C; Lee, Choonkyu; Park, Q Han
1996-01-01
We describe curved-space BPS dyon solutions, the ADM mass of which saturates the gravitational version of the Bogomol'nyi bound. This generalizes self-gravitating BPS monopole solutions of Gibbons et al. when there is no dilaton.
Adam, C; Sanchez-Guillen, J; Wereszczynski, A
2012-01-01
We analyze the vector meson formulation of the BPS Skyrme model in (3+1) dimensions, where the term of sixth power in first derivatives characteristic for the original, integrable BPS Skyrme model (the topological or baryon current squared) is replaced by a coupling between the vector meson $\\omega_\\mu$ and the baryon current. We find that the model remains integrable in the sense of generalized integrability and almost solvable (reducible to a set of two first order ODEs) for any value of the baryon charge. Further, we analyze the appearance of topological solitons for two one-parameter families of one vacuum potentials: the old Skyrme potentials and the so-called BPS potentials. Depending on the value of the parameters we find several qualitatively different possibilities. In the massless case we have a parameter region with no skyrmions, a unique compact skyrmion with a discontinuous first derivative at the boundary (equivalently, with a source term located at the boundary, which screens the topological ch...
Theta Series, Wall-Crossing and Quantum Dilogarithm Identities
Alexandrov, Sergei; Pioline, Boris
2016-08-01
Motivated by mathematical structures which arise in string vacua and gauge theories with N=2 supersymmetry, we study the properties of certain generalized theta series which appear as Fourier coefficients of functions on a twisted torus. In Calabi-Yau string vacua, such theta series encode instanton corrections from k Neveu-Schwarz five-branes. The theta series are determined by vector-valued wave-functions, and in this work we obtain the transformation of these wave-functions induced by Kontsevich-Soibelman symplectomorphisms. This effectively provides a quantum version of these transformations, where the quantization parameter is inversely proportional to the five-brane charge k. Consistency with wall-crossing implies a new five-term relation for Faddeev's quantum dilogarithm {Φ_b} at b = 1, which we prove. By allowing the torus to be non-commutative, we obtain a more general five-term relation valid for arbitrary b and k, which may be relevant for the physics of five-branes at finite chemical potential for angular momentum.
Theta Series, Wall-Crossing and Quantum Dilogarithm Identities
Alexandrov, Sergei; Pioline, Boris
2016-05-01
Motivated by mathematical structures which arise in string vacua and gauge theories with {{{N}=2}} supersymmetry, we study the properties of certain generalized theta series which appear as Fourier coefficients of functions on a twisted torus. In Calabi-Yau string vacua, such theta series encode instanton corrections from k Neveu-Schwarz five-branes. The theta series are determined by vector-valued wave-functions, and in this work we obtain the transformation of these wave-functions induced by Kontsevich-Soibelman symplectomorphisms. This effectively provides a quantum version of these transformations, where the quantization parameter is inversely proportional to the five-brane charge k. Consistency with wall-crossing implies a new five-term relation for Faddeev's quantum dilogarithm {Φ_b} at b = 1, which we prove. By allowing the torus to be non-commutative, we obtain a more general five-term relation valid for arbitrary b and k, which may be relevant for the physics of five-branes at finite chemical potential for angular momentum.
Theta series, wall-crossing and quantum dilogarithm identities
Alexandrov, Sergei
2016-01-01
Motivated by mathematical structures which arise in string vacua and gauge theories with N=2 supersymmetry, we study the properties of certain generalized theta series which appear as Fourier coefficients of functions on a twisted torus. In Calabi-Yau string vacua, such theta series encode instanton corrections from $k$ Neveu-Schwarz five-branes. The theta series are determined by vector-valued wave-functions, and in this work we obtain the transformation of these wave-functions induced by Kontsevich-Soibelman symplectomorphisms. This effectively provides a quantum version of these transformations, where the quantization parameter is inversely proportional to the five-brane charge $k$. Consistency with wall-crossing implies a new five-term relation for Faddeev's quantum dilogarithm $\\Phi_b$ at $b=1$, which we prove. By allowing the torus to be non-commutative, we obtain a more general five-term relation valid for arbitrary $b$ and $k$, which may be relevant for the physics of five-branes at finite chemical po...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenqi Yu
Full Text Available A fluorescence microscopy method to directly follow the localization of defined proteins in Staphylococcus was hampered by the unstable fluorescence of fluorescent proteins. Here, we constructed plasmid (pCX encoded red fluorescence (RF mCherry (mCh hybrids, namely mCh-cyto (no signal peptide and no sorting sequence, mCh-sec (with signal peptide, and mCh-cw (with signal peptide and cell wall sorting sequence. The S. aureus clones targeted mCh-fusion proteins into the cytosol, the supernatant and the cell envelope respectively; in all cases mCherry exhibited bright fluorescence. In staphylococci two types of signal peptides (SP can be distinguished: the +YSIRK motif SP(lip and the -YSIRK motif SP(sasF. mCh-hybrids supplied with the +YSIRK motif SP(lip were always expressed higher than those with -YSIRK motif SP(sasF. To study the location of the anchoring process and also the influence of SP type, mCh-cw was supplied on the one hand with +YSIRK motif (mCh-cw1 and the other hand with -YSIRK motif (mCh-cw2. MCh-cw1 preferentially localized at the cross wall, while mCh-cw2 preferentially localized at the peripheral wall. Interestingly, when treated with sub-lethal concentrations of penicillin or moenomycin, both mCh-cw1 and mCh-cw2 were concentrated at the cross wall. The shift from the peripheral wall to the cross wall required Sortase A (SrtA, as in the srtA mutant this effect was blunted. The effect is most likely due to antibiotic mediated increase of free anchoring sites (Lipid II at the cross wall, the substrate of SrtA, leading to a preferential incorporation of anchored proteins at the cross wall.
Multiply Phased Traveling BPS Vortex
Kimm, Kyoungtae; Cho, Y M
2016-01-01
We present the multiply phased current carrying vortex solutions in the U(1) gauge theory coupled to an $(N+1)$-component SU(N+1) scalar multiplet in the Bogomolny limit. Our vortex solutions correspond to the static vortex dressed with traveling waves along the axis of symmetry. What is notable in our vortex solutions is that the frequencies of traveling waves in each component of the scalar field can have different values. The energy of the static vortex is proportional to the topological charge of $CP^N$ model in the BPS limit, and the multiple phase of the vortex supplies additional energy contribution which is proportional to the Noether charge associated to the remaining symmetry.
Radion Dynamics in BPS Braneworlds
Webster, S L
2004-01-01
We examine the moduli dynamics of supergravity-inspired BPS braneworlds, clarifying the role of bulk scalar fields in brane collisions. The model contains the Randall-Sundrum model both with and without a free, massless bulk scalar field. Its low-energy effective theory is derived with a moduli space approximation (MSA) and agrees with the corresponding results derived elsewhere. In the Randall-Sundrum case we show the MSA to be an accurate description of the system in the small-radion regime. Whilst the presence of a bulk scalar has little qualitative effect on the radion effective potential, the corresponding modulus field diverges during a brane collision. This renders the event singular, even in the Brane Frame with an exact FRW geometry, via its contribution to the induced Friedmann equation on the brane, and also calls into doubt the self-consistency of the effective theory.
BPS Boojums in N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories
Arai, Masato; Eto, Minoru
2016-01-01
We study 1/4 Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) composite solitons of vortex strings, domain walls and boojums in N=2 supersymmetric Abelian gauge theories in four dimensions. We obtain solutions to the 1/4 BPS equations with the finite gauge coupling constant. To obtain numerical solutions for generic coupling constants, we construct globally correct approximate functions which allow us to easily find fixed points of a gradient flow equations. We analytically/numerically confirm that the negative mass of a single boojum appearing at the end point of the vortex string on the logarithmically bent domain wall is equal to the half-mass of the 't Hooft-Polyakov monopole. We examine various configurations and clarify how the shape of the boojum depends on the coupling constants and moduli parameters. We find a semi-local boojum with a size moduli which appears when the semi-local string ends on the domain wall. We introduce a magnetic scalar potential which offers an intuitive understanding that the end point of...
BPS states in M-theory and twistorial constituents
Bandos, I A; Izquierdo, J M; Lukierski, J; Bandos, Igor A.; Azcarraga, Jose A. de; Izquierdo, Jose M.; Lukierski, Jerzy
2001-01-01
We provide a complete algebraic description of BPS states in M-theory in terms of primary constituents that we call BPS preons. We argue that any BPS state preserving k of the 32 supersymmetries is a composite of (32-k) BPS preons. In particular, the BPS states corresponding to the basic M2 and M5 branes are composed of 16 BPS preons. By extending the M-algebra to a generalized D=11 conformal superalgebra osp(1|64) we relate the BPS preons with its fundamental representation, the D=11 supertwistors.
Cecotti, Sergio; Vafa, Cumrun
2011-01-01
We construct 3d, N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories by considering a one-parameter `R-flow' of 4d, N=2 theories, where the central charges vary while preserving their phase order. Each BPS state in 4d leads to a BPS particle in 3d, and thus each chamber of the 4d theory leads to a distinct 3d theory. Pairs of 4d chambers related by wall-crossing, R-flow to mirror pairs of 3d theories. In particular, the 2-3 wall-crossing for the A_2 Argyres-Douglas theory leads to 3d mirror symmetry for N_f=1 SQED and the XYZ model. Although our formalism applies to arbitrary N=2 models, we focus on the case where the parent 4d theory consists of pairs of M5-branes wrapping a Riemann surface, and develop a general framework for describing 3d N=2 theories engineered by wrapping pairs of M5-branes on three-manifolds. Each 4d chamber, which corresponds to a dual 3d description, maps to a particular tetrahedral decomposition of the UV 3d geometry. In the IR the physics is captured by a single recombined M5-brane which is a branche...
In-vitro fermentability of cell walls as influenced by lignin composition and cross-linking.
We assessed how diverse modifications in lignin composition and reductions in ferulate-lignin cross-linking influence the degradability of cell walls. Cell walls from nonlignified maize cell suspensions were artificially lignified with varying ratios of normal monolignols (coniferyl and sinapyl alco...
Near BPS Skyrmions and Restricted Harmonic Maps
Speight, J M
2014-01-01
Motivated by a class of near BPS Skyrme models introduced by Adam, S\\'anchez-Guill\\'en and Wereszczy\\'nski, the following variant of the harmonic map problem is introduced: a map $\\phi:(M,g)\\rightarrow (N,h)$ between Riemannian manifolds is restricted harmonic (RH) if it locally extremizes $E_2$ on its $SDiff(M)$ orbit, where $SDiff(M)$ denotes the group of volume preserving diffeomorphisms of $(M,g)$, and $E_2$ denotes the Dirichlet energy. It is conjectured that near BPS skyrmions tend to RH maps in the BPS limit. It is shown that $\\phi$ is RH if and only if $\\phi^*h$ has exact divergence, and a linear stability theory of RH maps is developed, whence it follows that all weakly conformal maps, for example, are stable RH. Examples of RH maps in every degree class $R^3\\to SU(2)$ and $R^2\\to S^2$ are constructed. It is shown that the axially symmetric BPS skyrmions on which all previous analytic studies of near BPS Skyrme models have been based, are not RH, so each such field can be deformed along $SDiff(R^3)$ ...
Crossed ratchet effects on magnetic domain walls: geometry and transverse field effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alija, A; Hierro-Rodriguez, A; Perez-Junquera, A; Alameda, J M; Martin, J I; Velez, M, E-mail: mvelez@uniovi.es [Dept. Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo-CINN, 33007 Oviedo (Spain)
2011-08-17
Domain wall propagation across a 2D array of asymmetric holes is strongly dependent on the domain wall configuration: i.e. on whether the wall is flat or kinked. This results in interesting crossed ratchet and asymmetric accommodation effects that have been studied as a function of geometry and transverse field. Micromagnetic simulations have shown that the observation of crossed ratchet effects is easier for arrow than for triangular holes due to a larger field range in which kink propagation is the preferred mode for domain wall motion. Also, it has been found that dc transverse fields can produce a significant enhancement of the easy axis asymmetric accommodation and, also, that ac transverse fields can be rectified by the crossed ratchet potential.
Analysis of moderately thin-walled beam cross-sections by cubic isoparametric elements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høgsberg, Jan Becker; Krenk, Steen
2014-01-01
In technical beam theory the six equilibrium states associated with homogeneous tension, bending, shear and torsion are treated as individual load cases. This enables the formulation of weak form equations governing the warping from shear and torsion. These weak form equations are solved...... numerically by introducing a cubic-linear two-dimensional isoparametric element. The cubic interpolation of this element accurately represents quadratic shear stress variations along cross-section walls, and thus moderately thin-walled cross-sections are effectively discretized by these elements. The ability...... of this element to represent curved geometries, and to accurately determine cross-section parameters and shear stress distributions is demonstrated....
Cho, Inyong; Kim, Yoonbai
2008-01-01
We investigate the BPS configuration of the multi D-vortices produced from the D2${\\bar {\\rm D}}$2 system. Based on the DBI-type action with a Gaussian-type runaway potential for a complex tachyon field, the BPS limit is achieved when the tachyon profile is thin. The solution states randomly-distributed $n$ static D-vortices with zero interaction. With the obtained BPS configuration, we derive the relativistic Lagrangian which describes the dynamics of free massive D-vortices. We also discuss the 90${}^{\\circ}$ and 180${}^{\\circ}$ scattering of two identical D-vortices, and present its implications on the reconnection in the dynamics of cosmic superstrings.
Near BPS skyrmions and restricted harmonic maps
Speight, J. M.
2015-06-01
Motivated by a class of near BPS Skyrme models introduced by Adam, Sánchez-Guillén and Wereszczyński, the following variant of the harmonic map problem is introduced: a map φ :(M, g) →(N, h) between Riemannian manifolds is restricted harmonic if it locally extremizes E2 on its SDiff(M) orbit, where SDiff(M) denotes the group of volume preserving diffeomorphisms of (M, g), and E2 denotes the Dirichlet energy. It is conjectured that near BPS skyrmions tend to restricted harmonic maps in the BPS limit. It is shown that φ is restricted harmonic if and only if φ∗ h has exact divergence, and a linear stability theory of restricted harmonic maps is developed, from which it follows that all weakly conformal maps are stable restricted harmonic. Examples of restricted harmonic maps in every degree class R3 → SU(2) and R2 →S2 are constructed. It is shown that the axially symmetric BPS skyrmions on which all previous analytic studies of near BPS Skyrme models have been based, are not restricted harmonic, casting doubt on the phenomenological predictions of such studies. The problem of minimizing E2 for φ :Rk → N over all linear volume preserving diffeomorphisms is solved explicitly, and a deformed axially symmetric family of Skyrme fields constructed which are candidates for approximate near BPS skyrmions at low baryon number. The notion of restricted harmonicity is generalized to restricted F-criticality where F is any functional on maps (M, g) →(N, h) which is, in a precise sense, geometrically natural. The case where F is a linear combination of E2 and E4, the usual Skyrme term, is studied in detail, and it is shown that inverse stereographic projection R3 →S3 ≡ SU(2) is stable restricted F-critical for every such F.
Bouncing universe and non-BPS branes
Loewenfeld, Philipp Höffer v.; Kang, Jin U.; Moeller, Nicolas; Sachs, Ivo
2009-01-01
We describe string frame bouncing universe scenarios involving the creation and annihilation of a non-BPS D9-brane in type IIA superstring theory. We find several classes of solutions, in which the bounce is driven by the tachyon dynamics of the non-BPS brane. The metric and the dilaton are consistently described in terms of the lowest order effective action. The bounce solutions interpolate between contracting and expanding pre-big bang (or post-big bang) solutions. The singular behavior of ...
BPS Electromagnetic Waves on Giant Gravitons
Kim, S; Kim, Seok; Lee, Kimyeong
2005-01-01
We find new 1/8-BPS giant graviton solutions in $AdS_5 \\times S^5$, carrying three angular momenta along $S^5$, and investigate their properties. Especially, we show that nonzero worldvolume gauge fields are admitted preserving supersymmetry. These gauge field modes can be viewed as electromagnetic waves along the compact D3 brane, whose Poynting vector contributes to the BPS angular momenta. We also analyze the (nearly-)spherical giant gravitons with worldvolume gauge fields in detail. Expressing the $S^3$ in Hopf fibration ($S^1$ fibred over $S^2$), the wave propagates along the $S^1$ fiber.
A Low Cross-Polarization Smooth-Walled Horn with Improved Bandwidth
Zeng, Lingzhen; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.
2009-01-01
Corrugated feed horns offer excellent beam symmetry, main beam efficiency, and cross-polar response over wide bandwidths, but can be challenging to fabricate. An easier-to-manufacture smooth-walled feed is explored that approximates these properties over a finite bandwidth. The design, optimization and measurement of a monotonically-profiled, smooth-walled scalar feedhorn with a diffraction-limited approximately 7 degrees full width at half maximum (FWHM) is presented. The feed was demonstrated to have low cross polarization (<-30 dB) across the frequency range 33-45 GHz (30% fractional bandwidth). A return loss better than -28 dB was measured across the band.
A note on multiply wound BPS Wilson loops in ABJM
Bianchi, Marco S.
2016-01-01
We consider BPS Wilson loops in planar ABJM theory, wound multiple times around the great circle. We compute the expectation value of the 1/6-BPS and 1/2-BPS Wilson loops to three- and two-loop order in perturbation theory, respectively, dealing with the combinatorics of multiple winding via recursive relations. For the 1/6-BPS Wilson loop we perform the computation at generic framing and at framing 1 we find agreement with the localization result. For the 1/2-BPS Wilson loop we compute the e...
Wall-crossing between stable and co-stable ADHM data
Ohkawa, Ryo
2016-01-01
We prove formula between Nekrasov partition functions defined from stable and co-stable ADHM data for the plane following method by Nakajima-Yoshioka based on the theory of wall-crossing formula developed by Mochizuki. This formula is similar to conjectures by Itoh-Maruyoshi-Okuda for $A_{1}$ singularity.
Biomass Production System (BPS) Plant Growth Unit
Morrow, R. C.; Crabb, T. M.
The Biomass Production System (BPS) was developed under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program to meet science, biotechnology and commercial plant growth needs in the Space Station era. The BPS is equivalent in size to a double middeck locker, but uses it's own custom enclosure with a slide out structure to which internal components mount. The BPS contains four internal growth chambers, each with a growing volume of more than 4 liters. Each of the growth chambers has active nutrient delivery, and independent control of temperature, humidity, lighting, and CO2 set-points. Temperature control is achieved using a thermoelectric heat exchanger system. Humidity control is achieved using a heat exchanger with a porous interface which can both humidify and dehumidify. The control software utilizes fuzzy logic for nonlinear, coupled temperature and humidity control. The fluorescent lighting system can be dimmed to provide a range of light levels. CO2 levels are controlled by injecting pure CO2 to the system based on input from an infrared gas analyzer. The unit currently does not scrub CO2, but has been designed to accept scrubber cartridges. In addition to providing environmental control, a number of features are included to facilitate science. The BPS chambers are sealed to allow CO2 and water vapor exchange measurements. The plant chambers can be removed to allow manipulation or sampling of specimens, and each chamber has gas/fluid sample ports. A video camera is provided for each chamber, and frame-grabs and complete environmental data for all science and hardware system sensors are stored on an internal hard drive. Data files can also be transferred to 3.5-inch disks using the front panel disk drive
de Medeiros, Paul
2010-01-01
Smooth (at least 1/2)-BPS Freund-Rubin backgrounds of eleven-dimensional supergravity of the form AdS_4 x X^7 have been recently classified. Requiring that amount of supersymmetry forces X to be a spherical space form, whence isometric to the quotient of the round 7-sphere by a freely-acting finite subgroup of SO(8). The classification is given in terms of ADE subgroups of the quaternions embedded in SO(8) as the graph of an automorphism. In this paper we extend this classification by dropping the requirement that the background be smooth, so that X is now allowed to be an orbifold of the round 7-sphere. We find that if the background is (more than 1/2)-BPS, then it is automatically smooth in accordance with the homogeneity conjecture, but that there are many half-BPS orbifolds, most of them new. The classification is now given in terms of pairs of ADE subgroups of quaternions fibred over the same finite group. We classify such subgroups and then describe the resulting orbifolds in terms of iterated quotients...
Wall-crossing, Rogers dilogarithm, and the QK/HK correspondence
Alexandrov, Sergei; Pioline, Boris
2011-01-01
When formulated in twistor space, the D-instanton corrected hypermultiplet moduli space in N=2 string vacua and the Coulomb branch of rigid N=2 gauge theories on $R^3 \\times S^1$ are strikingly similar and, to a large extent, dictated by consistency with wall-crossing. We elucidate this similarity by showing that these two spaces are related under a general duality between, on one hand, quaternion-Kahler manifolds with a quaternionic isometry and, on the other hand, hyperkahler manifolds with a rotational isometry, further equipped with a hyperholomorphic circle bundle with a connection. We show that the transition functions of the hyperholomorphic circle bundle relevant for the hypermultiplet moduli space are given by the Rogers dilogarithm function, and that consistency across walls of marginal stability is ensured by the motivic wall-crossing formula of Kontsevich and Soibelman. We illustrate the construction on some simple examples of wall-crossing related to cluster algebras for rank 2 Dynkin quivers. In...
Pressure field in flow through uniform straight pipes with varying wall cross curvature.
Naili, Salah; Thiriet, Marc
2005-10-01
Pressure fields in rigid smooth straight tubes with an axially uniform cross section, in which an incompressible Newtonian fluid flows steadily, have been determined. Five cross section shapes are used. The reference cross section S0 is slightly elliptic (ellipticity of 1.005). Four cross section shapes, which mimic collapsed vessels in an uniformly frozen state, are defined according to the curvature of their opposite faces (the mid-face is located on the minor axis) Sq (parallel faces), St (face folding), Sc (point contact between faces) and Sl (line contact). These four selected cross shapes are characterized by large changes in both the cross sectional shape and area with respect to S0. The cross shapes are obtained from the computation of the deformation under uniform transmural pressures, without extension, of a thin-walled conduit of infinite length and of homogeneous purely elastic walls of constant thickness. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved using the finite element method for the five tubes summation operator0, summation operatorq, summation operatort, summation operatorc and summation operatorl, which are associated with S0,Sq,St,Sc and Sl, respectively. The numerical tests are performed with the same value of the volume flow rate whatever the tube configuration for three Reynolds numbers ( [See text] ). The present work is aimed at studying the pressure field for the design of the flow chamber in which endothelial cells are cultured. This field is used not only to define a new relative pressure index to determine the entry length but also to estimate the wall shear stress when the flow is fully developed. PMID:16124988
Vibration and Stability of Variable Cross Section Thin-Walled Composite Shafts with Transverse Shear
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ma Jing-min
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A dynamic model of composite shaft with variable cross section is presented. Free vibration equations of the variable cross section thin-walled composite shaft considering the effect of shear deformation are established based on a refined variational asymptotic method and Hamilton’s principle. The numerical results calculated by Galerkin method are analyzed to indicate the effects of ply angle, taper ratio, and transverse shear deformation on the first natural frequency and critical rotating speed. The results are compared with those obtained by using finite element package ANSYS and available in the literature using other models.
Black holes in supergravity: the non-BPS branch
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gimon, Eric; Gimon, Eric G.; Larsen, Finn; Simon, Joan
2007-10-25
We construct extremal, spherically symmetric black hole solutions to 4D supergravity with charge assignments that preclude BPS-saturation. In particular, we determine the ground state energy as a function of charges and moduli. We find that the mass of the non-BPS black hole remains that of a marginal bound state of four basic constituents throughout the entire moduli space and that there is always a non-zero gap above the BPS bound.
Baby Skyrme Model, Near-BPS Approximations and Supersymmetric Extensions
Bolognesi, S.; Zakrzewski, W.
2014-01-01
We study the baby Skyrme model as a theory that interpolates between two distinct BPS systems. For this a near-BPS approximation can be used which, however, involves a small deviation from each of the two BPS limits. We provide analytical explanation and numerical support for the validity of this approximation. We then study the set of all possible supersymmetric extensions of the baby Skyrme model with ${\\cal N}=1$ and the particular ones with extended ${\\cal N}=2$ supersymmetries and relate...
Baby Skyrme model, near-BPS approximations, and supersymmetric extensions
Bolognesi, S.; Zakrzewski, W.
2015-02-01
We study the baby Skyrme model as a theory that interpolates between two distinct BPS systems. For this, a near-BPS approximation can be used when there is a small deviation from each of the two BPS limits. We provide analytical explanation and numerical support for the validity of this approximation. We then study the set of all possible supersymmetric extensions of the baby Skyrme model with N =1 and the particular ones with extended N =2 supersymmetries and relate this to the above mentioned almost-BPS approximation.
Baby Skyrme Model, Near-BPS Approximations and Supersymmetric Extensions
Bolognesi, S
2014-01-01
We study the baby Skyrme model as a theory that interpolates between two distinct BPS systems. For this a near-BPS approximation can be used which, however, involves a small deviation from each of the two BPS limits. We provide analytical explanation and numerical support for the validity of this approximation. We then study the set of all possible supersymmetric extensions of the baby Skyrme model with ${\\cal N}=1$ and the particular ones with extended ${\\cal N}=2$ supersymmetries and relate this to the above mentioned almost-BPS approximation.
The Skyrme model in the BPS limit
Adam, C; Sanchez-Guillen, J; Vazquez, R; Wereszczynski, A
2015-01-01
In this review, we summarise the main features of the BPS Skyrme model which provides a physically well-motivated idealisation of atomic nuclei and nuclear matter: 1) it leads to zero binding energies for classical solitons (while realistic binding energies emerge owing to the semiclassical corrections, the Coulomb interaction and isospin breaking); 2) it describes a perfect non-barotropic fluid already at the microscopic (field theoretical) level which allows to study thermodynamics beyond the mean-field limit. These properties allow for an approximate but analytical calculation of binding energies of the most abundant nuclei, for a determination of the equation of state of skyrmionic matter (both in the full field theory and in a mean-field approximation) as well as the description of neutron stars as Skyrme solitons with a very good agreement with available observational data. All these results suggest that the proper low energy effective model of QCD should be close to the BPS Skyrme model in a certain se...
Analytical BPS Maxwell-Higgs Vortices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Casana
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We have established a prescription for the calculation of analytical vortex solutions in the context of generalized Maxwell-Higgs models whose overall dynamics is controlled by two positive functions of the scalar field, namely, fϕ and wϕ. We have also determined a natural constraint between these functions and the Higgs potential Uϕ, allowing the existence of axially symmetric Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS solutions possessing finite energy. Furthermore, when the generalizing functions are chosen suitably, the nonstandard BPS equations can be solved exactly. We have studied some examples, comparing them with the usual Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen (ANO solution. The overall conclusion is that the analytical self-dual vortices are well-behaved in all relevant sectors, strongly supporting the consistency of the respective generalized models. In particular, our results mimic well-known properties of the usual (numerical configurations, as localized energy density, while contributing to the understanding of topological solitons and their description by means of analytical methods.
Sati, Hisham
2015-01-01
We uncover higher algebraic structures on Noether currents and BPS charges. It is known that equivalence classes of conserved currents form a Lie algebra. We show that at least for target space symmetries of higher parameterized WZW-type sigma-models this naturally lifts to a Lie (p+1)-algebra structure on the Noether currents themselves. Applied to the Green-Schwarz-type action functionals for super p-brane sigma-models this yields super Lie (p+1)-algebra refinements of the traditional BPS brane charge extensions of supersymmetry algebras. We discuss this in the generality of higher differential geometry, where it applies also to branes with (higher) gauge fields on their worldvolume. Applied to the M5-brane sigma-model we recover and properly globalize the M-theory super Lie algebra extension of 11-dimensional superisometries by 2-brane and 5-brane charges. Passing beyond the infinitesimal Lie theory we find cohomological corrections to these charges in higher analogy to the familiar corrections for D-brane...
THIN-WALLED CROSS SECTION SHAPE INFLUENCE ON STEEL MEMBER RESISTANCE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elżbieta Urbańska-Galewska
2016-03-01
Full Text Available This work describes why trending thin-walled technology is achieving popularity in steel construction sector. A purpose of this article is to present the influence of the cold-formed element cross-section shape on an axial compression and a bending moment resistance. The authors have considered four different shapes assuming constant section area and thickness. Calculations were based on three different steel grades taking into account local, distortional and overall buckling. The results are presented in a tabular and a graphical way and clearly confirm that cross-section forming distinctly impact the cold-formed member resistance. The authors choose these cross-sections that work better in compression state and the other (those slender and high that function more efficiently are subjected to bending.
Effect of frictions on cross section quality of thin-walled tube NC bending
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG He; GU Rui-jie; ZHAN Mei; LI Heng
2006-01-01
The effect of frictions between dies and tube on the cross section quality of thin-walled tube numerical controlled(NC) bending was studied by numerical simulation method, combined with theoretical analysis and experiment. The results show that the frictions between mandrel, wiper, pressure die, bending die and tube have a significant and complicate effect on the section quality of thin-walled tube NC bending. To improve the section quality, frictions between mandrel, wiper and tube should be decreased, but the frictions between the pressure die, bending die and tube increase. The effect on the section distortion is more significant from mandrel, wiper, pressure die to bending die and the effect on the wall thinning more significant from mandrel, pressure die, wiper, to bending die. The effects of frictions between all dies and tube on wall thinning are smaller than their effects on section distortion.Mandrel and wiper should be lubricated well and drawing oil is used to lubricate them in actual production. The frictions between pressure die, bending die and tube should be increased and the dry friction is used between pressure die, bending die and tube in actual production.
Proposal for non-BPS D-brane action
Kluson, J
2000-01-01
In this short note we would like to propose a form for the action of a non-BPS D-brane, which will be manifestly supersymmetric invariant and T-duality covariant. We also explicitly show that tachyon condensation on the world-volume of this brane leads to the Dirac-Born-Infeld action for BPS D(p-1)-brane.
Scaling BPS Solutions and pure-Higgs states
I. Bena; M. dr Berkooz; J. de Boer; S. El-Showk; D. van den Bleeken
2012-01-01
Depending on the value of the coupling, BPS states of type II string theory compactified on a Calabi-Yau manifold can be described as multicenter supergravity solutions or as BPS states in a quiver gauge theory. While states that spread into the Coulomb-branch states can be mapped one-to-one to supe
BACKGROUND: We used a biomimetic model system to ascertain how reductions in ferulate-lignin cross-linking and shifts in lignin composition influence ruminal cell wall fermentation. Primary walls from maize cell suspensions with normal or reduced feruloylation were artificially lignified with variou...
A note on multiply wound BPS Wilson loops in ABJM
Bianchi, Marco S
2016-01-01
We consider BPS Wilson loops in planar ABJM theory, wound multiple times around the great circle. We compute the expectation value of the 1/6-BPS and 1/2-BPS Wilson loops to three- and two-loop order in perturbation theory, respectively, dealing with the combinatorics of multiple winding via recursive relations. For the 1/6-BPS Wilson loop we perform the computation at generic framing and at framing 1 we find agreement with the localization result. For the 1/2-BPS Wilson loop we compute the expectation value at trivial framing and by comparison with the matrix model expression we extract the framing dependence of the fermion diagrams.
A note on multiply wound BPS Wilson loops in ABJM
Bianchi, Marco S.
2016-09-01
We consider BPS Wilson loops in planar ABJM theory, wound multiple times around the great circle. We compute the expectation value of the 1/6-BPS and 1/2-BPS Wilson loops to three- and two-loop order in perturbation theory, respectively, dealing with the combinatorics of multiple winding via recursive relations. For the 1/6-BPS Wilson loop we perform the computation at generic framing and at framing 1 we find agreement with the localization result. For the 1/2-BPS Wilson loop we compute the expectation value at trivial framing and by comparison with the matrix model expression we extract the framing dependence of the fermion diagrams.
BPS counting for knots and combinatorics on words
Kucharski, Piotr
2016-01-01
We discuss relations between quantum BPS invariants defined in terms of a product decomposition of certain series, and difference equations (quantum A-polynomials) that annihilate such series. We construct combinatorial models whose structure is encoded in the form of such difference equations, and whose generating functions (Hilbert-Poincar\\'e series) are solutions to those equations and reproduce generating series that encode BPS invariants. Furthermore, BPS invariants in question are expressed in terms of Lyndon words in an appropriate language, thereby relating counting of BPS states to the branch of mathematics referred to as combinatorics on words. We illustrate these results in the framework of colored extremal knot polynomials: among others we determine dual quantum extremal A-polynomials for various knots, present associated combinatorial models, find corresponding BPS invariants (extremal Labastida-Mari\\~no-Ooguri-Vafa invariants) and discuss their integrality.
Superconformal Index, BPS Monodromy and Chiral Algebras
Cecotti, Sergio; Vafa, Cumrun; Yan, Wenbin
2015-01-01
We show that specializations of the 4d $\\mathcal{N}=2$ superconformal index labeled by an integer $N$ is given by $\\textrm{Tr}\\,{\\cal M}^N$ where ${\\cal M}$ is the Kontsevich-Soibelman monodromy operator for BPS states on the Coulomb branch. We provide evidence that the states enumerated by these limits of the index lead to a family of 2d chiral algebras $\\mathcal{A}_{N}$. This generalizes the recent results for the $N=-1$ case which corresponds to the Schur limit of the superconformal index. We show that this specialization of the index leads to the same integrand as that of the elliptic genus of compactification of the superconformal theory on $S^2\\times T^2$ where we turn on $\\frac{1}{2} N$ units of $U(1)_r$ flux on $S^2$.
Time-resolved magnetization dynamics of cross-tie domain walls in permalloy microstructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miguel, J; Kurde, J; Piantek, M; Kuch, W [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Sanchez-Barriga, J; Heitkamp, B; Kronast, F; Duerr, H A [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Elektronenspeicherring BESSY II, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Bayer, D; Aeschlimann, M, E-mail: jorge.miguel@fu-berlin.d [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger Strasse 46, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)
2009-12-02
We report on a picosecond time-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroic-photoelectron emission microscopy study of the evolution of the magnetization components of a microstructured permalloy platelet comprising three cross-tie domain walls. A laser-excited photoswitch has been used to apply a triangular 80 Oe, 160 ps magnetic pulse. Micromagnetic calculations agree well with the experimental results, both in time and frequency, illustrating the large angle precession in the magnetic domains with magnetization perpendicular to the applied pulse, and showing how the magnetic vortices revert their core magnetization while the antivortices remain unaffected.
BPS black holes in gauged N = 4, D = 4 supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We find solutions of the bosonic sector of gauged N = 4, D = 4 SU(2) x SU(2) supergravity, which represent dilaton black holes with toroidal or spherical event horizons. The axion is consistently truncated, and the gauge group is broken to U(1) x U(1). The spherical black holes carry two electric and two magnetic abelian charges, whereas the toroidal holes have vanishing magnetic charges. The space-time metrics are warped products, and the manifolds turn out to be globally hyperbolic, in contrast to standard gauged supergravity ground states. It is shown that in the toroidal case, there are solutions preserving one quarter or one half of the supersymmetries, while for spherical topologies all supersymmetries are broken. In general, the toroidal BPS states represent naked singularities, but there is also a supersymmetric black hole with vanishing Hawking temperature. The ((1)/(2)) supersymmetric case arises for vanishing charges and mass, and represents the known domain wall solution of the Freedman-Schwarz model. It provides the background in which the black holes live. Finally, we use Chamseddine's and Volkov's Kaluza-Klein interpretation of gauged N = 4, D = 4 SU(2) x SU(2) supergravity to lift our solutions to ten and eleven dimensions and to consider them as solutions to the leading order equations of motion of the string/M-theory effective action
1/2 BPS geometries of M2 giant gravitons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We construct the general 1/2 BPS M2 giant graviton solutions asymptotic to the 11-dimensional maximally supersymmetric plane-wave background, based on the recent work of Lin, Lunin, and Maldacena. The solutions have null singularity and we argue that it is unavoidable to have null singularity in the proposed framework, although the solutions are still physically relevant. They involve an arbitrary function F(x) which is shown to have a correspondence to the 1/2 BPS states of the Berenstein-Maldacena-Nastase (BMN) matrix model. A detailed map between the 1/2 BPS states of both sides is worked out
Near BPS Wilson Loop in beta-deformed Theories
Chu, Chong-Sun; Giataganas, Dimitrios
2007-01-01
We propose a definition of the Wilson loop operator in the N=1 beta-deformed supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. Although the operator is not BPS, it has a finite expectation value at least up to order (g^2 N)^2. This does not happen generally for a generic non-BPS Wilson loop whose expectation value is UV divergent. For this reason we call this a near-BPS Wilson loop and conjecture that its exact expectation value is finite. We derive the general form of the boundary condition satisfied by the...
No fermionic wigs for BPS attractors in 5 dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gentile, Lorenzo G.C., E-mail: lgentile@pd.infn.it [DISIT, Università del Piemonte Orientale, via T. Michel, 11, Alessandria I-15120 (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Grassi, Pietro A., E-mail: pgrassi@mfn.unipmn.it [DISIT, Università del Piemonte Orientale, via T. Michel, 11, Alessandria I-15120 (Italy); INFN – Gruppo Collegato di Alessandria – Sezione di Torino (Italy); Marrani, Alessio, E-mail: alessio.marrani@fys.kuleuven.be [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Mezzalira, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.mezzalira@ulb.ac.be [Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, C.P. 231, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Sabra, Wafic A., E-mail: ws00@aub.edu.lb [Centre for Advanced Mathematical Sciences and Physics Department, American University of Beirut (Lebanon)
2014-07-30
We analyze the fermionic wigging of 1/2-BPS (electric) extremal black hole attractors in N=2, D=5 ungauged Maxwell–Einstein supergravity theories, by exploiting anti-Killing spinors supersymmetry transformations. Regardless of the specific data of the real special geometry of the manifold defining the scalars of the vector multiplets, and differently from the D=4 case, we find that there are no corrections for the near-horizon attractor value of the scalar fields; an analogous result also holds for 1/2-BPS (magnetic) extremal black string. Thus, the attractor mechanism receives no fermionic corrections in D=5 (at least in the BPS sector)
1/2 BPS Geometries of M2 Giant Gravitons
Bak, D; Yee, H U; Bak, Dongsu; Siwach, Sanjay; Yee, Ho-Ung
2005-01-01
We construct the general 1/2 BPS M2 giant graviton solutions asymptotic to the eleven-dimensional maximally supersymmetric plane wave background, based on the recent work of Lin, Lunin and Maldacena. The solutions have null singularity and we argue that it is unavoidable to have null singularity in the proposed framework, although the solutions are still physically relevant. They involve an arbitrary function F(x) which is shown to have a correspondence to the 1/2 BPS states of the BMN matrix model. A detailed map between the 1/2 BPS states of both sides is worked out.
IDENTIFYING GENES CONTROLLING FERULATE CROSS-LINKING FORMATION IN GRASS CELL WALLS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
de O Buanafina, Marcia Maria
2013-10-16
DESCRIPTION/ABSTRACT This proposal focuses on cell wall feruloylation and our long term goal is to identify and isolate novel genes controlling feruloylation and to characterize the phenotype of mutants in this pathway, with a spotlight on cell wall properties. Currently, the genes underlying AX feruloylation have not been identified and the isolation of such genes could be of great importance in manipulating ferulates accretion to the wall. Mutation of the feruloyl transferase gene(s) should lead to less ferulates secreted to the cell wall and reduced ferulate cross-linking. Our current research is based on the hypothesis that controlling the level of total feruloylation will have a direct impact on the level of cross-linking and in turn impact biomass utility for forage and biofuel production. Our results/accomplishments for this project so far include: 1. Mutagenised Brachypodium population. We have developed EMS mutagenized populations of model grass species Brachypodium distachyon. EMS populations have been developed from over 28,000 mutagenized seeds generating 5,184 M2 families. A total of 20,793 plants have been screened and 1,233 were originally selected. 2. Selected Brachypodium mutants: Potential mutants on their levels of cell wall ferulates and cell wall AX ? have been selected from 708 M2 families. A total of 303 back-crosses to no-mutagenized parental stock have been done, followed by selfing selected genotypes in order to confirm heritability of traits and to remove extraneous mutations generated by EMS mutagenesis. We are currently growing 12 F5 and F6 populations in order to assess CW composition. If low level of ferulates are confirmed in the candidate lines selected the mutation could be altered in different in one or several kinds of genes such as genes encoding an AX feruloyl transferase; genes encoding the arabinosyl transferase; genes encoding the synthesis of the xylan backbone; genes encoding enzymes of the monolignol pathway affecting FA
On BPS preons, generalized holonomies and D=11 supergravities
Bandos, I A; Izquierdo, J M; Picon, M; Varela, O
2003-01-01
We develop the BPS preon conjecture to analyze the supersymmetric solutions of D=11 supergravity. By relating the notions of Killing spinors and BPS preons, we develop a moving G-frame method (G=GL(32,R), SL(32,R) or Sp(32,R)) to analyze their associated generalized holonomies. As a first application we derive here the equations determining the generalized holonomies of k/32 supersymmetric solutions and, in particular, those solving the necessary conditions for the existence of BPS preonic (31/32) solutions of the standard D=11 supergravity. We also show that there exist elementary preonic solutions, i.e. solutions preserving 31 out of 32 supersymmetries in a Chern--Simons type supergravity. We present as well a family of worldvolume actions describing the motion of pointlike and extended BPS preons in the background of a D'Auria-Fre type OSp(1|32)-related supergravity model. We discuss the possible implications for M-theory.
Monstrous BPS-Algebras and the Superstring Origin of Moonshine
Paquette, Natalie M; Volpato, Roberto
2016-01-01
We provide a physics derivation of Monstrous moonshine. We show that the McKay-Thompson series $T_g$, $g\\in \\mathbb{M}$, can be interpreted as supersymmetric indices counting spacetime BPS-states in certain heterotic string models. The invariance groups of these series arise naturally as spacetime T-duality groups and their genus zero property descends from the behaviour of these heterotic models in suitable decompactification limits. We also show that the space of BPS-states forms a module for the Monstrous Lie algebras $\\mathfrak{m}_g$, constructed by Borcherds and Carnahan. We argue that $\\mathfrak{m}_g$ arise in the heterotic models as algebras of spontaneously broken gauge symmetries, whose generators are in exact correspondence with BPS-states. This gives $\\mathfrak{m}_g$ an interpretation as a kind of BPS-algebra.
BPS preons in M-theory and supergravity
Bandos, I A
2007-01-01
After introducing the notion of BPS preons as the basic constituents of M-theory, we discuss the recent negative results in the search for solutions of the D=10 and D=11 supergravity equations preserving 31/32 supersymmetries i.e., of preonic solutions. The absence of these supergravity preonic solutions may point out to a pure quantum nature of BPS preons, manifesting itself in the need of incorporating quantum (stringy/M-theoretic) corrections to the supergravity equations.
A three-qubit interpretation of BPS and non-BPS STU black holes
Lévay, Péter
2007-01-01
Following the recent trend we develop further the black hole analogy between quantum information theory and the theory of extremal stringy black hole solutions. We show that the three-qubit interpretation of supersymmetric black hole solutions in the STU model can be extended also to include non-supersymmetric ones. First we show that the black hole potential can be expressed as one half the norm of a suitably chosen three-qubit entangled state containing the quantized charges and the moduli. The extremization of the black hole potential in terms of this entangled state amounts to either supressing bit flip errors (BPS-case) or allowing very special types of flips transforming the states between different classes of non-BPS solutions. We are illustrating our results for the example of the D2-D6 system. In this case the bit flip errors are corresponding to sign flip errors of the charges originating from the number of D2 branes. After moduli stabilization the states depending entirely on the charges are maxima...
Arroyo, Javier; Farkaš, Vladimír; Sanz, Ana Belén; Cabib, Enrico
2016-09-01
The cross-linking of polysaccharides to assemble new cell wall in fungi requires transglycosylation mechanisms by which preexisting glycosidic linkages are broken and new linkages are created between the polysaccharides. The molecular mechanisms for these processes, which are essential for fungal cell biology, are only now beginning to be elucidated. Recent development of in vivo and in vitro biochemical approaches has allowed characterization of important aspects about the formation of chitin-glucan covalent cell wall cross-links by cell wall transglycosylases of the CRH family and their biological function. Covalent linkages between chitin and glucan mediated by Crh proteins control morphogenesis and also play important roles in the remodeling of the fungal cell wall as part of the compensatory responses necessary to counterbalance cell wall stress. These enzymes are encoded by multigene families of redundant proteins very well conserved in fungal genomes but absent in mammalian cells. Understanding the molecular basis of fungal adaptation to cell wall stress through these and other cell wall remodeling enzymatic activities offers an opportunity to explore novel antifungal treatments and to identify potential fungal virulence factors. PMID:27185288
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Irshad Kashif
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Maintaining indoor climatic conditions of buildings compatible with the occupant comfort by consuming minimum energy, especially in a tropical climate becomes a challenging problem for researchers. This paper aims to investigate this problem by evaluating the effect of different kind of Photovoltaic Trombe wall system (PV-TW on thermal comfort, energy consumption and CO2 emission. A detailed simulation model of a single room building integrated with PV-TW was modelled using TRNSYS software. Results show that 14-35% PMV index and 26-38% PPD index reduces as system shifted from SPV-TW to DGPV-TW as compared to normal buildings. Thermal comfort indexes (PMV and PPD lie in the recommended range of ASHARE for both DPV-TW and DGPV-TW except for the few months when RH%, solar radiation intensity and ambient temperature were high. Moreover PVTW system significantly reduces energy consumption and CO2 emission of the building and also 2-4.8 °C of temperature differences between indoor and outdoor climate of building was examined.
Asymptotic Dynamics of Monopole Walls
Cross, R
2015-01-01
We determine the asymptotic dynamics of the U(N) doubly periodic BPS monopole in Yang-Mills-Higgs theory, called a monopole wall, by exploring its Higgs curve using the Newton polytope and amoeba. In particular, we show that the monopole wall splits into subwalls when any of its moduli become large. The long-distance gauge and Higgs field interactions of these subwalls are abelian, allowing us to derive an asymptotic metric for the monopole wall moduli space.
BPS Wilson loops in Minkowski spacetime and Euclidean space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ouyang, Hao; Wu, Jun-Bao; Zhang, Jia-ju [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Theoretical Physics Division, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Beijing (China)
2015-12-15
We give evidence that spacelike BPS Wilson loops do not exist in Minkowski spacetime. We show that spacelikeWilson loops in Minkowski spacetime cannot preserve any supersymmetries, in d = 4 N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory, d = 3 N = 2 super Chern-Simons-matter theory, and d = 3 N = 6 Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis- Maldacena theory. We not only show this using infinite straight lines and circles as examples, but also we give proofs for general curves. We attribute this to the conflicts of the reality conditions of the spinors. However, spacelike Wilson loops do exist in Euclidean space. There are both BPS Wilson loops along infinite straight lines and circular BPS Wilson loops. This is because the reality conditions of the spinors are lost after Wick rotation. The result is reasonable in view of the AdS/CFT correspondence. (orig.)
BPS Wilson loops in Minkowski spacetime and Euclidean space
Ouyang, Hao; Wu, Jun-Bao; Zhang, Jia-ju
2015-12-01
We give evidence that spacelike BPS Wilson loops do not exist in Minkowski spacetime. We show that spacelike Wilson loops in Minkowski spacetime cannot preserve any supersymmetries, in d = 4 N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory, d = 3 N = 2 super Chern-Simons-matter theory, and d = 3 N = 6 Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena theory. We not only show this using infinite straight lines and circles as examples, but also we give proofs for general curves. We attribute this to the conflicts of the reality conditions of the spinors. However, spacelike Wilson loops do exist in Euclidean space. There are both BPS Wilson loops along infinite straight lines and circular BPS Wilson loops. This is because the reality conditions of the spinors are lost after Wick rotation. The result is reasonable in view of the AdS/CFT correspondence.
Classification of the BPS states in Bagger-Lambert Theory
Jeon, Imtak; Kim, Nakwoo; Kim, Sang-Woo; Park, Jeong-Hyuck
2008-01-01
We classify, in a group theoretical manner, the BPS configurations in the multiple M2-brane theory recently proposed by Bagger and Lambert. We present three types of BPS equations preserving various fractions of dynamical supersymmetries: in the first type we have constant fields and the interactions are purely algebraic in nature; in the second type the equations are invariant under spatial rotation SO(2), and the fields can be time-dependent; in the third class the equations are invariant under boost SO(1,1) and provide the 11 dimensional generalizations of the Nahm equations. The BPS equations for different number of supersymmetries exhibit the division algebra structures: octonion, quarternion or complex.
Intravesical liposome drug delivery and IC/BPS
Janicki, Joseph J.; Gruber, Michele A.
2015-01-01
Intravesical therapy has previously shown to be effective in delaying or preventing recurrence of superficial bladder cancer. This local route of drug administration is now demonstrating promise in the treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) with the benefit of minimal systemic side effects. Liposomes (LPs) are lipid vesicles composed of phospholipid bilayers surrounding an aqueous core. They can incorporate drug molecules, both hydrophobic and hydrophilic, and vastly improve cellular uptake of these drug molecules via endocytosis. Intravesical LPs have therapeutic effects on IC/BPS patients, mainly due to their ability to form a protective lipid film on the urothelial surface and repair the damaged urothelium. This review considers the current status of intravesical LPs and LP mediated drug delivery for the treatment of IC/BPS. PMID:26816855
N=2 Quantum Field Theories and Their BPS Quivers
Alim, Murad; Cordova, Clay; Espahbodi, Sam; Rastogi, Ashwin; Vafa, Cumrun
2011-01-01
We explore the relationship between four-dimensional N=2 quantum field theories and their associated BPS quivers. For a wide class of theories including super-Yang-Mills theories, Argyres-Douglas models, and theories defined by M5-branes on punctured Riemann surfaces, there exists a quiver which implicitly characterizes the field theory. We study various aspects of this correspondence including the quiver interpretation of flavor symmetries, gauging, decoupling limits, and field theory dualities. In general a given quiver describes only a patch of the moduli space of the field theory, and a key role is played by quantum mechanical dualities, encoded by quiver mutations, which relate distinct quivers valid in different patches. Analyzing the consistency conditions imposed on the spectrum by these dualities results in a powerful and novel mutation method for determining the BPS states. We apply our method to determine the BPS spectrum in a wide class of examples, including the strong coupling spectrum of super-...
BPS Wilson loops in Minkowski spacetime and Euclidean space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ouyang, Hao, E-mail: ouyangh@ihep.ac.cn; Wu, Jun-Bao, E-mail: wujb@ihep.ac.cn; Zhang, Jia-ju, E-mail: jjzhang@ihep.ac.cn [Theoretical Physics Division, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Rd, 100049, Beijing (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Rd, 100049, Beijing (China)
2015-12-21
We give evidence that spacelike BPS Wilson loops do not exist in Minkowski spacetime. We show that spacelike Wilson loops in Minkowski spacetime cannot preserve any supersymmetries, in d=4N=4 super Yang–Mills theory, d=3N=2 super Chern–Simons-matter theory, and d=3N=6 Aharony–Bergman–Jafferis–Maldacena theory. We not only show this using infinite straight lines and circles as examples, but also we give proofs for general curves. We attribute this to the conflicts of the reality conditions of the spinors. However, spacelike Wilson loops do exist in Euclidean space. There are both BPS Wilson loops along infinite straight lines and circular BPS Wilson loops. This is because the reality conditions of the spinors are lost after Wick rotation. The result is reasonable in view of the AdS/CFT correspondence.
Some aspects of self-duality and generalised BPS theories
Adam, C.; Ferreira, L. A.; da Hora, E.; Wereszczynski, A.; Zakrzewski, W. J.
2013-08-01
If a scalar field theory in (1+1) dimensions possesses soliton solutions obeying first order BPS equations, then, in general, it is possible to find an infinite number of related field theories with BPS solitons which obey closely related BPS equations. We point out that this fact may be understood as a simple consequence of an appropriately generalised notion of self-duality. We show that this self-duality framework enables us to generalize to higher dimensions the construction of new solitons from already known solutions. By performing simple field transformations our procedure allows us to relate solitons with different topological properties. We present several interesting examples of such solitons in two and three dimensions.
Some aspects of self-duality and generalised BPS theories
Adam, C; da Hora, E; Wereszczynski, A; Zakrzewski, W J
2013-01-01
If a scalar field theory in (1+1) dimensions possesses soliton solutions obeying first order BPS equations, then, in general, it is possible to find an infinite number of related field theories with BPS solitons which obey closely related BPS equations. We point out that this fact may be understood as a simple consequence of an appropriately generalised notion of self-duality. We show that this self-duality framework enables us to generalize to higher dimensions the construction of new solitons from already known solutions. By performing simple field transformations our procedure allows us to relate solitons with different topological properties. We present several interesting examples of such solitons in two and three dimensions.
Wall-crossing structures in Donaldson-Thomas invariants, integrable systems and Mirror Symmetry
Kontsevich, Maxim
2013-01-01
We introduce the notion of Wall-Crossing Structure and discuss it in several examples including complex integrable systems, Donaldson-Thomas invariants and Mirror Symmetry. For a big class of non-compact Calabi-Yau 3-folds we construct complex integrable systems of Hitchin type with the base given by the moduli space of deformations of those 3-folds. Then Donaldson-Thomas invariants of the Fukaya category of such a Calabi-Yau 3-fold can be (conjecturally) described in two more ways: in terms of the attractor flow on the base of the corresponding complex integrable system and in terms of the skeleton of the mirror dual to the total space of the integrable system. The paper also contains a discussion of some material related to the main subject, e.g. Betti model of Hitchin systems with irregular singularities, WKB asymptotics of connections depending on a small parameter, attractor points in the moduli space of complex structures of a compact Calabi-Yau 3-fold, relation to cluster varieties, etc.
Nakagawa, Nozomi; Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi
2004-05-01
We have developed the phased tracking method [H. Kanai, M. Sato, Y. Koiwa and N. Chubachi: IEEE Trans. UFFC 43 (1996) 791.] for measuring the minute change in thickness during one heartbeat and the elasticity of the arterial wall with transcutaneous ultrasound. When this method is applied to a plane perpendicular to the axis of the artery (short-axis plane) using a linear-type probe, only an ultrasonic beam which passes through the center of the artery coincides with the direction of the change in thickness. At other beam positions, the wall motion cannot be accurately tracked because the direction of wall expansion slips off the beam. To obtain the cross-sectional image of elasticity in the short-axis plane using transcutaneous ultrasound, in this paper, the directions of ultrasonic beams are designed so that each beam always passes through the center of the artery; thus, they always coincide with the direction of the wall expansion. In basic experiments, the accuracy in elasticity measurement was evaluated using a silicone rubber tube. In in vivo experiments, the minute change in wall thickness was measured along each ultrasonic beam, and the cross-sectional image of elasticity was obtained in the short-axis plane with transcutaneous ultrasound.
Non-BPS Dirac-Born-Infeld Solitons
Ioannidou, Theodora; Papadopoulos, George; Sutcliffe, Paul(Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE, U.K.)
1999-01-01
We show that CPn sigma model solitons solve the field equations of a Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) action and, furthermore, we prove that the non-BPS soliton/anti-soliton solutions of the sigma model also solve the DBI equations. Using the moduli space approximation we compare the dynamics of the BPS sigma model solitons with that of the associated DBI solitons. We find that for the CP1 case the metric on the moduli space of sigma model solitons is identical to that of the moduli space of DBI solit...
BPS index and 4d N = 2 superconformal field theories
Sakai, Kazuhiro
2016-07-01
We study the BPS index for the four-dimensional rank-one N = 2 superconformal field theories H 0 , H 1 , H 2 , E 6 , E 7 , E 8. We consider compactifications of the E-string theory on T 2 in which these theories arise as low energy limits. Using this realization we clarify the general structure of the BPS index. The index is characterized by two exponents and a sequence of invariants. We determine the exponents and the first few invariants.
Tang, Jiang; Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi
2005-06-01
For the assessment of the elasticity of the arterial wall, we have developed the phased tracking method [H. Kanai et al.: IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 43 (1996) 791] for measuring the minute change in thickness due to heartbeats and the elasticity of the arterial wall with transcutaneous ultrasound. For various reasons, for example, an extremely small deformation of the wall, the minute change in wall thickness during one heartbeat is largely influenced by noise in these cases and the reliability of the elasticity distribution obtained from the maximum change in thickness deteriorates because the maximum value estimation is largely influenced by noise. To obtain a more reliable cross-sectional image of the elasticity of the arterial wall, in this paper, a matching method is proposed to evaluate the waveform of the measured change in wall thickness by comparing the measured waveform with a template waveform. The maximum deformation, which is used in the calculation of elasticity, was determined from the amplitude of the matched model waveform to reduce the influence of noise. The matched model waveform was obtained by minimizing the difference between the measured and template waveforms. Furthermore, a random error, which was obtained from the reproducibility among the heartbeats of the measured waveform, was considered useful for the evaluation of the reliability of the measured waveform.
Note About Non-BPS and BPS Dp-branes in Near Horizon Region of N Dk-Branes
Kluson, J.
2005-01-01
In this paper we will consider the dynamics of BPS and non-BPS Dp-branes in the background of N Dk-branes. Our approach is based on an existence of the new symmetry of D-brane effective actions that naturally emerges in the near horizon region of the stack of N Dk-branes. Since generally this scaling symmetry is explicitly broken in the Lagrangian we will find the equation that determines the time evolution of the generator of this transformations. Then we will argue that in case when the tac...
BPS Degeneracies and Superconformal Index in Diverse Dimensions
Iqbal, Amer
2012-01-01
We present a unifying theme relating BPS partition functions and superconformal indices. In the case with complex SUSY central charges (as in N=2 in d=4 and N=(2,2) in d=2) the known results can be reinterpreted as the statement that the BPS partition functions can be used to compute a specialization of the superconformal indices. We argue that in the case with real central charge in the supersymmetry algebra, as in N=1 in d=5 (or the N=2 in d=3), the BPS degeneracy captures the full superconformal index. Furthermore, we argue that refined topological strings, which captures 5d BPS degeneracies of M-theory on CY 3-folds, can be used to compute 5d supersymmetric index including in the sectors with 3d defects for a large class of 5d superconformal theories. Moreover, we provide evidence that distinct Calabi-Yau singularities which are expected to lead to the same SCFT yield the same index.
BPS preons, generalized holonomies, and D=11 supergravities
Bandos, Igor A.; de Azcárraga, José A.; Izquierdo, José M.; Picón, Moisés; Varela, Oscar
2004-05-01
We develop the BPS (Bogomol’nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield) preon conjecture to analyze the supersymmetric solutions of D=11 supergravity. By relating the notions of Killing spinors and BPS preons, we develop a moving G-frame method [G=GL(32,R), SL(32,R) or Sp(32,R)] to analyze their associated generalized holonomies. As a first application we derive here the equations determining the generalized holonomies of ν=k/32 supersymmetric solutions and, in particular, those solving the necessary conditions for the existence of BPS preonic (ν=31/32) solutions of the standard D=11 supergravity. We also show that there exist elementary preonic solutions, i.e., solutions preserving 31 out of 32 supersymmetries in a Chern-Simons type supergravity. We present as well a family of worldvolume actions describing the motion of pointlike and extended BPS preons in the background of a D’Auria-Fré type OSp(1|32)-related supergravity model. We discuss the possible implications for M theory.
Vortex partition functions, wall crossing and equivariant Gromov-Witten invariants
Bonelli, Giulio; Tanzini, Alessandro; Vasko, Petr
2013-01-01
In this paper we identify the problem of equivariant vortex counting in a (2,2) supersymmetric two dimensional quiver gauged linear sigma model with that of computing the equivariant Gromov-Witten invariants of the GIT quotient target space determined by the quiver. We provide new contour integral formulae for the I and J-functions encoding the equivariant quantum cohomology of the target space. Its chamber structure is shown to be encoded in the analytical properties of the integrand. This is explained both via general arguments and by checking several key cases. We show how several results in equivariant Gromov-Witten theory follow just by deforming the integration contour. In particular we apply our formalism to compute Gromov-Witten invariants of the C^3/Z_n orbifold and of the Uhlembeck (partial) compactification of the moduli space of instantons on C^2. Moreover, we analyse dualities of quantum cohomology rings of holomorphic vector bundles over Grassmannians, which are relevant to BPS Wilson loop algeb...
Non-perturbative effects and wall-crossing from topological strings
Collinucci, Andres; Uranga, Angel M
2009-01-01
We argue that the Gopakumar-Vafa interpretation of the topological string partition function can be used to compute and resum certain non-perturbative brane instanton effects of type II CY compactifications. In particular the topological string A-model encodes the non-perturbative corrections to the hypermultiplet moduli space metric from general D1/D(-1)-brane instantons in 4d N=2 IIB models. By introducing fluxes and/or orientifolds and/or D-branes, we describe the reduction to 4d N=1 models, and describe the computation of non-perturbative superpotential contributions from resummed brane instantons. We argue that the connection between non-perturbative effects and the topological string underlies the continuity and holomorphy of non-perturbative effects across lines of BPS stability. The computation of non-perturbative effects from the topological string requires a 3d circle compactification and T-duality, relating effects from particles and instantons, suggesting a realization of the Kontsevich-Soibelmann...
Trajectory measurements of a wall jet impinging onto a forward facing step entering a cross-flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This study examines a horizontal wall jet impinging onto a forward facing step in a cross-flow. Planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) experiments in a water channel indicate that the wall-jet flow after impinging onto the step, becomes a vertical jet with an elliptical cross section. Experiments indicate that the jet trajectory scales with the perimeter of the elliptical jet issuing vertically into the cross-flow. The trajectory consists of three regions: the near-field region which is well described by a power law with an exponent of 1/2, the mid-field region where the jet is fully bent over which is described by a power law with an exponent of 1/3, and a far-field region where the jet is dominated by the cross-flow. This paper provides a prediction of the plume behaviour based on the geometric and initial conditions of the jet (diameter, step height, distance from jet to step, and velocity ratio) alone. The Briggs entrainment model for a round jet was also used to predict the trajectories of the jet in the cross-flow. It was found that the entrainment coefficients, α and β, for the elliptical jet case had average values of 0.15 and 0.58 respectively.
Ahmed, Malik Nazir
1999-01-01
A Constrained Torsional Analysis of Thin-Walled Variable Cross-Section Multi-Cell Laminated Composite Beams has been undertaken . The existing Isotopic theory has been modified using the effective engineering elastic constants to cater for the Composite structures under torsional loads. The relevant computer programs for the Composite structure analysis have also been developed. The results are discussed in detail for single-cell and multi-cell prismatic/tapered beams for all [0/45/-45/90], l...
Note About Non-BPS and BPS Dp-branes in Near Horizon Region of N Dk-Branes
Kluson, J.
2005-03-01
In this paper we will consider the dynamics of BPS and non-BPS Dp-branes in the background of N Dk-branes. Our approach is based on an existence of the new symmetry of D-brane effective actions that naturally emerges in the near horizon region of the stack of N Dk-branes. Since generally this scaling symmetry is explicitly broken in the Lagrangian we will find the equation that determines the time evolution of the generator of this transformations. Then we will argue that in case when the tachyon living on the worldvolume of unstable D-brane reaches the stable minimum the time evolution of this generator can be easily determined. With the help of the knowledge of the time dependence of this charge we will determine the trajectory of the non-BPS D-brane in the near horizon region of N Dk-branes. In case of BPS Dp-brane probe we will aruge that such a broken scaling symmetry exists as well and the existence of the explicit time dependence of the generator of this symmetry can be used in the solving the equation of motion of the probe Dp-brane in the near horizon region of N Dk-branes.
Note about non-BPS and BPS Dp-branes in near horizon region of N Dk-branes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kluson, J. E-mail: klu@physics.muni.cz
2005-03-01
In this paper we will consider the dynamics of BPS and non-BPS Dp-branes in the background of N Dk-branes. Our approach is based on an existence of the new symmetry of D-brane effective actions that naturally emerges in the near horizon region of the stack of N Dk-branes. Since generally this scaling symmetry is explicitly broken in the Lagrangian we will find the equation that determines the time evolution of the generator of this transformations. Then we will argue that in case when the tachyon living on the worldvolume of unstable D-brane reaches the stable minimum the time evolution of this generator can be easily determined. With the help of the knowledge of the time dependence of this charge we will determine the trajectory of the non-BPS D-brane in the near horizon region of N Dk-branes. In case of BPS Dp-brane probe we will argue that such a broken scaling symmetry exists as well and the existence of the explicit time dependence of the generator of this symmetry can be used in the solving the equation of motion of the probe Dp-brane in the near horizon region of N Dk-branes. (author)
Domain Walls Zoo in Supersymmetric QCD
Smilga, A V
1998-01-01
Solving numerically the equations of motion for the effective lagrangian describing supersymmetric QCD with the SU(2) gauge group, we find a menagerie of complex domain wall solutions connecting different chirally asymmetric vacua. Some of these solutions are BPS saturated walls; they exist when the mass of the matter fields does not exceed some critical value m m*, the complex walls disappear altogether and only the walls connecting a chirally asymmetric vacuum with the chirally symmetric one survive.
N=8 non-BPS Attractors, Fixed Scalars and Magic Supergravities
Ferrara, Sergio
2008-01-01
We analyze the Hessian matrix of the black hole potential of N=8, d=4 supergravity, and determine its rank at non-BPS critical points, relating the resulting spectrum to non-BPS solutions (with non-vanishing central charge) of N=2, d=4 magic supergravities and their ``mirror'' duals. We find agreement with the known degeneracy splitting of N=2 non-BPS spectrum of generic special Kahler geometries with cubic holomorphic prepotential. We also relate non-BPS critical points with vanishing central charge in N=2 magic supergravities to a particular reduction of the N=8, 1/8-BPS critical points.
$Spin(7)$ Compactifications and 1/4-BPS Vacua in Heterotic Supergravity
Angus, Stephen; Svanes, Eirik Eik
2015-01-01
We continue the investigation into non-maximally symmetric compactifications of the heterotic string. In particular, we consider compactifications where the internal space is allowed to depend on two or more external directions. For preservation of supersymmetry, this implies that the internal space must in general be that of a $Spin(7)$ manifold, which leads to a $1/4$-BPS four-dimensional non-supersymmetric perturbative vacuum. We find that these solutions allow for internal geometries previously excluded by the domain-wall-type solutions, and hence the resulting four-dimensional superpotential is more generic. In particular, we find an interesting resemblance to the superpotentials that appear in non-geometric flux compactifications of type II string theory. If the vacua are to be used for phenomenological applications, they must be lifted to a maximally symmetric one by some non-perturbative or higher-order effect.
Validation of Wall Friction Model in SPACE-3D Module with Two-Phase Cross Flow Experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Chi-Jin; Yang, Jin-Hwa; Cho, Hyoung-Kyu; Park, Goon-Cher [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Euh, Dong-Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
In this study, SPACE-3D was used to simulate the Yang's experiment, and obtained the local variables. Then, the wall friction model used in SPACE-3D was validated by comparing the two-phase cross flow experimental results with the calculated local variables. In this study, the two-phase cross flow experiment was modeled by SPACE-3D to validate the wall friction model in multi-dimensional module. Considering the realistic phenomena in the reactor, however, recent trends in safety analysis codes have tended to adopt multi-dimensional module to simulate the complex flow more accurately. Even though the module was applied to deal the multi-dimensional phenomena, implemented models in that are one-dimensional empirical models. Therefore, prior to applying the multi-dimensional module, the constitutive models implemented in the codes need to be validated. In the downcomer of Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400) which has direct vessel injection (DVI) lines as an emergency core cooling system, multi-dimensional two-phase flow may occur due to the Loss-of-Coolant-Accident (LOCA). The accurate prediction about that is high relevance to evaluation of the integrity of the reactor core. For this reason, Yang performed an experiment that was to investigate the two-dimensional film flow which simulated the two-phase cross flow in the upper downcomer, and obtained the local liquid film velocity and thickness data. From these data, it could be possible to validate the friction models in multi-dimensional module of system analysis codes. Compared with the experiment, SPACE-3D underestimated the liquid film velocity and overestimated the liquid film thickness. From these results, it was clarified that the Wallis correlation which is used as a wall friction model in SPACE-3D overestimates the wall friction. On the other hand, H.T.F.S. correlation which is used as the wall friction in MARS-multiD underestimates the wall friction.
Leclercq, Segolene; Milo, Christian; Reineccius, Gary A
2009-02-25
Microcapsules were produced by complex coacervation with a gelatin-gum acacia wall and medium-chain-triglyceride core. Dry capsules were partially rehydrated and then loaded with model aroma compounds covering a range of volatility, hydrophobicity, and molecular structure. An experimental design was prepared to evaluate the effects of cross-linking, wall/core ratio, and volatile load level on aroma release from capsules in a hot, aqueous environment. The real-time release on rehydration was measured by monitoring the headspace of a vessel containing the capsules to proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Data collected showed no effects of cross-linking or wall/core ratio on volatile release in hot water for any of the volatiles studied. When comparing real-time release of the prepared coacervates to a spray-dried equivalent, there was no difference in the release from hot water but the release was slower when coacervates were added to ambient-temperature water. We found volatile release to be primarily determined by compound partition coefficients (oil/water and water/air) and temperature.
BPS relations from spectral problems and blowup equations
Grassi, Alba
2016-01-01
Recently an exact duality between topological string and the spectral theory of operators constructed from mirror curves to toric Calabi-Yau threefolds has been proposed. At the same time an exact quantization condition for the cluster integrable systems associated to these geometries has been conjectured. The consistency between the two approaches leads to an infinite set of constraints for the refined BPS invariants of the toric Calabi-Yau threefolds. We show that, for the Y^{N,m} geometries, these constraints can be derived from the K-theoretic blowup equations for SU(N) SYM with generic Chern-Simons invariant m. In particular this furnishes a proof of the BPS constraints in the case of m = 0.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study a class of exact supersymmetric solutions of type IIB Supergravity. They have an SO(4) x SU(2) x U(1) isometry and preserve generically 4 of the 32 supersymmetries of the theory. Asymptotically AdS5 x S5 solutions in this class are dual to 1/8 BPS chiral operators which preserve the same symmetries in the N = 4 SYM theory. They are parametrized by a set of four functions that satisfy certain differential equations. We analyze the solutions to these equations in a large radius asymptotic expansion: they carry charges with respect to two U(1) KK gauge fields and their mass saturates the expected BPS bound
Nuclear binding energies from a BPS Skyrme model
Adam, C.; Naya, C.; Sanchez-Guillen, J.(Departamento de Física de Partículas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela and Instituto Galego de Física de Altas Enerxias (IGFAE), Santiago de Compostela, E-15782, Spain); Wereszczynski, A.
2013-01-01
Recently, within the space of generalized Skyrme models, a BPS submodel was identified which reproduces some bulk properties of nuclear matter already on a classical level and, as such, constitutes a promising field theory candidate for the detailed and reliable description of nuclei and hadrons. Here we extend and further develop these investigations by applying the model to the calculation of nuclear binding energies. Concretely, we calculate these binding energies by including the classica...
A Cross-Platform Numerical Model of Ion-Wall Collisions
Veitzer, Seth A; Molvik, Arthur; Stoltz, Peter; Vay, Jean-Luc
2005-01-01
Ion collisions with beam-pipe walls is a significant source of secondary electron clouds and desorbed neutral gasses in particle accelerators. Ions may reflect from beam-pipe walls and undergo further collisions downstream. These effects can cause beam degradation and are expected to be problematic in the design of heavy ion accelerators. The well-known SRIM code provides physically-based monte carlo simulations of ion-wall collisions. However, it is difficult to interface SRIM with high-performance simulation codes. We present details on the development of a package of Python modules which integrate the simulation of ion-wall interactions at grazing incidences with the high-performance particle-in-cell and electron cloud codes WARP and POSINST. This software package, called GriPY, calculates reflected angles and energies of ions which strike beam-pipe walls at grazing incidences, based upon interpolation of monte carlo statistics generated by benchmark simulations run in SRIM for a variety of relevant incide...
Stationary BPS solutions to dilaton-axion gravity
Clément, G
1996-01-01
Stationary four-dimensional BPS solutions to gravity coupled bosonic theories admitting a three--dimensional sigma--model representation on coset spaces are interpreted as null geodesics of the target manifold equipped with a certain number of harmonic maps. For asymptotically flat (or Taub--NUT) space--times such geodesics can be directly parametrized in terms of charges saturating the Bogomol'nyi--Gibbons--Hull bound, and classified according to the structure of related coset matrices. We investigate in detail the ``dilaton--axion gravity'' with one vector field, and show that in the space of BPS solutions an SO(1,2) \\times SO(2) classical symmetry is acting. Within the present formalism the most general multicenter (IWP/Taub--NUT dyon) solutions are derived in a simple way. We also discover a large new class of asymptotically flat solutions for which the dilaton and axion charges are constrained only by the BPS bound. The string metrics for these solutions are generically regular. Both the IWP class and th...
BPS monopole in the space of boundary conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The space of all possible boundary conditions that respect the self-adjointness of the Hamiltonian operator is known to be given by the group manifold U(2) in one-dimensional quantum mechanics. In this paper we study non-Abelian Berry’s connections in the space of boundary conditions in a simple quantum mechanical system. We consider a system for a free spinless particle on a circle with two point-like interactions described by the U(2) × U(2) family of boundary conditions. We show that, for a certain SU(2) ⊂ U(2) × U(2) subfamily of boundary conditions, all the energy levels become doubly-degenerate thanks to the so-called higher-derivative supersymmetry, and the non-Abelian Berry’s connection in the ground-state sector is given by the Bogomolny–Prasad–Sommerfield (BPS) monopole of SU(2) Yang–Mills–Higgs theory. We also show that, in the ground-state sector of this quantum mechanical model, the matrix elements of the position operator give the adjoint Higgs field that satisfies the BPS equation. It is also discussed that Berry’s connections in the excited-state sectors are given by non-BPS ’t Hooft–Polyakov monopoles. (paper)
Some exact BPS solutions for exotic vortices and monopoles
Ramadhan, Handhika S.
2016-07-01
We present several analytical solutions of BPS vortices and monopoles in the generalized Abelian Maxwell-Higgs and Yang-Mills-Higgs theories, respectively. These models have recently been extensively studied and several exact solutions have already been obtained in [1,2]. In each theory, the dynamics is controlled by the additional two positive scalar-field-dependent functions, f (| ϕ |) and w (| ϕ |). For the case of vortices, we work in the ordinary symmetry-breaking Higgs potential, while for the case of monopoles we have the ordinary condition of the Prasad-Sommerfield limit. Our results generalize the exact solutions found previously. We also present solutions for BPS vortices with higher winding number. These solutions suffer from the condition that w (| ϕ |) has negative value at some finite range of r, but we argue that since it satisfies the weaker positive-value conditions then the corresponding energy density is still positive-definite and, thus, they are acceptable BPS solutions.
Diet and its role in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) and comorbid conditions.
Friedlander, Justin I; Shorter, Barbara; Moldwin, Robert M
2012-06-01
What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Nearly 90% of patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) report sensitivities to a wide variety of dietary comestibles. Current questionnaire-based literature suggests that citrus fruits, tomatoes, vitamin C, artificial sweeteners, coffee, tea, carbonated and alcoholic beverages, and spicy foods tend to exacerbate symptoms, while calcium glycerophosphate and sodium bicarbonate tend to improve symptoms. At present we recommend employing a controlled method to determine dietary sensitivities, such as an elimination diet, in order to identify sensitivities while at the same time maintain optimal nutritional intake. We review current literature with regard to diet's effect upon IC/BPS and common comorbidities (irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, neuropathic pain, vulvodynia, and headache) with a focus upon questionnaire-based investigations. We discuss the pathologic mechanisms that may link diet and IC/BPS related-pain, concentrating upon specific comestibles such as acidic foods, foods high in potassium, caffeine, and alcohol. Up to 90% of patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) report sensitivities to a wide variety of comestibles. Pathological mechanisms suggested to be responsible for the relationship between dietary intake and symptom exacerbation include peripheral and/or central neural upregulation, bladder epithelial dysfunction, and organ 'cross-talk', amongst others. Current questionnaire-based data suggests that citrus fruits, tomatoes, vitamin C, artificial sweeteners, coffee, tea, carbonated and alcoholic beverages, and spicy foods tend to exacerbate symptoms, while calcium glycerophosphate and sodium bicarbonate tend to improve symptoms. Specific comestible sensitivities varied between patients and may have been influenced by comorbid conditions. This suggests that a controlled method to determine dietary
Domain wall equations, Hessian of superpotential, and Bogomol'nyi bounds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shouxin Chen
2016-03-01
Full Text Available An important question concerning the classical solutions of the equations of motion arising in quantum field theories at the BPS critical coupling is whether all finite-energy solutions are necessarily BPS. In this paper we present a study of this basic question in the context of the domain wall equations whose potential is induced from a superpotential so that the ground states are the critical points of the superpotential. We prove that the definiteness of the Hessian of the superpotential suffices to ensure that all finite-energy domain-wall solutions are BPS. We give several examples to show that such a BPS property may fail such that non-BPS solutions exist when the Hessian of the superpotential is indefinite.
Domain Wall Equations, Hessian of Superpotential, and Bogomol'nyi Bounds
Chen, Shouxin
2015-01-01
An important question concerning the classical solutions of the equations of motion arising in quantum field theories at the BPS critical coupling is whether all finite-energy solutions are necessarily BPS. In this paper we present a study of this basic question in the context of the domain wall equations whose potential is induced from a superpotential so that the ground states are the critical points of the superpotential. We prove that the definiteness of the Hessian of the superpotential suffices to ensure that all finite-energy domain-wall solutions are BPS. We give several examples to show that such a BPS property may fail such that non-BPS solutions exist when the Hessian of the superpotential is indefinite.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yu Jingang; Huang Dushu; Huang Kelong; Hong Yong
2011-01-01
A method of cross-linking multi-walled carbon nanotubes by a nucleophilic substitution of brominated multi-walled carbon nanotubes using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin anions was studied. The modified multi-walled carbon nanotube samples were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis, energy-dispersive X-ray spectros-copy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The hydroxypropyi-β-cyclodextrin modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes were used as a chiral stationary phase additive for thin-layer chromatography to separate clenbuterol enantiomers, and the chiral separation factor was increased.
Improved concept models for straight thin-walled columns with box cross section
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yu-cheng LIU
2008-01-01
This paper focuses on developing improved concept models for straight thin-walled box sectional columns which can better predict the peak crushing force that occurs during crashworthiness analyses.We develop a nonlinear translational spring based on previous research and apply such a spring element to build the enhanced concept models.The work presented in this article is developed on the basis of the publication of the author(Liu and Day,2006b)and has been applied in a crashworthiness design issue,which is presented by the author in another paper(Liu,2008).
Twistor Parametrization of Locally BPS Super-Wilson Loops
C. Vergu
2016-01-01
We consider the kinematics of the locally BPS super-Wilson loop in $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super-Yang-Mills with scalar coupling from a twistorial point of view. We find that the kinematics can be described either as supersymmetrized pure spinors or as a point in $G_{2\\vert 2}(4\\vert 4) \\times G_{2\\vert 2}(4\\vert 4)$. In this description of the kinematics the scalar--scalar correlation function appearing in the one-loop evaluation of the super-Wilson loop can be neatly written as a sum of four super-...
Twistor Parametrization of Locally BPS Super-Wilson Loops
Vergu, C
2016-01-01
We consider the kinematics of the locally BPS super-Wilson loop in $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super-Yang-Mills with scalar coupling from a twistorial point of view. We find that the kinematics can be described either as supersymmetrized pure spinors or as a point in $G_{2\\vert 2}(4\\vert 4) \\times G_{2\\vert 2}(4\\vert 4)$. In this description of the kinematics the scalar--scalar correlation function appearing in the one-loop evaluation of the super-Wilson loop can be neatly written as a sum of four super-determinants.
BPS preons and the AdS-M-algebra
Bandos, Igor A
2008-01-01
We present here the AdS generalization of BPS preons, which were introduced as the hypothetical constituents of M-theory preserving all but one supersymmetries. Our construction, suggested by the relation of `lower dimensional preons' with higher spin theories, can be considered as a deformation of the M-algebraic description of the single supersymmetry broken by a preon, and provides another reason to identify the AdS generalization of the M-algebra, which we call the AdS-M-algebra, with osp(1|32).
BPS preons and the AdS-M-algebra
Bandos, Igor A.; de Azcárraga, José A.
2008-04-01
We present here the AdS generalization of BPS preons, which were introduced as the hypothetical constituents of M-theory preserving all but one supersymmetries. Our construction, suggested by the relation of `lower dimensional preons' with higher spin theories, can be considered as a deformation of the M-algebraic description of the single supersymmetry broken by a preon, and provides another reason to identify the AdS generalization of the M-algebra, which we call the AdS-M-algebra, with osp(1|32).
Design of BPS digital frontend for software defined radio receiver
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王洪梅; KIM Jae-hyung; 王法广; LEE Sang-hyuk; 王雪松
2015-01-01
In radio receivers, complete implementation of the software defined radio (SDR) concept is mainly limited by frontend. Based on bandpass sampling (BPS) theory, a flexible digital frontend (DFE) platform for SDR receiver is designed. In order to increase the processing speed, Gigabit Ethernet was applied in the platform at speed of 5×108 bit/s. By appropriate design of interpolant according to the position of input RF signals, multi-band receiving can be realized in the platform with suppression more than 35 dB without changing hardware.
BPS Quivers and Spectra of Complete N=2 Quantum Field Theories
Alim, Murad; Cordova, Clay; Espahbodi, Sam; Rastogi, Ashwin; Vafa, Cumrun
2011-01-01
We study the BPS spectra of N=2 complete quantum field theories in four dimensions. For examples that can be described by a pair of M5 branes on a punctured Riemann surface we explain how triangulations of the surface fix a BPS quiver and superpotential for the theory. The BPS spectrum can then be determined by solving the quantum mechanics problem encoded by the quiver. By analyzing the structure of this quantum mechanics we show that all asymptotically free examples, Argyres-Douglas models, and theories defined by punctured spheres and tori have a chamber with finitely many BPS states. In all such cases we determine the spectrum.
On the Moduli Space of non-BPS Attractors for N=2 Symmetric Manifolds
Ferrara, Sergio
2007-01-01
We study the ``flat'' directions of non-BPS extremal black hole attractors for N=2, d=4 supergravities whose vector multiplets' scalar manifold is endowed with homogeneous symmetric special Kahler geometry. The non-BPS attractors with non-vanishing central charge have a moduli space described by real special geometry (and thus related to the d=5 parent theory), whereas the moduli spaces of non-BPS attractors with vanishing central charge are certain Kahler homogeneous symmetric manifolds. The moduli spaces of the non-BPS attractors of the corresponding N=2, d=5 theories are also indicated, and shown to be rank-1 homogeneous symmetric manifolds.
Topological duality between vortices and planar skyrmions in BPS theories with APD symmetries
Adam, C; Wereszczynski, A; Zakrzewski, W J
2012-01-01
The BPS baby Skyrme models are submodels of baby Skyrme models, where the nonlinear sigma model term is suppressed. They have skyrmion solutions saturating a BPS bound, and the corresponding static energy functional is invariant under area-preserving diffeomorphisms (APDs). Here we show that the solitons in the BPS baby Skyrme model, which carry a nontrivial topological charge $Q_{b} \\in \\pi_2(S^2)$ (a winding number), are dual to vortices in a BPS vortex model with a topological charge $Q_{v}\\in \\pi_1(S^1)$ (a vortex number), in the sense that there is a map between the BPS solutions of the two models. The corresponding energy densities of the BPS solutions of the two models are identical. A further consequence of the duality is that the dual BPS vortex models inherit the BPS property and the infinitely many symmetries (APDs) of the BPS baby Skyrme models. Finally, we demonstrate that the same topological duality continues to hold for the U(1) gauged versions of the models.
Adam, C.; Sanchez-Guillen, J.; Wereszczynski, A.; Zakrzewski, W. J.
2013-01-01
The Bogomol’nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) baby Skyrme models are submodels of baby Skyrme models, where the nonlinear sigma model term is suppressed. They have Skyrmion solutions saturating a BPS bound, and the corresponding static energy functional is invariant under area-preserving diffeomorphisms (APDs). Here we show that the solitons in the BPS baby Skyrme model, which carry a nontrivial topological charge Qb∈π2(S2) (a winding number), are dual to vortices in a BPS vortex model with a topological charge Qv∈π1(S1) (a vortex number), in the sense that there is a map between the BPS solutions of the two models. The corresponding energy densities of the BPS solutions of the two models are identical. A further consequence of the duality is that the dual BPS vortex models inherit the BPS property and the infinitely many symmetries (APDs) of the BPS baby Skyrme models. Finally, we demonstrate that the same topological duality continues to hold for the U(1) gauged versions of the models.
Topological duality between vortices and planar skyrmions in BPS theories with APD symmetries
Adam, C.; Sanchez-Guillen, J.; Wereszczynski, A.; Zakrzewski, W. J.
2012-01-01
The BPS baby Skyrme models are submodels of baby Skyrme models, where the nonlinear sigma model term is suppressed. They have skyrmion solutions saturating a BPS bound, and the corresponding static energy functional is invariant under area-preserving diffeomorphisms (APDs). Here we show that the solitons in the BPS baby Skyrme model, which carry a nontrivial topological charge $Q_{b} \\in \\pi_2(S^2)$ (a winding number), are dual to vortices in a BPS vortex model with a topological charge $Q_{v...
Melcher, G P; Reed, K D; Rinaldi, M. G.; Lee, J. W.; Pizzo, P A; Walsh, T. J.
1991-01-01
Patients with disseminated infections caused by Trichosporon beigelii have a circulating antigen that cross-reacts with the polysaccharide capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans. We studied the localization of this antigen by immunoelectron microscopy in a rabbit model of experimental disseminated trichosporonosis. Deparaffinized lung sections were examined by using a murine monoclonal anti-cryptococcal polysaccharide antibody and colloidal gold particles coated with goat antibody to murine immun...
BPS States in the Duality Web of the Omega deformation
Hellerman, Simeon; Reffert, Susanne
2013-01-01
In this note, we study different limits of an Omega-deformed (2,0) six-dimensional gauge theory realized in a M-theory fluxtrap background. Via a chain of dualities, we connect the Omega-deformed SYM to a new four-dimensional gauge theory which we refer to as the reciprocal gauge theory. This theory has several properties in common with Liouville field theory, such as its gauge coupling b^2 =\\epsilon_2 / \\epsilon_1, and its behavior under S-duality. Finally, we realize the BPS states on the SYM side of the AGT correspondence and follow them along the chain of dualities. In the fluxtrap frame, we are dealing with two distinct types of states localized in different radial positions, while in the reciprocal frame, we find single states carrying both charges localized in one place which appear to be perturbatively stable. Our microscopic picture of the small-b limit exhibits semiclassically BPS bound states, which are not visible at the level of the partition function.
Some exact BPS solutions for exotic vortices and monopoles
Ramadhan, Handhika S
2015-01-01
We present several analytical solutions of BPS vortices and monopoles in the generalized Abelian Maxwell-Higgs and Yang-Mills-Higgs theories, respectively. These models have recently been extensively studied and several exact solutions have already been obtained in~\\cite{Casana:2014qfa, Casana:2013lna}. In each theory, the dynamics is controlled by the additional two positive scalar-field-dependent functions, $f(|\\phi|)$ and $w(|\\phi|)$. For the case of vortices, we work in the ordinary symmetry-breaking Higgs potential, while for the case of monopoles we have the ordinary condition of the Prasad-Sommerfield limit. Our results generalize that of exact solutions found previously. We also present solutions for BPS vortices with higher winding number. These solutions suffer from the condition that $w(|\\phi|)$ has negative value at some finite range of $r$, but we argue that since it satisfies the weaker positive-value conditions then the corresponding energy density is still positive-definite and, thus, they are...
Wang, Guangjun; Yu, Ermeng; Li, Zhifei; Yu, Deguang; Wang, Haiying; Gong, Wangbao
2016-06-01
The present study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of replacing fish meal (FM) with bioactive peptides (BPs) in diet of white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei). The changes in growth performance, body composition, non-specific immunity, and water quality were examined after the shrimp were fed four diets, in which 0% (control), 33.3%, 66.7% and 100% of FM was replaced by BPs, respectively. The groups were designated as Con, 1/3BPs, 2/3BPs, and 3/3BPs. A total of 720 shrimp with an initial body weight of 1.46 ± 0.78 g were fed the experimental diets for 56 days. The results revealed that: 1) the weight gain rate (WGR) in 1/3BPs, 2/3BPs, and 3/3BPs was significantly higher than that in Con ( P body crude protein (CP) and crude lipids (CL) were significantly different among groups, while there was no significant difference between crude ash and phosphorus contents; 3) the levels of acid phosphatase (ACP), lysozyme (LZM), superoxide dismutase (SOD), phenol oxidase (PO) and bactericidal activity increased significantly with the inclusion of BPs; 4) in terms of water quality, no significant difference was found in pH and dissolved oxygen among diets during the whole experimental period. Moreover, even though nitrite and ammonium levels tended to increase with time, there was no significant difference among groups. The results indicated that BPs is an applicable alternative of protein source, which can substitute FM in the diets of L. vannamei; it is able to effectively promote growth performance and improve immunity. Moreover, BPs in the diets had no negative impact on water quality.
Seffer, J.-F.; Detriche, S.; Nagy, J. B.; Delhalle, J.; Mekhalif, Z.
2014-06-01
Surface modification of oxidized carbon nanotubes (O-CNTs) with silicon based anchoring groups (R-SiR3) is a relatively uncommon approach of the CNTs functionalization. Hydrosilane derivatives constitute an attractive subclass of compounds for silanization reactions on the CNTs surface. In this work, we report on the ZnCl2 catalytically controlled reaction (hydrosilane dehydrogenative cross-coupling, DHCC) of fluorinated hydrosilane probes with the carboxylic functions present on the surface of oxidized multi-wall carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes functionalized with essentially alcohol groups are also used to compare the selectivity of zinc chloride toward carboxylic groups. To assess the efficiency of functionalization, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy is used to determine the qualitative and quantitative composition of the different samples. Solubility tests on the oxidized and silanized MWNTs are also carried out in the framework of the Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSP) theory to apprehend at another scale the effect of DHCC.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A Monte Carlo procedure has been applied in this work in order to address the impact of activation cross-sections (XS) uncertainties on contact dose rate and decay heat calculations for the outboard first wall (FW) of a magnetic fusion energy (MFE) demonstration (DEMO) reactor. The XSs inducing the major uncertainty in the prediction of activation related quantities have been identified. Results have shown that for times corresponding to maintenance activities the uncertainties effect is insignificant since the dominant XSs involved in these calculations are based on accurate experimental data evaluations. However, for times corresponding to waste management/recycling activities, the errors induced by the XSs uncertainties, which in this case are evaluated using systematic models, must be considered. It has been found that two particular isotopes, 6Co and 94Nb, are key contributors to the global DEMO FW activation uncertainty results. In these cases, the benefit from further improvements in the accuracy of the critical reaction XSs is discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A Monte Carlo procedure has been applied in this work in order to address the impact of activation cross sections (XS) uncertainties on contact dose rate and decay heat calculations for the outboard first wall (FW) of a magnetic fusion energy (MFE) demonstration (DEMO) reactor. The XSs inducing the major uncertainty in the prediction of activation related quantities have been identified. Results have shown that for times corresponding to maintenance activities the uncertainties effect is insignificant since the dominant XSs involved in these calculations are based on accurate experimental data evaluations. However, for times corresponding to waste management/recycling activities, the errors induced by the XSs uncertainties, which in this case are evaluated using systematic models, must be considered. It has been found that two particular isotopes, 60Co and 94Nb, are key contributors to the global DEMO FW activation uncertainty results. In these cases, the benefit from further improvements in the accuracy of the critical reaction XSs is discussed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seffer, J.-F., E-mail: jean-francois.seffer@unamur.be; Detriche, S.; Nagy, J.B.; Delhalle, J.; Mekhalif, Z.
2014-06-01
Surface modification of oxidized carbon nanotubes (O-CNTs) with silicon based anchoring groups (R-SiR{sup ′}{sub 3}) is a relatively uncommon approach of the CNTs functionalization. Hydrosilane derivatives constitute an attractive subclass of compounds for silanization reactions on the CNTs surface. In this work, we report on the ZnCl{sub 2} catalytically controlled reaction (hydrosilane dehydrogenative cross-coupling, DHCC) of fluorinated hydrosilane probes with the carboxylic functions present on the surface of oxidized multi-wall carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes functionalized with essentially alcohol groups are also used to compare the selectivity of zinc chloride toward carboxylic groups. To assess the efficiency of functionalization, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy is used to determine the qualitative and quantitative composition of the different samples. Solubility tests on the oxidized and silanized MWNTs are also carried out in the framework of the Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSP) theory to apprehend at another scale the effect of DHCC.
Barros-Rios, Jaime; Santiago, Rogelio; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Malvar, Rosa A
2015-03-01
There is strong evidence to suggest that cross-linking of cell-wall polymers through ester-linked diferulates has a key role in plant resistance to pests; however, direct experimentation to provide conclusive proof is lacking. This study presents an evaluation of the damage caused by two corn borer species on six maize populations particularly selected for divergent diferulate concentrations in pith stem tissues. Maize populations selected for high total diferulate concentration had 31% higher diferulates than those selected for low diferulates. Stem tunneling by corn borer species was 29% greater in the population with the lowest diferulates than in the population with the highest diferulates (31.7 versus 22.6 cm), whereas total diferulate concentration was negatively correlated with stem tunneling by corn borers. Moreover, orthogonal contrasts between groups of populations evaluated showed that larvae fed in laboratory bioassays on pith stem tissues from maize populations with higher diferulates had 30-40% lower weight than larvae fed on the same tissues from maize populations with lower diferulates. This is the first report that shows a direct relationship between diferulate deposition in maize cell walls and corn borer resistance. Current findings will help to develop adapted maize varieties with an acceptable level of resistance against borers and be useful in special kinds of agriculture, such as organic farming. PMID:25619118
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fleischer, A.; O' Neill, M.A.; Ehwald, R.
1999-11-01
The walls of suspension-cultured Chenopodium album L. cells grown continually for more than 1 year on B-deficient medium contained monomeric rhamnogalacturonan (mRG-II) but not the borate ester cross-linked RG II dimer (dRG-II-B). The walls of these cells had an increased size limit for dextran permeation, which is a measure of wall pore size. Adding boric acid to growing B-deficient cells resulted in B binding to the wall, the formation of dRG-II-B from mRG-II, and a reduction in wall pore size within 10 min. The wall pore size of denatured B-grown cells was increased by treatment at pH {le} 2.0 or by treatment with Ca{sup 2+}-chelating agents. The acid-mediated increase in wall pore size was prevented by boric acid alone at pH 2.0 and by boric acid together with Ca{sup 2+}, but not by Na{sup +} or Mg{sup 2+} ions at pH 1.5. The Ca{sup 2+}-chelator-mediated increase in pore size was partially reduced by boric acid. Their results suggest that B-mediated cross-linking of RG-II in the walls of living plant cells generates a pectin network with a decreased size exclusion limit for polymers. The formation, stability, and possible functions of a borate ester cross-linked pectic network in the primary walls of nongraminaceous plant cells are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Periodic inspection of steam generator tubing is an important consideration in the efficient operation of a power generating facility. Since the operating life of these generators is finite, failures will occur. Due to the chemistry of the environment, thermal cycling, and other factors, flaws may develop that can cause rapid deterioration of the tubing while the overall performance of the unit may appear normal. In earlier presentation, the authors presented an ultrasonic bore-side array transducer which can be used with a conventional flaw detector instrument for the location of circumferential crack type defects on the outside tube surface. since that time, much additional experience has been gained on the performance of these probes. Probe performance has been characterized using fatigue crack samples and these results are reviewed. Probes have also been developed having 16 elements for use in larger diameter (25 mm) tubes. The bore-side array concept has been expanded to normal incidence tube well inspection allowing simultaneous wall thickness and eccentricity measurement which is very useful in the assessment of tube wastage and deformation. Preliminary data obtained in this area is presented
System design and development of a low data rate voice (1200 bps) rate converter
Hauser, J. P.
1992-09-01
This report presents both a high level and a detailed design for a low data rate voice Rate Converter (RC). On the transmit side, converter reduces 2400 bps voice generated by an Advanced Narrowband Digital Voice Terminal (ANDVT) to a 1200 bps bit stream. On the receive Bide it converts the 1200 bps bit stream back to a 2400 bps stream in ANDVT format. Rate reduction is accomplished with little degradation to the inherent voice quality of the ANDVT. This primary focus is upon the real-time software design which is implemented using VxWorks, a real-time, multi-tasking operating system and development environment. The high level design defines four tasks, each having its own execution thread and its own pipe to facilitate inter-task communication. The Supervisor Task performs initialization and managers input of commands and data to the RC. The Compressor Task reduces a 2400 bps bit stream to 1200 bps while the Decompressor Task converts from 1200 bps back to 2400 bps. The Output Task manages the output of data from the RC. Latter sections of this report describe the software in detail.
BPS Dyon in a Weak Electromagnetic Field: Equations of Motion and Radiation Fields
Bak, Dongsu; Lee, Choonkyu
1994-01-01
Dynamics of a BPS dyon in a weak, constant, electromagnetic field is studied through a perturbative analysis of appropriate non-linear field equations. The full Lorentz force law for a BPS dyon is established. Also derived are the radiation fields accompanying the motion.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Schnoor
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Leukocyte extravasation is one of the essential and first steps during the initiation of inflammation. Therefore, a better understanding of the key molecules that regulate this process may help to develop novel therapeutics for treatment of inflammation-based diseases such as atherosclerosis or rheumatoid arthritis. The endothelial adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are known as the central mediators of leukocyte adhesion to and transmigration across the endothelium. Engagement of these molecules by their leukocyte integrin receptors initiates the activation of several signaling pathways within both leukocytes and endothelium. Several of such events have been described to occur during transendothelial migration of all leukocyte subsets, whereas other mechanisms are known only for a single leukocyte subset. Here, we summarize current knowledge on regulatory mechanisms of leukocyte extravasation from a leukocyte and endothelial point of view, respectively. Specifically, we will focus on highlighting common and unique mechanisms that specific leukocyte subsets exploit to succeed in crossing endothelial monolayers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this study, we fabricated optically transparent and electrically conductive multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) thin films using a spray-coating technique. The transparency and the electrical resistance of thin film are dependent on the nanotube content deposited on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) were used as adhesion promoters to improve MWCNT coating more significantly. The cross-linked polymer resulted in a superior bond between the MWCNTs and the substrates. The surface electrical resistance was significantly lower than the original sheet after nitric acid (HNO3) treatment because of the removed surfactant and the increased interconnecting networks of MWCNT bundles, thus improving the electrical and optical properties of the films. Stronger interaction between the MWCNTs and the substrates resulted in lower decomposition of the polymer chain and less amounts of MWCNTs separated into the HNO3 solution. The lower sheet electrical resistance of PVP/PAA-g-MWCNT conductive films on the PET substrate was because of a more complete conductive path with the cross-linked polymer than that without. Such an improved sheet of electrical resistance varied from 8.83 x 104 Ω/□ to 2.65 x 103 Ω/□ with 5.0 wt.% PVP/PAA-g-MWCNT sprayed on the PET after acid treatment.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sethi, P.; Murapaka, C.; Lim, G. J.; Lew, W. S., E-mail: wensiang@ntu.edu.sg [School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)
2015-11-09
Hall cross structures in magnetic nanowires are commonly used for electrical detection of magnetization reversal in which a domain wall (DW) is conventionally nucleated by a local Oersted field. In this letter, we demonstrate DW nucleation in Co/Ni perpendicular magnetic anisotropy nanowire at the magnetic Hall cross junction. The DWs are nucleated by applying an in-plane pulsed current through the nanowire without the need of a local Oersted field. The change in Hall resistance, detected using anomalous Hall effect, is governed by the magnetic volume switched at the Hall junction, which can be tuned by varying the magnitude of the applied current density and pulse width. The nucleated DWs are driven simultaneously under the spin transfer torque effect when the applied current density is above a threshold. The possibility of multiple DW generation and variation in magnetic volume switched makes nucleation process stochastic in nature. The in-plane current induced stochastic nature of DW generation may find applications in random number generation.
BPS String Webs in the 6-dim (2,0) Theories
Lee, K M; Lee, Ki-Myeong; Yee, Ho-Ung
2007-01-01
In the Coulomb phase of the 6-dim (2,0) superconformal theories, the 1/4, 1/8, 1/16 BPS selfdual string webs are argued to exist such that the spatial SO(5) and internal SO(5) rotations are correlated. The basic constituents are 1/2 BPS strings and 1/4 BPS string junctions. One support comes from the existence of the similar BPS dyonic monostring webs in 5-dim maximally supersymmetric gauge theories. Another comes from the study of the supersymmetry of the intersecting M2 brane stripes terminating on M5 branes. We also discuss the related BPS webs in little string theories and other theories.
Extremal non-BPS black holes and entropy extremization
Lópes-Cardoso, G; Lust, D; Perz, J; Cardoso, Gabriel Lopes; Grass, Viviane; Lust, Dieter; Perz, Jan
2006-01-01
At the horizon, a static extremal black hole solution in N=2 supergravity in four dimensions is determined by a set of so-called attractor equations which, in the absence of higher-curvature interactions, can be derived as extremization conditions for the black hole potential or, equivalently, for the entropy function. We contrast both methods by explicitly solving the attractor equations for a one-modulus prepotential associated with the conifold. We find that near the conifold point, the non-supersymmetric solution has a substantially different behavior than the supersymmetric solution. We analyze the stability of the solutions and the extrema of the resulting entropy as a function of the modulus. For the non-BPS solution the region of attractivity and the maximum of the entropy do not coincide with the conifold point.
Quantum Holonomies from Spectral Networks and Framed BPS States
Gabella, Maxime
2016-08-01
We propose a method for determining the spins of BPS states supported on line defects in 4d {{N}=2} theories of class S. Via the 2d-4d correspondence, this translates to the construction of quantum holonomies on a punctured Riemann surface {{C}} . Our approach combines the technology of spectral networks, which decomposes flat {GL(K,{C})} -connections on {{C}} in terms of flat abelian connections on a K-fold cover of {{C}} , and the skein algebra in the 3-manifold {{C} × [0,1]} , which expresses the representation theory of the quantum group U q (gl K ). With any path on {{C}} , the quantum holonomy associates a positive Laurent polynomial in the quantized Fock-Goncharov coordinates of higher Teichmüller space. This confirms various positivity conjectures in physics and mathematics.
Quantum lift of non-BPS flat directions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bellucci, S. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 4000044 Frascati (Italy)], E-mail: bellucci@lnf.infn.it; Ferrara, S. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 4000044 Frascati (Italy); Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN, CH 1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: sergio.ferrara@cern.ch; Marrani, A. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 4000044 Frascati (Italy); Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)], E-mail: marrani@lnf.infn.it; Shcherbakov, A. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 4000044 Frascati (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche ' Enrico Fermi' Via Panisperna 89A, 00184 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: ashcherb@lnf.infn.it
2009-02-09
We study N=2, d=4 attractor equations for the quantum corrected two-moduli prepotential F=st{sup 2}+i{lambda}, with {lambda} real, which is the only correction which preserves the axion shift symmetry and modifies the geometry. In the classical case the black hole effective potential is known to have a flat direction. We found that in the presence of D0-D6 branes the black hole potential exhibits a flat direction in the quantum case as well. It corresponds to non-BPS Z{ne}0 solutions to the attractor equations. Unlike the classical case, the solutions acquire non-zero values of the axion field. For the cases of D0-D4 and D2-D6 branes the classical flat direction reduces to separate critical points which turn out to have a vanishing axion field.
Quantum Holonomies from Spectral Networks and Framed BPS States
Gabella, Maxime
2016-01-01
We propose a method for determining the spins of BPS states supported on line defects in 4d $\\mathcal{N}=2$ theories of class S. Via the 2d-4d correspondence, this translates to the construction of quantum holonomies on a punctured Riemann surface $\\mathcal{C}$. Our approach combines the technology of spectral networks, which decomposes flat $GL(K,\\mathbb{C})$-connections on $\\mathcal{C}$ in terms of flat abelian connections on a $K$-fold cover of $\\mathcal{C}$, and the skein algebra in the 3-manifold $\\mathcal{C}\\times [0,1]$, which expresses the representation theory of the quantum group $U_q(gl_K)$. With any path on $\\mathcal{C}$, the quantum holonomy associates a positive Laurent polynomial in the quantized Fock-Goncharov coordinates of higher Teichm\\"uller space. This confirms various positivity conjectures in physics and mathematics.
Non-BPS multi-bubble microstate geometries
Bena, Iosif; Bossard, Guillaume; Katmadas, Stefanos; Turton, David
2016-02-01
We construct the first smooth horizonless supergravity solutions that have two topologically-nontrivial three-cycles supported by flux, and that have the same mass and charges as a non-extremal D1-D5-P black hole. Our configurations are solutions to six-dimensional ungauged supergravity coupled to a tensor multiplet, and uplift to solutions of Type IIB supergravity. The solutions represent multi-center generalizations of the non-BPS solutions of Jejjala, Madden, Ross, and Titchener, which have over-rotating angular momenta. By adding an additional Gibbons-Hawking center, we succeed in lowering one of the two angular momenta below the cosmic censorship bound, and bringing the other very close to this bound. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to construct multi-center horizonless solutions corresponding to non-extremal black holes, and offer the prospect of ultimately establishing that finite-temperature black holes have nontrivial structure at the horizon.
Schur Indices, BPS Particles, and Argyres-Douglas Theories
Cordova, Clay
2015-01-01
We conjecture a precise relationship between the Schur limit of the superconformal index of four-dimensional $\\mathcal{N}=2$ field theories, which counts local operators, and the spectrum of BPS particles on the Coulomb branch. We verify this conjecture for the special case of free field theories, $\\mathcal{N}=2$ QED, and $SU(2)$ gauge theory coupled to fundamental matter. Assuming the validity of our proposal, we compute the Schur index of all Argyres-Douglas theories. Our answers match expectations from the connection of Schur operators with two-dimensional chiral algebras. Based on our results we propose that the chiral algebra of the generalized Argyres-Douglas theory $(A_{k-1},A_{N-1})$ with $k$ and $N$ coprime, is the vacuum sector of the $(k,k+N)$ $W_{k}$ minimal model, and that the Schur index is the associated vacuum character.
Non-BPS multi-bubble microstate geometries
Bena, Iosif; Katmadas, Stefanos; Turton, David
2015-01-01
We construct the first smooth horizonless supergravity solutions that have two topologically-nontrivial three-cycles supported by flux, and that have the same mass and charges as a non-extremal D1-D5-P black hole. Our configurations are solutions to six-dimensional ungauged supergravity coupled to a tensor multiplet, and uplift to solutions of Type IIB supergravity. The solutions represent multi-center generalizations of the non-BPS solutions of Jejjala, Madden, Ross, and Titchener, which have over-rotating angular momenta. By adding an additional Gibbons-Hawking center, we succeed in lowering one of the two angular momenta below the cosmic censorship bound, and bringing the other very close to this bound. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to construct multi-center horizonless solutions corresponding to non-extremal black holes, and offer the prospect of ultimately establishing that finite-temperature black holes have nontrivial structure at the horizon.
Liouville Equation in 1/8 BPS Geometries
Mitsuka, Yoshihiro
2008-01-01
We investigate the 1/8 BPS geometries with SU(2) x U(1) x SO(4) x R symmetry in IIB supergravity which were classified by Gava et al, (hep-th/0611065). It is desirable to have a complete set of differential equations imposed on the controlling functions such that they are not only necessary but also sufficient to produce supergravity solutions with those symmetries. We work on this issue and find a new differential equation for the controlling functions. For a special case, we exhaust all the remaining constraints and show that they reduce to one Liouville equation. The solutions of this equation produce geometries which are locally equivalent to the near horizon geometries of intersecting D3-branes.
Writing Beyond the Wall: Translation, Cross-cultural Exchange, and Chen Ran's 'A Private Life'
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kay Schaffer
2006-09-01
Full Text Available The past decade has witnessed an unprecedented rise in the global flow of knowledge, nowhere more apparent in the exchange of ideas between China and modern western democracies. Our interest concerns one aspect of this global flow— the translation of Chinese women’s autobiographical writing into English. Taking Chen Ran’s A Private Life (English edition, 2004 as a point of departure, the paper explores issues of translingual practice and cross-cultural exchange. It considers what escapes or is lost in translation as well as the additive potential of the host text. It is sometimes the case that the translation can deliberately make certain ambiguities visible—whether from pragmatic, market-driven motivations or from more complex political, historical and cultural considerations. These negotiations of meaning that occur in the translation process can reverberate on the critical reception of texts in both the ‘guest’ and ‘host’ languages (Liu 1995, with open-ended, incomplete and indeterminate effects. The paper examines the effects of the omission of a brief parenthetical section of three paragraphs from one chapter of the Chinese edition of A Private Life. Yet, even that small emendation changes the original text as a cultural object and alters potential modes of its reception. In this case, the translation results in a loss of ambiguity, irony, philosophic and rhetorical sophistication while also offering additive potentials that enhance the generation of new meanings in the translingual exchange, here with reference Tiananmen and contemporary feminism in China. The translation process provides new channels for readers, writers and theorists to dialogue and communicate across gaps of difference, despite inhibiting factors like the imposition of local restraints, the universalising pressures of western modernity, and asymmetrical relations of power between guest and host language contexts.
Domain Walls Zoo in Supersymmetric QCD
Smilga, A. V.; Veselov, A. I.
1997-01-01
Solving numerically the equations of motion for the effective lagrangian describing supersymmetric QCD with the SU(2) gauge group, we find a menagerie of complex domain wall solutions connecting different chirally asymmetric vacua. Some of these solutions are BPS saturated walls; they exist when the mass of the matter fields does not exceed some critical value m < m* < 4.67059... There are also sphaleron branches (saddle points of the ebergy functional). In the range m* < m < m** \\approx 4.83...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cabellos, O. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: cabellos@din.upm.es; Reyes, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Sanz, J. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); University Nacional Educacion a Distancia, Dep. Ingenieria Energetica, Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez, A. [University Nacional Educacion a Distancia, Dep. Ingenieria Energetica, Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Youssef, M. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sawan, M. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
2006-02-15
A Monte Carlo procedure has been applied in this work in order to address the impact of activation cross-sections (XS) uncertainties on contact dose rate and decay heat calculations for the outboard first wall (FW) of a magnetic fusion energy (MFE) demonstration (DEMO) reactor. The XSs inducing the major uncertainty in the prediction of activation related quantities have been identified. Results have shown that for times corresponding to maintenance activities the uncertainties effect is insignificant since the dominant XSs involved in these calculations are based on accurate experimental data evaluations. However, for times corresponding to waste management/recycling activities, the errors induced by the XSs uncertainties, which in this case are evaluated using systematic models, must be considered. It has been found that two particular isotopes, {sup 6}Co and {sup 94}Nb, are key contributors to the global DEMO FW activation uncertainty results. In these cases, the benefit from further improvements in the accuracy of the critical reaction XSs is discussed.
Novel BPS Wilson loops in three-dimensional quiver Chern–Simons-matter theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hao Ouyang
2016-02-01
Full Text Available We show that generic three-dimensional N=2 quiver super Chern–Simons-matter theories admit Bogomol'nyi–Prasad–Sommerfield (BPS Drukker–Trancanelli (DT type Wilson loops. We investigate both Wilson loops along timelike infinite straight lines in Minkowski spacetime and circular Wilson loops in Euclidean space. In Aharnoy–Bergman–Jafferis–Maldacena theory, we find that generic BPS DT type Wilson loops preserve the same number of supersymmetries as Gaiotto–Yin type Wilson loops. There are several free parameters for generic BPS DT type Wilson loops in the construction, and supersymmetry enhancement for Wilson loops happens for special values of the parameters.
On the absence of BPS preonic solutions in IIA and IIB supergravities
Bandos, I A; de Azcárraga, J A; Azcarraga, Jose A. de; Bandos, Igor A.; Varela, Oscar
2006-01-01
We consider the present absence of 31 out of 32 supersymmetric solutions in supergravity i.e., of solutions describing BPS preons. A recent result indicates that (bosonic) BPS preonic solutions do not exist in type IIB supergravity. We reconsider this analysis by using the G-frame method, extend it to the IIA supergravity case, and show that there are no (bosonic) preonic solutions for type IIA either. For the classical D=11 supergravity no conclusion can be drawn yet, although the negative IIA results permit establishing the conditions that preonic solutions would have to satisfy. For supergravities with `stringy' corrections, the existence of BPS preonic solutions remains fully open.
Clustering and decomposition for non BPS solutions of the $\\mathbb{CP}^{N-1}$ models
Bolognesi, S.; Zakrzewski, W.
2013-01-01
We look at solutions [both Bogomol’nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) and non-BPS] of the CPN−1 model on R×S1 (with twisted boundary conditions), in particular by using a conformal mapping technique, and we show how to interpret these solutions by decomposing them into expressions describing constituent solitons. We point out the problems that may arise (for non-BPS solutions) when one naively looks at the clustering properties of these solutions. This could lead to misunderstandings when studying ...
Clustering and decomposition for non BPS solutions of the $\\mathbb{CP}^{N-1}$ models
Bolognesi, S
2013-01-01
We look at solutions (both BPS and non-BPS) of the $\\mathbb{CP}^{N-1}$ model on $\\mathbb{R} \\times S^1$ (with twisted boundary conditions), in particular by using a conformal mapping technique, and we show how to interpret these solutions by decomposing them into expressions describing constituent solitons. We point out the problems that may arise (for non-BPS solutions) when one naively looks at the clustering properties of these solutions. This could lead to misunderstandings when studying extrapolations between small and large compactification radii.
Clustering and decomposition for non-BPS solutions of the CPN -1 models
Bolognesi, S.; Zakrzewski, W.
2014-03-01
We look at solutions [both Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) and non-BPS] of the CPN -1 model on R×S1 (with twisted boundary conditions), in particular by using a conformal mapping technique, and we show how to interpret these solutions by decomposing them into expressions describing constituent solitons. We point out the problems that may arise (for non-BPS solutions) when one naively looks at the clustering properties of these solutions. This could lead to misunderstandings when studying extrapolations between small and large compactification radii.
BPS Force Balances via Spin-Spin Interactions
Kastor, D A; Kastor, David; Traschen, Jennie
1999-01-01
We study two systems of BPS solitons in which spin-spin interactions are important in establishing the force balances which allow static, multi-soliton solutions to exist. Solitons in the Israel-Wilson-Perjes (IWP) spacetimes each carry arbitrary, classical angular momenta. Solitons in the Aichelburg-Embacher "superpartner" spacetimes carry quantum mechanical spin, which originates in the zero-modes of the gravitino field of N=2 supergravity in an extreme Reissner-Nordstrom background. In each case we find a cancellation between gravitational spin-spin and magnetic dipole-dipole forces, in addition to the usual one between Newtonian gravitational attraction and Coulombic electrostatic repulsion. In both cases, we analyze the forces between two solitons by treating one of the solitons as a probe or test particle, with the appropriate properties, moving in the background of the other. In the IWP case, the equation of motion for a spinning test particle, originally due to Papapetrou, includes a coupling between ...
Vortex-type half-BPS solitons in Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) theory without and with mass deformation. It is shown that maximally supersymmetry preserving, D-term, and F-term mass deformations of single mass parameter are equivalent. We obtain vortex-type half-BPS equations and the corresponding energy bound. For the undeformed ABJM theory, the resulting half-BPS equation is the same as that in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and no finite energy regular BPS solution is found. For the mass-deformed ABJM theory, the half-BPS equations for U(2)xU(2) case reduce to the vortex equation in Maxwell-Higgs theory, which supports static regular multivortex solutions. In U(N)xU(N) case with N>2 the non-Abelian vortex equation of Yang-Mills-Higgs theory is obtained.
The 1/2 BPS Wilson loop in ABJM theory at two loops
Bianchi, Marco S.; Giribet, Gaston; Leoni, Matias; Penati, Silvia
2013-01-01
We compute the expectation value of the 1/2 BPS circular Wilson loop in ABJM theory at two loops in perturbation theory. The result shows perfect agreement with the prediction from localization and the proposed framing factor.
BPS preons and higher spin theory in D=4, 6, 10
Bandos, I A; Bandos, Igor A.; Azcarraga, Jose A. de
2006-01-01
We briefly review here the notion of BPS preons, the hypothetical constituents of M-theory, emphasizing its generalization to arbitrary dimensions D and its relation to higher spin theories in D=4,6 and 10.
BPS preons and tensionless super-p-brane in generalized superspace
Bandos, I A
2003-01-01
Tensionless super-p-branes in a generalized superspace with additional tensorial central charge coordinates might provide an extended object model for BPS preons, i.e. for hypothetical constituents of M-theory preserving 31 of 32 supersymmeties.
Exact Correlators of BPS Operators From the 3d Superconformal Bootstrap
Chester, Shai M; Pufu, Silviu S; Yacoby, Ran
2014-01-01
We use the superconformal bootstrap to derive exact relations between OPE coefficients in three-dimensional superconformal field theories with ${\\cal N} \\geq 4$ supersymmetry. These relations follow from a consistent truncation of the crossing symmetry equations that is associated with the cohomology of a certain supercharge. In ${\\cal N} = 4$ SCFTs, the non-trivial cohomology classes are in one-to-one correspondence with certain half-BPS operators, provided that these operators are restricted to lie on a line. The relations we find are powerful enough to allow us to determine an infinite number of OPE coefficients in the interacting SCFT ($U(2)_2 \\times U(1)_{-2}$ ABJ theory) that constitutes the IR limit of $O(3)$ ${\\cal N} = 8$ super-Yang-Mills theory. More generally, in ${\\cal N} = 8$ SCFTs with a unique stress tensor, we are led to conjecture that many superconformal multiplets allowed by group theory must actually be absent from the spectrum, and we test this conjecture in known ${\\cal N} = 8$ SCFTs usi...
BPS operators from the Wilson loop in the 3-dimensional supersymmetric Chern-Simons theory
Fujita, Mitsutoshi
2009-01-01
We consider the small deformation of the pointlike Wilson loop in the 3-dimensional N=6 superconformal Chern-Simons theory. By Taylor expansion of the pointlike Wilson loop in powers of the loop variables, we obtain the BPS operators that correspond to the excited string states of the dual IIA string theory on the pp wave background. The BPS conditions of the Wilson loop constrain both the loop variables and the forms of the operators obtained in the Taylor expansion.
BPS Preons in Supergravity and Higher Spin Theories. An Overview From the Hill of Twistor Approach
Bandos, I. A.
2005-04-01
We review briefly the notion of BPS preons, first introduced in 11-dimensional context as hypothetical constituents of M-theory, in its generalization to arbitrary dimensions and emphasizing the relation with twistor approach. In particular, the use of a "twistor-like" definition of BPS preon (almost) allows us to remove supersymmetry arguments from the discussion of the relation of the preons with higher spin theories and also of the treatment of BPS preons as constituents. We turn to the supersymmetry in the second part of this contribution, where we complete the algebraic discussion with supersymmetric arguments based on the M-algebra (generalized Poincaré superalgebra), discuss the possible generalization of BPS preons related to the osp(1|n) (generalized AdS) superalgebra, review a twistor-like κ-symmetric superparticle in tensorial superspace, which provides a point-like dynamical model for BPS preon, and the rôle of BPS preons in the analysis of supergravity solutions. Finally we describe resent results on the concise superfield description of the higher spin field equations and on superfield supergravity in tensorial superspaces.
BPS preons in supergravity and higher spin theories. An overview from the hill of twistor appraoch
Bandos, I A
2005-01-01
We review briefly the notion of BPS preons, first introduced in 11-dimensional context as hypothetical constituents of M-theory, in its generalization to arbitrary dimensions and emphasizing the relation with twistor approach. In particular, the use of a 'twistor-like' definition of BPS preon (almost) allows us to remove supersymmetry arguments from the discussion of the relation of the preons with higher spin theories and also of the treatment of BPS preons as constituents. We turn to the supersymmetry in the second part of this contribution, where we complete the algebraic discussion with supersymmetric arguments based on the M-algebra (generalized Poincare superalgebra), discuss the possible generalization of BPS preons related to the osp(1|n) (generalized AdS) superalgebra, review a twistor-like kappa-symmetric superparticle in tensorial superspace, which provides a point-like dynamical model for BPS preon, and the role of BPS preons in the analysis of supergravity solutions. Finally we describe resent re...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hatefi, Ehsan [Queen Mary University of London, Centre for Research in String Theory, School of Physics and Astronomy, London (United Kingdom); University of the Witwatersrand, Wits, National Institute for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics, Mandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, Johannesburg (South Africa); Institute des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques, Bures-sur-Yvette (France)
2015-11-15
From the world-sheet point of view we compute three, four and five point BPS and non-BPS scattering amplitudes of type IIA and IIB superstring theory. All these mixed S-matrix elements including a Ramond-Ramond closed string (RR) in the bulk and a scalar/gauge or tachyons with all different pictures (including an RR in asymmetric and symmetric pictures) have been carried out. We have also shown that in asymmetric pictures various equations must be kept fixed. More importantly, by direct calculations on the upper half plane, it is realised that some of the equations (which must be true) for BPS branes cannot be necessarily applied to non-BPS amplitudes. We also derive the S-matrix elements of left angle V{sub C}{sup -2}V{sub φ}{sup 0}V{sub A}{sup 0}V{sub T}{sup 0} right angle and clarify the fact that in the presence of the scalar field and an RR, the terms carrying momentum of an RR in the transverse directions play an important role in the entire form of the S-matrix and their presence is needed in order to have gauge invariance for the entire S-matrix elements of type IIA (IIB) superstring theory. (orig.)
Lane, J.W.; Joesten, P.K.; Savoie, J.G.
2001-01-01
A pilot-scale study was conducted by the U.S. Army National Guard (USANG) at the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, to assess the use of a hydraulic-fracturing method to create vertical, permeable walls of zero-valent iron to passively remediate ground water contaminated with chlorinated solvents. The study was conducted near the source area of the Chemical Spill-10 (CS-10) plume, a plume containing chlorinated solvents that underlies the MMR. Ground-water contamination near the source area extends from about 24 m (meters) to 35 m below land surface. The USANG designed two reactive-iron walls to be 12 m long and positioned 24 to 37 m below land surface to intersect and remediate part of the CS-10 plume.Because iron, as an electrical conductor, absorbs electromagnetic energy, the US Geological Survey used a cross-hole common-depth, radar scanning method to assess the continuity and to estimate the lateral and vertical extent of the two reactive-iron walls. The cross-hole radar surveys were conducted in boreholes on opposite sides of the iron injection zones using electric-dipole antennas with dominant center frequencies of 100 and 250 MHz. Significant decreases in the radar-pulse amplitudes observed in scans that traversed the injection zones were interpreted by comparing field data to results of two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain numerical models and laboratory-scale physical models.The numerical and physical models simulate a wall of perfectly conducting material embedded in saturated sand. Results from the numerical and physical models show that the amplitude of the radar pulse transmitted across the edge of a conductive wall is about 43 percent of the amplitude of a radar pulse transmitted across background material. The amplitude of a radar pulse transmitted through a hole in a conductive wall increases as the aperture of the hole increases. The modeling results indicate that holes with an aperture of less than 40
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eduardo Martinez
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The current-induced domain wall motion along thin ferromagnetic strips with high perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy is studied by means of full micromagnetic simulations and the extended one-dimensional model, taking into account thermal effects and edge roughness. A slow creep regime, where the motion is controlled by wall pinning and thermal activation, and a flow regime with linear variation of the DW velocity, are observed. In asymmetric stacks, where the Rashba spin-orbit field stabilizes the domain wall against turbulent transformations, the steady linear regime is extended to higher currents, leading to higher velocities than in single-layer or symmetric stacks. The pinning and depinning at and from a local constriction were also studied. The results indicate that engineering pinning sites in these strips provide an efficient pathway to achieve both high stability against thermal fluctuations and low-current depinning avoiding Joule heating. Finally, the current-driven dynamics of a pinned domain wall is examined, and both the direct and the alternating contributions to the induced voltage signal induced are characterized. It was confirmed that the direct contribution to the voltage signal can be linearly enhanced with the number of pinned walls, an observation which could be useful to develop domain-wall-based nano-oscillators.
Studies on instantons, twistor strings, and half-BPS geometries
Ricci, Riccardo
2006-12-01
In this Dissertation we discuss three different topics. We begin by studying supersymmetric instantons for Yang-Mills theories on non-anticommutative superspace. Performing an iterative expansion in the non-commutativity parameter C, we solve the equation of motions for U(2) Super Yang-Mills with and without matter. For pure Yang-Mills, we solve the equations exactly. In addition to the usual 't Hooft SU(2) instanton, the deformation turns on a non-trivial U(1) conncetion which depends on the fermionic collective coordinates and the deformation parameter C. In the Higgs phase on the other hand, we solve the equations of motion to leading order in the coupling constant. Even though the instanton effective action receives a contribution of order C 2, the gluino condensate and the non-perturbative Affleck-Dine-Seiberg superpotential remain as in N = 1 super Yang-Mills. The second topic is related to twister strings. Perturbative super Yang-Mills can be reinterpreted as a D-instanton expansion of the topological B-model on the supermanifold CP3|4 . We extend this contruction to N = 1 and N = 2 quiver gauge theories by contructing fermionic orbifolds of CP3|4 . Topological string suggest some efficient rules for computing Yang-Mills perturbative amplitudes. We consider possible extensions of these rules to gravity amplitudes. We conclude by analyzing some mathematical aspects of super Calabi-Yau manifolds. The final topic is devoted to the study of half-BPS type IIB supergravity solutions. The moduli space of these solutions can be associated to a one-dimensional, zero temperature fermion gas in a harmonic potential. We studied a natural generalization of the fermion-supergravity map, considering the fermions at non-zero temperature. We found that the ADM energy of the supergravity solution reproduces the thermal fermion energy. One important effect of the temperature is that the background develops a null singularity. This singularity is naked, that is not "covered" by
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Emma Adhikari; Dong-Keun Lee; Patrick Giavalisco; Leslie E. Sieburth
2013-01-01
Root-to-shoot signaling is used by plants to coordinate shoot development with the conditions experienced by the roots.A mobile and biologically active compound,the bps signal,is over-produced in roots of an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant called bypass1 (bps1),and might also be a normally produced signaling molecule in wild-type plants.Our goal is to identify the bps signal chemically,which will then allow us to assess its production in normal plants.To identify any signaling molecule,a bioassay is required,and here we describe the development of a robust,simple,and quantitative bioassay for the bps signal.The developed bioassay follows the growth-reducing activity of the bps signal using the pCYCB1;1::GUS cell cycle marker.Wild-type plants carrying this marker,and provided the bps signal through either grafts or metabolite extracts,showed reduced cell division.By contrast,control grafts and treatment with control extracts showed no change in pCYCB1;1::GUS expression.To determine the chemical nature of the bps signal,extracts were treated with RNase A,Proteinase K,or heat.None of these treatments diminished the activity of bps1 extracts,suggesting that the active molecule might be a metabolite.This bioassay will be useful for future biochemical fractionation and analysis directed toward bps signal identification.
Perez-Rodriguez, José Luis; Centeno, Miguel Angel; Robador, María Dolores; Siguenza, Belinda; Durán, Adrián
2013-04-01
The Reales Alcazares of Sevilla was originally builded by the Arabic in the year 913. The Mudejar Palace was built by Christian King Pedro I between 1364 and 1366. At the end of XV century the Catholic Kings, Isabel and Fernando made important transformations especially in the Mudejar Palace. Recently, wall paints from Catholic Kings periods were found during works of conservations in the first floor of the Palace. The study of these paints by non-destructive techniques was considered of great interest in order to determine the technology of manufacture and the originality of the artwork. The main objective of this work was to apply the Raman spectroscopy technique on the surface of the wall and on the different layers of the cross-sections prepared in order to characterize the pigments and the plaster present in these wall paints. Little information was obtained using a portable Raman spectrometer. In this case the dispersive integrated Horiba Jobin-Yvon LabRaman HR800 system was employed. Small samples of black, red, yellow, white and green colour were taken from the artwork. The surface of the samples were directly studed by the Raman spectroscopy instrument using red (785 nm) and green (522 nm) lasers, similarly to non-invasive experimental technique. This technique showed the presence of gypsum (SO4Ca.2H2O) and calcite (CaCO3) in all the studied samples However, the pigments responsible of different colours were not detected. The surface of these wall paints was covered with gypsum and calcite due to contamination. These mineras were also characterized by XRD and SEM-EDX. The presence of these compounds and the heterogeneous surface did not permit the characterization of the pigments responsible of the colour. In order to better characterization of the pigments and plaster used the study was carried out on cross-sections. The black colour was performed using carbon black. Two different red layers were detected one constituted by cinnabar and lead carbonate and
A Tale of Two Spaces: BPS Wilson Loops in Minkowski Spacetime and Euclidean Space
Ouyang, Hao; Zhang, Jia-ju
2015-01-01
We discuss BPS Wilson loops of $d=4$ $\\mathcal N=4$ super Yang-Mills theory, $d=3$ $\\mathcal N=2$ super Chern-Simons-matter theory, and $d=3$ $\\mathcal N=6$ Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena theory, in both Minkowski spacetime and Euclidean space. We find that there are timelike and null BPS Wilson loops in Minkowski spacetime, but spacelike BPS Wilson loops do not exist. We attribute this to the conflicts of reality conditions of spinors. However, in Euclidean space spacelike Wilson loops do exist. There are both Wilson lines of infinite straight lines and Wilson loops of circles. This is because the reality conditions of spinors are lost after Wick rotation. The result is reasonable in view of AdS/CFT correspondence.
Fluctuations around Periodic BPS-Density Waves in the Calogero Model
Bardek, V; Meljanac, S
2010-01-01
The collective field formulation of the Calogero model supports periodic density waves. An important set of such density waves is a two-parameter family of BPS solutions of the equations of motion of the collective field theory. One of these parameters is essentially the average particle density, which determines the period, while the other parameter determines the amplitude. These BPS solutions are sometimes referred to as "small amplitude waves" since they undulate around their mean density, but never vanish. We present complete analysis of quadratic fluctuations around these BPS solutions. The corresponding fluctuation hamiltonian (i.e., the stability operator) is diagonalized in terms of bosonic creation and annihilation operators which correspond to the complete orthogonal set of Bloch-Floquet eigenstates of a related periodic Schr\\"odinger hamiltonian, which we derive explicitly. Remarkably, the fluctuation spectrum is independent of the parameter which determines the density wave's amplitude. As a cons...
Construction of novel BPS Wilson loops in three-dimensional quiver Chern-Simons-matter theories
Ouyang, Hao; Zhang, Jia-ju
2015-01-01
In this paper, we construct novel Drukker-Trancanelli (DT) type BPS Wilson loops along infinite straight lines in $\\mathcal N=2,3$ quiver super Chern-Simons-matter (CSM) theories, Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) theory, and $\\mathcal N=4$ orbifold ABJM theory. There are several free complex parameters in the DT type BPS Wilson loops, and for Wilson loops in ABJM theory and $\\mathcal N=4$ orbifold ABJM theory there are supersymmetry enhancements at special values of the parameters. We check that the differences of the DT type and Gaiotto-Yin (GY) type Wilson loops are $Q$-exact with $Q$ being some supercharges preserved by both the DT type and GY type Wilson loops. The results would be useful to calculate vacuum expectation values of the Wilson loops in matrix models if they are still BPS quantum mechanically.
On correlation functions of BPS operators in $3d$ $\\mathcal{N}=6$ superconformal theories
Liendo, Pedro; Mitev, Vladimir
2015-01-01
We introduce a novel harmonic superspace for $3d$ $\\mathcal{N}=6$ superconformal field theories that is tailor made for the study of correlation functions of BPS operators. We calculate a host of two- and three-point functions in full generality and put strong constraints on the form of four-point functions of some selected BPS multiplets. For the four-point function of $\\frac{1}{2}$-BPS operators we obtain the associated Ward identities by imposing the absence of harmonic singularities. The latter imply the existence of a solvable subsector in which the correlator becomes topological. This mechanism can be explained by cohomological reduction with respect to a special nilpotent supercharge.
Toward the classification of BPS solutions of N=2, d=5 gauged supergravity with matter couplings
Celi, A
2004-01-01
In this thesis I discuss the derivation of the BPS solutions of the most general N=2, d=5 gauged supergravity with matter. In particular I will concentrate on the dependence of BPS equations on the choice of the gauging, in presence of not trivial hypermultiplets (not constant prepotential). My purpose is, starting from the experience gained in some special examples, to extend the results of Gauntlett et Gutowski for the minimal gauged case to the theory with a generic number of hypermultiplets. Two ingredients are fundamental for this study: rewriting the BPS constraints on the killing spinor in term of bosonic quantities as first introduced in hep-th/0209114 and the analysis of hyperini equation.
Monopole dynamics and BPS dyons in N=2 super-Yang-Mills theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We determine the low-energy dynamics of monopoles in pure N=2 Yang-Mills theories for points in the vacuum moduli space where the two Higgs fields are not aligned. The dynamics is governed by a supersymmetric quantum mechanics with potential terms and four real supercharges. The corresponding superalgebra contains a central charge but nevertheless supersymmetric states preserve all four supercharges. The central charge depends on the sign of the electric charges and consequently so does the BPS spectrum. We focus on the SU(3) case where certain BPS states are realized as zero modes of a Dirac operator on Taub-NUT space twisted by the triholomorphic Killing vector field. We show that the BPS spectrum includes hypermultiplets that are consistent with the strong- and weak-coupling behavior of Seiberg-Witten theory. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
6d → 5d → 4d reduction of BPS attractors in flat gauged supergravities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kiril Hristov
2015-08-01
This is achieved starting from the BPS black string in 6d with an AdS3×S3 attractor and taking two different routes to arrive at a 1/2 BPS AdS2×S2 attractor of a non-BPS black hole in 4d N=2 flat gauged supergravity. The two inequivalent routes interchange the order of KK reduction on AdS3 and SS reduction on S3. We also find the commutator between the two operations after performing a duality transformation: on the level of the theory the result is the exchange of electric with magnetic gaugings; on the level of the solution we find a flip of the quartic invariant I4 to −I4.
Bubbling 1/4 BPS solutions in type IIB and supergravity reductions on SnxSn
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We extend the construction of bubbling 1/2 BPS solutions of Lin, Lunin and Maldacena (H. Lin, O. Lunin, J. Maldacena, JHEP 0410 (2004) 025, hep-th/0409174) in two directions. First we enquire whether bubbling 1/2 BPS solutions can be constructed in minimal 6d supergravity and second we construct solutions that are 1/4 BPS in type IIB. We find that the S1xS1 bosonic reduction of (1,0) 6d supergravity to 4d gravity coupled to 2 scalars and a gauge field is consistent only provided that the gauge field obeys a constraint (F-bar F=0). This is to be contrasted to the case of the S3xS3 bosonic reduction of type IIB supergravity to 4d gravity, 2 scalars and a gauge field, where consistency is achieved without imposing any such constraints. Therefore, in the case of (1,0) 6d supergravity we are able to construct 1/2 BPS solutions, similar to those derived in type IIB, provided that this additional constraint is satisfied. This ultimately prohibits the construction of a family of 1/2 BPS solutions corresponding to a bubbling AdS3xS3 geometry. Returning to type IIB solutions, by turning on an axion-dilaton field we construct a family of bubbling 1/4 BPS solutions. This corresponds to the inclusion of back-reacted D7 branes to the solutions of Lin, Lunin and Maldacena
BPS operators from the Wilson loop in the 3-dimensional supersymmetric Chern-Simons theory
Fujita, Mitsutoshi
2009-01-01
We consider the small deformation of the point-like Wilson loop in the 3-dimensional $\\mathcal{N}=6$ superconformal Chern-Simons theory. By Taylor expansion of the point-like Wilson loop in powers of the loop variables, we obtain the BPS operators that correspond to the excited string states of the dual IIA string theory on the pp wave background. The BPS conditions of the Wilson loop constrain both the loop variables and the forms of the operators obtained in the Taylor expansion.
BPS Wilson loops and Bremsstrahlung function in ABJ(M): a two loop analysis
Bianchi, M; Griguolo, L.; de Leoni, M. (Massimiliano); Penati, S; Seminara, D.
2014-01-01
We study a family of circular BPS Wilson loops in $ \\mathcal{N} $ = 6 super Chern-Simons-matter theories, generalizing the usual 1/2-BPS circle. The scalar and fermionic couplings depend on two deformation parameters and these operators can be considered as the ABJ(M) counterpart of the DGRT latitudes defined in $ \\mathcal{N} $ = 4 SYM. We perform a complete two-loop analysis of their vacuum expectation value, discuss the appearance of framing-like phases and propose a general relation with c...
Non-BPS interactions from the type II one loop four graviton amplitude
Basu, Anirban
2016-06-01
We obtain T-duality invariant second order differential equations satisfied by the {D}8{{ R }}4 and {D}10{{ R }}4 interactions from the low energy expansion of the one loop four graviton amplitude in toroidally compactified type II string theory. The eigenvalues of these equations are completely determined by the structure of the one loop integrands. Unlike the BPS interactions, these non-BPS interactions satisfy Poisson equations having source terms that receive contributions from both the bulk and boundary of the worldsheet moduli space. We explicitly solve these equations in nine-dimensions.
F-theory compactifications and central charges of BPS-states
Obikhod, Tetiana V
2016-01-01
F-theory, as Theory of Everything is compactified on Calabi-Yau threefolds or fourfolds. Using toric approximation of Batyrev and mirror symmetry of Calabi-Yau manifolds it is possible to present Calabi-Yau in the form of dual integer polyhedra. With the help of Gelfand, Zelevinsky, Kapranov algorithm were calculated the numbers of BPS-states in F-theory, and by application of Tate algorithm were determined the enhanced symmetries. As the result, any integral dual polyhedron representing a Calabi-Yau manifold, is characterized by its own set of topological invariants - the numbers of BPS states, whose central charges are classified by enhanced symmetries.
Rotational-vibrational coupling in the BPS Skyrme model of baryons
Adam, C; Sanchez-Guillen, J; Wereszczynski, A
2013-01-01
We calculate the rotational-vibrational spectrum in the BPS Skyrme model for the hedgehog skyrmion with baryon number one. The resulting excitation energies for the nucleon and delta Roper resonances are slightly above their experimental values. Together with the fact that in the standard Skyrme model these excitation energies are significantly lower than the experimental ones, this provides strong evidence for the conjecture that the inclusion of the BPS Skyrme model is necessary for a successful quantitative description of physical properties of baryons and nuclei.
Rotational-vibrational coupling in the BPS Skyrme model of baryons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adam, C.; Naya, C.; Sanchez-Guillen, J. [Departamento de Física de Partículas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela and Instituto Galego de Física de Altas Enerxias (IGFAE), E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Wereszczynski, A. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, Kraków (Poland)
2013-11-04
We calculate the rotational-vibrational spectrum in the BPS Skyrme model for the hedgehog skyrmion with baryon number one. The resulting excitation energies for the nucleon and delta Roper resonances are slightly above their experimental values. Together with the fact that in the standard Skyrme model these excitation energies are significantly lower than the experimental ones, this provides strong evidence for the conjecture that the inclusion of the BPS Skyrme model is required for a successful quantitative description of physical properties of baryons and nuclei.
Half-BPS quotients in M-theory: ADE with a twist
de Medeiros, Paul; Gadhia, Sunil; Méndez-Escobar, Elena
2009-01-01
We classify Freund-Rubin backgrounds of eleven-dimensional supergravity of the form AdS_4 x X^7 which are at least half BPS; equivalently, smooth quotients of the round 7-sphere by finite subgroups of SO(8) which admit an (N>3)-dimensional subspace of Killing spinors. The classification is given in terms of pairs consisting of an ADE subgroup of SU(2) and an automorphism defining its embedding in SO(8). In particular we find novel half-BPS quotients associated with the subgroups of type D_n (for n>5), E_7 and E_8 and their outer automorphisms.
Nonlinear Free Vibration Analysis of Thin-walled Curved Beam with Non-symmetric Open Cross Section
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DUAN Hai-juan; SONG Zhen-sen
2008-01-01
A finite element formulation was presented for the nonlinear free vibration of thin-walled curved beams with non-symmetric open across section. The kinetic and potential energies were derived by the virtual principle. The energy function includes the effect of flexural-torsional coupling, the torsion warping and the shear centre location. For finite element analysis, cubic polynomials were utilized as the shape functions of the two nodal thin-walled curved elements. Each node possesses seven degrees freedom including the warping degree of freedom. The nonlinear eigenvalue problem was solved by the direct iteration technique. The results are compared with those for straight beams as available in the literature. The results for nonlinear free vibration analysis of curved beams for various radii and subtended angle are presented.
Construction and classification of novel BPS Wilson loops in quiver Chern-Simons-matter theories
Ouyang, Hao; Wu, Jun-Bao; Zhang, Jia-ju
2016-09-01
In this paper we construct and classify novel Drukker-Trancanelli (DT) type BPS Wilson loops along infinite straight lines and circles in N = 2 , 3 quiver superconformal Chern-Simons-matter theories, Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) theory, and N = 4 orbifold ABJM theory. Generally we have four classes of Wilson loops, and all of them preserve the same supersymmetries as the BPS Gaiotto-Yin (GY) type Wilson loops. There are several free complex parameters in the DT type BPS Wilson loops, and for two classes of Wilson loops in ABJM theory and N = 4 orbifold ABJM theory there are supersymmetry enhancements at special values of the parameters. We check that the differences of the DT type and GY type Wilson loops are Q-exact with Q being some supercharges preserved by both the DT type and GY type Wilson loops. The results would be useful to calculate vacuum expectation values of the DT type Wilson loops in matrix models if they are still BPS quantum mechanically.
Cosmic D- and DF-strings from D3Dbar3: Black Strings and BPS Bound
Kim, T; Kyae, B; Lee, J; Kim, Taekyung; Kim, Yoonbai; Kyae, Bumseok; Lee, Jungjai
2006-01-01
We study D- and DF-strings from D3${\\bar {\\rm D}}3$ in the context of Dirac-Born-Infeld type effective field theory. In the presence of an electric flux from a transverse direction, gravitating thick D-string solutions form a spatial manifold, ${\\rm S}^{2}\\times {\\rm R}^{1}$, and straight D-strings stretched along the R${}^{1}$ direction are located at the south and north poles of the two-sphere. There is a horizon along its equator and then the structure of black strings is supported. We also discuss systematic derivation of the BPS bounds for thin parallel D- and DF-strings in both flat and curved spacetime. The BPS sum rule is obtained for arbitrarily-separated multi-string configuration under a Gaussian type tachyon potential and, at the site of each thin BPS D(F)-string, the pressure does not vanish but is finite. For the conical geometry induced by thin BPS D- and DF-strings, we find that there exists maximum deficit angle $\\pi$.
Construction and classification of novel BPS Wilson loops in quiver Chern–Simons-matter theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hao Ouyang
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper we construct and classify novel Drukker–Trancanelli (DT type BPS Wilson loops along infinite straight lines and circles in N=2,3 quiver superconformal Chern–Simons-matter theories, Aharony–Bergman–Jafferis–Maldacena (ABJM theory, and N=4 orbifold ABJM theory. Generally we have four classes of Wilson loops, and all of them preserve the same supersymmetries as the BPS Gaiotto–Yin (GY type Wilson loops. There are several free complex parameters in the DT type BPS Wilson loops, and for two classes of Wilson loops in ABJM theory and N=4 orbifold ABJM theory there are supersymmetry enhancements at special values of the parameters. We check that the differences of the DT type and GY type Wilson loops are Q-exact with Q being some supercharges preserved by both the DT type and GY type Wilson loops. The results would be useful to calculate vacuum expectation values of the DT type Wilson loops in matrix models if they are still BPS quantum mechanically.
Baryon chemical potential and in-medium properties of BPS skyrmions
Adam, C; Naya, C; Sanchez-Guillen, J; Vazquez, R; Wereszczynski, A
2015-01-01
We continue the investigation of thermodynamical properties of the BPS Skyrme model. In particular, we analytically compute the baryon chemical potential both in the full field theory and in a mean-field approximation. In the full field theory case, we find that the baryon chemical potential is always exactly proportional to the baryon density, for arbitrary solutions. We further find that, in the mean-field approximation, the BPS Skyrme model approaches the Walecka model in the limit of high density - their thermodynamical functions as well as the equation of state agree in this limit. This fact allows to read off some properties of the $\\omega$-meson from the BPS Skyrme action, even though the latter model is entirely based on the (pionic) $SU(2)$ Skyrme field. On the other hand, at low densities, at the order of the usual nuclear matter density, the equations of state of the two models are no longer universal, such that a comparison depends on some model details. Still, also the BPS Skyrme model gives rise...
y-Deformed BPS Dp-branes On a Surface In a Calabi-Yau Threefold
Ospina, J F
2000-01-01
Using y-deformed algebraic geometric techniques the y-deformed Mukay vector of RR-charges of the y-deformed BPS Dp-branes localized on a surface in a Calabi-Yau threefold. The formulas that are obtained here are generalizations of the formulas of the fourth section of the preprint hep-th/0007243 .
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: ► Diamines were used for one-step functionalization of nanotubes and nanodiamond. ► We found experimental evidences of cross-linking effects in these nanomaterials. ► We found a strong orientation effect in the functionalized carbon nanotubes. - Abstract: The covalent functionalization of carbon nanomaterials with diamines is a way to enhance the mechanical strength of nanocomposites due to cross-linking effects, to form complex networks for nanotube-based electronic circuits, as well as is important for a number of biomedical applications. The main goal of the present work was to covalently functionalize pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes and nanodiamond with three aliphatic diamines (1,8-diaminooctane, 1,10-diaminodecane and 1,12-diaminododecane) and one aromatic diamine (1,5-diaminonaphthalene), by employing a simple one-step solvent-free methodology, which is based on thermal instead of chemical activation. We looked for experimental evidences of cross-linking effects in the carbon nanomaterials synthesized by using solubility/dispersibility tests, atomic force microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, as well as Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis for additional characterization.
Ganguly, Tridib; Johnson, John B; Kock, Nancy D; Parks, Griffith D; Deora, Rajendar
2014-07-01
Bordetella pertussis is a human-restricted Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes whooping cough or pertussis. Pertussis is the leading vaccine preventable disease that is resurging in the USA and other parts of the developed world. There is an incomplete understanding of the mechanisms by which B. pertussis evades killing and clearance by the complement system, a first line of host innate immune defence. The present study examined the role of the Bps polysaccharide to resist complement activity in vitro and in the mouse respiratory tract. The isogenic bps mutant strain containing a large non-polar in-frame deletion of the bpsA-D locus was more sensitive to serum and complement mediated killing than the WT strain. As determined by Western blotting, flow cytometry and electron microscopic studies, the heightened sensitivity of the mutant strain was due to enhanced deposition of complement proteins and the formation of membrane attack complex, the end-product of complement activation. Bps was sufficient to confer complement resistance as evidenced by a Bps-expressing Escherichia coli being protected by serum killing. Additionally, Western blotting and flow cytometry assays revealed that Bps inhibited the deposition of complement proteins independent of other B. pertussis factors. The bps mutant strain colonized the lungs of complement-deficient mice at higher levels than that observed in C57Bl/6 mice. These results reveal a previously unknown interaction between Bps and the complement system in controlling B. pertussis colonization of the respiratory tract. These findings also make Bps a potential target for the prevention and therapy of whooping cough.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamad Al Ali
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Part 1 of the paper presents fundamental information about the experimental and theoretical research oriented to determine the resistance of thin-walled cold-formed compressed steel members with closed cross-sections, [1]. The investigated members were made from homogeneous material. The theoretical analysis was oriented to determine the resistance of mentioned members according to European and Slovak standards, while the experimental investigation was to verify the theoretical results and to investigate the behavior of the above-mentioned members during the loading process, [2]. Part 2 is focused on the numerical analysis of the achieved results, as well as on 3D modeling and simulation of the experimental tests.
Thermodynamics at the BPS bound for Black Holes in AdS
Silva, P J
2006-01-01
In this work we define a new limiting procedure that extends the usual thermodynamics treatment of Black Hole physics, to the supersymmetric regime. This procedure is inspired on equivalent statistical mechanics derivations in the dual CFT theory, where the BPS partition function at zero temperature is obtained by a double scaling limit of temperature and the relevant chemical potentials. The resulting partition function depends on emergent generalized chemical potentials for the different conserved charges of the BPS supergravity solitons. With this new approach, studies on stability and phase transitions of supersymmetric solutions are presented. We find stable and unstable regimes with first order phase transitions, as suggested by previous studies on free supersymmetric Yang Mills theory.
The Hodge-elliptic genus, spinning BPS states, and black holes
Kachru, Shamit
2016-01-01
We perform a refined count of BPS states in the compactification of M-theory on $K3 \\times T^2$, keeping track of the information provided by both the $SU(2)_L$ and $SU(2)_R$ angular momenta in the $SO(4)$ little group. Mathematically, this four variable counting function may be expressed via the motivic Donaldson-Thomas counts of $K3 \\times T^2$, simultaneously refining Katz, Klemm, and Pandharipande's motivic Donaldson-Thomas counts on $K3$ and Oberdieck-Pandharipande's Gromov-Witten counts on $K3 \\times T^2$. This provides the first full answer for motivic curve counts of a compact Calabi-Yau threefold. Along the way, we develop a Hodge-elliptic genus for Calabi-Yau manifolds -- a new counting function for BPS states that interpolates between the Hodge polynomial and the elliptic genus of a Calabi-Yau.
AdS3 Holography for 1/4 and 1/8 BPS geometries
Giusto, Stefano; Russo, Rodolfo
2015-01-01
Recently a new class of 1/8-BPS regular geometries in type IIB string theory was constructed in arXiv:1502.01254. In this paper we provide a precise description of the semiclassical states dual, in the AdS/CFT sense, to these geometries. In explicit examples we show that the holographic 1-point functions and the Ryu-Takayanagi's Entanglement Entropy for a single small interval match the corresponding CFT calculations performed by using the proposed dual states. We also discuss several new examples of such precision holography analysis in the 1/4-BPS sector and provide an explicit proof that the small interval derivation of the Entanglement Entropy used in arXiv:1405.6185 is fully covariant.
The quantum 1/2 BPS Wilson loop in N=4 Chern-Simons-matter theories
Bianchi, Marco S.; Griguolo, Luca; Leoni, Matias; Mauri, Andrea; Penati, Silvia; Seminara, Domenico
2016-09-01
In three dimensional N=4 Chern-Simons-matter theories two independent fermionic Wilson loop operators can be defined, which preserve half of the supersymmetry charges and are cohomologically equivalent at classical level. We compute their three-loop expectation value in a convenient color sector and prove that the degeneracy is uplifted by quantum corrections. We expand the matrix model prediction in the same regime and by comparison we conclude that the quantum 1/2 BPS Wilson loop is the average of the two operators. We provide an all-loop argument to support this claim at any order. As a by-product, we identify the localization result at three loops as a correction to the framing factor induced by matter interactions. Finally, we comment on the quantum properties of the non-1/2 BPS Wilson loop operator defined as the difference of the two fermionic ones.
Non-BPS Attractors in 5d and 6d Extended Supergravity
Andrianopoli, L; Marrani, A; Trigiante, M
2008-01-01
We connect the attractor equations of a certain class of N=2, d=5 supergravities with their (1,0), d=6 counterparts, by relating the moduli space of non-BPS d=5 black hole/black string attractors to the moduli space of extremal dyonic black string d=6 non-BPS attractors. For d = 5 real special symmetric spaces and for N = 4,6,8 theories, we explicitly compute the flat directions of the black object potential corresponding to vanishing eigenvalues of its Hessian matrix. In the case N = 4, we study the relation to the (2,0), d=6 theory. We finally describe the embedding of the N=2, d=5 magic models in N=8, d=5 supergravity as well as the interconnection among the corresponding charge orbits.
Quarter-BPS Black Holes in AdS$_4$-NUT from $N=2$ Gauged Supergravity
Erbin, Harold
2015-01-01
We study $N=2$ gauged supergravity with $U(1)$ gauge group coupled to $n_v$ vector multiplets and find quite general analytic solutions for quarter-BPS black holes with mass, NUT and dyonic Maxwell charges. The solutions we find have running scalar fields and flow in the IR region to a horizon geometry of the form AdS$_2\\times \\Sigma_g$.
Black branes in AdS: BPS bounds and asymptotic charges
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hristov, K. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria); Toldo, C.; Vandoren, S. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)
2012-09-15
We focus on black branes and toroidal black holes in N = 2 gauged supergravities that asymptote to AdS{sub 4}, and derive formulas for the mass and central charge densities. We derive the corresponding BPS bound from the superalgebra of the asymptotic vacuum and illustrate our procedure with explicit examples of genuine black brane solutions with non-trivial scalars. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Instanton Corrections of 1/6 BPS Wilson Loops in ABJM Theory
Okuyama, Kazumi
2016-01-01
We study instanton corrections to the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of 1/6 BPS Wilson loops in ABJM theory from the Fermi gas approach. We mainly consider Wilson loops in the fundamental representation and winding Wilson loops, but we also initiate the study of Wilson loops with two boundaries. We find that the membrane instanton corrections to the Wilson loop VEV are determined by the refined topological string in the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit, and the pole cancellation mechanism between m...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jung Hans-Joachim G
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The GeneChip® Medicago Genome Array, developed for Medicago truncatula, is a suitable platform for transcript profiling in tetraploid alfalfa [Medicago sativa (L. subsp. sativa]. However, previous research involving cross-species hybridization (CSH has shown that sequence variation between two species can bias transcript profiling by decreasing sensitivity (number of expressed genes detected and the accuracy of measuring fold-differences in gene expression. Results Transcript profiling using the Medicago GeneChip® was conducted with elongating stem (ES and post-elongation stem (PES internodes from alfalfa genotypes 252 and 1283 that differ in stem cell wall concentrations of cellulose and lignin. A protocol was developed that masked probes targeting inter-species variable (ISV regions of alfalfa transcripts. A probe signal intensity threshold was selected that optimized both sensitivity and accuracy. After masking for both ISV regions and previously identified single-feature polymorphisms (SFPs, the number of differentially expressed genes between the two genotypes in both ES and PES internodes was approximately 2-fold greater than the number detected prior to masking. Regulatory genes, including transcription factor and receptor kinase genes that may play a role in development of secondary xylem, were significantly over-represented among genes up-regulated in 252 PES internodes compared to 1283 PES internodes. Several cell wall-related genes were also up-regulated in genotype 252 PES internodes. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR of differentially expressed regulatory and cell wall-related genes demonstrated increased sensitivity and accuracy after masking for both ISV regions and SFPs. Over 1,000 genes that were differentially expressed in ES and PES internodes of genotypes 252 and 1283 were mapped onto putative orthologous loci on M. truncatula chromosomes. Clustering simulation analysis of the differentially expressed genes
From Sasaki-Einstein spaces to quivers via BPS geodesics: Lpqr
Benvenuti, S; Benvenuti, Sergio; Kruczenski, Martin
2006-01-01
The AdS/CFT correspondence between Sasaki-Einstein spaces and quiver gauge theories is studied from the perspective of massless BPS geodesics. The recently constructed toric Lpqr geometries are considered: we determine the dual superconformal quivers and the spectrum of BPS mesons. The conformal anomaly is compared with the volumes of the manifolds. The U(1)^2_F x U(1)_R global symmetry quantum numbers of the mesonic operators are successfully matched with the conserved momenta of the geodesics, providing a test of AdS/CFT duality. The correspondence between BPS mesons and geodesics allows to find new precise relations between the two sides of the duality. In particular the parameters that characterize the geometry are mapped directly to the parameters used for a-maximization in the field theory. The analisys simplifies for the special case of the Lpqq models, which are shown to correspond to the known "generalized conifolds". These geometries can break conformal invariance through toric deformations of the c...
Non-BPS exact solutions and their relation to bions in ${\\mathbb C}P^{N-1}$ models
Misumi, Tatsuhiro; Sakai, Norisuke
2016-01-01
We investigate non-BPS exact solutions in ${\\mathbb C}P^{N-1}$ sigma models on ${\\mathbb R}^1 \\times S^{1}$ with twisted boundary conditions, by using the Din-Zakrzewski projection method. We focus on the relation of the non-BPS solutions to the ansatz of multi-instanton (bion) configurations and discuss their significance in the context of the resurgence theory. We find that the transition between seemingly distinct configurations of multi-instantons occur as moduli changes in the non-BPS solutions, and the simplest non-BPS exact solution corresponds to multi-bion configurations with fully-compressed double fractional instantons in the middle. It indicates that the non-BPS solutions make small but nonzero contribution to the resurgent trans-series as special cases of the multi-bion configurations. We observe a generic pattern of transitions between distinct multi-bion configurations (flipping partners), leading to the three essential properties of the non-BPS exact solution: (i) opposite sign for terms corre...
Calculating corrections in F-theory from refined BPS invariants and backreacted geometries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poretschkin, Maximilian
2015-07-01
This thesis presents various corrections to F-theory compactifications which rely on the computation of refined Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) invariants and the analysis of backreacted geometries. Detailed information about rigid supersymmetric theories in five dimensions is contained in an index counting refined BPS invariants. These BPS states fall into representations of SU(2){sub L} x SU(2){sub R}, the little group in five dimensions, which has an induced action on the cohomology of the moduli space of stable pairs. In the first part of this thesis, we present the computation of refined BPS state multiplicities associated to M-theory compactifications on local Calabi-Yau manifolds whose base is given by a del Pezzo or half K3 surface. For geometries with a toric realization we use an algorithm which is based on the Weierstrass normal form of the mirror geometry. In addition we use the refined holomorphic anomaly equation and the gap condition at the conifold locus in the moduli space in order to perform the direct integration and to fix the holomorphic ambiguity. In a second approach, we use the refined Goettsche formula and the refined modular anomaly equation that govern the (refined) genus expansion of the free energy of the half K3 surface. By this procedure, we compute the refined BPS invariants of the half K3 from which the results of the remaining del Pezzo surfaces are obtained by flop transitions and blow-downs. These calculations also make use of the high symmetry of the del Pezzo surfaces whose homology lattice contains the root lattice of exceptional Lie algebras. In cases where both approaches are applicable, we successfully check the compatibility of these two methods. In the second part of this thesis, we apply the results obtained from the calculation of the refined invariants of the del Pezzo respectively the half K3 surfaces to count non-perturbative objects in F-theory. The first application is given by BPS states of the E
SUSY QM from three domain walls in a scalar potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the linear classical stability of Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) on three domain wall solutions in a system of three coupled real scalar fields, for a general positive potential with a square form. From a field theoretic superpotential evaluated on the domain states, the connection between the supersymmetric quantum mechanics involving three-component eigenfunctions and the stability equation associated with three classical configurations is elaborated. (author)
Ma, Deyou; Yang, Hongsheng; Sun, Lina
2014-12-01
Sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) is one of the most important aquaculture animals in China. Usually its normal body color is black that fits its living environment. The juvenile individuals obtained by crossing albino sea cucumber segregated in body color. To document the transcriptome difference between albino associating sea cucumber and the control, we sequenced their transcriptomes with RNA-seq. Approximately, 4.790 million (M) and 4.884 M reads, 200 nt in length, were generated from the body wall of albino associating sea cucumber and the control, respectively, from them, 9550 (46.81%) putative genes were identified. In total, 583 genes were found to express differentially between albino associating sea cucumber and the control. Of these differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 4.8% changed more than five-folds. The expression levels of eight DEGs were confirmed with real-time PCR. The changing trend of these DEGs detected with real-time PCR agreed well with that detected with RNA-seq, although the change degree of some DEGs was different. Four significantly enriched pathways were identified for DEGs, which included phagocytosis, Staphylococcus aureus infection, ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion. These pathways were helpful for understanding the physiological difference between albino associating sea cucumber and the control.
Instanton Corrections of 1/6 BPS Wilson Loops in ABJM Theory
Okuyama, Kazumi
2016-01-01
We study instanton corrections to the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of 1/6 BPS Wilson loops in ABJM theory from the Fermi gas approach. We mainly consider Wilson loops in the fundamental representation and winding Wilson loops, but we also initiate the study of Wilson loops with two boundaries. We find that the membrane instanton corrections to the Wilson loop VEV are determined by the refined topological string in the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit, and the pole cancellation mechanism between membrane instantons and worldsheet instantons works also in the Wilson loop VEVs as in the case of the partition functions.
A Refined Count of BPS States in the D1/D5 System
Benjamin, Nathan
2016-01-01
We examine the low-lying quarter BPS spectrum of a 2d conformal field theory with target Sym$^N(K3)$ at various points in the moduli space, and look at a more refined count than the ordinary elliptic genus. We compute growth of the spectrum at both the symmetric orbifold point, as well as at the supergravity point in the moduli space. Finally we do a decomposition of the spectra into $\\mathcal{N}=4$ characters and discuss possible relations to interesting symmetry groups. A similar analysis is done with $T^4$.
Instanton corrections of 1/6 BPS Wilson loops in ABJM theory
Okuyama, Kazumi
2016-09-01
We study instanton corrections to the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of 1/6 BPS Wilson loops in ABJM theory from the Fermi gas approach. We mainly consider Wilson loops in the fundamental representation and winding Wilson loops, but we also initiate the study of Wilson loops with two boundaries. We find that the membrane instanton corrections to the Wilson loop VEV are determined by the refined topological string in the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit, and the pole cancellation mechanism between membrane instantons and worldsheet instantons works also in the Wilson loop VEVs as in the case of the partition functions.
Developing a dynamic website using WordPress CMS for BPS Finland Oy
K.C., Kiran
2014-01-01
This Bachelor’s thesis aims to develop a website for a small-to-medium-sized enterprise (SME), BPS Finland Oy, which is fully based on the customer’s requirements. In this thesis project, a completely new dynamic website was developed from the design layout provided by the case company in a Photoshop version. WordPress, a Content Management System (CMS), was used to create a dynamic website. CMS is a software programme to power, manage and modify the website’s contents and avoid the need ...
Half BPS states in AdS_5 x Y^{p,q}
Gava, Edi; Narain, Kumar S.; Milanesi, Giuseppe; O'Loughlin, Martin
2007-01-01
We study a class of solutions of IIB Supergravity which are asymptotically AdS_5 x Y^{p,q}. They have an R x SO(4) x SU(2) x U(1) isometry and preserve half of the 8 supercharges of the background geometry. They are described by a set of second order differential equations that we have found and analysed in a previous paper, where we studied 1/8 BPS states in the maximally supersymmetric AdS_5 x S^5 background. These geometries correspond to certain chiral primary operators of the N=1 superco...
A Note On The Semiclassical Formulation Of BPS States In Four-Dimensional N=2 Theories
Brennan, T Daniel
2016-01-01
Vector spaces of (framed) BPS states of Lagrangian four-dimensional N=2 field theories can be defined in semiclassical chambers in terms of the $L^2$-cohomology of Dirac-like operators on monopole moduli spaces. This was spelled out previously for theories with only vectormultiplets, taking into account only a subset of the possible half-supersymmetric 't Hooft-Wilson line defects. This note completes the discussion by describing the modifications needed when including matter hypermultiplets together with arbitrary 't Hooft-Wilson line defects. Two applications of this extended discussion are given.
Diagonal Form Factors and Hexagon Form Factors II. Non-BPS Light Operator
Jiang, Yunfeng
2016-01-01
We study the asymptotic volume dependence of the heavy-heavy-light three-point functions in the $\\mathcal{N}=4$ Super-Yang-Mills theory using the hexagon bootstrap approach, where the volume is the length of the heavy operator. We extend the analysis of our previous short letter 1511.06199 to the general case where the heavy operators can be in any rank one sector and the light operator being a generic non-BPS operator. We prove the conjecture of Bajnok, Janik and Wereszczynski 1404.4556 up to leading finite size corrections.
The stem cell walls of alfalfa [Medicago sativa (L.) ssp. sativa] genotype 252 have high cellulose and lignin concentrations, while stem cell walls of genotype 1283 have low cellulose and lignin concentrations. The GeneChip® Medicago Genome Array, developed for Medicago truncatula, is a suitable pla...
Jamet, Elisabeth; Canut, Hervé; Boudart, Georges; Albenne, Cécile; Pont-Lezica, Rafael F
2008-01-01
This chapter covers our present knowledge of cell wall proteomics highlighting the distinctive features of cell walls and cell wall proteins in relation to problems encountered for protein extraction, separation and identification. It provides clues to design strategies for efficient cell wall proteomic studies. It gives an overview of the kinds of proteins that have yet been identified: the expected proteins vs the identified proteins. Finally, the new vision of the cell wall proteome, and t...
On super form factors of half-BPS operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills
Penante, Brenda; Travaglini, Gabriele; Wen, Congkao
2014-01-01
We compute form factors of half-BPS operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills dual to massive Kaluza-Klein modes in supergravity. These are appropriate supersymmetrisations T_k of the scalar operators Tr(\\phi^k) for any k, which for k=2 give the chiral part of the stress-tensor multiplet operator. Using harmonic superspace, we derive simple Ward identities for these form factors, which we then compute perturbatively at tree level and one loop. We propose a novel on-shell recursion relation which links form factors with different numbers of fields. Using this, we conjecture a general formula for the n-point MHV form factors of T_k for arbitrary k and n. Finally, we use supersymmetric generalised unitarity to derive compact expressions for all one-loop MHV form factors of T_k in terms of one-loop triangles and finite two-mass easy box functions.
Algebraicity and Asymptotics: An explosion of BPS indices from algebraic generating series
Mainiero, Tom
2016-01-01
It is an observation of Kontsevich and Soibelman that generating series that produce certain (generalized) Donaldson Thomas invariants are secretly algebraic functions over the rationals. From a physical perspective this observation arises naturally for DT invariants that appear as BPS indices in theories of class S[A]: explicit algebraic equations (that completely determine these series) can be derived using (degenerate) spectral networks. In this paper, we conjecture an algebraic equation associated to DT invariants for the Kronecker 3-quiver with dimension vectors (3n,2n), n>0 in the non-trivial region of its stability parameter space. Using a functional equation due to Reineke, we show algebraicity of generating series for Euler characteristics of stable moduli for the Kronecker m-quiver assuming algebraicity of generating series for DT invariants. In the latter part of the paper we deduce very explicit results on the asymptotics of DT invariants/Euler characteristics under the assumption of algebraicity ...
On super form factors of half-BPS operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We compute form factors of half-BPS operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills dual to massive Kaluza-Klein modes in supergravity. These are appropriate supersymmetrisations Tk of the scalar operators Tr (ϕk) for any k, which for k = 2 give the chiral part of the stress-tensor multiplet operator. Using harmonic superspace, we derive simple Ward identities for these form factors, which we then compute perturbatively at tree level and one loop. We propose a novel on-shell recursion relation which links form factors with different numbers of fields. Using this, we conjecture a general formula for the n-point MHV form factors of Tk for arbitrary k and n. Finally, we use supersymmetric generalised unitarity to derive compact expressions for all one-loop MHV form factors of Tk in terms of one-loop triangles and finite two-mass easy box functions
A remark on the asymptotic form of BPS multi-dyon solutions and their conserved charges
Constantinidis, C. P.; Ferreira, L. A.; Luchini, G.
2015-12-01
We evaluate the gauge invariant, dynamically conserved charges, recently obtained from the integral form of the Yang-Mills equations, for the BPS multi-dyon solutions of a Yang-Mills-Higgs theory associated to any compact semi-simple gauge group G. Those charges are shown to correspond to the eigenvalues of the next-to-leading term of the asymptotic form of the Higgs field at spatial infinity, and so coinciding with the usual topological charges of those solutions. Such results show that many of the topological charges considered in the literature are in fact dynamical charges, which conservation follows from the global properties of classical Yang-Mills theories encoded into their integral dynamical equations. The conservation of those charges can not be obtained from the differential form of Yang-Mills equations.
A remark on the asymptotic form of BPS multi-dyon solutions and their conserved charges
Constantinidis, C P; Luchini, G
2015-01-01
We evaluate the gauge invariant, dynamically conserved charges, recently obtained from the integral form of the Yang-Mills equations, for the BPS multi-dyon solutions of a Yang-Mills-Higgs theory associated to any compact semi-simple gauge group G. Those charges are shown to correspond to the eigenvalues of the next-to-leading term of the asymptotic form of the Higgs field at spatial infinity, and so coinciding with the usual topological charges of those solutions. Such results show that many of the topological charges considered in the literature are in fact dynamical charges, which conservation follows from the global properties of classical Yang-Mills theories encoded into their integral dynamical equations. The conservation of those charges can not be obtained from the differential form of Yang-Mills equations.
转基因大豆BPS-CV127-9 PCR定量检测研究%Quantitative Detection of Genetically Modified Soybean BPS-CV127-9
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李宁; 赵蕾; 孙红炜; 李凡; 杨淑珂; 路兴波
2012-01-01
A quantitative method to detect the transgenic soybean BPS-CV-127-9 by using real-time PCR technique based on fluorescence dye SYBR Green I was investigated in this study. The endogenous lectin gene and the 5' flanking sequences of BPS-CV-127-9 were amplified through the specific primers,and the transgenic content was then calculated according to the standard curve equation. Meanwhile the specificity of PCR amplification was analyzed by corresponding melting curves. The results showed that the standard curves of lectin and the 5' flanking sequences of BPS-CV-127-9 genes have good linear relationship, and their R values were 0. 999 and 0. 998, respectively. The coefficient of variance was 1. 50%-18. 51% and standard deviation was 0.02-0.07. Four mixed samples with genetically modified contents of BPS-CV-127-9 was 0.05% ,0.1% ,0.5% and 1% respectively were detected,and the detection results agreed well with actual value. In conclusion,this method was fast, sensitive, simple, accurate, specific and of high throughput, and could be used to detect transgenic soybean BPS-CV-127-9 quantificationally.%采用SYBR Green实时荧光定量PCR技术,建立转基因大豆BPS-CV127-9的定量检测方法.通过设计特异引物,扩增内标准基因lectin和BPS-CV127-9的5’侧翼序列,建立2种基因的拷贝数-CT标准曲线,根据标准曲线方程计算样品中的转基因含量,并且通过熔解曲线分析扩增反应特异性.结果表明,lectin基因和侧翼序列标准曲线线性关系良好,R2值分别为0.999和0.998,变异系数(CV) 1.50％～18.51％、标准偏差(SD)0.02 ～0.07.检测4个已知BPS-CV127-9含量(1％、0.5％、0.1％、0.05％)的转基因混合样品,实测值与实际值接近.该检测方法具有快速、灵敏、准确、特异、高通量等优点,可以作为转基因大豆BPS-CV127-9的定量检测方法.
More on BPS States in N = 4 $$ \\mathcal{N}=4 $$ Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory on R × S 3
Yokoyama, Shuichi
2014-01-01
We perform a systematic analysis on supersymmetric states in N = 4 $$ \\mathcal{N}=4 $$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory (SYM) on R × S 3 . We find a new set of 1/16 BPS equations and determine the precise configuration of the supersymmetric states by solving all 1/16 BPS equations when they are valued in Cartan subalgebra of a gauge group and the fermionic fields vanish. We also determine the number of supersymmetries preserved by the supersymmetric states varying the parameters of the BPS so...
Honda, Masazumi; Nishimura, Jun; Tsuchiya, Asato
2011-01-01
We test the AdS/CFT correspondence by calculating Wilson loops in N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory on R*S^3 in the planar limit. Our method is based on a novel large-N reduction, which reduces the problem to Monte Carlo calculations in the plane-wave matrix model or the BMN matrix model, which is a 1d gauge theory with 16 supercharges. By using the gauge-fixed momentumspace simulation, we obtain results respecting 16 supersymmetries. We report on the Monte Carlo results for the BPS circular Wilson loop, which reproduce the exact result up to strong coupling. As a future prospect, we calculate a track-shapedWilson loop from the gravity side, which shows that a clear test of the AdS/CFT for the non-BPS case is also feasible.
Processing Technology for Underground Diaphragm Walls crossing Underground Pipeline%穿越地下管线的地连墙处理技术
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王剑; 邢荣亮; 赵明时
2016-01-01
The paper present theconstruction of underground diaphragm wall is limited by complicated underground pipeline in the historic city,because of complicated underground pipeline. Tosolvingthis problem, a kind of trench cutting method of hydraulic bucket with reverse circulation drilling trench is proposed . and the paper states five important points about the construction of underground diaphragm wall , what are division of underground diaphrabm wall , examiningandfirming pipelines, construction ofguiding wall , excavated by hydraulic bucket with reverse circulation drilling trench , fabrication and installation of the rebar cages , concrete casting.The technology can not only solve construction problems , save investment ,ensure duration , but also provide a reference for similar projects .%由于城市地下管线错综复杂,地连墙施工时受到地下管线的限制,为此,提出了穿越地下管线的地连墙处理技术,并对施工工艺中的重点问题在地连墙的分幅、管线的刨验加固与导墙施工、液压抓斗与反循环钻机联合成槽、钢筋笼处理、混凝土浇注五个方面进行了叙述.该技术解决了施工难题,节约了成本并保证了工期,为类似工程提供参考.
Perturbative evaluation of circular 1/2 BPS Wilson loops in N = 6 Super Chern-Simons theories
Griguolo, Luca; Poggi, Matteo; Seminara, Domenico
2013-01-01
We present a complete two-loop analysis of the quantum expectation value for circular BPS Wilson loops in ABJ(M) theories. We examine in details the 1/2 BPS case, that requires non-trivial fermionic couplings with the contour, finding perfect agreement with the exact matrix model answer at zero framing. The result is obtained through a careful application of DRED regularization scheme, combined with a judicious rearrangement of the relevant perturbative contributions that reduces the computation to simple integrals. We carefully analyze the contribution of fermions that is crucial for the consistency with the localization procedure and point out the arising of pivotal evanescent terms, discussing their meaning in relation to Ward identities.
The quantum 1/2 BPS Wilson loop in ${\\cal N}=4$ Chern-Simons-matter theories
Bianchi, Marco S; Leoni, Matias; Mauri, Andrea; Penati, Silvia; Seminara, Domenico
2016-01-01
In three dimensional ${\\cal N}=4$ Chern-Simons-matter theories two independent fermionic Wilson loop operators can be defined, which preserve half of the supersymmetry charges and are cohomologically equivalent at classical level. We compute their three-loop expectation value in a convenient color sector and prove that the degeneracy is uplifted by quantum corrections. We expand the matrix model prediction in the same regime and by comparison we conclude that the quantum 1/2 BPS Wilson loop is the average of the two operators. We provide an all-loop argument to support this claim at any order. As a by-product, we identify the localization result at three loops as a correction to the framing factor induced by matter interactions. Finally, we comment on the quantum properties of the non-1/2 BPS Wilson loop operator defined as the difference of the two fermionic ones.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄尊地; 常宁
2012-01-01
选用车型为棚车,采用SIMPLEC算法和QUICK精度格式的数值计算方法对强侧风下不同挡风墙类型、不同路堤和挡风墙高度组合棚车的气动性能进行研究.研究结果表明:在防风效果上,土堤式挡风墙最差,加筋对拉式挡风墙相对最优;挡风墙类型为加筋对拉式,当路堤高度一定时,随着挡风墙高度的增加,棚车的倾覆方向由顺风倾覆向逆风倾覆转变;棚车在一线时,倾覆力矩转变点挡风墙的高度比在二线时高;随着路堤高度的增加,棚车倾覆力矩转变点挡风墙的高度逐渐减小,但减小的幅值变小.研究结论为既有线挡风墙优化建造提供理论依据.%Based on the box car, a simulation method with SIMPLEC arithmetic and QUICK precision format was used in the research of the aerodynamic forces acting on a box car running on the railway along with the different wind - break wall under strong cross - wind. The results show that in the wind - break effect, the embankment wind - break wall is the worst of all, the tendon wind - break wall is the best of all; when the height of the embankment is constant for the tendon wind - break wall, with the increas of the height of the wind - break wall, the overturning moment of the box car will change from down the wind to headwind; when the overturning moment is 0, the relevant height of the wind - break wall on the first railway is higher than that on the second; when the height of the embankment increases, the relevant height is decrease, but the extent becomes small. The conclusions provide a reliable theoretical basis for optimization and construction of the wind -break wall on the existing railway from Lanchow to Urumqi.
N=2 SUGRA BPS multi-center black holes and freudenthal triple systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Torrente-Lujan E.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We present a detailed description of N = 2 stationary BPS multicenter black hole solutions for quadratic prepotentials with an arbitrary number of centers and scalar fields making a systematic use of the algebraic properties of the matrix of second derivatives of the prepotential, S, which in this case is a scalar-independent matrix. The anti-involution matrix S can be understood as a Freudenthal duality x̃ = Sx. We show that this duality can be generalized to “Freudenthal transformations” x→λexp(θSx=ax+bx˜$x \\to \\lambda \\exp \\left( {\\theta S} \\rightx = ax + b\\tilde x$ under which the horizon area, ADM mass and intercenter distances scale up leaving constant the scalars at the fixed points. In the special case λ = 1, “S-rotations”, the transformations leave invariant the solution. The standard Freudenthal duality can be written as x˜=exp (π2S x$\\tilde x = {\\rm{exp }}\\left( {{\\pi \\over 2}S} \\right{\\rm{ }}x$. We argue that these generalized transformations leave invariant not only the quadratic preotential theories but also the general stringy extremal quartic form Δ4, Δ4(x = Δ4(cos θx + sin θx̃ and therefore its entropy at lowest order.
Topological charged BPS vortices in Lorentz-violating Maxwell-Higgs electrodynamics
Casana, R
2014-01-01
We have performed a complete study of BPS vortex solutions in the Abelian sector of the standard model extension (SME). Specifically we have coupled the SME electromagnetism with a Higgs field which is supplemented with a Lorentz-violating CPT-even term. We have verified that Lorentz-violation (LV) belonging to Higgs sector allows to interpolate between some well known models like, Maxwell-Higgs, Chern-Simons-Higgs and Maxwell-Chern-Simons-Higgs. We can also observed that the electrical charged density distribution is nonnull in both CPT-even and CPT-odd models, however the total electric charge in the CPT-even case is null whereas in the CPT-odd one it is proportional to the quantized magnetic flux. The following general results can be established in relation to the LV introduced in the Higgs sector: it changes the vortex \\emph{Ansatz} and the gauge field boundary conditions. The last one is responsible for the magnetic flux besides being proportional to the winding number also depends explicitly in the Lore...
N=2 SUGRA BPS Multi-center solutions, quadratic prepotentials and Freudenthal transformations
Fernandez-Melgarejo, J J
2013-01-01
We present a detailed description of N=2 stationary BPS multicenter black hole solutions for quadratic prepotentials with an arbitrary number of centers and scalar fields making a systematic use of the algebraic properties of the matrix of second derivatives of the prepotential, $\\mathcal{S}$, which in this case is a scalar-independent matrix. In particular we obtain bounds on the physical parameter of the multicenter solution such as horizon areas and ADM mass. We discuss the possibility and convenience of setting up a basis of the symplectic vector space built from charge eigenvectors of the $\\ssigma$, the set of vectors $(\\Ppm q_a)$ with $\\Ppm$ $\\ssigma$-eigenspace proyectors. The anti-involution matrix $\\mathcal{S}$ can be understood as a Freudenthal duality $\\tilde{x}=\\ssigma x$. We show that this duality can be generalized to "Freudenthal transformations" $$x\\to \\lambda\\exp(\\theta \\ssigma) x= a x+b\\tilde{x}$$ under which the horizon area, ADM mass and intercenter distances scale up leaving constant the ...
Half BPS states in AdS_5 x Y^{p,q}
Gava, Edi; Milanesi, Giuseppe; O'Loughlin, Martin
2008-01-01
We study a class of solutions of IIB Supergravity which are asymptotically AdS_5 x Y^{p,q}. They have an R x SO(4) x SU(2) x U(1) isometry and preserve half of the 8 supercharges of the background geometry. They are described by a set of second order differential equations that we have found and analysed in a previous paper, where we studied 1/8 BPS states in the maximally supersymmetric AdS_5 x S^5 background. These geometries correspond to certain chiral primary operators of the N=1 superconformal quiver theories, dual to IIB theory on AdS_5 x Y^{p,q}. We also show how to recover the AdS_5 x Y^{p,q} backgrounds by suitably doubling the number of preserved supersymmetries. We then solve the differential equations perturbatively in a large AdS_5 radius expansion, imposing asymptotic AdS_5 x Y^{p,q} boundary conditions. We compute the global baryonic and mesonic charges, including the R-charge. As for the computation of the mass, i.e. the conformal dimension D of the dual field theory operators, which is notor...
Half BPS states in AdS5 x Yp,q
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study a class of solutions of IIB supergravity which are asymptotically AdS5 x Yp,q. They have an R x SO(4) x SU(2) x U(1) isometry and preserve half of the 8 supercharges of the background geometry. They are described by a set of second order differential equations that we have found and analysed in a previous paper, where we studied 1/8 BPS states in the maximally supersymmetric AdS5 x S5 background. These geometries correspond to certain chiral primary operators of the N = 1 superconformal quiver theories, dual to IIB theory on AdS5 x Yp,q. We also show how to recover the AdS5 x Yp,q backgrounds by suitably doubling the number of preserved supersymmetries. We then solve the differential equations perturbatively in a large AdS5 radius expansion, imposing asymptotic AdS5 x Yp,q boundary conditions. We compute the global baryonic and mesonic charges, including the R-charge. As for the computation of the mass, i.e. the conformal dimension Δ of the dual field theory operators, which is notoriously subtle in asymptotically AdS backgrounds, we adopt the general formalism due to Wald and collaborators, which gives a finite result, and verify the relation Δ = 3R/2, demanded by the N = 1 superconformal algebra
1/16-BPS Black Holes and Giant Gravitons in the AdS_5 X S^5 Space
Kim, S; Kim, Seok; Lee, Ki-Myeong
2006-01-01
We explore 1/16-BPS objects of type IIB string theory in AdS_5 * S^5. First, we consider supersymmetric AdS_5 black holes, which should be 1/16-BPS and have a characteristic that not all physical charges are independent. We point out that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of these black holes admits a remarkably simple expression in terms of (dependent) physical charges, which suggests its microscopic origin via certain Cardy or Hardy-Ramanujan formula. We also note that there is an upper bound for the angular momenta given by the electric charges. Second, we construct a class of 1/16-BPS giant graviton solutions in AdS_5 * S^5 and explore their properties. The solutions are given by the intersections of AdS_5 * S^5 and complex 3 dimensional holomorphic hyperspaces in C^{1+5}, the latter being the zero loci of three holomorphic functions which are homogeneous with suitable weights on coordinates. We investigate examples of giant gravitons, including their degenerations to tensionless strings.
Strandén, A M; Ehlert, K; Labischinski, H.; Berger-Bächi, B.
1997-01-01
The femAB operon is involved in the formation of the characteristic pentaglycine side chain of the staphylococcal peptidoglycan. Allele replacement of the femAB operon with the tetracycline resistance determinant tetK in a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain resulted in impaired growth, methicillin hypersusceptibility, and lysostaphin resistance. The usual pentaglycine cross-bridges were replaced by monoglycine bridges exclusively, and cross-linking of the peptidoglycan strands...
2015-10-01
It is no news to anyone that health transcends national borders, driven by cross-border movement of vectors, populations, health professionals, climate, even policy trends. There is an increasing recognition that it is, in fact, a small world: we are affected by and affect what happens to our neighbors, whether they live around the corner or on the other side of the globe. This conception underpins the shift from the term international health to global health in policy discussions. The new terminology reflects change across several dimensions: from an approach in which there is one medicine for the developed world and another for developing countries, to an appreciation that we all have a stake in one another's wellbeing; from a primarily biomedical focus on treatment to a more multidisciplinary, population health focus taking into consideration a range of interventions to improve health and well-being, including the social and environmental determinants of health; and from a vertical bilateral-aid approach focused on specific diseases, to systems and ecological approaches addressing the complexities of health, involving multiple partnerships. PMID:26947274
Greenman, Jim
2006-01-01
In this article, the author emphasizes the importance of "working" walls in children's programs. Children's programs need "working" walls (and ceilings and floors) which can be put to use for communication, display, storage, and activity space. The furnishings also work, or don't work, for the program in another sense: in aggregate, they serve as…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mody, Astrid
2012-01-01
of “ambiguous walls” as a more “critical” approach to design [1]. The concept of ambiguous walls refers to the diffuse status a lumious and possibly responsive wall will have. Instead of confining it can open up. Instead of having a static appearance, it becomes a context over time. Instead of being hard...
Escherichia coli Protein Expression System for Acetylcholine Binding Proteins (AChBPs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikita Abraham
Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR are ligand gated ion channels, identified as therapeutic targets for a range of human diseases. Drug design for nAChR related disorders is increasingly using structure-based approaches. Many of these structural insights for therapeutic lead development have been obtained from co-crystal structures of nAChR agonists and antagonists with the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP. AChBP is a water soluble, structural and functional homolog of the extracellular, ligand-binding domain of nAChRs. Currently, AChBPs are recombinantly expressed in eukaryotic expression systems for structural and biophysical studies. Here, we report the establishment of an Escherichia coli (E. coli expression system that significantly reduces the cost and time of production compared to the existing expression systems. E. coli can efficiently express unglycosylated AChBP for crystallography and makes the expression of isotopically labelled forms feasible for NMR. We used a pHUE vector containing an N-terminal His-tagged ubiquitin fusion protein to facilitate AChBP expression in the soluble fractions, and thus avoid the need to recover protein from inclusion bodies. The purified protein yield obtained from the E. coli expression system is comparable to that obtained from existing AChBP expression systems. E. coli expressed AChBP bound nAChR agonists and antagonists with affinities matching those previously reported. Thus, the E. coli expression system significantly simplifies the expression and purification of functional AChBP for structural and biophysical studies.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐志刚
2015-01-01
精密薄壁十字壳体结构复杂,形状奇异,壁薄刚度差,十字轴线的几何公差精度等级高。在零件加工中,利用了现有普通数显卧式镗床TX6113 C,通过对工艺方法的研究和装夹方式上大胆创新,利用专用夹具弥补了机床精度的不足,并在零件装夹和夹具找准等工艺方法上采取了一系列相应的创新措施,有效地解决了精密薄壁十字壳体零件在普通机床上精密加工的难题,节省了高精设备的资金投入,产品赢得了市场。%Cross-shaped shell parts with thin walls share the feature of complex design,odd shape,thin walls with poor rigidity and high demand of cross axis geometric tolerance.In the processing of these parts,full use of the existing digital TX6113C horizontal boring machine was made.Based on the research on processing method and the bold innovation of clam-ping,effectively used the accuracy of the fixtures to make up the lack of accuracy in machine tools.Besides,a series of cor-responding innovation methods were adopted in clamping and alignment of parts.All these methods solved the problem of processing high precision cross-shaped shell parts on general-purpose machine tools.The parts processed easily win the mar-ket while saving the money to purchase high-precision equipment.
All three-loop four-point correlators of half-BPS operators in planar N=4 SYM
Chicherin, Dmitry; Heslop, Paul; Sokatchev, Emery
2015-01-01
We obtain the planar correlation function of four half-BPS operators of arbitrary weights, up to three loops. Our method exploits only elementary properties of the integrand of the planar correlator, such as its symmetries and singularity structure. This allows us to write down a general ansatz for the integrand. The coefficients in the ansatz are fixed by means of a powerful light-cone OPE relation between correlators with different weights. Our result is formulated in terms of a limited number of functions built from known one-, two- and three-loop conformal integrals. These results are useful for checking recent integrability predictions for the OPE structure constants.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The purpose of this work was to prepare nanocomposites by mixing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with nitrile and hydrogenated nitrile elastomers (NBR and HNBR). Utilization of transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering techniques (SAXS and WAXS) for advanced morphology observation of conducting filler-reinforced nitrile and hydrogenated nitrile rubber composites is reported. Principal results were increases in hardness (maximally 97 Shore, type A), elastic modulus (maximally 981 MPa), tensile strength (maximally 27.7 MPa), elongation at break (maximally 216%), cross-link density (maximally 7.94 x 1028 m-3), density (maximally 1.16 g cm-3), and tear strength (11.2 kN m-1), which were clearly visible at particular acrylonitrile contents both for unhydrogenated and hydrogenated polymers due to enhanced distribution of carbon nanotubes (CNT) and their aggregated particles in the applied rubber matrix. Conclusion was that multi-walled carbon nanotubes improved the performance of nitrile and hydrogenated nitrile rubber nanocomposites prepared by melt compounding.
Interactions of domain walls of SUSY Yang-Mills as D-branes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Domain walls in supersymmetric Yang-Mills are BPS configurations which preserve two supercharges of the parent theory and so their tensions are known exactly. On the other hand, they have been described as D-branes for the confining string. This leads to a description of their collective dynamics in terms of a 2+1-dimensional gauge theory with two supersymmetries and a Chern-Simons term. We show that this open string description can capture the qualitative behaviour of the forces between the domain walls for an arbitrary configuration of n walls at leading order in 1/N, extending earlier calculations for two walls. The potential admits a supersymmetric bound state when the n walls are all coincident and asymptotes to a constant at large separation with an n dependence which agrees perfectly with the exact tension formula
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: ► We measured the instantaneous flow velocity using 2D-Particle Image Velocimetry. ► Recirculation bubbles, vortices, detachment and reattachment zones are showed. ► The influence of the ReH and Rej/ReH was studied. ► The Rej/ReH determines the effects produced around the component. - Abstract: The air flow around a cubic obstacle mounted on one wall of a rectangular channel was studied experimentally. The obstacle represents an electronic component and the channel the space between two parallel printed circuit boards (PCBs). The flow was produced by the combination of a channel stream and a jet which issued from a circular nozzle placed at the wall opposite from where the component is mounted. With this aim, a test rig was designed and built to carry out experiments with both the above mentioned configurations and other cooling arrangements. Planar Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was employed to measure the instantaneous flow velocity on several planes covering the space around the component. The mean velocity and the Reynolds stresses were obtained from averaging the instantaneous velocity, and the mean flow showed a complex pattern with different features such as recirculation bubbles, vortices, detachment and reattachment zones. The influence of two parameters, namely the channel Reynolds number and the jet-to-channel Reynolds number ratio, on these flow features was studied considering nine cases that combined three values of the channel Reynolds number (3410, 5752 and 8880) and three values of the ratio (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5). The results show that the Reynolds number ratio determines the drag produced on the jet and the deflection from its geometric axis due to the channel stream. In all the cases corresponding to the lowest value of the ratio, the jet was dragged and did not impact the component. This fact accounts for the non-existence of the Upper Horseshoe Vortex and changes in the flow characteristics at the region over the component.
Domain Walls and Flux Tubes in N=2 SQCD D-Brane Prototypes
Shifman, M
2003-01-01
This paper could have been entitled "D branes and strings from flesh and blood." We study field theoretic prototypes of D branes/strings. To this end we consider (2+1)-dimensional domain walls in (3+1)-dimensional N=2 SQCD with SU(2) gauge group and two quark flavors in the fundamental representation. This theory is perturbed by a small mass term of the adjoint matter which, in the leading order in the mass parameter, does not break N=2 supersymmetry, and reduces to a (generalized) Fayet-Iliopoulos term in the effective low-energy N=2 SQED. We find 1/2 BPS-saturated domain wall solution interpolating between two quark vacua at weak coupling, and show that this domain wall localizes a U(1) gauge field. To make contact with the brane/string picture we consider the Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen magnetic flux tube in one of two quark vacua and demonstrate that it can end on the domain wall. We find an explicit 1/4 BPS-saturated solution for the wall/flux tube junction. We verify that the end point of the flux tube on ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈显福
2014-01-01
Variable cross-section hol ow thin-walled pier has the obvious superiority and good economy, and can use less material to obtain larger sectional resistance moment which is often used by mountain bridge engineering. Taking the Yujiagou1# bridge as the example, this article introduces the construction technology of variable cross-section hol ow thin-wal ed pier, and provides reference for similar engineering construction.%变截面空心薄壁方墩具有明显的优越性和较好的经济性，可以用较少的材料获取较大的截面抵抗矩，这种技术常常被山区、深沟建桥的工程所采用。本文以余家沟1号大桥为例，介绍了变截面空心薄壁方墩施工技术，可为类似工程施工提供借鉴。
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xi Juan [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Ji Xinghu [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhang Shaohong [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Xiang Fan Vocational and Technical College, Xiangfan 441021 (China); Ai Xinping [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); He Zhike [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)]. E-mail: zhkhe@whu.edu.cn
2005-06-13
The chemiluminescence mechanism of tris-(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthrolinedisulfonic acid)ruthenium(II) (RuBPS)-Ce(IV) system and the effects of two diuretics, hydrochlorothiazide and furosemide, on its chemiluminescence intensity were investigated in detail. It was found that each of the two diuretics could enhance the chemiluminescence emission intensity of RuBPS-Ce(IV) system, based on which, they were sensitively detected by chemiluminescence analysis, respectively. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the linear range and detection limit of hydrochlorothiazide were 2.5 x 10{sup -3} to 6.0 x 10{sup -1} {mu}g ml{sup -1} and 1.0 x 10{sup -3} {mu}g ml{sup -1}, respectively; those of furosemide were 1.0 x 10{sup -2} to 4.0 {mu}g ml{sup -1} and 8.8 x 10{sup -3} {mu}g ml{sup -1}, respectively. The proposed method has been applied to analyze the pharmaceuticals with satisfied results.
Precision calculation of 1/4-BPS Wilson loops in AdS5×S5
Forini, V.; Puletti, V. Giangreco M.; Griguolo, L.; Seminara, D.; Vescovi, E.
2016-02-01
We study the strong coupling behaviour of 1/4-BPS circular Wilson loops (a family of "latitudes") in {N}=4 Super Yang-Mills theory, computing the one-loop corrections to the relevant classical string solutions in AdS5 ×S5. Supersymmetric localization provides an exact result that, in the large 't Hooft coupling limit, should be reproduced by the sigma-model approach. To avoid ambiguities due to the absolute normalization of the string partition function, we compare the ratio between the generic latitude and the maximal 1/2-BPS circle: any measure-related ambiguity should simply cancel in this way. We use the Gel'fand-Yaglom method with Dirichlet boundary conditions to calculate the relevant functional determinants, that present some complications with respect to the standard circular case. After a careful numerical evaluation of our final expression we still find disagreement with the localization answer: the difference is encoded into a precise "remainder function". We comment on the possible origin and resolution of this discordance.
Precision calculation of 1/4-BPS Wilson loops in AdS$_5\\times S^5$
Forini, V; Griguolo, L; Seminara, D; Vescovi, E
2015-01-01
We study the strong coupling behaviour of $1/4$-BPS circular Wilson loops (a family of "latitudes") in ${\\cal N}=4$ Super Yang-Mills theory, computing the one-loop corrections to the relevant classical string solutions in AdS$_5\\times$S$^5$. Supersymmetric localization provides an exact result that, in the large 't Hooft coupling limit, should be reproduced by the sigma-model approach. To avoid ambiguities due to the absolute normalization of the string partition function, we compare the $ratio$ between the generic latitude and the maximal 1/2-BPS circle: Any measure-related ambiguity should simply cancel in this way. We use Gel'fand-Yaglom method to calculate the relevant functional determinants, that present some complications with respect to the standard circular case. After a careful numerical evaluation of our final expression we still find disagreement with the localization answer: The difference is encoded into a precise "remainder function". We comment on the possible origin and resolution of this dis...
Lantsman, L
2006-01-01
We show that manifest superfluid properties of the Minkowskian Higgs model with vacuum BPS monopoles quantized by Dirac may be described in the framework of the Cauchy problem to the Gribov ambiguity equation. The latter equation specifies the ambiguity in choosing the covariant Coulomb (transverse) gauge for Yang-Mills fields represented as topological Dirac variables, may be treated as solutions to the Gauss law constraint at the removal of temporal components of these fields. We demonstrate that the above Cauchy problem comes just to fixing the covariant Coulomb gauge for topological Dirac variables in the given initial time instant $t_0$ and finding the solutions to the Gribov ambiguity equation in the shape of vacuum BPS monopoles and excitations over the BPS monopole vacuum referring to the class of multipoles. The next goal of the present study will be specifying the look of Gribov topological multipliers entering Dirac variables in the Minkowskian Higgs model quantized by Dirac, especially at the spat...
Alonso-Izquierdo, Alberto
2016-01-01
In this paper zero modes of fluctuation are dissected around the two species of BPS vortices existing in the critical Higgs phase, where the scalar and vector meson masses are equal, of a gauged $\\mathbb{U}(1)$ nonlinear $\\mathbb{CP}^1$-model. If $2\\pi n$, $n\\in \\mathbb{Z}$, is the quantized magnetic flux of the two species of BPS vortex solutions, $2n$ linearly independent vortex zero modes for each species are found and described. The existence of two species of moduli spaces of dimension $2n$ of these stringy topological defects is thus locally shown.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kneipp, Marco A.C. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Teoria de Campos e Particulas
2004-12-01
We review some recent developments on BPS string solutions and monopole confinement in the Higgs (or color) superconducting phase of N = 2 and N = 4 super Yang-Mills theories. In particular, the monopole magnetic fluxes are shown to be always integer linear combinations of string fluxes. Moreover, a bound for the threshold length of the string breaking is obtained. When the gauge group SU(N) is broken to Z{sub N}, the BPS string tension satisfies the Casimir scaling law. Furthermore, in the SU(3) case the string solutions are such that they allow the formation of a confining system with three monopoles. (author)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘向远
2014-01-01
Taking the construction of Xiamaixi Tunnel in Guiyang City Rail Transit No .1 Line crossing underneath the ring express highway for example and by using the elastic-plastic theory ,Mohr-Coulomb criteria and Mids-Gts software , the internal force of tunnel lining and the stress ,deformation and plastic area of surrounding rock during the construction were calculated and analyzed systematiclly and numerically ,and the differences between them under different supporting were compared .The results suggest that when the distance of the tunnel working face is 20 meters to the retaining wall , the supporting measures should be taken on ,especially the measures should be taken on for reinforcing the bottom as well as the southeast corner and southwest corner of the retaining wall .%以贵阳市轨道交通1号线下麦西隧道施工下穿环城高速公路交通涵出口挡土墙为例，采用弹塑性理论、摩尔库仑准则，利用 Midas Gts 软件系统数值分析施工过程中隧道衬砌内力和围岩的应力、变形和塑性区，对比不同支护形式时隧道衬砌内力、围岩塑性区等的差异。计算结果表明：在隧道开挖过程中，当隧道开挖到距离挡土墙位置20 m 时就应该对挡土墙采取支护措施，特别应加强挡墙的底部，东南角，西南角的加固措施。
1999-01-01
The FIRE AND RESCUE Group of TIS Commission informs that the climbing wall in the yard of the Fire-fighters Station, is intended for the sole use of the members of that service, and recalls that access to this installation is forbidden for safety reasons to all persons not belonging to the Service.CERN accepts no liability for damage or injury suffered as a result of failure to comply with this interdiction.TIS/DI
Taming the supergravity description of non-BPS D-branes: the D/anti-D solution
Bain, Pascal
2001-04-01
We obtain the supergravity solution which describes a bound state of D-string/anti-D-string pairs attached to different fixed planes of an orbifold, in type-IIB string theory compactified on T4/Bbb Z2. For parameters at which the conformal field theory point of view predicts stability, the solution displays a repulson-like singularity. However, we observe that a D-string/anti-D-string pair probe in this background becomes tensionless before reaching the singularity, suggesting a resolution by the enhançon mechanism. Moreover, the force feels by this probe is attractive, in contrast to the repulsive behaviour observed in the non-BPS D-brane description.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper we present a family of supersymmetric Wilson loops of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in Minkowski space. Our examples focus on curves restricted to hyperbolic submanifolds, H3 and H2, of space-time. Generically they preserve two supercharges, but in special cases more, including a case which has not been discussed before, of the hyperbolic line, conformal to the straight line and circle, which is 1/2 BPS. We discuss some general properties of these Wilson loops and their string duals and study special examples in more detail. Generically the string duals propagate on a complexification of AdS5xS5 and in some specific examples the compact sphere is effectively replaced by a de Sitter space.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is gradually being phased out of many consumer products and processes leading to potential increases in human and environmental exposures to relatively understudied replacement compounds, including Bisphenol S (BPS). Research from our lab has shown that BPA and...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Gil-yong; Jung, Min-kyung; Ryoo, Sung-nam; Ha, Sam-chul [Digital Appliance R and D, LG Electronics, Seoul 153-801 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Myung-seok [LG Solar Energy, Seoul 150-721 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sunhoe [Department of New Energy and Resource Engineering, Sangji University, Wonju, Gangwon 220-702 (Korea, Republic of)
2010-12-15
In order to satisfy the demands of customers, cost innovation of fuel cell systems is required for the commercialization of the fuel cell. Since the stack is one of the most expensive parts in a fuel cell system, cost reduction of stack is required for fuel cell commercialization. For this effort stainless steel 304 sheets were etched for the flow field and then coated for corrosion resistance. This enables the development of highly cost-effective bipolar plates (BPs) for a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) stack of a 1 kW-class for Residential Power Generator (RPG). LG Electronics (LGE) developed a metal stack of 64 cells with the developed BPs and achieved a performance rating of 0.75 V/cell at 200 mA/cm{sup 2}. LGE also achieved a stack volume reduction of 20% compared to a stack of the same specifications consisting of graphite material BPs. The volume decrease can be represented as a cost reduction. LGE achieved the very low cost innovation to 1 USD per cell with cells developed from etched metal BPs. LGE also achieved 500 h of operation with LGE's RPG system; this test is still ongoing. The degradation rate of the stack was 27 {mu}V/hr. The end of life of the stack was estimated at approximately 17,000 h. (author)
Ultrasonic Digital Communication System for a Steel Wall Multipath Channel: Methods and Results
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
TL Murphy
2006-02-16
As of the development of this thesis, no commercially available products have been identified for the digital communication of instrumented data across a thick ({approx} 6 n.) steel wall using ultrasound. The specific goal of the current research is to investigate the application of methods for digital communication of instrumented data (i.e., temperature, voltage, etc.) across the wall of a steel pressure vessel. The acoustic transmission of data using ultrasonic transducers prevents the need to breach the wall of such a pressure vessel which could ultimately affect its safety or lifespan, or void the homogeneity of an experiment under test. Actual digital communication paradigms are introduced and implemented for the successful dissemination of data across such a wall utilizing solely an acoustic ultrasonic link. The first, dubbed the ''single-hop'' configuration, can communicate bursts of digital data one-way across the wall using the Differential Binary Phase-Shift Keying (DBPSK) modulation technique as fast as 500 bps. The second, dubbed the ''double-hop'' configuration, transmits a carrier into the vessel, modulates it, and retransmits it externally. Using a pulsed carrier with Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM), this technique can communicate digital data as fast as 500 bps. Using a CW carrier, Least Mean-Squared (LMS) adaptive interference suppression, and DBPSK, this method can communicate data as fast as 5 kbps. A third technique, dubbed the ''reflected-power'' configuration, communicates digital data by modulating a pulsed carrier by varying the acoustic impedance at the internal transducer-wall interface. The paradigms of the latter two configurations are believed to be unique. All modulation methods are based on the premise that the wall cannot be breached in any way and can therefore be viably implemented with power delivered wirelessly through the acoustic channel using ultrasound. Methods
Non-Abelian Gauge Field Localized on Walls with Four-Dimensional World Volume
Ohta, Kazutoshi
2010-01-01
A mechanism using the position-dependent gauge coupling is proposed to localize non-Abelian gauge fields on domain walls in five-dimensional space-time. Low-energy effective theory posseses a massless vector field, and a mass gap. The four-dimensional gauge invariance is maintained intact. We obtain perturbatively the four-dimensional Coulomb law for static sources on the domain wall. BPS domain wall solutions with the localization mechanism are explicitly constructed in the U(1)xU(1) supersymmetric gauge theory coupling to the non-Abelian gauge fields only through the cubic prepotential, which is consistent with the general principle of supersymmetry in five-dimensional space-time.
Topological-charge anomalies in supersymmetric theories with domain walls
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Domain walls in 1+2 dimensions are studied to clarify some general features of topological-charge anomalies in supersymmetric theories, by extensive use of a superfield supercurrent. For domain walls quantum modifications of the supercharge algebra arise not only from the short-distance anomaly but also from another source of long-distance origin, induced spin in the domain-wall background, and the latter dominates in the sum. A close look into the supersymmetric trace identity, which naturally accommodates the central-charge anomaly and its superpartners, shows an interesting consequence of the improvement of the supercurrent: Via an improvement the anomaly in the central-charge can be transferred from induced spin in the fermion sector to an induced potential in the boson sector. This fact reveals a dual character, both fermionic and bosonic, of the central-charge anomaly, which reflects the underlying supersymmetry. The one-loop superfield effective action is also constructed to verify the anomaly and Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) saturation of the domain-wall spectrum
It was 20 years ago this week that the Berlin wall was opened for the first time since its construction began in 1961. Although the signs of a thaw had been in the air for some time, few predicted the speed of the change that would ensue. As members of the scientific community, we can take a moment to reflect on the role our field played in bringing East and West together. CERN’s collaboration with the East, primarily through links with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, JINR, in Dubna, Russia, is well documented. Less well known, however, is the role CERN played in bringing the scientists of East and West Germany together. As the Iron curtain was going up, particle physicists on both sides were already creating the conditions that would allow it to be torn down. Cold war historian Thomas Stange tells the story in his 2002 CERN Courier article. It was my privilege to be in Berlin on Monday, the anniversary of the wall’s opening, to take part in a conference entitled &lsquo...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Belli, Sabina I; Wallach, Michael G; Luxford, Catherine;
2003-01-01
infection by several organisms of medical and veterinary importance such as Eimeria, Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Cyclospora, and Neospora could be developed. Here, we show that two tyrosine-rich precursor glycoproteins, gam56 and gam82, found in specialized organelles (wall-forming bodies) in the sexual stage...... cuticles, yeast cell walls, mussel byssal threads, and sea urchin fertilization membranes....
Abdominal wall hernia and pregnancy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, K K; Henriksen, N A; Jorgensen, L N
2015-01-01
PURPOSE: There is no consensus as to the treatment strategy for abdominal wall hernias in fertile women. This study was undertaken to review the current literature on treatment of abdominal wall hernias in fertile women before or during pregnancy. METHODS: A literature search was undertaken in Pub......Med and Embase in combination with a cross-reference search of eligible papers. RESULTS: We included 31 papers of which 23 were case reports. In fertile women undergoing sutured or mesh repair, pain was described in a few patients during the last trimester of a subsequent pregnancy. Emergency surgery...... of incarcerated hernias in pregnant women, as well as combined hernia repair and cesarean section appears as safe procedures. No major complications were reported following hernia repair before or during pregnancy. The combined procedure of elective cesarean section and abdominal wall hernia repair was reported...
The normal growth of the tracheal wall in human foetuses
Szpinda, Michał; Daroszewski, Marcin; Szpinda, Anna; Woźniak, Alina; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Flisiński, Piotr; Wiśniewski, Marcin
2012-01-01
Introduction Tracheal wall thickness is a substantial indicator in various pathological changes. The present study was performed to compile normative data and formulae for the tracheal wall thickness and volume at varying gestational age. Material and methods Using anatomical dissection, digital image analysis and statistics a range of the wall thickness, proximal internal-to-external cross-sectional area ratio, and wall volume for the trachea in 73 spontaneously aborted human fetuses aged 14...
Cell wall remodeling under abiotic stress
Tenhaken, Raimund
2015-01-01
Plants exposed to abiotic stress respond to unfavorable conditions on multiple levels. One challenge under drought stress is to reduce shoot growth while maintaining root growth, a process requiring differential cell wall synthesis and remodeling. Key players in this process are the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and peroxidases, which initially cross-link phenolic compounds and glycoproteins of the cell walls causing stiffening. The function of ROS shifts after having converted a...
The Great Wall for the first time
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2005-01-01
<正>Jin Shanling is on the way of a spectacular 7 mile hike to the incredible knife-edge peaks at Simatai. From each watch-tower (67 are said to grace this section) it is like the Great Wall for the first time. It is a swaying cable bridge crosses to Simatai. Atop tours reached through steep, narrow steps are million-dollar vistas of an endless dragon’s tail. Here, the wall
Microanalysis of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Nicolai Obel; Veronika Erben; Tatjana Schwarz; Stefan Kühne; Andrea Fodor; Markus Pauly
2009-01-01
Oligosaccharide Mass Profiling (OLIMP) allows a fast and sensitive assessment of cell wall polymer structure when coupled with Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The short time required for sample preparation and analysis makes possible the study of a wide range of plant organs, revealing a high degree of heterogeneity in the substitution pattern of wall polymers such as the cross-linking glycan xyloglucan and the pectic polysaccharide homogalacturonan. The high sensitivity of MALDI-TOF allows the use of small amounts of samples, thus making it possible to investigate the wall structure of single cell types when material is collected by such methods as laser micro-dissection. As an example, the analysis of the xyloglucan structure in the leaf cell types outer epidermis layer, entire epidermis cell layer, palisade mesophyll cells, and vascular bundles were investigated. OLIMP is amenable to in situ wall analysis, where wall polymers are analyzed on unprepared plant tissue itself without first iso-lating cell walls. In addition, OLIMP enables analysis of wall polymers in Golgi-enriched fractions, the location of nascent matrix polysaccharide biosynthesis, enabling separation of the processes of wall biosynthesis versus post-deposition apo-plastic metabolism. These new tools will make possible a semi-quantitative analysis of the cell wall at an unprecedented level.
The Stability of Fake Flat Domain Walls on Kähler Manifold
Akbar, F. T.; Wijaya, R. N.; Gunara, B. E.
2016-08-01
In this paper, we study the stability of flat fake domain walls solution of fake N = 1 supergravity in d + 1 dimensions with Kahler surface as the sigma model. We start with Lagrangian for N = 1 fake supergravity which is coupling between gravity and complex scalar in d + 1 dimensions with scalar potential turned on. Then, as in supergravity theory, we demand that the scalar fields span the Kahler manifold. The equations of motion for fields can be reduced into first order equations by defining the superpotential and the resulting equations are called the projection equation and the fake BPS equation. Finally, we discuss about the stability of flat fake domain walls by investigating the critical points of the superpotential and the scalar potential.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keiliszewski, M.; Lamport, D. (Michigan State Univ. Plant Research Lab., East Lansing (United States))
1991-05-01
The Lamportian Warp-Weft hypothesis suggests a cellulose-extensin interpenetrating network where extensin mechanically couples the load-bearing cellulose microfibrils in a wall matrix that is best described as a microcomposite. This model is based on data gathered from the extensin-rich walls of tomato and sycamore cell suspension culture, wherein extensin precursors are insolubilized into the wall by undefined crosslinks. The authors recent work with cell walls isolated from intact tissue as well as walls from suspension cultured cells of the graminaceous monocots maize and rice, the non-graminaceous monocot asparagus, the primitive herbaceous dicot sugar beet, and the gymnosperm Douglas Fir indicate that although extensins are ubiquitous to all plant species examined, they are not the major structural protein component of most walls examined. Amino acid analyses of intact and HF-treated walls shows a major component neither an HRGP, nor directly comparable to the glycine-rich wall proteins such as those associated with seed coat walls or the 67 mole% glycine-rich proteins cloned from petunia and soybean. Clearly, structural wall protein alternatives to extensin exist and any cell wall model must take that into account. If we assume that extracellular matrices are a priori network structures, then new Hypless' structural proteins in the maize cell wall raise questions about the sort of network these proteins create: the kinds of crosslinks involved; how they are formed; and the roles played by the small amounts of HRGPs.
Halogenation of microcapsule walls
Davis, T. R.; Schaab, C. K.; Scott, J. C.
1972-01-01
Procedure for halogenation of confining walls of both gelatin and gelatin-phenolic resin capsules is similar to that used for microencapsulation. Ten percent halogen content renders capsule wall nonburning; any higher content enhances flame-retardant properties of selected internal phase material. Halogenation decreases permeability of wall material to encapsulated materials.
Distortional Modes of Thin-Walled Beams
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jönsson, Jeppe; Andreassen, Michael Joachim
2009-01-01
The classic thin-walled beam theory for open and closed cross-sections can be generalized by including distortional displacement modes. The introduction of additional displacement modes leads to coupled differential equations, which seems to have prohibited the use of exact shape functions in the...
Performance Theory of Diagonal Conducting Wall MHD Accelerators
Litchford, R. J.
2003-01-01
The theoretical performance of diagonal conducting wall crossed field accelerators is examined on the basis of an infinite segmentation assumption using a cross-plane averaged generalized Ohm's law for a partially ionized gas, including ion slip. The desired accelerator performance relationships are derived from the cross-plane averaged Ohm's law by imposing appropriate configuration and loading constraints. A current dependent effective voltage drop model is also incorporated to account for cold-wall boundary layer effects including gasdynamic variations, discharge constriction, and electrode falls. Definition of dimensionless electric fields and current densities lead to the construction of graphical performance diagrams, which further illuminate the rudimentary behavior of crossed field accelerator operation.
Tube wall thickness guage for hot stretch reducer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new system of tube wall thickness gauge for seamless tube on hot stretch reducing-mill is reported. The system adapts two methods using gamma rays. One is a new method measuring double wall thickness of tube another is a known method measuring mean value of cross section of tube. (author)
Electron-wall interaction in Hall thrusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Electron-wall interaction effects in Hall thrusters are studied through measurements of the plasma response to variations of the thruster channel width and the discharge voltage. The discharge voltage threshold is shown to separate two thruster regimes. Below this threshold, the electron energy gain is constant in the acceleration region and therefore, secondary electron emission (SEE) from the channel walls is insufficient to enhance electron energy losses at the channel walls. Above this voltage threshold, the maximum electron temperature saturates. This result seemingly agrees with predictions of the temperature saturation, which recent Hall thruster models explain as a transition to space-charge saturated regime of the near-wall sheath. However, in the experiment, the maximum saturation temperature exceeds by almost three times the critical value estimated under the assumption of a Maxwellian electron energy distribution function. The channel narrowing, which should also enhance electron-wall collisions, causes unexpectedly larger changes of the plasma potential distribution than does the increase of the electron temperature with the discharge voltage. An enhanced anomalous crossed-field mobility (near wall or Bohm-type) is suggested by a hydrodynamic model as an explanation to the reduced electric field measured inside a narrow channel. We found, however, no experimental evidence of a coupling between the maximum electron temperature and the location of the accelerating voltage drop, which might have been expected due to the SEE-induced near-wall conductivity
We report a facile method to accomplish cross-linking reaction of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT), multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNT), and Buckminsterfullerene (C-60) using microwave (MW) irradiation. Nanocomposites of PVA cross-linked with SW...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharp, R. [Sharp and Diamond Landscape Architecture Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)
2007-07-01
With the renewed interest in design for microclimate control and energy conservation, many cities are implementing clean air initiatives and sustainable planning policies to mitigate the effects of urban climate and the urban heat island effect. Green roofs, sky courts and green walls must be thoughtfully designed to withstand severe conditions such as moisture stress, extremes in temperature, tropical storms and strong desiccating winds. This paper focused on the installation of green wall systems. There are 2 general types of green walls systems, namely facade greening and living walls. Green facades are trellis systems where climbing plants can grow vertically without attaching to the surface of the building. Living walls are part of a building envelope system where plants are actually planted and grown in a wall system. A modular G-SKY Green Wall Panel was installed at the Aquaquest Learning Centre at the Vancouver Aquarium in Stanley Park in September 2006. This green wall panel, which was originally developed in Japan, incorporates many innovative features in the building envelope. It provides an exterior wall covered with 8 species of plants native to the Coastal Temperate Rain Forest. The living wall is irrigated by rainwater collected from the roof, stored in an underground cistern and fed through a drip irrigation system. From a habitat perspective, the building imitates an escarpment. Installation, support systems, irrigation, replacement of modules and maintenance are included in the complete wall system. Living walls reduce the surface temperature of buildings by as much as 10 degrees C when covered with vegetation and a growing medium. The project team is anticipating LEED gold certification under the United States-Canada Green Building Council. It was concluded that this technology of vegetated building envelopes is applicable for acoustical control at airports, biofiltration of indoor air, greywater treatment, and urban agriculture and vertical
Staggered domain wall fermions
Hoelbling, Christian
2016-01-01
We construct domain wall fermions with a staggered kernel and investigate their spectral and chiral properties numerically in the Schwinger model. In some relevant cases we see an improvement of chirality by more than an order of magnitude as compared to usual domain wall fermions. Moreover, we present first results for four-dimensional quantum chromodynamics, where we also observe significant reductions of chiral symmetry violations for staggered domain wall fermions.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is gradually being phased out of many consumer products and processes leading to potential increases in human and environmental exposures to relatively understudied replacement compounds, including Bisphenol S (BPS) and Bisphenol C (BPC).Research from our lab ha...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik
2010-01-01
A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding...
Kruis, A.; Sneller, A.C.W.(L.)
2013-01-01
The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful, a
Piette, B.; Zakrzewski, W. J.
1997-01-01
We study the 3+1 dimensional Skyrme model with a mass term different from the usual one. We show that this new model possesses domain walls solutions. We describe how, in the equivalent 2+1 dimensional model, the Skyrmion is absorbed by the wall.
A distortional semi-discretized thin-walled beam element
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreassen, Michael Joachim; Jönsson, Jeppe
2013-01-01
Due to the increased consumption of thin-walled structural elements there has been increasing focus and need for more detailed calculations as well as development of new approaches. In this paper a thin-walled beam element including distortion of the cross section is formulated. The formulation...... is based on a generalized beam theory (GBT), in which the classic Vlasov beam theory for analysis of open and closed thin-walled cross sections is generalized by including distortional displacements. The beam element formulation utilizes a semi-discretization approach in which the cross section...... differential equations. To handle arbitrary boundary conditions as well as the possibility of adding concentrated loads as nodal loads the formulation of a beam element is needed. This paper presents the formulation of such a generalized one-dimensional semi-discretized thin-walled beam element including...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
齐赵敏; 李怡; 段磊; 张一博; 王召兵
2012-01-01
Steel pipe piles are widely applied in large marine structure projects. Hoop butt-jointed welds are usually generated during the fabrication and installation of steel piles. The stress concentration at hoop butt-jointed welds caused by socket misalignment is an important factor which affects the hotspot stress evaluation and the safety analysis of fatigue welds. By the approximate analysis method,we research the stress concentration at the butt-jointed weld between the steel pipe piles in identical wall thickness under axial tension or in-plane bending moment,and furthermore develop an approximate formula for the stress concentration factor at the butt-jointed weld between the bending structures in identical wall thickness. According to a trial calculation of steel pipe piles model,the result by the approximate formula is very close to the value by ANSYS finite element numerical simulation,which will provide references for similar projects.%大型海洋工程结构多常用钢管桩,在钢管桩的制作和安装过程中通常会产生环向对接焊缝,由管节偏位引起的环向焊缝应力集中现象是焊缝疲劳热点应力评估和焊缝疲劳安全分析的重要影响因素.通过实用近似分析方法,研究在轴向拉力和平面内弯矩单独作用下等壁厚对接焊缝应力集中间题,得出等壁厚拉弯构件对接焊缝应力集中系数的近似计算公式；根据对钢管桩模型案例的试算,该近似公式的计算结果与ANSYS有限元数值模拟结果非常接近,可供实际工程参考.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In collaboration with ANSALDO and within the frame of the European Fusion Tecnology Task N1 (Plasma Facing Components Design Studies), ENEA has performed a design an manufacturing feasibility study for the first wall of the Next European Torus (NET) during its ''physics'' operation phase. The main design specifications are average neutron wall load=1 MW/m2, peak surface heat flux=0.4 MW/m2, total number of burn pulses=1*104, average burn pulse duration=100 s, average neutron fluence=0.03 MWy/m2, structure material=AISI 316L SA, coolant=H2O at 50/100 centigrates (in/out). The reference ENEA-ANSALDO design is based on the use of flat plates coupled by microbrazing to poloidal cooling tubes. The technological development work has led to the design and manufacturing of a representative NET first wall box segment (0.65x 0.25x0.15 m) mockup which will be tested in the 190 kW Thermal Fatique Test Facility at JRC-Ispra. In this paper, we report on the various aspects of the basic experimental and theoretical investigations on the plasma-wall interactions for adequate protection of the first wall against erosion, global stress analysis of the first wall box, thecnological tests on brazed joints, and disign and manufacturing of the first wall mockup
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The plasma wall interactions for two extreme cases, the 'vacuum model' and the 'cold gas blanket' are outlined. As a first step for understanding the plasma wall interactions the elementary interaction processes at the first wall are identified. These are energetic ion and neutral particle trapping and release, ion and neutral backscattering, ion sputtering, desorption by ions, photons and electrons and evaporation. These processes have only recently been started to be investigated in the parameter range of interest for fusion research. The few measured data and their extrapolation into regions not yet investigated are reviewed
"Steiner trees" between cell walls of sisal
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI GuanShi; YIN YaJun; LI Yan; ZHONG Zheng
2009-01-01
Through careful analysis on the cross-section of sisal fibers,it is found that the middle lamellae between the cell walls have clear geometric characteristics:between the cell walls of three neighboring cells,the middle lamellae form a three-way junction with 120°symmetry. If the neighboring three-way junctions are connected,a network of Steiner tree with angular symmetry and topological invariability is formed. If more and more Steiner trees are connected,a network of Steiner rings is generated. In another word,idealized cell walls and the middle lamellae are dominated by the Steiner geometry. This geometry not only depicts the geometric symmetry,the topological invariability and minimal property of the middle lamellae,but also controls the mechanics of sisal fibers.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Morrison, Ann Judith; Manresa-Yee, Cristina; Jensen, Brian Walther Skovgaard;
2016-01-01
We observed interactions with The Humming Wall, a vibrotactile and vibroacoustic interactive artifact placed in an urban park. Prior studies have focused on interactivity with primarily vision based systems (or with this system, the interaction between the wall and a wearable vibrotactile vest). ......-vibroacoustic interactive artifact in a public space.......We observed interactions with The Humming Wall, a vibrotactile and vibroacoustic interactive artifact placed in an urban park. Prior studies have focused on interactivity with primarily vision based systems (or with this system, the interaction between the wall and a wearable vibrotactile vest...... and groups with children. We contribute incrementally on confirming findings with prior studies on interactive public displays but in this instance the interactions are with vibro-tactile-acoustic responses. In addition, we innovate with the first study that demonstrates the successful use of a vibrotactile...
... your health care provider may have you learn pelvic floor muscle exercises ( Kegel exercises ), use estrogen cream in ... GM. Anatomic defects of the abdominal wall and pelvic floor: abdominal and inguinal hernias, cystocele, urethrocele, enterocele, rectocele, ...
Conducting Wall Hall Thrusters
Goebel, Dan M.; Hofer, Richard R.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Polk, James E.; Dotson, Brandon
2013-01-01
A unique configuration of the magnetic field near the wall of Hall thrusters, called Magnetic Shielding, has recently demonstrated the ability to significantly reduce the erosion of the boron nitride (BN) walls and extend the life of Hall thrusters by orders of magnitude. The ability of magnetic shielding to minimize interactions between the plasma and the discharge chamber walls has for the first time enabled the replacement of insulating walls with conducting materials without loss in thruster performance. The boron nitride rings in the 6 kW H6 Hall thruster were replaced with graphite that self-biased to near the anode potential. The thruster efficiency remained over 60% (within two percent of the baseline BN configuration) with a small decrease in thrust and increase in Isp typical of magnetically shielded Hall thrusters. The graphite wall temperatures decreased significantly compared to both shielded and unshielded BN configurations, leading to the potential for higher power operation. Eliminating ceramic walls makes it simpler and less expensive to fabricate a thruster to survive launch loads, and the graphite discharge chamber radiates more efficiently which increases the power capability of the thruster compared to conventional Hall thruster designs.
The metabolic enzyme ManA reveals a link between cell wall integrity and chromosome morphology.
Maya Elbaz; Sigal Ben-Yehuda
2010-01-01
Author Summary The bacterial cell is resistant to extremes of osmotic pressure and protected against mechanical damages by the existence of a rigid outer shell defined as the cell wall. The strength of the cell wall is achieved by the presence of long glycan strands cross-linked by peptide side bridges. The cell wall is a dynamic structure continuously being synthesized and modified to allow for cell growth and division. Damaging the cell wall leads to abnormal cellular morphologies and cell ...
Ptashnyk, Mariya; Seguin, Brian
2014-01-01
In this paper we present a derivation and multiscale analysis of a mathematical model for plant cell wall biomechanics that takes into account both the microscopic structure of a cell wall coming from the cellulose microfibrils and the chemical reactions between the cell wall's constituents. Particular attention is paid to the role of pectin and the impact of calcium-pectin cross-linking chemistry on the mechanical properties of the cell wall. We prove the existence and uniqueness of the stro...
Quarter-BPS AdS 5 solutions in M-theory with a T 2 bundle over a Riemann surface
Bah, Ibrahima
2013-08-01
We study and classify quarter-BPS AdS 5 systems in M-theory, whose internal six-dimensional geometry is a T 2 bundle over a Riemann surface and two interval directions. The general system presented, provides a unified description of all known AdS 5 solutions in M-theory. These systems are governed by two functions, one that corresponds to the conformal factor of the Riemann surface and another that describes the T 2 fibration. We find a special set of solutions that can be organized into two classes. In the first one, solutions are specified by the conformal factor of the Riemann surface which satisfies a warped generalization of the SU(∞) Toda equation. The system in the second class requires the Riemann surface to be S 2, H 2 or T 2. Class one contains the M-theory AdS 5 solutions of Lin, Lunin and Maldacena; the solutions of Maldacena and Núñez; the solutions of Gauntlett, Martelli, Sparks and Waldram; and the eleven-dimensional uplift of the Y p, q metrics. The second includes the recently found solutions of Beem, Bobev, Wecht and the author. Within each class there are new solutions that will be studied in a companion paper.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cantanhede, Carlisson M. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT/UNESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Casana, Rodolfo; Ferreira Junior, Manoel M. [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), MA (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Hora, Eduardo da [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica
2012-07-01
Full text: Since the seminal works by Abrikosov [1] and Nielsen-Olesen [2] showing the existence of uncharged vortex, such nonperturbative solutions have been a theoretical issue of enduring interest. Already, the electrically charged vortices are obtained only in abelian models endowed with the Chern-Simons term [3,4]. This remains valid even in the context of highly nonlinear models, such as the Born-Infield electrodynamics. In this work, we demonstrated the existence of electrically charged BPS vortices in a Maxwell-Higgs model without the Chern- Simons term but endowed with a CPT-even and parity-odd Lorentz-violating (LV) structure. The LV term belonging to the CPT-even electrodynamics of the Standard Model Extension [5] plays a similar role that of the Chern-Simons term, mixing the electric and magnetic sectors. Besides the LV coefficients provide a very rich set of vortex configurations exhibiting electric's field inversion also are responsible by controlling the characteristic length of the vortex and by the flipping of the magnetic flux. [1] A. Abrikosov, Sov. Phys. JETP 32, 1442 (1957). [2] H. Nielsen, P. Olesen, Nucl. Phys. B 61, 45 (1973). [3] R. Jackiw and E. J. Weinberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2234 (1990). [4] C.K. Lee, K.M. Lee, H. Min, Phys. Lett. B 252, 79 (1990) [5] D. Colladay and V. A. Kostelecky, Phys. Rev. D 55, 6760 (1997); Phys. Rev. D 58, 116002 (1998). (author)
Fu, Chi-Ling; Apelo, Charity A; Torres, Baldemar; Thai, Kim H; Hsieh, Michael H
2011-07-12
Mouse bladder wall injection is a useful technique to orthotopically study bladder phenomena, including stem cell, smooth muscle, and cancer biology. Before starting injections, the surgical area must be cleaned with soap and water and antiseptic solution. Surgical equipment must be sterilized before use and between each animal. Each mouse is placed under inhaled isoflurane anesthesia (2-5% for induction, 1-3% for maintenance) and its bladder exposed by making a midline abdominal incision with scissors. If the bladder is full, it is partially decompressed by gentle squeezing between two fingers. The cell suspension of interest is intramurally injected into the wall of the bladder dome using a 29 or 30 gauge needle and 1 cc or smaller syringe. The wound is then closed using wound clips and the mouse allowed to recover on a warming pad. Bladder wall injection is a delicate microsurgical technique that can be mastered with practice.
Redondo, Javier
2010-01-01
Shining light through walls? At first glance this sounds crazy. However, very feeble gravitational and electroweak effects allow for this exotic possibility. Unfortunately, with present and near future technologies the opportunity to observe light shining through walls via these effects is completely out of question. Nevertheless there are quite a number of experimental collaborations around the globe involved in this quest. Why are they doing it? Are there additional ways of sending photons through opaque matter? Indeed, various extensions of the standard model of particle physics predict the existence of new particles called WISPs - extremely weakly interacting slim particles. Photons can convert into these hypothetical particles, which have no problems to penetrate very dense materials, and these can reconvert into photons after their passage - as if light was effectively traversing walls. We review this exciting field of research, describing the most important WISPs, the present and future experiments, th...
Axion domain wall baryogenesis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Daido, Ryuji; Kitajima, Naoya [Department of Physics, Tohoku University,Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Takahashi, Fuminobu [Department of Physics, Tohoku University,Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Kavli IPMU, TODIAS, University of Tokyo,Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan)
2015-07-28
We propose a new scenario of baryogenesis, in which annihilation of axion domain walls generates a sizable baryon asymmetry. Successful baryogenesis is possible for a wide range of the axion mass and decay constant, m≃10{sup 8}–10{sup 13} GeV and f≃10{sup 13}–10{sup 16} GeV. Baryonic isocurvature perturbations are significantly suppressed in our model, in contrast to various spontaneous baryogenesis scenarios in the slow-roll regime. In particular, the axion domain wall baryogenesis is consistent with high-scale inflation which generates a large tensor-to-scalar ratio within the reach of future CMB B-mode experiments. We also discuss the gravitational waves produced by the domain wall annihilation and its implications for the future gravitational wave experiments.
Concept modeling of tapered thin-walled tubes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yu-cheng LIU; Michael L.DAY
2009-01-01
This paper presents a method to create concept models for the tapered thin-walled tubes using beam elements and spring elements. Developed concept tapered beam models with different taper angles and cross sections are compared with those detailed models through impact analyses. Important crash results are recorded and compared, and the relatively good agreement is achieved between these analyses. Concept modeling steps are illustrated in detail, and a general concept modeling method for such thin-walled tubes is summarized and presented.
Stability of Thin-Walled Beams with Lateral Continuous Restraint
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Balázs Ivan
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Metal beams of thin-walled cross-sections have been widely used in building industry as members of load-bearing structures. Their resistance is usually limited by lateral torsional buckling. It can be increased in case a beam is laterally supported by members of cladding or ceiling construction. The paper deals with possibilities of determination of critical load of thin-walled beams with lateral continuous restraint which is crucial for beam buckling resistance assessment
Double wall underground storage tank
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Canaan, E.B. Jr.; Wiegand, J.R.; Bartlow, D.H.
1993-07-06
A double wall underground storage tank is described comprising: (a) a cylindrical inner wall, (b) a cylindrical outer wall comprising plastic resin and reinforcement fibers, and (c) a layer of spacer filaments wound around the inner wall, the spacer filaments separating the inner and outer walls, and the spacer filaments being at least partially surrounded by voids to enable liquids to flow along the filaments.
Di Dio, Enea; Durrer, Ruth
2011-01-01
We study the distance-redshift relation in a universe filled with 'walls' of pressure-less dust separated by under dense regions. We show that as long as the density contrast of the walls is small, or the diameter of the under dense regions is much smaller than the Hubble scale, the distance-redshift relation remains close to what is obtained in a Friedmann universe. However, when arbitrary density contrasts are allowed, every prescribed distance-redshift relation can be reproduced with such models.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Hajek
2006-04-01
Full Text Available The propagation of ultra wide band (UWB signals through walls is analyzed. For this propagation studies, it is necessary to consider not only propagation at a single frequency but in the whole band. The UWB radar output signal is formed by both transmitter and antenna. The effects of antenna receiving and transmitting responses for various antenna types (such as small and aperture antennas are studied in the frequency as well as time domain. Moreover, UWB radar output signals can be substantially affected due to electromagnetic wave propagation through walls and multipath effects.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morrison, B.
1969-11-01
A side-wall sampler which is capable of taking samples from the walls of test holes to a depth of 1,000 ft or more is described. Samples have been extracted from till, clay, silt, and fine- to coarse-grained sands in drift and nonindurated bedrock from more than 1,000 test holes in S. Saskatchewan. Side-hole sampling is faster and cheaper than conventional sampling methods and is ideally suited for geological investigations. Mineralogical paleonto- locical and radiocarbon analyses have been determined on side-hole cores.
Mechanically driven domain wall movement in magnetoelastic nanomagnets
Mathurin, Théo; Giordano, Stefano; Dusch, Yannick; Tiercelin, Nicolas; Pernod, Philippe; Preobrazhensky, Vladimir
2016-07-01
Magnetic domain walls are fundamental objects arising in ferromagnetic materials, largely investigated both through micromagnetic simulations and experiments. While current- and field-based techniques for inducing domain wall propagation have been widely studied for fundamental understanding and application-oriented purposes, the possibility to manipulate domain walls using mechanical stress in magnetoelastic materials has only recently drawn interest. Here, a complete analytical model describing stress-induced transverse domain wall movement in ferromagnetic nanostripe with variable cross-section is presented. This approach yields a nonlinear integro-differential equation describing the magnetization field. Its numerical implementation, based on the nonlinear relaxation method, demonstrates the possibility to precisely control the position of a domain wall through mechanical action.
Berry, Dave; Korpan, Cynthia
2009-01-01
This paper describes the implementation of a peer observation program at the University of Victoria called the Lecture Club. The observers are not interactive during the class--they are the proverbial flies on the wall. The paper identifies the program as self-developmental, discussing the attributes of this learning-to-teach and peer-sharing…
Chen, Biao; Li, Shufeng; Imai, Hisashi; Umeda, Junko; Takahashi, Makoto; Kondoh, Katsuyoshi
2015-02-01
In situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation of a tensile test was performed to investigate the fracturing behavior of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in powder metallurgy Al matrix composites. A multiple peeling phenomenon during MWCNT fracturing was clearly observed. Its formation mechanism and resultant effect on the composite strength were examined. Through transition electron microscopy characterizations, it was observed that defective structures like inter-wall bridges cross-linked adjacent walls of MWCNTs. This structure was helpful to improve the inter-wall bonding conditions, leading to the effective load transfer between walls and resultant peeling behaviors of MWCNTs. These results might provide new understandings of the fracturing mechanisms of carbon nanotube reinforcements for designing high-performance nanocomposites. PMID:25437849
Self-dual quiver moduli and orientifold Donaldson-Thomas invariants
Young, Matthew B
2014-01-01
Motivated by the counting of BPS states in string theory with orientifolds, we study moduli spaces of self-dual representations of a quiver with contravariant involution. We develop Hall module techniques to compute the number of points over finite fields in moduli stacks of semistable self-dual representations. Wall-crossing formulas relate these counts for different choices of stability conditions. In particular cases, these formulas model the primitive wall-crossing of orientifold Donaldson-Thomas/BPS invariants suggested in the physics literature. In finite type examples, the wall-crossing can be understood as identities for quantum dilogarithms acting in representations of quantum tori.
Source of the Kerr-Newman Solution as a Supersymmetric Domain-Wall Bubble: 50 years of the problem
Burinskii, Alexander
2016-01-01
We consider the chiral field model of the source of the Kerr-Newman (KN) solution and obtain that it represents a supersymmetric spinning soliton, bounded by the chiral domain wall (DW) of the ellipsoidal form. The known method for transformation of the planar DW to Bogomolnyi form we generalize to the curved DW-bubble adapted to the Kerr coordinate system and obtain the supersymmetric BPS-saturated source of the KN solution, having some remarkable features, in particular, the quantum angular momentum. The main new result is that the source forms a breather, i.e. the DW-antiDW combination. Taking into account that the KN solution describes the spinning particles with gyromagnetic ratio g = 2, as that of the Dirac electron, we touch the problem of the compatibility of the spinning particles with gravity.
Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arena, Lois [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Mantha, Pallavi [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)
2013-05-01
In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls. Wall assemblies evaluated included code minimum walls using spray foam insulation and fiberglass batts, high R-value walls at least 12 in. thick (R-40 and R-60 assemblies), and brick walls with interior insulation.
Performance Theory of Diagonal Conducting Wall Magnetohydrodynamic Accelerators
Litchford, R. J.
2004-01-01
The theoretical performance of diagonal conducting wall crossed-field accelerators is examined on the basis of an infinite segmentation assumption using a cross-plane averaged generalized Ohm s law for a partially ionized gas, including ion slip. The desired accelerator performance relationships are derived from the cross-plane averaged Ohm s law by imposing appropriate configuration and loading constraints. A current-dependent effective voltage drop model is also incorporated to account for cold-wall boundary layer effects, including gasdynamic variations, discharge constriction, and electrode falls. Definition of dimensionless electric fields and current densities leads to the construction of graphical performance diagrams, which further illuminate the rudimentary behavior of crossed-field accelerator operation.
High-R Walls for Remodeling: Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.
2012-12-01
The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.
High-R Walls for Remodeling. Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wiehagen, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, V. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)
2012-12-01
The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.
Interactions of tokamak plasma with solid walls
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The interactions of tokamak fusion plasmas with solid walls of the devices were investigated on special model systems. The elastic recoil detection method was used for the determination of absolute hydrogen concentration. For the calibration of the method the scattering cross sections were measured in large ranges of scattering angle and energy. The erosion and deformation of wall surfaces were investigated by reemission of accelerated He ions. Theoretical models were developed to describe the surface undulation discovered earlier, caused by large dose He irradiation. The surface sputtering and segregation were investigated by nuclear methods and the mechanism of sputtering was simulated by computer. The surface deformation and gas reemission of Al surfaces were analyzed by Ar implementation and heat treatment. (D.Gy.) 6 figs
Scalable Resolution Display Walls
Leigh, Jason
2013-01-01
This article will describe the progress since 2000 on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays. The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. © 1963-2012 IEEE.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Redondo, Javier [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2010-11-15
Shining light through walls? At first glance this sounds crazy. However, very feeble gravitational and electroweak effects allow for this exotic possibility. Unfortunately, with present and near future technologies the opportunity to observe light shining through walls via these effects is completely out of question. Nevertheless there are quite a number of experimental collaborations around the globe involved in this quest. Why are they doing it? Are there additional ways of sending photons through opaque matter? Indeed, various extensions of the standard model of particle physics predict the existence of new particles called WISPs - extremely weakly interacting slim particles. Photons can convert into these hypothetical particles, which have no problems to penetrate very dense materials, and these can reconvert into photons after their passage - as if light was effectively traversing walls. We review this exciting field of research, describing the most important WISPs, the present and future experiments, the indirect hints from astrophysics and cosmology pointing to the existence of WISPs, and finally outlining the consequences that the discovery of WISPs would have. (orig.)
Wall Street som kreationistisk forkynder
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ekman, Susanne
2016-01-01
Artiklen gennemgår Karen Hos etnografi om Wall Street: "Liquidated: An ethnography of Wall Street" set i lyset af den offentlige debat vedrørende Goldman Sachs opkøb af Dong......Artiklen gennemgår Karen Hos etnografi om Wall Street: "Liquidated: An ethnography of Wall Street" set i lyset af den offentlige debat vedrørende Goldman Sachs opkøb af Dong...
Canal Wall Reconstruction Mastoidectomy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
Objective To investigate the advantages of canal wall reconstruction (CWR) mastoidectomy, a single-stage technique for cholesteatoma removal and posterior external canal wall reconstruction, over the open and closed procedures in terms of cholesteatoma recurrence. Methods: Between June 2002 and December 2005, 38 patients (40 ears) with cholesteatoma were admited to Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital and received surgical treatments. Of these patients, 25 were male with ages ranging between 11 and 60 years (mean = 31.6 years) and 13 were female with ages ranging between 20 and 65 years (mean = 38.8 years). Canal wall reconstruction (CWR)mastoidectomy was performed in 31 ears and canal wall down (CWD) mastoidectomy in 9 ears. Concha cartilage was used for ear canal wall reconstruction in 22 of the 31 CWR procedures and cortical mastoid bone was used in the remaining 9 cases. Results At 0.5 to 4 years follow up, all but one patients remained free of signs of cholesteatoma recurrence, i.e., no retraction pocket or cholesteatoma matrix. One patient, a smoker, needed revision surgery due to cholesteatoma recurrence 1.5 year after the initial operation. The recurrence rate was therefore 3.2% (1/31). Cholesteatoma recurrence was monitored using postoperative CT scans whenever possible. In the case that needed a revision procedure, a retraction pocket was identified by otoendoscopy in the pars flacida area that eventually evolved into a cholesteatoma. A pocket extending to the epitympanum filled with cholesteatoma matrix was confirmed during the revision operation, A decision to perform a modified mastoidectomy was made as the patient refused to quit smoking. The mean air-bone gap in pure tone threshold was 45 dB before surgery and 25 dB after (p ＜ 0.05). There was no difference between using concha cartilage and cortical mastoid bone for the reconstruction regarding air-bone gap improvement, CT findings and otoendoscopic results. Conclusion CWR mastoidectomy can be used for
Cell Wall Biology: Perspectives from Cell Wall Imaging
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Kieran J.D.Lee; Susan E.Marcus; J.Paul Knox
2011-01-01
Polysaccharide-rich plant cell walls are important biomaterials that underpin plant growth,are major repositories for photosynthetically accumulated carbon,and,in addition,impact greatly on the human use of plants. Land plant cell walls contain in the region of a dozen major polysaccharide structures that are mostly encompassed by cellulose,hemicelluloses,and pectic polysaccharides. During the evolution of land plants,polysaccharide diversification appears to have largely involved structural elaboration and diversification within these polysaccharide groups. Cell wall chemistry is well advanced and a current phase of cell wall science is aimed at placing the complex polysaccharide chemistry in cellular contexts and developing a detailed understanding of cell wall biology. Imaging cell wall glycomes is a challenging area but recent developments in the establishment of cell wall molecular probe panels and their use in high throughput procedures are leading to rapid advances in the molecular understanding of the spatial heterogeneity of individual cell walls and also cell wall differences at taxonomic levels. The challenge now is to integrate this knowledge of cell wall heterogeneity with an understanding of the molecular and physiological mechanisms that underpin cell wall properties and functions.
New Formulations of D=10 Supersymmetry and D8-O8 Domain Walls
Bergshoeff, E A; Ortín, Tomas; Roest, D; Van Proeyen, A
2001-01-01
We discuss a generalized form of IIA/IIB supergravity depending on all R-R potentials C^(p) (p=0,1,...,9) as the effective field theory of Type IIA/IIB superstring theory. For the IIA case we explicitly break this R-R democracy to either p=5 which allows us to write a new bulk action that can be coupled to N=1 supersymmetric brane actions. The case of 8-branes is studied in detail using the new bulk & brane action. The supersymmetric negative tension branes without matter excitations can be viewed as orientifolds in the effective action. These D8-branes and O8-planes are fundamental in Type I' string theory. A BPS 8-brane solution is given which satisfies the jump conditions on the wall. It implies a quantization of the mass parameter in string units. Also we find a maximal distance between the two walls, depending on the string coupling and the mass parameter. We derive the same results via supersymmetric flow equations.
Rank 2 wall-crossing and the Serre correspondence
Gholampour, A
2016-01-01
Let $\\mathcal{R}$ be a rank 2 reflexive sheaf on a smooth projective 3-fold $X$. We are interested in the Euler characteristics of the Quot schemes $\\mathrm{Quot}(\\mathcal{R},n)$ of 0-dimensional quotients of $\\mathcal{R}$ of length $n$. Provided $\\mathcal{R}$ admits a cosection cutting out a 1-dimensional subscheme, we prove that the generating function of these Euler characteristics is equal to $M(q)^{2e(X)}$ times a polynomial of degree $c_3(\\mathcal{R})$. This polynomial is the generating function of Euler characteristics of $\\mathrm{Quot}(\\mathcal{E}{\\it{xt}}^1(\\mathcal{R},\\mathcal{O}_X),n)$. Here $\\mathcal{E}{\\it{xt}}^1(\\mathcal{R},\\mathcal{O}_X)$ is a 0-dimensional sheaf supported at the points where $\\mathcal{R}$ is not locally free. Since $\\mathcal{R}$ is reflexive, it admits a 2-term resolution by vector bundles. In the case the vector bundles are of rank 1 and 3, $\\mathcal{E}{\\it{xt}}^1(\\mathcal{R},\\mathcal{O}_X)$ is a structure sheaf. This observation is used to prove a closed product formula for ...
Cross polarization caused by perturbed circular cross sections of waveguides and horn antennas
Lier, Erik
1987-03-01
The cross polarization caused by a perturbed cross section of the conical hybrid-mode horn is analyzed. The perturbed cross section is assumed to be slightly elliptical. The theory of Lier and Bergh (1986) for cross polarization in a smooth-walled waveguide supporting the TE11-mode is referred and applied to the HE11 mode as well. Simple analytical formulas which are sufficiently accurate for small ellipticites of the cross-section ellipse are presented. These show that the tolerances on the waveguide diameter are extremely strong, typically on the order of 0.02-0.04 mm in the horn throat for typical horn geometries at 12 GHz.
Abhiram Maddi; Ci Fu; Free, Stephen J.
2012-01-01
The covalent cross-linking of cell wall proteins into the cell wall glucan/chitin matrix is an important step in the biogenesis of the fungal cell wall. We demonstrate that the Neurospora crassa DFG5 (NCU03770) and DCW1 (NCU08127) enzymes function in vivo to cross-link glycoproteins into the cell wall. Mutants lacking DFG5 or DCW1 release slightly elevated levels of cell wall proteins into their growth medium. Mutants lacking both DFG5 and DCW1 have substantially reduced levels of cell wall p...
Voigt, Jürgen; Stolarczyk, Adam; Zych, Maria; Malec, Przemysław; Burczyk, Jan
2014-02-01
The green alga Scenedesmus obliquus contains a multilayered cell wall, ultrastructurally similar to that of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, although its proportion of hydroxyproline is considerably lower. Therefore, we have investigated the polypeptide composition of the insoluble and the chaotrope-soluble wall fractions of S. obliquus. The polypeptide pattern of the chaotrope-soluble wall fraction was strongly modified by chemical deglycosylation with anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (HF) in pyridine indicating that most of these polypeptides are glycosylated. Polypeptide constituents of the chaotrope-soluble cell-wall fraction with apparent molecular masses of 240, 270, 265, and 135 kDa cross-reacted with a polyclonal antibody raised against the 100 kDa deglycosylation product of the C. reinhardtii cell-wall glycoprotein GP3B. Chemical deglycosylation of the chaotrope-soluble wall fraction resulted in a 135 kDa major polypeptide and a 106 kDa minor component reacting with the same antibody. This antibody recognized specific peptide epitopes of GP3B. When the insoluble wall fraction of S. obliquus was treated with anhydrous HF/pyridine, three polypeptides with apparent molecular masses of 144, 135, and 65 kDa were solubilized, which also occured in the deglycosylated chaotrope-soluble wall fraction. These findings indicate that theses glycoproteins are cross-linked to the insoluble wall fraction via HF-sensitive bonds. PMID:24388513
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郭宏磊
2012-01-01
The experimental analysis, finite element and theoretical studies of the deep pile cap under the shear wall and tube structure with the asymmetric special-shaped cross section are conducted, in which the failure circumstances in the three stages from bending, transition until punching are described. It is pointed out that the main failure modes of this kind of deep pile cap is bending-punching failure with prevailing punching. Load transferring mechanisms of Spatial Strut-and-Tie (SST) is found in the deep pile cap and the complete calculation method of the strut end cross sectional area is put forward furthermore, the proposed method is validated by theoretical bearing-capacity calculation analysis and verification of experiments. The specific principle and method for constructing transfemng load system of SST are explained, the stress concentration phenomenon and diseconomy in the failure attribute of this kind of pile cap are clarified. The research results may aid the engineering design.%进行非对称异型面剪力墙与简体下的厚承台试验、有限元与理论研究；描述该种承台从弯曲到过渡直至冲切三个阶段的破坏情况，指出其为以冲切为主的弯冲破坏；阐述该种承台存在空间桁架传力机理；给出斜压杆端横截面面积的完整计算方法，并经承载力计算分析和试验结果的验证，汪明其合理性；说明构建空间桁架传力体系的具体原则与方法；表明该种承台破坏属性中的应力集中现象及其不经济性。所得结论可对工程设计提供帮助。
Liu Biyue; Zheng Jie; Bach Richard; Tang Dalin
2012-01-01
Abstract Background There are two major hemodynamic stresses imposed at the blood arterial wall interface by flowing blood: the wall shear stress (WSS) acting tangentially to the wall, and the wall pressure (WP) acting normally to the wall. The role of flow wall shear stress in atherosclerosis progression has been under intensive investigation, while the impact of blood pressure on plaque progression has been under-studied. Method The correlations of wall thickness (WT) with wall pressure (WP...
Influence of Wall Teichoic Acid on Lysozyme Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus▿
Bera, Agnieszka; Biswas, Raja; Herbert, Silvia; Kulauzovic, Emir; Weidenmaier, Christopher; Peschel, Andreas; Götz, Friedrich
2006-01-01
Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan (PG) is completely resistant to the hydrolytic activity of lysozyme. Here we show that modifications in PG by O acetylation, wall teichoic acid, and a high degree of cross-linking contribute to this resistance.
On the domain wall partition functions of level-1 affine so(n) vertex models
Dow, A.; Foda, O.
2006-01-01
We derive determinant expressions for domain wall partition functions of level-1 affine so(n) vertex models, n >= 4, at discrete values of the crossing parameter lambda = m pi / 2(n-3), m in Z, in the critical regime.
Geometric optics radome analysis wall incorporating effects of wall curvature
Kozakoff, Dennis J.
1993-07-01
In this research, a principal unmodeled error contributor in radome analysis is identified as the local plane approximation at the ray intercept point. An improved approach to modeling and computing the effects of the radome wall was developed which improves the radome wall transmission wall analysis in three respects: use of surface integration, utilization of a divergence factor (DF) to account for wall curvature, and incorporation of the effects of multiple refraction (MR). Modeling an incident plane wave on an external reference plane as an ensemble of Huygen's sources, geometric optics is used to trace the fields from the reference plane through the radome wall to a receiving monopulse antenna, where the wall transmissions on each ray are collected. The fact that the integration of a bundle of rays through the radome wall, as opposed to a single ray, more densely samples the curvature variation results in a more robust model. A DF derived from Snell's law for spherical shells accounts for the local wall curvature at the ray intercept point. To validate the approach, a microwave measurement setup was assembled around a network analyzer. Swept frequency data were obtained for similar monolithic wall dielectric panels but with different wall curvatures. Comparisons were then with measured data and the predictions of the model herein.
Slow flow in channels with porous walls
Jensen, Kaare H
2012-01-01
We consider the slow flow of a viscous incompressible liquid in a channel of constant but arbitrary cross section shape, driven by non-uniform suction or injection through the porous channel walls. A similarity transformation reduces the Navier-Stokes equations to a set of coupled equations for the velocity potential in two dimensions. When the channel aspect ratio and Reynolds number are both small, the problem reduces to solving the biharmonic equation with constant forcing in two dimensions. With the relevant boundary conditions, determining the velocity field in a porous channels is thus equivalent to solving for the vertical displacement of a simply suspended thin plate under uniform load. This allows us to provide analytic solutions for flow in porous channels whose cross-section is e.g. a rectangle or an equilateral triangle, and provides a general framework for the extension of Berman flow (Journal of Applied Physics 24(9), p. 1232, 1953) to three dimensions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Forward Wall Detector is designed to identify projectile like fragments from heavy ion reactions at CELSIUS storage ring in Uppsala, Sweden. The FWD consist of 96 detection modules covering azimuthal angle from 3.9o to 11.7o with efficiency of 81%. The detection module can be either of phoswitch type (10 mm fast plastic + 80 mm CsI(Tl)) or standard ΔE-E telescope (750 μm Si + 88 mm CsI(Tl)). It is expected to have charge identification up to Z=18, mass resolution for H and He isotopes and energy resolution ∼ 8%. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, S; Hagmann, C; Sikivie, P
2001-01-08
The authors discuss the decay of axion walls bounded by strings and present numerical simulations of the decay process. In these simulations, the decay happens immediately, in a time scale of order the light travel time, and the average energy of the radiated axions is
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨柳; 李昕
2016-01-01
The PI3K/AKt/mTOR signal pathway can be activated when cells are stimulated by growth factors to con-trol the growth,proliferation,survive and apoptosis of the cells.AKt/mTOR signaling pathways plays an important role in promoting the development process of tumor.AKt/mTOR signal pathway can inhibit apoptosis in tumor cells,pro-mote the invasion and metastasis of tumor cells,the cell cycle progression and the formation of tumor blood vessels to promote the occurrence of tumor via p70S6K1 and 4E -BPs.In this paper,the mechanism of how the AKt/mTOR sig-naling pathway facilitate the formation of tumors through p70S6K1 and 4E -BPs was reviewed.%当受细胞外生长因子等刺激作用后，可激活 PI3K／AKt／mTOR 信号通路，参与控制细胞的生长、增殖、生存、凋亡。AKt／mTOR 信号通路在肿瘤的发生发展过程中起着很重要的促进作用。AKt／mTOR 信号通路在肿瘤细胞中能够通过 p70S6K1和4E －BPs 的作用抑制细胞的凋亡，促进核糖体以及蛋白质的合成、促进肿瘤细胞的侵袭和转移、促进细胞周期进展、促进肿瘤血管的生成，进而促进肿瘤的发生发展。本文就AKt／mTOR 信号通路通过 p70S6K1和4E －BPs 促进肿瘤发生的机制进行综述。
Filippov, Boris
2011-01-01
Solar filaments show the position of large scale polarity inversion lines and are used for the reconstruction of large-scale solar magnetic field structure on the basis of H{\\alpha} synoptic charts for the periods when magnetographic measurements were not available. Sometimes crossing filaments are seen in H{\\alpha} filtergrams. We analyze daily H{\\alpha} filtergrams from the archive of Big Bear Solar Observatory for the period of 1999-2003 to find crossing and interacting filaments. A number of examples are presented and filament patterns are compared with photospheric magnetic field distributions. We have found that all crossing filaments reveal quadrupolar magnetic configurations of the photospheric field and presume the presence of null points in the corona.
Dynamical domain wall and localization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuta Toyozato
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Based on the previous works (Toyozato et al., 2013 [24]; Higuchi and Nojiri, 2014 [25], we investigate the localization of the fields on the dynamical domain wall, where the four-dimensional FRW universe is realized on the domain wall in the five-dimensional space–time. Especially we show that the chiral spinor can localize on the domain wall, which has not been succeeded in the past works as the seminal work in George et al. (2009 [23].
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik
2010-01-01
is reduced. To investigate the possibilities, full-size wall elements with wooden cladding and different cavity design, type of cladding and type of wind barrier were exposed to natural climate on the outside and to a humid indoor climate on the inside. During the exposure period parts of the vapour barrier...... were removed in some of the elements to simulate damaged vapour barriers. The condition of the wind barriers of elements with intact vapour barriers was inspected from the inside after four years of exposure. This paper presents results with emphasis on the moisture conditions behind the wind barrier....... It was found that the specific damages made to the vapour barrier as part of the test did not have any provable effect on the moisture content. In general elements with an intact vapour barrier did not show a critical moisture content at the wind barrier after four years of exposure....
2001-01-01
This ASTER sub-image covers a 12 x 12 km area in northern Shanxi Province, China, and was acquired January 9, 2001. The low sun angle, and light snow cover highlight a section of the Great Wall, visible as a black line running diagonally through the image from lower left to upper right. The Great Wall is over 2000 years old and was built over a period of 1000 years. Stretching 4500 miles from Korea to the Gobi Desert it was first built to protect China from marauders from the north.This image is located at 40.2 degrees north latitude and 112.8 degrees east longitude.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and measuring surface
Detection of ferromagnetic domain wall pinning and depinning with a semiconductor device
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malec, Chris E.; Bennett, Brian R.; Johnson, Mark B. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States)
2015-12-21
We demonstrate the detection of a ferromagnetic domain wall using a nanoscale Hall cross. A narrow permalloy wire is defined lithographically on top of a Hall cross fabricated from an InAs quantum well. The width of the Hall cross (500 nm–1 μm) is similar to the width of the ferromagnetic wire (200–500 nm), and a geometric pinning site is fabricated in the ferromagnetic wire to trap a domain wall within the area of the Hall cross. The devices provide a signal that is often the same order of magnitude as the offset Hall voltage when a domain wall is located above the Hall cross, and may be useful for memory applications. Different geometries for the Hall cross and ferromagnetic wire are tested, and radiofrequency pulses are sent into the wire to demonstrate current driven domain wall motion. Further changes to the Hall bar geometry with respect to the wire geometry are investigated by numerical computation. A large gain in signal is seen for Hall bars only slightly wider than the ferromagnetic wires as compared to those twice as wide, as well as a larger sensitivity to the exact position of the domain wall with respect to the center of the Hall cross.
Muchlisoh, Siti; Kurnia, Anang; Notodiputro, Khairil Anwar; Mangku, I. Wayan
2016-02-01
Labor force surveys conducted over time by the rotating panel design have been carried out in many countries, including Indonesia. Labor force survey in Indonesia is regularly conducted by Statistics Indonesia (Badan Pusat Statistik-BPS) and has been known as the National Labor Force Survey (Sakernas). The main purpose of Sakernas is to obtain information about unemployment rates and its changes over time. Sakernas is a quarterly survey. The quarterly survey is designed only for estimating the parameters at the provincial level. The quarterly unemployment rate published by BPS (official statistics) is calculated based on only cross-sectional methods, despite the fact that the data is collected under rotating panel design. The study purpose to estimate a quarterly unemployment rate at the district level used small area estimation (SAE) model by combining time series and cross-sectional data. The study focused on the application and comparison between the Rao-Yu model and dynamic model in context estimating the unemployment rate based on a rotating panel survey. The goodness of fit of both models was almost similar. Both models produced an almost similar estimation and better than direct estimation, but the dynamic model was more capable than the Rao-Yu model to capture a heterogeneity across area, although it was reduced over time.
Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arena, L.; Mantha, P.
2013-05-01
The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.
Experimental and Numerical Analyses of New Massive Wooden Shear-Wall Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luca Pozza
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Three innovative massive wooden shear-wall systems (Cross-Laminated-Glued Wall, Cross-Laminated-Stapled Wall, Layered Wall with dovetail inserts were tested and their structural behaviour under seismic action was assessed with numerical simulations. The wall specimens differ mainly in the method used to assemble the layers of timber boards composing them. Quasi-static cyclic loading tests were carried out and then reproduced with a non-linear numerical model calibrated on the test results to estimate the most appropriate behaviour factor for each system. Non-linear dynamic simulations of 15 artificially generated seismic shocks showed that these systems have good dissipative capacity when correctly designed and that they can be assigned to the medium ductility class of Eurocode 8. This work also shows the influence of deformations in wooden panels and base connectors on the behaviour factor and dissipative capacity of the system.
A semi-discretized thin-walled beam element including distortion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreassen, Michael Joachim; Jönsson, Jeppe
2013-01-01
formulation utilizes a semidiscretization approach in which the cross section is discretized into wall elements and the analytical solutions of the related GBT beam equations are used as displacement functions in the axial direction. Thus the beam element contains the semi-analytical solutions. In a number...... of related publications the authors have recently presented the semi-discretization approach and the analytical solution of the generalized beam equations. An illustrative example showing the validity and the accuracy of the developed distortional semi-discretized thin-walled beam element is given......An advanced thin-walled beam element including distortion of the cross section is presented. The formulation is based on a generalization of the classical Vlasov beam theory for analysis of open and closed thin-walled cross sections by including distortional displacements.The beam element...
Domain wall description of superconductivity
Brito, F A; Silva, J C M
2012-01-01
In the present work we shall address the issue of electrical conductivity in superconductors in the perspective of superconducting domain wall solutions in the realm of field theory. We take our set up made out of a dynamical complex scalar field coupled to gauge field to be responsible for superconductivity and an extra scalar real field that plays the role of superconducting domain walls. The temperature of the system is interpreted as the parameter to move type I to type II domain walls. Alternatively, this means that the domain wall surface is suffering an acceleration as one goes from one type to another. On the other hand, changing from type I to type II state means a formation of a condensate what is in perfect sense of lowering the temperature around the superconductor. One can think of this scenario as an analog of holographic scenarios where this set up is replaced by a black hole near the domain wall.
Numerical analysis of aerodynamic noise radiated from cross flow fan
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Anbang CHEN; Song LI; Dongtao HUANG
2008-01-01
The flow field in a cross flow fan was simulated by solving the 2-D unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The calculated pressure fluctuations of the blades, the vortex wall, and the rear wall were then used as noise sources to calculate the sound field. The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation was employed to predict the noise field caused by these sources. The predictions show that the rear wall and the vortex wall sources contribute significantly to the total noise and that both the predicted aerodynamic perform-ance and noise agree well with the experimental results.
Solar walls in tsbi3 user's guide
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wittchen, K.B.
tsbi3 is a user-friendly and flexible computer program, which provides support to the design team in the analysis of the indoor climate and the energy performance of buildings. The solar wall module gives tsbi3 the capability of simulating solar walls and their interaction with the building....... This version, C, of tsbi3 is capable of simulating five types of solar walls say: mass-walls, Trombe-walls, double Trombe-walls, internally ventilated walls and solar walls for preheating ventilation air. The user's guide gives a description of the capabilities and how to simulate solar walls in tsbi3....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharp, R. [Sharp and Diamond Landscape Architecture and Planning, Vancouver, BC (Canada)
2006-07-01
North American cities face many major environmental and health issues such as urban heat island effect, the intensity of storms, microclimate around buildings, imperviousness of sites, poor air quality and increases in respiratory disease. Several new technologies are starting to address global impacts and community level issues as well as the personal health and comfort of building occupants. These include green towers, living walls, vegetated rooftops and ecological site developments. This paper examined these forms of eco-development and presented their benefits. It discussed green walls in Japan; green towers in Malaysia, Singapore and Great Britain; green facades of climbing plants; active living walls in Canada; and passive living walls in France and Canada. It also discussed thermal walls; thematic walls; vertical gardens and structured wildlife habitat. Last, it presented testing, monitoring, research and conclusions. The Centre for the Advancement of Green Roof Technology is setting up a program to test thermal performance, to assess plant survival and to monitor green walls at the British Columbia Institute of Technology in Vancouver, Canada as much of the research out of Japan is only available in Japanese script. It was concluded that green architecture can provide shade, food, rainwater, shelter for wildlife and mimic natural systems. 15 refs.
Three-dimensional collapse and steady flow in thick-walled flexible tubes
Marzo, A.; Luo, X. Y.; Bertram, C. D.
2005-08-01
Three-dimensional collapse of and steady flow through finite-length elastic tubes are studied numerically. The Navier-Stokes equations coupled with large, nonlinear deformation of the elastic wall are solved by using the finite-element software, FIDAP. Three-dimensional solid elements are used for the elastic wall, allowing us to specify any wall thickness required. Plane-strain results for the cross-sectional shape of thinner-walled tubes are validated by comparison with published numerical data. Three-dimensional results for flow through finite-thickness tubes are in excellent agreement with published numerical results based on thin-shell elements, and are used to show the effects of varying wall thickness. Finally, the computational predictions are compared with experimental pressure area relationships for thick-walled tubes. The simulations confirm a previously neglected experimental finding, that the Young wavespeed can be lower between buckling and osculation for thick tubes than for thinner ones.
Domain wall structure transition during magnetization reversal process in magnetic nanowires
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
The analytical micromagnetics and numerical simulations were used to investigate the domain wall structure during the magnetization reversal in nanowires. Micromagnetic analysis shows that the domain wall structure is mainly determined by the competition between the demagnetization energy and exchange energy. The wall with vortex magnetization structure in cross-section is energetically more favorable for wires with large diameter. With the reduction of diameter the exchange energy increases. At a critical diameter the vortex structure can not be sustained and the transition from vortex wall to transverse wall occurs. The critical diameters for this transition are about 40 nm for Ni wire and 20 nm for Fe wire, respectively. A series of micromagnetic simulations on the cone-shaped wire confirm the analytical results. The simulations also show that during the reversal process the vortex domain wall moves much faster than the transverse one.
Economics of abdominal wall reconstruction.
Bower, Curtis; Roth, J Scott
2013-10-01
The economic aspects of abdominal wall reconstruction are frequently overlooked, although understandings of the financial implications are essential in providing cost-efficient health care. Ventral hernia repairs are frequently performed surgical procedures with significant economic ramifications for employers, insurers, providers, and patients because of the volume of procedures, complication rates, the significant rate of recurrence, and escalating costs. Because biological mesh materials add significant expense to the costs of treating complex abdominal wall hernias, the role of such costly materials needs to be better defined to ensure the most cost-efficient and effective treatments for ventral abdominal wall hernias. PMID:24035086
Partial domain wall partition functions
Foda, O.; Wheeler, M.
2012-01-01
We consider six-vertex model configurations on an n-by-N lattice, n =< N, that satisfy a variation on domain wall boundary conditions that we define and call "partial domain wall boundary conditions". We obtain two expressions for the corresponding "partial domain wall partition function", as an (N-by-N)-determinant and as an (n-by-n)-determinant. The latter was first obtained by I Kostov. We show that the two determinants are equal, as expected from the fact that they are partition functions...
A Composite Steel Plate Shear Walls for Offshore Constructions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Badri Albarody Thar M.
2014-07-01
Full Text Available A new-type of weldable composite steel plate shear wall, which consists of a steel plate sandwiched by either of two or one composite panels at each side or at one side, has been proposed. An analytical model for such shear wall – via shell model is derived and the vibrational modes are discussed. Truss reinforcement is used to increase the integration between the steel and composite layers and the cross sectional properties were graded by magnetic nanoparticles fillers. The thickness shear modes at the composite wall appear higher than those of thickness stretch modes, but they are varied in a very orderly manner with respect to the vibrational mode. Also, some of characteristics are examined.
Distortional Mechanics of Thin-Walled Structural Elements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreassen, Michael Joachim
In several industries such as civil, mechanical, and aerospace, thin-walled structures are often used due to the high strength and effective use of the materials. Because of the increased consumption there has been increasing focus on optimizing and more detailed calculations. However, finely...... by discretization of the cross section are now solved analytically and the formulation is valid without special attention and approximation also for closed single or multi-cell cross sections. Furthermore, the found eigenvalues have clear mechanical meaning, since they represent the attenuation of the distortional...
Biologic mesh for abdominal wall reconstruction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
King KS
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Kathryn S King,1 Frank P Albino,2 Parag Bhanot3 1School of Medicine, Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC, USA; 2Department of Plastic Surgery, 3Department of General Surgery, Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC, USA Background: Mesh reinforcement significantly decreases rates of recurrence following ventral hernia repair. Historically, biologic mesh was touted as superior in the setting of infection; however, selecting the appropriate mesh for a given clinical scenario is often a matter of debate. The purpose of this review is to highlight a number of the more commonly used biologic mesh products with a review of outcomes from the current literature. Methods: Outcomes following abdominal wall reconstruction using biologic mesh were reviewed for acellular cadaveric human dermis, cross-linked porcine dermis, non-cross-linked porcine dermis, porcine small intestine submucosa, acellular bovine pericardial, and acellular bovine dermal mesh. Studies with rigorous methods, adequate patient samples, and sufficient follow-up were selected for review. Results: Hernia recurrence rates following biologic mesh reinforcement vary widely. Porcine small intestine submucosa and bovine pericardium were associated with the lowest hernia recurrence rates. Porcine cross-linked dermal mesh products resulted in higher rates of adhesion formation and lower rates of tissue incorporation compared to non-cross-linked porcine mesh. Conclusion: Successful ventral hernia repair can be achieved with acceptable complications rates for each of the reviewed mesh products. Biologic meshes have an advantage over synthetic mesh in contaminated wounds but their use may not be cost-effective in all patient populations. Those with and/or at high risk for wound complications may also undergo repair with biologic mesh. Keywords: biologic mesh, ventral hernia repair, acellular dermal matrix
Polymer mobility in cell walls of cucumber hypocotyls
Fenwick, K. M.; Apperley, D. C.; Cosgrove, D. J.; Jarvis, M. C.
1999-01-01
Cell walls were prepared from the growing region of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) hypocotyls and examined by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy, in both enzymically active and inactivated states. The rigidity of individual polymer segments within the hydrated cell walls was assessed from the proton magnetic relaxation parameter, T2, and from the kinetics of cross-polarisation from 1H to 13C. The microfibrils, including most of the xyloglucan in the cell wall, as well as cellulose, behaved as very rigid solids. A minor xyloglucan fraction, which may correspond to cross-links between microfibrils, shared a lower level of rigidity with some of the pectic galacturonan. Other pectins, including most of the galactan side-chain residues of rhamnogalacturonan I, were much more mobile and behaved in a manner intermediate between the solid and liquid states. The only difference observed between the enzymically active and inactive cell walls, was the loss of a highly mobile, methyl-esterified galacturonan fraction, as the result of pectinesterase activity.
Cross-field diode sputtering target assembly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An improved cross-field diode sputtering target assembly adapted for sputtering a selected material having an ion target wherein a selected surface is formed of a selected material in a predetermined closed loop pattern having a central opening therein, and wherein the selected surface has spaced edges and is formed of a material adapted to be controllably eroded in a diode sputtering process, walls positioned contiguous or adjacent to each of the spaced edges of the selected surface wherein each of the walls extend substantially normal from and beyond each spaced edge of the selected surface of the ion target and a magnetic member having poles positioned in an opposed spaced relationship to each other and enclosing the walls and the ion target for providing a linear magnetic field through the walls, over the selected surface and through the ion target and wherein the magnetic member has a linear magnetic field of sufficient strength for plasma entrapment between the walls and over the selected surface wherein the selected surface is adapted to have an electric field applied thereacross at a direction substantially normal to the magnetic field to develop a BXE field and to entrap secondary electrons at the selected surface to control the erosion pattern thereof is shown. A method for utilizing the improved cross-field diode sputtering target assembly is also shown
Unquenched domain wall quarks with multi-bosons
Montvay, I.
2002-01-01
The numerical simulation of domain wall quarks with the two-step multi-boson (TSMB) algorithm is considered. The inclusion of single quark flavours, as required for strange quarks, is discussed. The usage of computer memory can be kept relatively low, independently of the order of polynomial approximations. Tests are performed with two flavours (N_f=2) of degenerate quarks near the N_t=4 thermodynamical cross over.
Acoustic Response of a Sinusoidally Perturbed Hard-Walled Duct
Silvio Del Giudice; Giancarlo Bernasconi
2013-01-01
Acoustic wave propagation in hard-walled ducts is of interest in many fields including vehicle design, musical instruments acoustics, and architectural and environmental noise-control. For the case of small sinusoidal perturbation of the cross-section, it is possible to derive simple though approximate analytical formulas of its plane wave acoustic reflection and transmission spectral response that resembles the optical situation of uniform Bragg gratings. The proof is given here, starting fr...
Cell-wall hemicelluloses as mobile carbon stores in plants
Schädel, Christina
2009-01-01
Hemicelluloses are the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature after cellulose. So far, the chemical heterogeneity of cell-wall hemicelluloses and the relatively large sample-volume required in existing methods represent major obstacles for large-scale, cross-species analyses of this important plant compounds. Here, we apply a new micro-extraction method to analyse hemicelluloses and the ratio of ‘cellulose and lignin’ to hemicelluloses in different tissues of 28 plant species comprisin...
Komatsu, Setsuko; Yanagawa, Yuki
2013-01-01
Cell wall proteins play key roles in cell structure and metabolism, cell enlargement, signal transduction, responses to environmental stress, and many other physiological events. Agricultural crops are often used for investigating stress tolerance because cultivars with differing degrees of tolerance are available. Abiotic and biotic stress factors markedly influence the geographical distribution and yields of many crop species. Crop cell wall proteomics is of particular importance for improv...
Actinomycosis - Left Post Chest Wall
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kafil Akhtar, M. Naim, S. Shamshad Ahmad, Nazoora Khan, Uroos Abedi, A.H. Khan*
2008-01-01
Full Text Available A forty year old female of weak body built presented with recurring small hard lumps in let posteriorchest wall for 3 years and discharging ulcers for 3 months duration. Clinically, the provisional diagnosiswas malignancy with secondary infection. FNAC showed features suggestive of dysplasia buthistopathology confirmed the diagnosis as actinomycosis. The present case is reported due to rare incidenceof actinomycosis at post chest wall with muscle involvement.
Singh, Ilina
2016-09-01
Eighteen months ago, I left a permanent professorship in a generously interdisciplinary department of sociology and took an impermanent, lower-paying job at a university where I had to apply to something called the "Committee on Distinction" to retain the title of "Professor." Some people say, "That's what happens when Oxford calls." But it wasn't just that. It was the opportunity to engage in a groundbreaking experiment: to embed and integrate ethics within the Oxford Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience. It's a dream job, for which I was willing to cross the disciplinary line into the medical sciences. In the United Kingdom, many bioethicists still work in departments outside science and medicine; similarly, those of us who work on neuroethics and psychiatric ethics tend to inhabit departments of philosophy, law, or sociology. I can report already that interdisciplinarity from this side feels and looks different. PMID:27649834
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erik D. Barton, MD, MS, MBA
2016-01-01
Full Text Available As emergency physicians, we are privileged to be in a field that crosses more boundaries than any other medical specialty. It is a calling. Our skills are portable and transferable across cultural and geographic disparities. For these reasons, many of us are drawn to sharing our knowledge and training across the globe – towards treating patients in underserved and austere environments abroad. The rapid growth of international and global health educational initiatives across our U.S. residency training programs is a direct result of those undeniable forces. Additionally, inclusion of such rotations becomes a powerful resident recruitment tool as more and more of our trainees are looking for these opportunities during their formative years.
Experimental Thermal Analysis of Diesel Engine Piston and Cylinder Wall
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Subodh Kumar Sharma
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Knowledge of piston and cylinder wall temperature is necessary to estimate the thermal stresses at different points; this gives an idea to the designer to take care of weaker cross section area. Along with that, this temperature also allows the calculation of heat losses through piston and cylinder wall. The proposed methodology has been successfully applied to a water-cooled four-stroke direct-injection diesel engine and it allows the estimation of the piston and cylinder wall temperature. The methodology described here combines numerical simulations based on FEM models and experimental procedures based on the use of thermocouples. Purposes of this investigation are to measure the distortion in the piston, temperature, and radial thermal stresses after thermal loading. To check the validity of the heat transfer model, measure the temperature through direct measurement using thermocouple wire at several points on the piston and cylinder wall. In order to prevent thermocouple wire entanglement, a suitable pathway was designed. Appropriate averaged thermal boundary conditions such as heat transfer coefficients were set on different surfaces for FE model. The study includes the effects of the thermal conductivity of the material of piston, piston rings, and combustion chamber wall. Results show variation of temperature, stresses, and deformation at various points on the piston.
FORCES ON A NEAR-WALL CIRCULAR CYLINDER
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAN Jing-xia; WANG Jin-jun; ZHANG Pang-feng
2004-01-01
The pressure distribution around a near-wall smooth circular cylinder in cross-flow was mainly investigated. The experiment was conducted at the sub-critical Reynolds number ranging from 2.24·104 to 8.94·104,at which the regular vortex separation exists on an isolated circular cylinder. The experimental results indicate that the forces on a circular cylinder near a plane wall are different from those on an isolated circular cylinder. Drag and lift coefficients of a near-wall circular cylinder strongly depend on gap ratio. The increase of gap ratio results in the increase of drag coefficient and the declination of lift coefficient, drag coefficient ranges from 0.5 to 1.0, and lift coefficient from 0.25 to 0 when gap ratio gradually increases from 0 to 1.0, and then the forces tend to be nearly constant with the increase of gap ratio. The attraction between a cylinder and a plane wall, i.e., downward force, occurs when gap ratio lies in certain range. The existence of cylinder changes the pressure gradient on the plane wall, and the influence extends to the location where x/D＜-3.0 and x/D＞5.0.
WallProtDB, a database resource for plant cell wall proteomics
San Clemente, Hélène; Jamet, Elisabeth
2015-01-01
Background During the last fifteen years, cell wall proteomics has become a major research field with the publication of more than 50 articles describing plant cell wall proteomes. The WallProtDB database has been designed as a tool to facilitate the inventory, the interpretation of cell wall proteomics data and the comparisons between cell wall proteomes. Results WallProtDB (http://www.polebio.lrsv.ups-tlse.fr/WallProtDB/) presently contains 2170 proteins and ESTs identified experimentally i...
MHD Electrode and wall constructions
Way, Stewart; Lempert, Joseph
1984-01-01
Electrode and wall constructions for the walls of a channel transmitting the hot plasma in a magnetohydrodynamic generator. The electrodes and walls are made of a plurality of similar modules which are spaced from one another along the channel. The electrodes can be metallic or ceramic, and each module includes one or more electrodes which are exposed to the plasma and a metallic cooling bar which is spaced from the plasma and which has passages through which a cooling fluid flows to remove heat transmitted from the electrode to the cooling bar. Each electrode module is spaced from and electrically insulated from each adjacent module while interconnected by the cooling fluid which serially flows among selected modules. A wall module includes an electrically insulating ceramic body exposed to the plasma and affixed, preferably by mechanical clips or by brazing, to a metallic cooling bar spaced from the plasma and having cooling fluid passages. Each wall module is, similar to the electrode modules, electrically insulated from the adjacent modules and serially interconnected to other modules by the cooling fluid.
The feasibility of removable prefab diaphragm walls
Amaarouk, R.; De Gijt, J.G.; Braam, C.R.
2013-01-01
A diaphragm wall is a cast in-situ reinforced concrete retaining wall applied in, among others, quay walls. The main advantages of this type of retaining wall are that it can be made in almost every preferred length and that it can resist high structural loads. However, there are several disadvantag
Chest Wall tumor: combined management
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cancer is relatively rare disease among children and adolescents. The incidence of solid tumors other than CNS is less than 2/100,000. Tumors of the chest wall can arise either from the somatic tissue or ribs. These are rare, so either institutional reviews or multi institutional studies should determine optimal therapeutic management. Of the bony chest wall, Ewing's sarcoma or the family of tumor (peripheral neuro epithelioma, Askin tumor), are the most common. These lesions are lytic and have associated large extra pleural component. This large extra pleural component often necessitates major chest wall resection (3 or more ribs), and when lower ribs are involved, this entails resection of portion of diaphragm. Despite this resection, survival in the early 1970 was 10-20%. Since 1970 multi agent chemotherapy has increased survival rates. of importance, however, is these regimens have caused significant reduction of these extra pleural components so that major chest wall resections have become a rarity. With improved survival and decreased morbidity preoperative chemotherapy followed by surgery is now the accepted modality of treatment. Another major advantage of this regimen is that potential radiation therapy may be obviated. The most common chest wall lesion is rhabdomyosarcoma. In the IRS study of 1620 RMS patients, in 141 (9%) the primary lesion was in the chest wall. these are primarily alveolar histology. when lesions were superficial, wide local excision with supplemental radiation therapy was associated with low morbidity and good overall survival. however, a majority have significant intra- thoracic components. in these circumstances the resectability rate is less than 30% and the survival poor. Other lesions include non rhabdomyosarcomas, eosinophilic granuloma, chondrosarcoma, and osteomyelitis. The management of these lesions varies according to extent, histology, and patient characteristics
Lymphomas presenting as chest wall tumors
Witte, Biruta; Hürtgen, Martin
2006-01-01
Four cases of thoracic lymphoma mimicking chest wall tumors are presented. As resection is not the treatment of first choice in lymphomas, pretherapeutical evaluation of chest wall tumors should include a thoroughly staging and a biopsy for histopathological diagnosis. Chest wall destruction due to an anterior mediastinal mass, or a chest wall tumor associated with mediastinal lymph node enlargement, could be suspicious of thoracic lymphoma. Lymphoma with chest wall involvement mostly turns o...
Barros-Rios, Jaime; Malvar, Rosa A; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Bunzel, Mirko; Santiago, Rogelio
2012-11-01
Cross-linking of grass cell wall components through diferulates (DFAs) has a marked impact on cell wall properties. However, results of genetic selection for DFA concentration have not been reported for any grass species. We report here the results of direct selection for ester-linked DFA concentration in maize stalk pith tissues and the associated changes in cell wall composition and biodegradability. After two cycles of divergent selection, maize populations selected for higher total DFA (DFAT) content (CHs) had 16% higher DFAT concentrations than populations selected for lower DFAT content (CLs). These significant DFA concentration gains suggest that DFA deposition in maize pith parenchyma cell walls is a highly heritable trait that is genetically regulated and can be modified trough conventional breeding. Maize populations selected for higher DFAT had 13% less glucose and 10% lower total cell wall concentration than CLs, suggesting that increased cross-linking of feruloylated arabinoxylans results in repacking of the matrix and possibly in thinner and firmer cell walls. Divergent selection affected esterified DFAT and monomeric ferulate ether cross link concentrations differently, supporting the hypothesis that the biosynthesis of these cell wall components are separately regulated. As expected, a more higher DFA ester cross-coupled arabinoxylan network had an effect on rumen cell wall degradability (CLs showed 12% higher 24-h total polysaccharide degradability than CHs). Interestingly, 8-8-coupled DFAs, previously associated with cell wall strength, were the best predictors of pith cell wall degradability (negative impact). Thus, further research on the involvement of these specific DFA regioisomers in limiting cell wall biodegradability is encouraged. PMID:22938993
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Jan; Burcharth, H. F.
1993-01-01
This paper presents some of the results from a large parametric laboratory study including more than 200 long-duration model tests. The study addresses both the wave forces imposed on the breakwater crown wall as well as the performance of the structure in reducing the wave overtopping. The testing...... programme includes variations of the sea state parameters and of the geometrical configuration of the breakwater and crown wall. Basic relations between forces/overtopping and the varied parameters are examined and preliminary design guidelines for structures within the tested range of variations are...
Domain wall description of superconductivity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brito, F.A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Caixa Postal 10071, 58109-970 Campina Grande, Paraíba (Brazil); Freire, M.L.F. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, 58109-753 Campina Grande, Paraíba (Brazil); Mota-Silva, J.C. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Caixa Postal 10071, 58109-970 Campina Grande, Paraíba (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, 58051-970 João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil)
2014-01-20
In the present work we shall address the issue of electrical conductivity in superconductors in the perspective of superconducting domain wall solutions in the realm of field theory. We take our set up made out of a dynamical complex scalar field coupled to gauge field to be responsible for superconductivity and an extra scalar real field that plays the role of superconducting domain walls. The temperature of the system is interpreted through the fact that the soliton following accelerating orbits is a Rindler observer experiencing a thermal bath.
Domain wall description of superconductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the present work we shall address the issue of electrical conductivity in superconductors in the perspective of superconducting domain wall solutions in the realm of field theory. We take our set up made out of a dynamical complex scalar field coupled to gauge field to be responsible for superconductivity and an extra scalar real field that plays the role of superconducting domain walls. The temperature of the system is interpreted through the fact that the soliton following accelerating orbits is a Rindler observer experiencing a thermal bath
A new high-resolution spectral approach to noninvasively evaluate wall deformations in arteries.
Bazan, Ivonne; Negreira, Carlos; Ramos, Antonio; Brum, Javier; Ramirez, Alfredo
2014-01-01
By locally measuring changes on arterial wall thickness as a function of pressure, the related Young modulus can be evaluated. This physical magnitude has shown to be an important predictive factor for cardiovascular diseases. For evaluating those changes, imaging segmentation or time correlations of ultrasonic echoes, coming from wall interfaces, are usually employed. In this paper, an alternative low-cost technique is proposed to locally evaluate variations on arterial walls, which are dynamically measured with an improved high-resolution calculation of power spectral densities in echo-traces of the wall interfaces, by using a parametric autoregressive processing. Certain wall deformations are finely detected by evaluating the echoes overtones peaks with power spectral estimations that implement Burg and Yule Walker algorithms. Results of this spectral approach are compared with a classical cross-correlation operator, in a tube phantom and "in vitro" carotid tissue. A circulating loop, mimicking heart periods and blood pressure changes, is employed to dynamically inspect each sample with a broadband ultrasonic probe, acquiring multiple A-Scans which are windowed to isolate echo-traces packets coming from distinct walls. Then the new technique and cross-correlation operator are applied to evaluate changing parietal deformations from the detection of displacements registered on the wall faces under periodic regime. PMID:24688596
A New High-Resolution Spectral Approach to Noninvasively Evaluate Wall Deformations in Arteries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivonne Bazan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available By locally measuring changes on arterial wall thickness as a function of pressure, the related Young modulus can be evaluated. This physical magnitude has shown to be an important predictive factor for cardiovascular diseases. For evaluating those changes, imaging segmentation or time correlations of ultrasonic echoes, coming from wall interfaces, are usually employed. In this paper, an alternative low-cost technique is proposed to locally evaluate variations on arterial walls, which are dynamically measured with an improved high-resolution calculation of power spectral densities in echo-traces of the wall interfaces, by using a parametric autoregressive processing. Certain wall deformations are finely detected by evaluating the echoes overtones peaks with power spectral estimations that implement Burg and Yule Walker algorithms. Results of this spectral approach are compared with a classical cross-correlation operator, in a tube phantom and “in vitro” carotid tissue. A circulating loop, mimicking heart periods and blood pressure changes, is employed to dynamically inspect each sample with a broadband ultrasonic probe, acquiring multiple A-Scans which are windowed to isolate echo-traces packets coming from distinct walls. Then the new technique and cross-correlation operator are applied to evaluate changing parietal deformations from the detection of displacements registered on the wall faces under periodic regime.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Soybean BPS-CV127-9 contains a single insertion locus of the csr1-2 gene. Stability of the genetic modification was demonstrated. The expression of the acetohydroxyacid synthase large sub-unit from Arabidopsis thaliana, conferring tolerance to imidazolinone herbicides, was sufficiently analysed. Bioinformatic analyses did not raise safety issues. No differences were identified in the seed composition that would require further assessment with regard to safety. Regarding agronomic and phenotypic characteristics, a difference in seed weight was identified; however, this difference does not affect the overall safety of this soybean. Although the EFSA GMO Panel cannot conclude on its forage composition, soybean forage is not expected to be imported in significant amount for feed uses. Safety assessment identified no concerns regarding the potential toxicity and allergenicity of the newly expressed proteins or soybean BPS-CV127-9. Compositional data indicating that soybean BPS-CV127-9 is as nutritious as non-GM soybean varieties were supported by the outcome of a chicken feeding study. There are no indications of an increased likelihood of spread and establishment of feral soybean BPS-CV127-9 plants, unless they are exposed to imidazolinone-containing herbicides. Risks associated with an unlikely, but theoretically possible, horizontal transfer of recombinant genes from soybean BPS-CV127-9 to bacteria have not been identified. Considering the scope of this application, interactions with the biotic and abiotic environment are not considered to be a relevant issue. The post-market environmental monitoring plan and reporting intervals are in line with the scope of this application. In conclusion, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that the information available for soybean BPS‑CV127-9 addresses scientific comments raised by Member States and that the soybean BPS-CV127-9, as described in this application, is as safe and nutritious as its conventional
Overlap/Domain-wall reweighting
Fukaya, H; Cossu, G; Hashimoto, S; Kaneko, T; Noaki, J
2013-01-01
We investigate the eigenvalues of nearly chiral lattice Dirac operators constructed with five-dimensional implementations. Allowing small violation of the Ginsparg-Wilson relation, the HMC simulation is made much faster while the eigenvalues are not significantly affected. We discuss the possibility of reweighting the gauge configurations generated with domain-wall fermions to those of exactly chiral lattice fermions.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
RONG JIAOJIAO
2007-01-01
@@ Whenever a newcomer enters the classroom, he points at the wall. "Look at that!" says Li Shunye, indicating a picture of something that looks a bit like a pink furry fox, only with an oversized tail. "It's a squirrel," says the 9-year-old. "I made it."
Partial domain wall partition functions
Foda, O
2012-01-01
We consider six-vertex model configurations on a rectangular lattice with n (N) horizontal (vertical) lines, and "partial domain wall boundary conditions" defined as 1. all 2n arrows on the left and right boundaries point inwards, 2. n_u (n_l) arrows on the upper (lower) boundary, such that n_u + n_l = N - n, also point inwards, 3. all remaining n+N arrows on the upper and lower boundaries point outwards, and 4. all spin configurations on the upper and lower boundaries are summed over. To generate (n-by-N) "partial domain wall configurations", one can start from A. (N-by-N) configurations with domain wall boundary conditions and delete n_u (n_l) upper (lower) horizontal lines, or B. (2n-by-N) configurations that represent the scalar product of an n-magnon Bethe eigenstate and an n-magnon generic state on an N-site spin-1/2 chain, and delete the n lines that represent the Bethe eigenstate. The corresponding "partial domain wall partition function" is computed in construction {A} ({B}) as an N-by-N (n-by-n) det...
Solar Walls for concrete renovation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gramkow, Lotte; Vejen, Niels Kristian; Olsen, Lars;
1996-01-01
This repport gives a short presentation of three full-scale testing solar walls, the construction including the architectural design, materials and components, transportation and storage of solar enegy, the effect on the construction behind, statics and practical experience.The results of the mea...
Border Crossing/Entry Data - Boarder Crossing
Department of Transportation — Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for incoming crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican border at the port level. Data are available...
PPOOLEX experiments on wall condensation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laine, J.; Puustinen, M. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Nuclear Safety Research Unit (Finland))
2009-08-15
This report summarizes the results of the wall condensation experiments carried out in December 2008 and January 2009 with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Steam was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through a DN200 blowdown pipe to the condensation pool. Altogether five experiments, each consisting of several blows, were carried out. The main purpose of the experiment series was to study wall condensation phenomenon inside the dry well compartment while steam is discharged through it into the condensation pool and to produce comparison data for CFD calculations at VTT. The PPOOLEX test facility is a closed stainless steel vessel divided into two compartments, dry well and wet well. For the wall condensation experiments the test facility was equipped with a system for collecting and measuring the amount of condensate from four different wall segments of the dry well compartment. A thermo graphic camera was used in a couple of experiments for filming the outside surface of the dry well wall. The effect of the initial temperature level of the dry well structures and of the steam flow rate for the accumulation of condensate was studied. The initial temperature level of the dry well structures varied from 23 to 99 deg. C. The steam flow rate varied from 90 to 690 g/s and the temperature of incoming steam from 115 to 160 deg. C. During the initial phase of steam discharge the accumulation of condensate was strongly controlled by the temperature level of the dry well structures; the lower the initial temperature level was the more condensate was accumulated. As the dry well structural temperatures increased the condensation process slowed down. Most of the condensate usually accumulated during the first 200 seconds of the discharge. However, the condensation process never completely stopped because a small temperature difference remained between the dry well atmosphere and inner wall
Steel-framed buildings: Impacts of wall detail configurations on the whole wall thermal performance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kosny, J.; Desjarlais, A.O.; Christian, J.E.
1998-06-01
The main objective of this paper is the influence of architectural wall details on the whole wall thermal performance. Whole wall thermal performance analysis was performed for six light gage steel-framed wall systems (some with wood components). For each wall system, all wall details were simulated using calibrated 3-D finite difference computer modeling. The thermal performance of the six steel-framed wall systems included various system details and the whole wall system thermal performance for a typical single-story ranch house. Currently, predicted heat losses through building walls are typically based on measurements of the wall system clear wall area using test methods such as ASTM C 236 or are calculated by one of the procedures recommended in the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals that often is carried out for the clear wall area exclusively. In this paper, clear wall area is defined as the part of the wall system that is free of thermal anomalies due to building envelope details or thermally unaffected by intersections with other surfaces of the building envelope. Clear wall experiments or calculations normally do not include the effects of building envelope details such as corners, window and door openings, and structural intersections with roofs, floors, ceilings, and other walls. In steel-framed wall systems, these details typically consist of much more structural components than the clear wall. For this situation, the thermal properties measured or calculated for the clear wall area do not adequately represent the total wall system thermal performance. Factors that would impact the ability of today`s standard practice to accurately predict the total wall system thermal performance are the accuracy of the calculation methods, the area of the total wall that is clear wall, and the quantity and thermal performance of the various wall system details.
Through-the-wall radar imaging
Amin, Moeness G
2011-01-01
Wall Attenuation and Dispersion, A. Hussein Muqaibel, M.A. Alsunaidi, Nuruddeen M. Iya, and A. Safaai-JaziAntenna Elements, Arrays, and Systems for Through-the-Wall Radar Imaging, A. Hoorfar and A. FathyBeamforming for Through-the-Wall Radar Imaging, G. Alli and D. DiFilippoImage and Localization of Behind-the-Wall Targets Using Collocated and Distributed Apertures, Y.D. Zhang and A. HuntConventional and Emerging Waveforms for Detection and Imaging of Targets behind Walls, F. Ahmad and R.M. NarayananInverse Scattering Approaches in Through-the-Wall Imaging, K. Sarabandi, M. Thiel, M. Dehmollai
Enhanced heat sink with geometry induced wall-jet
Hossain, Md. Mahamudul; Tikadar, Amitav; Bari, Fazlul; Morshed, A. K. M. M.
2016-07-01
Mini-channels embedded in solid matrix have already proven to be a very efficient way of electronic cooling. Traditional mini-channel heat sinks consist of single layer of parallel channels. Although mini-channel heat sink can achieve very high heat flux, its pumping requirement for circulating liquid through the channel increase very sharply as the flow velocity increases. The pumping requirements of the heat sink can be reduced by increasing its performance. In this paper a novel approach to increase the thermal performance of the mini-channel heat sink is proposed through geometry induced wall jet which is a passive technique. Geometric irregularities along the channel length causes abrupt pressure change between the channels which causes cross flow through the interconnections thus one channel faces suction and other channel jet action. This suction and jet action disrupts boundary layer causing enhanced heat transfer performance. A CFD model has been developed using commercially available software package FLUENT to evaluate the technique. A parametric study of the velocities and the effect of the position of the wall-jets have been performed. Significant reduction in thermal resistance has been observed for wall-jets, it is also observed that this reduction in thermal resistance is dependent on the position and shape of the wall jet.
Large Eddy Simulations of Turbulent Flow Over a Wavy Wall
Sundaram, Shivshankar; Avva, Ram
1997-11-01
Turbulent, separated flow over a wavy wall was simulated using CFD-ACE, a general purpose Navier-Stokes code. The code employs finite-volume formulation and body-fitted curvilinear (BFC) grids. The flow channel consists of a flat upper wall at a mean distance, H, from a sinusoidally varying lower wall (amplitude of 0.05H and a wavelength of 1H). The Reynolds number in terms of bulk velocity and H was 6760. Computations used both a coarse grid (40x40x20;4waves) and a fine grid (60x40x40;2 waves). The spanwise extent was 2H. Periodic boundary conditions were enforced in the streamwise and spanwise directions. Both Smagorinsky (with van Driest damping) and Dynamic models were employed. The Dynamic model yielded better overall results. Present separation and reattachment lengths of 0.13 and 0.64 are in excellent agreement with prior DNS and experiment. Pressure, friction velocity over the wavy wall and mean cross-channel profiles were indistinguishable from prior data. A turbulent mixing layer and a growing boundary layer downstream of reattachment were identified using peaks in turbulence intensities. The level and location of these peaks were in good agreement with DNS.
WALL-E. Humanamente tecnológicos
Madrid Brito, Débora
2014-01-01
[ES] El cine de animación ha planteado en numerosas ocasiones los conflictos que ha generado la relación entre el hombre y el desarrollo tecnológico y científico. En el caso de Wall-E se aprecia un llamativo cambio de roles entre humanos y robots. La película propone, a través de las relaciones de sus personajes y su argumento, una reflexión en torno a la necesidad de la técnica para la evolución humana. Este artículo, a partir de la descripción e interpretación de algunos elementos clave de ...
Wall conditioning of JET with the ITER-Like Wall
Douai, D.; Brezinsek, S.; Esser, H. G.; Joffrin, E.; Keenan, T.; Knipe, S.; Kogut, D.; Lomas, P. J.; Marsen, S.; Nunes, I.; Philipps, V.; Pitts, R. A.; Shimada, M.; de Vries, P.; JET EFDA Contributors
2013-07-01
The initial conditioning cycle of JET ILW is analysed and compared with restart and operation in 2008 with a carbon dominated wall. Comparable water and oxygen decay times are observed during bake-out in both cases. Despite a 2 × 10-3 mbar l/s leak rate during plasma operation, no further wall conditioning has been necessary after plasma restart in ILW, which dramatically contrasts with 2008. Plasma O content is lower with the ILW. Higher O levels are measured after nights or week-ends, BeO layers being formed and re-eroded, but do not impact plasma operation and performance. First results on isotopic wall changeover by GDC on the ILW six months of the first D2 campaign evidence a reservoir of about 3 × 1022 atoms, i.e. ten time lower than in carbon PFCs. A study in JET of the glow discharge current distribution for different ratios of the ionization mean free paths to the vessel dimensions seems to indicate sufficient toroidal and poloidal homogeneity in ITER.
Microscopic elasticity imaging of vessel walls based on intravascular ultrasound
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WAN Mingxi; WANG Supin; CUI Yaoyao; LI Junbo; LI Yangmei
2002-01-01
The effect of the transducer eccentricity on grayscales of intravascualr ultrasoundimages was corrected based on the scattering properties of high frequency ultrasound in vesselwalls. The displacement and strain distributions of vessel walls produced by tissue microele-ment motion were obtained using a novel motion estimation method in steps and sum basedon the optical flow and genetic algorithm. Furthermore, authors firstly reconstructed "real"elasticity distribution images of cross section tissues of vessel walls in the world. In vitroexperimental results of porcine artery demonstrated the methods mentioned above are reason-able. Experimental investigation of vascular mechanics can be advanced to 2D sub-millimetermicrostructure levels. These studies have potential to provide new technology means in moni-toting and evaluation of Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty process.
Wall correction model for wind tunnels with open test section
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Shen, Wen Zhong; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming
2006-01-01
In the paper we present a correction model for wall interference on rotors of wind turbines or propellers in wind tunnels. The model, which is based on a one-dimensional momentum approach, is validated against results from CFD computations using a generalized actuator disc principle. In the model...... the exchange of axial momentum between the tunnel and the ambient room is represented by a simple formula, derived from actuator disc computations. The correction model is validated against Navier-Stokes computations of the flow about a wind turbine rotor. Generally, the corrections from the model are in very...... good agreement with the CFD computations, demonstrating that one-dimensional momentum theory is a reliable way of predicting corrections for wall interference in wind tunnels with closed as well as open cross sections....
Subcompartmentalization by cross-membranes during early growth of Streptomyces hyphae
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yagüe, Paula; Willemse, Joost; Koning, Roman I;
2016-01-01
Bacteria of the genus Streptomyces are a model system for bacterial multicellularity. Their mycelial life style involves the formation of long multinucleated hyphae during vegetative growth, with occasional cross-walls separating long compartments. Reproduction occurs by specialized aerial hyphae...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents an experimental and numerical design study of an insulation wall for refrigerated vans. The thermophysical properties of the insulating multilayer panel, the external environment impact (solar irradiation, temperature, etc.) and durability are taken into account. Different tools are used to characterize the thermal performances of the insulation walls and the thermal properties of the insulation materials are measured. In addition, an experiment at the wall scale is carried out and a 2D FEM model of heat and mass transfer within the wall is formulated. Three configurations are studied with this design approach. Multilayer insulation walls containing reflective multi-foil insulation, aerogel and phase change materials (PCM) are tested. Promising results are obtained with these materials, especially the reduction of peak heat transfer and energy consumption during the daytime period. Furthermore, the major influence of solar irradiation is highlighted as it can increase the peak heat transfer crossing the insulation wall by up to 43%. Nevertheless, we showed that the use of reflective multi-foil insulation and aerogel layers allowed decreasing this impact by 27%. - Highlights: • A design study of an insulation wall for a refrigerated van is carried out. • Experimental and numerical studies of multilayer insulation walls are performed. • The major influence of solar irradiation is highlighted. • New insulation materials (reflective multi-foil, aerogel and PCM) are tested
Medved, A J M
2002-01-01
The so-called ``brick-wall model'' is a semi-classical approach that has been used to explain black hole entropy in terms of thermal matter fields. Here, we apply the brick-wall formalism to thermal bulk fields in a Randall-Sundrum brane world scenario. In this case, the black hole entity is really a string-like object in the anti-de Sitter bulk, while appearing as a Schwarzchild black hole to observers living on the brane. In spite of these exotic circumstances, we establish that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy law is preserved. Although a similar calculation was recently considered in the literature, this prior work invoked a simplifying assumption (which we avoid) that can not be adequately justified.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Medved, A J M [Department of Physics and Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)
2002-01-21
The so-called 'brick-wall model' is a semiclassical approach that has been used to explain black hole entropy in terms of thermal matter fields. Here, we apply the brick-wall formalism to thermal bulk fields in a Randall-Sundrum brane world scenario. In this case, the black hole entity is really a string-like object in the anti-de Sitter bulk, while appearing as a Schwarzchild black hole to observers living on the brane. In spite of these exotic circumstances, we establish that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy law is preserved. Although a similar calculation was recently considered in the literature, this prior study invoked a simplifying assumption (which we avoid) that cannot be adequately justified.
Creating universes with thick walls
Ulvestad, Andrew
2012-01-01
We study the dynamics of a spherically symmetric false vacuum bubble embedded in a true vacuum region separated by a "thick wall", which is generated by a scalar field in a quartic potential. We study the "Farhi-Guth-Guven" (FGG) quantum tunneling process by constructing numerical solutions relevant to this process. The ADM mass of the spacetime is calculated, and we show that there is a lower bound that is a significant fraction of the scalar field mass. We argue that the zero mass solutions used to by some to argue against the physicality of the FGG process are artifacts of the thin wall approximation used in earlier work. We argue that the zero mass solutions should not be used to question the viability of the FGG process.
Actinomycosis involving the chest wall: CT findings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two cases of pulmonary actinomycosis with extension to involve the chest wall that were evaluated using computerized tomography are reported. In both cases, the relation of pulmonary and chest wall disease was best shown using CT
Walled-off pancreatic necrosis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Michael; Stamatakos; Charikleia; Stefanaki; Konstantinos; Kontzoglou; Spyros; Stergiopoulos; Georgios; Giannopoulos; Michael; Safioleas
2010-01-01
Walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN), formerly known as pancreatic abscess is a late complication of acute pancreatitis. It can be lethal, even though it is rare. This critical review provides an overview of the continually expanding knowledge about WOPN, by review of current data from references identified in Medline and PubMed, to September 2009, using key words, such as WOPN, infected pseudocyst, severe pancreatitis, pancreatic abscess, acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP), pancreas, inflammation and al...
EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)
2014-01-01
Soybean BPS-CV127-9 contains a single insertion locus of the csr1-2 gene. Stability of the genetic modification was demonstrated. The expression of the acetohydroxyacid synthase large sub-unit from Arabidopsis thaliana, conferring tolerance to imidazolinone herbicides, was sufficiently analysed. Bioinformatic analyses did not raise safety issues. No differences were identified in the seed composition that would require further assessment with regard to safety. Regarding agronomic and phenotyp...
Quantitative optical imaging of single-walled carbon nanotubes
Herman, Lihong H.
The development and application of optical imaging tools and probing techniques have been the subject of exciting research. These tools and techniques allow for non-invasive, simple sample preparation and relatively fast measurement of electronic and optical properties. They also provided crucial information on optoelectronic device application and development. As the field of nanostructure research emerged, they were modified and employed to understand various properties of these structures at the diffraction limit of light. Carbon nanotubes, up to hundreds of micrometers long and several nanometers thin, are perfect for testing and demonstrating newly-developed optical measurement platforms for individual nanostructures, due to their heterogeneous nature. By employing two quantitative imaging techniques, wide-field on-chip Rayleigh scattering spectroscopy and spatial modulation confocal absorption microscopy, we investigate the optical properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes. These techniques allow us to obtain the Rayleigh scattering intensity, absolute absorption cross section, spatial resolution, and spectral information of single-walled carbon nanotubes. By probing the optical resonance of hundreds of single-walled carbon nanotubes in a single measurement, the first technique utilizes Rayleigh scattering mechanism to obtain the chirality of carbon nanotubes. The second technique, by using high numerical aperture oil immersion objective lenses, we measure the absolute absorption cross section of a single-walled carbon nanotube. Combining all the quantitative values obtained from these techniques, we observe various interesting and recently discovered physical behaviors, such as long range optical coupling and universal optical conductivity on resonance, and demonstrate the possibility of accurate quantitative absorption measurement for individual structures at nanometer scale.
Thermal insulation properties of walls
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Heat-protective qualities of building structures are determined by the qualities of the used materials, adequate design solutions and construction and installation work of high quality. This rule refers both to the structures made of materials similar in their structure and nature and mixed, combined by a construction system. The necessity to ecaluate thermal conductivity is important for a product and for a construction. Methods for evaluating the thermal protection of walls are based on the methods of calculation, on full-scale tests in a laboratory or on objects. At the same time there is a reason to believe that even deep and detailed calculation may cause deviation of the values from real data. Using finite difference method can improve accuracy of the results, but it doesn’t solve all problems. The article discusses new approaches to evaluating thermal insulation properties of walls. The authors propose technique of accurate measurement of thermal insulation properties in single blocks and fragments of walls and structures.
Flooding Effect on Earth Walls
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meysam Banimahd
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Earth building is a sustainable, environmentally friendly and economical method of construction that has been used worldwide for many centuries. For the past three decades, earth has seen a revival as a building material for a modern construction method due to its benefits in terms of low carbon content, low cost and energy involved during construction, as well as the fact that it is a sustainable technology of building. Climate change is influencing precipitation levels and patterns around the world, and as a consequence, flood risk is increasing rapidly. When flooding occurs, earth buildings are exposed to water by submersion, causing an increase in the degree of saturation of the earth structures and therefore a decrease of the suction between particles. This study investigated the effect of cycles of flooding (consecutive events of flooding followed by dry periods on earth walls. A series of characterization tests were carried out to obtain the physical and mechanical properties of the studied earth material. In a second stage, Flooding Simulation Tests (FST were performed to explore the earth walls’ response to repeated flooding events. The results obtained for the tested earth wall/samples with reinforced material (straw reveal hydraulic hysteresis when wall/samples are subject to cycles of wetting and drying.
Accelerating forward genetics for cell wall deconstruction
Vidaurre, Danielle; Bonetta, Dario
2012-01-01
The elucidation of the genes involved in cell wall synthesis and assembly remains one of the biggest challenges of cell wall biology. Although traditional genetic approaches, using simple yet elegant screens, have identified components of the cell wall, many unknowns remain. Exhausting the genetic toolbox by performing sensitized screens, adopting chemical genetics or combining these with improved cell wall imaging, hold the promise of new gene discovery and function. With the recent introduc...
Cell Wall Integrity Signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Levin, David E.
2005-01-01
The yeast cell wall is a highly dynamic structure that is responsible for protecting the cell from rapid changes in external osmotic potential. The wall is also critical for cell expansion during growth and morphogenesis. This review discusses recent advances in understanding the various signal transduction pathways that allow cells to monitor the state of the cell wall and respond to environmental challenges to this structure. The cell wall integrity signaling pathway controlled by the small...
Moss cell walls: structure and biosynthesis
Alison W. Roberts; Eric M Roberts; Haigler, Candace H.
2012-01-01
The genome sequence of the moss Physcomitrella patens has stimulated new research examining the cell wall polysaccharides of mosses and the glycosyl transferases that synthesize them as a means to understand fundamental processes of cell wall biosynthesis and plant cell wall evolution. The cell walls of mosses and vascular plants are composed of the same classes of polysaccharides, but with differences in side chain composition and structure. Similarly, the genomes of P. patens and angiosperm...
How do plant cell walls extend?
Cosgrove, D. J.
1993-01-01
This article briefly summarizes recent work that identifies the biophysical and biochemical processes that give rise to the extension of plant cell walls. I begin with the biophysical notion of stress relaxation of the wall and follow with recent studies of wall enzymes thought to catalyze wall extension and relaxation. Readers should refer to detailed reviews for more comprehensive discussion of earlier literature (Taiz, 1984; Carpita and Gibeaut, 1993; Cosgrove, 1993).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Biyue
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background There are two major hemodynamic stresses imposed at the blood arterial wall interface by flowing blood: the wall shear stress (WSS acting tangentially to the wall, and the wall pressure (WP acting normally to the wall. The role of flow wall shear stress in atherosclerosis progression has been under intensive investigation, while the impact of blood pressure on plaque progression has been under-studied. Method The correlations of wall thickness (WT with wall pressure (WP, blood pressure on the lumen wall and spatial wall pressure gradient (WPG in a human atherosclerotic right coronary artery were studied. The pulsatile blood flow was simulated using a three dimensional mathematical model. The blood was treated as an incompressible viscous non-Newtonian fluid. The geometry of the artery was re-constructed using an in vivo intravascular ultrasound (IVUS 44-slice dataset obtained from a patient with consent obtained. The WT, the WP and the WPG were averaged on each slice, respectively, and Pearson correlation analysis was performed on slice averaged base. Each slice was then divided into 8 segments and averaged vessel WT, WP and WPG were collected from all 352 segments for correlation analysis. Each slice was also divided into 2 segments (inner semi-wall of bend and outer semi-wall of bend and the correlation analysis was performed on the 88 segments. Results Under mean pressure, the Pearson coefficient for correlation between WT and WP was r = − 0.52 (p Conclusions Results from this representative case report indicated that plaque wall thickness correlated negatively with wall pressure (r = −0.81 by slice and positively with wall pressure gradient (r = 0.45. The slice averaged WT has a strong linear relationship with the slice averaged WP. Large-scale patient studies are needed to further confirm our findings.
Unique aspects of the grass cell wall
Grasses are amongst the most important crops worldwide, and the composition of their cell walls is critical for uses as food, feed, and energy crops. Grass cell walls differ dramatically from dicot cell walls in terms of the major structural polysaccharides present, how those polysaccharides are lin...
The cell wall of Fusarium oxysporum
Schoffelmeer, EAM; Klis, FM; Sietsma, JH; Cornelissen, BJC
1999-01-01
Sugar analysis of isolated cell walls from three formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum showed that they contained not only glucose and (N-acetyl)-glucosamine, but also mannose, galactose, and uronic acids, presumably originating from cell wall glycoproteins. Cell wall glycoproteins accounted for 50
To detect anomalies in diaphragm walls
Spruit, R.
2015-01-01
Diaphragm walls are potentially ideal retaining walls for deep excavations in densely built-up areas, as they cause no vibrations during their construction and provide structural elements with high strength and stiffness. In the recent past, however, several projects using diaphragm walls as soil an
Domain walls. II. Baryon-number generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Domain walls present in the early universe due to a spontaneous breakdown of charge conjugation can leave behind net baryon number. SU/sub R/(2) instantons provide baryon nonconservation and the proton is effectively stable. Density perturbations (on scales large enough for galaxy formation) and monopole suppression can occur if walls dominate the energy density. Mechanisms for wall removal are discussed
Steel Sheet Pile Walls in Soft Soil
Kort, D.A.
2002-01-01
For almost a century, steel sheet pile walls are applied worldwide as earth retaining structures for excavations and quay walls. Within the framework of the development of European structural codes for Civil Engineering works, the Eurocodes, Eurocode 3 Part 5 for design of steel sheet pile walls was
Static domain wall in braneworld gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abdalla, M.C.B.; Carlesso, P.F. [UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Fisica Teiorica, Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, Bloco II, Barra-Funda, Caixa Postal 70532-2, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hoff da Silva, J.M. [UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)
2014-01-15
In this paper we consider a static domain wall inside a 3-brane. Different from the standard achievement obtained in General Relativity, the analysis performed here gives a consistency condition for the existence of static domain walls in a braneworld gravitational scenario. Also the behavior of the domain wall's gravitational field in the newtonian limit is shown. (orig.)
Carbon nanocones: wall structure and morphology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stine Nalum Naess, Arnljot Elgsaeter, Geir Helgesen and Kenneth D Knudsen
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Large-scale production of conical carbon nanostructures is possible through pyrolysis of hydrocarbons in a plasma torch process. The resulting carbon cones occur in five distinctly different forms, and disc-shaped particles are produced as well. The structure and properties of these carbon cones and discs have been relatively little explored until now. Here we characterize the structure of these particles using transmission electron microscopy, synchrotron x-ray and electron diffraction. The carbon nanocones are found to exhibit several interesting structural features; instead of having a uniform cross-section, the walls consist of a relatively thin inner graphite-like layer with a non-crystalline envelope, where the amount of the latter can be modified significantly by annealing. The cones appear with a well-defined faceting along the cone edge, demonstrating strict long-range atomic ordering; they also present occasional examples of symmetry breaking, such as two apexes appearing in the same carbon nanocone.
Wall-to-bed heat transfer in circulating fluidized beds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fox, W.B.; Grewal, N.S.; Moen, D.A. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.
1999-05-01
Circulating fluidized beds (CFBs) have become increasingly important in recent years for coal combustion and gas-solid reactions. Here, heat transfer from the wall of a circulating fluidized bed to the fast bed suspension has been investigated for several materials. The range of investigation includes dense and dilute phase fast fluidization and pneumatic transport. The overall heat transfer coefficient was found to be a function mainly of cross-sectional average suspension density. Effects of superficial velocity and solids mass flux were obscured by their interrelationship to the suspension density. Two models from the literature are evaluated using present and published data.
The mean velocity profile of near-wall turbulent flow
Kazakov, Kirill A.
2014-01-01
The issue of analytical derivation of the mean velocity profile in a near-wall turbulent flow is revisited in the context of a two-dimensional channel flow. An approach based on the use of dispersion relations for the flow velocity is developed. It is shown that for an incompressible flow conserving vorticity, there exists a decomposition of the velocity field into rotational and potential components, such that the restriction of the former to an arbitrary cross-section of the channel is a fu...
Enabling Support of Collaborative Cross-enterprise Business Processes for Legacy ERP Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gundars Alksnis
2015-04-01
Full Text Available In order to create innovative business products, share knowledge between people and businesses, or increase the control and quality of services, more and more often enterprise business processes involve in collaborations by delegating or providing some pieces of work to other enterprises. Necessity to cooperate in the cross-enterprise setting leads to Collaborative Business Processes (CBPs. The difference between CBPs and Business Processes (BPs is in the decentralized coordination, flexible backward recovery, participants notification about the state, efficient adaptability to changes, presence of multiple information systems, and individual authorization settings. In the paper we consider a specific case of CBPs where multiple collaborating partners use Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP system of the same vendor. The vendor can see (e.g., monitor the changes of data elements, but does not have explicit process awareness in the ERP system to support flow of activities in the cross-enterprise setting. The paper also discusses different settings of cross-enterprise CBP and shows simplified enterprise models behind the vendor possibilities to positively impact collaborative processes. The restrictions of the vendor are implicit information flows in BP, diversity of ERP integrations with third party Information Systems (IS, the lack of mechanisms for monitoring BP instances, backward recovery, user notification about the current state and tasks, and inability to make explicit changes in customers’ ISs.
Antigen incorporation on Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst walls
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Entrala Emilio
2001-01-01
Full Text Available Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts are the infective stages responsible for transmission and survival of the organism in the environment. In the present work we show that the oocyst wall, far from being a static structure, is able to incorporate antigens by a mechanism involving vesicle fusion with the wall, and the incorporation of the antigen to the outer oocyst wall. Using immunoelectron microscopy we show that the antigen recognized by a monoclonal antibody used for diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis (Merifluor®, Meridian Diagnostic Inc. could be found associated with vesicles in the space between the sporozoites and the oocysts wall, and incorporated to the outer oocyst wall by an unknown mechanism.
Asymmetric counter propagation of domain walls
Andrade-Silva, I.; Clerc, M. G.; Odent, V.
2016-07-01
Far from equilibrium systems show different states and domain walls between them. These walls, depending on the type of connected equilibria, exhibit a rich spatiotemporal dynamics. Here, we investigate the asymmetrical counter propagation of domain walls in an in-plane-switching cell filled with a nematic liquid crystal. Experimentally, we characterize the shape and speed of the domain walls. Based on the molecular orientation, we infer that the counter propagative walls have different elastic deformations. These deformations are responsible of the asymmetric counter propagating fronts. Theoretically, based on symmetry arguments, we propose a simple bistable model under the influence of a nonlinear gradient, which qualitatively describes the observed dynamics.
Hole in the Wall: Informed Short Selling ahead of Private Placements
H. Berkman (Henk); M. McKenzie (Michael); P. Verwijmeren (Patrick)
2013-01-01
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Companies planning a private placement typically gauge the interest of potential buyers before the offering is publicly announced. Regulators are concerned with this practice, called wall-crossing, as it might invite insider trading, especially when the potential invest
Practical considerations in ultrasonic wall thickness measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ultrasonic inspection is widely used by industry for the detection of corrosion and the measurement of material wall thickness. Due to wall thinning and the various forms of corrosion that can be found in pressure piping and pressure vessels the annual cost of corrosion damage and related service failures, is very expensive. The author interest is primarily in the examination of personnel who need to become competent and certificated in the various skills that are required to carry out wall thickness measurement and detection of wall thinning due to corrosion. The various techniques and equipment available for ultrasonic wall thickness measurement and assessment give rise to problems regarding the accuracy of results and detection of corrosion. This paper will discuss some of the corrosion conditions that may occur and also problems that may arise during wall thickness measurement. Methods of improving the wall thickness measurement and the assessment process will also be discussed. (author)
Transition to turbulence in a soft-walled microchannel
Kumaran, Viswanathan
2014-11-01
It is well known that the transition from a laminar to a turbulent flow in a rigid tube takes place at a Reynolds number of about 2100, and in a rigid channel at a Reynolds number of about 1200. Experimental results are presented to show that the transition Reynolds number could be as low as low as 200 in micro-channels of height 100 microns with a soft wall, provided the elasticity modulus of the wall is sufficiently low. At the point of transition, motion is observed in the walls of the channel, indicating that the instability is caused by a dynamical coupling between the fluid and the wall dynamics, which is qualitatively different from that in rigid tubes/channels. Theoretical calculations show that the transition Reynolds number depends on a dimensionless parameter Σ = (ρGR2 /μ2) , where, ρ and μ are the fluid density and viscosity, G is the elastic modulus of the wall material, R is the cross-stream length scale and V is the maximum velocity. A low Reynolds number analysis indicates that there could be a transition even at zero Reynolds number when the dimensionless parameter (Vμ / GR) exceeds a critical value. The mechanism of destabilisation is the transfer of energy from the mean flow to the fluctuations due to the shear work done at the fluid-solid interface. Two different types of instabilities are identified at high Reynolds number using asymptotic analysis, the inviscid mode instability for which the critical Reynolds number sales as Σ 1 / 2, and the wall mode instability for which the critical Reynolds number scales as Σ 3 / 4. Numerical continuation is used to extend the results to the intermediate Reynolds number regime. The low Reynolds number analysis is found to be in quantitative agreement with experiments. However, the high Reynolds number analysis is in agreement only if the wall deformation and consequent flow modification due to the applied pressure gradient is incorporated in the analysis. The flow after transition has transport
Gölsdorf, Katrin; Müller, Hans; Collier, Marcus
2013-01-01
Can plants help to improve the air quality? People have often complained about Ivy on buildings, but research by Helix Pflanzen GmbH, a company that is specialised in the cultivation of ivy species and the development of green wall technology, is shedding new light on an old problem. Using a cultivated variety of ivy (Hedera helix 'Wörner'), experiments were carried out that illustrated the binding effect that this Ivy has on fine dust particles. This is particularly important in urban ...
First Wall and Operational Diagnostics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lasnier, C; Allen, S; Boedo, J; Groth, M; Brooks, N; McLean, A; LaBombard, B; Sharpe, J; Skinner, C; Whyte, D; Rudakov, D; West, W; Wong, C
2006-06-19
In this chapter we review numerous diagnostics capable of measurements at or near the first wall, many of which contribute information useful for safe operation of a tokamak. There are sections discussing infrared cameras, visible and VUV cameras, pressure gauges and RGAs, Langmuir probes, thermocouples, and erosion and deposition measurements by insertable probes and quartz microbalance. Also discussed are dust measurements by electrostatic detectors, laser scattering, visible and IR cameras, and manual collection of samples after machine opening. In each case the diagnostic is discussed with a view toward application to a burning plasma machine such as ITER.
Methodology for first wall design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An analytic parametric scoping tool has been developed for application to first wall (FW) design problems. Both thermal and disruption force effects are considered. For the high heat flux and high disruption load conditions expected in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) device, Vanadium alloy and dispersion-strengthened copper offer the best stress margins using a somewhat flattened plasma-facing configuration. Ferritic steels also appear to have an acceptable stress margin, whereas the conventional stainless steel 316 does not appear feasible. If a full semicircle shape FW is required, only the Vanadium and ferritic steel alloy have acceptable solutions
PRESSURE-VELOCITY JOINT MEASUREMENTS OF A WALL-BOUNDED TURBULENT SHEAR FLOW
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Ying-zheng; KE Feng; WANG Wei-zhe; CAO Zhao-min
2006-01-01
The unsteady behavior of the large-scale vortical structures buried in a wall-bounded turbulent shear layer flow was extensively investigated using pressure-velocity joint measurements. The wall pressure fluctuations and flow field velocity fluctuations were measured simultaneously by using a microphone and an X-type hotwire, respectively. The spatially and temporally strong coupling between the convecting flow structures and the wall pressure fluctuations were meticulously investigated in terms of the continuous wavelet transform, cross-correlation and coherence of the wall pressure and flow field. The characteristics of the large-scale vortical structures, e.g., the shedding frequency, averaged convection velocity, convective motion, and structure pattern were revealed.
A New Rule-Based Strategy to Determine The Failure modes of Structural Walls
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parameters affecting types of failure of reinforced concrete structural walls with arbitrary aspect ratios and cross section are investigated using data from numerous wall tests. Basically there are three known primary failure modes that covers prominent behavior of wall at the failure load. Shear failure is known by diagonal tension cracks and premature yielding of shear reinforcement that leads to abrupt none-ductile failure. To insure a ductile flexural failure, it is recommended that strength in shear be equal or grater than strength in flexure. Flexural-shear failure is another type of failure that needs to more details to identify explicitly and it is divided to two different cases namely web crushing or sliding shear failure. A new model is proposed to predict the failure modes of structural walls in terms of shear strength, nominal shear stress, shear force related to flexural capacity, the level of compression in concrete and control of sliding shear failure.
A new dedicated finite element for push-over analysis of reinforced concrete shear wall systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Delal Doğru ORMANCI
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this study, a finite element which has been analyzed based on anisotropic behavior of reinforced shear walls is developed. Element stiffness matrices were varied based on whether the element is in the tension or the compression zone of the cross-section. Nonlinear behavior of reinforced shear wall model is investigated under horizontal loads. This behavior is defined with a similar approach to plastic hinge assumption in frame structures that the finite element behaves lineer elastic between joints and plastic deformations are concentrated on joints as vertical plastic displacements. According to this acceptance, plastic behavior of reinforced shear wall occurs when the vertical strain reaches elastic strain limit. In the definition of finite element, displacement functions are chosen considering that the partition of shear walls just at floor levels, are enough for solution. Results of this study are compared with the solution obtained from a different computer programme and experimental results.
Mitigating the effects of surface morphology changes during ultrasonic wall thickness monitoring
Cegla, Frederic; Gajdacsi, Attila
2016-02-01
Ultrasonic wall thickness monitoring using permanently installed sensors has become a tool to monitor pipe wall thicknesses online and during plant operation. The repeatability of measurements with permanently installed transducers is excellent and can be in the nanometer range. It has, however, also been shown that the measured wall thickness is dependent on surface morphology and that when there are changes in surface morphology the monitored thickness trends can be affected. With an adaptive cross correlation approach, this effect can be successfully muted. However, under some surface morphology change conditions, this can also lead to inaccuracies. Here, an approach to detect when surface morphology changes can influence trend accuracies is presented. This method requires the combination of measurements from several sensors that independently sample an area where the same wall loss mechanism is assumed to occur. Simulation results for the effectiveness of the technique are presented.
Weerkamp, Anton H.; McBride, Barry C.
1981-01-01
Cell walls of Streptococcus salivarius HB aggregated Veillonella alcalescens V1, but cell walls of the mutant S. salivarius HB-V5 did not. We found no correlation between the presence of fimbriae on streptococcal walls and the ability to aggregate Veillonella strains. Treatment of the walls with lysozyme solubilized a fraction which possessed Veillonella-aggregating activity. Solubilized cell wall preparations of strain HB contained three major (glyco)proteins as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and at least four antigens as determined by immunoelectrophoresis with antiserum prepared against strain HB walls. A specific antiserum, which was obtained by adsorption of anti-HB serum on strain HB-V5 cells, contained monospecific antibody that reacted with the solubilized strain HB wall preparation. Similar fractions prepared from strain HB-V5 cell walls did not possess aggregating activity and lacked one protein band (protein I) after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and one antigen (antigen b) after immunoelectrophoresis. The same antigen was absent when lysozyme-solubilized wall preparations of strain HB were reacted with anti-HB-V5 serum. Crossed-immunoisoelectric focusing indicated that this specific (glyco)protein and this antigen were identical and had an isoelectric point of 4.60. Protein I and antigen b were specifically adsorbed when solubilized strain HB cell walls were incubated with V. alcalescens V1 but were not adsorbed by nonaggregating Veillonella parvula ATCC 10790 cells. Culture supernatants of strain HB contained V. alcalescens V1-aggregating activity. Antigen b was present in the culture supernatant, but was not found in cultures of strain HB-V5. A total of 18 S. salivarius isolates possessing the streptococcal group K antigen released aggregating activity and antigen b into the culture medium, but 11 strains which lacked the K-antigen did not. Images PMID:7251145
Background: Cotton fiber maturity refers the degree of fiber cell wall development and is an important factor for determining commercial value of cotton. The molecular mechanism regulating the fiber cell wall development has not been well characterized. Microscopic image analysis of the cross-sect...
Ectopic lignification in primary cellulose-deficient cell walls of maize cell suspension cultures
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hugo Melida; Antonio Encina; Asier Largo-Gosens; Esther Novo-Uzal; Rogelio Santiago; Federico Pomar; Pedro Garca; Penelope Garca-Angulo; Jose Luis Acebes; Jesus Alvarez
2015-01-01
Maize (Zea mays L.) suspension-cultured cells with up to 70% less cellulose were obtained by stepwise habituation to dichlobenil (DCB), a cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor. Cellulose deficiency was accompanied by marked changes in cell wall matrix polysaccharides and phenolics as revealed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Cell wall compositional analysis indicated that the cellulose-deficient cell walls showed an enhancement of highly branched and cross-linked arabinoxylans, as well as an increased content in ferulic acid, diferulates and p-coumaric acid, and the presence of a polymer that stained positive for phloroglucinol. In accordance with this, cellulose-deficient cell walls showed a fivefold increase in Klason-type lignin. Thioacidolysis/GC-MS analysis of cellulose-deficient cell walls indicated the presence of a lignin-like polymer with a Syringyl/Guaiacyl ratio of 1.45, which differed from the sensu stricto stress-related lignin that arose in response to short-term DCB-treatments. Gene expression analysis of these cells indicated an overexpression of genes specific for the biosynthesis of monolignol units of lignin. A study of stress signaling pathways revealed an overexpression of some of the jasmonate signaling pathway genes, which might trigger ectopic lignification in response to cell wall integrity disruptions. In summary, the structural plasticity of primary cell walls is proven, since a lignification process is possible in response to cellulose impoverishment.
Effects of heat conduction and radical quenching on premixed stagnation flame stabilised by a wall
Zhang, Huangwei; Chen, Zheng
2013-08-01
The premixed stagnation flame stabilised by a wall is analysed theoretically considering thermally sensitive intermediate kinetics. We consider the limit case of infinitely large activation energy of the chain-branching reaction, in which the radical is produced infinitely fast once the cross-over temperature is reached. Under the assumptions of potential flow field and constant density, the correlation for flame position and stretch rate of the premixed stagnation flame is derived. Based on this correlation, the effects of heat conduction and radical quenching on the wall surface are examined. The wall temperature is shown to have great impact on flame bifurcation and extinction, especially when the flame is close to the wall. Different flame structures are observed for near-wall normal flame, weak flame, and critically quenched flame. The fuel and radical Lewis numbers are found to have opposite effects on the extinction stretch rate. Moreover, it is also demonstrated that only when the flame is close to the wall does the radical quenching strongly influence the flame bifurcation and extinction. The extinction stretch rate is shown to decrease with the amount of radical quenching for different fuel and radical Lewis numbers. Besides, the coupling between the wall heat conduction and radical quenching is found to greatly influence the bifurcation and extinction of the premixed stagnation flame.
Study of heat transfer in the heating wall during nucleate pool boiling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The subject of this these is to show the role of heat transfer in the wall during saturated pool boiling. This effect, usually neglected in the modelizations of boiling, can explain some behaviours of the ebullition cycle and of the activities of nucleation sites. Il has been found that the ebullition cycle can be described by two steps: (1) during bubble growth, the wall temperature decreases due to the evaporation of the micro-layer at the base of the bubble; (2) initial superheat is re-established mainly by radial heat conduction in the wall. It is then possible to account for the variations of the wall temperature displayed by liquid crystals put a the bottom of the heating surface, and for the influence of the contact angle on the heat transfer. In the case of the infinitely thick wall the main results are that the thermal transfer during the growth of the bubble depends on the thermal properties of both wall and liquid and that the time separating the detachment of a bubble and its replacement by a new one is proportional to the cross-section of the bubble and to the thermal diffusivity of the wall
Large scale structures in a turbulent boundary layer and their imprint on wall shear stress
Pabon, Rommel; Barnard, Casey; Ukeiley, Lawrence; Sheplak, Mark
2015-11-01
Experiments were performed on a turbulent boundary layer developing on a flat plate model under zero pressure gradient flow. A MEMS differential capacitive shear stress sensor with a 1 mm × 1 mm floating element was used to capture the fluctuating wall shear stress simultaneously with streamwise velocity measurements from a hot-wire anemometer traversed in the wall normal direction. Near the wall, the peak in the cross correlation corresponds to an organized motion inclined 45° from the wall. In the outer region, the peak diminishes in value, but is still significant at a distance greater than half the boundary layer thickness, and corresponds to a structure inclined 14° from the wall. High coherence between the two signals was found for the low-frequency content, reinforcing the belief that large scale structures have a vital impact on wall shear stress. Thus, estimation of the wall shear stress from the low-frequency velocity signal will be performed, and is expected to be statistically significant in the outer boundary layer. Additionally, conditionally averaged mean velocity profiles will be presented to assess the effects of high and low shear stress. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1315138.
Ma, Jianfeng; Lv, Xunli; Yang, Shumin; Tian, Genlin; Liu, Xing'e
2015-10-01
Structural organization of the plant cell wall is a key parameter for understanding anisotropic plant growth and mechanical behavior. Four imaging platforms were used to investigate the cell wall architecture of Miscanthus sinensis cv. internode tissue. Using transmission electron microscopy with potassium permanganate, we found a great degree of inhomogeneity in the layering structure (4-9 layers) of the sclerenchymatic fiber (Sf). However, the xylem vessel showed a single layer. Atomic force microscopy images revealed that the cellulose microfibrils (Mfs) deposited in the primary wall of the protoxylem vessel (Pxv) were disordered, while the secondary wall was composed of Mfs oriented in parallel in the cross and longitudinal section. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy images indicated no variation in the Mf orientation of Pxv and the Mfs in Pxv were oriented more perpendicular to the cell axis than that of Sfs. Based on the integrated results, we have proposed an architectural model of Pxv composed of two layers: an outermost primary wall composed of a meshwork of Mfs and inner secondary wall containing parallel Mfs. This proposed model will support future ultrastructural analysis of plant cell walls in heterogeneous tissues, an area of increasing scientific interest particularly for liquid biofuel processing. PMID:26358178
Domain Walls Out of Equilibrium
Alamoudi, S M; Takakura, F I
1998-01-01
We study the non-equilibrium dynamics of domain walls in real time for equation of motion for the collective coordinate is obtained by integrating out the meson excitations around the domain wall to one-loop order and the non-equilibrium relaxation is studied analytically and numerically. The constant friction coefficient vanishes but there is dynamical friction and relaxation caused by non-Markovian effects. A Markovian approximation is shown to fail even at large temperatures. The proper Langevin equation is obtained to this order, the noise is Gaussian and additive but colored. We analyze the classical and hard thermal loop contributions to the self-energy and noise kernels and show that at temperatures larger than the meson mass the hard contributions are negligible and the finite temperature contribution to the dynamics is governed by the classical soft modes of the meson bath. The long time relaxational dynamics is completely dominated by classical Landau damping resulting in that the corresponding time...
Anterior chest wall examination reviewed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Trotta
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Anterior chest wall involvement is not infrequently observed within inflammatory arthropaties, particularly if one considers seronegative spondiloarthritides and SAPHO syndrome. Physical examination is unreliable and conventional X-rays analysis is an unsatisfactory tool during diagnostic work-up of this region. Scintigraphic techniques yield informations both on the activity and on the anatomical extent of the disease while computerized tomography visualize the elementary lesions, such as erosions, which characterize the process. Moreover, when available, magnetic resonance imaging couple the ability to finely visualize such lesions with the possibility to show early alterations and to characterize the “activity” of the disease, presenting itself as a powerful tool both for diagnosis and follow-up. This review briefly shows the applications of imaging techniques for the evaluation of the anterior chest wall focusing on what has been done in the SAPHO syndrome which can be considered prototypical for this regional involvement since it is the osteo-articular target mainly affected by the disease.
Electrons in ferromagnets with domain walls
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Domain walls can significantly modify electronic properties of ferromagnetic metals. In this paper we consider theoretically the influence of domain walls on transport properties of ferromagnetic materials and the results are compared with recent experiments. In the case of diffusive transport through a thick domain wall, the semiclassical approximation is applied and a local spin transformation is performed, which replaces the system with a domain wall by the corresponding system without a domain wall but with an additional gauge field. Due to a redistribution of single-particle electron states at the wall, one obtains then either negative or positive contributions to resistivity. The situation is different for very narrow and/or constrained domain walls. In such a case, the semiclassical approximation is not valid. Instead of this the approach based on scattering matrix is applied. The domain wall then gives rise to a large positive contribution to electrical resistivity. The corresponding magnetoresistance can be therefore very large, which is in agreement with recent experiments. The limiting case of narrow domain walls in systems with a single conduction channel is analysed in detail, with the effects due to electron-electron interaction taken into account. In this particular case the magnetoresistance due to a domain wall can be extremely large
RG Domain Walls and Hybrid Triangulations
Dimofte, Tudor; van der Veen, Roland
2013-01-01
This paper studies the interplay between the N=2 gauge theories in three and four dimensions that have a geometric description in terms of twisted compactification of the six-dimensional (2,0) SCFT. Our main goal is to construct the three-dimensional domain walls associated to any three-dimensional cobordism. We find that we can build a variety of 3d theories that represent the local degrees of freedom at a given domain wall in various 4d duality frames, including both UV S-dual frames and IR Seiberg-Witten electric-magnetic dual frames. We pay special attention to Janus domain walls, defined by four-dimensional Lagrangians with position-dependent couplings. If the couplings on either side of the wall are weak in different UV duality frames, Janus domain walls reduce to S-duality walls, i.e. domain walls that encode the properties of UV dualities. If the couplings on one side are weak in the IR and on the other weak in the UV, Janus domain walls reduce to RG walls, i.e. domain walls that encode the properties...
Reliability and Validity of Chinese Version of Boredom Proneness Scale%无聊倾向量表(BPS):中文版的结构、信度及效度
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘勇; 陈健芷; 宋琳婷; 赵宇; 杨晓丽; 张盼; 周卉
2014-01-01
目的:在大学生群体中引入无聊倾向量表(Boredom Proneness Scale,BPS),探讨该量表在中国文化背景下的因素结构,并检验其信效度.方法:采用BPS中文版调查了1230名大学生,收回有效问卷1129份.另用特质孤独量表、特质焦虑量表、自评抑郁量表和自评无聊倾向条目在90名大学生中检验效标关联效度.3周后随机抽取64名大学生进行重测.结果:BPS中文版包括内部刺激和外部刺激2个维度,低卷入、高卷入、高刺激需求、低刺激需求和缺乏耐性5个分量表,共20个条目;验证性因素分析显示数据拟合良好(x2/df=1.60,CFI=0.91,TLI=0.89,RM-SEA=0.04,SRMR=O.06);5个分量表的内部一致性信度在0.57～ 0.81之间,重测信度在0.69～ 0.83之间;BPS中文版具有较好的效标关联效度.结论:BPS中文版具有良好的信度和效度,可以用于大学生的无聊倾向测量.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kazuyuki Wakabayashi
Full Text Available Network structures created by hydroxycinnamate cross-links within the cell wall architecture of gramineous plants make the cell wall resistant to the gravitational force of the earth. In this study, the effects of microgravity on the formation of cell wall-bound hydroxycinnamates were examined using etiolated rice shoots simultaneously grown under artificial 1 g and microgravity conditions in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility on the International Space Station. Measurement of the mechanical properties of cell walls showed that shoot cell walls became stiff during the growth period and that microgravity suppressed this stiffening. Amounts of cell wall polysaccharides, cell wall-bound phenolic acids, and lignin in rice shoots increased as the shoot grew. Microgravity did not influence changes in the amounts of cell wall polysaccharides or phenolic acid monomers such as ferulic acid (FA and p-coumaric acid, but it suppressed increases in diferulic acid (DFA isomers and lignin. Activities of the enzymes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and cell wall-bound peroxidase (CW-PRX in shoots also increased as the shoot grew. PAL activity in microgravity-grown shoots was almost comparable to that in artificial 1 g-grown shoots, while CW-PRX activity increased less in microgravity-grown shoots than in artificial 1 g-grown shoots. Furthermore, the increases in expression levels of some class III peroxidase genes were reduced under microgravity conditions. These results suggest that a microgravity environment modifies the expression levels of certain class III peroxidase genes in rice shoots, that the resultant reduction of CW-PRX activity may be involved in suppressing DFA formation and lignin polymerization, and that this suppression may cause a decrease in cross-linkages within the cell wall architecture. The reduction in intra-network structures may contribute to keeping the cell wall loose under microgravity conditions.
Architecture of dermatophyte cell Walls: Electron microscopic and biochemical analysis
Nozawa, Y.; Kitajima, Y.
1984-01-01
A review with 83 references on the cell wall structure of dermatophytes is presented. Topics discussed include separation and preparation of cell walls; microstructure of cell walls by electron microscopy; chemical composition of cell walls; structural model of cell walls; and morphological structure of cell walls.
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Štrumbelj, Martin
2016-01-01
Dissertation presents smart pedestrian crossings which could be installed in road infrastructure in the future. Because of too frequent road accidents in the areas of road crossings and heightened regulations on harmful emissions and annual increasing of traffic, smart pedestrian crossings are appropriate solution, which is used by many of countries throughout the world. The fact that in Slovenia the preposition for the technical specifications of crossings is still in preparation is responsi...
Shape dynamics of growing cell walls
Banerjee, Shiladitya; Dinner, Aaron R
2015-01-01
We introduce a general theoretical framework to study the shape dynamics of actively growing and remodeling surfaces. Using this framework we develop a physical model for growing bacterial cell walls and study the interplay of cell shape with the dynamics of growth and constriction. The model allows us to derive constraints on cell wall mechanical energy based on the observed dynamics of cell shape. We predict that exponential growth in cell size requires a constant amount of cell wall energy to be dissipated per unit volume. We use the model to understand and contrast growth in bacteria with different shapes such as spherical, ellipsoidal, cylindrical and toroidal morphologies. Coupling growth to cell wall constriction, we predict a discontinuous shape transformation, from partial constriction to cell division, as a function of the chemical potential driving cell-wall synthesis. Our model for cell wall energy and shape dynamics relates growth kinetics with cell geometry, and provides a unified framework to d...
Hydrodynamics of ultra-relativistic bubble walls
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leonardo Leitao
2016-04-01
Full Text Available In cosmological first-order phase transitions, gravitational waves are generated by the collisions of bubble walls and by the bulk motions caused in the fluid. A sizeable signal may result from fast-moving walls. In this work we study the hydrodynamics associated to the fastest propagation modes, namely, ultra-relativistic detonations and runaway solutions. We compute the energy injected by the phase transition into the fluid and the energy which accumulates in the bubble walls. We provide analytic approximations and fits as functions of the net force acting on the wall, which can be readily evaluated for specific models. We also study the back-reaction of hydrodynamics on the wall motion, and we discuss the extrapolation of the friction force away from the ultra-relativistic limit. We use these results to estimate the gravitational wave signal from detonations and runaway walls.
ADULT ABDOMINAL WALL HERNIA IN IBADAN
Ayandipo, O.O; Afuwape, O.O.; Irabor, D. O.; Abdurrazzaaq, A.I.
2015-01-01
Background: Abdominal wall hernias are very common diseases encountered in surgical practice. Groin hernia is the commonest type of abdominal wall hernias. There are several methods of hernia repair but tension-free repair (usually with mesh) offers the least recurrent rate. Aim: To describe the clinical profile of anterior abdominal wall hernias and our experience in the surgical management of identified hernias Method: The project was a retrospective study of all patients with abdominal wal...
Vapor wall deposition in Teflon chambers
Zhang, X; R. H. Schwantes; R. C. McVay; H Lignell; M. M. Coggon; Flagan, R C; Seinfeld, J.H.
2014-01-01
Teflon chambers are ubiquitous in studies of atmospheric chemistry. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation can be substantially underestimated owing to deposition of SOA-forming compounds to chamber walls. We present here an experimental protocol to constrain the nature of wall deposition of organic vapors in Teflon chambers. We measured the wall deposition rates of 25 oxidized organic compounds generated from the photooxidation of isoprene, toluene, α-pinene, and dodecan...
Tourism Development: Issues for Historic Walled Towns
Tomi Brezovec; David Bruce
2009-01-01
This paper discusses issues in tourism development and visitor management in historic walled towns. Historic towns and walled towns in particular, attract tourists that enjoy the preserved medieval ambience, architecture and picturesque streets. Tourism has an impact on economic and social life as well as on the urban and natural environment. Walled towns and cities with their obvious barriers exemplify and crystallise issues, challenges, and opportunities critical to the development of touri...
Ultrasonic wall thickness measurement without coupling liquid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
If the material measured is part of the ultrasonic transducer, then one can do without the usual coupling liquid for ultrasonic measurement of wall thickness. Measuring equipment works on the basis of this electro-dynamic ultrasonic transducer, which has been developed to check the wall thickness (3 to 30 mm) of steel pipes with outside diameters of 25 to 180 mm. Double errors and local changes of wall thickness can be detected. (orig.)
Antigen Incorporation on Cryptosporidium parvum Oocyst Walls
Entrala Emilio; Sbihi Younes; Sánchez-Moreno Manuel; Mascaró Carmen
2001-01-01
Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts are the infective stages responsible for transmission and survival of the organism in the environment. In the present work we show that the oocyst wall, far from being a static structure, is able to incorporate antigens by a mechanism involving vesicle fusion with the wall, and the incorporation of the antigen to the outer oocyst wall. Using immunoelectron microscopy we show that the antigen recognized by a monoclonal antibody used for diagnosis of cryptosporidi...
Mechanics of the Toxoplasma gondii oocyst wall
Dumètre, Aurélien; Dubey, Jitender P.; Ferguson, David J. P.; Bongrand, Pierre; Azas, Nadine; Puech, Pierre-Henri
2013-01-01
International audience; The ability of microorganisms to survive under extreme conditions is closely related to the physicochemical properties of their wall. In the ubiquitous protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, the oocyst stage possesses a bilayered wall that protects the dormant but potentially infective parasites from harsh environmental conditions until their ingestion by the host. None of the common disinfectants are effective in killing the parasite, since the oocyst wall acts as a pr...
Motional Effect on Wall Shear Stresses
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kock, Samuel Alberg; Torben Fründ, Ernst; Yong Kim, Won
Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death and severe disability. Wall Shear Stress (WSS), the stress exerted on vessel walls by the flowing blood is a key factor in the development of atherosclerosis. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is widely used for WSS estimations. Most CFD simulations...... are based on static models to ease computational burden leading to inaccurate estimations. The aim of this work was to estimate the effect of vessel wall deformations (expansion and bending) on WSS levels....
Transport and coherent structures in wall turbulence
Tardu, Sedat
2014-01-01
Wall bounded turbulent flows are of major importance in industrial and environmental fluid mechanics. The structure of the wall turbulence is intrinsically related to the coherent structures that play a fundamental role in the transport process. The comprehension of their regeneration mechanism is indispensable for the development of efficient strategies in terms of drag control and near wall turbulence management. This book provides an up-to-date overview on the progress made in this specific area in recent years.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XuHuagen; XuHushan; LiWenfei; ZhanWenlong; XiaoGuoqing; GuoZhongyan; SunZhiyu; LiChen; ChenRuofu; MaYue; ZhangXueying[; JiaFei
2003-01-01
With the construction of the new Radioactive Ion Beam Line in Lanzhou (RIBLL Ⅱ) which connecting the CSRm and the CSRe, an experimental setup.The Time-of-Flight (ToF) technique was recognized as one of the best ways for neutron detection and it, is employed by the neutrons wall. Considering the high neutron multiplicity, the detector shouldal so have the ability to resolve the multiple hits. Moreover, a high detection efficiency for the neutrons with energies ranging from 100MeV to 1 GeV is also required besides the high granularity. In this case, the sampling hadronic calorimeter type of detector has been selected. In order to estimate the performance of the detector and
Virtual gap dielectric wall accelerator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Caporaso, George James; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Nelson, Scott; Sullivan, Jim; Hawkins, Steven A
2013-11-05
A virtual, moving accelerating gap is formed along an insulating tube in a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) by locally controlling the conductivity of the tube. Localized voltage concentration is thus achieved by sequential activation of a variable resistive tube or stalk down the axis of an inductive voltage adder, producing a "virtual" traveling wave along the tube. The tube conductivity can be controlled at a desired location, which can be moved at a desired rate, by light illumination, or by photoconductive switches, or by other means. As a result, an impressed voltage along the tube appears predominantly over a local region, the virtual gap. By making the length of the tube large in comparison to the virtual gap length, the effective gain of the accelerator can be made very large.
Creating universes with thick walls
Ulvestad, Andrew; Albrecht, Andreas
2012-05-01
We study the dynamics of a spherically symmetric false vacuum bubble embedded in a true vacuum region separated by a “thick wall”, which is generated by a scalar field in a quartic potential. We study the “Farhi-Guth-Guven” (FGG) quantum tunneling process by constructing numerical solutions relevant to this process. The Arnowitt-Deser-Misner mass of the spacetime is calculated, and we show that there is a lower bound that is a significant fraction of the scalar field mass. We argue that the zero mass solutions used to by some to argue against the physicality of the FGG process are artifacts of the thin wall approximation used in earlier work. We argue that the zero mass solutions should not be used to question the viability of the FGG process.
ON WALL SHEAR STRESS OF ARTERY
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Zhao-rong; Liu Bao-yu; Qin Kai-rong
2003-01-01
In this paper, a method was proposed that the wall shear stress of artery could be determined by measuring the centerline axial velocity and radial motion of arterial wall simultaneously.The method is simple in application and can get higher precision when it is used to determine the shear stress of arterial wall in vivo.As an example, the shear stress distribution in periodic oscillatory flow of human carotid was calculated and discussed.The computed results show that the shear stress distribution at any given instant is almost uniform and will be zero at the centerline and tends to maximum at the vessel wall.
Determination of arterial wall shear stress
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
The arteries can remodel their structure and function to adapt themselves to the mechanical environment. In various factors that lead to vascular remodeling, the shear stress on the arterial wall induced by the blood flow is of great importance. However, there are many technique difficulties in measuring the wall shear stress directly at present. In this paper, through analyzing the pulsatile blood flow in arteries, a method has been proposed that can determine the wall shear stress quantitatively by measuring the velocity on the arterial axis, and that provides a necessary means to discuss the influence of arterial wall shear stress on vascular remodeling.
Skyrmions from Instantons inside Domain Walls
Eto, M; Ohashi, K; Tong, D; Eto, Minoru; Nitta, Muneto; Ohashi, Keisuke; Tong, David
2005-01-01
Some years ago, Atiyah and Manton described a method to construct approximate Skyrmion solutions from Yang-Mills instantons. Here we present a dynamical realization of this construction using domain walls in a five-dimensional gauge theory. The non-abelian gauge symmetry is broken in each vacuum but restored in the core of the domain wall, allowing instantons to nestle inside the wall. We show that the worldvolume dynamics of the wall is given by the Skyrme model, including the four-derivative term, and the instantons appear as Skyrmions.
Fillability of Thin-Wall Steel Castings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robert C. Voigt; Joseph Bertoletti; Andrew Kaley; Sandi Ricotta; Travis Sunday
2002-07-30
The use of steel components is being challenged by lighter nonferrous or cast iron components. The development of techniques for enhancing and ensuring the filability of thin-wall mold cavities is most critical for thinner wall cast steel production. The purpose of this research was to develop thin-wall casting techniques that can be used to reliably produce thin-wall castings from traditional gravity poured sand casting processes. The focus of the research was to enhance the filling behavior to prevent misrunds. Experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of various foundry variables on the filling of thin section steel castings. These variables include casting design, heat transfer, gating design, and metal fluidity. Wall thickness and pouring temperature have the greatest effect on casting fill. As wall thickness increases the volume to surface area of the casting increases, which increases the solidification time, allowing the metal to flow further in thicker sect ions. Pouring time is another significant variable affecting casting fill. Increases or decreases of 20% in the pouring time were found to have a significant effect on the filling of thin-wall production castings. Gating variables, including venting, pouring head height, and mold tilting also significantly affected thin-wall casting fill. Filters offer less turbulent, steadier flow, which is appropriate for thicker castings, but they do not enhance thin-wall casting fill.
Molecular regulation of plant cell wall extensibility
Cosgrove, D. J.
1998-01-01
Gravity responses in plants often involve spatial and temporal changes in cell growth, which is regulated primarily by controlling the ability of the cell wall to extend. The wall is thought to be a cellulose-hemicellulose network embedded in a hydrated matrix of complex polysaccharides and a small amount of structural protein. The wall extends by a form of polymer creep, which is mediated by expansins, a novel group of wall-loosening proteins. Expansins were discovered during a molecular dissection of the "acid growth" behavior of cell walls. Expansin alters the rheology of plant walls in profound ways, yet its molecular mechanism of action is still uncertain. It lacks detectable hydrolytic activity against the major components of the wall, but it is able to disrupt noncovalent adhesion between wall polysaccharides. The discovery of a second family of expansins (beta-expansins) sheds light on the biological role of a major group of pollen allergens and implies that expansins have evolved for diverse developmental functions. Finally, the contribution of other processes to wall extensibility is briefly summarized.
Wall thinning criteria for low temperature-low pressure piping
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mertz, G.E.
1993-01-01
This acceptance criteria is intended to prevent gross rupture or rapidly propagating failure during normal and abnormal operating conditions. Pitting may be present in the carbon steel piping. While the acceptance criteria have provisions to preclude gross rupture through a pitted region, they do not protect against throughwall pit growth and subsequent leakage. Potential leakage through a pit in low pressure piping is less than the post-DBE design basis leakage. Both the uniform thinning and LTA criteria protect against leakage, since their potential for leakage is larger. The acceptance criteria protects against gross rupture due to general wall thinning, local wall thinning (LTA's), pitting, and fracture through weld defects. General wall thinning calculations are based on the restart criteria, SEP-24. LTA criteria for hoop stresses are based on ASME Code Case N-480 [open quotes]Examination Requirements for Pipe Wall Thinning Due to Single Phase Erosion and Corrosion[close quotes]. The LTA criteria for axial stress is based on an effective average thickness concept, which prevents plastic collapse of a locally thinned pipe. Limits on pit density, based on an effective cross section concept, are used to prevent gross rupture through a group of pits. The CEGB R-6 failure assessment diagram is used in the fracture evaluation, along with postulated weld defects. This criteria is intended for low temperature, low pressure piping systems. Corrosion and/or weld defects increase the peak stresses during normal operation and may lead to a reduction in fatigue life. Piping systems subject to significant thermal or mechanical fatigue will require additional analysis which is beyond the scope of this document.
Airway wall thickness assessment: a new functionality in virtual bronchoscopy investigation
Saragaglia, A.; Fetita, C.; Brillet, P. Y.; Prêteux, F.; Grenier, P. A.
2007-03-01
While classic virtual bronchoscopy offers visualization facilities for investigating the shape of the inner airway wall surface, it provides no information regarding the local thickness of the wall. Such information may be crucial for evaluating the severity of remodeling of the bronchial wall in asthma and to guide bronchial biopsies for staging of lung cancers. This paper develops a new functionality with the virtual bronchoscopy, allowing to estimate and map the information of the bronchus wall thickness on the lumen wall surface, and to display it as coded colors during endoluminal navigation. The local bronchus wall thickness estimation relies on a new automated 3D segmentation approach using strong 3D morphological filtering and model-fitting. Such an approach reconstructs the inner/outer airway wall surfaces from multi-detector CT data as follows. First, the airway lumen is segmented and its surface geometry reconstructed using either a restricted Delaunay or a Marching Cubes based triangulation approach. The lumen mesh is then locally deformed in the surface normal direction under specific force constraints which stabilize the model evolution at the level of the outer bronchus wall surface. The developed segmentation approach was validated with respect to both 3D mathematicallysimulated image phantoms of bronchus-vessel subdivisions and to state-of-the-art cross-section area estimation techniques when applied to clinical data. The investigation in virtual bronchoscopy mode is further enhanced by encoding the local wall thickness at each vertex of the lumen surface mesh and displaying it during navigation, according to a specific color map.
Evidence for a "wattle and daub" model of the cyst wall of entamoeba.
Chatterjee, Anirban; Ghosh, Sudip K; Jang, Ken; Bullitt, Esther; Moore, Landon; Robbins, Phillips W; Samuelson, John
2009-07-01
The cyst wall of Entamoeba invadens (Ei), a model for the human pathogen Entamoeba histolytica, is composed of fibrils of chitin and three chitin-binding lectins called Jacob, Jessie3, and chitinase. Here we show chitin, which was detected with wheat germ agglutinin, is made in secretory vesicles prior to its deposition on the surface of encysting Ei. Jacob lectins, which have tandemly arrayed chitin-binding domains (CBDs), and chitinase, which has an N-terminal CBD, were each made early during encystation. These results are consistent with their hypothesized roles in cross-linking chitin fibrils (Jacob lectins) and remodeling the cyst wall (chitinase). Jessie3 lectins likely form the mortar or daub of the cyst wall, because 1) Jessie lectins were made late during encystation; 2) the addition to Jessie lectins to the cyst wall correlated with a marked decrease in the permeability of cysts to nucleic acid stains (DAPI) and actin-binding heptapeptide (phalloidin); and 3) recombinant Jessie lectins, expressed as a maltose-binding proteins in the periplasm of Escherichia coli, caused transformed bacteria to agglutinate in suspension and form a hard pellet that did not dissociate after centrifugation. Jessie3 appeared as linear forms and rosettes by negative staining of secreted recombinant proteins. These findings provide evidence for a "wattle and daub" model of the Entamoeba cyst wall, where the wattle or sticks (chitin fibrils likely cross-linked by Jacob lectins) is constructed prior to the addition of the mortar or daub (Jessie3 lectins).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
David R. Farley
2010-08-19
A model has been developed to calculate the ground-state rotational populations of homonuclear diatomic molecules in kinetic gases, including the effects of electron-impact excitation, wall collisions, and gas feed rate. The equations are exact within the accuracy of the cross sections used and of the assumed equilibrating effect of wall collisions. It is found that the inflow of feed gas and equilibrating wall collisions can significantly affect the rotational distribution in competition with non-equilibrating electron-impact effects. The resulting steady-state rotational distributions are generally Boltzmann for N≥3, with a rotational temperature between the wall and feed gas temperatures. The N=0,1,2 rotational level populations depend sensitively on the relative rates of electron-impact excitation versus wall collision and gas feed rates.
Pectic homogalacturonan masks abundant sets of xyloglucan epitopes in plant cell walls
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pedersen Henriette L
2008-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular probes are required to detect cell wall polymers in-situ to aid understanding of their cell biology and several studies have shown that cell wall epitopes have restricted occurrences across sections of plant organs indicating that cell wall structure is highly developmentally regulated. Xyloglucan is the major hemicellulose or cross-linking glycan of the primary cell walls of dicotyledons although little is known of its occurrence or functions in relation to cell development and cell wall microstructure. Results Using a neoglycoprotein approach, in which a XXXG heptasaccharide of tamarind seed xyloglucan was coupled to BSA to produce an immunogen, we have generated a rat monoclonal antibody (designated LM15 to the XXXG structural motif of xyloglucans. The specificity of LM15 has been confirmed by the analysis of LM15 binding using glycan microarrays and oligosaccharide hapten inhibition of binding studies. The use of LM15 for the analysis of xyloglucan in the cell walls of tamarind and nasturtium seeds, in which xyloglucan occurs as a storage polysaccharide, indicated that the LM15 xyloglucan epitope occurs throughout the thickened cell walls of the tamarind seed and in the outer regions, adjacent to middle lamellae, of the thickened cell walls of the nasturtium seed. Immunofluorescence analysis of LM15 binding to sections of tobacco and pea stem internodes indicated that the xyloglucan epitope was restricted to a few cell types in these organs. Enzymatic removal of pectic homogalacturonan from equivalent sections resulted in the abundant detection of distinct patterns of the LM15 xyloglucan epitope across these organs and a diversity of occurrences in relation to the cell wall microstructure of a range of cell types. Conclusion These observations support ideas that xyloglucan is associated with pectin in plant cell walls. They also indicate that documented patterns of cell wall epitopes in relation to cell
Xiao, Chaowen; Anderson, Charles T
2016-09-01
In plants, cell wall components including cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectins interact with each other to form complex extracellular network structures that control cell growth and maintain cell shape. However, it is still not clear exactly how different wall polymers interact, how the conformations and interactions of cell wall polymers relate to wall mechanics, and how these factors impinge on intracellular structures such as the cortical microtubule cytoskeleton. Here, based on studies of Arabidopsis thaliana xxt1 xxt2 mutants, which lack detectable xyloglucan in their walls and display aberrant wall mechanics, altered cellulose patterning and biosynthesis, and reduced cortical microtubule stability, we discuss the potential relationships between cell wall biosynthesis, wall mechanics, and cytoskeletal dynamics in an effort to better understand their roles in controlling plant growth and morphogenesis.
Xiao, Chaowen; Anderson, Charles T
2016-09-01
In plants, cell wall components including cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectins interact with each other to form complex extracellular network structures that control cell growth and maintain cell shape. However, it is still not clear exactly how different wall polymers interact, how the conformations and interactions of cell wall polymers relate to wall mechanics, and how these factors impinge on intracellular structures such as the cortical microtubule cytoskeleton. Here, based on studies of Arabidopsis thaliana xxt1 xxt2 mutants, which lack detectable xyloglucan in their walls and display aberrant wall mechanics, altered cellulose patterning and biosynthesis, and reduced cortical microtubule stability, we discuss the potential relationships between cell wall biosynthesis, wall mechanics, and cytoskeletal dynamics in an effort to better understand their roles in controlling plant growth and morphogenesis. PMID:27611066
Streptococcus anginosus infections: crossing tissue planes.
Sunwoo, Bernie Y; Miller, Wallace T
2014-10-01
Streptococcus anginosus has long been recognized to cause invasive pyogenic infections. This holds true for thoracic infections where S. anginosus has a propensity for abscess and empyema formation. Early diagnosis is important given the significant morbidity and mortality associated with thoracic S. anginosus infections. Yet, distinguishing thoracic S. anginosus clinically is difficult. We present three cases of thoracic S. anginosus that demonstrated radiographic extension across tissue planes, including the interlobar fissure, diaphragm, and chest wall. Few infectious etiologies are known to cross tissue planes. Accordingly, we propose S. anginosus be considered among the differential diagnosis of potential infectious etiologies causing radiographic extension across tissue planes.
External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baker, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)
2013-01-01
The use of exterior insulation on a building is an accepted and effective means to increase the overall thermal resistance of the assembly that also has other advantages of improved water management and often increased air tightness of building assemblies. For thin layers of insulation (1” to 1 ½”), the cladding can typically be attached directly through the insulation back to the structure. For thicker insulation layers, furring strips have been added as a cladding attachment location. This approach has been used in the past on numerous Building America test homes and communities (both new and retrofit applications), and has been proven to be an effective and durable means to provide cladding attachment. However, the lack of engineering data has been a problem for many designers, contractors, and code officials. This research project developed baseline engineering analysis to support the installation of thick layers of exterior insulation on existing masonry and frame walls. Furthermore, water management details necessary to integrate windows, doors, decks, balconies and roofs were created to provide guidance on the integration of exterior insulation strategies with other enclosure elements.
External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baker, P.
2013-01-01
The use of exterior insulation on a building is an accepted and effective means to increase the overall thermal resistance of the assembly that also has other advantages of improved water management and often increased air tightness of building assemblies. For thin layers of insulation (1" to 1 1/2"), the cladding can typically be attached directly through the insulation back to the structure. For thicker insulation layers, furring strips have been added as a cladding attachment location. This approach has been used in the past on numerous Building America test homes and communities (both new and retrofit applications), and has been proven to be an effective and durable means to provide cladding attachment. However, the lack of engineering data has been a problem for many designers, contractors, and code officials. This research project developed baseline engineering analysis to support the installation of thick layers of exterior insulation on existing masonry and frame walls. Furthermore, water management details necessary to integrate windows, doors, decks, balconies and roofs were created to provide guidance on the integration of exterior insulation strategies with other enclosure elements.
Cell wall remodelling enzymes modulate fungal cell wall elasticity and osmotic stress resistance
Ene, Iuliana; Walker, Louise; Schiavone, Marion; Lee, Keunsook K.; Dague, Etienne; Gow, Neil A.R.; Munro, Carol A
2015-01-01
The fungal cell wall confers cell morphology and protection against environmental insults. For fungal pathogens, the cell wall is a key immunological modulator and an ideal therapeutic target. Yeast cell walls possess an inner matrix of interlinked β-glucan and chitin that is thought to provide tensile strength and rigidity. Yeast cells remodel their walls over time in response to environmental change, a process controlled by evolutionarily conserved stress (Hog1) and cell integrity (Mkc1, Ce...
Levin, David E.
2011-01-01
The yeast cell wall is a strong, but elastic, structure that is essential not only for the maintenance of cell shape and integrity, but also for progression through the cell cycle. During growth and morphogenesis, and in response to environmental challenges, the cell wall is remodeled in a highly regulated and polarized manner, a process that is principally under the control of the cell wall integrity (CWI) signaling pathway. This pathway transmits wall stress signals from the cell surface to...
Wall-Laws for High Speed Flows over Adiabatic and Isothermal Walls
Mohammadi, Bijan; Puigt, Guillaume
2000-01-01
We present the extension of our wall-laws developed for low-speed flows to super and hypersonic configurations. In particular, we are interested in flows over isothermal walls and account for heat transfer. We recall the main steps of the development: - Obtention of generalized wall functions for low-speed fluids, valid for all $y^+$, - Taking into account transversal effects. - Accounting for the compressible feature of the flow on adiabatic walls without using informations on the local boun...
Specific features of flash welding of thin-walled boiler tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The possibility of flash welding of pipes from Kh18N12T steel with walls less than 4 mm thick was investigated. The structure of welds was studied with the aid of X-ray and electron microscopy methods. The results of the work was the development of a procedure for flash welding boiler pipes 32 mm in diameter and with 2 mm thick walls. There is observed a partial burning out of titanium in the welded joint, the content of other alloying elements remaining unchanged. The contact resistance of the cross section being welded is usable for a programmed control of the welding process
Field Ionization of Cold Atoms near the Wall of a Single Carbon Nanotube
Goodsell, Anne; Golovchenko, J A; Hau, Lene Vestergaard; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.133002
2010-01-01
We observe the capture and field ionization of individual atoms near the side wall of a single suspended nanotube. Extremely large cross sections for ionization from an atomic beam are observed at modest voltages due to the nanotube's small radius and extended length. The effects of the field strength on both the atomic capture and the ionization process are clearly distinguished in the data, as are prompt and delayed ionizations related to the locations at which they occur. Efficient and sensitive neutral atom detectors can be based on the nanotube capture and wall ionization processes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Internal Rotary Inspection System (IRIS) is a relatively new ultrasonic system of heat exchanger/ steam condenser tubes and pipelines for measurement of wall thinning and pitting due to corrosion. The wall thickness measurements made during a scan around the circumference of the tube are displayed as a stationary rectilinear display of circumferential cross section (Bscan) of the tube. The paper describes the results obtained on tubes of various materials used in process industries having corrosion on inner and outer surfaces of the tube. (author)
Field Ionization of Cold Atoms near the Wall of a Single Carbon Nanotube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We observe the capture and field ionization of individual atoms near the side wall of a single suspended nanotube. Extremely large cross sections for ionization from an atomic beam are observed at modest voltages due to the nanotube's small radius and extended length. The effects of the field strength on both the atomic capture and the ionization process are clearly distinguished in the data, as are prompt and delayed ionizations related to the locations at which they occur. Efficient and sensitive neutral atom detectors can be based on the nanotube capture and wall ionization processes.
Cell wall proteins: a new insight through proteomics
Jamet, Elisabeth; Canut, Hervé; Boudart, Georges; Pont-Lezica, Rafael F
2006-01-01
Cell wall proteins are essential constituents of plant cell walls; they are involved in modifications of cell wall components, wall structure, signaling and interactions with plasma membrane proteins at the cell surface. The application of proteomic approaches to the cell wall compartment raises important questions: are there technical problems specific to cell wall proteomics? What kinds of proteins can be found in Arabidopsis walls? Are some of them unexpected? What sort of post-translation...
Risk Assessment of Energy-Efficient Walls
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pallin, Simon B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, Roderick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kehrer, Manfred [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2014-12-01
This multi-year project aims to provide the residential construction industry with energy-efficient wall designs that are moisture durable. The present work focused on the initial step of this project, which is to develop a moisture durability protocol that identifies energy efficient wall designs that have a low probability of experiencing moisture problems.
Moduli of monopole walls and amoebas
Cherkis, Sergey A.; Ward, Richard S.
2012-05-01
We study doubly-periodic monopoles, also called monopole walls, determining their spectral data and computing the dimensions of their moduli spaces. Using spectral data we identify the moduli, and compare our results with a perturbative analysis. We also identify an SL(2, {Z}) action on monopole walls, in which the S transformation corresponds to the Nahm transform.
Moduli of Monopole Walls and Amoebas
Cherkis, Sergey A
2012-01-01
We study doubly-periodic monopoles, also called monopole walls, determining their spectral data and computing the dimensions of their moduli spaces. Using spectral data we identify the moduli, and compare our results with a perturbative analysis. We also identify an SL(2,Z) action on monopole walls, in which the S transformation corresponds to the Nahm transform.
Abdominal Wall Modification for the Difficult Ostomy
Beck, David E.
2008-01-01
A select group of patients with major stomal problems may benefit from operative modification of the abdominal wall. Options may include a modified abdominoplasty (abdominal wall contouring), localized flaps, or liposuction. Although frequently successful, these techniques have the potential for significant morbidity.
Designing and building walls with Rammed Earth
Galiouna, E.A.; Hammer, L.; Piscitelli, G.
2014-01-01
This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0533 Innovation & Sustainability. Today, a lot of people in the world live in earth dwellings. There are many different techniques for constructing solid walls of raw earth (adobe, bale, cob, mud wall, light clay, wattle and daub, earth bags
Full size testing of sheet pile walls
Kuilen, J.W.G. van de; Linden, M.L.R. van der; Katsma, H.; Stolle, P.
1996-01-01
Azobé (Lophira alata) is widely used in timber sheet pile walls in the Netherlands. The boards in these walls are coupled and therefore load-sharing can be expected. A simulation model based on the finite element method DIANA (DIANA, 1992) was developed and load-sharing could be calculated. To check
Statistical analysis of silo wall pressures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Berntsen, Kasper Nikolaj
1998-01-01
Previously published silo wall pressure measurements during plug flow of barley in alarge concrete silo are re-analysed under the hypothesis that the wall pressures are gamma-distributed.The fits of the gamma distribution type to the local pressure data from each measuring cell are satisfactory.H...
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire walls. 121.245 Section 121.245 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.245 Fire walls. Each...
Ballistic Limit Equation for Single Wall Titanium
Ratliff, J. M.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Bryant, C.
2009-01-01
Hypervelocity impact tests and hydrocode simulations were used to determine the ballistic limit equation (BLE) for perforation of a titanium wall, as a function of wall thickness. Two titanium alloys were considered, and separate BLEs were derived for each. Tested wall thicknesses ranged from 0.5mm to 2.0mm. The single-wall damage equation of Cour-Palais [ref. 1] was used to analyze the Ti wall's shielding effectiveness. It was concluded that the Cour-Palais single-wall equation produced a non-conservative prediction of the ballistic limit for the Ti shield. The inaccurate prediction was not a particularly surprising result; the Cour-Palais single-wall BLE contains shield material properties as parameters, but it was formulated only from tests of different aluminum alloys. Single-wall Ti shield tests were run (thicknesses of 2.0 mm, 1.5 mm, 1.0 mm, and 0.5 mm) on Ti 15-3-3-3 material custom cut from rod stock. Hypervelocity impact (HVI) tests were used to establish the failure threshold empirically, using the additional constraint that the damage scales with impact energy, as was indicated by hydrocode simulations. The criterion for shield failure was defined as no detached spall from the shield back surface during HVI. Based on the test results, which confirmed an approximately energy-dependent shield effectiveness, the Cour-Palais equation was modified.